WorldWideScience

Sample records for sheep breeds electronic

  1. Breeding Practices in Sheep Farming

    M.A. Shejal

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The sheep is an important economic livestock species, contributing greatly to the Indian economy, especially in arid, semi arid and mountain areas. The current population in world is 1110.78 millions, around 44.85 millions (1987 sheeps in India (ICAR., 2002. Sheeps are mostly reared for meat and wool. The average annual wool production per sheep is between 3.5 to 5.5 kg of fine quality wool in Australia, New Zealand and U.S.S.R., where as in India except Magra sheep which annually yield more than 2 kg wool having staple length 5.8 cm, the average of rest of the wool produced is less than 1.0 kg per sheep of inferior quality (Banerjee G.C., 1998. Therefore many farmers in southern India adapted sheep rearing for meat production than for wool production. For yielding more production from sheep farming one should have sound knowledge of general information related to the reproduction and different breeding practices. [Vet. World 2009; 2(1.000: 43-44

  2. Genetic Diversity of US Sheep Breeds

    Understanding the genetic relationships between US sheep breeds is useful in developing conservation strategies and actions. A broad sampling of individual sheep from 28 breeds was performed. Breed types included: fine wool, meat types, long wool, hair, prolific, and fat tailed. Blood and semen samp...

  3. Milk yield of some Croatian sheep breeds

    Kristijan Pandek; Boro Mioč; Zdravko Barać; Vesna Pavić; Neven Antunac; Zvonimir Prpić

    2005-01-01

    Among the most important breeds of sheep, used for the milk production in Croatia, are the sheep from Pag, Brač, Cres, Istrian and Travnik΄s sheep, different crossbreeds and, recently, East Friesian sheep. The aim of the research was to determine the genotype effect on lactation period, milk yield and protein and fat content, which are important in cheese making. The longest lactation period (213 days) had East Friesian sheep, while the highest total milk production (294 kg) and the highest p...

  4. Selective breeding for scrapie resistance in sheep

    Cristina Santos Sotomaior

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that the susceptibility of sheep to scrapie is determined by the host’s prion protein gene (PRNP. PRNP polymorphisms at codons 136 (alanine, A/valine, V, 154 (histidine, H/arginine, R and 171 (glutamine, Q/histidine, H/arginine, R are the main determinants of sheep susceptibility/resistance to classical scrapie. There are four major variants of the wild-type ARQ allele: VRQ, AHQ, ARH and ARR. Breeding programs have been developed in the European Union and the USA to increase the frequency of the resistant ARR allele while decreasing the frequency of the susceptible VRQ allele in sheep populations. In Brazil, little PRNP genotyping data are available for sheep, and thus far, no controlled breeding scheme for scrapie has been implemented. This review will focus on important epidemiological aspects of scrapie and the use of genetic resistance as a tool in breeding programs to control the disease.

  5. Differentiation among Spanish sheep breeds using microsatellites

    Primitivo Fermn

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Genetic variability at 18 microsatellites was analysed on the basis of individual genotypes in five Spanish breeds of sheep Churra, Latxa, Castellana, Rasa-Aragonesa and Merino -, with Awassi also being studied as a reference breed. The degree of population subdivision calculated between Spanish breeds from FST diversity indices was around 7% of total variability. A high degree of reliability was obtained for individual-breed assignment from the 18 loci by using different approaches among which the Bayesian method provided to be the most efficient, with an accuracy for nine microsatellites of over 99%. Analysis of the Bayesian assignment criterion illustrated the divergence between any one breed and the others, which was highest for Awassi sheep, while no great differences were evident among the Spanish breeds. Relationships between individuals were analysed from the proportion of shared alleles. The resulting dendrogram showed a remarkable breed structure, with the highest level of clustering among members of the Spanish breeds in Latxa and the lowest in Merino sheep, the latter breed exhibiting a peculiar pattern of clustering, with animals grouped into several closely set nodes. Analysis of individual genotypes provided valuable information for understanding intra- and inter-population genetic differences and allowed for a discussion with previously reported results using populations as taxonomic units.

  6. Basic Characteristics of Some Turkish Indigenous Sheep Breeds

    M. Kaymakc; O. uz; Un, C.; G. Bilgen; T. Taikin

    2001-01-01

    Turkey is among the major sheep raising countries of the world, with sheep population over 29.4 million head. Sheep have an important place in the economy of Turkey and in the nutrition of its people. Sheep breeding in Turkey is principally based on indigenous breeds, while studies on crossing and producing new types to increase fleece, meat and milk yield have been carried out. These indigenous breeds are more resistant to disease and parasites while also being able to survive even unfavoura...

  7. Inbreeding in the Danish populations of five Nordic sheep breeds

    Sørensen, Anders Christian; Norberg, Elise

    2008-01-01

    In Denmark there are small populations of five Nordic sheep breeds, two of which are Danish in origin. The purpose of this study was to estimate trends in inbreeding for these breeds. All five breeds have been recording pedigrees for decades, so pedigree completeness is adequate. The rate of...

  8. THE DIFFERENTIATION OF SHEEP BREED BASED ON THE BODY MEASUREMENTS

    E Handiwirawan; R.R Noor; c. Sumantri; Subandriyo . .

    2011-01-01

    This research was carried out to make a difference and to predict genetic distance some sheep that are genetically related to each other based on the body size measurements. Nineteen bodies size of 323 sheeps of five sheep breeds; namely Barbados Black Belly Cross (BC), Garut Local (GL), Garut Composite (GC), Sumatra Composite (SC) and St. Croix Cross (SCC) were measured. Analysis of variance and canonical discriminant analysis, Mahalanobis distance, plotting canonical and dendogram were perf...

  9. Fixing Methods of Type in Sheep and Goat Breeding

    Hilal Tozlu Çelik; Mustafa Olfaz

    2015-01-01

    Improvement studies are conduct to increasing of productivity native sheep breeds. This studies requires being quite comprehensive and disciplined. Improvement studies to achieve the desired characteristics and in which phase of finish is crucial. In this review, we focus on obtaining and fixing type in order to need to be implemented methods in sheep and goats.

  10. Fixing Methods of Type in Sheep and Goat Breeding

    Hilal Tozlu Çelik

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Improvement studies are conduct to increasing of productivity native sheep breeds. This studies requires being quite comprehensive and disciplined. Improvement studies to achieve the desired characteristics and in which phase of finish is crucial. In this review, we focus on obtaining and fixing type in order to need to be implemented methods in sheep and goats.

  11. Behaviour and production traits correlation of five breeds of sheep

    Eko Handiwirawan; Noor, R R; Sumantri, C.; Subandriyo . .

    2013-01-01

    Information about correlations among behavioral traits and production traits may facilitate using easily measured traits to be used as alternative criteria for indirect selection to improve other traits in sheep. The purpose of this study was to estimate correlations among behavioral and production traits of five breeds of sheep. A total of 128 head of weaned lambs and 168 ewes with nursing lambs of five breeds were used in this study, i.e. Barbados Black Belly Cross (BC), Composite Garut (K...

  12. THE DIFFERENTIATION OF SHEEP BREED BASED ON THE BODY MEASUREMENTS

    E. Handiwirawan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This research was carried out to make a difference and to predict genetic distance some sheep that are genetically related to each other based on the body size measurements. Nineteen bodies size of 323 sheeps of five sheep breeds; namely Barbados Black Belly Cross (BC, Garut Local (GL, Garut Composite (GC, Sumatra Composite (SC and St. Croix Cross (SCC were measured. Analysis of variance and canonical discriminant analysis, Mahalanobis distance, plotting canonical and dendogram were performed using PROC GLM, PROC CANDISC, PROC CLUSTER and PROC TREE of SAS software ver. 9.0. Index Length, Width Slope, Depth Slope, Balance and Cumulative Index of GC sheep were significantly higher than the four other breeds. Canonical discriminant analysis successfully could differentiate among the five sheep breeds. All five breed were divided into two groups: the first group consisted of SCC, SC and BC; and the second group consisted of the GL and GC. The results of genetic distance estimation showed that the SCC had a value of sheep genetic distance closest to SC (10.83 and BC (27.98, while GL had the closest distance to GC (66.60. The tail width, horn base circumference, horn length (canonical 1 and variable length of the tail and body length (canonical 2 were the breed differentiation variable in this study.

  13. Basic Characteristics of Some Turkish Indigenous Sheep Breeds

    M. Kaymakc

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Turkey is among the major sheep raising countries of the world, with sheep population over 29.4 million head. Sheep have an important place in the economy of Turkey and in the nutrition of its people. Sheep breeding in Turkey is principally based on indigenous breeds, while studies on crossing and producing new types to increase fleece, meat and milk yield have been carried out. These indigenous breeds are more resistant to disease and parasites while also being able to survive even unfavourable environments and to maintain their productivity. At present, they contribute 27.18 % to the total read meat, 8.15 % to the total milk and 59.11 % to the total leather produced in the country. Sheep breeds in Turkey can be categorized into two main groups: Fat-tailed (White Karaman "Akkaraman", Red Karaman "K z lkaraman or Morkaraman", Daglic, Awassi " vesi" and fine-tailed (K v rc k, Karayaka, Chios "Sakiz", Imroz "Gokceada. For various reasons, it has been observed that indigenous sheep genetic resources in Turkey have been damaged. Some breeds have become extinct, some is under serious threat and some may be also considered as being under threat. The fact that the some conservation projects carried out by the government agencies is already at the stage of implementation may be regarded as a hopeful start.

  14. GENOTYPING OF ?-LACTOGLOBULIN GENE IN KARAKUL SHEEP BREED

    STELIANA KEVORKIAN

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available ?-lactoglobulin is the major milk whey protein in the ruminants. Studies have indicated that this protein is polymorphic in the many breeds of sheep. This is the result of a single base pair substitution in the ?-lactoglobulin gene. The genetic variants, A (tyrosine and B (histidine, differ at the amino acid position 20. The nucleotide mutation disrupts an RsaI site and can be detected by PCR-RFLP analyses. We included in this study 52 animals from Karakul breed. The Karakul may be the oldest breed of domesticated sheep. In Romania it is raised especially for pelts. The aim of this work was to analyze the genotype distribution of ?- lactoglobulin in Karakul sheep.

  15. Genetic diversity in Algerian sheep breeds, using microsatellite markers

    Two breeds - Ouled-Djellal and Hamra (85 animals) - were genotyped for 12 microsatellites using PCR and sequencing. Allele number and frequency were calculated, and 141 different alleles were found for these microsatellites, reflecting high genetic variability within these breeds. This study is being extended to other Algerian breeds to estimate variability and genetic distances between them. In parallel, blood samples from the various breeds are being collected to build up a DNA bank. The results should support establishment of a strategy to promote the use and development of locally adapted sheep resources. (author)

  16. Genetic analysis of growth traits in Iranian Makuie sheep breed

    Mohammad Farhadian

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Makuie sheep is a fat-tailed sheep breed which can be found in the Azerbaijan province of Iran. In 1986, a Makuie sheep breeding station was established in the city of Maku in order to breed, protect and purify this breed. The genetic parameters for birth weight, weaning weight (3 months, 6-month, 9-month and yearling weight, and average daily gain from birth to weaning traits were estimated based on 25 years of data using DFREML software. Six different models were applied and a likelihood ratio test (LRT was used to select the appropriate model. Bivariate analysis was used to define the genetic correlation between studied traits. Based on the LRT, model II was selected as an appropriate model for all studied traits. Direct heritability estimates of birth, weaning, 6-month, 9-month and yearling weights and average daily gain from birth to weaning were 0.36, 0.41, 0.48, 0.42, 0.36 and 0.37, respectively. Estimates of direct genetic correlation between birth and weaning weights, birth and 6-month weights, birth and 9-month weights, as well as between birth and yearling weights were 0.57, 0.49, 0.46 and 0.32, respectively. The results suggest there is a substantial additive genetic variability for studied traits in the Makuie sheep breed population, and the direct additive effect and maternal permanent environment variance are the main source of phenotypic variance.

  17. Participatory definition of breeding objectives for sheep breeds under pastoral systems—the case of Red Maasai and Dorper sheep in Kenya

    Zonabend König, Emelie; Mirkena, Tadele; Strandberg, Erling; Audho, James; Ojango, Julie; Malmfors, Birgitta; Okeyo, Ally Mwai; Philipsson, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Crossing local breeds with exotic breeds may be an option for increased livestock productivity. However, there is a risk for endangerment of the local breeds. One such case is in Kenya where the imported Dorper breed is used for crossbreeding with Red Maasai sheep. The aim of this study was to investigate farmers’ trait preferences as a basis for determination of breeding objectives for Red Maasai and Dorper sheep at two sites, Amboseli and Isinya, in Kenya. Within their own flock, each farme...

  18. The lifetime production of Bovec and Improved Bovec sheep breeds

    Gregor Gorjanc

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Production data of Bovec and Improved (with East-Friesian Bovec sheep born between years 1989 and 2006 were used for the analysis of culling dynamics and lifetime production. Lifetime production was calculated as the sum of production at each lambing (number of born and liveborn lambs and litter birth weight, weaning (number of weaned lambs and litter weaning weight or during each lactation (milk yield, fat (6.5 % and protein (5.8 % corrected milk yield (FPC; Pulina et al., 2005., and fat and protein yield for culled sheep. Animals with any missing records from the first till the last lambing, weaning or lactation were removed from the analysis. Animals that left the system of animal recording alive, due to selling or the cancellation of recording by a breeder were also excluded. Dataset included records for 2254 sheep: 1734 of Bovec and 520 of Improved Bovec breed. Data preparation and statistical analysis were performed with the use of a statistical program R (R Development Core Team, 2007. and additional packages Zelig (Imai et al., 2007; Bailey and Alimadhi, 2007; Imai et al., 2008 and lme4 (Bates and DebRoy, 2004; Bates, 2007. Results have shown that in the period ?1996 Bovec breed had on average 4.4 lactations in their lifetime, which was almost one lactation more than in Improved Bovec breed. In the period after the year 1996 the highest proportion of animals were culled in the first lactation (as expected due to culling dynamics, with slightly higher proportion in Improved Bovec breed than in Bovec breed. Lifetime number of born, liveborn and weaned lambs was higher for about one lamb in Improved Bovec breed. Lifetime lamb weight gain did not differ between breeds, due to the high frequency of early weaning in Improved Bovec breed. During lifetime, Improved Bovec sheep produced around 200 kg (~34 % more milk, around 190 kg (~32 % more FPC milk, around 12 kg (~32 % more milk fat, and around 10 kg (~34 % more milk protein than Bovec breed. However, if the mean metabolic weight of breeds is taken into account the difference in milk production amounts to only ~6 % (~2 % for FPC milk. These results show that Bovec breed has satisfactory milk production, but too low body weight for intensive milk production. On the other hand, low body weight makes this breed suitable for extensive farming in hill and mountain areas. Improved Bovec breed has good results in Slovenian conditions, due to the similarity of environmental conditions with East Friesians country of origin.

  19. Admixture and Local Breed Marginalization Threaten Algerian Sheep Diversity

    Ciani, Elena; Kdidi, Samia; Aouissat, Miloud; Dhimi, Laziz; Lafri, Mohamed; Maftah, Abderrahman; Mehtar, Nadhira

    2015-01-01

    Due to its geo-climatic conditions, Algeria represents a biodiversity hotspot, with sheep breeds well adapted to a patchwork of extremely heterogeneous harsh habitats. The importance of this peculiar genetic reservoir increases as climate change drives the demand for new adaptations. However, the expansion of a single breed (Ouled-Djellal) which occurred in the last decades has generated a critical situation for the other breeds; some of them are being subjected to uncontrolled cross-breeding with the favored breed and/or to marginalization (effective size contraction). This study investigated genetic diversity within and among six of the nine Algerian breeds, by use of 30 microsatellite markers. Our results showed that, in spite of the census contraction experienced by most of the considered breeds, genetic diversity is still substantial (average gene diversity ranging 0.68 to 0.76) and inbreeding was not identified as a problem. However, two breeds (Rembi and Taâdmit) appeared to have lost most of their genetic originality because of intensive cross-breeding with Ouled-Djellal. Based on the above evidence, we suggest Hamra, Sidaoun, and D’man as breeds deserving the highest priority for conservation in Algeria. PMID:25875832

  20. Nutrient digestibility and growth of five breeds of sheep under different levels of undegradable protein

    Yulistiani D; Naufaliah N; Kardaya D; Subandriyo . .

    2015-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of feeding different levels of rumen undegradable protein (UDP) in concentrate on performance of five breeds of sheep. Namely: Compass Agrinak (CA); Garut Composite breed (KG); Barbados Cross breed (BC); St Croix breed (SC); and Local Garut (GL) breed. Ten heads of sheep were used from each breed, in which each breed was grouped into 5 groups according to their body weight, and each sheep in each group was assigned to one of two treatments diet. Th...

  1. Genetic characterization of Appenninica sheep breed by microsatellites

    Francesca Maria Sarti

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The conservation of genetic variability is one of the main objectives in the field of genetics applied to domestic livestock. A strong input in that direction was made by molecular biology techniques. Among molecular markers nowadays available, microsatellites are particularly appreciated and widely utilized for the study of animal genome. In this study, a genetic characterization of Appenninica sheep breed was carried out with thirty microsatellite markers; the genetic relationships between Appenninica and three Italian merinos-derived breeds were also investigated. The results show a good genetic variability of Appenninica and all the other studied breeds. At the same time, the genetic identity of each breed is confirmed. These molecular data can be utilized to improve the present selection schemes and the plans to preserve the genetic diversity.

  2. GENETIC DIVERSITY AND RELATIONSHIPS OF HAIR SHEEP BREEDS OF THE AMERICAS: FIRST RESULTS

    There are two major types of sheep in the Americas, wooled and hair sheep. Such phenotypic differences bring into question an African or European origin for these types of sheep. It has been commonly thought that hair breeds of sheep imported into the new world came from Africa via the Canary Island...

  3. Application of myostatin in sheep breeding programs: A review

    Younes Miar

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Myostatin or growth and differentiation factor 8 (GDF8, has been known as the factor causing double muscling phenotypes in which a series of mutations make the myostatin protein inactive, hence disabling it to regulate the deposition of muscle fibre. This phenotype happens with high frequency in a breed of sheep known as the Texel. Quantitative trait loci (QTL studies show that a portion of the OAR2 that encompasses GDF8 has a major effect on muscular growth of Belgian Texel, on the muscling and fat depth in New Zealand Texel sires, and UK Texel and Charollais sheep. The functional polymorphism resides inside the GDF8 non-coding region. To date, there have been studies showing biallelic SNPs with significantly different allelic frequencies between hyper-muscled Texel and control animals including one in the 3'UTR (g.+6223G>A and one in 2.5 kb upstream from the GDF8 transcription start site (g.-2449G>C. The GDF8 allele of the Texel sheep is characterized by one G to A transition in the 3'UTR, creating a target site for mir1 and mir206 which are highly expressed in skeletal muscles. This prevents myostatin gene translation, thus contributing to the double muscling of Texel sheep. Therefore, the GDF8 g. +6223A allele seems to be a causative variable increasing muscularity in the Texel rams and could be identified as a quantitative trait nucleotide.

  4. Characterization of introduced breed of sheep and pattenl of conservation of Sumatera thin tail (STT sheep in North Sumatera

    Priyanto D

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Sumatera thin tail (STT sheep are highly adapted to the local environment, no seasonal reproductive activity, and highresistance to internal parasite, but they have small body size and low mature body weight. "On Fann research" to identify morphological characteristics of intoduced breed and STT sheep, as well as an altemative conservation pattem were conducted in two location, i.e. Pulahan village, Air Batu District, Asahan Regency as the potensial area for STT sheep and Pulo Gambar village, Galang District, Deli Serdang Regency as the development area of introduced breed of sheep. The approach of Agroecosystem analysis, quantitative and qualitative characteristics of STT and introduced breed of sheep as well as interview to the farmer that raised STT in order to get recommendation of conservation pattern were aplied. The study show that STT sheep were isolated from the other area, and the populations tend to decrease from year to year. Qualitative characteristics of STT indicated smaller linear body measurements than those of introducted breed of sheep at the same age. Qualitative characteristics indicated that STT possess dominance body color of light brown and white (50.93% vs 41.28%. The STT mostly have one body color pattern (61.75%. The dominance spotted pattem were 1-10% of the body (60.29%, while the dominance of the head color was light brown (48.40%. Conservation pattern of STT are through natural process, in which the farmers are directly conserved, therefore the farmers do not have opportunity to develop their sheep farming. Therefore the conservation pattern recomnendation for STT sheep are by defending the location as "in situ conservation" or "on farm conservation" and giving "compensation program" to fanner because STT sheep farming less benefit than those of introduced breed of sheep.

  5. Estimation of breeding value and genetic trend of Garut sheep and its crossbred

    Ismeth Inounu

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Crossing of Garut (GG sheep with St. Croix sheep (HH and Moulton Charollais (MM resulting HG sheep (?HH X ?GG and MG sheep (?MM X ?GG was done by Indonesian Research Institute for Animal Production. The work continued by crossing MG and HG sheep to obtain HMG (?HG X ?MG and MHG (?MG X ?HG sheep. The study was continued by selection program based on phenotypic performance. Estimation of breeding value and genetic trends were done in order to study the effectiveness of selection program and to study the genetic progress of each breed. The breeding value was estimated by Best Linear Unbiased Prediction (BLUP method using Variance Component Estimation (VCE4 software to calculate variance component and using Prediction and Estimation (PEST to calculate Breeding Value. Genetic variations of composite sheep were generally higher than Garut sheep, represented by higher estimated heritability value. Genetic correlation of body weight at diffrent age is high, that makes selection at one age could also increase body weight at any level of age. In general of this population shows positive genetic trend, but fluctuated from year to year. Composite breed tend to have higher estimated breeding value than Garut sheep. Selection method that was practiced in this population showed in line with selection method using breeding value criteria.

  6. Early breeding and pregnancy diagnosis in Syrian awassi sheep yearlings

    Fifty-nine female yearlings of local Awassi sheep were randomly divided into 2 groups. Animals in group T (treated) were fitted with intravaginal sponges containing 60 mg of medroxyprogesterone acetate for 14 days followed by 400 IU of pregnant mare's serum gonadotrophin (PMSG) at sponge withdrawal, whereas group C (control) received no treatment. Oestrus rate was 92.7% and 11.2% for groups T and C, respectively. Lambing rate was 78% and 5.6% for groups T and C, respectively. Twinning rate was 31.3% in group T compared to zero in group C. Average birth weight for single born lams (4.7 ± 0.6 kg) was significantly (P > 0.05) higher than twin born lams (3.0 ± 0.5 kg) in group T. The average concentration of blood progesterone collected between days 17-19 after mating was 19.30 nmol/1 and the accuracy of early pregnancy diagnosis was 100%. It was concluded that, it is possible to induce synchronized oestrus, and to increase the twinning rate in Syrian Awassi sheep yearlings outside the breeding season, using intravaginal sponges and PMSG. In addition, early pregnancy diagnosis could be successfully determined in female Awassi sheep yearlings between days 17-19 after-mating. (author)

  7. ESSAY ON ESTIMATION OF UNDEMONSTRATIVE SPARE OUTPUTS DISCLOSED BY REPRODUCTION BIOTECHNOLOGIES IN SHEEP BREEDING

    Marcel Theodor PARASCHIVESCU; Alexandru ŞONEA; Alexandru BOGDAN; Marcel PARASCHIVESCU; George Florea TOBĂ

    2012-01-01

    Among genetic species of farm animals sheep has the highest artificial biodiversity. There are plenty of breeds due to the many kinds of biological production of human interest and to the large areas from plains to mountains and fro Equator to Poles engaged in sheep breeding. Sheep are producing wool (thin, meddle or thick), lambs, mouton (lean or fat), milk, pelts, furs or leather, each of them acting as single selection criterion or as component of selection indexes. Each kind of resulted p...

  8. Participatory definition of breeding objectives for sheep breeds under pastoral systems--the case of Red Maasai and Dorper sheep in Kenya.

    König, Emelie Zonabend; Mirkena, Tadele; Strandberg, Erling; Audho, James; Ojango, Julie; Malmfors, Birgitta; Okeyo, Ally Mwai; Philipsson, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Crossing local breeds with exotic breeds may be an option for increased livestock productivity. However, there is a risk for endangerment of the local breeds. One such case is in Kenya where the imported Dorper breed is used for crossbreeding with Red Maasai sheep. The aim of this study was to investigate farmers' trait preferences as a basis for determination of breeding objectives for Red Maasai and Dorper sheep at two sites, Amboseli and Isinya, in Kenya. Within their own flock, each farmer identified three ewes representing the best, average and poorest within each breed group: Red Maasai, Dorper and Crosses. Farmers gave reasons for their ranking. Body measurements and weights were also taken. At the harshest site, Amboseli, differences between breed groups in body weight were small and breeds were equally preferred. In Isinya, where environmental conditions are better and farmers are more market oriented, Dorper and Crosses had significantly higher body weights and market prices and were thus preferred by the farmers. Red Maasai were preferred for their maternal and adaptive traits. Breeding objectives should emphasize growth traits and milk production in both breeds at both sites. Body condition needs to be specifically considered in the breeding objectives for sheep in Amboseli, whereas adaptive traits need to be generally emphasized in Dorper. PMID:26374208

  9. Economic values for production traits for different sheep breeds in Kosovo

    Hysen Bytyqi; Birgit Fuerst-Waltl; Hajrip Mehmeti; Roswitha Baumung

    2015-01-01

    Generally, all traits of economic importance should be included in the breeding goal of livestock breeding programmes. The main aim of this study was to examine economic values for a combination of dairy and meat traits of the dual purpose Bardhoka (BAR), Balusha (BAL), Sharri (SHA) and Kosova (KOS) sheep breeds in Kosovo. The underlying herd model is based on a deterministic approach considering a sheep flock with milk production, lamb fattening and replacement stock. In order to examine the...

  10. Facilities, breed and experience affect ease of sheep handling: the livestock transporter's perspective.

    Burnard, C L; Pitchford, W S; Hocking Edwards, J E; Hazel, S J

    2015-08-01

    An understanding of the perceived importance of a variety of factors affecting the ease of handling of sheep and the interactions between these factors is valuable in improving profitability and welfare of the livestock. Many factors may contribute to animal behaviour during handling, and traditionally these factors have been assessed in isolation under experimental conditions. A human social component to this phenomenon also exists. The aim of this study was to gain a deeper understanding of the importance of a variety of factors affecting ease of handling, and the interactions between these from the perspective of the livestock transporter. Qualitative interviews were used to investigate the factors affecting sheep behaviour during handling. Interview transcripts underwent thematic analysis. Livestock transporters discussed the effects of attitudes and behaviours towards sheep, helpers, facilities, distractions, environment, dogs and a variety of sheep factors including breed, preparation, experience and sex on sheep behaviour during handling. Transporters demonstrated care and empathy and stated that patience and experience were key factors determining how a person might deal with difficult sheep. Livestock transporters strongly believed facilities (ramps and yards) had the greatest impact, followed by sheep experience (naivety of the sheep to handling and transport) and breed. Transporters also discussed the effects of distractions, time of day, weather, dogs, other people, sheep preparation, body condition and sheep sex on ease of handling. The concept of individual sheep temperament was indirectly expressed. PMID:25874817

  11. THE BREED TRACEABILITY OF SHEEP MEAT BY USING MOLECULAR GENETICS METHODS: PRELIMINARY RESULTS

    A. Bramante

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Safety and quality foods of animal origin are extremely important for consumers. The aim of this work was to evaluate the feasibility of a method to track the breed origin of sheep meat all along the production chain using molecular genetics tools. A total of 800 samples evenly distributed among seven Italian sheep breeds have been typed at 19 STR markers, together with 90 samples from both imported sheep animals and local crossbred animals withdrawn at slaughterhouses. A maximum likelihood assignment test was adopted to evaluate STR ability to allocate samples to their true breed of origin. Sarda animals were all correctly allocated, as well as more than 98% of samples from the other breeds. Only slightly worst allocation performances were observed for imported and crossbred animals. Preliminary results seem quite promising, though further analyses will be needed in order to better understand the statistical power of such an assignment test before implementation in the sheep meat production chain.

  12. The Koundoum sheep breed in Niger: morpho-biometric study and description of the production system

    Issa Hamadou; Nassim Moula; Seyni Siddo; Hamani Marichatou; Moumouni Issa; Pascal Leroy; Nicolas Antoine-Moussiaux

    2015-01-01

    The diffusion of highly productive breeds across developing countries goes along with a neglect of indigenous breeds, which are well suited to their environment but often show low yields. Thus, in Niger, the flock of Koundoum sheep are rapidly decreasing. The Koundoum is one of the few wool sheep breeds of Africa and shows important adaptive feature to its native environment, i.e. the humid pastures on the banks of the Niger River. To characterise the breed and to understand its production co...

  13. Microsatellite based genetic structure of regional transboundary Istrian sheep breed populations in Croatia and Slovenia

    Beatriz Gutierrez-Gil

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Istrian dairy sheep is a local breed essential for the identity and development of the Northern- Adriatic karstic region through high-quality products, primarily the hard sheep artisanal cheese. Border changes fragmented the initial Istrian dairy sheep population in three genetically isolated sub-populations in Italy (1000 animals, Slovenia (1150 animals and Croatia (2500 animals. Due to the drastic reduction of their population sizes and fragmentation, the populations in Croatia and Slovenia are included in governmentally supported conservation programs. The initial subpopulation in Italy was restored after near extinction with stock from Slovenia, and is used today in meat production. The aim of this study was to provide an initial understanding of the current genetic structure and distribution of the genetic variability that exists in Istrian sheep by analysing individuals sampled in two regional groups of Istrian sheep from Croatia and Slovenia. Cres island sheep and Lika pramenka sheep were used as out-groups for comparison. Genetic differentiation was analysed using factorial correspondence analysis and structure clustering over 26 microsatellite loci for a total of 104 sheep belonging to three breeds from Croatia and Slovenia. Factorial correspondence analysis and clustering-based structure analysis both showed three distinct populations: Lika pramenka sheep, Cres island sheep and Istrian sheep. We did not find a marked genetic divergence of the regional groups of Istrian sheep. Istrian sheep regional group from Slovenia showed lower genetic variability compared to the one from Croatia. Variability and structure information obtained in this study considered alongside with socio-cultural-contexts and economic goals for the Istrian sheep reared in Croatia and Slovenia indicate that the cross-border exchange of genetic material of animals carrying private alleles among populations would maintain these alleles at low frequencies and minimize the inbreeding rate.

  14. ESSAY ON ESTIMATION OF UNDEMONSTRATIVE SPARE OUTPUTS DISCLOSED BY REPRODUCTION BIOTECHNOLOGIES IN SHEEP BREEDING

    Marcel Theodor PARASCHIVESCU

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Among genetic species of farm animals sheep has the highest artificial biodiversity. There are plenty of breeds due to the many kinds of biological production of human interest and to the large areas from plains to mountains and fro Equator to Poles engaged in sheep breeding. Sheep are producing wool (thin, meddle or thick, lambs, mouton (lean or fat, milk, pelts, furs or leather, each of them acting as single selection criterion or as component of selection indexes. Each kind of resulted product has its own commercial value and its way of appreciation it. In many cases the commercial value of sheep breeding is related to the ewes’ fertility. On the other hand ewes have seasonal sexual activity including a longer or shorter period of anoestrus when produce nothing related to their fertility. Biotechnological means as artificial insemination, estrus induction, arouse of ovulation rate, embryo transfer, MOET, embryo cloning, in vitro fertilization, transgenice engineering are able to influence the economic efficiency of sheep breeding. The present essay is configuring modalities of estimating the increase of economic value of sheep products when research programs of developing reproductive biotechnologies in ewes implemented in sheep farming.

  15. Genetic relationships between Spanish Assaf (Assaf.E) and Spanish native dairy sheep breeds

    Legaz, E.; lvarez, Isabel; Fernndez, Itziar; Gutirrez, J. P.; Goyache, Flix

    2013-01-01

    At present, the Assaf is the main dairy sheep in Spain. The Spanish Assaf (Assaf.E) was formed by male-mediated absorption of native Spanish sheep. Here we assess the genetic relationships among the Assaf.E and major native Spanish dairy breeds using microsatellites to contribute to the knowledge of the formation and within-population genetic variability of the breed. Blood samples from 44 unrelated Assaf.E individuals from 23 different Assaf.E flocks spread throughout 6 different Spanish pro...

  16. Contributions of the hair sheep breed Santa Ines as a maintenance host for Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae) in Brazil

    Garcia, Marcos Valério; Andreotti, Renato; Reis, Fernando Alvarenga; Aguirre, André de Abreu Rangel; Barros, Jacqueline Cavalcante; Matias, Jaqueline; Koller, Wilson Werner

    2014-01-01

    Background Hair sheep breeds are a new, cost-effective option for the diversification of livestock in the Midwest region of Brazil. They are grazed extensively with cattle as well as in isolation in small areas. Hair sheep breeds are vulnerable to infestation by parasites such as the cattle tick, Rhipicephalus microplus, which causes various types of damage and can transmit diseases. Methods In this study, Santa Inês hair sheep were naturally infested in an area contaminated by infested cattl...

  17. Impact of sheep stocking density and breed on behaviour of newly regrouped adult rams

    Engeldal SEC; Subandriyo . .; Handiwirawan E; Noor RR

    2013-01-01

    Placing animals in cages with certain density and good grouping were two important aspects needed in intensive livestock production system to produce optimal production and animal welfare. The objective of this study was to examine effect of stocking density, breed and elapse of time on behaviour of newly regrouped, unacquainted adult rams from three sheep breeds i.e. Barbados Blackbelly Cross, Local Garut and Composite Garut, as possible factor causing variation in welfare status. Instantane...

  18. Bovicola ovis and Melophagus ovinus: Spatial distribution on Menz breed Sheep

    Mersha Chanie

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was done from September 2006 to May 2007. A total of 105 Menz breed sheep from Yemenze Gera Midir district in the Amhara National Regional State, Ethiopia. The spatial distribution of sheep keds (Melophagus ovinus and chewing lice (Bovicola ovis on Menz breed sheep were examined which were naturally infested. The densities if sheep keds and lice were determined through counting after parting of the fleece/wool at five (5 points on a length of 10 cm areas of six (6 different regions (neck, shoulder, belly, back, rump and flank on both sides of the body which sum up sixty (60 points of count. The percentage values of Bovicola ovis distribution on the sheep for the inspected regions were 57.5% on shoulder, 53.32% neck, 51% rump, 49.25% flank, 45.36% belly and 45.28 back. For Melophagus ovinus infested sheep, the sites more parasitized were flank, shoulder, rump, neck, belly and back with proportion of 69, 60.12, 51, 42, 33 and 21, respectively in order of importance. The minimum and maximum keds and lice count on a sheep at a time were varied between 0 to 178 and 0 to 1050 respectively. However, most frequently the number of keds and lice were range between 18-30 and 0-100 respectively. Infestation of sheep with sheep keds has statistical significant difference among the different regions examined and no statistical significant difference exist for lice at 95% confidence interval (CI and p value of less than 0.05.

  19. Economic values for production traits for different sheep breeds in Kosovo

    Hysen Bytyqi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Generally, all traits of economic importance should be included in the breeding goal of livestock breeding programmes. The main aim of this study was to examine economic values for a combination of dairy and meat traits of the dual purpose Bardhoka (BAR, Balusha (BAL, Sharri (SHA and Kosova (KOS sheep breeds in Kosovo. The underlying herd model is based on a deterministic approach considering a sheep flock with milk production, lamb fattening and replacement stock. In order to examine the economic impact for different sheep breeds, the production traits considered were milk (milk yield and fattening (daily gain. For each lactation cycle among the breeds the main revenues resulted from selling milk (€ 61.82/46.03/26.37/27.22 and fattened lambs (€ 34.06/39.88/35.42/33.92 for BAR/BAL/ SHA/KOS, respectively. For BAR and BAL the economic value per average ewe place and year was € 37.7 for both breeds, while for SHA and KOS it was € 35.1 and € 32.5, respectively. For lamb fattening, daily gain was found to have the highest economic value at € 7.00 for BAL, SHA and KOS, while for BAR it was € 6.67. The relative economic values for milk yield and daily gain for BAR, BAL, SHA and KOS were 84.96:15.04, 84.42:15.58, 83.45:16.55, and 82.36:17.64, respectively.

  20. Genetic relationships and admixture among sheep breeds from Northern Spain assessed using microsatellites

    lvarez, Isabel; Royo, L.J. (Luis); Fernndez, Itziar; Gutirrez, J. P.; Gmez, Enrique; Goyache, Flix

    2010-01-01

    Although many research papers have studied diversity and differentiation within livestock species, genetic relationships among neighboring populations remain poorly understood. Here we apply recent methodologies to analyze the polymorphism of 14 microsatellites in 238 unrelated individuals belonging to six sheep breeds from Northern Spain to ascertain their historical relationships and the relative genetic contributions existing between populations. Individual genotype...

  1. The Bolivian "Altiplano" and "Valle" sheep are two different peripatric breeds.

    Pars-Casanova, Pere M; Prezgrovas Garza, Ral

    2014-06-01

    Forty-nine sheep belonged to the Andean Altiplano region ("Altiplano") and 30 in the lowland regions of Bolivia ("Valle"), aged 1 to 4years, were wool sampled to determine the extent of difference between these local breeds. Fibre length and the percentage of each type of fibre (long-thick, short-thin and kemp), yield and fibre diameter were measured. There was a highly significant difference between the two sheep populations that were not clearly separated in the first two principal component of a principal components analysis (PC); the first PC explained 67.1% and the second PC explained 26.6% of the total variation. The variables that contributed most to the separation of the sheep populations were the percentage of long-thick and short-thin fibres in the first PC and yield in the second PC. A discriminant analysis, which was used to classify individuals with respect to their breeding, achieved an accurate classification rate of 84.2%. Thus, the Altiplano and Valle sheep must be viewed as two closely peripatric breeds rather than different "ecotypes", as more than 80% could be correctly assigned to one of the breeds; however, the differences are based on composition of long-thick and short-thin fibres and yield after alcohol scouring. PMID:24604105

  2. Characteristics of Body Measurement and Shape of Garut Sheep and Its Crosses with Other Breeds

    Ismeth Inounu

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available It is important to know body measurement because it could be used to estimate body weight as well as to differentiate the chrateristic of body measurement and shape of animal due to different breed or environment. This research was carried out to study morphometric characteristic of body size and body shape from 78 of Garut sheep (GG, 29 HG sheep {crossbred between St. Croix (HH and Garut sheep (GG}, 36 MG sheep {crossbred between Mouton Charollais (MM and Garut sheep (GG}, 62 MHG sheep (MG x HG and 38 HMG sheep (HG x MG. Body part measured were wither height (X1, rump height (x2, body length (X3, chest width (X4, chest depth (X5, hip width (X6, chest girth (X7, cannon circumference (X8 and hip length (X9. Data obeserved were analised using t test and Principle Components Analysis (PCA. Based on PCA it was showen that chest girth was the primary identity for body measurement on males and females of Garut, HG, MG, MHG and HMG with its Eigenvector value 0.689; 0.709; 0.689 and 0.681 respectively. The primary indentity for body shape of Garut sheep were chest girth and hip heigth with Eigenvector value -0.600 and 0.551 respectively. The primary indentity for body shape of HG sheep were body length with Eigenvector value -0.725. The primary indentity for body shape of MG sheep were chest girth, rump heigth, and wither heigth with Eigenvectors value: -0.600; 0.558 and 0.555 respectively. The primary indentity for body shape of MHG sheep was wither height with Eigenvector value 0.608. The primary indentity for body shape of HMG was body length with Eigenvector value 0.764. Body shape of HG and MG sheep is different than that of Garut sheep, but the body shape of MHG and HMG were close to Garut body shape. This result indicated that the adaptability to environment of HMG and MHG is close to that of Garut sheep.

  3. The Koundoum sheep breed in Niger: morpho-biometric study and description of the production system

    Issa Hamadou

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The diffusion of highly productive breeds across developing countries goes along with a neglect of indigenous breeds, which are well suited to their environment but often show low yields. Thus, in Niger, the flock of Koundoum sheep are rapidly decreasing. The Koundoum is one of the few wool sheep breeds of Africa and shows important adaptive feature to its native environment, i.e. the humid pastures on the banks of the Niger River. To characterise the breed and to understand its production context, a survey has been conducted in 104 herds in four communes along the Niger River (Kollo, Tillabery, Say and Tera. Nine body measurements, including live weight, were taken on 180 adult sheep (101 females and 79 males. The herds varied from 2 to 60 heads, with a median size of eight animals and two thirds of the herds having less than 10 animals. Mainly fed on natural pastures, 85.6% of the herds received crop residues. Only natural mating was practiced. Veterinary care was restricted to anti-helminthic and some indigenous treatments. The frequent affiliation of breeders to professional unions appeared as favourable to the implementation of a collective conservation program. The Koundoum sheep were white or black coated, with the black colour being most frequent (75.6 %. Wattles were present in both sexes at similar frequencies of around 14 %. All biometric variables were significantly and positively correlated between them. The thoracic perimeter showed the best correlation with live weight in both males and females. Three variables were selected for live weight prediction: thoracic perimeter, height at withers and rump length. From the present study, it is expected that the in situ conservation of the Koundoum sheep will be highly problematic, due to lack of market opportunities for wool and the willingness of smallholders to get involved in pure Koundoum rearing.

  4. Impact of sheep stocking density and breed on behaviour of newly regrouped adult rams

    Engeldal SEC

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Placing animals in cages with certain density and good grouping were two important aspects needed in intensive livestock production system to produce optimal production and animal welfare. The objective of this study was to examine effect of stocking density, breed and elapse of time on behaviour of newly regrouped, unacquainted adult rams from three sheep breeds i.e. Barbados Blackbelly Cross, Local Garut and Composite Garut, as possible factor causing variation in welfare status. Instantaneous scan sampling was used for recording sheep behaviour at three different stocking densities. Thirty-six adult rams were used in this research and divided into three groups (n = 12 on the basis of breed. At each stocking density four rams of the same breed were observed during two consecutive days. The recorded behaviours were agonistic-, self-care-, exploratory-, aberrant-, mating-, locomotive- and standing behaviour. The results showed that during the entire experiment agonistic behaviour was observed at the highest frequency. Stocking density was found to have a significant effect on exploratory-, locomotive- and standing behaviour. The effect of breed was found to cause significant differences in agonistic-, self-care-, aberrant- and mating behaviour. Significant differences were also found between day 1 and day 2 of regrouping for agonistic-, exploratory, self-care- and mating behaviour. It is concluded that the three breeds do differ in their behavioural reactions to different stocking density levels and time needed for adaptation after regrouping

  5. Growth Rate, Slaughter Traits and Meat Quality of Lambs of Three Alpine Sheep Breeds

    Erika Pellattiero

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available A fattening and slaughter trial was carried out on 36 lambs of Alpagota, Brogna and Foza sheep breeds native of Veneto Region Alps (six male and six female lambs per breed divided in three groups depending on the type of feed used: pasture, hay and concentrate, hay and concentrate supplemented with conjugated linoleic acid. Lambs were slaughtered at 225 days (mean weight: 30 kg. Infra-vitam and post-mortem data were analyzed by using a linear model that included the cross-classified effect of breed, sex, feeding system and age of lambs as linear covariate. The three breeds showed some specificity: Foza lambs, of both sexes, were larger-sized and faster growing, with a lower incidence of gastro-intestinal tract and lower cooking losses of the hind-leg samples compared to the other two middle-sized breeds. Alpagota breed tended to be leaner, with heavier shin and greater cooking losses than Brogna breed.In conclusion the three Alpine breeds of the Veneto Region confirmed to be able to produce lamb carcasses and meat with valuable characteristics that can be exploited through typical products and food preparation in local markets and gastronomy, according to the tradition. The valorisation of these productions can be an important instrument for in situ conservation of these breeds.

  6. Effect of Using Melatonin Implants on Postpartum Reproductive Indices in Tigaia Sheep Breed

    Ioan Padeanu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Investigations were carried out in a commercial farm from Turnu, Arad County, on a number of 110 indigenous adultewes from the Tigaia breed. It is estimated by some authors that administration of subcutaneous melatonin implantsduring a period of 30 days, in lactating or dry ewes, would improve the reproductive performances in some sheepbreeds. Subcutaneous melatonin implants (Melovin were inserted to the ewes in doses of 18 mg. Current research,emphasized treated that from indigenous Tigaia breed, can be obtained superior reproduction indexes if the animalsare treated with melatonin implants with 35 days before the mating season, differences from the untreated groupbeing significantly (p<0.001. However, in sheep treated used melatonin implants, the lambing interval were reducedwith 40 to 50%. It seems that use of melatonin implants Melovin type near the beginning of normal breeding season,increases the reproductive performance of adult ewes from the Tigaia breed.

  7. Research Concerning the Economic Efficiency in Carabasa Sheep Breed Raising in Various Sized Farms

    Agatha Popescu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper aimed to analyze the economic efficiency in two farms dealing with Carabasa Breed raising as follows:Farm1-86 sheep flock, of which 62 ewes, producing in average 146 liters milk/head/year and Farm 2-297 sheepstock, of which 255 ewes, with 140 liters/head milk yield. Economic efficiency was comparatively analyzed basedon: gross product, production cost, variable and fixed cost, gross margin, profit, profit rate, farm economic size. Theboth farms registered profit, but Farm 2, the largest one taking into account the number of sheep, recorded a highereconomic efficiency: 1.5 lambs/ewe, 22.50 kg cottage cheese/ewe, 1.17 Easter lambs/ewe, Euro 148 feedingcost/sheep, Euro 0.30/liter milk cost, Euro 233 income/ewe, Euro 61 profit/ewe, Euro 68 gross margin/ewe and a35.55% profit rate. With Euro 17,274 profit at farm level, Farm 2 was considered a commercial middle sized farm,ESU 7.19 and Farm 1 a very small farm, ESU 1.04. As a conclusion, breeders raising Carabasa Breed, an excellentbiological resource for milk and meat for Romanian sheep farming, have to increase farm size in order to go up theprofitability and competitiveness of their farms.

  8. PRE-WEANING GROWTH PERFORMANCE OF SEKOTA SHEEP BREED IN WAGHIMRA ZONE, ETHIOPIA

    AEMERO YIHEYIS; FIREW TEGEGN; MUSSIE H/MELEKOT; MENGISTIE TAYE

    2012-01-01

    Pre-weaning growth performances of Sekota sheep breed was studied at Sekota district of Amhara National Regional State, Ethiopia under traditional crop-livestock production systems which is characterized by extensive, low-input low-output system. Two hundred thirty one lambs were monitored from birth to weaning age. Data on growth performances were collected and analyzed using the general linear model procedures of Statistical analysis system software. The least squares mean birth weight, thr...

  9. Livestock biodiversity conservation : the case of sheep and goat breeds in European marginal areas

    Bertaglia, Marco

    2004-01-01

    To address the conservation of sheep and goat breeds and their contribution to rural development in marginal areas, this Thesis adopts an interdisciplinary approach, structured around four aspects: society and policy choices, noticeably the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP); geographic location and marginality; farmers' choices; and the functioning of human actors and networks. The limited impact of CAP funds for livestock biodiversity conservation is assessed and alternatives to paying direct...

  10. Economic evaluation of genomic selection in small ruminants: a sheep meat breeding program

    Shumbusho, Félicien; Raoul, J.; Astruc, Jean-Michel; Palhiere, Isabelle; Lemarié, Stephane; Fugeray-Scarbel, Aline; Elsen, Jean Michel,

    2015-01-01

    Recent genomic evaluation studies using real data and predicting genetic gain by modeling breeding programs have reported moderate expected benefits from the replacement of classic selection schemes by genomic selection (GS) in small ruminants. The objectives of this study were to compare the cost, monetary genetic gain and economic efficiency of classic selection and GS schemes in the meat sheep industry. Deterministic methods were used to model selection based on multi-trait indices from a ...

  11. Lambing Ease is Heritable but not Correlated to Litter Size in Danish Meat Sheep Breeds

    Sørensen, Anders Christian; Valasek, P; Pedersen, Jørn; Norberg, Elise

    The aim of this study was to estimate genetic parameters of lambing ease (LE) and litter size (LS) in four common Danish meat sheep breeds. Data from 1990 to 2006 were analysed. A bivariate animal model was used for estimation of genetic parameters. Lambing ease showed a low heritability, both for...... LE and LS was found, which means that selection to improve one trait should not affect the other trait. Lambing ease should therefore be included in the selection criterion....

  12. Pedigree analysis of seven small French sheep populations and implications for the management of rare breeds

    Palhiere, Isabelle; François, Dominique; Bibé, Bernard; Leroy, Grégoire; Verrier, Etienne

    2010-01-01

    Pedigree information was analyzed in 7 small populations of sheep raised in France (Bleu du Maine, Charmoise, Cotentin, on-farm Romanov, Romanov ex situ in vivo, Roussin de la Hague, Solognote) to estimate their genetic variability. The pedigree information for each breed, estimated by the number of equivalent generations traced, ranged from rather poor (4.6) to very good (10.5) when compared with other studies. On the basis of probabilities of gene origin, the effective number of ancestors r...

  13. Breeding objectives for sheep should be customised depending on variation in pasture growth across years.

    Rose, G; Mulder, H A; Thompson, A N; van der Werf, J H J; van Arendonk, J A M

    2015-08-01

    Breeding programmes for livestock require economic weights for traits that reflect the most profitable animal in a given production system, which affect the response in each trait after selection. The profitability of sheep production systems is affected by changes in pasture growth as well as grain, meat and wool prices between seasons and across years. Annual pasture growth varies between regions within Australia's Mediterranean climate zone from low growth with long periods of drought to high growth with shorter periods of drought. Therefore, the objective of this study was to assess whether breeding objectives need to be adapted for regions, depending on how reliable the pasture growth is across years. We modelled farms with Merino sheep bred for wool and meat in 10 regions in Western Australia. Across these 10 regions, mean annual pasture growth decreased, and the CV of annual pasture growth increased as pasture growth for regions became less reliable. We calculated economic values for nine traits, optimising management across 11 years, including variation for pasture growth and wool, meat and grain prices between and within years from 2002 to 2012. These economic values were used to calculate responses to selection for each trait for the 10 regions. We identified two potential breeding objectives, one for regions with low or high reliability and the other for regions with medium reliability of pasture growth. Breeding objectives for high or low pasture growth reliability had more emphasis on live weight traits and number of lambs weaned. Breeding objectives for medium reliability of pasture growth had more emphasis on decreasing fibre diameter. Relative economic weights for fleece weight did not change across the regions. Regions with low or high pasture reliability had similar breeding objectives and response to selection, because the relationship between the economic values and CV of pasture growth were not linear for live weight traits and the number of lambs weaned. This non-linearity was caused by differences in distribution of pasture growth between regions, particularly during summer and autumn, when ewes were pregnant, with increases in energy requirements affecting the value of lambs weaned. In addition, increasing live weight increased the intake capacity of sheep, which meant that more poor quality pasture could be consumed during summer and autumn, which had more value in regions with low and high pasture reliability. We concluded that breeding values for sheep production systems should be customised depending on the reliability of pasture growth between years. PMID:25857317

  14. Comparison of Serum Paraoxonase 1 (PON1 Activities Among Different Sheep Breeds in Turkey

    Dudu Demir

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Paraoxonase 1 (PON1, EC 3.1.8.1 is a calcium dependent mammalian enzyme that is synthesized primarily in the liver and is secreted into the serum where it is associated with High Density Lipoproteins (HDLs and has a protective effect against oxidation of Low Density Lipoproteins (HDLs. Beside antioxidant and antiatherogenic properties, PON1 is also a detoxifier that can hydrolyze toxic organophosphates. Several studies have shown that PON1 can bind reversibly to organophosphate substrates which it hydrolyzes. Therefore, PON1 is the main means of protection of the nervous system against the neurotoxicity of organophosphates entering the circulation. This study was conducted to characterization of serum Paraoxonase 1 (PON1 activity from different sheep breeds namely Karacabey Merino, Kivircik, Tahirova, Akkaraman and Daglic. KM and Vmax values of five different sheep breed were determined by Lineweaver-Burk method. The values of Vmax/KM showed that Kivircik breed has the greatest PON1 activity, on the other hand, Karacabey Merino breed showed the least activity toward paraoxon substrate.

  15. A study of the influence of breed and strain on the susceptibility of sheep to Haemonchus controtus infection

    Breed appears to influence the susceptibility of sheep to Haemonchus contortus infection. Experiments on Masai and Merino sheep indicated that the Masai appear innately capable of reacting more vigorously to throw off H. contortus infection, this reaction being enhanced by previous experience. Following challenge, tangible resistance develops consistently in Masai, compared to a partial resistance, at best, in Merino. Resistance appears to be a short-lived phenomenon in both breeds. A field trial was carried out, to determine the influence of hemoglobin type on the susceptibility of Merino sheep. Sheep of hemoglobin types AA, AB and BB were used. A lower egg production occurred in hemoglobin type AA sheep, contrary to results obtained in the laboratory where ''massive'' experimental infection (250 Haemonchus larvae/kg liveweight) was effected. Tracer techniques involving 51Cr- labelled erythrocytes and 125I-tagged plasma were applied

  16. Doppel gene polymorphisms in Portuguese sheep breeds: insights on ram fertility.

    Pereira, R M; Mesquita, P; Batista, M; Baptista, M C; Barbas, J P; Pimenta, J; Santos, I C; Marques, M R; Vasques, M I; Silva Pereira, M; Santos Silva, F; Oliveira Sousa, M C; Fontes, C M G; Horta, A E M; Prates, J A M; Marques, C C

    2009-08-01

    Transgenic knockout of the gene encoding the prion-like protein Doppel leads to male infertility in mice. The precise role of Doppel in male fertility is still unclear, but sperm from Doppel-deficient mice appear to be unable to undergo the normal acrosome reaction necessary to penetrate the zona pellucida of the oocyte. The objective of this study was to characterize Doppel (Prnd) gene polymorphisms in eight Portuguese sheep breeds and to determine a possible relationship between these polymorphisms and ram fertility. Ovine genomic DNA of 364 animals of different breeds (Bordaleira entre Douro e Minho, Churra Badana, Churra Galega Mirandesa, Churra Mondegueira, Merino da Beira Baixa, Merino Branco, Saloia and Serra da Estrela) were analysed by multiple restriction fragment-single-strand conformation polymorphism (MRF-SSCP). This analysis revealed a synonymous substitution G-->A in codon 26 of Prnd gene. Churra Galega Mirandesa and Saloia breeds were more polymorphic (P=0.005 and P=0.04, respectively) than the overall population, while Serra da Estrela and Merino Branco animals were less polymorphic (P=0.007 and P=0.04). No polymorphism was found in Churra Mondegueira breed. Semen from 11 rams of Churra Galega Mirandesa breed (7 homozygous wildtype GG and 4 heterozygous GA) routinely used in the Portuguese Animal Germoplasm Bank was collected and frozen for fertility tests. A classification function was estimated, using data from post-swim-up semen motility and concentration and Day 6 embryo production rate, allowing the identification of the Doppel homozygous GG genotype with 86.7% of accuracy. This preliminary study detected the presence of only one polymorphism in codon 26 of Prnd gene in the Portuguese sheep breeds. In the polymorphic Churra Galega Mirandesa breed, GG genotype could be characterized through a model using three fertility traits, suggesting a relationship with male reproduction. Any future research should investigate not only AA genotype and its influence on ram fertility but also the possible consequences of the European Community selection program to eradicate Scrapie on the Prnd genotypes and indirectly on sheep breed's viability and preservation. PMID:19028030

  17. Treatment of mange infection in a weaner flock of sheep with ivermectin at sheep breeding farm Hardishiva of Kashmir valley.

    Iqbal, Asif; Baba, M Ashraf; Shah, Maroof; Mushtaq, Iram; Sakina, Abeen; Wani, Shamim

    2015-06-01

    An outbreak of Sarcoptes scabiei mange occured in a weaner flock that comprised of 74 animals including 31 male and 43 female at sheep breeding farm Hardishiva of Kashmir valley. All the animals in the flock were affected. Animals were very weak and emaciated skin lesions were confined to the lips, nostrils, ears, face, and were characterized by pruritus, erythema, papule formation, alopecia and scab formation. Microscopic examination of skin scraping revealed S. scabiei mange infestation. The affected animals were treated with ivermectin at 1 ml/50 kg b.wt. S/C, as single dose along with supportive therapy. 7th day post treatment scrapping examinations revealed absence of mites or their eggs in these scrapings. PMID:26063994

  18. PRE-WEANING GROWTH PERFORMANCE OF SEKOTA SHEEP BREED IN WAGHIMRA ZONE, ETHIOPIA

    AEMERO YIHEYIS

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Pre-weaning growth performances of Sekota sheep breed was studied at Sekota district of Amhara National Regional State, Ethiopia under traditional crop-livestock production systems which is characterized by extensive, low-input low-output system. Two hundred thirty one lambs were monitored from birth to weaning age. Data on growth performances were collected and analyzed using the general linear model procedures of Statistical analysis system software. The least squares mean birth weight, three months weight and average daily weight gains from birth to three months age were 2.73 kg, 11.9 kg and 101 gm, respectively. Parity and type of birth were significant sources of variation for birth weight. Location had an effect of three months weight. The results obtained revealed the potential of the breed for meat production in the prevailing environment. The effect of parity on birth weight indicates special care for lambs from maiden ewes. Management options like integrated health care and supplementation of feed for sheep during the dry season help farmers to benefit from their sheep.

  19. Identification and characterization of miRNAs in the ovaries of a highly prolific sheep breed.

    Hu, Xiaoju; Pokharel, Kisun; Peippo, Jaana; Ghanem, Nasser; Zhaboyev, Ismail; Kantanen, Juha; Li, Meng-Hua

    2016-04-01

    Until recently, there have been few studies concerning miRNAs or miRNA-mediated biological processes in sheep (Ovis aries). In the present study, we used a deep-sequencing approach to examine ovarian miRNAs and the mRNA transcriptomes in two ewes of a highly prolific breed, Finnsheep. We identified 113 known sheep miRNAs, 131 miRNAs conserved in other mammals and 60 novel miRNAs, the expression levels of which accounted for 78.22%, 21.73% and 0.05% of the total respectively. Furthermore, the 10 most abundantly expressed miRNAs in the two libraries were characterized in detail, and the putative target genes of these miRNAs were annotated using GO annotation and KEGG pathway enrichment analyses. Among the target genes, intracellular transducers (SMAD1, SMAD4, SMAD5 and SMAD9) and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) receptors (BMPR1B and BMPR2) were involved in the transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) signaling pathway in the reproductive axis, and the most significant GO terms were intracellular part (GO:0044424), binding (GO:0005488) and biological_process (GO:0008150) for cellular component, molecular function and biological process respectively. Thus, these results expanded the sheep miRNA database and provided additional information on the prolificacy trait regulated through specific miRNAs in sheep and other mammals. PMID:26582387

  20. Investigation of FecB Mutation in Four Romanian Sheep Breeds

    Sergiu-Emil Georgescu

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Hyperprolific phenotype of Booroola sheep was first discovered in the Australian Merino breed. This phenotype is due to the action of a single autosomal gene that influences the number of ovulations per estrogenic cycle. Recent discoveries have revealed that high prolificacy in Booroola Merino sheep is the result of a mutation (FecB in the bone morphogenetic protein receptor 1B (BMPR-1B gene. This mutation is located in the highly conserved kinase domain of the bone morphogenetic protein receptor IB, and is characterized by precocious differentiation of ovarian follicles, leading to the production of large numbers of ovulatory follicles. Our objective was to develop an easy method to identify the FecB mutation in order to screen sheep populations in terms of prolificacy. We designed primers to amplify a 190 bp fragment from the BMPR-1B gene containing or lacking the mutation. The PCR product was cut with AvaII endonuclease and the restriction products were analysed by agarose gel electrophoresis. Using the PCR-RFLP technique, we established an easy and efficient method that can be used to screen the FecB mutation. Therefore, these new methods increase the panel of molecular tools available for sheep breeders to choose the most prolific genotypes for improving artificial selection.

  1. Improving Growth Rates in Turcana Indigenous Sheep Breed Using German Blackheaded Mutton Rams

    Dinu Gavojdian

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Improving growth rates in indigenous Turcana breed should be one of the most important objectives for sheep specialists, do to the fact that over 70% of the sheep population from Romania is represented by the breed. Researches were carried out in a commercial farm from Timis county, on a number of 48 crossbreed F1 German Blackheaded Mutton x Turcana (GBMT lambs, the control group was represented by purebreed Turcana (TU lambs, both males and females (33 heads. The lambs were weighed at birth, at 28 days and at 8 months of age. During first 28 days, F1 GMBT registered an average daily gain of 229.46 g, compared to Turcana lambs witch registered an average of 194.12 g, differences being very significant statistically (p<0.001. Total growth gain at the age of 240 days was registered 40.51 kg in crossbreed lambs, and of 33.35 kg in purebreed Turcana lambs, differences were very significant statistically between the two groups (p<0.001. German Blackheaded Mutton rams could be used as crossing sires for indigenous Turcana breed in order to substantially improve growth rates in F1 lambs.

  2. Study of genetic diversity in Algerian sheep breeds using microsatellite markers

    Full text: In order to realize the preservation and exploitation of domestic animal biodiversity and to define a global strategy for the management of Algerian sheep genetic resources, the goals of our research are the knowledge of the degree of genetic variability, the partition of this variability and the genetic distance among ovine breeds. This information will be obtained by analyzing directly the genome at molecular level. In this study DNA of 85 animals from two breeds, Ouled-Djellal and Hamra, was PCR amplified at the following microsatellite loci: McM42, TGLA53, MAF65, McM527, OarFCB20, INRA49, OarFCB11, OarCP49, CSSM66, MAF36, Oar HH56 and ILST05. Number of alleles and allele frequencies were calculated. The results showed that these breeds presented a polymorphism with these microsatellite markers reflecting a genetic variability among them. However, highest differences in allele frequencies were found at loci: McM527, ILSTS05, OarFCB20, INRA49, MAF36, McM42, MAF65, OarFCB11, OarCP49, CSSM66, while at the other loci the alleles at the highest frequency are the same. This study is being extended to five other Algerian breeds: Taadmit, Barbarine, D'men, Sidaou and Berbere to estimate their variability and genetic distance between them. Now, we are collecting blood from these different breeds to constitute a DNA bank. The results will allow establishment of the strategy to promote the use and development of locally adapted sheep resources. (author)

  3. The adaption of the South Africa sheep industry to new trends in animal breeding and genetics: A review

    S.W.P., Cloete; J.J., Olivier; L., Sandenbergh; M.A., Snyman.

    Full Text Available The history of sheep breeding research in South Africa can be divided roughly into four eras, namely the research and development phase, the commencement of recording and evaluation, the expansion of recording schemes, and, most recently, the adaptation of schemes to international benchmarks. The mo [...] st recent era has presented scientists with the greatest challenges, namely the inclusion of genomic breeding values in routine sheep recording and of disease-resistance traits during routine evaluation. The establishment of reference populations for the major South African sheep breeds to estimate genomic breeding values is an immediate challenge. This process may be facilitated by a number of genetic resource flocks that are phenotyped for traits that are not routinely recorded in the national evaluation. A limited number of these animals are also genotyped. There is strong evidence that resistance of sheep to external and internal parasites is heritable, and may be improved by purposeful selection. Efforts should be concentrated on the inclusion of disease resistance traits in national analyses where appropriate. However, seen against the background that South African investment in research is appreciably less than in developed countries, lack of funding and high-capacity manpower may impede rapid progress. There thus seem to be many challenges for future generations of sheep breeding scientists.

  4. Environmental and Genetic Effects on Early Growth Traits in Moghani Sheep Breeds

    A. Lavvaf

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of environmental factors on early growth traits (birth weight, weaning weight, body weight at 6 months of age and daily gain from birth to weaning and weaning to 6 months of age using 10432 records in Moghani sheep breed were studied and Genetic and Environmental variance component were estimated using 8468 records of Jafarabad Animal Breeding Station from 1999 to 2004. Birth year on all traits and dam age had significant effect only for birth and weaning weight. Sex of lambs and birth type had no significant effect only daily gain from weaning to 6 months of age. Additive genetic direct variance, maternal environmental variance and heritability were estimate by REML fitting two different Animal models. The estimate of maternal environment variance was higher than additive genetic direct variance in some traits. Estimates of direct heritability for all traits were low.

