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Breeding Practices in Sheep Farming  

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Full Text Available The sheep is an important economic livestock species, contributing greatly to the Indian economy, especially in arid, semi arid and mountain areas. The current population in world is 1110.78 millions, around 44.85 millions (1987) sheeps in India (ICAR., 2002). Sheeps are mostly reared for meat and wool. The average annual wool production per sheep is between 3.5 to 5.5 kg of fine quality wool in Australia, New Zealand and U.S.S.R., where as in India except Magra sheep which annually yield more than 2 kg wool having staple length 5.8 cm, the average of rest of the wool produced is less than 1.0 kg per sheep of inferior quality (Banerjee G.C., 1998). Therefore many farmers in southern India adapted sheep rearing for meat production than for wool production. For yielding more production from sheep farming one should have sound knowledge of general information related to the reproduction and different breeding practices. [Vet. World 2009; 2(1.000): 43-44

A.V. Khanvilkar; M.A. Shejal; S.D.Rahane and D.R. Belhekar

2009-01-01

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Selective breeding for scrapie resistance in sheep  

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Full Text Available It is well known that the susceptibility of sheep to scrapie is determined by the host’s prion protein gene (PRNP). PRNP polymorphisms at codons 136 (alanine, A/valine, V), 154 (histidine, H/arginine, R) and 171 (glutamine, Q/histidine, H/arginine, R) are the main determinants of sheep susceptibility/resistance to classical scrapie. There are four major variants of the wild-type ARQ allele: VRQ, AHQ, ARH and ARR. Breeding programs have been developed in the European Union and the USA to increase the frequency of the resistant ARR allele while decreasing the frequency of the susceptible VRQ allele in sheep populations. In Brazil, little PRNP genotyping data are available for sheep, and thus far, no controlled breeding scheme for scrapie has been implemented. This review will focus on important epidemiological aspects of scrapie and the use of genetic resistance as a tool in breeding programs to control the disease.

Cristina Santos Sotomaior; Fernanda Trentini Lopes Ribeiro; Rüdiger Daniel Ollhoff

2012-01-01

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Milk yield of some Croatian sheep breeds  

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Full Text Available Among the most important breeds of sheep, used for the milk production in Croatia, are the sheep from Pag, Bra?, Cres, Istrian and Travnik?s sheep, different crossbreeds and, recently, East Friesian sheep. The aim of the research was to determine the genotype effect on lactation period, milk yield and protein and fat content, which are important in cheese making. The longest lactation period (213 days) had East Friesian sheep, while the highest total milk production (294 kg) and the highest production of milk fat (13.38 kg) and proteins (11.88 kg) had crossbreeds (Cres sheep x East Friesian x Awassi). However, the highest content of milk fat (8.12 and 7.81%) and proteins (6.36 and 6.26%) were established in Istrian and Pag sheep milk. The longest milking period (145 days) and the shortest suckling period (28 days) was found in Pag sheep, while the longest suckling period was found in Istra (78 days) and East Friesian (74 days) sheep. The least milk in suckling period (17.46 kg or 13.38%) was sucked by lambs of Pag sheep, and the most by East Friesian (111.18 kg or 39.39%) and Istra sheep lambs (94.3 kg or 42.95%).

Kristijan Pandek; Boro Mio?; Zdravko Bara?; Vesna Pavi?; Neven Antunac; Zvonimir Prpi?

2005-01-01

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Differentiation among Spanish sheep breeds using microsatellites  

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Full Text Available Abstract Genetic variability at 18 microsatellites was analysed on the basis of individual genotypes in five Spanish breeds of sheep – Churra, Latxa, Castellana, Rasa-Aragonesa and Merino -, with Awassi also being studied as a reference breed. The degree of population subdivision calculated between Spanish breeds from FST diversity indices was around 7% of total variability. A high degree of reliability was obtained for individual-breed assignment from the 18 loci by using different approaches among which the Bayesian method provided to be the most efficient, with an accuracy for nine microsatellites of over 99%. Analysis of the Bayesian assignment criterion illustrated the divergence between any one breed and the others, which was highest for Awassi sheep, while no great differences were evident among the Spanish breeds. Relationships between individuals were analysed from the proportion of shared alleles. The resulting dendrogram showed a remarkable breed structure, with the highest level of clustering among members of the Spanish breeds in Latxa and the lowest in Merino sheep, the latter breed exhibiting a peculiar pattern of clustering, with animals grouped into several closely set nodes. Analysis of individual genotypes provided valuable information for understanding intra- and inter-population genetic differences and allowed for a discussion with previously reported results using populations as taxonomic units.

Arranz Juan-José; Bayón Yolanda; Primitivo Fermín

2001-01-01

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Mediterranean breeds of cattle, sheep and goats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Breeds of cattle, sheep and goats in the Mediterranean region are considered. Cattle: original longhorned breeds in Spain, Portugal and southern France; original shorthorned breeds in North Africa, the eastern Mediterranean and Sardinia; Grey Steppe in Balkan lowlands and central and southern Italy; Brown Swiss and its crosses in parts of Spain, northern Italy, north-west Turkey and the Maghreb; Simmental in Yugoslavia and Hungary; Friesian now dominant in western Europe and spreading in North Africa, the Near East and eastern Europe. Sheep: original coarse woolled thin tailed breeds in Algeria, Morocco, parts of Spain, Portugal, Italy and the Balkans; Merino in Spain has produced new breeds in Portugal, southern France, and Italy and is now being used in the Balkans, Turkey and Egypt; fat tailed coarse woolled breeds in Africa and Asia from Tunisia to Turkey. Goats: short eared dairy breeds in Spain and Italy; black, long haired, lop eared, screw horned goats from Turkey to North Africa; Maltese (dairy) goats in several countries. (author). 3 refs, 1 tab

1988-01-01

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Genetic diversity in Algerian sheep breeds, using microsatellite markers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two breeds - Ouled-Djellal and Hamra (85 animals) - were genotyped for 12 microsatellites using PCR and sequencing. Allele number and frequency were calculated, and 141 different alleles were found for these microsatellites, reflecting high genetic variability within these breeds. This study is being extended to other Algerian breeds to estimate variability and genetic distances between them. In parallel, blood samples from the various breeds are being collected to build up a DNA bank. The results should support establishment of a strategy to promote the use and development of locally adapted sheep resources. (author)

2005-01-01

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The lifetime production of Bovec and Improved Bovec sheep breeds  

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Full Text Available Production data of Bovec and Improved (with East-Friesian) Bovec sheep born between years 1989 and 2006 were used for the analysis of culling dynamics and lifetime production. Lifetime production was calculated as the sum of production at each lambing (number of born and liveborn lambs and litter birth weight), weaning (number of weaned lambs and litter weaning weight) or during each lactation (milk yield, fat (6.5 %) and protein (5.8 %) corrected milk yield (FPC; Pulina et al., 2005.), and fat and protein yield) for culled sheep. Animals with any missing records from the first till the last lambing, weaning or lactation were removed from the analysis. Animals that left the system of animal recording alive, due to selling or the cancellation of recording by a breeder were also excluded. Dataset included records for 2254 sheep: 1734 of Bovec and 520 of Improved Bovec breed. Data preparation and statistical analysis were performed with the use of a statistical program R (R Development Core Team, 2007.) and additional packages Zelig (Imai et al., 2007; Bailey and Alimadhi, 2007; Imai et al., 2008) and lme4 (Bates and DebRoy, 2004; Bates, 2007). Results have shown that in the period ?1996 Bovec breed had on average 4.4 lactations in their lifetime, which was almost one lactation more than in Improved Bovec breed. In the period after the year 1996 the highest proportion of animals were culled in the first lactation (as expected due to culling dynamics), with slightly higher proportion in Improved Bovec breed than in Bovec breed. Lifetime number of born, liveborn and weaned lambs was higher for about one lamb in Improved Bovec breed. Lifetime lamb weight gain did not differ between breeds, due to the high frequency of early weaning in Improved Bovec breed. During lifetime, Improved Bovec sheep produced around 200 kg (~34 %) more milk, around 190 kg (~32 %) more FPC milk, around 12 kg (~32 %) more milk fat, and around 10 kg (~34 %) more milk protein than Bovec breed. However, if the mean metabolic weight of breeds is taken into account the difference in milk production amounts to only ~6 % (~2 % for FPC milk). These results show that Bovec breed has satisfactory milk production, but too low body weight for intensive milk production. On the other hand, low body weight makes this breed suitable for extensive farming in hill and mountain areas. Improved Bovec breed has good results in Slovenian conditions, due to the similarity of environmental conditions with East Friesian’s country of origin.

Gregor Gorjanc; Vesna Gantner; Dragomir Kompan

2009-01-01

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Fiber Quality of Iranian Carpet-Wool Sheep Breeds  

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Full Text Available This experiment was aimed to identify characteristics and comparative merits of Iranian sheep wool breeds. Fiber characteristics of 75 male and 137 female of 1, 2, 3 and 4 yr of age belonging to Afshari, Zandi, Mehrabani, Lori, and Baluchi sheep breeds were studied. Samples of fiber were taken from the left midside of sheep and analyzed using standard objective measurements for staple length (SL), mean fiber diameter (MFD), coefficient of variation of fiber diameter (FDCV), inner coat fiber ICF, outer coat fiber (OCF), kemp fiber (KF) and yield (Y). A general linear model including sex and age as fixed effects and breed as random effect was used to analyze the data. The mean (and s.e) for SL, MFD, FDCV, ICF, OCF, KF and Y were 110.8±0.1 mm, 36.9±0.5 µm, 50.2%±0.8%, 84.2%±0.6%, 9.8%±0.4%, 5.9%±0.4% and 69.3%±0.7% respectively. MFD of 22% of all wool samples was between 22–30 µm. MFD of a further 36% and 42% of wool samples was between 31–37 µm and coarser than 37 µm. SL of 12% of wool samples was shorter than 100 mm and 38% of samples between 100–120 mm and 50% of samples were longer than 120 mm. There is substantial scope to improve the quality of fiber produced by Iranian sheep breeds through genetic selection.

