Full Text Available The sheep is an important economic livestock species, contributing greatly to the Indian economy, especially in arid, semi arid and mountain areas. The current population in world is 1110.78 millions, around 44.85 millions (1987 sheeps in India (ICAR., 2002. Sheeps are mostly reared for meat and wool. The average annual wool production per sheep is between 3.5 to 5.5 kg of fine quality wool in Australia, New Zealand and U.S.S.R., where as in India except Magra sheep which annually yield more than 2 kg wool having staple length 5.8 cm, the average of rest of the wool produced is less than 1.0 kg per sheep of inferior quality (Banerjee G.C., 1998. Therefore many farmers in southern India adapted sheep rearing for meat production than for wool production. For yielding more production from sheep farming one should have sound knowledge of general information related to the reproduction and different breeding practices. [Vet. World 2009; 2(1.000: 43-44
Full Text Available It is well known that the susceptibility of sheep to scrapie is determined by the host’s prion protein gene (PRNP. PRNP polymorphisms at codons 136 (alanine, A/valine, V, 154 (histidine, H/arginine, R and 171 (glutamine, Q/histidine, H/arginine, R are the main determinants of sheep susceptibility/resistance to classical scrapie. There are four major variants of the wild-type ARQ allele: VRQ, AHQ, ARH and ARR. Breeding programs have been developed in the European Union and the USA to increase the frequency of the resistant ARR allele while decreasing the frequency of the susceptible VRQ allele in sheep populations. In Brazil, little PRNP genotyping data are available for sheep, and thus far, no controlled breeding scheme for scrapie has been implemented. This review will focus on important epidemiological aspects of scrapie and the use of genetic resistance as a tool in breeding programs to control the disease.
Cristina Santos Sotomaior
The sheep is an important economic livestock species, contributing greatly to the Indian economy, especially in arid, semi arid and mountain areas. The current population in world is 1110.78 millions, around 44.85 millions (1987) sheeps in India (ICAR., 2002). Sheeps are mostly reared for meat and wool. The average annual wool production per sheep is between 3.5 to 5.5 kg of fine quality wool in Australia, New Zealand and U.S.S.R., where as in India except Magra sheep which annually yield mor...
Shejal, M. A.; Khanvilkar, A. V.; Belhekar, S. D. Rahane And D. R.
Breeds of cattle, sheep and goats in the Mediterranean region are considered. Cattle: original longhorned breeds in Spain, Portugal and southern France; original shorthorned breeds in North Africa, the eastern Mediterranean and Sardinia; Grey Steppe in Balkan lowlands and central and southern Italy; Brown Swiss and its crosses in parts of Spain, northern Italy, north-west Turkey and the Maghreb; Simmental in Yugoslavia and Hungary; Friesian now dominant in western Europe and spreading in North Africa, the Near East and eastern Europe. Sheep: original coarse woolled thin tailed breeds in Algeria, Morocco, parts of Spain, Portugal, Italy and the Balkans; Merino in Spain has produced new breeds in Portugal, southern France, and Italy and is now being used in the Balkans, Turkey and Egypt; fat tailed coarse woolled breeds in Africa and Asia from Tunisia to Turkey. Goats: short eared dairy breeds in Spain and Italy; black, long haired, lop eared, screw horned goats from Turkey to North Africa; Maltese (dairy) goats in several countries. (author). 3 refs, 1 tab
The present review consists of two parts. In the first part, the authors briefly describe the state of the art of breedingprogrammes for Italian dairy sheep; then they report new models for genetic evaluation and consider the problem ofgenotype x environment interaction and the impact of farming systems on the genetic merit of animals. In the secondpart new breeding goals regarding the evolution of milk quality concept and the increasing importance of functional traitsare reported. Regarding ...
Pierlorenzo Secchiari; Aldo Cappio-Borlino; Marcello Mele; Nicolò Pietro Paolo Macciotta
Sheep pox disease outbreaks were recorded among Madras Red (n=145) and Mechery (n=80) breeds of indigenous sheep on three farms in Tamilnadu. Over both breeds, adult mortality rate ranged from 2.66% to 37.5% and lamb mortality ranged from 10% to 17.33%. However, mortality was more in Mechery sheep (50% overall; 37.5% adults, 12.5% lambs) than in Madras Red sheep (24.28% overall; 10.34% adults, 13.79% lambs). The clinical signs observed were high fever, anorexia, respiratory distress, mucopurulent nasal discharge and in a few cases diarrhoea. Cutaneous lesions were mainly observed around nostrils, eyes, lips, ears and in the abdomen. Most of the lesions were covered with purulent materials and on cleaning with sterile swabs, fresh wounds were observed. Dry scabs were also observed over the oral commissure and maxillary areas, which on removal exposed fresh wounds. Important observations on necropsy were severe nodular lesions in the lungs and intestine. The disease was diagnosed as sheep pox by agar gel immunodiffusion test, isolation of virus and its neutralization in BHK(21) cells by specific antiserum and by electron microscopy. PMID:18586288
Roy, Parimal; Purushothaman, V; Sreekumar, C; Tamizharasan, S; Chandramohan, Andrew
This experiment was aimed to identify characteristics and comparative merits of Iranian sheep wool breeds. Fiber characteristics of 75 male and 137 female of 1, 2, 3 and 4 yr of age belonging to Afshari, Zandi, Mehrabani, Lori, and Baluchi sheep breeds were studied. Samples of fiber were taken from the left midside of sheep and analyzed using standard objective measurements for staple length (SL), mean fiber diameter (MFD), coefficient of variation of fiber diameter (FDCV), inner coat fiber I...
Ansari-renani, H. R.
A farmer participatory approach was used to define breeding objectives and selection indexes for short-fat-tailed sheep in sheep–barley systems and Black Head Somali sheep in pastoral systems in Ethiopia. Breeding-objective traits were identified based on producers' preferences for traits collected during interviews. The desired gains in the various traits were calculated based on the producers' preferences for traits and were used to weigh traits in the breeding objective using selection-i...
Gizaw, S.; Lemma, S.; Komen, J.; Arendonk, J. A. M.
Full Text Available Turkey is among the major sheep raising countries of the world, with sheep population over 29.4 million head. Sheep have an important place in the economy of Turkey and in the nutrition of its people. Sheep breeding in Turkey is principally based on indigenous breeds, while studies on crossing and producing new types to increase fleece, meat and milk yield have been carried out. These indigenous breeds are more resistant to disease and parasites while also being able to survive even unfavourable environments and to maintain their productivity. At present, they contribute 27.18 % to the total read meat, 8.15 % to the total milk and 59.11 % to the total leather produced in the country. Sheep breeds in Turkey can be categorized into two main groups: Fat-tailed (White Karaman "Akkaraman", Red Karaman "K z lkaraman or Morkaraman", Daglic, Awassi " vesi" and fine-tailed (K v rc k, Karayaka, Chios "Sakiz", Imroz "Gokceada. For various reasons, it has been observed that indigenous sheep genetic resources in Turkey have been damaged. Some breeds have become extinct, some is under serious threat and some may be also considered as being under threat. The fact that the some conservation projects carried out by the government agencies is already at the stage of implementation may be regarded as a hopeful start.
Two breeds - Ouled-Djellal and Hamra (85 animals) - were genotyped for 12 microsatellites using PCR and sequencing. Allele number and frequency were calculated, and 141 different alleles were found for these microsatellites, reflecting high genetic variability within these breeds. This study is being extended to other Algerian breeds to estimate variability and genetic distances between them. In parallel, blood samples from the various breeds are being collected to build up a DNA bank. The results should support establishment of a strategy to promote the use and development of locally adapted sheep resources. (author)
In Denmark there are small populations of five Nordic sheep breeds, two of which are Danish in origin. The purpose of this study was to estimate trends in inbreeding for these breeds. All five breeds have been recording pedigrees for decades, so pedigree completeness is adequate. The rate of inbreeding is more than 1% per generation in all breeds, and more than 2% per generation in the Danish breeds, which have no options for importing, if they aim to continue pure breeding. The Danish breeds have not allowed recent animals to contribute heavily, so the rate of coancestry is not too high (?1% per generation). However, they could use more rotation of rams between flocks to reduce the rate of inbreeding Udgivelsesdato: March
SØrensen, Anders Christian; Norberg, Elise
Full Text Available The Makuie sheep is a fat-tailed sheep breed which can be found in the Azerbaijan province of Iran. In 1986, a Makuie sheep breeding station was established in the city of Maku in order to breed, protect and purify this breed. The genetic parameters for birth weight, weaning weight (3 months, 6-month, 9-month and yearling weight, and average daily gain from birth to weaning traits were estimated based on 25 years of data using DFREML software. Six different models were applied and a likelihood ratio test (LRT was used to select the appropriate model. Bivariate analysis was used to define the genetic correlation between studied traits. Based on the LRT, model II was selected as an appropriate model for all studied traits. Direct heritability estimates of birth, weaning, 6-month, 9-month and yearling weights and average daily gain from birth to weaning were 0.36, 0.41, 0.48, 0.42, 0.36 and 0.37, respectively. Estimates of direct genetic correlation between birth and weaning weights, birth and 6-month weights, birth and 9-month weights, as well as between birth and yearling weights were 0.57, 0.49, 0.46 and 0.32, respectively. The results suggest there is a substantial additive genetic variability for studied traits in the Makuie sheep breed population, and the direct additive effect and maternal permanent environment variance are the main source of phenotypic variance.
An outbreak of sheep pox occurred in December 2001 on a sheep breeding farm in Jammu, India. The farm maintains three exotic breeds of sheep, i.e. American Merino, Rambouillet and Australian cross. The disease agent was confirmed as sheep pox virus by clinical and post-mortem examination as well as laboratory testing. Typical pock lesions were dispersed over the body of the affected animals with nodular lesions observed in the lung tissue of the dead animals. Sheep pox virus antigen and antibody were detected in infected tissue and convalescent sera, respectively, with serological tests. Viral deoxyribonucleic acid was extracted from the infected tissue and amplified using a diagnostic polymerase chain reaction. Sheep of the Rambouillet breed were found to be most susceptible to infection with morbidity and mortality rates of 26.9% and 8.3%, respectively. Morbidity and mortality rates in the entire flock were 18.4% and 6.3%, respectively. The grazing and migration pattern indicates that the disease was probably introduced to the farm by local sheep. PMID:15861890
Mondal, B; Hosamani, M; Dutta, T K; Senthilkumar, V S; Rathore, R; Singh, R K
Due to its geo-climatic conditions, Algeria represents a biodiversity hotspot, with sheep breeds well adapted to a patchwork of extremely heterogeneous harsh habitats. The importance of this peculiar genetic reservoir increases as climate change drives the demand for new adaptations. However, the expansion of a single breed (Ouled-Djellal) which occurred in the last decades has generated a critical situation for the other breeds; some of them are being subjected to uncontrolled cross-breeding with the favored breed and/or to marginalization (effective size contraction). This study investigated genetic diversity within and among six of the nine Algerian breeds, by use of 30 microsatellite markers. Our results showed that, in spite of the census contraction experienced by most of the considered breeds, genetic diversity is still substantial (average gene diversity ranging 0.68 to 0.76) and inbreeding was not identified as a problem. However, two breeds (Rembi and Taâdmit) appeared to have lost most of their genetic originality because of intensive cross-breeding with Ouled-Djellal. Based on the above evidence, we suggest Hamra, Sidaoun, and D’man as breeds deserving the highest priority for conservation in Algeria. PMID:25875832
Ciani, Elena; Kdidi, Samia; Aouissat, Miloud; Dhimi, Laziz; Lafri, Mohamed; Maftah, Abderrahman; Mehtar, Nadhira
A simulation study was conducted to optimize a cooperative village-based sheep breeding scheme for Menz sheep of Ethiopia. Genetic gains and profits were estimated under nine levels of farmers' participation and three scenarios of controlled breeding achieved in the breeding programme, as well as under three cooperative flock sizes, ewe to ram mating ratios and durations of ram use for breeding. Under fully controlled breeding, that is, when there is no gene flow between participating (P) and non-participating (NP) flocks, profits ranged from Birr 36.9 at 90% of participation to Birr 21.3 at 10% of participation. However, genetic progress was not affected adversely. When there was gene flow from the NP to P flocks, profits declined from Birr 28.6 to Birr -3.7 as participation declined from 90 to 10%. Under the two-way gene flow model (i.e. when P and NP flocks are herded mixed in communal grazing areas), NP flocks benefited from the genetic gain achieved in the P flocks, but the benefits declined sharply when participation declined beyond 60%. Our results indicate that a cooperative breeding group can be established with as low as 600 breeding ewes mated at a ratio of 45 ewes to one ram, and the rams being used for breeding for a period of two years. This study showed that farmer cooperation is crucial to effect genetic improvement under smallholder low-input sheep farming systems. PMID:24945868
Gizaw, S; van Arendonk, J A M; Valle-Zárate, A; Haile, A; Rischkowsky, B; Dessie, T; Mwai, A O
Prion-like Doppel gene (PRND) is located downstream from priori protein gene (PRNP). Doppel protein is not related to prion disease but to male fertility. Our previous analysis of PRND coding region in 460 animals from 8 Portuguese sheep breeds, by multiple restriction fragment-single strand conformation polymorphism (MRFSSCP), revealed a synonymous substitution (78G>A). An association was found between identified PRND polymorphism and PRNP genotypes, determined by primer extension and groupe...
Mesquita, P.; Silva, M. F. S.; Carolino, M. C.; Sousa, M. C. O.; Pimenta, J.; Marques, M. R.; Santos, I. C.; Gama, L. T.; Andrade, C. S. C. R.; Fontes, C. M.; Prates, J. A. M.; Horta, A. E. M.; Pereira, R. M.
The aim of this study was to describe the genetic relationships among five Swedish sheep breeds using insertional polymorphisms of six endogenous Jaagsiekte retroviruses of sheep. Although the Swedish breeds were found to have genomes of 'primitive' origin, there also are indications of the presence of more recently derived sheep breeds within the ancestries of three of the breeds. PMID:25644015
Mukiibi, R; Rochus, C M; Andersson, G; Johansson, A M
Full Text Available The genetic variability and genetic relationship of the fifteen sheep breeds were studied. The genotypes of 14 indigenous Chinese sheep breeds and one crossbreed of wild sheep were investigated using 13 microsatellite DNA markers recommended by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO and the International Society of Animal Genetics (ISAG through PCR. The allele frequency, heterozygosity and Genetic Differentiation Index (Fst were computed to estimate the genetic variation of each population. To determine the genetic relationships among the breeds, phylogenetic trees were constructed based on Nei’s genetic distance using the unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic mean and neighbor-joining method. A total of 15 breeds were clustered into three groups. The first group included Altay sheep and Duolang sheep, the second group was very large and complicated, the third group was a Kazark sheep. The thirteen microsatellite loci were effective markers for the analysis of genetic relationship among sheep breeds. In addition, genetic distance among groups is not according with their geographic distribution and groups or breeds with low production performance can easily impacted by breeds with better production performance. As for the results, it may be result from applying on artificial insemination and extension of commercial cross breeding technique in sheep production system recent years in China.
The genetic variability and genetic relationship of the fifteen sheep breeds were studied. The genotypes of 14 indigenous Chinese sheep breeds and one crossbreed of wild sheep were investigated using 13 microsatellite DNA markers recommended by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the International Society of Animal Genetics (ISAG) through PCR. The allele frequency, heterozygosity and Genetic Differentiation Index (Fst) were computed to estimate the genetic va...
Tang, C. W.; Xing, W. T.; Shi, L.; Fang, Y.; Liu, W. J.; Huang, X. X.; Yu, X.; Brown, M. A.
This study was done from September 2006 to May 2007. A total of 105 Menz breed sheep from Yemenze Gera Midir district in the Amhara National Regional State, Ethiopia. The spatial distribution of sheep keds (Melophagus ovinus) and chewing lice (Bovicola ovis) on Menz breed sheep were examined which were naturally infested. The densities if sheep keds and lice were determined through counting after parting of the fleece/wool at five (5) points on a length of 10 cm areas of six (6) different reg...
Archaeozoological evidence indicates that sheep were first domesticated in the Fertile Crescent. To search for DNA sequence diversity arising from previously undetected domestication events, this survey examined nine breeds of sheep from modern-day Turkey and Israel. A total of 2027 bp of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence from 197 sheep revealed a total of 85 haplotypes and a high level of genetic diversity. Six individuals carried three haplotypes, which clustered separately from the known ...
Meadows, Jennifer R. S.; Cemal, Ibrahim; Karaca, Orhan; Gootwine, Elisha; Kijas, James W.
The purpose of this study was to assess genetic diversity, genetic differentiation.relationship and population structure among 10 Chinese sheep populations using 5 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). in MC1R gene. The genetic diversity indices suggested that the intra-population variation levels of Chinese Merino and Large-tailed Han,breeds were lowest than Kazakh Fat-Rumped. Chinese sheep breeds have maintained a high intra-population variation levels (95.23%). The genetic differentiation patterns and genetic relationships among Chinese sheep breeds displayed a high consistency with the traditional classification. The cluster trees were constructed by UPMGA method. The results showed that Chinese indigenous sheep populations have distinct genetic differentiation. The inter-population variation levels in Chinese sheep populations indicated three geographically independent domestication events have occurred. The Bayesian cluster analyses also showed a reliable clustering pattern, which revealed three major clusters in.Chinese indigenous sheep populations (Mongolian group, Kazakh group and Tibetan group), except for Duolang and Minxian Black-fur. There were probably caused by different breeding history, geography isolation and different levels of inbreeding. The findings supported the related records in literature, ten sheep populations originated on different time stage from the primogenitor population and communicated genetically with each other in the process of natural and artificial selection, and in different ecological environment. It is concluded that Chinese indigenous sheep have higher genetic variation and diversity, genetic differentiation exist between Chinese sheep populations. The majority breeds are consistent with the geographical distribution and breed characteristic. PMID:25720251
Yang, G L; Fu, D L; Lang, X; Ylan, Y F; Luo, Y Z
A study was conducted in Tigrai, Northern Ethiopia to describe the sheep breeds and their production system. The survey was done in selected districts known for their high sheep population density. The phenotype characterization identified distinct features for each breed. The breeds are Aberegelle, Ille, Begait, and the common Tigrai highland sheep. The strong discriminating phenotypes are face profile, tail type, and compactness; accounting for 83.48, 17.95, and 2.93% respectively of the total variability among breeds. The flock structure are affected by the market demand; requirements of breeding females and feed availability. Farmers tend to keep more female sheep for longer (culling age of 5.9 ± 0.4 and 1.9 ± 0.5 for females and males, respectively) for the reasons of feed shortage and need to maximize number of breeding female. The ratio of male to overall female is large (1:6) and thus a single ram gets maximum contact time with ewes and ewe lambs. The overall average age at puberty for females is 9-14 months. However, the presence of very young lamb rams and uncontrolled mating system lead to early breeding of females which results in low conception rate, low birth weight, poor survival rates, and in extreme cases causing inbreeding. It was also possible to identify the critical control points such as breed, age of animals, nutrition, and feeding systems affecting the provision of live animals for good meat quality. PMID:24233461
Gebretsadik, Zelealem Tesfay; Anal, Anil Kumar
The genetic structure of sheep reflects their domestication and subsequent formation into discrete breeds. Understanding genetic structure is essential for achieving genetic improvement through genome-wide association studies, genomic selection and the dissection of quantitative traits. After identifying the first genome-wide set of SNP for sheep, we report on levels of genetic variability both within and between a diverse sample of ovine populations. Then, using cluster analysis and the part...
Kijas, James W.; Townley, David; Dalrymple, Brian P.; Heaton, Michael P.; Maddox, Jillian F.; Mcgrath, Annette; Wilson, Peter; Ingersoll, Roxann G.; Mcculloch, Russell; Mcwilliam, Sean; Tang, Dave; Mcewan, John; Cockett, Noelle; Oddy, V. Hutton; Nicholas, Frank W.
Through their domestication and subsequent selection, sheep have been adapted to thrive in a diverse range of environments. To characterise the genetic consequence of both domestication and selection, we genotyped 49,034 SNP in 2,819 animals from a diverse collection of 74 sheep breeds. We find the majority of sheep populations contain high SNP diversity and have retained an effective population size much higher than most cattle or dog breeds, suggesting domestication occurred from a broad ge...
Kijas, J. W.; Lenstra, J. A.; Hayes, B.; Boitard, S.; Porto Neto, L. R.; San Cristobal, M.; Servin, B.; Mcculloch, R.; Whan, V.; Gietzen, K.; Paiva, S.; Barendse, W.; Ciani, E.; Raadsma, H.; Mcewan, J.
Identification of breeding objective traits pertinent to specific production environments with the involvement of target beneficiaries is crucial to the success of a breed improvement program. A choice experiment was conducted in four locations representing different production systems and agro-ecologies that are habitat to four indigenous sheep breeds (Afar, Bonga, Horro and Menz) of Ethiopia with the objective of identifying farmers'/pastoralists' preferences for sheep breeding traits. Following a synthesis of secondary information and diagnostic surveys, two communities per location consisting of 60 households each having at least four breeding ewes were identified. Producers' priority attributes used in the choice sets were identified through in-depth production system studies conducted from December 2007 to March 2008. On the basis of prior information, four to seven attributes were used to design choice sets with different profiles in order to capture results that mimic real life of the different communities. The attributes and levels chosen for the sheep profile were as follows: body size (large/small), coat color (brown/white/black), tail type (good/bad) for both rams and ewes; horn (polled/horned) and libido (active/poor) for rams; and lambing interval (three lambings in 2 years/two lambings in 2 years time), mothering ability (good mother/bad mother), twinning rate (twin bearer/single bearer) and milk yield (two cups per milking/one cup per milking) for ewes. A fractional factorial design was implemented to construct the alternatives included in the choice sets. The design resulted in a randomized selection of 48 sheep profiles (24 sets) for both sexes, which were grouped into four blocks with six choice sets each. An individual respondent was presented with one of the four blocks to make his/her choices. Results indicate that producers' trait preferences were heterogeneous except for body size in rams and mothering ability in ewes where nearly homogeneous preferences were investigated. In the pastoral production system, attention was given to coat color of both breeding rams and ewes, favoring brown and white colors over black. Ram libido influenced producers' decisions in Bonga, Horro and Menz areas. The influence of milk yield and twinning on respondents' decision making was high in Afar and Horro, respectively. Breeders in all areas attempt to combine production and reproduction traits as well as they can in order to maximize benefits from their sheep. The elicited measurable objective traits were used to design alternative community-based sheep breeding plans for the four indigenous sheep breeds in their production environments that have been implemented since. PMID:22440475
Duguma, G; Mirkena, T; Haile, A; Okeyo, A M; Tibbo, M; Rischkowsky, B; Sölkner, J; Wurzinger, M
Full Text Available The aim of the current study was to identify the relationship between body measurements and body weight in fourbreeds of Iranian sheep (Mehrbani, Zandi, Shaal and Macoei. Measuring of body dimensions such as withers height, chestgirth, body length and hip width were done. Analysis of variance for environmental factors and main effects indicated thatsex effect was significant in all studied breeds (p> 0.05. Moreover, all main effects (withers height, chest girth, body lengthand hip width were also significantly related to body weight in all four breeds. All investigated body measurements showedhigh phenotypic correlation with body weight. The most lightly correlated trait with body weight was body length, withcorrelation coefficients of more than 0.95. Also correlation of body weight with chest girth in sheep breeds of Mehrabani,Zandi and Macoei were very high (0.97, 0.97 and 0.94 respectively, but lower in Shaal breed (0.88. Withers height showeda high correlation with body weight in Shaal sheep (0.98, while this correlation was lower in other breeds (0.91 to 0.93. Hipwidth in all four breeds had the lowest phenotypic correlation with body weight (0.75 to 0.86. In conclusion, the results ofthis study showed that some body measurements can be used as accurate indicators to predict body weight.
Farhad Hosseinzadeh Shirzeyli
Full Text Available This study was done from September 2006 to May 2007. A total of 105 Menz breed sheep from Yemenze Gera Midir district in the Amhara National Regional State, Ethiopia. The spatial distribution of sheep keds (Melophagus ovinus and chewing lice (Bovicola ovis on Menz breed sheep were examined which were naturally infested. The densities if sheep keds and lice were determined through counting after parting of the fleece/wool at five (5 points on a length of 10 cm areas of six (6 different regions (neck, shoulder, belly, back, rump and flank on both sides of the body which sum up sixty (60 points of count. The percentage values of Bovicola ovis distribution on the sheep for the inspected regions were 57.5% on shoulder, 53.32% neck, 51% rump, 49.25% flank, 45.36% belly and 45.28 back. For Melophagus ovinus infested sheep, the sites more parasitized were flank, shoulder, rump, neck, belly and back with proportion of 69, 60.12, 51, 42, 33 and 21, respectively in order of importance. The minimum and maximum keds and lice count on a sheep at a time were varied between 0 to 178 and 0 to 1050 respectively. However, most frequently the number of keds and lice were range between 18-30 and 0-100 respectively. Infestation of sheep with sheep keds has statistical significant difference among the different regions examined and no statistical significant difference exist for lice at 95% confidence interval (CI and p value of less than 0.05.
Genotypes, phenotypes and pedigrees of 6 breeds of dairy sheep (including subdivisions of Latxa, Manech, and Basco-Béarnaise) from the Spain and France Western Pyrenees were used to estimate genetic relationships across breeds (together with genotypes from the Lacaune dairy sheep) and to verify by forward cross-validation single-breed or multiple-breed genetic evaluations. The number of rams genotyped fluctuated between 100 and 1,300 but generally represented the 10 last cohorts of progeny-tested rams within each breed. Genetic relationships were assessed by principal components analysis of the genomic relationship matrices and also by the conservation of linkage disequilibrium patterns at given physical distances in the genome. Genomic and pedigree-based evaluations used daughter yield performances of all rams, although some of them were not genotyped. A pseudo-single step method was used in this case for genomic predictions. Results showed a clear structure in blond and black breeds for Manech and Latxa, reflecting historical exchanges, and isolation of Basco-Béarnaise and Lacaune. Relatedness between any 2 breeds was, however, lower than expected. Single-breed genomic predictions had accuracies comparable with other breeds of dairy sheep or small breeds of dairy cattle. They were more accurate than pedigree predictions for 5 out of 6 breeds, with absolute increases in accuracy ranging from 0.05 to 0.30 points. They were significantly better, as assessed by bootstrapping of candidates, for 2 of the breeds. Predictions using multiple populations only marginally increased the accuracy for a couple of breeds. Pooling populations does not increase the accuracy of genomic evaluations in dairy sheep; however, single-breed genomic predictions are more accurate, even for small breeds, and make the consideration of genomic schemes in dairy sheep interesting. PMID:24630656
Legarra, A; Baloche, G; Barillet, F; Astruc, J M; Soulas, C; Aguerre, X; Arrese, F; Mintegi, L; Lasarte, M; Maeztu, F; Beltrán de Heredia, I; Ugarte, E
Forty-nine sheep belonged to the Andean Altiplano region ("Altiplano") and 30 in the lowland regions of Bolivia ("Valle"), aged 1 to 4 years, were wool sampled to determine the extent of difference between these local breeds. Fibre length and the percentage of each type of fibre (long-thick, short-thin and kemp), yield and fibre diameter were measured. There was a highly significant difference between the two sheep populations that were not clearly separated in the first two principal component of a principal components analysis (PC); the first PC explained 67.1 % and the second PC explained 26.6 % of the total variation. The variables that contributed most to the separation of the sheep populations were the percentage of long-thick and short-thin fibres in the first PC and yield in the second PC. A discriminant analysis, which was used to classify individuals with respect to their breeding, achieved an accurate classification rate of 84.2 %. Thus, the Altiplano and Valle sheep must be viewed as two closely peripatric breeds rather than different "ecotypes", as more than 80 % could be correctly assigned to one of the breeds; however, the differences are based on composition of long-thick and short-thin fibres and yield after alcohol scouring. PMID:24604105
Parés-Casanova, Pere M; Pérezgrovas Garza, Raúl
Based on the results of participatory approaches to define traits in the breeding objectives, four scenarios of ram selection and ram use were compared via deterministic modelling of breeding plans for community-based sheep breeding programmes in four diverse agro-ecological regions of Ethiopia. The regions (and production systems) were Afar (pastoral/agro-pastoral), Bonga and Horro (both mixed crop-livestock) and Menz (sheep-barley). The schemes or scenarios differed in terms of selection intensity and duration of ram use. The predicted genetic gains per year in yearling weight (kilograms) were comparable across the schemes but differed among the breeds and ranged from 0.399 to 0.440 in Afar, 0.813 to 0.894 in Bonga, 0.850 to 0.940 in Horro, and 0.616 to 0.699 in Menz. The genetic gains per year in number of lambs born per ewe bred ranged from 0.009 to 0.010 in both Bonga and Horro. The predicted genetic gain in the proportion of lambs weaned per ewe joined was nearly comparable in all breeds ranging from 0.008 to 0.011. The genetic gain per year in milk yield of Afar breed was in the order of 0.018 to 0.020 kg, while the genetic gain per generation for greasy fleece weight (kg) ranged from 0.016 to 0.024 in Menz. Generally, strong selection and shorter duration of ram use for breeding were the preferred options. The expected genetic gains are satisfactory but largely rely on accurate and continuous pedigree and performance recording. PMID:22583329
Mirkena, T; Duguma, G; Willam, A; Wurzinger, M; Haile, A; Rischkowsky, B; Okeyo, A M; Tibbo, M; Solkner, J
Full Text Available Linear scoring is widely applied in domestic animal species, mainly in cattle and horses. There are only few cases of linear scoring in sheep, probably because the small body size and the narrow range of the classes make difficult to correctly evaluate the measures. In this paper the results of a linear scoring test carried out on Merinizzata Italiana sheep breed in order to verify the feasibility of this method in sheep, are reported. Twenty untrained people, with three different levels of scoring experience in meat sheep morphology, evaluated 52 pluriparous ewes for body length, chest circumference, chest width, rump height, rump width, and withers height; to check for misclassification, their scores were compared with a reference score, previously obtained measuring the same animals by the suitable tools (measuring tape and a Lydtin stick. The percentage of correct scoring ranged from 44.4% for body length to 61.8% for withers height, and was not affected by the experience of the judge. In all characters, the distance of the class from the trait mean had a significant effect in increasing the intensity of misclassifications; the judge’s experience showed a positive effect in reducing the intensity of the misclassification for body length, that was the hardest trait to score. These results encourage to further verifying in practice the linear scoring in the Merinizzata Italiana sheep and in other meat breeds.
Full Text Available A fattening and slaughter trial was carried out on 36 lambs of Alpagota, Brogna and Foza sheep breeds native of Veneto Region Alps (six male and six female lambs per breed divided in three groups depending on the type of feed used: pasture, hay and concentrate, hay and concentrate supplemented with conjugated linoleic acid. Lambs were slaughtered at 225 days (mean weight: 30 kg. Infra-vitam and post-mortem data were analyzed by using a linear model that included the cross-classified effect of breed, sex, feeding system and age of lambs as linear covariate. The three breeds showed some specificity: Foza lambs, of both sexes, were larger-sized and faster growing, with a lower incidence of gastro-intestinal tract and lower cooking losses of the hind-leg samples compared to the other two middle-sized breeds. Alpagota breed tended to be leaner, with heavier shin and greater cooking losses than Brogna breed.In conclusion the three Alpine breeds of the Veneto Region confirmed to be able to produce lamb carcasses and meat with valuable characteristics that can be exploited through typical products and food preparation in local markets and gastronomy, according to the tradition. The valorisation of these productions can be an important instrument for in situ conservation of these breeds.
Market failures are the main cause of poor acknowledgement of the true impact of functional sheep traits on the management and economic performance of farms, which results in their omission from the breeding goal or the estimation of non-representative economic weights in the breeding goal. Consequently, stated-preference non-market valuation techniques, which recently emerged to mitigate these problems, are necessary to estimate economic weights for functional traits. The purpose of this paper is to present an example of the use of a choice experiment (CE) in the estimation of economic weights for sheep traits for the design of breeding goals. Through a questionnaire survey the preferences of sheep farmers are recorded and their marginal willingness to pay (MWTP) for 10 production and functional traits is estimated. Data are analysed using random parameter logit models. The results reveal unobserved preference heterogeneity for fertility, adaptability to grazing and resistance to disease, thus highlighting that these traits are appreciated differently by farmers, because their needs are diverse. Positive MWTP is found for Greek breeds, high milk production and lambs with low fat deposition, for which there is high demand in Greek markets. On the other hand, MWTP for the cheese-making ability of milk is negative, stemming from the fact that sheep milk prices in Greece are not formulated according to milk composition. In addition, farmers seem to understand differences between udder shapes and attribute different values to various types. This application of the CE method indicates that communication channels among farmers and breeders should be established in order to enhance market performance and to provide orientation to the design of breeding programmes. Non-market valuation can be used complementarily to market valuation techniques, in order to provide accurate estimates for production and functional traits. PMID:25245334
Ragkos, A; Abas, Z
Archaeozoological evidence indicates that sheep were first domesticated in the Fertile Crescent. To search for DNA sequence diversity arising from previously undetected domestication events, this survey examined nine breeds of sheep from modern-day Turkey and Israel. A total of 2027 bp of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence from 197 sheep revealed a total of 85 haplotypes and a high level of genetic diversity. Six individuals carried three haplotypes, which clustered separately from the known ovine mtDNA lineages A, B, and C. Analysis of genetic distance, mismatch distribution, and comparisons with wild sheep confirmed that these represent two additional mtDNA lineages denoted D and E. The two haplogroup E sequences were found to link the previously identified groups A and C. The single haplogroup D sequence branched with the eastern mouflon (Ovis orientalis), urial (O. vignei), and argali (O. ammon) sheep. High sequence diversity (K = 1.86%, haplogroup D and O. orientalis) indicates that the wild progenitor of this domestic lineage remains unresolved. The identification in this study of evidence for additional domestication events adds to the emerging view that sheep were recruited from wild populations multiple times in the same way as for other livestock species such as goat, cattle, and pig. PMID:17194773
Meadows, Jennifer R S; Cemal, Ibrahim; Karaca, Orhan; Gootwine, Elisha; Kijas, James W
Full Text Available Investigations were carried out in a commercial farm from Turnu, Arad County, on a number of 110 indigenous adultewes from the Tigaia breed. It is estimated by some authors that administration of subcutaneous melatonin implantsduring a period of 30 days, in lactating or dry ewes, would improve the reproductive performances in some sheepbreeds. Subcutaneous melatonin implants (Melovin were inserted to the ewes in doses of 18 mg. Current research,emphasized treated that from indigenous Tigaia breed, can be obtained superior reproduction indexes if the animalsare treated with melatonin implants with 35 days before the mating season, differences from the untreated groupbeing significantly (p<0.001. However, in sheep treated used melatonin implants, the lambing interval were reducedwith 40 to 50%. It seems that use of melatonin implants Melovin type near the beginning of normal breeding season,increases the reproductive performance of adult ewes from the Tigaia breed.
A fattening and slaughter trial was carried out on 36 lambs of Alpagota, Brogna and Foza sheep breeds native of Veneto Region Alps (six male and six female lambs per breed) divided in three groups depending on the type of feed used: pasture, hay and concentrate, hay and concentrate supplemented with conjugated linoleic acid. Lambs were slaughtered at 225 days (mean weight: 30 kg). Infra-vitam and post-mortem data were analyzed by using a linear model that included the cross-classified effect ...
Erika Pellattiero; Alessio Cecchinato; Massimo De Marchi; Mauro Penasa; Nicola Tormen; Stefano Schiavon; Martino Cassandro; Giovanni Bittante
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Herein, genetic relationships among five breeds of Bulgarian sheep were estimated using microsatellite markers. The total number of alleles identified was 226 at the 16 loci examined. D A distance values were used for phylogenetic tree construction with the UPGMA algorithm. The two Tsigai and two Ma [...] ritza populations were found to be geneticallvery closely related to each other y (0.198, and 0.258 respectively). The Pleven Black Head population was distinct from the other four. These results could be useful for preserving genes in these breeds, thereby ensuring their preservation in Bulgaria.
Szilvia, Kusza; Doytcho, Dimov; István, Nagy; Zsuzsanna, Bõsze; András, Jávor; Sándor, Kukovics.
Full Text Available The paper aimed to analyze the economic efficiency in two farms dealing with Carabasa Breed raising as follows:Farm1-86 sheep flock, of which 62 ewes, producing in average 146 liters milk/head/year and Farm 2-297 sheepstock, of which 255 ewes, with 140 liters/head milk yield. Economic efficiency was comparatively analyzed basedon: gross product, production cost, variable and fixed cost, gross margin, profit, profit rate, farm economic size. Theboth farms registered profit, but Farm 2, the largest one taking into account the number of sheep, recorded a highereconomic efficiency: 1.5 lambs/ewe, 22.50 kg cottage cheese/ewe, 1.17 Easter lambs/ewe, Euro 148 feedingcost/sheep, Euro 0.30/liter milk cost, Euro 233 income/ewe, Euro 61 profit/ewe, Euro 68 gross margin/ewe and a35.55% profit rate. With Euro 17,274 profit at farm level, Farm 2 was considered a commercial middle sized farm,ESU 7.19 and Farm 1 a very small farm, ESU 1.04. As a conclusion, breeders raising Carabasa Breed, an excellentbiological resource for milk and meat for Romanian sheep farming, have to increase farm size in order to go up theprofitability and competitiveness of their farms.
Full text: In order to realize the preservation and exploitation of domestic animal biodiversity and to define a global strategy for the management of Algerian sheep genetic resources, the goals of our research are the knowledge of the degree of genetic variability, the partition of this variability and the genetic distance among ovine breeds. This information will be obtained by analyzing directly the genome at molecular level. In this study DNA of 85 animals from two breeds, Ouled-Djellal and Hamra, was PCR amplified at the following microsatellite loci: McM42, TGLA53, MAF65, McM527, OarFCB20, INRA49, OarFCB11, OarCP49, CSSM66, MAF36, Oar HH56 and ILST05. Number of alleles and allele frequencies were calculated. The results showed that these breeds presented a polymorphism with these microsatellite markers reflecting a genetic variability among them. However, highest differences in allele frequencies were found at loci: McM527, ILSTS05, OarFCB20, INRA49, MAF36, McM42, MAF65, OarFCB11, OarCP49, CSSM66, while at the other loci the alleles at the highest frequency are the same. This study is being extended to five other Algerian breeds: Taadmit, Barbarine, D'men, Sidaou and Berbere to estimate their variability and genetic distance between them. Now, we are collecting blood from these different breeds to constitute a DNA bank. The results will allow establishment of the strategy to promote the use and development of locally adapted sheep resources. (author)pted sheep resources. (author)
Breed appears to influence the susceptibility of sheep to Haemonchus contortus infection. Experiments on Masai and Merino sheep indicated that the Masai appear innately capable of reacting more vigorously to throw off H. contortus infection, this reaction being enhanced by previous experience. Following challenge, tangible resistance develops consistently in Masai, compared to a partial resistance, at best, in Merino. Resistance appears to be a short-lived phenomenon in both breeds. A field trial was carried out, to determine the influence of hemoglobin type on the susceptibility of Merino sheep. Sheep of hemoglobin types AA, AB and BB were used. A lower egg production occurred in hemoglobin type AA sheep, contrary to results obtained in the laboratory where ''massive'' experimental infection (250 Haemonchus larvae/kg liveweight) was effected. Tracer techniques involving 51Cr- labelled erythrocytes and 125I-tagged plasma were applied
Full Text Available The determination of the degree of differentiation of animal populations at breed level is an important issue for conservation purposes. Morphometric divergences can be an indicator of adaptative or selective differences between breeds. In fact, due to the natural and artificial selection that continuously acts on the adaptative traits, the determination of the level of divergence of the quantitative traits across several populations, allows to make inferences on the degree of adaptation to a certain environment or on the productive specialization of a given population. Somatic measures have already been used to estimate the divergence in Italian cattle (Camussi et al., 1985, goat (Cicogna et al., 1995, Herrera et al. 1996 and sheep breeds (Panella et al., 1993...
Full Text Available Hyperprolific phenotype of Booroola sheep was first discovered in the Australian Merino breed. This phenotype is due to the action of a single autosomal gene that influences the number of ovulations per estrogenic cycle. Recent discoveries have revealed that high prolificacy in Booroola Merino sheep is the result of a mutation (FecB in the bone morphogenetic protein receptor 1B (BMPR-1B gene. This mutation is located in the highly conserved kinase domain of the bone morphogenetic protein receptor IB, and is characterized by precocious differentiation of ovarian follicles, leading to the production of large numbers of ovulatory follicles. Our objective was to develop an easy method to identify the FecB mutation in order to screen sheep populations in terms of prolificacy. We designed primers to amplify a 190 bp fragment from the BMPR-1B gene containing or lacking the mutation. The PCR product was cut with AvaII endonuclease and the restriction products were analysed by agarose gel electrophoresis. Using the PCR-RFLP technique, we established an easy and efficient method that can be used to screen the FecB mutation. Therefore, these new methods increase the panel of molecular tools available for sheep breeders to choose the most prolific genotypes for improving artificial selection.
This investigation was aimed at the study of macromorphology of the rectum, including its intramural and extraorgan venous vascular bed in 18-month-old sheep of Stavropol breed. The methods used included anatomical preparation, morphometry, contrast mass intravascular injection, separation of an intestinal wall into the individual layers and preparation of total samples. The thickness of rectal muscular coat in 18-month-old sheep was found to increase in the caudal direction which is interpreted as an adaptation of the intestine for the evacuation of condensed fecal masses through the anal canal lumen. Intramural rectal venous vascular bed included three plexuses: submucosal, muscular and subserosal. The prevalence of the veins of wide-field type with an index of 90-120 in the rectal wall of a sheep results in the deceleration of the venous blood flow in the organ. At the same time, rectal intramural venous vascular bed possesses higher adaptive capacity in the cases of occlusion of the basic roots due to the well developed collateral network located between the roots of wide-field veins. The major extraorgan venous vessel of sheep rectum is a cranial rectal vein. Presence of its terminoterminal anastomoses with caudal rectal and left colonic veins may provide a bypass rectal venous blood flow in the cases of a the obstruction of one of its major vessels of various etiology. PMID:25051798
Porublyov, V A; Meshcheryakov, F A; Pozov, S A
Full Text Available The history of sheep breeding research in South Africa can be divided roughly into four eras, namely the research and development phase, the commencement of recording and evaluation, the expansion of recording schemes, and, most recently, the adaptation of schemes to international benchmarks. The mo [...] st recent era has presented scientists with the greatest challenges, namely the inclusion of genomic breeding values in routine sheep recording and of disease-resistance traits during routine evaluation. The establishment of reference populations for the major South African sheep breeds to estimate genomic breeding values is an immediate challenge. This process may be facilitated by a number of genetic resource flocks that are phenotyped for traits that are not routinely recorded in the national evaluation. A limited number of these animals are also genotyped. There is strong evidence that resistance of sheep to external and internal parasites is heritable, and may be improved by purposeful selection. Efforts should be concentrated on the inclusion of disease resistance traits in national analyses where appropriate. However, seen against the background that South African investment in research is appreciably less than in developed countries, lack of funding and high-capacity manpower may impede rapid progress. There thus seem to be many challenges for future generations of sheep breeding scientists.
S.W.P., Cloete; J.J., Olivier; L., Sandenbergh; M.A., Snyman.
Full Text Available The traits with the greatest financial impact on sheep production are the number of lambs weaned per ewe and growth efficiency. FecB and Callipyge are the most well known major genes concerned with these traits. In order to conduct a Marker Assisted Introgression (MAI program we surveyed the presence of responsible mutations in Afshari sheep breeding flock. Direct tests to detect of FecBB and CLPG alleles were conducted on 74 and 58 DNA samples respectively by PCR-RFLP assay. Also the polymorphism content of the breeding flock was investigated by genotyping of one hundred randomly sampled animals at eighteen microsatellite loci selected on the chromosomes carrying and not carrying introgressed genes. A part from MCMA26 monomorphic pattern, microsatellite loci showed moderate level of polymorphism, as such totally 102 alleles were detected with a mean number of 6 alleles per locus. A full characterization of this set of seventeen polymorphic loci was carried out generating allele frequency distributions that were used to estimate genetic parameters of these loci, including expected heterozygosity, Polymorphism Information Content (PIC, probability of identity (I and discrimination power (D. The average expected heterozygosity was 0.72 (SD = 0.07 and the average PIC was 0.67 (SD = 0.08. Cumulative value of I considering for linked loci were estimated as 3.128E-13. The results of microsatellite analysis indicated that, despite the selective breeding and closed flock system over a number of generations, a relatively high level of heterozygosity still exists in the breeding flock. Besides, the banding patterns resulted from AvaII digestion of FecB and CLPG amplicons approved the absence of the mutations in this flock. These observations demonstrate applicability of marker data and would assist to make decision on starting MAI program for inclusion of FecB and CLPG genes into the Afshari breed.
A Merino breeding resource flock was established at Rafter 7 Ranch, Yerington, Nevada through cooperation of the College of Agriculture, Biotechnology and Natural Resources, University of Nevada-Reno (UNR) and The Edwin L Wiegand Trust in 1990. Initially, 500 Rambouillet ewes were purchased from two established breeders in 1990. These ewes were bred naturally or by AI to imported rams from Australia and to rams selected within the flock. Over the 16 years, 16 rams and semen from 41 rams have been imported from Australia. Selection was based on objective wool measurements, subjective assessment, growth rate and reproductive performance traits. The flocks were expanded to 1300 ewes and were bred in 30 single sire-mating groups as of the 2005/2006 breeding seasons. Flock management is in two breeding lines, one as a registered Rafter 7 Pure Merino flock (n = 650) and the other (Merino x Rambouillet) as Rafter 7 Merino Line (n = 650), which are selected for high fleece weight and quality, twinning and growth traits. The spring lambing flock winters on desert rangelands, is grazed on irrigated pasture from shearing through lambing and early weaning. Merino crossbred ewes showed that wool fibre density, clean wool yield, staple length, and grease fleece weight were increased by 41% per unit area of skin, 15%, 2.5 cm and 1.14 kg per head shorn, respectively. The wool clip is classed on pre-shearing mid-side wool sample tests (OFDA 2000 system). Fleece weight and fibre diamet00 system). Fleece weight and fibre diameter and staple length measurements are significantly improved over the years. Wool sales from the Rafter 7 Ranch have increased for volume, value and quality over years. Rafter 7 Ranch wool clip has topped seventh consecutive annual shearing for the highest price of US grown wool. Sheep producers from 18 states, and Mexico and Canada have purchased breeding rams and ewes annually from Rafter 7 ranch over the past 12 years. Objective and subjective measurement qualities are significantly improved in sale rams. Over 1000 breeding rams and 500 replacement ewes were distributed to range flocks in the western states in the last decade, which made a notable improvement for fleece weight, fibre diameter and yield in client's flocks. The dissemination of introduced Merino genetics in the western range sheep flocks will improve wool quality and clip profits, which strengthen a long-term competitive advantage for the US wool and sheep production sectors. (author)
Full Text Available Abstract Breeding sheep populations for scrapie resistance could result in a loss of genetic variability. In this study, the effect on genetic variability of selection for increasing the ARR allele frequency was estimated in the Latxa breed. Two sources of information were used, pedigree and genetic polymorphisms (fifteen microsatellites. The results based on the genealogical information were conditioned by a low pedigree completeness level that revealed the interest of also using the information provided by the molecular markers. The overall results suggest that no great negative effect on genetic variability can be expected in the short time in the population analysed by selection of only ARR/ARR males. The estimated average relationship of ARR/ARR males with reproductive females was similar to that of all available males whatever its genotype: 0.010 vs. 0.012 for a genealogical relationship and 0.257 vs. 0.296 for molecular coancestry, respectively. However, selection of only ARR/ARR males implied important losses in founder animals (87 percent and low frequency alleles (30 percent in the ram population. The evaluation of mild selection strategies against scrapie susceptibility based on the use of some ARR heterozygous males was difficult because the genetic relationships estimated among animals differed when pedigree or molecular information was used, and the use of more molecular markers should be evaluated.
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Estudos em genética e melhoramento de ovinos no Brasil têm aumentado significativamente nos últimos anos. Estes envolvem pesquisa em caracterização, criação e cruzamento de ovinos utilizando as novas tecnologias disponíveis, incorporando tanto a genética quantitativa clássica e molecular. São aborda [...] das sugestões para melhorias nas técnicas de estatística, nos recursos computacionais, bem como na análise de DNA e nas lacunas no conhecimento atual e possibilidades de possíveis investigações. Há uma necessidade de maior interação entre vários grupos de trabalho no país, bem como as interações com outras disciplinas, como Sistemas de Informação Geográfica, Estatística, Bioinformática, bem como estudos biológicos, como fisiologia e proteômica. Abstract in english Studies in genetics and breeding of sheep in Brazil have increased significantly in recent years. These involve research in characterization, breeding and crossing sheep using new technologies available incorporating both classical quantitative and molecular genetics. Improvements in statistical tec [...] hniques, computational resources as well as analysis of DNA and gaps in present knowledge and opportunities for possible research are pointed out. There is a need for greater interaction between various groups working in the country as well as interactions with other disciplines such as Geographical Information Systems, Statistics, Bioinformatics, as well as biological studies such as physiology and proteomics.
Concepta, McManus; Samuel Rezende, Paiva; Ronyere Olegário de, Araújo.
During terminal development of antral follicles, granulosa cells progressively lose their proliferative activity. Romanov (ovulation rate = 3) and Ile-de-France (ovulation rate = 1) breeds of sheep were compared for fractions of proliferating granulosa cells, determined by in vitro continuous [ $^3$H] thymidine labelling. In both breeds, the fraction of proliferating cells decreased with increasing follicular size according to a sigmoid-shaped curve. After linearization, the slope of the regr...
Pisselet, Claudine; Cle?ment, Fre?de?rique; Monniaux, Danielle
Full Text Available To determine the effect of breed on growth performance and carcass characteristics in Mexican hair sheep, 48 lambs (average 38.9 ± 1.56 kg body weight, BW) were used in a completely randomized experimental design. The breed types assessed were 16 Pelibuey (PB), 16 Pelibuey x Katahdin (PB-KT) crossbr [...] ed and 16 Pelibuey x Dorper (PB-DP) crossbred lambs. The lambs were fed a maize grain-based diet (88% concentrate and 12% forage) containing 155 g CP and 12.13 MJ ME/kg DM. The growth performance trial lasted 45 days. The average daily gain was significantly higher for the PB breed than for the PB-KT and PB-DP cross-breds. Feed intake in the PB and PB-KT was significantly higher than in the PB-DP. The feed conversion ratio was lower for the PB than for PB-KT and PB-DP lambs. Hot carcass dressing and leg perimeters were significantly lower for the PB than for the PB-DP lambs, and similar to that of the PB-KT lambs. The lowest dorsal fat values were measured in the PB breed, compared with both the PB-KT and PB-DP cross-breds. Mesenteric fat (as % of BW) in the PB was significantly higher than in PB-KT and PB-DP lambs. Empty rumen and small intestine weights (as % of BW) in the PB lambs were significantly higher than in the PB-DP lambs, but their large intestine was significantly smaller than in the other two breeds. It was concluded that the PB lambs have a better growth performance and carcass characteristics than the PB-DM lambs, but similar to that of the PB-KT lambs.