  5. Merino breeding program improves wool production in the western USA range sheep flocks

    A Merino breeding resource flock was established at Rafter 7 Ranch, Yerington, Nevada through cooperation of the College of Agriculture, Biotechnology and Natural Resources, University of Nevada-Reno (UNR) and The Edwin L Wiegand Trust in 1990. Initially, 500 Rambouillet ewes were purchased from two established breeders in 1990. These ewes were bred naturally or by AI to imported rams from Australia and to rams selected within the flock. Over the 16 years, 16 rams and semen from 41 rams have been imported from Australia. Selection was based on objective wool measurements, subjective assessment, growth rate and reproductive performance traits. The flocks were expanded to 1300 ewes and were bred in 30 single sire-mating groups as of the 2005/2006 breeding seasons. Flock management is in two breeding lines, one as a registered Rafter 7 Pure Merino flock (n = 650) and the other (Merino x Rambouillet) as Rafter 7 Merino Line (n = 650), which are selected for high fleece weight and quality, twinning and growth traits. The spring lambing flock winters on desert rangelands, is grazed on irrigated pasture from shearing through lambing and early weaning. Merino crossbred ewes showed that wool fibre density, clean wool yield, staple length, and grease fleece weight were increased by 41% per unit area of skin, 15%, 2.5 cm and 1.14 kg per head shorn, respectively. The wool clip is classed on pre-shearing mid-side wool sample tests (OFDA 2000 system). Fleece weight and fibre diameter and staple length measurements are significantly improved over the years. Wool sales from the Rafter 7 Ranch have increased for volume, value and quality over years. Rafter 7 Ranch wool clip has topped seventh consecutive annual shearing for the highest price of US grown wool. Sheep producers from 18 states, and Mexico and Canada have purchased breeding rams and ewes annually from Rafter 7 ranch over the past 12 years. Objective and subjective measurement qualities are significantly improved in sale rams. Over 1000 breeding rams and 500 replacement ewes were distributed to range flocks in the western states in the last decade, which made a notable improvement for fleece weight, fibre diameter and yield in client's flocks. The dissemination of introduced Merino genetics in the western range sheep flocks will improve wool quality and clip profits, which strengthen a long-term competitive advantage for the US wool and sheep production sectors. (author)

  6. The effects of selective breeding against scrapie susceptibility on the genetic variability of the Latxa Black-Faced sheep breed

    Legarra Andrés

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Breeding sheep populations for scrapie resistance could result in a loss of genetic variability. In this study, the effect on genetic variability of selection for increasing the ARR allele frequency was estimated in the Latxa breed. Two sources of information were used, pedigree and genetic polymorphisms (fifteen microsatellites. The results based on the genealogical information were conditioned by a low pedigree completeness level that revealed the interest of also using the information provided by the molecular markers. The overall results suggest that no great negative effect on genetic variability can be expected in the short time in the population analysed by selection of only ARR/ARR males. The estimated average relationship of ARR/ARR males with reproductive females was similar to that of all available males whatever its genotype: 0.010 vs. 0.012 for a genealogical relationship and 0.257 vs. 0.296 for molecular coancestry, respectively. However, selection of only ARR/ARR males implied important losses in founder animals (87 percent and low frequency alleles (30 percent in the ram population. The evaluation of mild selection strategies against scrapie susceptibility based on the use of some ARR heterozygous males was difficult because the genetic relationships estimated among animals differed when pedigree or molecular information was used, and the use of more molecular markers should be evaluated.

  7. Clinicopathological investigation on caseous lymphadenitis in local breed sheep in Algeria.

    Chikhaoui, Mira; Khoudja, Fatima Benchaib

    2013-10-01

    This study was carried out of 4,419 animals raised in an extensive system on local breed sheep of the Tiaret region during 2 years (2010-2011) to determine some clinical and pathological aspects associated to caseous lymphadenitis (CL). Clinical examination revealed a prevalence rate of 5.7 %. CL prevalence rate was significantly higher in females (6 %) than in males (4.8 %). The most affected superficial lymph nodes were mandibular lymph nodes (46.1 %). Gross examination of 1,679 carcasses of sheep at the abattoir revealed the presence of abscesses on 250 carcasses (14.9 %). Out of 105 cases showing lesions of CL, Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis (53.6 %) was isolated as mixed infection with Staphylococcus aureus (43 %) and Escherechia coli (17.9 %). CL prevalence was significantly higher in adult than in young sheep and in female than in male ones. Visceral form of CL was associated to "thin ewe syndrome" responsible for significant economic losses in Algeria. PMID:23604639

  8. Relationship between gene polymorphism and milk production traits in Teleorman Black Head sheep breed

    Gras MA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study is a preliminary step of a larger national program aimed to develop a strategy for “in situ” preservation of Teleorman Black Head sheep population. In this paper we estimated the effect of β-lactoglobulin, casein and prolactin on some quantitative and qualitative milk traits in this local sheep population. Material and methods. Genotyping methodology included PCR for CSN3 (A and B alleles and PCR-RFLP for LGB (A and B alleles and PRL (T and C alleles, respectively. Repeated milking and milk composition analysis were used for the polymorphism effect estimation. Results. No association between CSN3 polymorphism and milk traits was found. Effect of LGB on production traits was quite constant. Genotype AA performed better than BB. PRL marker effect showed small differences than LGB. Concerning milk, fat and protein yield, AA genotype for PRL had a smaller positive impact than AA genotype for LGB. Regarding fat and protein content, PRL showed a negative effect for AA and positive for BB genotype, respectively. Conclusions. Positive association between LGB and milk yield and composition recommend this candidate gene like marker for a future MAS program. Although PRL gene is also associated with an increased milk quantity, inverse response over milk composition must be considered in MAS strategy. Our study demonstrated that both LGB and PRL markers could became an advent of MAS utilization in Romanian dairy sheep breeding industry.

  9. Genetics and breeding of sheep in Brazil / Gentica e melhoramento de ovinos no Brasil

    Concepta, McManus; Samuel Rezende, Paiva; Ronyere Olegrio de, Arajo.

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Estudos em gentica e melhoramento de ovinos no Brasil tm aumentado significativamente nos ltimos anos. Estes envolvem pesquisa em caracterizao, criao e cruzamento de ovinos utilizando as novas tecnologias disponveis, incorporando tanto a gentica quantitativa clssica e molecular. So aborda [...] das sugestes para melhorias nas tcnicas de estatstica, nos recursos computacionais, bem como na anlise de DNA e nas lacunas no conhecimento atual e possibilidades de possveis investigaes. H uma necessidade de maior interao entre vrios grupos de trabalho no pas, bem como as interaes com outras disciplinas, como Sistemas de Informao Geogrfica, Estatstica, Bioinformtica, bem como estudos biolgicos, como fisiologia e protemica. Abstract in english Studies in genetics and breeding of sheep in Brazil have increased significantly in recent years. These involve research in characterization, breeding and crossing sheep using new technologies available incorporating both classical quantitative and molecular genetics. Improvements in statistical tec [...] hniques, computational resources as well as analysis of DNA and gaps in present knowledge and opportunities for possible research are pointed out. There is a need for greater interaction between various groups working in the country as well as interactions with other disciplines such as Geographical Information Systems, Statistics, Bioinformatics, as well as biological studies such as physiology and proteomics.

  10. Scrapie prevalence in sheep of susceptible genotype is declining in a population subject to breeding for resistance

    Engel Bas

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Susceptibility of sheep to scrapie infection is known to be modulated by the PrP genotype of the animal. In the Netherlands an ambitious scrapie control programme was started in 1998, based on genetic selection of animals for breeding. From 2002 onwards EU regulations required intensive active scrapie surveillance as well as certain control measures in affected flocks. Here we analyze the data on genotype frequencies and scrapie prevalence in the Dutch sheep population obtained from both surveillance and affected flocks, to identify temporal trends. We also estimate the genotype-specific relative risks to become a detected scrapie case. Results We find that the breeding programme has produced a steady increase in the level of genetic scrapie resistance in the Dutch sheep population. We also find that a significant decline in the prevalence of scrapie in tested animals has occurred a number of years after the start of the breeding programme. Most importantly, the estimated scrapie prevalence level per head of susceptible genotype is also declining significantly, indicating that selective breeding causes a population effect. Conclusions The Dutch scrapie control programme has produced a steady rise in genetic resistance levels in recent years. A recent decline in the scrapie prevalence per tested sheep of susceptible prion protein genotype indicates that selective breeding causes the desired population effect.

  11. Genetic variability of six French meat sheep breeds in relation to their genetic management

    Coralie Danchin-Burge

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Some demographic parameters, the genetic structure and the evolution of the genetic variability of six French meat sheep breeds were analysed in relation with their management. Four of these breeds are submitted to more or less intense selection: the Berrichon du Cher (BCH, Blanc du Massif Central (BMC, Charollais (CHA and Limousin (LIM; the other two breeds are under conservation: the Roussin de La Hague (RLH and Solognot (SOL. Genealogical data of the recorded animals born from 1970 to 2000 and of their known ancestors were used. The most balanced contributions of the different flocks to the sire-daughter path was found in the SOL. In the BCH, a single flock provided 43% of the sire-AI sire path, whereas the contributions of the flocks were more balanced in the BMC and LIM (the only other breeds where AI is used to a substantial amount. The distribution of the expected genetic contribution of the founder animals was found to be unbalanced, especially in the BCH and LIM. The effective numbers of ancestors (founders or not for the ewes born from 1996 to 2000 were equal to 35 (BCH, 144 (BMC, 112 (CHA, 69 (LIM, 40 (RLH and 49 (SOL. Inbreeding was not analysed in the BMC, due to incomplete pedigree information. From 1980 on, the rates of inbreeding, in percentage points per year, were +0.112 (BCH, +0.045 (CHA, +0.036 (LIM, +0.098 (RLH and +0.062 (SOL. The implications of the observed trends on genetic variability are discussed in relation to the genetic management of each breed. The need for a larger selection basis in the BCH, the efficiency of the rules applied in the SOL to preserve the genetic variability and the need for a more collective organisation in the CHA and RLH are outlined.

  12. Is the FAMACHA chart suitable for every breed? Correlations between FAMACHA scores and different traits of mucosa colour in naturally parasite infected sheep breeds.

    Moors, Eva; Gauly, Matthias

    2009-12-01

    Infections with gastrointestinal nematodes, in particular Haemonchus contortus, are worldwide one of the most important factors causing high economic losses in sheep production. Different methods for detecting infections with H. contortus have been described, such as, e.g. the FAMACHA system, which categorises the colour of the conjunctivae from red to pale. When H. contortus is not the predominant parasite, the FAMACHA chart might not be suitable to detect nematode infections, because of the lack of a blood feeding parasite. Otherwise breed-specific differences in the colour of the mucosa could be responsible for the limitations of the FAMACHA system. The aim of the study was to compare different methods of measuring mucosa colour in the German sheep breeds Black Head Mutton (BH) and Leine sheep (LE). In a total of 232 6-months-old lambs, the colour of mucosa was measured using the FAMACHA chart (conjunctivae) as well as the colour analyser Minolta Chroma Meter CR-200b (gingivae). Faeces and blood samples were taken at the same time to determine faecal egg counts per gram faeces (FEC) and the packed cell volume (PCV), respectively. Lambs grazed on contaminated pastures and no anthelmintic treatment was used. Lambs were moderately infected with gastrointestinal nematodes with no significant difference between the two breeds (P>0.05). The prevalence of H. contortus was 23%, based on larvae differentiation of coproculture. There was no significant correlation between FEC and PCV, nor FEC and FAMACHA (P>0.05). Significant differences (P or =0.27l/l), as shown by significant correlation coefficients between PCV and Chroma and HA, respectively. It can be concluded, that the measurement of mucosa colour with a colour analyser is more sensitive in detecting anaemic states in sheep, compared to the FAMACHA chart. However, because the colour analyser is not suited for measurements in the field, an adaptation of the FAMACHA colour scales for different sheep breeds might be required. PMID:19699035

  13. Merino breeding program improves wool production in western US range sheep flocks

    A Merino breeding resource flock was established at Rafter 7 Ranch, Yerington, Nevada. Initially, 500 Rambouillet ewes were purchased from two established breeders in 1990. These ewes were bred naturally or by artificial insemination (AI) to imported Merino rams from Australia and to crossbred rams selected within the flock. The flocks were expanded to 1300 ewes and bred in 30 single-sire mating groups as of the 2006 breeding season. Flock management is in two breeding lines, one as a registered Rafter 7 Merino flock (n = 650) and the other (Merino x Rambouillet) as Rafter 7 Line (n = 650). The spring lambing flock winters on desert rangelands, is grazed on irrigated pasture from shearing through lambing and early weaning. Compared with the original base ewe flock, Merino and Merino crossbred ewes produced higher clean wool yields, longer staple lengths, and higher grease fleece weights. The body weight and greasy fleece weight showed a significant (P < 0.05) difference between two flocks whereas no differences were observed for wool fibre diameter, length and comfort factor in most recent analysis. However, fibre diameter variation was significantly different (P < 0.05) between the two flocks for age groups and birth years. Body weight, fleece weight and fibre diameter showed significant (P < 0.05) but low to moderate correlations. Approximately 1000 breeding rams and 500 replacement ewes were distributed to commercial range flocks in the western states. The dissemination of introduced Merino genetics in the western range sheep flocks is expected to enhance wool quality and wool profits in the western region of the USA. (author)

  14. Estimation of genetic parameters for milk traits in Romanian local sheep breed

    Pelmus RS

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Estimate the genetic parameters for milk traits in a Romanian local sheep population Teleorman Black Head. Material and methods. Records of 262 sheep belonging to 17 rams and 139 ewes were used in the study. The following traits were investigated: milk yield, fat yield, protein yield, fat percentage and protein percentage. The genetic parameters were estimated using the Restricted Maximum Likelihood method, with a model including maternal effects. Results. The results from our study revealed that direct heritability estimates were moderate for milk yield (0.449, fat yield (0.442, protein yield (0.386 while for protein percentage (0.708 and fat percentage (0.924 were high. The high direct and maternal genetic correlation was between milk yield and protein yield (0.979, 0.973 and between protein yield and fat yield (0.952, 0.913 while the phenotypic correlation between the milk yield and fat yield (0.968, the milk yield and protein yield (0.967, fat yield and protein yield (0.936 was high and positive. Conclusions. The genetic parameters are important in selection program on this breed for genetic improvement.

  15. ASSOCIATIVE ASPECTS OF THE BLOOD POTASSIUM TYPES WITH THE QUANTITATIVE PRODUCTIONS IN ADULT SHEEP OF THE BOTOSANI KARAKUL BREED

    GH. HRINC?

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The associative analysis of the potassium phenotypes with the quantitativeproduction traits in adult sheep of the Boto?ani Karakul breed pointed out theproduction superiority of the HK phenotype in rams concerning the both bodyweight and wool production. The ewes with HK phenotype are slightly moreproductive than the LK ewes concerning the wool production. The productionsuperiority of the LK phenotype was found in females for body weight and totalmilk quantity. Statistically, the difference values of the quantitative productionsbetween the two potassium phenotypes are very close to the 5% significancethreshold in the adult rams and insignificant in the adult ewes. The utilization ofthe kalium system in sheep breeding of the Boto?ani Karakul breed forquantitative productions must be made with accuracy because the association ofthe LK phenotype with the qualitative features of the lamb pelts and with thehealth status is better than with the HK phenotype.

  16. Production objectives and breeding practices of urban goat and sheep keepers in West Africa: regional analysis and implications for the development of supportive breeding programs.

    Dossa, Luc Hippolyte; Sangar, Mamadou; Buerkert, Andreas; Schlecht, Eva

    2015-01-01

    To better understand the relative importance of the multi-purpose functions of small ruminants for their urban owners and related breeding practices including selection criteria, we undertook a comparative analysis across the West African cities of Kano (Nigeria), Bobo Dioulasso (Burkina Faso) and Sikasso (Mali). Semi-structured questionnaires were used to collect the required information from 301 sheep farmers (100, 102 and 99 in Kano, Bobo Dioulasso and Sikasso) and 306 goat farmers (100, 99 and 107 in Kano, Bobo Dioulasso and Sikasso). Sheep and goats were kept for a variety of reasons including income generation, insurance (sale for cash to meet unexpected expenditures) and economic security (sale for cash to support foreseeable expenses), social/religious functions and prestige in ownership. The relative importance given by respondents to the different functions varied significantly (pculling and replacement strategies, uncontrolled mating, no record keeping and selection criteria), the emphasis put on each selection criteria varied across cities and between species. Irrespective of city, most of the goats were of the indigenous type while keeping crossbred animals and/or maintaining more than one genotype in the same flock was more commonly practiced by sheep keepers. This points to a higher motivation for strategic breeding among sheep than goat keepers and indicates that the former might be interested in joining carefully designed participatory flock improvement programs. PMID:26101733

  17. Economic evaluation of genomic selection in small ruminants: a sheep meat breeding program.

    Shumbusho, F; Raoul, J; Astruc, J M; Palhiere, I; Lemarié, S; Fugeray-Scarbel, A; Elsen, J M

    2016-06-01

    Recent genomic evaluation studies using real data and predicting genetic gain by modeling breeding programs have reported moderate expected benefits from the replacement of classic selection schemes by genomic selection (GS) in small ruminants. The objectives of this study were to compare the cost, monetary genetic gain and economic efficiency of classic selection and GS schemes in the meat sheep industry. Deterministic methods were used to model selection based on multi-trait indices from a sheep meat breeding program. Decisional variables related to male selection candidates and progeny testing were optimized to maximize the annual monetary genetic gain (AMGG), that is, a weighted sum of meat and maternal traits annual genetic gains. For GS, a reference population of 2000 individuals was assumed and genomic information was available for evaluation of male candidates only. In the classic selection scheme, males breeding values were estimated from own and offspring phenotypes. In GS, different scenarios were considered, differing by the information used to select males (genomic only, genomic+own performance, genomic+offspring phenotypes). The results showed that all GS scenarios were associated with higher total variable costs than classic selection (if the cost of genotyping was 123 euros/animal). In terms of AMGG and economic returns, GS scenarios were found to be superior to classic selection only if genomic information was combined with their own meat phenotypes (GS-Pheno) or with their progeny test information. The predicted economic efficiency, defined as returns (proportional to number of expressions of AMGG in the nucleus and commercial flocks) minus total variable costs, showed that the best GS scenario (GS-Pheno) was up to 15% more efficient than classic selection. For all selection scenarios, optimization increased the overall AMGG, returns and economic efficiency. As a conclusion, our study shows that some forms of GS strategies are more advantageous than classic selection, provided that GS is already initiated (i.e. the initial reference population is available). Optimizing decisional variables of the classic selection scheme could be of greater benefit than including genomic information in optimized designs. PMID:26446712

  18. Assessment of Genetic Variability in the Coding Sequence of Melatonin Receptor Gene (MTNR1A) in Tropical Arid Sheep Breeds of India.

    Saxena, V K; Jha, B K; Meena, A S; Narula, H K; Kumar, D; Naqvi, S M K

    2015-06-01

    Seasonal behaviour in sheep, which varies in tropical and temperate environmental conditions, is a matter of study, because it can provide a clue to address the problem of seasonality in sheep. Melatonin receptor is the membrane-bound G-coupled receptor, sensing the message of photoperiodic cues thorough melatonin. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) studies were carried out to assess the variability of gene at G612A and C606T SNPs in MTNR1A gene, which have been studied to be markers for out-of-season breeding. Allelic frequency distribution corresponded to higher frequency of GG and CC genotype, in tropical arid sheep breed in comparison with temperate region sheep breed. PCR amplification of MTNR1A gene of 30 animals was performed and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) identification was carried out using Lasergene software. Seven SNPs/mutations were identified, but most of them were synonymous, except the one G706A, leading to substitution of valine by isoleucine. Polyphen-2 analysis of G706A mutation revealed that it is a benign mutation. Two important SNPs C426T and G555A, which were identified in temperate sheep breeds, could not be traced in Magra and Marwari breeds of sheep. Thus, the Magra and Marwari breeds of tropical, arid region demonstrated the presence of both polymorphic SNPs markers G612A and C606T, associated with out-of-season breeding. GG and CC genotypes were having a higher prevalence in the studied population. PMID:25708518

  19. PCR-SSCP Variation of IGF1 and PIT1 Genes and Their Association with Estimated Breeding Values of Growth Traits in Makooei Sheep

    Masoud Negahdary; Abbas Hajihosseinlo; Marziyeh Ajdary

    2013-01-01

    Molecular biology techniques genetic improvement by facilitating identification, mapping and analysis of polymorphism of genes by encoding proteins that act on metabolic pathways involved in economically interesting traits. This use of genetic markers can aid identification of those animals with the highest breeding values in sheep. On the basis of sheep genome mapping, information was examined on the ovine IGF1 and PIT1 genes as a possible genetic marker for growth traits in sheep. The curre...

  20. Diagnostic and control functions of the radioisotope methods for the reproduction management of cattle and sheep breeding

    The following applications of radioimmunoassay were studied: 1) for early diagnosis of pregnance in caws and sheep by determination of progesterone (PG) in milk and blood plasma via veterinary radioimmunological test STERON - RM125; 2) for diagnosis and treatment of ovarian disturbances in cows by RIA of luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and PG in blood plasma; 3) for control of the biological efficiency of sheep estrus synchronisation with MAP (vaginal tampons) and Estrophan (PgF2α); 4) for control of the reproductive condition of rams and effect of Tribestan in treatment of different forms of impotention by RIA of testosterone in blood. It was established that the use of RIA objectified the process of decision-making in regulation of the reproduction deviations in ruminating farm animals by veterinary means. Conclusions are drawn and suppositions are made for introduction of the radioisotope methods in the reproduction control of cattle and sheep breeding in practice. 4 tabs.; 15 refs

  1. Principal component analysis for evaluating a ranking method used in the performance testing in sheep of Morada Nova breed

    Michelle Santos da Silva; Luciana Shiotsuki; Raimundo Nonato Braga Lôbo; Olivardo Facó

    2015-01-01

    A multivariate approach was adopted to evaluate the relationship among traits measured in the performance testing of Morada Nova sheep, verify the efficiency of a ranking method used in these tests and identify the most significant traits for use in future analyses. Data from 150 young rams participating in five versions of the performance tests for the Morada Nova breed were used. Twenty traits were measured in each animal: initial weight (IW), final weight (FW), average daily weight gain (A...

  2. Relative resistance of Menz and Washera sheep breeds to artificial infection with Haemonchus contortus in the highlands of Ethiopia.

    Getachew, Tesfaye; Alemu, Biruk; Slkner, Johann; Gizaw, Solomon; Haile, Aynalem; Gosheme, Shenkute; Notter, David Russell

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the relative resistance of Menz and Washera sheep breeds to artificial infection with Haemonchus contortus. The challenge trial was conducted at the Debre Berhan Agricultural Research Center in Ethiopia. A total of 39 (Menz?=?21, Washera?=?18) lambs of about 6months old were used for the trial. All lambs were initially treated against internal parasite using albendazole and Fasinex to free them from internal parasites and kept indoors. H. contortus third-stage larvae (L3) were prepared according to standard procedure from adult female parasite collected from abattoirs and recovered using the Baerman technique. Approximately 5000 infective larvae were inoculated to the experimental lambs at about 5weeks after deworming. Fecal egg count (FEC), packed cell volume (PCV), FAffa MAlan CHArt (FAMACHA) score, lamb body weight, and survival of lambs were recorded at 28, 35, and 42days after challenge. Breed effect was not significant (P?>?0.05), whereas time of measurement and the interaction of breed and time had significant (P?lambs. The PCV decreased significantly throughout the post-challenge period. Despite their parasite burden, Menz sheep were able to maintain live weight during the 42days of challenge. Chi-square tests for breed differences in lamb survival were not significant at any time (28, 35, and 42days after challenge). Lower FEC at 28days and delayed rise in FEC after infection in Menz lamb would allow in delaying anthelmintic treatment. In addition to maintain body weights during the infection period, sheep of both breeds exhibited substantial variability in PCV and FEC, suggesting opportunity to consider parasite resistance in selection program. PMID:25868601

  3. Single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP detection in six genes in Portuguese indigenous sheep breed

    Guedes-Pinto H.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of the genetic diversity for six genes in forty animals of the Portuguese indigenous sheep breed (Ovis aries ""Churra da Terra Quente"" was done. A non-radioactive method to allow single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP detection was optimised, starting from genomic DNA and PCR amplification of seven fragments: exon 1 of the alpha-lactalbumin gene; exons 10 and 11 of the alpha s1-casein gene; exon 7 of the beta-casein gene; exon 4 of the kappa-casein gene; exons 4 and 5 of the growth hormone gene and exon 6 of the growth hormone receptor gene. Polymorphisms were detected in five of the seven PCR products. Only kappa-casein and growth hormone receptor were monomorphic. Alpha-lactalbumin and alpha s1-casein exons showed three conformational patterns, beta-casein and growth hormone exon 4 showed two electrophoretic patterns and growth hormone exon 5 showed five conformational patterns. These data provide evidence that ""Churra da Terra Quente"" has a high genetic variability, which opens interesting prospects for future selection programs and also for preservation strategies. Also, our data show that PCR-SSCP is an appropriate tool for evaluating genetic variability.

  4. Contribution of microsatellites markers in the clarification of the origin, genetic risk factors, and implications for conservation of Tunisian native sheep breeds.

    Ben Sassi-Zaidy, Y; Maretto, F; Charfi-Cheikhrouha, F; Mohamed-Brahmi, A; Cassandro, M

    2016-01-01

    The genetic diversity and genetic relationship of the two main groups of African sheep, thin-tailed and fat-tailed sheep, represented by the indigenous Tunisian sheep breeds "Barbarine" (BAR, fat-tailed) and "Queue Fine de l'Ouest" (QFO, thin-tailed) were investigated. The genotypes of 110 animals belonging to these two breeds and their crossbreed (CRO) were assessed using 17 microsatellite markers. The results showed high levels of genetic diversity and a total of 256 alleles were identified in the whole population. The mean values of observed and expected heterozygosity were 0.719 and 0.789, respectively, and the mean allelic richness estimate was 10.89. The average FIS (0.112) and FIT (0.118) values over all loci indicated a notable level of inbreeding within the whole population. However, the FST value (0.007) showed a low level of genetic differentiation between these two native breeds. The high level of both gene flow and molecular coancestry coefficient detected between the two breeds and their CRO revealed an old miscegenation between the BAR and QFO breeds. The clustering analysis performed with the STRUCTURE software confirmed gene flow between these two breeds. Results arising from this study provide evidence regarding the genetic structure and variability of the two main local sheep breeds, and the implications of their actual management, which indicates the need for an urgent conservation strategy in order to prevent significant gene flow and preserve the remaining breed specificity for future generations. PMID:26985949

  5. RFLP Marker Variation of Cytocrome b Gene and Genetic Relationship among Batur, Merino and Local Sheep Breeds

    Prayitno

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available RFLP analysis of mitochondrial DNA cytochrome b gene was conducted to determine the diversity, status and close genetic relationships in a population of Batur sheep with the Merino and local sheep breeds (Garut, Thin Tail and Fat Tail. The research used genomic DNA of 27 samples of Batur, 15 Merino, 17 Garut, 15 Thin Tails and 15 Fat Tails sheep. The PCR process used two types of 25 nucleotides primers. The PCR products were checked by using 2% agarose gel electrophoresis. The PCR DNA fragment was digested by using Hae III at 37 oC and incubated for 10 hours. Similarities and differences of cytochrome b gene RFLP bands between individual samples of one and across populations, genetic distance, and close genetic relationship, were identified. The PCR process of the cytochrome b gene metochondrial DNA of the 45 samples of sheep yielded 359 bp band types. The digestion (cutting of the PCR products of mitochondrial DNA cytochrome b gene by using Hae III resulted in RFLP band profiles of 128 up to 231 bp polymorphisms of cytochrome b gene. Although the Hae III restriction enzyme recognized only one restriction site, however, between samples of Batur, Merino, Garut, Thin Tail, and Fat Tails, there were monomorphism and polymorphism Hae III loci.Key Words: RFLP, cytochrome b gene, genetic markers, genetic similarity, Batur shee

  6. Principal component analysis for evaluating a ranking method used in the performance testing in sheep of Morada Nova breed

    Michelle Santos da Silva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A multivariate approach was adopted to evaluate the relationship among traits measured in the performance testing of Morada Nova sheep, verify the efficiency of a ranking method used in these tests and identify the most significant traits for use in future analyses. Data from 150 young rams participating in five versions of the performance tests for the Morada Nova breed were used. Twenty traits were measured in each animal: initial weight (IW, final weight (FW, average daily weight gain (ADG, loin eye area (LEA, scrotal circumference (SC, fat thickness (FT, conformation (C, precocity (Pc, muscularity (M, breed features (BF, legs (L, withers height (WH, chest width (CW, rump height (RH, rump width (RW, rump length (RL, body length (BL, body depth (BD, heart girth (HG and body condition scoring (BCS. The Pearson’s correlation coefficients ranged from –0.10 to 0.93, with the highest correlations were between body weight variables and morphometric measurements. The three first principal components explained 72.28% of the total variability among all traits. The variables related to animal size defined the first principal component, whereas those related to visual appraisal and suitability for meat production defined the second and third principal components, respectively. The combination of traits from the principal component analysis showed that the ranking method currently used in the performance testing of Morada Nova sheep is efficient for selecting larger rams with better breed features and higher degrees of specialization for meat production.

  7. Characterization of MTNR1A gene in terms of genetic variability in a panel of subtemperate and subtropical Indian sheep breeds.

    Saxena, Vijay Kumar; Jha, Bipul Kumar; Meena, Amar Singh; Naqvi, S M K

    2015-12-01

    Seasonality of animals is an important adaptive trait for successful survival and production during limited food availability and extreme environmental conditions. Photoperiodic changes in day length are utilized by these seasonal animals as an important environmental cue for regulating their annual rhythms of reproduction cycles. Melatonin is an important hormone which is secreted by the pineal gland in proportion to darkness and its effect is mediated by melatonin receptor subtypes, principally MTNR1A. In the present study, polymorphism in the coding sequence at two important SNPs (C606T and G612A),known to be markers for out of season breeding in sheep were studied by PCR-RFLP in a panel of four breeds of sheep from subtemperate and subtropical arid conditions, respectively. The frequencies of 'G' and 'A' alleles with reference to G612A SNP did not differ considerably among all the breeds of sheep. Frequency of 'T' allele of the C606T SNP was found to be dom inantly higher in subtemperate sheep breeds in comparison to subtropical sheep breeds. Identified SNPs in the coding region were mostly synonymous and did not lead to any change in conformation of the MTNR1A receptor protein. PMID:26690527

  8. Characterization of MTNR1A gene in terms of genetic variability in a panel of subtemperate and subtropical Indian sheep breeds

    Vijay Kumar Saxena; Bipul Kumar Jha; Amar Singh Meena; S. M. K. Naqvi

    2015-12-01

    Seasonality of animals is an important adaptive trait for successful survival and production during limited food availability and extreme environmental conditions. Photoperiodic changes in day length are utilized by these seasonal animals as an important environmental cue for regulating their annual rhythms of reproduction cycles. Melatonin is an important hormone which is secreted by the pineal gland in proportion to darkness and its effect is mediated by melatonin receptor subtypes, principally 1. In the present study, polymorphism in the coding sequence at two important SNPs (C606T and G612A), known to be markers for out of season breeding in sheep were studied by PCR-RFLP in a panel of four breeds of sheep from subtemperate and subtropical arid conditions, respectively. The frequencies of `G' and `A' alleles with reference to G612A SNP did not differ considerably among all the breeds of sheep. Frequency of `T' allele of the C606T SNP was found to be dominantly higher in subtemperate sheep breeds in comparison to subtropical sheep breeds. Identified SNPs in the coding region were mostly synonymous and did not lead to any change in conformation of the MTNR1A receptor protein.

  9. Analysis of the genetic diversity between Gentile di Puglia, Sopravissana and Sarda sheep breeds using microsatellite markers

    Gennaro Catillo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Two Italian sheep breeds – Gentile di Puglia and Sopravissana – have undergone a consistent decline in numbers and have been widely substituted by the Sarda breed, which gives higher milk yield. With the aim to provide a basis for con- servation decisions, the genetic variability of the three breeds was investigated in this study. DNA of 60 animals was PCR amplified at the following microsatellite loci: CSSM43, CSSM47, CSSM60, TGLA110, TGLA122, TGLA126, TGLA377, ETH3, ETH10, ETH225, NRAMP1, OARCP20 and SPS115. Allele frequencies, gene diversity and genetic distances were calculat- ed. The highest differences in allele frequencies were found at the following loci: TGLA377, TGLA122, NRAMP1, OARCP20 and ETH3, while at the other loci the most frequent alleles were the same. The average inbreeding rate was 0.156 in the Gentile di Puglia, 0.158 in the Sopravissana and 0.137 in the Sarda. Average gene diversity of the analysed microsatel- lites was 0.59. Genetic distance between Gentile di Puglia and Sopravissana (0.081 indicates moderate differentiation; distances between the Sarda and the endangered breeds – 0.111 from the Gentile di Puglia and 0.107 from the Sopravissana - indicate a medium-high differentiation rate. The disappearance of the two less productive breeds would entail a consistent loss of genetic diversity. The inbreeding values are low enough to allow the implementation of sound conservation programmes.

  10. Some Yield Characteristics of Genotype Groups Obtained by Crossbreeding K?v?rc?k with Imported Mutton Sheep Breeds (Hampshire Down, Lincoln and Blackhead German)

    Koyuncu, Mehmet; ?PEK, Ayd?n; Tuncel, Erdo?an

    1998-01-01

    This research was conducted to determine growth and survival characteristics of F1 and F2 genotype groups of lambs and reproduction characteristics of F1 genotype groups obtained from crossbreeding K?v?rc?k to Hampshire Down, Lincoln and Blackhead German mutton sheep breeds raised at Band?rma Sheep Research Institute. Differences between reproductive characteristics of Hampshire Down x K?v?rc?k and Blackhead German x K?v?rc?k F1 crossbred sheep were not significant. Effects of birth type and...

  11. Sequence analysis and identification of new variations in the coding sequence of melatonin receptor gene (MTNR1A) of Indian Chokla sheep breed

    Vijay Kumar Saxena; Bipul Kumar Jha; Amar Singh Meena; Naqvi, S.M.K.

    2014-01-01

    Melatonin receptor 1A gene is the prime receptor mediating the effect of melatonin at the neuroendocrine level for control of seasonal reproduction in sheep. The aims of this study were to examine the polymorphism pattern of coding sequence of MTNR1A gene in Chokla sheep, a breed of Indian arid tract and to identify new variations in relation to its aseasonal status. Genomic DNAs of 101 Chokla sheep were collected and an 824bp coding sequence of Exon II was amplified. RFLP was performed with...

  12. Detection of four novel polymorphisms in PrP gene of Pakistani sheep (Damani and Hashtnagri) and goats (Kamori and Local Hairy) breeds.

    Hussain, Amjed; Babar, Masroor E; Imran, Muhammad; Haq, Ikram U; Javed, Muhammad M

    2011-01-01

    Scrapie is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder of sheep and goats caused by post-translational conformational change in the host-encoded prion protein (PrPC). Susceptibility or resistance to scrapie has been associated with the presence of polymorphisms in the prion protein (PrP) gene. In the present study, we analyzed the PrP gene sequence to determine the frequency of polymorphisms in 56 sheep (28 each from Damani and Hashtnagri breeds) and 56 goats (28 each from Kamori and Local Hairy breeds). A total of 7 amino acid polymorphisms were detected in the PrP gene for sheep and 4 for goats. These amino acid polymorphisms were combined in 13 alleles and 15 genotypes in sheep and 5 alleles and 6 genotypes in goats. The overall frequency of the most sheep scrapie-resistant polymorphism (Q171R) was calculated to be 0.107. The most scrapie-susceptible polymorphism (A136V) was not detected in any of the studied sheep. The overall frequency of scrapie-associated polymorphism (H143R) in goats was found to be 0.152. Along with already known amino acid polymorphisms, two novel polymorphisms were also detected for each of sheep (Q171N and T191I) and goats (G22C and P63L). However, the overall frequency of these polymorphisms was extremely low. PMID:21595993

  13. Variation of the Surface of the Longissimus Dorsi (LD Muscle and the Section of the Leg of Mutton at Young Sheep of Different Breed Structures

    Elena Ili?iu

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The research was done on carcasses from the slaughter of young male sheep intensively fattened belonging to the local Tsigai race of mountain ecotype and its half-breeds with Suffolk and German blackface (GCCN. The purpose of the research was to determine Logissimus dorsi (LD and leg of moutton area, because these parts provide information on Ist meat quality. Research results have noted that lots of half-breeds achieved higher Longissimus dorsi (LD and leg of moutton area, compared with the pure breed batch. Compared with Tsigai breed, Longissimus dorsi (LD area deterrmined was higher with 10,75% to Suffolk x Tsigai half-breeds, and 0,07% respectively to German Blackface x Tsigai half-breeds. Leg of moutton area was higher with 17,27% to Suffolk x Tsigai halfbreeds, and 2,75% respectively to German Blackface x Tsigai half-breeds. Research carried out special information on Ist meat quality on carcass.

  14. Animal breeding in the age of biotechnology: the investigative pathway behind the cloning of Dolly the sheep.

    Garca-Sancho, Miguel

    2015-09-01

    This paper addresses the 1996 cloning of Dolly the sheep, locating it within a long-standing tradition of animal breeding research in Edinburgh. Far from being an end in itself, the cell-nuclear transfer experiment from which Dolly was born should be seen as a step in an investigative pathway that sought the production of medically relevant transgenic animals. By historicising Dolly, I illustrate how the birth of this sheep captures a dramatic redefinition of the life sciences, when in the 1970s and 1980s the rise of neo-liberal governments and the emergence of the biotechnology market pushed research institutions to show tangible applications of their work. Through this broader interpretative framework, the Dolly story emerges as a case study of the deep transformations of agricultural experimentation during the last third of the twentieth century. The reorganisation of laboratory practice, human resources and institutional settings required by the production of transgenic animals had unanticipated consequences. One of these unanticipated effects was that the boundaries between animal and human health became blurred. As a result of this, new professional spaces emerged and the identity of Dolly the sheep was reconfigured, from an instrument for livestock improvement in the farm to a more universal symbol of the new cloning age. PMID:26205201

  15. Estimation of Genetic Parameters and Environmental Factors on Early Growth Traits for Lori Breed Sheep Using Single Trait Animal Model

    A. Lavvaf

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of different environmental factors and estimation of genetic parameters on early growth traits for Lori breed sheep including birth weight, weaning weight and body weight at 6 months of age using 19960 records from 35 herds of Lorestan Jahad Agriculture Organization were studied in the cities of Aleshtar, Khorramabad and Poldokhtar from 1995 to 2003. The effect of herd, sex of lambs, dam age and birth year on all traits and birth type had significant effect only on weaning weight. Different single trait animal models estimated the components of direct additive genetic variance, maternal genetic variance and maternal permanent environment variance through restricted maximum likelihood using environmental factors as a fixe effect and different random effects. The results showed that direct additive genetic effect had additionally significant effect on all traits moreover maternal additive genetic and maternal permanent environment effects. Results also revealed that the maternal permanent environment variance for all traits is higher than maternal genetic variance. Also the direct heritability for all traits was higher than maternal heritability. Estimation of the direct heritability from the birth to 6 months of age showed a reducing trend that could arise from high dependence of birth and weaning weight on maternal environment conditions as compared with the age conditions afterward. The genetic assessment of growth traits in Lori breed sheep without inclusion of maternal effect in animal model causes decreased selection accuracy and incorrect genetic assessment of the lambs.

  16. The effect of continuous feeding of gliricidia on reproduction and production performances of Javanese Fat-Tailed sheep: Impact on the second breeding

    Supriyati; I-G.M Budiarsana; Sutama I-K

    1999-01-01

    The effect of continuous feeding of gliricidia on reproduction and production performances in second breeding of Javanese Fat-Tailed (JFT) sheep through the second breeding period was studied. Twenty six ewes post lactation at first lambing (body weight 22.5-26.5 kg) were divided into four treatment groups. Each group consisted of 6 animals except Group D had 8 animals. They were given King grass (Pennisetum purpureophoides) and gliricidia (Gliricidia sepium Jacq.) leaf with ratio of 100:0 (G...

  17. The effect of continuous feeding of gliricidia on reproduction and production performances of Javanese Fat-Tailed sheep: Impact on the second breeding

    Supriyati; I-G.M Budiarsana; Sutama I-K

    2014-01-01

    The effect of continuous feeding of gliricidia on reproduction and production performances in second breeding of Javanese Fat-Tailed (JFT) sheep through the second breeding period was studied. Twenty six ewes post lactation at first lambing (body weight 22.5-26.5 kg) were divided into four treatment groups. Each group consisted of 6 animals except Group D had 8 animals. They were given King grass (Pennisetum purpureophoides) and gliricidia (Gliricidia sepium Jacq.) leaf with ratio of 100:0 (G...

  18. Problems with readings of electronic tagged sheep in dairy flocks

    Antun Kostelić

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Reliable traceability system in animal production is a crucial part for protection of animal and human health. Small ruminants are usually ear’ tagged but this tagging system especially in extensive production systems is not reliable. The use of Radio Frequency Indentifying Devices (RFID, or electronic identification is more suitable. Ruminal boluses (Rumitag 20 gr, hdx are first chosen for ruminant tagging because they are easy and early applicable, easy to read and fraud resistant but they encounter some problems, mainly reading failure. In our trial we investigated reading failure on one sheep dairy farm. Six hundred and eight sheep have been milked during the trial and read for four times during milking. In all four readings we had quite high reading failure in comparison to other author findings. Probable cause for this very high failure could be the use of hand held readers in crowded environment which caused lot of double reading. This means that reading protocol should be improved. Unfortunately we did not have fixed reader so we could not compare readings.

  19. Somatic cell banking - An alternative technology for conservation of endangered sheep breeds

    Full text: Each cell of an animal's body contains full genetic code for the whole animal and nuclear transfer provides a way of converting cells to whole animal. Cells from endangered breeds collected by biopsy or from scrapings of soft skin or ear tissue or from hair follicle can be grown and multiplied in a laboratory and this would then be stored frozen indefinitely at 196 deg. C in liquid nitrogen. Mammary gland cells from sheep, mouse cumulus granulosa cells, bovine mural granulosa cells and fibroblast cells have all generated viable clones. The currently available methods of conservation, deep freezing of sperms (haploid genome) and storage of a large number of embryos are too expensive. In comparison, adult skin fibroblast cells are easy to obtain, hardy in culture and freezing, a good source of donor DNA without the limitations of age, sex and physiological state. Progenies were successfully obtained from nuclear transfer of serum-starved fibroblast cells from cattle, sheep and goat. Several other cell types successfully used for cloning are limited to female donors (cumulus and mammary epithelial, mural granulosa and oviductal cells) and are more difficult for long-term culture. Live progenies using skin fibroblasts have been produced in cattle. Sample collection and development of primary cultures: Samples were collected by biopsy of skin from ear pinna and transported in a complete medium (DMEM + HamsF12 with 10% FBS and penicillin and streptomycin) at 4 deg. C. Tissue samples were processed by removing hair form both sides, cut into small pieces and seeded in petridish containing fibroblast culture medium (DMEM + HamsF12, 10% FBS, penicillin and streptomycin and L-glutamine). The primary skin fibroblast cells started emerging out of tissues within 4-6 days and were allowed to grow up to 12-15 days till nearly 80% confluency was attained. Purification and sub-culturing of skin fibroblast cells: In isolated cases, there were contaminations of epithelial cells but these were removed mechanically as well as enzymatically to get pure fibroblasts. Sub-culturing or 'splitting cells' was done periodically removing growth media, washing the plate, dissociating the cells and diluting cell suspension in fresh media. Standard growth curve: Whenever, a new batch of culture media supplement was introduced, it was checked for its efficacy for growth of cells in culture and compared with standard growth curve. Goat skin fibroblasts remained in lag phase for initial two days when they settled on the solid surface of culture vessel and then came to log phase when maximum growth took place spanning from the third to the seventh day. As the confluencey level increased and media supplement was depleted, cells stopped dividing and a plateau was attained from the eighth day onwards and then showed decline due to contact inhibition. Cell proliferation index: Under standard culture conditions, skin fibroblast cells divide once in 24 hours but it is rarely achieved in normal culturing. The population doubling time and cell proliferation rate per day were checked at regular interval for quality assessment. For this, ELISA based MTT assay, incorporation of 5-bromo-de-oxyuridine method, and flow cytometer methods were used. Evaluation of cells for ploidy level: During long-term culturing the cells are likely to develop one or other type of chromosomal abnormalities. It must be ensured that the cells in different passages be checked for normal ploidy so that viable clones can be developed from them. Cultures showing increased frequency of aneuploidy or polyploidy must be terminated from further passaging. DNA from cultured somatic cells can be isolated using available DNA isolation kits and checked for its quality on 2% agarose. Cryo-freezing of cells: Cells are best frozen as cell suspension. Healthy culture were always employed to provide the stock to freeze cells. The cells were frozen at controlled freezing rate. The cells were kept at -80 deg. C as well as at -196 deg. C in Liquid nitrogen. Cells were found viable for subsequent growth after thawing at 38 deg. C even after 12 months. Applications: Skin fibroblast cells are widely used as nuclear donor and have produced viable clones in different livestock species. These cells after a series of passaging behave like totipotent cells and can be used as substitute of ES cells for gene targeting and production of transgenic animals. Cells can have wider application in understanding disease models and for cell therapy, and can be used for in vitro secretion of useful therapeutic protein in a culture medium. These can also be used for in vitro model studies on aging and cancer. (author)

  20. Polymorphism of the ovine calpastatin gene in some Turkish sheep breeds

    YILMAZ, ONUR; Sezenler, Tamer; ATA, Nezih; YAMAN, Yal?n; CEMAL, ?brahim; Karaca, Orhan

    2014-01-01

    The calpastatin (CAST) gene has a major effect on muscle growth and meat tenderness after slaughter; it is located on the fifth chromosome in sheep. Blood samples were collected from 720 animals in total from K?v?rc?k (KIV), Sak?z (SZ), Karacabey Merino (KM), and Gkeada (GA) sheep populations raised in West Anatolia. The PCR products were digested by the restriction endonuclease MspI. Allele frequencies for M and N alleles of the gene were found to be 0.85 and 0.15 in KIV, 0.80 and 0.20 in ...

  1. Relationship between gene polymorphism and milk production traits in Teleorman Black Head sheep breed

    Gras MA; GC, Pistol; Pelmus RS; Lazar C.; Grosu H.; Ghita E.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective. This study is a preliminary step of a larger national program aimed to develop a strategy for “in situ” preservation of Teleorman Black Head sheep population. In this paper we estimated the effect of β-lactoglobulin, casein and prolactin on some quantitative and qualitative milk traits in this local sheep population. Material and methods. Genotyping methodology included PCR for CSN3 (A and B alleles) and PCR-RFLP for LGB (A and B alleles) and PRL (T and C alleles), respec...

  2. Growth Rate, Slaughter Traits and Meat Quality of Lambs of Three Alpine Sheep Breeds

    Erika Pellattiero

    2011-12-01

    In conclusion the three Alpine breeds of the Veneto Region confirmed to be able to produce lamb carcasses and meat with valuable characteristics that can be exploited through typical products and food preparation in local markets and gastronomy, according to the tradition. The valorisation of these productions can be an important instrument for in situ conservation of these breeds.

  3. BREED EFFECTS ON GROWTH, CARCASS AND MEAT QUALITY TRAITS OF SHEEP

    An experiment was conducted to estimate direct breed effects on growth, carcass, and meat quality traits. Rams of nine breeds (Composite, Dorper, Dorset, Finnsheep, Katahdin, Rambouillet, Romanov, Suffolk, and Texel) were mated to Composite ewes. Data recorded on 804 progeny of 130 rams were analy...

  4. Electron beam heated solenoid reactors for breeding fissile fuels

    A study of electron beam heated linear solenoid fusion reactors showed that they could economically breed fissile fuel without producing excess electricity for sale. By using a molten salt breeding medium, 233U could be bred in a 300 meter long, self-powered reactor with continuous processing and negligible fission (less than 1 percent of the fusion) in the device. By using a depleted uranium fission plate for neutron and energy multiplication, the length could be reduced to below 100 meters. The reactors used multiple magnetic mirrors for end loss reduction and superconducting solenoids for radial confinement. The blankets required no fissile material. Plasma heating was accomplished solely by electron beams

  5. Association analysis of a CCR5 variant with ewe lifetime production in 3 breeds of sheep.

    A deletion in the promoter region of CCR5 associates with a 50% reduction in proviral concentration (log10 env copies/microgram DNA) of ovine progressive pneumonia virus (OPPV) in blood. Nearly half of all flocks in the U.S. have at least one sheep infected with OPPV. Because OPP provirus concentr...

  6. Relative expression analysis of IL-5 and IL-6 genes in tropical sheep breed Pelibuey infected with Haemonchus contortus.

    Estrada-Reyes, Z M; Lpez-Reyes, A G; Lagunas-Martnez, A; Ramrez-Vargas, G; Olazarn-Jenkins, S; Hernndez-Romano, J; Mendoza-de-Gives, P; Lpez-Arellano, M E

    2015-09-01

    Haemonchus contortus is a parasitic nematode of Pelibuey sheep, a meat breed used in tropical regions. Due to anthelmintic problems, the identification of hosts resistant to H.contortus is another option of control. The aim of this study was to analyse the relative expression of IL-5 and IL-6 genes in Pelibuey sheep after H.contortus infection. Nineteen lambs infected with H.contortus and three more lambs without infection were studied. The haemonchosis was determined by the number of eggs per gram of faeces (epg) and by the estimation of the percentage of the packed cell volume (%pcv). Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were obtained to extract RNA at 0, 1, 2, 7, 14, 21 and 28days after infection to quantify the relative expression of IL-5, IL-6 and GAPDH by real-time PCR. Five lambs were classified as low responders (lr) to haemonchosis with averages of 15193153 epg and 3149513%pcv, and 14 lambs were identified as high responders (hr) with averages of 530132 epg and 3488375%pcv. The expression ratio of IL-5 was significantly different compared with control lambs at 2, 7 and 14days post-infection (PI), and IL-6 was significantly different after 14days. The highest level of relative expression for IL-5 and IL-6 genes was 99-fold and 12-fold after 2 and 14days for hr hosts (P<005) compared with control group, respectively. In conclusion, the Pelibuey breed in grazing areas exhibited different expression of IL-5 and IL-6 obtained from PBMCs against H.contortus, suggesting the importance of these cytokines in regulating the nematode infection. PMID:26094646

  7. Wool quality in Gentile di Puglia sheep breed as measure of genetic integrity

    Carlo Renieri; Emiliano Lasagna; Gianvincenzo Lebboroni; Francesco Panella; Francesca Maria Sarti

    2010-01-01

    The Gentile di Pugliais a breed created in the 15th century by crossing Merino Spanish rams and gentile ewes reared in some areas of Southern Italy, mainly Apulia and Basilicata. The crisis of the wool industry, the poor quantity of milk, the inadequacy of Gentile di Pugliato be milked by machine and the passage from transhumant to permanent rearing caused a dramatic reduction of this population, which was largely crossed with other breeds and declined from about one million hea...

  8. Microsatellite Variation in One Breed of Iranian Sheep with 12 Markers

    Zahedi- Zahra; S. Esmaeelkhanian; R.Vaez Torshizi

    2007-01-01

    Polymorphic loci, genetic parameters (Polymorphic Information Content, heterozygosity, Shannon Index, the number of actual alleles, the number of effective alleles) and genetic variation within Balouchi sheep population located in Abbasabad station of Mashad, was assessed using 12 microsatellite markers. The Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) reactions were successfully done with all primers except for OarHH62 and OarAE64, one locus (CSSM059) was monomorph, whereas the other 9 loci containing CS...

  9. Application of microsatellite markers for breeding and genetic conservation of herds of Pantaneiro sheep

    Bruno do Amaral, Crispim; Leonardo de Oliveira, Seno; Andra Alves do, Egito; Fernando Miranda de, Vargas Junior; Alexia Barufatti, Grisolia.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background The aim of the present study was to assess the genetic diversity of Pantaneiro sheep, using microsatellite markers, in order to assist maintenance and management plans, enhance mating systems and reduce the inbreeding rate. A total of 127 animals were genotyped at eight microsatellite loc [...] i. They belonged to populations from the Experimental Farm of the Universidade Federal da Grande Dourados (UFGD) (Dourados/MS/Brazil) and Embrapa Pantanal (Corumb/MS/Brazil). Results The population of Pantaneiro sheep from the UFGD exhibited a high mean number of alleles (11.13) and allelic richness (10.66). The polymorphic information content was highly informative in the locus studied, resulting in a mean value of 0.71. Observed heterozygosity was lower than expected for all molecular markers assessed. The analysis of molecular variance showed a differentiation rate of 5.2% between populations. Conclusions The results of the statistical parameters indicated that populations of Pantaneiro sheep require special attention on herd management, and it's further necessary to implement breeder exchange programs in order to preserve the genetic variability of these populations. Furthermore, the maintenance of those populations in their typical habitats is rather required to allow different responses from the herds to the interactions between genotype and environment.

  10. SNPs for parentage testing and traceability in globally diverse breeds of sheep

    DNA-based parentage determination accelerates genetic improvement by increasing pedigree accuracy. However, the utility of any parentage SNP varies by breed depending on its minor allele frequency (MAF) and its sequence context. Our aims were to identify parentage SNPs with exceptional qualities...

  11. Gastrointestinal parasitic infection of slaughtered sheep (Zel breed in Fereidoonkenar city, Iran

    Soraya Naem

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to determine parasitic infection of sheep with gastrointestinal helminthes in a slaughterhouse in Fereidoonkenar city, Iran. A total number of 50 sheep were examined from April to September 2008. Nematodes were removed from abomasums, small and large intestines, and kept in A.F.A. solution (alcohol, formaldeyde, acetic acid, distilled water, and glycerine for further diagnosis. Cestodes were removed from small intestine, washed with water, and stained with carmine acid. The results of this study indicated that 70% of examined animals were infected as follows: Ostertagia circumcincta and Marshallagia marshalli (38%, Trichostrongylus colubriformis (16%, Nematodirus spathiger (14%, Skrjabinema ovis (12%, Haemonchus contortus (10%, Camelostrongylus mentolatus (4%, and Gongylonema pulchrum, Cooperia punctata, Bunostomum trigonocephalum, Chabertia ovina (2%. Among examined animals, 14% infected with Moniezia expansa, 10% with Avitellina centripunctata and 2% with Helicometra giardi. The infection rate in younger animals was higher than in adults. The maximum infection rate was with O. circumcincta and M. marshali. No infection was found in examined rumens.

  12. The farm animal genetic resources of Turkey: sheep – I – common and rare breeds

    Yılmaz, Orhan; Wilson, Richard Trevor; Kor, Aşkın; ERTUĞRUL, Mehmet; Cengiz, Fırat

    2012-01-01

    Biodiversity richness indicates the economic and genetic wealth of a country. Turkey is like a bridge between Europe and Asia; hence it has been used by traders, travelers or intruders for centuries which cause existence of considerable different kinds of domestic animals. Although some of genotypes extinct or crucially under extinction risk, domestic livestock resources of Turkey have not been adequately appraised. On one hand new breeds are domesticated by human, on the other hand much more...

  13. Slaughter Performance and Carcass Characteristics of the Hybrids Obtained by Crossbreeding between European Mouflon (Ovis ammon musimon Pal. and Sheep Breed Tigaie

    Nenad Nedeljkovic

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to determine differences between slaughter performances and carcass characteristics of first generation hybrids (F1 obtained by crossbreeding between European Mouflon (Ovis ammon musimon Pal. and the Romanian sheep breed Tigaie. To assess the yield at slaughter and the participation percentage of the cut parts from the whole carcass structure, crossbreeding were made between females of sheep breed Tigaie and males of mouflon (FT x MM respectively between mouflon females and males of sheep breed Tigaie (FMxMT. At the age of 60 days 14 lambs were sacrificed (7 hybrids FTxMM and 7 hybrids FMxMT. Slaughter yield calculated on hot and chilled carcasses had higher values at FMxMT (P<0.05. The participation percentage of the cut parts from the whole carcass structure had the highest values at FMxMT hybrids compared to FTxMM hybrids. Results from this study showed that genotype significantly influenced the studied characteristics and have revealed the superiority of FMxMT hybrids as against FTxMM hybrids lambs.

  14. Infectious pathogens potentially transmitted by semen of the black variety of the Manchega sheep breed: Health constraints for conservation purposes.

    Ruiz-Fons, Francisco; González-Barrio, David; Aguilar-Ríos, Fernando; Soler, Ana J; Garde, José Julián; Gortázar, Christian; Fernández-Santos, María Del Rocío

    2014-10-01

    Conservation of genetic resources from endangered breeds may be conducted through germinal banks. Preservation of healthy samples is paramount to avoid preserving pathogens shed with germinal products. The black variety of Manchega sheep (BMS), and endangered breed endemic to south-central Spain, is the subject of a conservation program; a germinal bank has been recently established. However, several pathogens circulating in BMS flocks may be shed with semen and threaten BMS preservation. Therefore, we investigated the sanitary status of BMS flocks and semen samples from 4 of the 17 flocks in which this variety is bred worldwide. A serological screening for Maedi-Visna virus, bluetongue virus, Pestivirus spp., Brucella spp., Coxiella burnetii, Chlamydophila spp., Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis, Anaplasma spp., Mycoplasma agalactiae, Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum was performed to assess for pathogens potentially shed by semen. Semen samples from 11 of the 35 BMS rams and 4 samples from coexisting rams of the white variety (WMS) were analyzed by PCR to detect Maedi-Visna virus, C. burnetii, Anaplasma marginale, Anaplasma phagocytophilum and T. gondii. Maedi-Visna virus RNA was detected in 3 semen samples (2 BMS and 1 WMS) while C. burnetii DNA was detected in 3 samples from WMS rams. Pathogens that can be transmitted by semen were present in BMS flocks, and Maedi-Visna virus and C. burnetii showed the highest potential for transmission by artificial insemination. Our results point to the need of testing semen samples kept for conservation purposes of BMS before using them for artificial insemination. PMID:25066603

  15. Somatic cell banking - An alternative technology for the conservation of endangered sheep breeds

    Skin samples from ear pinna of 10 male and 10 female sheep were collected and cultured in DMEM+Ham's F12 nutrient medium. Cell viability was 95 to 100% in different cultures. Mean cell proliferation rates were 0.94-0.67 and 1.15-0.56 for males and females in different passages, respectively. Cell proliferation rates were highest in first passage and then showed an age-related decline. Average cell doubling time was 30 h in males and 29.6 h in females. Skin fibroblast cell growth curves were in lag phase for the first 2 days, entered log phase (3rd to 7th days) and plateaued on day 8. Diploid chromosomal counts in proliferating cells up to the 5th passage were normal (2N=54), with no gross chromosomal aberrations recorded. Cells frozen from cycling cells at 80-90% confluency showed superior post-thaw growth compared with cells from overconfluent cultures. DMSO at 10% (v/v) in freezing media was optimal. Controlled-rate freezing at -1 deg. C/min showed better post-thaw cell viability and growth potential. Direct plating of thawed cells without removing DMSO and other contents of the freezing medium gave better post-thaw survival and proliferation rates. (author)

  16. Impact of strong selection for the PrP major gene on genetic variability of four French sheep breeds (Open Access publication

    Pantano Thais

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Effective selection on the PrP gene has been implemented since October 2001 in all French sheep breeds. After four years, the ARR "resistant" allele frequency increased by about 35% in young males. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of this strong selection on genetic variability. It is focussed on four French sheep breeds and based on the comparison of two groups of 94 animals within each breed: the first group of animals was born before the selection began, and the second, 3–4 years later. Genetic variability was assessed using genealogical and molecular data (29 microsatellite markers. The expected loss of genetic variability on the PrP gene was confirmed. Moreover, among the five markers located in the PrP region, only the three closest ones were affected. The evolution of the number of alleles, heterozygote deficiency within population, expected heterozygosity and the Reynolds distances agreed with the criteria from pedigree and pointed out that neutral genetic variability was not much affected. This trend depended on breed, i.e. on their initial states (population size, PrP frequencies and on the selection strategies for improving scrapie resistance while carrying out selection for production traits.

  17. The use of a random regression model on the estimation of genetic parameters for weight at performance test in Appenninica sheep breed

    Francesca M. Sarti

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Appenninica breed is an Italian meat sheep; the rams are approved according to a phenotypic index that is based on an average daily gain at performance test. The 8546 live weights of 1930 Appenninica male lambs tested in the performance station of the ASSONAPA (National Sheep Breeders Association, Italy from 1986 to 2010 showed a great variability in age at weighing and in number of records by year. The goal of the study is to verify the feasibility of the estimation of a genetic index for weight in the Appenninica sheep by a mixed model, and to explore the use of random regression to avoid the corrections for weighing at different ages. The heritability and repeatability (mean±SE of the average live weight were 0.27±0.04 and 0.54±0.08 respectively; the heritabilities of weights recorded at different weighing days ranged from 0.27 to 0.58, while the heritabilities of weights at different ages showed a narrower variability (0.29÷0.41. The estimates of live weight heritability by random regressions ranged between 0.34 at 123 d of age and 0.52 at 411 d. The results proved that the random regression model is the most adequate to analyse the data of Appenninica breed.

  18. Accuracy of pedigree and genomic predictions of carcass and novel meat quality traits in multi-breed sheep data assessed by cross-validation

    Daetwyler Hans D

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genomic predictions can be applied early in life without impacting selection candidates. This is especially useful for meat quality traits in sheep. Carcass and novel meat quality traits were predicted in a multi-breed sheep population that included Merino, Border Leicester, Polled Dorset and White Suffolk sheep and their crosses. Methods Prediction of breeding values by best linear unbiased prediction (BLUP based on pedigree information was compared to prediction based on genomic BLUP (GBLUP and a Bayesian prediction method (BayesR. Cross-validation of predictions across sire families was used to evaluate the accuracy of predictions based on the correlation of predicted and observed values and the regression of observed on predicted values was used to evaluate bias of methods. Accuracies and regression coefficients were calculated using either phenotypes or adjusted phenotypes as observed variables. Results and conclusions Genomic methods increased the accuracy of predicted breeding values to on average 0.2 across traits (range 0.07 to 0.31, compared to an average accuracy of 0.09 for pedigree-based BLUP. However, for some traits with smaller reference population size, there was no increase in accuracy or it was small. No clear differences in accuracy were observed between GBLUP and BayesR. The regression of phenotypes on breeding values was close to 1 for all methods, indicating little bias, except for GBLUP and adjusted phenotypes (regression = 0.78. Accuracies calculated with adjusted (for fixed effects phenotypes were less variable than accuracies based on unadjusted phenotypes, indicating that fixed effects influence the latter. Increasing the reference population size increased accuracy, indicating that adding more records will be beneficial. For the Merino, Polled Dorset and White Suffolk breeds, accuracies were greater than for the Border Leicester breed due to the smaller sample size and limited across-breed prediction. BayesR detected only a few large marker effects but one region on chromosome 6 was associated with large effects for several traits. Cross-validation produced very similar variability of accuracy and regression coefficients for BLUP, GBLUP and BayesR, showing that this variability is not a property of genomic methods alone. Our results show that genomic selection for novel difficult-to-measure traits is a feasible strategy to achieve increased genetic gain.