H. R. Ansari-Renani

2012-01-01

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Analysis of Genetic Diversity on 15 Sheep Breeds in Xinjiang of China  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The genetic variability and genetic relationship of the fifteen sheep breeds were studied. The genotypes of 14 indigenous Chinese sheep breeds and one crossbreed of wild sheep were investigated using 13 microsatellite DNA markers recommended by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nat...

X. Yu; X.X. Huang; W.J. Liu; Y. Fang; L. Shi; W.T. Xing; C.W. Tang; M.A. Brown

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GENETIC DIVERSITY AND RELATIONSHIPS OF HAIR SHEEP BREEDS OF THE AMERICAS: FIRST RESULTS  

Science.gov (United States)

There are two major types of sheep in the Americas, wooled and hair sheep. Such phenotypic differences bring into question an African or European origin for these types of sheep. It has been commonly thought that hair breeds of sheep imported into the new world came from Africa via the Canary Island...

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RESEARCH ON THE SHEEP BREEDING IN ORGANIC FARMING SYSTEM IN ROMANIA  

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Full Text Available Organic livestock has grown in Romania in recent years, especially after 2000, because animal breeding in organic farming system represent a niche activity for farmers. The purpose of this paper was to make a radiograph at national level as regards the sheep breeding in organic farming system. The share of organic production within total production varies according to the different animal sectors. The statistic data showed that cattle and sheep are the most popular species reared using organic production methods. The highest share is found in the sheep sector due to lower difficulties to convert to organic production. Indeed the productive system of sheep farming in the hill and mountainous areas of Romania is considered to be very close to that of organic sheep farming and this fact, gives a competitive advantage to the Romanian sheep farmers. Organic sheep breeding in Romania is based on native breeds, which are well adapted to their life environment. Most of these organic sheep farms are situated in the hill and mountains areas, places where the prevalent breed is Tsurcana. The sheep livestock farmed organically in 2010 was 58,372 heads and in present 0.70% from the sheep livestock are reared organically. Sheep breeding into organic farming system has a strong growing tendency in our country in the future and this is confirmed by the fact that in 2011 the number of sheep and goats farmed organically reached to 168,593 heads.

Ion R?DUCU??

2012-01-01

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Transcriptomic analysis of two sheep breeds during lactation, using a new custom microarray platform  

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We aim at understanding the genomic influence on milk quality and synthesis by comparing two sheep breeds using sheep-specific microarray technology. From sheep ESTs deposited at NCBI we generated a chip carrying about 22,000 non-redundant features in quadruplicate, achieving very good technical out...

Silvia Bongiorni; Giovanna Chillemi; Gianluca Prosperini; Susana Bueno; Federica Signorelli; Bianca Moioli; Lorraine Pariset

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Early breeding and pregnancy diagnosis in Syrian awassi sheep yearlings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fifty-nine female yearlings of local Awassi sheep were randomly divided into 2 groups. Animals in group T (treated) were fitted with intravaginal sponges containing 60 mg of medroxyprogesterone acetate for 14 days followed by 400 IU of pregnant mare's serum gonadotrophin (PMSG) at sponge withdrawal, whereas group C (control) received no treatment. Oestrus rate was 92.7% and 11.2% for groups T and C, respectively. Lambing rate was 78% and 5.6% for groups T and C, respectively. Twinning rate was 31.3% in group T compared to zero in group C. Average birth weight for single born lams (4.7 ± 0.6 kg) was significantly (P > 0.05) higher than twin born lams (3.0 ± 0.5 kg) in group T. The average concentration of blood progesterone collected between days 17-19 after mating was 19.30 nmol/1 and the accuracy of early pregnancy diagnosis was 100%. It was concluded that, it is possible to induce synchronized oestrus, and to increase the twinning rate in Syrian Awassi sheep yearlings outside the breeding season, using intravaginal sponges and PMSG. In addition, early pregnancy diagnosis could be successfully determined in female Awassi sheep yearlings between days 17-19 after-mating. (author)

2000-01-01

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Some Questions of the Competitiveness of Hungarian Sheep-breeding  

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Full Text Available The authors did economic calculations examining the possibilities for the raise of rentability in Hungarian sheep-breeding sector. It was been counting with a flock of 300 ewes. While analysing four models were set up. The first represents the economic parameters of the present average and in a certain way traditional sheep-farming. This model, which symbolises the present situation, is able to provide maximum 47,827 HUF income for a sheperd, parallel with a loss of 843,495 HUF. The second model shows the possible production of the Hungarian merino flocks determined by its genetically limited productivity and technology. It ensures the opportunity to spend 550,000 HUF to expansion above average rental. This amount might be increased with a yearly subsidy of 450,000 HUF plus the 831,610 HUF extra EU payments. The third model is based on the results of an upgrade with prolific breeds in order to better meat performance. The possible result in this case was 1,324,412 HUF, which sum would be supplemented with the subsidies and direct EU payments. The professional management of milking stocks may raise the net income with extra 600,000 HUF. (Model number four).

Gyula Toldi; Timea Ms Kupai; János Ember

2003-01-01

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Mitochondrial DNA of seven Italian sheep breeds shows faint signatures of domestication and suggests recent breed formation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Italy represented a crucial zone for migration and formation of sheep breeds. However, few data on Italian breeds have been published so far. We analysed seven Italian sheep breeds using mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequencing to gain information on their genetic diversity and history. A 721 bp mtDNA control region fragment was amplified and sequenced in a total of 138 samples belonging to seven breeds and to Italian mohuflon (Ovis orientalis musimon) to investigate genetic diversity and phylogenetic evolution. We retrieved 68 variable sites and 79 haplotypes. The sheep breeds in our study are quite diverse, and phylogenetic analyses resulted in 3.6% of the samples belonging to A, 2.2% to D and 94.2% to B mtDNA haplogroups. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) showed a separation of breeds on both dimensions. The results of this study provide data on Italian breeds, presently scarcely investigated, and contribute to the knowledge of Italian sheep breeds and will be useful to the understanding of population genetics and breed evolution.

Mariotti M; Valentini A; Marsan PA; Pariset L

2013-10-01

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Mitochondrial DNA of seven Italian sheep breeds shows faint signatures of domestication and suggests recent breed formation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Italy represented a crucial zone for migration and formation of sheep breeds. However, few data on Italian breeds have been published so far. We analysed seven Italian sheep breeds using mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequencing to gain information on their genetic diversity and history. A 721 bp mtDNA control region fragment was amplified and sequenced in a total of 138 samples belonging to seven breeds and to Italian mohuflon (Ovis orientalis musimon) to investigate genetic diversity and phylogenetic evolution. We retrieved 68 variable sites and 79 haplotypes. The sheep breeds in our study are quite diverse, and phylogenetic analyses resulted in 3.6% of the samples belonging to A, 2.2% to D and 94.2% to B mtDNA haplogroups. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) showed a separation of breeds on both dimensions. The results of this study provide data on Italian breeds, presently scarcely investigated, and contribute to the knowledge of Italian sheep breeds and will be useful to the understanding of population genetics and breed evolution. PMID:23544453

Mariotti, Marco; Valentini, Alessio; Marsan, Paolo Ajmone; Pariset, Lorraine

2013-04-02

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THE BREED TRACEABILITY OF SHEEP MEAT BY USING MOLECULAR GENETICS METHODS: PRELIMINARY RESULTS  

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Full Text Available Safety and quality foods of animal origin are extremely important for consumers. The aim of this work was to evaluate the feasibility of a method to track the breed origin of sheep meat all along the production chain using molecular genetics tools. A total of 800 samples evenly distributed among seven Italian sheep breeds have been typed at 19 STR markers, together with 90 samples from both imported sheep animals and local crossbred animals withdrawn at slaughterhouses. A maximum likelihood assignment test was adopted to evaluate STR ability to allocate samples to their true breed of origin. Sarda animals were all correctly allocated, as well as more than 98% of samples from the other breeds. Only slightly worst allocation performances were observed for imported and crossbred animals. Preliminary results seem quite promising, though further analyses will be needed in order to better understand the statistical power of such an assignment test before implementation in the sheep meat production chain.