F.G., Ríos; A., Gómez-Vázquez; J.M., Pinos-Rodríguez; J.C., García-López; A., Estrada-Angulo; J., Hernández-Bautista; J.J., Portillo.
Infections with gastrointestinal nematodes, in particular Haemonchus contortus, are worldwide one of the most important factors causing high economic losses in sheep production. Different methods for detecting infections with H. contortus have been described, such as, e.g. the FAMACHA system, which categorises the colour of the conjunctivae from red to pale. When H. contortus is not the predominant parasite, the FAMACHA chart might not be suitable to detect nematode infections, because of the lack of a blood feeding parasite. Otherwise breed-specific differences in the colour of the mucosa could be responsible for the limitations of the FAMACHA system. The aim of the study was to compare different methods of measuring mucosa colour in the German sheep breeds Black Head Mutton (BH) and Leine sheep (LE). In a total of 232 6-months-old lambs, the colour of mucosa was measured using the FAMACHA chart (conjunctivae) as well as the colour analyser Minolta Chroma Meter CR-200b (gingivae). Faeces and blood samples were taken at the same time to determine faecal egg counts per gram faeces (FEC) and the packed cell volume (PCV), respectively. Lambs grazed on contaminated pastures and no anthelmintic treatment was used. Lambs were moderately infected with gastrointestinal nematodes with no significant difference between the two breeds (P>0.05). The prevalence of H. contortus was 23%, based on larvae differentiation of coproculture. There was no significant correlation between FEC and PCV, nor FEC and FAMACHA (P>0.05). Significant differences (P or =0.27l/l), as shown by significant correlation coefficients between PCV and Chroma and HA, respectively. It can be concluded, that the measurement of mucosa colour with a colour analyser is more sensitive in detecting anaemic states in sheep, compared to the FAMACHA chart. However, because the colour analyser is not suited for measurements in the field, an adaptation of the FAMACHA colour scales for different sheep breeds might be required. PMID:19699035
Moors, Eva; Gauly, Matthias
BackgroundHair sheep breeds are a new, cost-effective option for the diversification of livestock in the Midwest region of Brazil. They are grazed extensively with cattle as well as in isolation in small areas. Hair sheep breeds are vulnerable to infestation by parasites such as the cattle tick, Rhipicephalus microplus, which causes various types of damage and can transmit diseases.MethodsIn this study, Santa Inês hair sheep were naturally infested in an area contaminated by infested cattle and then monitored to determine the ability of these animals to maintain the local tick population in the absence of cattle. After engorged tick females of each generation fell off, the animals were placed in another pasture and were returned only after larvae reappeared in the original pasture.ResultsTick counts were performed every ten days for three generations of sheep, and average infestations per animal of 34, 12 and 4 ticks were observed for each successive generation. These numbers suggest the acquisition of resistance; however, additional studies are needed to ensure resistance is achieved. The average length of the parasitic phase for each generation of ticks was 25 days.ConclusionWe concluded that this hair sheep breed, even if kept separate from cattle, is able to maintain tick populations for at least three generations, although a gradual decrease in the population levels of R. microplus over three generations was observed. We also detected two positive cases of Anaplasma spp. Therefore, it appears that the Santa Inês hair sheep breed contributes to the circulation of this bacterium among other ruminants. PMID:25404176
Garcia, Marcos; Andreotti, Renato; Reis, Fernando; Aguirre, André; Barros, Jacqueline; Matias, Jaqueline; Koller, Wilson
Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been questioned if the old native Norwegian sheep breed, Old Norse Sheep (also called Norwegian Feral Sheep, normally distributed on coastal areas where ticks are abundant, is more protected against tick-borne infections than other Norwegian breeds due to a continuously high selection pressure on pasture. The aim of the present study was to test this hypothesis in an experimental infection study. Methods Five-months-old lambs of two Norwegian sheep breeds, Norwegian White (NW sheep and Old Norse (ON sheep, were experimentally infected with a 16S rRNA genetic variant of Anaplasma phagocytophilum (similar to GenBank accession number M73220. The experiment was repeated for two subsequent years, 2008 and 2009, with the use of 16 lambs of each breed annually. Ten lambs of each breed were inoculated intravenously each year with 0.4 ml A. phagocytophilum-infected blood containing approximately 0.5 × 106 infected neutrophils/ml. Six lambs of each breed were used as uninfected controls. Half of the primary inoculated lambs in each breed were re-challenged with the same infectious dose at nine (2008 and twelve (2009 weeks after the first challenge. The clinical, haematological and serological responses to A. phagocytophilum infection were compared in the two sheep breeds. Results The present study indicates a difference in fever response and infection rate between breeds of Norwegian sheep after experimental infection with A. phagocytophilum. Conclusion Although clinical response seems to be less in ON-lambs compared to NW-lambs, further studies including more animals are needed to evaluate if the ON-breed is more protected against tick-borne infections than other Norwegian breeds.
Sequence variation present within the mitochondrial genome was used to investigate genetic diversity within sheep breeds from Asia and Europe. Comparison of 2027 bp of sequence from 121 animals revealed 44 phylogenetically informative nucleotide positions and a single insertion/deletion. A total of 57 haplotypes were observed which formed two distinct clades. Type A haplotypes were found in breeds from Asia (India, Indonesia, Mongolia, and Tibet), while type B haplotypes were observed at the highest frequency in breeds sourced from Europe (nine breeds from Austria, Aland, Finland, Spain, and northwestern Russia). The distribution of haplotypes indicates sheep appear to have the weakest population structure and the highest rate of intercontinental dispersal of any domestic animal reported to date. Only 2.7% of the sequence variation observed was partitioned between continents, which is lower than both goat (approximately 10%) and cattle (approximately 50%). Diagnostic restriction fragment length polymorphism polymerase chain reaction (RFLP-PCR) tests which distinguish type A and B haplotypes were used to test an additional 223 animals from 17 breeds of European and Asian origin. A mixture of the two lineages was found in every breed except Suffolk and the Indian Garole, indicating introgression has played a major part during breed development and subsequent selection. PMID:16135704
Meadows, J R S; Li, K; Kantanen, J; Tapio, M; Sipos, W; Pardeshi, V; Gupta, V; Calvo, J H; Whan, V; Norris, B; Kijas, J W
The aim of this study was to estimate genetic parameters of lambing ease (LE) and litter size (LS) in four common Danish meat sheep breeds. Data from 1990 to 2006 were analysed. A bivariate animal model was used for estimation of genetic parameters. Lambing ease showed a low heritability, both for direct (1.4% to 9.5%) and maternal (5.9% to 6.9%) genetic effects. Moderate negative direct-maternal genetic correlations (-0.18 to -0.61) was found. Total heritabilities for LE were 3.8% to 9.7%. Litter size showed also a low heritability (6.4% to 9.0%). Low and non-significant correlations between the LE and LS was found, which means that selection to improve one trait should not affect the other trait. Lambing ease should therefore be included in the selection criterion.
SØrensen, Anders Christian; Valasek, P
Full Text Available Objective. Estimate the genetic parameters for milk traits in a Romanian local sheep population Teleorman Black Head. Material and methods. Records of 262 sheep belonging to 17 rams and 139 ewes were used in the study. The following traits were investigated: milk yield, fat yield, protein yield, fat percentage and protein percentage. The genetic parameters were estimated using the Restricted Maximum Likelihood method, with a model including maternal effects. Results. The results from our study revealed that direct heritability estimates were moderate for milk yield (0.449, fat yield (0.442, protein yield (0.386 while for protein percentage (0.708 and fat percentage (0.924 were high. The high direct and maternal genetic correlation was between milk yield and protein yield (0.979, 0.973 and between protein yield and fat yield (0.952, 0.913 while the phenotypic correlation between the milk yield and fat yield (0.968, the milk yield and protein yield (0.967, fat yield and protein yield (0.936 was high and positive. Conclusions. The genetic parameters are important in selection program on this breed for genetic improvement.
Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to determine the influence of application site and sheep breed on the efficacy of a flumethrin (1 % m/v solution for the control of 'bont'-legged (Hyalomma spp. and red-legged ticks (Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi. This study was conducted from November 1996 to February 1997 on 3 farms in the southwestern Free State Province. Two trials were conducted on Dorper sheep and 2 on Merino sheep. For each specific application 30 sheep were selected and allocated to 3 groups of 10 animals each using randomisation through minimisation, with pre-treatment total tick count as only criterion. Groups consisted of an untreated control group, a group treated with 3 m of a flumethrin (1 % m/v solution applied only to the anogenital region, and a group treated at a dose rate of 1 m flumethrin (1% m/v/5 kg host body mass. The total dose volume for animals in the last group was divided into 3 equal parts and applied to the brisket/axillae, groin and anogenital regions respectively. Animals grazed under extensive farming conditions and were infested by ticks that occurred naturally in the environment. Ticks were counted and removed weekly over a 6-week period. In all 4 trials, Rhipicephalus e. evertsi was the dominant tick species, followed, in 3 of the trials, by Hyalomma spp. Efficacy (% of control against ticks for Dorper sheep, treated only on the anogenital region, was variable, ranging between 29.5 and 97 %. In Merino sheep the efficacy values ranged between 23.1 and 90 %. The site-spcific (anogenital region efficacy of control against ticks infesting Merino sheep was in general 100 % or almost 100 %. In Dorper sheep the efficacy values were >80 % for 3-5 weeks. The efficacy (% of control against ticks for sheep treated on the brisket/axillae, groin and anogenital regions was always higher compared to sheep treated only on the anogenital region. In Dorper sheep, efficacy of control was >80 % for up to 4 weeks and in Merino sheep >80 % for 6 weeks.
Full Text Available Genetic mutations with major effects on ovulation rate in sheep were recently identified in two genes of the Transforming Growth Factor (TGF superfamily and a TGF receptor, namely BMP15, GDF9 and BMPRIB. The FecXG, FecGH and FecB were performed to screen four sheep breeds (small tailed Han, Wadi, big tailed Han and Shandi sheep distributed along the lower Yellow river valley of China by forced PCR-RFLP method if these genes are responsible for their high prolificacies. The FecB mutation was found in small tailed Han and Wadi sheep but absent in big tailed Han and Shandi sheep. The 154 small tailed Han sheep included all three genotypes (FecB/FecB, FecB/Fec+ and Fec+/Fec+ at frequencies of 0.54, 0.40 and 0.06, respectively whereas the samples of 30 Wadi sheep were only detected two genotypes, 4 were heterozygous FecB/Fec+ and 26 Fec+/Fec+. The frequency of the FecB allele in small tailed Han and Wadi sheep were 0.74 and 0.07, respectively. Results indicated that the FecB mutation is not fixed in two sheep population. The same FecXG mutation of the BMP-15 gene was only found in small tailed Han ewes as in Belclare and Cambridge ewes, frequencies of genotypes FecXG+, FecX ++ and FecXGG were 0.70, 0.27 and 0.03, respectively. There was no evidence of FecGH in any of the breeds sampled. The discovery of the FecB mutation in small tailed Han sheep and Wadi sheep will facilitate the use of FecB allele in improving the prolificacy of non-prolific sheep breeds of China.
Full Text Available Scrapie is a fatal spongiform encephalopathy of sheep, a transmissible form of prion disease caused by neuronal accumulation of the aberrantly conformed prion protein (PrPsc. Currently, no ante-mortem diagnostic tests are available to detect this untreatable disease in the pre-clinical stage, thus making difficult to control its spread. Recent evidence suggests that the production of PrPsc can be modulated by the levels of membrane cholesterol in neuronal cells. Since cholesterol levels in cell membranes are dependent on cholesterol homeostasis in the whole organism, we studied cholesterol metabolism in brain tissues, plasma and skin fibroblasts of Sarda breed sheep with scrapie-resistant (ARR/ARR and scrapie-susceptible (ARQ/ARQ prion protein genotypes, both not infected (ARQ/ARQ- and infected (ARQ/ARQ+ with scrapie. We found that, the levels of cytoplasmic cholesterol esters (CE in brains and skin fibroblasts from sheep with the ARQ/ARQ genotype were consistently higher than those from sheep with the ARR/ARR genotype. Conversely, the levels of free cholesterol (FC were lower in ARQ/ARQ, as compared to ARR/ARR sheep, thus resulting in a sharp reduction of the FC/CE ratio. Moreover, both uninfected and infected ARQ/ARQ sheep showed abnormally low levels of high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C in their plasma, as compared to ARR/ARR sheep. These data other than adding new strength to the notion that altered levels of intracellular cholesterol may indicate the presence of a lipid metabolic state that predisposes to infection with, and accumulation of, PrPsc in the brain, discriminate for the first time between two distinct but related cellular pools of cholesterol, namely membrane FC on one hand and cytoplasmic CE on the other.
Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english A study was conducted, first, to compare the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), reticulo-rumens and intestinal capacities (relative to body weight) of ram lambs from six Turkish sheep breeds: Turkish Merino (TM, Anatolia Merino), Akkaraman (AK), K?v?rc?k (KV), Awassi (AW), Karayaka (KY) and Morkaraman (M [...] K), and second, to examine the influence of sheep breed on the pH of the digesta in the various segments (rumen, jejunum and caecum) of the GIT. Six ram lambs from each breed were slaughtered at 40.2 ± 0.80 kg liveweight. Lambs from the AK breed had a heavier GIT weight than the AW, KY or MK breeds. The weight of the full stomach was higher in AK lambs compared with the other lambs, except for KV lambs, while the relative weight of the empty stomachs was heavier in MK ram lambs than in TM, AW and KY lambs. The AK lambs had the highest relative empty intestinal weight. The relative weight of empty intestines was heavier in KV lambs than in KY lambs. The pH of the rumen content was higher in TM and AK lambs compared with KY and MK lambs, while the pH of the caecum content of KV lambs was higher than those of KY and MK lambs. In conclusion, significant differences were found among the six breeds in terms of some variables that were studied, although a higher proportional GIT weight in the fat-tail breeds such as the MK, AK and AW was not reflected in all components or in the pH of the GIT content.
Hyalomma ticks were collected from Merino and black-headed Dorper sheep and their attachment preferences determined. The preferred site of attachment for Hyalomma marginatum rufipes on both Dorper and Merino sheep was the anogenital and inguinal areas (75-76%). On Dorper sheep, H. Truncatum attached predominantly to the anogenital and inguinal areas (67,7%). On Merino sheep, most adults of this species attached to the feet (26%). Almost equal percentages also attached to the anogenital/ing...
Fourie, L. J.; Kok, D. J.
Enzootic abortion in sheep, caused by Chlamydia psittaci, has been associated with pregnancy failure in most sheep-producing countries. Late-term abortions or the birth of weak low-birth-weight lambs occurred following primary C. psittaci infection in pregnant ewes. However, the mode by which C. psittaci can be transmitted among sheep has not been established. The present study was designed to determine whether the vaginal tracts of nonpregnant ewes were susceptible to C. psittaci infection a...
Papp, J. R.; Shewen, P. E.
Full Text Available Two Italian sheep breeds – Gentile di Puglia and Sopravissana – have undergone a consistent decline in numbers and have been widely substituted by the Sarda breed, which gives higher milk yield. With the aim to provide a basis for con- servation decisions, the genetic variability of the three breeds was investigated in this study. DNA of 60 animals was PCR amplified at the following microsatellite loci: CSSM43, CSSM47, CSSM60, TGLA110, TGLA122, TGLA126, TGLA377, ETH3, ETH10, ETH225, NRAMP1, OARCP20 and SPS115. Allele frequencies, gene diversity and genetic distances were calculat- ed. The highest differences in allele frequencies were found at the following loci: TGLA377, TGLA122, NRAMP1, OARCP20 and ETH3, while at the other loci the most frequent alleles were the same. The average inbreeding rate was 0.156 in the Gentile di Puglia, 0.158 in the Sopravissana and 0.137 in the Sarda. Average gene diversity of the analysed microsatel- lites was 0.59. Genetic distance between Gentile di Puglia and Sopravissana (0.081 indicates moderate differentiation; distances between the Sarda and the endangered breeds – 0.111 from the Gentile di Puglia and 0.107 from the Sopravissana - indicate a medium-high differentiation rate. The disappearance of the two less productive breeds would entail a consistent loss of genetic diversity. The inbreeding values are low enough to allow the implementation of sound conservation programmes.
The objective of the current pilot study was to evaluate the reproductive performance and health indicators in Dorper, White Dorper, and Tsigai breed ewes managed semi-intensively under European temperate conditions. A total of 544 ewe-year units were observed, with ewes (ranging from 1.5 to 8 years of age) managed under identical rearing conditions for a period of two consecutive production cycles (2012 through 2013 and 2013 through 2014). In general, significant (p?0.001) genotype-related disparities were found in occurrence rates for all health parameters taken into study. Clinical mastitis incidence was significantly lower (p?0.05) in Dorper (9.4%) and White Dorper (10.8%) breeds compared to that of Tsigai ewes (17.4%). Significant differences (p?0.05) for lameness were found between Dorper and Tsigai breeds, with occurrence rates of 8.0% and 2.9%, respectively. Incidence for pneumonia and abortion was not influenced (p>0.05) by the ewes' genotype. Litter size was significantly lower (p?0.05) in White Dorper breed than for Dorper and Tsigai ewes, of 1.21, 1.40, and 1.45, respectively. Conception rates and lambs survival were not affected (p>0.05) by genotype. Results suggest that South African Dorper and White Dorper sheep breeds have adapted well to the specific rearing conditions. PMID:25656193
Gavojdian, D; Budai, C; Cziszter, L T; Csizmar, N; Javor, A; Kusza, S
Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english The families of TGF-? proteins are the most important growth factors in the ovary for growth and differentiation of early ovarian follicles. Three related oocyte-derived members of the transforming growth factor-? superfamily, namely GDF9, BMP15 and BMPR-IB have been shown to be essential for follic [...] ular growth and ovulation. The aim of the present study was to detect the incidence of mutation in exon two of GDF9 as a major gene in the Shal sheep breed. Blood samples were collected from 239 sheep and genomic DNA was extracted using the modified salting-out method. The quantity and quality of extracted DNA was examined using spectrophotometery and gel electrophoresis, respectively. A fragment with the size of 139 bp from exon two of GDF9 gene (FecG H) was amplified using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with a pair of specific primers. The amplified PCR products were digested with DdeI restriction enzyme. In the presence of mutations at this locus, the DdeI enzyme cannot recognize the restriction site. However, in the absence of mutations, the enzyme recognizes one restriction site and divides the amplified fragment into two fragments of 31 and 108 bp. In the present study only the wild type alleles were detected and all the samples showed the AA genotype. The analysis of polymorphism for GDF9 (FecG H) loci in Shal sheep indicates that the genetic factor responsible for twinning or multiple lambing rates is not related to reported mutated alleles at the GDF9 major gene in this breed. Therefore, we should attempt to detect other SNP for the GDF9 gene and/or other loci responsible for twining rate in this breed.
M., Ghaffari; A., Nejati-Javaremi; G., Rahimi-Mianji.
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Os objetivos deste trabalho foram identificar a origem racial de ovinos Santa Inês e avaliar a unicidade das populações das principais raças naturalizadas brasileiras de ovinos deslanado. Foi realizado um estudo dos padrões de semelhança molecular a partir de marcadores RAPD-PCR, utilizando-se 238 i [...] ndivíduos dos Estados de Goiás, Sergipe, Bahia, e Ceará assim como do Distrito Federal, distribuídos entre as raças Santa Inês (48 animais), Bergamácia (46), Rabo Largo (48), Morada Nova (48) e Somali (48). Após triagem com 140 primers, foram selecionados 54 locos a partir de 19 primers e todas as raças apresentaram marcadores específicos. Análises qualitativas mostraram a presença de marcadores diagnóstico-específicos para todas as raças. As diferenças inter-raciais foram significativas e responsáveis por 14,92% da variação total observada. Na análise de agrupamento, a raça Santa Inês ficou próxima à Bergamácia (com 97% de valor bootstrap). A raça Rabo Largo apresentou maior similaridade com este grupo (com 81% bootstrap) do que as raças Morada Nova e Somali. Cada raça deve ser considerada como unidade de conservação e manejo, especialmente as raças Rabo Largo, Morada Nova e Somali, as quais apresentam as menores populações no País. Abstract in english The objectives of this work were to investigate the genetic structure of the Brazilian hair sheep breeds and to determine the origin of the Santa Inês breed. Molecular similarity was determined using Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA - Polymerase Chain Reaction markers in 238 individuals from five [...] naturalized sheep breeds: Santa Inês (48 animals), Rabo Largo (48), Somali (48), Morada Nova (48) and Bergamasca (46), collected in Goiás, Sergipe, Bahia, and Ceará States as well as in the Federal District. Fifty-four loci were selected from 19 primers, after a pilot test using 140 primers. Qualitative analyses indicate diagnostic markers for all breeds. All breeds were significantly different from each other. Interbreed differences were explained by 14.92% of the total variation. Santa Inês clustered with Bergamasca (97% bootstrap) and with Rabo Largo, composing the third member of the group (81% bootstrap) while Morada Nova and Somali breeds clustered separately. Each breed should be considered as a separate management and conservation unit, and special care should be taken with Rabo Largo, Morada Nova and Somali breeds, represented by small herds in Brazil.
Samuel Rezende, Paiva; Vanessa Chaves, Silvério; Andréa Alves, Egito; Concepta, McManus; Danielle Assis de, Faria; Arthur da Silva, Mariante; Sílvia Ribeiro, Castro; Maria do Socorro Maués, Albuquerque; Jorge Abdala, Dergam.
Full Text Available The objectives of this work were to investigate the genetic structure of the Brazilian hair sheep breeds and to determine the origin of the Santa Inês breed. Molecular similarity was determined using Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA - Polymerase Chain Reaction markers in 238 individuals from five naturalized sheep breeds: Santa Inês (48 animals, Rabo Largo (48, Somali (48, Morada Nova (48 and Bergamasca (46, collected in Goiás, Sergipe, Bahia, and Ceará States as well as in the Federal District. Fifty-four loci were selected from 19 primers, after a pilot test using 140 primers. Qualitative analyses indicate diagnostic markers for all breeds. All breeds were significantly different from each other. Interbreed differences were explained by 14.92% of the total variation. Santa Inês clustered with Bergamasca (97% bootstrap and with Rabo Largo, composing the third member of the group (81% bootstrap while Morada Nova and Somali breeds clustered separately. Each breed should be considered as a separate management and conservation unit, and special care should be taken with Rabo Largo, Morada Nova and Somali breeds, represented by small herds in Brazil.Os objetivos deste trabalho foram identificar a origem racial de ovinos Santa Inês e avaliar a unicidade das populações das principais raças naturalizadas brasileiras de ovinos deslanado. Foi realizado um estudo dos padrões de semelhança molecular a partir de marcadores RAPD-PCR, utilizando-se 238 indivíduos dos Estados de Goiás, Sergipe, Bahia, e Ceará assim como do Distrito Federal, distribuídos entre as raças Santa Inês (48 animais, Bergamácia (46, Rabo Largo (48, Morada Nova (48 e Somali (48. Após triagem com 140 primers, foram selecionados 54 locos a partir de 19 primers e todas as raças apresentaram marcadores específicos. Análises qualitativas mostraram a presença de marcadores diagnóstico-específicos para todas as raças. As diferenças inter-raciais foram significativas e responsáveis por 14,92% da variação total observada. Na análise de agrupamento, a raça Santa Inês ficou próxima à Bergamácia (com 97% de valor bootstrap. A raça Rabo Largo apresentou maior similaridade com este grupo (com 81% bootstrap do que as raças Morada Nova e Somali. Cada raça deve ser considerada como unidade de conservação e manejo, especialmente as raças Rabo Largo, Morada Nova e Somali, as quais apresentam as menores populações no País.
Samuel Rezende Paiva
Full Text Available The research was done on carcasses from the slaughter of young male sheep intensively fattened belonging to the local Tsigai race of mountain ecotype and its half-breeds with Suffolk and German blackface (GCCN. The purpose of the research was to determine Logissimus dorsi (LD and leg of moutton area, because these parts provide information on Ist meat quality. Research results have noted that lots of half-breeds achieved higher Longissimus dorsi (LD and leg of moutton area, compared with the pure breed batch. Compared with Tsigai breed, Longissimus dorsi (LD area deterrmined was higher with 10,75% to Suffolk x Tsigai half-breeds, and 0,07% respectively to German Blackface x Tsigai half-breeds. Leg of moutton area was higher with 17,27% to Suffolk x Tsigai halfbreeds, and 2,75% respectively to German Blackface x Tsigai half-breeds. Research carried out special information on Ist meat quality on carcass.
Full Text Available This paper reviews two factors (breed and feed) affecting the carcass and meat quality of sheep. The quality of livestock products has acquired greater importance from the distinct perspectives of the different participants in the agricultural food chain. Consumers, producers and the industry give d [...] ifferent levels of importance to the parameters of meat and carcass quality. Nevertheless, all the participants in the meat production chain must ensure quality to improve their competitiveness. The quality of the carcass and meat can be influenced by different factors such as breed and type of feed. The breed can influence weight, yields, and the conformation of the carcass, among other variables, as well as the pH level and the fatty acid composition of the meat, whereas the feed mainly affects carcass conformation and several physicochemical and organoleptic parameters of meat quality such as proximal composition, the fatty acid profile, tenderness and color. Consequently, the effects of breed and feed type should be considered to obtain a quality product that satisfies consumer demand.
Jorge, Ramírez-Retamal; Rodrigo, Morales.
Scrapie is a fatal infectious neurodegenerative disease for which susceptibility is associated with polymorphisms in the ovine prion protein (PrP) gene. Scrapie-eradication programmes are based on eliminating the susceptible VRQ allele and/or breeding for the resistant ARR allele. In rare breeds or breeds with a low frequency of the ARR allele this can lead to unacceptably high inbreeding rates with associated increased risk of genetic defects and inbreeding depression. The conservation statu...
Windig, J. J.; Meuleman, H.; Lansbergen, L. M. T. E.
Full text: Each cell of an animal's body contains full genetic code for the whole animal and nuclear transfer provides a way of converting cells to whole animal. Cells from endangered breeds collected by biopsy or from scrapings of soft skin or ear tissue or from hair follicle can be grown and multiplied in a laboratory and this would then be stored frozen indefinitely at 196 deg. C in liquid nitrogen. Mammary gland cells from sheep, mouse cumulus granulosa cells, bovine mural granulosa cells and fibroblast cells have all generated viable clones. The currently available methods of conservation, deep freezing of sperms (haploid genome) and storage of a large number of embryos are too expensive. In comparison, adult skin fibroblast cells are easy to obtain, hardy in culture and freezing, a good source of donor DNA without the limitations of age, sex and physiological state. Progenies were successfully obtained from nuclear transfer of serum-starved fibroblast cells from cattle, sheep and goat. Several other cell types successfully used for cloning are limited to female donors (cumulus and mammary epithelial, mural granulosa and oviductal cells) and are more difficult for long-term culture. Live progenies using skin fibroblasts have been produced in cattle. Sample collection and development of primary cultures: Samples were collected by biopsy of skin from ear pinna and transported in a complete medium (DMEM + HamsF12 with 10% FBS and penicillin and streptomycin) at 4 deS and penicillin and streptomycin) at 4 deg. C. Tissue samples were processed by removing hair form both sides, cut into small pieces and seeded in petridish containing fibroblast culture medium (DMEM + HamsF12, 10% FBS, penicillin and streptomycin and L-glutamine). The primary skin fibroblast cells started emerging out of tissues within 4-6 days and were allowed to grow up to 12-15 days till nearly 80% confluency was attained. Purification and sub-culturing of skin fibroblast cells: In isolated cases, there were contaminations of epithelial cells but these were removed mechanically as well as enzymatically to get pure fibroblasts. Sub-culturing or 'splitting cells' was done periodically removing growth media, washing the plate, dissociating the cells and diluting cell suspension in fresh media. Standard growth curve: Whenever, a new batch of culture media supplement was introduced, it was checked for its efficacy for growth of cells in culture and compared with standard growth curve. Goat skin fibroblasts remained in lag phase for initial two days when they settled on the solid surface of culture vessel and then came to log phase when maximum growth took place spanning from the third to the seventh day. As the confluencey level increased and media supplement was depleted, cells stopped dividing and a plateau was attained from the eighth day onwards and then showed decline due to contact inhibition. Cell proliferation index: Under standard culture conditions, skin fibroblast cells divide once in 24 hours but it is rarely achieved in normal culturing. The population doubling time and cell proliferation rate per day were checked at regular interval for quality assessment. For this, ELISA based MTT assay, incorporation of 5-bromo-de-oxyuridine method, and flow cytometer methods were used. Evaluation of cells for ploidy level: During long-term culturing the cells are likely to develop one or other type of chromosomal abnormalities. It must be ensured that the cells in different passages be checked for normal ploidy so that viable clones can be developed from them. Cultures showing increased frequency of aneuploidy or polyploidy must be terminated from further passaging. DNA from cultured somatic cells can be isolated using available DNA isolation kits and checked for its quality on 2% agarose. Cryo-freezing of cells: Cells are best frozen as cell suspension. Healthy culture were always employed to provide the stock to freeze cells. The cells were frozen at controlled freezing rate. The cells were kept at -80 deg. C as well as at -196 deg. C in Liquid nitrogen. C
Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english The main objective of this study was to estimate the genetic parameters for body measurement and yearling live bodyweight traits in the Makuie sheep breed. The data set consisted of 2 144 lambs from 122 sires and 984 dams recorded in 21 years from 1989 to 2009 at the Makuie Sheep Breeding and Raisin [...] g Station (MSBS). The traits that were studied were height at withers, height at rump, body length, heart girth, leg circumference and yearling weight. The analyses were carried out based on an animal model with the restricted maximum likelihood (REML) approach using a derivate-free (DF) algorithm. Six animal models were fitted, differentiated by including or excluding maternal effects, and with and without covariance between maternal and direct genetic effects. Ignoring the maternal effects, the direct heritability was estimated as 0.20, 0.24, 0.10, 0.14, 0.02 and 0.36 for height at wither, height at rump, body length, heart girth, leg circumference and yearling weight, respectively. The estimates were slightly higher when maternal effects, genetic or environmental, were ignored in the analyses. Using bivariate analysis, the estimates for additive genetic correlations ranged from 0.56 to 0.81 among the studied traits. A log-likelihood ratio test (LRT) was used to select the most appropriate univariate model for each trait. Based on LRT, the direct additive genetic and maternal permanent environmental effects were regarded as an important source of variation of the studied traits. The estimates of genetic parameters can be considered a basis for calculating selection indices for body measurements, as well as revealing their association with yearling bodyweight traits.
S, Jafari; A, Hashemi.
The Gentile di Pugliais a breed created in the 15th century by crossing Merino Spanish rams and “gentile” ewes reared in some areas of Southern Italy, mainly Apulia and Basilicata. The crisis of the wool industry, the poor quantity of milk, the inadequacy of Gentile di Pugliato be milked by machine and the passage from transhumant to permanent rearing caused a dramatic reduction of this population, which was largely crossed with other breeds and declined from about one million hea...
Carlo Renieri; Emiliano Lasagna; Gianvincenzo Lebboroni; Francesco Panella; Francesca Maria Sarti
The determination of the degree of differentiation of animal populations at breed level is an important issue for conservation purposes. Morphometric divergences can be an indicator of adaptative or selective differences between breeds. In fact, due to the natural and artificial selection that continuously acts on the adaptative traits, the determination of the level of divergence of the quantitative traits across several populations, allows to make inferences on the degree of adaptation to a...
Bozzi, R.; Moretti, M.; Sargentini, C.; Degl’innocenti, P.; Diaz Rivera, P.
Full Text Available Information on animal requirements for determination of rangeland grazing capacity is essential. Animal requirements depend on its live weight, age, physiological condition and quality of available forage. There are more than 20 sheep breeds with different body sizes grazing in various climatic zone's rangelands of Iran, so animal unit equivalent of each breed should be determined independently. In this research, live weight of animal unit of Fashandy sheep based on average live weight of 3 and 4 year old ewes was determined. Three herds with more than 100 Fashandy ewes among existing herds in Taleghan region were selected. In each herd, 15 three year old ewes, 15 four year old ewes, 5 three year old rams, and 5 four year old rams were selected. They were weighed three times including at the time of beginning of grazing in highlands, end of grazing season in highlands, and once in winter. In each herd, also 5 three month old lambs in the beginning of grazing season and 5 six month old lambs at the end of grazing season were weighed. The amount of daily forage requirement according to live weight and energy requirement of animal unit equivalent for maintenance condition was calculated using NRC (1985 tables and MAFF (1984 formula. It was multiplied by 1.5 because of mountainous condition of rangelands and distances from watering points and villages. The SAS statistical software was used for data analyses according to factorial experiment in the form of completely random design. According to the results, the live weight of animal unit of Fashandy breed was 60.7 Kg. The average live weight of 3 and 4 year old rams were 80.3 and 85.3 kg, respectively. Live weights of 3 and 6 month old lambs were 21.4 and 37.8 kg, respectively. Therefore, animal unit equivalents for rams, 3 and 6 month old lambs were 1.36, 0.35 and 0.62 respectively. According to NRC tables, daily metabolisable energy requirement was 13.8 Mj, and based on MAFF formula it was 11.8 Mj (including that multiplied by 1.5.
Follicular growth was studied in 16 ewes of different breeds (Romanov, mean ovulation rate 3.0, and Ile-de-France, mean ovulation rate 1.6), stage of cycle (Day 0 or 7) and season (December and June). The follicular growth rates, determined by measuring the mitotic index before and 2 h after colchicine treatment, varied greatly between animals studied and did not vary significantly between breeds, time of cycle or season. From 3 layers of granulosa cells until antrum formation the mitotic index increased slowly but then the follicles grew rapidly reaching maximum growth rate at a follicular diameter of 0.85 mm; thereafter the mitotic index decreased almost to zero in preovulatory follicles. The mean time for a follicle to pass from 3 layers of granulosa cells (200 cells) to preovulatory size (3 x 10(6) cells) was estimated to be about 6 months. The total number of normal follicles with > 3 layers of granulosa cells in Ile-de-France ewes was similar in the anoestrous (3 ovaries studied) and breeding (3 ovaries) seasons, but there were more antral follicles in the latter. Highly significant correlations existed in each ewe between the number of follicles and the mean mitotic index per class, suggesting the existence of an intraovarian mechanism regulating folliculogenesis. PMID:7191893
Cahill, L P; Mauléon, P
Conservation of genetic resources from endangered breeds may be conducted through germinal banks. Preservation of healthy samples is paramount to avoid preserving pathogens shed with germinal products. The black variety of Manchega sheep (BMS), and endangered breed endemic to south-central Spain, is the subject of a conservation program; a germinal bank has been recently established. However, several pathogens circulating in BMS flocks may be shed with semen and threaten BMS preservation. Therefore, we investigated the sanitary status of BMS flocks and semen samples from 4 of the 17 flocks in which this variety is bred worldwide. A serological screening for Maedi-Visna virus, bluetongue virus, Pestivirus spp., Brucella spp., Coxiella burnetii, Chlamydophila spp., Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis, Anaplasma spp., Mycoplasma agalactiae, Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum was performed to assess for pathogens potentially shed by semen. Semen samples from 11 of the 35 BMS rams and 4 samples from coexisting rams of the white variety (WMS) were analyzed by PCR to detect Maedi-Visna virus, C. burnetii, Anaplasma marginale, Anaplasma phagocytophilum and T. gondii. Maedi-Visna virus RNA was detected in 3 semen samples (2 BMS and 1 WMS) while C. burnetii DNA was detected in 3 samples from WMS rams. Pathogens that can be transmitted by semen were present in BMS flocks, and Maedi-Visna virus and C. burnetii showed the highest potential for transmission by artificial insemination. Our results point to the need of testing semen samples kept for conservation purposes of BMS before using them for artificial insemination. PMID:25066603
Ruiz-Fons, Francisco; González-Barrio, David; Aguilar-Ríos, Fernando; Soler, Ana J; Garde, José Julián; Gortázar, Christian; Fernández-Santos, María Del Rocío
Our objective was to evaluate life-cycle performance of flocks of two Egyptian breeds, Rahmani (R) and Ossimi (O), and their crosses with Finnish Landrace (F) in two management systems. Management systems were one mating season per year (1M) and three mating seasons per 2 yr (3M). Breeds and crosses studied included purebred R and O, F1 crosses 1/2F-1/2R (FR) and 1/2F-1/2O (FO), and inter se matings of 1/4 F-3/4 R (RFR) and 1/4 F-3/4 O (OFO). A dynamic computer model was used to simulate animal performance and enterprise efficiency and profit. Two measures of lifecycle feed conversion (biological efficiency) were computed: kilograms of TDN input per kilograms of empty body weight output (TDN/EBW) and kilograms of TDN input per kilogram of carcass lean output (TDN/CLN). Profit was measured as gross margin (income minus variable costs per ewe per year, GM/EWE). Input parameters for the model were obtained from published results and analyses of data collected from experimental flocks of the same genetic stocks in Egypt. Profit for FR and RFR was 42 and 6% higher in 1M than in 3M. However, profit for all other genetic types was 4 to 8% greater in 3M than in 1M. Breed rankings changed depending on the measure of evaluation (i.e., biological efficiency or profit). Maximization of system output did not necessarily improve efficiency. Under accelerated lambing systems, greater overhead costs associated with labor and feed offset gains in ewe productivity. Genetic stocks should be matched to resources and management systems. PMID:10709918
Almahdy, H; Tess, M W; El-Tawil, E; Shehata, E; Mansour, H
Full Text Available Los caracteres morfológicos de la ubre (perímetro, anchura, longitud y altura), de los pezones (ángulo de inclinación, longitud y anchura), de las cisternas mamarias (apertura de los pezones y altura de la cisterna) y la producción lechera fueron medidos a lo largo de una lactación en un total de 18 [...] ovejas del mismo rebaño (Centro Experimental INIA Butalcura, Chiloé, Chile), nueve de raza Chilota y nueve de raza Suffolk Down. El análisis de varianza mostró efectos significativos de la raza, la oveja dentro de la raza y del estado de lactación sobre las variables estudiadas. La raza Chilota evidenció un mayor perímetro de la ubre (433 mm), longitud de la ubre (86 mm), abertura de los pezones (96º), y producción lechera (947 mL d-1) que la Suffolk Down ( 410 mm, 77 mm, 93º, y 559 mL d-1, respectivamente). El perímetro, longitud y anchura de la ubre, junto con la altura de las cisternas y el tamaño de los pezones disminuyeron significativamente a medida que avanzó la lactación. Las repetibilidades de todos los caracteres estudiados oscilaron entre 0.17 y 0.60. La mayor repetibilidad se encontró en el perímetro de la ubre; este carácter es fácil de medir y posee poder discriminante para la diferenciación racial. Se concluye que la raza Chilota posee una aptitud lechera superior a la Suffolk Down y similar a la de las razas españolas y mediterráneas al inicio de sus programas de selección lechera. Abstract in english Morphological traits of the whole udder (circumference, width, height, and length), teats (angle, length and width), udder cistern (teat opening and cistern height), and milk yield were measured over one lactation in a total of 18 ewes (nine Chilota and nine Suffolk Down sheep) belonging to the same [...] experimental flock (Centro Experimental INIA Butalcura, Chiloé, Chile). Analysis of variance showed significant effects for breed, sheep within breed, and stage of lactation. Chilota ewes evidenced greater udder circumference (433 mm), udder length (86 mm), teat opening (96º), and milk yield (947 mL d-1) than Suffolk Down ewes (410 mm, 77 mm, 93º, and 559 mL d-1, respectively). Udder circumference, udder width, udder length, cistern height and teat size significantly decreased throughout lactation. Repeatabilities of all traits were between 0.17 and 0.60; the highest repeatability was for udder circumference. This trait is easy to measure and had a discriminatory value for breed differentiation. In conclusion, Chilota sheep had a dairy aptitude greater than Suffolk Down sheep and similar to Spanish and Mediterranean dairy sheep breeds at beginning of their breeding programs.
María E, Martínez; Cecilia, Calderón; Rodrigo, de la Barra; L. Fernando, de la Fuente; Carlos, Gonzalo.
Full Text Available Morphological traits of the whole udder (circumference, width, height, and length, teats (angle, length and width, udder cistern (teat opening and cistern height, and milk yield were measured over one lactation in a total of 18 ewes (nine Chilota and nine Suffolk Down sheep belonging to the same experimental flock (Centro Experimental INIA Butalcura, Chiloé, Chile. Analysis of variance showed significant effects for breed, sheep within breed, and stage of lactation. Chilota ewes evidenced greater udder circumference (433 mm, udder length (86 mm, teat opening (96º, and milk yield (947 mL d-1 than Suffolk Down ewes (410 mm, 77 mm, 93º, and 559 mL d-1, respectively. Udder circumference, udder width, udder length, cistern height and teat size significantly decreased throughout lactation. Repeatabilities of all traits were between 0.17 and 0.60; the highest repeatability was for udder circumference. This trait is easy to measure and had a discriminatory value for breed differentiation. In conclusion, Chilota sheep had a dairy aptitude greater than Suffolk Down sheep and similar to Spanish and Mediterranean dairy sheep breeds at beginning of their breeding programs.Los caracteres morfológicos de la ubre (perímetro, anchura, longitud y altura, de los pezones (ángulo de inclinación, longitud y anchura, de las cisternas mamarias (apertura de los pezones y altura de la cisterna y la producción lechera fueron medidos a lo largo de una lactación en un total de 18 ovejas del mismo rebaño (Centro Experimental INIA Butalcura, Chiloé, Chile, nueve de raza Chilota y nueve de raza Suffolk Down. El análisis de varianza mostró efectos significativos de la raza, la oveja dentro de la raza y del estado de lactación sobre las variables estudiadas. La raza Chilota evidenció un mayor perímetro de la ubre (433 mm, longitud de la ubre (86 mm, abertura de los pezones (96º, y producción lechera (947 mL d-1 que la Suffolk Down ( 410 mm, 77 mm, 93º, y 559 mL d-1, respectivamente. El perímetro, longitud y anchura de la ubre, junto con la altura de las cisternas y el tamaño de los pezones disminuyeron significativamente a medida que avanzó la lactación. Las repetibilidades de todos los caracteres estudiados oscilaron entre 0.17 y 0.60. La mayor repetibilidad se encontró en el perímetro de la ubre; este carácter es fácil de medir y posee poder discriminante para la diferenciación racial. Se concluye que la raza Chilota posee una aptitud lechera superior a la Suffolk Down y similar a la de las razas españolas y mediterráneas al inicio de sus programas de selección lechera.
María E Martínez
Full Text Available Abstract Effective selection on the PrP gene has been implemented since October 2001 in all French sheep breeds. After four years, the ARR "resistant" allele frequency increased by about 35% in young males. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of this strong selection on genetic variability. It is focussed on four French sheep breeds and based on the comparison of two groups of 94 animals within each breed: the first group of animals was born before the selection began, and the second, 3–4 years later. Genetic variability was assessed using genealogical and molecular data (29 microsatellite markers. The expected loss of genetic variability on the PrP gene was confirmed. Moreover, among the five markers located in the PrP region, only the three closest ones were affected. The evolution of the number of alleles, heterozygote deficiency within population, expected heterozygosity and the Reynolds distances agreed with the criteria from pedigree and pointed out that neutral genetic variability was not much affected. This trend depended on breed, i.e. on their initial states (population size, PrP frequencies and on the selection strategies for improving scrapie resistance while carrying out selection for production traits.
Skin samples from ear pinna of 10 male and 10 female sheep were collected and cultured in DMEM+Ham's F12 nutrient medium. Cell viability was 95 to 100% in different cultures. Mean cell proliferation rates were 0.94-0.67 and 1.15-0.56 for males and females in different passages, respectively. Cell proliferation rates were highest in first passage and then showed an age-related decline. Average cell doubling time was 30 h in males and 29.6 h in females. Skin fibroblast cell growth curves were in lag phase for the first 2 days, entered log phase (3rd to 7th days) and plateaued on day 8. Diploid chromosomal counts in proliferating cells up to the 5th passage were normal (2N=54), with no gross chromosomal aberrations recorded. Cells frozen from cycling cells at 80-90% confluency showed superior post-thaw growth compared with cells from overconfluent cultures. DMSO at 10% (v/v) in freezing media was optimal. Controlled-rate freezing at -1 deg. C/min showed better post-thaw cell viability and growth potential. Direct plating of thawed cells without removing DMSO and other contents of the freezing medium gave better post-thaw survival and proliferation rates. (author)
Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english Morphological udder traits have recently become of greater interest from farmers to researchers. In dairy ewes, the udder is very important due to its physiological and conformational characteristics. External udder traits were measured in ewes (Ovis aries L.) of nine genotypes (355 ewes) created of [...] the basis of Improved Valachian (IV), Tsigai (T), and Lacaune (LC) breeds (six traits; 1185 data for each trait) during the milking period 2002-2008. Udder measurements were assessed for: udder length (UL), udder width (UW), rear udder depth (RUD), cistern depth (CDE), teat length (TL), and teat angle (TA). Data were processed by restricted maximum likelihood (REML) methodology using a MIXED procedure from the SAS statistical package. All studied parameters were influenced by the genotype (P
Pavol, Makovický; Melinda, Nagy; Peter, Makovický.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Identification of genomic regions that have been targets of selection for phenotypic traits is one of the most important and challenging areas of research in animal genetics. However, currently there are relatively few genomic regions identified that have been subject to positive selection. In this study, a genome-wide scan using ~50,000 Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs was performed in an attempt to identify genomic regions associated with fat deposition in fat-tail breeds. This trait and its modification are very important in those countries grazing these breeds. Results Two independent experiments using either Iranian or Ovine HapMap genotyping data contrasted thin and fat tail breeds. Population differentiation using FST in Iranian thin and fat tail breeds revealed seven genomic regions. Almost all of these regions overlapped with QTLs that had previously been identified as affecting fat and carcass yield traits in beef and dairy cattle. Study of selection sweep signatures using FST in thin and fat tail breeds sampled from the Ovine HapMap project confirmed three of these regions located on Chromosomes 5, 7 and X. We found increased homozygosity in these regions in favour of fat tail breeds on chromosome 5 and X and in favour of thin tail breeds on chromosome 7. Conclusions In this study, we were able to identify three novel regions associated with fat deposition in thin and fat tail sheep breeds. Two of these were associated with an increase of homozygosity in the fat tail breeds which would be consistent with selection for mutations affecting fat tail size several thousand years after domestication.
Moradi Mohammad Hossein
Morphostructural Differentiation and Variability of Merino Sheep Breed Under Sustained Directional Selection / Diferenciación y Variabilidad Morfoestructural de Ovinos de Raza Merino Sometidos a Selección Direccional Sostenida
Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish En el presente trabajo se analiza el grado de diferenciación y variabilidad morfoestructural alcanzado por el tipo de animal resultante de una selección direccional sostenida y sus implicancias en la emergencia de un nuevo grupo racial ovino. Se midieron 25 machos y 200 ovejas adultas. Se tomaron 13 [...] medidas corporales, evaluando la diferenciación de la morfología estructural y el dimorfismo sexual. Estas mediciones se compararon con las realizadas en animales de raza Merino Australiano y Marin Magellan Meat Merino. La homogeneidad intrapoblacional se evaluó a través de los coeficientes de variación porcentual de las medias de las medidas corporales. Se concluye que la selección direccional realizada de forma sostenida ha generado una diferenciación del formato morfoestructural al comparar a la población sujeta a selección con las principales raza de tipo Merino existentes en la Patagonia Chilena. La población evaluada evidencia una variabilidad morfoestructural similar, y en muchos casos menor a la encontrada en razas ovinas reconocidas como tales en Chile, con lo cual es posible señalar que se comporta como un grupo animal distinguible con caracteres de raza. Abstract in english In this paper, the degree of differentiation and morphostructural variability reached by the type of animal resulting from sustained directional selection, in addition to its implications for the emergence of a new sheep breed are analyzed. Twenty-five rams and 200 ewes from a sheep flock submitted [...] to directional selection since 1987 were measured. Thirteen body measurements were taken in other to evaluate the structural morphology and sexual dimorphism. These measurements were compared with identical measures taken in Australian Merino and Marin Magellan Meat Merino sheep breeds. The intrapopulation homogeneity was assessed using the coefficients of variation of the average percentage of body measurements. It is concluded that sustained directional selection has generated the differentiation of the morphostructural format of the subject population compared to the main Merino-type breeds in the Chilean Patagonia. The population shows a similar (and in some cases lower) morphostructural variability than those found in recognized sheep breeds in Chile, so it is possible to state that this population behaves like a different animal group, with breed characteristics.
R, de la Barra; E, Latorre; M. E, Martínez; C, Calderón.
Cyclic animals showed an increase around oestrus in rectal temperature (RT), serum protein, blood total leucocyte counts and neutrophils, and plasma cortisol and thyroxine (T4). This was accompanied by a decline in blood haemoglobin (Hb) and lymphocytes and in plasma progesterone levels. The lower incidence of oestrous activity during the spring season was associated with higher average plasma progesterone levels. The seasonal changes in plasma cortisol and T4 were noted only in Rahmani ewes. In the pregnant animals there was a gradual decline in blood glucose, Hb and serum proteins, with minimum values at parturition. This was associated with a decline in plasma osmolality and an increase in plasma aldosterone during the second half of gestation. There was a rise in plasma cortisol, accompanied by a rise in blood total leucocyte counts and neutrophils and a decline in lymphocytes two weeks before parturition, showing a peak on day of lambing. Plasma T4 and triiodothyronine (T3) declined particularly during late pregnancy. Progesterone concentration increased with the advance of pregnancy, showing a sharp rise after the third month and a sharp decline during the week before parturition. Plasma progesterone level can be used successfully for the early diagnosis of pregnancy. Summer pregnancy was associated with a decrease in the overall mean plasma T4, and an increase in plasma osmolality, aldosterone, progesteroneasma osmolality, aldosterone, progesterone and cortisol; these seasonal changes were noted only in the Rahmani ewes. Plasma cortisol and T3 were low during early lactation, tended to rise around mid-lactation to late lactation, and were negatively related to levels of milk production. Present results suggest that the temperate evolved Rahmani is more sensitive to unfavourable environmental conditions than the desert adapted Barki breed. 39 refs, 5 figs
The aim of this study was to test the modeling of curd-firming (CF) measures and to compare the sheep milk of 3 Alpine breeds supplemented with or without rumen-protected conjugated linoleic acid (rpCLA). Twenty-four ewes of the Brogna, Foza, and Lamon breeds were allotted to 6 pens (2 pens/breed) and fed a diet composed of corn grain, corn silage, dried sugar beet pulp, soybean meal, wheat bran, wheat straw, and a vitamin-mineral mixture. The rpCLA supplement (12 g/d per ewe plus 4 g/d for each lamb older than 30 d) was mixed into the diet of 1 pen per sheep breed (3 pens/treatment) to provide an average of 0.945 and 0.915 g/d per ewe of the cis-9,trans-11 C18:2 and trans-10,cis-12 C18:2 conjugated linoleic acid isomers, respectively. The trial started at 38 ± 23 d after parturition, and individual morning milk samples were collected on d 16, 23, 37, 44, and 59 of the trial. Milk samples were analyzed for composition, and duplicate samples were assessed for milk coagulation properties (MCP). A total of 180 CF measures for each sample (1 every 15s) were recorded. Model parameters were the rennet coagulation time, the asymptotic potential CF, the CF instant rate constant, the syneresis instant rate constant, the maximum CF achieved within 45 min (CFmax), and the time at achievement of CFmax. The data were analyzed using a hierarchical model that considered the fixed effects of breed, diet, lamb birth, and initial days in milk, which were tested on individual ewe (random) variance; the fixed effect of sampling day, which was tested on the within-ewe sample (random) variance; and the fixed effect of instrument or cuvette position (only for MCP), which was tested on the residual (replicates within samples) variance. The local Alpine sheep breeds displayed similar milk compositions, traditional MCP, and CF modeling parameters. Supplementation with rpCLA triggered changes in milk composition and worsened MCP (e.g., delayed rennet coagulation time, slower CF instant rate constant, and a doubling of syneresis instant rate constant), but did not influence potential CF. Overall, our results indicate that rpCLA supplementation reduced the actual maximum CF (CFmax) but did not modify the interval between rennet addition and CFmax or time to CFmax. PMID:24819130
Bittante, G; Pellattiero, E; Malchiodi, F; Cipolat-Gotet, C; Pazzola, M; Vacca, G M; Schiavon, S; Cecchinato, A
Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english The effect of abattoir type, age, sheep breed and sex on avoidance-related behaviour and bleeding times at slaughter were determined. Castrates and ewes of different age groups and breeds were used. From the commercial abattoir, 90 castrates and 110 ewes were used while 66 castrates and 19 ewes were [...] obtained from the municipal abattoir. Avoidance-related behaviour and bleeding times differed with abattoir type and age classes. Animals slaughtered at the commercial abattoir were calmer and had shorter bleeding times (61 ± 1.16 s) than those slaughtered at the municipal abattoir which had a mean bleeding time of 74.2 ± 2.11 s. Older animals were calmer and had longer bleeding times (67.5 ± 1.82 s) than the younger animals which had a mean bleeding time of 61.6 ± 2.64 s. Avoidance-related behaviour also differed with breed and the sex of the animals with Merino and Dorper + Merino crosses being the calmer than the pure Dorper breed. About 95% of ewes were calmer than the castrates. It can be concluded that abattoir type, age, breed and sex have an effect on animal behaviour at slaughter. Only abattoir type and sex had an effect on bleeding times.