  19. Accuracy of pedigree and genomic predictions of carcass and novel meat quality traits in multi-breed sheep data assessed by cross-validation

    2012-01-01

    Background Genomic predictions can be applied early in life without impacting selection candidates. This is especially useful for meat quality traits in sheep. Carcass and novel meat quality traits were predicted in a multi-breed sheep population that included Merino, Border Leicester, Polled Dorset and White Suffolk sheep and their crosses. Methods Prediction of breeding values by best linear unbiased prediction (BLUP) based on pedigree information was compared to prediction based on genomic BLUP (GBLUP) and a Bayesian prediction method (BayesR). Cross-validation of predictions across sire families was used to evaluate the accuracy of predictions based on the correlation of predicted and observed values and the regression of observed on predicted values was used to evaluate bias of methods. Accuracies and regression coefficients were calculated using either phenotypes or adjusted phenotypes as observed variables. Results and conclusions Genomic methods increased the accuracy of predicted breeding values to on average 0.2 across traits (range 0.07 to 0.31), compared to an average accuracy of 0.09 for pedigree-based BLUP. However, for some traits with smaller reference population size, there was no increase in accuracy or it was small. No clear differences in accuracy were observed between GBLUP and BayesR. The regression of phenotypes on breeding values was close to 1 for all methods, indicating little bias, except for GBLUP and adjusted phenotypes (regression = 0.78). Accuracies calculated with adjusted (for fixed effects) phenotypes were less variable than accuracies based on unadjusted phenotypes, indicating that fixed effects influence the latter. Increasing the reference population size increased accuracy, indicating that adding more records will be beneficial. For the Merino, Polled Dorset and White Suffolk breeds, accuracies were greater than for the Border Leicester breed due to the smaller sample size and limited across-breed prediction. BayesR detected only a few large marker effects but one region on chromosome 6 was associated with large effects for several traits. Cross-validation produced very similar variability of accuracy and regression coefficients for BLUP, GBLUP and BayesR, showing that this variability is not a property of genomic methods alone. Our results show that genomic selection for novel difficult-to-measure traits is a feasible strategy to achieve increased genetic gain. PMID:23146144

  20. Hormone profiles and haematological characteristics during oestrous cycle, pregnancy and lactation in Egyptian breeds of sheep

    Cyclic animals showed an increase around oestrus in rectal temperature (RT), serum protein, blood total leucocyte counts and neutrophils, and plasma cortisol and thyroxine (T4). This was accompanied by a decline in blood haemoglobin (Hb) and lymphocytes and in plasma progesterone levels. The lower incidence of oestrous activity during the spring season was associated with higher average plasma progesterone levels. The seasonal changes in plasma cortisol and T4 were noted only in Rahmani ewes. In the pregnant animals there was a gradual decline in blood glucose, Hb and serum proteins, with minimum values at parturition. This was associated with a decline in plasma osmolality and an increase in plasma aldosterone during the second half of gestation. There was a rise in plasma cortisol, accompanied by a rise in blood total leucocyte counts and neutrophils and a decline in lymphocytes two weeks before parturition, showing a peak on day of lambing. Plasma T4 and triiodothyronine (T3) declined particularly during late pregnancy. Progesterone concentration increased with the advance of pregnancy, showing a sharp rise after the third month and a sharp decline during the week before parturition. Plasma progesterone level can be used successfully for the early diagnosis of pregnancy. Summer pregnancy was associated with a decrease in the overall mean plasma T4, and an increase in plasma osmolality, aldosterone, progesterone and cortisol; these seasonal changes were noted only in the Rahmani ewes. Plasma cortisol and T3 were low during early lactation, tended to rise around mid-lactation to late lactation, and were negatively related to levels of milk production. Present results suggest that the temperate evolved Rahmani is more sensitive to unfavourable environmental conditions than the desert adapted Barki breed. 39 refs, 5 figs

  1. The effect of continuous feeding of gliricidia on reproduction and production performances of Javanese Fat-Tailed sheep: Impact on the second breeding

    Supriyati

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available The effect of continuous feeding of gliricidia on reproduction and production performances in second breeding of Javanese Fat-Tailed (JFT sheep through the second breeding period was studied. Twenty six ewes post lactation at first lambing (body weight 22.5-26.5 kg were divided into four treatment groups. Each group consisted of 6 animals except Group D had 8 animals. They were given King grass (Pennisetum purpureophoides and gliricidia (Gliricidia sepium Jacq. leaf with ratio of 100:0 (Group A = control, 75:25 (Group B, 50:50 (Group C and 0:100 (Group D. Forages were given 2.5-3% (dry matter of liveweight. All groups were supplemented with 100g/head/day concentrate (crude protein = 16%, but during late pregnancy and lactation they were supplemented at 200 g/head/day. Results showed that feeding gliricidia 25-100% of total forages improved body weight due to the increasing protein intake. The maximum concentration of progesteron increased from 0.81 to 2.78 ng/ml. The ovulation rate and prolification also increased significantly (P<0.05 from 1.6 to 3.0 and 1.33 to 2.38, respectively. Individual birth and weaning weights of the lambs were not affected. It is concluded that feeding gliricidia continuously up to 100% as forages and supplemented with concentrate gives positive effect on bodyweight gain, reproduction and production performances in second breeding of JFT sheep.

  2. Quality traits and modeling of coagulation, curd firming, and syneresis of sheep milk of Alpine breeds fed diets supplemented with rumen-protected conjugated fatty acid.

    Bittante, G; Pellattiero, E; Malchiodi, F; Cipolat-Gotet, C; Pazzola, M; Vacca, G M; Schiavon, S; Cecchinato, A

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to test the modeling of curd-firming (CF) measures and to compare the sheep milk of 3 Alpine breeds supplemented with or without rumen-protected conjugated linoleic acid (rpCLA). Twenty-four ewes of the Brogna, Foza, and Lamon breeds were allotted to 6 pens (2 pens/breed) and fed a diet composed of corn grain, corn silage, dried sugar beet pulp, soybean meal, wheat bran, wheat straw, and a vitamin-mineral mixture. The rpCLA supplement (12 g/d per ewe plus 4 g/d for each lamb older than 30 d) was mixed into the diet of 1 pen per sheep breed (3 pens/treatment) to provide an average of 0.945 and 0.915 g/d per ewe of the cis-9,trans-11 C18:2 and trans-10,cis-12 C18:2 conjugated linoleic acid isomers, respectively. The trial started at 38 23 d after parturition, and individual morning milk samples were collected on d 16, 23, 37, 44, and 59 of the trial. Milk samples were analyzed for composition, and duplicate samples were assessed for milk coagulation properties (MCP). A total of 180 CF measures for each sample (1 every 15s) were recorded. Model parameters were the rennet coagulation time, the asymptotic potential CF, the CF instant rate constant, the syneresis instant rate constant, the maximum CF achieved within 45 min (CFmax), and the time at achievement of CFmax. The data were analyzed using a hierarchical model that considered the fixed effects of breed, diet, lamb birth, and initial days in milk, which were tested on individual ewe (random) variance; the fixed effect of sampling day, which was tested on the within-ewe sample (random) variance; and the fixed effect of instrument or cuvette position (only for MCP), which was tested on the residual (replicates within samples) variance. The local Alpine sheep breeds displayed similar milk compositions, traditional MCP, and CF modeling parameters. Supplementation with rpCLA triggered changes in milk composition and worsened MCP (e.g., delayed rennet coagulation time, slower CF instant rate constant, and a doubling of syneresis instant rate constant), but did not influence potential CF. Overall, our results indicate that rpCLA supplementation reduced the actual maximum CF (CFmax) but did not modify the interval between rennet addition and CFmax or time to CFmax. PMID:24819130

  3. Effects of Water Deprivation and Season on Some Biochemical Constituents of Blood in Awassi and Najdi Sheep Breeds in Saudi Arabia

    Mohammed Alamer

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of water deprivation and rehydration on some of blood constituents during different seasons in two local sheep breeds of Saudi Arabia, Awassi and Najdi, was investigated. Water deprivation induced significant (P<0.01 elevations in packed cell volume, plasma osmolality, total protein, sodium, creatinine and urea levels which were progressively increased with advance of water deprivation. Moreover, these responses were more pronounced during summer. Glucose levels tended to increase only following three days of water deprivation during summer. Both breeds responded to water deprivation in a similar manner during winter and spring seasons. On the other hand, Najdi breed had consistently higher responses during summer dehydration period particularly for plasma sodium and urea. Rehydration resulted in decline in the determined parameters, but more time was needed to regain normal levels during spring and summer. These results might suggest that there was not any differences in withstanding ability to water deprivation during winter and spring between the two breeds, however Awassi breed might have a better tolerance to dehydration during hot summer.

  4. Polymorphic Study of FecXG, FecGH and FecB Mutations in Four Domestic Sheep Breeds in the Lower Yellow River Valley of China

    Zhi-Xin Fu; Zheng-Zhu Liu,; Du, Li-Xin; Li-Ying Geng; Chuan-Sheng Zhang; Min-Shan Feng; Yuan-Fang Gong

    2011-01-01

    Genetic mutations with major effects on ovulation rate in sheep were recently identified in two genes of the Transforming Growth Factor (TGF) superfamily and a TGF receptor, namely BMP15, GDF9 and BMPRIB. The FecXG, FecGH and FecB were performed to screen four sheep breeds (small tailed Han, Wadi, big tailed Han and Shandi sheep) distributed along the lower Yellow river valley of China by forced PCR-RFLP method if these genes are responsible for their high prolificacies. The FecB mutation was...

  5. Ontogenetic Expression of Lpin2 and Lpin3 Genes and Their Associations with Traits in Two Breeds of Chinese Fat-tailed Sheep

    Jiao, Xiao-Li; Jing, Jiong-Jie; Qiao, Li-Ying; Liu, Jian-Hua; Li, Liu-An; Zhang, Jing; Jia, Xia-Li; Liu, Wen-Zhong

    2016-01-01

    Lipins play dual function in lipid metabolism by serving as phosphatidate phosphatase and transcriptional co-regulators of gene expression. Mammalian lipin proteins consist of lipin1, lipin2, and lipin3 and are encoded by their respective genes Lpin1, Lpin2, and Lpin3. To date, most studies are concerned with Lpin1, only a few have addressed Lpin2 and Lpin3. Ontogenetic expression of Lpin2 and Lpin3 and their associations with traits would help to explore their molecular and physiological functions in sheep. In this study, 48 animals with an equal number of males and females each for both breeds of fat-tailed sheep such as Guangling Large Tailed (GLT) and Small Tailed Han (STH) were chosen to evaluate the ontogenetic expression of Lpin2 and Lpin3 from eight different tissues and months of age by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Associations between gene expression and slaughter and tail traits were also analyzed. The results showed that Lpin2 mRNA was highly expressed in perirenal and tail fats, and was also substantially expressed in liver, kidney, reproductive organs (testis and ovary), with the lowest levels in small intestine and femoral biceps. Lpin3 mRNA was prominently expressed in liver and small intestine, and was also expressed at high levels in kidney, perirenal and tail fats as well as reproductive organs (testis and ovary), with the lowest level in femoral biceps. Global expression of Lpin2 and Lpin3 in GLT both were significantly higher than those in STH. Spatiotemporal expression showed that the highest levels of Lpin2 expression occurred at 10 months of age in two breeds of sheep, with the lowest expression at 2 months of age in STH and at 8 months of age in GLT. The greatest levels of Lpin3 expression occurred at 4 months of age in STH and at 10 months of age in GLT, with the lowest expression at 12 months of age in STH and at 8 months of age in GLT. Breed and age significantly influenced the tissue expression patterns of Lpin2 and Lpin3, respectively, and sex significantly influenced the spatiotemporal expression patterns of Lpin3. Meanwhile, Lpin2 and Lpin3 mRNA expression both showed significant correlations with slaughter and tail traits, and the associations appear to be related with the ontogenetic expression as well as the potential functions of lipin2 and lipin3 in sheep. PMID:26950863

  6. Occurrence of congenital disorders in Swiss sheep.

    Greber, Deborah; Doherr, Marcus; Drögemüller, Cord; Steiner, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND The rates of congenital disorders in Swiss sheep were determined by a questionnaire which was sent to 3,183 members of the Swiss Sheep Breeders' Association. FINDINGS A total of 993 questionnaires were returned, giving a response rate of 31.2%. Of these, 862 questionnaires originated from farms keeping one of the predominant Swiss sheep breeds: Swiss White Alpine sheep, Brown-Headed Meat sheep, Swiss Black Brown Mountain sheep and Valais Blacknose sheep. During a 10-yea...

  7. Sequence analysis and identification of new variations in the coding sequence of melatonin receptor gene (MTNR1A of Indian Chokla sheep breed

    Vijay Kumar Saxena

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Melatonin receptor 1A gene is the prime receptor mediating the effect of melatonin at the neuroendocrine level for control of seasonal reproduction in sheep. The aims of this study were to examine the polymorphism pattern of coding sequence of MTNR1A gene in Chokla sheep, a breed of Indian arid tract and to identify new variations in relation to its aseasonal status. Genomic DNAs of 101 Chokla sheep were collected and an 824 bp coding sequence of Exon II was amplified. RFLP was performed with enzyme RsaI and MnlI to assess the presence of polymorphism at position C606T and G612A, respectively. Genotyping revealed significantly higher frequency of M and R alleles than m and r alleles. RR and MM were found to be dominantly present in the group of studied population. Cloning and sequencing of Exon II followed by mutation/polymorphism analysis revealed ten mutations of which three were non-synonymous mutations (G706A, C893A, G931C. G706A leads to substitution of valine by isoleucine Val125I (U14109 in the fifth transmembrane domain. C893A leads to substitution of alanine by aspartic acid in the third extracellular loop. G931C mutation brings about substitution of amino acid alanine by proline in the seventh transmembrane helix, can affect the conformational stability of the molecule. Polyphen-2 analysis revealed that the polymorphism at position 931 is potentially damaging while the mutations at positions 706 and 893 were benign. It is concluded that G931C mutation of MTNR 1A gene, may explain, in part, the importance of melatonin structure integrity in influencing seasonality in sheep.

  8. Sequence analysis and identification of new variations in the coding sequence of melatonin receptor gene (MTNR1A) of Indian Chokla sheep breed.

    Saxena, Vijay Kumar; Jha, Bipul Kumar; Meena, Amar Singh; Naqvi, S M K

    2014-12-01

    Melatonin receptor 1A gene is the prime receptor mediating the effect of melatonin at the neuroendocrine level for control of seasonal reproduction in sheep. The aims of this study were to examine the polymorphism pattern of coding sequence of MTNR1A gene in Chokla sheep, a breed of Indian arid tract and to identify new variations in relation to its aseasonal status. Genomic DNAs of 101 Chokla sheep were collected and an 824bp coding sequence of Exon II was amplified. RFLP was performed with enzyme RsaI and MnlI to assess the presence of polymorphism at position C606T and G612A, respectively. Genotyping revealed significantly higher frequency of M and R alleles than m and r alleles. RR and MM were found to be dominantly present in the group of studied population. Cloning and sequencing of Exon II followed by mutation/polymorphism analysis revealed ten mutations of which three were non-synonymous mutations (G706A, C893A, G931C). G706A leads to substitution of valine by isoleucine Val125I (U14109) in the fifth transmembrane domain. C893A leads to substitution of alanine by aspartic acid in the third extracellular loop. G931C mutation brings about substitution of amino acid alanine by proline in the seventh transmembrane helix, can affect the conformational stability of the molecule. Polyphen-2 analysis revealed that the polymorphism at position 931 is potentially damaging while the mutations at positions 706 and 893 were benign. It is concluded that G931C mutation of MTNR 1A gene, may explain, in part, the importance of melatonin structure integrity in influencing seasonality in sheep. PMID:25606429

  9. Reproductive pattern of local sheep in Egypt with special reference to the effects of breed, season and management

    The effect of season on ovulation has been monitored in two local breeds of Egyptian ewes - the Barki (desert type), and the Rahmani (fat tailed Nile valley breed), by sequentially measuring cyclic changes in plasma progesterone concentration throughout a period of one year in the absence of any possible ram effect. The modal length of the ovulatory cycle was 17-18 days for both breeds, with the progesterone concentration peaking around day 11. No effect of season on progesterone concentration was apparent for the Barki breed but in the Rahmani, progesterone values were lower (P < 0.05) during the summer than during the autumn months. While the Barki have a restricted breeding season from June to November, the Rahmani have only a short period of anovulation within April. Thirty-three per cent of the Rahmani breed were identified as having cycled throughout the year. (author). 9 refs, 4 figs

  10. Genetic variability of the Brazilian hair sheep breeds Variabilidade genética de raças de ovelhas deslanadas do Brasil

    Samuel Rezende Paiva

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this work were to investigate the genetic structure of the Brazilian hair sheep breeds and to determine the origin of the Santa Inês breed. Molecular similarity was determined using Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA - Polymerase Chain Reaction markers in 238 individuals from five naturalized sheep breeds: Santa Inês (48 animals, Rabo Largo (48, Somali (48, Morada Nova (48 and Bergamasca (46, collected in Goiás, Sergipe, Bahia, and Ceará States as well as in the Federal District. Fifty-four loci were selected from 19 primers, after a pilot test using 140 primers. Qualitative analyses indicate diagnostic markers for all breeds. All breeds were significantly different from each other. Interbreed differences were explained by 14.92% of the total variation. Santa Inês clustered with Bergamasca (97% bootstrap and with Rabo Largo, composing the third member of the group (81% bootstrap while Morada Nova and Somali breeds clustered separately. Each breed should be considered as a separate management and conservation unit, and special care should be taken with Rabo Largo, Morada Nova and Somali breeds, represented by small herds in Brazil.Os objetivos deste trabalho foram identificar a origem racial de ovinos Santa Inês e avaliar a unicidade das populações das principais raças naturalizadas brasileiras de ovinos deslanado. Foi realizado um estudo dos padrões de semelhança molecular a partir de marcadores RAPD-PCR, utilizando-se 238 indivíduos dos Estados de Goiás, Sergipe, Bahia, e Ceará assim como do Distrito Federal, distribuídos entre as raças Santa Inês (48 animais, Bergamácia (46, Rabo Largo (48, Morada Nova (48 e Somali (48. Após triagem com 140 primers, foram selecionados 54 locos a partir de 19 primers e todas as raças apresentaram marcadores específicos. Análises qualitativas mostraram a presença de marcadores diagnóstico-específicos para todas as raças. As diferenças inter-raciais foram significativas e responsáveis por 14,92% da variação total observada. Na análise de agrupamento, a raça Santa Inês ficou próxima à Bergamácia (com 97% de valor bootstrap. A raça Rabo Largo apresentou maior similaridade com este grupo (com 81% bootstrap do que as raças Morada Nova e Somali. Cada raça deve ser considerada como unidade de conservação e manejo, especialmente as raças Rabo Largo, Morada Nova e Somali, as quais apresentam as menores populações no País.

  11. Short communication. Effect of concentrate supplementation and prolificacy on the productive and economic performance of autochthonous sheep breeds fed forage-based diets

    Raimon Ripoll-Bosch

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Sheep farming systems in Spain are experiencing an intensification process, characterised by a general selection criteria of enhancing prolificacy in ewes, and by increasing indoor feeding with concentrates to the detriment of grazing. This study evaluated the effects of concentrate supplementation and prolificacy on productive and economic performance of a local sheep breed in different price scenarios. Ewes were fed forage hay ad libitum, without (in pre-partum period, PRE-HAY; and in post-partum period, POST-HAY or with concentrates (300 g/d in pre-partum period, PRE-CON; and 750 g/d in post-partum period, POST-CON. The inclusion of concentrate during the pre-partum period (last 10 weeks of pregnancy had no effect on the productive performance of the ewes. In contrast, the inclusion of concentrate in the post-partum period (6 weeks, resulted in greater milk yield (1009 vs. 1275 ± 89 g/d, lamb average daily gain (151±12 vs. 225±19 g/d and lamb output (kg of lamb LW weaned. However, the greater productivity thanks to the use of concentrates did not always turn into greatest profitability, since the economic margin was highly influenced by the cost of the diet and extremely subjected to variability in price of concentrates. Hence, the inclusion of concentrates in sheep meat production was not always justified in economic terms. In conclusion, the use of concentrates should only be considered as long as prices of commodities remain low, and inadvisable when prices reach a certain threshold or are subject to certain volatility in markets.

  12. Apical sodium-glucose co-transport can be regulated by blood-borne glucose in the ruminal epithelium of sheep (Ovis aries, Merino breed).

    Atasoglu, Cengiz; Gäbel, Gotthold; Aschenbach, Jörg R

    2004-11-01

    The intestinal Na-dependent D-glucose co-transporter (SGLT)-1 in sheep is under dietary regulation by luminal substrates. The aim of the present study was to find out whether the SGLT-1 in the forestomach of sheep is also regulated by sugars. Furthermore, the location of a possible glucosensor (luminal v. intracellular v. basolateral) was to be elucidated. Ruminal epithelia of sheep (Ovis aries, Merino breed) were pre-incubated in Ussing chambers with various substrates on the mucosal (i.e. luminal) or serosal (i.e. blood) side. This pre-incubation period was followed by a second pre-incubation period without the tested substrates (washout period). Thereafter, apical D-glucose uptake by ruminal epithelial cells was determined with 200 mumol D-[(14)C]glucose/l in the absence or co-presence of the SGLT-1 inhibitor, phlorizin. Pre-incubation with D-glucose on the mucosal side had no significant effect on apical D-glucose uptake (P>0.05). In contrast, pre-incubation with D-glucose, D-mannose, 3-O-methyl-d-glucose or sucrose on the serosal side significantly increased D-glucose uptake compared with mannitol-treated controls (P<0.05). Serosal pre-incubation with cellobiose or D-xylose had no effect. The stimulation of d-glucose uptake by serosal D-glucose pre-incubation was concentration dependent, with maximal stimulation at about 10 mmol/l. We conclude that the ruminal SGLT-1 can be up-regulated in a concentration-dependent manner by blood-borne D-glucose via an extracellular sugar-sensing mechanism. PMID:15533266

  13. Spectroscopic studies of the charge breeding process in high current electron beam ion traps

    Baumann, T. M.; Crespo López-Urrutia, J. R.; Schwarz, S.; Lapierre, A.; Bollen, G.; Kester, O.; Dilling, J.; Ullrich, J.

    2012-11-01

    Electron beam ion traps (EBITs) are a new tool for charge breeding of rare isotope beams. The ionization efficiency of a new high current EBIT recently built at the MPIK was investigated spectroscopically during its commissioning phase.

  14. Water requirements and metabolism of Egyptian sheep and goats as affected by breed, season and physiological status

    Water requirements and metabolism and some physiological and blood characteristics were studied in dry non-pregnant Barki and Rahmani ewes and in Baladi goats during spring, summer and winter seasons. The Rahmani sheep showed greater thermal discomfort than the Barki during the summer season. Pregnancy was associated with a significant increase in body weight and a decline in PCV and total serum protein, and these changes were greater in goats than in sheep. They were accompanied by significant increases in TBW and WTR. All these changes were more pronounced during late pregnancy than during mid-pregnancy, although the effect of stage of pregnancy on TBW did not occur in the Barki ewes. The pregnancy induced changes in total protein and WTR were greater in spring, while those in TBW were greater in winter. The above parameters also showed similar changes during lactation (particularly during early lactation), but lactating animals showed a decrease instead of an increase in body weight. Goats showed greater reductions in body weight, PCV and water t1/2 and greater increases in WTR than sheep during the spring season. Withdrawal of drinking water for four days caused a reduction in body weight, blood glucose and plasma T3 and T4, and an increase in PCV, total serum protein and plasma osmolality. Plasma aldosterone increased slightly during dehydration but increased markedly during the rehydration period, particularly in the Rahmani sheep during the summer season. The above parameters changed similarly when the animals were starved for four days (feed but not water was withheld), but total serum protein showed a decrease instead of an increase. Changes during dehydration were more pronounced in summer, while those during starvation were greater in winter. 32 refs, 4 figs, 2 tabs

  15. BIO-ECOLGICAL PHENOMENON OF POLY-PARASITISM – ACTUAL MAJOR PROBLEM IN BREEDING OF SHEEP AND GOATS

    DOINA ARDELEANU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of a extensive study concerning the parasites andcomplexe problems of the poly-parasitism on sheep and goats in Dobrudja. In thispaper we proposed ourselves to establish the sheep and goats endoparasites, thedistribution and frequency of these function to age, sex and maintenance conditions.The increase of morbidity through parasitical diseases, as well as the ecological andeconomic consequences of poly-parasitism represent a important problem in theintegration conditions of Romania in UE and imposes to apply some efficientmethods of prophylaxis and control of parasitosis and parasito- zoonozis. Thedrawing of copro-parazitologic samples was effected directly from rectum of sheepand goats, testing 10% of each lot, during grazing season and in period of keepingin sheds. The copro-parasitological examinations were carried out ovoscopicaly(flotation, by next methods: Willis, Mc. Master and sediment, by Benedect-Nemesseri and polyvalent methods, as well as larvoscopicaly by Baermann method.After copro-parasitological examinations of samples which were harvested fromthese animals it comes out that both sheep and goats presents poly-parasitism withsporozoa (coccidiae: Eimeria spp. , cestodae (Moniezia expansa and Monieziabenedeni, gastro-intestinal nematodes (Nematodirus spp. ,Trichostrongylidae,Strongyloides papillosus and pulmonary nematodes (Protostrongylus rufescens,Dictyocaulus filaria, Muellerius capillaris, the degree of parasitical infestationdepending on species, age, sex, maintenance conditions and environmental factors.

  16. Fast and efficient charge breeding of the Californium rare isotope breeder upgrade electron beam ion source.

    Ostroumov, P N; Barcikowski, A; Dickerson, C A; Perry, A; Pikin, A I; Sharamentov, S I; Vondrasek, R C; Zinkann, G P

    2015-08-01

    The Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS), developed to breed Californium Rare Isotope Breeder Upgrade (CARIBU) radioactive beams at Argonne Tandem Linac Accelerator System (ATLAS), is being tested off-line. A unique property of the EBIS is a combination of short breeding times, high repetition rates, and a large acceptance. Overall, we have implemented many innovative features during the design and construction of the CARIBU EBIS as compared to the existing EBIS breeders. The off-line charge breeding tests are being performed using a surface ionization source that produces singly charged cesium ions. The main goal of the off-line commissioning is to demonstrate stable operation of the EBIS at a 10 Hz repetition rate and a breeding efficiency into single charge state higher than 15%. These goals have been successfully achieved and exceeded. We have measured (20% ± 0.7%) breeding efficiency into the single charge state of 28+ cesium ions with the breeding time of 28 ms. In general, the current CARIBU EBIS operational parameters can provide charge breeding of any ions in the full mass range of periodic table with high efficiency, short breeding times, and sufficiently low charge-to-mass ratio, 1/6.3 for the heaviest masses, for further acceleration in ATLAS. In this paper, we discuss the parameters of the EBIS and the charge breeding results in a pulsed injection mode with repetition rates up to 10 Hz. PMID:26329185

  17. Fast and efficient charge breeding of the Californium rare isotope breeder upgrade electron beam ion source

    The Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS), developed to breed Californium Rare Isotope Breeder Upgrade (CARIBU) radioactive beams at Argonne Tandem Linac Accelerator System (ATLAS), is being tested off-line. A unique property of the EBIS is a combination of short breeding times, high repetition rates, and a large acceptance. Overall, we have implemented many innovative features during the design and construction of the CARIBU EBIS as compared to the existing EBIS breeders. The off-line charge breeding tests are being performed using a surface ionization source that produces singly charged cesium ions. The main goal of the off-line commissioning is to demonstrate stable operation of the EBIS at a 10 Hz repetition rate and a breeding efficiency into single charge state higher than 15%. These goals have been successfully achieved and exceeded. We have measured (20% ± 0.7%) breeding efficiency into the single charge state of 28+ cesium ions with the breeding time of 28 ms. In general, the current CARIBU EBIS operational parameters can provide charge breeding of any ions in the full mass range of periodic table with high efficiency, short breeding times, and sufficiently low charge-to-mass ratio, 1/6.3 for the heaviest masses, for further acceleration in ATLAS. In this paper, we discuss the parameters of the EBIS and the charge breeding results in a pulsed injection mode with repetition rates up to 10 Hz

  18. Electron beam dynamics and design of electron beam ion-charge breeding source

    There is a requirement to develop an electron beam ion-charge breeding source (EBIBS) to produce a highly charged and highly pure ion beam of common elements as well as rare isotopes. The EBIBS consists of an electron gun chamber, the main solenoid and ionization chamber and an electron collector chamber for attaining highly charged and pure ion beam of species. Some studies have been performed to reach appropriate design of the proposed source, The report explains certain design choices and constraints involved in developing the EBIBS. Trajectory simulation of electron beams in >5A range current has been done to determine the configuration of electrodes and magnet coils appropriate to obtain high current density electron pencil beam at the ionization region in high magnetic field of the superconducting solenoid. The electron beam starts from the high pervious electron gun and dumped on the water cooled electron collector. The background pressure in the trap region should be low enough that one does not produce a significant number of ions from the background gas. An impurity value of the order of ∼5% can be tolerated, so an acceptable range of vacuum in EBIBS, 10-10 - 10-12 mbar, is assumed. Physics design of high perveance electron gun, superconducting solenoid ionization region and the electron collector has been done and is under further study to achieve superior design of the source, The mechanical design of various components and the source bench has been started also. All these developments will be presented in the conference. (author)

  19. Effect of breed of female local sheep on blood biochemical and sexual hormonal levels during mating, pregnancy and lactation

    The present study was carried out to determine the effect of ewes breeds on some blood biochemical and hormones levels during mating, pregnancy and post.partum periods. A total number of 42 ewes, 1.5 . 3.5 years of age with body weight ranged between 45 to 55 kg from breeding flock in Research Farm of Nuclear Research Centre, Atomic Energy Authority were used in this study. Animals were divided into two groups according to their breed. The first group included 18 Ossimi breed ewes and the second group included 24 Rahmani breed ewes. Blood samples were collected from both breed at 10, 20, 30, 50, 100, 120, 140, and 145 days up to parturitions and at 30 and 60 days of post. partum. Serum total lipids and cholesterol, progesterone (P4) and estradiol . 17β (E2) were determined. It was found that Ossimi ewes had lower level of both sexual hormones than Rahmani once. Plasma progesterone and estradiol-17 β levels increased gradually as pregnancy time passed reaching its maximum level at the 140th day of the pregnancy period in Rahmani and Ossimi, then decreased during the last 5 days. Additionally, Rahmani ewes had relatively higher mean values of estradiol-17 β at 30th and 60th days compared with Ossime ewes. While, the least squares mean of progesterone decreased in Rahmani ewes compared with Ossime ewes at the same time of estimation. Ossimi ewes having higher means of total lipids (L) and cholesterol (C) than in Rahmani ewes while, the values of L/C ratio were found to be higher in Rahmani ewes than Ossimi ones. Total lipids level increased gradually from Farghaly et al., J. Rad. Res. Appl. Sci., Vol. 1318 4, No. 4(B) (2011) 10th days of pregnancy from 273.09 and 267.75mg/dI to 342.92 and 338.9 mg/dl in 145th days in Ossimi and Rahmani ewes, respectively. Similarly, the levels of cholesterol were 93.49 and 90.35 mg /dl in 10th days of pregnancy and 134.79 and 141.81 mg/dl in 145th days of pregnancy for Ossimi and Rahmani ewes, respectively. The same trend was found for the plasma value of L/G ratio due to the effect of days of pregnancy

  20. Role of self-sufficiency, productivity and diversification on the economic sustainability of farming systems with autochthonous sheep breeds in less favoured areas in Southern Europe.

    Ripoll-Bosch, R; Joy, M; Bernués, A

    2014-08-01

    Traditional mixed livestock cereal- and pasture-based sheep farming systems in Europe are threatened by intensification and specialisation processes. However, the intensification process does not always yield improved economic results or efficiency. This study involved a group of farmers that raised an autochthonous sheep breed (Ojinegra de Teruel) in an unfavourable area of North-East Spain. This study aimed to typify the farms and elucidate the existing links between economic performance and certain sustainability indicators (i.e. productivity, self-sufficiency and diversification). Information was obtained through direct interviews with 30 farms (73% of the farmers belonging to the breeders association). Interviews were conducted in 2009 and involved 32 indicators regarding farm structure, management and economic performance. With a principal component analysis, three factors were obtained explaining 77.9% of the original variance. This factors were named as inputs/self-sufficiency, which included the use of on-farm feeds, the amount of variable costs per ewe and economic performance; productivity, which included lamb productivity and economic autonomy; and productive orientation, which included the degree of specialisation in production. A cluster analysis identified the following four groups of farms: high-input intensive system; low-input self-sufficient system; specialised livestock system; and diversified crops-livestock system. In conclusion, despite the large variability between and within groups, the following factors that explain the economic profitability of farms were identified: (i) high feed self-sufficiency and low variable costs enhance the economic performance (per labour unit) of the farms; (ii) animal productivity reduces subsidy dependence, but does not necessarily imply better economic performance; and (iii) diversity of production enhances farm flexibility, but is not related to economic performance. PMID:23552287

  1. Características de crescimento para avaliar o desempenho de ovelhas lanadas em cruzamento absorvente Growth characteristics to evaluate the wool sheep performance at cross-breeding

    Sandra Aidar de Queiroz

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de estudar o desempenho produtivo de cruzas de animais lanados, foram utilizados os dados da escrituração zootécnica do rebanho ovino pertencente à FCAV/Unesp, Jaboticabal, SP. Os dados da escrituração foram oriundos de 312 ovelhas, com 129 da raça Ideal, 44 1/2 Ile de France 1/2 Ideal, 98 3/4 Ile de France 1/4 Ideal e 41 7/8 Ile de France 1/8 Ideal, submetidas ao cruzamento absorvente para a raça Ile de France. As análises das características produtivas peso ao nascer, peso ao desmame, peso aos 180 dias, ganho médio diário e tempo para o animal atingir 32kg de peso corporal foram realizadas no SAS (1996. Não foram observadas diferenças entre os genótipos avaliados para as caracteristicas produtivas peso ao nascer, peso ao desmame, e tempo para o animal atingir 32kg de peso corporal com valores médios de 3,08, 15, 67kg e 270,75 dias, respectivamente. Para as características ganho médio diário e peso aos 180 dias, houve efeito significativo para o genótipo 7/8 Ile de France 1/8 Ideal com volores de 0,214 e 40,53kg respectivamente. O sistema de cruzamento utilizado possibilita às próximas gerações características produtivas satisfatórias para produção de carne, e as fêmeas provenientes desses cruzamentos que forem utilizadas para reposição podem aumentar as características produtivas de seus descendentes.In order to study productive and reproductive performance of crossbred sheep, data from the sheep recording of the ovine cattle from Paulista State University, FCAV/Unesp, Jaboticabal, SP, Brazil were used. The record data came from 312 sheep (129 of Polwarth breed, 44 1/2 Ile de France 1/2 Polwarth, 98 3/4 Ile de France 1/4 Polwarth and 41 7/8 Ile de France 1/8 Polwarth submitted to absorber cross-breeding for Ile de France. Productive characteristic analysis: body weight at birth, body weight at weaning, body weight with 180 days, daily weight gain average and necessary period for animals to get 32kg of body weight were carried out at SAS statistical analysis (1996. No significant alterations were observed among the genotypes for the productive characteristics body weight at birth, body weight at weaning and necessary period for animals to get 32kg of body weight with mean values of 3,08, 15, 67kg and 270,75 days, respectively. For the characteristics daily weight gain average and weight with 180 days, there was significant effect for the genotype 7/8 Ile de France 1/8 Ideal with values of 0,214 and 40,53kg, respectively. The type of cross-breeding used gives the possibility for the next generation to have satisfactory productive characteristics for meat production, as the females of this cross-bred can increase the productive characteristics of their descendents.

  2. Relationship of intestinal histology with the resistance to Trichostrongylus colubriformis infection in three breeds of sheep Associação entre a resposta celular no intestino e a resistência à infecção por Trichostrongylus colubriformis em três raças de ovinos

    Alessandro F.T. Amarante; Raquel A. Rocha; Patrizia A. Bricarello

    2007-01-01

    The study was carried out to evaluate the relationship of inflammatory intestinal cells with the resistance to Trichostrongylus colubriformis infections in three breeds of sheep (Santa Ines, Suffolk and Ile de France), naturally infected. Mast cells, eosinophils, and globule leucocytes were enumerated in intestinal mucosa. Histamine concentration was estimated in intestinal tissue samples and the length of male and female specimens were determined. The three breeds of sheep showed similar cel...

  3. Application of PCR-RFLP technique to determine Booroola gene polymorphism in the Sangsari sheep breed of Iran

    Jamshidi, Reza; KASIRIAN, Mohammad Mahdi; RAHIMI, Ghodrat Allah

    2013-01-01

    Phenotypic evaluation and the culling of candidate animals for traits by applying traditional animal breeding are usually costly tasks, which need to be carried out over a considerable span of time. The use of molecular genetics as an alternative method enables animal breeders to select eligible animals for the desirable trait, or traits, at earlier ages. Selection based upon markers could result in increased accuracy as well as a better selection response of animals. The Booroola gene has lo...

  4. The farm animal genetic resources of Turkey: sheep – II – crossbreed and extinct genotypes/breeds

    Yılmaz, Orhan; Wilson, Richard Trevor; Cengiz, Fırat; ERTUĞRUL, Mehmet

    2012-01-01

    Biodiversity richness indicates the economic and genetic wealth of a country. Turkey is like a bridge between Europe and Asia; hence it has been used by traders, travellers or intruders for centuries which resulted with the existence of considerably different kinds of domestic animals. Although some of the genotypes are extinct or are crucially under the risk of extinction, the domestic livestock resources of Turkey have not been adequately appraised. On one hand new breeds are created by hum...

  5. Application of Random Regression Model to Estimate Genetic Parameters for Average Daily Gains in Lori-Bakhtiari Sheep Breed of Iran

    H. Farhangfar

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A random regression model was applied to estimate (co variances, heritabilities and additive genetic correlations among average daily gains. The data was a total of 10876 records belonging to 1828 lambs (progenies of 123 sires and 743 dams born between 1995 and 2001 in a single large size flock of Lori-Bakhtiari sheep breed in Iran. In the model, fixed environmental effects of year-season of birth, sex, birth type, age of dam and random effects of direct and maternal additive genetic and permanent environment were included. Orthogonal polynomial regression (on the Legendre scale of third order (cubic was utilized to model the genetic and permanent environmental (co variance structure throughout the growth trajectory. Direct and maternal heritability estimates of average daily gains ranged from 0.011 to 0.131 and 0.008 to 0.181, respectively in which pre-weaning average daily gain (0-3 in months had the lowest direct and highest maternal heritability estimates among the other age groups. The highest and lowest positive direct additive genetic correlations were found to be 0.993 and 0.118 between ADG (0-9 and ADG (0-12 and between ADG (0-3 and ADG (0-12, respectively. The direct additive genetic correlations between adjacent age groups were more closely than between remote age groups.

  6. Urea concentration in sheeps milk

    Jasmina Havranek

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Determining urea concentration in milk is a useful indicator for controlling supply of proteins to organisms, as well as the relationship of energy and protein in the food, thus it is finding more and more ways of practical use. The concentration of urea in milk, along with the feeding process, is influenced by a number of other factors such as: breed, stage and sequence of lactation, body mass, daily production and chemical structure of milk, number of somatic cells, season, milking.The goal of the research was to establish the influence of the breed (Island of Krk, East Frisian, lactation stage (beginning, middle and the end and the herd (3 to the concentration of urea in milk during lactation.For each breed there has been established daily quantity of milk, protein share and the concentration of urea in milk.Statistical analysis of data was conducted by using General Linear Models procedure, SAS program system (1999.The breed of sheep considerably (P<0.001 influenced daily quantity of milk, protein share and the concentration of urea in the milk.East Frisian sheep produced on average almost double the daily quantities of milk (1070 mL compared to the Krk sheep (588 mL.Protein share and the urea concentration in Krk sheep milk were higher (5.99 % and 35.97 mg/100 mL then in the milk of East Frisian sheep (5.12 % and 33.31 mg/100 mL.For both breeds the significant influence of lactation stage to the daily milk quantity has been established (0.001, that is also for the urea concentration in the milk of Krk sheep (0.001, as well as protein share in the milk of East Frisian sheep (0.001.Herd influence significantly affected daily milk quantities (0.001 and concentration of urea in the milk (0.05.The defining of the urea concentration in sheep milk should be occasionally carried out in the Republic of Croatia to establish the standard physiological values typical for the particular sheep breed.

  7. Demonstration of charge breeding in a compact room temperature electron beam ion trap.

    Vorobjev, G; Sokolov, A; Thorn, A; Herfurth, F; Kester, O; Quint, W; Stöhlker, Th; Zschornack, G

    2012-05-01

    For the first time, a small room-temperature electron beam ion trap (EBIT), operated with permanent magnets, was successfully used for charge breeding experiments. The relatively low magnetic field of this EBIT does not contribute to the capture of the ions; single-charged ions are only caught by the space charge potential of the electron beam. An over-barrier injection method was used to fill the EBIT's electrostatic trap with externally produced, single-charged potassium ions. Charge states as high as K(19+) were reached after about a 3 s breeding time. The capture and breeding efficiencies up to 0.016(4)% for K(17+) have been measured. PMID:22667612

  8. Demonstration of charge breeding in a compact room temperature electron beam ion trap

    Vorobjev, G.; Sokolov, A.; Herfurth, F.; Kester, O.; Quint, W.; Stoehlker, Th. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Planckstrasse 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Thorn, A.; Zschornack, G. [Fachrichtung Physik, Technische Universitaet Dresden, Helmholtzstrasse 10, 01069 Dresden (Germany)

    2012-05-15

    For the first time, a small room-temperature electron beam ion trap (EBIT), operated with permanent magnets, was successfully used for charge breeding experiments. The relatively low magnetic field of this EBIT does not contribute to the capture of the ions; single-charged ions are only caught by the space charge potential of the electron beam. An over-barrier injection method was used to fill the EBIT's electrostatic trap with externally produced, single-charged potassium ions. Charge states as high as K{sup 19+} were reached after about a 3 s breeding time. The capture and breeding efficiencies up to 0.016(4)% for K{sup 17+} have been measured.

  9. Differential Gene Expression in Ovaries of Qira Black Sheep and Hetian Sheep Using RNA-Seq Technique

    Chen, Han Ying; Shen, Hong; JIA, BIN; Zhang, Yong Sheng; Wang, Xu Hai; Zeng, Xian Cun

    2015-01-01

    The Qira black sheep and the Hetian sheep are two local breeds in the Northwest of China, which are characterized by high-fecundity and low-fecundity breed respectively. The elucidation of mRNA expression profiles in the ovaries among different sheep breeds representing fecundity extremes will helpful for identification and utilization of major prolificacy genes in sheep. In the present study, we performed RNA-seq technology to compare the difference in ovarian mRNA expression profiles betwee...

  10. Status of charge breeding with electron cyclotron resonance ion sources (invited)

    Lamy, T; Sortais, P; Thuillier, T; 10.1063/1.2149300

    2006-01-01

    Due to the production methods of exotic nuclei, an efficient acceleration of radioactive ion beams needs charge breeding of weakly charged ions. The upgrade of existing isotope separator on-line facilities (TRIUMF-isotope separation and acceleration, CERN-isotope separation on-line detector, etc.) or the development of projects for the acceleration of radioactive ion beams (GANIL-SPIRAL2, MAFF, EURISOL, etc.) requires charge breeders with high efficiency, fast charge breeding time, low background levels, and high intensity acceptance either in continuous or in pulsed mode. The optimization of these parameters is a challenge for the electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) community and is useful to get a better understanding of plasma physics in ECR ion sources (ECRISs). The ECR charge breeding technique has been developed for more than ten years at LPSC (former ISN) Grenoble, typical 1+rightward arrown+ efficiencies are in the 3%-10% range depending on the nature of the incoming beam (metallic, alkaline, and gaseo...

  11. Estimativas de parmetros genticos para caractersticas de crescimento em ovinos da raa Somalis Brasileira Genetic parameters estimates for growth traits in Somalis Brasileira hair sheep breed

    Ana Fabrcia Braga Magalhes

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se estimar parmetros genticos para caractersticas de crescimento em ovinos da raa Somalis Brasileira. Os dados utilizados neste estudo foram provenientes do rebanho da Embrapa Caprinos e Ovinos, localizado na cidade de Sobral - CE. Os dados continham registros de 1.120 animais no arquivo de pedigree. As caractersticas analisadas foram: peso ao nascer (PN, peso ao desmame (PD, ganho de peso do nascimento ao desmame (GND e peso adulto (PA. As estimativas dos componentes de (covarincias e os parmetros genticos foram obtidos pelo mtodo da Mxima Verossimilhana Restrita no Derivativa (DFREML, utilizando o programa MTDFREML. Nas anlises unicaracterstica, as herdabilidades foram de magnitude baixa a moderada. As magnitudes das herdabilidades maternas foram todas superiores s herdabilidades diretas. As herdabilidades das anlises multicaractersticas entre PN, PD e GND superaram as anlises unicaractersticas. As correlaes genticas apresentaram grande variao quanto aos seus valores.The aim of this study was to estimate genetic parameters for growth traits in Somalis Brasileira hair sheep breed. The data used in this study were from the flock of Embrapa Caprinos and Ovinos, located in the city of Sobral - CE, Brazil. Data contained records of 1,120 animals in the pedigree file. The analyzed traits were birth weight (PN, weaning weight (PD, weight gain from birth to weaning (GND and adult weight (PA. Estimates of (covariances and genetic parameters were obtained by Derivative Free Restricted Maximum Likelihood Method (DFREML using the MTDFREML software. The heritabilities were low to moderate in univariate analysis. The maternal heritabilities were higher than direct heritabilities. The heritabilities in multivariate analysis exceeded those in univariate analysis. The values of genetic correlations varied widely.

  12. Polymorphism of the CSN1s1 casein gene in position 663 in Polish lowland sheep breeds from the Podlasie region

    Roman Ni?nikowski

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The studies were conducted on 431 sheep (406? and 25? of three varieties of Polish lowland sheep: ?elazna sheep, corriedale sheep and Polish lowland sheep from the Podlasie region. All animals were subjected to the identification of the alpha-S1 casein gene CSN1S1. On the basis of the research two alleles (C and T and three genotypes (CC, CT and TT were identified. A balanced frequency of alleles C and T in all investigated varieties was identified, which translated into a balanced distribution of genotypes: the T allele and the TT genotype occurred more frequently than C allele and CC and CT genotypes. There was significantly higher frequency of C allele and lower of T allele in ewes compared to rams in all studied varieties. The study concluded that in the frequency of alleles and genotypes of casein gene alpha-S1 in position 663 the genetic alignments in all three varieties of Polish lowland sheep were observed.

  13. Both gas chromatography and an electronic nose reflect chemical polymorphism of juniper shrubs browsed or avoided by sheep.

    Markó, Gábor; Novák, Ildikó; Bernáth, Jeno; Altbäcker, Vilmos

    2011-07-01

    Chemical polymorphism may contribute to variation in browsing damage by mammalian herbivores. Earlier, we demonstrated that essential oil concentration in juniper, Juniperus communis, was negatively associated with herbivore browsing. The aim of the present study was to characterize the volatile chemical composition of browsed and non-browsed J. communis. By using either gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID) or an electronic nose device, we could separate sheep-browsed or non-browsed juniper shrubs by their essential oil pattern and complex odor matrix. The main components of the essential oil from J. communis were monoterpenes. We distinguished three chemotypes, dominated either by α-pinene, sabinene, or δ-3-carene. Shrubs belonging to the α-pinene- or sabinene-dominated groups were browsed, whereas all individuals with the δ-3-carene chemotype were unused by the local herbivores. The electronic nose also separated the browsed and non-browsed shrubs indicating that their odor matrix could guide sheep browsing. Responses of sheep could integrate the post-ingestive effects of plant secondary metabolites with sensory experience that stems from odor-phytotoxin interactions. Chemotype diversity could increase the survival rate in the present population of J. communis as certain shrubs could benefit from relatively better chemical protection against the herbivores. PMID:21626295

  14. Udder Morphological Traits and Milk Yield of Chilota and Suffolk Down Sheep Breeds Morfología Mamaria y Producción Lechera de las Razas Ovinas Chilota y Suffolk Down

    María E Martínez

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Morphological traits of the whole udder (circumference, width, height, and length, teats (angle, length and width, udder cistern (teat opening and cistern height, and milk yield were measured over one lactation in a total of 18 ewes (nine Chilota and nine Suffolk Down sheep belonging to the same experimental flock (Centro Experimental INIA Butalcura, Chiloé, Chile. Analysis of variance showed significant effects for breed, sheep within breed, and stage of lactation. Chilota ewes evidenced greater udder circumference (433 mm, udder length (86 mm, teat opening (96º, and milk yield (947 mL d-1 than Suffolk Down ewes (410 mm, 77 mm, 93º, and 559 mL d-1, respectively. Udder circumference, udder width, udder length, cistern height and teat size significantly decreased throughout lactation. Repeatabilities of all traits were between 0.17 and 0.60; the highest repeatability was for udder circumference. This trait is easy to measure and had a discriminatory value for breed differentiation. In conclusion, Chilota sheep had a dairy aptitude greater than Suffolk Down sheep and similar to Spanish and Mediterranean dairy sheep breeds at beginning of their breeding programs.Los caracteres morfológicos de la ubre (perímetro, anchura, longitud y altura, de los pezones (ángulo de inclinación, longitud y anchura, de las cisternas mamarias (apertura de los pezones y altura de la cisterna y la producción lechera fueron medidos a lo largo de una lactación en un total de 18 ovejas del mismo rebaño (Centro Experimental INIA Butalcura, Chiloé, Chile, nueve de raza Chilota y nueve de raza Suffolk Down. El análisis de varianza mostró efectos significativos de la raza, la oveja dentro de la raza y del estado de lactación sobre las variables estudiadas. La raza Chilota evidenció un mayor perímetro de la ubre (433 mm, longitud de la ubre (86 mm, abertura de los pezones (96º, y producción lechera (947 mL d-1 que la Suffolk Down ( 410 mm, 77 mm, 93º, y 559 mL d-1, respectivamente. El perímetro, longitud y anchura de la ubre, junto con la altura de las cisternas y el tamaño de los pezones disminuyeron significativamente a medida que avanzó la lactación. Las repetibilidades de todos los caracteres estudiados oscilaron entre 0.17 y 0.60. La mayor repetibilidad se encontró en el perímetro de la ubre; este carácter es fácil de medir y posee poder discriminante para la diferenciación racial. Se concluye que la raza Chilota posee una aptitud lechera superior a la Suffolk Down y similar a la de las razas españolas y mediterráneas al inicio de sus programas de selección lechera.

  15. Conservation genetics in Chinese sheep: diversity of fourteen indigenous sheep (Ovis aries) using microsatellite markers

    E, Guang‐Xin; Zhong, Tao; Ma, Yue‐Hui; Gao, Hui‐Jiang; He, Jian‐Ning; Liu, Nan; Zhao, Yong‐Ju; Zhang, Jia‐Hua; Huang, Yong‐Fu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The domestic sheep (Ovis aries) has been an economically and culturally important farm animal species since its domestication around the world. A wide array of sheep breeds with abundant phenotypic diversity exists including domestication and selection as well as the indigenous breeds may harbor specific features as a result of adaptation to their environment. The objective of this study was to investigate the population structure of indigenous sheep in a large geographic location of...

  16. Efectos Genticos Directo y Materno sobre el Crecimiento de Ovinos de la Raza Junn / Direct and maternal genetic effects on the growth of Junn sheep breed

    Digenes, Valerio; Gustavo, Gutirrez; Juan, Chvez.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de estimar los efectos genticos - directo y materno - vinculados a la expresin de caractersticas de crecimiento en corderos de la raza Junn, se aplicaron cuatro modelos mixtos en el estudio de sus pesos de nacimiento (PN), destete (PD), primera esquila (PE) y ganancia diaria del [...] nacimiento al destete (GPND), a travs de anlisis univariado y bivariado. Los modelos usados en anlisis univariado incluyeron como efectos fijos el ao de nacimiento y sexo, y como covariables el peso de la madre al empadre (para PN y PD), la edad del cordero al destete (para PD y GPND) y la edad a la primera esquila (para PE). El Modelo 1 incluy los efectos fijos y el efecto gentico aditivo directo (a); el Modelo 2, similar al 1, adicion el efecto gentico aditivo materno (m), considerando la Cov am= 0; en el Modelo 3, igual al 2, se asumi la Cov = A? ; y el Modelo 4, igual al 3, se adicion el efecto del ambiente permanente materno (c). Los modelos para el anlisis bivariado fueron extensiones del univariado, emplendose en todos los anlisis el mtodo de mxima verosimilitud restringida (REML), instrumentado en el programa ASReml. En el anlisis univariado, el Modelo 2, y en el bivariado el Modelo 3, estimaron mejor los parmetros genticos, incluidas las correlaciones entre los efectos aditivos directos y maternos para las caractersticas. Los valores estimados de heredabilidad variaron entre bajos y moderados, indicando la posibilidad de ser aplicados en planes de mejora gentica del ovino Junn, los mismos que incrementaran su eficiencia al adicionarse a ellos los valores, entre moderados y altos, de las correlaciones genticas y fenotpicas estimadas. Abstract in english In order to estimate the genetic effects - direct and maternal - linked to the expression of growth traits in lambs of Junn breed, four mixed models were applied in the study of the birth weight (PN), weaning weight (PD), first shearing weight (PE) and daily body weight gain from birth to weaning ( [...] GPND), through univariate and bivariate analysis. The models used in univariate analysis included as fixed effects year of birth and sex, and as covariates the mothers weight at mating (for PN and PD), age of lamb at weaning (for PD and GPND), and age at first shearing (for PE). Model 1 included the fixed effects and the direct additive genetic effect (a); Model 2, similar to 1, added additive maternal genetic effect (m), considering Cov am=0; Model 3, similar to 2, assumed Cov=A? ; and Model 4, equal to 3, added the maternal permanent environmental effect (c). All bivariate models were extensions of the univariate ones. In all the analyses, the restricted maximum likelihood (REML) method, implemented in the ASReml program was applied. Univariate Model 2 and bivariate Model 3 estimated the best genetic parameters, including correlations between direct and maternal additive effects for the traits. The estimated heritability values ranged from low to moderate, indicating the possibility of its application in genetic improvement plans for Junn sheep, which would increase its efficiency when the estimated, moderate to high genetic and phenotypic correlations are also included.

  17. Breeding programme and infrastructure

    Zonabend König, Emelie

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to study potential breeding strategies for indigenous livestock in Eastern and Southern Africa under low input production systems. The thesis covered a study of the status of supportive infrastructure for use of animal genetic resources. The case of Red Maasai sheep was studied as a model for design of strategies for improvement of an indigenous breed under threat. Studies [I-II] were performed through participatory approaches by use of structured interviews, while ...

  18. Charge breeding results and future prospects with electron cyclotron resonance ion source and electron beam ion source (invited).

    Vondrasek, R; Levand, A; Pardo, R; Savard, G; Scott, R

    2012-02-01

    The Californium Rare Ion Breeder Upgrade (CARIBU) of the Argonne National Laboratory ATLAS facility will provide low-energy and reaccelerated neutron-rich radioactive beams for the nuclear physics program. A 70 mCi (252)Cf source produces fission fragments which are thermalized and collected by a helium gas catcher into a low-energy particle beam with a charge of 1+ or 2+. An electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source functions as a charge breeder in order to raise the ion charge sufficiently for acceleration in the ATLAS linac. The final CARIBU configuration will utilize a 1 Ci (252)Cf source to produce radioactive beams with intensities up to 10(6) ions?s for use in the ATLAS facility. The ECR charge breeder has been tested with stable beam injection and has achieved charge breeding efficiencies of 3.6% for (23)Na(8+), 15.6% for (84)Kr(17+), and 13.7% for (85)Rb(19+) with typical breeding times of 10 ms?charge state. For the first radioactive beams, a charge breeding efficiency of 11.7% has been achieved for (143)Cs(27+) and 14.7% for (143)Ba(27+). The project has been commissioned with a radioactive beam of (143)Ba(27+) accelerated to 6.1 MeV?u. In order to take advantage of its lower residual contamination, an EBIS charge breeder will replace the ECR charge breeder in the next two years. The advantages and disadvantages of the two techniques are compared taking into account the requirements of the next generation radioactive beam facilities. PMID:22380254

  19. Occurrence of caseous lymphadenitis in sheep breed Santa Ines with surface reactive lymph nodes at Uberlândia region, Minas Gerais

    Vinícius de Morais Barbosa

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to evaluate the occurrence of caseous lymphadenitis and tuberculosis in Santa Ines sheep, with the presence of reactive superficial lymph nodes on clinical examination, it was examined 650 adult animals, between one and four years of age from 11 farms in the region of Uberlândia, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Tuberculin cervical comparative test (CCT was performed, as well as microbiological culture and polymerase chain reaction technique (PCR for positive cultures and serum samples for Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis identification. From the total of 650 sheep examined, 14.6% (96/650 had at least one presented swelling superficial lymph node, and the frequency was: pre-scapular reactive lymph nodes (41.9%, submandibular (38.1%, parotid (14 3% and pre-crural (5.7%. The microbiological culture punctured material showed growth of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis in 81.8% of the samples (18/22, Staphylococcus sp and Escherichia coli in 4.6% (1/22 and no growth in 13.6% (3/22. All 18 samples of the culture of C. pseudotuberculosis were positive by PCR and only (3/22 serum samples positive by PCR. The TCC made of 96 sheep, 93 negative tests and 3 inconclusive. It is concluded that in Santa Inês sheep with the presence of swelling in superficial lymph node, the incidence of caseous lymphadenitis was 81.8% (18/22 and 3.1% (3/96 of animals were inconclusive in the tuberculin cervical comparative test.

  20. Identification of Morphometry and Carcass Composition of Local Sheep at Different Growth Rate

    M Yamin; S Rahayu; Komariah .; M. Iswahyudi; R. Rachman

    2012-01-01

    Sheep fattening farms have been recently growing rapidly to produce better quality of sheep meat and fullfill consumer’s demand. Sheep fattening and breeding farms should be developed proportionally to obtain sustainable sheep flock in the market. Twelve male lambs (less than one year old) were selected based on their average daily gain (ADG), consisting into two groups: 6 fast growing (FG) and 6 slow growing (SG) sheep. Some morphometric parameters in body and head parts of sheep and their c...

  1. Conservation genetics in Chinese sheep: diversity of fourteen indigenous sheep (Ovis aries) using microsatellite markers.

    E, Guang-Xin; Zhong, Tao; Ma, Yue-Hui; Gao, Hui-Jiang; He, Jian-Ning; Liu, Nan; Zhao, Yong-Ju; Zhang, Jia-Hua; Huang, Yong-Fu

    2016-02-01

    The domestic sheep (Ovis aries) has been an economically and culturally important farm animal species since its domestication around the world. A wide array of sheep breeds with abundant phenotypic diversity exists including domestication and selection as well as the indigenous breeds may harbor specific features as a result of adaptation to their environment. The objective of this study was to investigate the population structure of indigenous sheep in a large geographic location of the Chinese mainland. Six microsatellites were genotyped for 611 individuals from 14 populations. The mean number of alleles (SD) ranged from 7.003.69 in Gangba sheep to 10.504.23 in Tibetan sheep. The observed heterozygote frequency (SD) within a population ranged from 0.580.03 in Gangba sheep to 0.710.03 in Zazakh sheep and Minxian black fur sheep. In addition, there was a low pairwise difference among the Minxian black fur sheep, Mongolian sheep, Gansu alpine merino, and Lanzhou fat-tailed sheep. Bayesian analysis with the program STRUCTURE showed support for 3 clusters, revealing a vague genetic clustering pattern with geographic location. The results of the current study inferred high genetic diversity within these native sheep in the Chinese mainland. PMID:26865968

  2. The influence of selected genes on sheep performance traits

    Magdalena KOLENDA; Daria Karwowska; Beata SITKOWSKA; Ewa Grochowska; Dominika PIETRUSZYNSKA

    2014-01-01

    In order to enhance breeding progress, genes that affect the performance of sheep are being identified. In Poland, sheep breeding programs focus mainly on meat performance, therefore, it is important to identify genes that affect it. Moreover, studies on reproductive performance of sheep have been made. Myostatin (GDF8), calpastatin (CAST) and calpain have been identified as the candidate genes affecting meat quality. Whereas, BMP15 and GDF9, also called fertility genes (Fec), have been repor...

  3. Revealing the history of domesticated sheep using retrovirus integrations

    Chessa, Bernado; Pereira, Filipe; Arnaud, Frederick; Amorim, Antonio; Goyache, Félix; Mainland, Ingrid; Kao, Rowland R; Pemberton, Josephine M; Beraldi, Dario; Stear, Michael J; Alberti, Alberto; Pittau, Marco; Iannuzzi, Leopoldo; Banabazi, Mohammad H; Kazwala, Rudovick R; Zhang, Ya-ping; Arranz, Juan J; Ali, Bahy A; Wang, Zhiliang; Uzun, Metehan; Dione, Michel M; Olsaker, Ingrid; Holm, Lars-Erik; Saarma, Urmas; Ahmad, Sohail; Marzanov, Nurbiy; Eythorsdottir, Emma; Holland, Martin J; Ajmone-Marsan, Paolo; Bruford, Michael W; Kantanen, Juha; Spencer, Thomas E; Palmarini, Massimo

    2009-01-01

    The domestication of livestock represented a crucial step in human history. By using endogenous retroviruses as genetic markers, we found that sheep differentiated on the basis of their "retrotype" and morphological traits dispersed across Eurasia and Africa via separate migratory episodes. Relicts...... production traits, shaped the great majority of present-day breeds. The ability to differentiate genetically primitive sheep from more modern breeds provides valuable insights into the history of sheep domestication...

  4. Effect of strategic shearing on feeding behavior in Ile de France sheep in Bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon cv Vaquero grazing during breeding season

    Luís Gabriel Alves Cirne

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The experiment evaluated the effects of strategic shearing on feeding behavior in Ile de France ewes in Bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon grazing during breeding season. A total of 20 ewes, female, Ile de France breed, 4 years old, 71.10 kg of body weight, in grazing, in a completely randomized design with two treatments and ten repetitions, in which the treatments were composed by shorn and non-shorn animals. The length of the breeding season was 90 days, where the evaluations occurred in the 86th, 87th and 88th day of the experimental period. The grazing time (6.50 hours, rumination (1.59 hours and idle (3.97 hours have not changed (P> 0.05 by strategic shearing of the animals, as well as the frequency and the time by frequency grazing (18.33 grazing and 21.49 min/grazing, rumination (10.71 ruminations and 8.83 min/rumination and idle (18.83 idles and 12.66 min/idle. In the same way, the number of bits per minute (26.37 bits and the total daily bits (19.116 bits of the animals were not affected. Thus, the strategic shearing in Ile de France ewes in Bermudagrass grazing during the breeding season does not alter animal feeding behavior.

  5. Genetic relationships among Turkish sheep

    Kaya Mehmet; Saatci Mustafa; Primitivo Fermín; Arranz Juan-José; Gutiérrez-Gil Beatriz; Uzun Metehan; Bayón Yolanda

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Genetic relationships among Turkish sheep breeds were analysed on the basis of 30 microsatellite markers. Phylogenetic analyses based on the estimation of genetic distances revealed the closest relationships for the Akkaraman, Morkaraman and Tuj breeds, which were clearly differentiated from the others in the dendrogram. Our pattern was completely confirmed by results from the Factorial Correspondence Analysis. All the results described analysing either population parameters or indiv...

  6. Immune Responses Associated with Resistance to Haemonchosis in Sheep

    Fernando Alba-Hurtado; Marco Antonio Muñoz-Guzmán

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the known immunological and genetic factors associated with sheep resistance to infection by Haemonchus contortus. Such resistance is an inheritable genetic trait (h 2, 0.22–0.63) associated with certain sheep breeds. Resistant sheep do not completely reject the disease; they only harbor fewer parasites than susceptible sheep and therefore have a lower fecal egg count. Protective immune response to haemonchosis is an expression of genetic resistance. Genes associated with ...

  7. Behavioural changes and aversive conditioning in hunting dogs by the second-year confrontation with domestic sheep.

    Christiansen, F O.; Bakken, M; Braastad, B O.

    2001-04-26

    Domesticated dogs occasionally exhibit predatory behaviour towards domestic sheep when running loose in pasture. Both young and old dogs of either sex may chase sheep. Electronic dog collars applying electric shocks are utilised as one method of training dogs to refrain from attacking sheep. This device is used for a number of other training purposes which have raised concern for the welfare of the dogs being trained. This study aims at testing long-term learning effects of previous sheep tests on sheep chasing in hunting dog breeds (Norwegian elkhounds (grey), English setters, and hare hunting dogs), in particular with use of electronic dog collars, in addition to uncovering potential secondary negative effects on dogs' behaviour and mental stability. The dogs (N=114) were subjected to three tests for two subsequent years, the second year being reported here. Dogs were tested for reactions to different stimuli, including a sheep, in a path test. In a sheep confrontation test, dogs were fenced in with a sheep group and given el. shocks when approaching 1-2m from sheep. A questionnaire to the dog owners reported differences in dogs' behaviour between the years.Dogs showed weaker or delayed behavioural responses in both tests in the second year. No dogs showed interest in or attacked a lone sheep in the path test in the second year, while almost two thirds of them did so the first year. In the sheep confrontation test, the dogs exhibited comparatively hesitant initial hunting motivation the second year, being more evident in dogs which received el. shocks the first year. No dogs chased or attacked sheep as their first response in this test, while half of them did so the first year. The proportion of dogs attacking sheep during the entire test was reduced to almost one fourth. The number of el. shocks administered reduced by the second year, and only one of the dogs that received el. shocks the first year received el. shocks the second year. The owners reported no negative effect on the dogs' behaviour during the year ensuing el. shock treatment. Eighteen of the 24 dogs reported by owners to exhibit behavioural changes lost their previous interest in sheep.The second-year tests indicate that aversive conditioning with the use of electronic dog collar may be an efficient method for reducing the probability of a dog chasing or attacking grazing sheep. No adverse effects were observed with our test procedure. PMID:11278032

  8. HERITABILITY AND BREEDING VALUE OF SHEEP FERTILITY ESTIMATED BY MEANS OF THE GIBBS SAMPLING METHOD USING THE LINEAR AND THRESHOLD MODELS

    DARIUSZ Piwczynski

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The research was carried out on 4,030 Polish Merino ewes born in the years 1991- 2001, kept in 15 flocks from the Pomorze and Kujawy region. Fertility of ewes in subsequent reproduction seasons was analysed with the use of multiple logistic regression. The research showed that there is a statistical influence of the flock, year of birth, age of dam, flock year interaction of birth on the ewes fertility. In order to estimate the genetic parameters, the Gibbs sampling method was applied, using the univariate animal models, both linear as well as threshold. Estimates of fertility depending on the model equalled 0.067 to 0.104, whereas the estimates of repeatability equalled respectively: 0.076 and 0.139. The obtained genetic parameters were then used to estimate the breeding values of the animals in terms of controlled trait (Best Linear Unbiased Prediction method using linear and threshold models. The obtained animal breeding values rankings in respect of the same trait with the use of linear and threshold models were strongly correlated with each other (rs = 0.972. Negative genetic trends of fertility (0.01-0.08% per year were found.

