Full Text Available The sheep is an important economic livestock species, contributing greatly to the Indian economy, especially in arid, semi arid and mountain areas. The current population in world is 1110.78 millions, around 44.85 millions (1987 sheeps in India (ICAR., 2002. Sheeps are mostly reared for meat and wool. The average annual wool production per sheep is between 3.5 to 5.5 kg of fine quality wool in Australia, New Zealand and U.S.S.R., where as in India except Magra sheep which annually yield more than 2 kg wool having staple length 5.8 cm, the average of rest of the wool produced is less than 1.0 kg per sheep of inferior quality (Banerjee G.C., 1998. Therefore many farmers in southern India adapted sheep rearing for meat production than for wool production. For yielding more production from sheep farming one should have sound knowledge of general information related to the reproduction and different breeding practices. [Vet. World 2009; 2(1.000: 43-44
Kristijan Pandek; Boro Mio?; Zdravko Bara?; Vesna Pavi?; Neven Antunac; Zvonimir Prpi?
Among the most important breeds of sheep, used for the milk production in Croatia, are the sheep from Pag, Bra?, Cres, Istrian and Travnik?s sheep, different crossbreeds and, recently, East Friesian sheep. The aim of the research was to determine the genotype effect on lactation period, milk yield and protein and fat content, which are important in cheese making. The longest lactation period (213 days) had East Friesian sheep, while the highest total milk production (294 kg) and the highest p...
Cristina Santos Sotomaior
Full Text Available It is well known that the susceptibility of sheep to scrapie is determined by the host’s prion protein gene (PRNP. PRNP polymorphisms at codons 136 (alanine, A/valine, V, 154 (histidine, H/arginine, R and 171 (glutamine, Q/histidine, H/arginine, R are the main determinants of sheep susceptibility/resistance to classical scrapie. There are four major variants of the wild-type ARQ allele: VRQ, AHQ, ARH and ARR. Breeding programs have been developed in the European Union and the USA to increase the frequency of the resistant ARR allele while decreasing the frequency of the susceptible VRQ allele in sheep populations. In Brazil, little PRNP genotyping data are available for sheep, and thus far, no controlled breeding scheme for scrapie has been implemented. This review will focus on important epidemiological aspects of scrapie and the use of genetic resistance as a tool in breeding programs to control the disease.
Breeds of cattle, sheep and goats in the Mediterranean region are considered. Cattle: original longhorned breeds in Spain, Portugal and southern France; original shorthorned breeds in North Africa, the eastern Mediterranean and Sardinia; Grey Steppe in Balkan lowlands and central and southern Italy; Brown Swiss and its crosses in parts of Spain, northern Italy, north-west Turkey and the Maghreb; Simmental in Yugoslavia and Hungary; Friesian now dominant in western Europe and spreading in North Africa, the Near East and eastern Europe. Sheep: original coarse woolled thin tailed breeds in Algeria, Morocco, parts of Spain, Portugal, Italy and the Balkans; Merino in Spain has produced new breeds in Portugal, southern France, and Italy and is now being used in the Balkans, Turkey and Egypt; fat tailed coarse woolled breeds in Africa and Asia from Tunisia to Turkey. Goats: short eared dairy breeds in Spain and Italy; black, long haired, lop eared, screw horned goats from Turkey to North Africa; Maltese (dairy) goats in several countries. (author). 3 refs, 1 tab
Full Text Available Turkey is among the major sheep raising countries of the world, with sheep population over 29.4 million head. Sheep have an important place in the economy of Turkey and in the nutrition of its people. Sheep breeding in Turkey is principally based on indigenous breeds, while studies on crossing and producing new types to increase fleece, meat and milk yield have been carried out. These indigenous breeds are more resistant to disease and parasites while also being able to survive even unfavourable environments and to maintain their productivity. At present, they contribute 27.18 % to the total read meat, 8.15 % to the total milk and 59.11 % to the total leather produced in the country. Sheep breeds in Turkey can be categorized into two main groups: Fat-tailed (White Karaman "Akkaraman", Red Karaman "K z lkaraman or Morkaraman", Daglic, Awassi " vesi" and fine-tailed (K v rc k, Karayaka, Chios "Sakiz", Imroz "Gokceada. For various reasons, it has been observed that indigenous sheep genetic resources in Turkey have been damaged. Some breeds have become extinct, some is under serious threat and some may be also considered as being under threat. The fact that the some conservation projects carried out by the government agencies is already at the stage of implementation may be regarded as a hopeful start.
Windig Jack J; Komen Hans; Gizaw Solomon; Hanotte Olivier; Van Arendonk Johan AM
Abstract Prioritizing livestock breeds for conservation needs to incorporate both genetic and non-genetic aspects important for the survival of the breeds. Here, we apply a maximum-utility-strategy to prioritize 14 traditional Ethiopian sheep breeds based on their threat status, contributions to farmer livelihoods (current breed merits) and contributions to genetic diversity. Contributions of the breeds to genetic diversity were quantified using Eding's marker-estimated kinship approaches. No...
Windig Jack J
Full Text Available Abstract Prioritizing livestock breeds for conservation needs to incorporate both genetic and non-genetic aspects important for the survival of the breeds. Here, we apply a maximum-utility-strategy to prioritize 14 traditional Ethiopian sheep breeds based on their threat status, contributions to farmer livelihoods (current breed merits and contributions to genetic diversity. Contributions of the breeds to genetic diversity were quantified using Eding's marker-estimated kinship approaches. Non-genetic aspects included threats (e.g. low population size, low preferences by farmers and current merits (economic, ecological and cultural merits. Threat analysis identified eight of the 14 breeds as threatened. Analysis of current merits showed that sub-alpine and arid-lowland breeds contribute most to farmer livelihoods in comparison to other breeds. The highest contribution to the genetic diversity conserved was from the Simien breed. Simien showed high between-breed (low between-breed kinship = 0.04 as well as high within-breed diversity (low within-breed kinship = 0.09 and high HE = 0.73 and allelic richness = 6.83. We combined the results on threat status, current breed merits and contributions to genetic diversity to produce a ranking of the 14 breeds for conservation purposes. Our results balance the trade-offs between conserving breeds as insurance against future uncertainties and current sustainable utilization. The ranking of breeds provides a basis for conservation strategies for Ethiopian sheep and contributes to a regional or global conservation plan.
Full Text Available The Makuie sheep is a fat-tailed sheep breed which can be found in the Azerbaijan province of Iran. In 1986, a Makuie sheep breeding station was established in the city of Maku in order to breed, protect and purify this breed. The genetic parameters for birth weight, weaning weight (3 months, 6-month, 9-month and yearling weight, and average daily gain from birth to weaning traits were estimated based on 25 years of data using DFREML software. Six different models were applied and a likelihood ratio test (LRT was used to select the appropriate model. Bivariate analysis was used to define the genetic correlation between studied traits. Based on the LRT, model II was selected as an appropriate model for all studied traits. Direct heritability estimates of birth, weaning, 6-month, 9-month and yearling weights and average daily gain from birth to weaning were 0.36, 0.41, 0.48, 0.42, 0.36 and 0.37, respectively. Estimates of direct genetic correlation between birth and weaning weights, birth and 6-month weights, birth and 9-month weights, as well as between birth and yearling weights were 0.57, 0.49, 0.46 and 0.32, respectively. The results suggest there is a substantial additive genetic variability for studied traits in the Makuie sheep breed population, and the direct additive effect and maternal permanent environment variance are the main source of phenotypic variance.
Full Text Available Production data of Bovec and Improved (with East-Friesian Bovec sheep born between years 1989 and 2006 were used for the analysis of culling dynamics and lifetime production. Lifetime production was calculated as the sum of production at each lambing (number of born and liveborn lambs and litter birth weight, weaning (number of weaned lambs and litter weaning weight or during each lactation (milk yield, fat (6.5 % and protein (5.8 % corrected milk yield (FPC; Pulina et al., 2005., and fat and protein yield for culled sheep. Animals with any missing records from the first till the last lambing, weaning or lactation were removed from the analysis. Animals that left the system of animal recording alive, due to selling or the cancellation of recording by a breeder were also excluded. Dataset included records for 2254 sheep: 1734 of Bovec and 520 of Improved Bovec breed. Data preparation and statistical analysis were performed with the use of a statistical program R (R Development Core Team, 2007. and additional packages Zelig (Imai et al., 2007; Bailey and Alimadhi, 2007; Imai et al., 2008 and lme4 (Bates and DebRoy, 2004; Bates, 2007. Results have shown that in the period ?1996 Bovec breed had on average 4.4 lactations in their lifetime, which was almost one lactation more than in Improved Bovec breed. In the period after the year 1996 the highest proportion of animals were culled in the first lactation (as expected due to culling dynamics, with slightly higher proportion in Improved Bovec breed than in Bovec breed. Lifetime number of born, liveborn and weaned lambs was higher for about one lamb in Improved Bovec breed. Lifetime lamb weight gain did not differ between breeds, due to the high frequency of early weaning in Improved Bovec breed. During lifetime, Improved Bovec sheep produced around 200 kg (~34 % more milk, around 190 kg (~32 % more FPC milk, around 12 kg (~32 % more milk fat, and around 10 kg (~34 % more milk protein than Bovec breed. However, if the mean metabolic weight of breeds is taken into account the difference in milk production amounts to only ~6 % (~2 % for FPC milk. These results show that Bovec breed has satisfactory milk production, but too low body weight for intensive milk production. On the other hand, low body weight makes this breed suitable for extensive farming in hill and mountain areas. Improved Bovec breed has good results in Slovenian conditions, due to the similarity of environmental conditions with East Friesian’s country of origin.
Dýrmundsson, O R; Ni?nikowski, R
The short-tailed sheep, native of an area stretching from Russia to Iceland, are generally considered a primitive type. These robust northern sheep seem to have been spread by Norse vikings to several countries in this area from the late eighth century to the middle of the eleventh century ad. They have several common characteristics in addition to the fluke-shaped and tapered short tail, such as a wide range of colour patterns, dual-coated wool and the ability to thrive under harsh environmental conditions, often in isolated marginal areas. While 34 short-tailed breeds of North European origin can still be identified, it is clear that their population sizes have declined in most cases and several of them are now rare and endangered. Although these breeds have mainly been confined to certain localities, some of them have gained considerable distribution due to their genetic merits, such as prolificacy. Of these, the Finnsheep and the Romanov are best known being exported to several countries in the world where their genetic material has been utilized through crossbreeding with local sheep. This has resulted in the production of some new synthetic breeds. Meat is now generally the main product of the North European short-tailed breeds and their crossbreds, whereas wool, skins and milk are normally regarded as byproducts, yet of considerable economic importance in some cases. Such breeds have clearly a role to play in sustainable grassland-based production systems in the future. PMID:22444647
Full Text Available Myostatin or growth and differentiation factor 8 (GDF8, has been known as the factor causing double muscling phenotypes in which a series of mutations make the myostatin protein inactive, hence disabling it to regulate the deposition of muscle fibre. This phenotype happens with high frequency in a breed of sheep known as the Texel. Quantitative trait loci (QTL studies show that a portion of the OAR2 that encompasses GDF8 has a major effect on muscular growth of Belgian Texel, on the muscling and fat depth in New Zealand Texel sires, and UK Texel and Charollais sheep. The functional polymorphism resides inside the GDF8 non-coding region. To date, there have been studies showing biallelic SNPs with significantly different allelic frequencies between hyper-muscled Texel and control animals including one in the 3'UTR (g.+6223G>A and one in 2.5 kb upstream from the GDF8 transcription start site (g.-2449G>C. The GDF8 allele of the Texel sheep is characterized by one G to A transition in the 3'UTR, creating a target site for mir1 and mir206 which are highly expressed in skeletal muscles. This prevents myostatin gene translation, thus contributing to the double muscling of Texel sheep. Therefore, the GDF8 g. +6223A allele seems to be a causative variable increasing muscularity in the Texel rams and could be identified as a quantitative trait nucleotide.
Fifty-nine female yearlings of local Awassi sheep were randomly divided into 2 groups. Animals in group T (treated) were fitted with intravaginal sponges containing 60 mg of medroxyprogesterone acetate for 14 days followed by 400 IU of pregnant mare's serum gonadotrophin (PMSG) at sponge withdrawal, whereas group C (control) received no treatment. Oestrus rate was 92.7% and 11.2% for groups T and C, respectively. Lambing rate was 78% and 5.6% for groups T and C, respectively. Twinning rate was 31.3% in group T compared to zero in group C. Average birth weight for single born lams (4.7 ± 0.6 kg) was significantly (P > 0.05) higher than twin born lams (3.0 ± 0.5 kg) in group T. The average concentration of blood progesterone collected between days 17-19 after mating was 19.30 nmol/1 and the accuracy of early pregnancy diagnosis was 100%. It was concluded that, it is possible to induce synchronized oestrus, and to increase the twinning rate in Syrian Awassi sheep yearlings outside the breeding season, using intravaginal sponges and PMSG. In addition, early pregnancy diagnosis could be successfully determined in female Awassi sheep yearlings between days 17-19 after-mating. (author)
Full Text Available The authors did economic calculations examining the possibilities for the raise of rentability in Hungarian sheep-breeding sector. It was been counting with a flock of 300 ewes. While analysing four models were set up. The first represents the economic parameters of the present average and in a certain way traditional sheep-farming. This model, which symbolises the present situation, is able to provide maximum 47,827 HUF income for a sheperd, parallel with a loss of 843,495 HUF. The second model shows the possible production of the Hungarian merino flocks determined by its genetically limited productivity and technology. It ensures the opportunity to spend 550,000 HUF to expansion above average rental. This amount might be increased with a yearly subsidy of 450,000 HUF plus the 831,610 HUF extra EU payments. The third model is based on the results of an upgrade with prolific breeds in order to better meat performance. The possible result in this case was 1,324,412 HUF, which sum would be supplemented with the subsidies and direct EU payments. The professional management of milking stocks may raise the net income with extra 600,000 HUF. (Model number four.
Burnard, C L; Pitchford, W S; Hocking Edwards, J E; Hazel, S J
An understanding of the perceived importance of a variety of factors affecting the ease of handling of sheep and the interactions between these factors is valuable in improving profitability and welfare of the livestock. Many factors may contribute to animal behaviour during handling, and traditionally these factors have been assessed in isolation under experimental conditions. A human social component to this phenomenon also exists. The aim of this study was to gain a deeper understanding of the importance of a variety of factors affecting ease of handling, and the interactions between these from the perspective of the livestock transporter. Qualitative interviews were used to investigate the factors affecting sheep behaviour during handling. Interview transcripts underwent thematic analysis. Livestock transporters discussed the effects of attitudes and behaviours towards sheep, helpers, facilities, distractions, environment, dogs and a variety of sheep factors including breed, preparation, experience and sex on sheep behaviour during handling. Transporters demonstrated care and empathy and stated that patience and experience were key factors determining how a person might deal with difficult sheep. Livestock transporters strongly believed facilities (ramps and yards) had the greatest impact, followed by sheep experience (naivety of the sheep to handling and transport) and breed. Transporters also discussed the effects of distractions, time of day, weather, dogs, other people, sheep preparation, body condition and sheep sex on ease of handling. The concept of individual sheep temperament was indirectly expressed. PMID:25874817
Gwala, Phiwamandla Emanuel; Kunene, Nokuthula Winfred; Bezuidenhout, Cornelius Carlos; Mavule, Bafowethu Sibanda
This study was conducted to investigate phenotypic and genetic differentiation among the four Nguni sheep breeds. Sheep with two permanent incisors and above were sampled from areas, namely KwaZulu-Natal (Zulu sheep), Limpopo (Pedi sheep), Mozambique (Landim sheep) and Swaziland (Swazi sheep). The Dorper was used as an out-group. Eight morphometric variables were measured from each animal, and blood samples were collected (n?=?50 per population) for genetic characterization. The mean body weights for sheep were 30.41?±?0.41, 35.34?±?0.43, 35.23?±?0.43, 37.63?±?0.42 and 52.84?±?0.30 for Swazi, Zulu, Landim, Pedi and Dorper, respectively. Morphometric cluster analysis showed the Landim, Swazi and Zulu breeds in one cluster. The Pedi sheep were closer to the Dorper than to the other Nguni sheep. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique was used to assess genetic variation. Eight primers were selected for analysis based on band pattern quality, reproducibility and the presence of distinctive bands. The Swazi sheep formed a cluster with Zulu sheep, and the Pedi formed a cluster with the Dorper. These results confirm indications by other researchers that Pedi sheep are genetically distant from Zulu and Swazi sheep breeds. This could indicate the possibility of cross breeding Zulu and Swazi sheep as a possible conservation strategy to control inbreeding. The mtDNA should be analyzed to trace the relationships between Pedi and the three Nguni sheep breeds through maternal lines. PMID:26178370
Full Text Available Istrian dairy sheep is a local breed essential for the identity and development of the Northern- Adriatic karstic region through high-quality products, primarily the hard sheep artisanal cheese. Border changes fragmented the initial Istrian dairy sheep population in three genetically isolated sub-populations in Italy (1000 animals, Slovenia (1150 animals and Croatia (2500 animals. Due to the drastic reduction of their population sizes and fragmentation, the populations in Croatia and Slovenia are included in governmentally supported conservation programs. The initial subpopulation in Italy was restored after near extinction with stock from Slovenia, and is used today in meat production. The aim of this study was to provide an initial understanding of the current genetic structure and distribution of the genetic variability that exists in Istrian sheep by analysing individuals sampled in two regional groups of Istrian sheep from Croatia and Slovenia. Cres island sheep and Lika pramenka sheep were used as out-groups for comparison. Genetic differentiation was analysed using factorial correspondence analysis and structure clustering over 26 microsatellite loci for a total of 104 sheep belonging to three breeds from Croatia and Slovenia. Factorial correspondence analysis and clustering-based structure analysis both showed three distinct populations: Lika pramenka sheep, Cres island sheep and Istrian sheep. We did not find a marked genetic divergence of the regional groups of Istrian sheep. Istrian sheep regional group from Slovenia showed lower genetic variability compared to the one from Croatia. Variability and structure information obtained in this study considered alongside with socio-cultural-contexts and economic goals for the Istrian sheep reared in Croatia and Slovenia indicate that the cross-border exchange of genetic material of animals carrying private alleles among populations would maintain these alleles at low frequencies and minimize the inbreeding rate.
Leroy, G; Danchin-Burge, C; Palhiere, I; Baumung, R; Fritz, S; Mériaux, J C; Gautier, M
On the basis of correlations between pairwise individual genealogical kinship coefficients and allele sharing distances computed from genotyping data, we propose an approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) approach to assess pedigree file reliability through gene-dropping simulations. We explore the features of the method using simulated data sets and show precision increases with the number of markers. An application is further made with five dog breeds, four sheep breeds and one cattle breed raised in France and displaying various characteristics and population sizes, using microsatellite or SNP markers. Depending on the breeds, pedigree error estimations range between 1% and 9% in dog breeds, 1% and 10% in sheep breeds and 4% in cattle breeds. PMID:22486502
Almahdy, H; Tess, M W; El-Tawil, E; Shehata, E; Mansour, H
Objectives for this study were to estimate relative economic weights for performance traits for two native and two composite sheep breeds under two management systems in Egypt. Breeds studied were Rahmani (R), Ossimi (O), 3/4R-1/4Finnish Landrace (RFR), and 3/4O-1/4Finn (OFO); OFO and RFR were composite breeds. Management systems were one mating season per year (1M) and three mating seasons per 2 yr (3M). A dynamic computer model was used to simulate animal performance and enterprise efficiency and profit. Input parameters for the model were obtained from published results and analyses of data collected from experimental flocks of the same genetic stocks in Egypt. Responses for two measures of life-cycle feed conversion and one measure of enterprise profit were evaluated. Life-cycle feed conversion was calculated as kilograms of TDN input per kilogram of empty body weight output (TDN/EBW) and kilograms of TDN input per kilogram of carcass lean output (TDN/CLN). Profit was measured as annual gross margin/ewe (GM/EWE). Traits evaluated were conception rate (CR), lambing rate (LR), mortality rate (MR), mature weight (MW), and milk production (MK). Based on responses to percentage changes in trait means, CR was most important for TDN/EBW, followed by LR and MR. For TDN/CLN, LR, MR, and CR were most important. For GM/EWE, CR was most important, followed by LR, MW, and MR. In the systems studied, there was little response to changes in MK. Based on changes in GM/EWE per genetic standard deviation change, LR was most important, followed by CR, MR, MW, and MK in all systems. Relative economic weights for O and OFO were similar, as were weights for R and RFR. Differences in economic weights between management systems for the same breed were not large enough to justify separate selection lines within breeds. PMID:10709919
Marcel Theodor PARASCHIVESCU
Full Text Available Among genetic species of farm animals sheep has the highest artificial biodiversity. There are plenty of breeds due to the many kinds of biological production of human interest and to the large areas from plains to mountains and fro Equator to Poles engaged in sheep breeding. Sheep are producing wool (thin, meddle or thick, lambs, mouton (lean or fat, milk, pelts, furs or leather, each of them acting as single selection criterion or as component of selection indexes. Each kind of resulted product has its own commercial value and its way of appreciation it. In many cases the commercial value of sheep breeding is related to the ewes’ fertility. On the other hand ewes have seasonal sexual activity including a longer or shorter period of anoestrus when produce nothing related to their fertility. Biotechnological means as artificial insemination, estrus induction, arouse of ovulation rate, embryo transfer, MOET, embryo cloning, in vitro fertilization, transgenice engineering are able to influence the economic efficiency of sheep breeding. The present essay is configuring modalities of estimating the increase of economic value of sheep products when research programs of developing reproductive biotechnologies in ewes implemented in sheep farming.
Ferrando, Ainhoa; Goyache, Félix; Parés Casanova, Pere-Miquel; Carrión, Carlos; Miró, Jordi; Jordana i Vidal, Jordi
The knowledge of the genetic composition and relationships among livestock breeds is a necessary step for the implementation of management and conservation plans. This study aims to characterise the genetic diversity and relationships among six sheep breeds of meat aptitude that are spread through the eastern Pyrenees: Tarasconnaise, Castillonnaise and Rouge du Roussillon from France, and Aranesa, Xisqueta and Ripollesa from Spain. All but Tarasconnaise are catalogued as endangered. These bre...
Full Text Available This study was done from September 2006 to May 2007. A total of 105 Menz breed sheep from Yemenze Gera Midir district in the Amhara National Regional State, Ethiopia. The spatial distribution of sheep keds (Melophagus ovinus and chewing lice (Bovicola ovis on Menz breed sheep were examined which were naturally infested. The densities if sheep keds and lice were determined through counting after parting of the fleece/wool at five (5 points on a length of 10 cm areas of six (6 different regions (neck, shoulder, belly, back, rump and flank on both sides of the body which sum up sixty (60 points of count. The percentage values of Bovicola ovis distribution on the sheep for the inspected regions were 57.5% on shoulder, 53.32% neck, 51% rump, 49.25% flank, 45.36% belly and 45.28 back. For Melophagus ovinus infested sheep, the sites more parasitized were flank, shoulder, rump, neck, belly and back with proportion of 69, 60.12, 51, 42, 33 and 21, respectively in order of importance. The minimum and maximum keds and lice count on a sheep at a time were varied between 0 to 178 and 0 to 1050 respectively. However, most frequently the number of keds and lice were range between 18-30 and 0-100 respectively. Infestation of sheep with sheep keds has statistical significant difference among the different regions examined and no statistical significant difference exist for lice at 95% confidence interval (CI and p value of less than 0.05.
Full Text Available Linear scoring is widely applied in domestic animal species, mainly in cattle and horses. There are only few cases of linear scoring in sheep, probably because the small body size and the narrow range of the classes make difficult to correctly evaluate the measures. In this paper the results of a linear scoring test carried out on Merinizzata Italiana sheep breed in order to verify the feasibility of this method in sheep, are reported. Twenty untrained people, with three different levels of scoring experience in meat sheep morphology, evaluated 52 pluriparous ewes for body length, chest circumference, chest width, rump height, rump width, and withers height; to check for misclassification, their scores were compared with a reference score, previously obtained measuring the same animals by the suitable tools (measuring tape and a Lydtin stick. The percentage of correct scoring ranged from 44.4% for body length to 61.8% for withers height, and was not affected by the experience of the judge. In all characters, the distance of the class from the trait mean had a significant effect in increasing the intensity of misclassifications; the judge’s experience showed a positive effect in reducing the intensity of the misclassification for body length, that was the hardest trait to score. These results encourage to further verifying in practice the linear scoring in the Merinizzata Italiana sheep and in other meat breeds.
Full Text Available The diffusion of highly productive breeds across developing countries goes along with a neglect of indigenous breeds, which are well suited to their environment but often show low yields. Thus, in Niger, the flock of Koundoum sheep are rapidly decreasing. The Koundoum is one of the few wool sheep breeds of Africa and shows important adaptive feature to its native environment, i.e. the humid pastures on the banks of the Niger River. To characterise the breed and to understand its production context, a survey has been conducted in 104 herds in four communes along the Niger River (Kollo, Tillabery, Say and Tera. Nine body measurements, including live weight, were taken on 180 adult sheep (101 females and 79 males. The herds varied from 2 to 60 heads, with a median size of eight animals and two thirds of the herds having less than 10 animals. Mainly fed on natural pastures, 85.6% of the herds received crop residues. Only natural mating was practiced. Veterinary care was restricted to anti-helminthic and some indigenous treatments. The frequent affiliation of breeders to professional unions appeared as favourable to the implementation of a collective conservation program. The Koundoum sheep were white or black coated, with the black colour being most frequent (75.6 %. Wattles were present in both sexes at similar frequencies of around 14 %. All biometric variables were significantly and positively correlated between them. The thoracic perimeter showed the best correlation with live weight in both males and females. Three variables were selected for live weight prediction: thoracic perimeter, height at withers and rump length. From the present study, it is expected that the in situ conservation of the Koundoum sheep will be highly problematic, due to lack of market opportunities for wool and the willingness of smallholders to get involved in pure Koundoum rearing.
S, Tehmina; R, Shahina; A, Razzaq; I.B, Marghazani; A.N, Khosa.
Full Text Available La prevalencia de la infestación por Paramphistomum cervi en ovinos de Balochi, Babrik y Harnai, Balochistan (Pakistan) fue estudiada de septiembre a diciembre de 2010. Con este fin, fueron examinados los recintos ruminales de ovinos faenados en la ciudad de Quetta y alrededores (n=1200). Los result [...] ados muestran diferencias significativas (p Abstract in english The prevalence of Paramphistomum cervi infestation in Balochi, Babrik and Harnai sheep breeds from Balochistan (Pakistan) was studied during September to December 2010. For this purpose, rumen of slaughtered sheep in Quetta City and surroundings (n=1,200) were examined. Results showed significant di [...] fferences (p
Full Text Available A fattening and slaughter trial was carried out on 36 lambs of Alpagota, Brogna and Foza sheep breeds native of Veneto Region Alps (six male and six female lambs per breed divided in three groups depending on the type of feed used: pasture, hay and concentrate, hay and concentrate supplemented with conjugated linoleic acid. Lambs were slaughtered at 225 days (mean weight: 30 kg. Infra-vitam and post-mortem data were analyzed by using a linear model that included the cross-classified effect of breed, sex, feeding system and age of lambs as linear covariate. The three breeds showed some specificity: Foza lambs, of both sexes, were larger-sized and faster growing, with a lower incidence of gastro-intestinal tract and lower cooking losses of the hind-leg samples compared to the other two middle-sized breeds. Alpagota breed tended to be leaner, with heavier shin and greater cooking losses than Brogna breed.In conclusion the three Alpine breeds of the Veneto Region confirmed to be able to produce lamb carcasses and meat with valuable characteristics that can be exploited through typical products and food preparation in local markets and gastronomy, according to the tradition. The valorisation of these productions can be an important instrument for in situ conservation of these breeds.
Dalvit, C; De Marchi, M; Zanetti, E; Cassandro, M
The genetic variability and presence of population substructures in 4 native Northern Italian sheep breeds, Alpagota, Brogna, Foza, and Lamon, undergoing in situ conservation, and 1 widespread Italian breed, Bergamasca, were studied by investigating 19 microsatellite markers. The breeds showed considerable genetic variability in terms of number of alleles and heterozygosity, with the exception of Alpagota, which was the least variable (0.607). Nevertheless, a significant deficit of heterozygotes was observed in each breed due to rather increased levels of inbreeding or to the presence of population substructures, probably caused by increased genetic variation in the founder populations. The analyses evidenced clear genetic differentiation (F(ST) = 0.085), reduced levels of admixture, and presence of private alleles among the breeds, confirming their genetic uniqueness. In particular, according to Reynolds genetic distances, Alpagota was the most differentiated, perhaps because it had been bred mostly in a rather isolated area. Loss of any of the investigated breeds would result in a loss of genetic diversity ranging from 0.5 to 1.6% of the total observed gene diversity. Results supported the decision to safeguard these breeds as important reservoirs of genetic diversity and suggested breeding and mating practices to maintain variability and to overcome within-breed substructures. PMID:19717776
Ragkos, A; Abas, Z
Market failures are the main cause of poor acknowledgement of the true impact of functional sheep traits on the management and economic performance of farms, which results in their omission from the breeding goal or the estimation of non-representative economic weights in the breeding goal. Consequently, stated-preference non-market valuation techniques, which recently emerged to mitigate these problems, are necessary to estimate economic weights for functional traits. The purpose of this paper is to present an example of the use of a choice experiment (CE) in the estimation of economic weights for sheep traits for the design of breeding goals. Through a questionnaire survey the preferences of sheep farmers are recorded and their marginal willingness to pay (MWTP) for 10 production and functional traits is estimated. Data are analysed using random parameter logit models. The results reveal unobserved preference heterogeneity for fertility, adaptability to grazing and resistance to disease, thus highlighting that these traits are appreciated differently by farmers, because their needs are diverse. Positive MWTP is found for Greek breeds, high milk production and lambs with low fat deposition, for which there is high demand in Greek markets. On the other hand, MWTP for the cheese-making ability of milk is negative, stemming from the fact that sheep milk prices in Greece are not formulated according to milk composition. In addition, farmers seem to understand differences between udder shapes and attribute different values to various types. This application of the CE method indicates that communication channels among farmers and breeders should be established in order to enhance market performance and to provide orientation to the design of breeding programmes. Non-market valuation can be used complementarily to market valuation techniques, in order to provide accurate estimates for production and functional traits. PMID:25245334
Full Text Available Investigations were carried out in a commercial farm from Turnu, Arad County, on a number of 110 indigenous adultewes from the Tigaia breed. It is estimated by some authors that administration of subcutaneous melatonin implantsduring a period of 30 days, in lactating or dry ewes, would improve the reproductive performances in some sheepbreeds. Subcutaneous melatonin implants (Melovin were inserted to the ewes in doses of 18 mg. Current research,emphasized treated that from indigenous Tigaia breed, can be obtained superior reproduction indexes if the animalsare treated with melatonin implants with 35 days before the mating season, differences from the untreated groupbeing significantly (p<0.001. However, in sheep treated used melatonin implants, the lambing interval were reducedwith 40 to 50%. It seems that use of melatonin implants Melovin type near the beginning of normal breeding season,increases the reproductive performance of adult ewes from the Tigaia breed.
Erika Pellattiero; Alessio Cecchinato; Massimo De Marchi; Mauro Penasa; Nicola Tormen; Stefano Schiavon; Martino Cassandro; Giovanni Bittante
A fattening and slaughter trial was carried out on 36 lambs of Alpagota, Brogna and Foza sheep breeds native of Veneto Region Alps (six male and six female lambs per breed) divided in three groups depending on the type of feed used: pasture, hay and concentrate, hay and concentrate supplemented with conjugated linoleic acid. Lambs were slaughtered at 225 days (mean weight: 30 kg). Infra-vitam and post-mortem data were analyzed by using a linear model that included the cross-classified effect ...
Szilvia, Kusza; Doytcho, Dimov; István, Nagy; Zsuzsanna, Bõsze; András, Jávor; Sándor, Kukovics.
Full Text Available Herein, genetic relationships among five breeds of Bulgarian sheep were estimated using microsatellite markers. The total number of alleles identified was 226 at the 16 loci examined. D A distance values were used for phylogenetic tree construction with the UPGMA algorithm. The two Tsigai and two Ma [...] ritza populations were found to be geneticallvery closely related to each other y (0.198, and 0.258 respectively). The Pleven Black Head population was distinct from the other four. These results could be useful for preserving genes in these breeds, thereby ensuring their preservation in Bulgaria.
Rose, G; Mulder, H A; Thompson, A N; van der Werf, J H J; van Arendonk, J A M
Breeding programmes for livestock require economic weights for traits that reflect the most profitable animal in a given production system, which affect the response in each trait after selection. The profitability of sheep production systems is affected by changes in pasture growth as well as grain, meat and wool prices between seasons and across years. Annual pasture growth varies between regions within Australia's Mediterranean climate zone from low growth with long periods of drought to high growth with shorter periods of drought. Therefore, the objective of this study was to assess whether breeding objectives need to be adapted for regions, depending on how reliable the pasture growth is across years. We modelled farms with Merino sheep bred for wool and meat in 10 regions in Western Australia. Across these 10 regions, mean annual pasture growth decreased, and the CV of annual pasture growth increased as pasture growth for regions became less reliable. We calculated economic values for nine traits, optimising management across 11 years, including variation for pasture growth and wool, meat and grain prices between and within years from 2002 to 2012. These economic values were used to calculate responses to selection for each trait for the 10 regions. We identified two potential breeding objectives, one for regions with low or high reliability and the other for regions with medium reliability of pasture growth. Breeding objectives for high or low pasture growth reliability had more emphasis on live weight traits and number of lambs weaned. Breeding objectives for medium reliability of pasture growth had more emphasis on decreasing fibre diameter. Relative economic weights for fleece weight did not change across the regions. Regions with low or high pasture reliability had similar breeding objectives and response to selection, because the relationship between the economic values and CV of pasture growth were not linear for live weight traits and the number of lambs weaned. This non-linearity was caused by differences in distribution of pasture growth between regions, particularly during summer and autumn, when ewes were pregnant, with increases in energy requirements affecting the value of lambs weaned. In addition, increasing live weight increased the intake capacity of sheep, which meant that more poor quality pasture could be consumed during summer and autumn, which had more value in regions with low and high pasture reliability. We concluded that breeding values for sheep production systems should be customised depending on the reliability of pasture growth between years. PMID:25857317
Yusuf Ziya O?rak
Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to compare the incidence of brucellosis in groups of Kangal Akkaraman sheep flocks raised in farm conditions in Sivas province. The first and second groups of the sheep flocks were part of the 8 sub-projects which belong to The Project entitled “Nationwide Genetic Improvement of Small Ruminants in Farm Condition” continued for 7 and 1-3 years, respectively. The third group of the sheep flocks was not part of this nationwide project. The study material consisted of 1491 units of blood serum (n=278, 1166 and 47 for the first, second and third groups, respectively. Brucella antibodies were looked for in blood serum using tube and slide agglutination tests. The incidences of brucellosis were 4% and 7.5% in flocks which were part of the nationwide project continued for 7 and 3 years, respectively and 25.5% for the flocks not part of the nationwide project. The differences between groups were found statistically significant. Even though there was no brucella vaccination programs in the flocks of the nationwide project, practices such as regular controls of the flocks by veterinary technicians, drug/vaccination applications for parasites and some other diseases, removal of rams positive for brucella before breeding season significantly reduced the incidence of brucella. As a result, promoting good breeding practices along with the brucella vaccination program applied by the related Ministry can be very beneficial for the eradication of brucella disease that is a big problem for the country.
Full Text Available Hyperprolific phenotype of Booroola sheep was first discovered in the Australian Merino breed. This phenotype is due to the action of a single autosomal gene that influences the number of ovulations per estrogenic cycle. Recent discoveries have revealed that high prolificacy in Booroola Merino sheep is the result of a mutation (FecB in the bone morphogenetic protein receptor 1B (BMPR-1B gene. This mutation is located in the highly conserved kinase domain of the bone morphogenetic protein receptor IB, and is characterized by precocious differentiation of ovarian follicles, leading to the production of large numbers of ovulatory follicles. Our objective was to develop an easy method to identify the FecB mutation in order to screen sheep populations in terms of prolificacy. We designed primers to amplify a 190 bp fragment from the BMPR-1B gene containing or lacking the mutation. The PCR product was cut with AvaII endonuclease and the restriction products were analysed by agarose gel electrophoresis. Using the PCR-RFLP technique, we established an easy and efficient method that can be used to screen the FecB mutation. Therefore, these new methods increase the panel of molecular tools available for sheep breeders to choose the most prolific genotypes for improving artificial selection.
S.W.P., Cloete; J.J., Olivier; L., Sandenbergh; M.A., Snyman.
Full Text Available The history of sheep breeding research in South Africa can be divided roughly into four eras, namely the research and development phase, the commencement of recording and evaluation, the expansion of recording schemes, and, most recently, the adaptation of schemes to international benchmarks. The mo [...] st recent era has presented scientists with the greatest challenges, namely the inclusion of genomic breeding values in routine sheep recording and of disease-resistance traits during routine evaluation. The establishment of reference populations for the major South African sheep breeds to estimate genomic breeding values is an immediate challenge. This process may be facilitated by a number of genetic resource flocks that are phenotyped for traits that are not routinely recorded in the national evaluation. A limited number of these animals are also genotyped. There is strong evidence that resistance of sheep to external and internal parasites is heritable, and may be improved by purposeful selection. Efforts should be concentrated on the inclusion of disease resistance traits in national analyses where appropriate. However, seen against the background that South African investment in research is appreciably less than in developed countries, lack of funding and high-capacity manpower may impede rapid progress. There thus seem to be many challenges for future generations of sheep breeding scientists.
Full Text Available The traits with the greatest financial impact on sheep production are the number of lambs weaned per ewe and growth efficiency. FecB and Callipyge are the most well known major genes concerned with these traits. In order to conduct a Marker Assisted Introgression (MAI program we surveyed the presence of responsible mutations in Afshari sheep breeding flock. Direct tests to detect of FecBB and CLPG alleles were conducted on 74 and 58 DNA samples respectively by PCR-RFLP assay. Also the polymorphism content of the breeding flock was investigated by genotyping of one hundred randomly sampled animals at eighteen microsatellite loci selected on the chromosomes carrying and not carrying introgressed genes. A part from MCMA26 monomorphic pattern, microsatellite loci showed moderate level of polymorphism, as such totally 102 alleles were detected with a mean number of 6 alleles per locus. A full characterization of this set of seventeen polymorphic loci was carried out generating allele frequency distributions that were used to estimate genetic parameters of these loci, including expected heterozygosity, Polymorphism Information Content (PIC, probability of identity (I and discrimination power (D. The average expected heterozygosity was 0.72 (SD = 0.07 and the average PIC was 0.67 (SD = 0.08. Cumulative value of I considering for linked loci were estimated as 3.128E-13. The results of microsatellite analysis indicated that, despite the selective breeding and closed flock system over a number of generations, a relatively high level of heterozygosity still exists in the breeding flock. Besides, the banding patterns resulted from AvaII digestion of FecB and CLPG amplicons approved the absence of the mutations in this flock. These observations demonstrate applicability of marker data and would assist to make decision on starting MAI program for inclusion of FecB and CLPG genes into the Afshari breed.
L.J Fourie; Kok, D.J.; Peter, R.J.
The objectives of this study were to determine the influence of application site and sheep breed on the efficacy of a flumethrin (1 % m/v) solution for the control of 'bont'-legged (Hyalomma spp.) and red-legged ticks (Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi). This study was conducted from November 1996 to February 1997 on 3 farms in the southwestern Free State Province. Two trials were conducted on Dorper sheep and 2 on Merino sheep. For each specific applicat...
A Merino breeding resource flock was established at Rafter 7 Ranch, Yerington, Nevada through cooperation of the College of Agriculture, Biotechnology and Natural Resources, University of Nevada-Reno (UNR) and The Edwin L Wiegand Trust in 1990. Initially, 500 Rambouillet ewes were purchased from two established breeders in 1990. These ewes were bred naturally or by AI to imported rams from Australia and to rams selected within the flock. Over the 16 years, 16 rams and semen from 41 rams have been imported from Australia. Selection was based on objective wool measurements, subjective assessment, growth rate and reproductive performance traits. The flocks were expanded to 1300 ewes and were bred in 30 single sire-mating groups as of the 2005/2006 breeding seasons. Flock management is in two breeding lines, one as a registered Rafter 7 Pure Merino flock (n = 650) and the other (Merino x Rambouillet) as Rafter 7 Merino Line (n = 650), which are selected for high fleece weight and quality, twinning and growth traits. The spring lambing flock winters on desert rangelands, is grazed on irrigated pasture from shearing through lambing and early weaning. Merino crossbred ewes showed that wool fibre density, clean wool yield, staple length, and grease fleece weight were increased by 41% per unit area of skin, 15%, 2.5 cm and 1.14 kg per head shorn, respectively. The wool clip is classed on pre-shearing mid-side wool sample tests (OFDA 2000 system). Fleece weight and fibre diamet00 system). Fleece weight and fibre diameter and staple length measurements are significantly improved over the years. Wool sales from the Rafter 7 Ranch have increased for volume, value and quality over years. Rafter 7 Ranch wool clip has topped seventh consecutive annual shearing for the highest price of US grown wool. Sheep producers from 18 states, and Mexico and Canada have purchased breeding rams and ewes annually from Rafter 7 ranch over the past 12 years. Objective and subjective measurement qualities are significantly improved in sale rams. Over 1000 breeding rams and 500 replacement ewes were distributed to range flocks in the western states in the last decade, which made a notable improvement for fleece weight, fibre diameter and yield in client's flocks. The dissemination of introduced Merino genetics in the western range sheep flocks will improve wool quality and clip profits, which strengthen a long-term competitive advantage for the US wool and sheep production sectors. (author)
Full Text Available The present investigation was carried out to examine the presence of Booroola FecB mutation gene in 124 selected prolific ewes from 6 flocks representing two Saudi Arabian local sheep breeds by forced PCR-RFLP method. Genomic DNA was extracted from the blood of 69 Najdi and 55 Naeimi matured ewes with litter size varied from 2.01-2.16 lambs per ewe lambing. Digestion of FecB gene 190 base pair with AvaII restriction enzyme resulted in non carrier 190 bp band wild type in all samples which revealed the absence of this mutation in the tested Najdi and Naeimi sheep breeds.
Rajab, M H; Blackburn, H D; Cartwright, T C; Figueiredo, E A
The Texas A&M Sheep Simulation Model was used to examine genetic-environmental interactions (GEI) among Brazilian Somali, Morada Nova, and Santa Ines breeds and type and level of feed supplement in northeast Brazil. Two sets of simulations were conducted to examine effects of different supplement quality (napier grass vs cunha legume) and quantity (napier grass only). The analyses indicated the benefits from supplementing lambs at weaning during the dry season and from supplementing lactating ewes at the beginning of lambing season when forage is scarce. The cunha legume was an effective supplement, but choosing between cunha legume and napier grass is an economic consideration. Increasing the amount of napier grass supplement per ewe from 200 g/d to 400 g/d resulted in a significant GEI (i.e., different levels of response such as lamb mortality rate, lamb weaning weight, and lambing rate for different breeds). The Brazilian Somali was the least responsive, whereas the Santa Ines was the most responsive to supplementation. It was concluded that the level of supplement should be higher for the Santa Ines and Morada Nova than for the Somali. The amount of supplement should be regulated so that it neither substitutes for nor lowers the utilization of the native caatinga forage. None of the breeds was simulated to be superior in all environments. Thus, considering the wide range of resources of individual farmers, any one of these breeds may be the preferred choice, depending on the individual set of production resources. PMID:1752815
Concepta, McManus; Samuel Rezende, Paiva; Ronyere Olegário de, Araújo.
Full Text Available Estudos em genética e melhoramento de ovinos no Brasil têm aumentado significativamente nos últimos anos. Estes envolvem pesquisa em caracterização, criação e cruzamento de ovinos utilizando as novas tecnologias disponíveis, incorporando tanto a genética quantitativa clássica e molecular. São aborda [...] das sugestões para melhorias nas técnicas de estatística, nos recursos computacionais, bem como na análise de DNA e nas lacunas no conhecimento atual e possibilidades de possíveis investigações. Há uma necessidade de maior interação entre vários grupos de trabalho no país, bem como as interações com outras disciplinas, como Sistemas de Informação Geográfica, Estatística, Bioinformática, bem como estudos biológicos, como fisiologia e proteômica. Abstract in english Studies in genetics and breeding of sheep in Brazil have increased significantly in recent years. These involve research in characterization, breeding and crossing sheep using new technologies available incorporating both classical quantitative and molecular genetics. Improvements in statistical tec [...] hniques, computational resources as well as analysis of DNA and gaps in present knowledge and opportunities for possible research are pointed out. There is a need for greater interaction between various groups working in the country as well as interactions with other disciplines such as Geographical Information Systems, Statistics, Bioinformatics, as well as biological studies such as physiology and proteomics.
Lupi, T M; Nogales, S; León, J M; Barba, C; Delgado, J V
Non-linear models were analysed to describe both the biological and commercial growth curves of the Segureña sheep, one of the most important Spanish breeds. We evaluated Brody, von Bertalanffy, Verhulst, logistic and Gompertz models, using historical data from the National Association of Segureña Sheep Breeders (ANCOS). These records were collected between 2000 and 2013, from a total of 129 610 weight observations ranging from birth to adulthood. The aim of this research was to establish the mathematical behaviour of body development throughout this breed's commercial life (birth to slaughter) and biological life (birth to adulthood); comparison between both slopes gives important information regarding the best time for slaughter, informs dietary advice according to animals' needs, permits economical predictions of productions and, by using the curve parameters as selection criteria, enables improvements in growth characteristics of the breed. Models were fitted according to the non-linear regression procedure of statistical package SPSS version19. Model parameters were estimated using the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm. Candidate models were compared using the determinative coefficient, mean square error, number of iterations, Akaike information coefficient and biological coherence of the estimated parameters. The von Bertalanffy and logistic models were found to be best suited to the biological and commercial growth curves, respectively, for both sexes. The Brody equation was found to be unsuitable for studying the commercial growth curve. Differences between the parameters in both sexes indicate a strong impact of sexual dimorphism on growth. This can emphasize the value of the highest growth rate for females, indicating that they reach maturity earlier. PMID:25903216
Full Text Available Abstract Some demographic parameters, the genetic structure and the evolution of the genetic variability of six French meat sheep breeds were analysed in relation with their management. Four of these breeds are submitted to more or less intense selection: the Berrichon du Cher (BCH, Blanc du Massif Central (BMC, Charollais (CHA and Limousin (LIM; the other two breeds are under conservation: the Roussin de La Hague (RLH and Solognot (SOL. Genealogical data of the recorded animals born from 1970 to 2000 and of their known ancestors were used. The most balanced contributions of the different flocks to the sire-daughter path was found in the SOL. In the BCH, a single flock provided 43% of the sire-AI sire path, whereas the contributions of the flocks were more balanced in the BMC and LIM (the only other breeds where AI is used to a substantial amount. The distribution of the expected genetic contribution of the founder animals was found to be unbalanced, especially in the BCH and LIM. The effective numbers of ancestors (founders or not for the ewes born from 1996 to 2000 were equal to 35 (BCH, 144 (BMC, 112 (CHA, 69 (LIM, 40 (RLH and 49 (SOL. Inbreeding was not analysed in the BMC, due to incomplete pedigree information. From 1980 on, the rates of inbreeding, in percentage points per year, were +0.112 (BCH, +0.045 (CHA, +0.036 (LIM, +0.098 (RLH and +0.062 (SOL. The implications of the observed trends on genetic variability are discussed in relation to the genetic management of each breed. The need for a larger selection basis in the BCH, the efficiency of the rules applied in the SOL to preserve the genetic variability and the need for a more collective organisation in the CHA and RLH are outlined.
F.G., Ríos; A., Gómez-Vázquez; J.M., Pinos-Rodríguez; J.C., García-López; A., Estrada-Angulo; J., Hernández-Bautista; J.J., Portillo.
Full Text Available To determine the effect of breed on growth performance and carcass characteristics in Mexican hair sheep, 48 lambs (average 38.9 ± 1.56 kg body weight, BW) were used in a completely randomized experimental design. The breed types assessed were 16 Pelibuey (PB), 16 Pelibuey x Katahdin (PB-KT) crossbr [...] ed and 16 Pelibuey x Dorper (PB-DP) crossbred lambs. The lambs were fed a maize grain-based diet (88% concentrate and 12% forage) containing 155 g CP and 12.13 MJ ME/kg DM. The growth performance trial lasted 45 days. The average daily gain was significantly higher for the PB breed than for the PB-KT and PB-DP cross-breds. Feed intake in the PB and PB-KT was significantly higher than in the PB-DP. The feed conversion ratio was lower for the PB than for PB-KT and PB-DP lambs. Hot carcass dressing and leg perimeters were significantly lower for the PB than for the PB-DP lambs, and similar to that of the PB-KT lambs. The lowest dorsal fat values were measured in the PB breed, compared with both the PB-KT and PB-DP cross-breds. Mesenteric fat (as % of BW) in the PB was significantly higher than in PB-KT and PB-DP lambs. Empty rumen and small intestine weights (as % of BW) in the PB lambs were significantly higher than in the PB-DP lambs, but their large intestine was significantly smaller than in the other two breeds. It was concluded that the PB lambs have a better growth performance and carcass characteristics than the PB-DM lambs, but similar to that of the PB-KT lambs.
Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been questioned if the old native Norwegian sheep breed, Old Norse Sheep (also called Norwegian Feral Sheep, normally distributed on coastal areas where ticks are abundant, is more protected against tick-borne infections than other Norwegian breeds due to a continuously high selection pressure on pasture. The aim of the present study was to test this hypothesis in an experimental infection study. Methods Five-months-old lambs of two Norwegian sheep breeds, Norwegian White (NW sheep and Old Norse (ON sheep, were experimentally infected with a 16S rRNA genetic variant of Anaplasma phagocytophilum (similar to GenBank accession number M73220. The experiment was repeated for two subsequent years, 2008 and 2009, with the use of 16 lambs of each breed annually. Ten lambs of each breed were inoculated intravenously each year with 0.4 ml A. phagocytophilum-infected blood containing approximately 0.5 × 106 infected neutrophils/ml. Six lambs of each breed were used as uninfected controls. Half of the primary inoculated lambs in each breed were re-challenged with the same infectious dose at nine (2008 and twelve (2009 weeks after the first challenge. The clinical, haematological and serological responses to A. phagocytophilum infection were compared in the two sheep breeds. Results The present study indicates a difference in fever response and infection rate between breeds of Norwegian sheep after experimental infection with A. phagocytophilum. Conclusion Although clinical response seems to be less in ON-lambs compared to NW-lambs, further studies including more animals are needed to evaluate if the ON-breed is more protected against tick-borne infections than other Norwegian breeds.
Full Text Available We have previously reported the possible segregation of major gene(s for milk yield and fat corrected milk (FCM in Chios sheep breed. In this study we demonstrate the association of an SNP marker, within the last exon of the Acetyl-CoA acyltransferase 2 (ACAA2 gene, with milk yield and FCM in the same breed. Moreover, we investigate the effect of this SNP marker along with other microsatellite markers. Fifteen microsatellite markers (SSR on 13 chromosomes were genotyped on 198 ewes of the Chios breed. The association analysis revealed significant association (P
SØrensen, Anders Christian; Valasek, P
The aim of this study was to estimate genetic parameters of lambing ease (LE) and litter size (LS) in four common Danish meat sheep breeds. Data from 1990 to 2006 were analysed. A bivariate animal model was used for estimation of genetic parameters. Lambing ease showed a low heritability, both for direct (1.4% to 9.5%) and maternal (5.9% to 6.9%) genetic effects. Moderate negative direct-maternal genetic correlations (-0.18 to -0.61) was found. Total heritabilities for LE were 3.8% to 9.7%. Litter size showed also a low heritability (6.4% to 9.0%). Low and non-significant correlations between the LE and LS was found, which means that selection to improve one trait should not affect the other trait. Lambing ease should therefore be included in the selection criterion.
A Merino breeding resource flock was established at Rafter 7 Ranch, Yerington, Nevada. Initially, 500 Rambouillet ewes were purchased from two established breeders in 1990. These ewes were bred naturally or by artificial insemination (AI) to imported Merino rams from Australia and to crossbred rams selected within the flock. The flocks were expanded to 1300 ewes and bred in 30 single-sire mating groups as of the 2006 breeding season. Flock management is in two breeding lines, one as a registered Rafter 7 Merino flock (n = 650) and the other (Merino x Rambouillet) as Rafter 7 Line (n = 650). The spring lambing flock winters on desert rangelands, is grazed on irrigated pasture from shearing through lambing and early weaning. Compared with the original base ewe flock, Merino and Merino crossbred ewes produced higher clean wool yields, longer staple lengths, and higher grease fleece weights. The body weight and greasy fleece weight showed a significant (P < 0.05) difference between two flocks whereas no differences were observed for wool fibre diameter, length and comfort factor in most recent analysis. However, fibre diameter variation was significantly different (P < 0.05) between the two flocks for age groups and birth years. Body weight, fleece weight and fibre diameter showed significant (P < 0.05) but low to moderate correlations. Approximately 1000 breeding rams and 500 replacement ewes were distributed to commercial range flocks in the western states. The disseminflocks in the western states. The dissemination of introduced Merino genetics in the western range sheep flocks is expected to enhance wool quality and wool profits in the western region of the USA. (author)
Dossa, Luc Hippolyte; Sangaré, Mamadou; Buerkert, Andreas; Schlecht, Eva
To better understand the relative importance of the multi-purpose functions of small ruminants for their urban owners and related breeding practices including selection criteria, we undertook a comparative analysis across the West African cities of Kano (Nigeria), Bobo Dioulasso (Burkina Faso) and Sikasso (Mali). Semi-structured questionnaires were used to collect the required information from 301 sheep farmers (100, 102 and 99 in Kano, Bobo Dioulasso and Sikasso) and 306 goat farmers (100, 99 and 107 in Kano, Bobo Dioulasso and Sikasso). Sheep and goats were kept for a variety of reasons including income generation, insurance (sale for cash to meet unexpected expenditures) and economic security (sale for cash to support foreseeable expenses), social/religious functions and prestige in ownership. The relative importance given by respondents to the different functions varied significantly (p < 0.001) across cities and between species within a city. However, irrespective of city, both species were primarily kept for their financial functions whereby sheep were perceived as having higher economic value. Although breeding practices were very similar in many respects (low practice of castration, culling and replacement strategies, uncontrolled mating, no record keeping and selection criteria), the emphasis put on each selection criteria varied across cities and between species. Irrespective of city, most of the goats were of the indigenous type while keeping crossbred animals and/or maintaining more than one genotype in the same flock was more commonly practiced by sheep keepers. This points to a higher motivation for strategic breeding among sheep than goat keepers and indicates that the former might be interested in joining carefully designed participatory flock improvement programs. PMID:26101733
Fourie, L J; Kok, D J; Peter, R J
The objectives of this study were to determine the influence of application site and sheep breed on the efficacy of a flumethrin (1% m/v) solution for the control of 'bont'-legged (Hyalomma spp.) and red-legged ticks (Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi). This study was conducted from November 1996 to February 1997 on 3 farms in the southwestern Free State Province. Two trials were conducted on Dorper sheep and 2 on Merino sheep. For each specific application 30 sheep were selected and allocated to 3 groups of 10 animals each using randomisation through minimisation, with pre-treatment total tick count as only criterion. Groups consisted of an untreated control group, a group treated with 3 ml of a flumethrin (1% m/v) solution applied only to the anogenital region, and a group treated at a dose rate of 1 mf flumethrin (1% m/v)/5 kg host body mass. The total dose volume for animals in the last group was divided into 3 equal parts and applied to the brisket/axillae, groin and anogenital regions respectively. Animals grazed under extensive farming conditions and were infested by ticks that occurred naturally in the environment. Ticks were counted and removed weekly over a 6-week period. In all 4 trials, Rhipicephalus e. evertsi was the dominant tick species, followed, in 3 of the trials, by Hyalomma spp. Efficacy (%) of control against ticks for Dorper sheep, treated only on the anogenital region, was variable, ranging between 29.5 and 97%. In Merino sheep the efficacy values ranged between 23.1 and 90 %. The site-spcific (anogenital region) efficacy of control against ticks infesting Merino sheep was in general 100% or almost 100%. In Dorper sheep the efficacy values were >80 % for 3-5 weeks. The efficacy (%) of control against ticks for sheep treated on the brisket/axillae, groin and anogenital regions was always higher compared to sheep treated only on the anogenital region. In Dorper sheep, efficacy of control was >80 % for up to 4 weeks and in Merino sheep >80 % for 6 weeks. PMID:11811701
Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to determine the influence of application site and sheep breed on the efficacy of a flumethrin (1 % m/v solution for the control of 'bont'-legged (Hyalomma spp. and red-legged ticks (Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi. This study was conducted from November 1996 to February 1997 on 3 farms in the southwestern Free State Province. Two trials were conducted on Dorper sheep and 2 on Merino sheep. For each specific application 30 sheep were selected and allocated to 3 groups of 10 animals each using randomisation through minimisation, with pre-treatment total tick count as only criterion. Groups consisted of an untreated control group, a group treated with 3 m of a flumethrin (1 % m/v solution applied only to the anogenital region, and a group treated at a dose rate of 1 m flumethrin (1% m/v/5 kg host body mass. The total dose volume for animals in the last group was divided into 3 equal parts and applied to the brisket/axillae, groin and anogenital regions respectively. Animals grazed under extensive farming conditions and were infested by ticks that occurred naturally in the environment. Ticks were counted and removed weekly over a 6-week period. In all 4 trials, Rhipicephalus e. evertsi was the dominant tick species, followed, in 3 of the trials, by Hyalomma spp. Efficacy (% of control against ticks for Dorper sheep, treated only on the anogenital region, was variable, ranging between 29.5 and 97 %. In Merino sheep the efficacy values ranged between 23.1 and 90 %. The site-spcific (anogenital region efficacy of control against ticks infesting Merino sheep was in general 100 % or almost 100 %. In Dorper sheep the efficacy values were >80 % for 3-5 weeks. The efficacy (% of control against ticks for sheep treated on the brisket/axillae, groin and anogenital regions was always higher compared to sheep treated only on the anogenital region. In Dorper sheep, efficacy of control was >80 % for up to 4 weeks and in Merino sheep >80 % for 6 weeks.
In 17 gubernyias of the former Russian Empire of 1740-1812-1918 years, was identified (1912-1924) some 7 breeds of the Romanian Walachian phyletic group, of sheep breeds and in some gubernyias the Romanian Tsigai breed. It seems that from the present Moldavian Republic to the rivers Bug and Dnieper the sheep production was of sedentary type, connected with some local Romanian inhabitants. It see also that over the Dnieper the breed presence was connected also with the transhumance practiced u...
The following applications of radioimmunoassay were studied: 1) for early diagnosis of pregnance in caws and sheep by determination of progesterone (PG) in milk and blood plasma via veterinary radioimmunological test STERON - RM125; 2) for diagnosis and treatment of ovarian disturbances in cows by RIA of luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and PG in blood plasma; 3) for control of the biological efficiency of sheep estrus synchronisation with MAP (vaginal tampons) and Estrophan (PgF2?); 4) for control of the reproductive condition of rams and effect of Tribestan in treatment of different forms of impotention by RIA of testosterone in blood. It was established that the use of RIA objectified the process of decision-making in regulation of the reproduction deviations in ruminating farm animals by veterinary means. Conclusions are drawn and suppositions are made for introduction of the radioisotope methods in the reproduction control of cattle and sheep breeding in practice. 4 tabs.; 15 refs
Full Text Available Genetic mutations with major effects on ovulation rate in sheep were recently identified in two genes of the Transforming Growth Factor (TGF superfamily and a TGF receptor, namely BMP15, GDF9 and BMPRIB. The FecXG, FecGH and FecB were performed to screen four sheep breeds (small tailed Han, Wadi, big tailed Han and Shandi sheep distributed along the lower Yellow river valley of China by forced PCR-RFLP method if these genes are responsible for their high prolificacies. The FecB mutation was found in small tailed Han and Wadi sheep but absent in big tailed Han and Shandi sheep. The 154 small tailed Han sheep included all three genotypes (FecB/FecB, FecB/Fec+ and Fec+/Fec+ at frequencies of 0.54, 0.40 and 0.06, respectively whereas the samples of 30 Wadi sheep were only detected two genotypes, 4 were heterozygous FecB/Fec+ and 26 Fec+/Fec+. The frequency of the FecB allele in small tailed Han and Wadi sheep were 0.74 and 0.07, respectively. Results indicated that the FecB mutation is not fixed in two sheep population. The same FecXG mutation of the BMP-15 gene was only found in small tailed Han ewes as in Belclare and Cambridge ewes, frequencies of genotypes FecXG+, FecX ++ and FecXGG were 0.70, 0.27 and 0.03, respectively. There was no evidence of FecGH in any of the breeds sampled. The discovery of the FecB mutation in small tailed Han sheep and Wadi sheep will facilitate the use of FecB allele in improving the prolificacy of non-prolific sheep breeds of China.
Full Text Available A study was conducted, first, to compare the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), reticulo-rumens and intestinal capacities (relative to body weight) of ram lambs from six Turkish sheep breeds: Turkish Merino (TM, Anatolia Merino), Akkaraman (AK), K?v?rc?k (KV), Awassi (AW), Karayaka (KY) and Morkaraman (M [...] K), and second, to examine the influence of sheep breed on the pH of the digesta in the various segments (rumen, jejunum and caecum) of the GIT. Six ram lambs from each breed were slaughtered at 40.2 ± 0.80 kg liveweight. Lambs from the AK breed had a heavier GIT weight than the AW, KY or MK breeds. The weight of the full stomach was higher in AK lambs compared with the other lambs, except for KV lambs, while the relative weight of the empty stomachs was heavier in MK ram lambs than in TM, AW and KY lambs. The AK lambs had the highest relative empty intestinal weight. The relative weight of empty intestines was heavier in KV lambs than in KY lambs. The pH of the rumen content was higher in TM and AK lambs compared with KY and MK lambs, while the pH of the caecum content of KV lambs was higher than those of KY and MK lambs. In conclusion, significant differences were found among the six breeds in terms of some variables that were studied, although a higher proportional GIT weight in the fat-tail breeds such as the MK, AK and AW was not reflected in all components or in the pH of the GIT content.