A. Bramante; F. Cecchi; E. Ciani; E. Castellana; M.S. D’Andrea; F. Pilla; R. Ciampolini

2011-01-01

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ESSAY ON ESTIMATION OF UNDEMONSTRATIVE SPARE OUTPUTS DISCLOSED BY REPRODUCTION BIOTECHNOLOGIES IN SHEEP BREEDING  

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Full Text Available Among genetic species of farm animals sheep has the highest artificial biodiversity. There are plenty of breeds due to the many kinds of biological production of human interest and to the large areas from plains to mountains and fro Equator to Poles engaged in sheep breeding. Sheep are producing wool (thin, meddle or thick), lambs, mouton (lean or fat), milk, pelts, furs or leather, each of them acting as single selection criterion or as component of selection indexes. Each kind of resulted product has its own commercial value and its way of appreciation it. In many cases the commercial value of sheep breeding is related to the ewes’ fertility. On the other hand ewes have seasonal sexual activity including a longer or shorter period of anoestrus when produce nothing related to their fertility. Biotechnological means as artificial insemination, estrus induction, arouse of ovulation rate, embryo transfer, MOET, embryo cloning, in vitro fertilization, transgenice engineering are able to influence the economic efficiency of sheep breeding. The present essay is configuring modalities of estimating the increase of economic value of sheep products when research programs of developing reproductive biotechnologies in ewes implemented in sheep farming.

Marcel Theodor PARASCHIVESCU; Alexandru ?ONEA; Alexandru BOGDAN; Marcel PARASCHIVESCU; George Florea TOB?

2012-01-01

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THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN BODY WEIGHT AND BODY CONDITION SCORE SOME INDIGENOUS SHEEP BREEDS IN TURKEY  

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Full Text Available This study was carried out on Kivircik, Sakiz and Gokceada sheep bred at Marmara Livestock Research Institute. A total of 156 heads sheep from different age groups were used in the study. The relationships between Body Condition Scores (BCS) and Body Weights (BW) have been investigated in three different physiological periods such as breeding, lambing and weaning period of indigenous sheep breeds in Turkey. As a result of the analyses conducted, the relationship between body condition score and body weight were found to be BW = 28.716+6.962* BCS; BW = 39.977+6.771* BCS; BW = 33.444+7.074* BCS for the breeding, lambing and weaning periods respectively. Similarly, correlations (r) between them were found to be 0.817, 0.731, 0.746 respectively (P<0.01). The regression coefficients of BCS on BW were 6.962 kg, 6.771 kg, 7.074 kg at breeding, lambing, weaning respectively and also significant (P<0.01). The findings demonstrate that body condition score is a good indicator of changes in body weights in Kivircik, Sakiz and Gokceada indigenous sheep breeds and will assist sheep breeders with regard to the feeding program to be applied particularly before the breeding season

T. Sezenler, M. Özder*, M. Y?ld?r?r, A. Ceyhan** and M. A.Yüksel

2011-01-01

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A preference-based approach to deriving breeding objectives: applied to sheep breeding.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Using internet-based software known as 1000Minds, choice-experiment surveys were administered to experts and farmers from the Irish sheep industry to capture their preferences with respect to the relative importance - represented by part-worth utilities - of target traits in the definition of a breeding objective for sheep in Ireland. Sheep production in Ireland can be broadly separated into lowland and hill farming systems; therefore, each expert was asked to answer the survey first as if he or she were a lowland farmer and second as a hill farmer. In addition to the experts, a group of lowland and a group of hill farmers were surveyed to assess whether, and to what extent, the groups' preferences differ from the experts' preferences. The part-worth utilities obtained from the surveys were converted into relative economic value terms per unit change in each trait. These measures - referred to as 'preference economic values' (pEVs) - were compared with economic values for the traits obtained from bio-economic models. The traits 'value per lamb at the meat processor' and 'lamb survival to slaughter' were revealed as being the two most important traits for the surveyed experts responding as lowland and hill farmers, respectively. In contrast, 'number of foot baths per year for ewes' and 'number of anthelmintic treatments per year for ewes' were the two least important traits. With the exception of 'carcase fat class' (P < 0.05), there were no statistically significant differences in the mean pEVs obtained from the surveyed experts under both the lowland and hill farming scenarios. Compared with the economic values obtained from bio-economic models, the pEVs for 'lambing difficulty' when the experts responded as lowland farmers were higher (P < 0.001); and they were lower (P < 0.001) for 'carcase conformation class', 'carcase fat class' (less negative) and 'ewe mature weight' (less negative) under both scenarios. Compared with surveyed experts, pEVs from lowland farmers differed significantly for 'lambing difficulty', 'lamb survival to slaughter', 'average days to slaughter of lambs', 'number of foot baths per year for ewes', 'number of anthelmintic treatments per year for ewes' and 'ewe mature weight'. Compared with surveyed experts, pEVs from hill farmers differed significantly for 'lambing difficulty', 'average days to slaughter of lambs' and 'number of foot baths per year for ewes'. This study indicates that preference-based tools have the potential to contribute to the definition of breeding objectives where production and price data are not available.

Byrne TJ; Amer PR; Fennessy PF; Hansen P; Wickham BW

2012-05-01

 
 
 
 
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[Study on mtDNA D-loop of Chinese main indigenous sheep breeds using PCR-RFLP].  

Science.gov (United States)

The polymorphism of mtDNA D-loop of 83 individuals from 9 Chinese indigenous sheep breeds and 2 imported sheep breeds were studied with 5 endonucleases, Hinf I, Msp I, Sau3A I, Xsp I and Taq I, using PCR-RFLP. The results indicated that there existed two basic haplotypes in the region of mtDNA D-loop. It could be inferred that Chinese indigenous sheep breeds originated from two maternal ancestors. The averaged polymorphic degree (Pi value=0.0421%) of mtDNA D-loop showed that the genetic diversity of mtDNA of Chinese indigenous sheep breeds was very poor. PMID:16520311

Li, Xiang-Long; Zhang, Zeng-Li; Gong, Yuan-Fang; Liu, Zheng-Zhu; Jia, Qing; Wang, Li-Ze

2006-02-01

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Method for breeding sheep on desert, semi-desert grassland  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention discloses a method for raising sheep in desert or semidesert grassland adult sheep are fed in canopy in a complete barn feeding way in the period of April 1st to June 30th in every year, and fed with compound feed at twice every day in the morning and the afternoon the rest of time, the sheep can be provided with hay and drink water freely the complete grazing period ranges from July 1st to October 31st, sheep can be completely grazed and drink water in native pasture every day the period of November 1st to March 31st of the next year is half barn feeding season, the sheep are grazed in the morning and fed with the compound feed in a barn feeding way in the afternoon every day, and the sheep can freely graze straw, hay, and the like as well as drink water. The method for raising sheep follows the climatic change rule which is different in the four seasons and growing and maturing rule of pasture grass, so as to be a synusiologic, environment-friendly and scientific sheep raising mode, thus having important effects on the revegetation of grassland ecology vegetation, realizing the harmonious coexistence between human and nature, and increasing the income of herdsman.

HAOBAYASIHULIANG; BI YI; ZHAOGEXIGETU; YANG JUN; YONGMING LIN; SUYALATU

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Transcriptomic analysis of two sheep breeds during lactation, using a new custom microarray platform  

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Full Text Available We aim at understanding the genomic influence on milk quality and synthesis by comparing two sheep breeds using sheep-specific microarray technology. From sheep ESTs deposited at NCBI we generated a chip carrying about 22,000 non-redundant features in quadruplicate, achieving very good technical outcomes. Oligos were in situ generated on chip using the Combimatrix equipment. We analysed the mammary transcriptome in individuals of two sheep breeds at two lactation stages, to identify genes controlling milk production and metabolic pathways in which these genes are involved. With |FC|>1.4, and p-value?0.05, 142 and 14 genes resulted differentially expressed in stages 01 and 02, respectively.

Silvia Bongiorni; Giovanna Chillemi; Gianluca Prosperini; Susana Bueno; Federica Signorelli; Bianca Moioli; Lorraine Pariset

2010-01-01

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Maedi-visna virus infection in Karayaka and Amasya Herik breed sheep from provinces in northern Turkey.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Maedi-visna is an important virus infection of sheep having prolonged incubation period (slow disease) and reflecting two distinct forms clinically and pathologically. In this study, the presence of MVV was investigated serologically in 58 Amasya Herik sheep breed and 525 Karayaka sheep breed. Seropositivity rates in Amasya Herik sheep breed and Karayaka sheep breed were detected as 69.0% and 18.5%, respectively. MVV antibodies were found in 137 of 583 serum samples (23.5%). Positivity rates for the provinces varied and were as follows: Samsun 19.4%, Sinop 15.4%, Ordu 25.8%, Trabzon 26.7%, Rize 36.7%, Amasya 69.0% and Tokat 35.0%, however no antibody response was detected in all of the sheep in Giresun province.

Albayrak H; Yazici Z; Okur-Gumusova S; Ozan E

2012-06-01

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Evaluation of connectedness in the registered population of the Sardinian dairy sheep breed  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Connectedness across flocks of the registered population of the Sardinian dairy sheep breed was evaluated. Used criteria were: number of sires used in the same contemporary group; number of direct links and the average within and between contemporary group relationship coefficients. Dataset includin...

Sotero Salaris; Pancrazio Fresi; Sara Casu

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Response of pineal beta-adrenoceptors in different breeds of sheep to immunization against selected steroids.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Active immunization of Merino and Wiltshire Horn X Merino cross-bred sheep against a range of gonadal steroids has revealed that pineal beta-adrenoceptors in both breeds are sensitive to hormonal modification by androgens, but only in the less seasonal, non-shedding Merino do these receptors appear to be sensitive to regulation by estrogens. Neither breed showed sensitivity of its pineal beta-adrenoceptors to active immunization against the pineal hormone melatonin under either normal or reversed photoperiod treatment. These results (a) suggest that pineal related seasonal differences between the breeds (i.e. wool shedding and/or reproductive function) may reside in differential sensitivity of the pineal gland to regulation by specific circulating steroid hormones, and (b) indicate an absence of end-product regulation of beta-adrenoceptor-mediated pineal melatonin biosynthesis in both seasonally shedding and non-shedding sheep.