  9. Differential gene expression in ovaries of Qira black sheep and Hetian sheep using RNA-Seq technique.

    Chen, Han Ying; Shen, Hong; Jia, Bin; Zhang, Yong Sheng; Wang, Xu Hai; Zeng, Xian Cun

    2015-01-01

    The Qira black sheep and the Hetian sheep are two local breeds in the Northwest of China, which are characterized by high-fecundity and low-fecundity breed respectively. The elucidation of mRNA expression profiles in the ovaries among different sheep breeds representing fecundity extremes will helpful for identification and utilization of major prolificacy genes in sheep. In the present study, we performed RNA-seq technology to compare the difference in ovarian mRNA expression profiles between Qira black sheep and Hetian sheep. From the Qira black sheep and the Hetian sheep libraries, we obtained a total of 11,747,582 and 11,879,968 sequencing reads, respectively. After aligning to the reference sequences, the two libraries included 16,763 and 16,814 genes respectively. A total of 1,252 genes were significantly differentially expressed at Hetian sheep compared with Qira black sheep. Eight differentially expressed genes were randomly selected for validation by real-time RT-PCR. This study provides a basic data for future research of the sheep reproduction. PMID:25790350

  10. Aspects Regarding the Coprological Pollution Level in Some Sheep Helminthiasis

    Octavian Negrea

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The investigations on the incidence and intensity of parasitism in some endoparasytes in sheep performed on 376 animals (260 sheep and 116 young adult sheep Turcana breed, Gil?u area, Cluj County, indicated an increased incidence in trihostrongilidys of 72.7% in young sheep and 65.0% in adult sheep. The incidence of monesya had different values ??depending on age group, 45.5% at young sheep and 10.0% in adult sheep. The data obtained regarding the prevalence of hepatobiliary trematodsys of sheep in the study, indicates similar values ??for the two categories, 27.2% young sheep and 30.0% for adult sheep. Instead the extensivity of lung strongilatosys showed notable differences between the two groups of animals, 18.1% at young sheep and 35.0% in adult sheep. The cop microscopic pollution degree with trihostrongily eggs in correlation with age group, indicated a dominance of low infestation (50% young sheep and 61.5% adult sheep. In exchange, the data obtained on parasitism intensity with cestode oncospheres expresses a dominance of medium infestation (60.0% in young sheep and the low (10.0% in adult sheep. The intensity level of Hepatobiliary trematodosys parasitism in the young sheep showed a dominance of small and medium infestations (37.5% and in adult sheep are dominant only at low infestations (45.4%. The larvae strongilatosys parasitism intensity in the lung detected similar values ??in the two age groups (50.0% in young sheep and 17.2% in adult sheep.

  11. Mineral requirements of dairy sheep

    The mineral requirements of dairy sheep under semi-intensive and intensive management systems are reviewed. Basically, mineral requirements obtained with mutton breeds are supplemented with specific information obtained with dairy sheep. The daily requirements of sheep in major elements have been estimated using the factorial method, first to calculate the net requirements during maintenance, growth, reproduction and lactation, and second to assess the efficiency of absorption for converting net requirements into dietary allowance. The requirements in trace elements were estimated from the results of feeding trials. The choice of values for endogenous losses and particularly the precision with which efficiency of absorption can be predicted are the main sources of error in estimates of dietary allowances, especially when efficiency of absorption is low. The net requirements in major elements are given for maintenance, pregnancy and lactation, together with the recommended coefficients of absorption. Dietary requirements in trace elements are expressed as milligram per kilogram dry matter. The requirements in all nutrients and particularly in Ca and P increase during late pregnancy, especially during lactation. The requirements during lactation mainly reflect milk composition, the level of milk yield and lactation length, but also the feed intake level. The factors related to the confinement, feeding and management of dairy breeds, which differ from those of mutton breeds, may affect their mineral requirements. Changes in husbandry practices resulting in increased production may increase the stress on the animal and therefore alter its metabolic equilibrium. Direct supplementation of the diet of dairy sheep is the cheapest and most convenient method of mineral supplementation. The cost is outweighed by the enhanced performance of sheep. Determination of the mineral composition of feedstuffs available for feeding dairy sheep indicates the type and level of mineral supplementation needed. (author)

  12. THE USE OF MICROSATELLITE MARKERS TO STUDY GENETIC DIVERSITY IN INDONESIAN SHEEP

    Jakaria

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to study genetic diversity in Indonesian sheep population using microsatellite markers. A total of 18 microsatellite loci have been used for genotyping Indonesian sheep. Total sheep blood 200 samples were extracted from garut sheep of fighting and meat types, purbalingga sheep, batur sheep and jember sheep populations by using a salting out method. Microsatellite loci data were analyzed using POPGENE 3.2 software. Based on this study obtained 180 alleles from 17 microsatellite loci, while average number of alleles was 6.10 alleles (6 to 18 alleles from five Indonesian sheep populations (garut sheep of fighting type, garut sheep of meat type, purbalingga sheep, batur sheep and jember sheep population. The average of observed heterozygosity (Ho and expected heterozygosity (He values were 0.5749 and 0.6896, respectively, while the genetic differentiation for inbreeding among population (FIS, within population (FIT and average genetic differentiation (FST were 0.1006, 0.1647 and 0.0712, respectively. Genetic distance and genetic tree showed that Indonesian sheep population was distinct from garut sheep of fighting and meat types, purbalingga sheep, batur sheep and jember sheep population. Based on this results were needed a strategy for conservation and breeding programs in each Indonesian sheep population.

  13. Host preference of the sheep scab mite, Psoroptes ovis : short communication

    T. Meintjies; L.J. Fourie; I.G Horak

    2002-01-01

    Sheep scab mites, Psoroptes ovis, collected from a Merino donor sheep, were used to infest Merino and Dorper sheep, and Angora and Boer goats. Mites were placed on the sheep on 1 or 2 occasions and on 5 occasions on the goats. All the animals were examined at regular intervals for the presence of scab lesions and living mites. Both sheep breeds developed lesions, but those on the Merino sheep were always larger than those on the Dorper sheep at the same intervals after infestation. None of th...

  14. Estimativas de componentes de (covarincia e herdabilidade direta e materna de pesos corporais em ovinos da raa Santa Ins Estimates of (co variance components and direct and maternal heritability for growth traits in Santa Ins sheep breed

    Wandrick Hauss de Sousa

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estimar os componentes de (covarincia e herdabilidade direta e materna de pesos corporais em ovinos da raa Santa Ins. Um total de 3971 registros de pesos de crias da raa Santa Ins, filhas de 114 reprodutores e 758 ovelhas, foi analisado, obtido de rebanhos experimentais do SNPA da Embrapa, no perodo de 1983 a 1995. Componentes de covarincia e parmetros genticos resultantes de efeito gentico aditivo direto, efeitos gentico materno e de ambiente permanente, bem como a covarincia entre esses efeitos, para peso ao nascer (PN, aos 112 (P112 e 196 dias de idade (P196, foram estimados pelo mtodo da mxima verossimilhana restrita (REML, usando o aplicativo MTDFREML sob modelo animal. Incluindo ou no efeitos genticos materno ou de ambiente materno permanente, bem como a covarincia gentica entre os efeitos direto e materno, cinco diferentes modelos de anlises foram usados para determinar o modelo mais apropriado para descrever cada uma das caractersticas. Em geral, o modelo mais completo (modelo 4 foi o que apresentou maior valor para logaritmo da funo de verossimilhana (log de L para todas caractersticas estudadas. Quando efeitos maternos foram excluidos, estimativas de herdabilidade direta foram substancialmente inflacionadas (0,31 a 0,37. Efeitos maternos foram importantes para todas as caractersticas, mesmo as medidas aps o desmame. Correlaes genticas entre os efeitos direto e materno para PN e P112 foram negativas e de baixa magnitude (-0,31 a - 0,10, porm, para P196, estes valores foram positivos e de alta magnitude (0,67 a 0,98. A excluso dos efeitos maternos, quando importantes, resultou em superestimativa das herdabilidade.The objective of this work was to estimate the (co variance components and direct and maternal heritability of the body weights of sheep of Santa Ins breed. A total of 3,771 lambs weights records of the Santa Ins hair sheep breed, progenies of 114 sires, and 758 ewes were analyzed, obtained from experimental herds of EMBRAPA - SNPA from 1985 to 1995. The covariance components and genetic parameters from additive genetic effects, maternal and permanent environmental effects, as well as the covariance between those effects for birth weight (BW, weight at 112 (W112 and weight at 196 days of age (W196, were estimated by Restricted Maximum Likelihood (REML using MTDFREML program, under animal model. Including or not the maternal genetic effect or permanent environmental effect, as well as the genetic covariance between the direct and maternal effects, five different animal models were used to determine the most appropriate model for each trait. In general, the most comprehensive model (Model 4 was the one that presented the greatest value for the maximum log likelihood function (log of L for all studied traits. When maternal effects were excluded, estimates of direct heritabilities were substantially inflated (.31 to .37. The maternal effects were important for all traits, even those that were measured after weaning. Genetic correlation between direct and maternal effects for BW and W112 were negative and low (from -.31 to -.10, however, for W196 this value was positive and high (from .67 to .98. The exclusion of the maternal effects, when they are important, resulted in overestimates of heritability.

  15. REVEALING THE HISTORY OF SHEEP DOMESTICATION USING RETROVIRUS INTEGRATIONS

    Chessa, B.; Pereira, F.; Arnaud, F.; Amorim, A.; Goyache, F.; Mainland, I.; Kao, R.R.; Pemberton, J. M.; Beraldi, D.; Stear, M.; Alberti, A.; Pittau, M.; Iannuzzi, L.; Banabazi, M.H.; Kazwala, R.; Zhang, Y.-P.; Arranz, J.J.; Ali, B.A.; Wang, Z.; Uzun, M.; Dione, M.; Olsaker, I.; Holm, L.-E.; Saarma, U.; Ahmad, S.; Marzanov, N.; Eythorsdottir, E.; Holland, M.J.; Ajmone-Marsan, P.; Bruford, M.W.; Kantanen, J.; Spencer, T.E.; Palmarini, M.

    2011-01-01

    The domestication of livestock represented a crucial step in human history. By using endogenous retroviruses as genetic markers, we found that sheep differentiated on the basis of their “retrotype” and morphological traits, dispersed across Eurasia and Africa via separate migratory episodes. Relicts of the first migrations include the Mouflon, as well as breeds previously recognized as “primitive” on the basis of their morphology, such as the Orkney, Soay and the Nordic short-tailed sheep now confined to the periphery of NW Europe. A later migratory episode, involving sheep with improved production traits, shaped the vast majority of present-day breeds. The ability to differentiate genetically primitive sheep from more modern breeds provides valuable insights into the history of sheep domestication. PMID:19390051

  16. Charge Breeding of Radioactive Ions in an Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Source(ECRIS) at ISOLDE

    Wenander, F J C; Lindroos, M

    2002-01-01

    The development of an efficient charge breeding scheme for the next generation of RIB facilities will have a strong impact on the post-accelerator for several Radioactive Ion Beam (RIB) projects at European large scale facilities. At ISOLDE/CERN there will be the unique possibility to carry out experiments with the two possible charge breeding set-ups with a large variety of radioactive isotopes using identical injection conditions. One charge breeding set-up is the Penning trap/EBIS combination which feeds the REX-ISOLDE linear accelerator and which is in commissioning now. The second charge breeder is a new ECRIS PHOENIX developed at the ISN ion source laboratory at Grenoble. This ECRIS is now under investigation with a 14 GHz amplifier to characterize its performance. The experiments are accompanied by theoretical studies in computer simulations in order to optimize the capture of the ions in the ECRIS plasma. A second identical PHOENIX ECRIS which is under investigation at the Daresbury Laboratory is avai...

  17. Veterinary and medical aspects of abortion in Danish sheep

    Agerholm, Jørgen S.; Aalbæk, Bent; Fog-Larsen, Anne Marie; Boye, Mette; Holm, Elisabeth; Jensen, Tim Kåre; Lindhardt, Tina; Larsen, Lars Erik; Buxton, D.

    2006-01-01

    The Danish sheep population totals around 144,000 animals, but little is known of the causes and prevalance of diseases. This study focuses on the causes of abortion in Danish sheep. During one breeding season, aborted foetuses and stillbirths with signs of intrauterine death or malformation were...

  18. The effect of the liver fluke Fasciola gigantica infestation on the leucocyte eosinophil cell profile on sheep

    S Widjajanti; S.E Estuningsih; Subandriyo . .; D Piedrafita; H.W Raadsma

    2004-01-01

    Eosinophil is one of the major leucocyte cell in the blood which specifically reacted on parasite infection, thus it is important to determine its profile against the F. gigantica infection. The aims of this study is to determine the differences of the eosinophil count profiles on the different breed of sheep infected with F. gigantica and its relation with the resistance of sheep bred against parasitic disease. Four groups of sheep consist of Indonesian Thin Tail (ITT) sheep, Merino sheep, b...

  19. Mitochondrial DNA variation of domestic sheep (Ovis aries) in Kenya.

    Resende, Adriana; Gonçalves, Joana; Muigai, Anne W T; Pereira, Filipe

    2016-06-01

    The history of domestic sheep (Ovis aries) in Africa remains largely unknown. After being first introduced from the Near East, sheep gradually spread through the African continent with pastoral societies. The eastern part of Africa was important either for the first diffusion of sheep southward or for putative secondary introductions from the Arabian Peninsula or southern Asia. We analysed mitochondrial DNA control region sequences of 91 domestic sheep from Kenya and found a high diversity of matrilines from the widespread haplogroup B, whereas only a single individual from haplogroup A was detected. Our phylogeography analyses of more than 500 available mitochondrial DNA sequences also identified ancestral haplotypes that were probably first introduced in Africa and are now widely distributed. Moreover, we found no evidence of an admixture between East and West African sheep. The presence of shared haplotypes in eastern and ancient southern African sheep suggests the possible southward movement of sheep along the eastern part of Africa. Finally, we found no evidence of an extensive introduction of sheep from southern Asia into Africa via the Indian Ocean trade. The overall findings on the phylogeography of East African domestic sheep set the grounds for understanding the origin and subsequent movements of sheep in Africa. The richness of maternal lineages in Kenyan breeds is of prime importance for future conservation and breeding programmes. PMID:26765790

  20. Morphological and microsatellite DNA diversity of Nigerian indigenous sheep

    Agaviezor Brilliant O

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sheep is important in the socio-economic lives of people around the world. It is estimated that more than half of our once common livestock breeds are now endangered. Since genetic characterization of Nigerian sheep is still lacking, we analyzed ten morphological traits on 402 animals and 15 microsatellite DNA markers in 384 animals of the 4 Nigerian sheep breeds to better understand genetic diversity for breeding management and germplasm conservation. Results Morphological traits of Uda and Balami were significantly (P?FST, FIT and FIS statistics across all loci were 0.088, 0.394 and 0.336 respectively. Yankasa and Balami are the most closely related breeds (DA?=?0.184 while WAD and Balami are the farthest apart breeds (DA?=?0.665, which is coincident with distance based on morphological analysis and population structure assessed by STRUCTURE. Conclusions These results suggest that within-breed genetic variation in Nigerian sheep is higher than between-breeds and may be a valuable tool for genetic improvement and conservation. The higher genetic variability in Yankasa suggests the presence of unique ancestral alleles reflecting the presence of certain functional genes which may result in better adaptability in more agro-ecological zones of Nigeria. These genetic characteristics are potentially useful in planning improvement and conservation strategies in Nigerian indigenous sheep.

  1. Mutation breeding

    Twenty years have passed since the establishment of gamma field as a major facility for irradiation in a radiation breeding field, and the duration of the accumulated irradiation was 100,000 hours as of 1980. New 50 varieties or more were grown by mutation breeding. This book deals with the outcome of mutation breeding for 20 years in view of seed breeding and methods for inducing mutation and breeding of vegetatively propagated plants and tree crops. (Namekawa, K.)

  2. Multivariate characterization on morphological traits in Burkina Faso sheep

    A total of 6440 female sheep from Burkina Faso were scored for seven body measurements and four qualitative morphological traits. Sampling included the three main environmental areas and sheep breeds of Burkina Faso: the Sahel area (Burkina-Sahel sheep), the Sudan- Sahel area (Mossi sheep) and the Sudan area (Djallonke sheep). Canonical analyses showed that differences in body measurements between the Sudan and the Sudan-Sahel sheep were small even though most body traits showed higher average values in the Burkina-Sahel sheep: the shortest Mahalanobis distance was found between the Sudan and the Sudan-Sahel populations (1.54), whilst that between the Sudan and the Sahelian populations was the largest (7.88). Discriminant analysis showed that most Sudan (Djallonke) individuals (60.85%) were classified as Sudan-Sahel (Mossi) individuals whilst most Burkina-Sahel individuals were classified into their environmental area of sampling (89.5%). Correspondence analyses indicated that the Burkina-Sahel sheep population clustered together with dropping ears, black and brown colour patterns and presence of wattles, the Sudan sheep were closely associated with long hair and vertical and curled ears and that the Sudan-Sahel sheep did not have clear associations with qualitative phenotypic traits. At the morphological level, the Sudan-Sahel (Mossi) sheep population can be considered a geographical subpopulation belonging to the Djallonke breed, showing some particularities, namely larger body size, due to the particular environmental condition of the area in which it is managed and a continuous gene flow from Sahelian sheep, The information reported in this study will be the basis for the establishment of further characterization, conservation and selection strategies for Burkina Faso sheep. (author)

  3. Methods to estimate effective population size using pedigree data: Examples in dog, sheep, cattle and horse

    Mary-Huard, Tristan; Verrier, Etienne; Danvy, Sophie; Charvolin Lemaire, Eleonore; Danchin-Burge, Coralie

    2013-01-01

    Background: Effective population sizes of 140 populations (including 60 dog breeds, 40 sheep breeds, 20 cattle breeds and 20 horse breeds) were computed using pedigree information and six different computation methods. Simple demographical information (number of breeding males and females), variance of progeny size, or evolution of identity by descent probabilities based on coancestry or inbreeding were used as well as identity by descent rate between two successive generations or individual ...

  4. Determinants of sheep prices in the highlands of northeastern Ethiopia: implication for sheep value chain development.

    Kassa, Beneberu Teferra; Haile, Anteneh Girma; Essa, John Abdu

    2011-12-01

    In order to assess and identify the determinants of sheep price and price variation across time, a time series data were collected from four selected markets in North Shewa, Northeastern Ethiopia on weekly market day basis for a period of 2 years. Data on animal characteristics and purpose of buying were collected on a weekly basis from randomly selected 15-25 animals, and a total of 7,976 transactions were recorded. A general linear model technique was used to identify factors influencing sheep price, and the results showed that sheep price (liveweight sheep price per kilogram taken as a dependent variable) is affected by animal characteristics such as weight, sex, age, condition, season, and color. Most of the markets' purpose for which the animal was purchased did not affect significantly the price per kilogram. This may be due to the similarity of the markets in terms of buyer's purpose. The results suggest that there will be benefit from coordinated fattening, breeding, and marketing programs to take the highest advantage from the preferred animals' characteristics and selected festival markets. Finally, the study recommends for a coordinated action to enhance the benefit generated for all participant actors in the sheep value chain through raising sheep productivity, improving the capacity of sheep producers and agribusiness entrepreneurs to access and use latest knowledge and technologies; and strengthening linkages among actors in the sheep value chain. PMID:21465103

  5. Injection line of 1+ ion beam for electron beam ion-charge breeding source and related beam elements

    Main purpose of the electron beam ion-charge breeding source (EBIBS) is to produce highly pure and highly charged ion beam from single charge ion of stable or radioactive species. It can accept low emittance ion beam from either online or offline ECR ion sources (ECRIS). The emittance of the extracted beam is low at lower RF frequencies and magnetic field of the ECRIS. The beam at the position of extraction is approximately reproduced at the entrance of the electron collector of the EBIBS. The beam moves forward under the influence of the negative potential deep of the electron beam and enters the ionization region in solenoid field of the EBIBS. The injection line starts at the extraction region of the ECRIS. The assumed parameters of the extracted beam of 20 keV energy and 0.0732 GeV/c momentum for injection are 10 mm diameter and 30 mrad beam divergence cone. As mass number of the ions decreases the energy decreases for constant momentum of the ion beam. The value of the momentum or the beam rigidity is judiciously chosen to encompass the most of the isotopes of various elements. The beam is focused by a quadrupole doublet and passes the beam through a 90° bending magnet. The beam is analyzed also by the dipole magnet to remove the contaminants and the selected ion beam is focused by a quadrupole doublet magnet to pass through an electrostatic 90° bending elements. The beam approaches the opening of 16 mm diameter of the electron collector. A round beam of 12 mm diameter is achieved here with the help of a quadrupole triplet through point-to-point imaging from start to the end. The transport matrices for the electrostatic bending elements were calculated and incorporated into the TRANSPORT code. (author)

  6. Relationship of intestinal histology with the resistance to Trichostrongylus colubriformis infection in three breeds of sheep Associação entre a resposta celular no intestino e a resistência à infecção por Trichostrongylus colubriformis em três raças de ovinos

    Alessandro F.T. Amarante

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to evaluate the relationship of inflammatory intestinal cells with the resistance to Trichostrongylus colubriformis infections in three breeds of sheep (Santa Ines, Suffolk and Ile de France, naturally infected. Mast cells, eosinophils, and globule leucocytes were enumerated in intestinal mucosa. Histamine concentration was estimated in intestinal tissue samples and the length of male and female specimens were determined. The three breeds of sheep showed similar cellular response in the small intestine mucosa (P>0.05. There was extensive variation among sheep in the parasitological and inflammatory cell variables, even in lambs of the same breed. In general, animals presenting less inflammatory cells had a larger worm burden, higher fecal egg counts, and larger T. colubriformis worms. The inflammatory cells possibly impaired the parasite's establishment, development, and survival.Avaliaram-se a associação entre o número de células inflamatórias no intestino delgado e a resistência à infecção por Trichostrongylus colubriformis em ovinos de três raças (Santa Inês, Suffolk e Ile de France, naturalmente infectados. Mastócitos, eosinófilos e leucócitos globulares foram quantificados na mucosa intestinal. A concentração de histamina foi estimada em amostras teciduais do intestino, bem como foi determinado o comprimento de machos e fêmeas de T. colubriformis. A resposta celular foi similar na mucosa intestinal das três raças ovinas (P>0,05. Houve grande variação entre os ovinos em relação aos resultados parasitológicos e celulares, mesmo nos animais de mesma raça. Em geral, os animais que apresentaram número menor de células inflamatórias tiveram cargas parasitárias maiores, contagens de ovos por grama de fezes mais altas e exemplares de T. colubriformis maiores. Os resultados indicaram que mastócitos, eosinófilos e leucócitos globulares prejudicaram o estabelecimento, o desenvolvimento e a sobrevivência dos parasitas.

  7. Participatory breeding system for laying hens

    Leenstra, Ferry

    2010-01-01

    Livestock breeds (and breeding systems) developed for intensive production systems often do not perform as expected in organic and extensive systems. For these alternative systems animals need good social and ranging behaviour, which is in general not necessary in intensive systems with greater confinement for the animals. Although this is the case in all the livestock species (e.g. dairy cows, pigs and sheep), in poultry, the differences between organic/free range and...

  8. Studies on irradiation breeding by electron beam in flowers and plants

    Electron beam was used to irradiate different flowers and plants. The results showed that the suitable doses were 30-50 Gy for the young plant from cultured tissue of chrysanthemum, 60-80 Gy for gladiolus and 15-60 Gy for lily. In these dose range, the posterity had higher variation and wider mutation range, and mutation characters were stable. The mutation rates were 18.2%-30.8% for chrysanthemum, 8.7%-30.8% for gladiolus and more than 35% for lily. The blossom were 60, 21, 10 days earlier than the check for chrysanthemum, gladiolus and lily respectively. But the mutation rate of color varied greatly with different varieties

  9. Schmallenberg virus experimental infection of sheep

    Wernike, Kerstin; Hoffmann, Bernd; Bréard, Emmanuel; Bøtner, Anette; Ponsart, Claire; Zientara, Stéphan; Lohse, Louise; Pozzi, Nathalie; Viarouge, Cyril; Sarradin, Pierre; Leroux-Barc, Céline; Riou, Mickael; Laloy, Eve; Breithaupt, Angele; Beer, Martin

    Since late 2011, a novel orthobunyavirus, named Schmallenberg virus (SBV), has been implicated in many cases of severely malformed bovine and ovine offspring in Europe. In adult cattle, SBV is known to cause a mild transient disease; clinical signs include short febrile episodes, decreased milk...... production and diarrhoea for a few days. However, the knowledge about clinical signs and pathogenesis in adult sheep is limited.In the present study, adult sheep of European domestic breeds were inoculated with SBV either as cell culture grown virus or as virus with no history of passage in cell cultures...

  10. Comparative studies of resistance on Indonesian Thin Tail (ITT) sheep, St. Croix, merino and the crossbreed of ITT and St. Croix, against the infection of Fasciola gigantica

    S Widjajanti; S.E Estuningsih; S Partoutomo; Roberts, J. A.; T.W Spithill

    2014-01-01

    resistance is heritable. In order to re-evaluate this evidence, 20 ITT sheep were infected with 350 metacercariae of F. gigantica and for comparison, 10 St. Croix sheep, 10 Merino sheep and 20 crossbred of ITT x St. Croix sheep were also infected with the same dose of metacercariae. The results showed that ITT sheep was highly resistant than the other breed, whereas St. Croix and Merino sheep were susceptible. 60% of the crossbred were as resistant as ITT sheep and the other 40% were as susce...

  11. Genes Contributing to Genetic Variation of Muscling in Sheep

    Tellam, Ross L.; Cockett, Noelle E; Vuocolo, Tony; Bidwell, Christopher A.

    2012-01-01

    Selective breeding programs aiming to increase the productivity and profitability of the sheep meat industry use elite, progeny tested sires. The broad genetic traits of primary interest in the progeny of these sires include skeletal muscle yield, fat content, eating quality, and reproductive efficiency. Natural mutations in sheep that enhance muscling have been identified, while a number of genome scans have identified and confirmed quantitative trait loci (QTL) for skeletal muscle traits. T...

  12. Sheep Collisions: the Good, the Bad, and the TBI

    Courtney, Michael

    2007-01-01

    The title page of Chapter 9 in Fundamentals of Physics (Halliday, Resnick, and Walker, 8th Edition, p. 201) shows a dramatic photograph of two Big Horn sheep butting heads and promises to explain how sheep survive such violent clashes without serious injury. However, the answer presented in sample problem 9-4 (p. 213) errs in presuming an interaction time of 0.27 s which results in an unrealistically long stopping distance of 0.62 m. Furthermore, the assertion that the horns provide necessary cushioning of the blow is inconsistent with the absence of concussions in domestic breeds of hornless sheep. Results from traumatic brain injury (TBI) research allow acceleration tolerance of sheep to be estimated as 450 g facilitating an analysis of sheep collisions that is more consistent with available observations (stopping distance less than 1 cm, impact time of roughly 2 ms).

  13. A Deficiency in the Slow Moving Immunoglobulin in Awassi Sheep

    HAILAT, N. Q.; LAFI, S. Q.

    1998-01-01

    A deficiency in the slow moving gamma globulin in an eight-month-old emaciated female Awassi sheep is described. Analysis of serum protein electrophoresis (SPE) on cellulose acetate of this sheep revealed the presence of three fractions only; albumin (alb), a and b compared with that of the normal sheep which showed four fractions (alb, a and b and g).This finding occurred in a ewe which belonged to a closed breeding system awassi flock. Results of agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) test usin...

  14. Pathological Changes of Abomasum in Naturally Infected Makoyee Sheep with Teladorsagia circumcincta

    Amir Abbas Farshid; Soraya Naem; Ramin Banaie Alipour

    2006-01-01

    The present study was carried out in order to investigate the lesions in the abomasum of Makoyee breed sheep caused by Teladorsagia spp. Infected sheep which were examined during spring and summer 2000, subjected to detail necropsy with special reference to abomasal lesions. Six out of 20 sheep were infected with T. circumcincta. Abomasal changes were recorded and tissue samples were collected from abomasum for histopathology. The results were indicated different pathological changes such as ...

  15. The callipyge mutation and other genes that affect muscle hypertrophy in sheep

    Cockett Noelle E; Smit Maria A; Bidwell Christopher A; Segers Karin; Hadfield Tracy L; Snowder Gary D; Georges Michel; Charlier Carole

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Genetic strategies to improve the profitability of sheep operations have generally focused on traits for reproduction. However, natural mutations exist in sheep that affect muscle growth and development, and the exploitation of these mutations in breeding strategies has the potential to significantly improve lamb-meat quality. The best-documented mutation for muscle development in sheep is callipyge (CLPG), which causes a postnatal muscle hypertrophy that is localized to the pelvic l...

  16. Quantitative trait loci for internal nematode resistance in sheep: a review

    Dominik Sonja

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Internal nematode resistance in sheep has a large impact on the economy of sheep industries. Selection for nematode resistance in sheep breeding schemes would help to reduce the direct and indirect cost of parasitism to these industries. However, this is not widely practiced because of the difficulty of measuring parasite resistance or correlated indirect selection criteria. The identification of genes or linked markers that have a significant association with the variance of indicat...

  17. Seasonal variation in nutrition and supplementation in extensive sheep systems in north-central Spain

    Frutos, Pilar; Wright, I. A.; Mantecón, Ángel R.; Giráldez, Francisco Javier; Iason, G. R.

    1998-01-01

    Extensive systems of sheep production predominate in the hill and mountain areas of Europe. A typical example is that fourd in northent Spain. In these areas seasonal variation in herbage production has a large influence on the way in which sheep management systems have developed and are managed. Milking sheep, especially of the Churra breed, graze pasture in early summer and then forage on stubbles in late summer and are supplemented with hay and/or concentrates in winter, during pr...

  18. Genotyping and surveillance for scrapie in Finnish sheep

    Hautaniemi Maria

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The progression of scrapie is known to be influenced by the amino acid polymorphisms of the host prion protein (PrP gene. There is no breeding programme for TSE resistance in sheep in Finland, but a scrapie control programme has been in place since 1995. In this study we have analysed PrP genotypes of total of 928 purebred and crossbred sheep together with the data of scrapie survey carried out in Finland during 2002–2008 in order to gain knowledge of the genotype distribution and scrapie prevalence in Finnish sheep. Results The ARQ/ARQ genotype was the most common genotype in all breeds studied. ARR allele frequency was less than 12% in purebred Finnish sheep and in most genotypes heterozygous for ARR, the second allele was ARQ. The VRQ allele was not detected in the Grey race sheep of Kainuu or in the Aland sheep, and it was present in less than 6% of the Finnish Landrace sheep. Leucine was the most prominent amino acid found in codon 141. In addition, one novel prion dimorphisms of Q220L was detected. During the scrapie survey of over 15 000 sheep in 2002–2008, no classical scrapie cases and only five atypical scrapie cases were detected. Conclusions The results indicate that the Finnish sheep populations have genetically little resistance to classical scrapie, but no classical scrapie was detected during an extensive survey in 2002–2008. However, five atypical scrapie cases emerged; thus, the disease is present in the Finnish sheep population at a low level.

  19. Erysipelas in turkeys, sheep and pigs.

    2015-03-21

    Erysipelas diagnosed in turkeys, sheep and pigs. Parasitic gastroenteritis reported in cattle on several farms. Unusual presentation of Actinobacillus suis causing spinal abscesses in pigs on a breeder-finisher unit. First APHA diagnosis of oedema disease in pigs in East Anglia for many years. Infectious coryza confirmed in a hobby breeding flock. These are among matters discussed in the Animal and Plant Health Agency's (APHA's) disease surveillance report for November 2014. PMID:25792678

  20. Prolonged incubation time in sheep with prion protein containing lysine at position 171

    Sheep scrapie susceptibility or resistance is a function of genotype with polymorphisms at codon 171 in the sheep prion gene playing a major role. Glutamine (Q) at 171 contributes to scrapie susceptibility while arginine (R) is associated with resistance. In some breeds, lysine (K) occurs at codon 1...

  1. Counting Sheep in Basque

    Araujo, Frank P.

    1975-01-01

    Demonstrates the interplay of a cognitive system, the Basque numerative system, and a behavioral one, counting sheep. The significant features of the Basque numerative system are analyzed; then it is shown how use of these features facilitates the counting of sheep on open ranges by Basque sheep farmers in California. (Author/RM)

  2. The effect of the liver fluke Fasciola gigantica infestation on the leucocyte eosinophil cell profile on sheep

    S Widjajanti

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophil is one of the major leucocyte cell in the blood which specifically reacted on parasite infection, thus it is important to determine its profile against the F. gigantica infection. The aims of this study is to determine the differences of the eosinophil count profiles on the different breed of sheep infected with F. gigantica and its relation with the resistance of sheep bred against parasitic disease. Four groups of sheep consist of Indonesian Thin Tail (ITT sheep, Merino sheep, backcross sheep (10 families and F2 sheep were infected with 300 metacercariae of Fasciola gigantica. The total sheep used in this trial is 621. Those sheep were observed for 12 weeks and the blood samples were collected every 2 weeks after infection. The results showed that total eosinophil counts in all infected sheep increased after two weeks post infection and ITT sheep showed the highest counts. On the other hand, the mean fluke counts on ITT sheep is the lowest compared with the other groups of sheep. Merino and F2 sheep had the highest mean fluke counts. Three families of backcross sheep had the mean flukes count similar to ITT sheep and the other 7 families were similar to the Merino sheep. In conclusion, the highest total eosinophil count at the early stage of infection on ITT sheep might be related with the genetic resistance, which was showed by the lowest flukes count, and the resistance was inherited to some of the backcross sheep, which had similar flukes count with ITT sheep.

  3. Efeitos da oferta de forragem, do método de pastejo, dos dias de avaliação e da raça no comportamento e temperamento de ovinos Effect of forage supply, methods of grazing, evaluation days and breed on the behavior and the temperament of sheep

    José Manuel Díaz Gómez

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se estudar comportamento e o temperamento de ovinos de três raças (Suffolk, Texel, Ile de France submetidas a dois métodos de pastejo (contínuo e rotacionado, com duas ofertas de forragem (10 e 20 kg de MS de pastagem de azevém/100 kg de peso vivo/dia durante quatro avaliações, entre agosto e novembro de 2006. Utilizou-se o delineamento completamente casualizado em parcelas subsubdivididas, de modo que os métodos de pastejo e as ofertas de forragem constituíram as parcelas, as raças as subparcelas e os dias de avaliação as subsubparcelas. Foram utilizadas 48 fêmeas ovinas com peso médio inicial de 27,59 kg e idade entre 15 e 25 meses. Na avaliação do temperamento, efetuaram-se medidas comportamentais pelo teste de arena, tipo de marcha e tempo de fuga e atributos fisiológicos, como temperatura corporal e frequências cardiorrespiratórias. No método contínuo com baixa oferta de forragem, observou-se maior número de micções. Conforme as avaliações ocorreram, houve aumento da movimentação, das tentativas de fuga, mas menor número de vocalizações durante o isolamento. A raça Ile de France apresentou maior número de tentativas de fuga e de dejeções durante o isolamento. No pastejo rotacionado com alta oferta de forragem, o ganho de peso foi menor. A movimentação no isolamento e na presença do observador foi negativamente relacionada ao ganho de peso. As variáveis descritoras do temperamento apresentaram baixa repetibilidade. O temperamento dos ovinos foi modificado principalmente pelo dia de avaliação e pela raça, ao contrário do sistema de pastejo e da oferta de pasto, embora esses fatores tenham apresentado interação com os dias de avaliação e a raça do animal.This work aimed to study the temperament and the behavior of three sheep breeds (Suffolk, Texel, Ile de France submitted to two grazing methods (continuous and rotational with two forage supplies (10 and 20 kg of Italian ryegrass DM/100 kg body weight/day during four evaluations from August to November 2006. A random block design was used with split-plots, so the grazing methods and forage supplies were the plots, breeds were the sub-plots, and days of evaluation were the sub-sub-plots. It was used 48 ewe lambs with 27.59 kg of initial weight at 15 to 25 months of age. For evaluation of temperament, behavioral measures were taken by the arena test, and qualitative and quantitative flight time test, and physiological attributes such as body temperature and cardiorespiratory rates. For continuous method with low forage supply, it was observed a higher number of urination events. As evaluations were carried out, physical activity and flight events increased, but number of vocalization decreased during social isolation. Ile de France breed showed higher number of flight attempts and excretion events during social isolation. In the rotational grazing method with high forage supply, weight gain was lower. Physical activity during social isolation and at the observer presence was negatively related to weight gain. Variables used to describe the temperament showed low consistency. The temperament of sheep is mainly affected by evaluation day and breed, unlike grazing method and forage supply, although these factors show interaction with evaluation days and breed.

  4. Socio-economic factors influencing small ruminant breeding in Kenya

    Verbeek, E; Kanis, E.; Bett, R.C.; Kosgey, I.S.

    2006-01-01

    In order to design an effective small ruminant (i.e., goats and sheep) breeding program in Kenya and other areas with similar production circumstances, it is important to understand the socio-economic factors applying to the relevant production system. Information on these was obtained from a questionnaire carried out on both smallholders and pastoral/ extensive farmers in seven selected districts. From the 458 responding households, 18% kept only goats, 34% kept only sheep, and 48% kept both...

  5. GM2 gangliosidosis in British Jacob sheep.

    Wessels, M E; Holmes, J P; Jeffrey, M; Jackson, M; Mackintosh, A; Kolodny, E H; Zeng, B J; Wang, C B; Scholes, S F E

    2014-01-01

    GM2 gangliosidosis (Tay-Sachs disease) was diagnosed in 6- to 8-month-old pedigree Jacob lambs from two unrelated flocks presenting clinically with progressive neurological dysfunction of 10 day's to 8 week's duration. Clinical signs included hindlimb ataxia and weakness, recumbency and proprioceptive defects. Histopathological examination of the nervous system identified extensive neuronal cytoplasmic accumulation of material that stained with periodic acid--Schiff and Luxol fast blue. Electron microscopy identified membranous cytoplasmic bodies within the nervous system. Serum biochemistry detected a marked decrease in hexosaminidase A activity in the one lamb tested, when compared with the concentration in age matched controls and genetic analysis identified a mutation in the sheep hexa allele G444R consistent with Tay-Sachs disease in Jacob sheep in North America. The identification of Tay-Sachs disease in British Jacob sheep supports previous evidence that the mutation in North American Jacob sheep originated from imported UK stock. PMID:24309906

  6. Identification of Bmpr-1b and Bmp15 gene mutations in fat tail sheep

    Maskur .; Chairussyuhur Arman

    2012-01-01

    Fat tail sheep (FTS) is regarded as highly prolific local sheep and have been well adapted under tropical climate of Lombok island. BMPR-1B and BMP15 genes that controll reproductive traits such as ovulation rate and litter size in different type of sheep will be studied as candidate genes for prolific traits in FTS. These genes  have been reported by various investigators have different prolificacy mechanism between several breeds of sheep, and it is very likely will occur in FTS. This study...

  7. The callipyge mutation and other genes that affect muscle hypertrophy in sheep

    Cockett Noelle E

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Genetic strategies to improve the profitability of sheep operations have generally focused on traits for reproduction. However, natural mutations exist in sheep that affect muscle growth and development, and the exploitation of these mutations in breeding strategies has the potential to significantly improve lamb-meat quality. The best-documented mutation for muscle development in sheep is callipyge (CLPG, which causes a postnatal muscle hypertrophy that is localized to the pelvic limbs and loin. Enhanced skeletal muscle growth is also observed in animals with the Carwell (or rib-eye muscling mutation, and a double-muscling phenotype has been documented for animals of the Texel sheep breed. However, the actual mutations responsible for these muscular hypertrophy phenotypes in sheep have yet to be identified, and further characterization of the genetic basis for these phenotypes will provide insight into the biological control of muscle growth and body composition.

  8. Ovine progressive pneumonia provirus levels associate with breed and Ovar-DRB1

    Previous studies have suggested that host genetics influence both lung histopathology and seroprevalence in sheep infected with ovine progressive pneumonia virus (OPPV). As a first start, a genetic association study was conducted in 383 Idaho sheep of the Columbia, Polypay and Rambouillet breeds ut...

  9. The Hematological Indexes Values in Sheep Correlated with Season

    Daniela Moţ

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available From 40 healthy sheep breeding in good conditions of hygiene and feeding belonging to particular herds from the West side of the country were been taken blood samples in most important seasons of the year: in spring, before pasturage period and in autumn, after pasturage period. Sheep were been periodically preventive treated against parasites and were clinically healthy. Were been followed haematological parameters like haemogram (number of erithrocytes, haemoglobin, haematocrit, erithrocytic indexes, leucogram (number of leucocytes, leucocytic formula and those blood biochemicals indexes (total seric proteins, proteic fractions, glucose, uric acid, GPT, creatinin, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium. The obtain values in spring season were smaller in comparison with those from autumn as a result of less favourable conditions in winter, when sheep can't have the same benefits like in warm season, with high quality fresh food and life conditions. This fact is emphasized in these sheep obtained productions.

  10. Geographical and management related factors affecting lambs of outwintered sheep along the west coast of Norway. A baseline study in the research project feral sheep in coastal heats - developing a sustainable local industry in vulnerable cultural landscapes

    Kittelsen, Eva

    2008-01-01

    The Ancient Norse breed of outwintered sheep (ANBOS/Feral sheep) are the traditional sheep of Norwegian coastal heathlands, an open semi-natural landscape now threatened by regrowth due to cessation of management. One of the main challenges for the ANBOS industry is the low slaughter weights achieved in some herds, and the aim of my MSc project is to provide a baseline study of the relationships between geographic and management-related variables and the weights of ANBOS lam...

  11. Morphometric dimensions allow differentiation of lamb carcasses for some breeds

    Parés Casanova, Pere-Miquel

    2013-01-01

    Eight different morphometric dimensions were monitored on 106 lamb carcasses belonging to three Catalan meat sheep breeds (Ripollesa, Rousillon Red and Xisqueta). Our purpose was to examine differences with regard to measurable carcass dimensions and also to establish between and within breed relationships among the carcass components. Measured variables included: carcass weight (CW), leg length (LL), carcass internal length (IL), carcass length (CL), chest width (ChW), hip width (HW), chest ...

  12. Sexual transmission of Toxoplasma gondii in sheep.

    Lopes, Welber Daniel Zanetti; Rodriguez, Joana D'Ark; Souza, Fernando A; dos Santos, Thais Rabelo; dos Santos, Ricardo Silva; Rosanese, Walter Matheus; Lopes, Werik Renato Zanetti; Sakamoto, Cláudio Alessandro; da Costa, Alvimar José

    2013-07-01

    Male sheep of reproductive age were distributed into three groups: GI, a sheep inoculated (oral) with 2.0×10(5) oocysts of the P strain of Toxoplasma gondii; GII, a sheep infected (subcutaneous) with 1.0×10(6) tachyzoites of the RH strain of T. gondii; and GIII, a sheep kept as a control (not infected). After the inoculation of the males, 12 breeding ewes, which were not pregnant and which were serologically negative for reproductive diseases (particularly toxoplasmosis), were distributed into three groups, synchronized, and subsequently exposed to natural mating with previously inoculated males. The distribution was as follows: five ewes that underwent natural mating with the GI male, five ewes that were exposed to natural mating with the GII male, and two ewes that were mated with the non-infected male (control). Serum samples of all the ewes were collected on days -30, -14, -7, -1, and 0 (days before natural mating) and on days 1, 3, 5, 7, 11, 14, and weekly until birth; the presence of serum antibodies against T. gondii was assessed by IFAT. Using a bioassay and PCR, T. gondii was isolated from the semen of the infected reproducing sheep before mating. Following natural mating, 5 of the 12 females displayed antibodies specific for T. gondii; of these animals, two of the ewes underwent natural mating with the male inoculated with oocysts (GI) and three with the male infected with tachyzoites (GII). One of the females that displayed antibodies specific to this coccidian and that underwent natural mating with the GII sheep had a macerated fetus on the 70th day following coverage. Using a bioassay after the birth, it was possible to isolate T. gondii from samples of the "pool" of tissues from the five females that seroconverted after natural mating and from their respective lambs. Using PCR, the DNA of T. gondii was isolated from the "pool" of tissues from one and two females exposed to natural mating with the reproductive males infected with the oocysts and tachyzoites, respectively. Using this technique, it was also possible to diagnose the presence of the parasite in the "pool" of tissues from the lambs of one female that underwent natural mating with the male sheep infected with oocysts. These results demonstrated the sexual transmission of T. gondii in the sheep species with consequent vertical transmission to their lambs. PMID:23384578

  13. Pruritus is a common feature in sheep infected with the BSE agent

    Jeffrey Martin

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The variability in the clinical or pathological presentation of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs in sheep, such as scrapie and bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE, has been attributed to prion protein genotype, strain, breed, clinical duration, dose, route and type of inoculum and the age at infection. The study aimed to describe the clinical signs in sheep infected with the BSE agent throughout its clinical course to determine whether the clinical signs were as variable as described for classical scrapie in sheep. The clinical signs were compared to BSE-negative sheep to assess if disease-specific clinical markers exist. Results Forty-seven (34% of 139 sheep, which comprised 123 challenged sheep and 16 undosed controls, were positive for BSE. Affected sheep belonged to five different breeds and three different genotypes (ARQ/ARQ, VRQ/VRQ and AHQ/AHQ. None of the controls or BSE exposed sheep with ARR alleles were positive. Pruritus was present in 41 (87% BSE positive sheep; the remaining six were judged to be pre-clinically infected. Testing of the response to scratching along the dorsum of a sheep proved to be a good indicator of clinical disease with a test sensitivity of 85% and specificity of 98% and usually coincided with weight loss. Clinical signs that were displayed significantly earlier in BSE positive cases compared to negative cases were behavioural changes, pruritic behaviour, a positive scratch test, alopecia, skin lesions, teeth grinding, tremor, ataxia, loss of weight and loss of body condition. The frequency and severity of each specific clinical sign usually increased with the progression of disease over a period of 16–20 weeks. Conclusion Our results suggest that BSE in sheep presents with relatively uniform clinical signs, with pruritus of increased severity and abnormalities in behaviour or movement as the disease progressed. Based on the studied sheep, these clinical features appear to be independent of breed, affected genotype, dose, route of inoculation and whether BSE was passed into sheep from cattle or from other sheep, suggesting that the clinical phenotype of BSE is influenced by the TSE strain more than by other factors. The clinical phenotype of BSE in the genotypes and breed studied was indistinguishable from that described for classical scrapie cases.

  14. EARLY USAGE OF SHEEP AND GOAT YOUTH FOR THE REPRODUCTION

    CARMEN ANA PIVODA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Female lambs and kids at the age of 9-10 months were used for early reproduction and it was noticed that the medium values of the weight of the lambs calved by female sheep and the kids calved by female kids are close to the medium values of the weight of the lambs and kids calved by adult sheep and goats. The main index of reproduction accomplished by the youth female situated at he level of the values characteristic to the sheep and goats breeds or populations belonging to Carpatina breed, registering lower values. By the early usage of sheep and goats male youth the following were noticed: Palas Merino male lambs, capable for reproduction 80%; the male lambs from Palas prolific population, capable for reproduction 88,8; out of the he-goats lots of Carpatina breed, at the age of 7-10 months, 83.33% the males manifested a normal sexual behaviour; the males which did not have sexual reflexes at the age of 7-10 months and at the age of 19-22 months they were not capable for reproduction, and the ones that had the seminal material of low quality continued to be so.

  15. Biodiversity and traditional sheep grazing in the south Banat region

    Grdović Svetlana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the capacity for reintroduction of traditional sheep breeds as key resources for biodiversity conservation systems in HNV farming system of the South Banat region was analyzed. Taking the vulnerability of the ecosystem into consideration when creating the optimal grazing system based on traditional rearing breeds, can contribute to the protection of biodiversity in the South Banat region. The representatives of Fabaceae, Poaceae, Lamiaceae, Rosaceae and Apiaceae family were described. Basic nutritive components of pasture and mixed hay: crude moisture, crude ash, crude protein, crude fat, crude cellulose, calcium (Ca, magnesium (Mg, phosphorous (P, copper (Cu, iron (Fe, manganese (Mn and zinc (Zn were measured. Botanical analysis has confirmed the presence of plant diversity, as well as the nutritive value of sheep pastures. Chemical analyses of samples pointed out that the levels of crude proteins, cellulose, fats, macro and trace elements are sufficient to satisfy the requirements of low input sheep farming system and therefore can be considered a solid base for reintroduction of autochthonous sheep breeds in the peripheral parts of the Deliblato Sands area. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31085: Management of sustainable farming of organic lamb production as a support to rural development

  16. Empadre controlado, distribucin de partos y prolificidad en ovejas de pelo en el trpico seco de Guerrero, Mxico (Controlled breeding, prolificacy and delivery distribution in hair sheep in the dry tropic of Guerrero, Mxico

    Mireles Martnez, Esteban Julin

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available ResumenEl objetivo del presente estudio retrospectivo fue conocer la duracin de los das de empadre con monta (DECM, la presentacin de los partos con empadre continuo y controlado y el ndice de prolificidad, por medio de los registros de un empadre contino de junio 2002 a marzo 2003 y 11 perodos de empadres controlados de septiembre 2003 a diciembre del 2009 y sus respectivos perodos de nacimientos, en una unidad productiva de Cd.SummaryThe objective of this retrospective study was to know the lasting of mating with the days of riding (DMWR, continuous presentation of mating, presentation of continuous mating births, controlled and the rate of prolificacy, through information from the records in a continuous breeding season in June 2002 to March 2003 and 11 controlled mating periods in September 2003 to December 2009 and their periods of birth, in a production unit in Ciudad Altamirano, Guerrero, Mexico, composed of 45 multiparous ewes, 15 lambs and a stallion pubescent.

  17. Complete Mitochondrial Genome Sequences of Chinese Indigenous Sheep with Different Tail Types and an Analysis of Phylogenetic Evolution in Domestic Sheep

    Fan, Hongying; Zhao, Fuping; Zhu, Caiye; Li, Fadi; Liu, Jidong; Zhang, Li; Wei, Caihong; Du, Lixin

    2016-01-01

    China has a long history of sheep (Ovis aries [O. aries]) breeding and an abundance of sheep genetic resources. Knowledge of the complete O. aries mitogenome should facilitate the study of the evolutionary history of the species. Therefore, the complete mitogenome of O. aries was sequenced and annotated. In order to characterize the mitogenomes of 3 Chinese sheep breeds (Altay sheep [AL], Shandong large-tailed sheep [SD], and small-tailed Hulun Buir sheep [sHL]), 19 sets of primers were employed to amplify contiguous, overlapping segments of the complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence of each breed. The sizes of the complete mitochondrial genomes of the sHL, AL, and SD breeds were 16,617 bp, 16,613 bp, and 16,613 bp, respectively. The mitochondrial genomes were deposited in the GenBank database with accession numbers KP702285 (AL sheep), KP981378 (SD sheep), and KP981380 (sHL sheep) respectively. The organization of the 3 analyzed sheep mitochondrial genomes was similar, with each consisting of 22 tRNA genes, 2 rRNA genes (12S rRNA and 16S rRNA), 13 protein-coding genes, and 1 control region (D-loop). The NADH dehydrogenase subunit 6 (ND6) and 8 tRNA genes were encoded on the light strand, whereas the rest of the mitochondrial genes were encoded on the heavy strand. The nucleotide skewness of the coding strands of the 3 analyzed mitogenomes was biased toward A and T. We constructed a phylogenetic tree using the complete mitogenomes of each type of sheep to allow us to understand the genetic relationships between Chinese breeds of O. aries and those developed and utilized in other countries. Our findings provide important information regarding the O. aries mitogenome and the evolutionary history of O. aries inside and outside China. In addition, our results provide a foundation for further exploration of the taxonomic status of O. aries. PMID:26954183

  18. Prevalence of paratuberculosis infection in sheep

    Vidi? Branka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Paratuberculosis is an incurable chronic disease of ruminants, which is manifested with clinical signs of diarrhea and progressive weight loss. Causative agent is Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, and the disiase occurs in cattle, sheep and goats. The outspread of paratuberculosis is huge in the whole world, especially in the countries where animal breeding is a developed branch of economy. Animals get infected with food and water contaminated with feces of infected animals. The infection spreads within infected pastures and also when trading animals with latent infection. Clinical manifestation of the disease can firstly be noticed in young categories of sheep, which is different than in cattle. Primary clinical symptom is chronic weight loss. It is rather hard to determine the level of prevalence of the disease, in a certain region, because the diagnostic procedure is complex and not always reliable enough. Detection of antibodies with ELISA test is considered a method of choice for diagnostic of paratuberculosis, because of fast gaining of the results and relatively low price of the test. By applying the ELISA test, we have analysed 2000 sheep blood samples. Positive results for paratuberculosis were found in 66 ( 3,30% animals in total. In sheep samples from southern Backa region, positive findings were gained from 42 (3,89% samples, and in Srem region, positive finding were found in samples from 24 sheep (2,60%. Control programs are based on the removal of all infected animals, application of general preventive measures and vaccination. Application of vaccination aims for elimination of clinical form of the disease. An effective treatment has not been determined so far.

  19. INFLUENCE OF THE NATURE OF THE ENERGY SOURCE IN THE CONCENTRATE ON THE CONCENTRATION AND MOLAR PROPORTIONS OF VOLATILE FATTY ACIDS IN THE RUMEN OF THE SICILO-SARDE SHEEP BREED

    H. Selmi

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the nature of the source of energy supplementation on ruminal pH, concentration of volatile fatty acids (VFA and the proportions of the main acids in the rumen of the dairy Sicilo-Sarde breed were evaluated. Four rams with an average live weight at the beginning of the experience of 45.25 ± 3.5 kg and aged 4.8 ± 0.5 years, fitted with permanent cannulas in the rumen were used in this experiment. The animals had a common basal diet at 1.5 kg DM / head / day of oat hay supplemented in turn by four concentrate at 500 g / head / d. Concentrates differed by the nature of energy ingredients they contain. The concentrate A: included 10% barley, 43.3% corn, 25% wheat bran, 17.7 % soybean meal and 4% CMV; The concentrate B was made of 66% white sorghum, 30 % beans and 4% CMV; the concentrate C had 71% triticale, 18% horse bean, 7% soybean meal and 4% CMV; and finally the D concentrate included 71.5% barley, 17.5% field bean, 7% soybean meal, and 4% CMV. 50 ml samples were taken before, 2, 5 and 8 hours after the distribution of the morning meal, and were filtered through four layers of surgical gaze. These samples were used for the analysis of volatile fatty acids (VFA concentrations by gas chromatography. Results showed that the rumen pH was statistically different (P0.05. The concentration of total VFA was significantly higher (P0.05 among concentrates after 5 and 8 hours post prandial. The proportion of acetate and butyrate (C2 and C4 acids evolved in the same way during the day regardless of the regimen but were in a reversed manner for the propionic acid (C3.

  20. Modelos de regresso aleatria na avaliao gentica do crescimento de ovinos da raa Santa Ins Random regression models on genetic evaluation on the growth of Santa Ins breed sheep

    Jos Lindenberg Rocha Sarmento

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Utilizaram-se 17.767 registros de peso de 4.210 cordeiros da raa Santa Ins com o objetivo de comparar modelos de regresso aleatria com diferentes estruturas para modelar a varincia residual em estudos genticos da curva de crescimento. Os efeitos fixos includos na anlise foram: grupo contemporneo e idade da ovelha no parto. As regresses fixas e aleatrias foram ajustadas por meio de polinmios de Legendre de ordens 4 e 3, respectivamente. A varincia residual foi ajustada por meio de classes heterogneas e por funes de varincia empregando polinmios ordinrios e de Legendre de ordens 2 a 8. O modelo considerando homogeneidade de varincias residuais mostrou-se inadequado. De acordo com os critrios utilizados, a varincia residual contendo sete classes heterogneas proporcionou melhor ajuste, embora um mais parcimonioso, com cinco classes, pudesse ser utilizado sem perdas na qualidade de ajuste da varincia nos dados. O ajuste de funes de varincia com qualquer ordem foi melhor que o obtido por meio de classes. O polinmio ordinrio de ordem 6 proporcionou melhor ajuste entre as estruturas testadas. A modelagem do resduo interferiu nas estimativas de varincias e parmetros genticos. Alm da alterao da classificao dos reprodutores, a magnitude dos valores genticos preditos apresenta variaes significativas, de acordo com o ajuste da varincia residual empregado.It was used 17,767 weight records of 4,210 Santa Ins breed lambs aiming to compare random regression models with different structures to model the residual variance in genetic studies of the growth curve. The fixed effects included in the analysis were contemporary group and age of the ewe at lambing. Fixed and random regressions were fitted through Legendry polynomials of orders 4 and 3, respectively. The residual variance was fitted by heterogeneous classes and by functions of variances employing ordinary polynomials and Legendry polynomials of the orders 2 to 8. The model considering homogeneity of residual variances was inadequate. Accordingly to the used criteria, the residual variance containing seven heterogeneous classes provided the best fit, although a more parsimonious one, with five classes, could be used without losses on the quality of variance fit on the data. The fit of functions of variances with any order was better than that obtained through classes. The ordinary polynomial of order 6 provided the best fit among the tested structures. The modeling of the residue interfered on the estimative of the variances and genetic parameters. In addition to changes in the classification of the reproducers, the magnitude of the predicted genetic values shows significant variations, accordingly to the fitting of the used residual variance.

  1. The influence of radiation on reproduction of sheep

    Qualitative and quantitative histological changes in the sexual apparatus of slovak merino ewes were studies in the anoestrous period after irradiation (2.5 Gy) and hormonal stimulation. Estrus synchronization of the sheep has been carried out by application of 20 mg chlorosuperlutine in impregnated vaginal Ageline sponges. The sheep were hormone stimulated by application of 1500 IU of Serum gonadotrophin. The animals were killed approximately 120 h after the application of the hormone. Samples from the sexual apparatus were processed by the common histological methods for examination under a light microscope and for examination under a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Despite higher number of ovulations in irradiated and hormonally stimulated sheep, the examination of viability of irradiated oocytes showed absence of pregnancy in all 20 sheep after mating. This indicated that the dose of 2.5 Gy was not harmless to the reproductive system of sheep. (authors)

  2. First report of GTG-banded nomenclature of Pakistani Lohi sheep (Ovis aries)

    Ali, Ahmad; Babar, Masroor Ellahi; Mahmood, Saqib; IMRAN, MUHAMMAD

    2011-01-01

    The present study was planned to generate the G-band nomenclature of the commonly occurring Lohi sheep breed in the Punjab province of Pakistan. Whole blood samples were collected through jugular venepuncture in heparinised vacutainers. The metaphase slides were prepared using standard protocols. The results from microscopic screening of 50 good quality metaphase cells from each animal were studied and they revealed a chromosome complement of 54, XX and XY in Lohi sheep. The first 3 pairs we...

  3. Investigation of transferrin polymorphism in Garole sheep.

    Yadav, Devesh K; Taraphder, Subhash; Sahoo, Ajit K; Dhara, K C

    2010-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the genetics of polymorph systems of Transferrin in Garole sheep breed. The present study was conducted on 95 adult Garole sheep comprising 52 ewes and 43 rams, maintained at Sheep and Goat Breeding Farm of West Bengal University of Animal and Fishery Sciences, West Bengal, during the period from April-September, 2009. The polymorphism of transferrin was determined through SDS-Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis technique. It was found that the transferrin type was controlled by five codominant alleles (TfA, TfB, TfC TfD and TfE) in Garole sheep. These five alleles, because of co-dominant nature of inheritance, determined the occurrence of nine transferrin genotypes in the analyzed flock. Four (TfAA, TfBB, TfCC and TfDD) of these were homozygous and the remaining five (TfAD, TfBC, TfBD, TfCD and TfDE) heterozygous. It was found that the TfDD genotype (0.263) was predominant while TfDE genotype (0.042) was least common in the analyzed flock. Frequencies of other genotypes were as: TfCD(0.242), TfBD(0.126), TfCC(0.084), TfBB(0.074), TfAA(0.063), TfAD and TfBC (0.053 for each genotype ) in whole population. From the result it was found that in whole population combined, the heterozygotic genotypic frequency (0.516) was more than that of homozygotic genotypic frequency (0.484). Considerable variations were recognized in the frequencies of transferrin alleles. In the whole population frequencies of transferrin alleles were found to be TfA = 0.089, TfB = 0.163, TfC = 0.232, TfD = 0.495 and TfE = 0.021. Transferrin system has shown an absence of genetic equilibrium among the analyzed herd (chi2 value = 51.31). In conclusion, there were polymorphism in Transferrin types and the presence of differences among the frequencies of the five alleles by categories could be a source of genetic variation in Garole sheep. PMID:20349135

  4. [The effect of feeding zeolite (clinoptilolite) on the health status of sheep].

    Bartko, P; Vrzgula, L; Prosbov, M; Blazovsk, J

    1983-08-01

    Under the experimental conditions of a clinic, zeolite from the N. Hrabovec locality was studied as to its effect on the health condition of sheep. Zeolite was added to the feed mixture at a rate of 0.15 g per 1 kg of live weight daily for three months. The trials were performed with five sheep of the Merino breed. Five sheep were used as controls. No differences were found in the health condition and general behaviour of sheep fed zeolite and sheep of the control group. Neither were substantial differences observed in the indices of the other parameters under study--actual and total acidity, content of volatile fatty acids in rumen contents, blood picture, content of macroelements and microelements, nor in the transaminase activity of blood serum and acid-base homeostasis in blood. Before the zeolite supplementation of feed ration is introduced in practice, detailed studies should be conducted and the optimum zeolite dose should be determined. PMID:6312667

  5. Nematodiasis in sheep and goats kept under traditional farming practice in Batujajar

    Beriajaya .

    2005-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the relation of age, sex, season and reproduction on gastrointestinal nematode parasitism of the two most commonly kept breeds of sheep and goat in Bogor district. A total of 119 Indonesian Thin Tail (ITT) sheep and 130 Peranakan Etawah (PE) goats with different age and sex were monitored for 16 months. Age of sheep and goat was divided into 3 groups respectively, i.e. before weaning (<4 months) 35 and 32, after weaning (4-8 months) 53 and 63; and adul...

  6. Genetic components of litter size variability in sheep

    Chevalet Claude

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Classical selection for increasing prolificacy in sheep leads to a concomitant increase in its variability, even though the objective of the breeder is to maximise the frequency of an intermediate litter size rather than the frequency of high litter sizes. For instance, in the Lacaune sheep breed raised in semi-intensive conditions, ewes lambing twins represent the economic optimum. Data for this breed, obtained from the national recording scheme, were analysed. Variance components were estimated in an infinitesimal model involving genes controlling the mean level as well as its environmental variability. Large heritability was found for the mean prolificacy, but a high potential for increasing the percentage of twins at lambing while reducing the environmental variability of prolificacy is also suspected. Quantification of the response to such a canalising selection was achieved.

  7. Identification of Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) in Mono Amine Oxidase A (MAO-A) Gene as a genetic marker for aggressiveness in sheep

    Eko Handiwirawan; Ronny R Noor; Sumantri, C.; Subandriyo . .; I Inounu

    2013-01-01

    In the population, there are aggressive sheep in a small number which requires special management those specific animal house and routine management. The purpose of this study was to identify the variation of DNA marker SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism) as a genetic marker for the aggressive trait in several of sheep breed. The identification of point mutations in exon 8 of MAO-A gene associated with aggressive behavior in sheep may be further useful to become of DNA markers for the aggres...