Gubbins, S; Roden, J A
By establishing a breeding programme for transmissible spongiform encephalopathie (TSE) resistance, there are plans to eradicate sheep TSEs from member states of the European Union (EU). In this paper, we used a simple age- and genotype-structured model to assess the impact of four breeding strategies on the prevalence and incidence of scrapie in the British sheep flock. The strategies ranged from the minimum EU requirements to compulsory implementation of the current National Scrapie Plan for Great Britain (NSP). All four strategies were predicted to reduce the prevalence and incidence of disease, though there was likely to be a delay of several years between the implementation of a breeding programme and the reduction in incidence. There were differences in the efficacy of the strategies, with the most stringent resulting in the greatest reduction in prevalence and incidence. However, the magnitude of the differences was not great, largely because all four strategies eliminated the VRQ allele, which is associated with a markedly higher risk of disease than any of the other alleles. Sensitivity analyses indicated that the model results were robust to selection bias when estimating the risk of infection; and that the efficacy of a breeding programme was unlikely to be compromised, unless the risk of infection is substantially underestimated by data on clinical disease. PMID:16169613
Full Text Available RFLP analysis of mitochondrial DNA cytochrome b gene was conducted to determine the diversity, status and close genetic relationships in a population of Batur sheep with the Merino and local sheep breeds (Garut, Thin Tail and Fat Tail. The research used genomic DNA of 27 samples of Batur, 15 Merino, 17 Garut, 15 Thin Tails and 15 Fat Tails sheep. The PCR process used two types of 25 nucleotides primers. The PCR products were checked by using 2% agarose gel electrophoresis. The PCR DNA fragment was digested by using Hae III at 37 oC and incubated for 10 hours. Similarities and differences of cytochrome b gene RFLP bands between individual samples of one and across populations, genetic distance, and close genetic relationship, were identified. The PCR process of the cytochrome b gene metochondrial DNA of the 45 samples of sheep yielded 359 bp band types. The digestion (cutting of the PCR products of mitochondrial DNA cytochrome b gene by using Hae III resulted in RFLP band profiles of 128 up to 231 bp polymorphisms of cytochrome b gene. Although the Hae III restriction enzyme recognized only one restriction site, however, between samples of Batur, Merino, Garut, Thin Tail, and Fat Tails, there were monomorphism and polymorphism Hae III loci.Key Words: RFLP, cytochrome b gene, genetic markers, genetic similarity, Batur shee
Full Text Available Two Italian sheep breeds – Gentile di Puglia and Sopravissana – have undergone a consistent decline in numbers and have been widely substituted by the Sarda breed, which gives higher milk yield. With the aim to provide a basis for con- servation decisions, the genetic variability of the three breeds was investigated in this study. DNA of 60 animals was PCR amplified at the following microsatellite loci: CSSM43, CSSM47, CSSM60, TGLA110, TGLA122, TGLA126, TGLA377, ETH3, ETH10, ETH225, NRAMP1, OARCP20 and SPS115. Allele frequencies, gene diversity and genetic distances were calculat- ed. The highest differences in allele frequencies were found at the following loci: TGLA377, TGLA122, NRAMP1, OARCP20 and ETH3, while at the other loci the most frequent alleles were the same. The average inbreeding rate was 0.156 in the Gentile di Puglia, 0.158 in the Sopravissana and 0.137 in the Sarda. Average gene diversity of the analysed microsatel- lites was 0.59. Genetic distance between Gentile di Puglia and Sopravissana (0.081 indicates moderate differentiation; distances between the Sarda and the endangered breeds – 0.111 from the Gentile di Puglia and 0.107 from the Sopravissana - indicate a medium-high differentiation rate. The disappearance of the two less productive breeds would entail a consistent loss of genetic diversity. The inbreeding values are low enough to allow the implementation of sound conservation programmes.
M., Ghaffari; A., Nejati-Javaremi; G., Rahimi-Mianji.
Full Text Available The families of TGF-? proteins are the most important growth factors in the ovary for growth and differentiation of early ovarian follicles. Three related oocyte-derived members of the transforming growth factor-? superfamily, namely GDF9, BMP15 and BMPR-IB have been shown to be essential for follic [...] ular growth and ovulation. The aim of the present study was to detect the incidence of mutation in exon two of GDF9 as a major gene in the Shal sheep breed. Blood samples were collected from 239 sheep and genomic DNA was extracted using the modified salting-out method. The quantity and quality of extracted DNA was examined using spectrophotometery and gel electrophoresis, respectively. A fragment with the size of 139 bp from exon two of GDF9 gene (FecG H) was amplified using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with a pair of specific primers. The amplified PCR products were digested with DdeI restriction enzyme. In the presence of mutations at this locus, the DdeI enzyme cannot recognize the restriction site. However, in the absence of mutations, the enzyme recognizes one restriction site and divides the amplified fragment into two fragments of 31 and 108 bp. In the present study only the wild type alleles were detected and all the samples showed the AA genotype. The analysis of polymorphism for GDF9 (FecG H) loci in Shal sheep indicates that the genetic factor responsible for twinning or multiple lambing rates is not related to reported mutated alleles at the GDF9 major gene in this breed. Therefore, we should attempt to detect other SNP for the GDF9 gene and/or other loci responsible for twining rate in this breed.
Samuel Rezende Paiva
Full Text Available The objectives of this work were to investigate the genetic structure of the Brazilian hair sheep breeds and to determine the origin of the Santa Inês breed. Molecular similarity was determined using Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA - Polymerase Chain Reaction markers in 238 individuals from five naturalized sheep breeds: Santa Inês (48 animals, Rabo Largo (48, Somali (48, Morada Nova (48 and Bergamasca (46, collected in Goiás, Sergipe, Bahia, and Ceará States as well as in the Federal District. Fifty-four loci were selected from 19 primers, after a pilot test using 140 primers. Qualitative analyses indicate diagnostic markers for all breeds. All breeds were significantly different from each other. Interbreed differences were explained by 14.92% of the total variation. Santa Inês clustered with Bergamasca (97% bootstrap and with Rabo Largo, composing the third member of the group (81% bootstrap while Morada Nova and Somali breeds clustered separately. Each breed should be considered as a separate management and conservation unit, and special care should be taken with Rabo Largo, Morada Nova and Somali breeds, represented by small herds in Brazil.Os objetivos deste trabalho foram identificar a origem racial de ovinos Santa Inês e avaliar a unicidade das populações das principais raças naturalizadas brasileiras de ovinos deslanado. Foi realizado um estudo dos padrões de semelhança molecular a partir de marcadores RAPD-PCR, utilizando-se 238 indivíduos dos Estados de Goiás, Sergipe, Bahia, e Ceará assim como do Distrito Federal, distribuídos entre as raças Santa Inês (48 animais, Bergamácia (46, Rabo Largo (48, Morada Nova (48 e Somali (48. Após triagem com 140 primers, foram selecionados 54 locos a partir de 19 primers e todas as raças apresentaram marcadores específicos. Análises qualitativas mostraram a presença de marcadores diagnóstico-específicos para todas as raças. As diferenças inter-raciais foram significativas e responsáveis por 14,92% da variação total observada. Na análise de agrupamento, a raça Santa Inês ficou próxima à Bergamácia (com 97% de valor bootstrap. A raça Rabo Largo apresentou maior similaridade com este grupo (com 81% bootstrap do que as raças Morada Nova e Somali. Cada raça deve ser considerada como unidade de conservação e manejo, especialmente as raças Rabo Largo, Morada Nova e Somali, as quais apresentam as menores populações no País.
Lorraine Pariset; Marco Mariotti; Maria Gargani; Stephane Joost; Riccardo Negrini; Trinidad Perez; Michael Bruford; Paolo Ajmone Marsan; Alessio Valentini
We employed mtDNA and nuclear SNPs to investigate the genetic diversity of sheep breeds of three countries of the Mediterranean basin: Albania, Greece, and Italy. In total, 154 unique mtDNA haplotypes were detected by means of D-loop sequence analysis. The major nucleotide diversity was observed in Albania. We identified haplogroups, A, B, and C in Albanian and Greek samples, while Italian individuals clustered in groups A and B. In general, the data show a pattern reflecting old migrations t...
This paper addresses the 1996 cloning of Dolly the sheep, locating it within a long-standing tradition of animal breeding research in Edinburgh. Far from being an end in itself, the cell-nuclear transfer experiment from which Dolly was born should be seen as a step in an investigative pathway that sought the production of medically relevant transgenic animals. By historicising Dolly, I illustrate how the birth of this sheep captures a dramatic redefinition of the life sciences, when in the 1970s and 1980s the rise of neo-liberal governments and the emergence of the biotechnology market pushed research institutions to show tangible applications of their work. Through this broader interpretative framework, the Dolly story emerges as a case study of the deep transformations of agricultural experimentation during the last third of the twentieth century. The reorganisation of laboratory practice, human resources and institutional settings required by the production of transgenic animals had unanticipated consequences. One of these unanticipated effects was that the boundaries between animal and human health became blurred. As a result of this, new professional spaces emerged and the identity of Dolly the sheep was reconfigured, from an instrument for livestock improvement in the farm to a more universal symbol of the new cloning age. PMID:26205201
Jorge, Ramírez-Retamal; Rodrigo, Morales.
Full Text Available This paper reviews two factors (breed and feed) affecting the carcass and meat quality of sheep. The quality of livestock products has acquired greater importance from the distinct perspectives of the different participants in the agricultural food chain. Consumers, producers and the industry give d [...] ifferent levels of importance to the parameters of meat and carcass quality. Nevertheless, all the participants in the meat production chain must ensure quality to improve their competitiveness. The quality of the carcass and meat can be influenced by different factors such as breed and type of feed. The breed can influence weight, yields, and the conformation of the carcass, among other variables, as well as the pH level and the fatty acid composition of the meat, whereas the feed mainly affects carcass conformation and several physicochemical and organoleptic parameters of meat quality such as proximal composition, the fatty acid profile, tenderness and color. Consequently, the effects of breed and feed type should be considered to obtain a quality product that satisfies consumer demand.
Full Text Available Reliable traceability system in animal production is a crucial part for protection of animal and human health. Small ruminants are usually ear’ tagged but this tagging system especially in extensive production systems is not reliable. The use of Radio Frequency Indentifying Devices (RFID, or electronic identification is more suitable. Ruminal boluses (Rumitag 20 gr, hdx are first chosen for ruminant tagging because they are easy and early applicable, easy to read and fraud resistant but they encounter some problems, mainly reading failure. In our trial we investigated reading failure on one sheep dairy farm. Six hundred and eight sheep have been milked during the trial and read for four times during milking. In all four readings we had quite high reading failure in comparison to other author findings. Probable cause for this very high failure could be the use of hand held readers in crowded environment which caused lot of double reading. This means that reading protocol should be improved. Unfortunately we did not have fixed reader so we could not compare readings.
Full text: Each cell of an animal's body contains full genetic code for the whole animal and nuclear transfer provides a way of converting cells to whole animal. Cells from endangered breeds collected by biopsy or from scrapings of soft skin or ear tissue or from hair follicle can be grown and multiplied in a laboratory and this would then be stored frozen indefinitely at 196 deg. C in liquid nitrogen. Mammary gland cells from sheep, mouse cumulus granulosa cells, bovine mural granulosa cells and fibroblast cells have all generated viable clones. The currently available methods of conservation, deep freezing of sperms (haploid genome) and storage of a large number of embryos are too expensive. In comparison, adult skin fibroblast cells are easy to obtain, hardy in culture and freezing, a good source of donor DNA without the limitations of age, sex and physiological state. Progenies were successfully obtained from nuclear transfer of serum-starved fibroblast cells from cattle, sheep and goat. Several other cell types successfully used for cloning are limited to female donors (cumulus and mammary epithelial, mural granulosa and oviductal cells) and are more difficult for long-term culture. Live progenies using skin fibroblasts have been produced in cattle. Sample collection and development of primary cultures: Samples were collected by biopsy of skin from ear pinna and transported in a complete medium (DMEM + HamsF12 with 10% FBS and penicillin and streptomycin) at 4 deg. C. Tissue samples were processed by removing hair form both sides, cut into small pieces and seeded in petridish containing fibroblast culture medium (DMEM + HamsF12, 10% FBS, penicillin and streptomycin and L-glutamine). The primary skin fibroblast cells started emerging out of tissues within 4-6 days and were allowed to grow up to 12-15 days till nearly 80% confluency was attained. Purification and sub-culturing of skin fibroblast cells: In isolated cases, there were contaminations of epithelial cells but these were removed mechanically as well as enzymatically to get pure fibroblasts. Sub-culturing or 'splitting cells' was done periodically removing growth media, washing the plate, dissociating the cells and diluting cell suspension in fresh media. Standard growth curve: Whenever, a new batch of culture media supplement was introduced, it was checked for its efficacy for growth of cells in culture and compared with standard growth curve. Goat skin fibroblasts remained in lag phase for initial two days when they settled on the solid surface of culture vessel and then came to log phase when maximum growth took place spanning from the third to the seventh day. As the confluencey level increased and media supplement was depleted, cells stopped dividing and a plateau was attained from the eighth day onwards and then showed decline due to contact inhibition. Cell proliferation index: Under standard culture conditions, skin fibroblast cells divide once in 24 hours but it is rarely achieved in normal culturing. The population doubling time and cell proliferation rate per day were checked at regular interval for quality assessment. For this, ELISA based MTT assay, incorporation of 5-bromo-de-oxyuridine method, and flow cytometer methods were used. Evaluation of cells for ploidy level: During long-term culturing the cells are likely to develop one or other type of chromosomal abnormalities. It must be ensured that the cells in different passages be checked for normal ploidy so that viable clones can be developed from them. Cultures showing increased frequency of aneuploidy or polyploidy must be terminated from further passaging. DNA from cultured somatic cells can be isolated using available DNA isolation kits and checked for its quality on 2% agarose. Cryo-freezing of cells: Cells are best frozen as cell suspension. Healthy culture were always employed to provide the stock to freeze cells. The cells were frozen at controlled freezing rate. The cells were kept at -80 deg. C as well as at -196 deg. C in Liquid nitrogen. Cells were found viable for subsequent grow
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the effect of different breeding areas (south-west and north-east part of the island of Pag on daily milk, fat and protein yield in Pag sheep. The aim of thisstudy was also to determine the shape of lactation curves as well as the herd effect on Pag sheep milk traits. Research was conducted on 32 herds reared in the south-western (23 and north-eastern (9 part of the island of Pag. Data included 21.033 test-day records of 2.332 ewes. Daily milk yield and milk components were recorded using AT4 method for the period from 2004 to 2008. The rearing area had statistically significant effect on the daily milk yield (P<0.001, daily fat and protein yield. Ewes reared on the south-western part of the island had larger average daily production than ewes reared on its north-eastern part. The stage of lactation, described by Ali and Schaeffer lactation curve nested within rearing area, had significant effect (P<0.0001 on all milk traits. The peak of lactation production was achieved around the 20th day of lactation in both areas and was somewhat higher for ewes kept in the south-western compared to the north-eastern part of the island. Flock nested within rearing area had statistically significant effect on all milk traits (P<0.0001. Results obtained in the study showed potential possibilities for breeders to enlarge milk production and consequently economically benefit through improved herd management of Pag sheep.
S, Jafari; A, Hashemi.
Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to estimate the genetic parameters for body measurement and yearling live bodyweight traits in the Makuie sheep breed. The data set consisted of 2 144 lambs from 122 sires and 984 dams recorded in 21 years from 1989 to 2009 at the Makuie Sheep Breeding and Raisin [...] g Station (MSBS). The traits that were studied were height at withers, height at rump, body length, heart girth, leg circumference and yearling weight. The analyses were carried out based on an animal model with the restricted maximum likelihood (REML) approach using a derivate-free (DF) algorithm. Six animal models were fitted, differentiated by including or excluding maternal effects, and with and without covariance between maternal and direct genetic effects. Ignoring the maternal effects, the direct heritability was estimated as 0.20, 0.24, 0.10, 0.14, 0.02 and 0.36 for height at wither, height at rump, body length, heart girth, leg circumference and yearling weight, respectively. The estimates were slightly higher when maternal effects, genetic or environmental, were ignored in the analyses. Using bivariate analysis, the estimates for additive genetic correlations ranged from 0.56 to 0.81 among the studied traits. A log-likelihood ratio test (LRT) was used to select the most appropriate univariate model for each trait. Based on LRT, the direct additive genetic and maternal permanent environmental effects were regarded as an important source of variation of the studied traits. The estimates of genetic parameters can be considered a basis for calculating selection indices for body measurements, as well as revealing their association with yearling bodyweight traits.
Lancioni, Hovirag; Di Lorenzo, Piera; Ceccobelli, Simone; Perego, Ugo A; Miglio, Arianna; Landi, Vincenzo; Antognoni, Maria T.; Francesca M. Sarti; Lasagna, Emiliano; Achilli, Alessandro
In Italy, the crisis of the wool industry triggered the necessity to reconvert the two traditional Merino-derived breeds, Gentile di Puglia and Sopravissana, to meat production, by creating the Merinizzata Italiana. The aim of the present study was to assess the genetic diversity of these three Italian Merino-derived (IMd) breeds by examining the molecular information encoded in the maternally-inherited mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). A parallel molecular investigation was performed on the putativ...
Bruno do Amaral, Crispim; Leonardo de Oliveira, Seno; Andréa Alves do, Egito; Fernando Miranda de, Vargas Junior; Alexéia Barufatti, Grisolia.
Full Text Available Background The aim of the present study was to assess the genetic diversity of Pantaneiro sheep, using microsatellite markers, in order to assist maintenance and management plans, enhance mating systems and reduce the inbreeding rate. A total of 127 animals were genotyped at eight microsatellite loc [...] i. They belonged to populations from the Experimental Farm of the Universidade Federal da Grande Dourados (UFGD) (Dourados/MS/Brazil) and Embrapa Pantanal (Corumbá/MS/Brazil). Results The population of Pantaneiro sheep from the UFGD exhibited a high mean number of alleles (11.13) and allelic richness (10.66). The polymorphic information content was highly informative in the locus studied, resulting in a mean value of 0.71. Observed heterozygosity was lower than expected for all molecular markers assessed. The analysis of molecular variance showed a differentiation rate of 5.2% between populations. Conclusions The results of the statistical parameters indicated that populations of Pantaneiro sheep require special attention on herd management, and it's further necessary to implement breeder exchange programs in order to preserve the genetic variability of these populations. Furthermore, the maintenance of those populations in their typical habitats is rather required to allow different responses from the herds to the interactions between genotype and environment.
Full Text Available Information on animal requirements for determination of rangeland grazing capacity is essential. Animal requirements depend on its live weight, age, physiological condition and quality of available forage. There are more than 20 sheep breeds with different body sizes grazing in various climatic zone's rangelands of Iran, so animal unit equivalent of each breed should be determined independently. In this research, live weight of animal unit of Fashandy sheep based on average live weight of 3 and 4 year old ewes was determined. Three herds with more than 100 Fashandy ewes among existing herds in Taleghan region were selected. In each herd, 15 three year old ewes, 15 four year old ewes, 5 three year old rams, and 5 four year old rams were selected. They were weighed three times including at the time of beginning of grazing in highlands, end of grazing season in highlands, and once in winter. In each herd, also 5 three month old lambs in the beginning of grazing season and 5 six month old lambs at the end of grazing season were weighed. The amount of daily forage requirement according to live weight and energy requirement of animal unit equivalent for maintenance condition was calculated using NRC (1985 tables and MAFF (1984 formula. It was multiplied by 1.5 because of mountainous condition of rangelands and distances from watering points and villages. The SAS statistical software was used for data analyses according to factorial experiment in the form of completely random design. According to the results, the live weight of animal unit of Fashandy breed was 60.7 Kg. The average live weight of 3 and 4 year old rams were 80.3 and 85.3 kg, respectively. Live weights of 3 and 6 month old lambs were 21.4 and 37.8 kg, respectively. Therefore, animal unit equivalents for rams, 3 and 6 month old lambs were 1.36, 0.35 and 0.62 respectively. According to NRC tables, daily metabolisable energy requirement was 13.8 Mj, and based on MAFF formula it was 11.8 Mj (including that multiplied by 1.5.
Full Text Available The Gentile di Pugliais a breed created in the 15th century by crossing Merino Spanish rams and “gentile” ewes reared in some areas of Southern Italy, mainly Apulia and Basilicata. The crisis of the wool industry, the poor quantity of milk, the inadequacy of Gentile di Pugliato be milked by machine and the passage from transhumant to permanent rearing caused a dramatic reduction of this population, which was largely crossed with other breeds and declined from about one million heads in the sixties to 5,000 at the present time. In order to save the ancient typical Gentile di Pugliabreed, the aim of this work was to estimate the “genetic integrity” of the remaining Gentile di Pugliapopulation by means of an analysis of wool quality measured through the diameter of the fibre and the homogeneity of the fleece. Our hypothesis was that the animals originated from outcrosses to other Merino derived breeds specialised for meat would show larger diameters of the fibres and a reduced homogeneity of the fleece. The research was carried out using Herd Book registered animals from 9 farms: 1 from Isernia, 2 from Campobasso and 6 from Foggia province. The statistical analysis on the diameter of the fibre was carried out on a dataset of 38,200 observations (200 records x 191 animals divided in four classes (ultrafine, fine, croisè, ordinary. The high frequencies of ultrafine and fine fibre classes show that the quality of the wool is still good in the population. This consideration can be extended to all the farms involved in the study that could therefore be suitable in the conservation programs for this breed. The homogeneity of the fleece was also good in provid- ing further evidence of the genetic integrity of the population. Other analysis carried out on the quality of the wool in relation to the body size confirmed that the observed Gentile di Pugliais well representative of the ancient breed.
E., Maleki; F., Kafilzadeh; G.Y., Meng; M.A., Rajion; M., Ebrahimi.
Full Text Available A study was conducted to evaluate the fatty acid (FA) profile of subcutaneous adipose tissue and tailfat of two fat-tailed sheep breeds under identical feeding conditions. Twelve male lambs from two breeds, Sanjabi (n = 6), weighing 23.3 ± 0.48 kg, and Mehraban (n = 6), weighing 26.1 ± 2.14 kg, were [...] used in this investigation. All animals were weighed and slaughtered at the end of a 90-day fattening period and FA composition of subcutaneous adipose tissue and tailfat was determined. Significant breed differences in total FA, total polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) and n-6PUFA contents were observed in the subcutaneous adipose tissue, but not in the tailfat. Breed differences were observed in the conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) content of subcutaneous adipose tissue, with higher levels in Sanjabi than in Mehraban lambs. Linoleic and ?-linolenic acid of subcutaneous adipose were significantly higher in the Sanjabi breed than in the Mehraban breed. Thus, adipose tissue from fat-tailed Sanjabi lamb has a higher proportion of health-promoting linoleic and ?-linolenic acids, unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) and CLA, suggesting that the Sanjabi breed could be used for producing healthier lamb products.
María E Martínez
Full Text Available Morphological traits of the whole udder (circumference, width, height, and length, teats (angle, length and width, udder cistern (teat opening and cistern height, and milk yield were measured over one lactation in a total of 18 ewes (nine Chilota and nine Suffolk Down sheep belonging to the same experimental flock (Centro Experimental INIA Butalcura, Chiloé, Chile. Analysis of variance showed significant effects for breed, sheep within breed, and stage of lactation. Chilota ewes evidenced greater udder circumference (433 mm, udder length (86 mm, teat opening (96º, and milk yield (947 mL d-1 than Suffolk Down ewes (410 mm, 77 mm, 93º, and 559 mL d-1, respectively. Udder circumference, udder width, udder length, cistern height and teat size significantly decreased throughout lactation. Repeatabilities of all traits were between 0.17 and 0.60; the highest repeatability was for udder circumference. This trait is easy to measure and had a discriminatory value for breed differentiation. In conclusion, Chilota sheep had a dairy aptitude greater than Suffolk Down sheep and similar to Spanish and Mediterranean dairy sheep breeds at beginning of their breeding programs.Los caracteres morfológicos de la ubre (perímetro, anchura, longitud y altura, de los pezones (ángulo de inclinación, longitud y anchura, de las cisternas mamarias (apertura de los pezones y altura de la cisterna y la producción lechera fueron medidos a lo largo de una lactación en un total de 18 ovejas del mismo rebaño (Centro Experimental INIA Butalcura, Chiloé, Chile, nueve de raza Chilota y nueve de raza Suffolk Down. El análisis de varianza mostró efectos significativos de la raza, la oveja dentro de la raza y del estado de lactación sobre las variables estudiadas. La raza Chilota evidenció un mayor perímetro de la ubre (433 mm, longitud de la ubre (86 mm, abertura de los pezones (96º, y producción lechera (947 mL d-1 que la Suffolk Down ( 410 mm, 77 mm, 93º, y 559 mL d-1, respectivamente. El perímetro, longitud y anchura de la ubre, junto con la altura de las cisternas y el tamaño de los pezones disminuyeron significativamente a medida que avanzó la lactación. Las repetibilidades de todos los caracteres estudiados oscilaron entre 0.17 y 0.60. La mayor repetibilidad se encontró en el perímetro de la ubre; este carácter es fácil de medir y posee poder discriminante para la diferenciación racial. Se concluye que la raza Chilota posee una aptitud lechera superior a la Suffolk Down y similar a la de las razas españolas y mediterráneas al inicio de sus programas de selección lechera.
Almahdy, H; Tess, M W; El-Tawil, E; Shehata, E; Mansour, H
Our objective was to evaluate life-cycle performance of flocks of two Egyptian breeds, Rahmani (R) and Ossimi (O), and their crosses with Finnish Landrace (F) in two management systems. Management systems were one mating season per year (1M) and three mating seasons per 2 yr (3M). Breeds and crosses studied included purebred R and O, F1 crosses 1/2F-1/2R (FR) and 1/2F-1/2O (FO), and inter se matings of 1/4 F-3/4 R (RFR) and 1/4 F-3/4 O (OFO). A dynamic computer model was used to simulate animal performance and enterprise efficiency and profit. Two measures of lifecycle feed conversion (biological efficiency) were computed: kilograms of TDN input per kilograms of empty body weight output (TDN/EBW) and kilograms of TDN input per kilogram of carcass lean output (TDN/CLN). Profit was measured as gross margin (income minus variable costs per ewe per year, GM/EWE). Input parameters for the model were obtained from published results and analyses of data collected from experimental flocks of the same genetic stocks in Egypt. Profit for FR and RFR was 42 and 6% higher in 1M than in 3M. However, profit for all other genetic types was 4 to 8% greater in 3M than in 1M. Breed rankings changed depending on the measure of evaluation (i.e., biological efficiency or profit). Maximization of system output did not necessarily improve efficiency. Under accelerated lambing systems, greater overhead costs associated with labor and feed offset gains in ewe productivity. Genetic stocks should be matched to resources and management systems. PMID:10709918
Full Text Available Abstract Effective selection on the PrP gene has been implemented since October 2001 in all French sheep breeds. After four years, the ARR "resistant" allele frequency increased by about 35% in young males. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of this strong selection on genetic variability. It is focussed on four French sheep breeds and based on the comparison of two groups of 94 animals within each breed: the first group of animals was born before the selection began, and the second, 3–4 years later. Genetic variability was assessed using genealogical and molecular data (29 microsatellite markers. The expected loss of genetic variability on the PrP gene was confirmed. Moreover, among the five markers located in the PrP region, only the three closest ones were affected. The evolution of the number of alleles, heterozygote deficiency within population, expected heterozygosity and the Reynolds distances agreed with the criteria from pedigree and pointed out that neutral genetic variability was not much affected. This trend depended on breed, i.e. on their initial states (population size, PrP frequencies and on the selection strategies for improving scrapie resistance while carrying out selection for production traits.
Skin samples from ear pinna of 10 male and 10 female sheep were collected and cultured in DMEM+Ham's F12 nutrient medium. Cell viability was 95 to 100% in different cultures. Mean cell proliferation rates were 0.94-0.67 and 1.15-0.56 for males and females in different passages, respectively. Cell proliferation rates were highest in first passage and then showed an age-related decline. Average cell doubling time was 30 h in males and 29.6 h in females. Skin fibroblast cell growth curves were in lag phase for the first 2 days, entered log phase (3rd to 7th days) and plateaued on day 8. Diploid chromosomal counts in proliferating cells up to the 5th passage were normal (2N=54), with no gross chromosomal aberrations recorded. Cells frozen from cycling cells at 80-90% confluency showed superior post-thaw growth compared with cells from overconfluent cultures. DMSO at 10% (v/v) in freezing media was optimal. Controlled-rate freezing at -1 deg. C/min showed better post-thaw cell viability and growth potential. Direct plating of thawed cells without removing DMSO and other contents of the freezing medium gave better post-thaw survival and proliferation rates. (author)
Pavol, Makovický; Melinda, Nagy; Peter, Makovický.
Full Text Available Morphological udder traits have recently become of greater interest from farmers to researchers. In dairy ewes, the udder is very important due to its physiological and conformational characteristics. External udder traits were measured in ewes (Ovis aries L.) of nine genotypes (355 ewes) created of [...] the basis of Improved Valachian (IV), Tsigai (T), and Lacaune (LC) breeds (six traits; 1185 data for each trait) during the milking period 2002-2008. Udder measurements were assessed for: udder length (UL), udder width (UW), rear udder depth (RUD), cistern depth (CDE), teat length (TL), and teat angle (TA). Data were processed by restricted maximum likelihood (REML) methodology using a MIXED procedure from the SAS statistical package. All studied parameters were influenced by the genotype (P
Snowder, G D; Glimp, H A; Field, R A
Wether lambs from four breeds, Rambouillet (n = 38), Targhee (46), Columbia (38), and Polypay (38), were used to estimate an optimal slaughter weight for lean lamb production. Wethers, weaned at an average of 105 d of age and 38.5 kg, had ad libitum access to a finishing diet of 85% barley grain and 15% pelleted alfalfa and were slaughtered at weights ranging from 39 to 70 kg. Fat, protein, moisture, and ash percentages were determined on fat and lean from 7-rib racks. Optimal slaughter weight was estimated by using carcass backfat depth or extracted fat in the rack as dependent variables in linear equations. An acceptable lean lamb carcass was defined to have 2.5 to 6.5 mm of backfat depth and 26 to 40% rack chemical fat. On a weight-constant basis Columbia lambs were less physiologically mature than the other breeds, having less (P rack fat percentage. Targhee, Rambouillet, and Polypay wethers were similar in carcass fat and protein composition at a constant slaughter weight. Optimal slaughter weights for certified lean lamb carcasses of Targhee, Rambouillet, and Polypay wethers were 45 to 47 kg, resulting in a Choice quality grade and a 2.7 yield grade. The optimal weight for Columbia was heavier, between 45 and 55 kg, producing a Choice quality grade and a 2.4 yield grade. The derived optimal slaughter weights are limited to the populations sampled and may not be specific to other populations.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8014159
Morphostructural Differentiation and Variability of Merino Sheep Breed Under Sustained Directional Selection / Diferenciación y Variabilidad Morfoestructural de Ovinos de Raza Merino Sometidos a Selección Direccional Sostenida
R, de la Barra; E, Latorre; M. E, Martínez; C, Calderón.
Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se analiza el grado de diferenciación y variabilidad morfoestructural alcanzado por el tipo de animal resultante de una selección direccional sostenida y sus implicancias en la emergencia de un nuevo grupo racial ovino. Se midieron 25 machos y 200 ovejas adultas. Se tomaron 13 [...] medidas corporales, evaluando la diferenciación de la morfología estructural y el dimorfismo sexual. Estas mediciones se compararon con las realizadas en animales de raza Merino Australiano y Marin Magellan Meat Merino. La homogeneidad intrapoblacional se evaluó a través de los coeficientes de variación porcentual de las medias de las medidas corporales. Se concluye que la selección direccional realizada de forma sostenida ha generado una diferenciación del formato morfoestructural al comparar a la población sujeta a selección con las principales raza de tipo Merino existentes en la Patagonia Chilena. La población evaluada evidencia una variabilidad morfoestructural similar, y en muchos casos menor a la encontrada en razas ovinas reconocidas como tales en Chile, con lo cual es posible señalar que se comporta como un grupo animal distinguible con caracteres de raza. Abstract in english In this paper, the degree of differentiation and morphostructural variability reached by the type of animal resulting from sustained directional selection, in addition to its implications for the emergence of a new sheep breed are analyzed. Twenty-five rams and 200 ewes from a sheep flock submitted [...] to directional selection since 1987 were measured. Thirteen body measurements were taken in other to evaluate the structural morphology and sexual dimorphism. These measurements were compared with identical measures taken in Australian Merino and Marin Magellan Meat Merino sheep breeds. The intrapopulation homogeneity was assessed using the coefficients of variation of the average percentage of body measurements. It is concluded that sustained directional selection has generated the differentiation of the morphostructural format of the subject population compared to the main Merino-type breeds in the Chilean Patagonia. The population shows a similar (and in some cases lower) morphostructural variability than those found in recognized sheep breeds in Chile, so it is possible to state that this population behaves like a different animal group, with breed characteristics.
Milton Rezende, Teixeira Neto; Jurandir Ferreira da, Cruz; Paulo Luiz Souza, Carneiro; Carlos Henrique Mendes, Malhado; Helder Henrique Neves, Faria.
Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a estrutura populacional de ovinos da raça Santa Inês criados no Brasil. Foram utilizados dados de pedigree de 13.216 animais, pertencentes a 53 rebanhos de oito estados brasileiros, nascidos no período de 1976 a 2010. O programa Endog foi utilizado para análise [...] do pedigree e estimação dos parâmetros populacionais. Do total de animais estudados, 80,86% apresentaram pedigree na primeira ascendência, 73,78% na segunda e 67,75% na terceira. O número máximo de gerações conhecidas foi de 19, e a média de gerações equivalentes foi de 4,67. A média do intervalo de gerações foi de 3,22±1,77 anos. O tamanho efetivo da população apresentou média de 172,5 animais. O número de animais fundadores foi 829, mas o número efetivo de fundadores foi apenas 50. Os 17 principais ancestrais explicaram 50% da variabilidade genética total. O coeficiente médio de relação foi de 3,87% e o de endogamia, de 6,92%. Apesar do satisfatório coeficiente médio de endogamia nas últimas gerações, este coeficiente requer monitoramento por sua proximidade do limite recomendável. O fluxo de genes entre os rebanhos é o principal fator para o aumento do tamanho efetivo e a manutenção da variabilidade genética da raça Santa Inês. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to evaluate the population structure of the sheep breed Santa Inês raised in Brazil. Pedigree data from 13,216 animals, belonging to 53 herds from eight Brazilian states, born between 1976 and 2010, were used. The program Endog was used for pedigree analysis and estima [...] tion of population parameters. From the total number of animals studied, 80.86% had a pedigree in the first ascendancy, 73.78% in the second, and 67.75% in the third. The maximum number of known generations was 19, and the average of equivalent generations was 4.67. The average generation interval was 3.22±1.77 years. The mean effective population size was of 172.5 animals. The number of founder animals was 829, but the effective number of founders was only 50. The 17 main ancestors accounted for 50% of the total genetic variability. The average relatedness coefficient was of 3.87% and the average inbreeding coefficient, of 6.92%. Despite the satisfactory average inbreeding coefficient in recent generations, this coefficient requires monitoring because of its proximity to the recommended limit. Gene flow among herds is the main factor for the increase of effective size and the maintenance of genetic variability in the breed Santa Inês.
Full Text Available The effect of water deprivation and rehydration on some of blood constituents during different seasons in two local sheep breeds of Saudi Arabia, Awassi and Najdi, was investigated. Water deprivation induced significant (P<0.01 elevations in packed cell volume, plasma osmolality, total protein, sodium, creatinine and urea levels which were progressively increased with advance of water deprivation. Moreover, these responses were more pronounced during summer. Glucose levels tended to increase only following three days of water deprivation during summer. Both breeds responded to water deprivation in a similar manner during winter and spring seasons. On the other hand, Najdi breed had consistently higher responses during summer dehydration period particularly for plasma sodium and urea. Rehydration resulted in decline in the determined parameters, but more time was needed to regain normal levels during spring and summer. These results might suggest that there was not any differences in withstanding ability to water deprivation during winter and spring between the two breeds, however Awassi breed might have a better tolerance to dehydration during hot summer.
Y.Z., Njisane; V., Muchenje.
Full Text Available The effect of abattoir type, age, sheep breed and sex on avoidance-related behaviour and bleeding times at slaughter were determined. Castrates and ewes of different age groups and breeds were used. From the commercial abattoir, 90 castrates and 110 ewes were used while 66 castrates and 19 ewes were [...] obtained from the municipal abattoir. Avoidance-related behaviour and bleeding times differed with abattoir type and age classes. Animals slaughtered at the commercial abattoir were calmer and had shorter bleeding times (61 ± 1.16 s) than those slaughtered at the municipal abattoir which had a mean bleeding time of 74.2 ± 2.11 s. Older animals were calmer and had longer bleeding times (67.5 ± 1.82 s) than the younger animals which had a mean bleeding time of 61.6 ± 2.64 s. Avoidance-related behaviour also differed with breed and the sex of the animals with Merino and Dorper + Merino crosses being the calmer than the pure Dorper breed. About 95% of ewes were calmer than the castrates. It can be concluded that abattoir type, age, breed and sex have an effect on animal behaviour at slaughter. Only abattoir type and sex had an effect on bleeding times.
Evaluación biológica de dos sistemas de apareamiento en ovinos de raza Columbia en producción intensiva / Biological evaluation of two breeding systems of intensive production in the Columbia breed sheep
José, de Lucas Tron; Luis Alberto, Zarco Quintero; Everardo, González Padilla; Jorge, Tórtora Pérez; Carlos, Vásquez Peláez.
Full Text Available Se evaluó la eficacia biológica de dos sistemas de apareamiento en ovinos del altiplano central de México. Un total de 300 ovejas adultas y 60 de reemplazo de la raza Columbia se distribuyeron al azar en dos grupos de 150 adultas y 30 jóvenes (edad promedio al primer parto de 18 meses). En el primer [...] grupo (sistema intensivo) se realizaron empadres de 36 días, con monta natural cada ocho meses (marzo, noviembre y julio), mientras que en el segundo grupo (sistema anual) se llevó a cabo un empadre de 45 días, iniciando en noviembre de cada año. En todos los casos, quince días antes del empadre se introdujeron machos marcadores, que en la fecha de inicio del empadre se sustituían por sementales en proporción de un macho por cada 20 hembras. Mensualmente se evaluó la condición física de todas las hembras. Los animales pastorearon de ocho a nueve horas diarias en praderas de alfalfa (Medicago sativa) y pastos orchard (Dactylis glomerata) y rye grass (Lolium perenne) irrigadas por aspersión. Solamente las ovejas del sistema intensivo recibieron complemento durante la lactancia y el reempadre. En los dos sistemas se lograron apareamientos en todas las épocas, la fertilidad en los tres empadres del sistema intensivo fue de 83.9%, mientras que el promedio de los dos empadres anuales fue de 88.3% (P 0.05); la tasa de destete, 0.89 vs 1.09 (P Abstract in english The biological efficiency of two breeding systems for sheep in the Mexican high plateau was evaluated. A total of 300 adult and 60 replacement sheep of the Columbia breed were randomly distributed into two groups of 150 adults and 30 young ones (mean age to first birth of 18 months). Mates of 36 day [...] s with natural mount every eight months (March, November and July) were done in the first group (intensive system). In the second group (annual system), a 45-day mating was done starting on November every year. Marker males were introduced 15 days before mating in all cases, which were replaced on the first day of mating for stallions at a one male for every 20 female ratios. The physical condition of all females was evaluated every month. The animals grazed 8 to 9 hours in grasslands of alfalfa (Medicago sativa) and Orchard (Dactylis glomerata) and Rye (Lolium perenne) grasses irrigated by aspersion. Only the sheep in the intensive system received supplement during lactation and re-mating. Breeding was achieved in both systems in all seasons. The mean fertility of the three breeding of the intensive system was 83.9%; while the mean fertility of the two annual breeding was 88.3% (P
Orlando Rus, Barbosa; Francisco de Assis Fonseca de, Macedo; Roland Van de, Groes; José Maurício Franco, Guedes.
Full Text Available Utilizaram-se 45 fêmeas ovinas adultas (15 Hampshire Down [HD], 15 Texel [TE] e 15 Ile de France [IF]), para propor um zoneamento bioclimático da ovinocultura no Estado do Paraná. Mediram-se a temperatura retal (Tr), da epiderme (Te), do interior do velo (Tiv) e da superfície do velo (Tsv); a frequê [...] ncia respiratória (Fr); a temperatura do ar (Ta), pressão de vapor (e), velocidade do vento (v) e carga térmica radiante (CTR). O Índice de Conforto Térmico utilizado foi ICT= 0,6678Ta + 0,4969e + 0,5444Tg + 0,1038v. A regressão do ICT sobre Tr mostrou efeito quadrático para as três raças. Para ICT=24,3, 27,3 e 20,6, os valores de Tr foram respectivamente: 39,10ºC para a raça HD, 39,05ºC para TE e 39,09ºC para IF, atingindo 40,40; 40,50; e 40,28ºC, respectivamente, para ICT=58. As três raças aumentaram sua Tr a partir de ICT=26, com a TE apresentando menor Tr até o valor ICT=46; neste ponto, as três raças foram semelhantes, tendo a TE apresentado maiores valores. Para ICT igual a 27,6; 29,7; e 27,0, os valores de Fr foram, respectivamente, 89,63; 77,08; e 78,77 resp./min., para as raças HD, TE e IF. A raça TE apresentou menor Fr (77,08 resp./min.), para ICT=29,7 e para ICT=48, valores semelhantes aos da IF (181,96 resp./min.); a partir deste índice, passou a ser maior que as demais raças, atingindo valores de 288,66 resp./min. no ICT=56, porém inferior à HD (289,01 resp./min.). Neste índice, a raça IF foi a que apresentou a menor Fr (275,72 resp./min.). Uma extensa faixa ao longo do litoral do Estado, entrando cerca de 200 km para o interior até os limites das cidades de Castro, Telêmaco Borba, Laranjeiras do Sul e Pato Branco, permite a criação das três raças, sem exigir grandes esforços de termorregulação. Abstract in english Forty five adult ewes were used, 15 for each of the three breeds: Hampshire Down (HD), Texel (TE) and Ile de France (IF). These animals were measured for rectal temperature (Rt), skin temperature (St), fleece temperature (Ft), temperature of the coat surface (Cst) and respiratory rate (Rr), Air temp [...] erature (At), air vapour pressure (Avp), wind speed (Ws), globe temperature (Gt) and radiant heat load (Rhl) were also recorded. The Thermal Comfort Index equation was used: TCI = 0.6678Ta + 0.4969e + 0.5444Tg + 0.1038v. Regression of TCI on Rt showed quadratic effect for the three breeds. For a TCI = 24.3, 27.3 and 20.6, Rt values were: 39.10ºC, for HD, 39.05ºC for TE, and 39.09ºC; for IF sheeps and for TCI=58, these values were respectively 40.40ºC, 40.50ºC and 40.28ºC. All the animals presented increased Rt under theses index, with Texel showed the least Rt for TCI=46, but was the only group with higher Rt values for TCI>48. For TCI=27.6, 29.7 and 27.0, Fr values were respectively: 89.63 resp./min. for HD, 77.08 resp./min. for TE and 78.77 resp./min. for IF. TE presented smaller Rr (77.08 resp./min.), for TCI=29.7, and values similar to IF (179.63 resp./min.), under TCI=48. After this level TE values were higher than those of the other breeds, reaching 288.66 resp./min. for TCI=56, but inferior that HD (289.01 resp./min.); IF, presented lower Rr (275.72 resp./min.). An extensive strip of land along the Parana State coast, heading inland 200 km up to the borders Castro, Telêmaco Borba, Laranjeiras do Sul and Pato Branco cities, allows the creation of the three breeds.
Alvarez, I; Gutiérrez, J P; Royo, L J; Fernández, I; Gómez, E; Arranz, J J; Goyache, F
Recent studies have proposed the use of molecular coancestry coefficients as a measure of genetic variability and as a useful tool for conservation purposes. Using simulated data, molecular coancestry has been shown to become constant very quickly after separation of populations, leading to population diversity remaining constant. However, the use of molecular coancestry information to study the genetic relationships between breeds has not yet been widely explored. Here we analyze the polymorphism of 14 microsatellites in 222 unrelated individuals belonging to seven native Spanish breeds to ascertain the usefulness of molecular coancestry-based methodologies in providing information on their genetic relationships. Average kinship distance (D(k)) and average molecular coancestry coefficients (f(ij)) were compared with well-known genetic distances, such as between-breed Reynolds' distance (D(R)), Nei's standard distance (D(s)), and shared allele distance (D(AS)). Kinship distance and f(ij) have moderate to low correlations with the other genetic distances, showing that they provide different information: both D(k) and f(ij) account for the allele frequencies in the founder population, whereas D(R), D(s), and D(AS) characterize the short-term evolution of the populations. Furthermore, D(k) and f(ij) were only moderately correlated (-0.500). The present study used field data to confirm previous research pointing out the ability of molecular coancestry coefficients to assess genetic differentiation of an ancestral origin. In this respect, molecular coancestry-based parameters may be used with classical genetic parameters to obtain information on population dynamics in livestock breeds. This study additionally presents reliable evidence on the history of these sheep breeds. PMID:15753326
A.Y., Chulayo; V., Muchenje.
Full Text Available The effects of pre-slaughter conditions and breed on physico-chemical characteristics of mutton were determined. The study was conducted at Adelaide Municipal abattoir in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. Records were taken from 84 sheep from the South African Mutton Merino, Blackhead Persian [...] and Dorper breeds as identified on arrival at the abattoir. The South African Mutton Merino (SAMM) had the highest values for meat pH at 24 hours (pH24) (5.9 ± 0.64), lightness; L* (34.2 ± 0.97), yellowness; b* (12.2 ± 0.50) and Warner-Braztler shear force WBSF (26.8 ± 1.51). Linear relationships were also observed between pre-slaughter variables and physico-chemical characteristics of mutton. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) showed a large variation being contributed by meat pH24 and L*. It was therefore concluded that, transport time and lairage duration negatively affected the quality of mutton. Furthermore, breed affected the physico-chemical characteristics of meat.
Abdullahi Ali, Ibrahim; Jibril, Aliyu; Rabi Muhammad, Ashiru; Mustapha, Jamilu.
Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio comparativo de la biometría testicular en carneros con las tres razas principales de ovejas de Nigeria. Los parámetros biométricos observados fueron la circunferencia escrotal (CE), peso testicular (PT), longitud testicular (LT), peso de la túnica albugínea (PTA), volumen testi [...] cular (VT), densidad testicular (DT), peso del epidídimo (PE), longitud del epidídimo (EL), peso de la cabeza (CA), cuerpo (CU) y cauda (CA), volumen del epidídimo (VE) y densidad del epidídimo (ED). Los resultados mostraron diferencias significativas (p Abstract in english A comparative study of testicular biometry was done in rams using three major breeds of sheep in Nigeria. Biometrical parameters observed were scrotal circumference (SC), testes weight (TW), testes length (TL), tunica albuginea weight (TAW), testes volume (TV), testes density (TD), epididymal weight [...] (EW), epididymal length (EL), caput (CA), corpus (CO), cauda weight (CU), epididymal volume (EV) and epididymal density (ED). The results showed significant differences (p
Hamada Hamada Dahy Mahboub
Full Text Available This study was carried out to illustrate seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and Brucella melitensis in local sheep and goat flocks living in Nile Delta regions of Egypt as well as to investigate its effects on animals’ health and performance. In trial 1: 492 serum samples were collected from domestic ewes and does flocks suffering from abortion and stillbirths were used in this survey. In trial (2: 100 serum samples collected from toxoplasma or brucella infected or non infected sheep and goats were used to study the effects of toxoplasmosis and brucellosis on animals, health. This study revealed that 142 (28.86% sera contained antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii and 89 (18.09% were positive for Brucella melitensis. The incidences of toxoplasmosis and brucellosis were 31.01% and 12.26% in sheep, respectively and 17.11% and 36.84% in goats, respectively. Higher seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii was recorded in sheep with high flock size. Farmers using set stocking management had lower seroprevalence toxoplasmosis and brucellosis. Toxoplasmosis and brucellosis lowered serum albumin level and liver enzymes activities while, increased serum levels of globulin, urea, triglyceride and cholesterol in ewes. Serum levels of total protein, albumin and urea and the activity of serum aspartate amino transferase were decreased, however serum level of C reactive protein was increased in infected does. These results indicated that toxoplasmosis is widely spread than brucellosis in small ruminants living in the provinces of Nile Delta. Both toxoplasmosis and brucellosis inversely affected animals’ health. Management practices had a role in spread of these agents.
Full Text Available The paper presents the results of a extensive study concerning the parasites andcomplexe problems of the poly-parasitism on sheep and goats in Dobrudja. In thispaper we proposed ourselves to establish the sheep and goats endoparasites, thedistribution and frequency of these function to age, sex and maintenance conditions.The increase of morbidity through parasitical diseases, as well as the ecological andeconomic consequences of poly-parasitism represent a important problem in theintegration conditions of Romania in UE and imposes to apply some efficientmethods of prophylaxis and control of parasitosis and parasito- zoonozis. Thedrawing of copro-parazitologic samples was effected directly from rectum of sheepand goats, testing 10% of each lot, during grazing season and in period of keepingin sheds. The copro-parasitological examinations were carried out ovoscopicaly(flotation, by next methods: Willis, Mc. Master and sediment, by Benedect-Nemesseri and polyvalent methods, as well as larvoscopicaly by Baermann method.After copro-parasitological examinations of samples which were harvested fromthese animals it comes out that both sheep and goats presents poly-parasitism withsporozoa (coccidiae: Eimeria spp. , cestodae (Moniezia expansa and Monieziabenedeni, gastro-intestinal nematodes (Nematodirus spp. ,Trichostrongylidae,Strongyloides papillosus and pulmonary nematodes (Protostrongylus rufescens,Dictyocaulus filaria, Muellerius capillaris, the degree of parasitical infestationdepending on species, age, sex, maintenance conditions and environmental factors.
A., Sanz; J.H., Calvo; J.I., Martí.; J.L., Alabart; M., Joy; G., Ripoll; J., Álvarez-Rodríguez.
Full Text Available En el caso de la raza Churra Tensina, en peligro de extinción y originaria del Pirineo Oscense, se realizó una prospección de individuos y una caracterización del sistema productivo a través de encuestas a ganaderos, definiéndose explotaciones de mediano tamaño que tienen su continuidad garantizada. [...] Se estudió la morfología racial a partir de medidas zoométricas y caracteres fanerópticos de los animales inscritos en la Asociación (ATURA), lo que permitió clasificar la raza como mediolínea, dolicocéfala y eumétrica. Se estudiaron los parámetros productivos y reproductivos, así como la calidad de canal y carne de los tipos de cordero lechal, ternasco y pastenco, confirmando su viabilidad comercial. La caracterización genética mostró una raza homogénea, con niveles altos de variabilidad genética y bajos de consanguinidad. Finalmente, se han creado bancos de semen y embriones, estando representados los distintos genotipos de resistencia a Scrapie. La evolución positiva del censo en los últimos 10 años, añadida a la viabilidad de sus productos comerciales, garantiza la preservación de la Churra Tensina y de determinados sistemas ganaderos ligados a la tierra. Abstract in english This work aims to present the research activities in the Churra Tensina sheep breed, raised on the mountain area of Huesca Pyrenees. The population structure was prospected and the farming system was characterized through surveys to farmers. The animal morphology was studied through zoometric measur [...] ements and phaneroptic characters assessment of the individuals belonging to the breeders' Association (ATURA), showing a mediolineous, dolicocephalous and eumetric breed. The productive and reproductive parameters were analysed, and the commercial value of the suckling, light and heavy lamb categories was confirmed. The genetic studies showed that Churra Tensina is an homogeneous breed, with high genetic variability and low inbreeding. This breed was self-genetic differentiated, and has no crossbreeding with other Churro group populations. Finally, semen and embryos banks were established, being the different Scrapie resistance genotypes represented. The increasing census evolution in the past 10 years and the observed commercial viability assure the long term maintenance of this breed in their original location.
Kidane, Alemayehu; Houdijk, Jos; Athanasiadou, Spiridoula; Tolkamp, Bert; Kyriazakis, Ilias
The periparturient relaxation of immunity (PPRI) to parasites in mammals is sensitive to both metabolisable protein (MP) supply and animal genotype (different reproductive outputs). We tested the hypothesis that the sensitivity of PPRI to MP scarcity would not differ between different levels of reproductive output when nutrient intake is adjusted for associated differences in MP demand; this hypothesis assumes that PPRI has a nutritional basis only. Scottish Blackface (BF) and the more productive Mule (MU) ewes were infected with the abomasal parasite Teladorsagia circumcincta, and from day -21 to day 32 (day 0 is parturition), they were fed restrictedly at either 0.8 (low protein (LP)) or 1.3 (high protein (HP)) times their breed-specific estimated MP requirement (n 18 for each breed-feeding treatment combination). During late pregnancy, LP feeding reduced ewe body weight gain in both breeds, tended to increase faecal egg count (FEC), but it did not affect plasma pepsinogen. During lactation, LP feeding reduced litter growth rate and ewe plasma urea and plasma albumin concentrations compared with HP feeding in both breeds. However, breed and feeding treatment interacted for ewe FEC, worm egg excretion and plasma pepsinogen, which were higher for the LP-MU ewes compared with the HP-MU and BF ewes. The lower degree of PPRI of the BF ewes during lactation compared with the MU ewes at a similar degree of MP scarcity suggests that the effect of reproductive output on nutritional sensitivity of PPRI cannot be explained by associated differences in nutrient demand only. PMID:20691124
Ostroumov, P. N.; Barcikowski, A.; Dickerson, C. A.; Perry, A.; Pikin, A. I.; Sharamentov, S. I.; Vondrasek, R. C.; Zinkann, G. P.
The Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS), developed to breed Californium Rare Isotope Breeder Upgrade (CARIBU) radioactive beams at Argonne Tandem Linac Accelerator System (ATLAS), is being tested off-line. A unique property of the EBIS is a combination of short breeding times, high repetition rates, and a large acceptance. Overall, we have implemented many innovative features during the design and construction of the CARIBU EBIS as compared to the existing EBIS breeders. The off-line charge breeding tests are being performed using a surface ionization source that produces singly charged cesium ions. The main goal of the off-line commissioning is to demonstrate stable operation of the EBIS at a 10 Hz repetition rate and a breeding efficiency into single charge state higher than 15%. These goals have been successfully achieved and exceeded. We have measured (20% ± 0.7%) breeding efficiency into the single charge state of 28+ cesium ions with the breeding time of 28 ms. In general, the current CARIBU EBIS operational parameters can provide charge breeding of any ions in the full mass range of periodic table with high efficiency, short breeding times, and sufficiently low charge-to-mass ratio, 1/6.3 for the heaviest masses, for further acceleration in ATLAS. In this paper, we discuss the parameters of the EBIS and the charge breeding results in a pulsed injection mode with repetition rates up to 10 Hz.
Sandra Aidar de Queiroz
Full Text Available Com o objetivo de estudar o desempenho produtivo de cruzas de animais lanados, foram utilizados os dados da escrituração zootécnica do rebanho ovino pertencente à FCAV/Unesp, Jaboticabal, SP. Os dados da escrituração foram oriundos de 312 ovelhas, com 129 da raça Ideal, 44 1/2 Ile de France 1/2 Ideal, 98 3/4 Ile de France 1/4 Ideal e 41 7/8 Ile de France 1/8 Ideal, submetidas ao cruzamento absorvente para a raça Ile de France. As análises das características produtivas peso ao nascer, peso ao desmame, peso aos 180 dias, ganho médio diário e tempo para o animal atingir 32kg de peso corporal foram realizadas no SAS (1996. Não foram observadas diferenças entre os genótipos avaliados para as caracteristicas produtivas peso ao nascer, peso ao desmame, e tempo para o animal atingir 32kg de peso corporal com valores médios de 3,08, 15, 67kg e 270,75 dias, respectivamente. Para as características ganho médio diário e peso aos 180 dias, houve efeito significativo para o genótipo 7/8 Ile de France 1/8 Ideal com volores de 0,214 e 40,53kg respectivamente. O sistema de cruzamento utilizado possibilita às próximas gerações características produtivas satisfatórias para produção de carne, e as fêmeas provenientes desses cruzamentos que forem utilizadas para reposição podem aumentar as características produtivas de seus descendentes.In order to study productive and reproductive performance of crossbred sheep, data from the sheep recording of the ovine cattle from Paulista State University, FCAV/Unesp, Jaboticabal, SP, Brazil were used. The record data came from 312 sheep (129 of Polwarth breed, 44 1/2 Ile de France 1/2 Polwarth, 98 3/4 Ile de France 1/4 Polwarth and 41 7/8 Ile de France 1/8 Polwarth submitted to absorber cross-breeding for Ile de France. Productive characteristic analysis: body weight at birth, body weight at weaning, body weight with 180 days, daily weight gain average and necessary period for animals to get 32kg of body weight were carried out at SAS statistical analysis (1996. No significant alterations were observed among the genotypes for the productive characteristics body weight at birth, body weight at weaning and necessary period for animals to get 32kg of body weight with mean values of 3,08, 15, 67kg and 270,75 days, respectively. For the characteristics daily weight gain average and weight with 180 days, there was significant effect for the genotype 7/8 Ile de France 1/8 Ideal with values of 0,214 and 40,53kg, respectively. The type of cross-breeding used gives the possibility for the next generation to have satisfactory productive characteristics for meat production, as the females of this cross-bred can increase the productive characteristics of their descendents.
The present study was carried out to determine the effect of ewes breeds on some blood biochemical and hormones levels during mating, pregnancy and post.partum periods. A total number of 42 ewes, 1.5 . 3.5 years of age with body weight ranged between 45 to 55 kg from breeding flock in Research Farm of Nuclear Research Centre, Atomic Energy Authority were used in this study. Animals were divided into two groups according to their breed. The first group included 18 Ossimi breed ewes and the second group included 24 Rahmani breed ewes. Blood samples were collected from both breed at 10, 20, 30, 50, 100, 120, 140, and 145 days up to parturitions and at 30 and 60 days of post. partum. Serum total lipids and cholesterol, progesterone (P4) and estradiol . 17? (E2) were determined. It was found that Ossimi ewes had lower level of both sexual hormones than Rahmani once. Plasma progesterone and estradiol-17 ? levels increased gradually as pregnancy time passed reaching its maximum level at the 140th day of the pregnancy period in Rahmani and Ossimi, then decreased during the last 5 days. Additionally, Rahmani ewes had relatively higher mean values of estradiol-17 ? at 30th and 60th days compared with Ossime ewes. While, the least squares mean of progesterone decreased in Rahmani ewes compared with Ossime ewes at the same time of estimation. Ossimi ewes having higher means of total lipids (L) and cholesterol (C) than in Rahmani ewes while, the values of L/C ratio were found to be higher in Rahmani ewes than Ossimi ones. Total lipids level increased gradually from Farghaly et al., J. Rad. Res. Appl. Sci., Vol. 1318 4, No. 4(B) (2011) 10th days of pregnancy from 273.09 and 267.75mg/dI to 342.92 and 338.9 mg/dl in 145th days in Ossimi and Rahmani ewes, respectively. Similarly, the levels of cholesterol were 93.49 and 90.35 mg /dl in 10th days of pregnancy and 134.79 and 141.81 mg/dl in 145th days of pregnancy for Ossimi and Rahmani ewes, respectively. The same trend was found for the plasma value of L/G ratio due to the effect of days of pregnancy
Full Text Available Determining urea concentration in milk is a useful indicator for controlling supply of proteins to organisms, as well as the relationship of energy and protein in the food, thus it is finding more and more ways of practical use. The concentration of urea in milk, along with the feeding process, is influenced by a number of other factors such as: breed, stage and sequence of lactation, body mass, daily production and chemical structure of milk, number of somatic cells, season, milking.The goal of the research was to establish the influence of the breed (Island of Krk, East Frisian, lactation stage (beginning, middle and the end and the herd (3 to the concentration of urea in milk during lactation.For each breed there has been established daily quantity of milk, protein share and the concentration of urea in milk.Statistical analysis of data was conducted by using General Linear Models procedure, SAS program system (1999.The breed of sheep considerably (P<0.001 influenced daily quantity of milk, protein share and the concentration of urea in the milk.East Frisian sheep produced on average almost double the daily quantities of milk (1070 mL compared to the Krk sheep (588 mL.Protein share and the urea concentration in Krk sheep milk were higher (5.99 % and 35.97 mg/100 mL then in the milk of East Frisian sheep (5.12 % and 33.31 mg/100 mL.For both breeds the significant influence of lactation stage to the daily milk quantity has been established (0.001, that is also for the urea concentration in the milk of Krk sheep (0.001, as well as protein share in the milk of East Frisian sheep (0.001.Herd influence significantly affected daily milk quantities (0.001 and concentration of urea in the milk (0.05.The defining of the urea concentration in sheep milk should be occasionally carried out in the Republic of Croatia to establish the standard physiological values typical for the particular sheep breed.
A., Camacho; V., Pérez; J., Mata; L.A., Bermejo.
Full Text Available Se estudiaron dos razas ovinas locales: la Canaria y la Canaria de Pelo. Los animales se criaron en sistema intensivo. Se consideraron dos pesos vivos de sacrificio (15,30 ± 0,67 y 24,23 ± 0,69 kg) y dos sexos. Se determinaron las correlaciones entre los porcentajes de los tejidos de la canal y los [...] de las piezas obtenidas de la media canal izquierda. Se obtuvieron ecuaciones para predecir la composición tisular de la canal, a partir de las piezas con mejores coeficientes de regresión. El costillar fue la pieza que mejor predijo el músculo y la grasa. La pierna fue mejor predictora para el hueso. Abstract in english Two local sheep breeds were studied: the Canarian and the Canarian Haired. Animals were intensively reared. Two slaughter weights were considered (15 and 24 kg live weight). Correlations among carcass tissue percentage and tissue percentage in the seven joints in the left halfcarcass were obtained. [...] Equations were obtained to predict carcass tissue composition using most correlated joints. Ribs was the best predictor joint of muscle and fat. Leg was the best predictor of bone.
Qualidade da carne de ovinos de diferentes raças de reprodutores terminados sob dois sistemas de produção / Meat quality of sheep of different breeds of breeding terminated under two production systems
Edmilson Lima de, Menezes Junior; Ana Sancha Malveira, Batista; Aline Vieira, Landim; José Teodorico de, Araújo Filho; Evandro Vasconcelos, Holanda Junior.
Full Text Available Objetivou-se investigar a influência da dieta na terminação de ovinos de diferentes raças de reprodutores sobre a qualidade física, química e sensorial da carne. Foram avaliados 36 cordeiros, filhos de fêmeas mestiças Santa Inês x Somalis com reprodutores puros de três raças: Santa Inês, Dorper e So [...] malis, distribuídos em dois sistemas de produção, terminação a pasto nativo e cultivado, 12 de cada raças de reprodutores, todos machos, inteiros e distribuídos em dois sistemas de produção. Os animais tiveram acesso a alimentação e água ad libitum, sendo abatidos ao atingirem aproximadamente 180 dias.Determinou-se, no músculo Longissimus dorsi, os teores de umidade, proteína, lipídios, cinzas, textura, perda de peso por cocção, capacidade de retenção de água; colesterol e o perfil de ácidos graxos, bem como a avaliação dos parâmetros sensoriais de sabor, aroma, dureza, suculência e aceitação global. O grupamento Somalis apresentou menores teores de cinzas e lipídeos. Os animais Dorper e Santa Inês obtiveram resultados semelhantes em, PPC (perda de peso por cocção), os ácidos graxos C14:0 (mirístico) e C17:0 (margárico) e aceitação global. O pasto cultivado apresentou melhores resultados para, proteína, lipídeos, PPC (perda de peso por cocção), CRA (capacidade de retenção de água), C16:1 (palmitoleico), C18:1n9c (oleico), C18:1n9t (Elaídico), AGM (ácido graxo monoinsaturado), HH (hipocolesterolêmicos e hipercolesterolêmicos) e aceitação global, e resultados inferiores para, AGP (ácido graxo poli-insaturado), AGP:AGS (ácido graxo poli-insaturado) , AGD (ácido graxo desejáveis). A raça do reprodutor e sistema de produção influenciam as características físicas e químicas da carne de cordeiro. Abstract in english This study aimed to investigate the influence of diet on sheep of different breeds reprodutoresgenótipos on the physical, chemical and sensory dae his flesh termination. Santa Inês and Dorper Somalis, distributed in two production systems, the termination native and cultivated pasture, 12 of each ge [...] nótiporaças breeding, all males: 36 lambs, sons of female crossbred Santa Ines x Somalis with pure breeding three breeds were evaluated , whole and divided into two production systems. The animals had access to food and water ad libitum, and were sent to abatidose dias25 to reach approximately 180 kg live weight. It was determined, the longissimus muscle, the moisture, protein, lipid, ash, texture, weight loss by cooking, water holding capacity; cholesterol and fatty acid profile, as well as evaluating the sensory parameters of flavor, aroma, hardness, juiciness and overall acceptability. The genotype and production system influence the physical and chemical characteristics of lamb. The Somali group had lower levels of ash and lipids. The Dorper and St. Agnes animals yielded similar results, PPC (weight loss by cooking), the fatty acid C14: 0 (myristic) and C17: 0 (margaric) and overall acceptability. The cultivated pasture showed better results for protein, lipid, PPC (weight loss by cooking), WHC (water holding capacity), C16: 1 (palmitoleic), C18: 1n9c (oleic acid), C18: 1n9t (elaidic) AGM (monounsaturated fatty acid), HH (hipocolesterolemics hypercholesterolemic) and overall acceptability, and lower results for AGP (polyunsaturated fatty acid), AGP: AGS (polyunsaturated fatty acid), AGD (desirable fatty acid). AO genotype sire breed and production system influence the physical and chemical characteristics of lamb.