Foldes A; Maxwell CA; McDonald BJ; Hoskinson RM; Hinks NT; Hopkins PS

1984-08-01

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Growth Rate, Slaughter Traits and Meat Quality of Lambs of Three Alpine Sheep Breeds  

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Full Text Available A fattening and slaughter trial was carried out on 36 lambs of Alpagota, Brogna and Foza sheep breeds native of Veneto Region Alps (six male and six female lambs per breed) divided in three groups depending on the type of feed used: pasture, hay and concentrate, hay and concentrate supplemented with conjugated linoleic acid. Lambs were slaughtered at 225 days (mean weight: 30 kg). Infra-vitam and post-mortem data were analyzed by using a linear model that included the cross-classified effect of breed, sex, feeding system and age of lambs as linear covariate. The three breeds showed some specificity: Foza lambs, of both sexes, were larger-sized and faster growing, with a lower incidence of gastro-intestinal tract and lower cooking losses of the hind-leg samples compared to the other two middle-sized breeds. Alpagota breed tended to be leaner, with heavier shin and greater cooking losses than Brogna breed.In conclusion the three Alpine breeds of the Veneto Region confirmed to be able to produce lamb carcasses and meat with valuable characteristics that can be exploited through typical products and food preparation in local markets and gastronomy, according to the tradition. The valorisation of these productions can be an important instrument for in situ conservation of these breeds.

Erika Pellattiero; Alessio Cecchinato; Massimo De Marchi; Mauro Penasa; Nicola Tormen; Stefano Schiavon; Martino Cassandro; Giovanni Bittante

2011-01-01

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COMPARATIVE PHYSIOLOGICAL AND MOLECULAR STUDY OF SOME SHEEP BREEDS IN SAUDI ARABIA  

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Full Text Available Naemi, Heri, Najdi and Sawakni sheep breeds inhabiting Kingdom of Saudi Arabia were studied on both physiological and molecular bases. Native polyacrylamide gel-electrophoreses for two enzymes Malate Dehydrogenase (Mdh) and Malic Enzyme (Me) recorded 5 isoenzyme loci from which 4 were polymorphic and 1 was monomorphic. Mdh showed three fractions, the first was recorded in Sawakni and Najdi breeds, the second was monomorphic and was recorded in all breeds while the third was recorded in all except Heri. Malic enzyme showed two polymorphic fractions, the first was recorded in Heri and Naemi and the second was recorded in all breeds. Both metabolic enzymes activities were higher in Sawakni than in the native breeds. 607, 227, 498 and 595 bp nucleotides from CO1, ND4, cytb genes and d-loop, respectively, were sequenced with no base substitutions among and/or within breeds except for ND4 gene and d-loop. The molecular tree clustered the three breeds other than Naemi in one group and Naemi was basal. Isoenzymes therefore, discriminate clearly the studied breeds although they are not as accurate as molecular tools indicating their applicability with more efficiency in physiology than in genetics while the d-loop was efficient in discriminating the studied breeds phynotypically.

Mohammad S. AL-Harbi; Hamed S. Alwagdany; Sayed A.M. Amer

2013-01-01

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Genotype-level variation in lifetime breeding success, litter size and survival of sheep in scrapie-affected flocks.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Five different sheep flocks with natural outbreaks of scrapie were examined to determine associations between individual performance (lifetime breeding success, litter size and survival) and scrapie infection or PrP genotype. Despite different breed composition and forces of infection, consistent patterns were found among the flocks. Regardless of the flock, scrapie-infected sheep produced on average 34 % fewer offspring than non-scrapie-infected sheep. The effect of scrapie on lifetime breeding success appears to be a function of lifespan as opposed to fecundity. Analysis of litter size revealed no overall or genotype differences among the five sheep flocks. Survival, however, depends on the individual's scrapie status (infected or not) and its PrP genotype. Susceptible genotypes appear to perform less well in lifetime breeding success and life expectancy even if they are never affected with clinical scrapie. One possible explanation for these results is the effect of pre-clinical scrapie. Additional evidence supporting this hypothesis is discussed.

Chase-Topping ME; Kruuk LE; Lajous D; Touzeau S; Matthews L; Simm G; Foster JD; Rupp R; Eychenne F; Hunter N; Elsen JM; Woolhouse ME

2005-04-01

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Phylogenetic Relationships of Three Italian Merino-Derived Sheep Breeds Evaluated through a Complete Mitogenome Analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

In Italy, the crisis of the wool industry triggered the necessity to reconvert the two traditional Merino-derived breeds, Gentile di Puglia and Sopravissana, to meat production, by creating the Merinizzata Italiana. The aim of the present study was to assess the genetic diversity of these three Italian Merino-derived (IMd) breeds by examining the molecular information encoded in the maternally-inherited mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). A parallel molecular investigation was performed on the putative paternal and maternal breeds, the Merino from Spain and the Appenninica from Italy, respectively, as well as on three unrelated dairy breeds (Sarda and Comisana from Italy, and Lacaune from France). Firstly, the mtDNA control region of 291 samples was analyzed. When comparing the overall genetic distances among the eight stocks, the three IMd breeds clustered together close to the Appenninica, thus confirming its parental role. Among the 90 IMd samples, 82 different haplotypes were observed, almost all belonging to haplogroup B, and only one to A. For 23 mtDNAs, including nine IMd, the analysis was then brought to the level of entire mitogenomes. Three distinct sub-haplogroups within B were found to encompass the IMd samples, with one clade (B1a2a1) apparently restricted to those sheep. Thus, despite experiencing a drastic reduction in number (mainly due to changes in breeding practices driven by the economy), the IMd breeds still represent a reservoir of distinctive mitochondrial variants, which could potentially contribute to the development of conservation and management programs of Italian sheep breeds.

Lancioni, Hovirag; Di Lorenzo, Piera; Ceccobelli, Simone; Perego, Ugo A.; Miglio, Arianna; Landi, Vincenzo; Antognoni, Maria T.; Sarti, Francesca M.

2013-01-01

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Phylogenetic Relationships of Three Italian Merino-Derived Sheep Breeds Evaluated through a Complete Mitogenome Analysis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In Italy, the crisis of the wool industry triggered the necessity to reconvert the two traditional Merino-derived breeds, Gentile di Puglia and Sopravissana, to meat production, by creating the Merinizzata Italiana. The aim of the present study was to assess the genetic diversity of these three Italian Merino-derived (IMd) breeds by examining the molecular information encoded in the maternally-inherited mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). A parallel molecular investigation was performed on the putative paternal and maternal breeds, the Merino from Spain and the Appenninica from Italy, respectively, as well as on three unrelated dairy breeds (Sarda and Comisana from Italy, and Lacaune from France). Firstly, the mtDNA control region of 291 samples was analyzed. When comparing the overall genetic distances among the eight stocks, the three IMd breeds clustered together close to the Appenninica, thus confirming its parental role. Among the 90 IMd samples, 82 different haplotypes were observed, almost all belonging to haplogroup B, and only one to A. For 23 mtDNAs, including nine IMd, the analysis was then brought to the level of entire mitogenomes. Three distinct sub-haplogroups within B were found to encompass the IMd samples, with one clade (B1a2a1) apparently restricted to those sheep. Thus, despite experiencing a drastic reduction in number (mainly due to changes in breeding practices driven by the economy), the IMd breeds still represent a reservoir of distinctive mitochondrial variants, which could potentially contribute to the development of conservation and management programs of Italian sheep breeds.

Lancioni H; Di Lorenzo P; Ceccobelli S; Perego UA; Miglio A; Landi V; Antognoni MT; Sarti FM; Lasagna E; Achilli A

2013-01-01

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Phylogenetic Relationships of Three Italian Merino-Derived Sheep Breeds Evaluated through a Complete Mitogenome Analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

In Italy, the crisis of the wool industry triggered the necessity to reconvert the two traditional Merino-derived breeds, Gentile di Puglia and Sopravissana, to meat production, by creating the Merinizzata Italiana. The aim of the present study was to assess the genetic diversity of these three Italian Merino-derived (IMd) breeds by examining the molecular information encoded in the maternally-inherited mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). A parallel molecular investigation was performed on the putative paternal and maternal breeds, the Merino from Spain and the Appenninica from Italy, respectively, as well as on three unrelated dairy breeds (Sarda and Comisana from Italy, and Lacaune from France). Firstly, the mtDNA control region of 291 samples was analyzed. When comparing the overall genetic distances among the eight stocks, the three IMd breeds clustered together close to the Appenninica, thus confirming its parental role. Among the 90 IMd samples, 82 different haplotypes were observed, almost all belonging to haplogroup B, and only one to A. For 23 mtDNAs, including nine IMd, the analysis was then brought to the level of entire mitogenomes. Three distinct sub-haplogroups within B were found to encompass the IMd samples, with one clade (B1a2a1) apparently restricted to those sheep. Thus, despite experiencing a drastic reduction in number (mainly due to changes in breeding practices driven by the economy), the IMd breeds still represent a reservoir of distinctive mitochondrial variants, which could potentially contribute to the development of conservation and management programs of Italian sheep breeds. PMID:24040036

Lancioni, Hovirag; Di Lorenzo, Piera; Ceccobelli, Simone; Perego, Ugo A; Miglio, Arianna; Landi, Vincenzo; Antognoni, Maria T; Sarti, Francesca M; Lasagna, Emiliano; Achilli, Alessandro

2013-09-09

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Microsatellite analysis to estimate genetic relationships among five bulgarian sheep breeds  

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Full Text Available Herein, genetic relationships among five breeds of Bulgarian sheep were estimated using microsatellite markers. The total number of alleles identified was 226 at the 16 loci examined. D A distance values were used for phylogenetic tree construction with the UPGMA algorithm. The two Tsigai and two Maritza populations were found to be geneticallvery closely related to each other y (0.198, and 0.258 respectively). The Pleven Black Head population was distinct from the other four. These results could be useful for preserving genes in these breeds, thereby ensuring their preservation in Bulgaria.