  8. Survey of helminths in adult sheep in Heilongjiang Province, People's Republic of China.

    Wang, C R; Qiu, J H; Zhu, X Q; Han, X H; Ni, H B; Zhao, J P; Zhou, Q M; Zhang, H W; Lun, Z R

    2006-09-10

    The prevalence of helminths in adult sheep was investigated in Heilongjiang Province, People's Republic of China between January 1999 and September 2003. A total of 326 adult sheep representing local breeds (Xingjiang Fine Wool Sheep, Dongbei Fine Wool Sheep) as well as introduced breeds (Merino and Charollais) from representative geographical locations in Heilongjiang Province were slaughtered and examined for the presence of helminths. The worms were examined, counted and identified to species according to existing keys and descriptions. A total of 26 helminth species were found representing 2 phyla, 3 classes, 13 families and 20 genera. All sheep were infected by more than one helminth species. Oesophagostomum columbianum, Haemonchus contortus and Trichostrongylus colubriformis were the most common nematode species, and Paramphistomum cervi, Orientobilharzia turkestanica and Fasciola hepatica were the most common trematode species, whereas the infection of adult sheep with cestodes was uncommon. The results of the present investigation provide relevant "base-line" data for Heilongjiang Province, China, for assessing the effectiveness of future control strategies against helminth infections in sheep. PMID:16713098

  9. Influence of Nutrition in Milk Production of Sheep and Lambs in Weight

    Ion Roşu

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The sheeps breeding is an old and traditional activity in Romania country. Depending on the number of sheeps and goats, Romania ranks in the fourth among E.U. countries. The research was conducted on three groups of sheeps, from same breed. All groups sheeps were feeding with the same amount of food, but the ratio structure was different, in the following scheme conformities: group I - has been used a fibrous ratio; group II – has been used a juicy ratio; group III – has been used a concentrate ratio. Also, in all the groups was recorded the milk production and the weight of lambs in the first month of the life. Based on research conducted, the fallowing conclusions were drawn: The highest milk production was produced by sheeps in group I and group II; The weight of lambs in the first month of life was also influenced by the mother sheeps ratio structure; The largest increase growth was made of lambs coming from a group III, and the smallest increase was made of lambs coming a group II. As a general conclusion, the best results are obtained when the mother sheeps are fed with concentrate ratio type and fibrous ratio type.

  10. Study for identification FecXI and FecXH mutations in Tunisian Barbarine sheep

    Jemmali Borni,

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A total of 334 ewes recorded with twining births from the Tunisian fat tail Barbarine sheep were genotyped in the objective to identify the FecXI and FecXH mutations. The genotyping was carried out by forced restriction fragment length polymorphism PCR (RFLP-PCR. None of mutations was detected in Barbarine sheep. Results showed that all analyzed ewes were homozygous non carriers. These results suggest that fecundity of this breed is not linked to the same mutations. Therefore, it is necessary to seek for other mutations or fecundity genes in order to develop marker assistance selection techniques and study the prolific mechanism of the Barbarine breed.

  11. Identification of quantitative trait loci affecting resistance to gastro-intestinal parasites in a double backcross population of Red Maasai and Dorper sheep

    A genome-wide scan for quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting gastrointestinal (GI) nematode resistance was completed using a double backcross sheep population derived from Red Maasai and Dorper ewes bred to F1 rams. These breeds were chosen, because Red Maasai sheep are known to be more tolerant ...

  12. Imported coenurosis in sheep

    Thirteen sheep from a milk producing farm in the Canton of Grisons that presented chronic coenurosis were examined and subjected to treatment trials at the veterinary hospital in Zurich. Symptoms were first observed around two months after the import of two dogs from Italy (Abruzza) of which one was infected with Taenia multiceps and Echinococcus granulosus. The most frequently observed clinical symptoms of the sheep were reduced general condition, circling, reduced menace reflex, apathy, unsteady gait and head tilt. Analyses of cerebrospinal fluid revealed an increased leucocyte count in 3 sheep and eosinophilia in 4 sheep. In 4 animals that underwent computertomography, one or more hypodense, definable lesions were found in the brain. In 2 sheep surgical treatment and in 10 animals medical treatment with either Praziquantel (n=8) or Oxfendazol (n=2) was attempted. Only one animal treated with Praziquantel needed not to be euthanized. At necropsy, one or two coenurus cysts could be found either in a side ventricle (n=2), in the cerebellum (n=3) or in the cerebrum (n=7). The locations corresponded with the clinical findings. Despite Praziquantel or Oxfendazol treatment, living protoscoleces could be found in the parasite cysts

  13. Opportunities for detection and use of QTL influencing seasonal reproduction in sheep: a review

    Notter David R

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Genetic improvement in traits associated with seasonal breeding in sheep is challenging because these traits have low heritabilities, are generally not expressed until late in life, are commonly recorded only in females, and are expressed only in some lambing seasons and management systems. Detection of quantitative trait loci and their use in marker-assisted selection could therefore substantially enhance selection responses. A population of sheep with an extended breeding season was developed through selection for fertility in spring matings and provides opportunities for further study of candidate genes influencing seasonal breeding. In particular, the melatonin receptor 1a gene is polymorphic in many sheep breeds and appears to influence a number of seasonal reproductive responses. In addition, a variety of clock genes have been identified in laboratory mammals and shown to influence biological rhythms. Mutations in these clock genes have been identified and shown to influence circadian periodicities and reproductive patterns in golden hamster and mouse. In sheep, expression of clock genes in the suprachaismatic nucleus and pars tuberalis (PT suggests that "calendar" cells in the ovine PT play a role in maintaining circannual rhythms. Thus the various clock genes represent potentially important candidate genes that may be involved in control of seasonal breeding.

  14. Genetic diversity of Colombian sheep by microsatellite markers

    Ricardo Ocampo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In Colombia the sheep production systems are managed under extensive conditions and mainly correspond to peasant production systems so their genetic management has led to increased homozygosity and hence productivity loss. The aim of this study was to determine the genetic diversity in 549 individuals corresponding to 13 sheep breeds in Colombia, using a panel of 11 microsatellite molecular markers. One hundred and fifty seven alleles were found (average of 14.27 alleles/locus, with a range of observed and expected heterozygosity from 0.44 to 0.84 and 0.67 to 0.86, respectively. Thirty-three of 143 Hardy Weinberg tests performed showed significant deviations (p < 0.05 due to a general lack of heterozygous individuals. The Fis ranged from 0.01 in Corriedale to 0.15 for the Persian Black Head breed, suggesting that there are presenting low to moderate levels of inbreeding. Overall, Colombian sheep showed high levels of genetic diversity which is very important for future selection and animal breeding programs.

  15. Modelos linear e não linear em análises genéticas para sobrevivência de crias de ovinos da raça Santa Inês Linear and nonlinear models in genetic analyses of lamb survival in the Santa Inês hair sheep breed

    W.H. Sousa

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Registros de sobrevivência do nascimento ao desmame de 3846 crias de ovinos da raça Santa Inês foram analisados por modelos de reprodutor linear e não linear (modelo de limiar, para estimar componentes de variância e herdabilidade. Os modelos usados para sobrevivência, analisada como característica da cria, incluíram os efeitos fixos de sexo, da combinação tipo de nascimento-criação da cria e da idade da ovelha ao parto, efeito da covariável peso da cria ao nascer e efeitos aleatórios de reprodutor, da classe rebanho-ano-estação e do resíduo. Componentes de variância para o modelo linear foram estimados pelo método da máxima verossimilhança restrita (REML e para o modelo não linear por uma aproximação da máxima verossimilhança marginal (MML, pelo programa CMMAT2. O coeficiente de herdabilidade (h² estimado pelo modelo de limiar foi de 0,29, e pelo modelo linear, 0,14. A correlação de ordem de Spearman entre as capacidades de transmissão dos reprodutores, com base nos dois modelos foi de 0,96. As estimativas de h² obtidas indicam a possibilidade de se obter, por seleção, ganho genético para sobrevivência.Records of 3,846 lambs survival from birth to weaning of Santa Inês hair sheep breed, were analyzed by linear and non linear sire models (threshold model to estimate variance components and heritability (h². The models that were used to analyze survival, considered in this study as a lamb trait, included the fixed effects of sex of the lamb, combination of type of birth-rearing of lamb, and age of ewe, birth weight of lamb as covariate, and random effects of sire, herd-year-season and residual. Variance components were obtained using restricted maximum likelihood (REML, in linear model and marginal maximum likelihood in threshold model through CMMAT2 program. Estimate of heritability (h² obtained by threshold model was 0.29 and by linear model was 0.14. Rank correlation of Spearman, between sire solutions based on the two models was 0.96. The obtained estimates in this study indicate that it is possible to acquire genetic gain to survival by selection.

  16. Lack of association between polymorphic copies of endogenous Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (enJSRVs) and Ovine Pulmonary Adenocarcinoma.

    Sistiaga-Poveda, Maialen; Larruskain, Amaia; Mateo-Abad, Maider; Jugo, Begoña M

    2016-03-15

    Ovine Pulmonary Adenocarcinoma (OPA) is a retrovirus-induced lung tumor of sheep, goat and mouflon, and its etiologic agent, Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV) is the only virus known to cause a naturally occurred lung adenocarcinoma. The oncogenic JSRV has several endogenous counterparts termed enJSRVs, some of which have been shown to interfere with JSRV replication at early and late stages of the retroviral cycle inhibiting JSRV exit from the cell, and thus, protecting sheep against the infection. In this work, Latxa sheep breed animals were classified depending on the presence/absence of OPA-characteristic clinical lesions in the lung. Using a PCR genotyping method and a logistic regression-based association study, five polymorphic enJSRV copies were analyzed in 49 OPA positive sheep and 124 control individuals. Our results showed that the frequency of the provirus enJSRV-16 is much higher in Latxa sheep breed than in other breeds, suggesting a recent proliferation of this provirus in the studied breed. However, no polymorphic enJSRV was found to be statistically associated with the susceptibility/resistance to OPA development. PMID:26931391

  17. Implications of Genotype by Environment Interactions in Dairy Sheep Welfare

    Dinu Gavojdian

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Small ruminants are the most extensively farmed livestock species in Europe, as a result being extremely exposed to natural hazards which leads to strong interactions between genotype and environment. Aim of the current review was to outline and discuss the main welfare issues and economic implications with regards to the genotype by environment interactions in dairy sheep. Researches concerning the additive genetic effect on milk yield, shown that this accounts only for 10%, while the milk production is 90% influenced by environmental factors, highlighting the major role that management and nutrition play in the dairy production of sheep. Nowadays, dairy sheep breeds (e.g. Eastern Friesian and Lacaune, are being introduced and reared in various countries under an extremely wide range of rearing conditions, without adequate knowledge on their acclimatization to the new specific conditions. It was concluded that a welfare assessment protocol for dairy sheep does not exist up today, moreover, there is a serious lack of data concerning the genetic and environmental factors affecting the welfare status of dairy sheep at farm level under different production systems.

  18. Sheep (radioactivity) (after Chernobyl)

    The effects of the radiation ban on sheep movements announced on 20 June are debated. This is of particular concern to the farmers of Wales, Cumbria and the South of Scotland for whom it poses grave financial problems. Several questions about statements made at the time of the Chernobyl incident and the resulting increased radiation levels in parts of the British Isles are raised, and criticisms of the Government attitude and information are made. The delay in announcing compensation is also criticised. The debate, which lasted over an hour, is reported verbatim. It includes discussions on markets and prices of the sheep in the areas of the ban. (UK)

  19. The impact of infection with Schmallenberg virus on weaning rate in Irish sheep flocks.

    Barrett, Damien; O'Neill, Ronan; Sammin, Donal; Clegg, Tracy A; More, Simon J

    2015-12-01

    Schmallenberg virus (SBV) disease emerged in Europe in 2011, with the virus initially identified in Germany, and the first confirmed case of SBV infection in Ireland diagnosed in a dairy calf in October 2012. SBV was subsequently confirmed by RT-PCR in 49 cattle herds and 39 sheep flocks. While these studies provide a good representation of the spatial distribution of SBV in Ireland, they do not quantify the impact of SBV on productivity. The objectives of this study were to assess the impact of SBV on weaning rate in Irish sheep flocks, based on data reported by Irish sheep farmers, and to evaluate weaning rate in sheep flocks as an indicator to be used in emerging disease surveillance systems. A questionnaire on productivity and management practices in sheep flocks was developed to gather data from sheep farmers. Valid responses from 267 sheep farmers were received. Negative binomial regression indicated that flocks with a confirmed SBV diagnosis had a weaning rate 0.9 times that of flocks free of SBV. The 10% reduction in weaning rates as a result of SBV is a justifiable concern for farmers and should be considered in formulating flock breeding policy. This study shows the value of a production database as an indicator of an emerging disease and the economic impact of that disease in Irish sheep flocks. PMID:26547824

  20. First charge breeding of a rare-isotope beam with the electron-beam ion trap of the ReA post-accelerator at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory

    Lapierre, A.; Schwarz, S.; Baumann, T. M.; Cooper, K.; Kittimanapun, K.; Rodriguez, A. J.; Sumithrarachchi, C.; Williams, S. J.; Wittmer, W.; Leitner, D.; Bollen, G.

    2014-02-01

    An electron-beam ion trap (EBIT) charge breeder is being brought into operation at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory at Michigan State University. The EBIT is part of the ReA post-accelerator for reacceleration of rare isotopes, which are thermalized in a gas "stopping" cell after being produced at high energy by projectile fragmentation. The ReA EBIT has a distinctive design; it is characterized by a high-current electron gun and a two-field superconducting magnet to optimize the capture and charge-breeding efficiency of continuously injected singly charged ion beams. Following a brief overview of the reaccelerator system and the ReA EBIT, this paper presents the latest commissioning results, particularly, charge breeding and reacceleration of the highly charged rare isotopes, 76Ga24 +, 25 +.

  1. Atypical scrapie in sheep from a UK research flock which is free from classical scrapie

    Ortiz-Pelaez Angel

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the wake of the epidemic of bovine spongiform encephalopathy the British government established a flock of sheep from which scrapie-free animals are supplied to laboratories for research. Three breeds of sheep carrying a variety of different genotypes associated with scrapie susceptibility/resistance were imported in 1998 and 2001 from New Zealand, a country regarded as free from scrapie. They are kept in a purpose-built Sheep Unit under strict disease security and are monitored clinically and post mortem for evidence of scrapie. It is emphasised that atypical scrapie, as distinct from classical scrapie, has been recognised only relatively recently and differs from classical scrapie in its clinical, neuropathological and biochemical features. Most cases are detected in apparently healthy sheep by post mortem examination. Results The occurrence of atypical scrapie in three sheep in (or derived from the Sheep Unit is reported. Significant features of the affected sheep included their relatively high ages (6 y 1 mo, 7 y 9 mo, 9 y 7 mo respectively, their breed (all Cheviots and their similar PRNP genotypes (AFRQ/AFRQ, AFRQ/ALRQ, and AFRQ/AFRQ, respectively. Two of the three sheep showed no clinical signs prior to death but all were confirmed as having atypical scrapie by immunohistochemistry and Western immunoblotting. Results of epidemiological investigations are presented and possible aetiologies of the cases are discussed. Conclusion By process of exclusion, a likely explanation for the three cases of atypical scrapie is that they arose spontaneously and were not infected from an exterior source. If correct, this raises challenging issues for countries which are currently regarded as free from scrapie. It would mean that atypical scrapie is liable to occur in flocks worldwide, especially in older sheep of susceptible genotypes. To state confidently that both the classical and atypical forms of scrapie are absent from a population it is necessary for active surveillance to have taken place.

  2. Adaptation of indigenous sheep, goats and camels in harsh grazing conditions

    Microbial breakdown of cellulose is a rather slow process. Therefore the retention time of digesta and the volume of the fermentation chamber are factors limiting the quantity of fibrous diets that can be digested. Indigenous ruminants can generally adapt to harsh grazing conditions better than conventional breeds. Unexpectedly high rumen volumes were reported in a number of indigenous ruminants. In studies reported in this paper, Heidschnucken, an indigenous breed of sheep in the heather region of Northern Germany, were able to increase their rumen volume from 14% to 22% of body weight during adaptation to a low quality fibrous diet. Heidschnucken did not lose significant body weight, whereas Blackface sheep lost 20% and failed to adapt the rumen volume. Rumen volume of indigenous sheep and goats in Northern Kenya was 20% of body weight while grazing in the thornbush savannah during the dry season, compared with 9-12% while kept indoors on a hay-concentrate diet. Mean retention time of particles in the total gastrointestinal tract of goats and sheep in Kenya was 38 h and 46 h respectively. In the experiment with Heidschnucken, these sheep increased the retention time of particles to 71 h on a straw diet, while Blackface sheep retained particles 58 h. Dietary preference and feed intake have been studied in indigenous sheep and goats in Kenya at seasonal pasture conditions in the thornbush savannah. Goats have a higher preference to dicotyledon species (92-97%) than sheep, who are less selective grazers. The feeding behaviour of indigenous sheep and goats was complementary rather than competitive. Feeding observations indicate that this is also the case when cattle (grazers) and camels (browsers) are included in such a comparison. (author)

  3. Agriculture. Sheep Livestock.

    Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Coll. of Agriculture and Natural Resources Education Inst.

    This task-based curriculum guide for agricultural production, specifically for sheep, is intended to help the teacher develop a classroom management system where students learn by doing. Introductory materials include a Dictionary of Occupational Titles job code and title sheet, a task sheet for developing leadership skills, and a task list. Each…

  4. Identification of Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP in Mono Amine Oxidase A (MAO-A Gene as a genetic marker for aggressiveness in sheep

    Eko Handiwirawan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the population, there are aggressive sheep in a small number which requires special management those specific animal house and routine management. The purpose of this study was to identify the variation of DNA marker SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism as a genetic marker for the aggressive trait in several of sheep breed. The identification of point mutations in exon 8 of MAO-A gene associated with aggressive behavior in sheep may be further useful to become of DNA markers for the aggressive trait in sheep. Five of sheep breed were used, i.e.: Barbados Black belly Cross sheep (BC, Composite Garut (KG, Local Garut (LG, Composite Sumatra (KS and St. Cross Croix (SC. Duration of ten behavior traits, blood serotonin concentrations and DNA sequence of exon 8 of MAO-A gene from the sheep aggressive and nonaggressive were observed. PROC GLM of SAS Ver. 9.0 program was used to analyze variable behavior and blood serotonin concentrations. DNA polymorphism in exon 8 of MAO-A gene was analyzed using the MEGA software Ver. 4.0. The results show that the percentage of the aggressive rams of each breed was less than 10 percent; except for the KS sheep is higher (23%. Based on the duration of behavior, aggressive sheep group was not significantly different with non aggressive sheep group, except duration of care giving and drinking behavior. It is known that concentration of blood serotonin in aggressive and non aggressive rams was not significantly different. The aggressive trait in sheep has a mechanism or a different cause like that occurs in mice and humans. In this study, aggressive behavior in sheep was not associated with a mutation in exon 8 of MAO-A gene.

  5. Effects of Administration of Melatonin on the Harderian Gland of Sheep

    Enas Ahmed Abd ElHafez; Alaa Sayed Abou-elhamd; Ahmed Hassan Hassan

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to study the morphological structure of the harderian gland of sheep by using light and electron microscopy and to study the effect of melatonin administration on the secretory activity of the gland. This experiment was performed on fifteen Soay rams aged 1.5 years. Results revealed that the harderian gland of sheep was of compound tubuloalveolar type. By using light microscopy, the secretory end-pieces of the harderian gland of sheep were lined with principal ...

  6. [Estimation of Genetic Diversity of Romanov Sheep by the Coefficient of Genetic Originality Based on ISSR-Fingerprinting Data].

    Nesteruk, L V; Makarova, N N; Svishcheva, G R; Stolpovsky, Yu A

    2015-07-01

    Estimation of the state of the genetic diversity and the originality of the breed structure is required for the conservation and management of domestic breeds of agricultural animals. The Romanov breed of sheep from the leading breeding and gene pool farms in Yaroslavl oblast (Russia) is the object of our study. ISS R fingerprinting was used as a molecular method of the study of sheep gene pools. Forty-three DNA fragments were detected (25 and 18, respectively) by two primers ((AG)9C and (GA)9C). Of the discovered ISSR markers, 81% were polymorphic. The coefficient of genetic originality was for the first time used for the study of the specificity and originality of the Romanov-breed gene pool. Based on its values, the studied individuals were divided into five classes depending on the frequency of the ISSR fragment. The most original or the rarest, as well as typical genotypes, were singled out in the Romanov sheep gene pool. Use the obtained data on genetic originality was proposed as a means to increase the efficiency of selection and breeding during the breeding of autochthonous breeds of domesticated animal species. PMID:26410941

  7. Sheep Stockmanship (Lambing). Youth Training Scheme. Core Exemplar Work Based Project.

    Further Education Staff Coll., Blagdon (England).

    This trainer's guide is intended to assist supervisors of work-based career training projects in helping students gather and record information about sheep breeding, learn about treatment of diseases, prepare the lambing area, and assist with the aftercare of lambs and ewes. The guide is one in a series of core curriculum modules that is intended…

  8. A missense mutation in growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9) is strongly associated with litter size in sheep

    Vge Dag I; Husdal Maren; Kent Matthew P; Klemetsdal Gunnar; Boman Inger A

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background A genome wide association study for litter size in Norwegian White Sheep (NWS) was conducted using the recently developed ovine 50K SNP chip from Illumina. After genotyping 378 progeny tested artificial insemination (AI) rams, a GWAS analysis was performed on estimated breeding values (EBVs) for litter size. Results A QTL-region was identified on sheep chromosome 5, close to the growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9), which is known to be a strong candidate gene for increa...

  9. Factors of welfare reduction in dairy sheep and goats

    Antonio Pazzona

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Scientific research on factors causing the reduction of well-being in sheep and goats is rather recent, as are studies of strategies to minimize the adverse effects of environmental challenges and improper management practices on flock welfare. Sheep and goats, considered very rustic animals, are reared prevalently under extensive production systems and are widespread mainly in marginal areas. For these reasons, only few studies on the welfare of these species have been carried out in the past. More recently, the scenario has changed, due to a gradual diffusion of intensive and semi-intensive production systems, especially in dairy sheep and goat breeds, to the growing concern of consumers about the life conditions of farmed animals, and to the issuing of a number of rules and laws on the safety of animal products and well-being of farmed livestock. As a consequence, several research groups have turned their attention to the welfare of sheep and goats. Nevertheless, information on this topic is still scarce. This paper reviews major critical points regarding the endangerment of welfare in farmed sheep and goats. Climatic extremes and seasonal fluctuations in herbage amount and quality are discussed as important causes of the reduction of well-being in extensive production systems, which can impair production efficiency of grazing animals and dramatically affect the welfare and health status of sheep and goats. Space allowance and structures of sheep and goat houses are described as the main potential sources of discomfort for housed flocks, together with inadequate control of micro-environment, and inappropriate milking procedures and human-animal interactions. Recent studies on the impact of high ambient temperature, different ventilation regimes, high stocking densities, reduced airspace and poor litter management on behaviour, immune and endocrine response, and on performance of sheep and goats are discussed. The effects of inadequate milking procedures and improper milking technical parameters on welfare and udder health of sheep and goats are also discussed. Finally, some practices aimed at minimizing emotional and nutritional stresses of lambs and kids after early separation from the mother, before the transition to artificial rearing, and at weaning time are described.

  10. Genomic variation and population structure detected by single nucleotide polymorphism arrays in Corriedale, Merino and Creole sheep

    Andrés N Grasso

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the genetic diversity within and among three breeds of sheep: Corriedale, Merino and Creole. Sheep from the three breeds (Merino n = 110, Corriedale n = 108 and Creole n = 10 were genotyped using the Illumina Ovine SNP50 beadchip®. Genetic diversity was evaluated by comparing the minor allele frequency (MAF among breeds. Population structure and genetic differentiation were assessed using STRUCTURE software, principal component analysis (PCA and fixation index (F ST. Fixed markers (MAF = 0 that were different among breeds were identified as specific breed markers. Using a subset of 18,181 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, PCA and STUCTURE analysis were able to explain population stratification within breeds. Merino and Corriedale divergent lines showed high levels of polymorphism (89.4% and 86% of polymorphic SNPs, respectively and moderate genetic differentiation (F ST = 0.08 between them. In contrast, Creole had only 69% polymorphic SNPs and showed greater genetic differentiation from the other two breeds (F ST = 0.17 for both breeds. Hence, a subset of molecular markers present in the OvineSNP50 is informative enough for breed assignment and population structure analysis of commercial and Creole breeds.

  11. INCREASING FOOD CHAIN SECURITY FOR SCRAPIE BY MARKER ASSISTED SELECTION IN SHEEP POPULATIONS

    VIORICA CO?IER

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Romania, by its genetic found made up of over 7.4 millions sheep and 1.8 millionsyoung sheep exported in EU countries, represents an important mark in bothEuropean and World sheep breeding sector, in last years marked by many ESSTcenters. The apparition of this disease and its high risk of danger for reared effectiveconstraint EEC countries to interfere by law regulations concerning scrapie controland stopping disease spreading. In our country, controls identified the presence ofscrapie in livestock. The international reference laboratories post mortem certifiedthe presence of disease. Immunohistochemical detection of PrPSc is a standarddiagnostic method for sheep scrapie. By immunohistochemistry (IHC, PrPSc isdetected in lymphoid tissues during preclinical and clinical disease. Aftergenotypization at PrnP locus, the marker assisted selection is compulsory, and flocksinclude only genotypes with high disease resistance.

  12. INCREASING FOOD CHAIN SECURITY FOR SCRAPIE BY MARKER ASSISTED SELECTION IN SHEEP POPULATIONS

    CO?IER VIORICA

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Romania, by its genetic found made up of over 7.4 millions sheep and 1.8 millionsyoung sheep exported in EU countries, represents an important mark in bothEuropean and World sheep breeding sector, in last years marked by many ESSTcenters. The apparition of this disease and its high risk of danger for reared effectiveconstraint EEC countries to interfere by law regulations concerning scrapie controland stopping disease spreading. In our country, controls identified the presence ofscrapie in livestock. The international reference laboratories post mortem certifiedthe presence of disease. Immunohistochemical detection of PrPSc is a standarddiagnostic method for sheep scrapie. By immunohistochemistry (IHC, PrPSc isdetected in lymphoid tissues during preclinical and clinical disease. Aftergenotypization at PrnP locus, the marker assisted selection is compulsory, and flocksinclude only genotypes with high disease resistance.

  13. Nairobi sheep disease virus/Ganjam virus.

    M D, Baron; B, Holzer

    2015-08-01

    Nairobi sheep disease virus (NSDV) is a tick-borne virus which causes a severe disease in sheep and goats, and has been responsible for several outbreaks of disease in East Africa. The virus is also found in the Indian subcontinent, where it is known as Ganjam virus. The virus only spreads through the feeding of competent infected ticks, and is therefore limited in its geographic distribution by the distribution of those ticks, Rhipicephalus appendiculata in Africa and Haemaphysalis intermedia in India. Animals bred in endemic areas do not normally develop disease, and the impact is therefore primarily on animals being moved for trade or breeding purposes. The disease caused by NSDV has similarities to several other ruminant diseases, and laboratory diagnosis is necessary for confirmation. There are published methods for diagnosis based on polymerase chain reaction, for virus growth in cell culture and for other simple diagnostic tests, though none has been commercialised. There is no established vaccine against NSDV, although cell-culture attenuated strains have been developed which show promise and could be put into field trials if it were deemed necessary. The virus is closely related to Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus, and studies on NSDV may therefore be useful in understanding this important human pathogen. PMID:26647464

  14. Marker-assisted selection in sheep and goats

    Sheep and goats are often kept in low input production systems, often at subsistence levels. In such systems, the uptake of effective commercial breeding programmes is limited, let alone the uptake of more advanced technologies such as those needed for marker-assisted selection (MAS). However, effective breeding programmes exist in a number of countries, the largest ones in Australia and New Zealand aiming for genetic improvement of meat and wool characteristics as well as disease resistance and fecundity. Advances have been made in sheep gene mapping with the marker map consisting of more than 1 200 microsatellites, and a virtual genome sequence together with a very dense single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) map are expected within a year. Significant research efforts into quantitative trait loci (QTL) are under way and a number of commercial sheep gene tests have already become available, mainly for single gene effects but some for muscularity and disease resistance. Gene mapping in goats is much less advanced with mainly some activity in dairy goats. Integration of genotypic information into commercial genetic evaluation and optimal selection strategies is a challenge that deserves more development. (author)

  15. Evolution of plant breeding

    Arnel R. Hallauer

    2011-01-01

    Plant breeding is considered one of the longest ongoing activities undertaken by humans, who select plantsmore productive and useful to themselves and the animals for at least 10,000 years ago. The evolution of civilizationsparalleled the success of plant breeding, although this has not been recognized by the public. The reason may be lack ofunderstanding of what plant breeding encompasses. The concept of plant breeding evolved, depending on the time it wasformulated, but without losing the e...

  16. Genetic differentiation between 'Araucana' creole and 'Hampshire Down' sheeps in Chile

    Silvana Bravo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Genetic diversity studies in domestic animals allow evaluating genetic variation within and among breeds mainly for conservation purposes. In Chile exist isolated recovery programs, conservation and characterization of animal genetic resources, a consequence of which the vast majority of them have not been characterized, poorly used, and some of them have become extinct. The aim of this research was to determine genetic diversity and relationship between 'Araucana' creole and 'Hampshire Down' sheeps based on microsatellite markers; sheep breeds with similar phenotypic characteristics, raised in the south of Chile. A total of 64 'Araucana' sheep ('Araucana' from Freire, AF: 27, 'Araucana' from Padre Las Casas, AP: 10, 'Araucana' from Chol Chol, AC: 15, 'Araucana' from Villarrica, AV: 12 and 43 'Hampshire Down' sheep ('Hampshire' from Marchigue, HM: 18, 'Hampshire' from Valdivia, HV: 11, 'Hampshire' from San José, HS: 14 were analyzed using 17 microsatellite markers for determine the genetic diversity and relationship between breeds. A total of 284 alleles were observed with average polymorphic information content equal to 0.76, showing that the microsatellites panel used was highly informative. Estimated heterozygosity ranged from 0.73 in 'Hampshire Down' to 0.85 in 'Araucana'. The low inbreeding or endogamy coefficient (F IS, 0.022 and total inbreeding estimate (F IT, 0.070 indicated low level of inbreeding within and among breeds. The phylogenetic tree showed a separation between HS and HV, and the other sheep populations. The results indicated high genetic variability, low inbreeding, and low genetic differentiation, except for HV and HS, and were in according with geographical location and breeding practices.

  17. TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO THE SHEEP AND GOAT MILK WITHIN ECHOLOGIC CONDITIONS

    CAMELIA ZOIA ZAMFIR

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of HACCP system within sheep exploitations represents a unitary control manner, scientifically proved, which enforces the discipline and correctness, allows an objective evaluation of sheep and goat meat and milk quality. When determining the main components of sheep and goat milk from the animals that grazed on the pasture fertilized with stable manure, within ecologic conditions, the following results were obtained: at sheep there was a fat percent of 6.22% and 6.11%, protein 5.32% and 5.52%, and dry substance 14.25% and 14.21%, normal values for sheep milk; at goats the fat percent was that of 6.22% and 6.11%, protein 5.32% and 5.52%, and dry substance 14.25% and 14.21%, normal values for goat milk. The milk samples taken from the sheep belonging to Palas Merino breed and from Carpatina breed were also analysed with regard to the toxic residues and it has been stated that the values obtained fit within the normal norms admitted by the food domain’ standards, being in compliance with the safety and protection of the consumers. The elimination of chemical fertilizers, pesticides and herbicides has led to the non-noticing of their presence within the sheep and goat products. By the regulation of ecologic products’ quality, in relation with the consumers’ and environment’s protection, a balance was created between the producers’ interests and obligations, those of the merchants and also those of the consumers. On the basis of results obtained through the microbiological examination of milk and meat samples taken from the sheep it has been stated that the microbial flora identified is formed by representatives of Staphylococcus–72.72% Streptococcus β hemolitic – 9.09% and Fungi filamentous – 18.18%. The microbial flora is non pathogen for man.

  18. Quantitative Western ligand blotting reveals common patterns and differential features of IGFBP-fingerprints in domestic ruminant breeds and species.

    Wirthgen, Elisa; Höflich, Christine; Spitschak, Marion; Helmer, Carina; Brand, Bodo; Langbein, Jan; Metzger, Friedrich; Hoeflich, Andreas

    2016-02-01

    The insulin-like growth factor binding proteins (IGFBPs) are determinants of local IGF-effects and thus have an impact on growth and metabolism in vertebrate species. In farm animals, IGFBPs are associated with traits such as growth rate, body composition, milk production, or fertility. It may be assumed, that selective breeding and characteristic phenotypes of breeds are related to differential expression of IGFBPs. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of selective breeding on blood IGFBP concentrations of farm animals. Breeds of the sheep, goat, and cattle species were investigated. IGFBP-3, -2, and -4 were analyzed with quantitative Western ligand blotting (qWLB), enabling comprehensive monitoring of intact IGFBPs with IGF-binding capacity. We show that in sera of all species and breeds investigated, IGFBP-3, -2, and -4 were simultaneously detectable by qWLB analysis. IGFBP-3 and the total amount of IGFBPs were significantly increased (P<0.05) in Cameroon sheep, if compared to 3 of 4 other sheep breeds, as well as in Dwarf goats versus Toggenburg and Boer goats (P<0.01). IGFBP-2 was elevated in Cameroon sheep and Boer goats, if compared to other breeds of these species (P<0.01), respectively. Holstein Friesian dairy cows had higher levels of IGFBP-4 (P<0.05), if compared to conventional crossbreeds of beef cattle. In Dwarf goats the ratio of IGFBP-3/IGFBP-2 was about 3-fold higher than in other goat breeds (P<0.001). The total IGFBP amount of Toggenburg goats was reduced (P<0.05), compared to the other goat breeds. In conclusion, our data indicate that common and specific features of IGFBP fingerprints are found in different ruminant species and breeds. Our findings may introduce quantitative Western ligand blotting as an attractive tool for biomarker development and molecular phenotyping in farm animal breeds. PMID:26597140

  19. Molecular plant breeding

    Xu, Yunbi

    2015-01-01

    "Recent advances in plant genomics and molecular biology have revolutionized our understanding of plant genetics, providing new opportunities for more efficient and controllable plant breeding. Modern plant breeding involves development and utilization of various genetic populations, molecular tools, statistical methods, breeding informatics and decision support tools. Successful techniques therefore require a solid understanding of the underlying molecular biology as well as experience in ap...

  20. Genetic Variation at Karayaka Sheep Herds Based on Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Markers

    Ahmet Okumus

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Turkish Karayaka sheep breed that is one of the important native breed at Black Sea Region in Turkey was genotyped for 13 RAPD primers. Genotypes of 100 were collected from five different herds (BA, BF, LA, LD and KP herds localized in the Samsun territory. The genetic similarity was obtained on the dendrograms individuals and herd. Within herds, individuals showed a similarity index between 0.857 to 0.420. The similarity index between populations ranged from 0.520 to 0.710. The binary results also were utilised by principal component analysis for comparison of herds and individuals. The genetic relationship of animals shows a difference among herds in terms of number of RAPD bands. These results show that some herds are effected possibly from other sheep breeds or reared purely such as KP.

  1. The complete mitochondrial genome of domestic sheep, Ovis aries.

    Hu, Xiao-di; Gao, Li-Zhi

    2016-03-01

    In this study, we report a complete mitochondrial (mt) genome sequence of the Texel ewe, Ovis aries. The total genome is 16,615?bp in length and its overall base composition was estimated to be 33.68% for A, 27.36% for T, 25.86% for C, and 13.10% for G indicating an AT-rich (61.04%) feature in the O. aries mtgenome. It contains a total of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes and a control region (D-loop region). Comparisons with other publicly available sheep mitogenomes revealed a bunch of nucleotide diversity. This complete mitgenome sequence would enlarge useful genomic information for further studies on sheep evolution and domestication that will enhance germplasm conservation and breeding programs of O. aries. PMID:25163015

  2. Productivity of prolific sheep : Economic analysis

    I. Inounu

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available The existence of major gene in the Indonesian sheep breeds has been revealed in three different genotypes which are further implied that different levels of feeding and management are necessary to realize the potential benefits for each genotype . The variability in the ewe production as a result of the differences in genotype and management levels were then evaluated by economic analysis . The result shows that improvement in management practices resulted in an increase of production ofindividual breeding ewe (BS. However, since these increases in performance required additional cost for higher input value, as it was indicated in the total production cost, attention must be given toward the decision as to which genotype to raise at what level of feeding management . This study has shown promising results to facilitate the decision makers in that direction, for example, ewes with FecJFFecJ` genotype gained the highest gross margin when they were treated with high level of feeding management. The next best alternative was followed by FecJ FFecJ F genotype. Furthermore, in the situation where low level of feeding management being practiced, ewes carrying the FecJF gene did not show their superiority since they gained lower gross margin compared with the non-carrier ewes.

  3. Expanding Possibilities for Intervention against Small Ruminant Lentiviruses through Genetic Marker-Assisted Selective Breeding

    Donald P. Knowles

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Small ruminant lentiviruses include members that infect sheep (ovine lentivirus [OvLV]; also known as ovine progressive pneumonia virus/maedi-visna virus and goats (caprine arthritis encephalitis virus [CAEV]. Breed differences in seroprevalence and proviral concentration of OvLV had suggested a strong genetic component in susceptibility to infection by OvLV in sheep. A genetic marker test for susceptibility to OvLV has been developed recently based on the TMEM154 gene with validation data from over 2,800 sheep representing nine cohorts. While no single genotype has been shown to have complete resistance to OvLV, consistent association in thousands of sheep from multiple breeds and management conditions highlight a new strategy for intervention by selective breeding. This genetic marker-assisted selection (MAS has the potential to be a useful addition to existing viral control measures. Further, the discovery of multiple additional genomic regions associated with susceptibility to or control of OvLV suggests that additional genetic marker tests may be developed to extend the reach of MAS in the future. This review will cover the strengths and limitations of existing data from host genetics as an intervention and outline additional questions for future genetic research in sheep, goats, small ruminant lentiviruses, and their host-pathogen interactions.

  4. Expanding Possibilities for Intervention against Small Ruminant Lentiviruses through Genetic Marker-Assisted Selective Breeding

    White, Stephen N.; Knowles, Donald P.

    2013-01-01

    Small ruminant lentiviruses include members that infect sheep (ovine lentivirus [OvLV]; also known as ovine progressive pneumonia virus/maedi-visna virus) and goats (caprine arthritis encephalitis virus [CAEV]). Breed differences in seroprevalence and proviral concentration of OvLV had suggested a strong genetic component in susceptibility to infection by OvLV in sheep. A genetic marker test for susceptibility to OvLV has been developed recently based on the TMEM154 gene with validation data from over 2,800 sheep representing nine cohorts. While no single genotype has been shown to have complete resistance to OvLV, consistent association in thousands of sheep from multiple breeds and management conditions highlight a new strategy for intervention by selective breeding. This genetic marker-assisted selection (MAS) has the potential to be a useful addition to existing viral control measures. Further, the discovery of multiple additional genomic regions associated with susceptibility to or control of OvLV suggests that additional genetic marker tests may be developed to extend the reach of MAS in the future. This review will cover the strengths and limitations of existing data from host genetics as an intervention and outline additional questions for future genetic research in sheep, goats, small ruminant lentiviruses, and their host-pathogen interactions. PMID:23771240

  5. Familiarity with and uptake of alternative methods to control sheep gastro-intestinal parasites on farms in England.

    Moore, Hope; Pandolfi, Fanny; Kyriazakis, Ilias

    2016-05-15

    A questionnaire was distributed electronically amongst sheep farmers in England; it aimed to provide a quantification of current anthelmintic practices, farmer awareness of the issue of anthelmintic resistance (AR) and the uptake, awareness and opinions surrounding conventional and alternative methods of nematode control. The majority of farmers relied on several anthelmintics and used faecal egg counts to identify worm problems. Although farmers were aware of the issue of AR amongst helminth parasites in the UK, there was a disconnection between such awareness and on farm problems and practice of nematode control. Grazing management was used by 52% of responders, while breeding for resistance and bioactive forages by 22 and 18% respectively. Farms with more than 500 ewes, and farmers who felt nematodes were a problem, had a higher probability of using selective breeding. Farmers who considered their wormer effective, had a qualification in agriculture and whose staff did not include any family members, were more likely to use bioactive forages; the opposite was the case if farmers dosed their lambs frequently. Amongst the alternatives, highest preference was for selective breeding and vaccination, if the latter was to become commercially available, with more respondents having a preference for breeding than actually using it. Several barriers to the uptake of an alternative were identified, the most influential factor being the cost to set it up and the length of time for which it would remain effective. The disconnection between awareness of AR and practice of nematode control on farm reinforces the need for emphasising the links between the causes of AR and the consequences of strategies to address its challenge. PMID:27084464

  6. Charge Breeding of Radioactive Ions

    Wenander, F J C

    2013-01-01

    Charge breeding is a technique to increase the charge state of ions, in many cases radioactive ions. The singly charged radioactive ions, produced in an isotope separator on-line facility, and extracted with a low kinetic energy of some tens of keV, are injected into a charge breeder, where the charge state is increased to Q. The transformed ions are either directed towards a dedicated experiment requiring highly charged ions, or post-accelerated to higher beam energies. In this paper the physics processes involved in the production of highly charged ions will be introduced, and the injection and extraction beam parameters of the charge breeder defined. A description of the three main charge-breeding methods is given, namely: electron stripping in gas jet or foil; external ion injection into an electron-beam ion source/trap (EBIS/T); and external ion injection into an electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS). In addition, some preparatory devices for charge breeding and practical beam delivery aspects ...

  7. Suitability of blood protein polymorphisms in assessing genetic diversity in indigenous sheep in Kenya

    Knowledge of genetic diversity is important as it forms the basis for designing breeding programmes and making rational decisions on sustainable utilization of animal genetic resources. This study was designed to assess the efficiency of blood protein polymorphism as a rapid tool for assessing genetic diversity, using seven blood proteins (transferrin, albumin, haemoglobin, esterase A, esterase C, carbonic anhydrase and X-protein) and 457 indigenous fat-tailed (351) and fat-rumped (106) hair sheep in Kenya from 7 populations, with 40 Merino as controls. Transferrin was analysed using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and starch gel electrophoresis was used to analyse the other six loci. Of the seven loci analysed, two - carbonic anhydrase and X-protein - could not be interpreted. The five interpretable markers, however, showed low levels of polymorphism in allele numbers and heterozygosity. Multilocus mean FST values of 0.083 indicated a moderate genetic differentiation between the populations analysed. The Dm and Da genetic distance estimates showed the indigenous sheep populations in Kenya to be closely related genetically, with the dendrogram failing to resolve indigenous sheep into fat-tailed sheep and fat-rumped hair sheep. Due to its costs and modest equipment demands, blood protein polymorphism can be used as a rapid tool to assess genetic diversity and prioritize breeds to be analysed by microsatellite DNA markers. (author)

  8. Genetic diversity in four populations of Nguni (Zulu sheep assessed by microsatellite analysis

    Nokuthula W. Kunene

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Zulu sheep are found mainly in the rural KwaZulu-Natal province and the numbers are declining due to indiscriminate inbreeding. There is thus a need for phenotypic and genetic characterisation as a first phase for planning conservation strategies. Zulu sheep populations sampled were from Makhathini research station (MS (n=33, University of Zululand (UZ (n=21, a community at KwaMthethwa (KM (n=32 and from Msinga (EM (n=33. One European breed Appen - ninica (AP was used as out group. Microsatellite analysis using 29 microsatellite loci was used in this study. Among the Zulu sheep, the mean number of alleles per locus was the lowest (3.86 in UZ and the highest (6.24 was realised in EM. The mean values of observed and expected heterozygosity were 0.57 and 0.61, respectively. Neighbour-joining tree showed two main Zulu sheep clusters: the UZ, KM and MS sheep populations clustered together and the second cluster included only representatives from the EM population. The STRUCTURE analysis showed that KM, AP and EM were founded in separate clusters, whereas UZ and MS clustered together. The study demonstrated that there was a common origin of the population from the research stations (MS and UZ populations. It also demonstrated that the EM had a different history for the other three populations. This work suggests that exchange of rams could be useful in reducing inbreeding when considering conservation breeding programmes.

  9. Risk factors associated with small ruminant lentivirus infection in eastern Poland sheep flocks.

    Junkuszew, Andrzej; Dudko, Paulina; Bojar, Wiktor; Olech, Monika; Osiński, Zbigniew; Gruszecki, Tomasz M; Kania, Monika Greguła; Kuźmak, Jacek; Czerski, Grzegorz

    2016-05-01

    An analysis of the risk factors for ovine lentivirus infection was performed in sheep flocks located throughout the central-eastern region of Poland. Here, we report the infection details for 98 flocks with a total of 6470 ewes, 15 sheep breeds. The identification of infected animals and a review of the epidemiological status of each flock were based on an evaluation of serological tests performed on collected blood serum samples. Blood for examination was obtained from 2925 ewes of the 98 flocks under observation. Specific antibodies for Maedi Visna Virus (MVV) were detected via ELISA. Data illustrating the conditions at each sheep farm were obtained through questionnaires completed by farmers, as well as observations, measurements, and breeding records that were available. These observations were used to assess risk factors contributing to small ruminant lentivirus (SRLV) infection in sheep flocks. It was found that both sheep flock size and the type of management system had a significant effect on the increased risk of lentiviral infection. In addition, we demonstrate that there is a significant (pcontrol program based on diagnostic tests. Moreover, marketing approval should be granted for solely SRLV-seronegative animals. PMID:27094139

  10. Nematodiasis in sheep and goats kept under traditional farming practice in Batujajar

    Beriajaya

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the relation of age, sex, season and reproduction on gastrointestinal nematode parasitism of the two most commonly kept breeds of sheep and goat in Bogor district. A total of 119 Indonesian Thin Tail (ITT sheep and 130 Peranakan Etawah (PE goats with different age and sex were monitored for 16 months. Age of sheep and goat was divided into 3 groups respectively, i.e. before weaning (8 months 31 and 35. Each 4 weeks, individual faeces were collected and individual animals were weighed. Information on the mortality, morbidity, pregnancy, slaughtered and sold was recorded. The results showed that Haemonchus contortus and Trichostrongylus spp. were dominant species of nematodes found in the faecal cultured. In the period of monitoring, egg counts of nematodes in sheep were higher (P<0.05 than in goats, however both animals have similar pattern of egg counts. In the first three months, the egg counts remained steady relatively in 3 groups of age, but soon after that the egg counts increased and reached its peak (in March of 6186 eggs in sheep and 3434 in goats, there after they decreased along with the onset of dry season. A part from this, the egg counts increased (P<0.05 three months before lambing and remained steady until 2 months after partus in sheep, but not in goats. During the monitoring period, weight gain in wet season was lower (P<0.05 as compared to dry season. There was no effect of sex on faecal egg count in either sheep or goats although male sheep had higher egg counts than female sheep had in November and January. Evidence of diarrhoeic faeces was higher in wet season than in dry season.

  11. Problems and Solution Proposals Related to Sheep and Goat Husbandry in Kastamonu Province

    Hacer Tüfekci

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted by using a survey made at 80 enterprises from 63 villages with the aim of determining situations, problems and solution proposals related to the sheep and goat farms in Kastamonu province. The average age of the farmers was 49.3 years. The farmers were 8.75% of primary school graduates, 68.75% of secondary school and also 22.6% of illiterate. The enterprises have raised animals as 31.75% of state + own land and 68.75%’ of private + leased land. Also they are kept the rate of 70% Hair goat, 30% Angora goat and 55% Merino sheep, 42.5% Akkaraman sheep, and 16.25% Turkmen genotype, 7.5% Sakız sheep and 6.25% of Kıvırcık Sheep. The average flock sizes goat and sheep enterprises were 77.3 head goats and 71.7 heads sheep, respectively. Sixty percent of the breeder feed their animals on the pasture for 8-10 months and only 30% the breeders give supplementary feeding before and during mating period. The enterprises have 31.2% parturition chamber and 92.5% lamb growth areas. While all enterprises are routinely used to protective vaccines but only used disinfectant of 73.7% enterprises. The reason of sheep and goat breeders is majority contributions of income and habits. So, flock sizes are small (74.5 heads animal. In conclusion, young people by encouraging small animal farming in the province of Kastamonu, should be given to technical, economic support and educational seminars. In the future, as the sole source of income and a large flock size may lead to a development of sheep and goat breeding in Kastamonu province.

  12. molecular and biochemical markers for early pregnancy detection in sheep

    the present study was conducted as in the experimental sheep farm of the nuclear research center, egyptian atomic energy authority in association with the institute of graduate studies and research. university of alexandria. this study aims to accurately and economically detect early pregnancy using techniques of biotechnology .consequently, the suggested method may replace techniques used nowadays for pregnancy detection since these techniques have disadvantages (e.g. long time before accurately determining pregnancy in rectal abdominal palpation and high cost and hazards of using serum progesterone radio immunoassay (RIA). the farmer may benefit from such detection economically by increasing his farm breeding cycle efficiency , reducing the breeding expenses . and isolating fertile ewes as early as possible. therefore reducing abortion incidences. stillbirths or production of weak lambs. this study was performed in two separate experiments. the first experiment: twenty four mixed breed sheep from the experimental sheep of the nuclear research center . egyptian atomic energy authority were used in this study. blood samples were taken at days 5.7.10.16.21.and 25 days after mating and a native- page were applied on the serum of these samples in correlation with serum progesterone RIA test. in addition . white blood cells were isolated from blood samples to obtain purified total RNA for RT-PCR. gel images were analyzed using totallab v.i.II(nonlinear dynamic, Newcastle upontyne. UK) computer software.the second experiment:nine pregnant and two non-pregnant ewes used in this experiment. blood sample were taken 0.25.30.35.40.45.and 50 days after mating and SDS-page were applied on the serum of theses samples. Native-page were applied for serum samples and stained for glycoproteins. gel images were analyzed using totallab v/1.11 (nonlinear dynamic. Newcastle upontyne. UK) computer software

  13. EFFECT OF YEAR, STAGE OF LACTATION, PARITY, BREED AND REGION ON GOAT MILK SOMATIC CELL COUNTS

    The milk somatic cell count (MSCC) forms the basis of abnormal milk control programs world wide for goats, cows and sheep. To better understand factors that contribute to elevations in MSCC, the effects of stage of lactation, parity, breed and state/area in the United States (US) on goat MSCC were ...

  14. MORPHO-PRODUCTION AND REPRODUCTION TRAITS OF THE COLOUR VARIETIES BELONGING TO THE BOTO?ANI KARAKUL BREED

    ELENA FECIORU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available To achieve this experiment, the biological material was represented by theBoto?ani Karakul sheep, ewes and rams of different age categories and of differentcolour varieties (black, greyish, brown, grey, pink and white. The animalsproceeded both from the elite farm of the R.D.S.S. Pop?u?i and from theproduction and private farms from the breeding area of this breed. The Karakulbreed is specialized for the lamb pelt production. The classical colours are blackand greyish. The genetic base of creation of new colour varieties was representedby black and greyish sheep which constitute a continue source of numerical andqualitative increase of these varieties applying adequate reproduction andselection technologies. The main morpho-production traits of sheep werementioned, as follows: the qualitative features of lamb pelts, the body growth, thebody conformation and constitution, reproduction aptitudes, milk production,framing in the specific parameters of the Boto?ani Karakul breed.

  15. Genomic prediction and genome-wide association study for dagginess and host internal parasite resistance in New Zealand sheep

    Pickering, Natalie K.; Auvray, Benoit; Dodds, Ken G.; McEwan, John C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Dagginess (faecal soiling of the perineum region) and host nematode parasite resistance are important animal welfare traits in New Zealand sheep. Genomic prediction (GP) estimates the genetic merit, as a molecular breeding value (mBV), for each trait based on many SNPs. The additional information the mBV provides (as determined by its accuracy) has led to its incorporation into breeding schemes. Some GP methods give SNP effects, which provide additional information to identify geno...

  16. Serological study of small ruminant lentiviruses in sheep population of Khorasan-e-Razavi province in Iran.

    Norouzi, Behnaz; Taghavi Razavizadeh, Alireza; Azizzadeh, Mohammad; Mayameei, Ashraf; Najar Nezhad Mashhadi, Vahid

    2015-01-01

    Maedi-Visna (MV) virus and caprine arthritis encephalitis (CAE) virus known as small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLVs) cause chronic diseases in susceptible animals. The main reservoirs of these viral agents are sheep and goat. In sheep, MV virus causes a disease as the same name of the virus. This is the first seroprevalence survey of SRLVs in sheep population of Khorasan-e-Razavi province in Iran. Two hundred and twenty sheep from 30 flocks in 12 regions of the province were selected by random cluster sampling method. Serum samples were analyzed for the presence of antibodies against MV/CAE viruses. The seroprevalence in sheep was 34.5% (95.0% CI: 28.3 to 40.7%). Totally, the seroprevalence was in the range of 6.7 to 72.2 %. In 26 flocks of sheep (89.6%; 95.0%CI: 74.4 to 98.8%), at least one seropositive case was detected. The relationship between seropositivity and age, sex, flock size and breeds of sheep were statistically analyzed. In logistic regression model, only age was correlated with SRLV seroprevalence (p < 0.05). This study showed relatively high seroprevalence against SRLVs in sheep population in this area of the country. Due to difficulty in clinical diagnosis, chronic course of the disease, the absence of effective vaccine and treatment and huge economic loss, more epidemiological studies with regards to prevention and control of the disease are necessary. PMID:26893816

  17. Fish Breeding in Nigeria

    J.A. Akankali

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Fish breeding is a very important activity ensuring availability of fingerlings for the stocking of ponds, pens, tanks and cages. The breeding habits of fishes in nature differ from specie to specie Different species of fish choose different places in the aquatic environment for breeding. Most species do not breed when in captivity due to a number of factors. In Nigeria, induced breeding of African mud catfish through injection of ova prim hormone or pituitary gland is the main practice. This article reviews the wild sources of fish seeds, some cultivable fishes. carp breeding, relationship between the endocrine system and gonad development, function of the Central Nervous System (CNS in propagation, influence of ecological conditions on gonad development, artificial propagation of common carp, natural induced spawning, salmon culture and an innovation in the sea to educate fish breeders, fish genetics and fish culturist in other to facilitate their productivity.

  18. Genomic dairy cattle breeding

    Mark, Thomas; Sandøe, Peter

    The aim of this paper is to discuss the potential consequences of modern dairy cattle breeding for the welfare of dairy cows. The paper focuses on so-called genomic selection, which deploys thousands of genetic markers to estimate breeding values. The discussion should help to structure the...... thoughts of breeders and other stakeholders on how to best make use of genomic breeding in the future. Intensive breeding has played a major role in securing dramatic increases in milk yield since the Second World War. Until recently, the main focus in dairy cattle breeding was on production traits, but......, unfavourable genetic trends for metabolic, reproductive, claw and leg diseases indicate that these attempts have been insufficient. Today, novel genome-wide sequencing techniques are revolutionising dairy cattle breeding; these enable genetic changes to occur at least twice as rapidly as previously. While...

  19. No mutations of FecB and FecGH in Iranian Lory sheep

    Zaynab Shafieiyan; Ghodratollah Mohammadi; Abbas Jolodarzadeh; Sara Amiri

    2014-01-01

    The Booroola fecundity gene (FecB) and growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9) gene belong to the transforming growth factor ? (TGF-?) superfamily. The mutations of these genes have additive effects on the prolificacy in sheep. The aim of the present study was to determine the possible mutations of FecB and FecGH genes in Lory sheep breed of the Lorestan province, Iran. Sixty blood samples were collected and DNA was extracted from whole fresh blood. For detection of FecB and FecGH mutations, t...

  20. ANTIPARASITICAL PROTECTION IN SHEEP FARMS

    DOINA ARDELEANU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Through our researches were carried out at ICDCOC- Palas, Constantza, we proposed ourselves to establish the poly-parasitism structure on sheep, as well as elaborating efficientical methods for anti-parasitical prophylaxis and fighting in sheep populations and pasture sourfaces, in order to ensuring anti-parasitical protection in sheep exploitations The copro-parasitological examinations was carried ovoscopicaly (flotation - by Willis and Mc. Master methods; sediment by polyvalent method and larvoscopicaly by Baermann method. The parasitological examination of coprological smears which were harvested on sheep showed the presence of polyparasitism phenomenon with protozoans (coccidiae: Eimeria spp. and helmints (cestodae: Moniesia expansa; gastro-intestinal nemathodes: Trichostrongylus spp., Nematodirus spp., Strongyloides papillosus and pulmonary nemathodes: Mu?ellerius capillaris, Protostrongylus rufescens, Dictyocaulus filaria. Also, we proposed ourselves to study the paresites and their intermediary stages on pastures which were exploited with sheep, comparatively with mowed pastures. In the ansamble of research activities a special place is occupied by testing differents methods, in order to prevention and fighting of parasitical infestations on sheep and pasture in sheep farms.

  1. POLYMORPHISM IN THE CODING REGION SEQUENCE OF GDF8 GENE IN INDIAN SHEEP.

    Pothuraju, M; Mishra, S K; Kumar, S N; Mohamed, N F; Kataria, R S; Yadav, D K; Arora, R

    2015-11-01

    The present study was undertaken to identify polymorphism in the coding sequence of GDF8gene across indigenous meat type sheep breeds. A 1647 bp sequence was generated, encompassing 208 bp of the 5'UTR, 1128 bp of coding region (exon1, 2 and 3) as well as 311 bp of 3'UTR. The sheep and goat GDF8 gene sequences were observed to be highly conserved as compared to cattle, buffalo, horse and pig. Several nucleotide variations were observed across coding sequence of GDF8 gene in Indian sheep. Three polymorphic sites were identified in the 5'UTR, one in exon 1 and one in the exon 2 regions. Both SNPs in the exonic region were found to be non-synonymous. The mutations c.539T > G and c.821T > A discovered in this study in the exon 1 and exon 2, respectively, have not been previously reported. The information generated provides preliminary indication of the functional diversity present in Indian sheep at the coding region of GDF8gene. The novel as well as the previously reported SNPs discovered in the Indian sheep warrant further analysis to see whether they affect the phenotype. Future studies will need to establish the affect of reported SNPs in the expression of the GDF8 gene in Indian sheep population. PMID:26845859

  2. Influence of Fasciola Hepatica on Serum Biochemical Parameters and Vascular and Biliary System of Sheep Liver

    A Hodžić

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the functional capacity of the liver based on the activity of specific enzymes and bilirubin in serum and also to investigate the influence of mechanical and toxic effects of Fasciola hepatica on the structures of the blood vessels and biliary tract in the sheep liver.Methods: Blood samples and liver of 63 indigenous sheep of Pramenka breed, slaughtered in the period from March to December 2009 were used. Based on parasitological findings in the liver, all animals were divided into two groups: control (n=34 and infected group (n=29. For investigation and description of pathological changes in sheep liver, naturally infected with F. hepatica, corrosion cast technique was used.Results: Biochemical analysis of tested parameters showed a significant elevation (P≤0.05 of serum gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT, total bilirubin (TBIL and direct bilirubin (DBIL in infected sheep group comparing with the control group. No significant differences were observed for activity of aspartate aminotranferase (AST between groups. Vascular and biliary systems of the liver were found to be affected.Conclusion: Results of biochemical analysis are consistent with pathological findings and measuring of tested parameters could be used in early diagnosis of sheep fasciolosis and to test the effectiveness of anthelmintic therapy. Corrosion cast technique is very useful for investigation of pathological changes and neoangiogenesis of vascular and biliary system in sheep liver, caused by mechanical and toxic effects of F. hepatica.

  3. Tritium breeding in fusion reactors

    Key technological problems that influence tritium breeding in fusion blankets are reviewed. The breeding potential of candidate materials is evaluated and compared to the tritium breeding requirements. The sensitivity of tritium breeding to design and nuclear data parameters is reviewed. A framework for an integrated approach to improve tritium breeding prediction is discussed with emphasis on nuclear data requirements

  4. Ovine progressive pneumonia provirus levels are unaffected by the prion 171R allele in an Idaho sheep flock

    Selective breeding of sheep for arginine (R) at prion gene (PRNP) codon 171 confers resistance to Scrapie. The 171R allele naturally occurs at low frequency, possibly because it imparts a deleterious trait such as impaired disease resistance. Ovine Progressive Pneumonia/Maedi-Visna virus (OPPV) is...

  5. Protein turnover in sheep

    Considerable advances have been made in the knowledge of the mechanisms and control of synthesis and degradation of proteins in animal tissues during the last decade. Most of the work on the measurement of synthetic and degradative rates of the mixed protein fraction from tissues has been conducted in the rat. There have, unfortunately, been few publications describing results of protein turnover studies with ruminants. Consideration is given here to the techniques used to measure protein turnover, and some of the results obtained, particularly with sheep, are summarized. No attempt has been made to discuss directly the situation in parasitized animals; rather the aim is to provide background information which complements other work dealing with the effects of parasites on the nitrogen metabolism of ruminants. (author)

  6. Tritium breeding materials

    Tritium breeding materials are essential to the operation of D-T fusion facilities. Both of the present options - solid ceramic breeding materials and liquid metal materials are reviewed with emphasis not only on their attractive features but also on critical materials issues which must be resolved

  7. Blackberry breeding and genetics

    Blackberry (Rubus L. subgenus Rubus Watson) improvement has made substantial progress with over 400 cultivars named originating from wild selections to many releases from breeding efforts. Public breeding has been ongoing for over 100 years. The result of these improvements is commercial production ...

  8. Biotechnology and mutation breeding

    Mutation breeding has been successful. New biotechnological techniques such as in vitro mutagenesis, in vitro selection, and haploidy may assist in, or improve mutation breeding where applicable. In vitro mutagenesis will increase the specificity of the mutation process. In vitro selection and haploidy will improve mutation identification and selection capabilities. These techniques, their uses, and their limitations are discussed. (author). 20 refs

  9. Changes in hypothalamus in continuously irradiated sheep

    Neurosecretion, PAS-positive mucopolysaccharides and the Nissl substance were studied in the neurons of the rostral, medial and caudal hypothalamus of continuously irradiated ewes. The study was performed on 21 ewes of the Slovak Merino breed of a live weight of 34 kg. The animals were in the period of physiological anoestrus and their age was two to three years. The first group of six ewes was the control. The second group included 15 sheep irradiated with a total dose of 6.7 Gy (700 R) for seven days. Co60 was used as the source of irradiation. The animals of this group were killed seven days following treatment. The ewes in the third group were left for the study of mortality. The brains were perfused with 2% buffered paraformaldehyde immediately after the bleeding of the sheep; then the brains were removed from the skulls and fixed in buffered picroformol. Paraffin slices were stained with haematoxylin-eosine, aldehyde-fuchsine and alcian blue for neurosecretion, by the PAS reaction for mucopolysaccharides and with cresyl violet for the Nissl substance. It was found that irradiation of the whole body inhibited the activity of neurosecretory cells in the rostral and medial hypothalamus, thus reducing neurosecretion. These regions also showed a reduced activity of the PAS reaction used for the demonstration of mucopolysaccharides. The observed changes also included damage of the endothelium of blood vessels with the occurrence of erythrocyte extravasates and with haemorrhages. In this way, the trophism of neurosecretory cells was affected, which is ascribed to the decrease in the amount of neurosecretory material. In the caudal hypothalamus, neurosecretion and PAS-positivity were slightly stimulated by irradiation. The Nissl substance disappeared as a result of irradiation. (author)

  10. Changes in hypothalamus in continuously irradiated sheep

    Arendarcik, J.; Stanikova, A.; Rajtova, V.; Molnarova, M. (Vysoka Skola Veterinarska, Kosice (Czechoslovakia))

    1983-09-01

    Neurosecretion, PAS-positive mucopolysaccharides and the Nissl substance were studied in the neurons of the rostral, medial and caudal hypothalamus of continuously irradiated ewes. The study was performed on 21 ewes of the Slovak Merino breed of a live weight of 34 kg. The animals were in the period of physiological anoestrus and their age was two to three years. The first group of six ewes was the control. The second group included 15 sheep irradiated with a total dose of 6.7 Gy (700 R) for seven days. Co/sup 60/ was used as the source of irradiation. The animals of this group were killed seven days following treatment. The ewes in the third group were left for the study of mortality. The brains were perfused with 2% buffered paraformaldehyde immediately after the bleeding of the sheep; then the brains were removed from the skulls and fixed in buffered picroformol. Paraffin slices were stained with haematoxylin-eosine, aldehyde-fuchsine and alcian blue for neurosecretion, by the PAS reaction for mucopolysaccharides and with cresyl violet for the Nissl substance. It was found that irradiation of the whole body inhibited the activity of neurosecretory cells in the rostral and medial hypothalamus, thus reducing neurosecretion. These regions also showed a reduced activity of the PAS reaction used for the demonstration of mucopolysaccharides. The observed changes also included damage of the endothelium of blood vessels with the occurrence of erythrocyte extravasates and with haemorrhages. In this way, the trophism of neurosecretory cells was affected, which is ascribed to the decrease in the amount of neurosecretory material. In the caudal hypothalamus, neurosecretion and PAS-positivity were slightly stimulated by irradiation. The Nissl substance disappeared as a result of irradiation.