Ana Fabrícia Braga, Magalhães; Raimundo Nonato Braga, Lobo; Olivardo, Facó.
Full Text Available Objetivou-se estimar parâmetros genéticos para características de crescimento em ovinos da raça Somalis Brasileira. Os dados utilizados neste estudo foram provenientes do rebanho da Embrapa Caprinos e Ovinos, localizado na cidade de Sobral - CE. Os dados continham registros de 1.120 animais no arqui [...] vo de pedigree. As características analisadas foram: peso ao nascer (PN), peso ao desmame (PD), ganho de peso do nascimento ao desmame (GND) e peso adulto (PA). As estimativas dos componentes de (co)variâncias e os parâmetros genéticos foram obtidos pelo método da Máxima Verossimilhança Restrita não Derivativa (DFREML), utilizando o programa MTDFREML. Nas análises unicaracterística, as herdabilidades foram de magnitude baixa a moderada. As magnitudes das herdabilidades maternas foram todas superiores às herdabilidades diretas. As herdabilidades das análises multicaracterísticas entre PN, PD e GND superaram as análises unicaracterísticas. As correlações genéticas apresentaram grande variação quanto aos seus valores. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to estimate genetic parameters for growth traits in Somalis Brasileira hair sheep breed. The data used in this study were from the flock of Embrapa Caprinos and Ovinos, located in the city of Sobral - CE, Brazil. Data contained records of 1,120 animals in the pedigree file. [...] The analyzed traits were birth weight (PN), weaning weight (PD), weight gain from birth to weaning (GND) and adult weight (PA). Estimates of (co)variances and genetic parameters were obtained by Derivative Free Restricted Maximum Likelihood Method (DFREML) using the MTDFREML software. The heritabilities were low to moderate in univariate analysis. The maternal heritabilities were higher than direct heritabilities. The heritabilities in multivariate analysis exceeded those in univariate analysis. The values of genetic correlations varied widely.
Ana Fabrícia Braga Magalhães
Full Text Available Objetivou-se estimar parâmetros genéticos para características de crescimento em ovinos da raça Somalis Brasileira. Os dados utilizados neste estudo foram provenientes do rebanho da Embrapa Caprinos e Ovinos, localizado na cidade de Sobral - CE. Os dados continham registros de 1.120 animais no arquivo de pedigree. As características analisadas foram: peso ao nascer (PN, peso ao desmame (PD, ganho de peso do nascimento ao desmame (GND e peso adulto (PA. As estimativas dos componentes de (covariâncias e os parâmetros genéticos foram obtidos pelo método da Máxima Verossimilhança Restrita não Derivativa (DFREML, utilizando o programa MTDFREML. Nas análises unicaracterística, as herdabilidades foram de magnitude baixa a moderada. As magnitudes das herdabilidades maternas foram todas superiores às herdabilidades diretas. As herdabilidades das análises multicaracterísticas entre PN, PD e GND superaram as análises unicaracterísticas. As correlações genéticas apresentaram grande variação quanto aos seus valores.The aim of this study was to estimate genetic parameters for growth traits in Somalis Brasileira hair sheep breed. The data used in this study were from the flock of Embrapa Caprinos and Ovinos, located in the city of Sobral - CE, Brazil. Data contained records of 1,120 animals in the pedigree file. The analyzed traits were birth weight (PN, weaning weight (PD, weight gain from birth to weaning (GND and adult weight (PA. Estimates of (covariances and genetic parameters were obtained by Derivative Free Restricted Maximum Likelihood Method (DFREML using the MTDFREML software. The heritabilities were low to moderate in univariate analysis. The maternal heritabilities were higher than direct heritabilities. The heritabilities in multivariate analysis exceeded those in univariate analysis. The values of genetic correlations varied widely.
Relationship of intestinal histology with the resistance to Trichostrongylus colubriformis infection in three breeds of sheep Associação entre a resposta celular no intestino e a resistência à infecção por Trichostrongylus colubriformis em três raças de ovinos
Alessandro F.T. Amarante
Full Text Available The study was carried out to evaluate the relationship of inflammatory intestinal cells with the resistance to Trichostrongylus colubriformis infections in three breeds of sheep (Santa Ines, Suffolk and Ile de France, naturally infected. Mast cells, eosinophils, and globule leucocytes were enumerated in intestinal mucosa. Histamine concentration was estimated in intestinal tissue samples and the length of male and female specimens were determined. The three breeds of sheep showed similar cellular response in the small intestine mucosa (P>0.05. There was extensive variation among sheep in the parasitological and inflammatory cell variables, even in lambs of the same breed. In general, animals presenting less inflammatory cells had a larger worm burden, higher fecal egg counts, and larger T. colubriformis worms. The inflammatory cells possibly impaired the parasite's establishment, development, and survival.Avaliaram-se a associação entre o número de células inflamatórias no intestino delgado e a resistência à infecção por Trichostrongylus colubriformis em ovinos de três raças (Santa Inês, Suffolk e Ile de France, naturalmente infectados. Mastócitos, eosinófilos e leucócitos globulares foram quantificados na mucosa intestinal. A concentração de histamina foi estimada em amostras teciduais do intestino, bem como foi determinado o comprimento de machos e fêmeas de T. colubriformis. A resposta celular foi similar na mucosa intestinal das três raças ovinas (P>0,05. Houve grande variação entre os ovinos em relação aos resultados parasitológicos e celulares, mesmo nos animais de mesma raça. Em geral, os animais que apresentaram número menor de células inflamatórias tiveram cargas parasitárias maiores, contagens de ovos por grama de fezes mais altas e exemplares de T. colubriformis maiores. Os resultados indicaram que mastócitos, eosinófilos e leucócitos globulares prejudicaram o estabelecimento, o desenvolvimento e a sobrevivência dos parasitas.
Relationship of intestinal histology with the resistance to Trichostrongylus colubriformis infection in three breeds of sheep / Associação entre a resposta celular no intestino e a resistência à infecção por Trichostrongylus colubriformis em três raças de ovinos
Alessandro F.T., Amarante; Raquel A., Rocha; Patrizia A., Bricarello.
Full Text Available Avaliaram-se a associação entre o número de células inflamatórias no intestino delgado e a resistência à infecção por Trichostrongylus colubriformis em ovinos de três raças (Santa Inês, Suffolk e Ile de France), naturalmente infectados. Mastócitos, eosinófilos e leucócitos globulares foram quantific [...] ados na mucosa intestinal. A concentração de histamina foi estimada em amostras teciduais do intestino, bem como foi determinado o comprimento de machos e fêmeas de T. colubriformis. A resposta celular foi similar na mucosa intestinal das três raças ovinas (P>0,05). Houve grande variação entre os ovinos em relação aos resultados parasitológicos e celulares, mesmo nos animais de mesma raça. Em geral, os animais que apresentaram número menor de células inflamatórias tiveram cargas parasitárias maiores, contagens de ovos por grama de fezes mais altas e exemplares de T. colubriformis maiores. Os resultados indicaram que mastócitos, eosinófilos e leucócitos globulares prejudicaram o estabelecimento, o desenvolvimento e a sobrevivência dos parasitas. Abstract in english The study was carried out to evaluate the relationship of inflammatory intestinal cells with the resistance to Trichostrongylus colubriformis infections in three breeds of sheep (Santa Ines, Suffolk and Ile de France), naturally infected. Mast cells, eosinophils, and globule leucocytes were enumerat [...] ed in intestinal mucosa. Histamine concentration was estimated in intestinal tissue samples and the length of male and female specimens were determined. The three breeds of sheep showed similar cellular response in the small intestine mucosa (P>0.05). There was extensive variation among sheep in the parasitological and inflammatory cell variables, even in lambs of the same breed. In general, animals presenting less inflammatory cells had a larger worm burden, higher fecal egg counts, and larger T. colubriformis worms. The inflammatory cells possibly impaired the parasite's establishment, development, and survival.
Vondrasek, R.; Delahaye, P.; Kutsaev, Sergey; Maunoury, L.
The Californium Rare Isotope Breeder Upgrade is a new radioactive beam facility for the Argonne Tandem Linac Accelerator System (ATLAS). The facility utilizes a 252Cf fission source coupled with an electron cyclotron resonance ion source to provide radioactive beam species for the ATLAS experimental program. The californium fission fragment distribution provides nuclei in the mid-mass range which are difficult to extract from production targets using the isotope separation on line technique and are not well populated by low-energy fission of uranium. To date the charge breeding program has focused on optimizing these mid-mass beams, achieving high charge breeding efficiencies of both gaseous and solid species including 14.7% for the radioactive species 143Ba27+. In an effort to better understand the charge breeding mechanism, we have recently focused on the low-mass species sodium and potassium which up to present have been difficult to charge breed efficiently. Unprecedented charge breeding efficiencies of 10.1% for 23Na7+ and 17.9% for 39K10+ were obtained injecting stable Na+ and K+ beams from a surface ionization source.
Nathalie, Llancares A; Hermelinda, Rivera G; Mariluz, Arainga R; Néstor, Falcón P.
Full Text Available El objetivo del presente estudio fue determinar la frecuencia de los virus de la Diarrea Viral Bovina (VDVB) y de la Enfermedad de la Frontera (VEF) en ovinos reproductores procedentes de una empresa ovejera de la sierra central del país. Se colectaron muestras de sangre de ovinos reproductores hemb [...] ras (n=165) y machos (n=165) aparentemente sanos, con un promedio de edad de cuatro años, y criados en forma extensiva. Los anticuerpos contra VDVB y VEF se detectaron mediante la prueba de neutralización viral. El 2.1 ± 1.5% (7/330) y 28.5 ± 4.9% (94/330) de ovinos reproductores tuvieron anticuerpos contra el VDVB y VEF, respectivamente, con títulos de anticuerpos de 1:2 a 1:16. Se encontró asociación significativa entre el sexo del animal y la presencia de anticuerpos contra el VEF (hembras: 53.3 ± 7.6%; machos: 3.6 ± 2.9%) (p Abstract in english The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of Bovine Viral Diarrhea virus (BVDV) and Border Disease virus (BDV) in breeding sheep from a large cooperative farm in the central highlands of Peru. Blood samples from apparently healthy sheep of 4 years old, both sexes (female = 165; ma [...] le = 165) were collected for antibodies detection against BVDV and BDV using the virus neutralisation test. The 2.1 ± 1.5% (7/330) and 28.5 ± 4.9% (94/330) of breeding sheep had antibodies against BVDV and BDV respectively, with antibodies titers of 1:2 and 1:16. There was significant association between sex and presence of antibodies against BDV (females: 53.3 ± 7.6%; males: 3.6 ± 2.9%) (p
Diógenes, Valerio; Gustavo, Gutiérrez; Juan, Chávez.
Full Text Available Con el objetivo de estimar los efectos genéticos - directo y materno - vinculados a la expresión de características de crecimiento en corderos de la raza Junín, se aplicaron cuatro modelos mixtos en el estudio de sus pesos de nacimiento (PN), destete (PD), primera esquila (PE) y ganancia diaria del [...] nacimiento al destete (GPND), a través de análisis univariado y bivariado. Los modelos usados en análisis univariado incluyeron como efectos fijos el año de nacimiento y sexo, y como covariables el peso de la madre al empadre (para PN y PD), la edad del cordero al destete (para PD y GPND) y la edad a la primera esquila (para PE). El Modelo 1 incluyó los efectos fijos y el efecto genético aditivo directo (a); el Modelo 2, similar al 1, adicionó el efecto genético aditivo materno (m), considerando la Cov am= 0; en el Modelo 3, igual al 2, se asumió la Cov = A? ; y el Modelo 4, igual al 3, se adicionó el efecto del ambiente permanente materno (c). Los modelos para el análisis bivariado fueron extensiones del univariado, empleándose en todos los análisis el método de máxima verosimilitud restringida (REML), instrumentado en el programa ASReml. En el análisis univariado, el Modelo 2, y en el bivariado el Modelo 3, estimaron mejor los parámetros genéticos, incluidas las correlaciones entre los efectos aditivos directos y maternos para las características. Los valores estimados de heredabilidad variaron entre bajos y moderados, indicando la posibilidad de ser aplicados en planes de mejora genética del ovino Junín, los mismos que incrementarían su eficiencia al adicionarse a ellos los valores, entre moderados y altos, de las correlaciones genéticas y fenotípicas estimadas. Abstract in english In order to estimate the genetic effects - direct and maternal - linked to the expression of growth traits in lambs of Junín breed, four mixed models were applied in the study of the birth weight (PN), weaning weight (PD), first shearing weight (PE) and daily body weight gain from birth to weaning ( [...] GPND), through univariate and bivariate analysis. The models used in univariate analysis included as fixed effects year of birth and sex, and as covariates the mother’s weight at mating (for PN and PD), age of lamb at weaning (for PD and GPND), and age at first shearing (for PE). Model 1 included the fixed effects and the direct additive genetic effect (a); Model 2, similar to 1, added additive maternal genetic effect (m), considering Cov am=0; Model 3, similar to 2, assumed Cov=A? ; and Model 4, equal to 3, added the maternal permanent environmental effect (c). All bivariate models were extensions of the univariate ones. In all the analyses, the restricted maximum likelihood (REML) method, implemented in the ASReml program was applied. Univariate Model 2 and bivariate Model 3 estimated the best genetic parameters, including correlations between direct and maternal additive effects for the traits. The estimated heritability values ranged from low to moderate, indicating the possibility of its application in genetic improvement plans for Junín sheep, which would increase its efficiency when the estimated, moderate to high genetic and phenotypic correlations are also included.
Pellattiero, E; Cecchinato, A; Tagliapietra, F; Schiavon, S; Bittante, G
In this study, 2-dimensional gas chromatography (GC × GC) was used to obtain a detailed fatty acid (FA) profile of sheep milk and to evaluate the effects of a rumen-protected conjugated linoleic acid (rpCLA) supply, breed, days in milk (DIM), sampling period, and number of lambs suckling on the FA profile. Twenty-four ewes, from 3 autochthonous breeds of the Veneto Alps (Brogna, Foza, and Lamon), were housed in 6 pens (2 pens/breed), according to DIM (38±23 d) and body weight (61±13kg). The ewes and their offspring of 3 pens (1 pen/breed) were fed ad libitum a total mixed ration (control), and the other animals received the same diet supplemented with 12 g/d per ewe, plus 4 g/d for each lamb older than 30 d, of an rpCLA mixture. The study lasted 63 d. Two composite milk samples for each ewe were prepared during the first and second months of the trial. The pooled milk samples were analyzed in duplicate for FA profile by 2-dimensional gas chromatography, which allowed us to obtain a detailed FA profile of sheep milk, with 170 different FA detected, including many that were present in small concentrations. The milk relative proportions of individual FA, groups of FA, or FA indices were analyzed by PROC MIXED of SAS (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC), considering diet, breed, DIM, and sampling period as sources of variation. The random effect of animal was used to test diet, breed, and DIM, whereas the effects of period were tested on the residual. Breed had a small influence on milk FA profile, mainly on branched- and odd-chain FA. Within breed, animal repeatability for the relative proportions of milk FA was notable for almost all monounsaturated FA and for saturated FA with 14 to 19 carbon atoms, except C16:0, and less so for polyunsaturated FA. The inclusion of rpCLA (CLA cis-9,trans-11 and CLA trans-10,cis-12) increased the presence of the same CLA isomers in the milk as well as that of CLA trans-9,trans-11, and decreased the proportions of de novo-synthesized short-chain FA. From a cluster analysis based on the matrix of correlation coefficients among all FA relative proportions, 3 main FA groups were observed: the first included mainly odd- or branched-chain saturated FA, C18:0, C16:0 and CLA trans-10,cis-12; the second included monounsaturated FA or polyunsaturated FA with 16 to 20 carbons, CLA cis-9,trans-11, and CLA trans-9,trans-11; and the third included short- to medium-chain saturated FA, polyunsaturated FA with 2 to 5 double bonds, and 3 CLA isomers not affected by rpCLA addition (CLA trans-11,cis-13, CLA cis-9,cis-11, and CLA cis-10,cis-12). PMID:25648807
Clarke, Iain J.; Smith, Jeremy T.; Caraty, Alain; Robert L. Goodman; Lehman, Michael N
Sheep are seasonal breeders, experiencing a period of reproductive quiescence during spring and early summer. During the non-breeding period, kisspeptin expression in the arcuate nucleus is markedly reduced. This strongly suggests that the mechanisms that control seasonal changes in reproductive function involve kisspeptin neurons. Kisspeptin cells appear to regulate GnRH neurons and transmit sex-steroid feedback to the reproductive axis. Since the non-breeding season is characterized by incr...
Parámetros de crecimiento y de la canal de corderos de la raza Ovella Galega sacrificados a 45 días / Growth and carcass parameters of the Ovella Galega sheep breed lambs at the slaughter age of 45 days
M., Fernández; S., Adán; B., Domínguez; C.J., Rivero; J.R., Justo; A., Arias; M.C., García-Fontán; J.M., Lorenzo; J.J., Lama; C., López; D., Rois; J., Feijóo; D., Franco.
Full Text Available Actualmente la raza Ovella Galega se encuentra en peligro de extinción, por lo que está sometida a un Programa de Conservación y Recuperación donde prima la preservación de la variabilidad genética. En este trabajo se estudió el crecimiento y la canal en corderos de la raza, para profundizar en su c [...] aracterización. Se han utilizado 10 corderos machos de parto simple inscritos en el Libro Genealógico de la raza, criados sólo con leche materna hasta la edad de sacrificio de 45 días. El crecimiento y las GMD son acordes con los resultados publicados en otros estudios sobre la raza, y a pesar de que ésta presenta un pequeño formato, entre los resultados obtenidos cabe destacar su alto rendimiento comercial (59%) así como un adecuado porcentaje en piezas de 1ª y 2ª categoría. Abstract in english The Ovella Galega is a endangered sheep breed and is protected by a Conservation and Recovery Programme, in order to keep the genetic variability. A growth and carcass study was made on Ovella Galega lambs, whose main objetive is its characterization. Ten male lambs from single birth and fed solely [...] on their mother´s milk, all of them registered in the Record of Births of Stud-Book, were slaughtered at 45 days old. The growth and average dayly gain are in accordance to results published in other breed studies. The results show a high commercial yield (59%), apart from appropriate percentages in 1st and 2nd market categories.
Luís Gabriel Alves Cirne
Full Text Available The experiment evaluated the effects of strategic shearing on feeding behavior in Ile de France ewes in Bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon grazing during breeding season. A total of 20 ewes, female, Ile de France breed, 4 years old, 71.10 kg of body weight, in grazing, in a completely randomized design with two treatments and ten repetitions, in which the treatments were composed by shorn and non-shorn animals. The length of the breeding season was 90 days, where the evaluations occurred in the 86th, 87th and 88th day of the experimental period. The grazing time (6.50 hours, rumination (1.59 hours and idle (3.97 hours have not changed (P> 0.05 by strategic shearing of the animals, as well as the frequency and the time by frequency grazing (18.33 grazing and 21.49 min/grazing, rumination (10.71 ruminations and 8.83 min/rumination and idle (18.83 idles and 12.66 min/idle. In the same way, the number of bits per minute (26.37 bits and the total daily bits (19.116 bits of the animals were not affected. Thus, the strategic shearing in Ile de France ewes in Bermudagrass grazing during the breeding season does not alter animal feeding behavior.
Vondrasek, R; Levand, A; Pardo, R; Savard, G; Scott, R
The Californium Rare Ion Breeder Upgrade (CARIBU) of the Argonne National Laboratory ATLAS facility will provide low-energy and reaccelerated neutron-rich radioactive beams for the nuclear physics program. A 70 mCi (252)Cf source produces fission fragments which are thermalized and collected by a helium gas catcher into a low-energy particle beam with a charge of 1+ or 2+. An electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source functions as a charge breeder in order to raise the ion charge sufficiently for acceleration in the ATLAS linac. The final CARIBU configuration will utilize a 1 Ci (252)Cf source to produce radioactive beams with intensities up to 10(6) ions?s for use in the ATLAS facility. The ECR charge breeder has been tested with stable beam injection and has achieved charge breeding efficiencies of 3.6% for (23)Na(8+), 15.6% for (84)Kr(17+), and 13.7% for (85)Rb(19+) with typical breeding times of 10 ms?charge state. For the first radioactive beams, a charge breeding efficiency of 11.7% has been achieved for (143)Cs(27+) and 14.7% for (143)Ba(27+). The project has been commissioned with a radioactive beam of (143)Ba(27+) accelerated to 6.1 MeV?u. In order to take advantage of its lower residual contamination, an EBIS charge breeder will replace the ECR charge breeder in the next two years. The advantages and disadvantages of the two techniques are compared taking into account the requirements of the next generation radioactive beam facilities. PMID:22380254
Vondrasek, R.; Levand, A.; Pardo, R.; Savard, G.; Scott, R.
The Californium Rare Ion Breeder Upgrade (CARIBU) of the Argonne National Laboratory ATLAS facility will provide low-energy and reaccelerated neutron-rich radioactive beams for the nuclear physics program. A 70 mCi 252Cf source produces fission fragments which are thermalized and collected by a helium gas catcher into a low-energy particle beam with a charge of 1+ or 2+. An electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source functions as a charge breeder in order to raise the ion charge sufficiently for acceleration in the ATLAS linac. The final CARIBU configuration will utilize a 1 Ci 252Cf source to produce radioactive beams with intensities up to 106 ions/s for use in the ATLAS facility. The ECR charge breeder has been tested with stable beam injection and has achieved charge breeding efficiencies of 3.6% for 23Na8+, 15.6% for 84Kr17+, and 13.7% for 85Rb19+ with typical breeding times of 10 ms/charge state. For the first radioactive beams, a charge breeding efficiency of 11.7% has been achieved for 143Cs27+ and 14.7% for 143Ba27+. The project has been commissioned with a radioactive beam of 143Ba27+ accelerated to 6.1 MeV/u. In order to take advantage of its lower residual contamination, an EBIS charge breeder will replace the ECR charge breeder in the next two years. The advantages and disadvantages of the two techniques are compared taking into account the requirements of the next generation radioactive beam facilities.
Álvarez, Isabel; Gutiérrez, J. P.; Royo, L. J.; Fernández, Itziar; Gómez, Enrique; Arranz, J J; Goyache, Félix
Recent studies have proposed the use of molecular coancestry coefficients as a measure of genetic variability and as a useful tool for conservation purposes. Using simulated data, molecular coancestry has been shown to become constant very quickly after separation of populations, leading to population diversity remaining constant. However, the use of molecular coancestry information to study the genetic relationships between breeds has not yet been widely explored. Here we analyze th...
Full Text Available The investigations on the incidence and intensity of parasitism in some endoparasytes in sheep performed on 376 animals (260 sheep and 116 young adult sheep Turcana breed, Gil?u area, Cluj County, indicated an increased incidence in trihostrongilidys of 72.7% in young sheep and 65.0% in adult sheep. The incidence of monesya had different values ??depending on age group, 45.5% at young sheep and 10.0% in adult sheep. The data obtained regarding the prevalence of hepatobiliary trematodsys of sheep in the study, indicates similar values ??for the two categories, 27.2% young sheep and 30.0% for adult sheep. Instead the extensivity of lung strongilatosys showed notable differences between the two groups of animals, 18.1% at young sheep and 35.0% in adult sheep. The cop microscopic pollution degree with trihostrongily eggs in correlation with age group, indicated a dominance of low infestation (50% young sheep and 61.5% adult sheep. In exchange, the data obtained on parasitism intensity with cestode oncospheres expresses a dominance of medium infestation (60.0% in young sheep and the low (10.0% in adult sheep. The intensity level of Hepatobiliary trematodosys parasitism in the young sheep showed a dominance of small and medium infestations (37.5% and in adult sheep are dominant only at low infestations (45.4%. The larvae strongilatosys parasitism intensity in the lung detected similar values ??in the two age groups (50.0% in young sheep and 17.2% in adult sheep.
V., Pérez; A., Camacho; J., Mata; L., Bermejo.
Full Text Available Se estudiaron 60 corderos de raza Canaria y 60 de raza Canaria de Pelo, mitad machos y mitad hembras, sacrificados a 9,78±0,49 kg; 15,8±0,66 kg y 24,9±0,76 kg. El objetivo del trabajo fue conocer el efecto de la raza, sexo y peso de sacrificio sobre la importancia porcentual del quinto cuarto y sus [...] componentes. El peso total del quinto cuarto fue mayor en la raza Canaria, aunque su porcentaje de órganos comestibles, fue inferior al de la raza Canaria de Pelo. Los intestinos, la piel y la cabeza fueron las partes que mayor peso porcentual tuvieron. Al aumentar el peso de sacrificio, la importancia del quinto cuarto se redujo debido al menor porcentaje de cabeza y autópodos. En los machos, la cabeza, vejiga y autópodos, alcanzaron mayor proporción y en las hembras, la piel. El porcentaje de piel incrementó al aumentar el peso de sacrificio sólo en los corderos de lana. Abstract in english Sixty Canaria lambs and 60 Canaria Hair breed lambs (half male and half female), slaughtered to 9.78±0.49, 15.8±0.66 and 24.9±0.76 kg live weight were studied. The objective of study was to determine the effect of breed, slaughter weight and sex of lamb on percentages of fifth quarter and their comp [...] onents. Canaria breed lambs showed a higher weight for fifth quarter, and its percentage of edible organs was lower than in Canaria Hair breed. The intestines, skin and head were the parts that had greater weight percentage. The importance of the fifth quarter was reduced when slaughter weight increased due to lower percentage of head and legs. Males showed higher values for head, legs and bladder; females showed higher values for the skin. Skin percentage increased when increasing the slaughter weight only in wool lambs.
The mineral requirements of dairy sheep under semi-intensive and intensive management systems are reviewed. Basically, mineral requirements obtained with mutton breeds are supplemented with specific information obtained with dairy sheep. The daily requirements of sheep in major elements have been estimated using the factorial method, first to calculate the net requirements during maintenance, growth, reproduction and lactation, and second to assess the efficiency of absorption for converting net requirements into dietary allowance. The requirements in trace elements were estimated from the results of feeding trials. The choice of values for endogenous losses and particularly the precision with which efficiency of absorption can be predicted are the main sources of error in estimates of dietary allowances, especially when efficiency of absorption is low. The net requirements in major elements are given for maintenance, pregnancy and lactation, together with the recommended coefficients of absorption. Dietary requirements in trace elements are expressed as milligram per kilogram dry matter. The requirements in all nutrients and particularly in Ca and P increase during late pregnancy, especially during lactation. The requirements during lactation mainly reflect milk composition, the level of milk yield and lactation length, but also the feed intake level. The factors related to the confinement, feeding and management of dairy breeds, which differ from those of mutton breeds, may affect their mineral requirements. Changes in husbandry practices resulting in increased production may increase the stress on the animal and therefore alter its metabolic equilibrium. Direct supplementation of the diet of dairy sheep is the cheapest and most convenient method of mineral supplementation. The cost is outweighed by the enhanced performance of sheep. Determination of the mineral composition of feedstuffs available for feeding dairy sheep indicates the type and level of mineral supplementation needed. (author)
Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to study genetic diversity in Indonesian sheep population using microsatellite markers. A total of 18 microsatellite loci have been used for genotyping Indonesian sheep. Total sheep blood 200 samples were extracted from garut sheep of fighting and meat types, purbalingga sheep, batur sheep and jember sheep populations by using a salting out method. Microsatellite loci data were analyzed using POPGENE 3.2 software. Based on this study obtained 180 alleles from 17 microsatellite loci, while average number of alleles was 6.10 alleles (6 to 18 alleles from five Indonesian sheep populations (garut sheep of fighting type, garut sheep of meat type, purbalingga sheep, batur sheep and jember sheep population. The average of observed heterozygosity (Ho and expected heterozygosity (He values were 0.5749 and 0.6896, respectively, while the genetic differentiation for inbreeding among population (FIS, within population (FIT and average genetic differentiation (FST were 0.1006, 0.1647 and 0.0712, respectively. Genetic distance and genetic tree showed that Indonesian sheep population was distinct from garut sheep of fighting and meat types, purbalingga sheep, batur sheep and jember sheep population. Based on this results were needed a strategy for conservation and breeding programs in each Indonesian sheep population.
Full Text Available The research was carried out on 4,030 Polish Merino ewes born in the years 1991- 2001, kept in 15 flocks from the Pomorze and Kujawy region. Fertility of ewes in subsequent reproduction seasons was analysed with the use of multiple logistic regression. The research showed that there is a statistical influence of the flock, year of birth, age of dam, flock year interaction of birth on the ewes fertility. In order to estimate the genetic parameters, the Gibbs sampling method was applied, using the univariate animal models, both linear as well as threshold. Estimates of fertility depending on the model equalled 0.067 to 0.104, whereas the estimates of repeatability equalled respectively: 0.076 and 0.139. The obtained genetic parameters were then used to estimate the breeding values of the animals in terms of controlled trait (Best Linear Unbiased Prediction method using linear and threshold models. The obtained animal breeding values rankings in respect of the same trait with the use of linear and threshold models were strongly correlated with each other (rs = 0.972. Negative genetic trends of fertility (0.01-0.08% per year were found.
Chessa, Bernado; Pereira, Filipe
The domestication of livestock represented a crucial step in human history. By using endogenous retroviruses as genetic markers, we found that sheep differentiated on the basis of their "retrotype" and morphological traits dispersed across Eurasia and Africa via separate migratory episodes. Relicts of the first migrations include the Mouflon, as well as breeds previously recognized as "primitive" on the basis of their morphology, such as the Orkney, Soay, and the Nordic short-tailed sheep now confined to the periphery of northwest Europe. A later migratory episode, involving sheep with improved production traits, shaped the great majority of present-day breeds. The ability to differentiate genetically primitive sheep from more modern breeds provides valuable insights into the history of sheep domestication
Fabiano A. de, Oliveira; Sílvia H. N., Turco; Gherman G. L . de, Aaraújo; Carlos A. A., Clemente; Tadeu V., Voltolini; Marlon S., Garrido.
Full Text Available Com o objetivo de observar os efeitos do sombreamento propiciado pela tela de polipropileno sobre o comportamento de ovinos da raça Santa Inês em diferentes épocas do ano, montou-se um experimento em Petrolina, PE, no período de junho a novembro de 2010. Utilizaram-se 40 animais distribuídos em igua [...] l quantidade em dois tratamentos (Sombreado e Não sombreado) com oferta de pastagem (Tiffton 85) irrigada. Foram feitas aferições dos dados meteorológicos em todas as épocas, com a montagem de termômetros de globo negro e psicrômetros nas duas áreas e de uma mini-estação meteorológica na área sombreada. Nessas épocas foram realizados ensaios de comportamento tendo-se feito observações visuais pelo método da varredura instantânea em intervalos de 10 min no período diurno, verificando-se o percentual de animais quanto à alimentação, ruminação e ócio, a partir da metodologia proposta por Johnson & Combs (1991) adaptada para o tempo de 12h. O sombreamento não influenciou no número de animais em referência às atividades avaliadas nos diferentes tratamentos. A procura por sombra foi intensa nos períodos mais quentes do dia para a atividade de ócio. Abstract in english With the goal of observing the effects of shade provided by polypropylene screen on the behaviour of Santa Inês sheep, in different times of year, an experiment was set up in Petrolina, PE, in the period from June to November 2010. Forty animals divided into equal quantity in two treatments (shaded [...] and non-shaded) were used with supply of irrigated pastures (Tiffton 85). Measurements of meteorological data were made at all times, with the assembly of black globe thermometers and psychrometers in the two areas, and a mini-weather station, at the shaded area. Under these conditions a trials was carried out on behavior of animals, being made visual observations by the method of instantaneous scan at intervals of 10 min during the daytime period, checking the percentage of animals under food, rumination and leisure using the methodology proposed by Johnson & Combs (1991), adapted for a period of 12 h. The shading did not influence the number of animals under the activities evaluated in different treatments. The search for shade was intense in the hottest periods of the day for leisure activity.
Evaluation of the interaction between nutrition and reproduction in Mediterranean sheep requires knowledge of the energy requirements of animals in different productive and reproductive stages. The available energy systems developed for temperate climates and genotypes are not directly applicable to Mediterranean breeds of dairy sheep. Using already available data, metabolizable energy requirements for these types of animals are proposed. (author). 59 refs, 9 tabs
Reyes, López-Ordaz; Iván, Olivera-Vega; José M., Berruecos Villalobos; Marisela, Peralta-Lailson; Raúl, Ulloa-Arvizu; Carlos G., Vásquez Peláez.
Full Text Available Heredabilidades para pesos al nacer (PN) y destete (PD) en ovinos de la raza Chiapas se estimaron a partir de los registros de corderos nacidos entre 1991 y 2006. El pedigrí incluyó 53 carneros, 523 ovejas y 1,326 corderos. Se compararon seis modelos utilizando el Criterio de Información Akaike (Aka [...] ike Information Criterion, AIC). El modelo 1 incluyó los efectos genéticos directos aditivos. El modelo 2 igual al modelo 1 más los efectos permanentes del medio ambiente. Los modelos 3 y 4 fueron como el modelo 1 más los efectos maternos con cov(directa, maternal) (?am) igual a 0 para el modelo 3, mientras que para el modelo 4, ?am ? 0. Los modelos 5 y 6 corresponden a los modelos 3 y 4 adicionados con efectos ambientales permanentes. Los efectos de año, tipo y número de parto y sexo fueron incluidos en todos los modelos. La edad al destete fue agregada como covariable en la estimación de peso al destete. Los análisis mostraron al modelo 6 como el más adecuado para ambos caracteres, siendo el más completo y el criterio de comparación fue el menor. Los valores obtenidos de heredabilidad directos y maternos, así como los correspondientes a efectos maternos ambientales permanentes fueron 0.15 ± 0.09, 0.24 ± 0.09, 0.11 ± 0.08 para PN y 0.14 ± 0.09, 0.09 ± 0.08, 0.08 ± 0.06 para PD, respectivamente, siendo las correlaciones fenotípica 0.34±0.03 y genética 0.81±0.18. Estos son los primeros valores obtenidos de parámetros genéticos para PN y PD en la raza Chiapas. Abstract in english Variance components and heritabilities for birth (BW) and weaning weights (WW) were estimated in the local Chiapas sheep breed using data from animals born between 1991 and 2006. The pedigree contained 53 rams, 523 ewes, and 1,326 lambs. Six models were compared to estimate heritabilities of BW and [...] WW using the difference (?i) between the ith model and the best model from the Akaike information criterion (AIC). Model 1 contained additive genetic effects. Model 2 was as Model 1 plus permanent maternal environmental effects. Models 3 and 4 were as Model 1 plus maternal effects with cov(direct, maternal) equal to zero 0 for Model 3 and equal to ?am for Model 4. Models 5 and 6 were as Models 3 and 4 plus permanent environmental effects. Fixed effects of year, type and number of birth and sex were included in all models for both traits. Age at weaning was added as covariate for WW models. Model 6 was preferred for both traits because it accounted for direct and maternal effects and their correlation as well as maternal permanent environmental effects and the criteria for comparison were the smallest. Direct and maternal heritability as well as the permanent maternal environment estimates were 0.15±0.09, 0.24±0.09, 0.11±0.08 for BW and 0.14± 0.09, 0.09 ±0.08, 0.08±0.06 for WW, respectively, and the phenotypic (0.34±0.03) and genetic (0.81±0.18) correlation from model 6. These are the first estimates of genetic parameters for BW and WW in the Chiapas sheep breed.
Estimativas de componentes de (co)variância e herdabilidade direta e materna de pesos corporais em ovinos da raça Santa Inês / Estimates of (co) variance components and direct and maternal heritability for growth traits in Santa Inês sheep breed
Wandrick Hauss de, Sousa; Carmen Silva, Pereira; José Aurélio Garcia, Bergmann; Francisco Luiz Ribeiro da, Silva.
Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estimar os componentes de (co)variância e herdabilidade direta e materna de pesos corporais em ovinos da raça Santa Inês. Um total de 3971 registros de pesos de crias da raça Santa Inês, filhas de 114 reprodutores e 758 ovelhas, foi analisado, obtido de rebanhos experim [...] entais do SNPA da Embrapa, no período de 1983 a 1995. Componentes de covariância e parâmetros genéticos resultantes de efeito genético aditivo direto, efeitos genético materno e de ambiente permanente, bem como a covariância entre esses efeitos, para peso ao nascer (PN), aos 112 (P112) e 196 dias de idade (P196), foram estimados pelo método da máxima verossimilhança restrita (REML), usando o aplicativo MTDFREML sob modelo animal. Incluindo ou não efeitos genéticos materno ou de ambiente materno permanente, bem como a covariância genética entre os efeitos direto e materno, cinco diferentes modelos de análises foram usados para determinar o modelo mais apropriado para descrever cada uma das características. Em geral, o modelo mais completo (modelo 4) foi o que apresentou maior valor para logaritmo da função de verossimilhança (log de L) para todas características estudadas. Quando efeitos maternos foram excluidos, estimativas de herdabilidade direta foram substancialmente inflacionadas (0,31 a 0,37). Efeitos maternos foram importantes para todas as características, mesmo as medidas após o desmame. Correlações genéticas entre os efeitos direto e materno para PN e P112 foram negativas e de baixa magnitude (-0,31 a - 0,10), porém, para P196, estes valores foram positivos e de alta magnitude (0,67 a 0,98). A exclusão dos efeitos maternos, quando importantes, resultou em superestimativa das herdabilidade. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to estimate the (co) variance components and direct and maternal heritability of the body weights of sheep of Santa Inês breed. A total of 3,771 lambs weights records of the Santa Inês hair sheep breed, progenies of 114 sires, and 758 ewes were analyzed, obtained from [...] experimental herds of EMBRAPA - SNPA from 1985 to 1995. The covariance components and genetic parameters from additive genetic effects, maternal and permanent environmental effects, as well as the covariance between those effects for birth weight (BW), weight at 112 (W112) and weight at 196 days of age (W196), were estimated by Restricted Maximum Likelihood (REML) using MTDFREML program, under animal model. Including or not the maternal genetic effect or permanent environmental effect, as well as the genetic covariance between the direct and maternal effects, five different animal models were used to determine the most appropriate model for each trait. In general, the most comprehensive model (Model 4) was the one that presented the greatest value for the maximum log likelihood function (log of L) for all studied traits. When maternal effects were excluded, estimates of direct heritabilities were substantially inflated (.31 to .37). The maternal effects were important for all traits, even those that were measured after weaning. Genetic correlation between direct and maternal effects for BW and W112 were negative and low (from -.31 to -.10), however, for W196 this value was positive and high (from .67 to .98). The exclusion of the maternal effects, when they are important, resulted in overestimates of heritability.
Gutiérrez-Gil, Beatriz; Arranz, Juan Jose; Pong-Wong, Ricardo; García-Gámez, Elsa; Kijas, James; Wiener, Pamela
In Europe, especially in Mediterranean areas, the sheep has been traditionally exploited as a dual purpose species, with income from both meat and milk. Modernization of husbandry methods and the establishment of breeding schemes focused on milk production have led to the development of “dairy breeds.” This study investigated selective sweeps specifically related to dairy production in sheep by searching for regions commonly identified in different European dairy breeds. With this aim, genoty...
Modelos linear e não linear em análises genéticas para sobrevivência de crias de ovinos da raça Santa Inês Linear and nonlinear models in genetic analyses of lamb survival in the Santa Inês hair sheep breed
Full Text Available Registros de sobrevivência do nascimento ao desmame de 3846 crias de ovinos da raça Santa Inês foram analisados por modelos de reprodutor linear e não linear (modelo de limiar, para estimar componentes de variância e herdabilidade. Os modelos usados para sobrevivência, analisada como característica da cria, incluíram os efeitos fixos de sexo, da combinação tipo de nascimento-criação da cria e da idade da ovelha ao parto, efeito da covariável peso da cria ao nascer e efeitos aleatórios de reprodutor, da classe rebanho-ano-estação e do resíduo. Componentes de variância para o modelo linear foram estimados pelo método da máxima verossimilhança restrita (REML e para o modelo não linear por uma aproximação da máxima verossimilhança marginal (MML, pelo programa CMMAT2. O coeficiente de herdabilidade (h² estimado pelo modelo de limiar foi de 0,29, e pelo modelo linear, 0,14. A correlação de ordem de Spearman entre as capacidades de transmissão dos reprodutores, com base nos dois modelos foi de 0,96. As estimativas de h² obtidas indicam a possibilidade de se obter, por seleção, ganho genético para sobrevivência.Records of 3,846 lambs survival from birth to weaning of Santa Inês hair sheep breed, were analyzed by linear and non linear sire models (threshold model to estimate variance components and heritability (h². The models that were used to analyze survival, considered in this study as a lamb trait, included the fixed effects of sex of the lamb, combination of type of birth-rearing of lamb, and age of ewe, birth weight of lamb as covariate, and random effects of sire, herd-year-season and residual. Variance components were obtained using restricted maximum likelihood (REML, in linear model and marginal maximum likelihood in threshold model through CMMAT2 program. Estimate of heritability (h² obtained by threshold model was 0.29 and by linear model was 0.14. Rank correlation of Spearman, between sire solutions based on the two models was 0.96. The obtained estimates in this study indicate that it is possible to acquire genetic gain to survival by selection.
Lindroos, M; Wenander, F J C
The development of an efficient charge breeding scheme for the next generation of RIB facilities will have a strong impact on the post-accelerator for several Radioactive Ion Beam (RIB) projects at European large scale facilities. At ISOLDE/CERN there will be the unique possibility to carry out experiments with the two possible charge breeding set-ups with a large variety of radioactive isotopes using identical injection conditions. One charge breeding set-up is the Penning trap/EBIS combination which feeds the REX-ISOLDE linear accelerator and which is in commissioning now. The second charge breeder is a new ECRIS PHOENIX developed at the ISN ion source laboratory at Grenoble. This ECRIS is now under investigation with a 14 GHz amplifier to characterize its performance. The experiments are accompanied by theoretical studies in computer simulations in order to optimize the capture of the ions in the ECRIS plasma. A second identical PHOENIX ECRIS which is under investigation at the Daresbury Laboratory is avai...
Kassa, Beneberu Teferra; Haile, Anteneh Girma; Essa, John Abdu
In order to assess and identify the determinants of sheep price and price variation across time, a time series data were collected from four selected markets in North Shewa, Northeastern Ethiopia on weekly market day basis for a period of 2 years. Data on animal characteristics and purpose of buying were collected on a weekly basis from randomly selected 15-25 animals, and a total of 7,976 transactions were recorded. A general linear model technique was used to identify factors influencing sheep price, and the results showed that sheep price (liveweight sheep price per kilogram taken as a dependent variable) is affected by animal characteristics such as weight, sex, age, condition, season, and color. Most of the markets' purpose for which the animal was purchased did not affect significantly the price per kilogram. This may be due to the similarity of the markets in terms of buyer's purpose. The results suggest that there will be benefit from coordinated fattening, breeding, and marketing programs to take the highest advantage from the preferred animals' characteristics and selected festival markets. Finally, the study recommends for a coordinated action to enhance the benefit generated for all participant actors in the sheep value chain through raising sheep productivity, improving the capacity of sheep producers and agribusiness entrepreneurs to access and use latest knowledge and technologies; and strengthening linkages among actors in the sheep value chain. PMID:21465103
Manuel Antônio Chagas, Jacinto; Fernando Miranda de, Vargas Junior; Charles Ferreira, Martins; Guilherme dos Santos, Pinto; Fernando Alvarenga, Reis; Alexandra Rocha de, Oliveira.
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of crossings between sheep breeds on the intrinsic quality of leather. It was used the skins of 36 lambs (18 females and 18 males), resulting from crosses between ewes of a native breed from the Brazilian state of Mato Grosso do Sul and rams [...] of the same native breed as well as the Texel and Santa Inês genetic groups. The animals were raised in confinement until slaughter weight, from 28 to 32 kg. After slaughter, samples were taken from the skins for histological analysis. The skins were tanned with chromium, retanned and greased. It was taken from the leather samples for electromicrographs and for tests for tensile and tear strength (intrinsic quality). Morphological aspects from the skin as well as from the leather help to understand the results found and they evidence that breeds or crossings among breeds interfere in the intrinsic quality of leather and skin of sheep.
The title page of Chapter 9 in Fundamentals of Physics (Halliday, Resnick, and Walker, 8th Edition, p. 201) shows a dramatic photograph of two Big Horn sheep butting heads and promises to explain how sheep survive such violent clashes without serious injury. However, the answer presented in sample problem 9-4 (p. 213) errs in presuming an interaction time of 0.27 s which results in an unrealistically long stopping distance of 0.62 m. Furthermore, the assertion that the horns provide necessary cushioning of the blow is inconsistent with the absence of concussions in domestic breeds of hornless sheep. Results from traumatic brain injury (TBI) research allow acceleration tolerance of sheep to be estimated as 450 g facilitating an analysis of sheep collisions that is more consistent with available observations (stopping distance less than 1 cm, impact time of roughly 2 ms).
Full Text Available Abstract Background The progression of scrapie is known to be influenced by the amino acid polymorphisms of the host prion protein (PrP gene. There is no breeding programme for TSE resistance in sheep in Finland, but a scrapie control programme has been in place since 1995. In this study we have analysed PrP genotypes of total of 928 purebred and crossbred sheep together with the data of scrapie survey carried out in Finland during 2002–2008 in order to gain knowledge of the genotype distribution and scrapie prevalence in Finnish sheep. Results The ARQ/ARQ genotype was the most common genotype in all breeds studied. ARR allele frequency was less than 12% in purebred Finnish sheep and in most genotypes heterozygous for ARR, the second allele was ARQ. The VRQ allele was not detected in the Grey race sheep of Kainuu or in the Aland sheep, and it was present in less than 6% of the Finnish Landrace sheep. Leucine was the most prominent amino acid found in codon 141. In addition, one novel prion dimorphisms of Q220L was detected. During the scrapie survey of over 15 000 sheep in 2002–2008, no classical scrapie cases and only five atypical scrapie cases were detected. Conclusions The results indicate that the Finnish sheep populations have genetically little resistance to classical scrapie, but no classical scrapie was detected during an extensive survey in 2002–2008. However, five atypical scrapie cases emerged; thus, the disease is present in the Finnish sheep population at a low level.
Erysipelas diagnosed in turkeys, sheep and pigs. Parasitic gastroenteritis reported in cattle on several farms. Unusual presentation of Actinobacillus suis causing spinal abscesses in pigs on a breeder-finisher unit. First APHA diagnosis of oedema disease in pigs in East Anglia for many years. Infectious coryza confirmed in a hobby breeding flock. These are among matters discussed in the Animal and Plant Health Agency's (APHA's) disease surveillance report for November 2014. PMID:25792678
Efeitos da oferta de forragem, do método de pastejo, dos dias de avaliação e da raça no comportamento e temperamento de ovinos Effect of forage supply, methods of grazing, evaluation days and breed on the behavior and the temperament of sheep
José Manuel Díaz Gómez
Full Text Available Objetivou-se estudar comportamento e o temperamento de ovinos de três raças (Suffolk, Texel, Ile de France submetidas a dois métodos de pastejo (contínuo e rotacionado, com duas ofertas de forragem (10 e 20 kg de MS de pastagem de azevém/100 kg de peso vivo/dia durante quatro avaliações, entre agosto e novembro de 2006. Utilizou-se o delineamento completamente casualizado em parcelas subsubdivididas, de modo que os métodos de pastejo e as ofertas de forragem constituíram as parcelas, as raças as subparcelas e os dias de avaliação as subsubparcelas. Foram utilizadas 48 fêmeas ovinas com peso médio inicial de 27,59 kg e idade entre 15 e 25 meses. Na avaliação do temperamento, efetuaram-se medidas comportamentais pelo teste de arena, tipo de marcha e tempo de fuga e atributos fisiológicos, como temperatura corporal e frequências cardiorrespiratórias. No método contínuo com baixa oferta de forragem, observou-se maior número de micções. Conforme as avaliações ocorreram, houve aumento da movimentação, das tentativas de fuga, mas menor número de vocalizações durante o isolamento. A raça Ile de France apresentou maior número de tentativas de fuga e de dejeções durante o isolamento. No pastejo rotacionado com alta oferta de forragem, o ganho de peso foi menor. A movimentação no isolamento e na presença do observador foi negativamente relacionada ao ganho de peso. As variáveis descritoras do temperamento apresentaram baixa repetibilidade. O temperamento dos ovinos foi modificado principalmente pelo dia de avaliação e pela raça, ao contrário do sistema de pastejo e da oferta de pasto, embora esses fatores tenham apresentado interação com os dias de avaliação e a raça do animal.This work aimed to study the temperament and the behavior of three sheep breeds (Suffolk, Texel, Ile de France submitted to two grazing methods (continuous and rotational with two forage supplies (10 and 20 kg of Italian ryegrass DM/100 kg body weight/day during four evaluations from August to November 2006. A random block design was used with split-plots, so the grazing methods and forage supplies were the plots, breeds were the sub-plots, and days of evaluation were the sub-sub-plots. It was used 48 ewe lambs with 27.59 kg of initial weight at 15 to 25 months of age. For evaluation of temperament, behavioral measures were taken by the arena test, and qualitative and quantitative flight time test, and physiological attributes such as body temperature and cardiorespiratory rates. For continuous method with low forage supply, it was observed a higher number of urination events. As evaluations were carried out, physical activity and flight events increased, but number of vocalization decreased during social isolation. Ile de France breed showed higher number of flight attempts and excretion events during social isolation. In the rotational grazing method with high forage supply, weight gain was lower. Physical activity during social isolation and at the observer presence was negatively related to weight gain. Variables used to describe the temperament showed low consistency. The temperament of sheep is mainly affected by evaluation day and breed, unlike grazing method and forage supply, although these factors show interaction with evaluation days and breed.
Efeitos da oferta de forragem, do método de pastejo, dos dias de avaliação e da raça no comportamento e temperamento de ovinos / Effect of forage supply, methods of grazing, evaluation days and breed on the behavior and the temperament of sheep
José Manuel Díaz, Gómez; Vivian, Fischer; César Henrique Espírito Candal, Poli; Paulo César de Faccio, Carvalho; Eliezer José, Pegoraro; Stefani, Macari.
Full Text Available Objetivou-se estudar comportamento e o temperamento de ovinos de três raças (Suffolk, Texel, Ile de France) submetidas a dois métodos de pastejo (contínuo e rotacionado), com duas ofertas de forragem (10 e 20 kg de MS de pastagem de azevém/100 kg de peso vivo/dia) durante quatro avaliações, entre ag [...] osto e novembro de 2006. Utilizou-se o delineamento completamente casualizado em parcelas subsubdivididas, de modo que os métodos de pastejo e as ofertas de forragem constituíram as parcelas, as raças as subparcelas e os dias de avaliação as subsubparcelas. Foram utilizadas 48 fêmeas ovinas com peso médio inicial de 27,59 kg e idade entre 15 e 25 meses. Na avaliação do temperamento, efetuaram-se medidas comportamentais pelo teste de arena, tipo de marcha e tempo de fuga e atributos fisiológicos, como temperatura corporal e frequências cardiorrespiratórias. No método contínuo com baixa oferta de forragem, observou-se maior número de micções. Conforme as avaliações ocorreram, houve aumento da movimentação, das tentativas de fuga, mas menor número de vocalizações durante o isolamento. A raça Ile de France apresentou maior número de tentativas de fuga e de dejeções durante o isolamento. No pastejo rotacionado com alta oferta de forragem, o ganho de peso foi menor. A movimentação no isolamento e na presença do observador foi negativamente relacionada ao ganho de peso. As variáveis descritoras do temperamento apresentaram baixa repetibilidade. O temperamento dos ovinos foi modificado principalmente pelo dia de avaliação e pela raça, ao contrário do sistema de pastejo e da oferta de pasto, embora esses fatores tenham apresentado interação com os dias de avaliação e a raça do animal. Abstract in english This work aimed to study the temperament and the behavior of three sheep breeds (Suffolk, Texel, Ile de France) submitted to two grazing methods (continuous and rotational) with two forage supplies (10 and 20 kg of Italian ryegrass DM/100 kg body weight/day) during four evaluations from August to No [...] vember 2006. A random block design was used with split-plots, so the grazing methods and forage supplies were the plots, breeds were the sub-plots, and days of evaluation were the sub-sub-plots. It was used 48 ewe lambs with 27.59 kg of initial weight at 15 to 25 months of age. For evaluation of temperament, behavioral measures were taken by the arena test, and qualitative and quantitative flight time test, and physiological attributes such as body temperature and cardiorespiratory rates. For continuous method with low forage supply, it was observed a higher number of urination events. As evaluations were carried out, physical activity and flight events increased, but number of vocalization decreased during social isolation. Ile de France breed showed higher number of flight attempts and excretion events during social isolation. In the rotational grazing method with high forage supply, weight gain was lower. Physical activity during social isolation and at the observer presence was negatively related to weight gain. Variables used to describe the temperament showed low consistency. The temperament of sheep is mainly affected by evaluation day and breed, unlike grazing method and forage supply, although these factors show interaction with evaluation days and breed.
Wessels, M E; Holmes, J P; Jeffrey, M; Jackson, M; Mackintosh, A; Kolodny, E H; Zeng, B J; Wang, C B; Scholes, S F E
GM2 gangliosidosis (Tay-Sachs disease) was diagnosed in 6- to 8-month-old pedigree Jacob lambs from two unrelated flocks presenting clinically with progressive neurological dysfunction of 10 day's to 8 week's duration. Clinical signs included hindlimb ataxia and weakness, recumbency and proprioceptive defects. Histopathological examination of the nervous system identified extensive neuronal cytoplasmic accumulation of material that stained with periodic acid--Schiff and Luxol fast blue. Electron microscopy identified membranous cytoplasmic bodies within the nervous system. Serum biochemistry detected a marked decrease in hexosaminidase A activity in the one lamb tested, when compared with the concentration in age matched controls and genetic analysis identified a mutation in the sheep hexa allele G444R consistent with Tay-Sachs disease in Jacob sheep in North America. The identification of Tay-Sachs disease in British Jacob sheep supports previous evidence that the mutation in North American Jacob sheep originated from imported UK stock. PMID:24309906
B. AnilKumar; Reddy, A. Gopala; Kalakumar, B.; Rani, M. Usha; Anjaneyulu, Y; T. Raghunandan; Reddy, Y. Ramana; Jyothi, K.; Gopi, K. S.
An experimental study was conducted to evaluate the toxicological effects, if any, due to feeding of Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) cotton plants to sheep. A total of 32 sheep of one year of age belonging to Deccani breed were randomly divided into four groups, consisting of eight sheep in each group. Group 1 was maintained on basal diet (concentrate feed at the rate of 300 g + green fodder at the rate of 3 kg/sheep/day), group 2 on non-Bt cotton plant at the rate of 1.5 kg + green fodder at the...
Full Text Available Milk and dairy products are an essential food and an economic resource in many countries. Milk component synthesis and secretion by the mammary gland involve expression of a large number of genes whose nutritional regulation remains poorly defined. The purpose of this study was to gain an understanding of the genomic influence on milk quality and synthesis by comparing two sheep breeds with different milking attitude (Sarda and Gentile di Puglia using sheep-specific microarray technology. From sheep ESTs deposited at NCBI, we have generated the first annotated microarray developed for sheep with a coverage of most of the genome.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Following EU decision 2003/100/EC Member States have recently implemented sheep breeding programmes to reduce the prevalence of sheep with TSE susceptible prion genotypes. The present paper investigates the progress of the breeding programme in the Netherlands. The PrP genotype frequencies were monitored through time using two sets of random samples: one set covers the years 2005 to 2008 and is taken from national surveillance programme; the other is taken from 168 random sheep farms in 2007. The data reveal that although the level of compliance to the breeding programme has been high, the frequency of susceptible genotypes varies substantially between farms. The 168 sheep farms are a subset of 689 farms participating in a postal survey inquiring about management and breeding strategies. This survey aimed to identify how much these strategies varied between farms, in order to inform assessment of the expected future progress towards eradication of classical scrapie. Results On the one hand, we found that compliance to the national breeding program has been high, and the frequency of resistant genotypes is expected to increase further in the next few years. On the other hand, we observed a large variation in prevalence of the scrapie resistant PrP genotype ARR between farms, implicating a large variation of genetic resistance between farms. Substantial between-flock differences in management and breeding strategies were found in the postal survey, suggesting considerable variation in risk of scrapie transmission between farms. Conclusions Our results show that although there has been a good progress in the breeding for scrapie resistance and the average farm-level scrapie susceptibility in the Netherlands has been significantly reduced, still a considerable proportion of farms contain high frequencies of susceptible genotypes in their sheep population. Since 2007 the breeding for genetic resistance is voluntarily again, and participation to selective breeding can decrease as a result of this. This, together with the patterns of direct and indirect contact between sheep farms, might present a challenge of the aim of scrapie eradication. Communication to sheep owners of the effect of the breeding programme thus far, and of the prospects for classical scrapie eradication in The Netherlands might be essential for obtaining useful levels of participation to the voluntary continuation of the breeding programme.
Apricot orchard area and fruit production are increasing worldwide. Breeding programs engage in apricot development to provide new varieties to meet needs of producers and consumers. Over the last 20 years, breeders have used new techniques to assist in variety development and to increase breeding...
Full Text Available From 40 healthy sheep breeding in good conditions of hygiene and feeding belonging to particular herds from the West side of the country were been taken blood samples in most important seasons of the year: in spring, before pasturage period and in autumn, after pasturage period. Sheep were been periodically preventive treated against parasites and were clinically healthy. Were been followed haematological parameters like haemogram (number of erithrocytes, haemoglobin, haematocrit, erithrocytic indexes, leucogram (number of leucocytes, leucocytic formula and those blood biochemicals indexes (total seric proteins, proteic fractions, glucose, uric acid, GPT, creatinin, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium. The obtain values in spring season were smaller in comparison with those from autumn as a result of less favourable conditions in winter, when sheep can't have the same benefits like in warm season, with high quality fresh food and life conditions. This fact is emphasized in these sheep obtained productions.
Wernike, Kerstin; Hoffmann, Bernd
Since late 2011, a novel orthobunyavirus, named Schmallenberg virus (SBV), has been implicated in many cases of severely malformed bovine and ovine offspring in Europe. In adult cattle, SBV is known to cause a mild transient disease; clinical signs include short febrile episodes, decreased milk production and diarrhoea for a few days. However, the knowledge about clinical signs and pathogenesis in adult sheep is limited.In the present study, adult sheep of European domestic breeds were inoculated with SBV either as cell culture grown virus or as virus with no history of passage in cell cultures. Various experimental set-ups were used. Sampling included blood collection at different time points during the experimental period and selected organ material at autopsy.Data from this study showed, that the RNAemic period in sheep was as short as reported for cattle; viral genome was detectable for about 3–5 days by real-time RT-PCR. In total, 13 out of 30 inoculated sheep became RNAemic, with the highest viral load in animals inoculated with virus from low cell culture passaged or the animal passaged material. Contact animals remained negative throughout the study. One RNAemic sheep showed diarrhoea for several days, but fever was not recorded in any of the animals. Antibodies were first detectable 10–14 days post inoculation. Viral RNA was detectable in spleen and lymph nodes up to day 44 post inoculation.In conclusion, as described for cattle, SBV-infection in adult sheep predominantly results in subclinical infection, transient RNAemia and a specific antibody response. Maintenance of viral RNA in the lymphoreticular system is observed for an extended period.
Periasamy, Kathiravan; Pichler, Rudolf; Poli, Mario; Cristel, Silvina; Cetrá, Bibiana; Medus, Daniel; Basar, Muladno; A. K., Thiruvenkadan; Ramasamy, Saravanan; Ellahi, Masroor Babbar; Mohammed, Faruque; Teneva, Atanaska; Shamsuddin, Mohammed; Podesta, Mario Garcia; Diallo, Adama
Sheep chromosome 3 (Oar3) has the largest number of QTLs reported to be significantly associated with resistance to gastro-intestinal nematodes. This study aimed to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within candidate genes located in sheep chromosome 3 as well as genes involved in major immune pathways. A total of 41 SNPs were identified across 38 candidate genes in a panel of unrelated sheep and genotyped in 713 animals belonging to 22 breeds across Asia, Europe and South Americ...
Estudo anatomorfológico, radiográfico e tomográfico de Schistosomus reflexus em ovino da raça Dorper: relato de caso / Anatomorphological, radiographic and tomographic studies of Schistosomus reflexus in Dorper breed sheep: case report
D.O.L., Ferreira; B.P., Santarosa; C.D., Monteiro-Toma; A.F., Belotta; S.B., Chiacchio; V.M.V., Machado; R.C., Gonçalves; N.C., Prestes.
Full Text Available O Schistosomus reflexus (SR) é uma anomalia congênita fatal e rara, primariamente observada em ruminantes, a qual apresenta feto com dorsoflexão da coluna vertebral, exposição das vísceras abdominais e torácicas e escoliose. Foi realizada uma cesariana de ovelha da raça Dorper, em propriedade da reg [...] ião de Botucatu-SP. Pelas características gerais e achados de necropsia, tratava-se de um caso de SR. A radiografia revelou acentuado desvio ventrodorsal do segmento da coluna vertebral toracolombar e deformidades das costelas. Na tomografia computadorizada, observou-se presença da integridade dos ossos e órgãos, exceto ausência de uma vértebra lombar. Não havia dados na literatura de diagnóstico por imagem de SR em ovinos, portanto procedeu-se, de forma inédita, a exames radiográfico e tomográfico do feto. Abstract in english Schistosomus reflexus (SR) is a rare and fatal congenital anomaly, primarily observed in ruminants, presenting fetus with dorsiflexion of the vertebral column, exposure of thoracic and visceral organs, and scoliosis. A caesarian was performed on a Dorper sheep on a farm in Botucatu-SP and according [...] to the general characteristics and findings observed in the necropsy of the fetus it was an SR case. The radiography indicated a marked ventro-dorsal deviation of the thoracolumbar column segment and deformity of the ribs. On the computed tomography the integrity of the bones and organs were detected, except for the absence of a lumbar vertebra. No data were available in the literature for SR diagnosis in sheep by image, so radiographic and tomographic exams of the fetus were done.