Szilvia Kusza; Doytcho Dimov; István Nagy; Zsuzsanna Bõsze; András Jávor; Sándor Kukovics

2010-01-01

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Between- and within-breed variations of spine characteristics in sheep.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Implementing the use of spine traits in a commercial breeding program has been seen to improve meat production from the carcass of larger-bodied pigs. The aim of this study was to assess the extent of variation in spine characteristics within and between breeds of sheep and to investigate the association with body length and tissues traits to deliberate if a similar approach could be applicable in the sheep sector. Spine traits (vertebrae number, VN; spine region length, SPL; individual vertebra length, VL) of the thoracic (THOR) lumbar (LUM) and thoracolumbar (T+L) spine regions were measured using x-ray computed tomography (CT) on 254 Texel (TEX), 1100 Scottish Blackface (SBF), 326 Texel cross Mule (TEX × MULE), and 178 Poll Dorset cross Mule (PD × MULE) lambs. Simple descriptive statistics inform that variation in thoracolumbar VN exists within all breeds and crosses; TEX animals showed the largest range of variation in thoracolumbar VN (17 to 21) and the TEX × MULE the smallest (18 to 20). Significant differences were not observed between sexes, but did occur between breeds (P < 0.05), which is indicative of a genetic basis for these traits. Least-squares means identified that TEX had the least thoracolumbar VN (19.24) and SBF possessed the most (19.63); similarly the lowest measures for SPL and VL for each spine region were observed in TEX, but the greatest values for these traits were expressed predominantly in the crosses (TEX × MULE and PD × MULE). Correlation coefficients (r) within each breed or cross support the interpretation of additional vertebrae contributing to a longer length of the spine region in which they occur (P < 0.001; e.g., for PD × MULE lambs), r between traits VNTHOR and SPLTHOR (r = 0.59), VNLUM and SPLLUM (r = 0.94) and VNT+L and SPLT+L (r = 0.65) all reach moderate to very high values. In all breeds and crosses, this relationship is particularly strong for the lumbar region. The few significant (P < 0.05) correlations observed between spine and tissue traits [CT-predicted quantities of carcass fat and muscle (kg) and area of the LM (mm(2))] indicated no substantial relationships, r was small (ranging from -0.25 to 0.19) in each case. To conclude, significant vertebral variation exists within and between sheep breeds and crosses, which can contribute to an increase in body (and carcass) length. Including measurements taken for other primal cuts will further aid in assessing any potential increase in meat production from these longer-bodied sheep.

Donaldson CL; Lambe NR; Maltin CA; Knott S; Bunger L

2013-02-01

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Recientes Avances en el Mejoramiento Genetico de Ovinos Resultados del Programa de Rumiantes Menores (Recent Advances in Sheep Breeding Results from the Small Ruminants CRSP).  

Science.gov (United States)

The document presents the objectives of a Sheep Breeding Program and the advances and results of ongoing research projects, using 15,160 sheep designed to fulfill them: evaluation of available germplasm, effects of crossbreeding and selection techniques. ...

B. Quijandria

1985-01-01

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Comparison of Serum Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) Activities Among Different Sheep Breeds in Turkey  

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Full Text Available Paraoxonase 1 (PON1, EC 3.1.8.1) is a calcium dependent mammalian enzyme that is synthesized primarily in the liver and is secreted into the serum where it is associated with High Density Lipoproteins (HDLs) and has a protective effect against oxidation of Low Density Lipoproteins (HDLs). Beside antioxidant and antiatherogenic properties, PON1 is also a detoxifier that can hydrolyze toxic organophosphates. Several studies have shown that PON1 can bind reversibly to organophosphate substrates which it hydrolyzes. Therefore, PON1 is the main means of protection of the nervous system against the neurotoxicity of organophosphates entering the circulation. This study was conducted to characterization of serum Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) activity from different sheep breeds namely Karacabey Merino, Kivircik, Tahirova, Akkaraman and Daglic. KM and Vmax values of five different sheep breed were determined by Lineweaver-Burk method. The values of Vmax/KM showed that Kivircik breed has the greatest PON1 activity, on the other hand, Karacabey Merino breed showed the least activity toward paraoxon substrate.

Mikail Arslan; 2Mahmut Erzengin; Dudu Demir

2011-01-01

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Association between single nucleotide polymorphism in the ovine DGAT1 gene and carcass traits in two Iranian sheep breeds.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The aim of the study was to investigate the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at 16-17 exon of DGAT1 gene in Lori-Bakhtiari sheep (LB) and Zel sheep (Z) breeds and provide a foundation for studying the relationship of DGAT1 gene with some carcass traits and the genetic relationship between LB sheep and Z sheep breeds. A total of 309 sheep were slaughtered and the carcass weight, backfat thickness, fat-tail weight, fat-tail percentage, dressing percentage, and dressing percentage adjusted to fat-tail weight were measured. Single nucleotide polymorphism was detected by comparing sequences of PCR products, and the restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) technique was adopted for genotyping. The results of PCR-RFLP analysis showed that the SNP had three genotypes of TT (272 and 37 bp), TC (309, 272, and 37 bp), and CC (309 bp), in which TT was the predominant genotype and allele T was predominant allele in LB and Z sheep breeds. At the DGAT1 locus, CC sheep showed the significantly greater fat-tail weight (P < 0.05) and backfat thickness (P < 0.01). The results of this study demonstrate novel associations in which the C allele had a positive effect on fat-tail weight and backfat thickness in fat-tailed sheep.

Mohammadi H; Shahrebabak MM; Sadeghi M

2013-01-01

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A study of the influence of breed and strain on the susceptibility of sheep to Haemonchus controtus infection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Breed appears to influence the susceptibility of sheep to Haemonchus contortus infection. Experiments on Masai and Merino sheep indicated that the Masai appear innately capable of reacting more vigorously to throw off H. contortus infection, this reaction being enhanced by previous experience. Following challenge, tangible resistance develops consistently in Masai, compared to a partial resistance, at best, in Merino. Resistance appears to be a short-lived phenomenon in both breeds. A field trial was carried out, to determine the influence of hemoglobin type on the susceptibility of Merino sheep. Sheep of hemoglobin types AA, AB and BB were used. A lower egg production occurred in hemoglobin type AA sheep, contrary to results obtained in the laboratory where ''massive'' experimental infection (250 Haemonchus larvae/kg liveweight) was effected. Tracer techniques involving 51Cr- labelled erythrocytes and 125I-tagged plasma were applied

1976-01-01

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Phenotypic diversity of Tuscany’s endangered sheep breeds: a canonical discriminant approach  

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Full Text Available The determination of the degree of differentiation of animal populations at breed level is an important issue for conservation purposes. Morphometric divergences can be an indicator of adaptative or selective differences between breeds. In fact, due to the natural and artificial selection that continuously acts on the adaptative traits, the determination of the level of divergence of the quantitative traits across several populations, allows to make inferences on the degree of adaptation to a certain environment or on the productive specialization of a given population. Somatic measures have already been used to estimate the divergence in Italian cattle (Camussi et al., 1985), goat (Cicogna et al., 1995, Herrera et al. 1996) and sheep breeds (Panella et al., 1993)...

P. Diaz Rivera; P. Degl’Innocenti; C. Sargentini; M. Moretti; R. Bozzi

2011-01-01

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Fecundity in adult Haemonchus contortus parasites is correlated with abomasal tissue eosinophils and ?? T cells in resistant Canaria Hair Breed sheep.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Canaria Hair Breed (CHB) sheep are more resistant than Canaria sheep (CS) to experimental Haemonchus contortus infection. Protective responses appear effective against the adult stage of the parasite, not as commonly reported in other breeds against the larval stages. In this study we have quantified several abomasal immune cells and correlated these with parasitological variables for each breed. A significant negative correlation between CD4+ T cell numbers and worm burden or length at 28 dpi was seen only in CS sheep. Significant negative correlations for both abomasal eosinophils and ??/WC1+ T cells, and fecundity of the adult worms were observed only in the resistant CHB sheep breed. Tissue eosinophils and ??/WC1+ T cells were positively correlated in CHB sheep. We suggest that the two sheep breeds have disparate immune responses following infection with the parasite and that ??+ T cells in association with eosinophils may play a hitherto unrecognised role in modulating fecundity in H. contortus adult female parasites.