Y.Z., Njisane; V., Muchenje.
The aim of the present study was to detect Toxoplasma gondii DNA in raw milk samples of goats and sheep of local breeds from the semi-arid region of the states of Pernambuco and Paraíba, Northeastern Brazil. Serum and milk samples were collected from 243 animals (186 goats and 57 sheep). The Indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) was used to search for anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies with a cutoff of 64. Subsequently, the raw milk samples were subjected to DNA extraction and PCR to detect DNA of T. gondii. The IFAT results showed a 6.58% (16/243) positivity when all the samples were considered and a positivity of 15.78% (9/57) and 3.76% (7/186) for goats and sheep samples, respectively. The PCR assay detected T. gondii DNA in 2.06% (5/243) of all the samples tested. All the PCR positive samples were from goats. This result shows the importance of adopting measures of flock's sanitary management and avoiding the consumption of raw milk may constitute a potential risk to the health of milk consumers in this region. PMID:25438258
da Silva, José Givanildo; Alves, Bruno Henrique L S; Melo, Renata Pimentel B; Kim, Pomy Cássia P; Souza Neto, Orestes L; Bezerra, Mauro José G; Sá, Silvio G; Mota, Rinaldo A
This study was carried out to illustrate seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and Brucella melitensis in local sheep and goat flocks living in Nile Delta regions of Egypt as well as to investigate its effects on animals’ health and performance. In trial 1: 492 serum samples were collected from domestic ewes and does flocks suffering from abortion and stillbirths were used in this survey. In trial (2): 100 serum samples collected from toxoplasma or brucella infected or non infected sheep and ...
Hamada Hamada Dahy Mahboub; Mohamed Atif Helal; Mabrouk Attia Abd Eldaim; Emad Mahmoud Abd El-Razek; Ahmed Mahmoud Elsify
Melatonin receptor 1A gene is the prime receptor mediating the effect of melatonin at the neuroendocrine level for control of seasonal reproduction in sheep. The aims of this study were to examine the polymorphism pattern of coding sequence of MTNR1A gene in Chokla sheep, a breed of Indian arid tract and to identify new variations in relation to its aseasonal status. Genomic DNAs of 101 Chokla sheep were collected and an 824 bp coding sequence of Exon II was amplified. RFLP was performed with enzyme RsaI and MnlI to assess the presence of polymorphism at position C606T and G612A, respectively. Genotyping revealed significantly higher frequency of M and R alleles than m and r alleles. RR and MM were found to be dominantly present in the group of studied population. Cloning and sequencing of Exon II followed by mutation/polymorphism analysis revealed ten mutations of which three were non-synonymous mutations (G706A, C893A, G931C). G706A leads to substitution of valine by isoleucine Val125I (U14109) in the fifth transmembrane domain. C893A leads to substitution of alanine by aspartic acid in the third extracellular loop. G931C mutation brings about substitution of amino acid alanine by proline in the seventh transmembrane helix, can affect the conformational stability of the molecule. Polyphen-2 analysis revealed that the polymorphism at position 931 is potentially damaging while the mutations at positions 706 and 893 were benign. It is concluded that G931C mutation of MTNR 1A gene, may explain, in part, the importance of melatonin structure integrity in influencing seasonality in sheep. PMID:25606429
Saxena, Vijay Kumar; Jha, Bipul Kumar; Meena, Amar Singh; Naqvi, S.M.K.
Recent studies have proposed the use of molecular coancestry coefficients as a measure of genetic variability and as a useful tool for conservation purposes. Using simulated data, molecular coancestry has been shown to become constant very quickly after separation of populations, leading to population diversity remaining constant. However, the use of molecular coancestry information to study the genetic relationships between breeds has not yet been widely explored. Here we analyze the polymorphism of 14 microsatellites in 222 unrelated individuals belonging to seven native Spanish breeds to ascertain the usefulness of molecular coancestry-based methodologies in providing information on their genetic relationships. Average kinship distance (D(k)) and average molecular coancestry coefficients (f(ij)) were compared with well-known genetic distances, such as between-breed Reynolds' distance (D(R)), Nei's standard distance (D(s)), and shared allele distance (D(AS)). Kinship distance and f(ij) have moderate to low correlations with the other genetic distances, showing that they provide different information: both D(k) and f(ij) account for the allele frequencies in the founder population, whereas D(R), D(s), and D(AS) characterize the short-term evolution of the populations. Furthermore, D(k) and f(ij) were only moderately correlated (-0.500). The present study used field data to confirm previous research pointing out the ability of molecular coancestry coefficients to assess genetic differentiation of an ancestral origin. In this respect, molecular coancestry-based parameters may be used with classical genetic parameters to obtain information on population dynamics in livestock breeds. This study additionally presents reliable evidence on the history of these sheep breeds. PMID:15753326
Alvarez, I; Gutiérrez, J P; Royo, L J; Fernández, I; Gómez, E; Arranz, J J; Goyache, F
The effect of season on ovulation has been monitored in two local breeds of Egyptian ewes - the Barki (desert type), and the Rahmani (fat tailed Nile valley breed), by sequentially measuring cyclic changes in plasma progesterone concentration throughout a period of one year in the absence of any possible ram effect. The modal length of the ovulatory cycle was 17-18 days for both breeds, with the progesterone concentration peaking around day 11. No effect of season on progesterone concentration was apparent for the Barki breed but in the Rahmani, progesterone values were lower (P < 0.05) during the summer than during the autumn months. While the Barki have a restricted breeding season from June to November, the Rahmani have only a short period of anovulation within April. Thirty-three per cent of the Rahmani breed were identified as having cycled throughout the year. (author). 9 refs, 4 figs
Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english The effects of pre-slaughter conditions and breed on physico-chemical characteristics of mutton were determined. The study was conducted at Adelaide Municipal abattoir in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. Records were taken from 84 sheep from the South African Mutton Merino, Blackhead Persian [...] and Dorper breeds as identified on arrival at the abattoir. The South African Mutton Merino (SAMM) had the highest values for meat pH at 24 hours (pH24) (5.9 ± 0.64), lightness; L* (34.2 ± 0.97), yellowness; b* (12.2 ± 0.50) and Warner-Braztler shear force WBSF (26.8 ± 1.51). Linear relationships were also observed between pre-slaughter variables and physico-chemical characteristics of mutton. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) showed a large variation being contributed by meat pH24 and L*. It was therefore concluded that, transport time and lairage duration negatively affected the quality of mutton. Furthermore, breed affected the physico-chemical characteristics of meat.
A.Y., Chulayo; V., Muchenje.
Full Text Available A ultrassonografia pode ser uma importante ferramenta para a avaliação da composição da carcaça por ser uma técnica não invasiva que permite quantificar diferentes tecidos em animais vivos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estimar as correlações entre medidas tomadas in vivo, por meio do ultrassom e do [...] adipômetro, e na carcaça de ovinos da raça Santa Inês. Utilizaram-se 81 machos, entre 8 e 18 meses de idade, com peso médio de 31 kg. As medidas in vivo obtidas por ultrassonografia foram medida diagonal longitudinal, área de olho de lombo longitudinal, medida diagonal transversal e área de olho de lombo transversal. Determinou-se o peso de carcaça quente, rendimento da carcaça, gordura de cobertura da carcaça, comprimento de carcaça, área de olho de lombo da carcaça e peso dos cortes comerciais: pernil, lombo, paleta, costela e pescoço. As análises de variância, componentes principais, regressão polinomial e correlação foram realizadas utilizando-se programa estatístico SAS®. Não houve diferença entre animais castrados e inteiros para qualidade e componentes de carcaça, indicando, portanto, que a castração não proporciona uma carcaça de melhor qualidade. Os animais com os pesos de pernil, paleta e costela maiores apresentam menores peso de pele, altura de cernelha e peso dos órgãos abdominais, caracterizando um biotipo de animal que seria mais desejável a ser selecionado. Peso vivo, comprimento corporal e área de olho de lombo por ultrassom (in vivo) podem ser usados para predizer a área do olho de lombo da carcaça, peso do pernil, comprimento da carcaça, peso da carcaça quente e da meia carcaça. No entanto, o peso do lombo, pescoço, costela, rendimento de carcaça e peso dos órgãos abdominais não podem ser preditos por estas medidas in vivo. As medidas realizadas com adipômetro não apresentaram correlações significativas com medidas da carcaça, o que indica que não são eficientes para esta predição e, portanto, não devem ser utilizadas. Abstract in english Ultrassonography is an important option to evaluate carcass composition and quality, as it is a non-invasive technique which quantifies different tissues in live animals. The objective of this study was to estimate the correlation between measurements taken in vivo, using ultrasound and skinfold thi [...] ckness, in sheep carcasses from Santa Inês breed. Eighty-one males, aging 8 to 18 months, and weighting on average 31 kg live weight were used. The measures taken in vivo by ultrassonography were longitudinal diagonal length, longitudinal rib eye area, transversal diagonal length, transversal rib eye area. Hot carcass weight, carcass yield, carcass fat thickness, carcass length, carcass rib eye area and commercial retail cut weight (leg, loin, shoulder, ribs and neck) were determined. The analyses of variance, main components, polynomial regression and correlation were carried out using SAS® statistical program. There was no difference between castrated and intact animals for carcass quality and components, indicating that castration does not provide better carcass quality. Animals with higher leg, shoulder and rib weights had lower skin weight, wither height and weight of abdominal organs, indicating a more desirable body type for selection. Body weight, body length and rib eye area by ultrasound (in vivo) can predict the rib eye area, leg weight, carcass length, hot and half carcass weight. However, loin, neck and rib weights, carcass yield and weight of abdominal organs cannot be predicted by these in vivo measurements. The measurements taken with skinfold showed no significant correlations with carcass measures, which indicates that they are not efficient for prediction of carcass components and therefore should not be used.
Concepta, McManus; Tiago do Prado, Paim; Helder, Louvandini; Bruno Stéfano Lima, Dallago; Laila Talarico, Dias; Rodrigo Almeida, Teixeira.
Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish Se realizó un estudio comparativo de la biometría testicular en carneros con las tres razas principales de ovejas de Nigeria. Los parámetros biométricos observados fueron la circunferencia escrotal (CE), peso testicular (PT), longitud testicular (LT), peso de la túnica albugínea (PTA), volumen testi [...] cular (VT), densidad testicular (DT), peso del epidídimo (PE), longitud del epidídimo (EL), peso de la cabeza (CA), cuerpo (CU) y cauda (CA), volumen del epidídimo (VE) y densidad del epidídimo (ED). Los resultados mostraron diferencias significativas (p Abstract in english A comparative study of testicular biometry was done in rams using three major breeds of sheep in Nigeria. Biometrical parameters observed were scrotal circumference (SC), testes weight (TW), testes length (TL), tunica albuginea weight (TAW), testes volume (TV), testes density (TD), epididymal weight [...] (EW), epididymal length (EL), caput (CA), corpus (CO), cauda weight (CU), epididymal volume (EV) and epididymal density (ED). The results showed significant differences (p
Abdullahi Ali, Ibrahim; Jibril, Aliyu; Rabi Muhammad, Ashiru; Mustapha, Jamilu.
Water requirements and metabolism and some physiological and blood characteristics were studied in dry non-pregnant Barki and Rahmani ewes and in Baladi goats during spring, summer and winter seasons. The Rahmani sheep showed greater thermal discomfort than the Barki during the summer season. Pregnancy was associated with a significant increase in body weight and a decline in PCV and total serum protein, and these changes were greater in goats than in sheep. They were accompanied by significant increases in TBW and WTR. All these changes were more pronounced during late pregnancy than during mid-pregnancy, although the effect of stage of pregnancy on TBW did not occur in the Barki ewes. The pregnancy induced changes in total protein and WTR were greater in spring, while those in TBW were greater in winter. The above parameters also showed similar changes during lactation (particularly during early lactation), but lactating animals showed a decrease instead of an increase in body weight. Goats showed greater reductions in body weight, PCV and water t1/2 and greater increases in WTR than sheep during the spring season. Withdrawal of drinking water for four days caused a reduction in body weight, blood glucose and plasma T3 and T4, and an increase in PCV, total serum protein and plasma osmolality. Plasma aldosterone increased slightly during dehydration but increased markedly during the rehydration period, particularly in the Rahmani sheen period, particularly in the Rahmani sheep during the summer season. The above parameters changed similarly when the animals were starved for four days (feed but not water was withheld), but total serum protein showed a decrease instead of an increase. Changes during dehydration were more pronounced in summer, while those during starvation were greater in winter. 32 refs, 4 figs, 2 tabs
Full Text Available This study was carried out to illustrate seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and Brucella melitensis in local sheep and goat flocks living in Nile Delta regions of Egypt as well as to investigate its effects on animals’ health and performance. In trial 1: 492 serum samples were collected from domestic ewes and does flocks suffering from abortion and stillbirths were used in this survey. In trial (2: 100 serum samples collected from toxoplasma or brucella infected or non infected sheep and goats were used to study the effects of toxoplasmosis and brucellosis on animals, health. This study revealed that 142 (28.86% sera contained antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii and 89 (18.09% were positive for Brucella melitensis. The incidences of toxoplasmosis and brucellosis were 31.01% and 12.26% in sheep, respectively and 17.11% and 36.84% in goats, respectively. Higher seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii was recorded in sheep with high flock size. Farmers using set stocking management had lower seroprevalence toxoplasmosis and brucellosis. Toxoplasmosis and brucellosis lowered serum albumin level and liver enzymes activities while, increased serum levels of globulin, urea, triglyceride and cholesterol in ewes. Serum levels of total protein, albumin and urea and the activity of serum aspartate amino transferase were decreased, however serum level of C reactive protein was increased in infected does. These results indicated that toxoplasmosis is widely spread than brucellosis in small ruminants living in the provinces of Nile Delta. Both toxoplasmosis and brucellosis inversely affected animals’ health. Management practices had a role in spread of these agents.
Hamada Hamada Dahy Mahboub
Full Text Available The paper presents the results of a extensive study concerning the parasites andcomplexe problems of the poly-parasitism on sheep and goats in Dobrudja. In thispaper we proposed ourselves to establish the sheep and goats endoparasites, thedistribution and frequency of these function to age, sex and maintenance conditions.The increase of morbidity through parasitical diseases, as well as the ecological andeconomic consequences of poly-parasitism represent a important problem in theintegration conditions of Romania in UE and imposes to apply some efficientmethods of prophylaxis and control of parasitosis and parasito- zoonozis. Thedrawing of copro-parazitologic samples was effected directly from rectum of sheepand goats, testing 10% of each lot, during grazing season and in period of keepingin sheds. The copro-parasitological examinations were carried out ovoscopicaly(flotation, by next methods: Willis, Mc. Master and sediment, by Benedect-Nemesseri and polyvalent methods, as well as larvoscopicaly by Baermann method.After copro-parasitological examinations of samples which were harvested fromthese animals it comes out that both sheep and goats presents poly-parasitism withsporozoa (coccidiae: Eimeria spp. , cestodae (Moniezia expansa and Monieziabenedeni, gastro-intestinal nematodes (Nematodirus spp. ,Trichostrongylidae,Strongyloides papillosus and pulmonary nematodes (Protostrongylus rufescens,Dictyocaulus filaria, Muellerius capillaris, the degree of parasitical infestationdepending on species, age, sex, maintenance conditions and environmental factors.
Charge state of an ion can precisely be tuned in an Electron Bean Ion-charge Breeding Source (EBIBS) and further the highly pure beam of common or rare species can be extracted for various applications in medical, material, atomic, nuclear and other science and engineering. It has been envisaged that the ion source under study will be highly beneficial for the rare isotope project at our centre. An EBIBS essentially consists of a high perveance electron gun to generate electron beam up to >10A using proper design and a superconducting solenoid of ?1.2m length and ?5T axial magnetic field and a water cooled electron collector and ion extractor chamber. It is very important to study the electron beam optics throughout the source for smooth transmission and compatible design of subsystems. The gun will be using cathode, which will project axially high current beam under magnetic field. A large number of thin combined electric and magnetic lenses have been modelled to study the individual projected electrons as well as whole electron beam throughout the length with and without space charge effect. The electron optical details are presented. (author)
The conversion of low charged ions, which can be produced from a broad spectrum of elements up to exotic, radioactive species, to highly charged ions is called charge breeding, which is an important experimental technique for, e.g., efficient post-acceleration or high-precision nuclear and atomic physics experiments. This work demonstrates the feasibility of charge breeding with compact, room-temperature operated electron beam ion sources of the Dresden EBIS/T type. The sources Dresden EBIT and EBIS-A were characterized as charge breeders by simulations of ion capture as well as ion injection and re-extraction experiments. Properties which are critical for charge breeding, such as electron beam density, ionization factor, acceptance, as well as injection and breeding efficiency, were investigated. Further on, in case of the EBIS-A, emittance studies of the injected as well as re-extracted beam were carried out. In addition to the measurements concentrating on charge breeding itself, this experimental technique was used to measure electron impaction ionization cross sections of gold ions from Au38+ up to Au46+ at an electron energy of 11.5 keV. Comparing the measured values to semi - empirical as well as theoretical calculations, it was found that for the ionization of the 4d and 4p electrons of gold ions in this energy region not only direct electron impact ionization but also excitation - autoionization processes have to be considered in order to achieve a good agreement of theory and experiment.
The onset and distribution of infectivity and disease-specific prion protein (PrP(d)) accumulation was studied in Romney and Suffolk sheep of the ARQ/ARQ, ARQ/ARR and ARR/ARR prion protein gene (Prnp) genotypes (where A stands for alanine, R for arginine and Q for glutamine at codons 136, 154 and 171 of PrP), following experimental oral infection with cattle-derived bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) agent. Groups of sheep were killed at regular intervals and a wide range of tissues taken for mouse bioassay or immunohistochemistry (IHC), or both. Bioassay results for infectivity were mostly coincident with those of PrP(d) detection by IHC both in terms of tissues and time post infection. Neither PrP(d) nor infectivity was detected in any tissues of BSE-dosed ARQ/ARR or ARR/ARR sheep or of undosed controls. Moreover, four ARQ/ARQ Suffolk sheep, which were methionine (M)/threonine heterozygous at codon 112 of the Prnp gene, did not show any biological or immunohistochemical evidence of infection, while those homozygous for methionine (MARQ/MARQ) did. In MARQ/MARQ sheep of both breeds, initial PrP(d) accumulation was identified in lymphoreticular system (LRS) tissues followed by the central nervous system (CNS) and enteric nervous system (ENS) and finally by the autonomic nervous system and peripheral nervous system and other organs. Detection of infectivity closely mimicked this sequence. No PrP(d) was observed in the ENS prior to its accumulation in the CNS, suggesting that ENS involvement occurred simultaneously to that of, or followed centrifugal spread from, the CNS. The distribution of PrP(d) within the ENS further suggested a progressive spread from the ileal plexus to other ENS segments via neuronal connections of the gut wall. Differences between the two breeds were noted in terms of involvement of LRS and ENS tissues, with Romney sheep showing a more delayed and less consistent PrP(d) accumulation than Suffolk sheep in such tissues. Whether this accounted for the slight delay (?5 months) in the appearance of clinical signs in Romney sheep is debatable since by the last scheduled kill before animals reached clinical end point, both breeds showed widespread accumulation and similar magnitudes of PrP(d) accumulation in the brain. PMID:25435510
McGovern, G; Martin, S; Jeffrey, M; Bellworthy, S J; Spiropoulos, J; Green, R; Lockey, R; Vickery, C M; Thurston, L; Dexter, G; Hawkins, S A C; González, L
The present study was carried out to determine the effect of ewes breeds on some blood biochemical and hormones levels during mating, pregnancy and post.partum periods. A total number of 42 ewes, 1.5 . 3.5 years of age with body weight ranged between 45 to 55 kg from breeding flock in Research Farm of Nuclear Research Centre, Atomic Energy Authority were used in this study. Animals were divided into two groups according to their breed. The first group included 18 Ossimi breed ewes and the second group included 24 Rahmani breed ewes. Blood samples were collected from both breed at 10, 20, 30, 50, 100, 120, 140, and 145 days up to parturitions and at 30 and 60 days of post. partum. Serum total lipids and cholesterol, progesterone (P4) and estradiol . 17? (E2) were determined. It was found that Ossimi ewes had lower level of both sexual hormones than Rahmani once. Plasma progesterone and estradiol-17 ? levels increased gradually as pregnancy time passed reaching its maximum level at the 140th day of the pregnancy period in Rahmani and Ossimi, then decreased during the last 5 days. Additionally, Rahmani ewes had relatively higher mean values of estradiol-17 ? at 30th and 60th days compared with Ossime ewes. While, the least squares mean of progesterone decreased in Rahmani ewes compared with Ossime ewes at the same time of estimation. Ossimi ewes having higher means of total lipids (L) and cholesterol (C) than in Rahmani ewes while, the values of L/C ratio were found te, the values of L/C ratio were found to be higher in Rahmani ewes than Ossimi ones. Total lipids level increased gradually from Farghaly et al., J. Rad. Res. Appl. Sci., Vol. 1318 4, No. 4(B) (2011) 10th days of pregnancy from 273.09 and 267.75mg/dI to 342.92 and 338.9 mg/dl in 145th days in Ossimi and Rahmani ewes, respectively. Similarly, the levels of cholesterol were 93.49 and 90.35 mg /dl in 10th days of pregnancy and 134.79 and 141.81 mg/dl in 145th days of pregnancy for Ossimi and Rahmani ewes, respectively. The same trend was found for the plasma value of L/G ratio due to the effect of days of pregnancy
The effect of photoperiod on sexual activity was investigated in Sardi and D'man ewes. Twenty ewes from each breed were subjected to an experimental photoperiod corresponding to latitude 56 deg. N. Control ewes (12 per breed) were maintained under natural photoperiod (32 deg. N). Behavioural oestrus and ovarian activity were monitored using penis deviated rams and plasma progesterone levels. Preliminary results from this study show that an increase in amplitude of photoperiod variations causes a decrease in the expression of oestrous behaviour in D'man ewes during the period of decreasing daylight. Ovarian activity remained unchanged. Sardi ewes were not markedly affected by change in photoperiod. (author). 13 refs, 3 figs, 1 tab
Full Text Available Determining urea concentration in milk is a useful indicator for controlling supply of proteins to organisms, as well as the relationship of energy and protein in the food, thus it is finding more and more ways of practical use. The concentration of urea in milk, along with the feeding process, is influenced by a number of other factors such as: breed, stage and sequence of lactation, body mass, daily production and chemical structure of milk, number of somatic cells, season, milking.The goal of the research was to establish the influence of the breed (Island of Krk, East Frisian, lactation stage (beginning, middle and the end and the herd (3 to the concentration of urea in milk during lactation.For each breed there has been established daily quantity of milk, protein share and the concentration of urea in milk.Statistical analysis of data was conducted by using General Linear Models procedure, SAS program system (1999.The breed of sheep considerably (P<0.001 influenced daily quantity of milk, protein share and the concentration of urea in the milk.East Frisian sheep produced on average almost double the daily quantities of milk (1070 mL compared to the Krk sheep (588 mL.Protein share and the urea concentration in Krk sheep milk were higher (5.99 % and 35.97 mg/100 mL then in the milk of East Frisian sheep (5.12 % and 33.31 mg/100 mL.For both breeds the significant influence of lactation stage to the daily milk quantity has been established (0.001, that is also for the urea concentration in the milk of Krk sheep (0.001, as well as protein share in the milk of East Frisian sheep (0.001.Herd influence significantly affected daily milk quantities (0.001 and concentration of urea in the milk (0.05.The defining of the urea concentration in sheep milk should be occasionally carried out in the Republic of Croatia to establish the standard physiological values typical for the particular sheep breed.
Kari sheep is an important genetic resource of Pakistan endemic to Chitral in North Western Frontier Province of Pakistan. The objective of the present study was to establish karyotype of this breed. Blood samples from five representative specimens of Kari sheep, including one ram and four ewes, were examined for chromosomal spread from metaphase of the lymphocyte culture. Animals for this purpose were brought to Peshawar, as traveling to nearest laboratory with 12 hours was difficult. The ho...
Khan, S. Ahmad And M. S.
Full Text Available Objetivou-se estimar parâmetros genéticos para características de crescimento em ovinos da raça Somalis Brasileira. Os dados utilizados neste estudo foram provenientes do rebanho da Embrapa Caprinos e Ovinos, localizado na cidade de Sobral - CE. Os dados continham registros de 1.120 animais no arqui [...] vo de pedigree. As características analisadas foram: peso ao nascer (PN), peso ao desmame (PD), ganho de peso do nascimento ao desmame (GND) e peso adulto (PA). As estimativas dos componentes de (co)variâncias e os parâmetros genéticos foram obtidos pelo método da Máxima Verossimilhança Restrita não Derivativa (DFREML), utilizando o programa MTDFREML. Nas análises unicaracterística, as herdabilidades foram de magnitude baixa a moderada. As magnitudes das herdabilidades maternas foram todas superiores às herdabilidades diretas. As herdabilidades das análises multicaracterísticas entre PN, PD e GND superaram as análises unicaracterísticas. As correlações genéticas apresentaram grande variação quanto aos seus valores. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to estimate genetic parameters for growth traits in Somalis Brasileira hair sheep breed. The data used in this study were from the flock of Embrapa Caprinos and Ovinos, located in the city of Sobral - CE, Brazil. Data contained records of 1,120 animals in the pedigree file. [...] The analyzed traits were birth weight (PN), weaning weight (PD), weight gain from birth to weaning (GND) and adult weight (PA). Estimates of (co)variances and genetic parameters were obtained by Derivative Free Restricted Maximum Likelihood Method (DFREML) using the MTDFREML software. The heritabilities were low to moderate in univariate analysis. The maternal heritabilities were higher than direct heritabilities. The heritabilities in multivariate analysis exceeded those in univariate analysis. The values of genetic correlations varied widely.
Ana Fabrícia Braga, Magalhães; Raimundo Nonato Braga, Lobo; Olivardo, Facó.
This paper summarizes the results of studies to enhance the performance of Dresden Electron Beam Ion Traps regarding aspects which are important for charge breeding, i.e. the injection of externally produced low charged ions and their conversion to highly charged ions. The properties of the electron beam of this compact room-temperature operated EBIT were investigated via position sensitive X-ray detection. A detailed analysis of the spatial distribution as well as the energy of the X-ray photons emitted from the electron beam region allowed for the determination of the source parameters needed to guarantee optimal ion trapping conditions and ionization rates. The parameters found in this investigation were applied for the successful realization of charge breeding with the Dresden EBIT.
Relationship of intestinal histology with the resistance to Trichostrongylus colubriformis infection in three breeds of sheep / Associação entre a resposta celular no intestino e a resistência à infecção por Trichostrongylus colubriformis em três raças de ovinos
Full Text Available Avaliaram-se a associação entre o número de células inflamatórias no intestino delgado e a resistência à infecção por Trichostrongylus colubriformis em ovinos de três raças (Santa Inês, Suffolk e Ile de France), naturalmente infectados. Mastócitos, eosinófilos e leucócitos globulares foram quantific [...] ados na mucosa intestinal. A concentração de histamina foi estimada em amostras teciduais do intestino, bem como foi determinado o comprimento de machos e fêmeas de T. colubriformis. A resposta celular foi similar na mucosa intestinal das três raças ovinas (P>0,05). Houve grande variação entre os ovinos em relação aos resultados parasitológicos e celulares, mesmo nos animais de mesma raça. Em geral, os animais que apresentaram número menor de células inflamatórias tiveram cargas parasitárias maiores, contagens de ovos por grama de fezes mais altas e exemplares de T. colubriformis maiores. Os resultados indicaram que mastócitos, eosinófilos e leucócitos globulares prejudicaram o estabelecimento, o desenvolvimento e a sobrevivência dos parasitas. Abstract in english The study was carried out to evaluate the relationship of inflammatory intestinal cells with the resistance to Trichostrongylus colubriformis infections in three breeds of sheep (Santa Ines, Suffolk and Ile de France), naturally infected. Mast cells, eosinophils, and globule leucocytes were enumerat [...] ed in intestinal mucosa. Histamine concentration was estimated in intestinal tissue samples and the length of male and female specimens were determined. The three breeds of sheep showed similar cellular response in the small intestine mucosa (P>0.05). There was extensive variation among sheep in the parasitological and inflammatory cell variables, even in lambs of the same breed. In general, animals presenting less inflammatory cells had a larger worm burden, higher fecal egg counts, and larger T. colubriformis worms. The inflammatory cells possibly impaired the parasite's establishment, development, and survival.
Alessandro F.T., Amarante; Raquel A., Rocha; Patrizia A., Bricarello.
Relationship of intestinal histology with the resistance to Trichostrongylus colubriformis infection in three breeds of sheep Associação entre a resposta celular no intestino e a resistência à infecção por Trichostrongylus colubriformis em três raças de ovinos
Full Text Available The study was carried out to evaluate the relationship of inflammatory intestinal cells with the resistance to Trichostrongylus colubriformis infections in three breeds of sheep (Santa Ines, Suffolk and Ile de France, naturally infected. Mast cells, eosinophils, and globule leucocytes were enumerated in intestinal mucosa. Histamine concentration was estimated in intestinal tissue samples and the length of male and female specimens were determined. The three breeds of sheep showed similar cellular response in the small intestine mucosa (P>0.05. There was extensive variation among sheep in the parasitological and inflammatory cell variables, even in lambs of the same breed. In general, animals presenting less inflammatory cells had a larger worm burden, higher fecal egg counts, and larger T. colubriformis worms. The inflammatory cells possibly impaired the parasite's establishment, development, and survival.Avaliaram-se a associação entre o número de células inflamatórias no intestino delgado e a resistência à infecção por Trichostrongylus colubriformis em ovinos de três raças (Santa Inês, Suffolk e Ile de France, naturalmente infectados. Mastócitos, eosinófilos e leucócitos globulares foram quantificados na mucosa intestinal. A concentração de histamina foi estimada em amostras teciduais do intestino, bem como foi determinado o comprimento de machos e fêmeas de T. colubriformis. A resposta celular foi similar na mucosa intestinal das três raças ovinas (P>0,05. Houve grande variação entre os ovinos em relação aos resultados parasitológicos e celulares, mesmo nos animais de mesma raça. Em geral, os animais que apresentaram número menor de células inflamatórias tiveram cargas parasitárias maiores, contagens de ovos por grama de fezes mais altas e exemplares de T. colubriformis maiores. Os resultados indicaram que mastócitos, eosinófilos e leucócitos globulares prejudicaram o estabelecimento, o desenvolvimento e a sobrevivência dos parasitas.
Alessandro F.T. Amarante
Full Text Available SciELO Peru | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El objetivo del presente estudio fue determinar la frecuencia de los virus de la Diarrea Viral Bovina (VDVB) y de la Enfermedad de la Frontera (VEF) en ovinos reproductores procedentes de una empresa ovejera de la sierra central del país. Se colectaron muestras de sangre de ovinos reproductores hemb [...] ras (n=165) y machos (n=165) aparentemente sanos, con un promedio de edad de cuatro años, y criados en forma extensiva. Los anticuerpos contra VDVB y VEF se detectaron mediante la prueba de neutralización viral. El 2.1 ± 1.5% (7/330) y 28.5 ± 4.9% (94/330) de ovinos reproductores tuvieron anticuerpos contra el VDVB y VEF, respectivamente, con títulos de anticuerpos de 1:2 a 1:16. Se encontró asociación significativa entre el sexo del animal y la presencia de anticuerpos contra el VEF (hembras: 53.3 ± 7.6%; machos: 3.6 ± 2.9%) (p Abstract in english The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of Bovine Viral Diarrhea virus (BVDV) and Border Disease virus (BDV) in breeding sheep from a large cooperative farm in the central highlands of Peru. Blood samples from apparently healthy sheep of 4 years old, both sexes (female = 165; ma [...] le = 165) were collected for antibodies detection against BVDV and BDV using the virus neutralisation test. The 2.1 ± 1.5% (7/330) and 28.5 ± 4.9% (94/330) of breeding sheep had antibodies against BVDV and BDV respectively, with antibodies titers of 1:2 and 1:16. There was significant association between sex and presence of antibodies against BDV (females: 53.3 ± 7.6%; males: 3.6 ± 2.9%) (p
Nathalie, Llancares A; Hermelinda, Rivera G; Mariluz, Arainga R; Néstor, Falcón P.
Costs and secondary benefits of implementing electronic identification (e-ID) for performance recording (i.e., lambing, body weight, inventory, and milk yield) in dairy and meat ewes were assessed by using the results from a previous study in which manual (M), semiautomatic (SA), and automatic (AU) data collection systems were compared. Ewes were identified with visual ear tags and electronic rumen boluses. The M system used visual identification, on-paper data recording, and manual data uploading to a computer. The SA system used e-ID with a handheld reader in which performances were typed and automatic uploaded to a computer. The use of a personal digital assistant (PDA) for recording and automatic data uploading, which transformed M in a SA system, was also considered. The AU system was only used for BW recording and consisted of e-ID, automatic data recording in an electronic scale, and uploading to a computer. The cost-benefit study was applied to 2 reference sheep farms of 700 meat ewes, under extensive or intensive production systems, and of 400 dairy ewes, practicing once- or twice-a-day machine milkings. Sensitivity analyses under voluntary and mandatory e-ID scenarios were also included. Benefits of using e-ID for SA or AU performance recording mainly depended on sheep farm purpose, number of test days per year, handheld reader and PDA prices, and flock size. Implementing e-ID for SA and AU performance recording saved approximately 50% of the time required by the M system, and increased the reliability of the data collected. Use of e-ID increased the cost of performance recording in a voluntary e-ID scenario, paying only partially the investment made (15 to 70%). For the mandatory e-ID scenario, in which the cost of e-ID devices was not included, savings paid 100% of the extra costs needed for using e-ID in all farm types and conditions. In both scenarios, the reader price was the most important extra cost (40 to 90%) for implementing e-ID in sheep farms. Calculated extra costs of using the PDA covered more than 100% of the implementation costs in all type of sheep farms, indicating that this device was cost-effective for sheep-performance recording. PMID:25282418
Ait-Saidi, A; Caja, G; Salama, A A K; Milán, M J
The genetic polymorphisms of four microsatellite loci BM143, OarHH35, OarAE101, and BMS2508 were analyzed in 286 sheep of seven sheep populations (Small Tail Han sheep, Hu sheep, Ujumqin sheep, Suffolk sheep, Dorset sheep, Charolais sheep, F1 of Dorset male x Small Tail Han female sheep). The numbers of alleles for BM143, OarHH35, OarAE101, and BMS2508 are 9, 11, 14 and 9 in seven sheep populations, respectively. The polymorphism information content/number of effective alleles/ heterozygosity of BM143, OarHH35, OarAE101 and BMS2508 were 0.7073/3.7231/0.7314, 0.8267/6.4399/0.8447, 0.5743/2.5178/0.6028, 0.6172/3.0712/0.6744 in 286 sheep, respectively. The results revealed the greatest genetic variation at OarHH35 locus and the lowest at OarAE101, the greatest genetic variation in Small Tail Han sheep and the lowest in Hu sheep among seven sheep populations. In the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) dendrograms based on Nei's D(A) distance and Nei's D(S) standard genetic distance, the Chinese native breeds (Small Tail Han sheep, Ujumqin sheep, Hu sheep) were grouped together, then with Charolais sheep. The F1 crossbred sheep, and the two British native sheep (Suffolk sheep, Dorset sheep) also clustered together. Microsatellite genotyping in sheep provided a useful tool for examining the genetic relationships among breeds (populations). PMID:15640077
Wang, Ji-Zhen; Chu, Ming-Xing; Wang, Ai-Guo; Li, Ning; Fu, Jin-Lian; Xie, Fang; Chen, Guo-Hong
In this study, 2-dimensional gas chromatography (GC × GC) was used to obtain a detailed fatty acid (FA) profile of sheep milk and to evaluate the effects of a rumen-protected conjugated linoleic acid (rpCLA) supply, breed, days in milk (DIM), sampling period, and number of lambs suckling on the FA profile. Twenty-four ewes, from 3 autochthonous breeds of the Veneto Alps (Brogna, Foza, and Lamon), were housed in 6 pens (2 pens/breed), according to DIM (38±23 d) and body weight (61±13kg). The ewes and their offspring of 3 pens (1 pen/breed) were fed ad libitum a total mixed ration (control), and the other animals received the same diet supplemented with 12 g/d per ewe, plus 4 g/d for each lamb older than 30 d, of an rpCLA mixture. The study lasted 63 d. Two composite milk samples for each ewe were prepared during the first and second months of the trial. The pooled milk samples were analyzed in duplicate for FA profile by 2-dimensional gas chromatography, which allowed us to obtain a detailed FA profile of sheep milk, with 170 different FA detected, including many that were present in small concentrations. The milk relative proportions of individual FA, groups of FA, or FA indices were analyzed by PROC MIXED of SAS (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC), considering diet, breed, DIM, and sampling period as sources of variation. The random effect of animal was used to test diet, breed, and DIM, whereas the effects of period were tested on the residual. Breed had a small influence on milk FA profile, mainly on branched- and odd-chain FA. Within breed, animal repeatability for the relative proportions of milk FA was notable for almost all monounsaturated FA and for saturated FA with 14 to 19 carbon atoms, except C16:0, and less so for polyunsaturated FA. The inclusion of rpCLA (CLA cis-9,trans-11 and CLA trans-10,cis-12) increased the presence of the same CLA isomers in the milk as well as that of CLA trans-9,trans-11, and decreased the proportions of de novo-synthesized short-chain FA. From a cluster analysis based on the matrix of correlation coefficients among all FA relative proportions, 3 main FA groups were observed: the first included mainly odd- or branched-chain saturated FA, C18:0, C16:0 and CLA trans-10,cis-12; the second included monounsaturated FA or polyunsaturated FA with 16 to 20 carbons, CLA cis-9,trans-11, and CLA trans-9,trans-11; and the third included short- to medium-chain saturated FA, polyunsaturated FA with 2 to 5 double bonds, and 3 CLA isomers not affected by rpCLA addition (CLA trans-11,cis-13, CLA cis-9,cis-11, and CLA cis-10,cis-12). PMID:25648807
Pellattiero, E; Cecchinato, A; Tagliapietra, F; Schiavon, S; Bittante, G
The Electron Beam Ion Source particle-in-cell code (EBIS-PIC) tracks ions in an EBIS electron beam while updating electric potential self-consistently and atomic processes by the Monte Carlo method. Recent improvements to the code are reported in this paper. The ionization module has been improved by using experimental ionization energies and shell effects. The acceptance of injected ions and the emittance of extracted ion beam are calculated by extending EBIS-PIC to the beam line transport region. An EBIS-PIC simulation is performed for a Cs charge-breeding experiment at BNL. The charge state distribution agrees well with experiments, and additional simulation results of radial profiles and velocity space distributions of the trapped ions are presented.
Zhao, L., E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Kim, Jin-Soo [FAR-TECH, Inc., San Diego, California 92122 (United States)
The Electron Beam Ion Source particle-in-cell code (EBIS-PIC) tracks ions in an EBIS electron beam while updating electric potential self-consistently and atomic processes by the Monte Carlo method. Recent improvements to the code are reported in this paper. The ionization module has been improved by using experimental ionization energies and shell effects. The acceptance of injected ions and the emittance of extracted ion beam are calculated by extending EBIS-PIC to the beam line transport region. An EBIS-PIC simulation is performed for a Cs charge-breeding experiment at BNL. The charge state distribution agrees well with experiments, and additional simulation results of radial profiles and velocity space distributions of the trapped ions are presented. PMID:24593605
Zhao, L; Kim, Jin-Soo
Sheep fattening farms have been recently growing rapidly to produce better quality of sheep meat and fullfill consumer’s demand. Sheep fattening and breeding farms should be developed proportionally to obtain sustainable sheep flock in the market. Twelve male lambs (less than one year old) were selected based on their average daily gain (ADG), consisting into two groups: 6 fast growing (FG) and 6 slow growing (SG) sheep. Some morphometric parameters in body and head parts of sheep and their...
Yamin, M.; Rahayu, S.; Komariah; Iswahyudi, M.; Rachman, R.
Full Text Available In this study external fat-tail dimensions (upper, middle and lower width, length, length of gap, depth and upper circumference and fat-tail weights collected on 724 Lori-Bakhtiari sheep were used to study external fat-tail dimensions and their relationships with fat-tail weights. Sheep were 3 months to 6 years old and slaughtered at the industrial slaughter house of Joneghan in Chaharmohal and Bakhtiari province in 2003. The mean of fat-tail dimensions were estimated as 15.83, 23.85, 24.73, 26.52, 14.96, 14.12 and 52.59 cm for upper width, middle width, lower width, length, length of gap, depth and upper circumference, respectively. Fat-tail weight varied from 0.10 to 20.60 with overall mean of 2.71 kg. Fat-tail percentage varied from 1.18 to 37.18 with overall mean of 11.87 percent. The effects of fixed factors of age, sex and body condition of sheep on all of traits were highly significant (p
S. R. Miraei-Ashtiani
Abstract Genetic relationships among Turkish sheep breeds were analysed on the basis of 30 microsatellite markers. Phylogenetic analyses based on the estimation of genetic distances revealed the closest relationships for the Akkaraman, Morkaraman and Tuj breeds, which were clearly differentiated from the others in the dendrogram. Our pattern was completely confirmed by results from the Factorial Correspondence Analysis. All the results described analysing either population parameters or indiv...
Kaya Mehmet; Saatci Mustafa; Primitivo Fermín; Arranz Juan-José; Gutiérrez-Gil Beatriz; Uzun Metehan; Bayón Yolanda
Domestic sheep (Ovis aries) belongs to order Artiod actyla. Despite its great economic importance, not much work has been done in Pakistan on breeding and genetics of sheep. Present research was initiated to analyze DNA based genetic diversity in Pakistani breeds of sheep. Total genomic DNA was isolated from blood of Rambouillet, Kaghani and Ramghani breeds. Polymerase Chain Reactions (PCR) were carried out using six Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) primers. Amplified fragments range...
Full Text Available Abstract Genetic relationships among Turkish sheep breeds were analysed on the basis of 30 microsatellite markers. Phylogenetic analyses based on the estimation of genetic distances revealed the closest relationships for the Akkaraman, Morkaraman and Tuj breeds, which were clearly differentiated from the others in the dendrogram. Our pattern was completely confirmed by results from the Factorial Correspondence Analysis. All the results described analysing either population parameters or individuals revealed a clear separation between the fat-tailed group and the others. These results, based on nuclear DNA, are discussed along with those already reported for these breeds through the investigation of mitochondrial DNA, which had revealed the invaluable significance of the genetic background of these Turkish sheep.
Full Text Available To assess the factors that influence the survival time of sheep affected by sheep pox or enterotoxaemia, 150 sheep farms affected by sheep pox (108 and enterotoxaemia (42 were selected through multistage random sampling technique from the purposively selected Dharmapuri district of Tamil Nadu. Relevant data were collected for the period of two years (2000-01 and 2001-02. The data so collected were used to fit Cox hazard functional models separately for each disease. One unit increase in breed and veterinary care indicators in sheep pox affected flock would increase the hazard rate by 10.49 and 15.61%, respectively. Similarly, one unit increase in age and vaccination would decrease hazard rate by 66.40 and 67.23%, respectively. The relative risk for the non-provision of veterinary care indicated that the risk of dying was 4.16 times higher for an animal provided with no veterinary care, compared to the one, which received veterinary care. One unit increase in breed and veterinary care indicators in enterotoxaemia affected flock would increase the hazard rate by 78.00 and 2.43%, respectively. Similarly, a unit increase in deworming would decrease the hazard rate by 36.01%. The relative risk for the non-provision of veterinary care indicated that the estimated risk of dying is 3.02 times higher for an animal provided with no veterinary care, compared to the one, which received veterinary care.
Full Text Available The research was carried out on 4,030 Polish Merino ewes born in the years 1991- 2001, kept in 15 flocks from the Pomorze and Kujawy region. Fertility of ewes in subsequent reproduction seasons was analysed with the use of multiple logistic regression. The research showed that there is a statistical influence of the flock, year of birth, age of dam, flock year interaction of birth on the ewes fertility. In order to estimate the genetic parameters, the Gibbs sampling method was applied, using the univariate animal models, both linear as well as threshold. Estimates of fertility depending on the model equalled 0.067 to 0.104, whereas the estimates of repeatability equalled respectively: 0.076 and 0.139. The obtained genetic parameters were then used to estimate the breeding values of the animals in terms of controlled trait (Best Linear Unbiased Prediction method using linear and threshold models. The obtained animal breeding values rankings in respect of the same trait with the use of linear and threshold models were strongly correlated with each other (rs = 0.972. Negative genetic trends of fertility (0.01-0.08% per year were found.
The mineral requirements of dairy sheep under semi-intensive and intensive management systems are reviewed. Basically, mineral requirements obtained with mutton breeds are supplemented with specific information obtained with dairy sheep. The daily requirements of sheep in major elements have been estimated using the factorial method, first to calculate the net requirements during maintenance, growth, reproduction and lactation, and second to assess the efficiency of absorption for converting net requirements into dietary allowance. The requirements in trace elements were estimated from the results of feeding trials. The choice of values for endogenous losses and particularly the precision with which efficiency of absorption can be predicted are the main sources of error in estimates of dietary allowances, especially when efficiency of absorption is low. The net requirements in major elements are given for maintenance, pregnancy and lactation, together with the recommended coefficients of absorption. Dietary requirements in trace elements are expressed as milligram per kilogram dry matter. The requirements in all nutrients and particularly in Ca and P increase during late pregnancy, especially during lactation. The requirements during lactation mainly reflect milk composition, the level of milk yield and lactation length, but also the feed intake level. The factors related to the confinement, feeding and management of dairy breeds, which differ from those of mutton breeds, may affect their mineral requirements. Changes in husbandry practices resulting in increased production may increase the stress on the animal and therefore alter its metabolic equilibrium. Direct supplementation of the diet of dairy sheep is the cheapest and most convenient method of mineral supplementation. The cost is outweighed by the enhanced performance of sheep. Determination of the mineral composition of feedstuffs available for feeding dairy sheep indicates the type and level of mineral supplementation needed. (author)
Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to study genetic diversity in Indonesian sheep population using microsatellite markers. A total of 18 microsatellite loci have been used for genotyping Indonesian sheep. Total sheep blood 200 samples were extracted from garut sheep of fighting and meat types, purbalingga sheep, batur sheep and jember sheep populations by using a salting out method. Microsatellite loci data were analyzed using POPGENE 3.2 software. Based on this study obtained 180 alleles from 17 microsatellite loci, while average number of alleles was 6.10 alleles (6 to 18 alleles from five Indonesian sheep populations (garut sheep of fighting type, garut sheep of meat type, purbalingga sheep, batur sheep and jember sheep population. The average of observed heterozygosity (Ho and expected heterozygosity (He values were 0.5749 and 0.6896, respectively, while the genetic differentiation for inbreeding among population (FIS, within population (FIT and average genetic differentiation (FST were 0.1006, 0.1647 and 0.0712, respectively. Genetic distance and genetic tree showed that Indonesian sheep population was distinct from garut sheep of fighting and meat types, purbalingga sheep, batur sheep and jember sheep population. Based on this results were needed a strategy for conservation and breeding programs in each Indonesian sheep population.
Sheep scab mites, Psoroptes ovis, collected from a Merino donor sheep, were used to infest Merino and Dorper sheep, and Angora and Boer goats. Mites were placed on the sheep on 1 or 2 occasions and on 5 occasions on the goats. All the animals were examined at regular intervals for the presence of scab lesions and living mites. Both sheep breeds developed lesions, but those on the Merino sheep were always larger than those on the Dorper sheep at the same intervals after in...
Meintjies, T.; Fourie, L. J.; Horak, I. G.
The domestication of livestock represented a crucial step in human history. By using endogenous retroviruses as genetic markers, we found that sheep differentiated on the basis of their "retrotype" and morphological traits dispersed across Eurasia and Africa via separate migratory episodes. Relicts of the first migrations include the Mouflon, as well as breeds previously recognized as "primitive" on the basis of their morphology, such as the Orkney, Soay, and the Nordic short-tailed sheep now confined to the periphery of northwest Europe. A later migratory episode, involving sheep with improved production traits, shaped the great majority of present-day breeds. The ability to differentiate genetically primitive sheep from more modern breeds provides valuable insights into the history of sheep domestication
Chessa, Bernado; Pereira, Filipe
Full Text Available Com o objetivo de observar os efeitos do sombreamento propiciado pela tela de polipropileno sobre o comportamento de ovinos da raça Santa Inês em diferentes épocas do ano, montou-se um experimento em Petrolina, PE, no período de junho a novembro de 2010. Utilizaram-se 40 animais distribuídos em igual quantidade em dois tratamentos (Sombreado e Não sombreado com oferta de pastagem (Tiffton 85 irrigada. Foram feitas aferições dos dados meteorológicos em todas as épocas, com a montagem de termômetros de globo negro e psicrômetros nas duas áreas e de uma mini-estação meteorológica na área sombreada. Nessas épocas foram realizados ensaios de comportamento tendo-se feito observações visuais pelo método da varredura instantânea em intervalos de 10 min no período diurno, verificando-se o percentual de animais quanto à alimentação, ruminação e ócio, a partir da metodologia proposta por Johnson & Combs (1991 adaptada para o tempo de 12h. O sombreamento não influenciou no número de animais em referência às atividades avaliadas nos diferentes tratamentos. A procura por sombra foi intensa nos períodos mais quentes do dia para a atividade de ócio.With the goal of observing the effects of shade provided by polypropylene screen on the behaviour of Santa Inês sheep, in different times of year, an experiment was set up in Petrolina, PE, in the period from June to November 2010. Forty animals divided into equal quantity in two treatments (shaded and non-shaded were used with supply of irrigated pastures (Tiffton 85. Measurements of meteorological data were made at all times, with the assembly of black globe thermometers and psychrometers in the two areas, and a mini-weather station, at the shaded area. Under these conditions a trials was carried out on behavior of animals, being made visual observations by the method of instantaneous scan at intervals of 10 min during the daytime period, checking the percentage of animals under food, rumination and leisure using the methodology proposed by Johnson & Combs (1991, adapted for a period of 12 h. The shading did not influence the number of animals under the activities evaluated in different treatments. The search for shade was intense in the hottest periods of the day for leisure activity.