Pilot study for feeding preferences and grazing behavior in two breeds of sheep on a secondary succession of the Chiloé Archipelago / Estudio piloto para preferencias y comportamiento en pastoreo en dos razas ovinas sobre una sucesión secundaria del Archipiélago de Chiloé
María A, Gallardo; Rubén, Pulido; Rodrigo, de la Barra; María E, Martínez.
Full Text Available M.A. Gallardo, R. Pulido, R. de la Barra y M.E. Martínez. 2014. Estudio piloto para preferencias y comportamiento en pastoreo en dos razas ovinas sobre una sucesión secundaria del Archipiélago de Chiloé. Cien. Inv. Agr. 41(2):249-254. Un estudio piloto fue realizado para determinar el patrón de pref [...] erencias y comportamiento en pastoreo de la raza ovina Chilota en el Archipiélago de Chiloé. Primero, ocho ovejas Chilota y ocho Suffolk Down fueron enfrentadas a diferente número de especies vegetales (no consideradas como suplemento), ofrecidas sólo por 10 min post-ayuno y post-pastoreo de un calafatal, una sucesión secundaria dominada por arbustos. El experimento fue repetido cuatro veces en un lapso de 22 d, considerando además un período pre-experimental de un mes. Posteriormente, seis Chilota y seis Suffolk (aleatoriamente seleccionadas desde los mismos grupos) fueron ubicadas para pastorear un calafatal dividido en tres potreros de 10 x 10 m para poder rotar los animales. Las observaciones fueron realizadas por 1 minuto, a intervalos de 1-hora por 11 horas diarias, durante 10 d consecutivos, registrando diferentes comportamientos, tales como: pastoreo, ramoneo, descanso, rumia, interacción y acicalamiento. Considerando la ingesta de materia seca de cada una de las tres especies presentes en todos los desafíos (B. chilensis, G. mucronata y D. winteri), los resultados mostraron que D. winteri fue la más consumida y B. chilensis, la menos consumida. El comportamiento en pastoreo mostró que el pastoreo fue la principal actividad registrada para ambas razas (especialmente en Suffolk Down) durante la mañana y la tarde, mientras descanso y rumia fueron las principales actividades durante las horas de mayor calor. En resumen, ambas razas mostraron similar patrón de preferencias, aunque diferente comportamiento en pastoreo en una sucesión secundaria de Chiloé. Abstract in english M.A. Gallardo, R. de la Barra, and M.E. Martínez. 2014. Pilot study for feeding preferences and grazing behavior in two breeds of sheep on a secondary succession of the Chiloé Archipelago. Cien. Inv. Agr. 41(2):249-254. A pilot study was undertaken to determine the pattern of feeding preferences and [...] grazing behavior of the Chilota breed of sheep in the Chiloé Archipelago. First, eight Chilota and eight Suffolk Down ewes were faced with different numbers of plant species (offered only for 10 min), after fasting and after grazing a calafatal, a secondary succession dominated by shrubs. The experiment was repeated four times within a period of 22 d and included a 1-month pre-experimental period. Second, six Chilota and six Suffolk Down ewes, randomly selected from the same groups, were placed to graze on a calafatal divided into three 10-by-10 m paddocks to facilitate rotation of the animals. Observations were performed for 1 minute at 1-hour intervals for 11 hours a day, over 10 consecutive days, recording the following behaviors: grazing, browsing, resting, ruminating, and grooming. Regarding the dry matter intake of each of the three plant species present in all trials (B. chilensis, G. mucronata and D. winteri), results showed D. winteri was the most consumed and B. chilensis the least. The grazing behavior showed grazing was the main activity recorded for both breeds (especially for Suffolk Down) during the morning and evening, while resting and ruminating were the main activities recorded during the warmest hours. In summary, the breeds showed similar preferences but different grazing behavior pattern on a secondary succession of the Chiloé Archipelago.
Snoep, J J; Sol, J; Sampimon, O C; Roeters, N; Elbers, A R W; Scholten, H W; Borgsteede, F H M
In 1999, among 164 randomly selected Dutch sheep farmers, a questionnaire was carried out to estimate the prevalence of myiasis in sheep and to investigate factors associated with the occurrence of myiasis. The total number of sheep and/or lambs on the reference date 1 August 1999 was 12,200: 5243 ewes, 225 rams, 3393 ewe- and 3339 ram lambs. On 86 (52.4%) of the farms 349 (2.9%) of all sheep and/or lambs contracted myiasis, of which two died. Myiasis was seen significantly more frequently on farms with over 25 ewes compared to smaller farms. Cases of myiasis were detected from April to September, with a peak (47.1%) in August. Occurrence of myiasis was most frequently associated with hot and humid weather and was mainly observed (69.1%) in the area around the tail.Ewes and ewe lambs had significantly more myiasis when compared with rams and ram lambs. There was no relationship with tail docking, with breed, with the time of shearing, with the kind of soil (clay, sand, etc.), with the environment (bush, trees, water, etc.), with the type of treatment (pour on, dipping, spraying), the used insecticides (synthetic pyrethroïds, diazinon, cyromazin, etc.), the number of preventive treatments, the time of treatment or the number of observations on the herd (once a day, once a week, etc.). PMID:12079741
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate fiber quality characteristics of Naeini sheep. An experiment was carried out on six flocks from different regions of Isfahan province. Two hundred and twenty seven Naeini sheep (191 ewes and 36 rams were sampled from a 100 cm2 surface on the mid-side. Fleeces shorn in 1999 within two sampling seasons (June and December were sent to the laboratory of Animal Sciences at Isfahan University of Technology in order to study some wool quality traits including: fiber diameter mean, variability in fiber diameter, percent of true, modulated and heterotype fibers, accumulation of scales in 100 ?m fiber lengths and diameter mean of modulated and heterotype fibers on Naeini sheep. Fiber diameter mean, within sample variability of fiber diameter and diameter mean of heterotype and modulated fibers were estimated 28.51, 11.19, 46.67 and 65.78 ?m, respectively. The percentages of true, modulated and heterotype fibers were 89.53, 5.93 and 4.38, respectively and the average number of scales was 6.2 per 100 ?m length of fiber. Herd and season had significant effects on all of the studied measures. Herd effects may be due to genetic, environment and pasture (nutritional differences between herds. Also, the results of this study showed that there would be finer wool type at June than December shearing times for Naeini sheep. Age had a significant effect on % of heterotype fibers only and sex effect was only significant on the scales accumulation. On average, Naeini rams had finer fibers than ewes, which indicate higher selection intensities on rams. The results of this study revealed that Naeini sheep has great qualifications for carpet industry. However, further breeding programs are needed to meet textile industries qualifications.
Bemis, David A.; Stephen A. Kania
A Bartonella sp. was isolated from sheep blood. Bacterial identification was conducted by using electron microscopy and DNA sequencing of the 16S rRNA, citrate synthase, riboflavin synthase, and RNAase P genes. To our knowledge, this is the first report of ovine Bartonella infection.
Qualitative and quantitative histological changes in the sexual apparatus of slovak merino ewes were studies in the anoestrous period after irradiation (2.5 Gy) and hormonal stimulation. Estrus synchronization of the sheep has been carried out by application of 20 mg chlorosuperlutine in impregnated vaginal Ageline sponges. The sheep were hormone stimulated by application of 1500 IU of Serum gonadotrophin. The animals were killed approximately 120 h after the application of the hormone. Samples from the sexual apparatus were processed by the common histological methods for examination under a light microscope and for examination under a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Despite higher number of ovulations in irradiated and hormonally stimulated sheep, the examination of viability of irradiated oocytes showed absence of pregnancy in all 20 sheep after mating. This indicated that the dose of 2.5 Gy was not harmless to the reproductive system of sheep. (authors)
Recently, designer mutts like the Labradoodle -- a cross between a Labarador retriever and a poodle -- have become popular. A listener wanted to know if some kinds of dogs are just too different to make puppies. This Science Update explores the cross breeding of species.
This chapter describes a basic framework of simulated breeding, a type of interactive evolutionary computing to breed artifacts, whose origin is Blind Watchmaker by Dawkins. These methods make it easy for humans to design a complex object adapted to his/her subjective criteria, just similarly to agricultural products we have been developing over thousands of years. Starting from randomly initialized genome, the solution candidates are improved through several generations with artificial selection. The graphical user interface helps the process of breeding with techniques of multifield user interface and partial breeding. The former improves the diversity of individuals that prevents being trapped at local optimum. The latter makes it possible for the user to fix features he/she already satisfied. These methods were examined through artistic applications by the author: SBART for graphics art and SBEAT for music. Combining with a direct genome editor and exportation to another graphical or musical tool on the computer, they can be powerful tools for artistic creation. These systems may contribute to the creation of a type of new culture.
This book, edited by the colleague Giuseppe Pulina, is the result of the project "Further development of a diet formulation model for sheep and goat", supported by the Ministry of Agricultural and Forestry Policies, in Italy.
Empadre controlado, distribución de partos y prolificidad en ovejas de pelo en el trópico seco de Guerrero, México (Controlled breeding, prolificacy and delivery distribution in hair sheep in the dry tropic of Guerrero, México
Mireles Martínez, Esteban Julián
Full Text Available ResumenEl objetivo del presente estudio retrospectivo fue conocer la duración de los días de empadre con monta (DECM, la presentación de los partos con empadre continuo y controlado y el índice de prolificidad, por medio de los registros de un empadre continúo de junio 2002 a marzo 2003 y 11 períodos de empadres controlados de septiembre 2003 a diciembre del 2009 y sus respectivos períodos de nacimientos, en una unidad productiva de Cd.SummaryThe objective of this retrospective study was to know the lasting of mating with the days of riding (DMWR, continuous presentation of mating, presentation of continuous mating births, controlled and the rate of prolificacy, through information from the records in a continuous breeding season in June 2002 to March 2003 and 11 controlled mating periods in September 2003 to December 2009 and their periods of birth, in a production unit in Ciudad Altamirano, Guerrero, Mexico, composed of 45 multiparous ewes, 15 lambs and a stallion pubescent.
Zhou, J W; Mi, J D; Titgemeyer, E C; Guo, X S; Ding, L M; Wang, H C; Qiu, Q; Li, Z P; Long, R J
To study metabolic adaptation to harsh foraging conditions, an experiment was conducted to characterize and quantify N utilization efficiency and urea metabolism in Tibetan and fine-wool sheep fed 4 levels of dietary N (11.0, 16.7, 23.1, and 29.2 g N/kg DM) in 2 concurrent 4 × 4 Latin square designs. Urea kinetics were determined using continuous intrajugular infusions of NN-urea. Urinary excretions of total N and urea N increased linearly ( Urea N entry rate, urea N recycled to the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), and urea N returned to the ornithine cycle all increased with dietary N ( Urea N excreted in feces, both amount and fraction of GIT entry rate, was less in Tibetan than fine-wool sheep for the 11.0 and 16.7 g N/kg DM diets but similar for diets with 23.1 or 29.2 g N/kg DM (linear dietary N × breed; urea N production recycled to the GIT was greater in the Tibetan than fine-wool sheep (88% vs. 82%), but for the diet with 29.2 g N/kg DM it was greater for fine-wool than Tibetan sheep (46% vs. 39%; linear dietary N × breed; urea N increased more rapidly in response to increasing dietary N concentration for fine-wool sheep than for Tibetan sheep (linear dietary N × breed; Urea tubular load and the amount and percentage of urea reabsorbed by the kidney were greater in Tibetan than fine-wool sheep ( < 0.05). These results suggest that Tibetan sheep have mechanisms that allow them to utilize N more efficiently than the fine-wool sheep when dietary N is inadequate. PMID:26115287
Zhang, Min; Peng, Wei-Feng; Yang, Guang-Li; Lv, Feng-Hua; Liu, Ming-Jun; Li, Wen-Rong; Liu, Yong-Gang; Li, Jin-Quan; Wang, Feng; Shen, Zhi-Qiang; Zhao, Sheng-Guo; Hehua, Eer; Marzanov, Nurbiy; Murawski, Maziek; Kantanen, Juha; Li, Meng-Hua
Variation in two SNPs and one microsatellite on the Y chromosome was analyzed in a total of 663 rams representing 59 breeds from a large geographic range in northern Eurasia. SNPA-oY1 showed the highest allele frequency (91.55%) across the breeds, whereas SNPG-oY1 was present in only 56 samples. Combined genotypes established seven haplotypes (H4, H5, H6, H7, H8, H12 and H19). H6 dominated in northern Eurasia, and H8 showed the second-highest frequency. H4, which had been earlier reported to be absent in European breeds, was detected in one European breed (Swiniarka), whereas H7, which had been previously identified to be unique to European breeds, was present in two Chinese breeds (Ninglang Black and Large-tailed Han), one Buryatian (Transbaikal Finewool) and two Russian breeds (North Caucasus Mutton-Wool and Kuibyshev). H12, which had been detected only in Turkish breeds, was also found in Chinese breeds in this work. An overall low level of haplotype diversity (median h = 0.1288) was observed across the breeds with relatively higher median values in breeds from the regions neighboring the Near Eastern domestication center of sheep. H6 is the dominant haplotype in northwestern and eastern China, in which the haplotype distribution could be explained by the historical translocations of the H4 and H8 Y chromosomes to China via the Mongol invasions followed by expansions to northwestern and eastern China. Our findings extend previous results of sheep Y chromosomal genetic variability and indicate probably recent paternal gene flows between sheep breeds from distinct major geographic regions. PMID:25204383
Van den Brom, R; Moll, L; Kappert, C; Vellema, P
In a sheep farm in the Netherlands with a suspected Haemonchus contortus resistance to monepantel (Zolvix®, Novartis Animal Health), a fecal egg count reduction test was carried out in two groups of lambs, according to the method of the World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology. Group 1 was the untreated control group, and group 2 was treated with monepantel at the manufacturer's recommended dose rate. Efficacy of treatment with monepantel was 0%. Larval identification of pre- and post-treatment coprocultures revealed 100% H. contortus larvae. On this farm, after a perceived reduction in efficacy of ivermectin and doramectin, the sheep farmer started using monepantel in July 2012, and since then, monepantel was used as the sole anthelmintic. Breeding sheep were treated twice each year in 2013 and 2014, and lambs two times in 2012, four times in 2013, and three times in 2014, before monepantel resistance was suspected, and confirmed three weeks later. Although the frequency of monepantel treatments on this farm was relatively high with treatments on thirteen separate occasions in two years time, possibly establishing favorable conditions for a competitive advantage for resistant H. contortus, it is remarkable that resistance to monepantel was established in such a very short period. This study confirms, to the best of our knowledge, the first case of H. contortus resistance to monepantel occurring in the field. PMID:25770852
A. Ameur Ameur; F. Chougrani; A. Cheriguene; Halbouche, M; N. Karam
In order to study the race effect on the physico-chemical characteristics and protein profile, two sheep or ovine breeds Hamra and Ouled Djellal were raised in the same condition sat the ITELV (National institute of breeding) (Ain Hajar-Saida, Algeria). The analyses were focused on the pH, density, freezing, fat, total protein, dry defatted extract and total dry extract. The results obtained or these parameters showed no significant differences between the two races. Then the protein fraction...
Full Text Available The sheeps breeding is an old and traditional activity in Romania country. Depending on the number of sheeps and goats, Romania ranks in the fourth among E.U. countries. The research was conducted on three groups of sheeps, from same breed. All groups sheeps were feeding with the same amount of food, but the ratio structure was different, in the following scheme conformities: group I - has been used a fibrous ratio; group II – has been used a juicy ratio; group III – has been used a concentrate ratio. Also, in all the groups was recorded the milk production and the weight of lambs in the first month of the life. Based on research conducted, the fallowing conclusions were drawn: The highest milk production was produced by sheeps in group I and group II; The weight of lambs in the first month of life was also influenced by the mother sheeps ratio structure; The largest increase growth was made of lambs coming from a group III, and the smallest increase was made of lambs coming a group II. As a general conclusion, the best results are obtained when the mother sheeps are fed with concentrate ratio type and fibrous ratio type.
Full Text Available A total of 334 ewes recorded with twining births from the Tunisian fat tail Barbarine sheep were genotyped in the objective to identify the FecXI and FecXH mutations. The genotyping was carried out by forced restriction fragment length polymorphism PCR (RFLP-PCR. None of mutations was detected in Barbarine sheep. Results showed that all analyzed ewes were homozygous non carriers. These results suggest that fecundity of this breed is not linked to the same mutations. Therefore, it is necessary to seek for other mutations or fecundity genes in order to develop marker assistance selection techniques and study the prolific mechanism of the Barbarine breed.
José Lindenberg Rocha, Sarmento; Robledo de Almeida, Torres; Raimundo Nonato Braga, Lôbo; Lucia Galvão de, Albuquerque; Wandrick Hauus de, Sousa; José Ernandes Rufino de, Sousa.
Full Text Available Utilizaram-se 17.767 registros de peso de 4.210 cordeiros da raça Santa Inês com o objetivo de comparar modelos de regressão aleatória com diferentes estruturas para modelar a variância residual em estudos genéticos da curva de crescimento. Os efeitos fixos incluídos na análise foram: grupo contempo [...] râneo e idade da ovelha no parto. As regressões fixas e aleatórias foram ajustadas por meio de polinômios de Legendre de ordens 4 e 3, respectivamente. A variância residual foi ajustada por meio de classes heterogêneas e por funções de variância empregando polinômios ordinários e de Legendre de ordens 2 a 8. O modelo considerando homogeneidade de variâncias residuais mostrou-se inadequado. De acordo com os critérios utilizados, a variância residual contendo sete classes heterogêneas proporcionou melhor ajuste, embora um mais parcimonioso, com cinco classes, pudesse ser utilizado sem perdas na qualidade de ajuste da variância nos dados. O ajuste de funções de variância com qualquer ordem foi melhor que o obtido por meio de classes. O polinômio ordinário de ordem 6 proporcionou melhor ajuste entre as estruturas testadas. A modelagem do resíduo interferiu nas estimativas de variâncias e parâmetros genéticos. Além da alteração da classificação dos reprodutores, a magnitude dos valores genéticos preditos apresenta variações significativas, de acordo com o ajuste da variância residual empregado. Abstract in english It was used 17,767 weight records of 4,210 Santa Inês breed lambs aiming to compare random regression models with different structures to model the residual variance in genetic studies of the growth curve. The fixed effects included in the analysis were contemporary group and age of the ewe at lambi [...] ng. Fixed and random regressions were fitted through Legendry polynomials of orders 4 and 3, respectively. The residual variance was fitted by heterogeneous classes and by functions of variances employing ordinary polynomials and Legendry polynomials of the orders 2 to 8. The model considering homogeneity of residual variances was inadequate. Accordingly to the used criteria, the residual variance containing seven heterogeneous classes provided the best fit, although a more parsimonious one, with five classes, could be used without losses on the quality of variance fit on the data. The fit of functions of variances with any order was better than that obtained through classes. The ordinary polynomial of order 6 provided the best fit among the tested structures. The modeling of the residue interfered on the estimative of the variances and genetic parameters. In addition to changes in the classification of the reproducers, the magnitude of the predicted genetic values shows significant variations, accordingly to the fitting of the used residual variance.
Notter David R
Full Text Available Abstract Genetic improvement in traits associated with seasonal breeding in sheep is challenging because these traits have low heritabilities, are generally not expressed until late in life, are commonly recorded only in females, and are expressed only in some lambing seasons and management systems. Detection of quantitative trait loci and their use in marker-assisted selection could therefore substantially enhance selection responses. A population of sheep with an extended breeding season was developed through selection for fertility in spring matings and provides opportunities for further study of candidate genes influencing seasonal breeding. In particular, the melatonin receptor 1a gene is polymorphic in many sheep breeds and appears to influence a number of seasonal reproductive responses. In addition, a variety of clock genes have been identified in laboratory mammals and shown to influence biological rhythms. Mutations in these clock genes have been identified and shown to influence circadian periodicities and reproductive patterns in golden hamster and mouse. In sheep, expression of clock genes in the suprachaismatic nucleus and pars tuberalis (PT suggests that "calendar" cells in the ovine PT play a role in maintaining circannual rhythms. Thus the various clock genes represent potentially important candidate genes that may be involved in control of seasonal breeding.
Thirteen sheep from a milk producing farm in the Canton of Grisons that presented chronic coenurosis were examined and subjected to treatment trials at the veterinary hospital in Zurich. Symptoms were first observed around two months after the import of two dogs from Italy (Abruzza) of which one was infected with Taenia multiceps and Echinococcus granulosus. The most frequently observed clinical symptoms of the sheep were reduced general condition, circling, reduced menace reflex, apathy, unsteady gait and head tilt. Analyses of cerebrospinal fluid revealed an increased leucocyte count in 3 sheep and eosinophilia in 4 sheep. In 4 animals that underwent computertomography, one or more hypodense, definable lesions were found in the brain. In 2 sheep surgical treatment and in 10 animals medical treatment with either Praziquantel (n=8) or Oxfendazol (n=2) was attempted. Only one animal treated with Praziquantel needed not to be euthanized. At necropsy, one or two coenurus cysts could be found either in a side ventricle (n=2), in the cerebellum (n=3) or in the cerebrum (n=7). The locations corresponded with the clinical findings. Despite Praziquantel or Oxfendazol treatment, living protoscoleces could be found in the parasite cysts
Full Text Available Small ruminants are the most extensively farmed livestock species in Europe, as a result being extremely exposed to natural hazards which leads to strong interactions between genotype and environment. Aim of the current review was to outline and discuss the main welfare issues and economic implications with regards to the genotype by environment interactions in dairy sheep. Researches concerning the additive genetic effect on milk yield, shown that this accounts only for 10%, while the milk production is 90% influenced by environmental factors, highlighting the major role that management and nutrition play in the dairy production of sheep. Nowadays, dairy sheep breeds (e.g. Eastern Friesian and Lacaune, are being introduced and reared in various countries under an extremely wide range of rearing conditions, without adequate knowledge on their acclimatization to the new specific conditions. It was concluded that a welfare assessment protocol for dairy sheep does not exist up today, moreover, there is a serious lack of data concerning the genetic and environmental factors affecting the welfare status of dairy sheep at farm level under different production systems.
The effects of the radiation ban on sheep movements announced on 20 June are debated. This is of particular concern to the farmers of Wales, Cumbria and the South of Scotland for whom it poses grave financial problems. Several questions about statements made at the time of the Chernobyl incident and the resulting increased radiation levels in parts of the British Isles are raised, and criticisms of the Government attitude and information are made. The delay in announcing compensation is also criticised. The debate, which lasted over an hour, is reported verbatim. It includes discussions on markets and prices of the sheep in the areas of the ban. (UK)
Microbial breakdown of cellulose is a rather slow process. Therefore the retention time of digesta and the volume of the fermentation chamber are factors limiting the quantity of fibrous diets that can be digested. Indigenous ruminants can generally adapt to harsh grazing conditions better than conventional breeds. Unexpectedly high rumen volumes were reported in a number of indigenous ruminants. In studies reported in this paper, Heidschnucken, an indigenous breed of sheep in the heather region of Northern Germany, were able to increase their rumen volume from 14% to 22% of body weight during adaptation to a low quality fibrous diet. Heidschnucken did not lose significant body weight, whereas Blackface sheep lost 20% and failed to adapt the rumen volume. Rumen volume of indigenous sheep and goats in Northern Kenya was 20% of body weight while grazing in the thornbush savannah during the dry season, compared with 9-12% while kept indoors on a hay-concentrate diet. Mean retention time of particles in the total gastrointestinal tract of goats and sheep in Kenya was 38 h and 46 h respectively. In the experiment with Heidschnucken, these sheep increased the retention time of particles to 71 h on a straw diet, while Blackface sheep retained particles 58 h. Dietary preference and feed intake have been studied in indigenous sheep and goats in Kenya at seasonal pasture conditions in the thornbush savannah. Goats have a higher preference to dicotyledon species (92-97%) than sheep, who are less selective grazers. The feeding behaviour of indigenous sheep and goats was complementary rather than competitive. Feeding observations indicate that this is also the case when cattle (grazers) and camels (browsers) are included in such a comparison. (author)
Maksyutov, R A; Gavrilova, E V; Agafonov, A P; Taranov, O S; Glotov, A G; Miheev, V N; Shchelkunov, S N; Sergeev, A N
In this study, we investigated recent sheep pox outbreaks that occurred in Ononsky and Borzunsky regions of Zabajkalskij kray of Russia. The outbreaks involved in 2756 animals of which 112 were infected and 3 were slaughtered. Samples of injured skin of infected sheep were analysed by electron microscopy and CaPV-specific P32 gene amplification. Following sequence analysis of entire P32 gene showed that both specimens were identical to the sequence of several sheep poxvirus isolates from China and India. The close location of China to the last decade's Russian outbreaks suggest that possible future outbreaks in Russia could occur along the border regions with countries where sheep and goat pox are not controlled. PMID:24127821
Seasonal changes that occur in body weight, body temperature, total body water and water turnover were investigated in grazing sheep and goats at different times of the year to understand how different breeds adapt to the environmental conditions in Sudan. (author)
Thuanny Lopes Nazaret; Rosangela Zacarias Machado; Fagner Luiz da Costa Freitas; Katyane de Sousa Almeida; Celio Raimundo Machado; Adjair Antonio do Nascimento
The present research evaluated carbohydrates metabolism alterations in sheep experimentally infected with Trypanosoma vivax. It were used eight male, adult, mixed breed sheep, randomly assigned in two groups: four animals in the witness group and four animals infected with 1x105 T. vivax trypomastigotes. For assessment of plasma glucose and free fatty acids, blood samples were collected from each animal external jugular vein, in both groups, two times before infection and later, in certain da...
McBride, S D; Perentos, N; Morton, A J
Mirror image-induced stimulation and the ability to use the mirror to improve navigational ability for the purpose of object location are considered measures of animal cognitive ability. The purpose of this study was to assess these cognitive abilities in sheep (Ovis aries) as part of a larger programme profiling the cognitive ability of this animal species. Three separate groups of sheep [(n = 29); 10 Welsh Mountain, 8 Norfolk Horned and 11 Borderdale] were trained (?80 % criterion) to locate a salient object (yellow bucket containing cereal-based food) in one of two possible positions, from one of two possible starting points. Each group of sheep was then divided into two sub-groups. One sub-group was exposed to a mirror over a period of 15 days (mirror exposed), whilst the other group remained mirror naïve. All animals were then retested within the choice maze using the mirror, where two out of the possible four bucket positions were now 'apparent' (as reflections in the mirror), in order to assess whether mirror-exposed animals had a more accurate representation of the real bucket position. Sheep exhibited two out of the three archetypal stages of mirror-induced behaviour, namely social/exploratory and contingency behaviour, with differences existing between breeds. Welsh Mountain sheep spent significantly more time fixating on the self-image and touching the self-image with their muzzle than the other two breeds. During the test phase, no overall differences in performance were observed between the mirror-exposed and mirror-naïve groups. However, Welsh Mountain sheep did perform significantly more correct responses overall, compared to the other two breeds. Although the data did not convincingly demonstrate that sheep could use a reflective surface to improve their navigational ability, the observed differences between groups suggests that some breeds of sheep may demonstrate better navigational ability as well as having a greater engagement with the self-image than others. PMID:25322812
Full Text Available Scientific research on factors causing the reduction of well-being in sheep and goats is rather recent, as are studies of strategies to minimize the adverse effects of environmental challenges and improper management practices on flock welfare. Sheep and goats, considered very rustic animals, are reared prevalently under extensive production systems and are widespread mainly in marginal areas. For these reasons, only few studies on the welfare of these species have been carried out in the past. More recently, the scenario has changed, due to a gradual diffusion of intensive and semi-intensive production systems, especially in dairy sheep and goat breeds, to the growing concern of consumers about the life conditions of farmed animals, and to the issuing of a number of rules and laws on the safety of animal products and well-being of farmed livestock. As a consequence, several research groups have turned their attention to the welfare of sheep and goats. Nevertheless, information on this topic is still scarce. This paper reviews major critical points regarding the endangerment of welfare in farmed sheep and goats. Climatic extremes and seasonal fluctuations in herbage amount and quality are discussed as important causes of the reduction of well-being in extensive production systems, which can impair production efficiency of grazing animals and dramatically affect the welfare and health status of sheep and goats. Space allowance and structures of sheep and goat houses are described as the main potential sources of discomfort for housed flocks, together with inadequate control of micro-environment, and inappropriate milking procedures and human-animal interactions. Recent studies on the impact of high ambient temperature, different ventilation regimes, high stocking densities, reduced airspace and poor litter management on behaviour, immune and endocrine response, and on performance of sheep and goats are discussed. The effects of inadequate milking procedures and improper milking technical parameters on welfare and udder health of sheep and goats are also discussed. Finally, some practices aimed at minimizing emotional and nutritional stresses of lambs and kids after early separation from the mother, before the transition to artificial rearing, and at weaning time are described.
Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Silva-Aguilar, Dante; Villena, Isabelle; Dubey, Jitender P
Toxoplasma gondii infection in sheep is of public health and economic importance. Seroprevalence of T. gondii infection and correlates were determined in 405 sheep from 7 farms in 4 geographical regions in Michoacán State, Mexico using the modified agglutination test (MAT). General sheep and environmental characteristics were obtained by a questionnaire. All sheep were raised in semi-extensive conditions in temperate climate. Antibodies to T. gondii were found in 121 (29.9%) of the 405 sheep with MAT titers of 1:25 in 46, 1:50 in 20, 1:100 in 7, 1:200 in 5, 1:400 in 7, 1:800 in 11, 1:1600 in 5, and 1:3200 or higher in 20. Seropositivity did not vary significantly with age, sex or breed. In contrast, seroprevalence varied among farms, geographic region, municipality, altitude, mean annual temperature, and mean annual rainfall. The median seroprevalence in farms was 32.6% (range 7.1-71.4%). Sheep raised in farms at ?1900 m above sea level had a higher seroprevalence (44.1%) than those in farms at lower sea level (16.3%). Sheep raised in municipalities with ?17.7 °C mean annual temperature had a higher seroprevalence (37.2%) than those in municipalities with higher mean annual temperature (14.1%). Sheep raised in a municipality with 600 mm of mean annual rainfall had a higher seroprevalence (71.4%) than municipalities with higher mean annual rainfall (29.1%). This is the first report on the seroprevalence and correlates of T. gondii infection in sheep in Michoacán State, Mexico. The role of environmental characteristics for T. gondii infection in sheep deserves further research. PMID:24063950
Andrés N, Grasso; Virginia, Goldberg; Elly A, Navajas; Wanda, Iriarte; Diego, Gimeno; Ignacio, Aguilar; Juan F, Medrano; Gonzalo, Rincón; Gabriel, Ciappesoni.
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the genetic diversity within and among three breeds of sheep: Corriedale, Merino and Creole. Sheep from the three breeds (Merino n = 110, Corriedale n = 108 and Creole n = 10) were genotyped using the Illumina Ovine SNP50 beadchip®. Genetic diversity was eval [...] uated by comparing the minor allele frequency (MAF) among breeds. Population structure and genetic differentiation were assessed using STRUCTURE software, principal component analysis (PCA) and fixation index (F ST). Fixed markers (MAF = 0) that were different among breeds were identified as specific breed markers. Using a subset of 18,181 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), PCA and STUCTURE analysis were able to explain population stratification within breeds. Merino and Corriedale divergent lines showed high levels of polymorphism (89.4% and 86% of polymorphic SNPs, respectively) and moderate genetic differentiation (F ST = 0.08) between them. In contrast, Creole had only 69% polymorphic SNPs and showed greater genetic differentiation from the other two breeds (F ST = 0.17 for both breeds). Hence, a subset of molecular markers present in the OvineSNP50 is informative enough for breed assignment and population structure analysis of commercial and Creole breeds.
Agerholm, JØrgen S.; Aalbæk, Bent
The Danish sheep population totals around 144,000 animals, but little is known of the causes and prevalance of diseases. This study focuses on the causes of abortion in Danish sheep. During one breeding season, aborted foetuses and stillbirths with signs of intrauterine death or malformation were submitted for laboratory examination from a population of 3,758 breeding ewes. Samples from 24 incidents of abortion and 21 ewes delivering malformed lambs or lambs with ante partum decomposition were submitted. A specific aetiology was established in 66.7% and 14.3% of the cases, respectively. Bacterial pathogens were the most prevalent cause of abortion. Several of the abortifacients were zoonotic microorganisms, for example Listeria monocytogenes, Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus, Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and Toxoplasma gondii. The identified microorganisms probably represent the most common causes of abortion in Danish sheep but occurrence in Denmark of other pathogens such as Coxiella burnetii and Chlamydophila abortus cannot be excluded. Due to the high prevalence of zoonotic microorganisms, precautions must be taken in handling abortions or assisting lambing, especially for pregnant women.
Sheep and goats are often kept in low input production systems, often at subsistence levels. In such systems, the uptake of effective commercial breeding programmes is limited, let alone the uptake of more advanced technologies such as those needed for marker-assisted selection (MAS). However, effective breeding programmes exist in a number of countries, the largest ones in Australia and New Zealand aiming for genetic improvement of meat and wool characteristics as well as disease resistance and fecundity. Advances have been made in sheep gene mapping with the marker map consisting of more than 1 200 microsatellites, and a virtual genome sequence together with a very dense single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) map are expected within a year. Significant research efforts into quantitative trait loci (QTL) are under way and a number of commercial sheep gene tests have already become available, mainly for single gene effects but some for muscularity and disease resistance. Gene mapping in goats is much less advanced with mainly some activity in dairy goats. Integration of genotypic information into commercial genetic evaluation and optimal selection strategies is a challenge that deserves more development. (author)
S.H. Hosseini; A Nematollahi; A.Eslami
For determination the inducing factors of arrested development of 3th stage larvae of Haemonchus contortus as early L4 in sheep in 2 out of 4 climatic conditions of Iran, 24, six month old native sheep (shall breed) were randomly allocated into 3 equal groups I, II and III.Each sheep in each group received 10000 local isolate of H.contortus larvae not known to exhibit hypobiosis as follow: (i)Freshly collected larvae were given to group I, (control group).(ii)Larvae stored at 8-10 oc and 70%...
Silvana, Bravo; Giovanni, Larama; Manuel, Ortíz; Néstor, Sepúlveda.
Full Text Available Genetic diversity studies in domestic animals allow evaluating genetic variation within and among breeds mainly for conservation purposes. In Chile exist isolated recovery programs, conservation and characterization of animal genetic resources, a consequence of which the vast majority of them have n [...] ot been characterized, poorly used, and some of them have become extinct. The aim of this research was to determine genetic diversity and relationship between 'Araucana' creole and 'Hampshire Down' sheeps based on microsatellite markers; sheep breeds with similar phenotypic characteristics, raised in the south of Chile. A total of 64 'Araucana' sheep ('Araucana' from Freire, AF: 27, 'Araucana' from Padre Las Casas, AP: 10, 'Araucana' from Chol Chol, AC: 15, 'Araucana' from Villarrica, AV: 12) and 43 'Hampshire Down' sheep ('Hampshire' from Marchigue, HM: 18, 'Hampshire' from Valdivia, HV: 11, 'Hampshire' from San José, HS: 14) were analyzed using 17 microsatellite markers for determine the genetic diversity and relationship between breeds. A total of 284 alleles were observed with average polymorphic information content equal to 0.76, showing that the microsatellites panel used was highly informative. Estimated heterozygosity ranged from 0.73 in 'Hampshire Down' to 0.85 in 'Araucana'. The low inbreeding or endogamy coefficient (F IS, 0.022) and total inbreeding estimate (F IT, 0.070) indicated low level of inbreeding within and among breeds. The phylogenetic tree showed a separation between HS and HV, and the other sheep populations. The results indicated high genetic variability, low inbreeding, and low genetic differentiation, except for HV and HS, and were in according with geographical location and breeding practices.
Full Text Available Con el propósito de discutir y analizar la información disponible, referente al comportamiento reproductivo estacional de los ovinos en la República Mexicana, se realizó la presente revisión. Se analizaron las bases neuroendocrinas que regulan el ciclo reproductivo anual en la oveja y posteriormente [...] se discutió el grado de estacionalidad reproductiva en ovejas criollas de lana, en razas originarias de latitudes altas y en ovejas de pelo, principalmente, en ovejas Pelibuey. Las ovejas criollas de lana, muestran un anestro estacional corto con tendencia a ovular todo el año. Las hembras de origen septentrional, expresan actividad reproductiva estacional, similar a la observada en los individuos ubicados geográficamente en latitudes mayores a 35°. Las ovejas Pelibuey, muestran comportamiento reproductivo anual variable, con reducido anestro estacional o ausencia del mismo. Se sugiere que los mecanismos neuroendocrinos que regulan el anestro estacional en los ovinos, se encuentran activos en las ovejas de origen septentrional que habitan en México; de manera contraria, no se activan en ovejas criollas y de pelo. Abstract in english In order to discuss and analyze the available information concerning the seasonal breeding behavior of sheep in Mexico, this review was conducted. We analyzed the neuroendocrine basis that modulate the annual reproductive cycle in sheep and then discussed the degree of reproductive seasonality in Cr [...] eole sheep wool, breeds originating in high latitudes and hair sheep, mainly in Pelibuey ewes. The Creole sheep wool show continuous annual reproductive activity and short seasonal anestrous. The females of northern origin, express seasonal reproductive activity, similar to that observed in individuals geographically located at latitudes above 35°. Pelibuey sheep show variable annual reproductive behavior with reduced anestrus or lack thereof. It is suggested that the neuroendocrine mechanisms regulating seasonal anestrus in ewes, are active in the sheep of northern origin that live in Mexico, in a manner contrary is not activated in Creole and hair sheep.
CAMELIA ZOIA ZAMFIR
Full Text Available The introduction of HACCP system within sheep exploitations represents a unitary control manner, scientifically proved, which enforces the discipline and correctness, allows an objective evaluation of sheep and goat meat and milk quality. When determining the main components of sheep and goat milk from the animals that grazed on the pasture fertilized with stable manure, within ecologic conditions, the following results were obtained: at sheep there was a fat percent of 6.22% and 6.11%, protein 5.32% and 5.52%, and dry substance 14.25% and 14.21%, normal values for sheep milk; at goats the fat percent was that of 6.22% and 6.11%, protein 5.32% and 5.52%, and dry substance 14.25% and 14.21%, normal values for goat milk. The milk samples taken from the sheep belonging to Palas Merino breed and from Carpatina breed were also analysed with regard to the toxic residues and it has been stated that the values obtained fit within the normal norms admitted by the food domain’ standards, being in compliance with the safety and protection of the consumers. The elimination of chemical fertilizers, pesticides and herbicides has led to the non-noticing of their presence within the sheep and goat products. By the regulation of ecologic products’ quality, in relation with the consumers’ and environment’s protection, a balance was created between the producers’ interests and obligations, those of the merchants and also those of the consumers. On the basis of results obtained through the microbiological examination of milk and meat samples taken from the sheep it has been stated that the microbial flora identified is formed by representatives of Staphylococcus–72.72% Streptococcus ? hemolitic – 9.09% and Fungi filamentous – 18.18%. The microbial flora is non pathogen for man.
Science NetLinks (The museum of science, art and human perception at the Palace of Fine Arts; )
A sheep brain is used to teach about memory and where it takes place because its brain structure and functions are similar to the human brain. Students will be exposed briefly to the fact that electrochemical connections made between brain cells help us remember the thoughts, skills, experiences, and knowledge that make each of us unique. Through dissections, students will learn about the cortex, brain cells, and where the three main subdivisions of memory (working, long-term, and skill memory) take place.
Full Text Available Turkish Karayaka sheep breed that is one of the important native breed at Black Sea Region in Turkey was genotyped for 13 RAPD primers. Genotypes of 100 were collected from five different herds (BA, BF, LA, LD and KP herds localized in the Samsun territory. The genetic similarity was obtained on the dendrograms individuals and herd. Within herds, individuals showed a similarity index between 0.857 to 0.420. The similarity index between populations ranged from 0.520 to 0.710. The binary results also were utilised by principal component analysis for comparison of herds and individuals. The genetic relationship of animals shows a difference among herds in terms of number of RAPD bands. These results show that some herds are effected possibly from other sheep breeds or reared purely such as KP.
Jasmina Havranek; Željko Mikulec; Tomislav Mašek; Neven Antunac; Nataša Mikulec; Ivan Vnu?ec; Darija Bendelja
Determining urea concentration in milk is a useful indicator for controlling supply of proteins to organisms, as well as the relationship of energy and protein in the food, thus it is finding more and more ways of practical use. The concentration of urea in milk, along with the feeding process, is influenced by a number of other factors such as: breed, stage and sequence of lactation, body mass, daily production and chemical structure of milk, number of somatic cells, season, milking.The goal...
Full Text Available A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence and risk factors for ectoparasites infestation in sheep in three agro-ecological zones in central Oromia, Ethiopia, from October 2009 to April 2010. The study revealed that 637 (48.1% of the 1325 sheep examined were infested with one or more ectoparasites. The ectoparasites identified were Bovicola ovis (27.2%, Melophagus ovinus (16.4%, Ctenocephalides sp. (2.3%, Linognathus africanus (1.2%, Linognathus ovillus (0.3%, Sarcoptes sp. (1.2%, Amblyomma variegatum (4.4%, Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi (1.9%, Rhipicephalus pravus (1.9%, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus decoloratus (1.1%, Rhipicephalus sanguineus (0.9%, Rhipicephalus praetextatus (1.1% and Hyalomma truncatum (1.6%. Statistically significant difference was observed in prevalence of B. ovis amongst study agroecological zones: highland 36.6%, midland 20.9% and lowland 14.0%. Significantly higher prevalence was recorded in highland agroecological zone. A significantly (OR = 0.041, p 0.05 was never recorded in the prevalence of all the identified species of ectoparasites between male and female sheep hosts. However, a significantly (p = 0.006 higher prevalence of B. ovis was recorded between young and adult sheep. The risk of B. ovis infestation was 1.45 times higher in young than the adult sheep. Furthermore, a significantly (p < 0.001 higher prevalence of M. ovinus, B. ovis and Sarcoptes sp. was found between sheep with poor and a good body condition. The ever increasing threat of ectoparasites on overall sheep productivity and tanning industry in Ethiopia warrants urgent control intervention. Further studies on the role of ectoparasites in transmission of diseases to sheep, zoonotic importance, comparative prevalence and load, and the importance of sheep as alternative hosts in different agroecological zones, breeds and management systems in Ethiopia are recommended so as to design applicable control programme in the country.
Dolly, the world's first animal to be cloned from an adult cell, was put down February 14, 2003, due to a tumor in the lung. Her death has drawn increased attention to how little we really know about the potential health problems associated with genetic cloning. The journal Nature offers a special Web focus on "the life of this extraordinary sheep," including current and archived news articles and scientific papers. These resources offer a great way for readers to delve into this topic at depth and learn about the science behind the news.
Gelasakis, A I; Valergakis, G E; Arsenos, G; Banos, G
The aim was to assess the intensified dairy sheep farming systems of the Chios breed in Greece, establishing a typology that may properly describe and characterize them. The study included the total of the 66 farms of the Chios sheep breeders' cooperative Macedonia. Data were collected using a structured direct questionnaire for in-depth interviews, including questions properly selected to obtain a general description of farm characteristics and overall management practices. A multivariate statistical analysis was used on the data to obtain the most appropriate typology. Initially, principal component analysis was used to produce uncorrelated variables (principal components), which would be used for the consecutive cluster analysis. The number of clusters was decided using hierarchical cluster analysis, whereas, the farms were allocated in 4 clusters using k-means cluster analysis. The identified clusters were described and afterward compared using one-way ANOVA or a chi-squared test. The main differences were evident on land availability and use, facility and equipment availability and type, expansion rates, and application of preventive flock health programs. In general, cluster 1 included newly established, intensive, well-equipped, specialized farms and cluster 2 included well-established farms with balanced sheep and feed/crop production. In cluster 3 were assigned small flock farms focusing more on arable crops than on sheep farming with a tendency to evolve toward cluster 2, whereas cluster 4 included farms representing a rather conservative form of Chios sheep breeding with low/intermediate inputs and choosing not to focus on feed/crop production. In the studied set of farms, 4 different farmer attitudes were evident: 1) farming disrupts sheep breeding; feed should be purchased and economies of scale will decrease costs (mainly cluster 1), 2) only exercise/pasture land is necessary; at least part of the feed (pasture) must be home-grown to decrease costs (clusters 1 and 4), 3) providing pasture to sheep is essential; on-farm feed production decreases costs (mainly cluster 3), and 4) large-scale farming (feed production and cash crops) does not disrupt sheep breeding; all feed must be produced on-farm to decrease costs (mainly cluster 3). Conducting a profitability analysis among different clusters, exploring and discovering the most beneficial levels of intensified management and capital investment should now be considered. PMID:22612943
Donald P. Knowles
Full Text Available Small ruminant lentiviruses include members that infect sheep (ovine lentivirus [OvLV]; also known as ovine progressive pneumonia virus/maedi-visna virus and goats (caprine arthritis encephalitis virus [CAEV]. Breed differences in seroprevalence and proviral concentration of OvLV had suggested a strong genetic component in susceptibility to infection by OvLV in sheep. A genetic marker test for susceptibility to OvLV has been developed recently based on the TMEM154 gene with validation data from over 2,800 sheep representing nine cohorts. While no single genotype has been shown to have complete resistance to OvLV, consistent association in thousands of sheep from multiple breeds and management conditions highlight a new strategy for intervention by selective breeding. This genetic marker-assisted selection (MAS has the potential to be a useful addition to existing viral control measures. Further, the discovery of multiple additional genomic regions associated with susceptibility to or control of OvLV suggests that additional genetic marker tests may be developed to extend the reach of MAS in the future. This review will cover the strengths and limitations of existing data from host genetics as an intervention and outline additional questions for future genetic research in sheep, goats, small ruminant lentiviruses, and their host-pathogen interactions.
Ana Maria Bezerra Oliveira, Lôbo; Raimundo Nonato Braga, Lôbo; Samuel Rezende, Paiva.
Full Text Available We determined the polymorphism C242T of the aromatase gene (Cyp19) and its allelic frequency, as well as the effect of the variants on productive and reproductive traits in 71 purebred Santa Inês sheep, 13 purebred Brazilian Somali sheep, nine purebred Poll Dorset sheep, and 18 crossbred 1/2 Dorper [...] sheep. The animals were genotyped using the PCR-RFLP technique. The influence of the animal's genotype on its performance or on the performance of its lambs was analyzed by the least square method. Another factor assessed was the importance of the animal's genotype in analysis models for quantitative breeding value estimates, and whether there were differences among the averages of breeding values of animals with different genotypes for this gene. In the sample studied, no AA individuals were observed; the AB and BB frequencies were 0.64 and 0.36, respectively. All Brazilian Somali sheep were of genotype BB. All 1/2 Dorper BB animals presented a lower age at first lambing, and the Santa Inês BB ewes presented a lower lambing interval. In these same genetic groups, AB ewes presented higher litter weight at weaning. This is evidence that BB ewes have a better reproductive performance phenotype, whereas AB ewes present a better maternal ability phenotype. However, in general, animals with genotype AB presented better average breeding values than those with genotype BB.
Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the functional capacity of the liver based on the activity of specific enzymes and bilirubin in serum and also to investigate the influence of mechanical and toxic effects of Fasciola hepatica on the structures of the blood vessels and biliary tract in the sheep liver.Methods: Blood samples and liver of 63 indigenous sheep of Pramenka breed, slaughtered in the period from March to December 2009 were used. Based on parasitological findings in the liver, all animals were divided into two groups: control (n=34 and infected group (n=29. For investigation and description of pathological changes in sheep liver, naturally infected with F. hepatica, corrosion cast technique was used.Results: Biochemical analysis of tested parameters showed a significant elevation (P?0.05 of serum gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT, total bilirubin (TBIL and direct bilirubin (DBIL in infected sheep group comparing with the control group. No significant differences were observed for activity of aspartate aminotranferase (AST between groups. Vascular and biliary systems of the liver were found to be affected.Conclusion: Results of biochemical analysis are consistent with pathological findings and measuring of tested parameters could be used in early diagnosis of sheep fasciolosis and to test the effectiveness of anthelmintic therapy. Corrosion cast technique is very useful for investigation of pathological changes and neoangiogenesis of vascular and biliary system in sheep liver, caused by mechanical and toxic effects of F. hepatica.
Han, J L; Yang, M; Yue, Y J; Guo, T T; Liu, J B; Niu, C E; Yang, B H
Tibetan sheep, an indigenous breed, have a wide variety of phenotypes and a colorful coat, which make this breed an interesting model for evaluating the effects of coat-color gene mutations on this phenotypic trait. The agouti signaling protein (ASIP) gene is a positional candidate gene, as was inferred based on previous study. In our research, ASIP gene copy numbers in genomic DNA were detected using a novel approach, and the exon 2 g.100-104 mutation and copy number variation (CNV) of ASIP were associated with coat color in 256 sheep collected from eight populations with different coat colors by high-resolution melting curve assay. We found that the relative copy numbers of ASIP ranged from one to eight in Tibetan sheep. All of the g.100-104 genotypes in the populations were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, and there was no relationship between the g.100-104 genotype and coat color (P > 0.05). The single ASIP CNV allele was found to be almost entirely associated with solid-black coat color; however, not all solid-black sheep displayed the putative single ASIP CNV genotype. From our study, we speculate that the ASIP CNV is under great selective pressure and the single ASIP CNV allows selection for black coat color in Tibetan sheep, but this does not explain all black phenotypes in Tibetan sheep. PMID:25730058
A genome-wide association study (GWAS) was performed to investigate seven red blood cell (RBC) phenotypes in over 500 domestic sheep (Ovis aries) from three breeds (Columbia, Polypay, and Rambouillet). A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) showed genome-wide significant association with increased m...
Neurosecretion, PAS-positive mucopolysaccharides and the Nissl substance were studied in the neurons of the rostral, medial and caudal hypothalamus of continuously irradiated ewes. The study was performed on 21 ewes of the Slovak Merino breed of a live weight of 34 kg. The animals were in the period of physiological anoestrus and their age was two to three years. The first group of six ewes was the control. The second group included 15 sheep irradiated with a total dose of 6.7 Gy (700 R) for seven days. Co60 was used as the source of irradiation. The animals of this group were killed seven days following treatment. The ewes in the third group were left for the study of mortality. The brains were perfused with 2% buffered paraformaldehyde immediately after the bleeding of the sheep; then the brains were removed from the skulls and fixed in buffered picroformol. Paraffin slices were stained with haematoxylin-eosine, aldehyde-fuchsine and alcian blue for neurosecretion, by the PAS reaction for mucopolysaccharides and with cresyl violet for the Nissl substance. It was found that irradiation of the whole body inhibited the activity of neurosecretory cells in the rostral and medial hypothalamus, thus reducing neurosecretion. These regions also showed a reduced activity of the PAS reaction used for the demonstration of mucopolysaccharides. The observed changes also included damage of the endothelium of blood vessels with the occurrence of erythrocyte extravasates he occurrence of erythrocyte extravasates and with haemorrhages. In this way, the trophism of neurosecretory cells was affected, which is ascribed to the decrease in the amount of neurosecretory material. In the caudal hypothalamus, neurosecretion and PAS-positivity were slightly stimulated by irradiation. The Nissl substance disappeared as a result of irradiation. (author)
Rafael DeRossi; Cassio Tadeu Dias Pompermeyer; Amadeu Batista Silva-Neto; Andrea Lantieri Correa de Barros; Paulo Henrique de Affonseca Jardim; Fabrício de Oliveira Frazílio
PURPOSE: To determine the analgesic, motor, sedation and systemic effects of lumbosacral epidural magnesium sulphate added to ketamine in the sheep. METHODS: Six healthy adult male mixed-breed sheep; weighing 43 ± 5 kg and aged 20-36 months. Each sheep underwent three treatments, at least 2 weeks apart, via epidural injection: (1) ketamine (KE; 2.5 mg/kg), (2) magnesium sulphate (MG; 100 mg), and (3) KE + MG (KEMG; 2.5 mg/kg + 100 mg, respectively). Epidural injections were administered throu...
Full Text Available Biological control of parasitic nematodes of livestock is currently under development and represents another tool that may be integrated into helminth parasite control strategies. This paper presents a brief introduction to commercial sheep farming in South Africa and currently available nematode parasite control methods. These include the FAMACHA(r clinical assay, strategies of pasture management, dilution of resistant worm species by introduction of susceptible worms, breed resistant sheep and nutritional supplementation. The purpose of this paper is to outline the principles of biological control using nematophagous fungi and how it may be applied on sheep farms in South Africa.
Prada Jiménez de Cisneros, Joaquín; Stear, Michael J; Mair, Colette; Singleton, Darran; Stefan, Thorsten; Stear, Abigail; Marion, Glenn; Matthews, Louise
Gastrointestinal nematodes are a global cause of disease and death in humans, wildlife and livestock. Livestock infection has historically been controlled with anthelmintic drugs, but the development of resistance means that alternative controls are needed. The most promising alternatives are vaccination, nutritional supplementation and selective breeding, all of which act by enhancing the immune response. Currently, control planning is hampered by reliance on the faecal egg count (FEC), which suffers from low accuracy and a nonlinear and indirect relationship with infection intensity and host immune responses. We address this gap by using extensive parasitological, immunological and genetic data on the sheep-Teladorsagia circumcincta interaction to create an immunologically explicit model of infection dynamics in a sheep flock that links host genetic variation with variation in the two key immune responses to predict the observed parasitological measures. Using our model, we show that the immune responses are highly heritable and by comparing selective breeding based on low FECs versus high plasma IgA responses, we show that the immune markers are a much improved measure of host resistance. In summary, we have created a model of host-parasite infections that explicitly captures the development of the adaptive immune response and show that by integrating genetic, immunological and parasitological understanding we can identify new immune-based markers for diagnosis and control. PMID:25121649
Lam Mary K
Full Text Available Abstract Background In sheep dairy production, total lactation performance, and length of lactation of lactation are of economic significance. A more persistent lactation has been associated with improved udder health. An extended lactation is defined by a longer period of milkability. This study is the first investigation to examine the presence of quantitative trait loci (QTL for extended lactation and lactation persistency in sheep. Methods An (Awassi × Merino × Merino single-sire backcross family with 172 ewes was used to map QTL for lactation persistency and extended lactation traits on a framework map of 189 loci across all autosomes. The Wood model was fitted to data from multiple lactations to estimate parameters of ovine lactation curves, and these estimates were used to derive measures of lactation persistency and extended lactation traits of milk, protein, fat, lactose, useful yield, and somatic cell score. These derived traits were subjected to QTL analyses using maximum likelihood estimation and regression analysis. Results Overall, one highly significant (LOD > 3.0, four significant (2.0 Conclusion This study identified ten novel QTL for lactation persistency and extended lactation in sheep, but results suggest that lactation persistency and extended lactation do not have a major gene in common. These results provide a basis for further validation in extended families and other breeds as well as targeting regions for genome-wide association mapping using high-density SNP arrays.
Lv, Feng-Hua; Agha, Saif; Kantanen, Juha; Colli, Licia; Stucki, Sylvie; Kijas, James W; Joost, Stéphane; Li, Meng-Hua; Ajmone Marsan, Paolo
Following domestication, sheep (Ovis aries) have become essential farmed animals across the world through adaptation to a diverse range of environments and varied production systems. Climate-mediated selective pressure has shaped phenotypic variation and has left genetic "footprints" in the genome of breeds raised in different agroecological zones. Unlike numerous studies that have searched for evidence of selection using only population genetics data, here, we conducted an integrated coanalysis of environmental data with single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) variation. By examining 49,034 SNPs from 32 old, autochthonous sheep breeds that are adapted to a spectrum of different regional climates, we identified 230 SNPs with evidence for selection that is likely due to climate-mediated pressure. Among them, 189 (82%) showed significant correlation (P ? 0.05) between allele frequency and climatic variables in a larger set of native populations from a worldwide range of geographic areas and climates. Gene ontology analysis of genes colocated with significant SNPs identified 17 candidates related to GTPase regulator and peptide receptor activities in the biological processes of energy metabolism and endocrine and autoimmune regulation. We also observed high linkage disequilibrium and significant extended haplotype homozygosity for the core haplotype TBC1D12-CH1 of TBC1D12. The global frequency distribution of the core haplotype and allele OAR22_18929579-A showed an apparent geographic pattern and significant (P ? 0.05) correlations with climatic variation. Our results imply that adaptations to local climates have shaped the spatial distribution of some variants that are candidates to underpin adaptive variation in sheep. PMID:25249477
Todaro,M.; M.L. Scatassa; Giaccone, P.
Somatic cell count (SCC) is an important tool for monitoring intramammary infections in dairy cows. However, systematic generalization of this decision rule is not easy in small ruminants. Determination of SCC in sheep milk is important for the processors of milk (indicator of quality), for breeders (mastitis indicator) and could be useful for selection as well. SCC value can be affected by some non-infective factors such as breed, stage of lactation, parity, type of lambing, type of milking,...
Full Text Available Abstract Organising the breeding plan of a seasonally breeding species, such as sheep, presents a challenge to farmers and the industry as a whole, since both economical and biological considerations need to be carefully balanced. Understanding the breeding activity of individual animals becomes a prerequisite for a successful breeding program. This study set out to investigate the sources of variation and the genetic profile of the spontaneous, out-of-season ovulatory activity of ewes of the Chios dairy sheep breed in Greece. The definition of the trait was based on blood progesterone levels, measured before exposing the ewes to rams, which marks the onset of the usual breeding season. Data were 707 records, taken over two consecutive years, of 435 ewes kept at the Agricultural Research Station of Chalkidiki in northern Greece. When all available pedigree was included, the total number of animals involved was 1068. On average, 29% of all ewes exhibited spontaneous, out-of-season ovulatory activity, with no substantial variation between the years. Significant sources of systematic variation were the ewe age and live weight, and the month of previous lambing. Older, heavier ewes, that had lambed early the previous autumn, exhibited more frequent activity. Heritability estimates were 0.216 (± 0.084 with a linear and 0.291 with a threshold model. The latter better accounts for the categorical nature of the trait. The linear model repeatability was 0.230 (± 0.095. The results obtained in this study support the notion that spontaneous out-of-season ovulatory activity can be considered in the development of a breeding plan for the Chios sheep breed.
Ward, Alton C.S.; Glen C. Weiser; Anderson, Bruce C.; Patrick J. Cummings; Arnold, Karen F.; Corbeil, Lynette B
Respiratory disease and poor lamb recruitment have been identified as limiting factors for bighorn-sheep populations. Haemophilus somnus (recently reclassified as Histophilus somni) is associated with respiratory disease in American bison, domestic sheep, and cattle. It is also harbored in their reproductive tracts and has been associated with reproductive failure in domestic sheep and cattle. Therefore, reproductive tract and lung samples from bighorn sheep were evaluated for the presence of...
Key technological problems that influence tritium breeding in fusion blankets are reviewed. The breeding potential of candidate materials is evaluated and compared to the tritium breeding requirements. The sensitivity of tritium breeding to design and nuclear data parameters is reviewed. A framework for an integrated approach to improve tritium breeding prediction is discussed with emphasis on nuclear data requirements
Tritium breeding materials are essential to the operation of D-T fusion facilities. Both of the present options - solid ceramic breeding materials and liquid metal materials are reviewed with emphasis not only on their attractive features but also on critical materials issues which must be resolved
The Integrated Breeding Platform is a development being led by the Generation Challenge Programme (GCP), a part of the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR) which has a mission to bring scientists from different horizons and with different skills to work together, bridging the gap between upstream and applied research, so that biotechnology could have greater impact on plant breeding efficiency in developing countries.The Integrated Breeding Platform functions as a one-stop-shop to provide information, tools, services and training. Furthermore IBP hopes to provide developing countries with access to modern breeding technologies, breeding materials, and related information to facilitate their adoption of molecular breeding approaches and improve their plant breeding efficiency.This site provides educational and training opportunities to help people be able to better utilize the tools at the Integrated Breeding Platform, as well as to provide an online community area for webinars and discussion forums. In order to access the self-paced courses found at the left, you will need to click on the "Join Now" button found in the upper right corner of this page. Right now the courses are under development and not ready for participants. While you wait, you can view any materials found under the "lessons" or "animations/video" buttons.
This is the fourth in a series of lessons specifically designed to instruct individuals without any formal training in genetics or statistics about the science of corn breeding. Individuals with formal training in genetics or statistics but without any training in plant breeding also may benefit from taking these lessons.
Blackberry (Rubus L. subgenus Rubus Watson) improvement has made substantial progress with over 400 cultivars named originating from wild selections to many releases from breeding efforts. Public breeding has been ongoing for over 100 years. The result of these improvements is commercial production ...
To view additional success stories click on the link in the left menu Please click here to report your plant breeding success stories. Click on TCAP logo to see the Economic impact of USDA-NIFA small grains CAPsThe Plant Breeding Coordinating Committee (SCC 080) is the USDA-sponsored advisory group of representatives from land grant universities. The Plant Breeding Coordinating Committee represents national plant breeding with a focus on education in the broader sense, including providing information to the public and administrators, and encouraging the development of formal educational opportunities, continuing education, and lifelong learning. Mission: To provide a forum for leadership on issues and opportunities of strategic importance to national core competency in plant breeding research and education Membership: The PBCC members will consist of the representatives of the SCC-080 committee and others by request.
Full Text Available Differently from what one could formerly imagine, that buffalo breeding activity would be solely directed to fill the so called cattle breeding gaps determined by inadequate environmental conditions for ordinary cattle breeding, it has been actually seen that in those areas where breeders could successfully organize industrial-agricultural chains, either on meat or milk and its related products production, there has been an expressive expansion .Buffalo breeding has shown to be an important alternative not only in farms of higher technological level as also , and mainly, on small farms where it has become a key factor for increasing the average income, besides keeping labor force in country areas. This article intends to point out and examine some aspects of buffalo breeding and its potentialities in Brazil.