González JF; Hernández A; Meeusen EN; Rodríguez F; Molina JM; Jaber JR; Raadsma HW; Piedrafita D

2011-06-01

 
 
 
 
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Mitochondrial DNA and Y-chromosomal diversity in ancient populations of domestic sheep (Ovis aries) in Finland: comparison with contemporary sheep breeds  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Several molecular and population genetic studies have focused on the native sheep breeds of Finland. In this work, we investigated their ancestral sheep populations from Iron Age, Medieval and Post-Medieval periods by sequencing a partial mitochondrial DNA D-loop and the 5’-promoter region of the SRY gene. We compared the maternal (mitochondrial DNA haplotypes) and paternal (SNP oY1) genetic diversity of ancient sheep in Finland with modern domestic sheep populations in Europe and Asia to study temporal changes in genetic variation and affinities between ancient and modern populations. Results A 523-bp mitochondrial DNA sequence was successfully amplified for 26 of 36 sheep ancient samples i.e. five, seven and 14 samples representative of Iron Age, Medieval and Post-Medieval sheep, respectively. Genetic diversity was analyzed within the cohorts. This ancient dataset was compared with present-day data consisting of 94 animals from 10 contemporary European breeds and with GenBank DNA sequence data to carry out a haplotype sharing analysis. Among the 18 ancient mitochondrial DNA haplotypes identified, 14 were present in the modern breeds. Ancient haplotypes were assigned to the highly divergent ovine haplogroups A and B, haplogroup B being the major lineage within the cohorts. Only two haplotypes were detected in the Iron Age samples, while the genetic diversity of the Medieval and Post-Medieval cohorts was higher. For three of the ancient DNA samples, Y-chromosome SRY gene sequences were amplified indicating that they originated from rams. The SRY gene of these three ancient ram samples contained SNP G-oY1, which is frequent in modern north-European sheep breeds. Conclusions Our study did not reveal any sign of major population replacement of native sheep in Finland since the Iron Age. Variations in the availability of archaeological remains may explain differences in genetic diversity estimates and patterns within the cohorts rather than demographic events that occurred in the past. Our ancient DNA results fit well with the genetic context of domestic sheep as determined by analyses of modern north-European sheep breeds.

Niemi Marianna; Bläuer Auli; Iso-Touru Terhi; Nyström Veronica; Harjula Janne; Taavitsainen Jussi-Pekka; Storå Jan; Lidén Kerstin; Kantanen Juha

2013-01-01

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Mitochondrial DNA and Y-chromosomal diversity in ancient populations of domestic sheep (Ovis aries) in Finland: comparison with contemporary sheep breeds.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Several molecular and population genetic studies have focused on the native sheep breeds of Finland. In this work, we investigated their ancestral sheep populations from Iron Age, Medieval and Post-Medieval periods by sequencing a partial mitochondrial DNA D-loop and the 5'-promoter region of the SRY gene. We compared the maternal (mitochondrial DNA haplotypes) and paternal (SNP oY1) genetic diversity of ancient sheep in Finland with modern domestic sheep populations in Europe and Asia to study temporal changes in genetic variation and affinities between ancient and modern populations. RESULTS: A 523-bp mitochondrial DNA sequence was successfully amplified for 26 of 36 sheep ancient samples i.e. five, seven and 14 samples representative of Iron Age, Medieval and Post-Medieval sheep, respectively. Genetic diversity was analyzed within the cohorts. This ancient dataset was compared with present-day data consisting of 94 animals from 10 contemporary European breeds and with GenBank DNA sequence data to carry out a haplotype sharing analysis. Among the 18 ancient mitochondrial DNA haplotypes identified, 14 were present in the modern breeds. Ancient haplotypes were assigned to the highly divergent ovine haplogroups A and B, haplogroup B being the major lineage within the cohorts. Only two haplotypes were detected in the Iron Age samples, while the genetic diversity of the Medieval and Post-Medieval cohorts was higher. For three of the ancient DNA samples, Y-chromosome SRY gene sequences were amplified indicating that they originated from rams. The SRY gene of these three ancient ram samples contained SNP G-oY1, which is frequent in modern north-European sheep breeds. CONCLUSIONS: Our study did not reveal any sign of major population replacement of native sheep in Finland since the Iron Age. Variations in the availability of archaeological remains may explain differences in genetic diversity estimates and patterns within the cohorts rather than demographic events that occurred in the past. Our ancient DNA results fit well with the genetic context of domestic sheep as determined by analyses of modern north-European sheep breeds.

Niemi M; Bläuer A; Iso-Touru T; Nyström V; Harjula J; Taavitsainen JP; Storå J; Lidén K; Kantanen J

2013-01-01

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Study of genetic diversity in Algerian sheep breeds using microsatellite markers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: In order to realize the preservation and exploitation of domestic animal biodiversity and to define a global strategy for the management of Algerian sheep genetic resources, the goals of our research are the knowledge of the degree of genetic variability, the partition of this variability and the genetic distance among ovine breeds. This information will be obtained by analyzing directly the genome at molecular level. In this study DNA of 85 animals from two breeds, Ouled-Djellal and Hamra, was PCR amplified at the following microsatellite loci: McM42, TGLA53, MAF65, McM527, OarFCB20, INRA49, OarFCB11, OarCP49, CSSM66, MAF36, Oar HH56 and ILST05. Number of alleles and allele frequencies were calculated. The results showed that these breeds presented a polymorphism with these microsatellite markers reflecting a genetic variability among them. However, highest differences in allele frequencies were found at loci: McM527, ILSTS05, OarFCB20, INRA49, MAF36, McM42, MAF65, OarFCB11, OarCP49, CSSM66, while at the other loci the alleles at the highest frequency are the same. This study is being extended to five other Algerian breeds: Taadmit, Barbarine, D'men, Sidaou and Berbere to estimate their variability and genetic distance between them. Now, we are collecting blood from these different breeds to constitute a DNA bank. The results will allow establishment of the strategy to promote the use and development of locally adapted sheep resources. (author)

2003-01-01

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Study of polymorphisms in the promoter region of ovine ?-lactoglobulin gene and phylogenetic analysis among the Valle del Belice breed and other sheep breeds considered as ancestors.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The aim of this work was to sequence the promoter region of ?-lactoglobulin (BLG) gene in four sheep breeds, in order to identify polymorphisms, infer and analyze haplotypes, and phylogenetic relationship among the Valle del Belice breed and the other three breeds considered as ancestors. Sequencing analysis and alignment of the obtained sequences showed the presence of 36 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and one deletion. A total of 22 haplotypes found in "best" reconstruction were inferred considering the 37 polymorphic sites identified. Haplotypes were used for the reconstruction of a phylogenetic tree using the Neighbor-Joining algorithm. The number of polymorphisms identified showed high variability within breeds. Analysis of genetic diversity indexes showed that the Sarda breed presented the lowest nucleotide diversity, whereas the Comisana breed presented the highest one. Comparing the nucleotide diversity among breeds, the highest value was obtained between Valle del Belice and Pinzirita breeds, whereas the lowest one was between Valle del Belice and Sarda breeds. Considering that polymorphisms in the promoter region of BLG gene could have a functional role associated with milk composition, the lowest value of nucleotide diversity between Valle del Belice and Sarda breeds may be related to a higher similarity of milk composition of these two breeds compared to the others. Further analyses will be conducted in order to evaluate the possible correlation between the genetic diversity indexes and the BLG content in milk of our breeds.

Mastrangelo S; Sardina MT; Riggio V; Portolano B

2012-01-01

45

Study of polymorphisms in the promoter region of ovine ?-lactoglobulin gene and phylogenetic analysis among the Valle del Belice breed and other sheep breeds considered as ancestors.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this work was to sequence the promoter region of ?-lactoglobulin (BLG) gene in four sheep breeds, in order to identify polymorphisms, infer and analyze haplotypes, and phylogenetic relationship among the Valle del Belice breed and the other three breeds considered as ancestors. Sequencing analysis and alignment of the obtained sequences showed the presence of 36 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and one deletion. A total of 22 haplotypes found in "best" reconstruction were inferred considering the 37 polymorphic sites identified. Haplotypes were used for the reconstruction of a phylogenetic tree using the Neighbor-Joining algorithm. The number of polymorphisms identified showed high variability within breeds. Analysis of genetic diversity indexes showed that the Sarda breed presented the lowest nucleotide diversity, whereas the Comisana breed presented the highest one. Comparing the nucleotide diversity among breeds, the highest value was obtained between Valle del Belice and Pinzirita breeds, whereas the lowest one was between Valle del Belice and Sarda breeds. Considering that polymorphisms in the promoter region of BLG gene could have a functional role associated with milk composition, the lowest value of nucleotide diversity between Valle del Belice and Sarda breeds may be related to a higher similarity of milk composition of these two breeds compared to the others. Further analyses will be conducted in order to evaluate the possible correlation between the genetic diversity indexes and the BLG content in milk of our breeds. PMID:21567200