Fabiano A. de Oliveira
Full Text Available Com o objetivo de observar os efeitos do sombreamento propiciado pela tela de polipropileno sobre o comportamento de ovinos da raça Santa Inês em diferentes épocas do ano, montou-se um experimento em Petrolina, PE, no período de junho a novembro de 2010. Utilizaram-se 40 animais distribuídos em igua [...] l quantidade em dois tratamentos (Sombreado e Não sombreado) com oferta de pastagem (Tiffton 85) irrigada. Foram feitas aferições dos dados meteorológicos em todas as épocas, com a montagem de termômetros de globo negro e psicrômetros nas duas áreas e de uma mini-estação meteorológica na área sombreada. Nessas épocas foram realizados ensaios de comportamento tendo-se feito observações visuais pelo método da varredura instantânea em intervalos de 10 min no período diurno, verificando-se o percentual de animais quanto à alimentação, ruminação e ócio, a partir da metodologia proposta por Johnson & Combs (1991) adaptada para o tempo de 12h. O sombreamento não influenciou no número de animais em referência às atividades avaliadas nos diferentes tratamentos. A procura por sombra foi intensa nos períodos mais quentes do dia para a atividade de ócio. Abstract in english With the goal of observing the effects of shade provided by polypropylene screen on the behaviour of Santa Inês sheep, in different times of year, an experiment was set up in Petrolina, PE, in the period from June to November 2010. Forty animals divided into equal quantity in two treatments (shaded [...] and non-shaded) were used with supply of irrigated pastures (Tiffton 85). Measurements of meteorological data were made at all times, with the assembly of black globe thermometers and psychrometers in the two areas, and a mini-weather station, at the shaded area. Under these conditions a trials was carried out on behavior of animals, being made visual observations by the method of instantaneous scan at intervals of 10 min during the daytime period, checking the percentage of animals under food, rumination and leisure using the methodology proposed by Johnson & Combs (1991), adapted for a period of 12 h. The shading did not influence the number of animals under the activities evaluated in different treatments. The search for shade was intense in the hottest periods of the day for leisure activity.
Fabiano A. de, Oliveira; Sílvia H. N., Turco; Gherman G. L . de, Aaraújo; Carlos A. A., Clemente; Tadeu V., Voltolini; Marlon S., Garrido.
Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Heredabilidades para pesos al nacer (PN) y destete (PD) en ovinos de la raza Chiapas se estimaron a partir de los registros de corderos nacidos entre 1991 y 2006. El pedigrí incluyó 53 carneros, 523 ovejas y 1,326 corderos. Se compararon seis modelos utilizando el Criterio de Información Akaike (Aka [...] ike Information Criterion, AIC). El modelo 1 incluyó los efectos genéticos directos aditivos. El modelo 2 igual al modelo 1 más los efectos permanentes del medio ambiente. Los modelos 3 y 4 fueron como el modelo 1 más los efectos maternos con cov(directa, maternal) (?am) igual a 0 para el modelo 3, mientras que para el modelo 4, ?am ? 0. Los modelos 5 y 6 corresponden a los modelos 3 y 4 adicionados con efectos ambientales permanentes. Los efectos de año, tipo y número de parto y sexo fueron incluidos en todos los modelos. La edad al destete fue agregada como covariable en la estimación de peso al destete. Los análisis mostraron al modelo 6 como el más adecuado para ambos caracteres, siendo el más completo y el criterio de comparación fue el menor. Los valores obtenidos de heredabilidad directos y maternos, así como los correspondientes a efectos maternos ambientales permanentes fueron 0.15 ± 0.09, 0.24 ± 0.09, 0.11 ± 0.08 para PN y 0.14 ± 0.09, 0.09 ± 0.08, 0.08 ± 0.06 para PD, respectivamente, siendo las correlaciones fenotípica 0.34±0.03 y genética 0.81±0.18. Estos son los primeros valores obtenidos de parámetros genéticos para PN y PD en la raza Chiapas. Abstract in english Variance components and heritabilities for birth (BW) and weaning weights (WW) were estimated in the local Chiapas sheep breed using data from animals born between 1991 and 2006. The pedigree contained 53 rams, 523 ewes, and 1,326 lambs. Six models were compared to estimate heritabilities of BW and [...] WW using the difference (?i) between the ith model and the best model from the Akaike information criterion (AIC). Model 1 contained additive genetic effects. Model 2 was as Model 1 plus permanent maternal environmental effects. Models 3 and 4 were as Model 1 plus maternal effects with cov(direct, maternal) equal to zero 0 for Model 3 and equal to ?am for Model 4. Models 5 and 6 were as Models 3 and 4 plus permanent environmental effects. Fixed effects of year, type and number of birth and sex were included in all models for both traits. Age at weaning was added as covariate for WW models. Model 6 was preferred for both traits because it accounted for direct and maternal effects and their correlation as well as maternal permanent environmental effects and the criteria for comparison were the smallest. Direct and maternal heritability as well as the permanent maternal environment estimates were 0.15±0.09, 0.24±0.09, 0.11±0.08 for BW and 0.14± 0.09, 0.09 ±0.08, 0.08±0.06 for WW, respectively, and the phenotypic (0.34±0.03) and genetic (0.81±0.18) correlation from model 6. These are the first estimates of genetic parameters for BW and WW in the Chiapas sheep breed.
Reyes, López-Ordaz; Iván, Olivera-Vega; José M., Berruecos Villalobos; Marisela, Peralta-Lailson; Raúl, Ulloa-Arvizu; Carlos G., Vásquez Peláez.
Full Text Available Indigenous sheep of Kenya are very important to resource-poor farmers and pastoralists. They have over time adapted to the harsh environmental conditions of the arid and semi-arid lands where they are faced with challenges of persistent droughts, diseases, conflicts and poor nutrition, yet show resi [...] stance to gastrointestinal nematodes. In recent years, these indigenous sheep populations have been crossbred indiscriminately to exotic breeds particularly the Dorper. A study was undertaken to determine the level of genetic diversity and relatedness between the various sheep populations and breeds of Kenya. This paper reports results on the genetic diversity and admixture observed using microsatellite DNA markers.
A.W.T., Muigai; A.M., Okeyo; A.K., Kwallah; D., Mburu; O., Hanotte.
Modelos linear e não linear em análises genéticas para sobrevivência de crias de ovinos da raça Santa Inês / Linear and nonlinear models in genetic analyses of lamb survival in the Santa Inês hair sheep breed
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Registros de sobrevivência do nascimento ao desmame de 3846 crias de ovinos da raça Santa Inês foram analisados por modelos de reprodutor linear e não linear (modelo de limiar), para estimar componentes de variância e herdabilidade. Os modelos usados para sobrevivência, analisada como característica [...] da cria, incluíram os efeitos fixos de sexo, da combinação tipo de nascimento-criação da cria e da idade da ovelha ao parto, efeito da covariável peso da cria ao nascer e efeitos aleatórios de reprodutor, da classe rebanho-ano-estação e do resíduo. Componentes de variância para o modelo linear foram estimados pelo método da máxima verossimilhança restrita (REML) e para o modelo não linear por uma aproximação da máxima verossimilhança marginal (MML), pelo programa CMMAT2. O coeficiente de herdabilidade (h²) estimado pelo modelo de limiar foi de 0,29, e pelo modelo linear, 0,14. A correlação de ordem de Spearman entre as capacidades de transmissão dos reprodutores, com base nos dois modelos foi de 0,96. As estimativas de h² obtidas indicam a possibilidade de se obter, por seleção, ganho genético para sobrevivência. Abstract in english Records of 3,846 lambs survival from birth to weaning of Santa Inês hair sheep breed, were analyzed by linear and non linear sire models (threshold model) to estimate variance components and heritability (h²). The models that were used to analyze survival, considered in this study as a lamb trait, i [...] ncluded the fixed effects of sex of the lamb, combination of type of birth-rearing of lamb, and age of ewe, birth weight of lamb as covariate, and random effects of sire, herd-year-season and residual. Variance components were obtained using restricted maximum likelihood (REML), in linear model and marginal maximum likelihood in threshold model through CMMAT2 program. Estimate of heritability (h²) obtained by threshold model was 0.29 and by linear model was 0.14. Rank correlation of Spearman, between sire solutions based on the two models was 0.96. The obtained estimates in this study indicate that it is possible to acquire genetic gain to survival by selection.
W.H., Sousa; C.S., Pereira; F.L.R., Silva.
Modelos linear e não linear em análises genéticas para sobrevivência de crias de ovinos da raça Santa Inês Linear and nonlinear models in genetic analyses of lamb survival in the Santa Inês hair sheep breed
Full Text Available Registros de sobrevivência do nascimento ao desmame de 3846 crias de ovinos da raça Santa Inês foram analisados por modelos de reprodutor linear e não linear (modelo de limiar, para estimar componentes de variância e herdabilidade. Os modelos usados para sobrevivência, analisada como característica da cria, incluíram os efeitos fixos de sexo, da combinação tipo de nascimento-criação da cria e da idade da ovelha ao parto, efeito da covariável peso da cria ao nascer e efeitos aleatórios de reprodutor, da classe rebanho-ano-estação e do resíduo. Componentes de variância para o modelo linear foram estimados pelo método da máxima verossimilhança restrita (REML e para o modelo não linear por uma aproximação da máxima verossimilhança marginal (MML, pelo programa CMMAT2. O coeficiente de herdabilidade (h² estimado pelo modelo de limiar foi de 0,29, e pelo modelo linear, 0,14. A correlação de ordem de Spearman entre as capacidades de transmissão dos reprodutores, com base nos dois modelos foi de 0,96. As estimativas de h² obtidas indicam a possibilidade de se obter, por seleção, ganho genético para sobrevivência.Records of 3,846 lambs survival from birth to weaning of Santa Inês hair sheep breed, were analyzed by linear and non linear sire models (threshold model to estimate variance components and heritability (h². The models that were used to analyze survival, considered in this study as a lamb trait, included the fixed effects of sex of the lamb, combination of type of birth-rearing of lamb, and age of ewe, birth weight of lamb as covariate, and random effects of sire, herd-year-season and residual. Variance components were obtained using restricted maximum likelihood (REML, in linear model and marginal maximum likelihood in threshold model through CMMAT2 program. Estimate of heritability (h² obtained by threshold model was 0.29 and by linear model was 0.14. Rank correlation of Spearman, between sire solutions based on the two models was 0.96. The obtained estimates in this study indicate that it is possible to acquire genetic gain to survival by selection.
The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between plasma leptin and FSH concentration in Iranian sheep. Forty female Mehraban and Sanjabi sheep were used. All ewes were cyclic and synchronized with cloprestenol. The ewes were divided into two breed groups: Mehraban breed (n = 20) and Sanjabi breed (n = 20), feeding at maintenance level. On the first and second days of estrus cycle, blood samples were collected from the jugular vein. Ovulation number was determined by endoscopy 7...
Towhidi, A.; Masoumi, R.; Moeini, M. M.; Solgi, H.; Moravej, H.
Sheeppox and goatpox outbreaks occur often in India incurring huge economic loss to the small ruminant industry. This paper describes two sheeppox outbreaks, of which one occurred in an organized sheep breeding farm at Makhdoom (Uttar Pradesh), India, during 2007 and another in goats at the Central Institute of Research on Goats, Makhdoom (Uttar Pradesh), India during 2008. In the first outbreak, a local Muzaffarnagari sheep breed was affected (n=477) with morbidity and mortality rates, respectively, of 100% and 53.9% accompanied by significant productivity losses. In the 2008 outbreaks, a small number of goats were affected without any mortality. The tissue and swabs collected from both the outbreaks were processed and inoculated onto Vero cells, and the causative agent of the outbreaks, capripox virus (CaPV), was isolated. The identity of the virus was confirmed as CaPV based on electron microscopy, experimental pathogenesis in sheep, capripox-specific conventional and real-time PCRs. Sequence analysis of the P32 envelope protein gene revealed that the causative agent of both outbreaks was confirmed as sheeppox virus (SPPV) implying SPPV infection not only in sheep but also goats in India. PMID:20673232
Bhanuprakash, V; Venkatesan, G; Balamurugan, V; Hosamani, M; Yogisharadhya, R; Chauhan, R S; Pande, A; Mondal, B; Singh, R K
A total of 6440 female sheep from Burkina Faso were scored for seven body measurements and four qualitative morphological traits. Sampling included the three main environmental areas and sheep breeds of Burkina Faso: the Sahel area (Burkina-Sahel sheep), the Sudan- Sahel area (Mossi sheep) and the Sudan area (Djallonke sheep). Canonical analyses showed that differences in body measurements between the Sudan and the Sudan-Sahel sheep were small even though most body traits showed higher average values in the Burkina-Sahel sheep: the shortest Mahalanobis distance was found between the Sudan and the Sudan-Sahel populations (1.54), whilst that between the Sudan and the Sahelian populations was the largest (7.88). Discriminant analysis showed that most Sudan (Djallonke) individuals (60.85%) were classified as Sudan-Sahel (Mossi) individuals whilst most Burkina-Sahel individuals were classified into their environmental area of sampling (89.5%). Correspondence analyses indicated that the Burkina-Sahel sheep population clustered together with dropping ears, black and brown colour patterns and presence of wattles, the Sudan sheep were closely associated with long hair and vertical and curled ears and that the Sudan-Sahel sheep did not have clear associations with qualitative phenotypic traits. At the morphological level, the Sudan-Sahel (Mossi) sheep population can be considered a geographical subpopulation belonging to the Djallonke breed, showing some particularities, namelyreed, showing some particularities, namely larger body size, due to the particular environmental condition of the area in which it is managed and a continuous gene flow from Sahelian sheep, The information reported in this study will be the basis for the establishment of further characterization, conservation and selection strategies for Burkina Faso sheep. (author)
Full Text Available Sheep fattening farms have been recently growing rapidly to produce better quality of sheep meat and fullfill consumer’s demand. Sheep fattening and breeding farms should be developed proportionally to obtain sustainable sheep flock in the market. Twelve male lambs (less than one year old were selected based on their average daily gain (ADG, consisting into two groups: 6 fast growing (FG and 6 slow growing (SG sheep. Some morphometric parameters in body and head parts of sheep and their carcass production and composition were measured and compared between the groups. The results show that chest circumference, body height, body length, head length and muzzle, top and bottom neck circumferences of FG sheep were significantly higher than in SG sheep (P0.05. It is concluded that selection of fast growing sheep can be recommended by using some morphometric parameters. The selection would not also negatively affect the weight and percentage of carcass composition.
The main breeds of sheep and goats in The Gambia, the Djallonke sheep and West African Dwarf goats are trypanotolerant. The Djallonke sheep, however, have a higher degree of trypanotolerance than the WAD goats. This trait is genetically linked although the mechanism of trypanotolerance is different from the one in cattle. It is defined as a resilience to infection rather than resistance. Both breeds are well adapted to the locally prevailing diseases and environmental conditions under which t...
Osaer, S.; Goossens, B.
Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english Arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AA-NAT) is critical enzyme in Melatonin (MLT) biosynthesis for MLT regulating the animal seasonal breeding. In this study, DNA sequencing methods were applied to detect the polymorphisms of the AA-NAT gene in 179 Chinese sheep belonging to two non-seasonal reprodu [...] ction breeds and two seasonal reproduction breeds. One mutation at exon 3 (NM_001009461:c.486A > G) was ?rstly described at the sheep AA-NAT locus. Hence, we described the SmaI PCR-RFLP method for detecting EX3 486A > G mutation, frequencies of the AA-NAT-G allele varied from 0.871 to 0.908 in two non-seasonal reproduction breeds and 0.517 to 0.578 in two seasonal reproduction breeds. The associations of SmaI polymorphism with estrus traits was analyzed in non-seasonal reproduction breeds sheep and seasonal reproduction breeds sheep, the signi?cant statistical results were found between them, the GG genotype frequencies was higher in non-seasonal reproduction breeds (p G mutation could facilitate association analysis and serve as a genetic marker for Chinese sheep breeding and genetics.
Bai, Ding-ping; Yu, Cheng-jiang; Chen, Yu-lin.
Full Text Available Domestic sheep (Ovis aries belongs to order Artiod actyla. Despite its great economic importance, not much work has been done in Pakistan on breeding and genetics of sheep. Present research was initiated to analyze DNA based genetic diversity in Pakistani breeds of sheep. Total genomic DNA was isolated from blood of Rambouillet, Kaghani and Ramghani breeds. Polymerase Chain Reactions (PCR were carried out using six Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD primers. Amplified fragments ranged in size from 500 bp to 2000 bp. On average, 3 alleles per genotype were amplified. Average genetic distance estimate ranged from 30-100%. Eleven comparisons showed maximum genetic diversity (GD = 100% while 6 comparisons sowed minimum genetic diversity (GD = 30% for the loci detected using 6 RAPD primers. Phylogenetic elaboration among the 14 sheep accessions were carried out using dendrogram analysis. The 14 accessions of sheep were grouped into 5 clusters comprising 3 , 3, 3, 3 and 2 accessions, respectively.
The title page of Chapter 9 in Fundamentals of Physics (Halliday, Resnick, and Walker, 8th Edition, p. 201) shows a dramatic photograph of two Big Horn sheep butting heads and promises to explain how sheep survive such violent clashes without serious injury. However, the answer presented in sample problem 9-4 (p. 213) errs in presuming an interaction time of 0.27 s which results in an unrealistically long stopping distance of 0.62 m. Furthermore, the assertion that the horns provide necessary cushioning of the blow is inconsistent with the absence of concussions in domestic breeds of hornless sheep. Results from traumatic brain injury (TBI) research allow acceleration tolerance of sheep to be estimated as 450 g facilitating an analysis of sheep collisions that is more consistent with available observations (stopping distance less than 1 cm, impact time of roughly 2 ms).
Abstract Internal nematode resistance in sheep has a large impact on the economy of sheep industries. Selection for nematode resistance in sheep breeding schemes would help to reduce the direct and indirect cost of parasitism to these industries. However, this is not widely practiced because of the difficulty of measuring parasite resistance or correlated indirect selection criteria. The identification of genes or linked markers that have a significant association with the variance of indicat...
Genetic strategies to improve the profitability of sheep operations have generally focused on traits for reproduction. However, natural mutations exist in sheep that affect muscle growth and development, and the exploitation of these mutations in breeding strategies has the potential to significantly improve lamb-meat quality. The best-documented mutation for muscle development in sheep is callipyge (CLPG), which causes a postnatal muscle hypertrophy that is localized to the pelvic limbs and ...
E Cockett, Noelle; A Smit, Maria; A Bidwell, Christopher; Segers, Karin; L Hadfield, Tracy; D Snowder, Gary; Georges, Michel; Charlier, Carole
Sheep breeding plays in Sardinia a major role for the economy of the island with over than 3 millions of animals raised mostly with extensive methods. The results of the present work allow us to conclude that N. caninum did not constitute a health problem for the sheep coming from the monitored districts.
Porqueddu, M.; Marras, Antonia; Tanda, B.; Pipia, Anna Paola; Varcasia, Antonio; Garippa, Giovanni; Scala, Antonio
Full Text Available Abstract Background The progression of scrapie is known to be influenced by the amino acid polymorphisms of the host prion protein (PrP gene. There is no breeding programme for TSE resistance in sheep in Finland, but a scrapie control programme has been in place since 1995. In this study we have analysed PrP genotypes of total of 928 purebred and crossbred sheep together with the data of scrapie survey carried out in Finland during 2002–2008 in order to gain knowledge of the genotype distribution and scrapie prevalence in Finnish sheep. Results The ARQ/ARQ genotype was the most common genotype in all breeds studied. ARR allele frequency was less than 12% in purebred Finnish sheep and in most genotypes heterozygous for ARR, the second allele was ARQ. The VRQ allele was not detected in the Grey race sheep of Kainuu or in the Aland sheep, and it was present in less than 6% of the Finnish Landrace sheep. Leucine was the most prominent amino acid found in codon 141. In addition, one novel prion dimorphisms of Q220L was detected. During the scrapie survey of over 15 000 sheep in 2002–2008, no classical scrapie cases and only five atypical scrapie cases were detected. Conclusions The results indicate that the Finnish sheep populations have genetically little resistance to classical scrapie, but no classical scrapie was detected during an extensive survey in 2002–2008. However, five atypical scrapie cases emerged; thus, the disease is present in the Finnish sheep population at a low level.
Erysipelas diagnosed in turkeys, sheep and pigs Parasitic gastroenteritis reported in cattle on several farms Unusual presentation of Actinobacillus suis causing spinal abscesses in pigs on a breeder-finisher unit First APHA diagnosis of oedema disease in pigs in East Anglia for many years Infectious coryza confirmed in a hobby breeding flock These are among matters discussed in the Animal and Plant Health Agency's (APHA's) disease surveillance report for November 2014. PMID:25792678
This online Flash game gets learners thinking like geneticists in order to breed a border collie puppy with select traits, including coat color, coat length, and ear length. Progressive levels of play encourage learners as they move from novice to master breeders. Learners can click on the Why button to learn more about genes and dog breeding.
How the conventional breeding method of backcross breeding is done.This is the seventh of a series of seven animations that detail theprocess of crop genetic engineering. To begin at the beginning, see Overview of Crop Genetic Engineering. (To return to the animation previous to this, go to Gene Gun.)
Efeitos da oferta de forragem, do método de pastejo, dos dias de avaliação e da raça no comportamento e temperamento de ovinos / Effect of forage supply, methods of grazing, evaluation days and breed on the behavior and the temperament of sheep
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Objetivou-se estudar comportamento e o temperamento de ovinos de três raças (Suffolk, Texel, Ile de France) submetidas a dois métodos de pastejo (contínuo e rotacionado), com duas ofertas de forragem (10 e 20 kg de MS de pastagem de azevém/100 kg de peso vivo/dia) durante quatro avaliações, entre ag [...] osto e novembro de 2006. Utilizou-se o delineamento completamente casualizado em parcelas subsubdivididas, de modo que os métodos de pastejo e as ofertas de forragem constituíram as parcelas, as raças as subparcelas e os dias de avaliação as subsubparcelas. Foram utilizadas 48 fêmeas ovinas com peso médio inicial de 27,59 kg e idade entre 15 e 25 meses. Na avaliação do temperamento, efetuaram-se medidas comportamentais pelo teste de arena, tipo de marcha e tempo de fuga e atributos fisiológicos, como temperatura corporal e frequências cardiorrespiratórias. No método contínuo com baixa oferta de forragem, observou-se maior número de micções. Conforme as avaliações ocorreram, houve aumento da movimentação, das tentativas de fuga, mas menor número de vocalizações durante o isolamento. A raça Ile de France apresentou maior número de tentativas de fuga e de dejeções durante o isolamento. No pastejo rotacionado com alta oferta de forragem, o ganho de peso foi menor. A movimentação no isolamento e na presença do observador foi negativamente relacionada ao ganho de peso. As variáveis descritoras do temperamento apresentaram baixa repetibilidade. O temperamento dos ovinos foi modificado principalmente pelo dia de avaliação e pela raça, ao contrário do sistema de pastejo e da oferta de pasto, embora esses fatores tenham apresentado interação com os dias de avaliação e a raça do animal. Abstract in english This work aimed to study the temperament and the behavior of three sheep breeds (Suffolk, Texel, Ile de France) submitted to two grazing methods (continuous and rotational) with two forage supplies (10 and 20 kg of Italian ryegrass DM/100 kg body weight/day) during four evaluations from August to No [...] vember 2006. A random block design was used with split-plots, so the grazing methods and forage supplies were the plots, breeds were the sub-plots, and days of evaluation were the sub-sub-plots. It was used 48 ewe lambs with 27.59 kg of initial weight at 15 to 25 months of age. For evaluation of temperament, behavioral measures were taken by the arena test, and qualitative and quantitative flight time test, and physiological attributes such as body temperature and cardiorespiratory rates. For continuous method with low forage supply, it was observed a higher number of urination events. As evaluations were carried out, physical activity and flight events increased, but number of vocalization decreased during social isolation. Ile de France breed showed higher number of flight attempts and excretion events during social isolation. In the rotational grazing method with high forage supply, weight gain was lower. Physical activity during social isolation and at the observer presence was negatively related to weight gain. Variables used to describe the temperament showed low consistency. The temperament of sheep is mainly affected by evaluation day and breed, unlike grazing method and forage supply, although these factors show interaction with evaluation days and breed.
José Manuel Díaz, Gómez; Vivian, Fischer; César Henrique Espírito Candal, Poli; Paulo César de Faccio, Carvalho; Eliezer José, Pegoraro; Stefani, Macari.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Following EU decision 2003/100/EC Member States have recently implemented sheep breeding programmes to reduce the prevalence of sheep with TSE susceptible prion genotypes. The present paper investigates the progress of the breeding programme in the Netherlands. The PrP genotype frequencies were monitored through time using two sets of random samples: one set covers the years 2005 to 2008 and is taken from national surveillance programme; the other is taken from 168 random sheep farms in 2007. The data reveal that although the level of compliance to the breeding programme has been high, the frequency of susceptible genotypes varies substantially between farms. The 168 sheep farms are a subset of 689 farms participating in a postal survey inquiring about management and breeding strategies. This survey aimed to identify how much these strategies varied between farms, in order to inform assessment of the expected future progress towards eradication of classical scrapie. Results On the one hand, we found that compliance to the national breeding program has been high, and the frequency of resistant genotypes is expected to increase further in the next few years. On the other hand, we observed a large variation in prevalence of the scrapie resistant PrP genotype ARR between farms, implicating a large variation of genetic resistance between farms. Substantial between-flock differences in management and breeding strategies were found in the postal survey, suggesting considerable variation in risk of scrapie transmission between farms. Conclusions Our results show that although there has been a good progress in the breeding for scrapie resistance and the average farm-level scrapie susceptibility in the Netherlands has been significantly reduced, still a considerable proportion of farms contain high frequencies of susceptible genotypes in their sheep population. Since 2007 the breeding for genetic resistance is voluntarily again, and participation to selective breeding can decrease as a result of this. This, together with the patterns of direct and indirect contact between sheep farms, might present a challenge of the aim of scrapie eradication. Communication to sheep owners of the effect of the breeding programme thus far, and of the prospects for classical scrapie eradication in The Netherlands might be essential for obtaining useful levels of participation to the voluntary continuation of the breeding programme.
Full Text Available Abstract Genetic strategies to improve the profitability of sheep operations have generally focused on traits for reproduction. However, natural mutations exist in sheep that affect muscle growth and development, and the exploitation of these mutations in breeding strategies has the potential to significantly improve lamb-meat quality. The best-documented mutation for muscle development in sheep is callipyge (CLPG, which causes a postnatal muscle hypertrophy that is localized to the pelvic limbs and loin. Enhanced skeletal muscle growth is also observed in animals with the Carwell (or rib-eye muscling mutation, and a double-muscling phenotype has been documented for animals of the Texel sheep breed. However, the actual mutations responsible for these muscular hypertrophy phenotypes in sheep have yet to be identified, and further characterization of the genetic basis for these phenotypes will provide insight into the biological control of muscle growth and body composition.
Cockett Noelle E
Full Text Available In this research, it was aimed to determine the phenotypic correlations among some physical traits of Norduz and Karakas sheep. Animal material was consisted from 2-6 years of age of breeding flocks of 50 Norduz and 50 Karakas ewes. Traits measured were greasy fleece weight, fiber diameter, clean fleece percentage, staple length, single fiber actual length, single fiber natural length, breaking strength, elasticity and the number of crimp in 2.54 cm. There was a positive correlation between clean fleece percentage and fiber diameter, it was insignificant for both genotypes. The estimated phenotypic correlations between staple length and greasy fleece weight was 0.403 (p<0.01 and 0.445 (p<0.01 in Norduz and Karakas sheep, respectively. It was understood that traits like fiber diameter, length, fleece weight and the number of crimp should be evaluated together in breeding studies on fleece yield in Norduz and Karakas sheep.
Previous studies have suggested that host genetics influence both lung histopathology and seroprevalence in sheep infected with ovine progressive pneumonia virus (OPPV). As a first start, a genetic association study was conducted in 383 Idaho sheep of the Columbia, Polypay and Rambouillet breeds ut...
Pilot study for feeding preferences and grazing behavior in two breeds of sheep on a secondary succession of the Chiloé Archipelago / Estudio piloto para preferencias y comportamiento en pastoreo en dos razas ovinas sobre una sucesión secundaria del Archipiélago de Chiloé
Full Text Available M.A. Gallardo, R. Pulido, R. de la Barra y M.E. Martínez. 2014. Estudio piloto para preferencias y comportamiento en pastoreo en dos razas ovinas sobre una sucesión secundaria del Archipiélago de Chiloé. Cien. Inv. Agr. 41(2):249-254. Un estudio piloto fue realizado para determinar el patrón de pref [...] erencias y comportamiento en pastoreo de la raza ovina Chilota en el Archipiélago de Chiloé. Primero, ocho ovejas Chilota y ocho Suffolk Down fueron enfrentadas a diferente número de especies vegetales (no consideradas como suplemento), ofrecidas sólo por 10 min post-ayuno y post-pastoreo de un calafatal, una sucesión secundaria dominada por arbustos. El experimento fue repetido cuatro veces en un lapso de 22 d, considerando además un período pre-experimental de un mes. Posteriormente, seis Chilota y seis Suffolk (aleatoriamente seleccionadas desde los mismos grupos) fueron ubicadas para pastorear un calafatal dividido en tres potreros de 10 x 10 m para poder rotar los animales. Las observaciones fueron realizadas por 1 minuto, a intervalos de 1-hora por 11 horas diarias, durante 10 d consecutivos, registrando diferentes comportamientos, tales como: pastoreo, ramoneo, descanso, rumia, interacción y acicalamiento. Considerando la ingesta de materia seca de cada una de las tres especies presentes en todos los desafíos (B. chilensis, G. mucronata y D. winteri), los resultados mostraron que D. winteri fue la más consumida y B. chilensis, la menos consumida. El comportamiento en pastoreo mostró que el pastoreo fue la principal actividad registrada para ambas razas (especialmente en Suffolk Down) durante la mañana y la tarde, mientras descanso y rumia fueron las principales actividades durante las horas de mayor calor. En resumen, ambas razas mostraron similar patrón de preferencias, aunque diferente comportamiento en pastoreo en una sucesión secundaria de Chiloé. Abstract in english M.A. Gallardo, R. de la Barra, and M.E. Martínez. 2014. Pilot study for feeding preferences and grazing behavior in two breeds of sheep on a secondary succession of the Chiloé Archipelago. Cien. Inv. Agr. 41(2):249-254. A pilot study was undertaken to determine the pattern of feeding preferences and [...] grazing behavior of the Chilota breed of sheep in the Chiloé Archipelago. First, eight Chilota and eight Suffolk Down ewes were faced with different numbers of plant species (offered only for 10 min), after fasting and after grazing a calafatal, a secondary succession dominated by shrubs. The experiment was repeated four times within a period of 22 d and included a 1-month pre-experimental period. Second, six Chilota and six Suffolk Down ewes, randomly selected from the same groups, were placed to graze on a calafatal divided into three 10-by-10 m paddocks to facilitate rotation of the animals. Observations were performed for 1 minute at 1-hour intervals for 11 hours a day, over 10 consecutive days, recording the following behaviors: grazing, browsing, resting, ruminating, and grooming. Regarding the dry matter intake of each of the three plant species present in all trials (B. chilensis, G. mucronata and D. winteri), results showed D. winteri was the most consumed and B. chilensis the least. The grazing behavior showed grazing was the main activity recorded for both breeds (especially for Suffolk Down) during the morning and evening, while resting and ruminating were the main activities recorded during the warmest hours. In summary, the breeds showed similar preferences but different grazing behavior pattern on a secondary succession of the Chiloé Archipelago.
María A, Gallardo; Rubén, Pulido; Rodrigo, de la Barra; María E, Martínez.
Conformación corporal de las razas ovinas Pelibuey, Dorper y Kathadin en el estado de Veracruz, México / Body conformation of sheep breeds Pelibuey, Dorper and Kathadin in the state of Veracruz, Mexico
Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El objetivo del presente trabajo fue realizar inferencia sobre la conformación corporal de ovejas Pelibuey, Dorper y Kathadin utilizando variables zoométricas. Se describieron las medidas zoométricas de cada unas de las razas, determinándose las diferencias raciales acorde a éstas y se infirió el pe [...] so vivo (PV) mediante modelos de regresión en función de las variables corporales. La muestra fue de 276 hembras (34,5 %; 87 Pelibuey, 92 Dorper y 97 Kathadin) en 9 granjas (800 ovinos) del estado de Veracruz. Las medidas zoométricas analizadas fueron: altura a la grupa (AP); altura a la cruz (AC); longitud del tronco (LT); perímetro toráxico (PT); circunferencia de la caña (CC); anchura de la cabeza (C); perfil fronto nasal (arco) (PFN); longitud de la oreja (LO); longitud de la grupa (LG); ancho de la grupa (AG); PV y edad (E). El efecto de la raza fue determinante tanto en el PV como en la conformación corporal; encontrandose que la variación entre razas es significativa (P Abstract in english The objective of this study was to estimate body conformation on Pelibuey, Dorper and Kathadin sheeps using zoometric variables. Measures of each one of the races and racial differences was determined according to them, live weight was predicted by regression models based on physical variables. Samp [...] le was conformed 276 females (34,5%; 87 Pelibuey, 92 Dorper and 97 Kathadin) on nine farms (800 sheeps) of the State of Veracruz. Zoometric measures analyzed were: height at rump (H), height at withers (HW), body length (TL), thoracic perimeter (TP), circumference of the rod (CC), head width (C), fronto profile nose (bow) (NFP), ear length (LO), rump length (LG) and rump width (AG) in addition to body weight (BW) and age (E). The effect of race was decisive both in weight and in body conformation, we found that the variation between races is significant (P
Julio, Vilaboa Arroniz; Riccardo, Bozzi; Pablo, Díaz Rivera; Letizia, Bazzi.
Full Text Available From 40 healthy sheep breeding in good conditions of hygiene and feeding belonging to particular herds from the West side of the country were been taken blood samples in most important seasons of the year: in spring, before pasturage period and in autumn, after pasturage period. Sheep were been periodically preventive treated against parasites and were clinically healthy. Were been followed haematological parameters like haemogram (number of erithrocytes, haemoglobin, haematocrit, erithrocytic indexes, leucogram (number of leucocytes, leucocytic formula and those blood biochemicals indexes (total seric proteins, proteic fractions, glucose, uric acid, GPT, creatinin, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium. The obtain values in spring season were smaller in comparison with those from autumn as a result of less favourable conditions in winter, when sheep can't have the same benefits like in warm season, with high quality fresh food and life conditions. This fact is emphasized in these sheep obtained productions.
With the aim of assessing the secondary benefits of using electronic identification (e-ID) in sheep farms, we compared the use of manual (M), semiautomatic (SA), and automatic (AU) data-collection systems for performance recording (i.e., milk, lambing, and weight) in 3 experiments. Ewes were identified with visual ear tags and electronic rumen boluses. The M system consisted of visual ear tags, on-paper data recording, and manual data uploading to a computer; the use of a personal digital assistant (PDA) for data recording and data uploading was also done in M. The SA system used a handheld reader (HHR) for e-ID, data recording, and uploading. Both PDA and HHR used Bluetooth for uploading. The AU system was only used for body weight recording and consisted of e-ID, data recording in an electronic scale, and data uploading. In experiment 1, M and SA milk-recording systems were compared in a flock of 48 dairy ewes. Ewes were milked once- (×1, n=24) or twice- (×2, n=24) daily in a 2 × 12 milking parlor and processed in groups of 24. Milk yield (1.21 ± 0.04 L/d, on average) was 36% lower in ×1 than ×2 ewes and milk recording time correlated positively with milk yield (R(2)=0.71). Data transfer was markedly faster for PDA and HHR than for M. As a result, overall milk recording time was faster in SA (×1=12.1 ± 0.6 min/24 ewes; ×2=22.1 ± 0.9 min/24 ewes) than M (×1=14.9 ± 0.6 min/24 ewes; ×2=27.9 ± 1.0 min/24 ewes). No differences between PDA and HHR were detected. Time savings, with regard to M, were greater for ×2 than for ×1 (5.6 ± 0.2 vs. 2.8 ± 0.1 min per 24 ewes, respectively), but similar for PDA and HHR. Data transfer errors averaged 3.6% in M, whereas no errors were found in either SA system. In experiment 2, 73 dairy and 80 meat ewes were monitored at lambing using M and SA. Overall time for lambing recording was greater in M than SA in dairy (1.67 ± 0.06 vs. 0.87 ± 0.04 min/ewe) and meat (1.30 ± 0.03 vs. 0.73 ± 0.03 min/ewe) ewes. Recording errors were greater in dairy (9.6%) than in meat (1.9%) ewes. Data uploading errors only occurred in M (4.9%). In experiment 3, 120 dairy and 120 meat ewes were weighed using M and AU systems. In both flocks, mean BW recording and data uploading times, as well as overall BW recording time (0.63 ± 0.02 and 0.25 ± 0.01 min/ewe, respectively) were greater in M than in AU, and uploading errors only occurred in M (8.8%). In conclusion, HHR and PDA systems were time-effective for performance recording, both saving time and improving data accuracy. Working load and time for ewe identification were faster in HHR but it did not affect the performance recording time. The PDA was the fastest device for data download. Further research will evaluate the costs of implementing e-ID for performance recording and other uses in sheep farms. PMID:25282408
Ait-Saidi, A; Caja, G; Salama, A A K; Carné, S
Geographical and management related factors affecting lambs of outwintered sheep along the west coast of Norway. A baseline study in the research project feral sheep in coastal heats - developing a sustainable local industry in vulnerable cultural landscapes
The Ancient Norse breed of outwintered sheep (ANBOS/Feral sheep) are the traditional sheep of Norwegian coastal heathlands, an open semi-natural landscape now threatened by regrowth due to cessation of management. One of the main challenges for the ANBOS industry is the low slaughter weights achieved in some herds, and the aim of my MSc project is to provide a baseline study of the relationships between geographic and management-related variables and the weights of ANBOS lam...
Since late 2011, a novel orthobunyavirus, named Schmallenberg virus (SBV), has been implicated in many cases of severely malformed bovine and ovine offspring in Europe. In adult cattle, SBV is known to cause a mild transient disease; clinical signs include short febrile episodes, decreased milk production and diarrhoea for a few days. However, the knowledge about clinical signs and pathogenesis in adult sheep is limited.In the present study, adult sheep of European domestic breeds were inoculated with SBV either as cell culture grown virus or as virus with no history of passage in cell cultures. Various experimental set-ups were used. Sampling included blood collection at different time points during the experimental period and selected organ material at autopsy.Data from this study showed, that the RNAemic period in sheep was as short as reported for cattle; viral genome was detectable for about 3–5 days by real-time RT-PCR. In total, 13 out of 30 inoculated sheep became RNAemic, with the highest viral load in animals inoculated with virus from low cell culture passaged or the animal passaged material. Contact animals remained negative throughout the study. One RNAemic sheep showed diarrhoea for several days, but fever was not recorded in any of the animals. Antibodies were first detectable 10–14 days post inoculation. Viral RNA was detectable in spleen and lymph nodes up to day 44 post inoculation.In conclusion, as described for cattle, SBV-infection in adult sheep predominantly results in subclinical infection, transient RNAemia and a specific antibody response. Maintenance of viral RNA in the lymphoreticular system is observed for an extended period.
Wernike, Kerstin; Hoffmann, Bernd
Trichinella spiralis spiralis infections were established in sheep by administering infective larvae via gavage or feeding infected musculature. Trichinella spiralis nativa infective larvae had a low infectivity for sheep although light infections may be established in some animals with large infective doses. For the most part, sheep were averse to ingesting musculature mixed in a grain ration unless it was camouflaged with molasses. The heaviest infections usually occurred in the masseter mu...
Smith, H. J.; Snowdon, K. E.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The variability in the clinical or pathological presentation of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs in sheep, such as scrapie and bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE, has been attributed to prion protein genotype, strain, breed, clinical duration, dose, route and type of inoculum and the age at infection. The study aimed to describe the clinical signs in sheep infected with the BSE agent throughout its clinical course to determine whether the clinical signs were as variable as described for classical scrapie in sheep. The clinical signs were compared to BSE-negative sheep to assess if disease-specific clinical markers exist. Results Forty-seven (34% of 139 sheep, which comprised 123 challenged sheep and 16 undosed controls, were positive for BSE. Affected sheep belonged to five different breeds and three different genotypes (ARQ/ARQ, VRQ/VRQ and AHQ/AHQ. None of the controls or BSE exposed sheep with ARR alleles were positive. Pruritus was present in 41 (87% BSE positive sheep; the remaining six were judged to be pre-clinically infected. Testing of the response to scratching along the dorsum of a sheep proved to be a good indicator of clinical disease with a test sensitivity of 85% and specificity of 98% and usually coincided with weight loss. Clinical signs that were displayed significantly earlier in BSE positive cases compared to negative cases were behavioural changes, pruritic behaviour, a positive scratch test, alopecia, skin lesions, teeth grinding, tremor, ataxia, loss of weight and loss of body condition. The frequency and severity of each specific clinical sign usually increased with the progression of disease over a period of 16–20 weeks. Conclusion Our results suggest that BSE in sheep presents with relatively uniform clinical signs, with pruritus of increased severity and abnormalities in behaviour or movement as the disease progressed. Based on the studied sheep, these clinical features appear to be independent of breed, affected genotype, dose, route of inoculation and whether BSE was passed into sheep from cattle or from other sheep, suggesting that the clinical phenotype of BSE is influenced by the TSE strain more than by other factors. The clinical phenotype of BSE in the genotypes and breed studied was indistinguishable from that described for classical scrapie cases.
Recently, designer mutts like the Labradoodle -- a cross between a Labarador retriever and a poodle -- have become popular. A listener wanted to know if some kinds of dogs are just too different to make puppies. This Science Update explores the cross breeding of species.
Genome editing tools enable efficient and accurate genome manipulation. An enhanced ability to modify the genomes of livestock species could be utilized to improve disease resistance, productivity or breeding capability as well as the generation of new biomedical models. To date, with respect to the direct injection of genome editor mRNA into livestock zygotes, this technology has been limited to the generation of pigs with edited genomes. To capture the far-reaching applications of gene-editing, from disease modelling to agricultural improvement, the technology must be easily applied to a number of species using a variety of approaches. In this study, we demonstrate zygote injection of TALEN mRNA can also produce gene-edited cattle and sheep. In both species we have targeted the myostatin (MSTN) gene. In addition, we report a critical innovation for application of gene-editing to the cattle industry whereby gene-edited calves can be produced with specified genetics by ovum pickup, in vitro fertilization and zygote microinjection (OPU-IVF-ZM). This provides a practical alternative to somatic cell nuclear transfer for gene knockout or introgression of desirable alleles into a target breed/genetic line. PMID:25204701
Proudfoot, Chris; Carlson, Daniel F; Huddart, Rachel; Long, Charles R; Pryor, Jane H; King, Tim J; Lillico, Simon G; Mileham, Alan J; McLaren, David G; Whitelaw, C Bruce A; Fahrenkrug, Scott C
Solvers of this problem apply number sense and logical reasoning to determine the numbers of cows and sheep in each of five fields by using clues about how many cows and sheep can be seen by each animal. The problem includes questions for getting started, suggestions for implementation and differentiation, a printable student page, and sample solutions.
Sheep breeding in Sardinia is based on two lambing seasons: in autumn for adult and in late winter for primiparous ewes. The milk production is concentrated within the winter-spring period, determining a break in the cheese factories’ activities from the middle summer to the middle autumn. In order to have a continuous milk production over all the year an out-of-season sheep farming model was tested in Sardinian irrigated lowland. 52 Sarda dairy ewes, 20% of which primiparous, were mated in...
Fois, N.; Sitzia, M.; Ligios, S.; Piras, M.
The region of Castelo Branco is the 4th main region of Portugal in number of ewes. Sheep production is the major importante activity of its farming systems. Beira Baixa Merino is the most common breed of the region and it is used as a triple purpose: milk, meat and wool. Nowadays, milk has becoming the most importante production. The new production conditions, with acession to the Common Market, lead the farmes to change some components of farming systems. To study how this changes must occur...
Almeida, J. P. F.; Rodrigues, J. P. V.; Andrade, C. S. C. R.; Almeida, L. M.; Rosa, F. H.
Full Text Available Paratuberculosis is an incurable chronic disease of ruminants, which is manifested with clinical signs of diarrhea and progressive weight loss. Causative agent is Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, and the disiase occurs in cattle, sheep and goats. The outspread of paratuberculosis is huge in the whole world, especially in the countries where animal breeding is a developed branch of economy. Animals get infected with food and water contaminated with feces of infected animals. The infection spreads within infected pastures and also when trading animals with latent infection. Clinical manifestation of the disease can firstly be noticed in young categories of sheep, which is different than in cattle. Primary clinical symptom is chronic weight loss. It is rather hard to determine the level of prevalence of the disease, in a certain region, because the diagnostic procedure is complex and not always reliable enough. Detection of antibodies with ELISA test is considered a method of choice for diagnostic of paratuberculosis, because of fast gaining of the results and relatively low price of the test. By applying the ELISA test, we have analysed 2000 sheep blood samples. Positive results for paratuberculosis were found in 66 ( 3,30% animals in total. In sheep samples from southern Backa region, positive findings were gained from 42 (3,89% samples, and in Srem region, positive finding were found in samples from 24 sheep (2,60%. Control programs are based on the removal of all infected animals, application of general preventive measures and vaccination. Application of vaccination aims for elimination of clinical form of the disease. An effective treatment has not been determined so far.
The present study aimed at detecting the association of ovine major histocompatibility complex class II (Ovar II) DRB1 gene second exon and susceptibility or resistance to hydatidosis in three sheep breeds of Sinkiang. The MHC-DRB1 second exon was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) from DNA samples of healthy sheep and sheep with hydatidosis. PCR products were characterized by the restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) technique. Five restriction enzymes, Mval, Haelll, Sacl, Sacll, Hin1l, were used, yielding 14 alleles and 31 restriction patterns. Frequencies of patterns Mvalbc, Hin1lab, Sacllab, Haelllde, Haellldf, Haellldd (P lbb, Haelllef (P lbb, Haelllcf, Haelllef (P < 0.01) in Chinese Merino sheep (Sinkiang Junken type) were significantly lower in healthy sheep compared with infected sheep. This indicated a strong association between these patterns and hydatidosis susceptibility. In addition, sheep with the pattern of Haelllef demonstrated a high hydatidosis susceptibility (P < 0.01) in all three breeds, while sheep with the pattern Haelllde demonstrated significant hydatidosis resistance (P < 0.01) in Kazakh and Chinese Merino sheep (Sinkiang Junken type). These results suggest that the Ovar-DRB1 gene plays a role in resistance to hydatidosis infection in the three sheep breeds. PMID:21678792
Li, R Y; Hui, W Q; Jia, B; Shi, G Q; Zhao, Z S; Shen, H; Peng, Q; Lv, L M; Zhou, Q W; Li, H T
Empadre controlado, distribución de partos y prolificidad en ovejas de pelo en el trópico seco de Guerrero, México (Controlled breeding, prolificacy and delivery distribution in hair sheep in the dry tropic of Guerrero, México
Full Text Available ResumenEl objetivo del presente estudio retrospectivo fue conocer la duración de los días de empadre con monta (DECM, la presentación de los partos con empadre continuo y controlado y el índice de prolificidad, por medio de los registros de un empadre continúo de junio 2002 a marzo 2003 y 11 períodos de empadres controlados de septiembre 2003 a diciembre del 2009 y sus respectivos períodos de nacimientos, en una unidad productiva de Cd.SummaryThe objective of this retrospective study was to know the lasting of mating with the days of riding (DMWR, continuous presentation of mating, presentation of continuous mating births, controlled and the rate of prolificacy, through information from the records in a continuous breeding season in June 2002 to March 2003 and 11 controlled mating periods in September 2003 to December 2009 and their periods of birth, in a production unit in Ciudad Altamirano, Guerrero, Mexico, composed of 45 multiparous ewes, 15 lambs and a stallion pubescent.