The terms of reference for ITER provide for incorporation of a tritium breeding blanket with a breeding ratio as close to unity as practical. A breeding blanket is required to assure an adequate supply of tritium to meet the program objectives. Based on specified design criteria, a ceramic breeder concept with water coolant and an austenitic steel structure has been selected as the first option and lithium-lead blanket concept has been chosen as an alternate option. The first wall, blanket, and shield are integrated into a single unit with separate cooling systems. The design makes extensive use of beryllium to enhance the tritium breeding ratio. The design goals with a tritium breeding ratio of 0.8--0.9 have been achieved and the R ampersand D requirements to qualify the design have been identified. 4 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs
Carpenter, Tim E; Coggins, Victor L; McCarthy, Clinton; O'Brien, Chans S; O'Brien, Joshua M; Schommer, Timothy J
Bighorn sheep currently occupy just 30% of their historic distribution, and persist in populations less than 5% as abundant overall as their early 19th century counterparts. Present-day recovery of bighorn sheep populations is in large part limited by periodic outbreaks of respiratory disease, which can be transmitted to bighorn sheep via contact with domestic sheep grazing in their vicinity. In order to assess the viability of bighorn sheep populations on the Payette National Forest (PNF) under several alternative proposals for domestic sheep grazing, we developed a series of interlinked models. Using telemetry and habitat data, we characterized herd home ranges and foray movements of bighorn sheep from their home ranges. Combining foray model movement estimates with known domestic sheep grazing areas (allotments), a Risk of Contact Model estimated bighorn sheep contact rates with domestic sheep allotments. Finally, we used demographic and epidemiologic data to construct population and disease transmission models (Disease Model), which we used to estimate bighorn sheep persistence under each alternative grazing scenario. Depending on the probability of disease transmission following interspecies contact, extirpation probabilities for the seven bighorn sheep herds examined here ranged from 20% to 100%. The Disease Model allowed us to assess the probabilities that varied domestic sheep management scenarios would support persistent populations of free-ranging bighorn sheep. PMID:24507886
Wang, Yutao; Xu, Lei; Yan, Wei; Li, Shaobin; Wang, Jiqing; Liu, Xiu; Hu, Jiang; Luo, Yuzhu
Investigations on the variation present at the male-specific Y chromosome region provide strong information to understand the origin and evolution of domestic sheep. One SNP OY1 (g.88A>G) in the upstream region of SRY gene, and the microsatellite SRYM18 locus within ovine Y chromosome were analyzed in one hundred and forty five samples collected from eleven breeds in China. SNP OY1 was analyzed using PCR-SSCP method and sequencing. Two different PCR-SSCP patterns represented two specific sequences with sequence analysis revealing SNP-OY1 (g.88A>G) were observed, while SNP A-OY1 showed the most common frequency (82.8%). Sequencing of the SRYM18 region revealed one novel size fragment (A2) with different repetitive units. Seven haplotypes (H4, H5, H6, H7, H8, H9 and H12) and two novel haplotypes (Ha and Hb) were established using combined genotype analysis. H6 showed the highest frequency (43.4%) across all breeds, and H8 showed the second frequency (24.1%). Ha was only found in one breed (Tan), while Hb was present in three breeds (Gansu alpine, White Suffolk and Duolang). Our findings reveal one novel allele in SRYM18 region and two novel male haplotypes of domestic sheep in China. PMID:25865303
Full Text Available This paper reviews the major (Calcium, Phosphorus, Potassium, Sodium, Chlorine, Sulphur, Magnesium and the trace elements (Iron, Copper, Cobalt, Iodine, Manganese, Zync, Molybdenum, Selenium that play an essential role in animal metabolism. For each one the authors indicate not only the function, but also the more recent advances in terms of daily requirements for dairy sheep.
Bisdorff, B; Wall, R
The methods used for the control of sheep blowfly strike (ovine cutaneous myiasis) and the farm management factors associated with strike prevalence were examined using data from questionnaire survey returns provided by 966 sheep farmers in Great Britain, based on the period between March 2003 and February 2004. Overall, 91% of participants treated prophylactically with insecticides against blowfly strike; 39% treated twice and 11% treated more than three times in the year. Insect growth regulators (IGRs) were the most commonly chosen product (40%), especially the IGR cyromazine. Only 12% of farmers opted to dip their sheep in organophosphate insecticide against fly strike and 2% of farmers reported applying inappropriate products against strike to their sheep, such as ivermectin or 'drenches'. Farmers worming their ewes more often were 0.8 times less likely to report blowfly strike, but those who wormed their lambs more often were 1.2 times more likely to report strike. Pure-breed flocks were 0.7 times less likely to record an outbreak of blowfly strike than cross-breed flocks. Strike was less likely in ewe flocks grazed at higher altitude; however, this relationship with altitude was not seen in lambs. The results show that insecticides remain the primary tool used by almost all farmers to prevent strike and that the type of insecticides used and means of application have altered dramatically over the past 15 years. However, the prevalence of strike has remained almost unchanged over this period. Clearly careful attention to the type and timing of insecticide application, in association with a detailed understanding of the husbandry factors that predispose sheep to higher strike risk, is essential to allow the optimal management of strike problems. PMID:19120956
Full Text Available From a complex experiment of establishing the effects of lecithin supplemented in the diet of small ruminants, in this paper we present the influence of lecithin on some sanguine biochemical parameters at lactating sheep and goat. The researches were made on a experimental group formed by 5 sheep from ?urcana breed and 5 goats from Crapatina breed, which were fed in the first experimental period with a base ratio (Br formed by 1.5 kg of hill hay and 0.2 kg concentrate forage mixture, in the second experimental period the Br was supplemented with 100 g lecithin/day/animal. At the end of each experimental period were taken blood samples to establish some biochemical parameters from sanguine serum. The supplementation of base ration with 100 g lecithin/day/animal at lactating sheep and goats did not produced significant changes to values of total proteins (TS, albumin, creatinine, urea and total bilirubins (TB from sanguine serum. Contrary to expectation the cholesterol and triglycerides were higher than normal both in sheep (from 82 mg/dl to 83 mg/dl for cholesterol and from 23 mg/dl to 45 mg/dl for triglycerides but specially in goats (from 59 mg/dl to 68 mg/dl for cholesterol and from 24 mg/dl to 55 mg/dl for triglycerides. Were registered significant increment of activity of alkaline phosphatase and in ? – GT and a decrease of plasmatic activity of pancreatic ?-amylase both in sheep and goats.
Showkat Ahmad Bhat
Full Text Available Background: Geologically the J&K state (2, 22, 800 sq. kms is both complex and varied. Climatic conditions of the state ranges from sub-tropical (Jammu, temperate (Kashmir to cold artic (Ladakh zones and belongs to the great Himalayan mountain range, which exerts significant influence on its agro-climatic conditions. Gastrointestinal parasitism is a major problem in sheep production worldwide, these parasites cause diarrhea, anaemia, reduced weight gain and increased production costs. Materials and Methods: Five hundred fecal samples of sheep (Ovis aries were taken from two farms. All fecal samples were examined to determine the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites. Direct microscopic examination, Centrifugation floatation and Sedimentation techniques were used to examine fecal samples. Results: Overall prevalence rate was 62.9%. most commonly encountered parasites were Strongyle spp., Strongyloides spp., Eimeria spp., Nematodirus spp., and Monezia spp. was 24.61, 15.5, 9.8, 9.0 and 3.3%, respectively. The highest prevalence of G.I parasites was recorded during monsoon season (March - May followed by summer season (June ? August whereas the lowest prevalence was recorded during winter season. Analysis of the data on the basis of sex revealed a significant difference (P<0.05 in the overall incidence of gastrointestinal parasites between male (75.6% and female (44.8% sheep. The maximum infection was observed in younger age groups compared to adults (P<0.05. The prevalence of different species of endoparasites also varied in sheep of different body weight groups (P<0.05. The highest infection was observed in Kashmir Marino breed than corriedale breed. Conclusion: The data obtained in this study suggest that the age, sex, body weight and breed are important factors which influence the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites. [Vet World 2012; 5(11.000: 667-671
Garcia-Gamez, Elsa; Sahana, Goutam
BACKGROUND: Genomic technologies, such as high-throughput genotyping based on SNP arrays, have great potential to decipher the genetic architecture of complex traits and provide background information concerning genome structure in domestic animals, including the extent of linkage disequilibrium (LD) and haplotype blocks. The objective of this study was to estimate LD, the population evolution (past effective population size) and the level of inbreeding in Spanish Churra sheep. RESULTS: A total of 43,784 SNPs distributed in the ovine autosomal genome was analyzed in 1,681 Churra ewes. LD was assessed by measuring r2 between all pairs of loci. For SNPs up to 10 kb apart, the average r2 was 0.329; for SNPs separated by 200-500 kb the average r2 was 0.061. When SNPs are separated by more than 50 Mbp, the average r2 is the same as between non-syntenic SNP pairs (0.003). The effective population size has decreased through time, faster from 1,000 to 100 years ago and slower since the selection scheme started (15-25 generations ago). In the last generation, four years ago, the effective population size was estimated to be 128 animals. Inbreeding coefficients, although differed depending on the estimation approaches, were generally low and showed the same trend, which indicates that since 2003, inbreeding has been slightly increasing in the studied resource population. CONCLUSIONS: The extent of LD in Churra sheep persists over much more limited distances than reported in dairy cattle and seems to be similar to other ovine populations. Churra sheep show a wide genetic base, with a long-term viable effective population size that has been slightly decreasing since selection scheme began in 1986. The genomic dataset analyzed provided useful information for identifying low-level inbreeding in the sample, whereas based on the parameters reported here, a higher marker density than that analyzed here will be needed to successfully conduct accurate mapping of genes underlying production traits and genomic selection prediction in this sheep breed. Although the Ovine Assembly development is still in a draft stage and future refinements will provide a more accurate physical map that will improve LD estimations, this work is a first step towards the understanding of the genetic architecture in sheep.
Campbell, M.L.H.; SandØe, Peter
Welfare problems related to the way horses are bred, whether by coitus or by the application of artificial reproduction techniques (ARTs), have been given no discrete consideration within the academic literature. This paper reviews the existing knowledge base about welfare issues in horse breeding and identifies areas in which data is lacking. We suggest that all methods of horse breeding are associated with potential welfare problems, but also that the judicious use of ARTs can sometimes help to address those problems. We discuss how negative welfare effects could be identified and limited and how positive welfare effects associated with breeding might be maximised. Further studies are needed to establish an evidence base about how stressful or painful various breeding procedures are for the animals involved, and what the lifetime welfare implications of ARTs are for future animal generations.
California Department of Resources — This data set provides access to information gathered on annual breeding bird surveys in California using a map layer developed by the Department. This data layer...
The Atomic Energy Commission of Japan with the cooperation from the Japan Atomic Industrial Forum, Inc. (JAIF) held the first international conference for nuclear cooperation in Asia in 1990 to enhance cooperation in the nuclear field with neighboring Asian countries and as a result, a consensus was to implement regional nuclear cooperation in the field of radioisotopes and radiation utilization for agriculture among other areas, and plant mutation breeding was approved as a common field of cooperation; and due to vast information generated by the group in the succeeding roundtable discussions of each workshop, it was held as a consensus that a database of plant mutation breeding - FNCA be established; a mutant stock repository be set up, and that a bench-top mutation breeding manual be published as a guide for the aspiring radiation mutation breeding novice
Fišter Svetlana L.
Full Text Available This paper presents the results of cytogenetic studies in sheep from the region of Bujanovac that was contaminated by depleted uranium during the NATO air strikes in 1999. The study was conducted on sheep blood lymphocytes, in order to determine the frequency of chromosomal aberrations and to assess the presence of genetic risk as a result of the possible impact of depleted uranium. Blood samples for lymphocyte cultures were taken at random from the 20 animals of the households in the village of Borovac, near Bujanovac. The animals were chosen because they were pastured, fed, and watered in the NATO bombing area. With the purpose of comparing the results two control groups were cytogenetically analyzed, each consisted of 20 sheep from Zemun and Ov?a, two northern localities that were not contaminated with depleted uranium. The established structural chromosomal changes were of breaks and gap types, and their frequencies in sheep of all surveyed localities were within the range of basic level values that are commonly found in the sheep lymphocyte cultures analyses. Significant differences are apparent between the values defined in the sheep from Bujanovac compared to those obtained in the sheep from the northern locality (Zemun, probably as a result of breeding of animals in the farm conditions and their being less exposed to the impact of environmental agents. There were neither elevated values of polyploid and aneuploid cells nor significant differences between the sites. According to earlier known data, depleted uranium was below the detection limit of the method applied both in the soil and feed given to cytogenetically analyzed animals. Based on the low-level changes that are in the range of the basic level changes, commonly observed in sheep lymphocytes control cultures, it cannot be said with certainty that it was depleted uranium that caused the changes, or that it is wide-spread in the region of Bujanovac. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 1518/2002, br. 20061-TR i br. 173034
Chronic cardiomyopathy and encephalic spongy changes in sheep experimentally fed Ateleia glazioviana Miocardiopatia crônica e degeneração esponjosa do encéfalo em ovinos intoxicados experimentalmente por Ateleia glazioviana
Margarida Buss Raffi; Raquel Rubia Rech; Elisa Simone Viegas Sallis; Aline Rodrigues; Claudio Severo Lombardo Barros
Fifteen mature crossbred sheep were fed different daily amounts (2.5-35g kg-1 bw) of the fresh green leaves of Ateleia glazioviana for different periods of time (1-24 days). One sheep was not fed the plant and served as a control. All 16 sheep were euthanatized at different stages of the experiment, necropsied, and several organs, including heart and brain were evaluated histologically. Samples of five brain regions from three affected sheep were evaluated by electron microscopy. Clinical sig...
Full Text Available A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence and risk factors for ectoparasites infestation in sheep in three agro-ecological zones in central Oromia, Ethiopia, from October 2009 to April 2010. The study revealed that 637 (48.1% of the 1325 sheep examined were infested with one or more ectoparasites. The ectoparasites identified were Bovicola ovis (27.2%, Melophagus ovinus (16.4%, Ctenocephalides sp. (2.3%, Linognathus africanus (1.2%, Linognathus ovillus (0.3%, Sarcoptes sp. (1.2%, Amblyomma variegatum (4.4%, Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi (1.9%, Rhipicephalus pravus (1.9%, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus decoloratus (1.1%, Rhipicephalus sanguineus (0.9%, Rhipicephalus praetextatus (1.1% and Hyalomma truncatum (1.6%. Statistically significant difference was observed in prevalence of B. ovis amongst study agroecological zones: highland 36.6%, midland 20.9% and lowland 14.0%. Significantly higher prevalence was recorded in highland agroecological zone. A significantly (OR = 0.041, p < 0.001 higher prevalence of M. ovinus in the highland (31.7% than in both the lowland (0% and midland (1.9% was observed. The risk of tick infestation in the lowland and midland was 9.883 times and 13.988 times higher than the risk in the highland, respectively. A significantly higher prevalence of Ctenocephalides species was encountered in both the lowland (OR = 4.738, p = 0.011 and midland (OR = 8.078, p = 0.000 than in the highland agro-ecological zone. However, a significant difference (p = 0.191 amongst agro-ecological zones was not found for the prevalence of Linognathus and Sarcoptes species. Statistically significant variation (p > 0.05 was never recorded in the prevalence of all the identified species of ectoparasites between male and female sheep hosts. However, a significantly (p = 0.006 higher prevalence of B. ovis was recorded between young and adult sheep. The risk of B. ovis infestation was 1.45 times higher in young than the adult sheep. Furthermore, a significantly (p < 0.001 higher prevalence of M. ovinus, B. ovis and Sarcoptes sp. was found between sheep with poor and a good body condition. The ever increasing threat of ectoparasites on overall sheep productivity and tanning industry in Ethiopia warrants urgent control intervention. Further studies on the role of ectoparasites in transmission of diseases to sheep, zoonotic importance, comparative prevalence and load, and the importance of sheep as alternative hosts in different agroecological zones, breeds and management systems in Ethiopia are recommended so as to design applicable control programme in the country.
Full Text Available Serum samples from sheep collected from the Sokoto city abattoir were tested for brucellosis using the Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT, the Serum Agglutination Test (SAT and the Competitive ELISA (Compelisa. A sero prevalence rate of 23.61% was recorded. The prevalence was higher among the females (26.71% than males (15.30% and also in those within the age band of 12-24 months (26.19%. Out of the three breeds of Udah, Yankassa and Balami, Udah was observed to have the highest prevalence of 30.76%. It is recommended that a large monitoring of the disease in small ruminants as well as mass vaccination should be embarked upon in the State.
Full Text Available Milk production represents a relevant quota of the energy consumption of the dairy ewe. Studies on relationships among level of production, milk composition and metabolic aspects are the first fundamental step in the development of a feed- ing system aimed at satisfying nutritive requirements of the animals. This paper reviews the knowledge about the milk composition of main Italian dairy sheep breeds, the relationship among secretion kinetics of milk and protein and pro- ductive level of animals, the algorithms used for estimating fat (6.5% and protein (5.8% corrected milk yield, the evolution over time of milk production during lactation and the relationships between feeding and milk composition.
Full Text Available In this study, the effects of a total solar eclipse, which was occurred in Elaz?? on August 11 1999, on sheep behaviours, were observed. For this purpose, 150 sheeps open shelter have been observed for six hour, from 11:00 am to 5:00 pm. All behaviours of sheep that were different than usual were recorded during observation. Sheeps started to show different behaviours including standing up, smelling the weather and watching around 30 minutes before solar eclipse. Total solar eclipse was occurred between 2:37 and 2:39 pm. During total solar eclipse, it was observed that they become very quiet did not move, turned their faces to the sun. During solar eclipse, sheep behaviour was obseved different than normal sunset darkness. Sheep might behave similar during earthquake disaster with solar eclipse.
ÇEL?K, ?erafettin; ÖZDEM?R, Salih
In this study, b-lactoglobulin (b-Lg) variants in Awassi and Morkaraman sheep were studied using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and their association with composition and rennet clotting time of the milk was estimated. Two alleles (A and B) and 3 different genotypes for b-Lg (AA, AB and BB) were observed in the whey from both breeds. The frequencies of b-Lg alleles were estimated as A 0.63 and B 0.37 in the Awassi breed, and A 0.56 and B 0.44 in the Morkaraman breed. These results indica...
Full Text Available Recommendations on feed intake for sheep are based on assessments of genetic types, feeding systems and environ- mental conditions that are very different from Italian ones. These considerations underline the need for intake data or models that derive from local trials. For this reason intake data of lactating and dry ewes, pregnant ewes, rams and growing lambs have been collected from selected literature based on sheep feeding trials mainly conducted on dairy breeds in Italy or in other Mediterranean countries. Equations and intake tables differentiated according to the physio- logical and productive categories, as well as feeding typology are reported. Particular consideration is given to pasture intake with supplementation, reporting three equations developed for three qualitative levels of the pasture, recogniz- able from the CP content of herbage: 16% DM. The equations include animal and pasture variables and supplementation, expressed as grams of CP given with feeds other than pasture. Only when pas- ture CP content is lower than 10% DM, supplement is not included in the equation, as no or negative substitution effect is expected.
Leroy, G; Verrier, E; Meriaux, J C; Rognon, X
Genetic relationships between 61 dog breeds were investigated, using a sampling of 1514 animals and a panel of 21 microsatellite markers. Based on the results from distance-based and Bayesian methods, breed constituted the main genetic structure, while groups including genetically close breeds showed a very weak structure. Depending on the method used, between 85.7% and 98.3% of dogs could be assigned to their breed, with large variations according to the breed. However, breed heterozygosity influenced assignment results differently according to the method used. Within-breed and between-breed diversity variations when breeds were removed were highly negatively correlated (r = -0.963, P < 0.0001), because of the genetic structure of the breed set. PMID:19222436
Pesquisa de anticorpos anti-Brucella abortus e anti-Brucella ovis em ovinos no município de Uberlândia, MG / Research of Brucella abortus and Brucella ovis antibodies in sheep of Uberlândia county, MG, Brazil
S.R.S., Salaberry; L.M., Paulin; R.L., Santana; J.R., Castro; A.M.C., Lima-Ribeiro.
Full Text Available [...] Abstract in english The first epidemiologic inquiry to Brucella abortus (B. abortus) and Brucella ovis (B. ovis) was carried out in sheep from Uberlândia county, MG. A total of 334 blood serum samples of sheep from both sexes and different ages and breeds were collected in 12 farms. An epidemiologic questionnaire was a [...] pplied for each farm. Tests for B. abortus and B. ovis antibodies were Buffered Acidified Antigen and Complement Fixation, respectively. None of the sheep was reactive to B. abortus and B. ovis; however, the adoption of sanitary measures is important to avoid the introduction of infections caused by these bacteria.
Efeitos genéticos aditivos e não-aditivos em características de crescimento, reprodutivas e habilidade materna em ovinos das raças Santa Inês, Somalis Brasileira, Dorper e Poll Dorset Additive and non-additive genetic effects on growth, reproductive and maternal traits in sheep of Santa In??s, Brazilian Somali, Dorper and Poll Dorset breeds
Adriano Caminha Barbosa Neto
Full Text Available Efeitos genético aditivo, de dominância e de recombinação em cruzamentos entre as raças Santa Inês (SI, Somalis Brasileira (So, Dorper (Do e Poll Dorset (Po foram estimados para as características de crescimento, reprodutivas e de habilidade materna. Os dados foram obtidos da Gaasa e Alimentos LTDA, uma empresa que participa do Programa de Melhoramento Genético de Caprinos e Ovinos (GENECOC da Embrapa Caprinos. Inicialmente, 3.573 registros foram analisados por meio do procedimento MIXED do pacote estatístico SAS (1999. As análises foram realizadas considerando os efeitos da diferença genética aditiva entre as raças, de dominância e de recombinação. O peso ao nascer foi influenciado pelos efeitos genéticos aditivos, enquanto o peso ao desmame e o ganho de peso pré-desmame foram influenciados por efeitos genéticos não-aditivos. A estimativa de herdabilidade direta para o peso ao nascer foi moderada, o que indica a existência de variabilidade genética passível de ser explorada por meio da seleção individual. Do mesmo modo, as estimativas de herdabilidade das características idade ao primeiro parto e peso total das crias ao nascer indicaram a existência de variabilidade genética para obter ganhos genéticos por meio da seleção. Os genes das raças Poll Dorset e Dorper tiveram papel importante para melhor desempenho ponderal, portanto, essas raças podem ser indicadas como paternas no cruzamento terminal. A utilização de matrizes F1 Santa Inês x Somalis Brasileira em cruzamentos com reprodutores Poll Dorset pode levar a maior eficiência reprodutiva.Additive genetic, dominance and recombination effects in breedings among Santa Inês (SI, Brazilian Somali (So, Dorper (Do and Poll Dorset (Po breeds were estimated for growth, reproductive and maternal hability traits. Data were obtained from Gaasa e Alimentos LTDA, a company that participates on the Programa de Melhoramento Genético de Caprinos e Ovinos (GENECOC coordinated by Embrapa Caprinos. Initially, 3,573 records were analyzed using the MIXED procedure of the statistical package SAS (1999. The analyses were carried out considering the effects of additive genetic difference among breeds, dominance and recombination effects. Birth weight was mainly influenced by additive genetic effects, while weaning weight and pre-weaning weight gain were influenced by non-additive genetic effects. Direct heritability estimates for birth weight was moderate indicating that there is genetic variability believable to be exploited by individual selection. In the same way, heritability estimates for the traits age at first lambing and litter total weight at birth indicated the existence of genetic variability to obtain genetic gains through selection. Genes of the Poll Dorset and Dorper breeds had an important role for a better growth performance, therefore, these breeds can be indicated as sires in the terminal breeds. The use of F1 Santa Inês x Brazilian Somali females on crossbreeding with Poll Dorset rams can lead to a better reproductive efficiency.
Full Text Available eep milk production and processing in last ten years show significant increase in Croatia. Market has recognized the product quality of sheep milk, so today even more number of cheese producers is interested for obtaining the protected geographical indication of products. Because of specific climate conditions on island Pag, as well as specific herbal cover, numerous aromatic plant varieties, milk, i.e. cheese, has specific taste and smell which consumers recognize, search and appreciate. Because of milk production increase and achieving better quality, production regularly controls and chemical composition analyzes and hygiene quality of sheep milk are conducted. In that propose during 2003 and 2004 years, research was carried out, which had for aim to explore milk quality of Pag sheep and to determine influence of paragenetic factors (year - climate on production, chemical composition (milk fat and proteins content and hygiene milk quality (number of somatic cells count, in two herds (A and B. Climate characteristics in 2003 and 2004 were different, regarding precipitations quantity and vegetation. Milking capacity control was carried out according to AT method. Chemical composition analyzes and hygiene quality of milk was carried out with infrared spectrometry and fluoro-opto-electronic method. During milking period in 2004, on island Pag, there were considerably more precipitations and due to the fact, vegetation was exuberant, which influenced on bigger total milk production in lactation (P<0.01 regarding to 2003. Average milk fat content (% in milk was in 2003 on family farm A, higher regarding on family farm B (P<0.01. However, because of higher quantities of produced milk on family farm B, total yield of milk fat (9.43 kg was higher (P<0.01 regarding to family farm A (7,93 kg. During 2004, differences in milk fat yield were very small and were not significant. Average daily milk quantity was from 689 mL (year 2003 to 940 mL (year 2004 on family farm A, apropos from 840 mL (year 2003 to 850 mL (year 2004 on family farm B. Between individual production features and individual milk quality parameters, significant correlations coefficients were determined. Based on results, it can be concluded that influence of paragenetic factors on individual production features and milk quality was significant.
The aim of this work was to compare costs, in the horse, cattle, sheep, swine, and rabbit species, for the creation of gene banks for reconstruction of an extinct breed, using different strategies: embryos- only, embryos in combination with semen, and semen- only. Three cost measures were used: time required for population reconstruction, cost for creation of the gene bank, number of years- keeping- female to reach reconstruction. Semen costs were estimated across four scenarios: the presence...
The blowfly Lucilia cuprina is the most important myiasis pet of sheep in Australia. Other species are associated with sheep myiasis, but L. cuprina is probably responsible for initiating more than 90% of infestations. Annual costs of production losses, prevention and treatment have been estimated at $149 millions in 1985. Prevention and treatment encompass both insecticidal applications to sheep and non-chemical management practices. In the absence of effective preventive measures, the sheep industry would be non-viable over much of Australia. Insecticide usage against L. cuprina has been marked by the appearance of widespread resistance to cyclodienes in 1956, the organophosphates in 1965, and carbamates in 1966. Resistance has not yet been reported against the triazine compounds introduced for blowfly control in 1981. The most effective non-chemical control measures are surgical (removal of skin from the breech in certain breeds of sheep, and tail-docking). They protect sheep by reducing favourable oviposition sites (dung and urine-stained wool). The spectre of insecticide resistance and the early success of the sterile insect technique (SIT) against screwworm fly in the U.S.A., led this Division to consider SIT and other autocidal methods in the 1960s. The L. cuprina genetics research program was established in 1966 and subsequently expanded in 1971. More recently, lobbying by animal welfare groups against surgical blowfly control practices, as well as increasing consumer awareness of insecticide residues in animal products, have accelerated the search for alternatives to chemical control. When SIT was first considered for L. cuprina control in 1960, little was known about the population dynamics of L. cuprina. There were insufficient ecological data to evaluate the prospects of alternative strategies such as suppression or containment. The number of flies which would have to be released in a SIT program was unknown, as were the costs. Assuming that the cost of SIT against L. cuprina in Australia would be similar to that reported for screwworm in Florida, the costs of a SIT campaign were estimated to be several times the potential annual benefits. The discover of meiotic drive (MD) in Drosophila rekindled interest in autocidal control and triggered establishment of the L. cuprina genetics research program in 1966. Subsequent research failed to detect MD systems suitable for genetic control, but by 1970 it was recognised that strains carrying chromosome rearrangements might be more cost-effective than SIT. This led in 1971 to expansion of the genetics and strain development program, and establishment of an ecological research program (quantification of population dynamics). Both programs have been enormously successful. Not only have they enabled the development and successful field testing of a genetic method of suppressing sheep blowfly populations, but they have increased our knowledge of this pest to the stage where a simulation model of genetic control (GENCON), which incorporates both genetic and ecological data, is a valuable tool in strain design, selection of control strategies, and evaluation of field trial data. Comparison using computer simulations, of SIT with female-killing (FK) systems based on sex-linked translocations, suggests that with a suppression and containment strategy, the latter would provide greater benefits for less cost than SIT. Moreover, our projections indicate that large-scale genetic control would be less costly and more effective than the current system based on insecticides and other pest control practices
Snoj, T; Cebulj-Kadunc, N; Kobal, S
The aim of this study was to define the thyroid hormone-like activity of closantel in sheep by measuring some blood parameters that are known to be influenced by thyroid hormones triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4). Our hypothesis was that, if closantel possesses thyroid hormone-like activity, its use under in vivo conditions will result in changes similar to those in hyperthyroidism. The study was conducted in 20 Jezersko-Solchava breed sheep. Blood sampling was performed before and 10 days after routine anthelmintic treatment with closantel. Complete blood count, plasma cholesterol, triglycerides, protein, and albumin levels, as well as those of serum T3 and T4, were compared before and 10 days after closantel administration. This routine anthelmintic treatment of sheep with closantel did not significantly influence hematological parameters, thyroid hormone levels, or most of the biochemical parameters. No evidence was found for thyroid hormone-like activity of closantel in sheep. However, significantly (P < 0.01) elevated levels of plasma triglycerides were present 10 days after closantel administration. PMID:25410724
Tadesse, Estefanos; Negesse, Tegene; Abebe, Girma
A survey was conducted in Awassazuria district of southern Ethiopia to characterize sheep production system. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data. Using purposive sampling, a total of 120 households from the district were included in the survey. Collected data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Result indicated that Kajima neighbourhood has more (p?market price, high market demand, immediate return, ease of management, equilibrium between benefits and risks and suitability for home consumption, ranked in decreasing order of importance. The sheep production in southern Ethiopia is constrained by shortage of grazing land (23.3 %), recurrent drought (17.5 %), disease and parasite (15 %), marketing (10.8 %), water shortage (9 %) and other constraints including predators and lack of input, capital and lack of extension service. The presence of diversified and environmentally adaptable sheep breeds, high demand of mutton in the Awassa town and presence of nutritious and unutilized feed resources like fish meal and poultry litter were some of the opportunities for sheep production in the area. PMID:25997416
Mohammad Reza Nassiry
Full Text Available Abstract: The genotypes for Beta-Lactoglobulin (BLG and calpastatin (CAST were determined by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR and restriction enzyme digestion and genotyped for calpain (CAPN by PCR-SSCP method in an Iranian breed sheep, Kurdi. Blood samples were collected from 100 pure bred Kurdi sheep from Kurdi breeding station located in Shirvan, Mashhad. The extraction of genomic DNA was based on Guanidin Thiocyanate-Silica gel method. After PCR reaction, amplicons were digested with restriction enzymes MspI and RsaI for beta-lactoglobulin and calpastatin genes, respectively. The beta-lactoglobulin locus had 3 genotypes with frequencies of 0.24, 0.54 and 0.22 for AA, AB and BB, respectively; calpastatin genotypes had 2 genotypes with frequencies of 0.76 and 0.24 for MM and MN genotypes, respectively. Calpain genotypes were analyzed with SSCP method, which had 2 genotypes with frequencies of 0.92 and 0.08 for AA and AB, respectively. Heterozygosity value for beta-lactoglobulin locus was 49% and for calpastatin and calpain loci was very low (24 and 8%, respectively. ?2 test confirmed the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium for three loci in this population. These data provide evidence that Iranian’s Kurdi sheep breed have a variability, which opens interesting prospects for future selection programs, especially marker-assistant selection between different genotypes of different locus and milk and cheese characteristics, gain and meat traits and also for preservation strategies.
Nassiry, Mohammad Reza; Shahroudi, Feridoun Eftekhari; Tahmoorespur, Mojtaba; Javadmanesh, Ali
The genotypes for Beta-Lactoglobulin (BLG) and calpastatin (CAST) were determined by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and restriction enzyme digestion and genotyped for calpain (CAPN) by PCR-SSCP method in an Iranian breed sheep, Kurdi. Blood samples were collected from 100 pure bred Kurdi sheep from Kurdi breeding station located in Shirvan, Mashhad. The extraction of genomic DNA was based on Guanidin Thiocyanate-Silica gel method. After PCR reaction, amplicons were digested with restriction enzymes MspI and RsaI for beta-lactoglobulin and calpastatin genes, respectively. The beta-lactoglobulin locus had 3 genotypes with frequencies of 0.24, 0.54 and 0.22 for AA, AB and BB, respectively; calpastatin genotypes had 2 genotypes with frequencies of 0.76 and 0.24 for MM and MN genotypes, respectively. Calpain genotypes were analyzed with SSCP method, which had 2 genotypes with frequencies of 0.92 and 0.08 for AA and AB, respectively. Heterozygosity value for beta-lactoglobulin locus was 49% and for calpastatin and calpain loci was very low (24 and 8%, respectively). chi2 test confirmed the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium for three loci in this population. These data provide evidence that Iranian's Kurdi sheep breed have a variability, which opens interesting prospects for future selection programs, especially marker-assistant selection between different genotypes of different locus and milk and cheese characteristics, gain and meat traits and also for preservation strategies. PMID:19070051
Weems, Peyton W; Goodman, Robert L; Lehman, Michael N
Seasonal reproduction is a common adaptive strategy among mammals that allows for breeding to occur at times of the year when it is most advantageous for the subsequent survival and growth of offspring. A major mechanism responsible for seasonal reproduction is a striking increase in the responsiveness of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons to the negative feedback effects of estradiol. The neural and neuroendocrine circuitry responsible for mammalian seasonal reproduction has been primarily studied in three animal models: the sheep, and two species of hamsters. In this review, we first describe the afferent signals, neural circuitry and transmitters/peptides responsible for seasonal reproductive transitions in sheep, and then compare these mechanisms with those derived from studies in hamsters. The results suggest common principles as well as differences in the role of specific brain nuclei and neuropeptides, including that of kisspeptin cells of the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus, in regulating seasonal reproduction among mammals. PMID:25582913
Wernike, Kerstin; Eschbaumer, Michael; Breithaupt, Angele; Maltzan, Julia; Wiesner, Henning; Beer, Martin; Hoffmann, Bernd
Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is a contagious viral disease of sheep and goats common in Africa and Asia. Its high morbidity and mortality has a devastating impact on agriculture in developing countries. As an example, an Asian lineage IV strain of PPRV was responsible for mass fatalities among wild goats in Kurdistan in 2010/2011. In separate experiments, three sheep and three goats of German domestic breeds were subcutaneously inoculated with the Kurdish virus isolate; three uninfected sheep and goats were housed together with the inoculated animals. All inoculated animals, all in-contact goats and two in-contact sheep developed high fever (up to 41.7 °C), depression, severe diarrhea, ocular and nasal discharge as well as ulcerative stomatitis and pharyngitis. Infected animals seroconverted within a few days of the first detection of viral genome. Clinical signs were more pronounced in goats; four out of six goats had to be euthanized. Necropsy revealed characteristic lesions in the alimentary tract. Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) RNA was detected in blood as well as nasal, oral and fecal swabs and tissues. The 2011 Kurdish strain of PPRV is highly virulent in European goats and spreads easily to in-contact animals, while disease severity and contagiosity in sheep are slightly lower. PPRV strains like the tested recent isolate can have a high impact on small ruminants in the European Union, and therefore, both early detection methods and intervention strategies have to be improved and updated regularly. PMID:24908276
This issue of the Mutation Breeding newsletter contains 39 articles dealing with radiation induced mutations and chemical mutagenesis techniques in plant breeding programs with the aims of improving crop productivity and disease resistance as well as exploring genetic variabilities
Full text: Feeding trials were carried out on-farm to examine the effect of supplementing urea treated sorghum stover (UTSS) with sesame cake (SC) or fishmeal (FM) on the body weight of sheep. Twenty-one male sheep were divided into three groups of seven sheep in each treatment. All the sheep used in this experiment were from the same breed (Gerej), with the same age and initial body weight from the same area. The experiment was conducted in Gash Barka, western lowlands of Eritrea. All the animals were fed on UTSS for an adaptation period of 15 d. The control diet consisted of UTSS fed ad libitum. The second and third treatments consisted of UTSS fed ad libitum supplemented daily with 80 g/head of SC and 60 g/head of FM, respectively. The experimental period lasted for 90 d. Feed intakes and body weights were recorded regularly. The dry matter intake (DMI) in sheep was significantly different (P < 0.05) between the control and SC supplemented groups, but not between the other treatments. It was highest for the SC supplemented group at 847 g/head/day followed by the FM supplemented group and the control at 826 and 821 g/head/day, respectively. Sheep supplemented with SC had the highest significant (P < 0.05) body weight gain (BWG) (134 g/head/day) followed by the group supplemented with FM (115 g/head/day). The BWG for the control was 66 g/head/day. Feed conversion was best on SC (6.92) followed by FM (7.70) supplementation. The lowest cost of feed per kg of BWG (16.91 Nfa) was attained by supplementing with SC. It can be concluded that feeding UTSS alone or supplementing with small amounts of sesame cake or fishmeal can increase the live weight of sheep at a reasonable cost. (author)
Munn, A J; Dawson, T J; McLeod, S R; Dennis, T; Maloney, S K
We used doubly labelled water to measure field metabolic rates (FMR) and water turnover rates (WTR) in one of Australia's largest native herbivores, the red kangaroo (Macropus rufus) and one of Australia's dominant livestock species, the wool-breed Merino sheep, under free-living conditions in a typical Australian rangeland. Also, we used GPS technology to examine animal space use, along with the comparisons of urine concentration, diet, diet digestibility, and subsequent grazing pressures. We found smaller space-use patterns than previously reported for kangaroos, which were between 14 and 25 % those of sheep. The FMR of a 25-kg kangaroo was 30 % that of a 45-kg sheep, while WTR was 15 % and both were associated with smaller travel distances, lower salt intakes, and higher urine concentration in kangaroos than sheep. After accounting for differences in dry matter digestibility of food eaten by kangaroos (51 %) and sheep (58 %), the relative grazing pressure of a standard (mature, non-reproductive) 25-kg kangaroo was 35 % that of a 45-kg sheep. Even for animals of the same body mass (35 kg), the relative grazing pressure of the kangaroo was estimated to be only 44 % that of the sheep. After accounting for the energetic costs of wool growth by sheep, the FMRs of our sheep and kangaroos were 2-3 times their expected BMRs, which is typical for mammalian FMR:BMRs generally. Notably, data collected from our free-living animals were practically identical to those from animals confined to a semi-natural enclosure (collected in an earlier study under comparable environmental conditions), supporting the idea that FMRs are relatively constrained within species. PMID:23386120
This chapter describes the origin, speciation, and history of improvement of the raspberries, Rubus section idaeobatus. The world industry in North America, Australasia, China, Europe, Eastern Europe, Africa, and South America and the breeding objectives of programs in those areas are discussed. Ger...
This interactive activity goes through the basic process used in a traditional breeding program. Crossing, genetic variation, selection and elements of DNA technology are discussed within this activity. The material is aimed towards high school or introductory life science undergraduate students.
Mangosteen the queen of the tropical fruits is apomitic and only a cultivar is reported and it reproduces asexually. Conventional breeding is not possible and the other methods to create variabilities are through genetic engineering and mutation breeding. The former technique is still in the infantry stage in mangosteen research while the latter has been an established tool in breeding to improve cultivars. In this mutation breeding seeds of mangosteen were irradiated using gamma rays and the LD 50 for mangosteen was determined and noted to be very low at 10 Gy. After sowing in the seedbed, the seedlings were transplanted in polybags and observed in the nursery bed for about one year before planted in the field under old oil palm trees in Station MARDI, Kluang. After evaluation and screening, about 120 mutant mangosteen plants were selected and planted in Kluang. The plants were observed and some growth data taken. There were some mutant plants that have good growth vigour and more vigorous that the control plants. The trial are now in the fourth year and the plants are still in the juvenile stage. (Author)
Red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) is an important forage legume grown on approximately 4 million hectares worldwide. It has a long and varied history in agriculture. Active breeding efforts began at the end of the 19th century. Since this time significant improvement in red clover cultivar for a...
Ward, Alton C S; Weiser, Glen C; Anderson, Bruce C; Cummings, Patrick J; Arnold, Karen F; Corbeil, Lynette B
Respiratory disease and poor lamb recruitment have been identified as limiting factors for bighorn-sheep populations. Haemophilus somnus (recently reclassified as Histophilus somni) is associated with respiratory disease in American bison, domestic sheep, and cattle. It is also harbored in their reproductive tracts and has been associated with reproductive failure in domestic sheep and cattle. Therefore, reproductive tract and lung samples from bighorn sheep were evaluated for the presence of this organism. Organisms identified as H. somnus were isolated from 6 of 62 vaginal but none of 12 preputial swab samples. Antigen specific to H. somnus was detected by immunohistochemical study in 4 of 12 formalin-fixed lung tissue samples of bighorn sheep that died with evidence of pneumonia. Notably, H. somnus was found in alveolar debris in areas of inflammation. The 6 vaginal isolates and 2 H. somnus isolates previously cultured from pneumonic lungs of bighorn sheep were compared with 3 representative isolates from domestic sheep and 2 from cattle. The profiles of major outer membrane proteins and antigens for all of the isolates were predominantly similar, although differences that may be associated with the host-parasite relationship and virulence were detected. The DNA restriction fragment length profiles of the bighorn-sheep isolates had similarities not shared with the other isolates, suggesting distinct phylogenetic lines. All of the isolates had similar antimicrobial profiles, but the isolates from the bighorn sheep produced less pigment than those from the domestic livestock, and growth of the former was not enhanced by CO2. Wildlife biologists and diagnosticians should be aware of the potential of these organisms to cause disease in bighorn sheep and of growth characteristics that may hinder laboratory detection. PMID:16548330
João M.A, Medeiros; Felício, Garino Junior; Arthur P, Almeida; Erasmo A, Lucena; Franklin, Riet-Correa.
Full Text Available Mediante o teste de ELISA foi determinada a presença de anticorpos para Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (map) em amostras de soro de 734 caprinos e 392 ovinos, sem sinais clìnicos aparentes, provenientes de 14 Municipios do semiárido Paraibano. Em caprinos, a frequência média de anticorp [...] os de 44,86± 22,91% e em ovinos foi de 52,96±31,49. Das 46 propriedades estudadas, 44 (95,65%) apresentaram pelo menos um animal soropositivo. Nos 14 municípios avaliados houve presença de animais sorologicamente positivos, variando de 20% a 70%. Em caprinos sem raça definida e mestiços a frequência (48,56%) foi significativamente inferior (P Abstract in english Antibodies to paratuberculosis were determined by ELISA in serum samples of 734 goats and 392 sheep, without clinical signs, from 14 municipalities of the semiarid region of Paraíba state, Brazil. In goats, average frequency of antibodies was 44.86±22.91% and in sheep was 52.96±31.49%. All municipal [...] ities had affected animals with a frequency varying from 20% to 70%. In goats of unknown breed and crossbreds the prevalence (48.56%) was significantly lower (P=0.0270) than in pure breed goats (57.24%). In sheep with body scores of 1 to 3, the frequency (59.39%) was significantly higher (P=0.0034) than in sheep with body score from 3 to 5 (42.42%). No significant differences were observed in goats and sheep of different ages, in goats with different body score, and in sheep of different breeds. In the microbiologic examination, after 16 weeks of incubation in HEYM medium with mycobactin J, colonies similar to those of do Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuber culosis were observed in cultures of 9 (6.58%) out of 180 fecal samples, being one from goats and 8 from sheep. In the Ziehl Nieelsen the bacteria had morphologic and staining characteristics similar to M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. These results suggest that paratuberculosis is endemic with high prevalence in the semiarid region of Paraíba. It is necessary to develop research on the epidemiology and control measures of the disease in the conditions of this region. Also the risk for human beings should be determined, mainly in relation with milking goats.
Sayre, Rebecca S; Lepiz, Mauricio A; Horsley, Kristen T; Pashmakova, Medora B; Barr, James W; Washburn, Shannon E
OBJECTIVE To establish the minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) of desflurane and evaluate the effects of 2 opioids on MAC in sheep. ANIMALS 8 adult nulliparous mixed-breed sheep. PROCEDURES A randomized crossover design was used. Each sheep was evaluated individually on 2 occasions (to allow assessment of the effects of each of 2 opioids), separated by a minimum of 10 days. On each occasion, sheep were anesthetized with desflurane in 100% oxygen, MAC of desflurane was determined, oxymorphone (0.05 mg/kg) or hydromorphone (0.10 mg/kg) was administered IV, and MAC was redetermined. Physiologic variables and arterial blood gas and electrolyte concentrations were measured at baseline (before MAC determination, with end-tidal desflurane concentration maintained at 10%) and each time MAC was determined. Timing of various stages of anesthesia was recorded for both occasions. RESULTS Mean ± SEM MAC of desflurane was 8.6 ± 0.2%. Oxymorphone or hydromorphone administration resulted in significantly lower MAC (7.6 ± 0.4% and 7.9 ± 0.2%, respectively). Cardiac output at MAC determination for desflurane alone and for desflurane with opioid administration was higher than that at baseline. No difference was identified among hematologic values at any point. Effects of oxymorphone and hydromorphone on durations of various stages of anesthesia did not differ significantly. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE MAC of desflurane in nulliparous adult sheep was established. Intravenous administration of oxymorphone or hydromorphone led to a decrease in MAC; however, the clinical importance of that decrease was minor relative to the effect in other species. PMID:26111087
Raed Mahmoud, Al-Atiyat; Naser M, Salameh; Mohammad J, Tabbaa.
Full Text Available Background Genetic diversity of sheep in Jordan was investigated using microsatellite markers (MS). Six ovine and bovine MS located on chromosomes 2 and 6 of sheep genome were genotyped on 294 individual from ten geographical regions. Results The number of alleles per locus (A), the expected heteroz [...] ygosity (He) and observed heterozygosity (Ho) were measured. Overall A, He and Ho were 12.67, 0.820 and 0.684, respectively. On the other hand, genetic distances undoubtedly revealed the expected degree of differentiation among the studied populations. The finding showed closeness of three populations from south (Maan, Showbak and Tafeilah) to each other. Populations from the middle regions of Jordan (Karak, Madaba, Amman, AzZarqa and Mafraq) were found to be in one cluster. Only two populations of the middle region were an exception: AlSalt and Dead Sea. Finally, sheep populations from Irbid were located in separated cluster. It was clear that the studied predefined populations were subdivided from four populations and would be most probably accounted as ancestral populations. These results indicate that number of population is less than the predefined population as ten based on geographical sampling areas. Conclusions The possible inference might be that geographical location, genetic migration, similar selection forces, and common ancestor account for population admixture and subdivision of Awassi sheep breed in Jordan. Finally, the present study sheds new light on the molecular and population genetics of Awassi sheep from different regions of Jordan and to utilize the possible findings for future management of genetic conservation under conditions of climate changes and crossbreeding policy.
Características do sêmen de carneiros Dorper, Santa Inês e sem padrão racial definido, pré e pós-congelação, nos períodos chuvoso e seco / Characteristics of the semen of Dorper, Santa Ines and undefined breed sheep, pre-and post-freezing, in the rainy and dry period
J.M., Frazão Sobrinho; M.A. Castelo, Branco; A., Sousa Júnior; I.M.R., Nascimento; L.H.C.M., Mota; Y.N.T., Carvalho; S.B., Ferreira; D.N.M., Costa; F.J., Moraes Júnior; J.A.T., Souza.
Full Text Available Avaliaram-se as características espermáticas de carneiros Dorper, Santa Inês e sem padrão racial definido, nos períodos chuvoso e seco. Após ser colhido por vagina artificial, o sêmen foi avaliado quanto ao volume, ao turbilhonamento, à motilidade, ao vigor, à morfologia e à concentração, congelado [...] e armazenado em botijão criogênico. Depois de descongelado, foram avaliadas a cinemática espermática, a integridade da membrana plasmática, a integridade do acrossoma e a atividade mitocondrial. Vigor espermático, motilidade total, motilidade progressiva, velocidade em linha reta e defeitos maiores não diferiram entre os períodos chuvoso e seco, porém volume, turbilhonamento, linearidade, retilinearidade e frequência de batimentos de cauda foram mais baixos (P Abstract in english The sperm characteristics of Dorper, Santa Ines and undefined breed ram in the rainy and dry seasons was assessed. After collection with an artificial vagina, the semen was evaluated for volume, turbulence, motility, viability, morphology and concentration, frozen and stored in a cryogenic cylinder. [...] After thawing kinematic sperm, plasma membrane integrity, acrosome integrity and mitochondrial activity were evaluated. Sperm vigor, total motility, progressive motility, straight line speed and larger line defects did not differ between the rainy and dry seasons, however, volume, turbulence, linearity, straightness and frequency of tail beats were lower (P
Full Text Available The aim of work was to optimalize the ELISA method to detect the adulteration of sheep milk and sheep milk products by cow milk in the laboratory. We have focused on laboratory testing of ELISA kit (?-Lactoglobulin ELISA Set, SEDIUM R&D for detection of cow ?-Lg in sheep milk order to obtain high-quality, reliable and economically advantageous method suitable for routine use in practice. The results shown that for the quality of adulteration determination it is necessary to verify the sensitivity of applied kit by the samples dilution in accordance with the producer declared quantification range contained in the manual ELISA kit. The starting point for obtaining of relevant data was to create separate regression curves with high determination coefficient, which allowed to quickly and easily detect the cow milk additions in sheep milk, cloddish sheep and Slovak sheep cheese. doi:10.5219/78
Nougairede, Antoine; Fossati, Christelle; Salez, Nicolas; Cohen-Bacrie, Stephan; Ninove, Laetitia; Michel, Fabrice; Aboukais, Samer; Buttner, Mathias; Zandotti, Christine; De Lamballerie, Xavier; Charrel, Remi N.
Five persons in France were infected with Orf virus after skin wounds were exposed to infected sheep tissues during Eid al-Adha, the Muslim Feast of Sacrifice. Infections were confirmed by electron microscopy, PCR, and sequence analysis. Prevention and control of this underdiagnosed disease can be achieved by educating physicians, slaughterhouse workers, and persons participating in Eid al-Adha.
The pea as an ancient crop plant still today has wide uses and is an import source of food protein. It is also an important object for genetic studies and as such has been widely used in mutation induction experiments. However, in comparison with cereals this ancient crop plant (like several other grain legumes) has gained relatively little from advances in breeding. The review focuses on the prospects of genetic improvement of pea by induced mutations, discusses principles and gives methodological information. (author)
The monitoring of sheep and sheepmeat has been undertaken by the Nuclear Energy Board since 1987 and reports of the work have been published on an annual basis. The main components of previous programmes have been continued during 1990. including; in vivo monitoring of sheep at the main slaughterhouses dealing with both the domestic and export markets, laboratory analysis of sheepmeat collected from butchers' shops nationwide, in vivo monitoring of mountain sheep at selected farms during the months of summer grazing. In addition, baseline data on radiocaesium in soils and plants at 13 sites were collected during the second half of the year
Dirk, Booyse; Burk A., Dehority.
Full Text Available Protozoa species were identified in rumen contents of four domestic sheep (Ovis aries) from South Africa. All animals were fed a forage diet which consisted of 50% lucerne and 50% teff hay. Ten new host records were identified, bringing the total number of species and forms observed in sheep in Sout [...] h Africa to 30. The occurrence and geographic distribution of ciliate protozoa in both domestic and wild sheep from around the world are summarised. It was found that 15 genera and 131 species occur in domestic sheep globally.
Kong, Hanjin; Zhang, Keshan; Liu, Yongjie; Shang, Youjun; Wu, Bin; Liu, Xiangtao
Pseudorabies (PR, Aujeszky's disease) is an acute, contagious viral disease that affects a wide range of domestic and wild species. In the present study, an outbreak of PR in sheep induced by attenuated live vaccine (Bartha-K16) was diagnosed and analyzed in China. The presence of PR virus (PRV) in brain samples from infected sheep was confirmed by gC gene polymerase chain reaction amplification and PRV-like particle observation by electron microscopy. The molecular characterization of the PRV was performed with homology analysis and phylogenetic tree construction based on the gC gene. This is the first description of an outbreak of PR induced by a live attenuated vaccine (Bartha-K16), indicating that this vaccine is unsuitable for use in sheep. PMID:23797617
Shaw, Allison K; Levin, Simon A
A central issue in life history theory is how organisms trade off current and future reproduction. A variety of organisms exhibit intermittent breeding, meaning sexually mature adults will skip breeding opportunities between reproduction attempts. It's thought that intermittent breeding occurs when reproduction incurs an extra cost in terms of survival, energy, or recovery time. We have developed a matrix population model for intermittent breeding, and use adaptive dynamics to determine under what conditions individuals should breed at every opportunity, and under what conditions they should skip some breeding opportunities (and if so, how many). We also examine the effect of environmental stochasticity on breeding behavior. We find that the evolutionarily stable strategy (ESS) for breeding behavior depends on an individual's expected growth and mortality, and that the conditions for skipped breeding depend on the type of reproductive cost incurred (survival, energy, recovery time). In constant environments there is always a pure ESS, however environmental stochasticity and deterministic population fluctuations can both select for a mixed ESS. Finally, we compare our model results to patterns of intermittent breeding in species from a range of taxonomic groups. PMID:23076830
The cover designs are still images from the Electric Sheep, a distributed screen-saver that harnesses idle computers into a render farm with the purpose of animating and evolving artificial life-forms. The votes of the audience of 50,000 users form the basis for the fitness function for a genetic algorithm on a space of abstract animations, each known as a "sheep". Users also may design sheep by hand for inclusion in the gene pool, so crowd-sourcing, or intelligent design, collaborates and competes with evolution. The images were drawn with the Fractal Flame algorithm, a generalization and refinement of Iterated Function Systems. Essentially the images are interference patterns between groups of nonlinear geometric transformations of the plane. The hundreds of floating-point parameters of these transformations comprise the genome of each sheep. This nonlinear map from genome to image defines a visual language, whose search and incantation brings the machine to life. PMID:18157931
M. A. Rahman
Full Text Available This experiment was conducted in the Genetics, Breeding and Reproductive Biotechnology Laboratory under Goat and Sheep Production Research Division, Bangladesh Livestock Research Institute (BLRI, Saver, Dhaka, Bangladesh. DNA was extracted from 14 goat breeds and the extracted DNA was observed by gel electrophoresis. Eight goat specific primers were synthesized by ASM-800 DNA synthesizer and screened in the study and all these primers were capable of priming polymorphic amplification pattern in both the breeds. Random amplification of polymorphic DNA â?? Polymerase Chain Reaction (RAPD-PCR analysis was carried out using DNA samples of 14 black bengal goat and Jamuna pari goat breeds. Only unambiguous, reproducible and scorable polymorphic fragments were taken into consideration for analysis. Data were analyzed by using a computer programe POPGENE (Version 1.31. Highest level of Nei's gene diversity value (0.4898 was observed in BMS 1494 locus and the mean genetic diversity was obtained 0.3724 among the 14 goat breeds. The highest number of polymorphism obserbed in primer BM1818.The pair-wise genetic distance value ranged from 0.2500 to 1.000. Dendrogram based on Nei's genetic distance using Unweighted Pair Group Method of Arithmetic Means (UPGMA indicated segregation of the 14 goat breeds. Within Jamuna pari goat genetic similarity is low as well as black Bengal goat.
Tamgüney, Gültekin; Richt, Jürgen A; Hamir, Amir N; Greenlee, Justin J; Miller, Michael W.; Wolfe, Lisa L.; Sirochman, Tracey M; Young, Alan J; Glidden, David V; Johnson, Natrina L.; Giles, Kurt; DeArmond, Stephen J; Prusiner, Stanley B.
Scrapie of sheep and chronic wasting disease (CWD) of cervids are transmissible prion diseases. Milk and placenta have been identified as sources of scrapie prions but do not explain horizontal transmission. In contrast, CWD prions have been reported in saliva, urine and feces, which are thought to be responsible for horizontal transmission. While the titers of CWD prions have been measured in feces, levels in saliva or urine are unknown. Because sheep produce ?17 L/day of saliva and scrapie ...
Martin, A M; Festa-Bianchet, M; Coltman, D W; Pelletier, F
The reliability and consistency of the many measures proposed to quantify sexual selection have been questioned for decades. Realized selection on quantitative characters measured by the selection differential i was approximated by metrics based on variance in breeding success, using either the opportunity for sexual selection Is or indices of inequality. There is no consensus about which metric best approximates realized selection on sexual characters. Recently, the opportunity for selection on character mean OSM was proposed to quantify the maximum potential selection on characters. Using 21 years of data on bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis), we investigated the correlations between seven indices of inequality, Is , OSM and i on horn length of males. Bighorn sheep are ideal for this comparison because they are highly polygynous and sexually dimorphic, ram horn length is under strong sexual selection, and we have detailed knowledge of individual breeding success. Different metrics provided conflicting information, potentially leading to spurious conclusions about selection patterns. I?, an index of breeding inequality, and, to a lesser extent, Is showed the highest correlation with i on horn length, suggesting that these indices document breeding inequality in a selection context. OSM on horn length was strongly correlated with i, Is and indices of inequality. By integrating information on both realized sexual selection and breeding inequality, OSM appeared to be the best proxy of sexual selection and may be best suited to explore its ecological bases. PMID:25418082
Estudio Inmunohistoquímico Comparativo del Receptor de Estrógeno en Tejido Endometrial de Ovejas Razas Texel y Araucana / Comparative Inmunohistochemical Study of Estrogen Receptor in Endometrial Tissue from Texel and Araucana Sheeps
Adriana, Vasconcellos; Carla, Cisternas; Marco, Paredes.
Full Text Available La asociación de factores genéticos, nutricionales y ambientales afecta directamente la fertilidad de las ovejas sin embargo en condiciones de similitud ambiental, la raza es un factor determinante existiendo razas de alta fertilidad como por ejemplo Texel y Suffolk y otras de fertilidad estándar ta [...] les como Romney y Criolla Araucana. La fertilidad es modulada por las hormonas sexuales que actúan mediante la unión a receptores específicos. En ovinos el receptor de estrógeno alfa (ER-a) esta ampliamente distribuido en el sistema reproductivo y es responsable de la modulación de varios mecanismos asociados con la función del sistema reproductivo. Un factor posiblemente relacionado con la diferencia en la fertilidad entre razas de ovinos, es el nivel de expresión diferencial de estos receptores en el sistema reproductivo. En el presente estudio se realizo una comparación cuantitativa de la expresión inmunohistoquímica de ER-a se llevó en el endometrio de ovejas prepúberes de ovejas de alta fertilidad (Texel) y de fertilidad estándar (Araucana), mediante la medición de la densidad óptica integrada de la señal inmunohistoquímica en áreas específicas del endometrio. Los resultados indican una diferencia significativa entre la expresión del ER-a a favor de ovejas de raza Texel en todas las áreas de la raza del endometrio de ovejas prepúberes evaluadas. Esta expresión diferencial sugiere una posible relación entre la intensidad de la expresión de ER-a y la fertilidad en las razas ovinas estudiadas en este trabajo. Abstract in english In breeding sheep high fertility rate is an important consideration factor. The association of genetic, nutritional and environmental conditions directly affects the fertility of ewes. There are high fertility sheep breeds (Texel, Suffolk) and other standard fertility breeds as (Romney, Criolla Arau [...] cana). Animal reproduction is modulated by sex hormones that act by binding to specific receptors. In sheep, alpha (ER-a) estrogen receptor is widely distributed in the reproductive system, modulating several mechanisms associated with reproductive system function. One factor possibly related to the difference in fertility between sheep breeds, is the differential expression level of these receptors in the reproductive system. In the present study a quantitative comparison of the immunohistochemical expression of ER-a was carried out in prepubertal sheep endometrium in high fertility (Texel) breed versus standard fertility (Araucana) breed, by measuring the integrated optical density in specific areas of the endometrium. Results indicate a significant difference between ER-a expression in endometrium off Texel breed ewes and Araucana breed ewes, and registered higher levels in all areas of evaluated Texel breed prepubertal ewes. This differential expression suggests a possible link between ER-a expression intensity and fertility in the breeds studied in this work.
Full Text Available Brazil has the largest commercial beef cattle herd and is the main beef exporter in the world. Cultivated pastures arethe basis for the Brazilian beef production, and occupy an area of 101.4 million hectares. However, very few forage cultivars arecommercially available, and the majority of these are of apomictic reproduction, thus genetically homogeneous. Tropical foragebreeding is at its infancy, but much investment and efforts have been applied in the last three decades and some new cultivars havebeen released. In this paper, origin of different species, modes of reproduction, breeding programs and targets are discussed andthe resulting new cultivars released are presented.
During a cross-sectional prospective epidemiological survey, a total of 2412 sheep were screened for the prevalence of insects. Out of which, 333 (13.80%) were harbored for insects including lice (36.57%), fleas (3.23%) and flies (1.62%). Among the identified species of lice, Haematopinus spp. (44.14%) was predominant followed in order by Damalinia ovis (26.42%) and Linognathus spp. (17.71%). The flea Ctenocepahlides (Ct). felis was more common (4.50%) than Ct. canis (3.30%). Stomoxys calcitrans (3.90%) was the only prevalent specie of fly in the study area. Infestation rate was higher in young sheep (72.68%) as compared to adults (27.32%) and level of infestation was significantly higher in females (75.37%) than males (24.62%). Amongst various breeds of sheep, Cholistani (19.81%) had the highest prevalence followed by Kajli (13.49%), Thalli (12.94%) and Lohi (11.80%). Prevalence of flies (37%) and lice (47%) was highest in December and January, respectively; whereas,that of fleas (39%) reached a peak in April. Among various associated determinants, stall feeding, closed housing, tethered animals and non-cemented floor were found positively associated (P<0.05) with insect infestation. The results showed that insect abundance and the variety of genera were wide in this part of Pakistan. This also causes concern over the emergence of insect-borne diseases in domestic animals. (author)
Full Text Available Abstract Background The Orf virus (ORFV is the prototype of the parapoxvirus genus and it primarily causes contagious ecthyma in goats, sheep, and other ruminants worldwide. In this paper, we described the sequence and phylogenetic analysis of the B2L gene of ORFV from two natural outbreaks: i in autochthonous Croatian Cres-breed sheep and ii on small family goat farm. Results Sequence and phylogenetic analyses of the ORFV B2L gene showed that the Cro-Cres-12446/09 and Cro-Goat-11727/10 were not clustered together. Cro-Cres-12446/09 shared the highest similarity with ORFV NZ2 from New Zealand, and Ena from Japan; Cro-Goat-11727/10 was closest to the HuB from China and Taiping and Hoping from Taiwan. Conclusion Distinct ORFV strains are circulating in Croatia. Although ORFV infections are found ubiquitously wherever sheep and goats are farmed in Croatia, this is the first information on genetic relatedness of any Croatian ORFV with other isolates around the world.
Full Text Available In our study was followed occurrence of mastitis in herd of 430 sheep of breed zoslachtena valaska with hand milking technology examined two times during one lactation season. Individual examination consisted from clinical examination of udder and microbiological examination of milk samples. By PCR was determined presence of genes coding production of enterotoxins, and by ELISA methods production individual types of enterotoxins. From individual forms of mastitis were frequently detected subacute (6.7%, subclinical (5.7% and acute (2.9%. The coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS were identified in 102 (65.4% from all 156 positive isolates. The CNS and S. aureus caused subacute (5.1%, subclinical (3.9% and acute (2.4% forms of mastitis. The most frequently isolated were S. epidermidis, followed by S. chromogenes and S. xylosus from ewes with subacute and subclinical mastitis. From acute and chronical forms of mastitis were predominantly isolated S. aureus, S. uberis and S. epidermidis. The production of staphylococcal enterotoxins (SE - SEA, SEB, SEC, SED and the presence of genes sec (3, sea (2, seb (2 and sed (2 were determined in S. aureus, S. epidermidis, S. schleiferi and S. chromogenes, respectively. The results suggested on the high occurrence (12.4% of subacute and subclinical forms. Confirmed production of enterotoxins and presence of genes coding their production present a risk for human health and decreased a quality of milk and products from sheep´s milk.
Raed M, Al-Atiyat.
Full Text Available Background In sheep breeding, there are situations where relationships recorded at the farm among pedigrees such as parent-offspring, full-sibs or half-sibs need to be tested. A panel of 28 microsatellite (MST) markers was tested to provide accurate pedigree information and resolve the common proble [...] m of significant error in pedigree records in Merino sheep. Three different flocks of Australian Merino sheep were investigated. A private farm flock represents a flock with no record availability. Two other flocks were maintained under good managements of full keeping records and being selected for high and low parasite resistances. Results In the studied panel, eight MSTs provided an average of Polymorphic Information content (PIC) equal to 0.65 or more in order to be sufficient to make an accurate and successful DNA-based parentage analysis. The panel of twenty-eight MST loci was obviously sufficient for providing 100% accurate pedigree and genotyping data. DNA-based pedigree records were constructed and all significant pedigree record errors were eliminated. Conclusions These results were used for further study of population genetic parameters such as recombination and haplotyping which heavily based on pedigree information. Nevertheless MST based parentage testing is still available and affordable in most countries and for each farmer with reasonable cost in comparison with fast growing SNP based parentage technologies.