Mastrangelo, S; Sardina, M T; Riggio, V; Portolano, B

2011-05-13

46

Increasing ovulation rate and lambing percentage by active immunization against androstenedione in dairy sheep breeds.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A total of 1200 ewes, two hundred from each of six dairy breeds-the Karagouniko (K), the Serres (S), the Vlachiko (V), the Florinis (F), the Kimis (Km) and the Chios (Ch)-were used to examine the efficacy of a new immunogen (androstenedione-7a-HSA + DEAE-dextran) in improving reproductive performance. Ewes of each breed were randomly allotted to two groups, the control and the treated. Treated ewes were given two injections of 2 ml immunogen three weeks apart, while the control ewes were untreated. Rams were introduced to all ewes after the second injection. Twenty ewes in each group for each breed were laparotimized 7 to 10 days post-mating. Incidence of estrus and mating, the ovulation rate (OR), lambing percentage (Lp. 100), litter size (LS), and lamb (LbW) and litter weight (LW) were recorded. The OR was increased in immunized ewes compared to controls from 1.60, 1.46, 1.50, 2.50, 2.50 and 2.90 to 2.50, 2.06, 2.20, 3.20 (P<0.05), 4.20 and 4.80 (P<0.01), respectively, in K, S, V, F, Km and Ch breeds. No significant difference on Lp. 100 was observed between control and treated ewes of all breeds. The LS was increased in immunized ewes by 17, 20, 18, 28, 57 and 0 lambs compared to control ewes in K, S, V, F, Km and Ch breeds, respectively; however, the increase was statistically significant (P<0.05) only in Km and F breeds. The LbW was decreased in immunized ewes compared to controls; however, the decrease was statistically significant (P<0.05) only in the V breed. When compared to control ewes the LW was greater in immunized ewes of S, K, Km and F breeds while in Ch and V breeds LW was smaller. It was concluded that an increase in ovulation rate by active immunization against androstenedione may not be reflected in an increase of litter size in dairy sheep. Breed differences must be considered when producers intend to use this technique to improve litter size.

Alifakiotis T

1986-05-01

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Prion protein genotypes of Italian sheep breeds with lysine-171 and phenylalanine-141 detection.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Amino acid polymorphisms of the prion protein gene influence sheep susceptibility to classical and atypical scrapie. Substitutions at codons 136, 154 and 171 play an important role in classical scrapie. Codon 141 leucine to phenylalanine mutation (AFRQ) has been recognized as an increased risk factor for atypical scrapie. In addition a rare allele with lysine at codon 171 (ARK) has been detected in Mediterranean sheep breeds. The presence of ARK poses two problems: the determination of its frequency and its possible interference with genotyping output of routine methods lacking specific detection capacity for ARK. The aim of our work was the development of a routine genotyping method with the capacity to identify ARK and AFRQ in addition to the normally detected alleles and to determine the frequencies of all these alleles in 5 main Italian breeds: Sarda (n=2494), Bergamasca (n=2686), Appenninica (n=297), Comisana (n=361) and Massese (n=402). A multiplex primer extension assay targeting the six single nucleotide polymorphisms of interest was developed. Allele frequencies revealed a very low level of ARR in Bergamasca (6.91%) as opposed to the other breeds, very diverse levels of AFRQ ranging from absence in Comisana to 10.70% in Massese and a restricted presence of ARK. This allele has only been detected in Bargamasca with a significant 3.67% and marginally in Appenninica (0.34%). These results underline the need for adequate routine methods for genotyping of breeds with alleles that can interfere with typing of important codons such as the case of ARK for codon 171.

Pongolini S; Bergamini F; Iori A; Migliore S; Corradi A; Bassi S

2009-05-01

48

Prion protein genotypes of Italian sheep breeds with lysine-171 and phenylalanine-141 detection.  

Science.gov (United States)

Amino acid polymorphisms of the prion protein gene influence sheep susceptibility to classical and atypical scrapie. Substitutions at codons 136, 154 and 171 play an important role in classical scrapie. Codon 141 leucine to phenylalanine mutation (AFRQ) has been recognized as an increased risk factor for atypical scrapie. In addition a rare allele with lysine at codon 171 (ARK) has been detected in Mediterranean sheep breeds. The presence of ARK poses two problems: the determination of its frequency and its possible interference with genotyping output of routine methods lacking specific detection capacity for ARK. The aim of our work was the development of a routine genotyping method with the capacity to identify ARK and AFRQ in addition to the normally detected alleles and to determine the frequencies of all these alleles in 5 main Italian breeds: Sarda (n=2494), Bergamasca (n=2686), Appenninica (n=297), Comisana (n=361) and Massese (n=402). A multiplex primer extension assay targeting the six single nucleotide polymorphisms of interest was developed. Allele frequencies revealed a very low level of ARR in Bergamasca (6.91%) as opposed to the other breeds, very diverse levels of AFRQ ranging from absence in Comisana to 10.70% in Massese and a restricted presence of ARK. This allele has only been detected in Bargamasca with a significant 3.67% and marginally in Appenninica (0.34%). These results underline the need for adequate routine methods for genotyping of breeds with alleles that can interfere with typing of important codons such as the case of ARK for codon 171. PMID:19157728

Pongolini, Stefano; Bergamini, Federica; Iori, Alessandra; Migliore, Sergio; Corradi, Attilio; Bassi, Stefano

2008-12-24

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Polymorphism of Booroola FecB Gene in Prolific Individuals from Najdi and Naeimi Sheep Breeds of Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present investigation was carried out to examine the presence of Booroola FecB mutation gene in 124 selected prolific ewes from 6 flocks representing two Saudi Arabian local sheep breeds by forced PCR-RFLP method. Genomic DNA was extracted from the blood of 69 Najdi and 55 Naeimi matured ewes with litter size varied from 2.01-2.16 lambs per ewe lambing. Digestion of FecB gene 190 base pair with AvaII restriction enzyme resulted in non carrier 190 bp band wild type in all samples which revealed the absence of this mutation in the tested Najdi and Naeimi sheep breeds.

M.A. Abouheif; A.N. Al-Owaimer; T.M. Shafey; M.A. AlShaikh; R.S. Aljumaah

2011-01-01

50

Genetic variations in the myostatin gene (MSTN) in New Zealand sheep breeds.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Myostatin, which is also known as growth and differentiation factor 8 (GDF8), acts as a negative regulator of skeletal muscle growth. Variation in the myostatin gene (MSTN) has been associated with variation in muscularity in many animals including sheep. Polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformational polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) analysis was used to investigate MSTN in a diverse range of sheep breeds including the New Zealand (NZ) Romney, Coopworth, Corriedale, Dorper, Perendale, Suffolk, Merino, Dorset Down, Poll Dorset, Texel and other NZ cross-bred sheep. A total of 28 nucleotide substitutions were identified from nucleotide c.-1199 in the promoter region to c.*1813 (based on NCBI GenBank accession number DQ530260) and including the well-described substitution c.*1232G>A (MSTN g+6223G>A). Of these 28 substitutions, 3 were located in the promoter region, 3 in the 5'UTR, 11 in intron 1, 5 in intron 2 and 5 in the 3'UTR. One substitution in exon 1 (c.101G>A) potentially results in an amino acid substitution of glutamic acid (Glu) with glycine (Gly) at codon 34. Ten of these substitutions have not been reported previously. The genetic variation revealed in this study suggests this gene is more variable than hitherto reported and provides a foundation for future research into how this variation affects muscle and growth traits.

Han J; Forrest RH; Hickford JG

2013-10-01

51

Genetic variations in the myostatin gene (MSTN) in New Zealand sheep breeds.  

Science.gov (United States)

Myostatin, which is also known as growth and differentiation factor 8 (GDF8), acts as a negative regulator of skeletal muscle growth. Variation in the myostatin gene (MSTN) has been associated with variation in muscularity in many animals including sheep. Polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformational polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) analysis was used to investigate MSTN in a diverse range of sheep breeds including the New Zealand (NZ) Romney, Coopworth, Corriedale, Dorper, Perendale, Suffolk, Merino, Dorset Down, Poll Dorset, Texel and other NZ cross-bred sheep. A total of 28 nucleotide substitutions were identified from nucleotide c.-1199 in the promoter region to c.*1813 (based on NCBI GenBank accession number DQ530260) and including the well-described substitution c.*1232G>A (MSTN g+6223G>A). Of these 28 substitutions, 3 were located in the promoter region, 3 in the 5'UTR, 11 in intron 1, 5 in intron 2 and 5 in the 3'UTR. One substitution in exon 1 (c.101G>A) potentially results in an amino acid substitution of glutamic acid (Glu) with glycine (Gly) at codon 34. Ten of these substitutions have not been reported previously. The genetic variation revealed in this study suggests this gene is more variable than hitherto reported and provides a foundation for future research into how this variation affects muscle and growth traits. PMID:24081623

Han, J; Forrest, R H; Hickford, J G H

2013-10-01

52

Clinicopathological investigation on caseous lymphadenitis in local breed sheep in Algeria.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study was carried out of 4,419 animals raised in an extensive system on local breed sheep of the Tiaret region during 2 years (2010-2011) to determine some clinical and pathological aspects associated to caseous lymphadenitis (CL). Clinical examination revealed a prevalence rate of 5.7 %. CL prevalence rate was significantly higher in females (6 %) than in males (4.8 %). The most affected superficial lymph nodes were mandibular lymph nodes (46.1 %). Gross examination of 1,679 carcasses of sheep at the abattoir revealed the presence of abscesses on 250 carcasses (14.9 %). Out of 105 cases showing lesions of CL, Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis (53.6 %) was isolated as mixed infection with Staphylococcus aureus (43 %) and Escherechia coli (17.9 %). CL prevalence was significantly higher in adult than in young sheep and in female than in male ones. Visceral form of CL was associated to "thin ewe syndrome" responsible for significant economic losses in Algeria.