  11. Possible application of a nematophagous fungus as a biological control agent of parasitic nematodes on commercial sheep farms in South Africa

    M. Faedo; Krecek, R C

    2002-01-01

    Biological control of parasitic nematodes of livestock is currently under development and represents another tool that may be integrated into helminth parasite control strategies. This paper presents a brief introduction to commercial sheep farming in South Africa and currently available nematode parasite control methods. These include the FAMACHA(r) clinical assay, strategies of pasture management, dilution of resistant worm species by introduction of susceptible worms, breed resistant sheep...

  12. Expression of p53 protein, Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus matrix protein, and surfactant protein in the lungs of sheep with pulmonary adenomatosis.

    İlhan, Fatma; Vural, Sevil A; Yıldırım, Serkan; Sözdutmaz, İbrahim; Alcigir, Mehmet E

    2016-05-01

    Ovine pulmonary adenocarcinoma (OPA) is a naturally occurring cancer in sheep that is caused by the Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV). Because the pathologic and epidemiologic features of OPA are similar to those of bronchoalveolar carcinoma in humans, OPA is considered a useful animal model for pulmonary carcinogenesis. In this study, 3,512 lungs from various breeds of sheep were collected and macroscopically examined. OPA was identified in 30 sheep, and samples of these animals were further examined by histologic, immunohistochemical (p53 protein, surfactant protein A [SP-A], proliferating cell nuclear antigen [PCNA], JSRV matrix protein [MA]), and PCR methods. Papillary or acinar adenocarcinomas were detected microscopically in the affected areas. Immunoreactivity for p53 PAb240 was detected in 13 sheep, whereas p53 DO-1 was not detected in any of the OPA animals. PCNA immunoreactivity was recorded in 27 animals. SP-A and JSRV MA protein was immunopositive in all 30. JSRV proviral DNA was detected by PCR analysis in all of the lung samples collected from OPA animals. In addition, the pulmonary SP-A levels were increased in tumor cells. The results of this study suggest that PCNA and p53 protein expression may be useful indicators in monitoring malignancy of pulmonary tumors. PMID:27016721

  13. Annual breeding soundness evaluation of rams

    Silvio R Oliveira Menegassi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: breeding soundness evaluation (BSE of males is crucial for reproductive success in sheep production systems. Objective: to determine the causes of failure when annual BSE was used to evaluate reproductive performance of rams. Methods: we analyzed 1,017 reproductive assessment records and assigned animals to young or mature groups. Animals were classified as approved or failed in the BSE. Statistical analyses were performed through Chi-square tests, correlation, and factor analyses. Results: our results clearly show the importance of regularly performing BSE to detect potential failures in rams that might reduce general fertility rates. Conclusions: consistent physical causes of failure were identified, and fertility rates varied according to age and year of examination.

  14. Prevalence and Etiology of Abscess Disease of Sheep and Goats at Qassim Region, Saudi Arabia

    Khaled Bani Al-Harbi

    Full Text Available Abscess disease (caseous lymphadenitis and Morel disease is a worldwide contagious bacterial disease of sheep and goats and is adversely affecting the development of the sheep industry in Saudi Arabia. Fifteen sheep and 12 goat farms at Qassim region, central Saudi Arabia, were surveyed during September and October 2008 for the determination of the prevalence and the etiology of abscess disease. One hundred and twenty pus samples were collected from affected external lymph nodes of clinically-ill sheep and goats and from infected internal lymph nodes and organs condemned during meat inspection in the slaughterhouses, for the isolation and identification of pathogenic bacteria causing sheep abscess disease. The prevalence of abscess disease varied between 5%– 44.1% in sheep farms, being highest in the Najdi breed, and between 2.2 % – 6.5 % in goat farms. Males of both sheep and goats had the highest rate of infection compared to females (p <0.01. Bacterial isolates were obtained from 97 out of the 120 collected pus samples (80.83%. The remaining 23 samples were sterile. Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis and Staphylococcus aureus subsp. anaerobius accounted for about 54% of isolates, with almost equal frequencies (p =0.5. Other pyogenic bacteria such as S. aureus, Streptococci, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Actinomyces pyogenes were also isolated from infected abscesses. They represented about 46% of the isolated etiological agents of sheep abscesses. This explains why available vaccines (bactrins against caseous lymphadenitis (CLA are poorly protective against abscess disease in Saudi Arabia. [Vet. World 2011; 4(11.000: 495-499

  15. Sarcocystis arieticanis (Apicomplexa: Sarcocystidae) infecting the heart muscles of the domestic sheep, Ovis aries (Artiodactyla: Bovidae), from K. S. A. on the basis of light and electron microscopic data.

    Al Quraishy, Saleh; Morsy, Kareem; Bashtar, Abdel-Rahman; Ghaffar, Fathy Abdel; Mehlhorn, Heinz

    2014-10-01

    In the present study, the heteroxenous life cycle of Sarcocystis species from three strains of the slaughtered sheep at Al-Azizia and Al-Saada abattoirs in Riyadh city, K.S.A., was studied. Muscle samples of the oesophagus, diaphragm, tongue, skeletal and heart muscles were examined. Varied natural infection rates in the muscles of the examined sheep strains were recorded as 83% in Niemy, 81.5% in Najdy and 90% in Sawakny sheep. Muscles of the diaphragm showed the highest infection level above all organs except Najdy sheep in which oesophagus has the highest rate. Also, the heart was the lowest infected organ (40% Niemy, 44% Najdy and 53% Sawakny). Microscopic sarcocysts of Sarcocystis arieticanis are easily identified in sections through the heart muscles of the domestic sheep Ovis aries (Artiodactyla: Bovidae). Cysts measured 38.5-64.4 μm (averaged 42.66 μm) in width and 62.4-173.6 μm (averaged 82.14 μm) in length. The validity of this species was confirmed by means of ultrastructural characteristics of the primary cyst wall (0.1-0.27 μm thick) which revealed the presence of irregularly shaped crowded and hairy-like projections underlined by a thin layer of ground substance. This layer consisted mainly of fine, dense homogenous granules enclosing the developing metrocytes and merozoites that usually contain nearly all the structures of the apical complex and fill the interior cavity of the cyst. Several septa derived from the ground substance divided the cyst into compartments. The merozoites were banana-shaped and measured 12-16 μm in length with centrally or posteriorly located nuclei. Experimental infection of carnivores by feeding heavily infected sheep muscles revealed that the dog, Canis familiaris, is the only final host of the present Sarcocystis species. Gamogony, sporogonic stages and characteristics of sporulated oocysts were also investigated. PMID:25112213

  16. Mutation breeding in Japan

    The achievements made in mutation breeding in Japan over the past 40 years are outlined from the viewpoint of practical breeding. Fifty-four varieties of 23 crops were obtained by direct use of induced mutants. These include 12 cereal mutant varieties, five food legumes, nine industrial crops, seven vegetables and 18 ornamentals. Ten varieties were obtained by national breeding institutes, 14 by prefectural stations and 30 by universities or private firms. The varieties produced by the national breeding programme were registered and released with Norin numbers. In most cases, ionizing radiation was used. Forty additional mutant varieties were developed through cross-breeding using induced mutants as the gene sources. Of the 33 rice varieties in this category, 21, including six national varieties, resulted from crosses involving Reimei, a semi-dwarf mutant variety. Another semi-dwarf mutant parent was used to breed two more national varieties. Three early heading mutants were also integrated into cross-breeding programmes and produced three national and two prefectural varieties. A large grain mutant produced three varieties for sake brewing. A new recessive resistant mutant allele to the soil borne virus (BaYMV) was induced in barley. One variety was bred using this mutant as a parent. Another promising disease resistant clone was induced by chronic irradiation in a gamma field in the leading Japanese pear variety Nijisseiki, which is susceptible to black spot disease caused by Alternaria alternata (Fr.) Keissler. This mutant clone maintained all the superior qualities of the original variety. The significant role of the Institute of Radiation Breeding as a core in mutation breeding is mentioned briefly. (author). 10 refs, 2 figs, 6 tabs

  17. Possible application of a nematophagous fungus as a biological control agent of parasitic nematodes on commercial sheep farms in South Africa

    M. Faedo

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Biological control of parasitic nematodes of livestock is currently under development and represents another tool that may be integrated into helminth parasite control strategies. This paper presents a brief introduction to commercial sheep farming in South Africa and currently available nematode parasite control methods. These include the FAMACHA(r clinical assay, strategies of pasture management, dilution of resistant worm species by introduction of susceptible worms, breed resistant sheep and nutritional supplementation. The purpose of this paper is to outline the principles of biological control using nematophagous fungi and how it may be applied on sheep farms in South Africa.

  18. Possible application of a nematophagous fungus as a biological control agent of parasitic nematodes on commercial sheep farms in South Africa.

    Faedo, M; Krecek, R C

    2002-03-01

    Biological control of parasitic nematodes of livestock is currently under development and represents another tool that may be integrated into helminth parasite control strategies. This paper presents a brief introduction to commercial sheep farming in South Africa and currently available nematode parasite control methods. These include the FAMACHA clinical assay, strategies of pasture management, dilution of resistant worm species by introduction of susceptible worms, breed resistant sheep and nutritional supplementation. The purpose of this paper is to outline the principles of biological control using nematophagous fungi and how it may be applied on sheep farms in South Africa. PMID:12088071

  19. Effects of Vitamin A and /beta-Carotene Injection on Levels of Vitamin E and on Glutathione Peroxidase Activity in Pregnant Tuj Sheep

    KAMİLOĞLU, Nadide Nabil; BEYTUT, Ebru

    2005-01-01

    The objective of research was to study the effect of vitamin A and /beta-carotene injections, before breeding and during pregnancy, on the levels of vitamin E in plasma and on the activity of erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) in sheep. Thirty-two healthy female and four healthy male Tuj sheep, 4-5 years old and weighing approximately 57 kg each, were used. The female animals were divided into 4 groups with 8 sheep in each. The oestrus cycles of the ewes were synchronised by the appl...

  20. Lumbosacral epidural magnesium prolongs ketamine analgesia in conscious sheep Sulfato de magnsio prolonga a analgesia epidural lombosacral induzida pela quetamina em carneiros

    Rafael DeRossi; Cassio Tadeu Dias Pompermeyer; Amadeu Batista Silva-Neto; Andrea Lantieri Correa de Barros; Paulo Henrique de Affonseca Jardim; Fabrcio Oliveira Frazlio

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: To determine the analgesic, motor, sedation and systemic effects of lumbosacral epidural magnesium sulphate added to ketamine in the sheep. METHODS: Six healthy adult male mixed-breed sheep; weighing 43 5 kg and aged 20-36 months. Each sheep underwent three treatments, at least 2 weeks apart, via epidural injection: (1) ketamine (KE; 2.5 mg/kg), (2) magnesium sulphate (MG; 100 mg), and (3) KE + MG (KEMG; 2.5 mg/kg + 100 mg, respectively). Epidural injections were administered throu...

  1. Mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL in sheep. IV. Analysis of lactation persistency and extended lactation traits in sheep

    Lam Mary K

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In sheep dairy production, total lactation performance, and length of lactation of lactation are of economic significance. A more persistent lactation has been associated with improved udder health. An extended lactation is defined by a longer period of milkability. This study is the first investigation to examine the presence of quantitative trait loci (QTL for extended lactation and lactation persistency in sheep. Methods An (Awassi × Merino × Merino single-sire backcross family with 172 ewes was used to map QTL for lactation persistency and extended lactation traits on a framework map of 189 loci across all autosomes. The Wood model was fitted to data from multiple lactations to estimate parameters of ovine lactation curves, and these estimates were used to derive measures of lactation persistency and extended lactation traits of milk, protein, fat, lactose, useful yield, and somatic cell score. These derived traits were subjected to QTL analyses using maximum likelihood estimation and regression analysis. Results Overall, one highly significant (LOD > 3.0, four significant (2.0 Conclusion This study identified ten novel QTL for lactation persistency and extended lactation in sheep, but results suggest that lactation persistency and extended lactation do not have a major gene in common. These results provide a basis for further validation in extended families and other breeds as well as targeting regions for genome-wide association mapping using high-density SNP arrays.

  2. Welfare in horse breeding

    Campbell, M.L.H.; Sandøe, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Welfare problems related to the way horses are bred, whether by coitus or by the application of artificial reproduction techniques (ARTs), have been given no discrete consideration within the academic literature. This paper reviews the existing knowledge base about welfare issues in horse breeding...... how positive welfare effects associated with breeding might be maximised. Further studies are needed to establish an evidence base about how stressful or painful various breeding procedures are for the animals involved, and what the lifetime welfare implications of ARTs are for future animal...

  3. Sensitivity of reproductive potential to environmental factors in sheep and goats

    Ovulation rate, embryo survival, postnatal mortality, interval from parturition to conception, age at first parturition, number of parturitions before culling, and age at culling collectively declineate the ability of a breed to cope with the local environment and management which are often harsh and suboptimal. In tropical and subtropical countries, the reproductive performance of goat and sheep is low and far from their maximum potential. Identification of the main limiting factors and determination of the breed's sensitivity to these factors are essential preliminary steps before choosing the method(s) to improve reproductive performance in such countries. (author)

  4. Genetic diversity of locally adapted sheep from Pantanal region of Mato Grosso do Sul.

    Crispim, B A; Grisolia, A B; Seno, L O; Egito, A A; Vargas Junior, F M; Souza, M R

    2013-01-01

    Sheep of the Pantaneiro breed and seven other breeds, raised in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, were genotyped using eight microsatellite loci. The aim of the present study was to determine the genetic variability, phylogenetic relationship, and patterns of gene introgression and miscegenation among the animals surveyed, to obtain information about the genetic structure of locally adapted sheep in Mato Grosso do Sul. A total of 195 animals were used for genetic analysis. The Pantaneiro breed had the largest average number of alleles/locus (9.25), and higher allelic richness (6.95), while the Dorper population had the lowest values for these parameters (4.88 and 3.86, respectively). Analysis of genetic distance values and genetic structure between populations made it possible to characterize these animals with regard to distinct genetic groups. Average expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.72 (Pantaneiro) to 0.55 (Dorper), while average observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.63 (White Dorper) to 0.54 (Dorper). On the basis of the statistical parameters evaluated, it was possible to demonstrate that when compared to other populations, the Pantaneiro breed represented a reservoir of genetic diversity with rare and useful alleles for genetic improvement, emphasizing the importance of preserving the breed. PMID:24301918

  5. Genetic diversity and networks of exchange: a combined approach to assess intra-breed diversity

    Dumasy Jean-Franois

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cryopreservation of three endangered Belgian sheep breeds required to characterize their intra-breed genetic diversity. It is assumed that the genetic structure of a livestock breed depends mostly on gene flow due to exchanges between herds. To quantify this relation, molecular data and analyses of the exchanges were combined for three endangered Belgian breeds. Methods For each breed, between 91 and 225 sheep were genotyped with 19 microsatellites. Genetic differentiations between breeds and among herds within a breed were evaluated and the genetic structure of the breeds was described using Bayesian clustering (Structure. Exchanges of animals between 20, 46 and 95 herds according to breed were identified via semi-directed interviews and were analyzed using the concepts of the network theory to calculate average degrees and shortest path lengths between herds. Correlation between the Reynolds genetic distances and the shortest path lengths between each pair of herds was assessed by a Mantel test approach. Results Genetic differentiation between breeds was high (0.16. Overall Fst values among herds were high in each breed (0.17, 0.11 and 0.10. Use of the Bayesian approach made it possible to identify genetic groups of herds within a breed. Significant correlations between the shortest path lengths and the Reynolds genetic distances were found in each breed (0.87, 0.33 and 0.41, which demonstrate the influence of exchanges between herds on the genetic diversity. Correlation differences between breeds could be explained by differences in the average degree of the animal exchange networks, which is a measure of the number of exchanges per herd. The two breeds with the highest average degree showed the lowest correlation. Information from the exchange networks was used to assign individuals to the genetic groups when molecular information was incomplete or missing to identify donors for a cryobank. Conclusions A fine-scale picture of the population genetic structure at the herd level was obtained for the three breeds. Network analysis made it possible to highlight the influence of exchanges on genetic structure and to complete or replace molecular information in establishing a conservation program.

  6. Development and testing of a revised dynamic model of radiocaesium transfer to sheep tissues

    The model of radiocaesium transfer to sheep presented by Galer et al. [1] provides reliable predictions only for sheep of a similar body weight to those used in the development of the model (approximately 30 kg). To extend the applicability of the model, it was necessary to re-parameterise it in terms of activity concentrations in tissues rather than total activities within them (although for gut compartments the use of activity has been retained). The rate coefficients for the new model have been estimated by fitting the model to the data used by Galer et al. [1] which was derived from a single ''calibration'' experiment. The new model was found to account for 94% of the observed variation in the data (n = 42), a result similar to that obtained by Galer et al. [1]. The model has also been tested against data not used in its development but obtained from four separate experiments undertaken by three different laboratories. Good agreement between the predictions of the new model and observations was found for most circumstances and for several breeds of sheep with different body weights. It is concluded that the new model provides a useful dynamic description of radiocaesium transfers to the tissues of sheep of different breeds and under different contamination scenarios. (orig.)

  7. Effect of supplement of selenium and iodine on biochemical status of sheep

    Todorova P.; Odzhakova Ts.; Kafedzhiev V.

    2010-01-01

    Trace element disbalance in animal organism can provoke different disease states in development of some internal organs. Degenerative processes are also related to increase of activity of some enzymes. Therefore the objective of this study was to follow the effect of the supplement of selenium and iodine on activity of some indicator enzymes. The study was conducted with sheep of Karakachan and Tsigai breeds that use mountain and high-mountain pastures of C...

  8. Effect of different levels of social isolation on the acoustical characteristics of sheep vocalization

    Engeldal SEC; Subandriyo . .; Handiwirawan E; Noor RR

    2014-01-01

    In farm animals, vocal analysis is accepted as a non-invasive method for assessing animal welfare in comparison to most physiological measurements. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of different degrees of social isolation on the acoustic characteristics of stress-induced bleats from three different breeds of sheep. The experiment consisted of subjecting the animals to three different levels of social isolation during which both locomotive and vocal data were recorded. Th...

  9. Birds - Breeding [ds60

    California Department of Resources — This data set provides access to information gathered on annual breeding bird surveys in California using a map layer developed by the Department. This data layer...

  10. Effect of breed and feeding on the carcass characteristics of the Chilote breed lamb

    Jorge, Ramrez-Retamal; Rodrigo, Morales; M. Eugenia, Martnez; Rodrigo, de la Barra.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The Chilote sheep has been developed in an isolated environment, based on grazing lands with low nutritive value belonging to small-scale producers, because of which there is little information about the use of this breed for meat production. The objective of this work was to determine the effects o [...] n lamb carcasses of two breeds with different productive purposes and fed on pastures with different nutritional quality. Three groups of lambs were used. The first and second groups were composed of 13 and 11 Chilote lambs respectively, and the third composed of six Suffolk Down lambs. Lambs remained with their mothers, the first group on naturalized pasture and the rest on rangeland. Animals were slaughtered at 90 d of age. Live weight, carcass weight and yield, and several zoometric parameters were determined, as well as the weight of commercial cuts and the muscle, bone and fat ratios. Hide and hoof weights were also measured. For the effect of breed, Chilote lamb is narrower (P

  11. Sources of variation and genetic profile of spontaneous, out-of-season ovulatory activity in the Chios sheep

    Kouttos Athanasios

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Organising the breeding plan of a seasonally breeding species, such as sheep, presents a challenge to farmers and the industry as a whole, since both economical and biological considerations need to be carefully balanced. Understanding the breeding activity of individual animals becomes a prerequisite for a successful breeding program. This study set out to investigate the sources of variation and the genetic profile of the spontaneous, out-of-season ovulatory activity of ewes of the Chios dairy sheep breed in Greece. The definition of the trait was based on blood progesterone levels, measured before exposing the ewes to rams, which marks the onset of the usual breeding season. Data were 707 records, taken over two consecutive years, of 435 ewes kept at the Agricultural Research Station of Chalkidiki in northern Greece. When all available pedigree was included, the total number of animals involved was 1068. On average, 29% of all ewes exhibited spontaneous, out-of-season ovulatory activity, with no substantial variation between the years. Significant sources of systematic variation were the ewe age and live weight, and the month of previous lambing. Older, heavier ewes, that had lambed early the previous autumn, exhibited more frequent activity. Heritability estimates were 0.216 (± 0.084 with a linear and 0.291 with a threshold model. The latter better accounts for the categorical nature of the trait. The linear model repeatability was 0.230 (± 0.095. The results obtained in this study support the notion that spontaneous out-of-season ovulatory activity can be considered in the development of a breeding plan for the Chios sheep breed.

  12. Breeding for disease resistance

    Pinard-van der Laan, Marie-Helene

    2013-01-01

    In the context of intensification and specialization of poultry production, next to welfare regulation on animal breeding, animal health issues are of increasing importance to the breeding sector because of the huge related production losses. But animal health and welfare issues are also of importance to the consumers because of potential effects on their own health and their lifestyle choices. Most effective disease control strategies should be developed in an integrated animal health manage...

  13. Haemophilus somnus (Histophilus somni) in bighorn sheep

    Ward, Alton C.S.; Weiser, Glen C.; Anderson, Bruce C.; Cummings, Patrick J.; Arnold, Karen F.; Corbeil, Lynette B.

    2006-01-01

    Respiratory disease and poor lamb recruitment have been identified as limiting factors for bighorn-sheep populations. Haemophilus somnus (recently reclassified as Histophilus somni) is associated with respiratory disease in American bison, domestic sheep, and cattle. It is also harbored in their reproductive tracts and has been associated with reproductive failure in domestic sheep and cattle. Therefore, reproductive tract and lung samples from bighorn sheep were evaluated for the presence of...

  14. Jute breeding in Bangladesh

    The evolution, domestication, variability and adaptation of fibre jutes in Bangladesh are described. Domestication of fibre jutes, in evolutionary terms, is recent and the spectrum of variability within them is narrow. Yield improvement by breeding has been minimal and the reasons for this are suggested. Recent germplasm collecting expeditions to the eastern hill tracts of Bangladesh have revealed wide-spectrum diversity among the vegetable jutes grown there. Variability among the vegetable types can be utilized to improve the fibre types and to this end various hybridization schemes have now been initiated by the Bangladesh Jute Research Institute. The initial breeding priority is yield per se but ideotype characteristics have been delineated. The objectives of the breeding programme are likely to become more specific as the agronomic worth of these characteristics becomes more clearly defined. The rationale for mutation breeding in jute has been the narrow-spectrum diversity within the fibre types; the wide-spectrum diversity among the hill tract vegetable jutes should, however, be exploited in imaginative hybridization programmes before resorting to large-scale mutation breeding programmes. Mutation breeding may, however, be a valuable tool for inducing changes in fibre quality characteristics when technologists identify new uses for jute and specify their requirements. At present, however, quality is assessed subjectively. (author)

  15. Inbreeding and its Effect on Performance Traits in Austrian Meat Sheep

    Lina Maximini

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the level of inbreeding of meat performance tested herd book sheep in Austria and to evaluate the effect of individual inbreeding on growth and CT (computer tomography scan carcass traits. Performance data (13,614 records, five breeds: Merinoland, Suff olk, Texel, German Blackheaded Meat sheep, Jura were collected in the years 2000-2010. The traits analysed were live weight and average daily gain, as well as traits of body frame, back fat and eye muscle area, all measured on live animals with CT. Inbreeding coefficients (F were calculated with the soft ware PEDIG. F was nested within breed and tested in a mixed model using ASReml. Levels of inbreeding were low with O F of 1.5-3.1%. Only few traits were significantly affected by inbreeding. Both positive and negative effects were found. The effects were small, most oft en nonlinear and vary across breeds. Inbreeding and its effects on performance traits do not seem to be an issue in Austrian meat sheep populations at the moment. However, monitoring and further analyses are recommended.

  16. Inbreeding and its Effect on Performance Traits in Austrian Meat Sheep

    Lina Maximini

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the level of inbreeding of meat performance tested herd book sheep in Austria and to evaluate the effect of individual inbreeding on growth and CT (computer tomography scan carcass traits. Performance data (13,614 records, five breeds: Merinoland, Suff olk, Texel, German Blackheaded Meat sheep, Jura were collected in the years 2000-2010. The traits analysed were live weight and average daily gain, as well as traits of body frame, back fat and eye muscle area, all measured on live animals with CT. Inbreeding coefficients (F were calculated with the soft ware PEDIG. F was nested within breed and tested in a mixed model using ASReml. Levels of inbreeding were low with O F of 1.5-3.1%. Only few traits were significantly affected by inbreeding. Both positive and negative effects were found. The effects were small, most oft en nonlinear and vary across breeds. Inbreeding and its effects on performance traits do not seem to be an issue in Austrian meat sheep populations at the moment. However, monitoring and further analyses are recommended.

  17. Sheep Production Occupations. Skills and Competencies.

    Sabol, Joe

    This report summarizes the findings of a national study to determine what skills and competencies are needed by beginning employees on sheep ranches and farms, lamb feedlots, and in the sheep shearing industry. The research procedure, which involved determining from the sheep industry the competencies needed by beginning employees in the thirteen…

  18. The sheep growth hormone gene polymorphism and its effects on milk traits.

    Dettori, Maria Luisa; Pazzola, Michele; Pira, Emanuela; Paschino, Pietro; Vacca, Giuseppe Massimo

    2015-05-01

    Growth hormone (GH) is encoded by the GH gene, which may be single copy or duplicate in sheep. The two copies of the sheep GH gene (GH1/GH2-N and GH2-Z) were entirely sequenced in one 106 ewes of Sarda breed, in order to highlight sequence polymorphisms and investigate possible association between genetic variants and milk traits. Milk traits included milk yield, fat, protein, casein and lactose percentage. We evidenced 75 nucleotide changes. Transcription factor binding site prediction revealed two sequences potentially recognised by the pituitary-specific transcription factor POU1FI at the GH1/GH2-N gene, which were lost at the promoter of GH2-Z, which might explain the different tissues of expression of GH1/GH2-N (pituitary) and GH2-Z (placenta). Significant differences in milk traits were observed among genotypes at polymorphic loci only for the GH2-Z gene. Sheep with homozygote genotype ss748770547 CC had higher fat percentage (P sheep GH locus and might be useful in selection processes in sheep. PMID:25669323

  19. Clinicopathological studies of gastrointestinal tract disorders in sheep with parasitic infection

    Sarvan Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was envisaged to elucidate the parasitological aspects of gastrointestinal tract (GIT disorders of sheep. Materials and Methods: Fecal, blood and serum samples collected from 31 sheep/lambs of Sheep Breeding Farm, Lala Lajpat Rai University of Veterinary & Animal Sciences, Hisar. Results: Of 25 cases, strongyle eggs (12 cases, 48% were a major infection, followed by Strongyloides spp. (8 cases, 32% and Moniezia spp. (5 case, 20%. In one case, massive infection of strongyle particularly Haemonchus contortus and Moniezia spp. was observed. All these animals were found negative for hemoprotozoan parasites in blood smear examination. Hematological studies revealed that significantly decreased values of hemoglobin (Hb, packed cell volume (PCV and total erythrocytic count (TEC. Absolute leukocytic count revealed significant leukocytosis due to neutrophilia, lymphocytosis, monocytosis and eosinophilia. Serum biochemical profiles of diarrheic sheep/lambs in present study were significant decrease in values of total protein, serum globulin, glucose where as significant increase in the albumin: Globulin ratio, aspartate aminotransaminase (AST, alanine aminotransaminase (ALT, alkaline phosphatise (ALKP and bilirubin. Conclusions: From the present study, it is reasonable to conclude that major parasitic infection of sheep/lamb observed was strongyle, followed by Strongyloides spp. and Moniezia spp. Hemato-biochemical studies revealed significant leukocytosis and increase in AST, ALT, ALKP and bilirubin.

  20. Changes induced by natural scrapie in the calretinin-immunopositive cells and fibres of the sheep cerebellar cortex.

    Toledano, Adolfo; Alvarez, María-Isabel; Monleón, Eva; Toledano-Díaz, Adolfo; Badiola, Juan-José; Monzón, Marta

    2012-06-01

    Calretinin (CR)-immunopositive cells and fibres in the cerebellar cortex (vermal archicerebellum and neocerebellum) of scrapie-affected, ARQ/ARQ, Rasa Aragonesa breed sheep were studied in comparison with healthy, young and aged, ARQ/ARQ, Rasa Aragonesa animals and with Manchega breed sheep. The scrapie-affected sheep showed signs of both cellular involution and hypertrophic/hyperimmunoreactive responses in all neuronal subtypes; the distribution of the neuronal subtypes in the archi- and neocerebellum, however, did not change compared with controls. The results suggest that the different CR expression and/or CR content of cerebellar cortical neurons in scrapie-affected sheep are more related to their specific functions than any neuroprotective response. The reduction in the cell density of some CR-immunopositive neuronal subsets (i.e. unipolar brush cells) is contradictory to the supposed neuroprotective role of the calcium binding protein CR. However, the hyperimmunoreactivity of many CR-immunopositive neuronal subsets (e.g. the Purkinje cells) suggests the involvement of an over-expression of CR (transitory or restricted to selected neurons) as an adaptative mechanism to fight against the neurodegeneration caused by this prion disease. The changes in the number of immunopositive cells and the hypertrophic/hyperimmunoreactive response seen in scrapie-affected and aged sheep suggests that some different and some similar mechanisms are at work in this disease and aging. PMID:22116659

  1. In vitro amplification of ovine prions from scrapie-infected sheep from Great Britain reveals distinct patterns of propagation

    Thorne Leigh

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA is a method that facilitates the detection of prions from many sources of transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE. Sheep scrapie represents a unique diversity of prion disease agents in a range of susceptible PRNP genotypes. In this study PMCA was assessed on a range of Great Britain (GB sheep scrapie isolates to determine the applicability to veterinary diagnosis of ovine TSE. Results PrPSc amplification by protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA was assessed as a diagnostic tool for field cases of scrapie. The technique was initially applied to thirty-seven isolates of scrapie from diverse geographical locations around GB, and involved sheep of various breeds and PRNP genotypes. All samples were amplified in either VRQ and/or ARQ PrPC substrate. For PrPSc from sheep with at least one VRQ allele, all samples amplified efficiently in VRQ PrPC but only PrPSc from ARH/VRQ sheep amplified in both substrates. PrPSc from ARQ/ARQ sheep displayed two amplification patterns, one that amplified in both substrates and one that only amplified in ARQ PrPC. These amplification patterns were consistent for a further 14/15 flock/farm mates of these sheep. Furthermore experimental scrapie strains SSBP1, Dawson, CH1641 and MRI were analysed. SSBP1 and Dawson (from VRQ/VRQ sheep amplified in VRQ but not ARQ substrate. MRI scrapie (from ARQ/ARQ sheep nor CH1641 did not amplify in ARQ or VRQ substrate; these strains required an enhanced PMCA method incorporating polyadenylic acid (poly(A to achieve amplification. Conclusions PrPsc from 52 classical scrapie GB field isolates amplified in VRQ or ARQ or both substrates and supports the use of PMCA as a rapid assay for the detection of a wide range of ovine classical scrapie infections involving multiple PRNP genotypes and scrapie strains.

  2. Wool traits of three sympatric sheep populations in Chiapas Region, Mxico.

    Pars-Casanova, Pere M; Perezgrovas, Ral

    2013-01-01

    A total of 344 pure animals, representing seven American and South European breeds (White Chiapas Blanca, Brown Chiapas Caf, Black Chiapas Negra, Churra Badana, Churra da Terra Quente, Chilean Latxa, and Spanish Merino), were randomly sampled and wool evaluated for isoalcohol scouring yield, length, and proportion for each type of fiber (long-thick, short-thin, and kemp), average of fiber diameter, and F30 (percentage of fibers with a diameter of >30 ?m). The objective of this study was to characterize these breeds according to their wool traits. A low percentage of the phenotypic variability in the analyzed animals was due to differences among breeds, and that the largest part of that variability is due to differences within breeds. The obtained topology in the principal coordinates analysis showed the grouping of the three Chiapas breeds clearly separated, but the similarity with their original breed was only evident for Brown Chiapas Caf. The three Chiapas sheep breeds must be regarded as clearly sympatric populations. PMID:22773118

  3. Simulation of charge breeding of rubidium using Monte Carlo charge breeding code and generalized ECRIS model.

    Zhao, L; Cluggish, B; Kim, J S; Pardo, R; Vondrasek, R

    2010-02-01

    A Monte Carlo charge breeding code (MCBC) is being developed by FAR-TECH, Inc. to model the capture and charge breeding of 1+ ion beam in an electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) device. The ECRIS plasma is simulated using the generalized ECRIS model which has two choices of boundary settings, free boundary condition and Bohm condition. The charge state distribution of the extracted beam ions is calculated by solving the steady state ion continuity equations where the profiles of the captured ions are used as source terms. MCBC simulations of the charge breeding of Rb+ showed good agreement with recent charge breeding experiments at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). MCBC correctly predicted the peak of highly charged ion state outputs under free boundary condition and similar charge state distribution width but a lower peak charge state under the Bohm condition. The comparisons between the simulation results and ANL experimental measurements are presented and discussed. PMID:20192325

  4. Relationship Between Gestation Length and Birth Weight in Nigerian Sheep and Their Crosses

    AO Iyiola-Tunji

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Effect of genotype and birth weight on gestation length was evaluated using Nigerian breeds of sheep and their crosses. The study was carried out at the Sheep Project Unit of Small Ruminant Research Programme (SRRP of National Animal Production Research Institute (NAPRI, Ahmadu Bello University, Shika-Zaria. The sheep breeds used were Balami, Uda and Yankasa. Heat (estrus detection was carried out twice daily; in the morning (07:00-08:00 hours; and in the evening (16:00-17:00 hours using apron fitted rams to pick does on heat. A total of 56 lambs were used for this study. The data obtained were subjected to analysis of variance using General Linear Model and Correlation Procedure of SAS. All the genotypes had similar gestation length with values between 150.3±0.61 days and 153.3±0.60 days, except for Balami pure breed (BAL X BAL lambs that recorded a shorter gestation length (137.1±0.81 days. There was a wide variation in the birth weight of lambs with the crosses between Balami rams and Yankasa ewes recording a distinct birth weight of 3.5±0.08 kg while the crosses obtained using Yankasa rams on Uda and Balami ewes gave the lowest birth weights (1.7±0.19 and 1.4±0.18, respectively. Sex and litter type have no significant effect (P>0.05 on gestation length. Birth weight was however affected by sex of lambs and their litter type. Litter type was negatively correlated with birth weight (-0.372. Gestation length had a low and non-significant relationship with birth weight; litter type and lamb genotype. Lamb genotype does not have a significant relationship with litter type. Genetic improvement of Nigeria sheep breed is possible if the resources of within and between breed is exploited. Selection for a reduction in gestation length may indirectly increase prolificacy. (Animal Production 12(3: 135-138 (2010Key Words : gestation length, birth weight, Nigerian Sheep

  5. Mineral requirements of dairy sheep

    Giuseppina Camboni

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the major (Calcium, Phosphorus, Potassium, Sodium, Chlorine, Sulphur, Magnesium and the trace elements (Iron, Copper, Cobalt, Iodine, Manganese, Zync, Molybdenum, Selenium that play an essential role in animal metabolism. For each one the authors indicate not only the function, but also the more recent advances in terms of daily requirements for dairy sheep.

  6. The use of blood protein polymorphism to estimate genetic distance among populations of Indonesian native sheep, St. Croix and Merino

    Agus Suparyanto

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available The genetic distance among populations of Indonesia native sheep (Ciamis, Garut, Sumatera and Garahan, St. Croix and Merino were estimated to investigate the genetic relationship among those breeds. Blood protein polymorphism of transferin (Tf, post-transferin (PTf, albumin (Alb, post-albumin (PAlb were detected from blood plasma, while haemoglobine (Hb was detected from erythrocyte using Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis (PAGE. Results of PAGE showed that Tf was controlled by 6 alleles, while Alb by 4 alleles, PTf by 3 Alleles and PAlb and Hb by 2 alleles. Value of breeding coefficient within individual subpopulations (FIS for Tf (-0,0014, Alb (-0,0046 and Hb (0,0256 were not significantly different by noel. These results show that data of gene frequency are still following Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium and inbreeding inside the sub population did not occur. The closest distance among the native breeds is the subpopulations of Ciamis and Garut due to neighboring area and similar traits of Thin Tail Sheep. The genetic distance of both population to Sumatera Thin Tail Sheep and Garahan Fat Tail are quite far. In addition to that results all Indonesian native breed were distinctly different from St. Croix and Merino.

  7. Efeitos genticos aditivos e no-aditivos em caractersticas de crescimento, reprodutivas e habilidade materna em ovinos das raas Santa Ins, Somalis Brasileira, Dorper e Poll Dorset Additive and non-additive genetic effects on growth, reproductive and maternal traits in sheep of Santa In??s, Brazilian Somali, Dorper and Poll Dorset breeds

    Adriano Caminha Barbosa Neto

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Efeitos gentico aditivo, de dominncia e de recombinao em cruzamentos entre as raas Santa Ins (SI, Somalis Brasileira (So, Dorper (Do e Poll Dorset (Po foram estimados para as caractersticas de crescimento, reprodutivas e de habilidade materna. Os dados foram obtidos da Gaasa e Alimentos LTDA, uma empresa que participa do Programa de Melhoramento Gentico de Caprinos e Ovinos (GENECOC da Embrapa Caprinos. Inicialmente, 3.573 registros foram analisados por meio do procedimento MIXED do pacote estatstico SAS (1999. As anlises foram realizadas considerando os efeitos da diferena gentica aditiva entre as raas, de dominncia e de recombinao. O peso ao nascer foi influenciado pelos efeitos genticos aditivos, enquanto o peso ao desmame e o ganho de peso pr-desmame foram influenciados por efeitos genticos no-aditivos. A estimativa de herdabilidade direta para o peso ao nascer foi moderada, o que indica a existncia de variabilidade gentica passvel de ser explorada por meio da seleo individual. Do mesmo modo, as estimativas de herdabilidade das caractersticas idade ao primeiro parto e peso total das crias ao nascer indicaram a existncia de variabilidade gentica para obter ganhos genticos por meio da seleo. Os genes das raas Poll Dorset e Dorper tiveram papel importante para melhor desempenho ponderal, portanto, essas raas podem ser indicadas como paternas no cruzamento terminal. A utilizao de matrizes F1 Santa Ins x Somalis Brasileira em cruzamentos com reprodutores Poll Dorset pode levar a maior eficincia reprodutiva.Additive genetic, dominance and recombination effects in breedings among Santa Ins (SI, Brazilian Somali (So, Dorper (Do and Poll Dorset (Po breeds were estimated for growth, reproductive and maternal hability traits. Data were obtained from Gaasa e Alimentos LTDA, a company that participates on the Programa de Melhoramento Gentico de Caprinos e Ovinos (GENECOC coordinated by Embrapa Caprinos. Initially, 3,573 records were analyzed using the MIXED procedure of the statistical package SAS (1999. The analyses were carried out considering the effects of additive genetic difference among breeds, dominance and recombination effects. Birth weight was mainly influenced by additive genetic effects, while weaning weight and pre-weaning weight gain were influenced by non-additive genetic effects. Direct heritability estimates for birth weight was moderate indicating that there is genetic variability believable to be exploited by individual selection. In the same way, heritability estimates for the traits age at first lambing and litter total weight at birth indicated the existence of genetic variability to obtain genetic gains through selection. Genes of the Poll Dorset and Dorper breeds had an important role for a better growth performance, therefore, these breeds can be indicated as sires in the terminal breeds. The use of F1 Santa Ins x Brazilian Somali females on crossbreeding with Poll Dorset rams can lead to a better reproductive efficiency.

  8. Genetic diversity and relationships among Italian Merino derived breeds assessed by microsatellites

    Francesca Maria Sarti

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The conservation of genetic variability is one of the main objectives in the field of genetics applied to domestic livestock. Among molecular markers, microsatellites are particularly appreciated and widely utilized for the study of animal genome. In this study a genetic characterization of three Italian Merino derived sheep breeds was carried out by 30 microsatellites markers; the genetic relationships between these breeds and the Spanish ancestors were also investigated. All the microsatellites examined resulted polymorphic and a total of 375 alleles were detected. FIS values of the three Italian Merinos demonstrate a low level of inbreeding. The results show a good genetic variability of all the studied breeds; at the same time, the genetic identity of each breed is confirmed. These molecular data can be utilized to improve the present selection schemes and the plans to preserve genetic diversity.

  9. THE EFFECTS OF VEGETABLE LECITHIN ON SOME SANGUINE BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS AT LACTATING SHEEP AND GOATS

    D. DRINCEANU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available From a complex experiment of establishing the effects of lecithin supplemented in the diet of small ruminants, in this paper we present the influence of lecithin on some sanguine biochemical parameters at lactating sheep and goat. The researches were made on a experimental group formed by 5 sheep from łurcana breed and 5 goats from Crapatina breed, which were fed in the first experimental period with a base ratio (Br formed by 1.5 kg of hill hay and 0.2 kg concentrate forage mixture, in the second experimental period the Br was supplemented with 100 g lecithin/day/animal. At the end of each experimental period were taken blood samples to establish some biochemical parameters from sanguine serum. The supplementation of base ration with 100 g lecithin/day/animal at lactating sheep and goats did not produced significant changes to values of total proteins (TS, albumin, creatinine, urea and total bilirubins (TB from sanguine serum. Contrary to expectation the cholesterol and triglycerides were higher than normal both in sheep (from 82 mg/dl to 83 mg/dl for cholesterol and from 23 mg/dl to 45 mg/dl for triglycerides but specially in goats (from 59 mg/dl to 68 mg/dl for cholesterol and from 24 mg/dl to 55 mg/dl for triglycerides. Were registered significant increment of activity of alkaline phosphatase and in γ – GT and a decrease of plasmatic activity of pancreatic α-amylase both in sheep and goats.

  10. Sheep blowfly strike risk and management in Great Britain: a survey of current practice.

    Bisdorff, B; Wall, R

    2008-12-01

    The methods used for the control of sheep blowfly strike (ovine cutaneous myiasis) and the farm management factors associated with strike prevalence were examined using data from questionnaire survey returns provided by 966 sheep farmers in Great Britain, based on the period between March 2003 and February 2004. Overall, 91% of participants treated prophylactically with insecticides against blowfly strike; 39% treated twice and 11% treated more than three times in the year. Insect growth regulators (IGRs) were the most commonly chosen product (40%), especially the IGR cyromazine. Only 12% of farmers opted to dip their sheep in organophosphate insecticide against fly strike and 2% of farmers reported applying inappropriate products against strike to their sheep, such as ivermectin or 'drenches'. Farmers worming their ewes more often were 0.8 times less likely to report blowfly strike, but those who wormed their lambs more often were 1.2 times more likely to report strike. Pure-breed flocks were 0.7 times less likely to record an outbreak of blowfly strike than cross-breed flocks. Strike was less likely in ewe flocks grazed at higher altitude; however, this relationship with altitude was not seen in lambs. The results show that insecticides remain the primary tool used by almost all farmers to prevent strike and that the type of insecticides used and means of application have altered dramatically over the past 15 years. However, the prevalence of strike has remained almost unchanged over this period. Clearly careful attention to the type and timing of insecticide application, in association with a detailed understanding of the husbandry factors that predispose sheep to higher strike risk, is essential to allow the optimal management of strike problems. PMID:19120956

  11. Linkage disequilibrium and inbreeding estimation in Spanish Churra sheep

    Garca-Gmez Elsa

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genomic technologies, such as high-throughput genotyping based on SNP arrays, have great potential to decipher the genetic architecture of complex traits and provide background information concerning genome structure in domestic animals, including the extent of linkage disequilibrium (LD and haplotype blocks. The objective of this study was to estimate LD, the population evolution (past effective population size and the level of inbreeding in Spanish Churra sheep. Results A total of 43,784 SNPs distributed in the ovine autosomal genome was analyzed in 1,681 Churra ewes. LD was assessed by measuring r2 between all pairs of loci. For SNPs up to 10?kb apart, the average r2 was 0.329; for SNPs separated by 200500?kb the average r2 was 0.061. When SNPs are separated by more than 50 Mbp, the average r2 is the same as between non-syntenic SNP pairs (0.003. The effective population size has decreased through time, faster from 1,000 to 100?years ago and slower since the selection scheme started (1525 generations ago. In the last generation, four years ago, the effective population size was estimated to be 128 animals. Inbreeding coefficients, although differed depending on the estimation approaches, were generally low and showed the same trend, which indicates that since 2003, inbreeding has been slightly increasing in the studied resource population. Conclusions The extent of LD in Churra sheep persists over much more limited distances than reported in dairy cattle and seems to be similar to other ovine populations. Churra sheep show a wide genetic base, with a long-term viable effective population size that has been slightly decreasing since selection scheme began in 1986. The genomic dataset analyzed provided useful information for identifying low-level inbreeding in the sample, whereas based on the parameters reported here, a higher marker density than that analyzed here will be needed to successfully conduct accurate mapping of genes underlying production traits and genomic selection prediction in this sheep breed. Although the Ovine Assembly development is still in a draft stage and future refinements will provide a more accurate physical map that will improve LD estimations, this work is a first step towards the understanding of the genetic architecture in sheep.

  12. Genome-wide analysis of microRNAs identifies the lipid metabolism pathway to be a defining factor in adipose tissue from different sheep.

    Miao, Xiangyang; Luo, Qingmiao; Qin, Xiaoyu; Guo, Yuntao

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs are short (17-24 nt) non-coding RNAs that are involved in post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression in multicellular organisms by affecting both the stability and translation of mRNAs. In recent years, deep sequencing of the transcriptome is increasingly being utilized with the promise of higher sensitivity for the identification of differential expression patterns as well as the opportunity to discover new transcripts, including new alternative isoforms and miRNAs. Here, we utilized RNA-seq technology to perform a genome-wide analysis of miRNAs from the adipose tissue of the two species of sheep to look for clues that might explain the fat deposition differences between the sheep. The RNA-seq analysis detected 3132 miRNAs from the adipose tissue of the Small-tail Han and Dorset sheep, of which 2893 were defined as potential new miRNAs. In addition, 54 miRNAs were differentially expressed between the two breeds of sheep. Gene ontology and pathway analyses of the predicted target genes that negatively associated with the differentially expressed miRNAs revealed that there was less active lipid metabolism in the adipose tissue of Small Tail Han sheep. This study can help understand the underling mechanisms responsible for the morphological differences related to fat deposition between two breeds of sheep. PMID:26690086

  13. Genome-wide analysis of microRNAs identifies the lipid metabolism pathway to be a defining factor in adipose tissue from different sheep

    Miao, Xiangyang; Luo, Qingmiao; Qin, Xiaoyu; Guo, Yuntao

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs are short (1724?nt) non-coding RNAs that are involved in post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression in multicellular organisms by affecting both the stability and translation of mRNAs. In recent years, deep sequencing of the transcriptome is increasingly being utilized with the promise of higher sensitivity for the identification of differential expression patterns as well as the opportunity to discover new transcripts, including new alternative isoforms and miRNAs. Here, we utilized RNA-seq technology to perform a genome-wide analysis of miRNAs from the adipose tissue of the two species of sheep to look for clues that might explain the fat deposition differences between the sheep. The RNA-seq analysis detected 3132 miRNAs from the adipose tissue of the Small-tail Han and Dorset sheep, of which 2893 were defined as potential new miRNAs. In addition, 54 miRNAs were differentially expressed between the two breeds of sheep. Gene ontology and pathway analyses of the predicted target genes that negatively associated with the differentially expressed miRNAs revealed that there was less active lipid metabolism in the adipose tissue of Small Tail Han sheep. This study can help understand the underling mechanisms responsible for the morphological differences related to fat deposition between two breeds of sheep. PMID:26690086

  14. Breeding Cold Hardy Begonias

    Hardy begonia cultivars have potential as a new crop for Southern nurseries. Current begonia breeding efforts are focused on sections Begonia and Pritzelia. Diverse begonia germplasm has been collected to study fertility and hardiness.To date cold hardy germplasm which has produced viable seeds inc...

  15. Mutation breeding in mangosteen

    Mangosteen the queen of the tropical fruits is apomitic and only a cultivar is reported and it reproduces asexually. Conventional breeding is not possible and the other methods to create variabilities are through genetic engineering and mutation breeding. The former technique is still in the infantry stage in mangosteen research while the latter has been an established tool in breeding to improve cultivars. In this mutation breeding seeds of mangosteen were irradiated using gamma rays and the LD 50 for mangosteen was determined and noted to be very low at 10 Gy. After sowing in the seedbed, the seedlings were transplanted in polybags and observed in the nursery bed for about one year before planted in the field under old oil palm trees in Station MARDI, Kluang. After evaluation and screening, about 120 mutant mangosteen plants were selected and planted in Kluang. The plants were observed and some growth data taken. There were some mutant plants that have good growth vigour and more vigorous that the control plants. The trial are now in the fourth year and the plants are still in the juvenile stage. (Author)

  16. Major Histocompatibility Complex class IIB polymorphism in an ancient Spanish breed.

    Atlija, Marina; Guterrez-Gil, Beatriz; Arranz, Juan-Jose; Semmer, Jrdis; Stear, Michael J; Buitkamp, Johannes

    2015-09-01

    Genes from the Major Histocompatibility Complex class II region are involved in the presentation of antigens. Therefore, they have the key role in regulating the immune response and in the resistance to infections. We investigated the Major Histocompatibility Complex class IIB genes, DRB and DQB, in Churra sheep, one of the most important indigenous breeds of Spain. These genes are among the most polymorphic in the mammalian genome. Furthermore, often different numbers of class IIB genes per haplotype exist, complicating the genotyping and sequencing of these genes. Especially the DQB region is only partially characterized in sheep and the repertoire of DRB and DQB alleles in Churra sheep, an ancient breed, is unknown. Here, we sequenced the class IIB genes for 15 rams that are the pedigree heads of a selection Nucleus herd. In total, we found 12 DRB and 25 DQB alleles. From these, 3 and 15 were new, respectively. Fourteen haplotypes carrying one or two DQB alleles could be deduced and the evolutionary relationship of these was investigated by phylogenetic trees. Based on the sequences of these most common class II alleles, a more efficient genotyping system for larger numbers of Churra sheep will be developed. PMID:26184839

  17. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 45

    This issue of the Mutation Breeding newsletter contains 39 articles dealing with radiation induced mutations and chemical mutagenesis techniques in plant breeding programs with the aims of improving crop productivity and disease resistance as well as exploring genetic variabilities

  18. The costs of breed reconstruction from cryopreserved material in mammalian livestock species

    Gandini Gustavo; Pizzi Flavia; Stella Alessandra; Boettcher Paul J

    2007-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this work was to compare costs, in the horse, cattle, sheep, swine, and rabbit species, for the creation of gene banks for reconstruction of an extinct breed, using different strategies: embryos-only, embryos in combination with semen, and semen-only. Three cost measures were used: time required for population reconstruction, cost for creation of the gene bank, number of years-keeping-female to reach reconstruction. Semen costs were estimated across four scenarios: the pre...

  19. Integrated control of gastrointestinal nematodes in lambs using a bioactive feed breed approach.

    Werne, S; Isensee, A; Maurer, V; Perler, E; Drewek, A; Heckendorn, F

    2013-12-01

    Forages rich in condensed tannins have repeatedly shown potential to reduce gastrointestinal nematode infection in sheep. Similarly, several breeds of sheep have shown a relative resistance to gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN). We hypothesised that additive or even synergic effects may arise from the combination of a relatively resistant breed and a diet rich in condensed tannins. In study I, 160 lambs of the native Red Engadine Sheep (RES) and 113 lambs of the Swiss White Alpine sheep (SWA) were artificially infected with GIN and subsequently grazed for 52 days. The lambs were then distributed to 2 groups for a 14-day experimental feeding period. One group received a diet with a proportion of 55% sainfoin and was compared to a control group on the basis of faecal egg counts (FEC). In study II, 25 RES and 27 SWA lambs grazed infectious pastures for 37 days and were subsequently fed for 13 consecutive days with approximately 100% sainfoin or control forage. In addition to the FEC determination at the start and the end of the experimental feeding, the 52 lambs in study II were slaughtered and necropsied to determine their worm burden. FEC at the end of the feeding period were significantly lower in sainfoin fed lambs compared to controls in study I (pworm burden compared to SWA. Regardless of breed, sainfoin feeding significantly reduced Teladorsagia spp. (p=0.049) and Nematodirus spp. (pworm burden. Although, we could not demonstrate additive or synergic effects when using an integrated breed sainfoin approach, the finding that a proportion of only 55% sainfoin in the diet led to a lower FEC compared to controls is important with respect to the implementation on producing farms. PMID:24183648

  20. Ovine lentivirus is aetiologically associated with chronic respiratory disease of sheep on the Laikipia Plateau in Kenya.

    Rwambo, P M; Brodie, S J; DeMartini, J C

    2001-12-01

    A study was undertaken to investigate the occurrence of ovine lentivirus (OvLV) infection in sheep with chronic respiratory disease on the Laikipia Plateau, Kenya. All seven Merino crossbred sheep with chronic dyspnoea and emaciation examined for gross and microscopic lesions had lymphoid interstitial pneumonia (LIP), and one also had pulmonary abscesses. Two of the sheep with LIP also had lesions of ovine pulmonary carcinoma (OPC, jaagsiekte). Using in situ hybridization, OvLV DNA localized to a high proportion of pulmonary macrophages in lungs with lesions of LIP. Lung tissue samples from six of these sheep were positive for a syncytium-inducing virus in cultures of lamb testis cells. Thin-section electron microscopy of infected cells showed virions with morphogenesis typical of lentiviruses. In a western blotting assay, monoclonal antibodies to the OvLV capsid (CA, p27) and matrix (MA, p15) proteins of a North American OvLV isolate reacted with similar-sized bands of the virus, and serum from six of the sheep were reactive with CA from the Kenyan viral isolate. Using an OvLV agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) test, all seven sheep were positive for serum antiviral antibody, as were 29% of 63 clinically normal sheep from Laikipia District. However, when sera from the healthy sheep were tested in a western blot assay, only 52% had IgG reactive to the OvLV CA, indicating a high rate of false negative reactions with the AGID test. Serum samples from 87 Red Maasai or Dorper crossbred sheep from two farms in other parts of Kenya were OvLV seronegative by both the AGID test and the western blot assay. These results document the first identification of OvLV as a cause of chronic respiratory disease in sheep in Kenya and show a high rate of infection in sheep flocks, with a high prevalence of chronic respiratory disease. PMID:11770202

  1. Serum Leptin Concentrations in Some Ruminant Species and Breeds

    Nazmiye Gunes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Leptin, a 16-kDa protein secreted from white adipocytes has been implicated in the regulation of food intake, energy expenditure and whole-body energy balance in animals and humans. It was the focus of this study to establish serum leptin values for several animal species and breeds. To this purpose, serum leptin concentrations were measured using a double antibody Radio Immuno Assay (RIA kit containing guinea pig multispecies leptin antibody. Serum leptin concentrations were determined in healthy subjects of various species and breeds including Brown Swiss and Holstein bull, Awessi sheep, Saanen and Turkish hair goat. They were as follows (avarege values in ng mL-1±SEM: Brown Swiss bull (12 months of age: 2.35±0.34, Holstein bull (12 months of age: 3.55±0.53, Awessi sheep (16 months of age: 2.16±0.29, Saanen goat (16 months of age: 2.23±0.46, Turkish hair goat (16 months of age: 0.94±0.10.

  2. Emerging parasitic diseases of sheep.

    Taylor, M A

    2012-09-30

    There have been changes in the emergence and inability to control of a number of sheep parasitic infections over the last decade. This review focuses on the more globally important sheep parasites, whose reported changes in epidemiology, occurrence or failure to control are becoming increasingly evident. One of the main perceived driving forces is climate change, which can have profound effects on parasite epidemiology, especially for those parasitic diseases where weather has a direct effect on the development of free-living stages. The emergence of anthelmintic-resistant strains of parasitic nematodes and the increasing reliance placed on anthelmintics for their control, can exert profound changes on the epidemiology of those nematodes causing parasitic gastroenteritis. As a consequence, the effectiveness of existing control strategies presents a major threat to sheep production in many areas around the world. The incidence of the liver fluke, Fasciola hepatica, is inextricably linked to high rainfall and is particularly prevalent in high rainfall years. Over the last few decades, there have also been increasing reports of other fluke associated diseases, such as dicroceliosis and paramphistomosis, in a number of western European countries, possibly introduced through animal movements, and able to establish with changing climates. External parasite infections, such as myiasis, can cause significant economic loss and presents as a major welfare problem. The range of elevated temperatures predicted by current climate change scenarios, result in an elongated blowfly season with earlier spring emergence and a higher cumulative incidence of fly strike. Additionally, legislative decisions leading to enforced changes in pesticide usage and choices have resulted in increased reports and spread of ectoparasitic infections, particularly mite, lice and tick infestations in sheep. Factors, such as dip disposal and associated environmental concerns, and, perhaps more importantly, product availability have led to a move away from more traditional methods of pesticide application, particularly dipping, to the use of injectable endectocides. This has coincided with increased reports of sheep scab and lice infestations in some countries. Reduction in the use of organophosphate dips appears to have to some extent contributed to reported increased populations of ticks and tick activity, a consequence of which is not only of significance to sheep, but also many other hosts, including increased human zoonotic risks. PMID:22525586

  3. Rice breeding problems in Korea

    This paper deals with general rice production in Korea and the problems encountered. The history of rice growing and breeding in Korea is outlined and a description of recent advances in rice breeding is given, including a discussion of some uses of radiation treatments in the breeding programme during the last few years. (author). 2 figs, 3 tabs

  4. Presence of SNPs in GDF9 mRNA of Iranian Afshari Sheep

    Talat Saiedi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Multiple births occur frequently in some Iranian sheep breeds, while infertilityscarcely occurs. Mutation detection in major fecundity genes has been explored in most of Iraniansheep flocks over the last decade. However, previously reported single nucleotide polymorphisms(SNPs for bone morphogenetic protein receptor-(BMPR-1B and growth differentiation factor GDF9( known to affect fertility have not been detected. This study was conducted to assess whetherany significant mutations in GDF9 were extracted from slaughtered ewe ovaries of Iranian Afsharisheep breed.Materials and Methods: Ovaries defined as poor, fair, and excellent quality based on externalvisual appearance of follicles were used for histology and RNA extraction processes. High qualityRNAs underwent reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR from GDF9 mRNA,and the products sequenced.Results: No streak ovaries, which are considered indicators of infertility due to homozygocity forsome mutations in GDF9 and BMP15, were found. Sequencing results from GDF9 cDNA showedthat G2 (C471T, G3 (G477A, and G4 (G721A mutations were observed from 1, 4, and 1 out of12 ewes, respectively. Though all 3 mutations were previously reported, this is the first report ontheir presence in Iranian breeds. The first and second mutations do not alter the amino acids, whileG4 is a non-conservative mutation leading to E241K in the prohormone.Conclusion: As the G4 mutation was observed only in ovaries defined superficially as top quality,it could be considered as one of reasons for higher ovulation rate in some sheep. Furthermore sincemultiple mutations were observed in some cases, it might be possible that combinations of minormutations in GDF9 and BMP15 interact to affect fecundity in some Iranian sheep breeds.

  5. Ectoparasites of sheep in three agro-ecological zones in central Oromia, Ethiopia

    Bersissa Kumsa

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence and risk factors for ectoparasites infestation in sheep in three agro-ecological zones in central Oromia, Ethiopia, from October 2009 to April 2010. The study revealed that 637 (48.1% of the 1325 sheep examined were infested with one or more ectoparasites. The ectoparasites identified were Bovicola ovis (27.2%, Melophagus ovinus (16.4%, Ctenocephalides sp. (2.3%, Linognathus africanus (1.2%, Linognathus ovillus (0.3%, Sarcoptes sp. (1.2%, Amblyomma variegatum (4.4%, Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi (1.9%, Rhipicephalus pravus (1.9%, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus decoloratus (1.1%, Rhipicephalus sanguineus (0.9%, Rhipicephalus praetextatus (1.1% and Hyalomma truncatum (1.6%. Statistically significant difference was observed in prevalence of B. ovis amongst study agroecological zones: highland 36.6%, midland 20.9% and lowland 14.0%. Significantly higher prevalence was recorded in highland agroecological zone. A significantly (OR = 0.041, p < 0.001 higher prevalence of M. ovinus in the highland (31.7% than in both the lowland (0% and midland (1.9% was observed. The risk of tick infestation in the lowland and midland was 9.883 times and 13.988 times higher than the risk in the highland, respectively. A significantly higher prevalence of Ctenocephalides species was encountered in both the lowland (OR = 4.738, p = 0.011 and midland (OR = 8.078, p = 0.000 than in the highland agro-ecological zone. However, a significant difference (p = 0.191 amongst agro-ecological zones was not found for the prevalence of Linognathus and Sarcoptes species. Statistically significant variation (p > 0.05 was never recorded in the prevalence of all the identified species of ectoparasites between male and female sheep hosts. However, a significantly (p = 0.006 higher prevalence of B. ovis was recorded between young and adult sheep. The risk of B. ovis infestation was 1.45 times higher in young than the adult sheep. Furthermore, a significantly (p < 0.001 higher prevalence of M. ovinus, B. ovis and Sarcoptes sp. was found between sheep with poor and a good body condition. The ever increasing threat of ectoparasites on overall sheep productivity and tanning industry in Ethiopia warrants urgent control intervention. Further studies on the role of ectoparasites in transmission of diseases to sheep, zoonotic importance, comparative prevalence and load, and the importance of sheep as alternative hosts in different agroecological zones, breeds and management systems in Ethiopia are recommended so as to design applicable control programme in the country.

  6. Analysis of growth curve in Santa Ines females sheep

    Elisa Junqueira Oliveira

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In a sheep production system, the growth-related characteristics have direct relationship to both, quantity and quality of meat. The objective of this study was to evaluate the application of non-linear models to report the growth curve of Santa Ins sheep. Weights of 140 females, born from2010 to 2012, from a single herd at Cravinhos- SP were used. The weights were measured from birth to about one year of age and the ages were grouped together in biweekly classes. The average weight observed at birth was of 3.770.92 kg. The non-linear models utilized in the data adjustment were the Brody, Gompertz, Logistic and Von Bertalanffy models, adjusted by the Gauss-Newton method by means of NLIN procedure, available in SAS software. The parameters which compose the functions, Wt (kg is the weight in time t (days; A (kg is the asymptotic weight when age tends to infinity; b is an integration constant, related to the initial weights of the animals and not well defined biological interpretation, and k is the maturity rate. The average estimates for A and k, are the most important from an zootechnical parameters point of view, mainly because heavier females tend to create faster growing sheep. All the models evaluated reached convergence. The quality of the models adjustment was done by error mean square (EMS means. From the EMS results , the Gompertz model showed the best adjustment, which indicates increased association between the observed and estimated weights, in spite of the EMS values being quite close in all models, pointing out that all were adequate to report the growth curve from birth to one year of age in females of Santa Ins breed.

  7. A dual fluorescent multiprobe assay for prion protein genotyping in sheep

    Van Zeveren Alex

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Scrapie and BSE belong to a group of fatal, transmissible, neurodegenerative diseases called TSE. In order to minimize the risk of natural scrapie and presumed natural BSE in sheep, breeding programmes towards TSE resistance are conducted in many countries based on resistance rendering PRNP polymorphisms at codons 136 (A/V, 154 (R/H and 171 (R/H/Q. Therefore, a reliable, fast and cost-effective method for routine PRNP genotyping in sheep, applicable in standard equipped molecular genetic laboratories, will be a vital instrument to fulfill the need of genotyping hundreds or thousands of sheep. Methods A dual fluorescent multiprobe assay consisting of 2 closed tube PCR reactions containing respectively 4 and 3 dual-labelled fluorescent ASO probes for the detection in real-time of the 7 allelic variants of sheep PRNP mentioned above. Results The assay is succesfully performed using unpurified DNA as a template for PCR, without any post-PCR manipulations and with semi-automatic determination of the PRNP genotypes. The performance of the assay was confirmed via PCR-RFLP and sequencing in a cross-validation study with 50 sheep. Conclusions We report the development and validation of a robust, reliable and reproducible method for PRNP genotyping of a few to many sheep samples in a fast, simple and cost-effective way, applicable in standard equipped molecular genetic laboratories. The described primer/probe design strategy can also be applied for the detection of other polymorphisms or disease causing mutations.