Mireles Martínez, Esteban Julián
Qualitative and quantitative histological changes in the sexual apparatus of slovak merino ewes were studies in the anoestrous period after irradiation (2.5 Gy) and hormonal stimulation. Estrus synchronization of the sheep has been carried out by application of 20 mg chlorosuperlutine in impregnated vaginal Ageline sponges. The sheep were hormone stimulated by application of 1500 IU of Serum gonadotrophin. The animals were killed approximately 120 h after the application of the hormone. Samples from the sexual apparatus were processed by the common histological methods for examination under a light microscope and for examination under a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Despite higher number of ovulations in irradiated and hormonally stimulated sheep, the examination of viability of irradiated oocytes showed absence of pregnancy in all 20 sheep after mating. This indicated that the dose of 2.5 Gy was not harmless to the reproductive system of sheep. (authors)
Variation in two SNPs and one microsatellite on the Y chromosome was analyzed in a total of 663 rams representing 59 breeds from a large geographic range in northern Eurasia. SNPA-oY1 showed the highest allele frequency (91.55%) across the breeds, whereas SNPG-oY1 was present in only 56 samples. Combined genotypes established seven haplotypes (H4, H5, H6, H7, H8, H12 and H19). H6 dominated in northern Eurasia, and H8 showed the second-highest frequency. H4, which had been earlier reported to be absent in European breeds, was detected in one European breed (Swiniarka), whereas H7, which had been previously identified to be unique to European breeds, was present in two Chinese breeds (Ninglang Black and Large-tailed Han), one Buryatian (Transbaikal Finewool) and two Russian breeds (North Caucasus Mutton-Wool and Kuibyshev). H12, which had been detected only in Turkish breeds, was also found in Chinese breeds in this work. An overall low level of haplotype diversity (median h = 0.1288) was observed across the breeds with relatively higher median values in breeds from the regions neighboring the Near Eastern domestication center of sheep. H6 is the dominant haplotype in northwestern and eastern China, in which the haplotype distribution could be explained by the historical translocations of the H4 and H8 Y chromosomes to China via the Mongol invasions followed by expansions to northwestern and eastern China. Our findings extend previous results of sheep Y chromosomal genetic variability and indicate probably recent paternal gene flows between sheep breeds from distinct major geographic regions. PMID:25204383
Zhang, Min; Peng, Wei-Feng; Yang, Guang-Li; Lv, Feng-Hua; Liu, Ming-Jun; Li, Wen-Rong; Liu, Yong-Gang; Li, Jin-Quan; Wang, Feng; Shen, Zhi-Qiang; Zhao, Sheng-Guo; Hehua, Eer; Marzanov, Nurbiy; Murawski, Maziek; Kantanen, Juha; Li, Meng-Hua
Efeito dos níveis de concentrado sobre as características de carcaça de ovinos Morada Nova em confinamento Effect of concentrate levels on carcass characteristics of the Morada Nova breed sheep in feedlot
Full Text Available Avaliaram-se as características de carcaça e os rendimentos dos cortes medidos in vivo e na carcaça de ovinos Morada Nova terminados em confinamento com dietas contendo diversos níveis de concentrado. Utilizaram-se 32 cordeiros castrados, Morada Nova, com 8,11 ± 1,15 meses de idade e peso inicial de 19,67 ± 2,97 kg, em delineamento de blocos casualizados, cada um com oito repetições. Os animais foram abatidos com 30,0 kg e alimentados com quatro níveis de concentrado (20, 40, 60 ou 80%. Houve efeito linear crescente do nível de concentrado da dieta sobre o peso do corpo vazio e peso e o rendimento da carcaça fria e efeito linear decrescente sobre o conteúdo do trato digestório e o número de dias em confinamento. Os níveis de concentrado tiveram efeito linear crescente sobre o peso e rendimento de pescoço e efeito linear decrescente sobre os rendimentos da paleta e perna, ao passo que o peso do costilhar foi influenciado de forma quadrática pelos tratamentos. Nas medidas in vivo, apenas o perímetro da perna sofreu efeito decrescente. Nas medidas na carcaça, houve efeito linear crescente sobre a largura do tórax e a compacidade, que aumentaram com o nível de concentrado na dieta, enquanto a largura da garupa teve efeito quadrático. O uso de concentrado na dieta eleva os pesos e os rendimentos de carcaça fria, mas não aumenta os pesos e rendimentos dos cortes da carcaça de cordeiros Morada Nova.The in vivo carcass characteristics and the cut yields measured in the carcass of Morada Nova sheep finished in feedlot system fed increasing levels of dietary concentrate were evaluated. Thirty-two castrated Morada Nova lambs with 8.11 ± 1.15 months of age and 19.67 ± 2.97 kg of initial body weight were used in this trial. The experimet was analyzed as a completely randomized block design with eight replicates per treatment. Animals were slaughtered at 30.0 kg BW and fed diets with four concentrate levels: 20, 40, 60 or 80%. Linear increasing effect of dietary concentrate on empty body weight and cold carcass weight and yield and linear decreasing effect on digestive tract content and feedlot period were observed. The neck weight and yield linearly increased and the percentage of shoulder and leg linearly decreased with the concentrate levels, while the rib weight showed quadratic effect. In the in vivo measurements, only leg perimeter presented significant effect. There was a linear increasing effect for thoracic width and carcass compactness, while the hind width showed quadratic effect. The use of concentrate in the diet increased the weight and yields of cold carcass; however this maximization did not increase the weights and yields of commercial cuts from Morada Nova lambs.
Geovergue Rodrigues de Medeiros
Local sheep breeders and scientists in Italy cooperate and conduct research on the genetic improvement of autochthonous genetic types (AGTs) by various approaches, including a cytogenetic breeding selection since 2011. The Laticauda sheep (Ovis aries, 2n = 54) breed is one of the AGTs reared in the Campania region (southern Italy). Performing cytogenetic analyses, we have detected and described a novel reciprocal translocation in a Laticauda sheep identified as 54,XX t(18;23)(q14;q26). Our data support recurring appeals that suggest the regular performance of cytogenetic analyses for monitoring genetic health of livestock species. In total, 5 cases of reciprocal translocations in sheep are known, including the new case. None of them has any phenotypic effect on the living offspring. However, affected animals are characterized by sterility or have a low fertility which can have an effect on breeding success and on economical balance. Presence and kind of the described novel chromosomal aberration were detected by performing CBA-banding and FISH mapping with telomeric probes. RBA-banding allowed the karyotyping of sheep chromosomes and the identification of aberrant chromosomes and regions involved in the new reciprocal translocation. Whole chromosome painting (WCP) probes received from equivalent chromosomes in cattle and the derivative sheep chromosome 18 confirmed the cytogenetic data. This way, our study underlined both the importance of WCP probes by chromosome microdissection and a new way to use WCP probes directly generated from derivative chromosomes. PMID:24733039
Iannuzzi, Alessandra; Perucatti, Angela; Genualdo, Viviana; Pauciullo, Alfredo; Incarnato, Domenico; Musilova, Petra; Rubes, Jiri; Iannuzzi, Clara
Under the experimental conditions of a clinic, zeolite from the N. Hrabovec locality was studied as to its effect on the health condition of sheep. Zeolite was added to the feed mixture at a rate of 0.15 g per 1 kg of live weight daily for three months. The trials were performed with five sheep of the Merino breed. Five sheep were used as controls. No differences were found in the health condition and general behaviour of sheep fed zeolite and sheep of the control group. Neither were substantial differences observed in the indices of the other parameters under study--actual and total acidity, content of volatile fatty acids in rumen contents, blood picture, content of macroelements and microelements, nor in the transaminase activity of blood serum and acid-base homeostasis in blood. Before the zeolite supplementation of feed ration is introduced in practice, detailed studies should be conducted and the optimum zeolite dose should be determined. PMID:6312667
Bartko, P; Vrzgula, L; Prosbová, M; Blazovský, J
In a sheep farm in the Netherlands with a suspected Haemonchus contortus resistance to monepantel (Zolvix(®), Novartis Animal Health), a fecal egg count reduction test was carried out in two groups of lambs, according to the method of the World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology. Group 1 was the untreated control group, and group 2 was treated with monepantel at the manufacturer's recommended dose rate. Efficacy of treatment with monepantel was 0%. Larval identification of pre- and post-treatment coprocultures revealed 100% H. contortus larvae. On this farm, after a perceived reduction in efficacy of ivermectin and doramectin, the sheep farmer started using monepantel in July 2012, and since then, monepantel was used as the sole anthelmintic. Breeding sheep were treated twice each year in 2013 and 2014, and lambs two times in 2012, four times in 2013, and three times in 2014, before monepantel resistance was suspected, and confirmed three weeks later. Although the frequency of monepantel treatments on this farm was relatively high with treatments on thirteen separate occasions in two years time, possibly establishing favorable conditions for a competitive advantage for resistant H. contortus, it is remarkable that resistance to monepantel was established in such a very short period. This study confirms, to the best of our knowledge, the first case of H. contortus resistance to monepantel occurring in the field. PMID:25770852
Van den Brom, R; Moll, L; Kappert, C; Vellema, P
Menz sheep are indigenous to the highlands of Ethiopia, and highly valued for their meat and wool production. The area is characterized as a low input mixed barley-sheep production system. In 1998, a selection experiment was set up to evaluate the response of Menz sheep to selection for yearling live weight (WT12) and greasy fleece weight (GFW) combined in an economic index. In this paper, we report the results of this breeding program obtained between 1998 and 2003. Average annual genetic se...
Gizaw, S.; Lemma, S.; Komen, J.; Arendonk, J. A. M.
Full Text Available The sheeps breeding is an old and traditional activity in Romania country. Depending on the number of sheeps and goats, Romania ranks in the fourth among E.U. countries. The research was conducted on three groups of sheeps, from same breed. All groups sheeps were feeding with the same amount of food, but the ratio structure was different, in the following scheme conformities: group I - has been used a fibrous ratio; group II – has been used a juicy ratio; group III – has been used a concentrate ratio. Also, in all the groups was recorded the milk production and the weight of lambs in the first month of the life. Based on research conducted, the fallowing conclusions were drawn: The highest milk production was produced by sheeps in group I and group II; The weight of lambs in the first month of life was also influenced by the mother sheeps ratio structure; The largest increase growth was made of lambs coming from a group III, and the smallest increase was made of lambs coming a group II. As a general conclusion, the best results are obtained when the mother sheeps are fed with concentrate ratio type and fibrous ratio type.
Full Text Available A total of 334 ewes recorded with twining births from the Tunisian fat tail Barbarine sheep were genotyped in the objective to identify the FecXI and FecXH mutations. The genotyping was carried out by forced restriction fragment length polymorphism PCR (RFLP-PCR. None of mutations was detected in Barbarine sheep. Results showed that all analyzed ewes were homozygous non carriers. These results suggest that fecundity of this breed is not linked to the same mutations. Therefore, it is necessary to seek for other mutations or fecundity genes in order to develop marker assistance selection techniques and study the prolific mechanism of the Barbarine breed.
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of crossings between sheep breeds on the intrinsic quality of leather. It was used the skins of 36 lambs (18 females and 18 males), resulting from crosses between ewes of a native breed from the Brazilian state of Mato Grosso do Sul and rams [...] of the same native breed as well as the Texel and Santa Inês genetic groups. The animals were raised in confinement until slaughter weight, from 28 to 32 kg. After slaughter, samples were taken from the skins for histological analysis. The skins were tanned with chromium, retanned and greased. It was taken from the leather samples for electromicrographs and for tests for tensile and tear strength (intrinsic quality). Morphological aspects from the skin as well as from the leather help to understand the results found and they evidence that breeds or crossings among breeds interfere in the intrinsic quality of leather and skin of sheep.
Manuel Antônio Chagas, Jacinto; Fernando Miranda de, Vargas Junior; Charles Ferreira, Martins; Guilherme dos Santos, Pinto; Fernando Alvarenga, Reis; Alexandra Rocha de, Oliveira.
Knowledge of factors affecting variation in birth weight is especially important given the relationship of birth weight to neonatal and adult health. The present study utilises two large contemporary datasets in sheep of differing breeds to explore factors that influence weight at term. For dataset one (Study 1; n = 154 Blue-faced Leicester×Swaledale (Mule) and 87 Welsh Mountain ewes, 315 separate cases of birth weight), lamb birth weight as the outcome measure was related to maternal charac...
Gardner, D. S.; Buttery, P. J.; Daniel, Z.; Symonds, M. E.
In this research, it was aimed to determine the phenotypic correlations among some physical traits of Norduz and Karakas sheep. Animal material was consisted from 2-6 years of age of breeding flocks of 50 Norduz and 50 Karakas ewes. Traits measured were greasy fleece weight, fiber diameter, clean fleece percentage, staple length, single fiber actual length, single fiber natural length, breaking strength, elasticity and the number of crimp in 2.54 cm. There was a positive correlation between c...
Mehmet Bingol; Ayhan Yilmaz; Seckin Tuncer; Ferda Karakus; Askin Kor; Firat Cengiz
The objective of this paper was to investigate the prion protein (PrP) genotype and haplotype frequencies in three Sicilian dairy sheep populations. The three populations were: (1) 1096 Valle del Belice animals, (2) 1143 Comisana animals, and (3) 1771 individuals from 5 flocks with scrapie outbreaks, in which the animals were crossbreds derived from indigenous Sicilian dairy breeds. PrP genotypes are described for the three codons 136 (Alanine or Valine; A, V), 154 (Histidine or Arginine; H, ...
Santo Caracappa; Oltenacu, Pascal A.; Baldassarre Portolano; Marina Scimonelli; Fabrizio Vitale; Francesco Pinelli; Kaam, Johannes B. C. H. M.; Maria Vitale; Raffaella Finocchiaro
To assess the factors that influence the survival time of sheep affected by sheep pox or enterotoxaemia, 150 sheep farms affected by sheep pox (108) and enterotoxaemia (42) were selected through multistage random sampling technique from the purposively selected Dharmapuri district of Tamil Nadu. Relevant data were collected for the period of two years (2000-01 and 2001-02). The data so collected were used to fit Cox hazard functional models separately for each disease. One unit increase in br...
Thirunavukkarasu, M.; Senthilkumar, V.; Kathiravan, G.
Thirteen sheep from a milk producing farm in the Canton of Grisons that presented chronic coenurosis were examined and subjected to treatment trials at the veterinary hospital in Zurich. Symptoms were first observed around two months after the import of two dogs from Italy (Abruzza) of which one was infected with Taenia multiceps and Echinococcus granulosus. The most frequently observed clinical symptoms of the sheep were reduced general condition, circling, reduced menace reflex, apathy, unsteady gait and head tilt. Analyses of cerebrospinal fluid revealed an increased leucocyte count in 3 sheep and eosinophilia in 4 sheep. In 4 animals that underwent computertomography, one or more hypodense, definable lesions were found in the brain. In 2 sheep surgical treatment and in 10 animals medical treatment with either Praziquantel (n=8) or Oxfendazol (n=2) was attempted. Only one animal treated with Praziquantel needed not to be euthanized. At necropsy, one or two coenurus cysts could be found either in a side ventricle (n=2), in the cerebellum (n=3) or in the cerebrum (n=7). The locations corresponded with the clinical findings. Despite Praziquantel or Oxfendazol treatment, living protoscoleces could be found in the parasite cysts. PMID:17024978
Schweizer, G; Grünenfelder, F; Sydler, T; Rademacher, N; Braun, U; Deplazes, P
Thirteen sheep from a milk producing farm in the Canton of Grisons that presented chronic coenurosis were examined and subjected to treatment trials at the veterinary hospital in Zurich. Symptoms were first observed around two months after the import of two dogs from Italy (Abruzza) of which one was infected with Taenia multiceps and Echinococcus granulosus. The most frequently observed clinical symptoms of the sheep were reduced general condition, circling, reduced menace reflex, apathy, unsteady gait and head tilt. Analyses of cerebrospinal fluid revealed an increased leucocyte count in 3 sheep and eosinophilia in 4 sheep. In 4 animals that underwent computertomography, one or more hypodense, definable lesions were found in the brain. In 2 sheep surgical treatment and in 10 animals medical treatment with either Praziquantel (n=8) or Oxfendazol (n=2) was attempted. Only one animal treated with Praziquantel needed not to be euthanized. At necropsy, one or two coenurus cysts could be found either in a side ventricle (n=2), in the cerebellum (n=3) or in the cerebrum (n=7). The locations corresponded with the clinical findings. Despite Praziquantel or Oxfendazol treatment, living protoscoleces could be found in the parasite cysts
Technology of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) has been adapted worldwide to generate transgenic animals, although the traditional procedure relies largely on instrumental micromanipulation. In this study, we used the modified handmade cloning (HMC) established in cattle and pig to produce transgenic sheep with elevated levels of omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids. Codon-optimized nematode mfat-1 was inserted into a eukaryotic expression vector and was transferred into the genome of primary ovine fibroblast cells from a male Chinese merino sheep. Reverse transcriptase PCR, gas chromatography, and chromosome analyses were performed to select nuclear donor cells capable of converting omega-6 (n-6) into n-3 fatty acids. Blastocysts developed after 7 days of in vitro culture were surgically transplanted into the uterus of female ovine recipients of a local sheep breed in Xinjiang. For the HMC, approximately 8.9% (n ?=925) of reconstructed embryos developed to the blastocyst stage. Four recipients became pregnant after 53 blastocysts were transplanted into 29 naturally cycling females, and a total of 3 live transgenic lambs were produced. Detailed analyses on one of the transgenic lambs revealed a single integration of the modified nematode mfat-1 gene at sheep chromosome 5. The transgenic sheep expressed functional n-3 fatty acid desaturase, accompanied by more than 2-folds reduction of n-6/n-3 ratio in the muscle (pmethod, HMC showed an equivalent efficiency but proved cheaper and easier in operation. PMID:23437077
Zhang, Peng; Liu, Peng; Dou, Hongwei; Chen, Lei; Chen, Longxin; Lin, Lin; Tan, Pingping; Vajta, Gabor; Gao, Jianfeng; Du, Yutao; Ma, Runlin Z
Maedi-visna (MV) is a slow lentiviral disease of sheep that has a significant economic impact in many sheep-producing regions although there remains a paucity of data relating to actual production losses resulting from this disease. The objective of this study was to evaluate direct losses, through death or culling, from two dairy sheep flocks with high seroprevalences of infection over a 2 year period. Maedi-visna was found, either alone or in combination with other diseases, to be the most common disease diagnosed in these sheep, and the major cause of direct animal losses in the two flocks. Moderate to severe lesions associated with MV were found in 52% and 80% of the sheep, respectively, affecting the lungs, brain and/or mammary glands. Despite the similarity of the two flocks under study in terms of breed, number of animals, geographical proximity, and inter-change of rams, a striking difference was observed regarding the clinical presentation of the disease: in one flock the respiratory form was dominant while in the other 70% of animals died or were culled because of neurological signs. PMID:23643869
Benavides, Julio; Fuertes, Miguel; García-Pariente, Carlos; Otaola, Javier; Delgado, Laetitia; Giraldez, Javier; García Marín, Juan Francisco; Carmen Ferreras, M; Pérez, Valentín
Full Text Available Small ruminants are the most extensively farmed livestock species in Europe, as a result being extremely exposed to natural hazards which leads to strong interactions between genotype and environment. Aim of the current review was to outline and discuss the main welfare issues and economic implications with regards to the genotype by environment interactions in dairy sheep. Researches concerning the additive genetic effect on milk yield, shown that this accounts only for 10%, while the milk production is 90% influenced by environmental factors, highlighting the major role that management and nutrition play in the dairy production of sheep. Nowadays, dairy sheep breeds (e.g. Eastern Friesian and Lacaune, are being introduced and reared in various countries under an extremely wide range of rearing conditions, without adequate knowledge on their acclimatization to the new specific conditions. It was concluded that a welfare assessment protocol for dairy sheep does not exist up today, moreover, there is a serious lack of data concerning the genetic and environmental factors affecting the welfare status of dairy sheep at farm level under different production systems.
The paper concerns the effects of fallout from the Chernobyl reactor accident on the environment in Britain. A description is given of the distribution and movement of fallout in Britain, as well as the type of contamination. The regions that received the highest deposits from Chernobyl were large areas in the uplands used mainly for sheep farming, and grazing in these areas led to high levels of radioactivity in sheep. Monitoring studies of caesium levels in sheep grazing on contaminated pastures are described, as well as studies of the movement of caesium in the soil to plants. Finally Chernobyl fallout in food in different European countries, and ways of ridding contaminated animals of their radioactive caesium, are both discussed. (UK)
The possibility of construction of a high-resolution neutron source (HRNS) comprising the Ibr - 30 reactor and a racetrack induction electron linac is investigated. It is shown that HRNS thermal neutron flux quality will be comparable with the Ibr - 2 neutron flux at the reactor power less by a factor of 40. The given linac can be used for the production of a power positron flux which will permit to increase the positron acceleration rate at the VEPP - 4 type colliders. 3 refs., 3 figs
Microbial breakdown of cellulose is a rather slow process. Therefore the retention time of digesta and the volume of the fermentation chamber are factors limiting the quantity of fibrous diets that can be digested. Indigenous ruminants can generally adapt to harsh grazing conditions better than conventional breeds. Unexpectedly high rumen volumes were reported in a number of indigenous ruminants. In studies reported in this paper, Heidschnucken, an indigenous breed of sheep in the heather region of Northern Germany, were able to increase their rumen volume from 14% to 22% of body weight during adaptation to a low quality fibrous diet. Heidschnucken did not lose significant body weight, whereas Blackface sheep lost 20% and failed to adapt the rumen volume. Rumen volume of indigenous sheep and goats in Northern Kenya was 20% of body weight while grazing in the thornbush savannah during the dry season, compared with 9-12% while kept indoors on a hay-concentrate diet. Mean retention time of particles in the total gastrointestinal tract of goats and sheep in Kenya was 38 h and 46 h respectively. In the experiment with Heidschnucken, these sheep increased the retention time of particles to 71 h on a straw diet, while Blackface sheep retained particles 58 h. Dietary preference and feed intake have been studied in indigenous sheep and goats in Kenya at seasonal pasture conditions in the thornbush savannah. Goats have a higher preference to dicotyledon species (92-97%) than shce to dicotyledon species (92-97%) than sheep, who are less selective grazers. The feeding behaviour of indigenous sheep and goats was complementary rather than competitive. Feeding observations indicate that this is also the case when cattle (grazers) and camels (browsers) are included in such a comparison. (author)
Full Text Available Abstract Background In the wake of the epidemic of bovine spongiform encephalopathy the British government established a flock of sheep from which scrapie-free animals are supplied to laboratories for research. Three breeds of sheep carrying a variety of different genotypes associated with scrapie susceptibility/resistance were imported in 1998 and 2001 from New Zealand, a country regarded as free from scrapie. They are kept in a purpose-built Sheep Unit under strict disease security and are monitored clinically and post mortem for evidence of scrapie. It is emphasised that atypical scrapie, as distinct from classical scrapie, has been recognised only relatively recently and differs from classical scrapie in its clinical, neuropathological and biochemical features. Most cases are detected in apparently healthy sheep by post mortem examination. Results The occurrence of atypical scrapie in three sheep in (or derived from the Sheep Unit is reported. Significant features of the affected sheep included their relatively high ages (6 y 1 mo, 7 y 9 mo, 9 y 7 mo respectively, their breed (all Cheviots and their similar PRNP genotypes (AFRQ/AFRQ, AFRQ/ALRQ, and AFRQ/AFRQ, respectively. Two of the three sheep showed no clinical signs prior to death but all were confirmed as having atypical scrapie by immunohistochemistry and Western immunoblotting. Results of epidemiological investigations are presented and possible aetiologies of the cases are discussed. Conclusion By process of exclusion, a likely explanation for the three cases of atypical scrapie is that they arose spontaneously and were not infected from an exterior source. If correct, this raises challenging issues for countries which are currently regarded as free from scrapie. It would mean that atypical scrapie is liable to occur in flocks worldwide, especially in older sheep of susceptible genotypes. To state confidently that both the classical and atypical forms of scrapie are absent from a population it is necessary for active surveillance to have taken place.
The ability of a sheep to shed its own wool has an attraction in scenarios where the costs of harvesting wool outweigh its value. Certain breeds and composites have the ability to shed their wool in the spring, and these are investigated in this work in an attempt to outline the genetics of wool shedding. One flock from a breeding group in Southern England (UK) containing sheep with wool-shedding characteristics provided shedding scores (1 to 5 scale; no shedding to complete shedding) that were used in a range of genetic analyses. The particular nature of wool shedding suggested that there may be a major gene segregating in these populations that facilitates wool shedding. In addition, there was clearly variation among wool shedders in the speed and extent of shedding, so a polygenic trait was also investigated. The breeding group used a range of shedding breeds and composites in a regular program to introduce wool-shedding genes into their flocks. This allowed the testing of Mendelian ratios for shedders:nonshedders in both first-cross and first-backcross animals. Four modes of inheritance were tested: autosomal recessive, sex-linked recessive, autosomal dominant, and sex-linked dominant. The most likely mode of inheritance was autosomal dominant (P gene needs to be introduced into the population, and then selection between animals can proceed by using EBV for the polygenic trait (speed or extent of shedding) as the basis for selection. PMID:21357446
Pollott, G E
Barbarine sheep is the dominant breed in Tunisia. This fat-tailed breed present in all production systems is characterised by metabolic and digestive adaptation to the contrasting environment conditions prevailing in the country (heat stress, water deprivation, salinity etc.). The fat tail (1.5 to 7 kg) is an energy reservoir that is used in periods of feed scarcity. Moreover, the rumen of this breed harbours a microflora enabling it to valorize low-quality roughages and native range vegetation. Barbarine sheep could make benefit from a wide range of local feed resources like fodder shrubs (e.g. cactus and oldman saltbushes), tannin-containing shrubs (e.g. Acacia cyanophylla) and agro-industrial by-products (e.g. olive cake, bran etc. conserved in the form of feed blocks or pellets). It has a very shallow anoestrous, the intensity of which is dependant upon nutrition conditions rather than day length as temperate breeds. Productive and reproductive performances of late pregnant-early suckling, pre-mating ewes and also rams of this breed are not affected when some alternative feed resources replace common feedstuffs which are expensive and cannot afford regularly to smallholders. In brief, the merits of the Barbarine sheep in the production systems and other main adaptive mechanisms of this breed are discussed in this paper. The prospective of Barbarine sheep husbandry in the system dynamics, climate change and the evolution of the socioeconomic context are also envisaged. PMID:21533615
Ben Salem, Hichem; Lassoued, Narjess; Rekik, Mourad
Fish breeding is a very important activity ensuring availability of fingerlings for the stocking of ponds, pens, tanks and cages. The breeding habits of fishes in nature differ from specie to specie Different species of fish choose different places in the aquatic environment for breeding. Most species do not breed when in captivity due to a number of factors. In Nigeria, induced breeding of African mud catfish through injection of ova prim hormone or pituitary gland is the main practice. This...
Akankali, J. A.; Seighabo, E. I.; Abowei, J. F. N.
This task-based curriculum guide for agricultural production, specifically for sheep, is intended to help the teacher develop a classroom management system where students learn by doing. Introductory materials include a Dictionary of Occupational Titles job code and title sheet, a task sheet for developing leadership skills, and a task list. Each…
Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Coll. of Agriculture and Natural Resources Education Inst.
In this study, we investigated recent sheep pox outbreaks that occurred in Ononsky and Borzunsky regions of Zabajkalskij kray of Russia. The outbreaks involved in 2756 animals of which 112 were infected and 3 were slaughtered. Samples of injured skin of infected sheep were analysed by electron microscopy and CaPV-specific P32 gene amplification. Following sequence analysis of entire P32 gene showed that both specimens were identical to the sequence of several sheep poxvirus isolates from China and India. The close location of China to the last decade's Russian outbreaks suggest that possible future outbreaks in Russia could occur along the border regions with countries where sheep and goat pox are not controlled. PMID:24127821
Maksyutov, R A; Gavrilova, E V; Agafonov, A P; Taranov, O S; Glotov, A G; Miheev, V N; Shchelkunov, S N; Sergeev, A N
Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this proteomics study was to identify proteins that changed expression as a result of copper challenge in the uniquely copper sensitive North Ronaldsay sheep and further, to compare those changes in expression with the more copper tolerant Cambridge breed. Such data gives us a proteome-centered perspective of the pathogenesis of copper-induced oxidative stress in this breed. Results Many proteins respond to copper challenge, but this study focuses on those exhibiting a differential response between the two breeds, related to liver copper content. As copper accumulated in the tissue, the pattern of expression of several proteins was markedly different, in North Ronaldsay sheep as compared to the Cambridge breed. Conclusion The pattern of changes was consistent with the greatly enhanced susceptibility of North Ronaldsay sheep to copper-induced oxidative stress, focused on mitochondrial disturbance with consequent activation of hepatic stellate cells. The expression profiles were sufficiently complex that the response could not simply be explained as a hypersensitivity to copper in North Ronaldsay sheep.
This study attempted to determine the inter-relationship between market price and body measurements among different breeds of sheep in open markets of six Local Government Areas of Kano State (Municipal, Taruauni, Gmale, Nassarawa, Fagge and Dala) of Kano city. Body measurements and prices of sheep used for this study were obtained from Unguwa Uku, Dorayi, Kara, Bachirawa, yankaba, Mariri and Kabara livestock markets in Kano. The Sudanese price was the highest (N 30,000±0.0), followed by Uda...
Ao, Iyiola-tunji; Ts, Olugbemi; Ao, Ali; Ao, Ojo
The purpose of the study was to record and determine intensities, seasonal incidence and distribution of helminth parasites of veterinary importance that occur in cattle, sheep and goats in the northeastern Free State. The study was conducted at Harrismith and Kestell and in Qwa-Qwa from March 2000 to May 2001. Cattle of various breeds (including Bonsmara, Simmentaler and Friesian), Merino sheep and Angora goats were sampled. Faecal samples were analysed using the McMaster and Visser sieve te...
Tsotetsi, A. M.; Mbati, P. A.
The sheep breeds commercially exploited in northeastern Brazil are mostly hardy, but even being considered adapted animals, they suffer physiologically to the climatic conditions of this region. The objective of this study was to evaluate the variation of physiological parameters of animals and correlate them with meteorological data on different shifts and periods of the year. The design was DBC with 10 sheep, five Santa Inês and Morada Nova five. Data were collected in the dry and rainy se...
Carlos Syllas Monteiro Luz; Wéverton José Lima Fonseca; Cícero Pereira Barros Junior; Sousa, Gioto Ghiarone Terto E.; José Elivalto Guimaraes Campelo; André Câmpelo Araujo; Johnny Iglesias Mendes Araújo; Gleissa Mayone Silva Vogado; Tatiano Ribeiro Santos; Severino Cavalcante Sousa Júnior
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the genetic diversity within and among three breeds of sheep: Corriedale, Merino and Creole. Sheep from the three breeds (Merino n = 110, Corriedale n = 108 and Creole n = 10) were genotyped using the Illumina Ovine SNP50 beadchip®. Genetic diversity was eval [...] uated by comparing the minor allele frequency (MAF) among breeds. Population structure and genetic differentiation were assessed using STRUCTURE software, principal component analysis (PCA) and fixation index (F ST). Fixed markers (MAF = 0) that were different among breeds were identified as specific breed markers. Using a subset of 18,181 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), PCA and STUCTURE analysis were able to explain population stratification within breeds. Merino and Corriedale divergent lines showed high levels of polymorphism (89.4% and 86% of polymorphic SNPs, respectively) and moderate genetic differentiation (F ST = 0.08) between them. In contrast, Creole had only 69% polymorphic SNPs and showed greater genetic differentiation from the other two breeds (F ST = 0.17 for both breeds). Hence, a subset of molecular markers present in the OvineSNP50 is informative enough for breed assignment and population structure analysis of commercial and Creole breeds.
Andrés N, Grasso; Virginia, Goldberg; Elly A, Navajas; Wanda, Iriarte; Diego, Gimeno; Ignacio, Aguilar; Juan F, Medrano; Gonzalo, Rincón; Gabriel, Ciappesoni.
Full Text Available Scientific research on factors causing the reduction of well-being in sheep and goats is rather recent, as are studies of strategies to minimize the adverse effects of environmental challenges and improper management practices on flock welfare. Sheep and goats, considered very rustic animals, are reared prevalently under extensive production systems and are widespread mainly in marginal areas. For these reasons, only few studies on the welfare of these species have been carried out in the past. More recently, the scenario has changed, due to a gradual diffusion of intensive and semi-intensive production systems, especially in dairy sheep and goat breeds, to the growing concern of consumers about the life conditions of farmed animals, and to the issuing of a number of rules and laws on the safety of animal products and well-being of farmed livestock. As a consequence, several research groups have turned their attention to the welfare of sheep and goats. Nevertheless, information on this topic is still scarce. This paper reviews major critical points regarding the endangerment of welfare in farmed sheep and goats. Climatic extremes and seasonal fluctuations in herbage amount and quality are discussed as important causes of the reduction of well-being in extensive production systems, which can impair production efficiency of grazing animals and dramatically affect the welfare and health status of sheep and goats. Space allowance and structures of sheep and goat houses are described as the main potential sources of discomfort for housed flocks, together with inadequate control of micro-environment, and inappropriate milking procedures and human-animal interactions. Recent studies on the impact of high ambient temperature, different ventilation regimes, high stocking densities, reduced airspace and poor litter management on behaviour, immune and endocrine response, and on performance of sheep and goats are discussed. The effects of inadequate milking procedures and improper milking technical parameters on welfare and udder health of sheep and goats are also discussed. Finally, some practices aimed at minimizing emotional and nutritional stresses of lambs and kids after early separation from the mother, before the transition to artificial rearing, and at weaning time are described.
Analysis of retrospective quantitative sheep pox epidemiological data from the Government Animal Husbandry Department, Karnataka, India, covering 24 years revealed significant information on sheep pox. The state has a dense sheep population including some valuable breeds. Data revealed the endemicity of the disease: there were a considerable number of outbreaks and attacks, high mortality and case fatality rates and low immunisation coverage. None of the years studied were free from infection. Temporally, the disease was most prevalent between November and May. Spatially, the disease was recorded in 19 out of 27 districts; in some of these districts sheep pox was highly endemic, in some it was endemic at low levels and in the remaining districts outbreaks occurred sporadically. Environmental factors influenced disease occurrence. Vaccine production met only one tenth of the requirement, and its peak utilisation was in the dry season. PMID:16642761
Bhanuprakash, V; Moorthy, A R S; Krishnappa, G; Srinivasa Gowda, R N; Indrani, B K
Full Text Available Romania, by its genetic found made up of over 7.4 millions sheep and 1.8 millionsyoung sheep exported in EU countries, represents an important mark in bothEuropean and World sheep breeding sector, in last years marked by many ESSTcenters. The apparition of this disease and its high risk of danger for reared effectiveconstraint EEC countries to interfere by law regulations concerning scrapie controland stopping disease spreading. In our country, controls identified the presence ofscrapie in livestock. The international reference laboratories post mortem certifiedthe presence of disease. Immunohistochemical detection of PrPSc is a standarddiagnostic method for sheep scrapie. By immunohistochemistry (IHC, PrPSc isdetected in lymphoid tissues during preclinical and clinical disease. Aftergenotypization at PrnP locus, the marker assisted selection is compulsory, and flocksinclude only genotypes with high disease resistance.
Full Text Available Romania, by its genetic found made up of over 7.4 millions sheep and 1.8 millionsyoung sheep exported in EU countries, represents an important mark in bothEuropean and World sheep breeding sector, in last years marked by many ESSTcenters. The apparition of this disease and its high risk of danger for reared effectiveconstraint EEC countries to interfere by law regulations concerning scrapie controland stopping disease spreading. In our country, controls identified the presence ofscrapie in livestock. The international reference laboratories post mortem certifiedthe presence of disease. Immunohistochemical detection of PrPSc is a standarddiagnostic method for sheep scrapie. By immunohistochemistry (IHC, PrPSc isdetected in lymphoid tissues during preclinical and clinical disease. Aftergenotypization at PrnP locus, the marker assisted selection is compulsory, and flocksinclude only genotypes with high disease resistance.
Sheep and goats are often kept in low input production systems, often at subsistence levels. In such systems, the uptake of effective commercial breeding programmes is limited, let alone the uptake of more advanced technologies such as those needed for marker-assisted selection (MAS). However, effective breeding programmes exist in a number of countries, the largest ones in Australia and New Zealand aiming for genetic improvement of meat and wool characteristics as well as disease resistance and fecundity. Advances have been made in sheep gene mapping with the marker map consisting of more than 1 200 microsatellites, and a virtual genome sequence together with a very dense single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) map are expected within a year. Significant research efforts into quantitative trait loci (QTL) are under way and a number of commercial sheep gene tests have already become available, mainly for single gene effects but some for muscularity and disease resistance. Gene mapping in goats is much less advanced with mainly some activity in dairy goats. Integration of genotypic information into commercial genetic evaluation and optimal selection strategies is a challenge that deserves more development. (author)
Variation in the ovine prion protein amino acid sequence influences scrapie progression, with sheep homozygous for A136R154Q171 considered susceptible. This study examined the association of survival time of scrapie-exposed ARQ sheep with variation elsewhere in the ovine prion gene. Four single nucleotide polymorphism alleles were associated with prolonged survival. One nonsynonymous allele (T112) was associated with an additional 687 days of survival for scrapie-exposed sheep compared to M11...
Laegreid, W. W.; Clawson, M. L.; Heaton, M. P.; Green, B. T.; O Rourke, K. I.; Knowles, D. P.
In 1995 several outbreaks of food poisoning in humans occurred in Iceland, that were traced to salmonella contamination of singed sheep heads. This prompted us to study the prevalence of salmonella infection in sheep and to trace where and how infection might have occurred. Faecal, intestinal contents and tonsillar samples were collected in the spring and autumn from sheep on 50 farms in the southwestern part of the country, where salmonellosis had been detected and from 5 farms in the north...
Gunnarsson E; Hjartardóttir S; Sigvaldadóttir J
Full Text Available Turkish Karayaka sheep breed that is one of the important native breed at Black Sea Region in Turkey was genotyped for 13 RAPD primers. Genotypes of 100 were collected from five different herds (BA, BF, LA, LD and KP herds localized in the Samsun territory. The genetic similarity was obtained on the dendrograms individuals and herd. Within herds, individuals showed a similarity index between 0.857 to 0.420. The similarity index between populations ranged from 0.520 to 0.710. The binary results also were utilised by principal component analysis for comparison of herds and individuals. The genetic relationship of animals shows a difference among herds in terms of number of RAPD bands. These results show that some herds are effected possibly from other sheep breeds or reared purely such as KP.
The title of this rather compelling application is derived from the thought-provoking novel by Philip K. Dick, "Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep?". Essentially, what this open source screen saver does is allow a vast number of computers to communicate with each other to create abstract animations known as "sheep". Visitors can also vote for their favorite "sheep" as well, thereby allowing other fellow users the ability to learn about their own preferences for abstract art. This version of Electric Sheep is compatible with most operating systems.
Full Text Available Aim: The study was undertaken to understand the epidemiological status of bluetongue infection in Egypt. Materials and Methods: Serum samples were collected from clinically healthy as well as suspected sheep and goats. Samples were collected during the vector breeding season from September to November 2010, from 14 Egyptian governorates which represent different geographical regions of Egypt, and were tested by Agar Gel Immuno-precipitation Test (AGPT. Results: Out of total 1293 animal serum samples (sheep-1028 and goats-265, 17.5% of sheep and 14.7% of goats serum samples were found positive. The overall prevalence of anti-BT antibodies in different governorates was 16.9%. The highest prevalence of bluetongue group specific antibodies was detected in Beni-Suef, Giza, and Al Sharqia governorates (13.2%. The results indicate that there is a necessity to run further studies to identify the negative governorates. In addition, there is a lack in information regarding the BTV serotypes in Egypt. Conclusion: This study reflected high seroprevalence of bluetongue infection in sheep than goats. The results indicated that further studies are needed to identify the vectors from different agro-climatic zones, in addition, the BTV serotypes that are circulating in Egypt.
M. A. Mahmoud
A sheep brain is used to teach about memory and where it takes place because its brain structure and functions are similar to the human brain. Students will be exposed briefly to the fact that electrochemical connections made between brain cells help us remember the thoughts, skills, experiences, and knowledge that make each of us unique. Through dissections, students will learn about the cortex, brain cells, and where the three main subdivisions of memory (working, long-term, and skill memory) take place.
Science NetLinks (The museum of science, art and human perception at the Palace of Fine Arts; )
Plant breeding is considered one of the longest ongoing activities undertaken by humans, who select plantsmore productive and useful to themselves and the animals for at least 10,000 years ago. The evolution of civilizationsparalleled the success of plant breeding, although this has not been recognized by the public. The reason may be lack ofunderstanding of what plant breeding encompasses. The concept of plant breeding evolved, depending on the time it wasformulated, but without losing the e...
Hallauer, Arnel R.
How many of you all grew up on a cattle farm? This is a diagram that we will use to tell some advantages and disadvantages about beef cattle as we study different beef breeds. Diagram Advantages and Disadvantages of beef cattle breeds The first website that we will look at for the identification of beef cattle breeds is The Beef Site. Choose three breeds and look for some advantages ...
Full Text Available The aim of this work was to sequence the exons of ?-defensin 1 and 2 genes (SBD1 and SBD2 in Valle del Belice dairy sheep in order to identify polymorphisms. The study was conducted on 60 samples from three flocks. Six SNPs were identified: two in SBD1 and four in SBD2. Both genes consist of two exons and one intron. In SBD1 gene, SNPs were found only in the exon 2, whereas in SBD2, SNPs were detected in both exons. In both genes, SNPs were located in the coding regions and in the 3'-UTR. The SNP in SBD2 located at position 1659 determined a change in the protein sequence. Further studies will be necessary to investigate if the amino acid change modifies the biological function of the protein and the association with SCC, in order to use this information in a breeding program for mastitis resistance in Valle del Belice sheep.
Full Text Available This study attempted to determine the inter-relationship between market price and body measurements among different breeds of sheep in open markets of six Local Government Areas of Kano State (Municipal, Taruauni, Gmale, Nassarawa, Fagge and Dala of Kano city. Body measurements and prices of sheep used for this study were obtained from Unguwa Uku, Dorayi, Kara, Bachirawa, yankaba, Mariri and Kabara livestock markets in Kano. The Sudanese price was the highest (N 30,000±0.0, followed by Uda, Balami and Yankasa with the least cost being N 10, 614±3,137. Similarly the Sudanese breed recorded highest body weight, back length, lion girth and height at wither compared to all other breeds, while Balami had a higher chest girth (78.77±6.0 cm, followed by Uda and Yankasa, which recorded the least. The extra large animals weighed 58.75± 1.25 kg, which was more than the body weight of the large, medium and small sheep which weighed 42.48±0.34kg, 34.93±0.21 and 27.92±0.26, respectively. The price of these animals also follow the same pattern as the extra large cost more than all the other weight classes. The prices were N 25,750±8,500, N 15,524±2,263, N 11,284±2792 and N 8,324±1,584 for extra large, large, medium and the small sheep, respectively. Price of sheep was positive and highly correlated to weight of the sheep (0.826. Price was also positive and moderately correlated to back length (0.579, chest girth (0.538, height at wither (0.535 and leg length (0.464 at 1% level of significance. Leg length was highly and positively correlated with height at wither (0.717. Height at whither together with back length are important additional variables to chest girth to obtain up to 38% prediction of price of rams. The price of any sheep breed is subjected to the weight and the price of sheep in an open market can best be predicted from a combination of leg length and loin girth. (Animal Production 13 (1:64-68 (2011Key Words: price of sheep, sheep breeds and open markets
Full Text Available Small ruminant lentiviruses include members that infect sheep (ovine lentivirus [OvLV]; also known as ovine progressive pneumonia virus/maedi-visna virus and goats (caprine arthritis encephalitis virus [CAEV]. Breed differences in seroprevalence and proviral concentration of OvLV had suggested a strong genetic component in susceptibility to infection by OvLV in sheep. A genetic marker test for susceptibility to OvLV has been developed recently based on the TMEM154 gene with validation data from over 2,800 sheep representing nine cohorts. While no single genotype has been shown to have complete resistance to OvLV, consistent association in thousands of sheep from multiple breeds and management conditions highlight a new strategy for intervention by selective breeding. This genetic marker-assisted selection (MAS has the potential to be a useful addition to existing viral control measures. Further, the discovery of multiple additional genomic regions associated with susceptibility to or control of OvLV suggests that additional genetic marker tests may be developed to extend the reach of MAS in the future. This review will cover the strengths and limitations of existing data from host genetics as an intervention and outline additional questions for future genetic research in sheep, goats, small ruminant lentiviruses, and their host-pathogen interactions.
Donald P. Knowles
Knowledge of genetic diversity is important as it forms the basis for designing breeding programmes and making rational decisions on sustainable utilization of animal genetic resources. This study was designed to assess the efficiency of blood protein polymorphism as a rapid tool for assessing genetic diversity, using seven blood proteins (transferrin, albumin, haemoglobin, esterase A, esterase C, carbonic anhydrase and X-protein) and 457 indigenous fat-tailed (351) and fat-rumped (106) hair sheep in Kenya from 7 populations, with 40 Merino as controls. Transferrin was analysed using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and starch gel electrophoresis was used to analyse the other six loci. Of the seven loci analysed, two - carbonic anhydrase and X-protein - could not be interpreted. The five interpretable markers, however, showed low levels of polymorphism in allele numbers and heterozygosity. Multilocus mean FST values of 0.083 indicated a moderate genetic differentiation between the populations analysed. The Dm and Da genetic distance estimates showed the indigenous sheep populations in Kenya to be closely related genetically, with the dendrogram failing to resolve indigenous sheep into fat-tailed sheep and fat-rumped hair sheep. Due to its costs and modest equipment demands, blood protein polymorphism can be used as a rapid tool to assess genetic diversity and prioritize breeds to be analysed by microsatellite DNA markers. (author)markers. (author)
Sheep display a variant phenotype with respect to their susceptibility to copper and derivative pathology. The North Ronaldsay sheep are acutely sensitive to environmental copper while the Cambridge breed is much more copper-tolerant. A study of protein expression in the liver of the two different breeds of sheep as a result of copper challenge would aid in the understanding of their differing pathophysiologies and contribute to knowledge of copper toxicosis in man. In this initial study, Cambridge breed sheep were challenged with oral copper and liver proteins were analyzed by two-dimensional (2-D) gel electrophoresis. Proteins whose expression pattern was modified by copper exposure were then identified by peptide mass fingerprinting using matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry. In conclusion, the pattern of changes in protein expression were consistent with an early adaptive response to oxidative challenge. This was followed by evidence of an impaired ability of the liver to compensate as copper loading increased, accompanied by oxidative stress-induced injury. PMID:14760725
Simpson, Deborah M; Beynon, Robert J; Robertson, Duncan H L; Loughran, Michael J; Haywood, Susan
A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence and risk factors for ectoparasites infestation in sheep in three agro-ecological zones in central Oromia, Ethiopia, from October 2009 to April 2010. The study revealed that 637 (48.1%) of the 1325 sheep examined were infested with one or more ectoparasites. The ectoparasites identified were Bovicola ovis (27.2%), Melophagus ovinus (16.4%), Ctenocephalides sp. (2.3%), Linognathus africanus (1.2%), Linognathus ovillus (0.3%), Sarcoptes sp. (1.2%), Amblyomma variegatum (4.4%), Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi (1.9%), Rhipicephalus pravus (1.9%), Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) decoloratus (1.1%), Rhipicephalus sanguineus (0.9%), Rhipicephalus praetextatus (1.1%) and Hyalomma truncatum (1.6%). Statistically significant difference was observed in prevalence of B. ovis amongst study agroecological zones: highland 36.6%, midland 20.9% and lowland 14.0%. Significantly higher prevalence was recorded in highland agroecological zone. A significantly (OR = 0.041, p 0.05) was never recorded in the prevalence of all the identified species of ectoparasites between male and female sheep hosts. However, a significantly (p = 0.006) higher prevalence of B. ovis was recorded between young and adult sheep. The risk of B. ovis infestation was 1.45 times higher in young than the adult sheep. Furthermore, a significantly (p < 0.001) higher prevalence of M. ovinus, B. ovis and Sarcoptes sp. was found between sheep with poor and a good body condition. The ever increasing threat of ectoparasites on overall sheep productivity and tanning industry in Ethiopia warrants urgent control intervention. Further studies on the role of ectoparasites in transmission of diseases to sheep, zoonotic importance, comparative prevalence and load, and the importance of sheep as alternative hosts in different agroecological zones, breeds and management systems in Ethiopia are recommended so as to design applicable control programme in the country. PMID:23327319
Kumsa, Bersissa; Beyecha, Kebede; Geloye, Mesula
Full Text Available A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence and risk factors for ectoparasites infestation in sheep in three agro-ecological zones in central Oromia, Ethiopia, from October 2009 to April 2010. The study revealed that 637 (48.1% of the 1325 sheep examined were infested with one or more ectoparasites. The ectoparasites identified were Bovicola ovis (27.2%, Melophagus ovinus (16.4%, Ctenocephalides sp. (2.3%, Linognathus africanus (1.2%, Linognathus ovillus (0.3%, Sarcoptes sp. (1.2%, Amblyomma variegatum (4.4%, Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi (1.9%, Rhipicephalus pravus (1.9%, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus decoloratus (1.1%, Rhipicephalus sanguineus (0.9%, Rhipicephalus praetextatus (1.1% and Hyalomma truncatum (1.6%. Statistically significant difference was observed in prevalence of B. ovis amongst study agroecological zones: highland 36.6%, midland 20.9% and lowland 14.0%. Significantly higher prevalence was recorded in highland agroecological zone. A significantly (OR = 0.041, p 0.05 was never recorded in the prevalence of all the identified species of ectoparasites between male and female sheep hosts. However, a significantly (p = 0.006 higher prevalence of B. ovis was recorded between young and adult sheep. The risk of B. ovis infestation was 1.45 times higher in young than the adult sheep. Furthermore, a significantly (p < 0.001 higher prevalence of M. ovinus, B. ovis and Sarcoptes sp. was found between sheep with poor and a good body condition. The ever increasing threat of ectoparasites on overall sheep productivity and tanning industry in Ethiopia warrants urgent control intervention. Further studies on the role of ectoparasites in transmission of diseases to sheep, zoonotic importance, comparative prevalence and load, and the importance of sheep as alternative hosts in different agroecological zones, breeds and management systems in Ethiopia are recommended so as to design applicable control programme in the country.
The Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS) developed to breed CARIBU radioactive beams at ATLAS is currently in the off-line commissioning stage. The beam commissioning is being performed using a low emittance surface ionization source producing singly-charged cesium ions. The primary goal of the off-line commissioning is the demonstration of high-efficiency charge breeding in the pulsed injection mode. An overview of the final design of the CARIBU EBIS charge breeder, the off-line commissioning installation and the first results on charge breeding of stable cesium ions are presented and discussed.
Kondrashev, S.; Barcikowski, A.; Dickerson, C.; Ostroumov, P. N.; Sharamentov, S.; Vondrasek, R.; Pikin, A.
Full Text Available To achieve this experiment, the biological material was represented by theBoto?ani Karakul sheep, ewes and rams of different age categories and of differentcolour varieties (black, greyish, brown, grey, pink and white. The animalsproceeded both from the elite farm of the R.D.S.S. Pop?u?i and from theproduction and private farms from the breeding area of this breed. The Karakulbreed is specialized for the lamb pelt production. The classical colours are blackand greyish. The genetic base of creation of new colour varieties was representedby black and greyish sheep which constitute a continue source of numerical andqualitative increase of these varieties applying adequate reproduction andselection technologies. The main morpho-production traits of sheep werementioned, as follows: the qualitative features of lamb pelts, the body growth, thebody conformation and constitution, reproduction aptitudes, milk production,framing in the specific parameters of the Boto?ani Karakul breed.
The milk somatic cell count (MSCC) forms the basis of abnormal milk control programs world wide for goats, cows and sheep. To better understand factors that contribute to elevations in MSCC, the effects of stage of lactation, parity, breed and state/area in the United States (US) on goat MSCC were ...
the present study was conducted as in the experimental sheep farm of the nuclear research center, egyptian atomic energy authority in association with the institute of graduate studies and research. university of alexandria. this study aims to accurately and economically detect early pregnancy using techniques of biotechnology .consequently, the suggested method may replace techniques used nowadays for pregnancy detection since these techniques have disadvantages (e.g. long time before accurately determining pregnancy in rectal abdominal palpation and high cost and hazards of using serum progesterone radio immunoassay (RIA). the farmer may benefit from such detection economically by increasing his farm breeding cycle efficiency , reducing the breeding expenses . and isolating fertile ewes as early as possible. therefore reducing abortion incidences. stillbirths or production of weak lambs. this study was performed in two separate experiments. the first experiment: twenty four mixed breed sheep from the experimental sheep of the nuclear research center . egyptian atomic energy authority were used in this study. blood samples were taken at days 126.96.36.199.21.and 25 days after mating and a native- page were applied on the serum of these samples in correlation with serum progesterone RIA test. in addition . white blood cells were isolated from blood samples to obtain purified total RNA for RT-PCR. gel images were analyzed using totallab v.i.II(nonlinear dynamic, Newcastle allab v.i.II(nonlinear dynamic, Newcastle upontyne. UK) computer software.the second experiment:nine pregnant and two non-pregnant ewes used in this experiment. blood sample were taken 0.25.30.35.40.45.and 50 days after mating and SDS-page were applied on the serum of theses samples. Native-page were applied for serum samples and stained for glycoproteins. gel images were analyzed using totallab v/1.11 (nonlinear dynamic. Newcastle upontyne. UK) computer software
Serum samples from sheep collected from the Sokoto city abattoir were tested for brucellosis using the Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT), the Serum Agglutination Test (SAT) and the Competitive ELISA (Compelisa). A sero prevalence rate of 23.61% was recorded. The prevalence was higher among the females (26.71%) than males (15.30%) and also in those within the age band of 12-24 months (26.19%). Out of the three breeds of Udah, Yankassa and Balami, Udah was observed to have the highest prevalence of...