Growing the FutureWith the loss of plant breeding positions in the public sector, there has been a loss of the infrastructure that supports plant breeding training, including a reduction in professors with plant breeding expertise, a critical mass of students often too low to provide a stimulating learning environment, and the inability to offer courses with sufficient audience. Although studies support the positive impact of a strong community on learning, currently, students are often trained in isolation. The PBTN has been established to mitigate isolation barriers that currently limit plant breeding education at most institutions and in most plant breeding work places around the world. PBTN supports online course sharing (See list of courses). The PBTN online graduate student community is a place for students around the world to make contact with other plant breeding students, providing an opportunity to exchange ideas, develop interpersonal skills (such as communication and collaboration) and build a plant breeding student community.If you have questions about the community, graduate work in plant breeding, or career oportunities, please contact us. Jamie ShermanDirector-TCAP graduate community and PBTNjsherman@montana.edu Mary BrakkeDirector-TCAP undergraduate email@example.com Deana Namuth-CovertDirector-Plant Breeding Training Network (PBTN)firstname.lastname@example.org This community is funded by the Triticeae CAP project.
This issue of the Newsletter includes articles dealing with radiation induced mutation based plant breeding research findings aimed at improving productivity, disease resistance and tolerance of stress conditions
Gabbianelli, F; Gargani, M; Pariset, L; Mariotti, M; Alhaique, F; De Minicis, E; Barelli, L; Ciammetti, E; Redi, F; Valentini, A
We retrieved 34 medieval ovicaprine remains, from three archaeological sites of central Italy dating to about 1000 years old, and analyzed them using mitochondrial DNA. We compared the reconstructed haplogroups with modern sheep samples from Europe and the Middle East and sequences from the literature. In modern sheep, haplogroup HA is present in countries with access to the Mediterranean and close to the domestication center, whereas it is very rare or absent in the rest of Europe. The haplogroup HB was predominant in ancient samples (90%), whereas haplogroup HA was found at 10%. Ancient haplogroups match the present distribution in modern sheep in Italy, indicating that the current proportion of HA/HB was already established in the Middle Ages and is not the result of subsequent events such as selective breeding practices. PMID:25917303
Primitivo Fermin San
Full Text Available Abstract Background For ruminants reared on grazing systems, gastrointestinal nematode (GIN parasite infections represent the class of diseases with the greatest impact on animal health and productivity. Among the many possible strategies for controlling GIN infection, the enhancement of host resistance through the selection of resistant animals has been suggested by many authors. Because of the difficulty of routinely collecting phenotypic indicators of parasite resistance, information derived from molecular markers may be used to improve the efficiency of classical genetic breeding. Methods A total of 181 microsatellite markers evenly distributed along the 26 sheep autosomes were used in a genome scan analysis performed in a commercial population of Spanish Churra sheep to detect chromosomal regions associated with parasite resistance. Following a daughter design, we analysed 322 ewes distributed in eight half-sib families. The phenotypes studied included two faecal egg counts (LFEC0 and LFEC1, anti-Teladorsagia circumcincta LIV IgA levels (IgA and serum pepsinogen levels (Peps. Results The regression analysis revealed one QTL at the 5% genome-wise significance level on chromosome 6 for LFEC1 within the marker interval BM4621-CSN3. This QTL was found to be segregating in three out of the eight families analysed. Four other QTL were identified at the 5% chromosome-wise level on chromosomes 1, 10 and 14. Three of these QTL influenced faecal egg count, and the other one had an effect on IgA levels. Conclusion This study has successfully identified segregating QTL for parasite resistance traits in a commercial population. For some of the QTL detected, we have identified interesting coincidences with QTL previously reported in sheep, although most of those studies have been focused on young animals. Some of these coincidences might indicate that some common underlying loci affect parasite resistance traits in different sheep breeds. The identification of new QTL may suggest the existence of complex host-parasite relationships that have unique features depending on the host-parasite combination, perhaps due to the different mechanisms underlying resistance in adult sheep (hypersensitivity reactions and lambs (immunity. The most significant QTL identified on chromosome 6 for LFEC1 may be the target for future fine-mapping research efforts.
Variale, V; Rainò, A C; Clauser, T
The charge breeding technique is used for radioactive ion beam (RIB) production in order of optimizing the re-acceleration of the radioactive element ions produced by a primary beam in a thick target. Charge breeding is achieved by means of a device capable of increasing the ion charge state from 1+ to a desired value n+. In order to get high intensity RIB, experiments with charge breeding of very high efficiency could be required. To reach this goal, the charge breeding simulation could help to optimize the high charge state production efficiency by finding more proper parameters for the radioactive 1+ ions. In this paper a device based on an electron beam ion source (EBIS) is considered. In order to study that problem, a code already developed for studying the ion selective containment in an EBIS with RF quadrupoles, BRICTEST, has been modified to simulate the ion charge state breeding rate for different 1+ ion injection conditions. Particularly, the charge breeding simulations for an EBIS with a hollow electron beam have been studied. PMID:22380242
In order to develop an advanced technical knowledge for the selection of better mutants, some of the crops were irradiated and the mutation rate, the survival rate and the method for selction of a mutant were studied. Furthermore, this study aimed to obtain basic data applicable to the development of genetic resources by evaluation and analysis the specific character for selection of the superior mutant and its plant breeding. 1. selection of the mutant with a superior resistance against environment in the principal crops 1) New varieties of mutant rices such as Wonpyeongbyeo, Wongwangbyeo, Winmibyeo, and heogseon chalbeyeo (sticky forma) were registered in the national variety list and made an application to crop variety protection right. They are under review now. 2) We also keep on studying on the number of a grain of 8 lines of excellent mutant rice for the purpose of improvement of breeding . 3) We selected 3 lines which have a resistance to pod and stem blight in large soybean, 31 lines with small grain size and higher yield, 112 lines of soybean of cooking, 7 lines of low lipoxygenase content, and 12 lines with decreased phytic acid content by 20 % compared to the previous level. 2. Selection of advanced Mugunwha (Rose of Sharon) mutant 1) Bagseul, a new variety of mutant, was developed and 30 plantlets of it are being proliferated. 2) Fifty-three lines of a mutant having a various morphologies were selected
Song, Hi Sup; Kim, Jae Sung; Kim, Jin Kyu; Shin, In Chul; Lim, Young Taek
In order to develop an advanced technical knowledge for the selection of better mutants, some of the crops were irradiated and the mutation rate, the survival rate and the method for selction of a mutant were studied. Furthermore, this study aimed to obtain basic data applicable to the development of genetic resources by evaluation and analysis the specific character for selection of the superior mutant and its plant breeding. 1. selection of the mutant with a superior resistance against environment in the principal crops 1) New varieties of mutant rices such as Wonpyeongbyeo, Wongwangbyeo, Winmibyeo, and heogseon chalbeyeo (sticky forma) were registered in the national variety list and made an application to crop variety protection right. They are under review now. 2) We also keep on studying on the number of a grain of 8 lines of excellent mutant rice for the purpose of improvement of breeding . 3) We selected 3 lines which have a resistance to pod and stem blight in large soybean, 31 lines with small grain size and higher yield, 112 lines of soybean of cooking, 7 lines of low lipoxygenase content, and 12 lines with decreased phytic acid content by 20 % compared to the previous level. 2. Selection of advanced Mugunwha (Rose of Sharon) mutant 1) Bagseul, a new variety of mutant, was developed and 30 plantlets of it are being proliferated. 2) Fifty-three lines of a mutant having a various morphologies were selected.
The present position of sugar industry particularly cane sugar production in the world has been discussed. The role of African Countries which can contribute more than the present 11% to world cane sugar production is presented. The breeding methods employed in cane growing court-tries indicate the biparental crossing and selection in F1 has been the major method used to develop varieties. Due to cytogenetical peculiarities, thousands of seedlings are grown to select the desirable genotype. Mutations or sports has been a source of variation for selection in nature. Induced mutations have only enhanced the mutation rate and has enabled the plant breeders to get better variation for selection. Though many mutagens have been used gamma rays have been most effective. Induced mutations for nonflowering, spineless leaf-sheath, higher sugar content, yield md resistance to diseases like smut and downy mildew have been reported. The methods of making mutated tissues express itself have been indicated. Mutation breeding holds out promise in sugarcane in that the basic variety or genotype can be kept intact and a few characters changed as desired by the plant breeder provided proper selection methods are employed. (author)
Liapi, M; Botsaris, G; Slana, I; Moravkova, M; Babak, V; Avraam, M; Di Provvido, A; Georgiadou, S; Pavlik, I
Paratuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map), is a chronic incurable infection of intestinal tract of animals. Molecular characterization of Map isolates classifies them into two major groups, 'Cattle' or Type II and 'Sheep' or Type I/III with a different phenotype, epidemiology, virulence and pathogenesis. The aim of this study was to examine 192 Map ELISA-positive sheep and goats from Cyprus using faecal culture and genotype Map isolates using IS1311 PCR and restriction endonuclease analysis (IS1311 PCR-REA) with HinfI restriction enzyme. Map was isolated from only four (4.6%) faecal samples out of 88 sheep and 15 (14.4%) faecal samples out of 104 goats. Genotyping of the isolates using IS1311 PCR-REA revealed that sheep and goat populations on the island are infected primarily by 'Sheep' strains. Only three Map isolates from goats originated from one farm were characterized as 'Cattle' strains. PMID:23683358
Morris, S T; Kenyon, P R
This paper details current production trends for sheep and beef cattle production in New Zealand and gives some insight into the opportunities for improvement based on New Zealand research at Massey University. Further it outlines some of the challenges the industries face in the near future. The New Zealand climate favours pasture growth and this is the key to sheep and beef cattle production with over 95% of the diet being grazed pasture or crop. Exports are the focus of the industry with 95% of sheep meat and wool, and 80% of beef exported. There have been considerable gains in production over the last 20 years but there still remains a huge opportunity for further intensification through breeding sheep at an earlier age, increasing the weight of lambs weaned per ewe per year and improving beef production systems. These improvements need to occur within a framework of minimal environmental footprint and produce products that are in demand in the high end international markets. PMID:24998778
Full Text Available The Icelandic sweater is presented and received as being traditional—even ancient—authentically Icelandic and hand made by Icelandic women from the wool of Icelandic sheep. Even so, the sweater type, the so-called ‘Icelandic sweater’ in English, only dates back to the mid-20th century and is not necessarily made in Iceland nor from indigenous wool. Nevertheless, the sweater is a successful invention of a tradition (Hobsbawm & Ranger, 1983, popular among Icelanders and tourists alike since its introduction in the mid-20th century. It has gained ground as a national symbol, particularly in times of crisis for example in the reconstruction of values in the aftermath of the Icelandic bank collapse of 2008. I traced the development of the discourse about wool and the origins of the Icelandic sweater by looking at publications of the Icelandic National Craft Association, current design discourse in Iceland and its effect on the development of the wool industry. I then tied these factors to notions of tradition, authenticity, national culture, image and souvenirs.
S.O. Salami; C.S. Ibe; A.D. Umosen; Ajayi, I. E.; S.M. Maidawa
A morphometric study was undertaken on the long bones in the two predominant breeds of small ruminant in Northern Guinea Savanna zone of Nigeria, to determine their anatomical differences and thus, provide a means of differentiating the remains of these two species during zooarchaeological studies and gross anatomy practical session. The pelvic and pectoral limbs from thirty animals (15 Yankasa sheep and 15 Red Sokoto goats) of both sexes were used for this study. The long bones of the pector...
This is the third in a series of lessons specifically designed to instruct individuals without any formal training in genetics or statistics about the science of corn breeding. Individuals with formal training in genetics or statistics but without any training in plant breeding also may benefit from taking these lessons.
Sharif, M; Sarvi, Sh; Shokri, A; Hosseini Teshnizi, S; Rahimi, M T; Mizani, A; Ahmadpour, E; Daryani, A
Toxoplasmosis, a cosmopolitan parasitic infection caused by Toxoplasma gondii, is frequently found in meat-producing animals and human beings. This review and meta-analysis study was performed to evaluate the overall prevalence of T. gondii infection among sheep and goats in Iran. Data were systematically collected from 1977 to 2012 in Iran on the following electronic databases: PubMed, Google Scholar, Science Direct, Scopus, Web of Science, Magiran, Irandoc, IranMedex, and Scientific Information Database (SID). Additionally, abstracts of national scientific congresses and dissertations were included. A total of 34 articles in field of sheep and 18 articles about goat toxoplasmosis, totalizing to the examination of 14,372 sheep and 3,120 goats, reporting prevalence of toxoplasmosis from different regions of Iran fulfilled our eligibility criteria. The overall prevalence rate of toxoplasmosis in Iran was estimated to be 31% (95% confidence interval (CI)?= 0.259825 to 0.352382) in sheep and 27% (95% CI = 0.140097 to 0.424782) in goats, respectively. There was no significant difference in infection rate between males and females among sheep (odds ratio (OR)?= 1.002, 95% CI = 0.59 to 1.696) and goats (OR = 1.027, 95% CI = 0.685 to 1.541). Analysis revealed that infection rate in sheep over than 1 year old was 2.4 times more than that in less than 1 year old (OR = 2.396, 95% CI = 1.050 to 5.467). This systematic review and meta-analysis study revealed that infection is widespread in Iran. Further studies are required to improve strategies for controlling infection among flocks and consequently in human population. PMID:25378258
W.S., Proskura; R., Pilarczyk; S., Borkowska; A., Marciniak; I., Szatkowska; J., Wójcik; A., Dybus.
Full Text Available Prion protein (PrP) is a membrane glycoprotein whose abnormal form is believed to cause a group of disorders known as transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs), which affect the brain and nervous system of both human beings and animals. The most familiar TSEs are Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (CJ [...] D) in human beings, and bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) and scrapie in sheep and goats. It is well established that resistance or susceptibility to scrapie has a genetic background that is closely linked to amino acid variations within PrP at positions 136 (A/V), 154 (R/H) and 171 (Q/R). The ARR (alanine at codon 136 and arginine at codons 154 and 171) allele is associated with the highest resistance to scrapie, whereas the VRQ allele is linked to the highest susceptibility. In the present study the allelic and genotypic frequencies of the PRNP gene in the Rough-coated Pomeranian Landrace (RPL) were determined. Polymorphisms at codons 136, 154 and 171 were identified with the PCR-RFLP method. Of the eight observed genotypes, ARR/ARQ (35.9%) and ARQ/ARQ (24.4%) were the most frequent. This study reported a presence of AHQ/AHR genotype (2.6%) that has not previously been recorded in any sheep breed. The predominance of wild-type ARQ (46.8%) haplotype, which is linked to the risk of scrapie development, suggested a genetic susceptibility to scrapie in RPL sheep. Although the frequency of ARR/ARR in RPL sheep was low, the highest frequency of the ARR/ARQ genotype could be helpful in increasing the number of individuals carrying the ARR/ARR genotype and reducing the risk of genetic defects within the population.
A breeding blanket design has been developed for ITER to provide the necessary tritium fuel to achieve the technical objectives of the Enhanced Performance Phase. It uses a ceramic breeder and water coolant for compatibility with the ITER machine design of the Basic Performance Phase. Lithium zirconate and lithium oxide am the selected ceramic breeders based on the current data base. Enriched lithium and beryllium neutron multiplier are used for both breeders. Both forms of beryllium material, blocks and pebbles are used at different blanket locations based on thermo-mechanical considerations and beryllium thickness requirements. Type 316LN austenitic steel is used as structural material similar to the shielding blanket. Design issues and required R ampersand D data are identified during the development of the design
Full Text Available Abstract Background The applications of proteomic strategies to ovine medicine remain limited. The definition of serum proteome may be a good tool to identify useful protein biomarkers for recognising sub-clinical conditions and overt disease in sheep. Findings from bovine species are often directly translated for use in ovine medicine. In order to characterize normal protein patterns and improve knowledge of molecular species-specific characteristics, we generated a two-dimensional reference map of sheep serum. The possible application of this approach was tested by analysing serum protein patterns in ewes with mild broncho-pulmonary disease, which is very common in sheep and in the peripartum period which is a stressful time, with a high incidence of infectious and parasitic diseases. Results This study generated the first reference 2-DE maps of sheep serum. Overall, 250 protein spots were analyzed, and 138 identified. Compared with healthy sheep, serum protein profiles of animals with rhino-tracheo-bronchitis showed a significant decrease in protein spots identified as transthyretin, apolipoprotein A1 and a significant increase in spots identified as haptoglobin, endopin 1b and alpha1B glycoprotein. In the peripartum period, haptoglobin, alpha-1-acid glycoprotein, apolipoprotein A1 levels rose, while transthyretin content dropped. Conclusions This study describes applications of proteomics in putative biomarker discovery for early diagnosis as well as for monitoring the physiological and metabolic situations critical for ovine welfare.
...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Roquefort cheese, sheep's milk blue-mold, and blue-mold cheese from sheep's milk. 133.184 Section...CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS...
PhD Margarita P Bracamonte (Northland Community & Technical College Biology)
Power Point slides that can be used during the sheep brain dissection laboratory to visually compare the sheep brain to the human brain structures with the goal to learn the anatomy of the human brain.
Batalla, Inma M.; Knudsen, Marie Trydeman
The link between climate change and livestock production has made carbon footprint based on life cycle assessment a world-wide indicator to assess and communicate the amount of greenhouse gases emitted per unit of product. Nevertheless, the majority of studies have not included soil carbon sequestration in the carbon footprint calculations. Especially in grasslands, soil carbon sequestration might be a potential sink to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions in the livestock sector. However, there is no commonly accepted methodology on how to include soil carbon sequestration in carbon footprint calculations. In this study, the carbon footprint of sheep milk was estimated from 12 farms in Northern Spain. Before taken into account contribution from soil carbon sequestration in the calculation, the carbon footprint values varied from 2.0 to 5.2 kg CO2 eq. per kg Fat and Protein Corrected Milk (FPCM). Milk from semi-intensive systems with foreign breeds kept indoors had significantly lower carbon footprint than milk from semi-extensive systems with local breeds and grazing in mountain uplands during summer. However, no difference was found in the carbon footprint of sheep milk from different systems and breeds when soil carbon sequestration was included in the calculations. Four different approaches to estimate and include soil carbon sequestration in the carbon footprint calculations were tested. This study highlights the importance of including soil carbon sequestration in the carbon footprint calculations. Furthermore, it highlights the climate mitigation potential of the grazing systems.
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to establish the impact of crossing the indigenous Cres sheep with Awassi and, respectively, Awassi and East Friesian sheep on the milk yield and quality. For this purpose, through regular monthly milk yield recordings a total of 824individual milk samples from 139 sheep in the second lactation of the same flock were collected, of which: 46 purebred Cres sheep, CS; 33 crosses with 50 % Cres sheep and 50 % Awassi, CA; 60 crosses with 50 % Cres sheep, 25 % Awassi and 25 % East Friesian, CAEF. The obtained results show a significant (P<0.05; P<0.01 impact of the genotype and the lactation stage on the yield and chemical composition of milk, and the somatic cell count. The most milk was yielded by CAEF crosses (690 mL/ewe/day, i.e., 133.8 L per lactation and the least by CS (340 mL/ewe/day, i.e., 58.48 L per lactation. The content of total solids, fat and protein increased as lactation advanced, whereas the trend of the lactose content was opposite. The highest content of total solids, fat and protein were established in the milk of the indigenous Cres sheep. A positive correlation was established between the amount of yielded milk and the somatic cell count, whereas a negative correlation was established between the amount of milk and the content of solids, fat and proteins.
Pavón-Domínguez, P.; Serrano, S.; Jiménez-Hornero, F. J.; Jiménez-Hornero, J. E.; Gutiérrez de Ravé, E.; Ariza-Villaverde, A. B.
The multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MF-DFA) is used to verify whether or not the returns of time series of prices paid to farmers in original markets can be described by the multifractal approach. By way of example, 5 weekly time series of prices of different breeds, slaughter weight and market differentiation from 2000 to 2012 are analyzed. Results obtained from the multifractal parameters and multifractal spectra show that the price series of livestock products are of a multifractal nature. The Hurst exponent shows that these time series are stationary signals, some of which exhibit long memory (Merino milk-fed in Seville and Segureña paschal in Jaen), short memory (Merino paschal in Cordoba and Segureña milk-fed in Jaen) or even are close to an uncorrelated signals (Merino paschal in Seville). MF-DFA is able to discern the different underlying dynamics that play an important role in different types of sheep livestock markets, such as degree and source of multifractality. In addition, the main source of multifractality of these time series is due to the broadness of the probability function, instead of the long-range correlation properties between small and large fluctuations, which play a clearly secondary role.
H. Zaneb, K. Pervez, M. S. Sarwar, S. Sindhu.
Full Text Available The project was aimed at evaluation of comparative therapeutic efficacy of two treatment regimes for the treatment of lead poisoning in sheep. For this purpose 20, two-months-old, lambs of Buchi breed were used as experimental animals. Five animals were kept as healthy control, whereas the remaining 15 animals were given oral aqueous solution of lead acetate daily. The dose was started from 5 mg/kg bodyweight and was increased gradually till it reached 100 mg/kg body weight by the end of 2nd month when clinical toxicosis was observed. Clinical findings included diarrhea, hindquarter weakness and reduction of feed intake, accompanied by anemia and elevated blood lead levels up to 2.72 ppm. The 15 toxicated animals were divided into three groups A, B and C comprising of 5 animals each. Disodium calcium edetate, which was used to treat animals of group A, resulted in 52.7% fall in blood lead level in 5 days. A combination of disodium calcium edetate and thiamine hydrochloride was used to treat animals of group B, which showed 73.8% fall in blood lead levels. Group C served as untreated control. Thus, combination therapy appears to be more effective for treatment of lead toxicosis.
Full Text Available The objective of this paper was to investigate the prion protein (PrP genotype and haplotype frequencies in three Sicilian dairy sheep populations. The three populations were: (1 1096 Valle del Belice animals, (2 1143 Comisana animals, and (3 1771 individuals from 5 flocks with scrapie outbreaks, in which the animals were crossbreds derived from indigenous Sicilian dairy breeds. PrP genotypes are described for the three codons 136 (Alanine or Valine; A, V, 154 (Histidine or Arginine; H, R, and 171 (Glutamine, Arginine or Histidine; Q, R, H which represent polymorphisms known to be linked with scrapie susceptibility. The Valle del Belice haplotype frequencies were 32.3% ARR, 6.5% AHQ, 1.0% ARH, 58.8% ARQ, and 1.4% VRQ. The Comisana frequencies were 39.4% ARR, 2.9% AHQ, 2.9% ARH, 50.9% ARQ, and 3.9% VRQ. In the flocks with scrapie outbreaks the frequencies were 32.8% ARR, 2.4% AHQ, 1.7% ARH, 59.1% ARQ, and 3.9% VRQ. In all three populations ARQ and ARR were the most frequent haplotypes. Multiple generations of strong selection will be needed to fixate the most resistant ARR haplotype.
Vinayagamurthy Balamurugan; Madhusudan Hosamani; Paramasivaiah Saravanan; Veerakyathappa Bhanuprakash; Bimalendu Mondal; Raj Kumar Singh
Bluetongue (BT), peste des petits ruminants (PPR) and sheep pox are the most economically important viral diseases of sheep in India. Serum samples obtained from sheep in five northern states of the country were screened for antibody against these agents to explore the extent of spread of these infections. A total of 516 serum samples were screened for the presence of antibodies against BT and PPR viruses. Of these, 155 samples were also tested for antibodies against sheep pox virus. BT antib...
Chickpea is an important food legume in Turkey. Turkey is one of the most important gene centers in the world for legumes. The most widely known characteristic of chickpea is that it is an important vegetable protein source used in human and animal nutrition. However, the dry grains of chickpea, has 2-3 times more protein than our traditional food of wheat. In addition, cheakpea is also energy source because of its high carbohydrate content. It is very rich in some vitamin and mineral basis. In the plant breeding, mutation induction has become an effective way of supplementing existing germplasm and improving cultivars. Many successful examples of mutation induction have proved that mutation breeding is an effective and important approach to food legume improvement. The induced mutation technique in chickpea has proved successful and good results have been attained. Realizing the potential of induced mutations, a mutation breeding programme was initiated at the Nuclear Agriculture Section of the Saraykoey Nuclear Research and Training Center in 1994. The purpose of the study was to obtain high yielding chickpea mutants with large seeds, good cooking quality and high protein content. Beside this some characters such as higher adaptation ability, tolerant to cold and drought, increased machinery harvest type, higher yield, resistant to diseases especially to antracnose and pest were investigated too. Parents varieties were ILC-482, AK-7114 and AKCIN-91 (9 % seed moisture content and germination percentage 98 %) in these experiments. The irradiation doses were 0 (control), 50, 100, 150, 200, 250, 300, 350, 400, 500 ve 600 Gy for greenhouse experiments and 0 (control), 50, 100, 150, 200, 250, 300, 350 ve 400 Gy for field experiments, respectively. One thousand seeds for per treatment were sown in the field for the M1. At maturity, 3500 single plants were harvested and 20 seeds were taken from each M1 plant and planted in the following season. During plant growth, mutants of the desired traits [earliness, yield per plant, first pot height and resistance to Ascochyta blight (Ascochyta rabiei)] were identified an isolated. 2520 desirable M2 mutants were selected and grown in progeny rows as the M3 generation. The protein contents of seeds were analyzed for the M3-M4 seeds. In M5-M7 generation, preliminary yield trials had been conducted and based on field observations, quality criteria (grain size, grain type, cooking and protein) analyses, and later 12 mutant lines were selected. The mutants and their controls were evaluated at two locations (Saraykoey and Haymana) in Central Anatolia for 2 years (M8, M9) for determination of yield performance using randomized complete block design with 3 replications. All the data were analysed statistically. As a result of these experiments, two promising mutant lines were chosen and given to the Seed Registration and Certification Center for official registration These two promising mutants were tested at five different locations of Turkey, in 2004 and 2005 years. After 2 years of registration experiments one of outstanding mutants was officially released as mutant chickpea variety under the name TAEK-SAGEL, in 2006. Some basic characteristics of this mutant are; earliness (95-100 day), high yield capacity (180-220 kg/da), high seed protein (22-25 %), first pot height (20-25 cm), 100 seeds weight (42-48 g), cooking time (35-40 min) and resistance to Ascochyta blight. (Includes 31 tables and 9 figures)
O'rourke Katherine; Herrmann-Hoesing Lynn; White Stephen; Waldron Daniel; Rowe Joan; Alverson Janet
Abstract Scrapie eradication efforts cost 18 million dollars annually in the United States and rely heavily upon PRNP genotyping of sheep. Genetic resistance might reduce goat scrapie and limit the risk of goats serving as a scrapie reservoir, so PRNP coding sequences were examined from 446 goats of 10 breeds, 8 of which had not been previously examined at PRNP. The 10 observed alleles were all related to one of two central haplotypes by a single amino acid substitution. At least five of thes...
A. Supriyantono; Hakim, L.; Suyadi; Ismudiono
Growth performance of Bali cattle has been a major concern especially in the character of body weight at a certain age, birth weight and weaning weight. Efforts to increase the quality of the performance of Bali cattle have been carried out by the government by forming P3Bali. In the activities of quality improvement, the government is guided by the breeding program which has been prepared. To strengthen these activities further, the breeding program has been modified based on weaning weight...
Jiang, Y; Wang, X; Kijas, J W; Dalrymple, B P
Domestic sheep (Ovis aries) can be divided into two groups with significantly different responses to hypoxic environments, determined by two allelic beta-globin haplotypes. Haplotype A is very similar to the goat beta-globin locus, whereas haplotype B has a deletion spanning four globin genes, including beta-C globin, which encodes a globin with high oxygen affinity. We surveyed the beta-globin locus using resequencing data from 70 domestic sheep from 42 worldwide breeds and three Ovis canadensis and two Ovis dalli individuals. Haplotype B has an allele frequency of 71.4% in O. aries and was homozygous (BB) in all five wild sheep. This shared ancestry indicates haplotype B is at least 2-3 million years old. Approximately 40 kb of the sequence flanking the ~37-kb haplotype B deletion had unexpectedly low identity between haplotypes A and B. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the divergent region of sheep haplotype B is remarkably distinct from the beta-globin loci in goat and cattle but still groups with the Ruminantia. We hypothesize that this divergent ~40-kb region in haplotype B may be from an unknown ancestral ruminant and was maintained in the lineage to O. aries, but not other Bovidae, evolving independently of haplotype A. Alternatively, the ~40-kb sequence in haplotype B was more recently acquired by an ancestor of sheep from an unknown non-Bovidae ruminant, replacing part of haplotype A. Haplotype B has a lower nucleotide diversity than does haplotype A, suggesting a recent bottleneck, whereas the higher frequency of haplotype B suggests a subsequent spread through the global population of O. aries. PMID:26096044
A review of genetic studies related to the breeding of improved cultivars of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) indicated that it was possible to modify the following over a wide range: duration of the rosette stage, stem length, branching habit, degree of spininess, head number, head size, flower morphology, mating system, seed size, hull thickness and thereby oil and protein contents, and fatty acid composition of the oil. Safflower breeders have concentrated most of their efforts on identifying and evaluating the great range of variability in cultivated safflower and its closely related wild species, and not on exploring means to increase variability. Limited experiments with gamma rays and ethyl methanesulphonate indicated that additional variability could be induced. Mutagenic agents should be used to obtain the following: resistance to foliar diseases where resistant germplasm is not available, increased levels of resistance to Phytophthora root rot, resistance to dodder and orobanche, resistance to insect pests, earlier maturity, and additional modifications in the fatty acid composition of the oil. (author)
Carlos, Luna Palomera; Rogelio Alejandro, Alonso Morales.
Full Text Available El estudio genético en razas de ovejas que naturalmente presentan altas tasas de ovulación (TO) y de prolificidad, ha permitido detectar la participación de varios genes. Entre ellos están los relacionados a la superfamilia del factor de crecimiento transformante ? (BMPRIB, GDF9 y BMP-15), así como [...] de otros genes con efecto mayor, tales como el "distal-less homeobox 3" (FecL), el receptor de estrógenos (ESR), el receptor de prolactina (PRLR) y el de las inhibinas (INHA y INHB). Sin embargo, las ovejas homocigotas para la mayoría de las variantes alélicas en BMP-15 o GDF9 son estériles, por lo que es importante el entendimiento de las bases genéticas y moleculares de estos polimorfismos, para su uso en programas racionales de mejoramiento genético con énfasis en la prolificidad. El polimorfismo en el gen de la melatonina (MTNR1) se ha asociado con la no estacionalidad reproductiva en ovejas. La selección en varias razas de ovejas para estas características ha reducido significativamente el anestro estacional, mostrando actividad reproductiva durante la primavera y el verano. Sin embargo, parece ser que estos genes en algunas razas pueden estar interactuando aditivamente, y una variante alélica en una raza puede no aparecer en otra, o bien dos al mismo tiempo, por lo que son variados los mecanismos genéticos que afectan la tasa ovulatoria y prolificidad. Abstract in english The genetic study on sheep breeds with naturally high ovulation rate (OR) and prolificacy, has allowed to detect the participation of several genes. Among them there are the ones related to the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily (BMPRIB, GDF9 and BMP-15), as well as to other genes with majo [...] r effect, such as the distal-less homeobox 3' (FecL), estrogen receptor (ESR), prolactin receptor (PRLR) and inhibin receptor (INHA and INHB). However, sheep homozygous for the majority of the allelic variants in BMP-15 or GDF9 are sterile, for which it is important the understanding of the genetic and molecular basis of these polymorphisms, for their use in rational programs of genetic improvement on prolificacy. Polymorphism in the melatonin gene (MTNR1) has been associated with non-reproductive seasonality in sheep. Selecting several sheep breeds for these characteristics has significantly reduced the seasonal anoestrus, showing reproductive activity during spring and summer. It seems that these genes in some breeds may be interacting additively and an allelic variant in a breed may not be present in other, or two be present at the same time; therefore, the understanding of the genetic mechanisms that affect ovulation rate and prolificacy are important for the selection of reproductive traits.
This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and rea search abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants
This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and research abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants
This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and research abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants
This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants
This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants
This issue of the newsletter reports a number of research news and research abstracts on application of radiation induced mutation techniques to increase mutagenesis and mutation frequency in plant breeding projects
This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and research abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants
This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and rea search abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants
This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants
This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and rea search abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants
This issue of the Newsletter presents abstracts and short communications of research results on radiation and chemical induced mutation breeding projects. Positive traits such as disease resistance and increased productivity are highlighted
California Department of Resources — These data come from observations of breeding tricolored blackbirds throughout their range in California. NAD27 coordinates are given in the data for each record....
This issue of the Newsletter presents abstracts and short communications of research results on radiation and chemical induced mutation breeding projects. Positive traits such as disease resistance and increased productivity are highlighted
This newsletter contains a brief account of FAO/IAEA meetings held in 1990 on plant breeding involving the use of induced mutations. It also features a list of commercially available plant cultivars produced by such techniques. Refs and tabs
A brief review is given of current efforts in collective accelerator development and of factors which indicate that collective accelerators could be used for breeding fissile materials. A high efficiency of energy conversion from the electron beams to the ions and also some pulsed power technology developments will be required
S., Méndez; S., Dunner; B., Sañudo; J.A., García; S. de, Argüello; F., Barquín; N., Chomón; L.A., Calderón; J., Cañón.
Full Text Available Se caracterizaron genéticamente dos poblaciones ovinas, Guriezo y Blanca de la Peña, presentes en la C.A. de Cantabria y se analizaron las relaciones con otras razas afines geográfica o culturalmente. Para ello se genotiparon un total de 21 marcadores de tipo microsatélite en 457 muestras pertenecie [...] ntes a las dos razas locales cántabras, y a las razas Lacha, Bardhoka, Anogeiano, Gentile di Puglia, Laticauda, Churra Bragancana, Colmenareña, Manchega, Merina, Rubia del Molar y Segureña. Los resultados indicaron la proximidad genética esperada entre la oveja Lacha y la población de Guriezo, y la diferenciación de las dos poblaciones cántabras (tanto Guriezo como Blanca de la Peña) con respecto a las demás razas ovinas estudiadas. Abstract in english Two sheep populations present in the Cantabria region in the North of Spain and named Guriezo and Blanca de la Peña were genetically characterised, also their origin and relationships with other geographically or culturally connected breeds were studied. A total of 457 individuals belonging to the t [...] wo groups and to other such as Lacha, Bardhoka, Anogeiano, Gentile di Puglia, Laticauda, Churra Bragancana, Colmenareña, Manchega, Merina, Rubia del Molar and Segureña breeds were genotyped for 21 microsatellite markers. The results allow detecting the influence of the Lacha breed on the Guriezo population, but also the genetic differences of both sheep populations (Guriezo and Blanca de la Peña) from all others ovine breeds studied.
Hogden, J.; Papcun, G.; Zlokarnik, I.; Nix, D.
In evaluating speaker verification systems, asymmetries have been observed in the ease with which people are able to break into other people`s voice locks. People who are good at breaking into voice locks are called wolves, and people whose locks are easy to break into are called sheep. (Goats are people that have a difficult time opening their own voice locks.) Analyses of speaker verification algorithms could be used to understand wolf/sheep asymmetries. Using the notion of a ``speaker space``, it is demonstrated that such asymmetries could arise even though the similarity of voice 1 to voice 2 is the same as the inverse similarity. This explains partially the wolf/sheep asymmetries, although there may be other factors. The speaker space can be computed from interspeaker similarity data using multidimensional scaling, and such speaker space can be used to given a good approximation of the interspeaker similarities. The derived speaker space can be used to predict which of the enrolled speakers are likely to be wolves and which are likely to be sheep. However, a speaker must first enroll in the speaker key system and then be compared to each of the other speakers; a good estimate of a person`s speaker space position could be obtained using only a speech sample.
Samuel Rezende Paiva
Full Text Available Sheep production is present on all continents and has been practiced in Brazil since the colonization. In this study, the multitemporal dynamics of sheep production in Brazil is examined using official government data (Brazilian Institute for Geography and Statistics-IBGE from 1976 to 2010. Maps of flock growth rates and growth acceleration maps by municipality were elaborated. The Southern states are seen to show a reduction in production mainly due to the wool crisis in the 1970s and 80s. The Northeast is seen to be important for meat production. More recently, centerwest and northern states have shown an increase in growth rates but this is still incipient. The maps of growth, acceleration and midpoint for sheep production showed a noticeable return to an increase in production in the South in recent years. The midpoint of production flow was in the northeast direction, which has stagnated. There was great dynamics in sheep production over the whole Brazilian territory, which affected supply chains due to the expansion of domestic and foreign markets. Areas with higher fluctuations in production are more vulnerable in terms of investment policies.
How mutation induction is used for plant breeding in Brazil is reported. For upland rice, the combined treatment with gamma-ray and mutagens (ethylene imine or ethylmethane sulfonate) has been used on the variety, Dourado Precoce, and some mutants with shortculm length and/or earliness without altering the productivity have been obtained. A project on the quantitative and qualitative protein improvement in upland rice was also started in 1979. In corn, the effect of gamma-irradiation on heterosis has been analyzed, and it was found that the single hybrids from two parental lines derived from irradiated seeds had increased ear productivity. For beans (Phaseolus yulgaris), gamma-irradiation and chemical mutagens have been used to induce the mutants with different seed color, disease resistance to golden mosaic virus and Xanthomonas phaseoli, earliness, high productivity and high protein content. Some mutants with partly improved characters have been obtained in these experiments. Two varieties of wheat tolerant to aluminum toxicity have been obtained, but the one showed high lodging due to its unfavorable plant height, and the other was highly susceptible to culm rust. Therefore, irradiation experiments have been started to improve these characters. The projects involving the use of gamma-irradiation have been tested to obtain the mutant lines insensitive to photoperiod and resistant to bud-blight in soybean, the mutant lines resistant to mosaic virus in papaya, the phosistant to mosaic virus in papaya, the photoperiod-insensitive mutants in sorghum, the mosaic virus resistant and non-flowering mutants in sugar cane, and the Fusarium and nematode-resistant mutants in black pepper. (Kaihara, S.)
Jeong, Hyeon-Soo; Kim, Dae-Won; Chun, Se-Yoon; Sung, Samsun; Kim, Hyeon-Jeong; Cho, Seoae; Kim, Heebal; Oh, Sung-Jong
Indigenous (native) breeds of livestock have higher disease resistance and adaptation to the environment due to high genetic diversity. Even though their extinction rate is accelerated due to the increase of commercial breeds, natural disaster, and civil war, there is a lack of well-established databases for the native breeds. Thus, we constructed the native pig and chicken breed database (NPCDB) which integrates available information on the breeds from around the world. It is a nonprofit pub...
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the adverse effects of patulin on beef and dairy sheep. In the beef sheep trial, nine Corriedale lambs averaging 26 3 kg-1 BW were used. The treatment group, n=5, received 3.3 mg patulin/kg-1 BW twice daily (BID on days 0 through 2; 4.5 mg/kg-1 BW on days 3 through 5, and 5 mg/ kg-1 BW on day 6. Lambs received no patulin from day 7 through 13. The control lambs, n= 4, received an equal volume of water by stomach tube BID. The dry matter (DM intake in dosed sheep was 22 % less than that of control animals after three days of treatment with 3.3 mg patulin/ kg-1 BW. This difference increased to 40 % as the dose of patulin increased to 5 mg/kg-1 BW. Differences in DM consumption remained significant through day 13 ( P+ 6 kg-1 BW were used. The treatment group, n= 7, received 3.3 mg patulin/kg-1 BW divided BID. The control group, n=6, received an equal volume of water by stomach tube BID. Neither changes in body weight nor effects on feed intake were observed in the patulin treated group. Effects on milk production, serum biochemistry, electrolytes, and hematology parameters were not detected. Contrary to what it was expected patulin treatment in almost equal doses shown to be effective for beef sheep failed to influence production and health in dairy sheep. Factors such as age, diet and composition of rumen microflora might have contributed to the difference in behavior.
Full Text Available Generally, sheep are capable to cosume the forage about 90 percent of their dry matter requirement. In Indonesia, sheep generally accumulated in low land area, so that the requirement to be supply by dried field grass only. An experiment have been conducted at the Experimental Farm, Faculty of Animal Science, General Soedirman University. Twenty seven male sheep were used in a Completely Randomized Blok Design of three replication. The factors tested were : three levels of dried field grass at: 0, 21.25 and 42.50 percent dry matter of ration. The variables measured were: (1 crude fibre digestion coefficient; (2 Rumen metabolism product: volatile fatty acids, espencially acetate (C2, propionate (C3, butyrate (C4, and valerate (C5. The digestion trial was carried out by the Total Collection methods and the production of individual volatile fatty acids were determined by chromatography technique. The analysis of covariance shown, that there was no significantly effects of treatment tested upon the crude fibre digestion coefficient (P>0.005, but there were a highly significant effect ( P<0.001 upon the production of acetate ((C2 and propionate (C3. The relationship of ceude fibre digestion coefficient with all of the rumen metabilism product were shown to be same, in cubic form. Based on the crude fibre digestion coefficient and the production of individual volatile fatty acid, it was found that dried fields grass can be used up to 42.50 percent of ration dry matter for male sheep. (Animal Production 9(1: 9-13 (2007 Key Words : metabolism, forage, grass, sheep
The demand of highly charged ions of isotopes from all mass regions of the nuclear chart for low energy experiment or for the post acceleration has driven the development of different charge breeding methods. Charge state breeder employ high charge state ion sources like the Electron Beam Ion Source/Trap (EBIS/T) and the Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Source (ECRIS). Existing radioactive beam facilities like REX-ISOLDE or ISAC (TRIUMF) are already using charge state boosters for the post acceleration of radioactive ions. Upcoming facilities like the MSU re-accelerator project, SPIRAL II, SPES, EURISOL and MATS within FAIR have identified the need of a breeding system, because of the demand for highly charged ions at low energies and due to the available budget. Charge state breeding with EBIS/T devices requires several steps, which need to be optimized. A beam of singly charged ions must be prepared prior to injection into an EBIS/T in order to match the acceptance of the electron beam. An efficient injection and short breeding times are required as well as a high abundance in one specific charge state, which can be manipulated in EBIS/T devices. Further issues of charge breeder development are extraction and purification of the wanted highly charged ion species. The present paper will review the efforts of the EBIS/T community and will give an overview of the planned and running facilities.
Stefano P. Marelli
Full Text Available In Italy, 90 local avian breeds were described, the majority (61% were classified extinct and only 8.9 % still diffused. Therefore, efforts for conservation of Italian avian breeds are urgently required. The aim of this study was to record the breeding performance of the Italian breed Mericanel della Brianza and multiply a small population, in order to develop a conservation program. Fourteen females and 8 males were available at the beginning of the reproductive season in 2009 and organized in 8 families (1 male/1-2 females kept in floor pens. Birds received a photoperiod of 14L:10D and fed ad libitum. Breeding performance was recorded from March to June. Egg production and egg weight were recorded daily; eggs were set every 2 weeks and fertility, embryo mortality and hatchability were recorded. Mean egg production was 37% and mean egg weight was 34±3.49 g. High fertility values were recorded in the first three settings, from 94 to 87%, and the overall mean fertility value was 81.6%. Overall hatchability was only 49.6% due to a high proportion of dead embryos. Embryo mortality occurred mainly between day 2 and 7 of incubation and during hatch. Highest hatchability values were recorded in setting 1 and 2, 69 and 60% respectively, and a great decrease was found in the following settings. Great variations in egg production, fertility, hatchability and embryo mortality were found among families. The present results are the basic knowledge on reproductive parameters necessary to improve the reproductive efficiency of the breed within a conservation plan.
Singh, Lakshya Veer; Jayakumar, S; Sharma, Anurodh; Gupta, Shishir Kumar; Dixit, S P; Gupta, Neelam; Gupta, S C
The most polymorphic milk protein gene is ?-casein; 13 protein variants are known in cattle. Milk protein genetic polymorphism has received considerable research interest in recent years because of possible associations between milk protein and economically important traits in livestock. The present study was undertaken to explore the genetic polymorphisms in exon 7 of ?-casein and exon 4 of ?-casein genes in Arunachali yaks (Bos grunniens), Sahiwal (Bos indicus) cattle, malpura sheep (Ovis aries) and Gaddi goat (Capra hircus). Results of the study revealed presence of 11 SNP variants in all livestock species. Four SNPs were observed in Bos indicus; two SNPs in Bos grunniens; three SNPs in Ovis aries and three SNPs in Capra hircus. These variations are found to be synonymous in nature as these variations do not result in their corresponding amino acids. A total of five polymorphic sites have been described at the ?-casein (CSN3) locus in the Indian domestic Gaddi goat (Capra hircus) when compared with exotic goat (X60763) while sequence analysis of ?-casein gene in sheep showed three novel nucleotide changes in malpura sheep when compared with the exotic sheep (AY237637). These results highlight the importance of taking into consideration the CSN3 SNPs when performing selection for milk composition in dairy livestock breeds. PMID:25905036
...Sheep and goats and wild ruminants from Mexico. 93.428 Section 93.428 Animals...AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Mexico 10 § 93.428 Sheep and goats and wild ruminants from Mexico. (a) Sheep and goats intended...
Full Text Available Abstract Scrapie eradication efforts cost 18 million dollars annually in the United States and rely heavily upon PRNP genotyping of sheep. Genetic resistance might reduce goat scrapie and limit the risk of goats serving as a scrapie reservoir, so PRNP coding sequences were examined from 446 goats of 10 breeds, 8 of which had not been previously examined at PRNP. The 10 observed alleles were all related to one of two central haplotypes by a single amino acid substitution. At least five of these alleles (M142, R143, S146, H154, and K222 have been associated with increased incubation time or decreased odds of scrapie. To the best of our knowledge, neither S146 nor K222 has been found in any goats with scrapie, though further evaluation will be required to demonstrate true resistance. S146 was more common, present in several breeds at widely varying frequencies, while K222 was observed only in two dairy breeds at low frequency. Overall, this study provides frequency data on PRNP alleles in US goats, shows the pattern of relationships between haplotypes, and demonstrates segregation of multiple scrapieassociated alleles in several breeds not examined before at PRNP.
Full Text Available In this study 2510 records of reproductive traits from the mating of 879 ewes with 164 rams of Bakhtiari sheep breed, during 1989 to 1997, were used in order to estimate the effects of environmental factors on their reproductive performance. The mean and standard errors of reproductive traits were as follows: conception rate, 0.9±0.01; number of lambs born per ewe exposed, 1.06±0.01; number of lambs born alive per ewe exposed, 1.01 ±0.0l, number of lambs weaned per ewe exposed, 0.93±0.01; litter size alive at birth, 1.10±0.01; litter size at weaning, 1.01±0.02; and number of lambs weaned per lambing ewe, 1.09±0.01. The effect of joining year was highly significant (P, 0.01 for all of the considered reproductive traits. Age of ewe at joining time was also a significant (P
Alécio Matos Pereira
Full Text Available Current assay evaluates thermoregulatory characteristics of native sheep in pregnancy and supplemented in grazing system. Were used 24 multiparous lactating ewes, 12 Santa Inês and 12 Morada Nova, with an average weight of 52.6 and 31.3 kg, respectively, were randomly distributed in a completely randomized split-split plot design. Physiological parameters such as heart rate (HR, respiratory rate (RR and rectal temperature (RT were measured in that order during the morning and afternoon, 06-07 and 13-14 h, respectively, every seven days, totaling 10 samples. The environmental temperature was higher (P<0.05 in the afternoon, probably due to the higher incidence and intensity of sunlight at this time, with index globe temperature and humidity presenting values that characterize an environment of danger to animal production, characteristics of the semiarid. Effect (P<0.05 turn and race on the thermoregulatory characteristics of the sheep were found, showing unfavorable conditions in the afternoon with greater intensity of use of heat dissipation mechanisms by Santa Inês ewes. Assessing the effect of supplementation on the physiology of these sheep, it appears that there is an influence (P<0.05 on the RR and HR, with higher values for Santa Inês ewes subjected to 1.5% concentrate diet. However, RT remained within the normal range, indicating that they are adapted breeds rearing conditions and experimental diet that have efficient mechanisms in respiratory heat dissipation, indicating also that they are qualified to productive farm animals in semi-arid conditions.
Full Text Available Abstract In order to simultaneously integrate linkage and syntenic groups to the ovine chromosomal map, a sheep bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC library was screened with previously assigned microsatellites using a sheep-hamster hybrid panel and genetic linkage. Thirty-three BACs were obtained, fluorescently labelled and hybridised on sheep-goat hybrid metaphases (2n = 57. This study allowed us, (i, to anchor all linkage groups on sheep chromosomes, (ii, to give information on the probable position of the centromere on the linkage map for the centromeric chromosomes, (iii, to contradict the previous orientation of the ovine × linkage group by the mapping of BMS1008 on OARXq38. Concerning our somatic cell hybrid panel, this study resulted in the assignment of all the previously unassigned groups to ovine chromosomes and a complete characterisation of the hybrid panel. In addition, since hybridisations were performed on a sheep-goat hybrid, new marker/anchoring points were added to the caprine cytogenetic map.
A., Vallecillo; M., Miró-Arias; A., Roca; A., Pons.
Full Text Available La oveja Menorquina está incluida en el grupo de razas en peligro de extinción según el Catálogo Oficial de Razas de Ganado de España. En el año 2003 estaban inscritos en el Libro Genealógico unos 2000 animales pertenecientes a 52 ganaderías. Actualmente, la raza cuenta, dentro del Programa de Conse [...] rvación ex situ, con un banco de germoplasma que comenzó en 2008 y sigue completándose anualmente. Este trabajo expone los primeros resultados de la caracterización seminal del morueco de raza ovina Menorquina, en el que se ha estudiado el efecto de variables tales como volumen y concentración seminal, así como la motilidad masal y progresiva, en relación al año de la extracción seminal. En total se analizaron 41 eyaculados de 8 sementales. Los datos preliminares ofrecieron las siguientes medias y desviaciones típicas: concentración, 3 897x10(6)±2,74 espermatozoides/ml; 4 456x10(6)±4,43 espermatozoides totales; motilidad progresiva 50±16,77 (0-100%); volumen 1,06±0,66 ml; motilidad masal 3,58±1,01 (1-5). Todas las variables mostraron diferencias significativas en relación al año. Abstract in english Menorquina sheep is included in the group of breeds in danger of extinction according the Offcial Spanish Catalogue of Livestock Breeds. In 2003, 2000 animals were enclosed in the herd book, all them belonging to 52 farms. Presently, the breed has, in the ex situ conservation program, a germplasm ba [...] nk which started in 2008 and continues completing yearly. This paper exposes the preliminary results of the semen characterization of the Menorquina sheep breed male, studying variables such as volume, concentration, basal and progressive motility, in relation to the year of collection. A total of 41 ejaculates from 8 males were studied. Preliminary data offered the following means and standard deviations: concentration, 3 897x10(6)±2,74 espermatozoa/ml; 4 456x10(6)±4,43 total spermatozoa; progressive motility 50±16,77 (0-100%); volume 1,06±0,66 ml; basal motility 3,58±1,01 (1-5). The variables shown differences statistically significant among years of collection.
Full Text Available The aim of present study was to investigate the polymorphism of calpastatin and myostatin genes in sheep from Synthetic Population Bulgarian Milk (SPBM breed because they are considered as candidate genes for meat and growth traits. Blood samples were collected from 121 sheep represented SPBM and genomic DNA was extracted using commercial purification kit. Genotypes were determined by PCR amplification followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP method. Based on results, calpastatin gene was found to be polymorphic but myostatin gene was monomorphic. The allelic frequencies in CAST gene were 92% for allele M and 8% for N. Genotype frequencies were 84%, 15% and 1% for MM, MN and NN in calpastatin locus, respectively. In this population, calpastatin locus did not show Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (P<0.05. Observed heterozygosity for this locus was 0.148. Established polymorphism of CAST gene in SPBM sheep can be used in future research for detection of possible association between effective genotype and meat tenderness.
Ana C Coelho
Full Text Available The aim of this study was evaluate the risk factors for Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map seroprevalence in sheep in the North of Portugal. The effects on seroprevalence of several variables such as individual characteristics, management practices, farm characteristics, animal health, and available veterinary services were evaluated. This information was then used in a multivariable logistic regression model in order to identify risk factors for Map seropositivity. Univariable analysis was used to screen the variables used in the logistic regression model. Variables that showed p values of <0.15 were retained for the multivariable analysis. Fifteen variables were associated with paratuberculosis in univariable analysis. The multivariable logistic regression model identified a number of variables as risk factors for seropositivity like sheep pure local and/or a cross of a local breed (OR=2.02, herd size with 31-60 head (OR=2.14, culling during the Spring-Summer season (OR=1.69 and the use of an anti-parasitic treatment such as Ivermectin as the only anti-parasitic medication (OR=5.60. Potential risk factors identified in this study support current recommendations for the control of paratuberculosis.
Faccia, M; Trani, A; Gambacorta, G; Loizzo, P; Cassone, A; Caponio, F
Innovation in the small ruminant dairy sector faces structural challenges because dairies are often involved in breeding and produce cheeses that appeal essentially to local markets using traditional technologies and facilities. An investigation was carried out to produce Fior di latte, a traditional, soft pasta filata cheese, from sheep and goat milks at the farm level. Fior di latte is an Italian high-moisture, round mozzarella currently produced from cow and water buffalo milks; it is very popular in Europe. Cheesemaking trials were performed and the most appropriate technology proved to be a combination of direct acidification and lactic fermentation, with some modifications to the milk coagulation phase. The gross composition of the experimental cheeses was similar to that of bovine Fior di latte, and the overall hygienic quality was satisfactory even though the milk had not been pasteurized. The new cheeses were similar in appearance to the bovine type, but some specific features were detected. Besides the typical "goaty" and "sheepy" flavors, some novel and distinctive descriptors of odor, flavor, and texture were noted. Our experiment showed that good quality Fior di latte cheese that complies with microbiological requirements of the European legislation can be obtained from sheep and goat milks by appropriately modifying the cheesemaking technology. PMID:25547300
Johnson Christine K; Rubin Esther S; Clemenza Sean M; Botta Randall A; Boyce Walter M
Abstract Background We used Global Positioning System (GPS) data from radiocollared pumas (Puma concolor) to identify kill sites of pumas preying upon an endangered population of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) in southern California. Our aims were to test whether or not pumas selected radiocollared versus uncollared bighorn sheep, and to identify patterns of movement before, during, and after kills. Findings Three pumas killed 23 bighorn sheep over the course of the study, but they did not p...
Mojtaba, Tahmoorespur; Mehdi Vafaye, Valeh; Mohammad Reza, Nassiry; Alireza Heravi, Moussavi; Maziar, Ansary.
Full Text Available The insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-I) gene has been described in several studies as a candidate gene for growth traits in farm animals. The present preliminary study attempts to establish associations between growth traits and genetic polymorphisms at the 5' flanking region s IGF-I in the Baluchi [...] sheep. The DNA of 102 sheep of the indigenous Iranian Baluchi breed was evaluated. Polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) analysis of the 5' flanking region (Exon1) of the ovine IGF-I gene revealed three banding patterns (genotypes) named as A/A, A/B and B/B. The evaluation of an association effect between these SSCP patterns with birth weight (BW), weaning weight (WW), and average daily gain from birth to weaning (GBW), weaning to six month (GWS) and from six month to yearling age (GSY) suggest a positive effect of pattern (Genotype) A/B with GBW and weaning weight (WW). Pattern (Genotype) B/B had a superior birth weight when compared to those of individuals with other patterns. Moreover, the A/A pattern (Genotype) appeared favourable for live weight at yearling age. These results confirmed the potential usefulness of this gene in marker-assisted selection programmes for sheep breeding.
Increasing occurrence of outbreaks of Rift Valley fever (RVF) has been witnessed in southern Somalia, north-eastern Kenya and northern Tanzania during heavy and prolonged, often unseasonal, rainfall since 1997-98. More recently epizootics were reported in Kenya, Somalia, Tanzania, Sudan, Madagascar and South Africa. Because Uganda is located in the endemic zone of RVF, surveillance was conducted to enable early detection of outbreaks. Testing of frozen and fresh bovine sera retrospectively from 1997 to 2008 using IgM ELISA revealed a seroprevalence ranging from 0 to 2.5%, while VNT revealed 9.65% prevalence. Testing of goat and sheep samples collected from 2005 to 2008 through a cross-sectional study targeting commercial farms and free-range flocks in flood-prone zones in Uganda revealed a seroprevalence ranging from 5.3-27.9% and 0-0.9% by IgG ELISA and IgM ELISA, respectively. Virus neutralization test revealed 32.3% prevalence among goat flocks from these same places. Although indigenous breeds of cattle, goats and sheep, known to be less susceptible to RVF than exotic breeds (Anon., 2005), are predominant in areas surveyed, it is likely that the RVF virus is circulating in livestock in some of these locations. Outbreaks are likely to occur once favourable conditions are met. Studies to establish the distribution of RVF vector mosquitoes and the proportion of susceptible hosts in areas with high sero-prevalence are required to further elucidate the status of RVF in to further elucidate the status of RVF in Uganda
Production, distribution, taxonomy, origin, breeding objectives and systems are reviewed. The main objective should be to obtain cultivars that are reduced in size, precocious, constantly and highly productive and early ripening in order to make mechanical harvesting in different environments feasible. Processing quality (for oil and table cultivars), winter hardiness and pest and disease resistance are highly desirable traits. In addition to clonal selection, mutation breeding is a very promising method of obtaining new, useful traits. To avoid the chimeric structure, use of tissue culture is suggested. (author)
Full Text Available Growth performance of Bali cattle has been a major concern especially in the character of body weight at a certain age, birth weight and weaning weight. Efforts to increase the quality of the performance of Bali cattle have been carried out by the government by forming P3Bali. In the activities of quality improvement, the government is guided by the breeding program which has been prepared. To strengthen these activities further, the breeding program has been modified based on weaning weight data for 10 years (1994-2004. Data were analyzed using the VCE and PEST to estimate the components of genetic variance and covariance. The breeding program was set up based on the results of the accuracy of some methods of selection. The results showed that the ratio of male to female optimum (1:5 would increase the selection response per generation about 53.08 percent. Selection responses were obtained when males were maintained for three years and females over six years in the population. (Animal Production 13 (1:45-51 (2011Key Words: Bali cattle, breeding program, selection response
Martins, Rafhael Felipe Saraiva; do Prado Paim, Tiago; de Abreu Cardoso, Cyntia; Stéfano Lima Dallago, Bruno; de Melo, Cristiano Barros; Louvandini, Helder; McManus, Concepta
This study aims to evaluate the use of an infrared thermograph for mastitis diagnosis in sheep. Thirty-seven Santa Inês ewes were evaluated weekly through infrared images obtained with thermograph FLIR System Series-i®. Milk was collected for somatic cell count and milk compound level determination. The clinical mastitis group had the highest fat and protein level, as well as the lowest lactose level. The udder temperatures were higher for subclinical mastitis group. The udder temperature data was able to correctly classify the animals into the mastitis groups and the canonical analysis showed that these temperatures clearly differentiated the subclinical mastitis groups from the others. Therefore, this study showed that udder infrared temperatures can be used as diagnostic method to mastitis in sheep. PMID:23178047
Ibrahim HA Abd El-Rahim*; Atif H Asghar; Shawkat M Fat'hi and Omar B Ahmed
Full Text Available Annually huge numbers of small ruminants particularly sheep were imported into Saudi Arabia shortly before pilgrimage season mostly from countries of the Horn of Africa, where circling disease (Listeria monocytogenes is endemic. These imported animals may be actually or previously infected with L. monocytogenes without showing any clinical manifestations. Anti-Listeriolysin O (LLO enzyme linked immuosorbent assay (ELISA was applied for determination of the seroprevelance of L. monocytogenes infection among 1000 randomly selected sheep. In addition, public health significant as well as entrance of such zoonotic diseases into the country through imported animals was discussed. Out of 1000 tested sera, 178 (17.8% were carried antibodies against Listeriolysin O (LLO protein of L. monocytogenes. The present study suggested that circling disease should be added to the list of the quarantine infectious diseases. It was recommended that Anti-LLO ELISA could be applied for serodiagnosis of the previous exposure of the imported ruminates to the L. monocytogenes.
Full Text Available The purpose of our research was to determine which groups and species of internal parasites endanger the health of sheep on the islands of Rab and Pag. The research was carried out in 10 flocks on both islands taking the fresh dung out of 30% of the total number of sheep in each flock. It was ascertained that the gastrointestinal parasites and protozoa of Eimeria genus are present in most flocks on both islands. The presence of the fluke Dicrocoelium dendriticum was ascertained in considerably larger number of flocks on the island of Rab than on the island of Pag. On the other hand, the presence of parasites of Moniezia and Nematodirus genus was ascertained in larger number of flocks on the island of Pag. In two flocks on Rab parasites of Protostrongylus genus were ascertained while on the island of Pag they were not found in any flock.
Wright, André-Denis G.; Williams, Andrew J; Winder, Barbara; Christophersen, Claus T.; Rodgers, Sharon L.; Smith, Kellie D.
The molecular diversity of rumen methanogens in sheep in Australia was investigated by using individual 16S rRNA gene libraries prepared from the rumen contents obtained from six merino sheep grazing pasture (326 clones), six sheep fed an oaten hay-based diet (275 clones), and five sheep fed a lucerne hay-based diet (132 clones). A total of 733 clones were examined, and the analysis revealed 65 phylotypes whose sequences (1,260 bp) were similar to those of cultivated methanogens belonging to ...
Zoran Vukašinovi?; Neven Antunac; Nataša Mikulec; Boro Mio?; Zdravko Bara?
eep milk production and processing in last ten years show significant increase in Croatia. Market has recognized the product quality of sheep milk, so today even more number of cheese producers is interested for obtaining the protected geographical indication of products. Because of specific climate conditions on island Pag, as well as specific herbal cover, numerous aromatic plant varieties, milk, i.e. cheese, has specific taste and smell which consumers recognize, search and appreciate. Bec...
Andrade, Evelyn Rabelo; Hyttel, Poul
The aim of this study was to investigate the ultrastructural characteristics of primordial follicles after culturing of sheep ovarian cortical slices in the presence of indol acetic acid (IAA), Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF), and FSH. To evaluate ultrastructure of primordial follicles cultured in MEM (control) or in MEM containing IAA, EGF, and FSH, fragments of cultured tissue were processes for transmission electron microscopy. Except in the control, primordial follicles cultured in supplemented media for 6¿d were ultrastructurally normal. They had oocyte with intact nucleus and the cytoplasm contained heterogeneous-sized lipid droplets and numerous round or elongated mitochondria with intact parallel cristae were observed. Rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) was rarely found. The granulosa cells cytoplasm contained a great number of mitochondria and abundant RER. In conclusion, the presence of IAA, EGF, and FSH helped to maintain ultrastructural integrity of sheep primordial follicles cultured in vitro.