  8. The host immune response to gastrointestinal nematode infection in sheep.

    McRae, K M; Stear, M J; Good, B; Keane, O M

    2015-12-01

    Gastrointestinal nematode infection represents a major threat to the health, welfare and productivity of sheep populations worldwide. Infected lambs have a reduced ability to absorb nutrients from the gastrointestinal tract, resulting in morbidity and occasional mortality. The current chemo-dominant approach to nematode control is considered unsustainable due to the increasing incidence of anthelmintic resistance. In addition, there is growing consumer demand for food products from animals not subjected to chemical treatment. Future mechanisms of nematode control must rely on alternative, sustainable strategies such as vaccination or selective breeding of resistant animals. Such strategies take advantage of the host's natural immune response to nematodes. The ability to resist gastrointestinal nematode infection is considered to be dependent on the development of a protective acquired immune response, although the precise immune mechanisms involved in initiating this process remain to be fully elucidated. In this study, current knowledge on the innate and acquired host immune response to gastrointestinal nematode infection in sheep and the development of immunity is reviewed. PMID:26480845

  9. Multivariate genetic analysis on body weight traits in Ghezel sheep

    Hasan Baneh

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to estimate the genetic and phenotypic parameters for growth traits in Ghezel sheep,using pedigree information and body weight records which collected from 2000 to 2009 at Ghezel Sheep Breeding Station.Traits of interest were birth weight (BW, n=2,073, weaning weight (WW, n=1,663 and six-month old weight (6MW, n=1,315.The environmental factors were studied using GLM procedure in SAS software. (Co variance components estimated basedon multivariate animal model by REML method, using DMU-package. All traits were significantly influenced by birth year,lambs sex, type of birth and dam age (p<0.01. Heritability estimates for BW, WW and 6MW were 0.160.05, 0.240.06 and0.350.07, respectively. All genetic correlations between traits were estimated positive and ranged from 0.57 (BW-6MW to0.97 (WW-6MW. The phenotypic correlations among all traits were also positive. The results of this study indicate thatbecause of high genetic correlation between traits, selection for each of these traits may result in improvement in other traitsas well.

  10. Amino acids in sheep production.

    McCoard, Susan A; Sales, Francisco A; Sciascia, Quentin L

    2016-01-01

    Increasing production efficiency with a high standard of animal welfare and respect for the environment is a goal of sheep farming systems. Substantial gains in productivity have been achieved through improved genetics, nutrition and management changes; however the survival and growth performance of multiple-born lambs still remains a problem. This is a significant production efficiency and animal well-being issue. There is a growing body of evidence that some amino acids have a role in regulating growth, reproduction and immunity through modulation of metabolic and cell signaling pathways. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of what is currently known about the role of amino acids in sheep production and the potential for supplementation strategies to influence on-farm survival and growth of lambs. PMID:26709661

  11. Meat quality of goat and sheep sausages

    Teixeira, A.; Pereira, Etelvina; Rodrigues, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    The main objective of this work was to contribute to the characterization of a new product, based on goat and sheep meat with a strategy, which gives value-added to meat from culled goats and sheep, which have a very low commercial price. Carcasses from animals weighing more than the body weight allowed by PDO label specifications were used to produce fresh sausages. Sheep and goats sausages were produced in a traditional industry, in Northeast Portugal. The following character...

  12. Maternal and paternal genetic diversity of ancient sheep in Estonia from the Late Bronze Age to the post-medieval period and comparison with other regions in Eurasia.

    Rannamäe, E; Lõugas, L; Niemi, M; Kantanen, J; Maldre, L; Kadõrova, N; Saarma, U

    2016-04-01

    Sheep were among the first domesticated animals to appear in Estonia in the late Neolithic and became one of the most widespread livestock species in the region from the Late Bronze Age onwards. However, the origin and historical expansion of local sheep populations in Estonia remain poorly understood. Here, we analysed fragments of the hypervariable D-loop of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA; 213 bp) and the Y-chromosome SRY gene (130 bp) extracted from 31 archaeological sheep bones dated from approximately 800 BC to 1700 AD. The ancient DNA data of sheep from Estonia were compared with ancient sheep from Finland as well as a set of contemporary sheep breeds from across Eurasia in order to place them in a wider phylogeographical context. The analysis shows that: (i) 24 successfully amplified and analysed mtDNA sequences of ancient sheep cluster into two haplogroups, A and B, of which B is predominant; (ii) four of the ancient mtDNA haplotypes are novel; (iii) higher mtDNA haplotype diversity occurred during the Middle Ages as compared to other periods, a fact concordant with the historical context of expanding international trade during the Middle Ages; (iv) the proportion of rarer haplotypes declined during the expansion of sheep from the Near Eastern domestication centre to the northern European region; (v) three male samples showed the presence of the characteristic northern European haplotype, SNP G-oY1 of the Y-chromosome, and represent the earliest occurrence of this haplotype. Our results provide the first insight into the genetic diversity and phylogeographical background of ancient sheep in Estonia and provide basis for further studies on the temporal fluctuations of ancient sheep populations. PMID:26805771

  13. Impact of variation in production traits, inputs costs and product prices on profitability in multi-purpose sheep

    Zuzana Krupová

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The impact of variation in production traits, and inputs costs and product prices on economic efficiency of a multi-purpose sheep breed farmed in a marginal area of Slovakia was examined using a bio-economic simulation model of the program package ECOWEIGHT. Variations in the proportion of milk processed to cheese on farms, sheep product prices and production costs were based on values observed in Slovakia from 2004 to 2010, and variation in ewe performance traits (milk yield, conception rate, litter size, ewe productive lifetime was based upon breed standards for the Improved Valachian breed. Revenue from government subsidies was not included in farm returns. Profitability ratios of farms were negative for most combinations of production and economic factors (-6 to -37%. Only farms processing milk to cheese, farms with the highest simulated milk yield (180 kg per ewe and farms receiving the highest simulated milk and cheese prices (0.99 and 8.36 € kg-1 achieved positive profitability’s of 11, 21 and 3%, respectively. Farms reaching the performance level of animals characterised by the breed standard had 9% higher revenue, 3% lower cost and 11 percentage points higher profitability ratio (-6% than farms with average animal performance, when compared at the same average level of all product prices and costs. To promote economic sustainability of multi-purpose sheep breed enterprises in marginal areas, selection and management to achieve the biological potential of those breeds and increasing the proportion of milk processed to cheese on farms are recommended.

  14. Sheep Behaviours During a Total Solar Eclipse

    Orhan ?zbey

    2004-01-01

    In this study, the effects of a total solar eclipse, which was occurred in Elaz?? on August 11 1999, on sheep behaviours, were observed. For this purpose, 150 sheeps open shelter have been observed for six hour, from 11:00 am to 5:00 pm. All behaviours of sheep that were different than usual were recorded during observation. Sheeps started to show different behaviours including standing up, smelling the weather and watching around 30 minutes before solar eclipse. Total solar eclipse was occur...

  15. Mutation breeding in peas

    The pea as an ancient crop plant still today has wide uses and is an import source of food protein. It is also an important object for genetic studies and as such has been widely used in mutation induction experiments. However, in comparison with cereals this ancient crop plant (like several other grain legumes) has gained relatively little from advances in breeding. The review focuses on the prospects of genetic improvement of pea by induced mutations, discusses principles and gives methodological information. (author)

  16. The sheep blowfly genetic control program in Australia

    The blowfly Lucilia cuprina is the most important myiasis pet of sheep in Australia. Other species are associated with sheep myiasis, but L. cuprina is probably responsible for initiating more than 90% of infestations. Annual costs of production losses, prevention and treatment have been estimated at $149 millions in 1985. Prevention and treatment encompass both insecticidal applications to sheep and non-chemical management practices. In the absence of effective preventive measures, the sheep industry would be non-viable over much of Australia. Insecticide usage against L. cuprina has been marked by the appearance of widespread resistance to cyclodienes in 1956, the organophosphates in 1965, and carbamates in 1966. Resistance has not yet been reported against the triazine compounds introduced for blowfly control in 1981. The most effective non-chemical control measures are surgical (removal of skin from the breech in certain breeds of sheep, and tail-docking). They protect sheep by reducing favourable oviposition sites (dung and urine-stained wool). The spectre of insecticide resistance and the early success of the sterile insect technique (SIT) against screwworm fly in the U.S.A., led this Division to consider SIT and other autocidal methods in the 1960s. The L. cuprina genetics research program was established in 1966 and subsequently expanded in 1971. More recently, lobbying by animal welfare groups against surgical blowfly control practices, as well as increasing consumer awareness of insecticide residues in animal products, have accelerated the search for alternatives to chemical control. When SIT was first considered for L. cuprina control in 1960, little was known about the population dynamics of L. cuprina. There were insufficient ecological data to evaluate the prospects of alternative strategies such as suppression or containment. The number of flies which would have to be released in a SIT program was unknown, as were the costs. Assuming that the cost of SIT against L. cuprina in Australia would be similar to that reported for screwworm in Florida, the costs of a SIT campaign were estimated to be several times the potential annual benefits. The discover of meiotic drive (MD) in Drosophila rekindled interest in autocidal control and triggered establishment of the L. cuprina genetics research program in 1966. Subsequent research failed to detect MD systems suitable for genetic control, but by 1970 it was recognised that strains carrying chromosome rearrangements might be more cost-effective than SIT. This led in 1971 to expansion of the genetics and strain development program, and establishment of an ecological research program (quantification of population dynamics). Both programs have been enormously successful. Not only have they enabled the development and successful field testing of a genetic method of suppressing sheep blowfly populations, but they have increased our knowledge of this pest to the stage where a simulation model of genetic control (GENCON), which incorporates both genetic and ecological data, is a valuable tool in strain design, selection of control strategies, and evaluation of field trial data. Comparison using computer simulations, of SIT with female-killing (FK) systems based on sex-linked translocations, suggests that with a suppression and containment strategy, the latter would provide greater benefits for less cost than SIT. Moreover, our projections indicate that large-scale genetic control would be less costly and more effective than the current system based on insecticides and other pest control practices

  17. Carbon footprint of milk from sheep farming systems in northern Spain including soil carbon sequestration in grasslands

    Batalla, Inma M.; Knudsen, Marie Trydeman; Mogensen, Lisbeth; Hierro, O.; Pinto, M.; Hermansen, John Erik

    2015-01-01

    The link between climate change and livestock production has made carbon footprint based on life cycle assessment a world-wide indicator to assess and communicate the amount of greenhouse gases emitted per unit of product. Nevertheless, the majority of studies have not included soil carbon......). Milk from semi-intensive systems with foreign breeds kept indoors had significantly lower carbon footprint than milk from semi-extensive systems with local breeds and grazing in mountain uplands during summer. However, no difference was found in the carbon footprint of sheep milk from different systems...

  18. Polyceraty (multi-horns) in Damara sheep maps to ovine chromosome 2.

    Greyvenstein, O F C; Reich, C M; van Marle-Koster, E; Riley, D G; Hayes, B J

    2016-04-01

    Polyceraty (presence of multiple horns) is rare in modern day ungulates. Although not found in wild sheep, polyceraty does occur in a small number of domestic sheep breeds covering a wide geographical region. Damara are fat-tailed hair sheep, from the south-western region of Africa, which display polyceraty, with horn number ranging from zero to four. We conducted a genome-wide association study for horn number with 43 Damara genotyped with 606 006 SNP markers. The analysis revealed a region with multiple significant SNPs on ovine chromosome 2, in a location different from the mutation for polled in sheep on chromosome 10. The causal mutation for polyceraty was not identified; however, the region associated with polyceraty spans nine HOXD genes, which are critical in embryonic development of appendages. Mutations in HOXD genes are implicated in polydactly phenotypes in mice and humans. There was no evidence for epistatic interactions contributing to polyceraty. This is the first report on the genetic mechanisms underlying polyceraty in the under-studied Damara. PMID:26767563

  19. Sheep production and marketing system in southern Ethiopia: the case of Awassazuria district.

    Tadesse, Estefanos; Negesse, Tegene; Abebe, Girma

    2015-10-01

    A survey was conducted in Awassazuria district of southern Ethiopia to characterize sheep production system. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data. Using purposive sampling, a total of 120 households from the district were included in the survey. Collected data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Result indicated that Kajima neighbourhood has more (pmarket price, high market demand, immediate return, ease of management, equilibrium between benefits and risks and suitability for home consumption, ranked in decreasing order of importance. The sheep production in southern Ethiopia is constrained by shortage of grazing land (23.3 %), recurrent drought (17.5 %), disease and parasite (15 %), marketing (10.8 %), water shortage (9 %) and other constraints including predators and lack of input, capital and lack of extension service. The presence of diversified and environmentally adaptable sheep breeds, high demand of mutton in the Awassa town and presence of nutritious and unutilized feed resources like fish meal and poultry litter were some of the opportunities for sheep production in the area. PMID:25997416

  20. Managing Genetic Variation to Conserve Genetic Diversity in Goats and Sheep

    J. N. B. Shrestha

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Domestic goat and sheep populations maintained for many generations with small numbers of male and female parents, or declining in total numbers, not only endure accumulated genetic drift but also a steady rise in inbreeding, which can be directly attributed to dispersive forces of evolutionary significance that influence gene frequency. Increasing effective population size shows theoretical promise in lessening the impact on erosion of biodiversity from genetic drift. For example, doubling the effective numbers of parents which increases effective population size reduces rate of inbreeding by nearly one-half in many of the scenarios in the present study. Similarly, equalizing the number of male and female parents can decrease the variance among progeny of each parent, which in turn increases effective population size. The recurring erosion of domestic goat and sheep diversity has contributed to decreased fecundity, reduced fitness and poor adaptability, all known to influence efficiency of production. The potential loss in performance of livestock and poultry following many generations of accumulated genetic drift, which often goes unnoticed, can be predicted for specific populations from precise estimates of their mean value, additive genetic variance and heritability along with their effective number of male and female parents. For example, when the effective population size decreases from 200 to 40, the potential reduction in mean performance for economically important traits of goat and sheep populations following 20 generations of accumulated genetic drift will nearly double. In contrast, increasing effective population size from 200 to 600 will have the potential reduction in mean performance. The accumulation of favourable mutations could imply an effective population size of 100 or more, which is equal to a rise in rate of inbreeding of 0.5% or less, may be acceptable in sustaining genetic response to artificial selection in commercial breeding populations. The application of quantitative genetic principles related to inbreeding and genetic drift make it possible to safeguard against erosion of genetic diversity in endangered breeds, populations and landraces while lessening the impact from potential loss in their performance. Conservation of domestic animal diversity can be achieved by managing the erosion of genetic variation based on breeding strategies which promote the mating of sires to all dams, in either random bred or balanced pedigreed breeding structure for populations of endangered domestic goats and sheep. Obviously, the in-situ and ex-situ conservation of live animals, along with cryogenic preservation of their gametes, stem cells, somatic cells, blood and gonads will be complementary to conservation breeding.

  1. Identification of quantitative trait loci for wool traits in Iranian Baluchi sheep. Indian Journal of Animal Sciences

    Dashab, G R; Aslaminejad, A; Nassiri, M R; Esmailizadeh, A K; Sahana, Goutam; Saghi, D A

    2012-01-01

    Regions on 3 ovine chromosomes (OAR1, 5 and 25) were selected to study quantitative trait loci (QTL) segregating for wool traits in Baluchi sheep, an indigenous sheep breed in Iran. Progenies (503) from 13 half-sib families were genotyped for 15 microsatellite markers. The average number of proge...... fleece weight, coefficient of variation of average fibre diameter and the per cent of fibre diameter between 40 and 50 μm.......Regions on 3 ovine chromosomes (OAR1, 5 and 25) were selected to study quantitative trait loci (QTL) segregating for wool traits in Baluchi sheep, an indigenous sheep breed in Iran. Progenies (503) from 13 half-sib families were genotyped for 15 microsatellite markers. The average number of progeny...... on OAR1 for fibre type traits (hetero-type and Kemp fibres type per cent in fleece), coefficient of variation of fibre diameter and greasy fleece weight, one QTL on OAR5 for clean fleece weight and 7 QTL on OAR25 for fibre type traits (Hetro-type, Kemp and True wool fibres per cent), greasy and clean...

  2. Toll Like Receptor 9 (TLR9) Polymorphism G520R in Sheep Is Associated with Seropositivity for Small Ruminant Lentivirus

    Sarafidou, Theologia; Stamatis, Costas; Kalozoumi, Georgia; Spyrou, Vassiliki; Fthenakis, George C.; Billinis, Charalambos; Mamuris, Zissis

    2013-01-01

    Infectious diseases of sheep are of major economic importance causing direct and indirect losses. Among the major sheep infectious agents are Small Ruminant Lentivirus, Chlamydophila abortus and Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infections, mainly due to their worldwide distribution and economic impact that they cause. Based on the differential susceptibility to infectious diseases between and within breeds and on the recent findings regarding the putative involvement of TLR9 in disease susceptibility, the aim of this study was to evaluate the levels of nucleotide variation of TLR9 and its mediator MyD88 in three sheep flocks originated from different breeds and assess their possible association with seropositivity/seronegativity for different infectious agents. The analysis indicated that the change of G to R at codon 520 of TLR9 polypeptide shows a significant association with Small Ruminant Lentivirus seropositivity. This amino-acid substitution, which can result in polarity change, might influence structure and function of LRR17, interfering with ligand binding and thus could be used in studies investigating susceptibility/resistance to Small Ruminant Lentivirus infections in sheep. PMID:23691111

  3. Ulcerative balanitis and vulvitis of Dorper sheep in South Africa : a study on its aetiology and clinical features

    A. Kidanemariam

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Ovine ulcerative balanitis and vulvitis in sheep of the Dorper breed has been observed in South Africa since 1979. Its aetiology has not been conclusively resolved, and there is some discrepancy in descriptions of its clinical features. In order to identify the pathogenic microorganism / s that contribute to the occurrence of the disease, the microflora in the genital tracts of both clinically healthy and affected sheep were isolated and compared. Bacteriological examination of materials from affected and unaffected sheep resulted in the isolation of Arcanobacterium pyogenes from 44.2 % and 17.2 % of them respectively. This difference is statistically significant (P < 0.01. Seventy-four per cent of the isolates originated from severe clinical cases. Mycoplasmas were isolated from 49.3 % of 116 clinically normal sheep and 78.2%of 104 affected sheep. There were significant differences in their rates of isolation in clinical groups (P < 0.05. Of all the mycoplasma isolates, Mycoplasma mycoides mycoides large colony variant (MmmLC was isolated from 61.5 % of clinically diseased sheep while 6.0 % of the isolates were from apparently healthy animals (P < 0.05. The study threw light on the prevalence of mycoplasmas in the genital tract of apparently healthy sheep and, at the same time the identity of the mycoplasma pathogen associated with ulcerative balanitis and vulvitis was revealed. The findings of this investigation therefore confirmed the involvement of mycoplasma, particularly that of MmmLC large colony, in the disease in Dorper sheep in South Africa, and it was concluded that this microorganism is an important pathogen of balanitis and vulvitis in them. The study furthermore demonstrated a probable synergism between A. pyogenes and MmmLC. Finding these 2 organisms together occurred 53.4 times more frequently in the affected sheep than in the unaffected, which emphasises the probable multifactorial nature of the disease. The association between age and the presence of clinical signs was statistically significant. It was found that young sheep were more likely to have lesions than adult sheep. Clinical observations showed that the typical ulceration appears to be confined to the glans penis and lips of the vulva; no ulceration was observed on the shaft of the penis and prepuce or vaginal vestibule. In uncomplicated cases inflammation of the prepuce and vaginal vestibule is not a regular feature of the disease. Therefore the names ulcerative balanitis and vulvitis most accurately describe the nature of the disease in South Africa.

  4. A genome-wide association study identifies a genomic region for the polycerate phenotype in sheep (Ovis aries)

    Ren, Xue; Yang, Guang-Li; Peng, Wei-Feng; Zhao, Yong-Xin; Zhang, Min; Chen, Ze-Hui; Wu, Fu-An; Kantanen, Juha; Shen, Min; Li, Meng-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Horns are a cranial appendage found exclusively in Bovidae, and play important roles in accessing resources and mates. In sheep (Ovies aries), horns vary from polled to six-horned, and human have been selecting polled animals in farming and breeding. Here, we conducted a genome-wide association study on 24 two-horned versus 22 four-horned phenotypes in a native Chinese breed of Sishui Fur sheep. Together with linkage disequilibrium (LD) analyses and haplotype-based association tests, we identified a genomic region comprising 132.0133.1?Mb on chromosome 2 that contained the top 10 SNPs (including 4 significant SNPs) and 5 most significant haplotypes associated with the polycerate phenotype. In humans and mice, this genomic region contains the HOXD gene cluster and adjacent functional genes EVX2 and KIAA1715, which have a close association with the formation of limbs and genital buds. Our results provide new insights into the genetic basis underlying variable numbers of horns and represent a new resource for use in sheep genetics and breeding. PMID:26883901

  5. The efficacy of the product Albendazole 10% of gastrointestinal nematode parasitism in sheep tested

    Florin Stefan Hora

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Trichostrongylids are helminths of ruminants, located gastro intestinally. The disease generated by them is clinically manifested mainly by: diarrhea, weight loss, anemia and cachexia. They are produced by parasites belonging to the family Trichostrongylidae with genres: Ostertagia, Haemonchus, Trichostrongylus, Cooperia and Nematodirus. The study was accomplished in 2013 in Hidiseul de Sus village, Bihor County, and aimed to test the effectiveness of the Albendazole 10% in the natural infestations with gastrointestinal nematodes in sheep. Sheep studied consisted of 60 individuals from Turcana breed. Feces were examined by flotation method and to know the infestation level McMaster method was used, calculating the EPG value on day 0 of treatment, day 7 and day 14 post treatments. Anthelmintic efficacy (E% of the used product was of 97.03% after the FECRT formula. For a more meaningful expression it was used also Presidente and Borgsteede relations, where the result of efficiency for the tested product was 98% for both formulas.

  6. Neural mechanisms controlling seasonal reproduction: principles derived from the sheep model and its comparison with hamsters.

    Weems, Peyton W; Goodman, Robert L; Lehman, Michael N

    2015-04-01

    Seasonal reproduction is a common adaptive strategy among mammals that allows for breeding to occur at times of the year when it is most advantageous for the subsequent survival and growth of offspring. A major mechanism responsible for seasonal reproduction is a striking increase in the responsiveness of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons to the negative feedback effects of estradiol. The neural and neuroendocrine circuitry responsible for mammalian seasonal reproduction has been primarily studied in three animal models: the sheep, and two species of hamsters. In this review, we first describe the afferent signals, neural circuitry and transmitters/peptides responsible for seasonal reproductive transitions in sheep, and then compare these mechanisms with those derived from studies in hamsters. The results suggest common principles as well as differences in the role of specific brain nuclei and neuropeptides, including that of kisspeptin cells of the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus, in regulating seasonal reproduction among mammals. PMID:25582913

  7. Analysis of telomere length in Dolly, a sheep derived by nuclear transfer.

    Shiels, P G; Kind, A J; Campbell, K H; Wilmut, I; Waddington, D; Colman, A; Schnieke, A E

    1999-01-01

    We have used a (TTAGGG) oligonucleotide probe to demonstrate that ovine telomeres are composed of (TTAGGG) repeat arrays and to compare the terminal restriction fragment lengths of sheep derived by natural mating and nuclear transfer. Here we show that ovine somatic telomeres decrease in length with age, and that Dolly, derived by the transfer of 6-year-old adult somatic nucleus, exhibits diminished terminal restriction fragment lengths. The decrease is consistent with the age of the donor tissue and telomere erosion during in vitro culture. Nuclear transfer does not restore telomere lengths. Dolly otherwise appears physiologically and phenotypically normal for her breed and age. We further report on apparent telomere lengthening in sheep, occurring during the first year in naturally derived lambs. PMID:16218837

  8. Reverse breeding: a novel breeding approach based on engineered meiosis

    Dirks, R.; Dun, K.P.M., van; Snoo, B., de; Berg, M.; Lelivelt, C.L.C.; Voermans, W.; Woudenberg, L.; Wit, J.P.C., de; Reinink, K.; Schut, J.W.; Jong, J.H.S.G.M., de; Wijnker, T.G.

    2009-01-01

    Reverse breeding (RB) is a novel plant breeding technique designed to directly produce parental lines for any heterozygous plant, one of the most sought after goals in plant breeding. RB generates perfectly complementing homozygous parental lines through engineered meiosis. The method is based on reducing genetic recombination in the selected heterozygote by eliminating meiotic crossing over. Male or female spores obtained from such plants contain combinations of non-recombinant parental chro...

  9. Spatio-temporal dynamics of pneumonia in bighorn sheep

    Cassirer, E. Frances; Plowright, Raina K.; Manlove, Kezia R.; Cross, Paul C.; Dobson, Andrew P.; Potter, Kathleen A.; Hudson, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    Bighorn sheep mortality related to pneumonia is a primary factor limiting population recovery across western North America, but management has been constrained by an incomplete understanding of the disease. We analysed patterns of pneumonia-caused mortality over 14 years in 16 interconnected bighorn sheep populations to gain insights into underlying disease processes. 2. We observed four age-structured classes of annual pneumonia mortality patterns: all-age, lamb-only, secondary all-age and adult-only. Although there was considerable variability within classes, overall they differed in persistence within and impact on populations. Years with pneumonia-induced mortality occurring simultaneously across age classes (i.e. all-age) appeared to be a consequence of pathogen invasion into a naïve population and resulted in immediate population declines. Subsequently, low recruitment due to frequent high mortality outbreaks in lambs, probably due to association with chronically infected ewes, posed a significant obstacle to population recovery. Secondary all-age events occurred in previously exposed populations when outbreaks in lambs were followed by lower rates of pneumonia-induced mortality in adults. Infrequent pneumonia events restricted to adults were usually of short duration with low mortality. 3. Acute pneumonia-induced mortality in adults was concentrated in fall and early winter around the breeding season when rams are more mobile and the sexes commingle. In contrast, mortality restricted to lambs peaked in summer when ewes and lambs were concentrated in nursery groups. 4. We detected weak synchrony in adult pneumonia between adjacent populations, but found no evidence for landscape-scale extrinsic variables as drivers of disease. 5. We demonstrate that there was a >60% probability of a disease event each year following pneumonia invasion into bighorn sheep populations. Healthy years also occurred periodically, and understanding the factors driving these apparent fade-out events may be the key to managing this disease. Our data and modelling indicate that pneumonia can have greater impacts on bighorn sheep populations than previously reported, and we present hypotheses about processes involved for testing in future investigations and management.

  10. Breeding tropical forages

    L Jank

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Brazil has the largest commercial beef cattle herd and is the main beef exporter in the world. Cultivated pastures arethe basis for the Brazilian beef production, and occupy an area of 101.4 million hectares. However, very few forage cultivars arecommercially available, and the majority of these are of apomictic reproduction, thus genetically homogeneous. Tropical foragebreeding is at its infancy, but much investment and efforts have been applied in the last three decades and some new cultivars havebeen released. In this paper, origin of different species, modes of reproduction, breeding programs and targets are discussed andthe resulting new cultivars released are presented.

  11. Costs Associated with Equine Breeding in Kentucky

    Walker, Cassandra L.

    There were approximately 9 million horses in the United States having a 102 billion impact on the U.S. economy (AHC, 2005). Over 1 million of those horses were involved in the breeding sector. In Kentucky, nearly 18% of the horse population have been involved in breeding. Managing an equine enterprise can be difficult, particularly given that many who undertake such endeavors do not have a background or education in business management. Kentucky Cooperative Extension has produced interactive spreadsheets to help horse owners better understand the costs associated with owning horses or managing certain equine businesses, including boarding and training operations. However, there has been little support for breeders. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to provide owners with a list of services offered for breeding and the costs associated with those services. Survey questions were created from a list of topics pertinent to equine breeding and from that list of questions, an electronic survey was created. The survey was sent via Qualtrics Survey Software to collect information on stallion and mare management costs as well as expenses related to owning and breeding. Question topics included veterinary and housing costs, management and advertising expenses, and membership fees. A total of 78 farms were selected from the 2013 breeder's listings for the Kentucky Quarter Horse Association (n = 39) and the Kentucky Thoroughbred Farm Managers' Club (n = 26), and other breed association contacts (n = 13). These farms were selected from the lists by outside individuals who were not related to the project. Participants were asked to answer all questions relevant to the farm. After the initial survey distribution, follow-up e-mails and phone calls were conducted in order to answer any questions participants might have had about the survey. Survey response rate was 32.1% (25 of 78 surveys returned). Farms in Kentucky had an average of two farm-owned and two outside stallions standing at stud. Artificial insemination was offered by 48% of the breeders. Of those that offered artificial insemination, only 2 farms provided frozen semen. Also of interest, 2 farms offered embryo transfer services. Farms spent approximately 13,536/year on advertising and 7,864/year on health care management of the stallions. The majority of farms that bred outside mares (13 of 25) bred fewer than 50 mares per year (n = 10). Outside mares were considered to be those that were transported to the farm for breeding. Some of those remained on the farm for mare care while others returned home after confirmed with foal. Approximately 70% of the farms gave discounts to individuals who bred multiple mares to the same stallion or farm. Over 85% of the farms surveyed provided mare care including breeding and foaling, though the number of days mares received care varied significantly. The average cost for mare care was 18.29 per day. All but one respondent provided a live foal guarantee. Breeding horses in Kentucky has been very important facet of the equine industry. However, many people who consider breeding a horse have little understanding of the costs associated with the process. The data provided by this study will be used to create a spreadsheet to assist people interested in breeding to better understand the financial considerations of this type of enterprise.

  12. Effect of urea-treated sorghum stover supplemented with local protein sources on the performance of sheep

    Full text: Feeding trials were carried out on-farm to examine the effect of supplementing urea treated sorghum stover (UTSS) with sesame cake (SC) or fishmeal (FM) on the body weight of sheep. Twenty-one male sheep were divided into three groups of seven sheep in each treatment. All the sheep used in this experiment were from the same breed (Gerej), with the same age and initial body weight from the same area. The experiment was conducted in Gash Barka, western lowlands of Eritrea. All the animals were fed on UTSS for an adaptation period of 15 d. The control diet consisted of UTSS fed ad libitum. The second and third treatments consisted of UTSS fed ad libitum supplemented daily with 80 g/head of SC and 60 g/head of FM, respectively. The experimental period lasted for 90 d. Feed intakes and body weights were recorded regularly. The dry matter intake (DMI) in sheep was significantly different (P < 0.05) between the control and SC supplemented groups, but not between the other treatments. It was highest for the SC supplemented group at 847 g/head/day followed by the FM supplemented group and the control at 826 and 821 g/head/day, respectively. Sheep supplemented with SC had the highest significant (P < 0.05) body weight gain (BWG) (134 g/head/day) followed by the group supplemented with FM (115 g/head/day). The BWG for the control was 66 g/head/day. Feed conversion was best on SC (6.92) followed by FM (7.70) supplementation. The lowest cost of feed per kg of BWG (16.91 Nfa) was attained by supplementing with SC. It can be concluded that feeding UTSS alone or supplementing with small amounts of sesame cake or fishmeal can increase the live weight of sheep at a reasonable cost. (author)

  13. Induced mutations in plant breeding

    Studies are reported on plant breeding using ionizing radiation which induces mutations. The notions are explained of radiostimulation, mutation, the nature of mutations, plant breeding and a survey is given of the uses of mutations in plant breeding. The types of radiation inducing mutations are given as are radiation doses, application, the interaction of ionizing radiation with the biological material, a survey of chemical mutagens, a comparison of physical and chemical mutagens and the results of mutation breeding and future prospects. (J.P.)

  14. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 43

    This issue of the Newsletter includes articles dealing with radiation induced mutation based plant breeding research findings aimed at improving productivity, disease resistance and tolerance of stress conditions

  15. 9 CFR 113.45 - Sheep safety test.

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sheep safety test. 113.45 Section 113... Procedures § 113.45 Sheep safety test. The sheep safety test provided in this section shall be conducted when.... (1) Inject each of two sheep of the minimum age for which the product is recommended with...

  16. Radiation mutation breeding

    Song, Hi Sup; Kim, Jae Sung; Kim, Jin Kyu; Shin, In Chul; Lim, Young Taek

    1998-04-01

    In order to develop an advanced technical knowledge for the selection of better mutants, some of the crops were irradiated and the mutation rate, the survival rate and the method for selction of a mutant were studied. Furthermore, this study aimed to obtain basic data applicable to the development of genetic resources by evaluation and analysis the specific character for selection of the superior mutant and its plant breeding. 1. selection of the mutant with a superior resistance against environment in the principal crops 1) New varieties of mutant rices such as Wonpyeongbyeo, Wongwangbyeo, Winmibyeo, and heogseon chalbeyeo (sticky forma) were registered in the national variety list and made an application to crop variety protection right. They are under review now. 2) We also keep on studying on the number of a grain of 8 lines of excellent mutant rice for the purpose of improvement of breeding . 3) We selected 3 lines which have a resistance to pod and stem blight in large soybean, 31 lines with small grain size and higher yield, 112 lines of soybean of cooking, 7 lines of low lipoxygenase content, and 12 lines with decreased phytic acid content by 20 % compared to the previous level. 2. Selection of advanced Mugunwha (Rose of Sharon) mutant 1) Bagseul, a new variety of mutant, was developed and 30 plantlets of it are being proliferated. 2) Fifty-three lines of a mutant having a various morphologies were selected.

  17. Mutation Breeding in Sugarcane

    The present position of sugar industry particularly cane sugar production in the world has been discussed. The role of African Countries which can contribute more than the present 11% to world cane sugar production is presented. The breeding methods employed in cane growing court-tries indicate the biparental crossing and selection in F1 has been the major method used to develop varieties. Due to cytogenetical peculiarities, thousands of seedlings are grown to select the desirable genotype. Mutations or sports has been a source of variation for selection in nature. Induced mutations have only enhanced the mutation rate and has enabled the plant breeders to get better variation for selection. Though many mutagens have been used gamma rays have been most effective. Induced mutations for nonflowering, spineless leaf-sheath, higher sugar content, yield md resistance to diseases like smut and downy mildew have been reported. The methods of making mutated tissues express itself have been indicated. Mutation breeding holds out promise in sugarcane in that the basic variety or genotype can be kept intact and a few characters changed as desired by the plant breeder provided proper selection methods are employed. (author)

  18. Provisions for cost reduction in breeding horse breeding in Ukraine ??????? ???????? ????????????? ? ????????? ??????????? ???????

    Kukla Oleg L.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The article reserves to reduce the cost justified by the content breeding of horses on farms in Ukraine. Determined the total cost per head of their structure. When milking breed mares manufacturing cost per head of young stock will amount to 22183 UAH , which in 9000 will be lower compared to the option, when the mares are not milked.? ?????? ?????????? ??????? ???????? ????????????? ??? ?????????? ????????? ??????? ? ?????????? ???????. ?????????? ????? ??????? ?? ???? ??????, ?? ?????????. ??? ?????? ????????? ????????? ???????????????? ????????????? ????? ????????????? ?????? ????????? ???????? 22183 ???, ??? ?? 9 ???. ???? ?? ????????? ? ?????????, ????? ????????? ?????? ?? ??????.

  19. Experimental dynamic cardiomyoplasty in sheep.

    Thelin, S; Vedung, S; Nylund, U; Thorelius, J

    1992-01-01

    To evaluate electrically stimulated muscle grafts for augmenting ventricular function in cardiac insufficiency, dynamic cardiomyoplasty was performed in nine sheep, using latissimus dorsi (LD) muscle wrapped as a pedicle around the left ventricle. Beginning 2 weeks postoperatively, LD was stimulated synchronously with the heart. After 6 and 12 weeks of stimulation, hemodynamic evaluation was done and biopsies were taken for histochemical and biochemical analysis. With intact heart function, stimulation of the muscle was not hemodynamically beneficial. During induced heart failure, cardiomyoplasty increased cardiac output by 25% in two sheep. Eight LD muscles contracted vigorously in synchrony with the heart, one was fibrosed and all were fixed to the thoracotomy incision by scar tissue. ATPase stain showed gradual transformation of muscle fibers into fatigue-resistant Type I. At 12 weeks only Type I were seen. Quantitative enzymatic analyses revealed increase in oxidative and decrease in glycolytic enzymes. Chronic electrical stimulation is concluded to change the muscle characteristics towards those of mainly oxidative and fatigue-resistant muscle, thereby improving opportunities for assisting the depressed heart. Dynamic cardiomyoplasty involves risks of adhesions to adjacent tissues and muscle trauma from chronic stimulation. PMID:1529292

  20. Effects of the FecL major gene in the Lacaune meat sheep population

    Martin, Pauline; RAOUL, Jérôme; Bodin, Loys

    2014-01-01

    Background The major prolificacy gene FecL was first described in the Lacaune sheep meat breed Ovi-Test in 1998. A few studies estimated the effect of this gene on prolificacy but little data is available. In 2010, the Ovi-Test cooperative started genotyping FecL in all of their replacement ewe lambs. Thanks to the large amount of genotyping data that is available now, gene effects on litter size and other relevant traits can be estimated more accurately. Methods Our study included 5775 ewes ...

  1. Use of a colouring agent in approved dips as an aid in identifying dipped sheep.

    Murphy, T M; Geraghty, V M; O'Brien, D J; O'Sullivan, D

    1986-02-15

    A fat soluble dye was identified as a suitable colourant for mixing with approved dips during the statutory winter dipping period. The optimum concentration of the dye was 0.4 per cent. It uniformly dyed the sheep and depending on the breed persisted on the fleece for three to six months. Any dye that remained on the wool at shearing (six to eight months after dipping) was washed out by scouring solutions containing non-ionic and anionic detergents. The dye did not alter the efficacy of the commonly used insecticides. PMID:3962127

  2. Isolation, enumeration, molecular identification and probiotic potential evaluation of lactic acid bacteria isolated from sheep milk

    L.B. Acurcio; Souza, M. R.; Nunes, A.C.; D.L.S. Oliveira; S.H.C. Sandes; L.B. Alvim

    2014-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria species were molecularly identified in milk from Lacaune, Santa Inês and crossbred sheep breeds and their in vitro probiotic potential was evaluated. The species identified were Enterococcus faecium (56.25%), E. durans (31.25%) and E. casseliflavus (12.5%). No other lactic acid bacteria species, such as lactobacilli, was identified. Most of the isolated enterococci were resistant to gastric pH (2.0) and to 0.3% oxgall. All tested enterococci were resistant to ceftazidime,...

  3. Larvicidal activity of Bacillus circulans against the gastrointestinal nematode Haemonchus contortus in sheep.

    Sinott, M C; de Castro, L L Dias; Leite, F L L; Gallina, T; De-Souza, M T; Santos, D F L; Leite, F P L

    2016-01-01

    Efficient control of gastrointestinal parasites is necessary in sheep breeding. However, the available chemically based anthelmintics are becoming less effective due to the development of parasite resistance. An alternative to this problem is biological control. In the present study, we tested the larvicidal effect of Bacillus circulans by administering a spore suspension (2נ109 colony forming units/ml) orally to lambs naturally infected with Haemonchus contortus. The number of faecal larvae was quantified daily and a significant reduction (~87%, Pparasite control. PMID:26693886

  4. 21 CFR 133.184 - Roquefort cheese, sheep's milk blue-mold, and blue-mold cheese from sheep's milk.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Roquefort cheese, sheep's milk blue-mold, and blue-mold cheese from sheep's milk. 133.184 Section 133.184 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION..., sheep's milk blue-mold, and blue-mold cheese from sheep's milk. (a) Description. (1) Roquefort...

  5. Analysis of genetic diversity and differentiation of sheep populations in Jordan

    Raed Mahmoud, Al-Atiyat; Naser M, Salameh; Mohammad J, Tabbaa.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Genetic diversity of sheep in Jordan was investigated using microsatellite markers (MS). Six ovine and bovine MS located on chromosomes 2 and 6 of sheep genome were genotyped on 294 individual from ten geographical regions. Results The number of alleles per locus (A), the expected heteroz [...] ygosity (He) and observed heterozygosity (Ho) were measured. Overall A, He and Ho were 12.67, 0.820 and 0.684, respectively. On the other hand, genetic distances undoubtedly revealed the expected degree of differentiation among the studied populations. The finding showed closeness of three populations from south (Maan, Showbak and Tafeilah) to each other. Populations from the middle regions of Jordan (Karak, Madaba, Amman, AzZarqa and Mafraq) were found to be in one cluster. Only two populations of the middle region were an exception: AlSalt and Dead Sea. Finally, sheep populations from Irbid were located in separated cluster. It was clear that the studied predefined populations were subdivided from four populations and would be most probably accounted as ancestral populations. These results indicate that number of population is less than the predefined population as ten based on geographical sampling areas. Conclusions The possible inference might be that geographical location, genetic migration, similar selection forces, and common ancestor account for population admixture and subdivision of Awassi sheep breed in Jordan. Finally, the present study sheds new light on the molecular and population genetics of Awassi sheep from different regions of Jordan and to utilize the possible findings for future management of genetic conservation under conditions of climate changes and crossbreeding policy.

  6. Effects of the morphine-lidocaine-ketamine combination on cardiopulmonary function and isoflurane sparing in sheep

    Suzane Lilian Beier

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to evaluate the isoflurane sparing and clinical effects of a constant rate infusion of morphine lidocaine ketamine (MLK in healthy sheep undergoing experimental gastrointestinal surgery. Twelve adult female sheep (Texel breed were used, weighing 36.5 8.1 kg. The sheep were anesthetized for the implantation of duodenal cannulas. The sheep were premedicated with 0.3 mg kg-1 intramuscular (IM morphine and 20 ?g kg-1 intravenous (IV detomidine. After premedication, anesthesia was induced using 5 mg kg-1 ketamine and 0.5 mg kg-1 diazepam IV and maintained using isoflurane in 100% oxygen. After the induction of anesthesia, the animals were allocated into two groups (each n=6; the GMLK (MLK group 10 mg morphine, 150 mg lidocaine, 30 mg de ketamine were added in 500 mL saline received a 10 mL kg-1h-1 MLK infusion during the maintenance of anesthesia, and GCON (control group received 10 mL kg-1h-1 of 0.9% sodium chloride. The animals were mechanically ventilated. Cardiopulmonary variables and end-tidal isoflurane concentration (FEIso were measured at baseline (immediately before the surgery and 15, 30 and 45 minutes after initiation of surgery. In GMLK, there was a decrease in the FEIso at 15, 30 and 45 minutes, a reduction of up to 75.6% during the surgery. The HR was lower in GMLK compared with GCON at 30 minutes, and the MAP was at during baseline in GCON compared with GMLK. The standing time was less in GMLK than in GCON. The use of intravenous MLK was demonstrated to offer great efficiency as part of a balanced anesthesia protocol in sheep, with a 75.6% reduction in the need for isoflurane, providing stability of the cardiovascular parameters and blood gases with a shortened recovery period.

  7. Molecular Characterization of Black Bengal and Jamuna Pari Goat Breeds By RAPD Markers

    M. A. Rahman

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted in the Genetics, Breeding and Reproductive Biotechnology Laboratory under Goat and Sheep Production Research Division, Bangladesh Livestock Research Institute (BLRI, Saver, Dhaka, Bangladesh. DNA was extracted from 14 goat breeds and the extracted DNA was observed by gel electrophoresis. Eight goat specific primers were synthesized by ASM-800 DNA synthesizer and screened in the study and all these primers were capable of priming polymorphic amplification pattern in both the breeds. Random amplification of polymorphic DNA – Polymerase Chain Reaction (RAPD-PCR analysis was carried out using DNA samples of 14 black bengal goat and Jamuna pari goat breeds. Only unambiguous, reproducible and scorable polymorphic fragments were taken into consideration for analysis. Data were analyzed by using a computer programe POPGENE (Version 1.31. Highest level of Nei's[1] gene diversity value (0.4898 was observed in BMS 1494 locus and the mean genetic diversity was obtained 0.3724 among the 14 goat breeds. The highest number of polymorphism obserbed in primer BM1818.The pair-wise genetic distance value ranged from 0.2500 to 1.000. Dendrogram based on Nei's[1] genetic distance using Unweighted Pair Group Method of Arithmetic Means (UPGMA indicated segregation of the 14 goat breeds. Within Jamuna pari goat genetic similarity is low as well as black Bengal goat.

  8. To breed, or not to breed? Predation risk induces breeding suppression in common voles.

    Jochym, Mateusz; Halle, Stefan

    2012-12-01

    Breeding suppression hypothesis (BSH) predicts that, in several vole species, females will suppress breeding in response to high risk of mustelid predation; compared to breeding females, suppressing females would gain higher chances of survival. Seminal evidence for BSH was obtained in the laboratory, but attempts to replicate breeding suppression under field conditions were less conclusive. We tested whether breeding suppression occurs in common voles (Microtus arvalis), and how population density and predation risk combined affect voles' reproductive activity. We found that, in contrast to males, female common voles suppress reproductive activity when faced with high predation risk. Population size was not reduced despite breeding suppression. A model of the interaction between predation risk and population density revealed that predator-induced breeding suppression depends on the density of conspecifics. We concluded that breeding suppression is a viable adaptation only at low vole densities, when per capita predation risk is high. Finally, we identified the key issues of experimental design required for the consistency of future studies on breeding suppression. PMID:22700062

  9. The rate of spread of sheep scab within small groups of Merino and Dorper sheep : short communication

    T. Meintjies; L.J. Fourie; I.G Horak

    2002-01-01

    A single Merino sheep, artificially infested with the sheep scab mite, Psoroptes ovis, and a similarly infested Dorper sheep were placed with 9 uninfested Merino or 9 uninfested Dorper sheep respectively during winter and the rate of spread of infestation on the uninfested sheep observed. The same procedure was repeated in summer. It took 14 and 8 weeks respectively in winter before all sheep in the 2 groups displayed lesions of sheep scab, whereas in summer it took 10 and 12 weeks before all...

  10. Industry comments on accelerator breeding

    A brief discussion is given on the relative merits of accelerator breeding of fissile materials. Spallation breeding is believed to be easier than fusion-fission hybrids. Technological and economic issues of the accelerator breeder should be considered rather than using nonproliferation as a justification

  11. Mutation breeding of ornamental plants

    The outline of registered ornamental cultivars bred up by mutation breeding, the applied methods, and the radiosensitivity of air-dried seeds among ornamental plants are described. The mutation breeding of ornamental plants has not yet become a familiar means like cross breeding or line separation. But the number of the cultivars bred up by mutation breeding reached more than 270, and took a relatively large proportion of about 40 % of the agronomic cultivars bred up by mutation breeding in the world. The number of the species to which those improved cultivars belong is only 22. Considering the abundance of ornamental plant species and the successful results of mutation breeding in this field, mutation breeding techniques will be applied to many species which remain in the rudimentary stage or have never tried them. It is hoped that the information presented in this paper contributes to the promising future of ornamental plant breeding as the suggestion. Especially in ornamental plants, many spontaneously occurred novel mutants have been sought and treasured for a long time. Such mutants actually enriched the variety of flower colors, shapes and many other important characters required for being ornamentally valuable. (Kako, I.)

  12. Mutation breeding of ornamental plants

    Yamaguchi, Takashi

    1988-03-01

    The outline of registered ornamental cultivars bred up by mutation breeding, the applied methods, and the radiosensitivity of air-dried seeds among ornamental plants are described. The mutation breeding of ornamental plants has not yet become a familiar means like cross breeding or line separation. But the number of the cultivars bred up by mutation breeding reached more than 270, and took a relatively large proportion of about 40 % of the agronomic cultivars bred up by mutation breeding in the world. The number of the species to which those improved cultivars belong is only 22. Considering the abundance of ornamental plant species and the successful results of mutation breeding in this field, mutation breeding techniques will be applied to many species which remain in the rudimentary stage or have never tried them. It is hoped that the information presented in this paper contributes to the promising future of ornamental plant breeding as the suggestion. Especially in ornamental plants, many spontaneously occurred novel mutants have been sought and treasured for a long time. Such mutants actually enriched the variety of flower colors, shapes and many other important characters required for being ornamentally valuable. (Kako, I.).

  13. Breeding for eradication

    A long-term campaign to eradicate the medfly is being carried out in southern Japanese islands with the financial aid of the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry, arid Fisheries. In 1984, a mass-breeding facility was built for applying the sterile insect technique, in which controlled doses of radiation are used to sterilize flies to prevent reproduction. The campaign itself started in the Miyako islands in September 1984 to protect melon crops from the pest. After 2 years of extensive efforts, medflies there have almost been eliminated. It is expected that by 1992 the melon medfly will be eradicated from Japan. The accompanying photos illustrate some of the work involved in this extensive and promising campaign

  14. Over-breeding

    The Greenhouse Effect has fuzzy parameters, as do the consequences of acid rain, accidental nuclear fallout, deforestation, even the depletion of oil and natural gas reserves, and other threatening calamities. But the consequences of human over-breeding do not fall within fuzzy parameters. Reliable demographic studies predict a world population by the year 2020 of twice the present four billion or so living human beings. Some of us will see that year. But the population will again have doubled by the year 2090: sixteen billion people. The author suggests in this paper some morally permissible steps that might be taken to circumvent what otherwise is most assuredly an impending world tragedy. We have an ethical obligation to future generations. They have the moral right to a qualitatively fulfilling life, not just on allotted number of years. Some of my suggestions will not be palatable to some readers. But I urge those readers seriously to consider and if possible, hopefully, to propose alternatives

  15. ITER breeding blanket design

    A breeding blanket design has been developed for ITER to provide the necessary tritium fuel to achieve the technical objectives of the Enhanced Performance Phase. It uses a ceramic breeder and water coolant for compatibility with the ITER machine design of the Basic Performance Phase. Lithium zirconate and lithium oxide am the selected ceramic breeders based on the current data base. Enriched lithium and beryllium neutron multiplier are used for both breeders. Both forms of beryllium material, blocks and pebbles are used at different blanket locations based on thermo-mechanical considerations and beryllium thickness requirements. Type 316LN austenitic steel is used as structural material similar to the shielding blanket. Design issues and required R ampersand D data are identified during the development of the design

  16. Biotechnology in maize breeding

    Mladenovi?-Drini? Sneana

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Maize is one of the most important economic crops and the best studied and most tractable genetic system among monocots. The development of biotechnology has led to a great increase in our knowledge of maize genetics and understanding of the structure and behaviour of maize genomes. Conventional breeding practices can now be complemented by a number of new and powerful techniques. Some of these often referred to as molecular methods, enable scientists to see the layout of the entire genome of any organism and to select plants with preferred characteristics by "reading" at the molecular level, saving precious time and resources. DNA markers have provided valuable tools in various analyses ranging from phylogenetic analysis to the positional cloning of genes. Application of molecular markers for genetic studies of maize include: assessment of genetic variability and characterization of germ plasm, identification and fingerprinting of genotypes, estimation of genetic distance, detection of monogamic and quantitative trait loci, marker assisted selection, identification of sequence of useful candidate genes, etc. The development of high-density molecular maps which has been facilitated by PCR-based markers, have made the mapping and tagging of almost any trait possible and serve as bases for marker assisted selection. Sequencing of maize genomes would help to elucidate gene function, gene regulation and their expression. Modern biotechnology also includes an array of tools for introducing or deieting a particular gene or genes to produce plants with novel traits. Development of informatics and biotechnology are resulted in bioinformatic as well as in expansion of microarrey technique. Modern biotechnologies could complement and improve the efficiency of traditional selection and breeding techniques to enhance agricultural productivity.

  17. Control system for sheep tracking network

    Cocanu, Laurentiu

    2011-01-01

    FlockWatch is part of an ongoing sheep tracking research project. The goal of this project is to design a system for locating sheep or other animals grazing in the mountains by using sensor nodes (Waspmote), equipped with GPS, GPRS and long range radio transmitters. The specific aim of this thesis is to provide a control and monitoring system in the form of a desktop application capable of showing at any time the position of the nodes (sheep) on a map, able to facilitate the configuration of...

  18. 1990 Sheep monitoring programme January - December 1990

    The monitoring of sheep and sheepmeat has been undertaken by the Nuclear Energy Board since 1987 and reports of the work have been published on an annual basis. The main components of previous programmes have been continued during 1990. including; in vivo monitoring of sheep at the main slaughterhouses dealing with both the domestic and export markets, laboratory analysis of sheepmeat collected from butchers' shops nationwide, in vivo monitoring of mountain sheep at selected farms during the months of summer grazing. In addition, baseline data on radiocaesium in soils and plants at 13 sites were collected during the second half of the year

  19. Rumen protozoa in South African sheep with a summary of the worldwide distribution of sheep protozoa

    Dirk Booyse; Dehority, Burk A.

    2011-01-01

    Protozoa species were identified in rumen contents of four domestic sheep (Ovis aries) from South Africa. All animals were fed a forage diet which consisted of 50% lucerne and 50% teff hay. Ten new host records were identified, bringing the total number of species and forms observed in sheep in South Africa to 30. The occurrence and geographic distribution of ciliate protozoa in both domestic and wild sheep from around the world are summarised. It was found that 15 genera and 131 species...

  20. The Incidence Increasing of Sheep some Diseases Caused by Heavy Rainy Spring of 2010 in the West Part of the Country

    Daniela Mo?

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available As a result of heavy rains from spring of 2010 became to appear, after two months of animals maintaining in high humidity conditions, some health problems. Were been examined by clinical point of view 280 sheep from four herds of Timi? district particular breeders from Transilvanian Merinos and ?urcan? breeds, 2-5 years aged. In the same time were been taken samples from foot lesions of affected sheep and were been examined from morphopathological point of view the 29 sheep bodies slaughtered by necessity. After all examinations was been observed that 197 sheep (70.35%, more than half from examined animals had foot lesions and respiratory clinic signs caused by exceeded rains from last months. From the necessity slaughtered sheep bodies were been isolated larvae fromDictyocaulus filaria, Oestrus ovis and adults of Psoroptes ovis, parasites who had found optimum conditions of development and to produce infections in rainy springs, with water and mud remained long time on pastures. From foot samples was been isolated in Microbiology laboratory Fusobacterium necrophorum, a bacteria responsible of interdigitally dermatitis in sheep. All these problems caused by heavy rains had as results important economic damages through milk and wool decreased productions and high costs with antiinfectious and antiparasitical treatments.

  1. Haemato-biochemical and endocrine profiling of north western Himalayan Gaddi sheep during various physiological/reproductive phases

    A. Sharma

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The study was aimed to provide baseline data regarding haemato-biochemical and endocrine profiling of Gaddi sheep found in north western Himalayan region of Himachal Pradesh, India. Each random sample was collected from 45 Gaddi sheep reared in government sheep breeding farm Tal, Hamirpur, India, during various reproductive phases viz. anestrus, breeding season and post partum period. Haematology revealed significantly higher (P<0.05 RBC as well as haematocrit values in pregnant animals (n=23 during breeding season than during other reproductive phases. The number of platelets were significantly lower (P<0.05 and MCH, MCHC values were statistically higher (P<0.05 during postpartum period than during other reproductive phases. Blood biochemistry revealed significantly higher (P<0.05 concentrations of plasma cholesterol (83.98±3.68 mg/dl, plasma calcium (71.06±1.52 mg/l, magnesium (18.21±0.53 mg/l, potassium (5.10±0.13 mEq/l and significantly lower (P<0.05 concentrations of plasma total protein (5.75±0.31 gm/dl, globulin (3.04±0.29 gm/dl and sodium (138.83±1.83 mEq/l during postpartum period in comparison to other reproductive phases. Endocrine profile revealed significantly higher (P<0.05 serum estrogen (60.97±1.24 pg/ml and T4 (6.0±0.27 μg/ml concentrations during postpartum phase. Similarly, significantly higher (P<0.05 serum progesterone (5.16±0.76 ng/ml as well as TSH (0.70±0.14 μg/ml concentration were recorded during pregnancy. From the study it can be concluded that physiological status significantly affects the blood metabolic and endocrine profile in Gaddi sheep.

  2. Paratuberculosis in sheep and goats.

    Windsor, P A

    2015-12-14

    Paratuberculosis is a chronic insidious, often serious, disease of the global small ruminant industries, mainly causing losses from mortalities and reduced productivity on-farm, interference in trading and, in Australia, profound socio-economic impacts that have periodically compromised harmony of rural communities. The pathogenesis, diagnosis, impacts and disease management options for ovine and caprine paratuberculosis are reviewed, comparing current controls in the extensive management system for sheep in wool flocks in Australia with the semi-intensive system of dairy flocks/herds in Greece. Improved understanding of the immune and cellular profiles of sheep with varying paratuberculosis outcomes and the recognition of the need for prolonged vaccination and biosecurity is considered of relevance to future control strategies. Paratuberculosis in goats is also of global distribution although the prevalence, economic impact and strategic control options are less well recognized, possibly due to the relatively meagre resources available for goat industry research. Although there have been some recent advances, more work is required on developing control strategies for goats, particularly in dairy situations where there is an important need for validation of improved diagnostic assays and the recognition of the potential impacts for vaccination. For all species, a research priority remains the identification of tests that can detect latent and subclinical infections to enhance removal of future sources of infectious material from flocks/herds and the food chain, plus predict the likely outcomes of animals exposed to the organism at an early age. Improving national paratuberculosis control programs should also be a priority to manage disease risk from trade. The importance of strong leadership and communication, building trust within rural communities confused by the difficulties in managing this insidious disease, reflects the importance of change management considerations for animal health authorities. Although concerns of vaccine efficacy, safety and issues with diagnosis and administration persist, vaccination is increasingly recognized as providing a robust strategy for managing paratuberculosis, having made important contributions to the health of Australian sheep and the lives of producers with affected properties, and offering a mechanism to reduce risk of infection entering the food chain in ovine and caprine products. PMID:26255556

  3. Radioiodide transfer across sheep placenta

    Unidirectional transplacental clearances of radioiodide were calculated from the net radioiodide fluxes after injection into fetal and/or maternal circulations of 33 catheterized conscious sheep. Maternofetal potential difference (PD) was also recorded. Clearance reached a steady state 20 min after bolus injection. Fetomaternal clearance was related to PD. Bidirectional clearance ratios measured in five experiments showed a significant divergence from the value for passive flux predicted from the measured PD, and in four experiments these ratios were also significantly different from unity, this result being incompatible with passive flux even if the transplacental PD is assumed to be zero. Injection of thiocyanate or iodide reduced radioiodide clearance. Fetomaternal clearance of radioiodide was halved by an increase in fetal plasma iodide concentration of approximately 0.1 mM. There appears to be an inhibitable iodide-transporting site capable of active transport in either direction

  4. Molecular cloning, characterization and tissue specificity of the expression of the ovine CSRP2 and CSRP3 genes from Small-tail Han sheep (Ovis aries).

    Liu, Guanqing; Zhang, Chunlan; Wang, Guizhi; Ji, Zhibin; Liu, Zhaohua; Chao, Tianle; Zhang, Saisai; Wang, Jianmin

    2016-04-10

    Two genes, cysteine- and glycine-rich protein 2 (CSRP2) and cysteine- and glycine-rich protein 3 (CSRP3), play important roles in tissue-specific cell growth and development. However, few CSRP2 and CSRP3 genes have been functionally characterized in sheep. In this study, the full-length cDNAs of the CSRP2 and CSRP3 genes were cloned from Small-tail Han sheep by rapid amplification of cDNA ends-PCR. The GenBank accession numbers of the full-length CSRP2 and CSRP3 cDNA sequences are KJ743957 and KJ743958, respectively. The full-length cDNA of ovine CSRP2 was 917bp, with a 582-bp open reading frame encoding 193 amino acids. The complete ovine CSRP3 cDNA was 917bp, with a 585-bp open reading frame encoding 194 amino acids. Alignment and phylogenetic analyses revealed that their amino acid sequences are highly similar to those of other vertebrates, all of which contain two conserved LIM-only domains and a relatively conserved nuclear targeting sequence. To further validate the functions of the two genes, their mRNA expression patterns were evaluated in various Small-tail Han and Dorper sheep tissues using qRT-PCR analyses. CSRP2 was mainly detected in the aorta, whereas CSRP3 was highly concentrated in the heart and the muscle. CSRP3 was expressed to a higher level in the hearts of Small-tail Han sheep than in Dorper sheep (P<0.05). However, the opposite was found in the muscle (the longissimus dorsi and biceps femoris); CSRP3 was expressed to a higher level in Dorper sheep than in Small-tail Han sheep (P<0.05). We quantified the CRP3 protein (coded by the CSRP3 gene) levels in different tissues in Small-tail Han and Dorper sheep. We also detected a putative isoform of the CRP3 protein in sheep, which was significantly different in the heart tissue of the two breeds (P<0.05). The expression patterns of the two genes' mRNAs and CRP3 protein showed clear tissue specificity in both sheep breeds. PMID:26779824

  5. 1988 sheep monitoring programme January - December 1988

    This report summarises the work undertaken by the Board during 1988 and includes the results of in vivo farm measurements, slaughterhouse monitoring and butcher's shops surveys relating to sheep and sheepmeat

  6. 1989 sheep monitoring programme January - December 1989

    This report details the work undertaken by the Board during 1989 and includes the results of on-farm measurements, slaughterhouse monitoring and butchers' shops surveys relating to sheep and sheepmeat (author)

  7. Sheep monitoring programme January - September 1988

    This report summarises the work undertaken by the Board during the first nine months of 1988, and includes the results of in vivo farm measurements, slaughterhouse monitoring and butchers' shops surveys relating to sheep and sheepmeat.(author)

  8. Sheep lymph-nodes as a biological indicator of environmental exposure to fluoro-edenite.

    Ledda, Caterina; Loreto, Carla; Pomara, Cristoforo; Rapisarda, Giuseppe; Fiore, Maria; Ferrante, Margherita; Bracci, Massimo; Santarelli, Lory; Fenga, Concettina; Rapisarda, Venerando

    2016-05-01

    A significantly increased incidence of pleural mesothelioma in Biancavilla (Sicily, Italy) has been attributed to exposure to fluoro-edenite (FE), a fibrous amphibole extracted from a local stone quarry. The lymph-nodes draining the pulmonary lobes of sheep grazing around the town were examined, to gain insights into fibre diffusion. The pasture areas of six sheep flocks lying about 3km from Biancavilla were located using the global positioning system. The cranial tracheobronchial and one middle mediastinal lymph-node as well as four lung tissue samples were collected from 10 animals from each flock and from 10 control sheep for light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) examination. The lymph-nodes from exposed sheep were enlarged and exhibited signs of anthracosis. Histologically, especially at the paracortical level, they showed lymph-follicle hyperplasia with large reactive cores and several macrophages (coniophages) containing grey-brownish particulate interspersed with elements with a fibril structure, forming aggregates of varying dimensions (coniophage nodules). Similar findings were detected in some peribronchiolar areas of the lung parenchyma. SEM examination showed that FE fibres measured 8-41µm in length and 0.4-1.39µm in diameter in both lymph-nodes and lung tissue. Monitoring of FE fibres in sheep lymph-nodes using appropriate techniques can help set up environmental pollution surveillance. PMID:26855127

  9. Effects of Administration of Melatonin on the Harderian Gland of Sheep

    Enas Ahmed Abd ElHafez

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to study the morphological structure of the harderian gland of sheep by using light and electron microscopy and to study the effect of melatonin administration on the secretory activity of the gland. This experiment was performed on fifteen Soay rams aged 1.5 years. Results revealed that the harderian gland of sheep was of compound tubuloalveolar type. By using light microscopy, the secretory end-pieces of the harderian gland of sheep were lined with principal and basal cells. The principal cells showed different secretory activities. After melatonin administration, the PAS and aclian blue reactivity in the epithelial lining of the harderian gland was increased. [J Interdiscipl Histopathol 2014; 2(1.000: 19-25

  10. Mutation breeding in chickpea

    Chickpea is an important food legume in Turkey. Turkey is one of the most important gene centers in the world for legumes. The most widely known characteristic of chickpea is that it is an important vegetable protein source used in human and animal nutrition. However, the dry grains of chickpea, has 2-3 times more protein than our traditional food of wheat. In addition, cheakpea is also energy source because of its high carbohydrate content. It is very rich in some vitamin and mineral basis. In the plant breeding, mutation induction has become an effective way of supplementing existing germplasm and improving cultivars. Many successful examples of mutation induction have proved that mutation breeding is an effective and important approach to food legume improvement. The induced mutation technique in chickpea has proved successful and good results have been attained. Realizing the potential of induced mutations, a mutation breeding programme was initiated at the Nuclear Agriculture Section of the Saraykoey Nuclear Research and Training Center in 1994. The purpose of the study was to obtain high yielding chickpea mutants with large seeds, good cooking quality and high protein content. Beside this some characters such as higher adaptation ability, tolerant to cold and drought, increased machinery harvest type, higher yield, resistant to diseases especially to antracnose and pest were investigated too. Parents varieties were ILC-482, AK-7114 and AKCIN-91 (9 % seed moisture content and germination percentage 98 %) in these experiments. The irradiation doses were 0 (control), 50, 100, 150, 200, 250, 300, 350, 400, 500 ve 600 Gy for greenhouse experiments and 0 (control), 50, 100, 150, 200, 250, 300, 350 ve 400 Gy for field experiments, respectively. One thousand seeds for per treatment were sown in the field for the M1. At maturity, 3500 single plants were harvested and 20 seeds were taken from each M1 plant and planted in the following season. During plant growth, mutants of the desired traits [earliness, yield per plant, first pot height and resistance to Ascochyta blight (Ascochyta rabiei)] were identified an isolated. 2520 desirable M2 mutants were selected and grown in progeny rows as the M3 generation. The protein contents of seeds were analyzed for the M3-M4 seeds. In M5-M7 generation, preliminary yield trials had been conducted and based on field observations, quality criteria (grain size, grain type, cooking and protein) analyses, and later 12 mutant lines were selected. The mutants and their controls were evaluated at two locations (Saraykoey and Haymana) in Central Anatolia for 2 years (M8, M9) for determination of yield performance using randomized complete block design with 3 replications. All the data were analysed statistically. As a result of these experiments, two promising mutant lines were chosen and given to the Seed Registration and Certification Center for official registration These two promising mutants were tested at five different locations of Turkey, in 2004 and 2005 years. After 2 years of registration experiments one of outstanding mutants was officially released as mutant chickpea variety under the name TAEK-SAGEL, in 2006. Some basic characteristics of this mutant are; earliness (95-100 day), high yield capacity (180-220 kg/da), high seed protein (22-25 %), first pot height (20-25 cm), 100 seeds weight (42-48 g), cooking time (35-40 min) and resistance to Ascochyta blight. (Includes 31 tables and 9 figures)

  11. Dynamics of Sheep Production in Brazil

    Samuel Rezende Paiva; Roberto Arnaldo Trancoso Gomes; Rebecca Lima Albuquerque Maranho; Renato Fontes Guimares; Osmar Ablio de Carvalho; Potira Meirelles Hermuche; Concepta McManus

    2013-01-01

    Sheep production is present on all continents and has been practiced in Brazil since the colonization. In this study, the multitemporal dynamics of sheep production in Brazil is examined using official government data (Brazilian Institute for Geography and Statistics-IBGE) from 1976 to 2010. Maps of flock growth rates and growth acceleration maps by municipality were elaborated. The Southern states are seen to show a reduction in production mainly due to the wool crisis in the 1970s and 80s. ...