Junaidu, A. U.; Salihu, M. D.; Gulumbe, M. L.
The occurrence of abscess disease, caseous lymphadenitis, and pulmonary adenomatosis in sheep in Denmark is reported for the first time. Subcutaneous abscesses were observed in imported 4- to 5-month-old lambs of the Lacaune breed 10 days after arrival in Denmark. Abscesses were mostly located in the head, neck and shoulder regions close to the regional lymph nodes. Bacteriological examinations revealed growth of Staphylococcus aureus ssp. anaerobius in all animals with subcutaneously located abscesses containing a viscous white-yellow odourless mass. In addition, Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis was isolated from abscesses in one animal and lesions consistent with pulmonary adenomatosis were found in four animals.
MØller, Kristian; Agerholm, J.S.
The extent of linkage disequilibrium (LD) between genetic loci has implications for both association studies and the accuracy of genomic prediction. To characterise the persistence of LD in diverse sheep breeds, two SNP genotyping platforms were used. First, existing SNP genotypes from 63 breeds obtained using the ovine SNP50 BeadChip (49,034 loci) were used to estimate LD decay in populations with contrasting levels of genetic diversity. Given the paucity of marker pairs separated by short physical distances on the SNP50 BeadChip, genotyping was subsequently performed for four breeds using the recently developed ovine HD BeadChip that assays approximately 600,000 SNPs with an average genomic spacing of 5 kb. This facilitated a highly accurate estimate of LD over short genomic distances (<30 kb) and revealed LD varies considerably between sheep breeds. Further, sheep appear to contain generally lower levels of LD than do other domestic species, likely a reflection of aspects of their past population history. PMID:25040320
Kijas, James W; Porto-Neto, Laercio; Dominik, Sonja; Reverter, Antonio; Bunch, Rowan; McCulloch, Russell; Hayes, Ben J; Brauning, Rudiger; McEwan, John
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english We determined the polymorphism C242T of the aromatase gene (Cyp19) and its allelic frequency, as well as the effect of the variants on productive and reproductive traits in 71 purebred Santa Inês sheep, 13 purebred Brazilian Somali sheep, nine purebred Poll Dorset sheep, and 18 crossbred 1/2 Dorper [...] sheep. The animals were genotyped using the PCR-RFLP technique. The influence of the animal's genotype on its performance or on the performance of its lambs was analyzed by the least square method. Another factor assessed was the importance of the animal's genotype in analysis models for quantitative breeding value estimates, and whether there were differences among the averages of breeding values of animals with different genotypes for this gene. In the sample studied, no AA individuals were observed; the AB and BB frequencies were 0.64 and 0.36, respectively. All Brazilian Somali sheep were of genotype BB. All 1/2 Dorper BB animals presented a lower age at first lambing, and the Santa Inês BB ewes presented a lower lambing interval. In these same genetic groups, AB ewes presented higher litter weight at weaning. This is evidence that BB ewes have a better reproductive performance phenotype, whereas AB ewes present a better maternal ability phenotype. However, in general, animals with genotype AB presented better average breeding values than those with genotype BB.
Ana Maria Bezerra Oliveira, Lôbo; Raimundo Nonato Braga, Lôbo; Samuel Rezende, Paiva.
Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the functional capacity of the liver based on the activity of specific enzymes and bilirubin in serum and also to investigate the influence of mechanical and toxic effects of Fasciola hepatica on the structures of the blood vessels and biliary tract in the sheep liver.Methods: Blood samples and liver of 63 indigenous sheep of Pramenka breed, slaughtered in the period from March to December 2009 were used. Based on parasitological findings in the liver, all animals were divided into two groups: control (n=34 and infected group (n=29. For investigation and description of pathological changes in sheep liver, naturally infected with F. hepatica, corrosion cast technique was used.Results: Biochemical analysis of tested parameters showed a significant elevation (P?0.05 of serum gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT, total bilirubin (TBIL and direct bilirubin (DBIL in infected sheep group comparing with the control group. No significant differences were observed for activity of aspartate aminotranferase (AST between groups. Vascular and biliary systems of the liver were found to be affected.Conclusion: Results of biochemical analysis are consistent with pathological findings and measuring of tested parameters could be used in early diagnosis of sheep fasciolosis and to test the effectiveness of anthelmintic therapy. Corrosion cast technique is very useful for investigation of pathological changes and neoangiogenesis of vascular and biliary system in sheep liver, caused by mechanical and toxic effects of F. hepatica.
Full Text Available The persistency of lactation, i.e. the ability of animals to maintain a rconstant level of production after the lactation peak, represents an interesting trait for animal breeding strategies, allowing for the increase of profitability of animal husbandry via the reduction of production costs. Dairy cattle with flatter curves show a higher reproductive efficiency, a better metabolic status and have their nutritional requirements more constantly spread throughout lactation, allowing for the use of cheaper feeds (Dekkers et al., 1998; Solkner and Fucks, 1987. Also in dairy sheep the persistency could represent an interesting trait for breeding purposes. A main problem for the introduction of this trait in an aggregate genotype is represented by the difficulty in finding an objective measure: several measurements of lactation persistency have been proposed but none of them is widely accepted (Gengler, 1996..........
Full Text Available Fish breeding is a very important activity ensuring availability of fingerlings for the stocking of ponds, pens, tanks and cages. The breeding habits of fishes in nature differ from specie to specie Different species of fish choose different places in the aquatic environment for breeding. Most species do not breed when in captivity due to a number of factors. In Nigeria, induced breeding of African mud catfish through injection of ova prim hormone or pituitary gland is the main practice. This article reviews the wild sources of fish seeds, some cultivable fishes. carp breeding, relationship between the endocrine system and gonad development, function of the Central Nervous System (CNS in propagation, influence of ecological conditions on gonad development, artificial propagation of common carp, natural induced spawning, salmon culture and an innovation in the sea to educate fish breeders, fish genetics and fish culturist in other to facilitate their productivity.
A genome-wide association study (GWAS) was performed to investigate seven red blood cell (RBC) phenotypes in over 500 domestic sheep (Ovis aries) from three breeds (Columbia, Polypay, and Rambouillet). A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) showed genome-wide significant association with increased m...
Neurosecretion, PAS-positive mucopolysaccharides and the Nissl substance were studied in the neurons of the rostral, medial and caudal hypothalamus of continuously irradiated ewes. The study was performed on 21 ewes of the Slovak Merino breed of a live weight of 34 kg. The animals were in the period of physiological anoestrus and their age was two to three years. The first group of six ewes was the control. The second group included 15 sheep irradiated with a total dose of 6.7 Gy (700 R) for seven days. Co60 was used as the source of irradiation. The animals of this group were killed seven days following treatment. The ewes in the third group were left for the study of mortality. The brains were perfused with 2% buffered paraformaldehyde immediately after the bleeding of the sheep; then the brains were removed from the skulls and fixed in buffered picroformol. Paraffin slices were stained with haematoxylin-eosine, aldehyde-fuchsine and alcian blue for neurosecretion, by the PAS reaction for mucopolysaccharides and with cresyl violet for the Nissl substance. It was found that irradiation of the whole body inhibited the activity of neurosecretory cells in the rostral and medial hypothalamus, thus reducing neurosecretion. These regions also showed a reduced activity of the PAS reaction used for the demonstration of mucopolysaccharides. The observed changes also included damage of the endothelium of blood vessels with the occurrence of erythrocyte extravasates he occurrence of erythrocyte extravasates and with haemorrhages. In this way, the trophism of neurosecretory cells was affected, which is ascribed to the decrease in the amount of neurosecretory material. In the caudal hypothalamus, neurosecretion and PAS-positivity were slightly stimulated by irradiation. The Nissl substance disappeared as a result of irradiation. (author)
An outbreak of sheep pox was investigated in the Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region in China. Through immunofluorescence testing, isolated viruses, polymerase chain reaction identification, and electron microscopic examination, the isolated strain was identified as a sheep pox virus. The virus was identified through sequence and phylogenetic analysis of the P32 gene, open reading frame (ORF) 095, and ORF 103 genes. This study is the first to use the ORF 095 and ORF 103 genes as candidate genes for the analysis of sheep pox. The results showed that the ORF 095 and ORF 103 genes could be used for the genotyping of the sheep pox virus. PMID:23765973
Zhu, X L; Yang, F; Li, H X; Dou, Y X; Meng, X L; Li, H; Luo, X N; Cai, X P
Full Text Available Biological control of parasitic nematodes of livestock is currently under development and represents another tool that may be integrated into helminth parasite control strategies. This paper presents a brief introduction to commercial sheep farming in South Africa and currently available nematode parasite control methods. These include the FAMACHA(r clinical assay, strategies of pasture management, dilution of resistant worm species by introduction of susceptible worms, breed resistant sheep and nutritional supplementation. The purpose of this paper is to outline the principles of biological control using nematophagous fungi and how it may be applied on sheep farms in South Africa.
The Integrated Breeding Platform is a development being led by the Generation Challenge Programme (GCP), a part of the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR) which has a mission to bring scientists from different horizons and with different skills to work together, bridging the gap between upstream and applied research, so that biotechnology could have greater impact on plant breeding efficiency in developing countries.The Integrated Breeding Platform functions as a one-stop-shop to provide information, tools, services and training. Furthermore IBP hopes to provide developing countries with access to modern breeding technologies, breeding materials, and related information to facilitate their adoption of molecular breeding approaches and improve their plant breeding efficiency.This site provides educational and training opportunities to help people be able to better utilize the tools at the Integrated Breeding Platform, as well as to provide an online community area for webinars and discussion forums. In order to access the self-paced courses found at the left, you will need to click on the "Join Now" button found in the upper right corner of this page. Right now the courses are under development and not ready for participants. While you wait, you can view any materials found under the "lessons" or "animations/video" buttons.
This is the fourth in a series of lessons specifically designed to instruct individuals without any formal training in genetics or statistics about the science of corn breeding. Individuals with formal training in genetics or statistics but without any training in plant breeding also may benefit from taking these lessons.
Gastrointestinal nematodes are a global cause of disease and death in humans, wildlife and livestock. Livestock infection has historically been controlled with anthelmintic drugs, but the development of resistance means that alternative controls are needed. The most promising alternatives are vaccination, nutritional supplementation and selective breeding, all of which act by enhancing the immune response. Currently, control planning is hampered by reliance on the faecal egg count (FEC), which suffers from low accuracy and a nonlinear and indirect relationship with infection intensity and host immune responses. We address this gap by using extensive parasitological, immunological and genetic data on the sheep-Teladorsagia circumcincta interaction to create an immunologically explicit model of infection dynamics in a sheep flock that links host genetic variation with variation in the two key immune responses to predict the observed parasitological measures. Using our model, we show that the immune responses are highly heritable and by comparing selective breeding based on low FECs versus high plasma IgA responses, we show that the immune markers are a much improved measure of host resistance. In summary, we have created a model of host-parasite infections that explicitly captures the development of the adaptive immune response and show that by integrating genetic, immunological and parasitological understanding we can identify new immune-based markers for diagnosis and control. PMID:25121649
Prada Jiménez de Cisneros, Joaquín; Stear, Michael J; Mair, Colette; Singleton, Darran; Stefan, Thorsten; Stear, Abigail; Marion, Glenn; Matthews, Louise
To view additional success stories click on the link in the left menu Please click here to report your plant breeding success stories. Click on TCAP logo to see the Economic impact of USDA-NIFA small grains CAPsThe Plant Breeding Coordinating Committee (SCC 080) is the USDA-sponsored advisory group of representatives from land grant universities. The Plant Breeding Coordinating Committee represents national plant breeding with a focus on education in the broader sense, including providing information to the public and administrators, and encouraging the development of formal educational opportunities, continuing education, and lifelong learning. Mission: To provide a forum for leadership on issues and opportunities of strategic importance to national core competency in plant breeding research and education Membership: The PBCC members will consist of the representatives of the SCC-080 committee and others by request.
The terms of reference for ITER provide for incorporation of a tritium breeding blanket with a breeding ratio as close to unity as practical. A breeding blanket is required to assure an adequate supply of tritium to meet the program objectives. Based on specified design criteria, a ceramic breeder concept with water coolant and an austenitic steel structure has been selected as the first option and lithium-lead blanket concept has been chosen as an alternate option. The first wall, blanket, and shield are integrated into a single unit with separate cooling systems. The design makes extensive use of beryllium to enhance the tritium breeding ratio. The design goals with a tritium breeding ratio of 0.8--0.9 have been achieved and the R ampersand D requirements to qualify the design have been identified. 4 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs
Full Text Available Differently from what one could formerly imagine, that buffalo breeding activity would be solely directed to fill the so called cattle breeding gaps determined by inadequate environmental conditions for ordinary cattle breeding, it has been actually seen that in those areas where breeders could successfully organize industrial-agricultural chains, either on meat or milk and its related products production, there has been an expressive expansion .Buffalo breeding has shown to be an important alternative not only in farms of higher technological level as also , and mainly, on small farms where it has become a key factor for increasing the average income, besides keeping labor force in country areas. This article intends to point out and examine some aspects of buffalo breeding and its potentialities in Brazil.
Full Text Available Abstract Background In sheep dairy production, total lactation performance, and length of lactation of lactation are of economic significance. A more persistent lactation has been associated with improved udder health. An extended lactation is defined by a longer period of milkability. This study is the first investigation to examine the presence of quantitative trait loci (QTL for extended lactation and lactation persistency in sheep. Methods An (Awassi × Merino × Merino single-sire backcross family with 172 ewes was used to map QTL for lactation persistency and extended lactation traits on a framework map of 189 loci across all autosomes. The Wood model was fitted to data from multiple lactations to estimate parameters of ovine lactation curves, and these estimates were used to derive measures of lactation persistency and extended lactation traits of milk, protein, fat, lactose, useful yield, and somatic cell score. These derived traits were subjected to QTL analyses using maximum likelihood estimation and regression analysis. Results Overall, one highly significant (LOD > 3.0, four significant (2.0 Conclusion This study identified ten novel QTL for lactation persistency and extended lactation in sheep, but results suggest that lactation persistency and extended lactation do not have a major gene in common. These results provide a basis for further validation in extended families and other breeds as well as targeting regions for genome-wide association mapping using high-density SNP arrays.
Lam Mary K
Recent studies in domestic animals have used RNA-seq to explore the transcriptome of different tissues in a limited number of individuals. In the present study, de novo transcriptome sequencing was used to compare sheep adipose tissue transcriptome profiles between a fat-tailed breed (Kazak sheep; KS) and a short-tailed (Tibetan sheep; TS). The RNA-seq data from these two groups revealed that 646 genes were differentially expressed between the KS and TS groups, including 280 up-regulated and 366 down-regulated genes. We identified genes relevant to fat metabolism in adipose tissues, including two top genes with the largest fold change (NELL1 and FMO3). Pathway analysis revealed that the differentially expressed genes between the KS and TS breeds belong to fatty acid metabolism relevant pathways (e.g. fat digestion and absorption, glycine, serine, and threonine metabolism) and cell junction-related pathways (e.g. cell adhesion molecules) which contribute to fat deposition. This work highlighted potential genes and gene networks that affect fat deposition and meat quality in sheep. PMID:25088569
Wang, Xiaolong; Zhou, Guangxian; Xu, Xiaochun; Geng, Rongqing; Zhou, Jiping; Yang, Yuxin; Yang, Zhaoxia; Chen, Yulin
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between plasma leptin and FSH concentration in Iranian sheep. Forty female Mehraban and Sanjabi sheep were used. All ewes were cyclic and synchronized with cloprestenol. The ewes were divided into two breed groups: Mehraban breed (n = 20 and Sanjabi breed (n = 20, feeding at maintenance level. On the first and second days of estrus cycle, blood samples were collected from the jugular vein. Ovulation number was determined by endoscopy 7 days after the second injection. Mean Plasma leptin concentrations on second day (4.74±0.15 and 4.68±0.10 ng mL-1 were significantly higher than those on first day (2.64±0.11 and 2.56±0.04 ng mL-1 for Mehraban and Sanjabi sheep, respectively (p<0.01. Mean plasma FSH concentrations on second day (2.75±0.17 and 2.74±015 ng mL-1 were also significantly greater than those on first day (1.19±0.05 and 1.19±0.04 ng mL-1 for Mehraban and Sanjabi ewes, respectively (p<0.01. In the present study, positive relationship has been shown between plasma Leptin and FSH concentrations (p<0.01 in Mehraban and Sanjabi sheep. Ovulation rate had a significant difference between Mehraban (1.20±0.33 and Sanjabi (1.07±0.1 ewes. Significant differences were not observed between concentrations of FSH and leptin with ovulation rate in both breeds (p?0.01.
The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between plasma leptin and FSH concentration in Iranian sheep. Forty female Mehraban and Sanjabi sheep were used. All ewes were cyclic and synchronized with cloprestenol. The ewes were divided into two breed groups: Mehraban breed (n = 20) and Sanjabi breed (n = 20), feeding at maintenance level. On the first and second days of estrus cycle, blood samples were collected from the jugular vein. Ovulation number was determined by endoscopy 7 days after the second injection. Mean Plasma leptin concentrations on second day (4.74 +/- 0.15 and 4.68 +/- 0.10 ng mL(-1)) were significantly higher than those on first day (2.64 +/- 0.11 and 2.56 +/- 0.04 ng mL(-1)) for Mehraban and Sanjabi sheep, respectively (p<0.01). Mean plasma FSH concentrations on second day (2.75 +/- 0.17 and 2.74 +/- 0.15 ng mL(-1)) were also significantly greater than those on first day (1.19 +/- 0.05 and 1.19 +/- 0.04 ng mL(-1)) for Mehraban and Sanjabi ewes, respectively (p<0.01). In the present study, positive relationship has been shown between plasma Leptin and FSH concentrations (p<0.01) in Mehraban and Sanjabi sheep. Ovulation rate had a significant difference between Mehraban (1.20 +/- 0.33) and Sanjabi (1.07 +/- 0.1) ewes. Significant differences were not observed between concentrations of FSH and leptin with ovulation rate in both breeds (p < or = 0.01). PMID:19070042
Towhidi, A; Masoumi, R; Moeini, M M; Solgi, H; Moravej, H
Tan sheep (Ovis aries), a Chinese indigenous breed, has special curly fleece after birth, especially at one month old. However, this unique phenotype disappears gradually with age and the underlying reasons of trait evolvement are still unknown. In this study, skin transcriptome data was used to study this issue. In total 51,215 transcripts including described transcripts and transfrags were identified. Pathway analysis of the top 100 most highly expressed transcripts, which included TCHH and...
Kang, Xiaolong; Liu, Gang; Liu, Yufang; Xu, Qinqin; Zhang, Ming; Fang, Meiying
In the past, natural scrapie and bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) infections have essentially not been diagnosed in sheep homozygous for the A136R154R171 haplotype of the prion protein. This genotype was therefore assumed to confer resistance to BSE and classic scrapie under natural exposure conditions. Hence, to exclude prions from the human food chain, massive breeding efforts have been undertaken in the European Union to amplify this gene. We report the identification of 2 natural sc...
Groschup, Martin H.; Lacroux, Caroline; Buschmann, Anne; Lu?hken, Gesine; Mathey, Jacinthe; Eiden, Martin; Lugan, Se?verine; Hoffmann, Christine; Espinosa, Juan Carlos; Baron, Thierry; Torres, Juan Maria; Erhardt, Georg; Andreoletti, Olivier
Full Text Available Abstract Organising the breeding plan of a seasonally breeding species, such as sheep, presents a challenge to farmers and the industry as a whole, since both economical and biological considerations need to be carefully balanced. Understanding the breeding activity of individual animals becomes a prerequisite for a successful breeding program. This study set out to investigate the sources of variation and the genetic profile of the spontaneous, out-of-season ovulatory activity of ewes of the Chios dairy sheep breed in Greece. The definition of the trait was based on blood progesterone levels, measured before exposing the ewes to rams, which marks the onset of the usual breeding season. Data were 707 records, taken over two consecutive years, of 435 ewes kept at the Agricultural Research Station of Chalkidiki in northern Greece. When all available pedigree was included, the total number of animals involved was 1068. On average, 29% of all ewes exhibited spontaneous, out-of-season ovulatory activity, with no substantial variation between the years. Significant sources of systematic variation were the ewe age and live weight, and the month of previous lambing. Older, heavier ewes, that had lambed early the previous autumn, exhibited more frequent activity. Heritability estimates were 0.216 (± 0.084 with a linear and 0.291 with a threshold model. The latter better accounts for the categorical nature of the trait. The linear model repeatability was 0.230 (± 0.095. The results obtained in this study support the notion that spontaneous out-of-season ovulatory activity can be considered in the development of a breeding plan for the Chios sheep breed.
Sarcocystis arieticanis (Apicomplexa: Sarcocystidae) infecting the heart muscles of the domestic sheep, Ovis aries (Artiodactyla: Bovidae), from K. S. A. on the basis of light and electron microscopic data.
In the present study, the heteroxenous life cycle of Sarcocystis species from three strains of the slaughtered sheep at Al-Azizia and Al-Saada abattoirs in Riyadh city, K.S.A., was studied. Muscle samples of the oesophagus, diaphragm, tongue, skeletal and heart muscles were examined. Varied natural infection rates in the muscles of the examined sheep strains were recorded as 83% in Niemy, 81.5% in Najdy and 90% in Sawakny sheep. Muscles of the diaphragm showed the highest infection level above all organs except Najdy sheep in which oesophagus has the highest rate. Also, the heart was the lowest infected organ (40% Niemy, 44% Najdy and 53% Sawakny). Microscopic sarcocysts of Sarcocystis arieticanis are easily identified in sections through the heart muscles of the domestic sheep Ovis aries (Artiodactyla: Bovidae). Cysts measured 38.5-64.4 ?m (averaged 42.66 ?m) in width and 62.4-173.6 ?m (averaged 82.14 ?m) in length. The validity of this species was confirmed by means of ultrastructural characteristics of the primary cyst wall (0.1-0.27 ?m thick) which revealed the presence of irregularly shaped crowded and hairy-like projections underlined by a thin layer of ground substance. This layer consisted mainly of fine, dense homogenous granules enclosing the developing metrocytes and merozoites that usually contain nearly all the structures of the apical complex and fill the interior cavity of the cyst. Several septa derived from the ground substance divided the cyst into compartments. The merozoites were banana-shaped and measured 12-16 ?m in length with centrally or posteriorly located nuclei. Experimental infection of carnivores by feeding heavily infected sheep muscles revealed that the dog, Canis familiaris, is the only final host of the present Sarcocystis species. Gamogony, sporogonic stages and characteristics of sporulated oocysts were also investigated. PMID:25112213
Al Quraishy, Saleh; Morsy, Kareem; Bashtar, Abdel-Rahman; Ghaffar, Fathy Abdel; Mehlhorn, Heinz
In sheep, the traditional chemical control of gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) parasites with anthelmintics has led to the widespread development of anthelmintic resistance. The selection of sheep with enhanced resistance to GIN parasites has been suggested as an alternative strategy to develop sustainable control of parasite infections. Most of the estimations of the genetic parameters for sheep resistance to GIN parasites have been obtained from young animals belonging to meat- and/or wool-specialised breeds. We present here the estimated genetic parameters for four parasite resistance traits studied in a commercial population of adult Spanish Churra dairy ewes. These involved two faecal egg counts (FECs) (LFEC0 and LFEC1) and two serum indicator traits, the anti-Teladorsagia circumcincta fourth stage larvae IgA (IgA) and the pepsinogen (Peps) levels. In addition, this study has allowed us to identify the environmental factors influencing parasite resistance in naturally infected Spanish Churra sheep and to quantify the genetic component of this complex phenotype. The heritabilities estimated for the two FECs analysed (0.12 for LFEC0 and 0.09 for LFEC1) were lower than those obtained for the examined serum indicators (0.19 for IgA and 0.21 for Peps). The genetic correlations between the traits ranged from 0.43 (Peps-IgA) to 0.82 (LFEC0-LFEC1) and were higher than their phenotypic counterparts, which ranged between 0.07 and 0.10. The heritabilities estimated for the studied traits were lower than previously reported in lambs. This may be due to the differences in the immune mechanisms controlling the infection in young (antibody reactions) and adult (hypersensitivity reactions) animals/sheep. In summary, this study demonstrates the presence of heritable variation in parasite resistance indicator traits in the Churra population studied, which suggests that genetic improvement is feasible for this complex trait in this population. However, further studies in which the experimental variables are controlled as much as possible are needed to identify the best trait that could be measured routinely in adult sheep as an indicator of parasite resistance. PMID:22444037
Gutiérrez-Gil, B; Pérez, J; de la Fuente, L F; Meana, A; Martínez-Valladares, M; San Primitivo, F; Rojo-Vázquez, F A; Arranz, J J
The achievements made in mutation breeding in Japan over the past 40 years are outlined from the viewpoint of practical breeding. Fifty-four varieties of 23 crops were obtained by direct use of induced mutants. These include 12 cereal mutant varieties, five food legumes, nine industrial crops, seven vegetables and 18 ornamentals. Ten varieties were obtained by national breeding institutes, 14 by prefectural stations and 30 by universities or private firms. The varieties produced by the national breeding programme were registered and released with Norin numbers. In most cases, ionizing radiation was used. Forty additional mutant varieties were developed through cross-breeding using induced mutants as the gene sources. Of the 33 rice varieties in this category, 21, including six national varieties, resulted from crosses involving Reimei, a semi-dwarf mutant variety. Another semi-dwarf mutant parent was used to breed two more national varieties. Three early heading mutants were also integrated into cross-breeding programmes and produced three national and two prefectural varieties. A large grain mutant produced three varieties for sake brewing. A new recessive resistant mutant allele to the soil borne virus (BaYMV) was induced in barley. One variety was bred using this mutant as a parent. Another promising disease resistant clone was induced by chronic irradiation in a gamma field in the leading Japanese pear variety Nijisseiki, which is susceptible to black spot diseasewhich is susceptible to black spot disease caused by Alternaria alternata (Fr.) Keissler. This mutant clone maintained all the superior qualities of the original variety. The significant role of the Institute of Radiation Breeding as a core in mutation breeding is mentioned briefly. (author). 10 refs, 2 figs, 6 tabs
Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english The Chilote sheep has been developed in an isolated environment, based on grazing lands with low nutritive value belonging to small-scale producers, because of which there is little information about the use of this breed for meat production. The objective of this work was to determine the effects o [...] n lamb carcasses of two breeds with different productive purposes and fed on pastures with different nutritional quality. Three groups of lambs were used. The first and second groups were composed of 13 and 11 Chilote lambs respectively, and the third composed of six Suffolk Down lambs. Lambs remained with their mothers, the first group on naturalized pasture and the rest on rangeland. Animals were slaughtered at 90 d of age. Live weight, carcass weight and yield, and several zoometric parameters were determined, as well as the weight of commercial cuts and the muscle, bone and fat ratios. Hide and hoof weights were also measured. For the effect of breed, Chilote lamb is narrower (P
Jorge, Ramírez-Retamal; Rodrigo, Morales; M. Eugenia, Martínez; Rodrigo, de la Barra.
Respiratory disease and poor lamb recruitment have been identified as limiting factors for bighorn-sheep populations. Haemophilus somnus (recently reclassified as Histophilus somni) is associated with respiratory disease in American bison, domestic sheep, and cattle. It is also harbored in their reproductive tracts and has been associated with reproductive failure in domestic sheep and cattle. Therefore, reproductive tract and lung samples from bighorn sheep were evaluated for the presence of...
Ward, Alton C. S.; Weiser, Glen C.; Anderson, Bruce C.; Cummings, Patrick J.; Arnold, Karen F.; Corbeil, Lynette B.
Growth hormone (GH) is encoded by the GH gene, which may be single copy or duplicate in sheep. The two copies of the sheep GH gene (GH1/GH2-N and GH2-Z) were entirely sequenced in one 106 ewes of Sarda breed, in order to highlight sequence polymorphisms and investigate possible association between genetic variants and milk traits. Milk traits included milk yield, fat, protein, casein and lactose percentage. We evidenced 75 nucleotide changes. Transcription factor binding site prediction revealed two sequences potentially recognised by the pituitary-specific transcription factor POU1FI at the GH1/GH2-N gene, which were lost at the promoter of GH2-Z, which might explain the different tissues of expression of GH1/GH2-N (pituitary) and GH2-Z (placenta). Significant differences in milk traits were observed among genotypes at polymorphic loci only for the GH2-Z gene. Sheep with homozygote genotype ss748770547 CC had higher fat percentage (P < 0·01) than TT. SNP ss748770547 was part of a potential transcription factor binding site for C/EBP alpha (CCAAT/Enhancer Binding Protein), which is involved in the regulation of adipogenesis and adipoblast differentiation. SNP ss748770547, located in the GH2-Z gene 5' flanking region, may be a causal mutation affecting milk fat content. These findings might contribute to the knowledge of the sheep GH locus and might be useful in selection processes in sheep. PMID:25669323
Dettori, Maria Luisa; Pazzola, Michele; Pira, Emanuela; Paschino, Pietro; Vacca, Giuseppe Massimo
This report summarizes the findings of a national study to determine what skills and competencies are needed by beginning employees on sheep ranches and farms, lamb feedlots, and in the sheep shearing industry. The research procedure, which involved determining from the sheep industry the competencies needed by beginning employees in the thirteen…
The Atomic Energy Commission of Japan with the cooperation from the Japan Atomic Industrial Forum, Inc. (JAIF) held the first international conference for nuclear cooperation in Asia in 1990 to enhance cooperation in the nuclear field with neighboring Asian countries and as a result, a consensus was to implement regional nuclear cooperation in the field of radioisotopes and radiation utilization for agriculture among other areas, and plant mutation breeding was approved as a common field of cooperation; and due to vast information generated by the group in the succeeding roundtable discussions of each workshop, it was held as a consensus that a database of plant mutation breeding - FNCA be established; a mutant stock repository be set up, and that a bench-top mutation breeding manual be published as a guide for the aspiring radiation mutation breeding novice
Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA is a method that facilitates the detection of prions from many sources of transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE. Sheep scrapie represents a unique diversity of prion disease agents in a range of susceptible PRNP genotypes. In this study PMCA was assessed on a range of Great Britain (GB sheep scrapie isolates to determine the applicability to veterinary diagnosis of ovine TSE. Results PrPSc amplification by protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA was assessed as a diagnostic tool for field cases of scrapie. The technique was initially applied to thirty-seven isolates of scrapie from diverse geographical locations around GB, and involved sheep of various breeds and PRNP genotypes. All samples were amplified in either VRQ and/or ARQ PrPC substrate. For PrPSc from sheep with at least one VRQ allele, all samples amplified efficiently in VRQ PrPC but only PrPSc from ARH/VRQ sheep amplified in both substrates. PrPSc from ARQ/ARQ sheep displayed two amplification patterns, one that amplified in both substrates and one that only amplified in ARQ PrPC. These amplification patterns were consistent for a further 14/15 flock/farm mates of these sheep. Furthermore experimental scrapie strains SSBP1, Dawson, CH1641 and MRI were analysed. SSBP1 and Dawson (from VRQ/VRQ sheep amplified in VRQ but not ARQ substrate. MRI scrapie (from ARQ/ARQ sheep nor CH1641 did not amplify in ARQ or VRQ substrate; these strains required an enhanced PMCA method incorporating polyadenylic acid (poly(A to achieve amplification. Conclusions PrPsc from 52 classical scrapie GB field isolates amplified in VRQ or ARQ or both substrates and supports the use of PMCA as a rapid assay for the detection of a wide range of ovine classical scrapie infections involving multiple PRNP genotypes and scrapie strains.
Molecular insight and methods applied to plant breeding and germplasm enhancement is the goal of assisted breeding, also known as marker assisted breeding, marker assisted selection, molecular plant breeding, or genome-wide selection, among others. The basic idea is that most, if not all, heritable ...
Full Text Available Effect of genotype and birth weight on gestation length was evaluated using Nigerian breeds of sheep and their crosses. The study was carried out at the Sheep Project Unit of Small Ruminant Research Programme (SRRP of National Animal Production Research Institute (NAPRI, Ahmadu Bello University, Shika-Zaria. The sheep breeds used were Balami, Uda and Yankasa. Heat (estrus detection was carried out twice daily; in the morning (07:00-08:00 hours; and in the evening (16:00-17:00 hours using apron fitted rams to pick does on heat. A total of 56 lambs were used for this study. The data obtained were subjected to analysis of variance using General Linear Model and Correlation Procedure of SAS. All the genotypes had similar gestation length with values between 150.3±0.61 days and 153.3±0.60 days, except for Balami pure breed (BAL X BAL lambs that recorded a shorter gestation length (137.1±0.81 days. There was a wide variation in the birth weight of lambs with the crosses between Balami rams and Yankasa ewes recording a distinct birth weight of 3.5±0.08 kg while the crosses obtained using Yankasa rams on Uda and Balami ewes gave the lowest birth weights (1.7±0.19 and 1.4±0.18, respectively. Sex and litter type have no significant effect (P>0.05 on gestation length. Birth weight was however affected by sex of lambs and their litter type. Litter type was negatively correlated with birth weight (-0.372. Gestation length had a low and non-significant relationship with birth weight; litter type and lamb genotype. Lamb genotype does not have a significant relationship with litter type. Genetic improvement of Nigeria sheep breed is possible if the resources of within and between breed is exploited. Selection for a reduction in gestation length may indirectly increase prolificacy. (Animal Production 12(3: 135-138 (2010Key Words : gestation length, birth weight, Nigerian Sheep
Bighorn sheep currently occupy just 30% of their historic distribution, and persist in populations less than 5% as abundant overall as their early 19th century counterparts. Present-day recovery of bighorn sheep populations is in large part limited by periodic outbreaks of respiratory disease, which can be transmitted to bighorn sheep via contact with domestic sheep grazing in their vicinity. In order to assess the viability of bighorn sheep populations on the Payette National Forest (PNF) under several alternative proposals for domestic sheep grazing, we developed a series of interlinked models. Using telemetry and habitat data, we characterized herd home ranges and foray movements of bighorn sheep from their home ranges. Combining foray model movement estimates with known domestic sheep grazing areas (allotments), a Risk of Contact Model estimated bighorn sheep contact rates with domestic sheep allotments. Finally, we used demographic and epidemiologic data to construct population and disease transmission models (Disease Model), which we used to estimate bighorn sheep persistence under each alternative grazing scenario. Depending on the probability of disease transmission following interspecies contact, extirpation probabilities for the seven bighorn sheep herds examined here ranged from 20% to 100%. The Disease Model allowed us to assess the probabilities that varied domestic sheep management scenarios would support persistent populations of free-ranging bighorn sheep. PMID:24507886
Carpenter, Tim E; Coggins, Victor L; McCarthy, Clinton; O'Brien, Chans S; O'Brien, Joshua M; Schommer, Timothy J
Gastrointestinal nematode parasitism is the most important disease affecting livestock production systems in developing countries, particularly small ruminant production systems. Of particular importance are infections with the strongyle Haemonchus contortus. Integrated disease control strategies are required, including improved management, nutrition and wise use of anthelmintic chemicals. Increasingly, selection of sheep or goats for improved nematode resistance is viewed as a valuable option to complement other control measures. Breeding for resistance is possible because of the existence of extensive genetic variation in resistance, both within and between breeds of sheep and goats. Such breeding schemes are most likely to be based on choice of appropriate breeds adapted to the local environmental conditions, followed by phenotypic selection for resistance. Goal and selection objective traits are likely to include performance (e.g. growth rate) under conditions of parasite challenge, faecal egg count (FEC) and measures of anaemia. With current technologies, genetic markers are likely to be too expensive and logistically difficult to incorporate into breeding schemes in tropical or developing countries. Genotype by environment interactions may be expected, particularly when comparing animals in environments that differ in the extent of parasite challenge or differ in the quality of available nutrition. However, there is no reason to expect antagonistic genetic relationships between performance and resistance, and selection indices should be readily constructed that improve both performance and resistance. If FEC is decreased, then pasture contamination should also decrease, leading to additional benefits for all sheep grazing the same pasture. Finally, breeding for nematode resistance should lead to lasting and sustained improvements in resistance or tolerance. There is no empirical evidence to suggest that nematodes will evolve rapidly in response to resistant hosts, and mathematical models based on genetic and biological principles also suggest that resistance should be sustainable. PMID:22558922
Bishop, S C
Full Text Available The conservation of genetic variability is one of the main objectives in the field of genetics applied to domestic livestock. Among molecular markers, microsatellites are particularly appreciated and widely utilized for the study of animal genome. In this study a genetic characterization of three Italian Merino derived sheep breeds was carried out by 30 microsatellites markers; the genetic relationships between these breeds and the Spanish ancestors were also investigated. All the microsatellites examined resulted polymorphic and a total of 375 alleles were detected. FIS values of the three Italian Merinos demonstrate a low level of inbreeding. The results show a good genetic variability of all the studied breeds; at the same time, the genetic identity of each breed is confirmed. These molecular data can be utilized to improve the present selection schemes and the plans to preserve genetic diversity.
Francesca Maria Sarti
Full Text Available From a complex experiment of establishing the effects of lecithin supplemented in the diet of small ruminants, in this paper we present the influence of lecithin on some sanguine biochemical parameters at lactating sheep and goat. The researches were made on a experimental group formed by 5 sheep from ?urcana breed and 5 goats from Crapatina breed, which were fed in the first experimental period with a base ratio (Br formed by 1.5 kg of hill hay and 0.2 kg concentrate forage mixture, in the second experimental period the Br was supplemented with 100 g lecithin/day/animal. At the end of each experimental period were taken blood samples to establish some biochemical parameters from sanguine serum. The supplementation of base ration with 100 g lecithin/day/animal at lactating sheep and goats did not produced significant changes to values of total proteins (TS, albumin, creatinine, urea and total bilirubins (TB from sanguine serum. Contrary to expectation the cholesterol and triglycerides were higher than normal both in sheep (from 82 mg/dl to 83 mg/dl for cholesterol and from 23 mg/dl to 45 mg/dl for triglycerides but specially in goats (from 59 mg/dl to 68 mg/dl for cholesterol and from 24 mg/dl to 55 mg/dl for triglycerides. Were registered significant increment of activity of alkaline phosphatase and in ? – GT and a decrease of plasmatic activity of pancreatic ?-amylase both in sheep and goats.
The objective of this study was to establish the impact of crossing the indigenous Cres sheep with Awassi and, respectively, Awassi and East Friesian sheep on the milk yield and quality. For this purpose, through regular monthly milk yield recordings a total of 824individual milk samples from 139 sheep in the second lactation of the same flock were collected, of which: 46 purebred Cres sheep, CS; 33 crosses with 50 % Cres sheep and 50 % Awassi, CA; 60 crosses with 50 % Cres sheep, 25 % Awassi...
Boro Mio?; Zvonimir Prpi?; Neven Antunac; Zvonko Antunovi?; Dubravka Samaržija; Ivan Vnu?ec; Vesna Pavi?
BACKGROUND: Genomic technologies, such as high-throughput genotyping based on SNP arrays, have great potential to decipher the genetic architecture of complex traits and provide background information concerning genome structure in domestic animals, including the extent of linkage disequilibrium (LD) and haplotype blocks. The objective of this study was to estimate LD, the population evolution (past effective population size) and the level of inbreeding in Spanish Churra sheep. RESULTS: A total of 43,784 SNPs distributed in the ovine autosomal genome was analyzed in 1,681 Churra ewes. LD was assessed by measuring r2 between all pairs of loci. For SNPs up to 10 kb apart, the average r2 was 0.329; for SNPs separated by 200-500 kb the average r2 was 0.061. When SNPs are separated by more than 50 Mbp, the average r2 is the same as between non-syntenic SNP pairs (0.003). The effective population size has decreased through time, faster from 1,000 to 100 years ago and slower since the selection scheme started (15-25 generations ago). In the last generation, four years ago, the effective population size was estimated to be 128 animals. Inbreeding coefficients, although differed depending on the estimation approaches, were generally low and showed the same trend, which indicates that since 2003, inbreeding has been slightly increasing in the studied resource population. CONCLUSIONS: The extent of LD in Churra sheep persists over much more limited distances than reported in dairy cattle and seems to be similar to other ovine populations. Churra sheep show a wide genetic base, with a long-term viable effective population size that has been slightly decreasing since selection scheme began in 1986. The genomic dataset analyzed provided useful information for identifying low-level inbreeding in the sample, whereas based on the parameters reported here, a higher marker density than that analyzed here will be needed to successfully conduct accurate mapping of genes underlying production traits and genomic selection prediction in this sheep breed. Although the Ovine Assembly development is still in a draft stage and future refinements will provide a more accurate physical map that will improve LD estimations, this work is a first step towards the understanding of the genetic architecture in sheep.
Garcia-Gamez, Elsa; Sahana, Goutam
Full Text Available Abstract Background Genomic technologies, such as high-throughput genotyping based on SNP arrays, have great potential to decipher the genetic architecture of complex traits and provide background information concerning genome structure in domestic animals, including the extent of linkage disequilibrium (LD and haplotype blocks. The objective of this study was to estimate LD, the population evolution (past effective population size and the level of inbreeding in Spanish Churra sheep. Results A total of 43,784 SNPs distributed in the ovine autosomal genome was analyzed in 1,681 Churra ewes. LD was assessed by measuring r2 between all pairs of loci. For SNPs up to 10?kb apart, the average r2 was 0.329; for SNPs separated by 200–500?kb the average r2 was 0.061. When SNPs are separated by more than 50 Mbp, the average r2 is the same as between non-syntenic SNP pairs (0.003. The effective population size has decreased through time, faster from 1,000 to 100?years ago and slower since the selection scheme started (15–25 generations ago. In the last generation, four years ago, the effective population size was estimated to be 128 animals. Inbreeding coefficients, although differed depending on the estimation approaches, were generally low and showed the same trend, which indicates that since 2003, inbreeding has been slightly increasing in the studied resource population. Conclusions The extent of LD in Churra sheep persists over much more limited distances than reported in dairy cattle and seems to be similar to other ovine populations. Churra sheep show a wide genetic base, with a long-term viable effective population size that has been slightly decreasing since selection scheme began in 1986. The genomic dataset analyzed provided useful information for identifying low-level inbreeding in the sample, whereas based on the parameters reported here, a higher marker density than that analyzed here will be needed to successfully conduct accurate mapping of genes underlying production traits and genomic selection prediction in this sheep breed. Although the Ovine Assembly development is still in a draft stage and future refinements will provide a more accurate physical map that will improve LD estimations, this work is a first step towards the understanding of the genetic architecture in sheep.
Sheep is a unique example among mammalian species to present a strong correlation between genotype and prion disease susceptibility phenotype. Indeed a well-defined set of PrP polymorphisms at positions 136, 154 and 171 (sheep numbering) govern scrapie susceptibility, ranging from very high susceptibility for V136-R154-Q171 variant (VRQ) to resistance for A136-R154-R171 variant (ARR). To get better insight into the molecular mechanisms of scrapie susceptibility/resistance, the unfolding pathways of the different full-length recombinant sheep prion protein variants were analysed by differential scanning calorimetry in a wide range of pH. In the pH range 4.5-6.0, thermal unfolding occurs through a reversible one-step process while at pH 6.0 unfolding intermediates are formed, which are stable in the temperature range 65-80 degrees C. While these general behaviours are shared by all variants, VRQ and ARQ (susceptibility variants) show higher thermal stability than AHQ and ARR (resistance variants) and the formation of their unfolding intermediates requires higher activation energy than in the case of AHQ and ARR. Furthermore, secondary structures of the unfolding intermediates differentiate variants: ARR unfolding intermediate exhibits random coil structure, contrasting with the beta-sheet structure of VRQ and ARQ unfolding intermediates. The rate of the unfolding intermediate formation allows us to classify genetic variants along increasing scrapie susceptibility at pH 4.0, VRQ and ARQ rates being the highest. Rather poor correlation is observed at pH 7.2. Upon cooling, these intermediates refold into stable species, which are rich in beta-type secondary structures and, as revealed by thioflavin T fluorescence and electron microscopy, share amyloid characteristics. These results highlight the prion protein plasticity genetically modulated in sheep, and might provide a molecular basis for sheep predisposition to scrapie taking into account both thermodynamic stability and transconformation rate of prion protein. PMID:12270715
Rezaei, Human; Choiset, Yvan; Eghiaian, Frederic; Treguer, Eric; Mentre, Pascale; Debey, Pascale; Grosclaude, Jeanne; Haertle, Thomas
Efeitos genéticos aditivos e não-aditivos em características de crescimento, reprodutivas e habilidade materna em ovinos das raças Santa Inês, Somalis Brasileira, Dorper e Poll Dorset Additive and non-additive genetic effects on growth, reproductive and maternal traits in sheep of Santa In??s, Brazilian Somali, Dorper and Poll Dorset breeds
Full Text Available Efeitos genético aditivo, de dominância e de recombinação em cruzamentos entre as raças Santa Inês (SI, Somalis Brasileira (So, Dorper (Do e Poll Dorset (Po foram estimados para as características de crescimento, reprodutivas e de habilidade materna. Os dados foram obtidos da Gaasa e Alimentos LTDA, uma empresa que participa do Programa de Melhoramento Genético de Caprinos e Ovinos (GENECOC da Embrapa Caprinos. Inicialmente, 3.573 registros foram analisados por meio do procedimento MIXED do pacote estatístico SAS (1999. As análises foram realizadas considerando os efeitos da diferença genética aditiva entre as raças, de dominância e de recombinação. O peso ao nascer foi influenciado pelos efeitos genéticos aditivos, enquanto o peso ao desmame e o ganho de peso pré-desmame foram influenciados por efeitos genéticos não-aditivos. A estimativa de herdabilidade direta para o peso ao nascer foi moderada, o que indica a existência de variabilidade genética passível de ser explorada por meio da seleção individual. Do mesmo modo, as estimativas de herdabilidade das características idade ao primeiro parto e peso total das crias ao nascer indicaram a existência de variabilidade genética para obter ganhos genéticos por meio da seleção. Os genes das raças Poll Dorset e Dorper tiveram papel importante para melhor desempenho ponderal, portanto, essas raças podem ser indicadas como paternas no cruzamento terminal. A utilização de matrizes F1 Santa Inês x Somalis Brasileira em cruzamentos com reprodutores Poll Dorset pode levar a maior eficiência reprodutiva.Additive genetic, dominance and recombination effects in breedings among Santa Inês (SI, Brazilian Somali (So, Dorper (Do and Poll Dorset (Po breeds were estimated for growth, reproductive and maternal hability traits. Data were obtained from Gaasa e Alimentos LTDA, a company that participates on the Programa de Melhoramento Genético de Caprinos e Ovinos (GENECOC coordinated by Embrapa Caprinos. Initially, 3,573 records were analyzed using the MIXED procedure of the statistical package SAS (1999. The analyses were carried out considering the effects of additive genetic difference among breeds, dominance and recombination effects. Birth weight was mainly influenced by additive genetic effects, while weaning weight and pre-weaning weight gain were influenced by non-additive genetic effects. Direct heritability estimates for birth weight was moderate indicating that there is genetic variability believable to be exploited by individual selection. In the same way, heritability estimates for the traits age at first lambing and litter total weight at birth indicated the existence of genetic variability to obtain genetic gains through selection. Genes of the Poll Dorset and Dorper breeds had an important role for a better growth performance, therefore, these breeds can be indicated as sires in the terminal breeds. The use of F1 Santa Inês x Brazilian Somali females on crossbreeding with Poll Dorset rams can lead to a better reproductive efficiency.
Adriano Caminha Barbosa Neto
Efeitos genéticos aditivos e não-aditivos em características de crescimento, reprodutivas e habilidade materna em ovinos das raças Santa Inês, Somalis Brasileira, Dorper e Poll Dorset / Additive and non-additive genetic effects on growth, reproductive and maternal traits in sheep of Santa Inês, Brazilian Somali, Dorper and Poll Dorset breeds
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Efeitos genético aditivo, de dominância e de recombinação em cruzamentos entre as raças Santa Inês (SI), Somalis Brasileira (So), Dorper (Do) e Poll Dorset (Po) foram estimados para as características de crescimento, reprodutivas e de habilidade materna. Os dados foram obtidos da Gaasa e Alimentos L [...] TDA, uma empresa que participa do Programa de Melhoramento Genético de Caprinos e Ovinos (GENECOC) da Embrapa Caprinos. Inicialmente, 3.573 registros foram analisados por meio do procedimento MIXED do pacote estatístico SAS (1999). As análises foram realizadas considerando os efeitos da diferença genética aditiva entre as raças, de dominância e de recombinação. O peso ao nascer foi influenciado pelos efeitos genéticos aditivos, enquanto o peso ao desmame e o ganho de peso pré-desmame foram influenciados por efeitos genéticos não-aditivos. A estimativa de herdabilidade direta para o peso ao nascer foi moderada, o que indica a existência de variabilidade genética passível de ser explorada por meio da seleção individual. Do mesmo modo, as estimativas de herdabilidade das características idade ao primeiro parto e peso total das crias ao nascer indicaram a existência de variabilidade genética para obter ganhos genéticos por meio da seleção. Os genes das raças Poll Dorset e Dorper tiveram papel importante para melhor desempenho ponderal, portanto, essas raças podem ser indicadas como paternas no cruzamento terminal. A utilização de matrizes F1 Santa Inês x Somalis Brasileira em cruzamentos com reprodutores Poll Dorset pode levar a maior eficiência reprodutiva. Abstract in english Additive genetic, dominance and recombination effects in breedings among Santa Inês (SI), Brazilian Somali (So), Dorper (Do) and Poll Dorset (Po) breeds were estimated for growth, reproductive and maternal hability traits. Data were obtained from Gaasa e Alimentos LTDA, a company that participates o [...] n the Programa de Melhoramento Genético de Caprinos e Ovinos (GENECOC) coordinated by Embrapa Caprinos. Initially, 3,573 records were analyzed using the MIXED procedure of the statistical package SAS (1999). The analyses were carried out considering the effects of additive genetic difference among breeds, dominance and recombination effects. Birth weight was mainly influenced by additive genetic effects, while weaning weight and pre-weaning weight gain were influenced by non-additive genetic effects. Direct heritability estimates for birth weight was moderate indicating that there is genetic variability believable to be exploited by individual selection. In the same way, heritability estimates for the traits age at first lambing and litter total weight at birth indicated the existence of genetic variability to obtain genetic gains through selection. Genes of the Poll Dorset and Dorper breeds had an important role for a better growth performance, therefore, these breeds can be indicated as sires in the terminal breeds. The use of F1 Santa Inês x Brazilian Somali females on crossbreeding with Poll Dorset rams can lead to a better reproductive efficiency.
Adriano Caminha, Barbosa Neto; Sônia Maria Pinheiro de, Oliveira; Olivardo, Facó; Raimundo Nonato Braga, Lôbo.
We accept that we are responsible for the quality of life of animals in our care. We accept that the activities of man affect all the living things with which we share this planet. But we are slow to realize that as a result we have a duty of care for all living things. That duty extends to the breeding of animals for which we are responsible. When animals are bred by man for a purpose, the aim should be to meet certain goals: to improve the precision with which breeding outcomes can be predi...
Flint, A. P. F.; Woolliams, J. A.