To test the hypothesis that the response of sheep to primary infections with Haemonchus contortus is genetically determined, Scottish Blackface and Finn Dorset wethers of known haemoglobin type were each infected with 350 third-stage larvae/kg bodyweight. Resistance to the subsequent disease was monitored and compared by haematological, biochemical and radioisotopic methods, and resistance to parasite development and establishment by measurements of egg output and of worm recovery 32 days after infection. The results obtained demonstrated that sheep with HbA developed less severe clinical and pathophysiological disturbances, passed fewer eggs and harboured fewer worms at necropsy than animals with HbB, and that Scottish Blackfaces exhibited similar advantages over Finn Dorsets with the same haemoglobin type. Since variations in disease severity as judged by pathophysiological changes were broadly in line with parasite numbers, it appears that genetic resistance operates at its level of parasite establishment, which in turn is controlled by the immune response elicited. The mechanism of the immune response was not determined but appeared to act only against 4th and 5th stage larvae since no differences were found in the metabolic activities of individual adult worms within any of the experimental groups. A subsequent experiment, designed to examine the response of sheep to heavier infection (1400 larvae/kg), failed to reveal any correlation between haemoglobin type and worm establishment. It is suggested that this may be a reflection of a delayed immune response arising from exposure to excessive amounts of antigen. (author)
Saeed Kazemi Ashtiani
Full Text Available Objective: This study describes our experiences in reproductive cloning using two differentprocedures resulting in birth of the first successfully cloned sheep in Iran and theMiddle-East, nick-named "Royana".Materials and Methods: Abattoir-derived sheep oocytes were enucleated after in vitromaturation for 18-20hrs and then reconstructed by ear-derived sheep somatic cells usingtwo different procedures of renucleation (subzonary, intracytoplasmic, embryo culture (coculture,sequential medium and embryo transfer (intra fallopian, intra uterine. Pregnancystatus and fetal development were followed regularly and elective cesarean was inductedon day 145 of pregnancy. Histopathological and genetical examinations were performedon either aborted and delivered clones for confirmation different aspects of cloning.Results: The two procedures were both efficient in producing early and/or advancedcloned embryos, establishing early and/or advanced stages of pregnancy till delivery. Fourpregnancies were detected; one were failed at early pregnancy, one aborted on day 90,one was still born and the fourth delivered to a healthy male lamb nick named "Royana".Conclusion: Many different approaches have been developed for mammalian cloningwhich all are judged by their ultimate potency for establishment of successful pregnanciesterminated to healthy/viable clones. As a preliminary study toward establishment ofthe technology, this study also successfully examined the competency of two proceduresof somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT. However, the overall low efficiency of SCNT indicatesthat many different aspects of the technology remain to be dissolved.
After the Chernobyl accident the fallout differed considerably from area to area in Norway and specially were found from soil samples that the mountain pasture in Middle and South of Norway were heavily contaminated. These natural ecosystem is important in several nutrition pathways; notably sheep, goat, reindeer and cattle. In June 1986 the Health Directorate imposed action levels for the nuclides Cs-134 and Cs-137. The action levels were 370 Bq/kg for milk and baby food and 600 Bq/kg for all other types of food. In November 1986, the action level for reindeer meat were increased to 6000 Bq/kg, and in June 1987 the level was also increased to 6000 Bq/kg for wild freshwater fish. The most effected meat production were reindeer, sheep and cattle. Almost 20 to 35% of the sheep had activity levels above the action limits. This fact initiated a broad program to establish effective measure to increase the activity levels and to sort out the animals which could be slaughtered. Three main approaches have been utilized in Norway in order to achieve this and to limit the potential health risk: action aimed at reducing uptake from soil to vegetation (plowing, use of fertilizing etc.); action aimed at reducing uptake from fodder to animals (use of cesium binder, change of slaughter time), or reducing unacceptable activity levels in animals (downfeeding); action aimed at reducing intake to human (interdiction, dietary advice). Live monitoring were in several of these actions necessary for a successful result
Full Text Available From 1996 to 1999 a conservation programme was carried out within the framework of EC contract “European gene banking project for the pig genetic resources” (Ollivier et al., 2001 in the Italian local pig breeds. The aims of the program included the primary characterization of the breeds, i.e. information on the organization in charge of the breed, breeding population numbers, breed description and qualifications, and field trials on productive and reproductive performances. In this context the “Semen Bank of Italian local pig breeds” was built. A total of 30,835 straws of four Italian local pig breeds (Cinta Senese, Casertana, Mora Romagnola and Nero Siciliano, collected from 42 sires, have been stored. In this work semen quality traits, lipid composition and freezability of the four Italian local pig breeds are reported.
Burócziová, Monika; Riha, J.
Ro?. 50, ?. 4 (2009), s. 375-377. ISSN 1234-1983 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : Breed discrimination * Genetics diversity * Horse breeds Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.324, year: 2009
bin Tarif Abid; Lasecka Lidia; Holzer Barbara; Baron Michael D
Abstract Partly due to climate change, and partly due to changes of human habitat occupation, the impact of tick-borne viruses is increasing. Nairobi sheep disease virus (NSDV) and Ganjam virus (GV) are two names for the same virus, which causes disease in sheep and goats and is currently known to be circulating in India and East Africa. The virus is transmitted by ixodid ticks and causes a severe hemorrhagic disease. We have developed a real-time PCR assay for the virus genome and validated ...
Vegetables breed by seeds and vegetative organs. In main vegetables, the differentiation of clopping types, the adoption of monoculture and year-round production and shipment are carried out, adapting to various socio-economic and cultivation conditions. Protected agriculture has advanced mainly for fruit vegetables, and the seeds for sale have become almost hybrid varieties. Reflecting the situation like this, the demand for breeding is diversified and characteristic, and the case of applying mutation breeding seems to be many. The present status of the mutation breeding of vegetables is not yet well under way, but about 40 raised varieties have been published in the world. The characters introduced by induced mutation and irradiation were compact form, harvesting aptitude, the forms and properties of stems and leaves, anti-lodging property, the size, form and uniformity of fruits, male sterility and so on. The radiation sources used were mostly gamma ray or X-ray, but sometimes, combined irradiation was used. As the results obtained in Japan, burdocks as an example of gamma ray irradiation to seeds, tomatoes as an example of inducing the compound resistance against disease injury and lettuces as an example of internal beta irradiation are reported. (Kako, I.)
The scope of induced mutations in sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) breeding is reviewed. So far in Egypt, India, Iraq, Rep. of Korea, and Sri Lanka, 14 officially released varieties have been developed through induced mutations: 12 directly and 2 through cross breeding (one using the 'dt45' induced mutant from Israel). For another variety released in China there are no details. The induced mutations approach was adopted primarily in order to obtain genetic variability that was not available in the germplasm collection. The mutagens commonly applied have been gamma rays, EMS and sodium azide. Sesame seeds can withstand high mutagen doses, and there are genotypic differences in sensitivity between varieties. The mutants induced in the above named countries and others include better yield, improved seed retention, determinate habit, modified plant architecture and size, more uniform and shorter maturation period, earliness, resistance to diseases, genic male sterility, seed coat color, higher oil content and modified fatty acids composition. Some of the induced mutants have already given rise to improved varieties, the breeding value of other mutants is now being assessed and still others can serve as useful markers in genetic studies and breeding programmes. (author)
Seasonal Variation in the Histomorphology and Histochemistry of Ampulla of Vas Deferens of Gaddi Goat and Gaddi Sheep Variación Estacional en la Histomorfología e Histoquímica de la Ampolla del Conducto Deferente de Cabras y Ovejas Gaddi
Shalini Suri; Lakoju Sai Sudhakar; Ram Lal Bhardwaj
The present study was conducted to record the seasonal variation in the histomorphology and the histochemistry of the ampulla of vas deferens of Gaddi goat and Gaddi sheep, one of the most important breeds of Himachal Pradesh, India. The study was conducted over a period of year during different seasons viz. spring (March - May), summer (June August), autumn (September- November), winter (December-February).Six adult animals of each species were utilized to study histomorphology and histoch...
Dekkers, Jack C. M.
The main goal in animal breeding is to select individuals that have high breeding values for traits of interest as parents to produce the next generation and to do so as quickly as possible. To date, most programs rely on statistical analysis of large data bases with phenotypes on breeding populations by linear mixed model methodology to estimate breeding values on selection candidates. However, there is a long history of research on the use of genetic markers to identify quantitative trait l...
Rohwer, Sievert; Hobson, Keith A.; Rohwer, Vanya G.
Neotropical migratory songbirds typically breed in temperate regions and then travel long distances to spend the majority of the annual cycle in tropical wintering areas. Using stable-isotope methodology, we provide quantitative evidence of dual breeding ranges for 5 species of Neotropical migrants. Each is well known to have a Neotropical winter range and a breeding range in the United States and Canada. However, after their first bout of breeding in the north, many individuals migrate hundr...
Hailer Frank; Björnerfeldt Susanne; Nord Maria; Vilà Carles
Abstract Background There are around 400 internationally recognized dog breeds in the world today, with a remarkable diversity in size, shape, color and behavior. Breeds are considered to be uniform groups with similar physical characteristics, shaped by selection rooted in human preferences. This has led to a large genetic difference between breeds and a large extent of linkage disequilibrium within breeds. These characteristics are important for association mapping of candidate genes for di...
This thesis addresses the genetic characterisation of livestock breeds, a key aspect of the long-term future breed preservation and, thus, of primary interest for animal breeders and management in the industry. First, the genetic diversity and structure of breeds were investigated. The application of individual-based population genetic approaches at characterising genetic structure was assessed using the British pig breeds. All approaches, except for Principle Component Anal...
This is the first issue of the Plant Breeding and Genetics Newsletter. The Newsletter will inform you about current activities of the FAO/IAEA sub-programme on plant breeding and genetics which is implemented by the Plant Breeding and Genetics Section of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture (Vienna) in close collaboration with the Plant Breeding Unit of the FAO/IAEA Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratory (Seibersdorf)
This is the second issue of the Plant Breeding and Genetics Newsletter. The Newsletter will inform you about current activities of the FAO/IAEA sub-programme on plant breeding and genetics which is implemented by the Plant Breeding and Genetics Section of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture (Vienna) in close collaboration with the Plant Breeding Unit of the FAO/IAEA Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratory (Seibersdorf)
Organic dairy farming started to take off in the early 1990s, when the European Union laid down organic standards for animal production. Until now, however, only incidental steps have been taken towards organic breeding and organic farmers mainly use breeding stock from conventional breeding programmes. This thesis focuses on the possibilities for breeding in organic dairy farming. This thesis starts with describing the basic backgrounds of organic dairy farming and the results of a study tha...
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate serological prevalence and titers of anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in ewes following waves of abortion and stillbirths in a commercial flock in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Serum samples from 168 aborted ewes and 52 breeding rams, were tested for toxoplasmosis using an indirect enzyme-linked-immunosorbent assay (ELISA and indirect haemagglutination test (IHA. 71 randomly sampled sheep from an abortion-free flock (60 ewes and 11 rams were also tested, which served as controls. 149 (88.7% ewes and 42 (80.8% breeding rams from the flock where abortions and stillbirths occurred were positive for anti-T. gondii antibodies by ELISA. 155 ewes (92.3% and 44 rams (84.6%, including all of the ELISA positive cases, were also positive by indirect haemagglutination test (IHA. More than 80% of the ELISA positive ewes had O.D. exceeding 100% and nearly 25% of them had O.D. of ?150%. The IHA results, on the other hand, indicated that more than 75% of the seropositive ewes had antibody titers ?1:1024, including 58 (37.4% ewes with IHA titer ranging between 1:4096-1:8192 Pyrexia, depression and vaginal discharge were recorded in some ewes shortly prior to abortion. Post-mortem examination of 5 aborted fetuses revealed blood-stained fluid in the abdominal and thoracic cavities and small inflammatory and necrotic foci in the brain, liver and lungs while the placenta was reddish and friable, and its cotyledons were speckled with small whitish foci of necrosis and mineralization. T. gondii tachyzoites were demonstrated in placental sections of two ewes. By contrast, only 7 (9.9% out of 71 randomly sampled sheep from an abortion-free flock (60 ewes and 11 rams, were positive for anti-T. gondii antibodies by ELISA and 6 (8.5% by indirect haemagglutination (IHA test and most of these had significantly lower titers compared to the flock where abortions and stillbirths were recorded. These results constitute the first detailed serological study of ovine toxoplasmosis in Saudi Arabia and strongly implicate toxoplasmosis as the cause of the abortions and stillbirths in these sheep.
Full Text Available Abstract Background There are around 400 internationally recognized dog breeds in the world today, with a remarkable diversity in size, shape, color and behavior. Breeds are considered to be uniform groups with similar physical characteristics, shaped by selection rooted in human preferences. This has led to a large genetic difference between breeds and a large extent of linkage disequilibrium within breeds. These characteristics are important for association mapping of candidate genes for diseases and therefore make dogs ideal models for gene mapping of human disorders. However, genetic uniformity within breeds may not always be the case. We studied patterns of genetic diversity within 164 poodles and compared it to 133 dogs from eight other breeds. Results Our analyses revealed strong population structure within poodles, with differences among some poodle groups as pronounced as those among other well-recognized breeds. Pedigree analysis going three generations back in time confirmed that subgroups within poodles result from assortative mating imposed by breed standards as well as breeder preferences. Matings have not taken place at random or within traditionally identified size classes in poodles. Instead, a novel set of five poodle groups was identified, defined by combinations of size and color, which is not officially recognized by the kennel clubs. Patterns of genetic diversity in other breeds suggest that assortative mating leading to fragmentation may be a common feature within many dog breeds. Conclusion The genetic structure observed in poodles is the result of local mating patterns, implying that breed fragmentation may be different in different countries. Such pronounced structuring within dog breeds can increase the power of association mapping studies, but also represents a serious problem if ignored. In dog breeding, individuals are selected on the basis of morphology, behaviour, working or show purposes, as well as geographic population structure. The same processes which have historically created dog breeds are still ongoing, and create further subdivision within current dog breeds.
The effect of restricting placental growth on glucose metabolism in pregnant sheep in late gestation was determined by primed constant infusions of D-[U-14C]- and D-[2-3H]glucose and antipyrine into fetuses of six control sheep and six sheep from which endometrial caruncles had been removed before pregnancy (caruncle sheep). In the latter, placental and fetal weights were reduced, as was the concentration of glucose in fetal arterial blood. Fetal glucose turnover in caruncle sheep was only 52-59% of that in controls, largely because of lower umbilical loss of glucose back to the placenta (38-39% of control) and lower fetal glucose utilization (61-74% of control). However, fetal glucose utilization on a weight-specific basis was similar in control and caruncle sheep. Significant endogenous glucose production occurred in control and caruncle fetal sheep. Maternal glucose production and partition of glucose between the gravid uterus and other maternal tissues were similar in control and caruncle sheep. In conclusion, when placental and fetal growth are restricted, fetal glucose utilization is maintained by reduced loss of glucose back to the placenta and mother and by maintaining endogenous glucose production
A new species, Cryptosporidium xiaoi, is described from sheep. Oocysts of C. xiaoi, previously identified as the Cryptosporidium bovis-like genotype and as the ovine genotype from sheep in Australia and the United States are recorded as such in GenBank (AY587166, EU203216, DQ182597, AY741309, and DQ...
Enas A. Desouky
Full Text Available A total of 75 sheep and goats from apparently healthy and from clinically affected flocks were examined for Coenurus cerebralis cysts from different localities in Egypt. Of 25 animals examined from clinically diseased sheep and goats, 25 (100% revealed the presence of infestation with one to four coenuri in the brain. The sites of predilection were the left hemisphere (48%, followed by the right hemisphere (40% and the cerebellum (12%. There was no apparent effect of the age of sheep and goats on susceptibility to infestation with C. cerebralis. Another 50 animals from apparently healthy sheep and goat herds presented no C. cerebralis cysts. The cysts from infested sheep could infest newborn puppies experimentally, with a prepatent period of 60 days post infestation. A total of 15 immature worms that were recovered from one puppy did not reach patency until 105 days post infestation with C. cerebralis cyst scolices. Pathological changes in C. cerebralis-infested sheep brain revealed parasitic elements, demyelinated nerve tracts, hyperaemic blood vessels with round cell infiltration, encephalomalacia with round cell infiltration and palisading macrophages and giant cells, as well as focal replacement of the brain parenchyma with caseated and calcified materials. The morphological characteristics of both the larval stage from sheep and goats and adult worms of Taenia multiceps from experimentally infested dogs are described. The results conclude that C. cerebralis is one of the principal causes of nervous manifestations of coenurosis in clinically diseased sheep and goats in Egypt.
bin Tarif Abid
Full Text Available Abstract Partly due to climate change, and partly due to changes of human habitat occupation, the impact of tick-borne viruses is increasing. Nairobi sheep disease virus (NSDV and Ganjam virus (GV are two names for the same virus, which causes disease in sheep and goats and is currently known to be circulating in India and East Africa. The virus is transmitted by ixodid ticks and causes a severe hemorrhagic disease. We have developed a real-time PCR assay for the virus genome and validated it in a pilot study of the pathogenicity induced by two different isolates of NSDV/GV. One isolate was highly adapted to tissue culture, grew in most cell lines tested, and was essentially apathogenic in sheep. The second isolate appeared to be poorly adapted to cell culture and retained pathogenicity in sheep. The real-time PCR assay for virus easily detected 4 copies or less of the viral genome, and allowed a quantitative measure of the virus in whole blood. Measurement of the changes in cytokine mRNAs showed similar changes to those observed in humans infected by the closely related virus Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever virus.
Modou M. Lo
Full Text Available This blinded field safety study was conducted in Senegal to assess safety and immunogenicity of administration of the registered dose of Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV Clone 13 vaccine (Onderstepoort Biological Products to sheep and goats of West African breeds under natural conditions. A total of 267 small ruminants (220 sheep, 47 goats were included; half received RVFV Clone 13 vaccine at the recommended dose and half received the diluent (as placebo only. The study was performed on three commercial farms in the northern and eastern region of Senegal in accordance with veterinary good clinical practices. The animals were observed daily for 3 days after vaccination, and then weekly for 1 year. In both sheep and goats vaccinated against RVFV seroconversion rates above 70% were recorded. No seroconversion related to RVFV was observed in placebo-treated animals. No statistically significant differences were determined between placebo and vaccinated groups for mean rectal temperatures for the first 3 days after administration (p > 0.05. No abnormal clinical signs related to treatment were noted, and only one slight injection site reaction was observed in one vaccinated animal for 2 days after vaccination. Out of 176 births assessed over 1 year (93 from the vaccinated group, 83 from the placebo group, 9 were abnormal in the placebo group and 3 in the vaccinated group (p > 0.05. The frequency of adverse events was similar in the placebo and vaccinated groups. RVFV Clone 13 vaccine administered according to the manufacturer’s instructions was safe and well tolerated in West African breeds of sheep and goats, including animals of approximately 6 months of age and pregnant females, under field conditions in Senegal. Antibody levels persisted up to 1 year after vaccination.
Modou M., Lo; Victor, Mbao; Pascale, Sierra; Yaya, Thiongane; Mariame, Diop; Meritxell, Donadeu; Baptiste, Dungu.
Full Text Available This blinded field safety study was conducted in Senegal to assess safety and immunogenicity of administration of the registered dose of Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) Clone 13 vaccine (Onderstepoort Biological Products) to sheep and goats of West African breeds under natural conditions. A total of [...] 267 small ruminants (220 sheep, 47 goats) were included; half received RVFV Clone 13 vaccine at the recommended dose and half received the diluent (as placebo) only. The study was performed on three commercial farms in the northern and eastern region of Senegal in accordance with veterinary good clinical practices. The animals were observed daily for 3 days after vaccination, and then weekly for 1 year. In both sheep and goats vaccinated against RVFV seroconversion rates above 70% were recorded. No seroconversion related to RVFV was observed in placebo-treated animals. No statistically significant differences were determined between placebo and vaccinated groups for mean rectal temperatures for the first 3 days after administration (p > 0.05). No abnormal clinical signs related to treatment were noted, and only one slight injection site reaction was observed in one vaccinated animal for 2 days after vaccination. Out of 176 births assessed over 1 year (93 from the vaccinated group, 83 from the placebo group), 9 were abnormal in the placebo group and 3 in the vaccinated group (p > 0.05). The frequency of adverse events was similar in the placebo and vaccinated groups. RVFV Clone 13 vaccine administered according to the manufacturer's instructions was safe and well tolerated in West African breeds of sheep and goats, including animals of approximately 6 months of age and pregnant females, under field conditions in Senegal. Antibody levels persisted up to 1 year after vaccination.
Rami T., Kridli; A.Y., Abdullah; L.M., Rousan; A., Gonzalez-Bulnes.
Full Text Available Jordania es un país predominantemente semiárido. La mayor parte de la tierra es incultivable y sólo se puede utilizar para el pastoreo de rumiantes pequeños. La oveja Awassi de cola gruesa es la raza nativa de ovejas en Jordania. Esta raza es popular por varias razones, tales como su adaptabilidad a [...] ecosistemas difíciles, su producción lechera y por tener una carne con buenas características y un buen sabor. La industria ovejera en Jordania enfrenta muchos retos, el más importante es la escases de agua, que conlleva a una baja disponibilidad de forrajes y a un alza en los precios de los alimentos. A pesar de las dificultades, se realizan esfuerzos para mejorar la productividad de las ovejas Awassi mediante la selección, el cuidado veterinario, la evaluación de fuentes alternativas de alimentación y tratamientos hormonales para mejorar su fertilidad y fecundidad. Este estudio enfatiza la investigación principal llevada a cabo en ovejas Awassi en Jordania en la última década con un énfasis especial en el rendimiento reproductivo. Abstract in english Jordan is a predominantly semi arid country. Much of the land area is uncultivable and can only be used as a range for grazing small ruminants. Fat tailed Awassi is the indigenous sheep breed of Jordan. The breed is popular for many reasons such as the adaptability to harsh ecosystems, milk producti [...] on ability and having favorable meat flavor and characteristics. The sheep industry in Jordan faces many challenges, the most important of which is water shortage leading to low forage availability and high feed prices. Despite such hardships, efforts are made to improve productivity of Awassi sheep through selection, veterinary care, evaluating alternative feed sources and hormonal treatments to improve fertility and fecundity. This review highlights the major research conducted on Awassi sheep in Jordan over the last decade with special emphasis on reproductive performance.
Daniele Portela de Oliveira
Full Text Available Morphometric measurements are important to evaluate the variability, determine the racial standard and the existence of sexual dimorphism in genetic group. With this objective, were measured 20 morphometric measurements and one measurements of weight for 338 animals of the genetic group of Sul-mato-grossenses naturalized sheep belonging to Manoel de Barros Foundation and breeding at Centro Tecnologico de Ovinos from Anhanguera-Uniderp University and Federal University of the Grande Dourados. The statistical analyses were realized through software SAS. The females and young males showed short variation for morphometric measured of head and limbs region. However, higher variation was observed in the morphometric measurements taken from torso region, indicate that this region could be inserted in breeding programs like a selection criterion. The Pearson correlation coefficients between the morphostructural characteristics of females and young males, appears to have certain harmony degree in the morphostructural model. The females are characterized by animals with relatively large head, torso with proportional features and good angulations. The gender did not influence characteristics of the head region and body weight in the young animals. However, the characteristics of other regions, such as thoracic perimeter and posterior width of rump measured in the head region, and the perimeter of carpal and metacarpal in the limbs were influenced by gender in young animals.
Strobel, Heinz; Stauch, Sieglinde
A case report describes the metaphylactic antibiotic treatment of 520 sheep suffering from footrot (lameness prevalence > 60%) in late pregnancy (targeted selective treatment). Because of the lack of pharmaceuticals licensed for sheep and footrot in Germany in 2009, Florfenicol was used off label. Clinical recovery was observed a few days after a one shot application of florfenicol without any further treatment. The examination of all feet after weaning revealed no clinical symptoms in 96% of the sheep. Complete healing of almost all affected sheep was achieved. No transmission of footrot to lambs was noticed. Since the goal of the treatment was relief from pain and suffering under the particular conditions of late pregnancy and not a clinical study on efficacy no untreated control group was established for comparison. The suitability of the method for eliminating footrot in sheep flocks during the housing period in winter is discussed. PMID:24881271
Dodson, John; Dodson, Eoin; Banati, Richard; Li, Xiaoqiang; Atahan, Pia; Hu, Songmei; Middleton, Ryan J.; Zhou, Xinying; Nan, Sun
The origins of domesticated sheep (Ovis sp.) in China remain unknown. Previous workers have speculated that sheep may have been present in China up to 7000 years ago, however many claims are based on associations with archaeological material rather than independent dates on sheep material. Here we present 7 radiocarbon dates on sheep bone from Inner Mongolia, Ningxia and Shaanxi provinces. DNA analysis on one of the bones confirms it is Ovis sp. The oldest ages are about 4700 to 4400 BCE and are thus the oldest objectively dated Ovis material in eastern Asia. The graphitisised bone collagen had ?13C values indicating some millet was represented in the diet. This probably indicates sheep were in a domestic setting where millet was grown. The younger samples had ?13C values indicating that even more millet was in the diet, and this was likely related to changes in foddering practices
Hald, Tine; Baggesen, Dorte Lau
To assess the effectiveness of the strategies implemented in the European Union (EU) to control Classical scrapie (CS), epidemiological data have been compared in the context of the efforts in terms of control measures applied over time. Official EU surveillance data and results from questionnaire surveys of EU Member States (MSs) have been used along with case studies. A spatio-temporal description of the occurrence of small ruminants TSEs in MSs in the period 2002-2012 is provided, with a particular focus on CS in sheep. Based on information collected from MSs, the potential effectiveness of breeding programmes for resistance to CS (BP-CS) in the dissemination of resistance into the general sheep population has been assessed for those countries for which the CS trend analysis has been performed. CS in sheep was reported in 17 MSs (average prevalence: 8.7 cases/10 000 tests), with heterogeneous trends and geographical distribution: among the 13 countries reporting a consistent number of cases, the trend analysis shows a statistically significant decreasing trend only for six of them. Variations in the implementation of genetic and non-genetic measures for the control of CS may explain the failure to improve the disease situation in the remaining seven MSs. At a national level, a reduction in CS seems to be linked to better-achieving BP-CSs. Control options applied to CS in sheep and goats indicate that a CS eradication policy that relies solely on the detection of infected flocks by post-mortem testing and subsequent depopulation would be unlikely to succeed. A minimum frequency of the ARR allele in a sheep population above which CS may be expected to fade-out could be estimated for each specific national sheep population. Recommendations for additional/alternative measures to control CS in sheep and goats are formulated.
G F, Bath; A, Janse van Rensburg; K P, Pettey; M, van Vuuren; A, Kidanemariam.
Full Text Available An outbreak of necrotic dermatitis in sheep was intensively investigated. Initially 19 of 147 Letelle (Merino-type) ewes were identified but closer inspection revealed 57 sheep that had skin lesions, some very slight, and that the majority (46 or 80 %) had lesions only above the lips. A small number [...] of them had multiple lesions on the legs or vulvae apart from lip lesions. Seven had only vulvar lesions and 2 only leg lesions. Among the sheep with lip lesions, twice as many had lesions on the right as on the left. Electron micrographs did not reveal any virus particles from the lesions, but all bacterial swabs yielded pure cultures of beta-haemolytic, Gram-positive cocci that were catalase, coagulase and DNase positive. The organism was identified as Staphylococcus aureus. Histopathology was consistent with a dermotoxic insult. A review of available literature indicated that this outbreak was consistent with a diagnosis of ovine necrotic (staphylococcal) dermatitis, supported by data on signalment, lesions, distribution, size, number, epidemiology as well as specific tests. The range of differential diagnoses and possible confusers are discussed.
The current world population is 6 billion and it is likely to reach 7 billion in 2010 and 8 billion 2025. Sufficient food must be produced for the ever increasing human population. The available suitable land for intensive agriculture is limited. We have to produce more food from less land, pesticide, labour and water resources. Hence, increase in crop productivity are essential to feed the world in the next century. Plant breeding provides the avenue to increase the food production to feed the growing world population. Development of a cultivar involves (I) Construction of a genetic model (II) creating a gene pool (III) selection among plants and (IV) testing the selected genotypes for adaptation to the biotic and abiotic environments (Frey, 1999). This paper discusses the trends in plant breeding using the oil palm as a model. It covers (i) genetic resources (ii) physiological traits (III) exploitation of genotype x environment interaction (IV) oil palm clones, and (v) biotechnology application. (Author)
Pakistan has 49.14 million goats. Goats are kept for milk and meat production and contribute significantly to the income of the rural farmers. Dairy goats are kept by the farmers belonging to poor socio-economic class of the society, mostly landless. Goat production is almost evenly distributed among all regions of Pakistan. The vast majority of small ruminant flock owners are small-scale farmers, sometimes landless. Mixed flocks are common, although separate flocks of sheep or goats can also be seen. The Northern Areas of Pakistan provide many chances for goat raising on pastures and goats are the main stay of the poorest segments of rural society. The data on goat breeds of Northern Areas is still lacking. The present study was planned to provide baseline information of growth traits of goat breeds of Northern Areas. Six goat breeds, found in the Northern Areas of Pakistan, Pameri, Gojali, Balti (pashmina bearing), Dareli, Jerakheil and Koh-e- Ghizer w ere studied for growth traits like birth weight, weaning weight, adult weight, body length, heart girth and height. The mean birth (males: 2.81 ± 0.111 females: 2.36 ± 0.777 kilograms), weaning (males: 13.14 ± females: 11.11 ± 0.779 kilograms) and adult (males: 70.79 C females: 46.11 ± 0.786 kilograms) weight was highest in Dareli followed by Jerakheil, Koh-e-Ghizer, Pameri, Balti and Gojali. Among the various breeds studied Jerakheil displayed higher body length (males: 85.93 ± 0.875 females: 75.48 ± 0.975 cm) ± 0.875 females: 75.48 ± 0.975 cm) followed by Daeli, Koh-e-Ghizer, Gojali, Pameri and Balti. Dareli was found the tallest breed (males: 85.41± 0.424 females: 74.13 ± 0.750 centimetres) and Pameri the shortest (males: 70.36 ± 0.710 females: 57.91 ± 0.342 centimetres). The mean heart girth was also highest in Dareli (males: 95.67 ± 2.00 females: 86.89 ± 0.475 centimetres) and lowest in Pameri (males: 70.42 ± 0.498 females: 65.32 ± 0.603 centimetres). The differences between sexes and breeds were significant for all the parameters. The study has provided baseline information on goat breeds of Northern Areas, which would be useful for further studies on breed conservation and genetic improvement programmes
...Identification of sheep and goats in interstate commerce. 79.2 Section 79.2 Animals...Identification of sheep and goats in interstate commerce. (a) No sheep or goat that is...sale or transportation in interstate commerce unless each sheep or goat is...
Full Text Available Abstract A set of eleven pig breeds originating from six European countries, and including a small sample of wild pigs, was chosen for this study of genetic diversity. Diversity was evaluated on the basis of 18 microsatellite markers typed over a total of 483 DNA samples collected. Average breed heterozygosity varied from 0.35 to 0.60. Genotypic frequencies generally agreed with Hardy-Weinberg expectations, apart from the German Landrace and Schwäbisch-Hällisches breeds, which showed significantly reduced heterozygosity. Breed differentiation was significant as shown by the high among-breed fixation index (overall FST = 0.27, and confirmed by the clustering based on the genetic distances between individuals, which grouped essentially all individuals in 11 clusters corresponding to the 11 breeds. The genetic distances between breeds were first used to construct phylogenetic trees. The trees indicated that a genetic drift model might explain the divergence of the two German breeds, but no reliable phylogeny could be inferred among the remaining breeds. The same distances were also used to measure the global diversity of the set of breeds considered, and to evaluate the marginal loss of diversity attached to each breed. In that respect, the French Basque breed appeared to be the most "unique" in the set considered. This study, which remains to be extended to a larger set of European breeds, indicates that using genetic distances between breeds of farm animals in a classical taxonomic approach may not give clear resolution, but points to their usefulness in a prospective evaluation of diversity.
Laval, Guillaume; Iannuccelli, Nathalie; Legault, Christian; Milan, Denis; Groenen, Martien AM; Giuffra, Elisabetta; Andersson, Leif; Nissen, Peter H; Jørgensen, Claus B; Beeckmann, Petra; Geldermann, Hermann; Foulley, Jean-Louis; Chevalet, Claude; Ollivier, Louis
A set of eleven pig breeds originating from six European countries, and including a small sample of wild pigs, was chosen for this study of genetic diversity. Diversity was evaluated on the basis of 18 microsatellite markers typed over a total of 483 DNA samples collected. Average breed heterozygosity varied from 0.35 to 0.60. Genotypic frequencies generally agreed with Hardy-Weinberg expectations, apart from the German Landrace and Schwäbisch-Hällisches breeds, which showed significantly reduced heterozygosity. Breed differentiation was significant as shown by the high among-breed fixation index (overall FST = 0.27), and confirmed by the clustering based on the genetic distances between individuals, which grouped essentially all individuals in 11 clusters corresponding to the 11 breeds. The genetic distances between breeds were first used to construct phylogenetic trees. The trees indicated that a genetic drift model might explain the divergence of the two German breeds, but no reliable phylogeny could be inferred among the remaining breeds. The same distances were also used to measure the global diversity of the set of breeds considered, and to evaluate the marginal loss of diversity attached to each breed. In that respect, the French Basque breed appeared to be the most "unique" in the set considered. This study, which remains to be extended to a larger set of European breeds, indicates that using genetic distances between breeds of farm animals in a classical taxonomic approach may not give clear resolution, but points to their usefulness in a prospective evaluation of diversity. PMID:14736401
An experiment on Syrian Awassi ewes and yearlings was conducted out-side the normal breeding season to study the possibility of inducing oestrus and increasing birth rate as an attempt to improve the reproductive efficiency, in addition to evaluating the possibility of early pregnancy diagnosis using progesterone radioimmunoassay kits. One-hundred-and fifty-five local female awassi sheep (96 ewes and 59 ewe lambs) were divided into 4 groups. Group T1 (n= 50 ewes) were fitted with itravaginal sponges containing 60 mg of medroxy progesterone acetate (MAP) for 14 days followd by 600 IU of pregnant mare's serum gonadotrophin (PMSG) at sponge withdrawal, whereas the control group C1 (n= 46 ewes) received no treatment. Group T2 (n= 41 yearlings) were fitted with itravaginal sponges containing 60 mg of MAP for 14 days followed by 400 IU PMSG at sponge withdrawal, whereas the control group C2 (n= 18 yearlings) received no treatment. The females in both T1 and T2 groups responded to the hormonal treatment, and showed oestrus behaviour within 36-48 h of sponge withdrawal. Total oestrus rate was 96% and 92.7% for groups T1 and T2, respectively. Lambing rates were 80%, 32.6%, 78.0% and 5.6% for groups T1, C1, T2 and C2, respectively. Twinning rates increased to 32.5% and 33.3% for groups T1 and T2, respectively, compared to 6.7% and 0% for groups C1 and C2, respectively. There were no significant differences in pregnancy duration between groups T1 (151.7 ± 1.7 days), and T2 (154.4 ± 1.5 days), and between single (154.4 ± 1.8 daus and 151.5 ± 1.6 days) and twin-born lambs (151.7 ± 1.5 days and 150.8 ± 1.3 days) for single and twin born lambs in groups T1 and T2, respectively. Hormonal treatment had no effect on the overall average lamb birth weight, which was 4.3 ± 1.0 Kg, 4.4 ± 0.7 Kg and 3.9 ± 1.0 Kg for groups T1, C1, and T2, respectively, and the birth weight for the only lamb born in group C2 was 4.0 kg. However, average birth weight for single born lambs was significantly (P<0.05) higher than twin-born lambs, reaching 5.0 ± 0.6 Kg and 3.9 ± 0.5 Kg, 4.7 ± 0.6 Kg and 3.0 ± 0.5 Kg for single and twin-born lambs in groups T1 and T2, respectively. There were no significant differences in average birth weight between male and female lambs. Average birth weight were 4.4 ± 0.9 Kg vs. 4.2 ± 1.0 Kg, 4.1 ± 0.7 Kg vs. 4.5 ± 0.7 Kg and 4.2 ± 1.0 Kg vs. 3.6 ± 1.0 Kg for male and female lambs in groups T1, C1 and C2, respectively. Average progesterone concentration between days 17-19 post-mating in the conceived and lambed animals was 19.3 ± 7.1 n mol/1 (range 8.3-37.9 n mol/1) for group T1, and 17.6 ± 8.3 n mol/1 (range 8.4-52.0 n mol/1) for group T2. Early pregnancy diagnosis was 100%. It was concluded that, it is possible to induce and synchronize oestrus, and to increase the twinning rate in Syrian Awassi sheep out-side the normal breeding season, using intravaginal sponges and pregnant mare's serum gonadotrophin. In addition, early pregnancey diagnosis could be successfully determined in female Awassi sheep between days 17-19 post-mating. (author). 67 refs., 7 figs., 13 tabs
This newsletter contains short descriptions of research methods for the use of radiation to induce mutations and facilitate plant breeding. This method is used to develop species of plants that can survive in harsh climates and thus provide a food supply for humans and animals. Some of the mutants discussed include a salt tolerant barley, a disease resistant shrub, a cold tolerant chickpea, a highly productive Canavalia virosa and productive tomato. Refs, figs and tabs
This issue contains a number of contributions from readers describing experiments in plant breeding (the individual items are indexed separately) and a report on the 30th Gamma-Field Symposium held in Tsukuba, Japan in July 1991. Also included is a list of officially released mutant varieties of seed-propagated crops taken from the FAO/IAEA database of mutant varieties. It is planned to organize a database on available crop plant mutant variety germplasm collections. Refs, figs and tabs
Full Text Available Over about 92% from national goat livestock come from local unameliorated breeds, namely Carpathian breed whichis traditionally exploited in a mixed way next to sheep in a proportion of over 65% from the breed total.Expectations towards a qualitative and quantitative production led to pretty important imports for specialized breedslike the Saanen one, from communitary states, during the last 10 years.This study presents the results of someresearch started since the last semestre of the previous year on some goat livestock from Saanen breed, livestockwhich was brought to the Garbovi farm, Ialomita county. The livestock presents the following morpho-productivetraits, such as: weight 57.375±0.23 Kg as an average, back length 67.47±0,38cm, crupper length 69.25±0,41 cm,oblique body length 70,98±0,38 cm, thoracical perimeter 89.17cm±0.32 cm, resulting a dolicomorphe body structure.The medium milk production in is of 2.19 l/head/day during the stalling months November-February, with average ofNovember 58.05±1.77 l.,December 70.47±2,07 l.,January 92.30±2.93 l., and February 45.10±1.38 l.,only during thefirst 120 days, and the chemical composition of the main constituent parts: Dry matter nonfat 9.3%, protein 3.53%,fat 4.02%, a significant quantitative and qualitative gain of goat milk especially when the local breeds don’t yieldthem.The females prolificity is of 128%, being a lot below the breed average 150-170% in comparison with theaverage proven by the breed but also in comparison with the unameliorated breeds, this aspect being also a basicalelement in selection, next to the milk quantitative aspect. The gain recorded for goat youth over the 90 days iscomprised between 127g, 198g, 122g/day of males and 109g, 173g, 106 g/day of females, during the whole periodwhich was much over the average of Carpathian breed. Shortage of some agricultural policies on breed, of trainedstaff in the farm,speciality information concerning the exploitation of some performant breeds led to goats purchase,esppecially milk ones, which have typical dolicomorphe structure but with a great productive and somatometrichalvariability.
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An assay was carried out with 12 sheep to determine the endogenous losses of P and the true absorption of this element from rock phosphate (TP), diammonium phosphate (DP) and bone meal (BM). Animals received the experimental diet for 30 days and after this period 200?Ci 32P was injected in each one. Blood and faeces samples were collected to determine specific activity. Faecal endogenous P and P availability were estimated. P availability was 58.39, 69.71 and 75.03 per cent for TP, DP and BM, respectively. (author). 1 fig., 2 tabs., 9 refs
Moshaverinia, Ali; Dini, Mostafa; Azizzadeh, Mohammad
This survey was carried out in sheep herds of Arasbaran region in northwest of Iran. The aims of this survey were assessment of occurrence hard ticks on sheep in this region and speciation and identification of detached ticks from sheep. In addition determination of tick distribution on sheep body surface was studied. In this study 330 sheep were examined and ticks from infested animals were collected. In parasitological laboratory speciation of ticks were done by stereomicroscope and using o...
Kirkwood, A C; Bates, P G
Flumethrin, a synthetic pyrethroid, used in the laboratory as a sheep dip (Bayticol) at a concentration of 55 ppm, eradicated sheep scab from 30 infested sheep and provided protection against infestation for at least seven weeks. Similar results with at least five weeks protection were obtained on monitor sheep dipped under field conditions with flocks of 525 and 870 sheep. The dip was prepared and replenished with 66 ppm flumethrin and the concentration did not strip. PMID:3576937
Washburn, Shannon E; Caudill, Marie A; Malysheva, Olga; MacFarlane, Amanda J; Behan, Nathalie A; Harnett, Brian; MacMillan, Luke; Pongnopparat, Theerawat; Brosnan, John T; Brosnan, Margaret E
By virtue of its role in nucleotide synthesis, as well as the provision of methyl groups for vital methylation reactions, one-carbon metabolism plays a crucial role in growth and development. Formate, a critical albeit neglected component of one-carbon metabolism, occurs extracellularly and may provide insights into cellular events. We examined formate metabolism in chronically cannulated fetal sheep (gestation days 119-121, equivalent to mid-third trimester in humans) and in their mothers as well as in normal full-term lambs. Plasma formate levels were much higher in fetal lamb plasma and in amniotic fluid (191 ± 62 and 296 ± 154 ?M, respectively) than in maternal plasma (33 ± 13 ?M). Measurements of folate, vitamin B12, and homocysteine showed that these high formate levels could not be due to vitamin deficiencies. Elevated formate levels were also found in newborn lambs and persisted to about 8 wk of age. Formate was also found in sheep milk. Potential precursors of one-carbon groups were also measured in fetal and maternal plasma and in amniotic fluid. There were very high concentrations of serine in the fetus (?1.6 mM in plasma and 3.5 mM in the amniotic fluid) compared with maternal plasma (0.19 mM), suggesting increased production of formate; however, we cannot rule out decreased formate utilization. Dimethylglycine, a choline metabolite, was also 30 times higher in the fetus than in the mother. PMID:25805190
Full Text Available In mammals the vomeronasal organ (VNO plays an important role in detection and processing of pheromones related to social and reproductive behavior. To determine in which physiological functions the VNO is implied, different blocking techniques have been used. The aim of this work was to develop a simple, fast, and minimally invasive surgical technique to eliminate completely the VNO in sheep. Ten adult crossbreed sheep were anesthetized and intubated with a tracheotube. Two incisions in the nasal mucous membrane, on the floor of the nasal cavity lateral to the VNO, and in the nasal septum dorsal to the VNO were made. The VNO was eliminated through dragging movements with a Farabeuff separator shaped into a hook.. The hemorrhage was controlled in situ with ferric perclorure and cauterization with a burning cylindrical iron. Animals were slaughtered at different times after surgery, and the nose was opened to determine whether remnants of the VNO were still left. In the first slaughtered animal (one week after the surgery remnants of the VNO were observed in a necrotic area. However, in the animals slaughtered later than 4 weeks after surgery, there were no identifiable remnants of the VNO. We concluded that this is a simple, fast and effective technique to eliminate the VNO, and may be used in experiments aimed to determine long-term effects of vomeronasalectomisation.
Gibbons, Melissa M; Dang, Xinglai; Adkins, Mark; Powell, Brian; Chan, Philemon
A detailed 3D finite element model (FEM) of the sheep thorax was developed to predict heterogeneous and volumetric lung injury due to blast. A shared node mesh of the sheep thorax was constructed from a computed tomography (CT) scan of a sheep cadaver, and while most material properties were taken from literature, an elastic-plastic material model was used for the ribs based on three-point bending experiments performed on sheep rib specimens. Anesthetized sheep were blasted in an enclosure, and blast overpressure data were collected using the blast test device (BTD), while surface lung injury was quantified during necropsy. Matching blasts were simulated using the sheep thorax FEM. Surface lung injury in the FEM was matched to pathology reports by setting a threshold value of the scalar output termed the strain product (maximum value of the dot product of strain and strain-rate vectors over all simulation time) in the surface elements. Volumetric lung injury was quantified by applying the threshold value to all elements in the model lungs, and a correlation was found between predicted volumetric injury and measured postblast lung weights. All predictions are made for the left and right lungs separately. This work represents a significant step toward the prediction of localized and heterogeneous blast lung injury, as well as volumetric injury, which was not recorded during field testing for sheep. PMID:25411822
Livestock farming is a complex and demanding business and now is further complicated by consumers expecting greater care for the welfare of livestock and the environment. Meeting the expectations of customers while at the same time trying to make a living on a family farm is becoming far more difficult. Gone is the time when farmers, wherever they are, could rely on the image of idyllic rural scenes as a way of fulfilling the 'promise' of clean, green and ethically produced product. Australia, for many, still conjures up the image of a wide brown land with stockman droving contented sheep to shady riverbanks. However, this is changing as consumers become aware of current sheep management practices such as mulesing, which is portrayed as a barbaric act by animal welfare lobby groups. Since the early 1850's Australia has produced high quality apparel wool from Merino sheep, but early in the 20th century problems with sheep dying from 'flystrike' (infestations of maggots from the Australian sheep blowfly Lucilia cuprina), reached epidemic proportions, which threatened the industry with collapse. A history of selecting sheep with heavy fleeces and many skin wrinkles to produce more wool made them easy targets for the blowfly. This is because with extra wool around the tail area, then soiled with faecal material, the chances of infestation increase substantially. Sheep in Australia are run in big flocks on large properties (500 - 100,000ha) at low stocking rates (1-10 ewes00,000ha) at low stocking rates (1-10 ewes/ha) and are usually managed by a single family. This means that it is very difficult to monitor sheep individually, on a daily basis, and also means that any control technique requires minimal intervention, and cannot be recurrent. To deal with these problems, research and development organisations began investigating methods of control and by the early 1950s, a surgical procedure called 'mulesing was developed. Mulesing involves stripping the skin away from the area around the anus and tail at three weeks of age. The area that grows back is bare of wool and therefore reduces the amount of wool and conditions favourable to fly strike. This method showed much promise in reducing mortality in sheep flocks. Many farmers saw mulesing as a bloody and unpalatable technique, and so it took extensive information programs run over 20 years to finally convince farmers it was worth doing to improve the welfare of their animals by reducing deaths from flystrike. In the late 1990s, extensive campaigning by People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA) led to a growing awareness of this practice by retailers in Europe and the USA. Believing it to be an invasive and painful practice, particularly without pain relief, some companies threaten to boycott Australian wool. In reaction to the growing pressure the Australian wool industry in 2004 agreed to phase out the practice of mulesing by 2010. The wool industry is now intensively seeking a viable and practical alternative to mulesing. Research into various technologies including intradermal injections and modification of the blowfly genome is continuing, and it is likely that a combination of technology and breeding will provide the ultimate solutions. In the short term, control will mean increased applications of chemicals and greater intervention and monitoring. This however, leaves the farmer with more complex decision-making, high labour costs and greater exposure to chemicals and residues. Understandably, some farmers are angry and upset by the reaction of the international retailers, as they believe they are doing the best thing to protect their sheep from a slow and painful death. This situation has lead to small numbers of defiant farmers stating they will continue to mules until a viable alternative is available. This is not the first time Australian farmers have faced challenging times. Australian farmers have an enviable reputation as innovators, and a capacity to adapt, with many recognising the importance of meeting consumer demands by ceasing mulesing. In 2009, a
Ruminal protozoa decrease the bioavailability of copper in sheep receiving soybean meal (SBM) but not in sheep receiving casein (CA) as a protein supplement. Protozoa ingest SBM and release inorganic sulfur and amino acids. The sulfur is reduced by bacteria in the rumen to sulfide, which forms insoluble complexes with copper and so lessens the bioavailability of this element. CA, however, is poorly metabolized by protozoa, and so protozoa have no effect on the dietary copper metabolism when sheep are fed CA supplements. 5 refs, 1 tab
A J, Snijders.
Full Text Available The universal notoriety of Robben Island as a penitentiary for political prisoners, notably in the 19th and 20th centuries, overshadows its previous historical significance established centuries ago. The Island, initially a source of seals and penguins to European mariners rounding the southern tip [...] of Africa, and later for several other reasons, including its proximity to the Cape of Good Hope, played a pivotal role in the selection of this halfway station. The seals would provide blubber for train oil and the penguins, meat and eggs. The transhumant Peninsular Khoekhoe was to provide cattle and sheep by a barter process as before. Inconsistent access to Khoen livestock forced the Vereenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie (VOC) to consider their own breeding programmes and ultimately the establishment of Free Burgers. Van Riebeeck confirmed the suitability of Robben Island for the fattening and breeding of sheep and this island made a substantial contribution to the provision of sheep and mutton to the fleets and the local community. Khoen sheep did not do well in the Table Valley in early summer and it was expected that they would thrive on the drier island. Predators and stock theft were major problems at the Cape and neither occurred on the island. It is contended that it was unlikely that the settlement at the Cape would have occurred and succeeded without Robben Island.
Full Text Available The objective of the paper was to investigate annual genetic gain from selection (?G, and the influence of selection on the inbreeding effective population size (Ne, for different possible breeding schemes within a reindeer herding district. The breeding schemes were analysed for different proportions of the population within a herding district included in the selection programme. Two different breeding schemes were analysed: an open nucleus scheme where males mix and mate between owner flocks, and a closed nucleus scheme where the males in non-selected owner flocks are culled to maximise ?G in the whole population. The theory of expected long-term genetic contributions was used and maternal effects were included in the analyses. Realistic parameter values were used for the population, modelled with 5000 reindeer in the population and a sex ratio of 14 adult females per male. The standard deviation of calf weights was 4.1 kg. Four different situations were explored and the results showed: 1. When the population was randomly culled, Ne equalled 2400. 2. When the whole population was selected on calf weights, Ne equalled 1700 and the total annual genetic gain (direct + maternal in calf weight was 0.42 kg. 3. For the open nucleus scheme, ?G increased monotonically from 0 to 0.42 kg as the proportion of the population included in the selection programme increased from 0 to 1.0, and Ne decreased correspondingly from 2400 to 1700. 4. In the closed nucleus scheme the lowest value of Ne was 1300. For a given proportion of the population included in the selection programme, the difference in ?G between a closed nucleus scheme and an open one was up to 0.13 kg. We conclude that for mass selection based on calf weights in herding districts with 2000 animals or more, there are no risks of inbreeding effects caused by selection.
Artificial induction of mutation in plants is carried out using #betta#-irradiation and ethyl metanesulphonate (EMS) to expand the genetic variability of locally-grown soybean. This aspect of mutation breeding complements of conventional breeding approach undertaken by the Joint Malaysia Soybean Breeding Project group. Recovery of agronomically-important mutants such as earliness, lateness, bigger seed size and improved plant architecture were recorded. The significance of these findings is discussed. (author)
Ražukas, Almantas; Jundulas, Juozas
Potato breeding has been performed at the Vok? Branch of the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture since 1958. The key objective of potato breeding is to produce early potato cultivars immune to wart disease Synchytrium endobioticum (Schilb.), resistant to Globodera rostochiensis (Woll.) pathotype of nematodes and major potato diseases. As a result of the breeding work seven potato cultivars of different maturity have been selected. Based on the high disease and pest resistance records, the cul...
Are you considering bringing a canine into the family, and wondering which type of dog would be the best fit? This website from Animal Planet provides potential dog owners with information about a variety of breeds. The site directory lists dogs under such categories as Hound, Sporting, Terrier, Working, Herding, and more. Site visitors can view profiles for many different types of dogs including the Bernese Mountain Dog, Irish Setter, Old English Sheepdog, and Tibetan Spaniel. Dog profiles contain a photograph, Rating of Characteristics; and concise sections addressing History, Temperament, Form and Function, Upkeep, and Health. Profiles also include a hyperlinked list of related dogs.
The literature review is largely limited to recent research conducted on hair sheep in Mexico and Venezuela. Whereas reproduction is the general topic reviewed, much of the research quoted deals with the influence of nutrition, management, climate and disease on various indices of reproduction in the ewe and ram. Areas where information is minimal are also identified, as are research topics which need to be addressed. (author). 90 refs, 5 figs, 2 tabs
Parker, Heidi G.
A rose may be a rose by any other name, but when you call a dog a poodle it becomes a very different animal than if you call it a bulldog. Both the poodle and the bulldog are examples of dog breeds of which there are >400 recognized world-wide. Breed creation has played a significant role in shaping the modern dog from the length of his leg to the cadence of his bark. The selection and line-breeding required to maintain a breed has also reshaped the genome of the dog resulting in a unique gen...
Isabella Dias Barbosa Silveira
Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar o comportamento de ovinos e relacionar aspectos comportamentais com a raça e idade dos animais. Foram observados 5.971 animais divididos em 181 lotes quanto às raças - Corriedale (n = 2.731, Ideal (n = 1.574, Merino (n = 168, Texel (n = 717, Suffolk (n = 247 e 6 mestiços (n = 534 - e quanto à idade - cordeiras (1,5 ano, n = 3.021, ovelhas (acima de 1,5 ano, n = 2457 e cordeiras dente-de-leite (média de 6 meses de idade, n = 493. O comportamento médio dos lotes foi avaliado pela atribuição de escores de movimentação e resistência à condução na entrada, permanência e saída da pista de comercialização. Os animais das raças mais especializadas para produção de carne (Suffolk e Texel e os animais jovens foram os mais agitados e apresentaram maior resistência à condução pelo homem em comparação àqueles das raças produtoras de lã e aos mais velhos. Os escores comportamentais foram positivamente relacionados entre si, o que permite a escolha de qualquer um deles para medir o comportamento dos ovinos. O comportamento de ovinos em pista de venda é influenciado pela idade e raça.The objective of this work was to evaluate behavior of sheep and to relate behavioral aspects with breed and age of animals. It was observed 5,971 animals distributed in 181 plots regarded to: breed - Corriedale (n=2,731, Ideal (n=1,574, Merino (n=168, Texel (n=717, Suffolk (n=247 and six crossbreds (n=534; age - yearlings (1.5 year, n=3,021, ewes (above 1.5 year, n =2,457 and lambs (average 6 months of age, n=493. Average behavior of plots was evaluated by attributing scores of movement and resistance to conduction at entrance, permanence and exit from the market auction. Animals from more specialized breeds for meat production (Sulfock and Texel and young animals were the most agitated and they showed more resistance to human conduction compared to those wool producer breeds and to the older ones. Behavior scores positively correlated among each other, allowing to choose any of them to measure sheep behavior. Sheep on market auction behavior is influenced by age and breed.
Interest in the use of mutation techniques for generating and selecting desired genetic variation in crop and model plant species has significantly increased over the past decade. This was mainly due to: (1) successful application of in vivo mutation techniques in the breeding of new, improved crop varieties; (2) new opportunities for induced mutation using in vitro techniques for improving vegetatively propagated crops; (3) emerging possibilities for applying in vitro selection of mutagenized cells and tissues; (4) increasing application of doubled haploids (DHs) for the rapid selection and shortening of the breeding cycle of improved varieties from desired mutants, and for the development of F1 performing DH lines from heterotic hybrids; (5) advancement of rapid, often non-destructive, mass screening methods; (6) enhanced demand for morphological, developmental and biochemical mutants of various species for studies on the molecular genetics of plant differentiation and development or on plant physiology; (7) wider availability of gene transformation technology that allows the transfer of desired mutated genes from model or other plant species to the desired crop plant (shuttle mutagenesis); and (8) application of mutation techniques for generating DNA polymorphism and for mapping particular genes. An overview of the results of applying mutation techniques for crop improvement is given. (author). 68 refs, 4 figs, 5 tabs
Full Text Available The recent economic world crisis was a product based on the idea that globalized “free” economy market, is the onlyand ideal law for the development and well- being. In the whole world, countries had to change what it was commonpractice till today i.e. the tradition and the local economy rules according to the global mandates, namely‘globalization’. In the same time, people are becoming more and more aware of the lost values, lost products,healthy-life, the changes of the environment, and turn to scientists and politicians for sustainable solutions. Livestockcan make a positive contribution to the landscape and environmental management in this new world of globalization.Moreover, the local breeds are one of the main tools that hold people in rural areas and mountains, help the agrotourismand are connected to the tradition and culture of each area. This paper aims to present the role that localbreeds could play to the regional development of the countries, including social, environmental and economicalsustainability issues. The cases of Greek and Romanian local sheep and goats breeds are used as examples.
The results of measures providing for thyroid dose loading decreasing realized in May 1986 in the zone neighbouring the Chernobyl' NPP are analyzed. Dispensary surveillances of argicultural animals are organized begining from 1988. Experiments aimed at acceleration of radioactive cesium excretion from animal muscle tissue by using pharmacological and chemical preparations for different levels of diet contamination are conducted. Milk with increased radioactive cesium concentration is processed into butter from the first day of radioactive effuent up to now. The final product contains radioactive cesium amount decreased by the factor of 6 as compared with that for milk, and radioactive cesium traces only are present in melted butter. Sheep-breeding is forbidden in contaminated territories
The effects of environment on conception rate and litter size, and of the goat status and age in the preceding season on the time of oestrus appearance were studied. Furthermore, the effect of season of kidding and daily milk production at the occurrence of oestrus on 'days open' was examined. Environmental factors such as temperature, humidity, age of goat or management and feeding could not account for the variation in reproductive behaviour. Ovarian activity monitored for 53 weeks showed that: there was a short period of anoestrus from late March to early July; conventional methods of heat detection are inadequate; there was an irregular heat wave in July which was not followed by repeated cycles; and the regular breeding season for the Damascus goat is in autumn (September to December) and the average length of the cycle is 21 days. The duration of oestrus was studied in parous and non-parous goats following oestrus synchronization with progesterone analogue and PMSG. Overt oestrus appeared 31.1 h (range 24-48 h) after the removal of sponges, and continued for 36-44 h. Its duration was somewhat longer in parous compared to non-parous goats. Serum progesterone levels correlated with oestrus detection by vasectomized males. Milk and blood samples were collected at regular intervals starting three days post-partum to study post-partum anoestrus in Chios sheep. Progesterone assays, carried out using skimmed milk and blood serum, showed that first ovulation occurred approximately within 30 days post-partum. Progesterone levels were much higher in serum than in skimmed milk. It is suggested that Chios sheep have ovulations during the suckling period although overt oestrus could not always be detected by vasectomized males. 50 refs, 8 figs, 7 tabs
...IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS...encephalopathy. (e) Imported for feeding. Any sheep or goats imported from Canada for feeding at a feedlot must be...
...STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Standard Procedures § 113.45 Sheep safety...for a product. (a) Test procedure. (1) Inject each of...of two doses of bacterial vaccine or 10 doses of viral vaccine. (2) Administer...
Wei, Ni; Shengwei, Hu; Wureli, Hazi; Yuanzhi, Wang; Jun, Qiao; Ren, Yan; Chuangfu, Chen.
Full Text Available Background: Gene silencing mediated by small interfering RNA (siRNA) has become a powerful biological tool for the regulation of gene expression. For the synthesis of siRNA by vector-based expression systems, several mammalian small nuclear RNA (snRNA) promoters have been cloned and shown different [...] transcriptional efficiencies. Results: In this study, we identified a sheep 7SK snRNA (s7SK) promoter based on the highly conserved polymerase III promoter elements. Promoter activity was measured by promoter-driven shRNA expression to suppress expression of an exogenous reporter gene and endogenous sheep gene. Conclusions: The knock down assay demonstrated that the s7SK induced more stronger inhibition effect than human U6 and H1 promoters. The use of this native sheep 7SK promoter for shRNA expressionis an important component for development of RNAi-based gene therapy and production of transgenic animals in sheep species.
Full text: I will describe an approach we have used to breed improved cowpea varieties for an environment that experiences very severe droughts - the African Sahel. I will then speculate on how this approach might be enhanced for cowpea and some other C3 species by including selection for carbon stable isotope composition, i.e carbon isotope discrimination by plants (?). The approach in breeding for adaptation to drought involved selecting parents and then progeny with a type of grain desired by consumers and optimal time of flowering and cycle length, incorporating resistances to important diseases and pests, and yield-testing advanced lines in many locations throughout the target production zone in experiment station and farm conditions over several years. Can we now make further progress in breeding to improve adaptation to drought by including selection for ?? The approach I recommend is to choose varieties or elite lines as parents that have differences in ? but similar high grain quality and optimal time to flowering, cycle length and harvest index. In many cases, pre-breeding will be needed to develop appropriate elite lines and it may be difficult to develop lines that differ in ? but also have the other necessary traits. Then crosses would be made and progeny would be selected that have the required grain quality, phenology, harvest index, and multiple resistances to pests and diseases. Selected stable lines would be screened for ? values. Fins would be screened for ? values. Finally, selected advanced lines would be subjected to the necessary multilocation tests for yield, grain quality and other agronomic traits in the target production zone. But, should one select for ? values that are lower or higher than those of the best current cultivars? Theory and experimental tests have shown that for C3 species, ? is negatively correlated with intrinsic, integrated water-use efficiency. Water-use efficiency (W) is the ratio of crop biomass production to transpiration. A yield-component analysis might indicate that for water-limited environments one should select for greater W and thus lower ?. However, adaptation requires that W and other quantitative traits, such as time of flowering, cycle length and harvest index, be expressed at optimal intermediate levels because there are interactions among these traits. Thus, whether one should select for a higher or a lower ? depends on whether the best current varieties have a W that is greater than or less than the optimal value that is appropriate for a given target production environment and genetic background. What do genetic selection experiments tell us? My studies with selected cowpea lines having similar times of flowering and cycle lengths showed that grain yield was positively correlated with ? under both well-watered conditions and strongly water-limited conditions where plants were mainly supplied by water stored in the soil. The regression was linear with no indication that an optimum had been reached, suggesting that for both types of environment and this set of germplasm one may need to select for higher ?, that is lower W. In contrast, for some environments with very extreme water limitations, and species with genotypic variation in mesophyll photosynthetic capacity it may be useful to select for higher W. Selection for ? may only be useful for breeding programs that already have advanced conventional methodologies, varieties and elite lines, and sufficient resources to use the technology effectively. (author)
Poddighe, Simone; Dekker, Teun; Scala, Antonio; Angioy, Anna Maria
The nasal botfly Oestrus ovis (Diptera, Cyclorrhapha: Oestridae) is a myiasis-causing insect species, which affects the health of sheep, goats and humans. Gravid females are viviparous and larviposit into the animal’s nostrils. Host-searching and larvipositing flies are visually guided and influenced by climatic conditions, whereas olfaction seemed to play no role in this process. However, here, we show that the antennae of adult O. ovis female flies are relatively small but well developed and inhabited by several types of olfactory sensilla. Further, we show that the antennal lobes of this species receive input from antennal afferents and consist of a clearly defined glomerular organisation. We also give the first evidence of the fly’s ability to detect several synthetic odour compounds. Our findings provide a morpho-functional basis for future investigations on olfactory-mediated behaviour of this insect pest.
Full Text Available The authors review the physiological role and the daily requirement of fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, E and K, vitamin C and water in dairy sheep. Regarding the vitamins, classical clinical symptoms and/or non-specific parameters, such as lowered production and reproduction rates are associated with their deficiencies or excesses. Until the last decade, these compounds were considered important only for the prevention of such alterations; currently, there is more emphasis on their function as the vitamins can play a key role in optimising animal health. In this respect, of particu- lar interest is the action of the antioxidant vitamins (especially vitamin C, vitamin E and beta-carotene in improving the efficiency of the immune system.