  12. Technological suitability of sheep milk for processing

    Romualda Danków

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Annual world sheep milk production is estimated at the level of 8.2 million tons and constitutes 1.5% of the total milk production obtained from various species of mammals. Majority of this milk is used to manufacture cheeses and fermented beverages. These products are commonly considered as regional articles and are protected by legal regulations which guarantee their taste and aroma typical for a given region and which they owe to traditional production technologies. In Poland, sheep are reared, primarily, in mountainous areas (Podhale, Bieszczady but also in Wielkopolska and Podlasie. The sheep population in Poland is estimated at 223 000 animals but milk is obtained only from a small number of animals and its annual production is assessed at the level of 1000 t. The nutritional value of sheep milk is higher in comparison with goat or cow milk. Sheep milk protein is characterised by a high biological value comparable with the biological value of the whole chicken egg. In addition, products manufactured from sheep milk possess high nutritive value. Due to its rich chemical composition, sheep milk provides an excellent raw material for processing into maturing soft and hard cheeses (75-80% of protein is casein, for fermented beverages, both natural and with different tastes, as well as butter, ghee and ice-cream. High proportion of dry matter (up to 18% found in sheep milk does not require application of any thickeners in production of fermented beverages. That is why these beverages are fully natural and free of additives.

  13. Preferences for sheep or goats in Indonesia

    Budisatria, I.G.S.; Udo, H.M.J.; Eilers, C.H.A.M.; Baliarti, E.; Zijpp, A.J., van der

    2010-01-01

    This paper aims to explore farmers preferences for sheep or goats based on feeding practices, animal and flock performances and economic benefits of sheep and goats in different agro-ecological zones in Central Java, Indonesia. In total, 150 smallholder farmers were selected from three agro-ecological zones: the lowlands, the middle zone, and the uplands. Feeding and performance parameters were estimated through weekly farm visits and farm records, from September 2001 to August 2003. In the ...

  14. Tay-Sachs disease in Jacob sheep.

    Torres, Paola A; Zeng, Bai Jin; Porter, Brian F; Alroy, Joseph; Horak, Fred; Horak, Joan; Kolodny, Edwin H

    2010-12-01

    Autopsy studies of four Jacob sheep dying within their first 6-8 months of a progressive neurodegenerative disorder suggested the presence of a neuronal storage disease. Lysosomal enzyme studies of brain and liver from an affected animal revealed diminished activity of hexosaminidase A (Hex A) measured with an artificial substrate specific for this component of ?-hexosaminidase. Absence of Hex A activity was confirmed by cellulose acetate electrophoresis. Brain lipid analyses demonstrated the presence of increased concentrations of G(M2)-ganglioside and asialo-G(M2)-ganglioside. The hexa cDNA of Jacob sheep was cloned and sequenced revealing an identical number of nucleotides and exons as in human HexA and 86% homology in nucleotide sequence. A missense mutation was found in the hexa cDNA of the affected sheep caused by a single nucleotide change at the end of exon 11 resulting in skipping of exon 11. Transfection of normal sheep hexa cDNA into COS1 cells and human Hex A-deficient cells led to expression of Hex S but no increase in Hex A indicating absence of cross-species dimerization of sheep Hex ?-subunit with human Hex ?-subunits. Using restriction site analysis, the heterozygote frequency of this mutation in Jacob sheep was determined in three geographically separate flocks to average 14%. This large naturally occurring animal model of Tay-Sachs disease is the first to offer promise as a means for trials of gene therapy applicable to human infants. PMID:20817517

  15. Mutation breeding in jute

    Mutagenic studies in jute in general dealt with the morphological abnormalities of the M1 generation in great detail. Of late, induction of a wide spectrum of viable mutations have been reported in different varieties of both the species. Mutations affecting several traits of agronomic importance such as, plant height, time of flowering, fibre yield and quality, resistance to pests and diseases are also available. Cytological analysis of a large collection of induced mutants resulted in the isolation of seven trisomics in an olitorius variety. Several anatomical parameters which are the components of fibre yield, have also received attention. Some mutants with completely altered morphology were used for interpreting the evolution of leaf shape in Tiliaceas and related families. A capsularis variety developed using mutation breeding technique has been released for cultivation. Several others, including derivatives of inter-mutant hybridization have been found to perform well at different locations in the All India Coordinated Trials. Presently, chemical mutagenesis and induction of mutants of physiological significance are receiving considerable attention. The induced variability is being used in genetic and linkage studies. (author)

  16. Safflower: genetics and breeding

    A review of genetic studies related to the breeding of improved cultivars of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) indicated that it was possible to modify the following over a wide range: duration of the rosette stage, stem length, branching habit, degree of spininess, head number, head size, flower morphology, mating system, seed size, hull thickness and thereby oil and protein contents, and fatty acid composition of the oil. Safflower breeders have concentrated most of their efforts on identifying and evaluating the great range of variability in cultivated safflower and its closely related wild species, and not on exploring means to increase variability. Limited experiments with gamma rays and ethyl methanesulphonate indicated that additional variability could be induced. Mutagenic agents should be used to obtain the following: resistance to foliar diseases where resistant germplasm is not available, increased levels of resistance to Phytophthora root rot, resistance to dodder and orobanche, resistance to insect pests, earlier maturity, and additional modifications in the fatty acid composition of the oil. (author)

  17. Effect of different levels of social isolation on the acoustical characteristics of sheep vocalization

    Engeldal SEC

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In farm animals, vocal analysis is accepted as a non-invasive method for assessing animal welfare in comparison to most physiological measurements. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of different degrees of social isolation on the acoustic characteristics of stress-induced bleats from three different breeds of sheep. The experiment consisted of subjecting the animals to three different levels of social isolation during which both locomotive and vocal data were recorded. The data on locomotive behaviour was subjected to descriptive analysis while specialized acoustic software was used to measure a total of thirty-six parameters of recorded bleats. Descriptive analysis showed that the animals displayed more locomotive activity during partial isolation compared to complete isolation. Number of bleats during partial isolation was also found to be higher. The application of two-way analysis of variance showed a significant effect of isolation level and breed on both temporal and structural acoustic properties. Amplitude, power and time acoustic properties were found to affect acoustic quality of vocal responses to isolation, whereas frequency related properties were also found to be different significantly (P < 0.05 between breeds. From spectrogram analysis, the patterns of energy distribution within the calls proved to offer the most evident that differ between isolation levels and breeds. It was concluded that acoustic analysis can be helpful in revealing the affective state of socially isolated rams.

  18. Dietary intake of radiocaesium by free ranging mountain sheep

    The vegetation composition of the diet of mountain sheep was determined by faecal fragment analysis. A comparison of diet composition with the vegetation available for grazing revealed selection by sheep of grasses, in preference to the more abundant shrubby vegetation. The radiocaesium content of the diet and of the available vegetation was determined and compared with sheep in-vivo radiocaesium levels and sheep faeces radiocaesium activity activities. This approach demonstrated the importance of diet selectivity by sheep in determining dietary intake of radiocaesium. Faeces radiocaesium activity was shown to be more appropriate than vegetation radiocaesium activity as a predictor of in-vivo radiocaesium activity in free ranging mountain sheep. (Author)

  19. Seroprevalance of Babesia ovis in Sheep in Malatya

    AKTAŞ, Münir

    2001-01-01

    This study was carried out in Malatya and vicinity to determine the seroprevalance of Babesia ovis in sheep. A total of 220 sheep sera were tested against B. ovis using the Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). In addition, peripheral blood smears from these sheep were prepared and examined for B. ovis. The ELISA test showed that 55.9% of sheep were seropositive for B. ovis infection. The infection rate was 49.2% in sheep which were 1-12 months old and 59% in sheep which were older than...

  20. Descriptive epidemiology of insects infesting domestic sheep (ovis aries) of district toba tek singh, punjab, pakistan

    During a cross-sectional prospective epidemiological survey, a total of 2412 sheep were screened for the prevalence of insects. Out of which, 333 (13.80%) were harbored for insects including lice (36.57%), fleas (3.23%) and flies (1.62%). Among the identified species of lice, Haematopinus spp. (44.14%) was predominant followed in order by Damalinia ovis (26.42%) and Linognathus spp. (17.71%). The flea Ctenocepahlides (Ct). felis was more common (4.50%) than Ct. canis (3.30%). Stomoxys calcitrans (3.90%) was the only prevalent specie of fly in the study area. Infestation rate was higher in young sheep (72.68%) as compared to adults (27.32%) and level of infestation was significantly higher in females (75.37%) than males (24.62%). Amongst various breeds of sheep, Cholistani (19.81%) had the highest prevalence followed by Kajli (13.49%), Thalli (12.94%) and Lohi (11.80%). Prevalence of flies (37%) and lice (47%) was highest in December and January, respectively; whereas,that of fleas (39%) reached a peak in April. Among various associated determinants, stall feeding, closed housing, tethered animals and non-cemented floor were found positively associated (P<0.05) with insect infestation. The results showed that insect abundance and the variety of genera were wide in this part of Pakistan. This also causes concern over the emergence of insect-borne diseases in domestic animals. (author)

  1. Noninvasive color Doppler sonography of uterine blood flow throughout pregnancy in sheep and goats.

    Elmetwally, M; Rohn, K; Meinecke-Tillmann, S

    2016-04-01

    In contrast to cattle or horses, uterine blood flow in small ruminants has been investigated predominantly after surgical intervention and chronic instrumentation. The objective of the present study was to investigate the clinical applicability of noninvasive color Doppler sonography to characterize blood flow in the maternal uterine artery of sheep, n = 11 (18 pregnancies) and goats, n = 11 (20 pregnancies). The following parameters were measured transrectally or transabdominally: blood flow volume, time-averaged maximum velocity (TAMV), resistance index (RI), pulsatility index (PI), Time-averaged mean velocity, impedance of blood flow (AB or systolic/diastolic [S/D] velocity ratio), peak velocity of blood flow and blood flow acceleration. Examinations started 2 weeks after breeding and continued at 2-week intervals until parturition. Outcomes for sheep and goats were similar and will be discussed together. Based on noninvasive color Doppler sonography, blood flow volume increased (approximately 60-fold, P pregnancy, with a rapid increase early in gestation, and a slow increase after week 18. Time-averaged maximum velocity in the uterine artery increased (approximately 4-fold; P pregnancy in sheep and goats. Furthermore, for uterine artery blood flow, there was an effect of stage of pregnancy on PI and RI (P pregnancy. This is apparently the first study using noninvasive color Doppler sonography of uterine blood flow throughout physiological pregnancy in small ruminants. Clearly, this technology facilitates repeated, noninvasive assessments, with great potential for future studies. PMID:26768538

  2. Genetic parameters for resistance to the Salmonella abortusovis vaccinal strain Rv6 in sheep

    Bouix Jacques

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract An experimental population (1216 lambs from 30 sires of the Inra401 sheep was created in an Inra flock to allow QTL detection for susceptibility to Salmonella infection, wool and carcass traits. The Inra401 is a sheep composite line developed from two breeds: Berrichon du Cher and Romanov. At 113 days of age on average, the lambs were inoculated intravenously with 108 Salmonella abortusovis Rv6 (vaccinal strain. They were slaughtered 10 days after the inoculation. Several traits were measured at inoculation and/or slaughtering to estimate the genetic resistance of the lambs to Salmonella infection: specific IgM and IgG1 antibody titres, body weight loss, spleen and pre-scapular node weights and counts of viable Salmonella persisting in these organs. This paper presents a quantitative analysis of the genetic variability of the traits related to salmonellosis susceptibility. The heritabilities of the traits varied between 0.10 and 0.64 (significantly different from zero. Thus, in sheep as well as in other species, the determinism of resistance to Salmonella infection is under genetic control. Moreover, the correlations between the traits are in agreement with the known immune mechanisms. The genetic variability observed should help QTL detection.

  3. Experimental Study on the Causative Agents of Hypobios is of Haemonchus contortus in Sheep in Iran

    S.H. Hosseini

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available For determination the inducing factors of arrested development of 3th stage larvae of Haemonchus contortus as early L4 in sheep in 2 out of 4 climatic conditions of Iran, 24, six month old native sheep (shall breed were randomly allocated into 3 equal groups I, II and III.Each sheep in each group received 10000 local isolate of H.contortus larvae not known to exhibit hypobiosis as follow: (iFreshly collected larvae were given to group I, (control group.(iiLarvae stored at 8-10 oc and 70% humidity for six weeks (simulating autumn climatic conditions of zone I to group II.(iii-larvae exposed to 30-350oc and 40% humidity for six weeks (simulating autumn climatic conditions of zone III to group III.Two Iambs in each group at 12, 21, 35 and 60 days post infection were necropsies and the number of adult and larvae were counted. Our findings suggest that the rate of arrested larvae in group II were statistically significant (p< 0.01, whereas in two other groups only a very small number of larvae were subjected to hypobiosis. Meanwhile the number of adult worms recovered from group I receiving fresh larvae was higher than the other two groups.

  4. The power of 28 microsatellite markers for parentage testing in sheep

    Raed M, Al-Atiyat.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background In sheep breeding, there are situations where relationships recorded at the farm among pedigrees such as parent-offspring, full-sibs or half-sibs need to be tested. A panel of 28 microsatellite (MST) markers was tested to provide accurate pedigree information and resolve the common proble [...] m of significant error in pedigree records in Merino sheep. Three different flocks of Australian Merino sheep were investigated. A private farm flock represents a flock with no record availability. Two other flocks were maintained under good managements of full keeping records and being selected for high and low parasite resistances. Results In the studied panel, eight MSTs provided an average of Polymorphic Information content (PIC) equal to 0.65 or more in order to be sufficient to make an accurate and successful DNA-based parentage analysis. The panel of twenty-eight MST loci was obviously sufficient for providing 100% accurate pedigree and genotyping data. DNA-based pedigree records were constructed and all significant pedigree record errors were eliminated. Conclusions These results were used for further study of population genetic parameters such as recombination and haplotyping which heavily based on pedigree information. Nevertheless MST based parentage testing is still available and affordable in most countries and for each farmer with reasonable cost in comparison with fast growing SNP based parentage technologies.

  5. Reproductive Activity of Tsigaie Sheep Belonging to the Hill and Mountain Ecotypes

    Vasile Miclea

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The reproductive value of sheep belonging to the hill and mountain ecotypes of the Tsigaie breed was characterized based on the analysis of specific indexes. This operation was deemed necessary given our interest in the ex situ conservation of these ecotypes. Our research resulted in establishing that the hill ecotype is superior to the mountain ecotype, as is apparent by comparing indices for the two. The number of sheep in oestrus is higher by 9.56%, the pregnancy rate by 9.14%, the insemination index by 37.11%, the index of abortions by 6.96%, the fertility index by 19.76%, the sterility index by 14.18% and the number of lambed sheep by 15.06%. Only the prolificacy index is higher in the mountain ecotype by 5.96%. This situation stems from the particular biology of each ecotype and warrants optimal keeping and feeding for the mountain ecotype so that future research will not negatively influenced.

  6. The genetics of colour in fat-tailed sheep: a review.

    Lundie, Roger S

    2011-10-01

    Fat-tailed sheep come in various colours-most are either brown (tan) or black. In some, most of the body is white with the tan or black colour restricted to the front portion of the body or to just around the eyes, muzzle and parts of the legs. The Karakul breed is important for the production of lamb skins of various colours for the fashion industry. As well as the black and tan colours there are Karakuls bred for grey or roan shades, a white colour or one of the numerous Sur shades. In the Sur shades, the base of the birthcoat fibre is one of a number of dark shades and the tip a lighter or white shade. All these colours and many others are the result of the interaction of various genes that determine the specifics of the coat colour of the sheep. A number of sets of nomenclature and symbols have been used to represent the various loci and their alleles that are involved. In the 1980s and 1990s, a standardised set, based closely on those of the mouse and other species was developed. Using this as the framework, the alleles of the Extension, Agouti, Brown, Spotting, Pigmented Head and Roan loci are described using fat-tailed sheep (mainly Damara, Karakul and Persian) as examples. Further discussion includes other types of "white markings," the Ticking locus and the Sur loci. PMID:21544704

  7. Thermal stability of butter oils produced from sheeps non-pasteurized and pasteurized milk

    FLAVIA POP

    Full Text Available The physical and chemical characteristics and thermal stability of butter oil produced from non-pasteurized and pasteurized sheeps milk were studied. Thermal stability of samples was estimated by using the accelerated shelf-life testing method. Samples were stored at 50, 60 and 70oC in the dark and the reaction was monitored by measuring peroxide, thiobarbituric acid and free fatty acid values. The peroxide and thiobarbituric acid values increased as the temperature increased. The increase of acid values of the two samples was not significant. A slight increase in free fatty acid value showed that hydrolytic reactions were not responsible for the deterioration of butter oil samples in thermal stability studies. When compared, butter oil produced from pasteurized sheeps milk has higher thermal stability than butter oil produced from non-pasteurized sheeps milk. Although butter oil produced from non-pasteurized milk was not exposed to any heat treatment, the shelf-life of this product was lower than the shelf-life of butter oil produced from pasteurized sheeps milk. Therefore, heat treatment for pasteurization did not affect the thermal stability of butter oil.

  8. Quantitative trait loci for resistance to trichostrongylid infection in Spanish Churra sheep

    Primitivo Fermin San

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For ruminants reared on grazing systems, gastrointestinal nematode (GIN parasite infections represent the class of diseases with the greatest impact on animal health and productivity. Among the many possible strategies for controlling GIN infection, the enhancement of host resistance through the selection of resistant animals has been suggested by many authors. Because of the difficulty of routinely collecting phenotypic indicators of parasite resistance, information derived from molecular markers may be used to improve the efficiency of classical genetic breeding. Methods A total of 181 microsatellite markers evenly distributed along the 26 sheep autosomes were used in a genome scan analysis performed in a commercial population of Spanish Churra sheep to detect chromosomal regions associated with parasite resistance. Following a daughter design, we analysed 322 ewes distributed in eight half-sib families. The phenotypes studied included two faecal egg counts (LFEC0 and LFEC1, anti-Teladorsagia circumcincta LIV IgA levels (IgA and serum pepsinogen levels (Peps. Results The regression analysis revealed one QTL at the 5% genome-wise significance level on chromosome 6 for LFEC1 within the marker interval BM4621-CSN3. This QTL was found to be segregating in three out of the eight families analysed. Four other QTL were identified at the 5% chromosome-wise level on chromosomes 1, 10 and 14. Three of these QTL influenced faecal egg count, and the other one had an effect on IgA levels. Conclusion This study has successfully identified segregating QTL for parasite resistance traits in a commercial population. For some of the QTL detected, we have identified interesting coincidences with QTL previously reported in sheep, although most of those studies have been focused on young animals. Some of these coincidences might indicate that some common underlying loci affect parasite resistance traits in different sheep breeds. The identification of new QTL may suggest the existence of complex host-parasite relationships that have unique features depending on the host-parasite combination, perhaps due to the different mechanisms underlying resistance in adult sheep (hypersensitivity reactions and lambs (immunity. The most significant QTL identified on chromosome 6 for LFEC1 may be the target for future fine-mapping research efforts.

  9. The intrapituitary endocrine events during maturation and timing of puberty in the female sheep.

    Wańkowska, M; Misztal, T; Romanowicz, K; Wójcik-Gładysz, A; Polkowska, J

    2008-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the maturational activity of gonadotroph cells, the site of synthesis, storage and release of luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) in Polish Merino female sheep born after the summer solstice. The actual time of puberty of these lambs was delayed until the following breeding season, when they were 14 months old. Changes were examined in 12 peripubertal (30-, 52-week-old) and pubertal (Days 15 and 17 of the second ovarian cycle) females. Histomorphological and functional changes in the gonadotroph population were assayed with hybridohistochemistry, immunohistochemistry, computer-assisted image analysis and radioimmunoassay. The percentage of the adenohypophyseal area (PAA) occupied by gonadotrophs containing LHbeta-mRNA was higher and the LH plasma concentration and pulse frequency were lower in the 52-week-old sheep in comparison with the 30-week-old sheep (Psheep compared with the 30-week-old sheep and then lower at the pubertal follicular phase (Psheep, the PAA occupied by gonadotrophs containing LHbeta-mRNA or FSHbeta-mRNA was higher and the PAA occupied by ir-LHbeta or ir-FSHbeta-cells was lower at the preovulatory phase in comparison with the follicular phase of the cycle (Plevel of LH storage and release but not at the level of LH synthesis during the expected time of puberty in female sheep of an aseasonal breed such as Merino. The findings show the heterogeneity in the patterns of LH and FSH post-transcriptional processing during the period of peripubertal/pubertal transition, explained by the different intrapituitary regulation at the level of post-transcriptional synthesis and storage rather, than at the level of release. Altogether, intrapituitary mechanisms of ovine maturation could have the histomorphological feature. Our observations prompt the hypothesis that the female lamb may be able to transduce changes in day length into the appropriate endocrine cues for sexual maturation after attainment by the pituitary gonadotroph population the full peripubertal efficiency, manifested by the sufficient storage of LH. PMID:17448614

  10. Mitochondrial DNA analysis of medieval sheep (Ovis aries) in central Italy reveals the predominance of haplogroup B already in the Middle Ages.

    Gabbianelli, F; Gargani, M; Pariset, L; Mariotti, M; Alhaique, F; De Minicis, E; Barelli, L; Ciammetti, E; Redi, F; Valentini, A

    2015-06-01

    We retrieved 34 medieval ovicaprine remains, from three archaeological sites of central Italy dating to about 1000 years old, and analyzed them using mitochondrial DNA. We compared the reconstructed haplogroups with modern sheep samples from Europe and the Middle East and sequences from the literature. In modern sheep, haplogroup HA is present in countries with access to the Mediterranean and close to the domestication center, whereas it is very rare or absent in the rest of Europe. The haplogroup HB was predominant in ancient samples (90%), whereas haplogroup HA was found at 10%. Ancient haplogroups match the present distribution in modern sheep in Italy, indicating that the current proportion of HA/HB was already established in the Middle Ages and is not the result of subsequent events such as selective breeding practices. PMID:25917303

  11. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 22

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  12. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 31

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  13. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 14

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  14. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 7

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and rea search abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  15. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 11

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  16. Mutation Breeding Newsletter. No. 37

    This newsletter contains a brief account of FAO/IAEA meetings held in 1990 on plant breeding involving the use of induced mutations. It also features a list of commercially available plant cultivars produced by such techniques. Refs and tabs

  17. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 23

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  18. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 20

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  19. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 26

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and research abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  20. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 13

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  1. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 12

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  2. Tricolored Blackbird - Breeding [ds20

    California Department of Resources — These data come from observations of breeding tricolored blackbirds throughout their range in California. NAD27 coordinates are given in the data for each record....

  3. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 1

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and rea search abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  4. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 36

    This issue of the Newsletter presents abstracts and short communications of research results on radiation and chemical induced mutation breeding projects. Positive traits such as disease resistance and increased productivity are highlighted

  5. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 25

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and research abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  6. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 16

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  7. Mutation Breeding of Durum Wheat

    A comprehensive programme on experimental mutagenesis was started in 1956 for both genetic research and mutation breed ing at the Nuclear Center. Remarkable efforts were produced on durum wheat over the past 20 years and a lot of knowledge was gained on several aspects of this crop: radiobiology, mutagenesis, cytology and cytogenetics, genetics and breeding. This review concern: radiogenetical studies, isolation of useful mutations, agronomic evaluation of mutant lines and use of mutations in hybridization programs. Details are given on the genetic contribution of mutagenesis to the evolution of new cultivars in durums and on the economic evaluation of the cultivars obtained by mutation breeding. An economic return on mutation breeding of durum wheat is attempted. (author)

  8. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 8

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  9. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 6

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and rea search abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  10. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 27

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and research abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  11. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 17

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  12. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 34

    This issue of the Newsletter presents abstracts and short communications of research results on radiation and chemical induced mutation breeding projects. Positive traits such as disease resistance and increased productivity are highlighted

  13. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 24

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and research abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  14. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 28

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and research abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  15. Dairy Cattle: Breeding and Genetics

    Five primary factors affect breeding genetically improved dairy cattle: 1) identification, 2) pedigree, 3) performance recording, 4) artificial insemination, and 5) genetic evaluation systems (traditional and genomic). Genetic progress can be measured as increased efficiency (higher performance with...

  16. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 32

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  17. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 30

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  18. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 9

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  19. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 4

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and rea search abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  20. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 29

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and rea search abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  1. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 2

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and rea search abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  2. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 10

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  3. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 3

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and rea search abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  4. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 15

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  5. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 5

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and rea search abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  6. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 18

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  7. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 19

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  8. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 33

    This issue of the newsletter reports a number of research news and research abstracts on application of radiation induced mutation techniques to increase mutagenesis and mutation frequency in plant breeding projects

  9. Influence of Market Location, Sex and Species on Weight and Prices of Sheep and Goats Around Jos Plateau State

    S.M. SIR

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate some of the factors affecting sheep and Goats marketing in Jos and environ. Data used in the study were collected in five selected local livestock markets, namely Rikkos, Bukuru, Barkin Ladi, Gada and Tilden Fulani. After price bargain between sellers and buyers, the animals are weighed. The weight is recorded against the agreed price and sex of the animal in each of the five markets. A total of 120 animals were recorded in each market location between January and April 2003. The breeds of sheep and goats considered in the present study were Balami (BM, Uda (UD, Yankasa (YK and West African Dwarf sheep (WS; Sokoto Red (SR, Bauchi Red (BR and West African Dwarf goats (WG. Data obtained were analysed using simple analyses of variance and the means separated using least significant differences. Weight were significantly (p<0.05 affected by market location in sheep while in goats were not. Mean weight of 28.08±1.70, 29.96±1.13, 25.54±0.87, 27.71±1.44 and 26.71±1.15 kg were recorded in Rikkos, Tilden Fulani, Bukuru, Barkin Ladi and Gada markets, respectively. Weight and prices of sheep and goats were significantly (p<0.05 affected by sex and species; higher mean weight and prices of 27.18±0.85 kg and 2727.7±33.4 were recorded on males than the females which recorded 25.45±0.91 kg and 2529.8±33.0. Also higher weight and price of 27.28±0.85 kg and 2913.0±19.6 were recorded on sheep than goat which recorded 25.35±0.74 kg and 2406.6±41.4, respectively. In goats prices were significantly (p<0.05 affected by breeds; mean prices of N2549.2±73.5, 2341.3±62.0 and 2334.9±74.1 were recorded on SR, BR and WG, respectively. In general, factors considered in the present study play a vital role in sheep and goat marketing especially price determination.

  10. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis sheep strains isolated from Cyprus sheep and goats.

    Liapi, M; Botsaris, G; Slana, I; Moravkova, M; Babak, V; Avraam, M; Di Provvido, A; Georgiadou, S; Pavlik, I

    2015-04-01

    Paratuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map), is a chronic incurable infection of intestinal tract of animals. Molecular characterization of Map isolates classifies them into two major groups, 'Cattle' or Type II and 'Sheep' or Type I/III with a different phenotype, epidemiology, virulence and pathogenesis. The aim of this study was to examine 192 Map ELISA-positive sheep and goats from Cyprus using faecal culture and genotype Map isolates using IS1311 PCR and restriction endonuclease analysis (IS1311 PCR-REA) with HinfI restriction enzyme. Map was isolated from only four (4.6%) faecal samples out of 88 sheep and 15 (14.4%) faecal samples out of 104 goats. Genotyping of the isolates using IS1311 PCR-REA revealed that sheep and goat populations on the island are infected primarily by 'Sheep' strains. Only three Map isolates from goats originated from one farm were characterized as 'Cattle' strains. PMID:23683358

  11. Canine Hip Dysplasia: Breed Effects

    Martin, S. W.; Kirby, K.; Pennock, P W

    1980-01-01

    This paper is a refinement of previous studies in that only suitably radiographed dogs were included in the data base. The rate of hip dysplasia varied widely by breed from five percent in siberian huskies to eighty-three percent in english bulldogs. There was a significant difference in the prevalence of dysplasia within at least two breeds; golden retrievers and old english sheepdogs. Physical size per se did not appear to be an important determinant of hip dysplasia.

  12. Winter triticale breeding in Poland

    Winter triticale is becoming an important cereal crop in Poland, as its acreage is expected to reach 1 million ha in 1990. It is to occupy a large part of the rye growing area. Three cultivars are registered and 11 more are under official trials. The actual state of breeding in connection with the main goals is presented. Breeding methods leading to further progress are briefly discussed. (author). 4 refs, 1 tab

  13. Rice Breeding with Induced Mutation

    A plant breeder may utilize the genetic variability from available natural resources, he may build up variability through hybridization, he can induce variability through mutagen treatments or he may use a combination of any of the three for the improvement of crop plants. A number of improved varieties of rice have been developed through mutation breeding. It is shown, how a breeder may utilize mutation induction to achieve successfully his breeding objectives. (author)

  14. Sheep housing in Trás-os-Montes. Contribution to design buildings and equipment appropriate for local sheep farms

    Barbosa, José Carlos

    2004-01-01

    Sheep farming has a great importance in the region of Trás-os-Montes, one of the most depopulated and least favoured Portuguese areas. We have studied the buildings for sheep housing, in this region, aiming to identify the aspects that may be considered as constraints or problems that can hinder the development of sheep farming in the region. Thus, we selected several villages where we have interviewed sheep raisers, aiming to get to know the sheep farming system and the sheep housing...

  15. Proximate analysis of two breeds of goat meat (chevon) and assessment of perception on goat consumption

    Baharuddin, Azan Azuwan; Abdullah, Aminah

    2015-09-01

    Goat Meat (chevon) has been used as a source of protein and its demand for consumption is increasing yearly in Malaysia. The objective of the research was to determine proximate composition namely moisture, protein, fat and ash level in chevon from different type of breed i.e. Boer and Katjang. The goat breed proximate analyses were compared with sheep meat (mutton). The results for goat breeds were showing that the percentage of moisture, fat, protein and ash were of 73.06 - 74.99, 2.76 - 2.94, 20.81 - 22.47 and 0.97 - 1.21 respectively. Meanwhile the concentration of moisture, fat, protein and ash for mutton were 73.52, 5.06, 22.50 and 1.17 respectively. The pilot study on perception survey indicated that the highest respondent percentage on consumption of chevon was once in a month. Based on the survey, Boer was the most known breed compared to the other breed. Majority of respondents reported that chevon was fairly expensive meat but easier to obtain in the survey area.

  16. Mutation breeding in Brazil

    How mutation induction is used for plant breeding in Brazil is reported. For upland rice, the combined treatment with gamma-ray and mutagens (ethylene imine or ethylmethane sulfonate) has been used on the variety, Dourado Precoce, and some mutants with shortculm length and/or earliness without altering the productivity have been obtained. A project on the quantitative and qualitative protein improvement in upland rice was also started in 1979. In corn, the effect of gamma-irradiation on heterosis has been analyzed, and it was found that the single hybrids from two parental lines derived from irradiated seeds had increased ear productivity. For beans (Phaseolus yulgaris), gamma-irradiation and chemical mutagens have been used to induce the mutants with different seed color, disease resistance to golden mosaic virus and Xanthomonas phaseoli, earliness, high productivity and high protein content. Some mutants with partly improved characters have been obtained in these experiments. Two varieties of wheat tolerant to aluminum toxicity have been obtained, but the one showed high lodging due to its unfavorable plant height, and the other was highly susceptible to culm rust. Therefore, irradiation experiments have been started to improve these characters. The projects involving the use of gamma-irradiation have been tested to obtain the mutant lines insensitive to photoperiod and resistant to bud-blight in soybean, the mutant lines resistant to mosaic virus in papaya, the photoperiod-insensitive mutants in sorghum, the mosaic virus resistant and non-flowering mutants in sugar cane, and the Fusarium and nematode-resistant mutants in black pepper. (Kaihara, S.)

  17. Genetic diversity estimates point to immediate efforts for conserving the endangered Tibetan sheep of India.

    Sharma, Rekha; Kumar, Brijesh; Arora, Reena; Ahlawat, Sonika; Mishra, A K; Tantia, M S

    2016-06-01

    Tibetan is a valuable Himalayan sheep breed classified as endangered. Knowledge of the level and distribution of genetic diversity in Tibetan sheep is important for designing conservation strategies for their sustainable survival and to preserve their evolutionary potential. Thus, for the first time, genetic variability in the Tibetan population was accessed with twenty five inter-simple sequence repeat markers. All the microsatellites were polymorphic and a total of 148 alleles were detected across these loci. The observed number of alleles across all the loci was more than the effective number of alleles and ranged from 3 (BM6506) to 11 (BM6526) with 5.920 ± 0.387 mean number of alleles per locus. The average observed heterozygosity was less than the expected heterozygosity. The observed and expected heterozygosity values ranged from 0.150 (BM1314) to 0.9 (OarCP20) with an overall mean of 0.473 ± 0.044 and from 0.329 (BM8125) to 0.885 (BM6526) with an overall mean 0.672 ± 0.030, respectively. The lower heterozygosity pointed towards diminished genetic diversity in the population. Thirteen microsatellite loci exhibited significant (P view of the declining population of Tibetan sheep (less than 250) in the breeding tract, need of the hour is immediate scientific management of the population so as to increase the population hand in hand with retaining the founder alleles to the maximum possible extent. PMID:27014586

  18. The prion-related protein (testis-specific) gene (PRNT) is highly polymorphic in Portuguese sheep.

    Mesquita, P; Garcia, V; Marques, M R; Santos Silva, F; Oliveira Sousa, M C; Carolino, I; Pimenta, J; Fontes, C M G A; Horta, A E M; Prates, J A M; Pereira, R M

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to search for polymorphisms in the ovine prion-related protein (testis-specific) gene (PRNT). Sampling included 567 sheep from eight Portuguese breeds. The PRNT gene-coding region was analyzed by single-strand conformation polymorphism and sequencing, allowing the identification of the first ovine PRNT polymorphisms, in codons 6, 38, 43 and 48: c.17C>T (p.Ser6Phe, which disrupts a consensus arginine-X-X-serine/threonine motif); c.112G>C (p.Gly38>Arg); c.129T>C and c.144A>G (synonymous) respectively. Polymorphisms in codons 6, 38 and 48 occur simultaneously in 50.6% of the animals, 38.8% presenting as heterozygous. To study the distribution of the polymorphism in codon 43, a restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis was performed. Polymorphic variant c.129C, identified in 89.8% of the animals with 32.8% presented as heterozygous, was considered the wild genotype in Portuguese sheep. Eight different haplotypes which have comparable distribution in all breeds were identified for the PRNT gene. In conclusion, the PRNT coding region is highly polymorphic in sheep, unlike the prion protein 2 dublet gene (PRND), in which we previously found only one synonymous substitution (c.78G>A), in codon 26. The absence or reduced number of PRND heterozygotes (c.78G>A) was significantly associated with three PRNT haplotypes (17C-112G-129T-144A,17CT-112GC-129CT-144AG and 17T-112C-129C-144G), and the only three animals found homozygous at c.78A had the 17C-112G-129C-144A PRNT haplotype. These results constitute evidence of an association between polymorphic variation in PRND and PRNT genes, as has already been observed for PRND and prion protein gene (PRNP). PMID:26538093

  19. Analysis of the non-genetic factors affecting the growth of Segureño sheep

    Teresa M. Lupi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of non-genetic factors on the growth behaviour of Segureña sheep breed. Growth related data (early weaning weight, late weaning weight and weight at 80 days of age were taken from 59,704 lambs belonging to historical data from National Association of Segureño Sheep Breeders (ANCOS during a period of 11 years. Statistical analyses were performed by using the multifactorial analysis of variance of IBM SPSS Statistics v.19 software. The model included non-genetic factors – lamb sex (S, birth season (N, herd (H, birth year (A and birth type (P – as main effects, the dam’s age at lambing and the lamb’s age when weighed as covariables, and the interactions between these factors. Results showed that all weights at developmental stages were significantly (P<0.001 affected by all factors, except for A and the covariable age of dams at lambing on lambs aged 80 days. Double interactions H×A, H×P and H×N were significant (P<0.001 for all variables, as well as the triple interaction H×A×P. Non-genetic factors have a very important role in the development and growth of the Segureña sheep breed, at different ages or growth stages, therefore a correction is necessary to increase the accuracy of direct selection on lamb weight at early weaning, late weaning and at slaughtering (80 days of age.

  20. Effect of the combination of male effect with PGF2α on estrus synchronization of hair sheep in Mexican tropic.

    Alavez-Ramírez, Alejandro; Montes-Pérez, Rubén; Aguilar-Caballero, Armando Jacinto; Ortega-Pacheco, Antonio

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the "male effect" at the end of protocol with prostaglandins (PG) on estrus synchronization of hair sheep during breeding season (November-December) in Yucatan, Mexico. Twenty female Pelibuey sheep (weighting 38.2 ± 1.6 kg and body condition score of 2.5 ± 0.5) were randomly distributed in two groups (n = 10). Group T1 (control, PG), two doses of 50 μg of cloprostenol with 12 days between applications were applied; in the second group T2 (PG-ME), ewes received the same PG protocol plus the introduction of a male at the end of treatment. The interval of end treatment-onset of estrus was analyzed using survival test; the number of sheep with presence/absence of estrus was analyzed using Fisher's exact test. Ewes in estrus for groups T1 and T2 were 5 vs. 8, respectively. No significant differences were found as regards the interval end of treatment-onset of estrus (P > 0.05), as well as in total proportion of ewes with estrus and likewise in the duration of it (P > 0.05). We conclude that the protocol based on double dose of PGF2α with interval of 12 days combined with the male effect is efficient to induce luteolysis and estrus synchronization in hair sheep. PMID:26701832

  1. The PRNP gene polymorphism in Rough-coated Pomeranian Landrace sheep

    W.S., Proskura; R., Pilarczyk; S., Borkowska; A., Marciniak; I., Szatkowska; J., Wjcik; A., Dybus.

    Full Text Available Prion protein (PrP) is a membrane glycoprotein whose abnormal form is believed to cause a group of disorders known as transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs), which affect the brain and nervous system of both human beings and animals. The most familiar TSEs are Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (CJ [...] D) in human beings, and bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) and scrapie in sheep and goats. It is well established that resistance or susceptibility to scrapie has a genetic background that is closely linked to amino acid variations within PrP at positions 136 (A/V), 154 (R/H) and 171 (Q/R). The ARR (alanine at codon 136 and arginine at codons 154 and 171) allele is associated with the highest resistance to scrapie, whereas the VRQ allele is linked to the highest susceptibility. In the present study the allelic and genotypic frequencies of the PRNP gene in the Rough-coated Pomeranian Landrace (RPL) were determined. Polymorphisms at codons 136, 154 and 171 were identified with the PCR-RFLP method. Of the eight observed genotypes, ARR/ARQ (35.9%) and ARQ/ARQ (24.4%) were the most frequent. This study reported a presence of AHQ/AHR genotype (2.6%) that has not previously been recorded in any sheep breed. The predominance of wild-type ARQ (46.8%) haplotype, which is linked to the risk of scrapie development, suggested a genetic susceptibility to scrapie in RPL sheep. Although the frequency of ARR/ARR in RPL sheep was low, the highest frequency of the ARR/ARQ genotype could be helpful in increasing the number of individuals carrying the ARR/ARR genotype and reducing the risk of genetic defects within the population.

  2. Sex chromosome chimerism and the freemartin syndrome in Rideau Arcott sheep.

    Brace, M D; Peters, O; Menzies, P; King, W A; Nino-Soto, M I

    2008-01-01

    In cattle, nearly all heifers born co-twin to a male are freemartins, XX/XY chimeras that exhibit a characteristic masculinized phenotype. However, in sheep, while litters containing males and females are common, freemartins are relatively rare. The primary aim of this study was to determine the frequency and features of XX/XY chimerism in female Rideau Arcott sheep. Also, breeding records were used to investigate the effect of litter size and sex ratios, as well as the genetic basis of the condition. Finally, the migration and transcriptional competence of cells of the opposite sex in the XX/XY female and male chimeras was explored. Genomic DNA (gDNA) from peripheral blood cells of ewes was screened by PCR for the male-specific SRY gene. Of 230 lambs screened, 10 were identified as chimeras. Litter size and sex ratio showed no statistically significant effect on the frequency of chimerism. PCR and FISH analysis confirmed the presence of opposite sex cells in female and male chimeras, and in the case of ewes, their migration to tissues other than blood. Transcriptional activity of SRY and AMH was detected in gonads of ewes, whereas XIST expression was detected in white blood cells of chimeric rams. It was concluded that the frequency of sex chromosome chimerism in Rideau Arcott sheep is estimated at 4.35%, with no significant effect of litter size and sex ratio. Moreover, as it was shown that opposite sex cells can migrate to tissues other than blood and be transcriptionally active in chimeric sheep, we speculate on the role they can play in these animals. PMID:18467837

  3. Length of gestation periods of horses and ponies belonging to different breeds

    Bos, H.; Mey, G.J.W. van der

    1980-01-01

    The mean gestation periods of mares belonging to different horse and pony breeds common in The Netherlands have been calculated using data from the birth registers of five stud-book societies. The following mean values have been determined: Fjord pony: 342.2; Haflinger pony: 341.3; Draught horse: 343.3; Shetland pony: 337.2; and Frisian horse: 337.7 days. The variation in the mean gestation period is greater in horses than in cows, sheep or pigs. Colts are carried a little longer than fillies...

  4. Toxoplasma gondii infection among sheep and goats in Iran: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Sharif, M; Sarvi, Sh; Shokri, A; Hosseini Teshnizi, S; Rahimi, M T; Mizani, A; Ahmadpour, E; Daryani, A

    2015-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis, a cosmopolitan parasitic infection caused by Toxoplasma gondii, is frequently found in meat-producing animals and human beings. This review and meta-analysis study was performed to evaluate the overall prevalence of T. gondii infection among sheep and goats in Iran. Data were systematically collected from 1977 to 2012 in Iran on the following electronic databases: PubMed, Google Scholar, Science Direct, Scopus, Web of Science, Magiran, Irandoc, IranMedex, and Scientific Information Database (SID). Additionally, abstracts of national scientific congresses and dissertations were included. A total of 34 articles in field of sheep and 18 articles about goat toxoplasmosis, totalizing to the examination of 14,372 sheep and 3,120 goats, reporting prevalence of toxoplasmosis from different regions of Iran fulfilled our eligibility criteria. The overall prevalence rate of toxoplasmosis in Iran was estimated to be 31% (95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.259825 to 0.352382) in sheep and 27% (95% CI = 0.140097 to 0.424782) in goats, respectively. There was no significant difference in infection rate between males and females among sheep (odds ratio (OR) = 1.002, 95% CI = 0.59 to 1.696) and goats (OR = 1.027, 95% CI = 0.685 to 1.541). Analysis revealed that infection rate in sheep over than 1 year old was 2.4 times more than that in less than 1 year old (OR = 2.396, 95% CI = 1.050 to 5.467). This systematic review and meta-analysis study revealed that infection is widespread in Iran. Further studies are required to improve strategies for controlling infection among flocks and consequently in human population. PMID:25378258

  5. Proteomic evaluation of sheep serum proteins

    Chiaradia Elisabetta

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The applications of proteomic strategies to ovine medicine remain limited. The definition of serum proteome may be a good tool to identify useful protein biomarkers for recognising sub-clinical conditions and overt disease in sheep. Findings from bovine species are often directly translated for use in ovine medicine. In order to characterize normal protein patterns and improve knowledge of molecular species-specific characteristics, we generated a two-dimensional reference map of sheep serum. The possible application of this approach was tested by analysing serum protein patterns in ewes with mild broncho-pulmonary disease, which is very common in sheep and in the peripartum period which is a stressful time, with a high incidence of infectious and parasitic diseases. Results This study generated the first reference 2-DE maps of sheep serum. Overall, 250 protein spots were analyzed, and 138 identified. Compared with healthy sheep, serum protein profiles of animals with rhino-tracheo-bronchitis showed a significant decrease in protein spots identified as transthyretin, apolipoprotein A1 and a significant increase in spots identified as haptoglobin, endopin 1b and alpha1B glycoprotein. In the peripartum period, haptoglobin, alpha-1-acid glycoprotein, apolipoprotein A1 levels rose, while transthyretin content dropped. Conclusions This study describes applications of proteomics in putative biomarker discovery for early diagnosis as well as for monitoring the physiological and metabolic situations critical for ovine welfare.

  6. Computed tomography of rambouillet sheep affected with neuronal ceroid lepofuscinosis

    Computed tomography (CT) was performed on 3 normal Rambouillet sheep and 6 Rambouillet sheep affected with neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis. Characteristic lesions seen in the brain of affected sheep included dramatically enlarged lateral ventricles and reduced cerebral thickness. The lesions were seen in sheep as young as 4 months of age. Antemortem CT observations correlated well with postmortem findings in this model of Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinosis

  7. THE ASSESMENT OF MAIN CHARACTERISTICS AND PROCESSING AVAILABILITY OF WOOL OBTAINED FROM SHEEP BELONGING TO THE PALAS HIGH PROLIFICACY LINE

    ANA ENCIU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of these researches was to analyze the quantitative and qualitative parameters of wool obtained from the Palas sheep population with high prolificacy and to assess the processing availabilities of these fibres type. Average values recorded for the main wool traits ranged between the following limits: wool production 2.86 4.72 kilos; fibres fineness 27.28 29.32 microns; variability of fineness ( CV 26.88 29.94 %; staple length 9.77 14.23 cm, variability of length ( CV 18.01 22.06 % ; scouring yield 54.05 61.44 % and the variability of yield 8.35 14.78 %. . This wool has a technological value similar to that obtained from the sheep breed with medium fineness wool (Tigaie, Spanca .

  8. Milk yield and quality of Cres sheep and their crosses with Awassi and East Friesian sheep

    Boro Mioč

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to establish the impact of crossing the indigenous Cres sheep with Awassi and, respectively, Awassi and East Friesian sheep on the milk yield and quality. For this purpose, through regular monthly milk yield recordings a total of 824individual milk samples from 139 sheep in the second lactation of the same flock were collected, of which: 46 purebred Cres sheep, CS; 33 crosses with 50 % Cres sheep and 50 % Awassi, CA; 60 crosses with 50 % Cres sheep, 25 % Awassi and 25 % East Friesian, CAEF. The obtained results show a significant (P<0.05; P<0.01 impact of the genotype and the lactation stage on the yield and chemical composition of milk, and the somatic cell count. The most milk was yielded by CAEF crosses (690 mL/ewe/day, i.e., 133.8 L per lactation and the least by CS (340 mL/ewe/day, i.e., 58.48 L per lactation. The content of total solids, fat and protein increased as lactation advanced, whereas the trend of the lactose content was opposite. The highest content of total solids, fat and protein were established in the milk of the indigenous Cres sheep. A positive correlation was established between the amount of yielded milk and the somatic cell count, whereas a negative correlation was established between the amount of milk and the content of solids, fat and proteins.

  9. CLINICAL PICTURE AND THERAPEUTIC MANAGEMENT OF LEAD TOXICOSIS IN SHEEP

    H. Zaneb, K. Pervez, M. S. Sarwar, S. Sindhu.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The project was aimed at evaluation of comparative therapeutic efficacy of two treatment regimes for the treatment of lead poisoning in sheep. For this purpose 20, two-months-old, lambs of Buchi breed were used as experimental animals. Five animals were kept as healthy control, whereas the remaining 15 animals were given oral aqueous solution of lead acetate daily. The dose was started from 5 mg/kg bodyweight and was increased gradually till it reached 100 mg/kg body weight by the end of 2nd month when clinical toxicosis was observed. Clinical findings included diarrhea, hindquarter weakness and reduction of feed intake, accompanied by anemia and elevated blood lead levels up to 2.72 ppm. The 15 toxicated animals were divided into three groups A, B and C comprising of 5 animals each. Disodium calcium edetate, which was used to treat animals of group A, resulted in 52.7% fall in blood lead level in 5 days. A combination of disodium calcium edetate and thiamine hydrochloride was used to treat animals of group B, which showed 73.8% fall in blood lead levels. Group C served as untreated control. Thus, combination therapy appears to be more effective for treatment of lead toxicosis.

  10. Breeding performance in the Italian chicken breed Mericanel della Brianza

    Stefano P. Marelli

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In Italy, 90 local avian breeds were described, the majority (61% were classified extinct and only 8.9 % still diffused. Therefore, efforts for conservation of Italian avian breeds are urgently required. The aim of this study was to record the breeding performance of the Italian breed Mericanel della Brianza and multiply a small population, in order to develop a conservation program. Fourteen females and 8 males were available at the beginning of the reproductive season in 2009 and organized in 8 families (1 male/1-2 females kept in floor pens. Birds received a photoperiod of 14L:10D and fed ad libitum. Breeding performance was recorded from March to June. Egg production and egg weight were recorded daily; eggs were set every 2 weeks and fertility, embryo mortality and hatchability were recorded. Mean egg production was 37% and mean egg weight was 34±3.49 g. High fertility values were recorded in the first three settings, from 94 to 87%, and the overall mean fertility value was 81.6%. Overall hatchability was only 49.6% due to a high proportion of dead embryos. Embryo mortality occurred mainly between day 2 and 7 of incubation and during hatch. Highest hatchability values were recorded in setting 1 and 2, 69 and 60% respectively, and a great decrease was found in the following settings. Great variations in egg production, fertility, hatchability and embryo mortality were found among families. The present results are the basic knowledge on reproductive parameters necessary to improve the reproductive efficiency of the breed within a conservation plan.

  11. The frequency of chromosomal aberrations in sheep from the area contaminated by depleted uranium during NATO air strikes in 1999

    Fišter Svetlana L.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of cytogenetic studies in sheep from the region of Bujanovac that was contaminated by depleted uranium during the NATO air strikes in 1999. The study was conducted on sheep blood lymphocytes, in order to determine the frequency of chromosomal aberrations and to assess the presence of genetic risk as a result of the possible impact of depleted uranium. Blood samples for lymphocyte cultures were taken at random from the 20 animals of the households in the village of Borovac, near Bujanovac. The animals were chosen because they were pastured, fed, and watered in the NATO bombing area. With the purpose of comparing the results two control groups were cytogenetically analyzed, each consisted of 20 sheep from Zemun and Ovča, two northern localities that were not contaminated with depleted uranium. The established structural chromosomal changes were of breaks and gap types, and their frequencies in sheep of all surveyed localities were within the range of basic level values that are commonly found in the sheep lymphocyte cultures analyses. Significant differences are apparent between the values defined in the sheep from Bujanovac compared to those obtained in the sheep from the northern locality (Zemun, probably as a result of breeding of animals in the farm conditions and their being less exposed to the impact of environmental agents. There were neither elevated values of polyploid and aneuploid cells nor significant differences between the sites. According to earlier known data, depleted uranium was below the detection limit of the method applied both in the soil and feed given to cytogenetically analyzed animals. Based on the low-level changes that are in the range of the basic level changes, commonly observed in sheep lymphocytes control cultures, it cannot be said with certainty that it was depleted uranium that caused the changes, or that it is wide-spread in the region of Bujanovac. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 1518/2002, br. 20061-TR i br. 173034

  12. Evolution, plant breeding and biodiversity

    Salvatore Ceccarelli

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with changes in biodiversity during the course of evolution, plant domestication and plant breeding. It shows than man has had a strong influence on the progressive decrease of biodiversity, unconscious at first and deliberate in modern times. The decrease in biodiversity in the agricultures of the North causes a severe threat to food security and is in contrasts with the conservation of biodiversity which is part of the culture of several populations in the South. The concluding section of the paper shows that man could have guided evolution in a different way and shows an example of participatory plant breeding, a type of breeding which is done in collaboration with farmers and is based on selection for specific adaptation. Even though participatory plant breeding has been practiced for only about 20 years and by relatively few groups, the effects on both biodiversity and crop production are impressive. Eventually the paper shows how participatory plant breeding can be developed into ‘evolutionary plant breeding’ to cope in a dynamic way with climate changes.

  13. Update on trematode infections in sheep.

    Rojo-Vzquez, F A; Meana, A; Valcrcel, F; Martnez-Valladares, M

    2012-09-30

    Trematode parasites live in the liver, fore stomachs or blood vessels of a wide range of animals and humans. Most of them have a special economic and veterinary significance. Liver fluke disease of sheep and other animal species is caused by the common liver fluke Fasciola hepatica. Hepatic fasciolosis occurs throughout the world, where climatic conditions are suitable for the survival of aquatic intermediate host snails. Also of importance for ruminants, in some parts of the world, are Fasciola gigantica and Fascioloides magna. Other trematodes infecting ruminants include Dicrocoelium dendriticum; Eurytrema pancreaticum and Eurytrema coelomaticum. Among the Paramphistomidae, some species can infect sheep and other ruminants. Finally, Schistosoma spp. are found in the blood vessels of ruminants and are of minor importance in temperate regions. The manuscript concentrates on trematode species of veterinary importance for domestic sheep. PMID:22521973

  14. Liver flukes promote cholelithiasis in sheep.

    Katsoulos, Panagiotis D; Christodoulopoulos, Georgios; Karatzia, Maria A; Pourliotis, Konstantinos; Minas, Anastasios

    2011-06-30

    The main objective of this study was to investigate whether cholelithiasis in sheep is related to parasitism or other commonly observed disorders such as liver abscesses. Additionally, the features of the observed biliary calculi are described. The livers of 254 randomly selected clinically healthy adult dairy sheep were used. All visible concretions in the bile were considered as stones. Based on the macroscopical examination, 60 livers were normal, 40 were parasitized with Fasciola hepatica, 42 were parasitized with Dicrocoelium dendriticum, 28 were parasitized with both D. dendriticum and F. hepatica, 40 livers had abscesses and 44 had hydatid cysts. Biliary calculi were detected in 40 livers. Twenty livers had pigment stones and 20 livers had cholesterol stones. The percentage of cholelithiasis was significantly higher in livers parasitized with flukes compared with the others (Pdendriticum were proven to be significant risk factors (P<0.05) for the presence of cholelithiasis in sheep. PMID:21330055

  15. Elaeophorosis in bighorn sheep in New Mexico.

    Boyce, W; Fisher, A; Provencio, H; Rominger, E; Thilsted, J; Ahlm, M

    1999-10-01

    Two bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) in New Mexico (USA) were found to be naturally infected with Elaeophora schneideri. An adult ram examined in 1997 in the Fra Cristobal Mountains had 26 nematodes in the carotid and iliac arteries, and microfilariae were present in the skin, nasal mucosa, brain, and lungs. This ram was markedly debilitated prior to euthanasia and extensive crusty, scabby lesions were observed on its head. In 1998, a yearling ewe found dead adjacent to Watson Mountain near the Gila Wilderness area was found to have 13 nematodes present in its heart. This is the first report of E. schneideri in bighorn sheep, and we suggest that bighorn sheep are susceptible to E. schneideri infection wherever they coexist with mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus hemionus) and appropriate tabanid vectors. PMID:10574542

  16. Occurrences of anti-Toxoplasma gondii and anti-Neospora caninum antibodies in sheep from four districts of Tocantins state, Brazilian Legal Amazon Region

    Andresa Guimarães

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasmosis and neosporosis have been recognized as economically important diseases with considerable impact on the livestock industry. Little is known concerning the occurrence of Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum in sheep from Tocantins state, Brazil. Here, we investigated antibodies against these parasites and associated factors in 182 sheep from Araguaína, Santa Terezinha do Tocantins, Arguianópolis and Palmeiras do Tocantins districts, Tocantins. Sheep sera were assayed for T. gondii and N. caninum IgG antibodies by indirect fluorescence antibody test (IFAT, using cut-off point at a dilution of 1:40 and 1:25 respectively. The prevalence of seropositive animal for T. gondii was 13.74% and 13.74% for N. caninum. None of the characteristics studied including reproductive problems, presence of cats, presence of dogs and veterinary care (p>0.05 was associated with occurrence of T. gondii or N. caninum infection. Only breed was identified as associated factor for the occurrence of toxoplasmosis in sheep (p<0.05. The present study is the first report on serum occurrence of T. gondii and N. caninum in sheep from the state of Tocantins, Brazil.

  17. Serological survey using ELISA to determine the prevalence of Coxiella burnetii infection (Q fever) in sheep and goats in Great Britain.

    Lambton, S L; Smith, R P; Gillard, K; Horigan, M; Farren, C; Pritchard, G C

    2016-01-01

    A survey of Coxiella burnetii infection (Q fever) in sheep flocks and goat herds in Great Britain was undertaken. A total of 5791 sheep (384 flocks) and 522 goats (145 herds) were examined for C. burnetii antibodies using an ELISA. Overall, 53 sheep (37 flocks), and four goats (four herds), tested positive. Estimates of individual animal, between-flock/-herd and within-flock/-herd crude prevalences were 09%, 102% and 90%, respectively, for sheep, and 08%, 3% and 263%, respectively, for goats. With sheep, the likelihood of an animal testing positive increased with total flock size (P = 0002) and number of breeding ewes in the flock (P = 0021). It also increased with number of goats within a 10 km radius (P = 0038). There was no evidence for spatial clustering of positive herds above that expected by chance alone. No analysis of risk factors was attempted for goats because of the paucity of positives. PMID:25990008

  18. IDENTIFICATION OF MYOSTATIN GENE c.960delG LOCUS POLYMORPHISM IN INDONESIAN LOCAL SHEEP BY USING PCR-SSCP METHOD

    C. Sumantri

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Myostatin (MSTN is a protein inhibit muscle growth. This protein is a member of a superfamily of molecules called transforming growth factors beta (TGF-b. Deletion in c.960delG (1-bp deletion at position 960 disrupts the reading frame from amino acid (aa position 320 to ending in a premature stop codon in aa position 359 have been found in Norwegian White Sheep. This deletion in the myostatin gene is responsible to increase muscle mass, also known as double muscling, in sheep. The purpose of this study was to identify the polymorphism of myostatin gene in c.960delG locus of local sheep in Indonesia. The 832 DNA sampels from sheep were collected from 13 populations belonging to the Priangan (86, Javanese Thin Tail (389 i.e. Jonggol, Banjar, Ciomas, Javanese Fat Tail (94, West Nusa Tenggara (136, Rote Island/East Nusa Tenggara (35, Kisar Island/Southwest Maluku (22, Donggala/South East Celebes (45 and Batur cross breed/Wonosobo, Central Java (25. A gene fragment of MSTN c.960delG length 299 bp was successfully amplified by using the technique of PCR (polymerase chain reaction and genotyped by SSCP (single strand conformation polymorphism. The result showed no polymorphism in this gene. All sheep tested had G/G genotype for c.960delG locus.

  19. Contemporary approach in diagnostics, prophylaxis and treatment of footrot in sheep

    Radoji?i? Biljana

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Footrot in sheep is a chronic, infectious disease of the acropodium in sheep, less frequently in goats and mountain goats, of a multifactor nature, which is also considered to be a disease of poor management in sheep breeding. Over the recent years, Dichelobacter nodosus is given as the main cause, previously known as Bacteroides nodosus. Coaction with several other saprophytic and pathogenic bacteria is no longer so significant in etiopathogenesis, and it is considered more important to determine the virulence of the strain D. nodosus. The disease is called contagiousus ovine digital dermatitis (CODD if the infection was caused by a very virulent strain of D. nodosus, and the disease often ends with the so-called removal of the foot. A speedy identification of the agent can provide insight into the clinical form of the disease, its course and predicted outcome. A benign strain of the agent causes only a mild to medium virulent laminitis, with poorly expressed interdigital dermatitis, when the animal openly limps on one or two legs. A very virulent strain leads to a grave form of infectious interdigital dermatitis, as a supurous-necrotic dermatitis, with significant damage to the bone and expressed limping of the animal. Footrot is present in sheep in almost all countries of the world, in particular in countries with a developed sheep production (New Zealand, Australia and the United Kingdom, where it causes significant economic damages. In our country, footrot in sheep occurs mainly in the Raska district, eastern Serbia and Vojvodina province, but the percentage varies from herd to herd. The irregular and incorrect processing of hoofs (an important zootechnical measure significantly contributes to the occurrence and spreading of this disease, as well as a series of other contributing factors, such as soft and moist earch, bad climatic conditions (warm and humid weather. In activities on prevention and prophylaxis of this disease, as well as the treatment of footrot in sheep, which is complex in nature, there have been attempts to apply different disinfectants. For instance, disinfection with 10% copper sulphate, 5-8% formalin, as well as, more recently, zink sulphate, either in the form of a powder or as a solution (from 10-20% ZnSO4, several times during different time intervals, are recommended in literature and are being implemented in practice. There are a number of prescriptions for disinfection of hoofs and some of them have been shown to be very efficient. Zinc sulphate has certain advantages in hoof disinfection: it is a bactericide, it penetrates deeper into the tissue in the crucial spot, it protects the horny part of the hoof, it is less toxic, ecologically acceptable (more readily disposable, and less expensive than other mentioned disinfectants. The use of antibiotics is justified only in individual isolated cases, in the treatment of interdigital dermatitis diagnosed on several legs. However, the application of wide-specter antibiotics sprayed into the interdigital space has proven justified and efficient. Immunoprophylaxis yields different results and is mostly implemented in lambs and sheep in early stages of gravidity. Only regular and expert processing of hoofs, using a zinc sulphate disinfectant in the form of a solution according to a prescribed procedure, the use of antibiotics in rare cases, putting animals to pasture in well-drained soil, and vaccination of certain categories of animals can all significantly contribute to the efficient eradication of this persistent disease in sheep.

  20. Pathology of GM2 gangliosidosis in Jacob sheep.

    Porter, B F; Lewis, B C; Edwards, J F; Alroy, J; Zeng, B J; Torres, P A; Bretzlaff, K N; Kolodny, E H

    2011-07-01

    The G(M2) gangliosidoses are a group of lysosomal storage diseases caused by defects in the genes coding for the enzyme hexosaminidase or the G(M2) activator protein. Four Jacob sheep from the same farm were examined over a 3-year period for a progressive neurologic disease. Two lambs were 6-month-old intact males and 2 were 8-month-old females. Clinical findings included ataxia in all 4 limbs, proprioceptive deficits, and cortical blindness. At necropsy, the nervous system appeared grossly normal. Histologically, most neurons within the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral ganglia were enlarged, and the cytoplasm was distended by foamy to granular material that stained positively with Luxol fast blue and Sudan black B stains. Other neuropathologic findings included widespread astrocytosis, microgliosis, and scattered spheroids. Electron microscopy revealed membranous cytoplasmic bodies within the cytoplasm of neurons. Biochemical and molecular genetic studies confirmed the diagnosis of G(M2) gangliosidosis. This form of G(M2) gangliosidosis in Jacob sheep is very similar to human Tay-Sachs disease and is potentially a useful animal model. PMID:21123862