Extremadura has been one of the regions in Spain most severely affected by Bluetongue (BT) epidemics. The first incursion of BTV, which was successfully eradicated one year later, occurred in 2004, involving the BTV-serotype 4. However, a second incursion occurred in September 2007, this time involving serotype 1. Since then, the implementation of intensive vaccination programs have significantly reduced BTV-1 occurrence, but the disease has not been completely eradicated yet. This study aimed to provide, for the first time, a complete description of the spatial and temporal patterns of BTV-1 occurrence in sheep in Extremadura from 2007 to 2011 and to identify the risk factors that contributed to the seasonal occurrence of BTV-1 in this region. The results showed that risk factors contributing to BTV-1 occurrence in sheep changed between 2007 and 2011. Initially, when the population was still immunologically naïve, the main risk factors for BTV-1 occurrence were extensive management practices, large sheep farms and Culicoides abundance on farms. However, after the implementation of vaccination, other factors became more relevant for BTV-1 occurrence, mostly related to BTV reservoirs, such as the proximity of cattle farms or the introduction of cattle into farms. The Talaverana sheep breed also seemed to be associated with a significantly higher risk of BTV-1 occurrence, although it may be due to confounding factors, such as the geographical concentration of where this breed is kept and/or management practises used for this breed. The results of this study suggest that preventive and control strategies, including vaccination and active surveillance strategies, should be primarily focused on cattle farms kept in close vicinity to sheep flocks as well as in high-risk sheep farms (i.e. farms with a large farm size keeping both cattle and sheep and with a high number of animal introductions). Methods and results presented here may be used to guide decisions for the annual update of the control and eradication program in Spain. PMID:24929438
Pascual-Linaza, Ana V; Martínez-López, Beatriz; Pfeiffer, Dirk U; Moreno, José Carlos; Sanz, Cristina; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, José Manuel
Full Text Available This paper presents the results of cytogenetic studies in sheep from the region of Bujanovac that was contaminated by depleted uranium during the NATO air strikes in 1999. The study was conducted on sheep blood lymphocytes, in order to determine the frequency of chromosomal aberrations and to assess the presence of genetic risk as a result of the possible impact of depleted uranium. Blood samples for lymphocyte cultures were taken at random from the 20 animals of the households in the village of Borovac, near Bujanovac. The animals were chosen because they were pastured, fed, and watered in the NATO bombing area. With the purpose of comparing the results two control groups were cytogenetically analyzed, each consisted of 20 sheep from Zemun and Ov?a, two northern localities that were not contaminated with depleted uranium. The established structural chromosomal changes were of breaks and gap types, and their frequencies in sheep of all surveyed localities were within the range of basic level values that are commonly found in the sheep lymphocyte cultures analyses. Significant differences are apparent between the values defined in the sheep from Bujanovac compared to those obtained in the sheep from the northern locality (Zemun, probably as a result of breeding of animals in the farm conditions and their being less exposed to the impact of environmental agents. There were neither elevated values of polyploid and aneuploid cells nor significant differences between the sites. According to earlier known data, depleted uranium was below the detection limit of the method applied both in the soil and feed given to cytogenetically analyzed animals. Based on the low-level changes that are in the range of the basic level changes, commonly observed in sheep lymphocytes control cultures, it cannot be said with certainty that it was depleted uranium that caused the changes, or that it is wide-spread in the region of Bujanovac. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 1518/2002, br. 20061-TR i br. 173034
Fišter Svetlana L.
Genetic modification offers alternative strategies to traditional animal breeding. However, the food safety of genetically modified (GM) animals has attracted increasing levels of concern. In this study, we produced GM sheep overexpressing TLR4, and the transgene-positive offsprings (F1) were confirmed using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Southern blot. The expression of TLR4 was 2.5-fold compared with that of the wild-type (WT) sheep samples. During the 90-day safety study, Sprague-Dawley rats were fed with three different dietary concentrations (3.75%, 7.5%, and 15% wt/wt) of GM sheep meat, WT sheep meat or a commercial diet (CD). Blood samples from the rats were collected and analyzed for hematological and biochemical parameters, and then compared with hematological and biochemical reference ranges. Despite a few significant differences among the three groups in some parameters, all other values remained within the normal reference intervals and thus were not considered to be affected by the treatment. No adverse diet-related differences in body weights or relative organ weights were observed. Furthermore, no differences were observed in the gross necropsy findings or microscopic pathology of the rats whose diets contained the GM sheep meat compared with rats whose diets contained the WT sheep meat. Therefore, the present 90-day rat feeding study suggested that the meat of GM sheep overexpressing TLR4 had no adverse effect on Sprague-Dawley rats in comparison with WT sheep meat. These results provide valuable information regarding the safety assessment of meat derived from GM animals. PMID:25874566
Hu, Rui; Kan, Tongtong; Li, Yan; Zhang, Xiaosheng; Zhang, Jinlong; Lian, Ling; Han, Hongbing; Lian, Zhengxing
Genetic modification offers alternative strategies to traditional animal breeding. However, the food safety of genetically modified (GM) animals has attracted increasing levels of concern. In this study, we produced GM sheep overexpressing TLR4, and the transgene-positive offsprings (F1) were confirmed using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Southern blot. The expression of TLR4 was 2.5-fold compared with that of the wild-type (WT) sheep samples. During the 90-day safety study, Sprague-Dawley rats were fed with three different dietary concentrations (3.75%, 7.5%, and 15% wt/wt) of GM sheep meat, WT sheep meat or a commercial diet (CD). Blood samples from the rats were collected and analyzed for hematological and biochemical parameters, and then compared with hematological and biochemical reference ranges. Despite a few significant differences among the three groups in some parameters, all other values remained within the normal reference intervals and thus were not considered to be affected by the treatment. No adverse diet-related differences in body weights or relative organ weights were observed. Furthermore, no differences were observed in the gross necropsy findings or microscopic pathology of the rats whose diets contained the GM sheep meat compared with rats whose diets contained the WT sheep meat. Therefore, the present 90-day rat feeding study suggested that the meat of GM sheep overexpressing TLR4 had no adverse effect on Sprague-Dawley rats in comparison with WT sheep meat. These results provide valuable information regarding the safety assessment of meat derived from GM animals. PMID:25874566
Bai, Hai; Wang, Zhixian; Hu, Rui; Kan, Tongtong; Li, Yan; Zhang, Xiaosheng; Zhang, Jinlong; Lian, Ling; Han, Hongbing; Lian, Zhengxing
Full Text Available Background: Multiple births occur frequently in some Iranian sheep breeds, while infertilityscarcely occurs. Mutation detection in major fecundity genes has been explored in most of Iraniansheep flocks over the last decade. However, previously reported single nucleotide polymorphisms(SNPs for bone morphogenetic protein receptor-(BMPR-1B and growth differentiation factor GDF9( known to affect fertility have not been detected. This study was conducted to assess whetherany significant mutations in GDF9 were extracted from slaughtered ewe ovaries of Iranian Afsharisheep breed.Materials and Methods: Ovaries defined as poor, fair, and excellent quality based on externalvisual appearance of follicles were used for histology and RNA extraction processes. High qualityRNAs underwent reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR from GDF9 mRNA,and the products sequenced.Results: No streak ovaries, which are considered indicators of infertility due to homozygocity forsome mutations in GDF9 and BMP15, were found. Sequencing results from GDF9 cDNA showedthat G2 (C471T, G3 (G477A, and G4 (G721A mutations were observed from 1, 4, and 1 out of12 ewes, respectively. Though all 3 mutations were previously reported, this is the first report ontheir presence in Iranian breeds. The first and second mutations do not alter the amino acids, whileG4 is a non-conservative mutation leading to E241K in the prohormone.Conclusion: As the G4 mutation was observed only in ovaries defined superficially as top quality,it could be considered as one of reasons for higher ovulation rate in some sheep. Furthermore sincemultiple mutations were observed in some cases, it might be possible that combinations of minormutations in GDF9 and BMP15 interact to affect fecundity in some Iranian sheep breeds.
Sheep are highly diverse species raised for meat and other agricultural products. The aim of the present study was to investigate the genetic regulators that could control muscle growth and development in different sheep breeds. The study showed that the differentially expressed genes are involved in various cellular activities, such as metabolic cascades, catalytic function and signaling pathway. Many signaling molecules are also found to be differentially expressed, suggesting important roles of signaling pathways contributing to genetic diversity and sheep development. Analysis of miRNAs suggested important roles of miRNAs in controlling muscle differences. This study provided a genome-wide resolution of mRNA and miRNA regulations in muscles from Dorset and Han sheep. PMID:25732516
Miao, Xiangyang; Luo, Qingmiao; Qin, Xiaoyu
Full Text Available Serum samples from sheep collected from the Sokoto city abattoir were tested for brucellosis using the Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT, the Serum Agglutination Test (SAT and the Competitive ELISA (Compelisa. A sero prevalence rate of 23.61% was recorded. The prevalence was higher among the females (26.71% than males (15.30% and also in those within the age band of 12-24 months (26.19%. Out of the three breeds of Udah, Yankassa and Balami, Udah was observed to have the highest prevalence of 30.76%. It is recommended that a large monitoring of the disease in small ruminants as well as mass vaccination should be embarked upon in the State.
Commercial milking of sheep is a new agricultural industry in the United States starting approximately 30 yr ago. The industry is still small, but it is growing. The majority of the sheep milk is used in the production of specialty cheeses. The United States is the major importer of sheep milk cheeses with 50 to 60% of annual world exports coming to the United States during the past 20 yr. Therefore, there is considerable growth potential for the industry in the United States. The only dairy sheep research flock in North America is located at the Spooner Agricultural Research Station of the University of Wisconsin-Madison. The research program started in 1993 and has been multifaceted; dealing with several areas important to commercial dairy sheep farmers. The East Friesian and Lacaune dairy breeds were compared and introduced to the industry through the research program. Both dairy breeds produced significantly more milk than traditional meat-wool breeds found in the U.S., but the two breeds differed in their production traits. East Friesian-cross ewes produced more lambs and slightly more milk than Lacaune-cross ewes whereas Lacaune-cross ewes produced milk with a higher percentage of fat and protein than East Friesian-cross ewes. Lactation physiology studies have shown that ewes with active corpora lutea have increased milk yields, oxytocin release during milking is required to obtain normal fat percentages in the milk, large udder cisterns of dairy ewes can allow for increased milking intervals, and short daylengths during late pregnancy results in increased milk yield. In the nutrition area, legume-grass pastures and forages with a higher percentage of legume will result in increased milk production. Grazing ewes respond to additional supplementation with increased milk yield, but it is important to match the supplement to the quality of the grazing. Ewes on high quality legume-grass pastures that are high in rumen degradable protein respond with increased milk production to supplements high in energy and/or high in rumen undegraded protein. PMID:24739956
Thomas, David L; Berger, Yves M; McKusick, Brett C; Mikolayunas, Claire M
There have been changes in the emergence and inability to control of a number of sheep parasitic infections over the last decade. This review focuses on the more globally important sheep parasites, whose reported changes in epidemiology, occurrence or failure to control are becoming increasingly evident. One of the main perceived driving forces is climate change, which can have profound effects on parasite epidemiology, especially for those parasitic diseases where weather has a direct effect on the development of free-living stages. The emergence of anthelmintic-resistant strains of parasitic nematodes and the increasing reliance placed on anthelmintics for their control, can exert profound changes on the epidemiology of those nematodes causing parasitic gastroenteritis. As a consequence, the effectiveness of existing control strategies presents a major threat to sheep production in many areas around the world. The incidence of the liver fluke, Fasciola hepatica, is inextricably linked to high rainfall and is particularly prevalent in high rainfall years. Over the last few decades, there have also been increasing reports of other fluke associated diseases, such as dicroceliosis and paramphistomosis, in a number of western European countries, possibly introduced through animal movements, and able to establish with changing climates. External parasite infections, such as myiasis, can cause significant economic loss and presents as a major welfare problem. The range of elevated temperatures predicted by current climate change scenarios, result in an elongated blowfly season with earlier spring emergence and a higher cumulative incidence of fly strike. Additionally, legislative decisions leading to enforced changes in pesticide usage and choices have resulted in increased reports and spread of ectoparasitic infections, particularly mite, lice and tick infestations in sheep. Factors, such as dip disposal and associated environmental concerns, and, perhaps more importantly, product availability have led to a move away from more traditional methods of pesticide application, particularly dipping, to the use of injectable endectocides. This has coincided with increased reports of sheep scab and lice infestations in some countries. Reduction in the use of organophosphate dips appears to have to some extent contributed to reported increased populations of ticks and tick activity, a consequence of which is not only of significance to sheep, but also many other hosts, including increased human zoonotic risks. PMID:22525586
Taylor, M A
Measurement of the concentration of hormones associated with reproductive function in female animals can aid in the evaluation of their reproductive status. In particular, from the point of view of production, determination of the concentration of circulatory progesterone can aid in the correct assessment of ewes. Many investigators have used radioimmunoassay for this purpose, but the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is equally reliable, quicker and cheaper. This report reviews the use of the ELISA in Ethiopian Menz sheep. Progesterone profiles in Ethiopian Menz sheep during pubertal development, the oestrous cycle, pregnancy and post-partum anoestrus were similar to those of temperate breeds. The practical applications of progesterone determination to sheep production and the requirement for the correct handling of samples are emphasized. PMID:1299827
Mukasa-Mugerwa, E; Mutiga, E R; Girma, A
An investigation was carried out at Debre Berhan, Ethiopia, between 1996 and 1997, into the epidemiology of coenurosis in Menz and Horro breeds of sheep. A total of 37 heads from clinically sick and 183 heads from apparently healthy sheep were examined post mortem for the presence of the cystic larvae of Taenia multiceps, of which 37 and 5 heads, respectively, contained 1 to 8 coenurus cysts (diameter 0.8 to 6.5 cm). The bladder worms were located in the cerebral hemisphere in 96% of the cases (43% and 57% for left and right, respectively), 4% being in the cerebellum. Prediction of cyst locations based on the direction of circling and head deviation had a 62% success rate. A retrospective study generated from the health record book at the ILRI Debre Berhan Station in 1992-1996 (199 Horro and 174 Menz) revealed that the incidence of coenurosis ranged from 2.3% to 4.5%. There was no significant breed difference in the incidence. The age of the affected sheep ranged from 4 to 96 months, with a mean of 19.3 months, and 72% of the cases were within the range of 6 to 24 months. In a complementary survey on necropsied stray dogs, 8 out of 17 were positive for Taenia spp. Both studies confirm the endemicity of coenurosis at the ILRI Debre Berhan Research Station. Appropriate strategies for the control of coenurosis are suggested. PMID:10399813
Achenef, M; Markos, T; Feseha, G; Hibret, A; Tembely, S
Regarding mutations of PROP1 (Prophet of POU1F1) gene significantly associating with combined pituitary hormone deficiency (CPHD) in human patients and animals, PROP1 gene is a novel important candidate gene for detecting genetic variation and growth, reproduction, metabolism traits selection and breeding. The aim of this study was to detect PROP1 gene mutation of the exon 1-3 and its association with wool traits in 345 Chinese Merino sheep. In this study, on the basis of PCR-SSCP and DNA sequencing methods, ten novel SNPs within the sheep PROP1 gene, namely, AY533708: g.45A>G resulting in Glu15Glu, g.1198A>G, g.1341G>C resulting in Arg63Ser, g.1389G>A resulting in Ala79Ala, g.1402C>T resulting in Leu84Leu, g.1424A>G resulting in Asn91Ser, g.1522C>T, g.1556A>T, g.1574T>C, g.2430C>G were reported. In addition, association analysis showed that three genotypes of P4 fragment were significantly associated with fiber diameter in the analyzed population (P=0.044). These results strongly suggested that polymorphisms of the PROP1 gene could be a useful molecular marker for sheep breeding and genetics through marker-assisted selection (MAS). PMID:21104025
Zeng, Xian-Cun; Chen, Han-Ying; Jia, Bin; Zhao, Zong-Sheng; Hui, Wen-Qiao; Wang, Zun-Bao; Du, Ying-Chun
This interactive activity goes through the basic process used in a traditional breeding program. Crossing, genetic variation, selection and elements of DNA technology are discussed within this activity. The material is aimed towards high school or introductory life science undergraduate students.
This interactive activity goes through the basic process used in a wheat breeding program. Crossing, genetic variation, selection and elements of DNA technology are discussed within this activity. The material is aimed towards high school or introductory life science undergraduate students.
Mangosteen the queen of the tropical fruits is apomitic and only a cultivar is reported and it reproduces asexually. Conventional breeding is not possible and the other methods to create variabilities are through genetic engineering and mutation breeding. The former technique is still in the infantry stage in mangosteen research while the latter has been an established tool in breeding to improve cultivars. In this mutation breeding seeds of mangosteen were irradiated using gamma rays and the LD 50 for mangosteen was determined and noted to be very low at 10 Gy. After sowing in the seedbed, the seedlings were transplanted in polybags and observed in the nursery bed for about one year before planted in the field under old oil palm trees in Station MARDI, Kluang. After evaluation and screening, about 120 mutant mangosteen plants were selected and planted in Kluang. The plants were observed and some growth data taken. There were some mutant plants that have good growth vigour and more vigorous that the control plants. The trial are now in the fourth year and the plants are still in the juvenile stage. (Author)
After the diagnosis of acute Crotalaria retusa poisoning, 21 healthy sheep from the affected flock were returned to the paddock and continued to consume the sprouting plants. Two years after returning these sheep to the paddock, very few plants were still alive, and after 3 years, no C. retusa plants were observed. The sheep had neither clinical signs nor biochemical alterations and delivered healthy lambs. It is concluded that resistant sheep can be used for the biological control of C. retusa. PMID:21930140
Riet-Correa, F; Carvalho, K S; Dantas, A F M; Medeiros, R M T
Full Text Available Recommendations on feed intake for sheep are based on assessments of genetic types, feeding systems and environ- mental conditions that are very different from Italian ones. These considerations underline the need for intake data or models that derive from local trials. For this reason intake data of lactating and dry ewes, pregnant ewes, rams and growing lambs have been collected from selected literature based on sheep feeding trials mainly conducted on dairy breeds in Italy or in other Mediterranean countries. Equations and intake tables differentiated according to the physio- logical and productive categories, as well as feeding typology are reported. Particular consideration is given to pasture intake with supplementation, reporting three equations developed for three qualitative levels of the pasture, recogniz- able from the CP content of herbage: 16% DM. The equations include animal and pasture variables and supplementation, expressed as grams of CP given with feeds other than pasture. Only when pas- ture CP content is lower than 10% DM, supplement is not included in the equation, as no or negative substitution effect is expected.
Full Text Available eep milk production and processing in last ten years show significant increase in Croatia. Market has recognized the product quality of sheep milk, so today even more number of cheese producers is interested for obtaining the protected geographical indication of products. Because of specific climate conditions on island Pag, as well as specific herbal cover, numerous aromatic plant varieties, milk, i.e. cheese, has specific taste and smell which consumers recognize, search and appreciate. Because of milk production increase and achieving better quality, production regularly controls and chemical composition analyzes and hygiene quality of sheep milk are conducted. In that propose during 2003 and 2004 years, research was carried out, which had for aim to explore milk quality of Pag sheep and to determine influence of paragenetic factors (year - climate on production, chemical composition (milk fat and proteins content and hygiene milk quality (number of somatic cells count, in two herds (A and B. Climate characteristics in 2003 and 2004 were different, regarding precipitations quantity and vegetation. Milking capacity control was carried out according to AT method. Chemical composition analyzes and hygiene quality of milk was carried out with infrared spectrometry and fluoro-opto-electronic method. During milking period in 2004, on island Pag, there were considerably more precipitations and due to the fact, vegetation was exuberant, which influenced on bigger total milk production in lactation (P<0.01 regarding to 2003. Average milk fat content (% in milk was in 2003 on family farm A, higher regarding on family farm B (P<0.01. However, because of higher quantities of produced milk on family farm B, total yield of milk fat (9.43 kg was higher (P<0.01 regarding to family farm A (7,93 kg. During 2004, differences in milk fat yield were very small and were not significant. Average daily milk quantity was from 689 mL (year 2003 to 940 mL (year 2004 on family farm A, apropos from 840 mL (year 2003 to 850 mL (year 2004 on family farm B. Between individual production features and individual milk quality parameters, significant correlations coefficients were determined. Based on results, it can be concluded that influence of paragenetic factors on individual production features and milk quality was significant.
Taenia multiceps (Leske, 1780) is a taeniid cestode that in its adult stage lives in the small intestine of dogs and other canids. The metacestode, previously known as Coenurus cerebralis, is usually found in the nervous system including brain and spinal cord in sheep and other ruminants. The presence of cysts typically leads to neurological symptoms that in the majority of cases result in the death of the animal from starvation after some weeks. Coenurosis could cause high losses in sheep farms because the disease affects young animals that the farmers grow up each year as replacements of the older individuals. Coenurosis is also a zoonosis with more than 100 human cases described in literature, of which the last in Italy and almost 5 reported in Sardinia. In the last years, the popularity of coenurosis has increased in sheep breedings because of the necessity to operate a differential diagnosis from another neurological disease, scrapie, particularly in atypical cases of coenurosis that could occur also in adult (2-3 years of age) sheep. PMID:16881398
Scala, A; Varcasia, A
Clorsulon (3.5 or 7 mg/kg of body weight) was given orally to mature cows (dairy or beef) and to mature mixed-breed sheep harboring patent infections of Fasciola hepatica. Eighteen animals of each species were assigned to a control group (drug vehicle) or to 1 of 2 treatment (3.5 or 7.0 mg/kg) groups of 6 animals each. On posttreatment days 8 (cows) or 14 (sheep), the animals were slaughtered for recovery of flukes. In cows, the efficacy (P values for treatment groups vs control) of clorsulon against infections of mature F hepatica was 99.21% (P less than or equal to 0.0065) at 3.5 mg/kg and was 100% (P less than or equal to 0.0039) at 7 mg/kg. In sheep, the efficacy was 93.33% (P less than or equal to 0.0104) at 3.5 mg/kg and was 100% (P less than or equal to 0.0039) at 7 mg/kg. These results indicate that clorsulon is a highly effective compound for the treatment of mature F hepatica in cows and sheep. PMID:3752673
Zimmerman, G L; Wallace, D H; Schons, D J; Hoberg, E P
Pithomycotoxicosis, more commonly known as facial eczema (FE), is a liver disease that occurs predominantly in New Zealand because of its toxigenic Pithomyces chartarum strains. The first reported case was in sheep in 1887. Since the 1930s, a number of studies have been conducted in an attempt to mitigate the problems FE has on the sheep and dairy industries. The research in these studies included work on fungicide and biological control of the saprophytic fungus, use of different pasture plants to inhibit fungal growth, stock management with respect to pasture fungal spore counts and the use of zinc prophylaxis on animals. The finding that there was a genetic basis in FE sensitivity in sheep prompted research for a genetic approach to mitigation in the form of a diagnostic DNA test for susceptibility to the disease. Recently, we have used the Illumina OvineSNP50 BeadChip to develop a genome-enabled prediction approach to screen for FE-tolerant sheep. Our current best genomic prediction for FE is for the Romney breed and has an accuracy of 0.38. This prediction accuracy is not as high as the individual accuracy gained by an artificial challenge test (0.64). However, it has the advantage of being a non-invasive test and can be provided as part of genomic testing for other traits at minimal cost. PMID:24804852
Phua, S H; Hyndman, D L; Baird, H J; Auvray, B; McEwan, J C; Lee, M A; Dodds, K G
The blowfly Lucilia cuprina is the most important myiasis pet of sheep in Australia. Other species are associated with sheep myiasis, but L. cuprina is probably responsible for initiating more than 90% of infestations. Annual costs of production losses, prevention and treatment have been estimated at $149 millions in 1985. Prevention and treatment encompass both insecticidal applications to sheep and non-chemical management practices. In the absence of effective preventive measures, the sheep industry would be non-viable over much of Australia. Insecticide usage against L. cuprina has been marked by the appearance of widespread resistance to cyclodienes in 1956, the organophosphates in 1965, and carbamates in 1966. Resistance has not yet been reported against the triazine compounds introduced for blowfly control in 1981. The most effective non-chemical control measures are surgical (removal of skin from the breech in certain breeds of sheep, and tail-docking). They protect sheep by reducing favourable oviposition sites (dung and urine-stained wool). The spectre of insecticide resistance and the early success of the sterile insect technique (SIT) against screwworm fly in the U.S.A., led this Division to consider SIT and other autocidal methods in the 1960s. The L. cuprina genetics research program was established in 1966 and subsequently expanded in 1971. More recently, lobbying by animal welfare groups against surgical blowfly control practices, as well as increasing consumer awareness of insecticide residues in animal products, have accelerated the search for alternatives to chemical control. When SIT was first considered for L. cuprina control in 1960, little was known about the population dynamics of L. cuprina. There were insufficient ecological data to evaluate the prospects of alternative strategies such as suppression or containment. The number of flies which would have to be released in a SIT program was unknown, as were the costs. Assuming that the cost of SIT against L. cuprina in Australia would be similar to that reported for screwworm in Florida, the costs of a SIT campaign were estimated to be several times the potential annual benefits. The discover of meiotic drive (MD) in Drosophila rekindled interest in autocidal control and triggered establishment of the L. cuprina genetics research program in 1966. Subsequent research failed to detect MD systems suitable for genetic control, but by 1970 it was recognised that strains carrying chromosome rearrangements might be more cost-effective than SIT. This led in 1971 to expansion of the genetics and strain development program, and establishment of an ecological research program (quantification of population dynamics). Both programs have been enormously successful. Not only have they enabled the development and successful field testing of a genetic method of suppressing sheep blowfly populations, but they have increased our knowledge of this pest to the stage where a simulation model of genetic control (GENCON), which incorporates both genetic and ecological data, is a valuable tool in strain design, selection of control strategies, and evaluation of field trial data. Comparison using computer simulations, of SIT with female-killing (FK) systems based on sex-linked translocations, suggests that with a suppression and containment strategy, the latter would provide greater benefits for less cost than SIT. Moreover, our projections indicate that large-scale genetic control would be less costly and more effective than the current system based on insecticides and other pest control practices
Breeding objectives were developed for meat sheep in smallholder production circumstances in the tropics. The traits considered were litter size, lambing frequency, pre-weaning, and post-weaning lamb survival to 12 months, ewe survival, lamb live weight at 12-month, mature ewe live weight, consumable meat, kg of manure DM sold per ewe per year and residual DM feed intake. Three evaluation situations were considered: (i) base with constant number of ewes, (ii) fixed feed resource and (iii) set...
Kosgey, I. S.; Arendonk, J. A. M.; Baker, R. L.
Scientists have injected endotoxin into animals to investigate and understand various pathologies and novel therapies for several decades. Recent observations have shown that there is selective susceptibility to Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) endotoxin in sheep, despite having similar breed characteristics. The reason behind this difference is unknown, and has prompted studies aiming to explain the variation by proteogenomic characterisation of circulating acute phase biomarkers. I...
Chemonges, Saul; Tung, John-paul; Fraser, John F.
Sheep farming has a great importance in the region of Trás-os-Montes, one of the most depopulated and least favoured Portuguese areas. We have studied the buildings for sheep housing, in this region, aiming to identify the aspects that may be considered as constraints or problems that can hinder the development of sheep farming in the region. Thus, we selected several villages where we have interviewed sheep raisers, aiming to get to know the sheep farming system and the sheep housin...
Barbosa, Jose? Carlos
A trypsinized preparation of Mycobacterium phlei, non specific stimulator of immunity (NSI), and Sheep Pox Virus (SPV) were inoculated in different groups of sheep to activate B-lymphocytes and induce SPV neutralizing substance(s). NSI sensitized sheep B-lymphocytes in the presence of NSI or lymphokine elaborated SPV neutralizing substance(s). The SPV sensitized B-lymphocytes also mediated such neutralizing substance(s). Healthy control sheep B-lymphocytes failed to show any appreciable amount of viral neutralizing substance. However, a significant virus neutralizing substance(s) was detected when healthy sheep B-lymphocytes were cultured in presence of NSI antigen along with lymphokines. PMID:1324887
Gangopadhyay, N N; Mallick, B B
Full Text Available Abstract: The genotypes for Beta-Lactoglobulin (BLG and calpastatin (CAST were determined by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR and restriction enzyme digestion and genotyped for calpain (CAPN by PCR-SSCP method in an Iranian breed sheep, Kurdi. Blood samples were collected from 100 pure bred Kurdi sheep from Kurdi breeding station located in Shirvan, Mashhad. The extraction of genomic DNA was based on Guanidin Thiocyanate-Silica gel method. After PCR reaction, amplicons were digested with restriction enzymes MspI and RsaI for beta-lactoglobulin and calpastatin genes, respectively. The beta-lactoglobulin locus had 3 genotypes with frequencies of 0.24, 0.54 and 0.22 for AA, AB and BB, respectively; calpastatin genotypes had 2 genotypes with frequencies of 0.76 and 0.24 for MM and MN genotypes, respectively. Calpain genotypes were analyzed with SSCP method, which had 2 genotypes with frequencies of 0.92 and 0.08 for AA and AB, respectively. Heterozygosity value for beta-lactoglobulin locus was 49% and for calpastatin and calpain loci was very low (24 and 8%, respectively. ?2 test confirmed the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium for three loci in this population. These data provide evidence that Iranian’s Kurdi sheep breed have a variability, which opens interesting prospects for future selection programs, especially marker-assistant selection between different genotypes of different locus and milk and cheese characteristics, gain and meat traits and also for preservation strategies.
Mohammad Reza Nassiry
Full Text Available The comparative results of the growing dynamics of the Suffolk x rusty Tsigai hybrids, and rusty Tsigai pure breed young sheep from lambing to weaning are comparatively presented in this paper. The average values, variability estimates and differences between the average values of both breed structures and those performed by the offspring of three Suffolk rams used in reproduction are apart presented by male and female young sheep. The following traits were recorded: the body weight (at lambing, 60 days of life, and weaning, total gain and average daily gain from lambing to weaning. The average weaning age was between 84 and 89 days, function of sex. Positive differences, statistically assured were recorded in Suffolk x Tsigai hybrids of both sexes (p<0.01 and p < 0.001 compared to rusty Tsigai young sheep in all analyzed traits, except lambing weight. Statistically not significant differences were recorded in all analyzed traits between the hybrid offspring of the three Suffolk rams used for reproduction, and also between male and female offspring within both breed structures.
Goats and sheep generally express seasonal variations in their sexual behaviour, spermatogenic activity (from moderate decrease to very low sperm production), gamete quality (variations in fertilization rates and embryo survival), ovulation frequency (presence or absence of ovulation), and ovulation rate (number of eggs shed per ovulation period). This induces seasonal availability of derived, fresh animal products (meat, milk and cheese) because of a more or less marked seasonal distribution of births. A complex combination of an endogenous circannual rhythm driven and synchronized by light and melatonin, which controls the pulsatile activity of GnRH neurons in the preoptic-mediobasal hypothalamus, is responsible for these changes. Dramatic and long-term neuroendocrine changes, involving different neuromediator systems and neuronal plasticity, have been shown to play a role in these processes. A strong variability between breeds exists in both species regarding the dates of onset and end of the breeding season, with a gradient of seasonality from southern to northern latitudes. Within a breed, seasonal traits are heritable; thus, genetic selection could be one way to decrease seasonality in sheep and goats in the future. PMID:24417198
Chemineau, P; Bodin, L; Migaud, M; Thiéry, J C; Malpaux, B
Ruminant livestock represent the single largest anthropogenic source of the potent greenhouse gas methane, which is generated by methanogenic archaea residing in ruminant digestive tracts. While differences between individual animals of the same breed in the amount of methane produced have been observed, the basis for this variation remains to be elucidated. To explore the mechanistic basis of this methane production, we measured methane yields from 22 sheep, which revealed that methane yields are a reproducible, quantitative trait. Deep metagenomic and metatranscriptomic sequencing demonstrated a similar abundance of methanogens and methanogenesis pathway genes in high and low methane emitters. However, transcription of methanogenesis pathway genes was substantially increased in sheep with high methane yields. These results identify a discrete set of rumen methanogens whose methanogenesis pathway transcription profiles correlate with methane yields and provide new targets for CH4 mitigation at the levels of microbiota composition and transcriptional regulation. PMID:24907284
Shi, Weibing; Moon, Christina D; Leahy, Sinead C; Kang, Dongwan; Froula, Jeff; Kittelmann, Sandra; Fan, Christina; Deutsch, Samuel; Gagic, Dragana; Seedorf, Henning; Kelly, William J; Atua, Renee; Sang, Carrie; Soni, Priya; Li, Dong; Pinares-Patiño, Cesar S; McEwan, John C; Janssen, Peter H; Chen, Feng; Visel, Axel; Wang, Zhong; Attwood, Graeme T; Rubin, Edward M
Full Text Available Trichostrongylids are helminths of ruminants, located gastro intestinally. The disease generated by them is clinically manifested mainly by: diarrhea, weight loss, anemia and cachexia. They are produced by parasites belonging to the family Trichostrongylidae with genres: Ostertagia, Haemonchus, Trichostrongylus, Cooperia and Nematodirus. The study was accomplished in 2013 in Hidiseul de Sus village, Bihor County, and aimed to test the effectiveness of the Albendazole 10% in the natural infestations with gastrointestinal nematodes in sheep. Sheep studied consisted of 60 individuals from Turcana breed. Feces were examined by flotation method and to know the infestation level McMaster method was used, calculating the EPG value on day 0 of treatment, day 7 and day 14 post treatments. Anthelmintic efficacy (E% of the used product was of 97.03% after the FECRT formula. For a more meaningful expression it was used also Presidente and Borgsteede relations, where the result of efficiency for the tested product was 98% for both formulas.
Florin Stefan Hora
We studied the embryonal thyroid gland in 18 foetuses of sheep of Slovac merino breed by light microscopy in the period from 32nd to 36th day of evolution. We found that in the majority of sheep foetuses, the thyroid gland consists of two separate lobes and their structure was the same during the afore-mentioned period. Parenchyma, composed of solid cell networks or cell groups in the form of nests, was irregularly divided by septa, containing embryonal blood vessels. Almost all cases of this experiment showed slight asymmetry of lobes. In one case the asymmetry reached a considerable proportion - nearly the length of one lobe. Glandular isthmus was presented in only eight cases from 18 foetuses. We did not find fibrous isthmus in any case. PMID:12484424
The pea as an ancient crop plant still today has wide uses and is an import source of food protein. It is also an important object for genetic studies and as such has been widely used in mutation induction experiments. However, in comparison with cereals this ancient crop plant (like several other grain legumes) has gained relatively little from advances in breeding. The review focuses on the prospects of genetic improvement of pea by induced mutations, discusses principles and gives methodological information. (author)
Biotechnology can be defined broadly as a set of tools that allows scientists to genetically characterize or improve living organisms. Several emerging technologies, such as molecular characterization and genetic transformation, are already being used extensively for the purpose of plant improvement. Other emerging sciences, including genomics and proteomics, are also starting to impact plant improvement. Tools provided by biotechnology will not replace classical breeding methods, but rather ...
Sudari? Aleksandra; Vratari? Marija; Mladenovi?-Drini? Snežana; Matosa Maja
Bighorn sheep mortality related to pneumonia is a primary factor limiting population recovery across western North America, but management has been constrained by an incomplete understanding of the disease. We analysed patterns of pneumonia-caused mortality over 14 years in 16 interconnected bighorn sheep populations to gain insights into underlying disease processes. 2. We observed four age-structured classes of annual pneumonia mortality patterns: all-age, lamb-only, secondary all-age and adult-only. Although there was considerable variability within classes, overall they differed in persistence within and impact on populations. Years with pneumonia-induced mortality occurring simultaneously across age classes (i.e. all-age) appeared to be a consequence of pathogen invasion into a naïve population and resulted in immediate population declines. Subsequently, low recruitment due to frequent high mortality outbreaks in lambs, probably due to association with chronically infected ewes, posed a significant obstacle to population recovery. Secondary all-age events occurred in previously exposed populations when outbreaks in lambs were followed by lower rates of pneumonia-induced mortality in adults. Infrequent pneumonia events restricted to adults were usually of short duration with low mortality. 3. Acute pneumonia-induced mortality in adults was concentrated in fall and early winter around the breeding season when rams are more mobile and the sexes commingle. In contrast, mortality restricted to lambs peaked in summer when ewes and lambs were concentrated in nursery groups. 4. We detected weak synchrony in adult pneumonia between adjacent populations, but found no evidence for landscape-scale extrinsic variables as drivers of disease. 5. We demonstrate that there was a >60% probability of a disease event each year following pneumonia invasion into bighorn sheep populations. Healthy years also occurred periodically, and understanding the factors driving these apparent fade-out events may be the key to managing this disease. Our data and modelling indicate that pneumonia can have greater impacts on bighorn sheep populations than previously reported, and we present hypotheses about processes involved for testing in future investigations and management.
Cassirer, E. Frances; Plowright, Raina K.; Manlove, Kezia R.; Cross, Paul C.; Dobson, Andrew P.; Potter, Kathleen A.; Hudson, Peter J.
Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is a contagious viral disease of sheep and goats common in Africa and Asia. Its high morbidity and mortality has a devastating impact on agriculture in developing countries. As an example, an Asian lineage IV strain of PPRV was responsible for mass fatalities among wild goats in Kurdistan in 2010/2011. In separate experiments, three sheep and three goats of German domestic breeds were subcutaneously inoculated with the Kurdish virus isolate; three uninfected sheep and goats were housed together with the inoculated animals. All inoculated animals, all in-contact goats and two in-contact sheep developed high fever (up to 41.7 °C), depression, severe diarrhea, ocular and nasal discharge as well as ulcerative stomatitis and pharyngitis. Infected animals seroconverted within a few days of the first detection of viral genome. Clinical signs were more pronounced in goats; four out of six goats had to be euthanized. Necropsy revealed characteristic lesions in the alimentary tract. Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) RNA was detected in blood as well as nasal, oral and fecal swabs and tissues. The 2011 Kurdish strain of PPRV is highly virulent in European goats and spreads easily to in-contact animals, while disease severity and contagiosity in sheep are slightly lower. PPRV strains like the tested recent isolate can have a high impact on small ruminants in the European Union, and therefore, both early detection methods and intervention strategies have to be improved and updated regularly. PMID:24908276
Wernike, Kerstin; Eschbaumer, Michael; Breithaupt, Angele; Maltzan, Julia; Wiesner, Henning; Beer, Martin; Hoffmann, Bernd
Field trials were carried out during the summer months of 1994 and 1995 to ascertain the prophylactic effects of a 10% w/w formulation of a synthetic pyrethroid (Ecofleece, Cross Vetpharm Group Ltd.) against sheep blowfly myiasis (fly strike). The trials were carried out on the same three farms each year. The flocks, of mixed breeds, comprised between 500 and 700 sheep. Treated sheep which consisted of ewes and lambs were plunge dipped, with at least one complete immersion. At least 10% of each flock were left untreated to act as sentinels. Both sentinel and treated sheep mixed freely at pasture. All recorded cases of fly myiasis were treated by topical applications of the same formulation. Inspections of the flocks were made daily by the farmers and weekly by one of the investigators. Prophylaxis against blowfly myiasis was achieved for periods ranging from 3 to 9 weeks. On some occasions, fly larvae developed in faecal dags but failed to establish on the sheep or cause lesions. PMID:9187039
O'Brien, D J; Morgan, J P; Lane, M F; O'Reilly, P F; O'Neill, S J
Scrapie, a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy of sheep and goats, exists in most small ruminant producing countries of the world. An atypical form of this disease, originally termed Nor98, was discovered in large abattoir surveillance of clinically normal, predominantly older sheep and rarely ...
Balkhi, Michni and Hashtnagri populations are the three fat-tailed phenotypes native to Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province of Pakistan, harbouring the central valley. Their distribution, breeding trend and performances were evaluated through a survey using a pre-tested questionnaire during August, 2008. Out of the total populations, 70.7% were mixed flocks and 5.8%, 3.1% and 9.2% were purebred flocks belonging to Balkhi, Hashtnagri and Michni populations, respectively. Sheep flocks were reared under three different production systems, i.e. sedentary, transhumant and nomadic. Nomads keep Balkhi and are sole responsible for their development as a mutton breed. They practise autumn breeding only, for which they select the heaviest ram/s available within the community. Sedentary and transhumant shepherds had mixed flock, who were constantly replacing their native breed stock, i.e. Michni and Hashtnagri through outcrossing with Balkhi. The size of Balkhi and Michni populations warrants no immediate threat to their existence and diversity. However, in case of increased popularity of crossbreeding, Michni could pose threats of extinction. Hashtnagri on the other hand can be declared as breed at risk. Age at first lambing was significantly lower in Hashtnagri ewes, followed by Michni, crossbred and Balkhi. Hashtnagri ewes outperformed other populations in lambing twice per annum. PMID:21509452
Ibrahim, Muhammad; Ahmad, Sohail; Swati, Zahoor Ahmad; Ullah, Ghufran
Full text: Feeding trials were carried out on-farm to examine the effect of supplementing urea treated sorghum stover (UTSS) with sesame cake (SC) or fishmeal (FM) on the body weight of sheep. Twenty-one male sheep were divided into three groups of seven sheep in each treatment. All the sheep used in this experiment were from the same breed (Gerej), with the same age and initial body weight from the same area. The experiment was conducted in Gash Barka, western lowlands of Eritrea. All the animals were fed on UTSS for an adaptation period of 15 d. The control diet consisted of UTSS fed ad libitum. The second and third treatments consisted of UTSS fed ad libitum supplemented daily with 80 g/head of SC and 60 g/head of FM, respectively. The experimental period lasted for 90 d. Feed intakes and body weights were recorded regularly. The dry matter intake (DMI) in sheep was significantly different (P < 0.05) between the control and SC supplemented groups, but not between the other treatments. It was highest for the SC supplemented group at 847 g/head/day followed by the FM supplemented group and the control at 826 and 821 g/head/day, respectively. Sheep supplemented with SC had the highest significant (P < 0.05) body weight gain (BWG) (134 g/head/day) followed by the group supplemented with FM (115 g/head/day). The BWG for the control was 66 g/head/day. Feed conversion was best on SC (6.92) followed by FM (7.70) supplementation. The lowest cost of feed per kg of BWG (16.91e lowest cost of feed per kg of BWG (16.91 Nfa) was attained by supplementing with SC. It can be concluded that feeding UTSS alone or supplementing with small amounts of sesame cake or fishmeal can increase the live weight of sheep at a reasonable cost. (author)
Full Text Available Mediante o teste de ELISA foi determinada a presença de anticorpos para Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (map) em amostras de soro de 734 caprinos e 392 ovinos, sem sinais clìnicos aparentes, provenientes de 14 Municipios do semiárido Paraibano. Em caprinos, a frequência média de anticorp [...] os de 44,86± 22,91% e em ovinos foi de 52,96±31,49. Das 46 propriedades estudadas, 44 (95,65%) apresentaram pelo menos um animal soropositivo. Nos 14 municípios avaliados houve presença de animais sorologicamente positivos, variando de 20% a 70%. Em caprinos sem raça definida e mestiços a frequência (48,56%) foi significativamente inferior (P Abstract in english Antibodies to paratuberculosis were determined by ELISA in serum samples of 734 goats and 392 sheep, without clinical signs, from 14 municipalities of the semiarid region of Paraíba state, Brazil. In goats, average frequency of antibodies was 44.86±22.91% and in sheep was 52.96±31.49%. All municipal [...] ities had affected animals with a frequency varying from 20% to 70%. In goats of unknown breed and crossbreds the prevalence (48.56%) was significantly lower (P=0.0270) than in pure breed goats (57.24%). In sheep with body scores of 1 to 3, the frequency (59.39%) was significantly higher (P=0.0034) than in sheep with body score from 3 to 5 (42.42%). No significant differences were observed in goats and sheep of different ages, in goats with different body score, and in sheep of different breeds. In the microbiologic examination, after 16 weeks of incubation in HEYM medium with mycobactin J, colonies similar to those of do Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuber culosis were observed in cultures of 9 (6.58%) out of 180 fecal samples, being one from goats and 8 from sheep. In the Ziehl Nieelsen the bacteria had morphologic and staining characteristics similar to M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. These results suggest that paratuberculosis is endemic with high prevalence in the semiarid region of Paraíba. It is necessary to develop research on the epidemiology and control measures of the disease in the conditions of this region. Also the risk for human beings should be determined, mainly in relation with milking goats.
João M.A, Medeiros; Felício, Garino Junior; Arthur P, Almeida; Erasmo A, Lucena; Franklin, Riet-Correa.
Reverse breeding (RB) is a novel plant breeding technique designed to directly produce parental lines for any heterozygous plant, one of the most sought after goals in plant breeding. RB generates perfectly complementing homozygous parental lines through engineered meiosis. The method is based on reducing genetic recombination in the selected heterozygote by eliminating meiotic crossing over. Male or female spores obtained from such plants contain combinations of non-recombinant parental chro...
Dirks, R.; Dun, K. P. M.; Snoo, B.; Berg, M.; Lelivelt, C. L. C.; Voermans, W.; Woudenberg, L.; Wit, J. P. C.; Reinink, K.; Schut, J. W.; Jong, J. H. S. G. M.; Wijnker, T. G.
Características do sêmen de carneiros Dorper, Santa Inês e sem padrão racial definido, pré e pós-congelação, nos períodos chuvoso e seco / Characteristics of the semen of Dorper, Santa Ines and undefined breed sheep, pre-and post-freezing, in the rainy and dry period
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Avaliaram-se as características espermáticas de carneiros Dorper, Santa Inês e sem padrão racial definido, nos períodos chuvoso e seco. Após ser colhido por vagina artificial, o sêmen foi avaliado quanto ao volume, ao turbilhonamento, à motilidade, ao vigor, à morfologia e à concentração, congelado [...] e armazenado em botijão criogênico. Depois de descongelado, foram avaliadas a cinemática espermática, a integridade da membrana plasmática, a integridade do acrossoma e a atividade mitocondrial. Vigor espermático, motilidade total, motilidade progressiva, velocidade em linha reta e defeitos maiores não diferiram entre os períodos chuvoso e seco, porém volume, turbilhonamento, linearidade, retilinearidade e frequência de batimentos de cauda foram mais baixos (P Abstract in english The sperm characteristics of Dorper, Santa Ines and undefined breed ram in the rainy and dry seasons was assessed. After collection with an artificial vagina, the semen was evaluated for volume, turbulence, motility, viability, morphology and concentration, frozen and stored in a cryogenic cylinder. [...] After thawing kinematic sperm, plasma membrane integrity, acrosome integrity and mitochondrial activity were evaluated. Sperm vigor, total motility, progressive motility, straight line speed and larger line defects did not differ between the rainy and dry seasons, however, volume, turbulence, linearity, straightness and frequency of tail beats were lower (P
J.M., Frazão Sobrinho; M.A. Castelo, Branco; A., Sousa Júnior; I.M.R., Nascimento; L.H.C.M., Mota; Y.N.T., Carvalho; S.B., Ferreira; D.N.M., Costa; F.J., Moraes Júnior; J.A.T., Souza.
Respiratory disease and poor lamb recruitment have been identified as limiting factors for bighorn-sheep populations. Haemophilus somnus (recently reclassified as Histophilus somni) is associated with respiratory disease in American bison, domestic sheep, and cattle. It is also harbored in their reproductive tracts and has been associated with reproductive failure in domestic sheep and cattle. Therefore, reproductive tract and lung samples from bighorn sheep were evaluated for the presence of this organism. Organisms identified as H. somnus were isolated from 6 of 62 vaginal but none of 12 preputial swab samples. Antigen specific to H. somnus was detected by immunohistochemical study in 4 of 12 formalin-fixed lung tissue samples of bighorn sheep that died with evidence of pneumonia. Notably, H. somnus was found in alveolar debris in areas of inflammation. The 6 vaginal isolates and 2 H. somnus isolates previously cultured from pneumonic lungs of bighorn sheep were compared with 3 representative isolates from domestic sheep and 2 from cattle. The profiles of major outer membrane proteins and antigens for all of the isolates were predominantly similar, although differences that may be associated with the host-parasite relationship and virulence were detected. The DNA restriction fragment length profiles of the bighorn-sheep isolates had similarities not shared with the other isolates, suggesting distinct phylogenetic lines. All of the isolates had similar antimicrobial profiles, but the isolates from the bighorn sheep produced less pigment than those from the domestic livestock, and growth of the former was not enhanced by CO2. Wildlife biologists and diagnosticians should be aware of the potential of these organisms to cause disease in bighorn sheep and of growth characteristics that may hinder laboratory detection. PMID:16548330
Ward, Alton C S; Weiser, Glen C; Anderson, Bruce C; Cummings, Patrick J; Arnold, Karen F; Corbeil, Lynette B
There were approximately 9 million horses in the United States having a 102 billion impact on the U.S. economy (AHC, 2005). Over 1 million of those horses were involved in the breeding sector. In Kentucky, nearly 18% of the horse population have been involved in breeding. Managing an equine enterprise can be difficult, particularly given that many who undertake such endeavors do not have a background or education in business management. Kentucky Cooperative Extension has produced interactive spreadsheets to help horse owners better understand the costs associated with owning horses or managing certain equine businesses, including boarding and training operations. However, there has been little support for breeders. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to provide owners with a list of services offered for breeding and the costs associated with those services. Survey questions were created from a list of topics pertinent to equine breeding and from that list of questions, an electronic survey was created. The survey was sent via Qualtrics Survey Software to collect information on stallion and mare management costs as well as expenses related to owning and breeding. Question topics included veterinary and housing costs, management and advertising expenses, and membership fees. A total of 78 farms were selected from the 2013 breeder's listings for the Kentucky Quarter Horse Association (n = 39) and the Kentucky Thoroughbred Farm Managers' Club (n = 26), and other breed association contacts (n = 13). These farms were selected from the lists by outside individuals who were not related to the project. Participants were asked to answer all questions relevant to the farm. After the initial survey distribution, follow-up e-mails and phone calls were conducted in order to answer any questions participants might have had about the survey. Survey response rate was 32.1% (25 of 78 surveys returned). Farms in Kentucky had an average of two farm-owned and two outside stallions standing at stud. Artificial insemination was offered by 48% of the breeders. Of those that offered artificial insemination, only 2 farms provided frozen semen. Also of interest, 2 farms offered embryo transfer services. Farms spent approximately 13,536/year on advertising and 7,864/year on health care management of the stallions. The majority of farms that bred outside mares (13 of 25) bred fewer than 50 mares per year (n = 10). Outside mares were considered to be those that were transported to the farm for breeding. Some of those remained on the farm for mare care while others returned home after confirmed with foal. Approximately 70% of the farms gave discounts to individuals who bred multiple mares to the same stallion or farm. Over 85% of the farms surveyed provided mare care including breeding and foaling, though the number of days mares received care varied significantly. The average cost for mare care was 18.29 per day. All but one respondent provided a live foal guarantee. Breeding horses in Kentucky has been very important facet of the equine industry. However, many people who consider breeding a horse have little understanding of the costs associated with the process. The data provided by this study will be used to create a spreadsheet to assist people interested in breeding to better understand the financial considerations of this type of enterprise.
Walker, Cassandra L.
The effect of multinutrient block supply and polyethylene glycol 4000 (PEG) on intake, digestion and rumen fermentation was studied in sheep fed with air-dried Acacia cyanophylla foliage (acacia)-based diet. In Experiment I, six Noire de Thibar breed sheep (BW 46 kg) were used in double 3 3 Latin square design. All diets included about 360 g of dry matter (DM) of oat±vetch hay and acacia ad libitum. Diet D0 was without a block supplement. Diet D1 included a urea± molasses±mineral bl...