Pisanu, Salvatore; Cubeddu, Tiziana; Pagnozzi, Daniela; Rocca, Stefano; Cacciotto, Carla; Alberti, Alberto; Marogna, Gavino; Uzzau, Sergio; Addis, Maria Filippa
Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) are structures composed of DNA, histones, and antimicrobial proteins that are released extracellularly by neutrophils and other immune cells as a means for trapping and killing invading pathogens. Here, we describe NET formation in milk and in mammary alveoli of mastitic sheep, and provide a dataset of proteins found in association to these structures. Nucleic acid staining, immunomicroscopy and fluorescent in-situ hybridization of mastitic mammary tissue from sheep infected with Streptococcus uberis demonstrated the presence of extranuclear DNA colocalizing with antimicrobial proteins, histones, and bacteria. Then, proteomic analysis by LTQ-Orbitrap Velos mass spectrometry provided detailed information on protein abundance changes occurring in milk upon infection. As a result, 1095 unique proteins were identified, of which 287 being significantly more abundant in mastitic milk. Upon protein ontology classification, the most represented localization classes for upregulated proteins were the cytoplasmic granule, the nucleus, and the mitochondrion, while function classes were mostly related to immune defence and inflammation pathways. All known NET markers were massively increased, including histones, granule proteases, and antimicrobial proteins. Of note was the detection of protein arginine deiminases (PAD3 and PAD4). These enzymes are responsible for citrullination, the post-translational modification that is known to trigger NET formation by inducing chromatin decondensation and extracellular release of NETs. As a further observation, citrullinated residues were detected by tandem mass spectrometry in histones of samples from mastitic animals. In conclusion, this work provides novel microscopic and proteomic information on NETs formed in vivo in the mammary gland, and reports the most complete database of proteins increased in milk upon bacterial mastitis. PMID:26088507
Isadora Karolina Freitas de Sousa; Antonio Humberto Hamad Minervino; Rejane dos Santos Sousa; Dowglish Ferreira Chaves; Herbert Sousa Soares; Isabella de Oliveira Barros; Carolina Akiko Sato Cabral de Araújo; Raimundo Alves Barrêto Júnior; Enrico Lippi Ortolani
An outbreak of enzootic ataxia among sheep raised in the northeastern region of Brazil is described. Copper (Cu) deficiency was diagnosed in a herd of 56 sheep, among which five presented characteristic clinical symptoms of enzootic ataxia. The symptoms began 30 days after birth, with a clinical condition that included locomotion difficulty, limb ataxia, tremors, and continual falls. Liver biopsies were performed and blood was collected to determine hepatic and plasmatic Cu, iron (Fe), and zi...
Larsen, Patryk Daniel; Tronsen, Eyvind; Bøen, Kim Reisæter
Objective: The objective of this study was to further develop the sheep model for periodontal surgical training to undergraduate students, and compare it to the more commonly used pig model. Method: Periodontal measurements as pocket depth and gingival width were measured on a total number of 10 sheep and 9 pigs, and a pre-established list of surgical procedures were performed on both types of specimen in different areas of the dentition; gingivectomy, modified access flap w...
Gunnarsson, A.; Mårdh, P. A.; Lundblad, A.; Svensson, S.
Agglutination of sheep erythrocytes by Staphylococcus saprophyticus was used as a model system for adherence studies. Glycolipids were isolated from sheep erythrocyte membranes, and oligosaccharides were prepared by trifluoroacetolysis. The oligosaccharides were characterized by sugar analyses, methylation analyses, gas-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. We showed that oligosaccharides containing terminal beta-D-galactose-p-(1-4)-beta-D-2-ace...
King, R; Brooks, SP; Morgan, BJ; Coulson, T
This article presents a Bayesian analysis of mark-recapture-recovery data on Soay sheep. A reversible jump Markov chain Monte Carlo technique is used to determine age classes of common survival, and to model the survival probabilities in those classes using logistic regression. This involves environmental and individual covariates, as well as random effects. Auxiliary variables are used to impute missing covariates measured on individual sheep. The Bayesian approach suggests different models ...
Gholamreza Najafi; Farhad Soltanalinejad; Hamed Hasanzadeh
The carotid is a small mass of chemoreceptor's and sustentacular cells that detects changes in the composition of the arterial blood. The aim of the present study was to identify the size, color, location, blood and nerve supply of the carotid body in Makouei sheep. Fourteen heads of sheep from both sexes were collected from Urmia public slaughter-house. The exact situation and nerve supply of the carotid body was determined. Before dissection, blue latex was injected into right and left comm...
J.K. Wabacha; J. Nduhiu; N.P. Gitonga; A.G. Thaiyah; M.J. Njenga; Mulei, C.M.
An outbreak of an atypical form of ovine dermatophilosis affecting the lips and muzzle with a very high morbidity in weaners and hoggets in Kenya is reported. Clinical diagnosis of ovine dermatophilosis was made and confirmed by direct microscopic examination as well as isolation and identification of Dermatophilus congolensis from scab material from the affected sheep. The morbidity rate within the flock was 31.8 % (237 / 745) with 98.3 % (233 / 237) of the affected sheep being weaners and h...
Aepli, Matteo; Finger, Robert
In this study, we estimated the influence of different meat prices, socio-demographic and geographic variables on sheep and goat meat demand using the Swiss household expenditure survey from 2000 to 2005, a micro data set on 20,940 households resident in Switzerland. This study is motivated by the fact that sheep and goats play a major economic role especially for small farms in Swiss agriculture and contribute to conservation of landscape and biodiversity especially in the mountain regions. ...
Na, Ri Su; Zhao, Qian Jun; Jin, Da Peng; Su, Xiao Hua; Chen, Xian Wei; Guan, Wei Jun; Ma, Yue Hui
A Ujumqin sheep ear marginal tissue (USEM) fibroblast line, frozen in 147 cryovials with 4 × 106 cell each, was successfully established from 33 Ujumqin sheep ear marginal tissues using explant culture and cryopreservation techniques. The cells were morphologically consistent with fibroblasts. The growth curve was typical S-shape and the cell population passed through a lag phase, a logarithmic phase and a plateau phase. The population doubling time (PDT) was approximately 72 h. Tests for bac...
...Embryos from sheep in regions other than Australia, Canada, and New Zealand. 98...from sheep in regions other than Australia, Canada, and New Zealand. (a) Except for embryos from sheep in Australia, Canada, or New Zealand,...
...Embryos from sheep in regions other than Australia, Canada, and New Zealand. 98...Embryos from sheep in regions other than Australia, Canada, and New Zealand. Except for embryos from sheep in Australia, Canada, or New Zealand,...
Brno : Mendel university of agriculture and forestry, 2009. s. 18-18. [34th Annual meeting of the European society for new methods in agricultural research. 25.08.2009-29.08.2009, Brno] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : Animal breeding * Genomics * Farm animal s Subject RIV: GI - Animal Husbandry ; Breeding
Proceeded by a few general considerations about problems and results of mutation breeding in vegetatively propagated plants a review is given of the results of mutation breeding programs up to new in the different (tropical) root and tuber crops (cassava, sweet potato, yam, potato and others). (author)
Jeong, Hyeon-Soo; Kim, Dae-Won; Chun, Se-Yoon; Sung, Samsun; Kim, Hyeon-Jeong; Cho, Seoae; Kim, Heebal; Oh, Sung-Jong
Indigenous (native) breeds of livestock have higher disease resistance and adaptation to the environment due to high genetic diversity. Even though their extinction rate is accelerated due to the increase of commercial breeds, natural disaster, and civil war, there is a lack of well-established databases for the native breeds. Thus, we constructed the native pig and chicken breed database (NPCDB) which integrates available information on the breeds from around the world. It is a nonprofit public database aimed to provide information on the genetic resources of indigenous pig and chicken breeds for their conservation. The NPCDB (http://npcdb.snu.ac.kr/) provides the phenotypic information and population size of each breed as well as its specific habitat. In addition, it provides information on the distribution of genetic resources across the country. The database will contribute to understanding of the breed's characteristics such as disease resistance and adaptation to environmental changes as well as the conservation of indigenous genetic resources. PMID:25178289
Kocour, M.; Gela, D.; Šlechtová, V?ra; Kopecká, Jana; Šlechta, Vlastimil; Rodina, M.; Flajšhans, M.
Moskva : Ministerstvo zem?d?lství ruské federace, 2008, s. 13-46. ISBN 978-5-9974-0063-7 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : common carp * carp breeds * breeding * strains * gene resources Subject RIV: GL - Fishing
Parker, Heidi G
A rose may be a rose by any other name, but when you call a dog a poodle it becomes a very different animal than if you call it a bulldog. Both the poodle and the bulldog are examples of dog breeds of which there are >400 recognized worldwide. Breed creation has played a significant role in shaping the modern dog from the length of his leg to the cadence of his bark. The selection and line-breeding required to maintain a breed has also reshaped the genome of the dog, resulting in a unique genetic pattern for each breed. The breed-based population structure combined with extensive morphologic variation and shared human environments have made the dog a popular model for mapping both simple and complex traits and diseases. In order to obtain the most benefit from the dog as a genetic system, it is necessary to understand the effect structured breeding has had on the genome of the species. That is best achieved by looking at genomic analyses of the breeds, their histories, and their relationships to each other. PMID:22231497
This is the first in a series of lessons specifically designed to instruct individuals without any formal training in genetics or statistics about the science of corn breeding. Individuals with formal training in genetics or statistics but without any training in plant breeding also may benefit from these lessons.
Synthetical techniques for improving rice mutation breeding efficiency were studied. The techniques consist of corresponding relationship between radiosensitivity and mutation frequency, choosing appropriate materials, combination of physical and chemical mutagens, mutagenic effects of the new mutagenic agents as proton, ions, synchronous irradiation and space mutation. These techniques and methods for inducing mutations are very valuable to increase inducing mutation efficiency and breeding level
D., Mierlita; St., Daraban; F., Lup.
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine and compare the fatty acid profile of milk fat, with particular reference to cis-9, trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), in two indigenous Romanian sheep breeds (Spanca and Turcana), irrespective of the effects of diet and season. The ewes (n = 25 for [...] each breed) received the same feed (total mixed rations) and were maintained under identical conditions. Four samples were collected from each individual ewe to determine fatty acids (FA), as methyl esters, using gas chromatography. The fatty acid groups, namely saturated (SFA), monounsaturated (MUFA) and polyunsaturated (PUFA) acids were examined together with individual acids. Differences have been obtained between the two local breeds for the majority of FA. Fat in the milk of Turcana ewes has a healthier fatty acid profile than that of Spanca breed which has a lower concentration of SFA (60.9 vs. 73.3%) and higher concentrations of MUFA (31.0 vs. 21.0%) and PUFA (8.06 vs. 5.61%, respectively). Compared with the Spanca breed, fat in the milk of Turcana ewes had higher concentrations of trans-11 C18:1, C18:1 n9c, and cis-9 trans-11 CLA (2.67 vs. 1.01%, respectively). ?9-desaturase activity is breed specific; vaccenic acid (trans-11 C18:1) desaturation and its conversion into cis-9, trans-11 CLA were more intense in the Turcana breed ewes. In conclusion, breed has a strong effect on the FA composition of ewe milk fat, and on cis-9, trans-11 CLA, in particular. The results obtained, support the sustainable use of animal genetic resources to improve the milk fat quality of ewes.
Several techniques for assessing genetic diversity exist. However information on their suitability for use in indigenous sheep populations in Kenya is sparse in literature. Using seven blood protein-coding loci analysed in six indigenous sheep populations found in Kenya, the polymorphism in blood proteins as a rapid method for assessing genetic diversity was evaluated. Blood samples were obtained from 457 unrelated animals in different populations found in Kwale, Makueni, Siaya, Kakamega, Kajiado and Isiolo Districts. Forty animals of the fine wooled Merino were used as the reference breed. Blood samples were typed for biochemical polymorphisms using discontinuous polyacrylamide gels for Transferrin and starch gel electrophoresis for Haemoglobin, Albumin, Carbonic anhydrase, X-protein, Esterase-A and Esterase-C. A more detailed description of the analytical technique is published elsewhere. Of the seven loci studied, Carbonic anhydrase and X-protein did not give interpretable results. This is attributed to the long period of 2 years between sample collection and analysis. This time lag may have affected the quality of the samples. Most proteins, even the most stable such as lactate dehydrogenase, begin to degrade seriously in activity and resolvability after 2 years under even the lowest temperatures. The remaining five loci however, showed low levels of polymorphism, low variability in allele numbers and frequencies and low heterozygosity values. These levels of variability are lower than those observed in microsatellite DNA markers. Each marker showed the same predominant allele in each population. Transferrin was the only locus that deviated significantly from the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The multilocus FST values indicated that 8.3% of the total genetic variation was explained by population differences; the remaining 91.7% corresponding to differences among individuals. These significant between population FST estimate indicates a relatively low degree of gene flow between the populations studied due to reproductive isolation. In this study it was observed that 8.3% of the total genetic variation is attributed to population differentiation. This value is close to that found in other domestic species studied using microsatellite DNA markers, i.e. 10% in European cattle breeds. On average each population had a 31.8% deficit of heterozygotes whereas the combined populations had a 37.4% deficit in heterozygotes. In spite of their low variability, blood proteins are still ideal for the rapid assessment of genetic diversity between populations that have not been characterized. However microsatellite DNA markers are superseding their usefulness
Full Text Available Abstract Background Our aim was to estimate the effect of two myostatin (MSTN mutations in Norwegian White Sheep, one of which is close to fixation in the Texel breed. Methods The impact of two known MSTN mutations was examined in a field experiment with Norwegian White Sheep. The joint effect of the two MSTN mutations on live weight gain and weaning weight was studied on 644 lambs. Carcass weight gain from birth to slaughter, carcass weight, carcass conformation and carcass fat classes were calculated in a subset of 508 lambs. All analyses were carried out with a univariate linear animal model. Results The most significant impact of both mutations was on conformation and fat classes. The largest difference between the genotype groups was between the wild type for both mutations and the homozygotes for the c.960delG mutation. Compared to the wild types, these mutants obtained a conformation score 5.1 classes higher and a fat score 3.0 classes lower, both on a 15-point scale. Conclusions Both mutations reduced fatness and increased muscle mass, although the effect of the frameshift mutation (c.960delG was more important as compared to the 3'-UTR mutation (c.2360G>A. Lambs homozygous for the c.960delG mutation grew more slowly than those with other MSTN genotypes, but had the least fat and the largest muscle mass. Only c.960delG showed dominance effects.
Dashab, G R; Aslaminejad, A
Regions on 3 ovine chromosomes (OAR1, 5 and 25) were selected to study quantitative trait loci (QTL) segregating for wool traits in Baluchi sheep, an indigenous sheep breed in Iran. Progenies (503) from 13 half-sib families were genotyped for 15 microsatellite markers. The average number of progeny per sire was 38 and ranged between 16 and 59. Wool traits (14) were analyzed and phenotypes were corrected for fixed effects of birth year, sex, flock, litter size and shearing date (year and season). The QTL analyses were performed using regression-based interval mapping. The results revealed 4 QTL on OAR1 for fibre type traits (hetero-type and Kemp fibres type per cent in fleece), coefficient of variation of fibre diameter and greasy fleece weight, one QTL on OAR5 for clean fleece weight and 7 QTL on OAR25 for fibre type traits (Hetro-type, Kemp and True wool fibres per cent), greasy and clean fleece weight, coefficient of variation of average fibre diameter and the per cent of fibre diameter between 40 and 50 ?m.
Voith, Victoria L; Ingram, Elizabeth; Mitsouras, Katherine; Irizarry, Kristopher
Governmental and other agencies may require dog caregivers (owners) to provide breed identification of their dogs. This study compares breed identification by adoption agencies with identification by DNA analysis in 20 dogs of unknown parentage. Of the 20 dogs who had been adopted from 17 different locations, the study identified 16 dogs as having (or probably having) 1 or 2 specific breed(s) in their ancestry. DNA analysis of these dogs indicated that 25% (4/16) did in fact contain genetic evidence of an adoption agency's identified breed as one of the predominant breeds in a dog's ancestry. DNA analysis did not detect all specified breeds in 14 of these dogs. That is, 87.5% of the dogs identified by an adoption agency as having specific breeds in their ancestry did not have all of those breeds detected by DNA analysis. The discrepancies between opinions of adoption agencies and identification by DNA analysis suggest that it would be worthwhile to reevaluate the reliability of breed identification as well as the justification of current public and private policies pertaining to specific dog breeds. PMID:20183478
Advances in molecular genetics and DNA technologies have brought plant breeding, including mutation breeding, into a molecular era. With ever-increasing knowledge of molecular genetics and genomics and rapidly emerging molecular techniques, breeders can now use mutation techniques in breeding new varieties more wisely and efficiently than ever before. Plant molecular mutation breeding is here defined as mutation breeding, in which molecular or genomic information and tools are used in the development of breeding strategies, screening, selection and verification of induced mutants, and in the utilization of mutated genes in the breeding process. It is built upon the science of DNA damage, repair and mutagenesis, plant molecular genetics and genomics of important agronomic traits as well as induced mutations. Mutagenic treatment, super-mutable genetic lines, molecular markers and high throughput DNA technologies for mutation screening such as TILLING (Targeting Induced Limited Lesions IN Genomes), are the key techniques and resources in molecular mutation breeding. Molecular mutation breeding will significantly increase both the efficiency and efficacy of mutation techniques in crop breeding. A perspective molecular mutation breeding scheme is proposed for discussion. (author)
The advance in molecular genetics and DNA technologies has brought plant breeding including mutation breeding into a molecular era. With the ever increasing molecular genetics and genomics knowledge and rapidly emerging molecular techniques, breeders can now more wisely and efficiently than ever before using mutation techniques in breeding new varieties. Plant molecular mutation breeding is here defined as mutation breeding in which molecular or genomic information and tools are used in the development of breeding strategies, in the screening, selection and verifying of induced mutants, and in the utilization of mutated genes in the breeding process. It is built upon the science of DNA damage, repair and mutagenesis, plant molecular genetics and genomics of important agronomic traits as well as induced mutations. Mutagenic treatment, super-mutable genetic lines, molecular markers and high throughput DNA technologies for mutation screening such as TILLING (Targeting Induced Limited Lesions IN Genomes) are the key techniques and resources in molecular mutation breeding. Molecular mutation breeding will significantly increase both the efficiency and efficacy of mutation techniques in crop breeding. A perspective molecular mutation breeding scheme is proposed for discussion. (author)
João Antonio Tadeu, Pigatto; Fabiana Quartiero, Pereira; Luciane, Albuquerque; Luis Felipe Dutra, Corrêa; Bernardo Stefano, Bercht; Paula Stieven, Hünning; Alberto Andre Ribeiro, Silva; Luciana Vicente Rosa Pacicco de, Freitas.
Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar e estabelecer os valores de pressão intraocular (PIO) média, em ovinos adultos saudáveis, usando a tonometria de aplanação. Foram utilizados no estudo 25 ovinos saudáveis (Ovis aries), da raça Texel, machos ou fêmeas de três anos de idade. Foram realizados exames [...] oftálmicos, incluindo: avaliação dos reflexos pupilares, teste lacrimal de Schirmer, avaliação com lâmpada de fenda e coloração com fluoresceína, em ambos os olhos de todos os animais. Para a realização dos testes oftálmicos, os animais foram contidos pelo mesmo auxiliar, sem pressão na região jugular e as pálpebras foram delicadamente abertas. A PIO foi aferida, utilizando-se o tonômetro de aplanação Tonopen XL, tendo sido todos os exames realizados pelo mesmo examinador. Foram realizadas três avaliações em cada olho e a média destas aferições foi considerada a PIO de cada olho do respectivo animal. Utilizou-se, para a análise estatística, o teste t pareado, sendo que valores de p Abstract in english The purpose of this study was to evaluate and establish the mean values of IOP in healthy adult sheep using an applanation tonometer. Information on age, sex, and breed was obtained for all animals included in this study. Twenty five healthy sheep (Ovis aries), of the same breed (Texel), male or fem [...] ale, with three years of age, received an ophthalmic examination in both eyes, including pupillary reflexes, Schirmer tear test, slit lamp biomicroscopy, and fluorescein staining. For all ophthalmic testing, animals were gently physically restrained, with no pressure in the jugular area and the eyelids were carefully open. IOP was measured by applanation tonometry (Tonopen XL). The same examiner performed the tonometry; measurements were taken three times for each eye, and their average was recorded as the IOP of the animal. Statistical analysis was performed using paired t-test and values of P
M.P., Miguel; M.A., Souza; P.H.J., Cunha; G.L., Costa; L.J., Abud.
Full Text Available Descreveram-se os sinais clínicos e achados anatomopatológicos da intoxicação crônica por cobre em um ovino da raça Texxel e definiu-se a conduta diagnóstica correta para confirmação da enfermidade. Um ovino foi encaminhado ao setor de patologia com histórico de apatia, hemoglobinúria e morte em doi [...] s a três dias. No exame necroscópico, observaram-se icterícia e edema subcutâneo, fígado aumentado de volume e amarelado e rins escuros. No exame histológico, observaram-se necrose zonal aleatória e acentuada no fígado, necrose epitelial tubular, gotas hialinas e cilindros marrom-alaranjados em túbulos coletores dos rins. O histórico alimentar, a sensibilidade de espécie/raça, o quadro clínico, as alterações macroscópicas e microscópicas sugeriram o quadro de intoxicação crônica por cobre. A confirmação diagnóstica somente foi possível após a marcação de pigmentos de cobre pela técnica histoquímica de Ulzmann e pela quantificação de cobre em matéria seca de fígado e rins, cujos valores foram mais altos que o normal. Abstract in english The present work describes the clinical signs and anatomopathological findings of chronic copper toxicities in a Texxel breed sheep and defines the optimal diagnostic procedure for confirmation of the disorder. A sheep was sent to pathology analysis service with a history of apathy, hemoglobinuria a [...] nd death within two to three days. Necropsy showed jaundice and subcutaneous edema, enlarged yellow liver and dark kidneys. The histologic examination showed random zonal necrosis, marked necrosis in the liver and tubular epithelial and orange-brown spotted hyaline cylinders in the collecting tubules of the kidneys. The dietary history, sensitivity of species/breed, clinical, macroscopic and microscopic alterations suggested the framework of chronic copper poisoning. Diagnostic confirmation was only possible after staining copper pigments trough the Ulzmann technique and quantification of copper in the dry liver and kidney, which were higher than normal levels.
Full Text Available Descreveram-se os sinais clínicos e achados anatomopatológicos da intoxicação crônica por cobre em um ovino da raça Texxel e definiu-se a conduta diagnóstica correta para confirmação da enfermidade. Um ovino foi encaminhado ao setor de patologia com histórico de apatia, hemoglobinúria e morte em dois a três dias. No exame necroscópico, observaram-se icterícia e edema subcutâneo, fígado aumentado de volume e amarelado e rins escuros. No exame histológico, observaram-se necrose zonal aleatória e acentuada no fígado, necrose epitelial tubular, gotas hialinas e cilindros marrom-alaranjados em túbulos coletores dos rins. O histórico alimentar, a sensibilidade de espécie/raça, o quadro clínico, as alterações macroscópicas e microscópicas sugeriram o quadro de intoxicação crônica por cobre. A confirmação diagnóstica somente foi possível após a marcação de pigmentos de cobre pela técnica histoquímica de Ulzmann e pela quantificação de cobre em matéria seca de fígado e rins, cujos valores foram mais altos que o normal.The present work describes the clinical signs and anatomopathological findings of chronic copper toxicities in a Texxel breed sheep and defines the optimal diagnostic procedure for confirmation of the disorder. A sheep was sent to pathology analysis service with a history of apathy, hemoglobinuria and death within two to three days. Necropsy showed jaundice and subcutaneous edema, enlarged yellow liver and dark kidneys. The histologic examination showed random zonal necrosis, marked necrosis in the liver and tubular epithelial and orange-brown spotted hyaline cylinders in the collecting tubules of the kidneys. The dietary history, sensitivity of species/breed, clinical, macroscopic and microscopic alterations suggested the framework of chronic copper poisoning. Diagnostic confirmation was only possible after staining copper pigments trough the Ulzmann technique and quantification of copper in the dry liver and kidney, which were higher than normal levels.
Full Text Available Plant breeders in Croatia work on improving genetic basis of the economically important traits of agricultural plant species. Yield of a crop is usually among the most important traits. It depends on genotype of a cultivar and on cultural practices including pest protection. Croatia has long tradition in plant breeding. Croatian plant breeders have developed over 800 cultivars, many of them are resistant or tolerant to the most important pathogens. Genetic variability for efficient uptake and use of nutrients has been also found among cultivars of same crops. The available germplasm enables farmers to choose the cultivars for organic agriculture, i.e. the cultivars which have genetic basis for more efficient nutrients use and which require less chemicals for pest control. Also, breeders can use those cultivars as valuable germplasm for developing new cultivars.
Genomic prediction is successful in single breed genetic evaluation. However, there is no achievement in acoress breed prediction until now. This thesis investigated genomic prediction across populations and breeds using Chinese Holsterin, Nordic Holstein, Norwgian Red, and Nordic Red. Nordic Red includes Danish Red. Finnish Ayrshire, and Swedish Red. The results indicated that genomic prediction across breeds is feasible when there is relationshop between breeds, and it's not work when two breeds are distantly-related using our implemented methods.
Owen Bishop's First Course starts with the basics of electricity and component types, introducing students to practical work almost straight away. No prior knowledge of electronics is required. The approach is student-centred with self-test features to check understanding, including numerous activities suitable for practicals, homework and other assignments. Multiple choice questions are incorporated throughout the text in order to aid student learning. Key facts, formulae and definitions are highlighted to aid revision, and theory is backed up by numerous examp
Full Text Available About 950,000 goats, farmed mostly in hilly and mountainous areas of Albania, contribute about 8% of the country’s total milk production. In order to increase milk production, farmers are currently using crosses of the local goat breed with exotic breeds, mainly the Alpine breed from France. This study examines milk production data of first lactation from 45 goats of the local breed, 82 goats of the Alpine breed and 58 F1 crosses (?Alpine breed x ?local breed. The goats were kept on small-scale farms according to the traditional Albanian system. Milking was carried out in the morning and evening. Kids were weaned at 65 days of age after which milking started. Milk yield was recorded twice with a 15-day interval between the two readings. Total milk yield was calculated using the Fleischmann method. The F1 goats produced 37.8 kg more milk than local breed goats although the lactation length (P<0.05 of F1 goats was six days shorter compared to that of local breed goats (P<0.05. Analysis of variance showed a highly significant effect (P<0.01 of the genotype factor on milk production. The average Cappio-Borlino curves of three genotypes indicated that the lactation curves of local breed and F1 crosses were similar. Although the F1 cross goats had 50% of their genomes from a genetically improved breed they were still able to deal with the difficult conditions that characterize the traditional extensive farming systems in Albania. Breeding pure Alpine breed or its crosses with the local goat breed improved milk production in an extensive traditional system.
Thiebot, Jean-Baptiste; Lescroël, Amélie; Pinaud, David; Trathan, Philip N.; Bost, Charles-andré
For land-breeding marine organisms such as seabirds, knowledge about their habitat use has mainly been gained through studies of breeding individuals that are constrained to return frequently to their breeding grounds. In this study we set out to measure whether: a) habitat selection in the non-breeding period predicts habitat selection in the breeding period, and b) whether breeding individuals concentrated their activity on the closest suitable habitats. Macaroni Eudyptes chryso...
Milk yield and composition were determined in a total of 85 Karaka? ewes (Akkaraman breed). The data were collected from Yüzüncü Y?l University, Agriculture Faculty's Practice Farm and a rural farm near the University. Lactation length, average daily milk yield and total milk yield were 155.9 ± 4.3 days, 529.6 ± 31.6 ml and 84.7 ± 5.1 l, respectively. Milk fat, total solid and mineral percentages were 7.09 ± 0.25%, 19.75 ± 0.66% and 0.93 ± 0.03%, respectively. The differences between far...
Udevitz, M.S.; Shults, B.S.; Adams, L.G.; Kleckner, C.
Most Dall's sheep (Ovis dalli dalli) population-monitoring efforts use intensive aerial surveys with no attempt to estimate variance or adjust for potential sightability bias. We used radiocollared sheep to assess factors that could affect sightability of Dall's sheep in standard fixed-wing and helicopter surveys and to evaluate feasibility of methods that might account for sightability bias. Work was conducted in conjunction with annual aerial surveys of Dall's sheep in the western Baird Mountains, Alaska, USA, in 2000-2003. Overall sightability was relatively high compared with other aerial wildlife surveys, with 88% of the available, marked sheep detected in our fixed-wing surveys. Total counts from helicopter surveys were not consistently larger than counts from fixed-wing surveys of the same units, and detection probabilities did not differ for the 2 aircraft types. Our results suggest that total counts from helicopter surveys cannot be used to obtain reliable estimates of detection probabilities for fixed-wing surveys. Groups containing radiocollared sheep often changed in size and composition before they could be observed by a second crew in units that were double-surveyed. Double-observer methods that require determination of which groups were detected by each observer will be infeasible unless survey procedures can be modified so that groups remain more stable between observations. Mean group sizes increased during our study period, and our logistic regression sightability model indicated that detection probabilities increased with group size. Mark-resight estimates of annual population sizes were similar to sightability-model estimates, and confidence intervals overlapped broadly. We recommend the sightability-model approach as the most effective and feasible of the alternatives we considered for monitoring Dall's sheep populations.
Full Text Available The article deal with an ongoing research aimed at developing an advanced self-bearing panel, fitted for thermal and acoustic insulation of buildings, derived from the reuse and recycling of local sheep wool. The development of a supply chain of environmentally friendly products (a self bearing panel made of 100% wool encourages, on the one hand, the use of a material so far classified in Italy as special waste and, on the one other, provides new opportunities for a sheepfarming that it is now going through an economic recession, with positive effects on the mountain and the hill landscape.
Full Text Available Nowadays breeding has become the problem often solved in European states and it has been paid much attention by breeding organizations. In terms of hippology as well as some urgent requirements from the side of nonius breeders we have focussed on this particular breed especially from the reason of its further survival and development in Slovakia. The aim of this paper was to evaluate the growth indicators as well as the achievement level of the stallions since 1927 to the present. Based on our research of the nonius body lines we can state that at present there are 3 stallions that are followers of the N VIII horse line founder. In general, there are 12 stallions that are active within this breed in Slovakia. It was statistically confirmed that this particular breed grew much stronger through the goal-directed breeding work, improved nutrition as well as the immediate breeding site. It was quite complicated to evaluate the performance tests because the individual indicators were significantly influenced by the subjective views of the commitee members performing the evaluation. The next factor which prevents the objective evaluation is the fact that in the period up to 1979, the performance tests were valued by the 100 point system and from the year 1980 by the 10 point system. That is why we take the performance test results into account only as supplemental ones, which can provide a kind of amendment to the observed biological parameters.
Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is an important energy source in the diets of millions of people in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world, especially the poor. Also its industrial uses are steadily growing for starch, animal feed and bio-ethanol. Although it has high economic and social relevance, few major scientific efforts have been made to improve the crop until the 1970s. With the goals and objectives of cassava improvement through breeding, different strategies have been developed during the last several decades, such as evaluation and selection of the local landraces, introduced germplasm (as clones or segregating F1 population), hybridization (including inbreeding by both recurrent back-cross schemes and double haploids (DH)), interspecific hybridization, polyploidy breeding, genetic transformation, use of molecular markers and mutation breeding. Induced mutation breeding on cassava has been explored in the last several decades with few published papers. Yet, the production of novel genotypes, such as high amylose and small granule mutants and mutants with tolerance to post harvest physiological deterioration (PPD), has been reported. These results suggest that mutagenesis could be an effective alternative for cassava breeding. However, many drawbacks still exist in cassava mutation breeding, such as the occurrence of chimeras. Validated and developing protocols for different biotechnologies, such as TILLING protocol, cassava genome sequencing and cassava somatic embryogenesis, will significantly ameliorate the drawbacks to traditional mutation breeding, and consequently aid the routine application of induced mutation in both cassava improvement and in gene discovery and elucidation. (author)
Yushi, Gao; Yunjie, Tu; Haibin, Tong; Kehua, Wang; Xiujun, Tang; Kuanwei, Chen.
Full Text Available Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) using six marker combinations were applied to detect genetic variation and phylo genetic relationships among 12 indigenous Chinese chicken breeds and a Recessive White chicken breed introduced from France. The DNA was pooled for each group. Polymorphic b [...] ands, breed-specific bands and genetic similarity coefficients of 13 chicken breeds were derived from the AFLP data. A total of 280 polymorphic bands was generated from which nine specific bands were observed for the Shouguang and the Dongxiang Dark chicken. One specific band was observed in the pooled DNA of the Jiuyuan Dark chicken, the Xingyi Bantam chicken and the Recessive White chicken. The genetic similarity coefficients among the 12 indigenous Chinese chicken breeds varied between 0.635 - 0.860, and 0.188 - 0.360 between the Recessive White and the indigenous Chinese chicken breeds. The UPGMA based tree yielded two clusters for the 13 chicken breeds, with the Recessive White chickens forming a distinct cluster. In summary, the genetic similarity coefficients and the UPGMA tree of the 13 chicken breeds were consistent with their breeding history and geographical distribution. These results provide useful data with regard to the genetic diversity, genetic relationships and identification of chicken breeds in China.
Pires, A E; Amorim, I R; Ginja, C; Gomes, M; Godinho, I; Simões, F; Oom, M; Petrucci-Fonseca, F; Matos, J; Bruford, M W
Genetic variability in purebred dogs is known to be highly structured, with differences among breeds accounting for approximately 30% of the genetic variation. However, analysis of the genetic structure in non-cosmopolitan breeds and local populations is still limited. Nine Portuguese native dog breeds, and other peripheral dog populations (five) with regional affinities, were characterized using 16 microsatellites and 225 amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers, and the pattern of genetic differentiation was investigated. Although the level of breed differentiation detected is below that of other dog breeds, there is in most cases a correlation between breed affiliation and molecular structure. AFLP markers and Bayesian clustering methods allowed an average of 73.1% of individuals to be correctly assigned to source populations, providing robust genotypic assessment of breed affiliation. A geographical genetic structure was also detected, which suggests a limited influence of African dogs on the Iberian breeds. The sampling effect on the estimation of population structure was evaluated and there was a 2.2% decrease in genetic differentiation among breeds when working animals were included. Genetic diversity of stray dogs was also assessed and there is no evidence that they pose a threat to the preservation of the gene pool of native dog breeds. PMID:19298456
Mohammad Reza Jafarzadeh Shirazi
Full Text Available Introduction: The role of estrogen in the stimulation of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH neurons is clear. These neurons do not express estrogen alpha receptors, so other mediator neurons should be present to transmit the positive feedback effect of estrogen to the GnRH neurons. Kisspeptin neurons have an important role in the stimulation of GnRH neurons, so they can be the mediator of the effect of estrogen on GnRH neurons in preoptic area of sheep brain. One of the known effects of estrogen is the stimulation of Fos gene in the brain. The aim of the present study was to determine the intermediary role of kisspeptin in the transmission of estrogen effects to the gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons in the preoptic area of sheep brain. Methods: Six mature ewes in breeding season were selected and ovariectomised. Three ewes in treatment group were injected with 50 mg estradiol benzoate in 1 ml of sunflower oil and three ewes in control group were injected with saline solution intramuscularly. Immediately after estradiol injections, the hypothalamus of the ewes was removed. The count of kisspeptin neurons, Fos genes, and kisspeptin neurons which colocalized with Fos genes were determined by immunohistochemistry. Results: Estradiol injection increased the colocalization of kisspeptin with Fos gene in the preoptic area of the sheep brain (P=0.01. Results of the present study showed that 86.9 percent of kisspeptin neurons colocalized with Fos gene in the preoptic area (P=0.01. Conclusion: Kisspeptin neurons are important mediators in transmission of positive feedback effect of estrogen into GnRH neurons in the preoptic area of sheep brain.
Rafael, DeRossi; Cassio Tadeu Dias, Pompermeyer; Amadeu Batista, Silva-Neto; Andrea Lantieri Correa de, Barros; Paulo Henrique de Affonseca, Jardim; Fabrício Oliveira, Frazílio.
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar os efeitos analgésicos, motores, sedativos e sistêmicos da adição de sulfato de magnésio na analgesia epidural com quetamina em carneiros. MÉTODOS: Foram utilizados seis carneiros machos sadios, pesando 43 ± 5 kg, com idade entre 20 a 36 meses. Cada animal recebeu três tratament [...] os, com duas semanas entre experimentos via administração epidural: (1) quetamina (KE; 2,5 mg/kg), (2) sulfato de magnésio (MG; 100 mg) e (3) KE + MG (KEMG; 2,5 mg/kg + 100 mg, respectivamente). As administrações epidurais foram administradas no espaço lombosacral. Analgesia, bloqueio motor, sedação, efeitos cardiovasculares, freqüência respiratória, temperatura retal e de pele foram avaliados antes (basal) e depois da administração dos fármacos até o fim da analgesia. RESULTADOS: A duração da analgesia com o tratamento KEMG foi 115 ± 17 min (média ± DP), duas vezes superior ao obtido com o tratamento KE (41 ± 7 min) ou tratamento MG (29 ± 5 min) isolados. Os tratamentos KE e KEMG induziram bloqueio motor severo. As pressões arteriais e freqüência cardíaca não foram estatisticamente significantes nestes animais. CONCLUSÃO: A adição de sulfato de magnésio a analgesia epidural com quetamina é viável, e pode ser usado para prolongar os efeitos analgésicos destes bloqueios em carneiros. Abstract in english PURPOSE: To determine the analgesic, motor, sedation and systemic effects of lumbosacral epidural magnesium sulphate added to ketamine in the sheep. METHODS: Six healthy adult male mixed-breed sheep; weighing 43 ± 5 kg and aged 20-36 months. Each sheep underwent three treatments, at least 2 weeks ap [...] art, via epidural injection: (1) ketamine (KE; 2.5 mg/kg), (2) magnesium sulphate (MG; 100 mg), and (3) KE + MG (KEMG; 2.5 mg/kg + 100 mg, respectively). Epidural injections were administered through the lumbosacral space. Analgesia, motor block, sedation, cardiovascular effects, respiratory rate, skin temperature, and rectal temperature were evaluated before (baseline) and after drug administration as needed. RESULTS: The duration of analgesia with the lumbosacral epidural KEMG combination was 115 ± 17 min (mean ± SD), that is, more than twice that obtained with KE (41 ± 7 min) or MG (29 ± 5 min) alone. KE and KEMG used in this experiment induced severe ataxia. The heart rate and arterial blood pressures changes were no statistical difference in these clinically health sheep. CONCLUSION: The dose of magnesium sulphate to lumbosacral epidural ketamine in sheep is feasible, and can be used in procedures analgesics in sheep.
The ultimate aim of the Co-ordinated Research Programme on In Vitro Technology for Mutation Breeding is to provide new effective tools for plant breeders to construct new cultivars, thus increasing agricultural production of food, feed and industrial raw material, particularly in developing countries. The participants of the research co-ordination meetings considered the potential of new advances of agricultural biotechnology, especially the use of in vitro techniques for mutation breeding. They discussed and co-ordinated plans in conjunction with the impact on plant breeding of novel technologies, such as use of somaclonal variation, cell hybridization and molecular genetics
This project was carried out under the collaboration of TAEK, SANAEM, and BATEM within 1999-2005 period. The aim of this project was to create new pepper varieties in Sera Demre 8 (green pepper) and ST59 (green pepper) cultivars which are important greenhouse cultivars by using mutation breeding methods. The Effective Mutagen Dose (ED50) was calculated by linear regression analyses. According to results, 166 Gy dose was found as ED50. At the end of the breeding cycle 14 new mutant lines were obtained from mutant population. These mutant lines are still using as genitor for F1 hybrid pepper breeding programs
Bazer Fuller W
Full Text Available Abstract There is a dialogue between the developing conceptus (embryo-fetus and associated placental membranes and maternal uterus which must be established during the peri-implantation period for pregnancy recognition signaling, implantation, regulation of gene expression by uterine epithelial and stromal cells, placentation and exchange of nutrients and gases. The uterus provide a microenvironment in which molecules secreted by uterine epithelia or transported into the uterine lumen represent histotroph required for growth and development of the conceptus and receptivity of the uterus to implantation. Pregnancy recognition signaling mechanisms sustain the functional lifespan of the corpora lutea (CL which produce progesterone, the hormone of pregnancy essential for uterine functions that support implantation and placentation required for a successful outcome of pregnancy. It is within the peri-implantation period that most embryonic deaths occur due to deficiencies attributed to uterine functions or failure of the conceptus to develop appropriately, signal pregnancy recognition and/or undergo implantation and placentation. With proper placentation, the fetal fluids and fetal membranes each have unique functions to ensure hematotrophic and histotrophic nutrition in support of growth and development of the fetus. The endocrine status of the pregnant female and her nutritional status are critical for successful establishment and maintenance of pregnancy. This review addresses the complexity of key mechanisms that are characteristic of successful reproduction in sheep and pigs and gaps in knowledge that must be the subject of research in order to enhance fertility and reproductive health of livestock species.
Shoop, W L; Egerton, J R; Eary, C H; Suhayda, D
Paraherquamide, an oxindole alkaloid metabolite of Penicillium paraherquei, was tested against the common gastrointestinal nematode species of sheep at 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 mg/kg, per os. It was highly efficacious (greater than or equal to 98% reduction) as a single oral treatment dosages greater than or equal to 0.5 mg/kg against adult Haemonchus contortus, Ostertagia circumcincta, Trichostrongylus axei, Trichostrongylus colubriformis and Cooperia curticei, and the L4 stage of Cooperia spp. Noteworthy is the fact the isolate of H. contortus used was ivermectin-resistant and the isolate of T. colubriformis used was ivermectin- and benzimidazole-resistant. This suggests a different mode of action for paraherquamide relative to ivermectin and the benzimidazoles. The adult stage of Oesophagostomum columbianum was the dosage-limiting parasite with 79% efficacy recorded at the highest treatment level (2.0 mg/kg). Extrapolation from the O. columbianum response curve suggests a dosage in excess of 4.0 mg/kg would be required to attain 95% efficacy. PMID:2352063
N. S. Ahmed
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to detect the precise sites of the beginning of primary ossification centers of the mandible of sheep fetuses as well as their onset time, to achieve this goal, samples were taken weekly starting from the 7th week up to 20th week of intrauterine life. Sections of the samples were stained by the alizarin red and alcian blue technique. Primary centers appeared at the beginning of 7th week as big red spot on either sides of mesenchyme of first branchial arch (Meckel’s cartilage that developed by intramembranous ossification. The rostral part of the mandible, however, was developed by endochondral ossification. The successive bone development process (7–20 weeks, were moniterd by macerating the mandibles using either potassium hydroxide or fly larvae. Measuring tape and graph papers were employed for measurements and for localization of mandibular angle. The results revealed significant increase of these measurements during the successive weeks of intrauterine life.
Nausheen Irshad, M. Qayyum, M. Hussain1 and M. Qasim Khan1*
Full Text Available The present study was carried out to determine the prevalence of tick infestation and theileriosis in small ruminants maintained at National Agricultural Research Centre (NARC Islamabad and Barani Livestock Production Research Institute (BLPRI Kherimurat district Attock, Pakistan. A total of 662 animals (219 sheep and 443 goats were screened for the presence of ticks. Of these, 95(43.37% sheep and 184(41.53% goats were found infested with different species of ticks. The difference in prevalence of ticks between two farms in sheep and goats (combined was statistically significant (P?0.01. Difference in the prevalence during different months of study at NARC was non significant (?2=0.95596, whereas at BLPRI this difference was significant (P? 0.01. Ticks were identified on the basis of their morphological features. Rhipicephalus spp was found to be the most abundant tick infesting both in sheep and goats. Prevalence of theileriosis in sheep was 7.36% (7/95, while in goats it was 3.8% (7/184, the difference being statistically non significant (?2=0.6427.
Johnson Christine K
Full Text Available Abstract Background We used Global Positioning System (GPS data from radiocollared pumas (Puma concolor to identify kill sites of pumas preying upon an endangered population of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis in southern California. Our aims were to test whether or not pumas selected radiocollared versus uncollared bighorn sheep, and to identify patterns of movement before, during, and after kills. Findings Three pumas killed 23 bighorn sheep over the course of the study, but they did not preferentially prey on marked (radiocollared versus unmarked bighorn sheep. Predation occurred primarily during crepuscular and nighttime hours, and 22 kill sites were identified by the occurrence of 2 or more consecutive puma GPS locations (a cluster within 200 m of each other at 1900, 0000, and 0600 h. Conclusion We tested the "conspicuous individual hypothesis" and found that there was no difference in puma predation upon radiocollared and uncollared bighorn sheep. Pumas tended to move long distances before and after kills, but their movement patterns immediately post-kill were much more restricted. Researchers can exploit this behaviour to identify puma kill sites and investigate prey selection by designing studies that detect puma locations that are spatially clustered between dusk and dawn.
Muzaiyan Ahmed Khan
Full Text Available Infections with Giardia lamblia are one of the most common intestinal maladies in the world. These infections can lead to acute diarrhea, cramps, and nausea, although asymptomatic infections are the most common. Although most infections are controlled by an effective immune response, some individuals develop chronic disease. The effects of Giardia lamblia infection on D-glucose uptake and brush border enzymes was studied in ethanol fed sheep. Giardia lamblia trophozoite counts were significantly lower in the intestine of ethanol fed sheep than in the controls. Also sodium dependant uptake of D-glucose and brush border enzymes was significantly reduced in the Giardia lamblia infected sheep intestine. There was no change in sodium dependent D-glucose transporter (SGLT-1 and brush border lactase was reduced in Giardia lamblia infected sheep compared with those of controls. However, the mRNA levels encoding these proteins in ethanol fed animals and control animals were in the sheep intestine. The D-glucose malabsorption was observed and probably it causes a significant decrease in activity of disaccharidases in Giardia lamblia infection.
Airway blood flow (Qaw) may be important in conditioning inspired air. To determine the effect of eucapneic dry air hyperventilation (hv) on Qaw in sheep the authors studied 7 anesthetized open-chest sheep after 25 min. of warm dry air hv. During each period of hv the authors have recorded vascular pressures, cardiac output (CO), and tracheal mucosal and inspired air temperature. Using a modification of the reference flow technique radiolabelled microspheres were injected into the left atrium to make separate measurements after humid air and dry air hv. In 4 animals a snare around the left main pulmonary artery was used following microsphere injection to prevent recirculation (entry into L lung of microspheres from the pulmonary artery). Qaw to the trachea and L lung as measured and Qaw for the R lung was estimated. After the final injection the sheep were killed and bronchi (Br) and lungs removed. Qaw (trachea plus L lung plus R lung) in 4 sheep increased from a mean of 30.8 to 67.0 ml/min. Airway mucosal temp. decreased from 390 to 330C. The authors conclude that dry air hv cools airway mucosa and increases Qaw in sheep
The sheep discussed in this report was one of 12 wether lambs given daily doses of 144Ce-144Pr to investigate the effect of radionuclides on the alimentary tract. The sheep received 20 mCi daily over a 16 day period when treatment was discontinued due to the development of sever diarrhea and later anorexia. Changes in the sheep reported (alopecia, ulceration, disappearance of adnexa, and fibrous replacement of the dermal collagen) indicate a radiation dose in excess of that used in previous experiments. About 4.5 yr after dosing, a firm enlargement was noticed in the right ventrolateral coccygeal region. As the enlargement increased in size, ulceration and bacterial infection occurred. The sheep was killed 59 months after initial treatment and a necropsy performed. The findings were consistent with the diagnosis of locally invasive squamouscell carcinoma. The authors feel that the relative rarity of epidermal carcinomas in sheep, exposure of the coccygeal area to large doses of irradiation, and the carcinogenic effect of radiation indicates a probable cause-and-effect relationship of radiation and tumour development. (U.K.)
Roy, P; Urakawa, T; Van Dijk, A A; Erasmus, B J
Bluetongue virus proteins derived from baculovirus expression vectors have been administered in different combinations to sheep, a vertebrate host susceptible to bluetongue virus, and the neutralizing antibody responses were measured. Vaccinated sheep were subsequently challenged, and the indices of clinical reaction were calculated. The results indicated that the outer capsid protein VP2 alone in doses of greater than 50 micrograms per sheep elicited protection. A dose of ca. 50 micrograms of VP2 protected some but not all sheep. However, when used in combination with ca. 20 micrograms of the other outer capsid protein, VP5, 50-micrograms quantities of VP2 not only protected all the vaccinated sheep but also elicited a higher neutralizing-antibody response. The addition of viral core proteins VP1, VP3, VP6, and VP7, the nonstructural proteins NS1, NS2, and NS3, and the outer capsid proteins VP2 and VP5 did not enhance this neutralizing-antibody response. Images PMID:2157868
Pimentel Anita M
Full Text Available Abstract Background Some techniques of transvaginal ovarian drilling have been previously described. Nevertheless a monopolar transvaginal ovarian cauterization, that use the expertise and safety of transvaginal puncture for oocyte captation seems to be an easier and feasible approach. The aim of this study was to develop a minimally invasive ovarian cauterization technique under transvaginal ultrasound control, and to evaluate the safety of the transvaginal ovarian monopolar cauterization, female sheep at reproductive age were used as an experimental model. Findings An experimental study was performed in a university research center. Seventeen female sheep (15 Corriedale e 2 Suffolk in reproductive age were submitted to transvaginal ovarian cauterization with a monopolar Valleylab Force 2 electrocautery. Macroscopic and microscopic lesions were assessed. Ovarian size were 1.31 cm2 ± 0,43 (Corriedale and 3.41 cm2 ± 0,64 (Suffolk. From 30 ovaries from Corriedale sheep punctured, only 3 were cauterized, presenting macroscopic and typical microscopic lesion. In the Suffolk sheep group, only one ovary was cauterized. No lesion could be found in the needle path. Conclusions This is the first experimental animal model described for ovarian cauterization needle guided by transvaginal ultrasound. The sheep does not seem to be the ideal animal model to study this technique. Another animal model, whose ovaries are better identified by transvaginal ultrasound should be sought for this technique, theoretically less invasive, before it could be offered safely to women with polycystic ovary syndrome.
Genualdo, Viviana; Perucatti, Angela; Pauciullo, Alfredo; Iannuzzi, Alessandra; Incarnato, Domenico; Spagnuolo, Maria Stefania; Solinas, Nicolina; Bullitta, Simonetta; Iannuzzi, Leopoldo
Over the last decades, an increase of pollutants of diverse origin (industrial, military, mining, etc.) was recorded in several areas of Sardinia Island. We report the results of a multidisciplinary and complementary study based on cytogenetic and physiological analyses. The data obtained show the effects of the environmental impact on six sheep flocks (Sardinian breed) grazing on natural pasturelands next to possible polluted areas and compared to three herds grazing in different areas far from those potentially contaminated and used as control. Sister chromatid exchange (SCE) test was used as cytogenetic test to analyze chromosomal damages and it was performed on peripheral blood samples collected from 129 adult sheep (age>4years) randomly selected from polluted (92 animals) and control (37 animals) areas. Two types of cell cultures were performed: without (normal cultures) and with the addition of 5-BrdU. SCE-mean values estimated over 35 cells counted for each animal were 8.65±3.40, 8.10±3.50, 8.05±3.08, 7.42±3.34, 9.28±3.56 and 8.38±3.29 in the exposed areas, whereas the average values were 7.86±3.31 in the control group. Significant increases (P<0.01) of SCEs were found in three investigated areas of Southern Sardinia. Furthermore, sheep of the same flocks were characterized for blood redox homeostasis in order to define the potential targets of oxidative damage and to identify biomarkers of the extent of animal exposure to environmental contaminants. The plasma levels of Asc, Toc and Ret were found to be significantly lower (P<0.001) in exposed sheep (I, II, IV and V) than in the control group. TAC as well as GPx and SOD activities were higher in control than in the exposed groups (P<0.001). Finally, plasma levels of N-Tyr, PC, and LPO were significantly lower (P<0.001) in the control group than in the exposed groups. PMID:25984702
Pedro K.F.C., Bianchi; Edvaldo A.N., Martins; Eloi, Portugal; José Roberto, Kfoury Júnior; Patrícia O., Gonçalez.
Full Text Available A descrição anatômica articular evidencia os fatores padrões para as condições biomecânicas que devem ser consideradas na seleção do animal de uma determinada espécie. Dessa forma, objetivou-se descrever a articulação metacarpo-falângica na espécie ovina, em relação a sua arquitetura, considerando o [...] volume, recessos, comunicações e relações no aspecto anatômico macroscópico. Para tanto, foram utilizados dez animais adultos da espécie ovina, raça Santa Inês, machos e fêmeas, escolhidos aleatoriamente. A cápsula articular teve uma dimensão média de 3,05 cm e uma capacidade volumétri-ca média de 3,99 ml; as comunicações ocorreram em um grau médio de expansão do Látex nas faces dorsal (56,7%) e palmar (53,3%); as comunicações proximais nas faces dorsal, palmar e dorso-palmar apareceram em 100,0% dos casos; os recessos estiveram presentes nas extremidades distais. Nesse contexto, conclui-se, que a articulação metacarpo-falângica de ovinos apresenta-se com relações topográficas semelhantes à descrita para os demais ruminantes, possuindo comunicações em sua porção proximal e recessos distalmente. Abstract in english The joints anatomical description highlights the standards for biomechanical conditions that must be considered in the selection of a particular animal species. Thus, the objective was to describe the metacarpal phalangeal joint in sheep, for its architecture and adjacent structures. For this purpos [...] e, we used ten adult sheep, Santa Ines breed, males and females, randomly chosen. The anatomical specimens for the study were collected by the disarticulation of the distal row of carpal and metacarpal bone of an sheep's forelimb. To observe the joint capsule, adjacent structures were overruled and their topographical relationships with such joint analyzed. The longitudinal measures of the joint capsule and the III-IV metacarpal bones, proximal phalanges III and IV proximal phalanx were taken. Through the results, it is concluded that the metacarpal phalangeal joint in sheep presents similar topographical relationships described for other ruminants, with connections at the proximal and recesses at the distal areas.
As a gene resource for soy bean breeding, the native collections and introduced varieties were continued to evaluate the agronomic characters. From the germ plasm, CB27, KAS302-4 and KAS640-16 were selected and irradiated with X-rays to improve their monogenic characters of the defects. Eight desirable mutant lines were also selected from 105 progenies of the variety Clark treated with chemical mutagen and hybrids of 12 cross combinations were also prepared. Inheritance of resistance to soy bean necrotic virus disease which is severe particularly in leading varieties, was found to be conditioned by a single recessive gene. Yield losses caused by soy bean virus disease and septoria brown spot were estimated at 10-24% and 7-18% respectively with difference between the varieties. Shade tolerance in soy bean could be screened by examining the number of pods per plants. Soy bean yield loss caused by lodging was averaged 45%. In evaluation of agronomic characters in 75 mungbean varieties there was found a large variation in seed size, number of pod and length of pod, and tendency susceptible to several diseases and insect pests. The M3 polulations of barley were also screened for cold resistance, lodging resistance and early maturity, and a number of scions of several vegetatively propagated plants were irradiated for mutation studies. (author)
Full Text Available Somatic cell count (SCC is an important tool for monitoring intramammary infections in dairy cows. However, systematic generalization of this decision rule is not easy in small ruminants. Determination of SCC in sheep milk is important for the processors of milk (indicator of quality, for breeders (mastitis indicator and could be useful for selection as well. SCC value can be affected by some non-infective factors such as breed, stage of lactation, parity, type of lambing, type of milking, etc. (Bergonier et al., 1994, as well the health status of the udder (Fruganti et al., 1985; Ranucci et al., 1988. In addition, EC Directive 92/46, which regulates the production and commercialisation of milk and dairy products, imposes strict limits on SCC from dairy cattle but it does not dispel the uncertainty over recommended SCC levels in small ruminants.With the aim of knowing more about somatic cells count and their effects on milk quality and cheese-making properties an experimental trial was carried out.
L.B., Acurcio; M.R., Souza; A.C., Nunes; D.L.S., Oliveira; S.H.C., Sandes; L.B., Alvim.
Full Text Available Espécies de bactérias ácido-lácticas foram identificadas em nível molecular em leite das raças ovinas Lacaune, Santa Inês e suas mestiças, e o seu potencial probiótico in vitro foi avaliado. As espécies identificadas foram Enterococcus faecium (56,25%), E. durans (31,25%) e E. casseliflavus (12,5%). [...] Nenhuma outra espécie de bactéria ácido-láctica, como Lactobacillus sp., foi identificada. A maioria dos enterococos isolados foi resistente ao pH gástrico (2.0) e a 0,3% de oxgall. Todos os enterococos testados foram resistentes à ceftazidima, oxacilina e estreptomicina e sensíveis à clindamicina, eritromicina e penicilina. A resistência à ciprofloxacina, gentamicina, tetraciclina e vancomicina variou entre as amostras. Todos os enterococos testados inibiram fortemente (P Abstract in english Lactic acid bacteria species were molecularly identified in milk from Lacaune, Santa Inês and crossbred sheep breeds and their in vitro probiotic potential was evaluated. The species identified were Enterococcus faecium (56.25%), E. durans (31.25%) and E. casseliflavus (12.5%). No other lactic acid [...] bacteria species, such as lactobacilli, was identified. Most of the isolated enterococci were resistant to gastric pH (2.0) and to 0.3% oxgall. All tested enterococci were resistant to ceftazidime, oxacillin and streptomycin and sensible to clindamycin, erythromycin and penicillin. The resistance to ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, tetracycline and vancomycin varied among tested species. All tested enterococci strongly inhibited (P
Full Text Available In the breeding with the average number of 220 sheep (zoš?achtená valaška with traditional hand milking in the Eastern Slovakia the microbiological load of milk during the process of primary production, transport, before and after pasteurisation as well as during dairy processing to cheese curd was observed. The results in three seasons were compared to those obtained at finishing of milking in the season before. The microbiological load of milk was observed using the bacteriological methods for determination of the presence of Staphylococcus sp. and other bacteria, and determination of the total number of staphylococci: a in milliliter of pool milk sample; b the transport control – smears from transport tank and determination of the total number of staphylococci in the tank milk sample; c bacteriological examination of bulk tank milk in the dairy plant before and after pasteurisation, including examination of cheese curd. After pasteurisation no staphylococci were recorded as in milk as in cheese. Out of 112 strains of Staphylococcus aureus only four strain produced staphylococcal enterotoxins (SE, but in another 7 strains a gene for production of SE, type C was found. The measures introduced during the following season led to the fact that total numbers of coagulase-positive staphylococci in milk within the process of primary production and transport did not exceed the limit permitted by legislation, and after pasteurisation of milk and cheese curd they were not found at all. doi:10.5219/58
Full Text Available An Australian Merino flock was screened for low (resistant and high (susceptible yellow predictive colour (YPC breeding values in order to compare extreme individuals using the differential display of mRNA technique. One differentially expressed cDNA band was visualised only in the resistant group. This band showed no identity with the DNA sequences of public databases; however, they showed short homologies with three database sequences related to transmembrane signalling functions. The use of these candidate genes as DNA markers needs to be confirmed against sheep with a wide range of susceptibility to wool yellowing to verify the results.Ovinos resistentes e suscetíveis para predição da cor amarela na lã foram amostrados de um rebanho da raça Merino Australiano com o objetivo de comparar diferenças em cDNAs através da técnica de exposição diferencial de mRNA (differential display of mRNA. Uma banda de cDNA foi expressa somente no grupo dos animais resistentes. Não houve identidade desta banda com seqüências do banco de dados do GenBank ou TIGR, no entanto a banda chamada de cDNA#R mostrou homologias curtas com três seqüências que codificam proteínas envolvidas em funções de membrana. O uso deste gene candidato como marcador genético de animais resistentes ao amarelamento necessita ser avaliado em rebanhos mais numerosos para confirmar os resultados.
Reid, R L; Puoli, J R; Jung, G A; Cox-Ganser, J M; McCoy, A
Four years of grazing trials were conducted with Brassica forages to evaluate their chemical composition and effect on ADG of fattening lambs and breeding ewes in late fall. Brassicas tested included kales (Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala DC), turnips (B. rapa L.), and a chinese cabbage hybrid (B. rapa L. x B. pekinensis [Lour.] Rupr.). Daily gains of lambs varied widely among years (19 to 330 g/d); ADG on Brassicas were, however, generally higher than on stockpiled Kentucky 31 tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) or orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.)-red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) pastures grazed at the same time. In 1 yr, dietary supplementation of lambs grazing a hybrid turnip (Forage Star) with iodine and copper oxide needles improved (P clover (135 and 233 g/d), but yield of Tyfon was lower. Indications that supplementary hay improved ADG of lambs and ewes were not confirmed in the final year, in which hay increased (P grazing Brassicas but decreased gains later. Thyroid weights were increased (P early winter period, with high carrying capacity for sheep but large variability in ADG. PMID:7928762
Starling, Melissa J; Branson, Nicholas; Thomson, Peter C; McGreevy, Paul D
"Boldness" in dogs is believed to be one end of the shy-bold axis, representing a super-trait. Several personality traits fall under the influence of this super-trait. Previous studies on boldness in dogs have found differences among breeds, but grouping breeds on the basis of behavioural similarities has been elusive. This study investigated differences in the expression of boldness among dog breeds, kennel club breed groups, and sub-groups of kennel club breed groups by way of a survey on dog personality circulated among Australian dog-training clubs and internet forums and lists. Breed had a significant effect on boldness (F=1.63, numDF=111, denDF=272, p<0.001), as did breed group (F=10.66, numDF=8, denDF=772, p<0.001). Herding and gundog groups were broken into sub-groups based on historic breed purpose. Retrievers were significantly bolder than flushing and pointing breeds (Reg. Coef.=2.148; S.E.=0.593; p<0.001), and tending and loose-eyed herding breeds were bolder than heading and cattle-herding breeds (Reg. Coef.=1.744; S.E.=0.866; p=0.045 and Reg. Coef.=1.842; S.E.=0.693; p=0.0084, respectively). This study supports the existence of the shy-bold continuum in dogs. Differences in boldness among groups and sub-groups suggest that behavioural tendencies may be influenced by historical purpose regardless of whether that purpose still factors in selective breeding. PMID:23603555
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for Montana during 1999. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide information on...
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for southern Saskatchewan during 2000. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide...
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for Central Quebec during 2000. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide...
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for southern Saskatchewan during 1998. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide...
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for Montana during 2000. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide information on...
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for southern Saskatchewan during 1997. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide...
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for western Ontario during 1997. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide...
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for western Ontario during 1998. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide...
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for southern Saskatchewan during 1999. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide...
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for Montana during 1998. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide information on...
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for Montana during 2001. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide information on...
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Surveys of breeding populations and nesting habitat of the snowy plover were conducted from January to August, 1989 along the Gulf Coast of Florida and Alabama....
Aguirre, Andrea Arias; Studer, Bruno
Biofuels obtained from biomass have the potential to replace a substantial fraction of petroleum-based hydrocarbons that contribute to carbon emissions and are limited in supply. With the ultimate goal to maximize biomass yield for biofuel production, this review aims to evaluate prospects of different hybrid breeding schemes to optimally exploit heterosis for biomass yield in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) and switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), two perennial model grass species for bioenergy production. Starting with a careful evaluation of current population and synthetic breeding methods, we address crucial topics to implement hybrid breeding, such as the availability and development of heterotic groups, as well as biological mechanisms for hybridization control such as self-incompatibility (SI) and male sterility (MS). Finally, we present potential hybrid breeding schemes based on SI and MS for the two bioenergy grass species, and discuss how molecular tools and synteny can be used to transfer relevant information for genes controlling these biological mechanisms across grass species