Moujahed, Nizar; Kayouli, Chedly; Thewis, Andre?; Beckers, Yves; Rezgui, S.
The potent greenhouse gas methane (CH4) is produced in the rumens of ruminant animals from hydrogen produced during microbial degradation of ingested feed. The natural animal-to-animal variation in the amount of CH4 emitted and the heritability of this trait offer a means for reducing CH4 emissions by selecting low-CH4 emitting animals for breeding. We demonstrate that differences in rumen microbial community structure are linked to high and low CH4 emissions in sheep. Bacterial community str...
Kittelmann, Sandra; Pinares-patin?o, Cesar S.; Seedorf, Henning; Kirk, Michelle R.; Ganesh, Siva; Mcewan, John C.; Janssen, Peter H.
Initiated in 1995, the Wisconsin Breeding Bird Atlas (WBBA) is an on-going project to document all bird species breeding in the state of Wisconsin. A project of the Wisconsin Society for Ornithology, WBBA documents the presence and breeding status of bird species detected within a selected 5km x 5km area, as well as (optionally) the estimated abundance of the species and the type of habitat in which it was detected. The results of this ambitious initiative are now available in the form of online Species Distribution Maps and multiple species summaries. While not all maps have been error-checked, these color maps offer detailed images showing confirmed and probable breeding locations for Wisconsin's several hundred species of breeding birds. In addition to the maps, the site provides a section on WBBA methods, numerous bird identification images, and a Casual Observation Form. A select list of links (to other states's Breeding Bird Atlas projects) rounds out the site.
Full Text Available The aims of this study were to evaluate the isoflurane sparing and clinical effects of a constant rate infusion of morphine – lidocaine – ketamine (MLK in healthy sheep undergoing experimental gastrointestinal surgery. Twelve adult female sheep (Texel breed were used, weighing 36.5 ± 8.1 kg. The sheep were anesthetized for the implantation of duodenal cannulas. The sheep were premedicated with 0.3 mg kg-1 intramuscular (IM morphine and 20 ?g kg-1 intravenous (IV detomidine. After premedication, anesthesia was induced using 5 mg kg-1 ketamine and 0.5 mg kg-1 diazepam IV and maintained using isoflurane in 100% oxygen. After the induction of anesthesia, the animals were allocated into two groups (each n=6; the GMLK (MLK group – 10 mg morphine, 150 mg lidocaine, 30 mg de ketamine were added in 500 mL saline received a 10 mL kg-1h-1 MLK infusion during the maintenance of anesthesia, and GCON (control group received 10 mL kg-1h-1 of 0.9% sodium chloride. The animals were mechanically ventilated. Cardiopulmonary variables and end-tidal isoflurane concentration (FE´Iso were measured at baseline (immediately before the surgery and 15, 30 and 45 minutes after initiation of surgery. In GMLK, there was a decrease in the FE´Iso at 15, 30 and 45 minutes, a reduction of up to 75.6% during the surgery. The HR was lower in GMLK compared with GCON at 30 minutes, and the MAP was at during baseline in GCON compared with GMLK. The standing time was less in GMLK than in GCON. The use of intravenous MLK was demonstrated to offer great efficiency as part of a balanced anesthesia protocol in sheep, with a 75.6% reduction in the need for isoflurane, providing stability of the cardiovascular parameters and blood gases with a shortened recovery period.
Suzane Lilian Beier
There are several candidate concepts for tritium breeding blankets that make use of a number of special materials. These materials can be classified as Primary Blanket Materials, which have the greatest influence in determining the overall design and performance, and Secondary Blanket Materials, which have key functions in the operation of the blanket but are less important in establishing the overall design and performance. The issues associated with the blanket materials are specified and several examples of materials performance are given. Critical data needs are identified
Full Text Available This experiment was conducted in the Genetics, Breeding and Reproductive Biotechnology Laboratory under Goat and Sheep Production Research Division, Bangladesh Livestock Research Institute (BLRI, Saver, Dhaka, Bangladesh. DNA was extracted from 14 goat breeds and the extracted DNA was observed by gel electrophoresis. Eight goat specific primers were synthesized by ASM-800 DNA synthesizer and screened in the study and all these primers were capable of priming polymorphic amplification pattern in both the breeds. Random amplification of polymorphic DNA â?? Polymerase Chain Reaction (RAPD-PCR analysis was carried out using DNA samples of 14 black bengal goat and Jamuna pari goat breeds. Only unambiguous, reproducible and scorable polymorphic fragments were taken into consideration for analysis. Data were analyzed by using a computer programe POPGENE (Version 1.31. Highest level of Nei's gene diversity value (0.4898 was observed in BMS 1494 locus and the mean genetic diversity was obtained 0.3724 among the 14 goat breeds. The highest number of polymorphism obserbed in primer BM1818.The pair-wise genetic distance value ranged from 0.2500 to 1.000. Dendrogram based on Nei's genetic distance using Unweighted Pair Group Method of Arithmetic Means (UPGMA indicated segregation of the 14 goat breeds. Within Jamuna pari goat genetic similarity is low as well as black Bengal goat.
M. A. Rahman
Growing the FutureWith the loss of plant breeding positions in the public sector, there has been a loss of the infrastructure that supports plant breeding training, including a reduction in professors with plant breeding expertise, a critical mass of students often too low to provide a stimulating learning environment, and the inability to offer courses with sufficient audience. Although studies support the positive impact of a strong community on learning, currently, students are often trained in isolation. The PBTN has been established to mitigate isolation barriers that currently limit plant breeding education at most institutions and in most plant breeding work places around the world. PBTN supports online course sharing (See list of courses). The PBTN online graduate student community is a place for students around the world to make contact with other plant breeding students, providing an opportunity to exchange ideas, develop interpersonal skills (such as communication and collaboration) and build a plant breeding student community.If you have questions about the community, graduate work in plant breeding, or career oportunities, please contact us. Jamie ShermanDirector-TCAP graduate community and PBTNjsherman@montana.edu Mary BrakkeDirector-TCAP undergraduate email@example.com Deana Namuth-CovertDirector-Plant Breeding Training Network (PBTN)firstname.lastname@example.org This community is funded by the Triticeae CAP project.
Studies are reported on plant breeding using ionizing radiation which induces mutations. The notions are explained of radiostimulation, mutation, the nature of mutations, plant breeding and a survey is given of the uses of mutations in plant breeding. The types of radiation inducing mutations are given as are radiation doses, application, the interaction of ionizing radiation with the biological material, a survey of chemical mutagens, a comparison of physical and chemical mutagens and the results of mutation breeding and future prospects. (J.P.)
Under conditions of a maximum security laboratory, four cross-bred sheep were inoculated intradermally only or intradermally and intratracheally with a West African isolate of sheep pox virus. All sheep had increased temperature and depression by the fourth or fifth day after infection. Nasal and lacrimal discharge and coughing occurred in all sheep but were more severe in sheep receiving the virus via the tracheal route. From the fifth day after infection, numerous papular erythematous skin ...
Afshar, A.; Bundza, A.; Myers, D. J.; Dulac, G. C.; Thomas, F. C.
A single Merino sheep, artificially infested with the sheep scab mite, Psoroptes ovis, and a similarly infested Dorper sheep were placed with 9 uninfested Merino or 9 uninfested Dorper sheep respectively during winter and the rate of spread of infestation on the uninfested sheep observed. The same procedure was repeated in summer. It took 14 and 8 weeks respectively in winter before all sheep in the 2 groups displayed lesions of sheep scab, whereas in summer it took 10 an...
Meintjies, T.; Fourie, L. J.; Horak, I. G.
Government-owned small-ruminant breeding farms in Malaysia provide the source of sheep and goats to smallholder farmers in the country. In the eastern Malaysian state of Sabah, high-level stock losses have been recorded on these farms for several years, frequently accompanied by clinical signs indicating pathogenic levels of infections with the nematode parasite Haemonchus contortus. This suggests that their dependence on chemotherapy to control parasite infections had failed. Accordingly, tests for anthelmintic efficacy using the faecal egg count reduction test (FECRT) on the range of drugs used to control nematode parasites were carried out on the five government small-ruminant breeding farms in Sabah. These tests showed a total failure of the benzimidazole, imidothiazole, macrocyclic lactone and salicylanilide groups of anthelmintics to control H. contortus infections of sheep and goats on all farms. Drastic changes in animal management need to be made in an attempt to deal with this situation, for which suggestions are made. PMID:15509022
Chandrawathani, P; Yusoff, N; Wan, L C; Ham, A; Waller, P J
The reliability and consistency of the many measures proposed to quantify sexual selection have been questioned for decades. Realized selection on quantitative characters measured by the selection differential i was approximated by metrics based on variance in breeding success, using either the opportunity for sexual selection Is or indices of inequality. There is no consensus about which metric best approximates realized selection on sexual characters. Recently, the opportunity for selection on character mean OSM was proposed to quantify the maximum potential selection on characters. Using 21 years of data on bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis), we investigated the correlations between seven indices of inequality, Is , OSM and i on horn length of males. Bighorn sheep are ideal for this comparison because they are highly polygynous and sexually dimorphic, ram horn length is under strong sexual selection, and we have detailed knowledge of individual breeding success. Different metrics provided conflicting information, potentially leading to spurious conclusions about selection patterns. I?, an index of breeding inequality, and, to a lesser extent, Is showed the highest correlation with i on horn length, suggesting that these indices document breeding inequality in a selection context. OSM on horn length was strongly correlated with i, Is and indices of inequality. By integrating information on both realized sexual selection and breeding inequality, OSM appeared to be the best proxy of sexual selection and may be best suited to explore its ecological bases. PMID:25418082
Martin, A M; Festa-Bianchet, M; Coltman, D W; Pelletier, F
Acute intoxication by seeding Crotalaria retusa occurred during the dry season, in a flock of 80 sheep, in the semi-arid region of the state of Paraiba, northeastern Brazil. Anorexia, severe depression, mild jaundice, incoordination and recumbence were observed in 16 sheep that died within 12 h. At necropsy the liver had a nutmeg appearance. Seeds of C. retusa were found in large amounts in the rumen of the dead animals. Histologic lesions of the liver were characterized by centrilobular necrosis. Seeds of C. retusa were given to six sheep at doses of 2.5 (two sheep), 5, 10, 20 and 40 g/kg bw (one sheep for each dose). Sheep ingesting 5-40 g/kg bw were killed when moribund, 38-120 h after the start of the administration. Clinical signs and gross and histologic lesions were similar to those observed in field outbreak. The seeds used in the experiment contained 1.4% of monocrotaline. It is concluded that hungry sheep can be affected spontaneously by acute monocrotaline intoxication when they ingest large amounts of C. retusa seeds in a short period of time. PMID:15683873
Nobre, V M T; Dantas, A F M; Riet-Correa, F; Barbosa Filho, J M; Tabosa, I M; Vasconcelos, J S
In order to develop an advanced technical knowledge for the selection of better mutants, some of the crops were irradiated and the mutation rate, the survival rate and the method for selction of a mutant were studied. Furthermore, this study aimed to obtain basic data applicable to the development of genetic resources by evaluation and analysis the specific character for selection of the superior mutant and its plant breeding. 1. selection of the mutant with a superior resistance against environment in the principal crops 1) New varieties of mutant rices such as Wonpyeongbyeo, Wongwangbyeo, Winmibyeo, and heogseon chalbeyeo (sticky forma) were registered in the national variety list and made an application to crop variety protection right. They are under review now. 2) We also keep on studying on the number of a grain of 8 lines of excellent mutant rice for the purpose of improvement of breeding . 3) We selected 3 lines which have a resistance to pod and stem blight in large soybean, 31 lines with small grain size and higher yield, 112 lines of soybean of cooking, 7 lines of low lipoxygenase content, and 12 lines with decreased phytic acid content by 20 % compared to the previous level. 2. Selection of advanced Mugunwha (Rose of Sharon) mutant 1) Bagseul, a new variety of mutant, was developed and 30 plantlets of it are being proliferated. 2) Fifty-three lines of a mutant having a various morphologies were selected
Full Text Available The aim of work was to optimalize the ELISA method to detect the adulteration of sheep milk and sheep milk products by cow milk in the laboratory. We have focused on laboratory testing of ELISA kit (?-Lactoglobulin ELISA Set, SEDIUM R&D for detection of cow ?-Lg in sheep milk order to obtain high-quality, reliable and economically advantageous method suitable for routine use in practice. The results shown that for the quality of adulteration determination it is necessary to verify the sensitivity of applied kit by the samples dilution in accordance with the producer declared quantification range contained in the manual ELISA kit. The starting point for obtaining of relevant data was to create separate regression curves with high determination coefficient, which allowed to quickly and easily detect the cow milk additions in sheep milk, cloddish sheep and Slovak sheep cheese. doi:10.5219/78
In sheep, susceptibility to scrapie is mainly determined by codons 136, 154, and 171 of the PRNP gene. Five haplotypes are usually present (ARR, ARQ, ARH, AHQ, and VRQ). The ARR haplotype confers the greatest resistance to classical scrapie while VRQ renders animals most susceptible. In 2004, the European Union implemented a breeding program that promotes selection of the ARR haplotype while reducing the incidence of VRQ. From 2006 to 2011 in Belgium, frequency for the ARR/ARR genotypes incre...
Dobly, Alexandre; Heyden, Sara; Roels, Stefan
The monitoring of sheep and sheepmeat has been undertaken by the Nuclear Energy Board since 1987 and reports of the work have been published on an annual basis. The main components of previous programmes have been continued during 1990. including; in vivo monitoring of sheep at the main slaughterhouses dealing with both the domestic and export markets, laboratory analysis of sheepmeat collected from butchers' shops nationwide, in vivo monitoring of mountain sheep at selected farms during the months of summer grazing. In addition, baseline data on radiocaesium in soils and plants at 13 sites were collected during the second half of the year
FlockWatch is part of an ongoing sheep tracking research project. The goal of this project is to design a system for locating sheep or other animals grazing in the mountains by using sensor nodes (Waspmote), equipped with GPS, GPRS and long range radio transmitters. The specific aim of this thesis is to provide a control and monitoring system in the form of a desktop application capable of showing at any time the position of the nodes (sheep) on a map, able to facilitate the configuration of...
This is the third in a series of lessons specifically designed to instruct individuals without any formal training in genetics or statistics about the science of corn breeding. Individuals with formal training in genetics or statistics but without any training in plant breeding also may benefit from taking these lessons.
Full Text Available Maize is one of the most important economic crops and the best studied and most tractable genetic system among monocots. The development of biotechnology has led to a great increase in our knowledge of maize genetics and understanding of the structure and behaviour of maize genomes. Conventional breeding practices can now be complemented by a number of new and powerful techniques. Some of these often referred to as molecular methods, enable scientists to see the layout of the entire genome of any organism and to select plants with preferred characteristics by "reading" at the molecular level, saving precious time and resources. DNA markers have provided valuable tools in various analyses ranging from phylogenetic analysis to the positional cloning of genes. Application of molecular markers for genetic studies of maize include: assessment of genetic variability and characterization of germ plasm, identification and fingerprinting of genotypes, estimation of genetic distance, detection of monogamic and quantitative trait loci, marker assisted selection, identification of sequence of useful candidate genes, etc. The development of high-density molecular maps which has been facilitated by PCR-based markers, have made the mapping and tagging of almost any trait possible and serve as bases for marker assisted selection. Sequencing of maize genomes would help to elucidate gene function, gene regulation and their expression. Modern biotechnology also includes an array of tools for introducing or deieting a particular gene or genes to produce plants with novel traits. Development of informatics and biotechnology are resulted in bioinformatic as well as in expansion of microarrey technique. Modern biotechnologies could complement and improve the efficiency of traditional selection and breeding techniques to enhance agricultural productivity.
This report summarises the work undertaken by the Board during the first nine months of 1988, and includes the results of in vivo farm measurements, slaughterhouse monitoring and butchers' shops surveys relating to sheep and sheepmeat.(author)
This report summarises the work undertaken by the Board during 1988 and includes the results of in vivo farm measurements, slaughterhouse monitoring and butcher's shops surveys relating to sheep and sheepmeat
This report details the work undertaken by the Board during 1989 and includes the results of on-farm measurements, slaughterhouse monitoring and butchers' shops surveys relating to sheep and sheepmeat (author)
Unidirectional transplacental clearances of radioiodide were calculated from the net radioiodide fluxes after injection into fetal and/or maternal circulations of 33 catheterized conscious sheep. Maternofetal potential difference (PD) was also recorded. Clearance reached a steady state 20 min after bolus injection. Fetomaternal clearance was related to PD. Bidirectional clearance ratios measured in five experiments showed a significant divergence from the value for passive flux predicted from the measured PD, and in four experiments these ratios were also significantly different from unity, this result being incompatible with passive flux even if the transplacental PD is assumed to be zero. Injection of thiocyanate or iodide reduced radioiodide clearance. Fetomaternal clearance of radioiodide was halved by an increase in fetal plasma iodide concentration of approximately 0.1 mM. There appears to be an inhibitable iodide-transporting site capable of active transport in either direction
Unidirectional transplacental clearances of radioiodide were calculated from the net radioiodide fluxes after injection into fetal and/or maternal circulations of 33 catheterized conscious sheep. Maternofetal potential difference (PD) was also recorded. Clearance reached a steady state 20 min after bolus injection. Fetomaternal clearance was related to PD. Bidirectional clearance ratios measured in five experiments showed a significant divergence from the value for passive flux predicted from the measured PD, and in four experiments these ratios were also significantly different from unity, this result being incompatible with passive flux even if the transplacental PD is assumed to be zero. Injection of thiocyanate or iodide reduced radioiodide clearance. Fetomaternal clearance of radioiodide was halved by an increase in fetal plasma iodide concentration of approximately 0.1 mM. There appears to be an inhibitable iodide-transporting site capable of active transport in either direction.
Canning, J.F.; Stacey, T.E.; Ward, R.H.; Boyd, R.D.
This paper aims to explore farmers’ preferences for sheep or goats based on feeding practices, animal and flock performances and economic benefits of sheep and goats in different agro-ecological zones in Central Java, Indonesia. In total, 150 smallholder farmers were selected from three agro-ecological zones: the lowlands, the middle zone, and the uplands. Feeding and performance parameters were estimated through weekly farm visits and farm records, from September 2001 to August 2003. In th...
Budisatria, I. G. S.; Udo, H. M. J.; Eilers, C. H. A. M.; Baliarti, E.; Zijpp, A. J.
Scrapie of sheep and chronic wasting disease (CWD) of cervids are transmissible prion diseases. Milk and placenta have been identified as sources of scrapie prions but do not explain horizontal transmission. In contrast, CWD prions have been reported in saliva, urine and feces, which are thought to be responsible for horizontal transmission. While the titers of CWD prions have been measured in feces, levels in saliva or urine are unknown. Because sheep produce ?17 L/day of saliva and scrapi...
Tamgu?ney, Gu?ltekin; Richt, Ju?rgen A.; Hamir, Amir N.; Greenlee, Justin J.; Miller, Michael W.; Wolfe, Lisa L.; Sirochman, Tracey M.; Young, Alan J.; Glidden, David V.; Johnson, Natrina L.; Giles, Kurt; Dearmond, Stephen J.; Prusiner, Stanley B.
Full Text Available In our study was followed occurrence of mastitis in herd of 430 sheep of breed zoslachtena valaska with hand milking technology examined two times during one lactation season. Individual examination consisted from clinical examination of udder and microbiological examination of milk samples. By PCR was determined presence of genes coding production of enterotoxins, and by ELISA methods production individual types of enterotoxins. From individual forms of mastitis were frequently detected subacute (6.7%, subclinical (5.7% and acute (2.9%. The coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS were identified in 102 (65.4% from all 156 positive isolates. The CNS and S. aureus caused subacute (5.1%, subclinical (3.9% and acute (2.4% forms of mastitis. The most frequently isolated were S. epidermidis, followed by S. chromogenes and S. xylosus from ewes with subacute and subclinical mastitis. From acute and chronical forms of mastitis were predominantly isolated S. aureus, S. uberis and S. epidermidis. The production of staphylococcal enterotoxins (SE - SEA, SEB, SEC, SED and the presence of genes sec (3, sea (2, seb (2 and sed (2 were determined in S. aureus, S. epidermidis, S. schleiferi and S. chromogenes, respectively. The results suggested on the high occurrence (12.4% of subacute and subclinical forms. Confirmed production of enterotoxins and presence of genes coding their production present a risk for human health and decreased a quality of milk and products from sheep´s milk.
Full Text Available Cold storage is a well-known strategy to limit concerns about seasonality for sheep dairy productions. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of long-term freezing on milk renneting properties from the Sarda sheep, an autochthonous breed from Italy. Two-hundred milk samples from 50 pluriparous Sarda ewes were collected at monthly intervals throughout the lactation from April to July. Each sample of fresh milk was analysed for composition and subsamples were obtained and frozen for one, three and five months. Renneting properties, both from the fresh and frozen subsamples, were achieved using the Formagraph instrument and results were submitted to a mixed model statistical analysis. The storage effect significantly affected (P<0.01 the renneting parameters. A large amount of non coagulating subsamples was registered after a long-term frozen storage. Furthermore, milk clotting time was longer in frozen subsamples and curd firmness diminished after a freezing period of five months. In conclusion, the remarkable decreasing of sheep milk renneting characteristics after frozen storage can predict a worse yield and quality of cheese-making and suggests that freezing of Sarda raw milk should be limited to shorter periods.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The Orf virus (ORFV is the prototype of the parapoxvirus genus and it primarily causes contagious ecthyma in goats, sheep, and other ruminants worldwide. In this paper, we described the sequence and phylogenetic analysis of the B2L gene of ORFV from two natural outbreaks: i in autochthonous Croatian Cres-breed sheep and ii on small family goat farm. Results Sequence and phylogenetic analyses of the ORFV B2L gene showed that the Cro-Cres-12446/09 and Cro-Goat-11727/10 were not clustered together. Cro-Cres-12446/09 shared the highest similarity with ORFV NZ2 from New Zealand, and Ena from Japan; Cro-Goat-11727/10 was closest to the HuB from China and Taiping and Hoping from Taiwan. Conclusion Distinct ORFV strains are circulating in Croatia. Although ORFV infections are found ubiquitously wherever sheep and goats are farmed in Croatia, this is the first information on genetic relatedness of any Croatian ORFV with other isolates around the world.
The three-dimensional structure of sheep liver 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase has been determined at 2.6 A resolution by X-ray crystallographic studies. The amino acid sequence of the enzyme is now known and can be fitted to a modified electron density map. Use of 6 A electron density maps and the results of chemical modification experiments allows description of the active site and identification of residues which may be implicated in the binding of co-enzyme and substrate.
Adams, M. J.; Archibald, I. G.; Bugg, C. E.; Carne, A.; Gover, S.; Helliwell, J. R.; Pickersgill, R. W.; White, S. W.
Full Text Available Abstract Background For ruminants reared on grazing systems, gastrointestinal nematode (GIN parasite infections represent the class of diseases with the greatest impact on animal health and productivity. Among the many possible strategies for controlling GIN infection, the enhancement of host resistance through the selection of resistant animals has been suggested by many authors. Because of the difficulty of routinely collecting phenotypic indicators of parasite resistance, information derived from molecular markers may be used to improve the efficiency of classical genetic breeding. Methods A total of 181 microsatellite markers evenly distributed along the 26 sheep autosomes were used in a genome scan analysis performed in a commercial population of Spanish Churra sheep to detect chromosomal regions associated with parasite resistance. Following a daughter design, we analysed 322 ewes distributed in eight half-sib families. The phenotypes studied included two faecal egg counts (LFEC0 and LFEC1, anti-Teladorsagia circumcincta LIV IgA levels (IgA and serum pepsinogen levels (Peps. Results The regression analysis revealed one QTL at the 5% genome-wise significance level on chromosome 6 for LFEC1 within the marker interval BM4621-CSN3. This QTL was found to be segregating in three out of the eight families analysed. Four other QTL were identified at the 5% chromosome-wise level on chromosomes 1, 10 and 14. Three of these QTL influenced faecal egg count, and the other one had an effect on IgA levels. Conclusion This study has successfully identified segregating QTL for parasite resistance traits in a commercial population. For some of the QTL detected, we have identified interesting coincidences with QTL previously reported in sheep, although most of those studies have been focused on young animals. Some of these coincidences might indicate that some common underlying loci affect parasite resistance traits in different sheep breeds. The identification of new QTL may suggest the existence of complex host-parasite relationships that have unique features depending on the host-parasite combination, perhaps due to the different mechanisms underlying resistance in adult sheep (hypersensitivity reactions and lambs (immunity. The most significant QTL identified on chromosome 6 for LFEC1 may be the target for future fine-mapping research efforts.
Primitivo Fermin San
Full Text Available The physical and chemical characteristics and thermal stability of butter oil produced from non-pasteurized and pasteurized sheep’s milk were studied. Thermal stability of samples was estimated by using the accelerated shelf-life testing method. Samples were stored at 50, 60 and 70oC in the dark and the reaction was monitored by measuring peroxide, thiobarbituric acid and free fatty acid values. The peroxide and thiobarbituric acid values increased as the temperature increased. The increase of acid values of the two samples was not significant. A slight increase in free fatty acid value showed that hydrolytic reactions were not responsible for the deterioration of butter oil samples in thermal stability studies. When compared, butter oil produced from pasteurized sheep’s milk has higher thermal stability than butter oil produced from non-pasteurized sheep’s milk. Although butter oil produced from non-pasteurized milk was not exposed to any heat treatment, the shelf-life of this product was lower than the shelf-life of butter oil produced from pasteurized sheep’s milk. Therefore, heat treatment for pasteurization did not affect the thermal stability of butter oil.
Creating valid mouse models of slowly progressing human neurological diseases is challenging, not least because the short lifespan of rodents confounds realistic modelling of disease time course. With their large brains and long lives, sheep offer significant advantages for translational studies of human disease. Here we used normal and CLN5 Batten disease affected sheep to demonstrate the use of the species for studying neurological function in a model of human disease. We show that electroencephalography can be used in sheep, and that longitudinal recordings spanning many months are possible. This is the first time such an electroencephalography study has been performed in sheep. We characterized sleep in sheep, quantifying characteristic vigilance states and neurophysiological hallmarks such as sleep spindles. Mild sleep abnormalities and abnormal epileptiform waveforms were found in the electroencephalographies of Batten disease affected sheep. These abnormalities resemble the epileptiform activity seen in children with Batten disease and demonstrate the translational relevance of both the technique and the model. Given that both spontaneous and engineered sheep models of human neurodegenerative diseases already exist, sheep constitute a powerful species in which longitudinal in vivo studies can be conducted. This will advance our understanding of normal brain function and improve our capacity for translational research into neurological disorders. PMID:25724202
Perentos, Nicholas; Martins, Amadeu Q; Watson, Thomas C; Bartsch, Ullrich; Mitchell, Nadia L; Palmer, David N; Jones, Matthew W; Morton, A Jennifer
Chickpea is an important food legume in Turkey. Turkey is one of the most important gene centers in the world for legumes. The most widely known characteristic of chickpea is that it is an important vegetable protein source used in human and animal nutrition. However, the dry grains of chickpea, has 2-3 times more protein than our traditional food of wheat. In addition, cheakpea is also energy source because of its high carbohydrate content. It is very rich in some vitamin and mineral basis. In the plant breeding, mutation induction has become an effective way of supplementing existing germplasm and improving cultivars. Many successful examples of mutation induction have proved that mutation breeding is an effective and important approach to food legume improvement. The induced mutation technique in chickpea has proved successful and good results have been attained. Realizing the potential of induced mutations, a mutation breeding programme was initiated at the Nuclear Agriculture Section of the Saraykoey Nuclear Research and Training Center in 1994. The purpose of the study was to obtain high yielding chickpea mutants with large seeds, good cooking quality and high protein content. Beside this some characters such as higher adaptation ability, tolerant to cold and drought, increased machinery harvest type, higher yield, resistant to diseases especially to antracnose and pest were investigated too. Parents varieties were ILC-482, AK-7114 and AKCIN-91 (9 % seed moisture content and germination percentage 98 %) in these experiments. The irradiation doses were 0 (control), 50, 100, 150, 200, 250, 300, 350, 400, 500 ve 600 Gy for greenhouse experiments and 0 (control), 50, 100, 150, 200, 250, 300, 350 ve 400 Gy for field experiments, respectively. One thousand seeds for per treatment were sown in the field for the M1. At maturity, 3500 single plants were harvested and 20 seeds were taken from each M1 plant and planted in the following season. During plant growth, mutants of the desired traits [earliness, yield per plant, first pot height and resistance to Ascochyta blight (Ascochyta rabiei)] were identified an isolated. 2520 desirable M2 mutants were selected and grown in progeny rows as the M3 generation. The protein contents of seeds were analyzed for the M3-M4 seeds. In M5-M7 generation, preliminary yield trials had been conducted and based on field observations, quality criteria (grain size, grain type, cooking and protein) analyses, and later 12 mutant lines were selected. The mutants and their controls were evaluated at two locations (Saraykoey and Haymana) in Central Anatolia for 2 years (M8, M9) for determination of yield performance using randomized complete block design with 3 replications. All the data were analysed statistically. As a result of these experiments, two promising mutant lines were chosen and given to the Seed Registration and Certification Center for official registration These two promising mutants were tested at five different locations of Turkey, in 2004 and 2005 years. After 2 years of registration experiments one of outstanding mutants was officially released as mutant chickpea variety under the name TAEK-SAGEL, in 2006. Some basic characteristics of this mutant are; earliness (95-100 day), high yield capacity (180-220 kg/da), high seed protein (22-25 %), first pot height (20-25 cm), 100 seeds weight (42-48 g), cooking time (35-40 min) and resistance to Ascochyta blight. (Includes 31 tables and 9 figures)
Ion implantation as a new mutagenic method has been used in the rice breeding program since 1986, and for mutation breeding of other crops later. It has been shown, in principle and in practice, that this method has many outstanding advantages: lower damage rate; higher mutation rate and wider mutational spectrum. Many new lines of rice with higher yield rate; broader disease resistance; shorter growing period but higher quality have been bred from ion beam induced mutants. Some of these lines have been utilized for the intersubspecies hybridization. Several new lines of cotton, wheat and other crops are now in breeding. Some biophysical effects of ion implantation for crop seeds have been studied.
Yu, Zengliang; Deng, Jianguo; He, Jianjun; Huo, Yuping; Wu, Yuejin; Wang, Xuedong; Lui, Guifu
The objective of this study was to carry out a sensitivity analysis on the impact of various production strategies and performance levels on the relative economic values (REVs) of traits in dairy sheep. A bio-economic model implemented in the program package ECOWEIGHT was used to simulate the profit function for a semi-extensive production system with the Slovak multi-purpose breed Improved Valachian and to calculate the REV of 14 production and functional traits. The following production strategies were analysed: differing proportions of milk processed to cheese, customary weaning and early weaning of lambs with immediate sale or sale after artificial rearing, seasonal lambing in winter and aseasonal lambing in autumn. Results of the sensitivity analysis are presented in detail for the four economically most important traits: 150 days milk yield, conception rate of ewes, litter size and ewe productive lifetime. Impacts of the differences in the mean value of each of these four traits on REVs of all other traits were also examined. Simulated changes in the production circumstances had a higher impact on the REV for milk yield than on REVs of the other traits investigated. The proportion of milk processed to cheese, weaning management strategy for lambs and level of milk yield were the main factors influencing the REV of milk yield. The REVs for conception rate of ewes were highly sensitive to the current mean level of the trait. The REV of ewe productive lifetime was most sensitive to variation in ewe conception rate, and the REV of litter size was most affected by weaning strategy for lambs. On the basis of the results of sensitivity analyses, it is recommended that economic values of traits for the overall breeding objective for dairy sheep be calculated as the weighted average of the economic values obtained for the most common production strategies of Slovak dairy sheep farms and that economic values be adjusted after substantial changes in performance levels of the traits. PMID:22436223
Krupová, Z; Wolfová, M; Krupa, E; Oravcová, M; Da?o, J; Huba, J; Polák, P
A genome scan for chromosomal regions influencing body conformation traits was conducted for a population of Spanish Churra dairy sheep following a daughter design. A total of 739 ewes from 11 half-sib sire families were included in the study. The ewes were scored for the 5 linear traits used in the breeding scheme of the Churra breed to assess body conformation: stature, rear legs-rear view, foot angle, rump width, and general appearance. All the animals, including the 11 sires, were genotyped for 181 microsatellite markers evenly distributed across the 26 sheep autosomes. Using the yield deviations of the raw scores adjusted for fixed factors as phenotypic measurements, a quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis was performed on the basis of a multi-marker regression method. Seven suggestive QTL were identified on chromosomes Ovis aries (OAR)2, OAR5, OAR16, OAR23, and OAR26, but none reached a genome-wise significance level. Putative QTL were identified for all of the traits analyzed, except for general appearance score. The suggestive QTL showing the highest test statistic influenced rear legs-rear view and was localized on OAR16, close to the growth hormone receptor coding gene, GHR. Some of the putative linkage associations reported here are consistent with previously reported QTL in cattle for similar traits. To the best of our knowledge, this study provides the first report of QTL for body conformation traits in dairy sheep; further studies will be needed to confirm and redefine the linkage associations reported herein. It is expected that future genome-wide association analyses of larger families will help identify genes underlying these putative genetic effects and provide useful markers for marker-assisted selection of such functional traits. PMID:21787947
Gutiérrez-Gil, B; Alvarez, L; de la Fuente, L F; Sanchez, J P; San Primitivo, F; Arranz, J J
This paper details current production trends for sheep and beef cattle production in New Zealand and gives some insight into the opportunities for improvement based on New Zealand research at Massey University. Further it outlines some of the challenges the industries face in the near future. The New Zealand climate favours pasture growth and this is the key to sheep and beef cattle production with over 95% of the diet being grazed pasture or crop. Exports are the focus of the industry with 95% of sheep meat and wool, and 80% of beef exported. There have been considerable gains in production over the last 20 years but there still remains a huge opportunity for further intensification through breeding sheep at an earlier age, increasing the weight of lambs weaned per ewe per year and improving beef production systems. These improvements need to occur within a framework of minimal environmental footprint and produce products that are in demand in the high end international markets. PMID:24998778
Morris, S T; Kenyon, P R
Paratuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map), is a chronic incurable infection of intestinal tract of animals. Molecular characterization of Map isolates classifies them into two major groups, 'Cattle' or Type II and 'Sheep' or Type I/III with a different phenotype, epidemiology, virulence and pathogenesis. The aim of this study was to examine 192 Map ELISA-positive sheep and goats from Cyprus using faecal culture and genotype Map isolates using IS1311 PCR and restriction endonuclease analysis (IS1311 PCR-REA) with HinfI restriction enzyme. Map was isolated from only four (4.6%) faecal samples out of 88 sheep and 15 (14.4%) faecal samples out of 104 goats. Genotyping of the isolates using IS1311 PCR-REA revealed that sheep and goat populations on the island are infected primarily by 'Sheep' strains. Only three Map isolates from goats originated from one farm were characterized as 'Cattle' strains. PMID:23683358
Liapi, M; Botsaris, G; Slana, I; Moravkova, M; Babak, V; Avraam, M; Di Provvido, A; Georgiadou, S; Pavlik, I
Mutagenic studies in jute in general dealt with the morphological abnormalities of the M1 generation in great detail. Of late, induction of a wide spectrum of viable mutations have been reported in different varieties of both the species. Mutations affecting several traits of agronomic importance such as, plant height, time of flowering, fibre yield and quality, resistance to pests and diseases are also available. Cytological analysis of a large collection of induced mutants resulted in the isolation of seven trisomics in an olitorius variety. Several anatomical parameters which are the components of fibre yield, have also received attention. Some mutants with completely altered morphology were used for interpreting the evolution of leaf shape in Tiliaceas and related families. A capsularis variety developed using mutation breeding technique has been released for cultivation. Several others, including derivatives of inter-mutant hybridization have been found to perform well at different locations in the All India Coordinated Trials. Presently, chemical mutagenesis and induction of mutants of physiological significance are receiving considerable attention. The induced variability is being used in genetic and linkage studies. (author)
A review of genetic studies related to the breeding of improved cultivars of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) indicated that it was possible to modify the following over a wide range: duration of the rosette stage, stem length, branching habit, degree of spininess, head number, head size, flower morphology, mating system, seed size, hull thickness and thereby oil and protein contents, and fatty acid composition of the oil. Safflower breeders have concentrated most of their efforts on identifying and evaluating the great range of variability in cultivated safflower and its closely related wild species, and not on exploring means to increase variability. Limited experiments with gamma rays and ethyl methanesulphonate indicated that additional variability could be induced. Mutagenic agents should be used to obtain the following: resistance to foliar diseases where resistant germplasm is not available, increased levels of resistance to Phytophthora root rot, resistance to dodder and orobanche, resistance to insect pests, earlier maturity, and additional modifications in the fatty acid composition of the oil. (author)
Chickpea is an important food legume in Turkey. Turkey is one of the most important gene centers in the world for legumes. Realizing the potential of induced mutations, a mutation breeding programme was initiated at the Nuclear Agriculture Section of the Saraykoy Nuclear Research and Training Center in 1994. The purpose of the study was to obtain high yielding chickpea mutants with large seeds, good cooking quality and high protein content. Beside this some characters such as higher adaptation ability, tolerant to cold and drought, increased machinery harvest type, higher yield, resistant to diseases especially to antracnose and pest were investigated too. Parent varieties were ILC-482, AK-7114 and AKCIN-91 had been used in these experiments. The irradiation doses were 0 (control), 50, 100, 150, 200, 250, 300, 350 and 400 Gy for field experiments, respectively. As a result of these experiments, two promising mutant lines were chosen and given to the Seed Registration and Certification Center for official registration These two promising mutants were tested at five different locations of Turkey, in 2004 and 2005 years. After 2 years of registration experiments one of outstanding mutants was officially released as mutant chickpea variety under the name TAEK-SAGEL, in 2006. Some basic characteristics of this mutant are; earliness (95-100 day), high yield capacity (180-220 kg/da), high seed protein (22-25 %), first pot height (20-25 cm), 100 seeds weight (42-48 g), cooking time (35-40 min) and resistance to Ascochyta blight.
The demand of exotic ions of higher charge states for the injection into an accelerator has driven the development of the charge breeding method. Existing facilities such as REX-ISOLDE or ISAC (TRIUMF) are already using a charge-state booster for the post acceleration of radioactive ions. Planned facilities such as MAFF, SPES, SPIRAL II, and EURISOL have identified the need for a breeding system because of the demand for highly charged ions for low-energy experiments and because of the available budget. Therefore, the exploration and optimization of existing charge-state breeders is mandatory and is supported by the I3-EURONS project. Some tasks of the joint research activity 'charge breeding' are experiments with the Frankfurt MAXEBIS setup, which has been modified within the past years toward high current electron beam and external injection of alkaline ions by a surface ionization source. The electron gun, the inner electrode structure, and the collector of the MAXEBIS have been modified. The full MAXEBIS setup has been moved from Frankfurt to GSI, where the charge breeding measurements will be done. In addition the MAXEBIS will deliver highly charged ions for tests of the cooler Penning trap of the GSI Heavy Ion Trap project HITRAP. The setup, tests, and the planned breeding experiments will be discussed
This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and research abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants
This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and research abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants
This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants
This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants
This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants
This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and research abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants
This issue of the Newsletter presents abstracts and short communications of research results on radiation and chemical induced mutation breeding projects. Positive traits such as disease resistance and increased productivity are highlighted
This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and rea search abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants
This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and rea search abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants
This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and rea search abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants
This issue of the Newsletter presents abstracts and short communications of research results on radiation and chemical induced mutation breeding projects. Positive traits such as disease resistance and increased productivity are highlighted
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a common degenerative disease of synovial joints with the potential to cause pathology and welfare issues in both domestic and wild ruminants. Previous work has identified OA of the elbow joint in domestic sheep, but the prevalence of OA of the jaw and in particular the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) has not been previously reported. Following up a previous report of a single case of TMJ OA in a free-living population of Soay sheep on St Kilda in the Outer Hebrides, an archive of 2736 jaw bones collected from this population between 1985 and 2010 was surveyed. Evidence of TMJ OA was found in 35 sheep. Of these, 15 cases were unilateral (11 right side, 4 left side) and the remaining 20 were bilateral. TMJ pathology was much more common in females than males: only 3/35 cases were in males, with overall prevalence at 2.3% for females and 0.2% in males. Radiographic examination of TMJ with OA revealed extensive bone re-modelling with osteophytosis, particularly of the condyle of the mandible. There was a highly significant age-dependence in TMJ OA incidence among age classes: 30/35 cases occurred in geriatric sheep (aged 7 years or more; 11.1% prevalence within this age class), four in adults (2-6 years old; 0.9% prevalence), one in yearlings (0.3% prevalence) and none in lambs. The low incidence in males was confounded by sex differences in longevity: while 18% of females sampled died in the geriatric age class, only 2% of males did so. Although the low prevalence of the pathology limited the ability to test its association with other traits, it was possible to examine relationships with reproductive performance measures amongst geriatric females with and without TMJ OA. Although there were trends towards lower fecundity and lower lamb birth weight in the breeding season prior to death, these were not statistically significant. PMID:25458883
Arthur, Colin; Watt, Kathryn; Nussey, Daniel H; Pemberton, Josephine M; Pilkington, Jill G; Herman, Jeremy S; Timmons, Zena L; Clements, Dylan N; Scott, Philip R
Full Text Available Prion protein (PrP) is a membrane glycoprotein whose abnormal form is believed to cause a group of disorders known as transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs), which affect the brain and nervous system of both human beings and animals. The most familiar TSEs are Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (CJ [...] D) in human beings, and bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) and scrapie in sheep and goats. It is well established that resistance or susceptibility to scrapie has a genetic background that is closely linked to amino acid variations within PrP at positions 136 (A/V), 154 (R/H) and 171 (Q/R). The ARR (alanine at codon 136 and arginine at codons 154 and 171) allele is associated with the highest resistance to scrapie, whereas the VRQ allele is linked to the highest susceptibility. In the present study the allelic and genotypic frequencies of the PRNP gene in the Rough-coated Pomeranian Landrace (RPL) were determined. Polymorphisms at codons 136, 154 and 171 were identified with the PCR-RFLP method. Of the eight observed genotypes, ARR/ARQ (35.9%) and ARQ/ARQ (24.4%) were the most frequent. This study reported a presence of AHQ/AHR genotype (2.6%) that has not previously been recorded in any sheep breed. The predominance of wild-type ARQ (46.8%) haplotype, which is linked to the risk of scrapie development, suggested a genetic susceptibility to scrapie in RPL sheep. Although the frequency of ARR/ARR in RPL sheep was low, the highest frequency of the ARR/ARQ genotype could be helpful in increasing the number of individuals carrying the ARR/ARR genotype and reducing the risk of genetic defects within the population.
W.S., Proskura; R., Pilarczyk; S., Borkowska; A., Marciniak; I., Szatkowska; J., Wójcik; A., Dybus.
Full Text Available Aims of this study were to apply AFLP markers to assess the genetic diversity and to define a marker-assisted traceability system in local chicken breeds. Data were based on 107 cocks of three different local chicken breeds from Veneto region (Italy: Robusta (PRR: n=54, Pepoi (PPP: n=33 and Padovana (PPD: n=20. Chickens were individually identified at birth with wing tag and reared in four different herds using a free-range system. Genomic DNA was extracted from whole blood and AFLP analysis was performed according to the protocol described in Barcaccia et al. (1998. Values of expected heterozygosity (H and polymorphism information content (PIC at AFLP loci were calculated for each breed. Genetic similarities of all possible pairs of genotypes were estimates using a Jaccard index; the values obtained were subsequently used in a factorial analysis in order to define latent variables which explain the whole genetic similarity relation system between individuals. The average PIC index within breed was generally low: 24.1% for PRR, 23.6% for PPD and 17.2% for PPP. The average heterozygosities of the three breeds for all markers were 29.5% for PRR and PPD and 21.3% for PPP. In the majority of cases (from 90% to 100% of individuals within breed, marker-assisted traceability system used in this research correctly identified the breed of cocks. Hence, results are promising to identify biological tissue (meat, gamets, embryo, etc. from these local chicken breeds. However, the method used in this study should be improved in terms of cost reduction for single sample, work effort, reproducibility and accuracy of results obtained.
Massino De Marchi
The phylogenetic relationships among 23 local sheep breeds and varieties in East Asia were determined based on allele frequency data for five informative and polymorphic blood protein and nonprotein loci (transferrin, arylesterase, hemoglobin-beta, X-protein, and potassium transport) using electrophoresis and ion-densitometric techniques. Comparatively striking differences in the frequency distributions, especially of hemoglobin-beta and X-protein alleles, were seen between the northern population of the Khalkhas, Bhyanglung, Baruwal, Jakar, Sakten, and five Chinese breeds and the southern population of the Bengal, Kagi, Lampuchhre, Myanmar, and Sipsu breeds. Clustering analyses using UPGMA and NJ methods and principal component analysis, using the data of all populations and loci tested, clearly demonstrated the difference. The two population groups are divided by the boundary of the Himalayas, and each diverged into three subgroups: Mongolian, Tibetan, and Himalayan groups in the north and Indian groups I, II, and III in the south. It was noted that the genetic differentiation of populations was more distinct in the northern group. These findings strongly suggest the existence of at least two large and phylogenetically different gene pools of sheep in East Asia. PMID:17009104
Tsunoda, Kenji; Hong, Chang; Wei, Sun; Hasnath, M A; Nyunt, Maung Maung; Rajbhandary, Heramba B; Dorji, Tashi; Tumennasan, Horloojau; Sato, Keizo
Computed tomography (CT) was performed on 3 normal Rambouillet sheep and 6 Rambouillet sheep affected with neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis. Characteristic lesions seen in the brain of affected sheep included dramatically enlarged lateral ventricles and reduced cerebral thickness. The lesions were seen in sheep as young as 4 months of age. Antemortem CT observations correlated well with postmortem findings in this model of Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinosis
How mutation induction is used for plant breeding in Brazil is reported. For upland rice, the combined treatment with gamma-ray and mutagens (ethylene imine or ethylmethane sulfonate) has been used on the variety, Dourado Precoce, and some mutants with shortculm length and/or earliness without altering the productivity have been obtained. A project on the quantitative and qualitative protein improvement in upland rice was also started in 1979. In corn, the effect of gamma-irradiation on heterosis has been analyzed, and it was found that the single hybrids from two parental lines derived from irradiated seeds had increased ear productivity. For beans (Phaseolus yulgaris), gamma-irradiation and chemical mutagens have been used to induce the mutants with different seed color, disease resistance to golden mosaic virus and Xanthomonas phaseoli, earliness, high productivity and high protein content. Some mutants with partly improved characters have been obtained in these experiments. Two varieties of wheat tolerant to aluminum toxicity have been obtained, but the one showed high lodging due to its unfavorable plant height, and the other was highly susceptible to culm rust. Therefore, irradiation experiments have been started to improve these characters. The projects involving the use of gamma-irradiation have been tested to obtain the mutant lines insensitive to photoperiod and resistant to bud-blight in soybean, the mutant lines resistant to mosaic virus in papaya, the phosistant to mosaic virus in papaya, the photoperiod-insensitive mutants in sorghum, the mosaic virus resistant and non-flowering mutants in sugar cane, and the Fusarium and nematode-resistant mutants in black pepper. (Kaihara, S.)
Full Text Available The objective of this paper was to investigate the prion protein (PrP genotype and haplotype frequencies in three Sicilian dairy sheep populations. The three populations were: (1 1096 Valle del Belice animals, (2 1143 Comisana animals, and (3 1771 individuals from 5 flocks with scrapie outbreaks, in which the animals were crossbreds derived from indigenous Sicilian dairy breeds. PrP genotypes are described for the three codons 136 (Alanine or Valine; A, V, 154 (Histidine or Arginine; H, R, and 171 (Glutamine, Arginine or Histidine; Q, R, H which represent polymorphisms known to be linked with scrapie susceptibility. The Valle del Belice haplotype frequencies were 32.3% ARR, 6.5% AHQ, 1.0% ARH, 58.8% ARQ, and 1.4% VRQ. The Comisana frequencies were 39.4% ARR, 2.9% AHQ, 2.9% ARH, 50.9% ARQ, and 3.9% VRQ. In the flocks with scrapie outbreaks the frequencies were 32.8% ARR, 2.4% AHQ, 1.7% ARH, 59.1% ARQ, and 3.9% VRQ. In all three populations ARQ and ARR were the most frequent haplotypes. Multiple generations of strong selection will be needed to fixate the most resistant ARR haplotype.
Full Text Available The project was aimed at evaluation of comparative therapeutic efficacy of two treatment regimes for the treatment of lead poisoning in sheep. For this purpose 20, two-months-old, lambs of Buchi breed were used as experimental animals. Five animals were kept as healthy control, whereas the remaining 15 animals were given oral aqueous solution of lead acetate daily. The dose was started from 5 mg/kg bodyweight and was increased gradually till it reached 100 mg/kg body weight by the end of 2nd month when clinical toxicosis was observed. Clinical findings included diarrhea, hindquarter weakness and reduction of feed intake, accompanied by anemia and elevated blood lead levels up to 2.72 ppm. The 15 toxicated animals were divided into three groups A, B and C comprising of 5 animals each. Disodium calcium edetate, which was used to treat animals of group A, resulted in 52.7% fall in blood lead level in 5 days. A combination of disodium calcium edetate and thiamine hydrochloride was used to treat animals of group B, which showed 73.8% fall in blood lead levels. Group C served as untreated control. Thus, combination therapy appears to be more effective for treatment of lead toxicosis.
H. Zaneb, K. Pervez, M. S. Sarwar, S. Sindhu.
The Tweed River Purification Board's objective of reducing the numbers and significance of water pollution incidents by a proactive approach based on persuasion and education is described. This has consisted of prioritising potential pollutant sources which have then been investigated in detail followed by discussion and agreement with dischargers as to remedial measures. The paper describes in detail the Board's investigation of pollution from the organophosphate (OP) sheep dips, Diazinon and Propetamphos, and their effects on surface waters throughout its area. Examination of historical incidents and a preliminary survey of sheep farms in the Ettrick Water catchment in 1989 confirmed the potential for serious pollution. Comparison of OP concentrations in the Ettrick with strategic sites throughout the catchment confirmed the widespread nature of the problem and led to visits to every sheep farmer in the Board's area in 1990 and 1991, when 795 dippers were investigated. The study involved risk assessments of the location of dippers and the spent dip disposal practice which confirmed that poor siting, inadequate disposal and particularly poor management of the dipping operation were responsible for the pollution problems observed. Practical advice on the management of dipping and disposal of spent dip was given individually to farmers. The success of the project in reducing pollution is reflected in a significant and sustained reduction in OP concentrations in environmental samples. The future of ectoparasitic treatments for sheep, the potential for antidotes to spent sheep dip and legal obligations relating to its safe disposal is also considered. PMID:9112786
Virtue, W A; Clayton, J W
...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Roquefort cheese, sheep's milk blue-mold, and blue-mold cheese from sheep's milk. 133.184 Section...CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS...
Power Point slides that can be used during the sheep brain dissection laboratory to visually compare the sheep brain to the human brain structures with the goal to learn the anatomy of the human brain.
PhD Margarita P Bracamonte (Northland Community & Technical College Biology)