Chikhaoui M; Khoudja FB

2013-10-01

53

Clinicopathological investigation on caseous lymphadenitis in local breed sheep in Algeria.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study was carried out of 4,419 animals raised in an extensive system on local breed sheep of the Tiaret region during 2 years (2010-2011) to determine some clinical and pathological aspects associated to caseous lymphadenitis (CL). Clinical examination revealed a prevalence rate of 5.7 %. CL prevalence rate was significantly higher in females (6 %) than in males (4.8 %). The most affected superficial lymph nodes were mandibular lymph nodes (46.1 %). Gross examination of 1,679 carcasses of sheep at the abattoir revealed the presence of abscesses on 250 carcasses (14.9 %). Out of 105 cases showing lesions of CL, Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis (53.6 %) was isolated as mixed infection with Staphylococcus aureus (43 %) and Escherechia coli (17.9 %). CL prevalence was significantly higher in adult than in young sheep and in female than in male ones. Visceral form of CL was associated to "thin ewe syndrome" responsible for significant economic losses in Algeria. PMID:23604639

Chikhaoui, Mira; Khoudja, Fatima Benchaib

2013-04-19

54

Genetics and breeding of sheep in Brazil/ Genética e melhoramento de ovinos no Brasil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Estudos em genética e melhoramento de ovinos no Brasil têm aumentado significativamente nos últimos anos. Estes envolvem pesquisa em caracterização, criação e cruzamento de ovinos utilizando as novas tecnologias disponíveis, incorporando tanto a genética quantitativa clássica e molecular. São abordadas sugestões para melhorias nas técnicas de estatística, nos recursos computacionais, bem como na análise de DNA e nas lacunas no conhecimento atual e possibili (more) dades de possíveis investigações. Há uma necessidade de maior interação entre vários grupos de trabalho no país, bem como as interações com outras disciplinas, como Sistemas de Informação Geográfica, Estatística, Bioinformática, bem como estudos biológicos, como fisiologia e proteômica. Abstract in english Studies in genetics and breeding of sheep in Brazil have increased significantly in recent years. These involve research in characterization, breeding and crossing sheep using new technologies available incorporating both classical quantitative and molecular genetics. Improvements in statistical techniques, computational resources as well as analysis of DNA and gaps in present knowledge and opportunities for possible research are pointed out. There is a need for greater i (more) nteraction between various groups working in the country as well as interactions with other disciplines such as Geographical Information Systems, Statistics, Bioinformatics, as well as biological studies such as physiology and proteomics.

McManus, Concepta; Paiva, Samuel Rezende; Araújo, Ronyere Olegário de

2010-07-01

55

A Study on the Wool Characteristics of Several Turkish Sheep Breeds According to the Microsatellite DNA Types  

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Full Text Available This study was aimed to clarify the differences among the indigenous farm animal breeds by means microsatellite DNA polymorphism. The microsatellite DNA polymorphism in the Kivircik, Akkaraman, Awassi, Turkgeldi and Konya Merino sheep breeds were investigated. Repeated determined number of nucleotide as length of 1-6 nucleotide so called microsatellite are informative in phylogenetic studies. Three different microsatellite region of OarFCB304, OarFCB20, MAF65 were used in this study to compare the breeds genetically. The homozygote and heterozygote types of three mentioned loci were determined. The variation in the several wool characteristics of 5 native sheep breed investigated were examined according to the microsatellite DNA types. The relationship between several wool traits of material such as length, work to rupture, thickness, elongation, tenacity, etc and microsatellite DNA types were analysed.

M.I. Soysal; Y.T. Tuna; E. ?zkan; E.K. G?rcan; I. Togan; V. Altunok

2005-01-01

56

Traditional breeding objectives and practices of goat, sheep and cattle smallholders in The Gambia and implications in relation to the design of breeding interventions.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This paper describes the traditional breeding objectives and practices of West African Dwarf goat, Djallonke sheep, and N'dama cattle keepers in The Gambia and discusses the implications of these on the design of breeding-related interventions to improve livestock productivity. Data were collected via surveys implemented within three study sites in The Gambia, where traditional mixed crop-livestock smallholder farming predominates. The surveys comprised a participatory rural appraisal conducted in nine communities and a household questionnaire targeting 238 households. Livestock-keeping households were classified as 'poorer' or 'wealthier' based on the number of cattle owned. The most important objectives for keeping all species of livestock for the poorer groups (0 to 10 cattle) was 'savings and insurance', followed by 'income' and 'ceremonial/dowry' for the small ruminants and 'manure' and 'draught' for both cows and bulls. In contrast, for the wealthier group (more than 10 cattle), savings and insurance was the fourth to seventh ranked production objective (depending on species), with the most important production objectives being ceremonial/dowry for goats, income for sheep and manure for cows and bulls. An analysis of breeding practices indicated that breeding animals are selected on criteria which partially align to the breeding objectives, animals are rarely purchased for the purpose of breed improvement, knowledge of the cause and consequence of inbreeding is low and breeding decision makers may not necessarily be the livestock owner, particularly if the livestock owner is a women. Given this, it is suggested that capacity building on breeding-related issues, particularly in relation to the selection of breeding animals and specifically targeted at the different socioeconomic groups of livestock keepers, may be an appropriate, effective and relatively low-cost breeding intervention.

Ejlertsen M; Poole J; Marshall K

2012-12-01

57

Effect of breed on performance and carcass characteristics of Mexican hair sheep  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english To determine the effect of breed on growth performance and carcass characteristics in Mexican hair sheep, 48 lambs (average 38.9 ± 1.56 kg body weight, BW) were used in a completely randomized experimental design. The breed types assessed were 16 Pelibuey (PB), 16 Pelibuey x Katahdin (PB-KT) crossbred and 16 Pelibuey x Dorper (PB-DP) crossbred lambs. The lambs were fed a maize grain-based diet (88% concentrate and 12% forage) containing 155 g CP and 12.13 MJ ME/kg DM. Th (more) e growth performance trial lasted 45 days. The average daily gain was significantly higher for the PB breed than for the PB-KT and PB-DP cross-breds. Feed intake in the PB and PB-KT was significantly higher than in the PB-DP. The feed conversion ratio was lower for the PB than for PB-KT and PB-DP lambs. Hot carcass dressing and leg perimeters were significantly lower for the PB than for the PB-DP lambs, and similar to that of the PB-KT lambs. The lowest dorsal fat values were measured in the PB breed, compared with both the PB-KT and PB-DP cross-breds. Mesenteric fat (as % of BW) in the PB was significantly higher than in PB-KT and PB-DP lambs. Empty rumen and small intestine weights (as % of BW) in the PB lambs were significantly higher than in the PB-DP lambs, but their large intestine was significantly smaller than in the other two breeds. It was concluded that the PB lambs have a better growth performance and carcass characteristics than the PB-DM lambs, but similar to that of the PB-KT lambs.

Ríos, F.G.; Gómez-Vázquez, A.; Pinos-Rodríguez, J.M.; García-López, J.C.; Estrada-Angulo, A.; Hernández-Bautista, J.; Portillo, J.J.

2011-01-01

58

Diallel cross of three Moroccan breeds of sheep: II. Reproductive performance and productivity of purebred ewes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A diallel cross involving three Moroccan breeds of sheep (Sardi, Beni Guil, and D'man) was analyzed by least squares procedures. A total of 456 ewes were mated to 22 rams and this resulted in 528 lambs born from 412 ewes. D'man ewes had by far the highest general performance as measured by total weight of lamb weaned, even though the average live weight per lamb was the lowest for the three breeds; this resulted from the higher number of lambs weaned per ewe for the D'man. The least squares means for litter size at birth per ewe lambing were 2.04, 1.01, and 1.11 for D'man, Beni Guil, and Sardi ewes, respectively. The comparable figures for litter size at weaning were 1.55, .90, and .99, respectively, and the least squares means for total weight of lamb weaned were 20.7, 16.9, and 18.2 kg for D'man, Beni Guil, and Sardi ewes, respectively. The comparable figures for total weight of lamb weaned per 100 kg of ewe weight were 71.1, 44.3, and 41.1 kg/100 kg for D'man, Beni Guil, and Sardi ewes. Conversely, D'man rams had the poorest breeding performances of the rams of the three breeds, and Beni Guil rams had the lowest litter mortality. The breed of ram had only small and nonsignificant effects on all measures of fertility and ewe productivity. The least squares means for number born/ewe lambing were 1.36, 1.35, and 1.44, respectively, for D'man, Beni Guil, and Sardi rams; the comparable least squares means for number weaned per ewe lambing were 1.10, 1.18, and 1.16, respectively.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

Bourfia M; Touchberry RW

1993-04-01

59

Genotype-level variation in lifetime breeding success, litter size and survival of sheep in scrapie-affected flocks.  

Science.gov (United States)

Five different sheep flocks with natural outbreaks of scrapie were examined to determine associations between individual performance (lifetime breeding success, litter size and survival) and scrapie infection or PrP genotype. Despite different breed composition and forces of infection, consistent patterns were found among the flocks. Regardless of the flock, scrapie-infected sheep produced on average 34 % fewer offspring than non-scrapie-infected sheep. The effect of scrapie on lifetime breeding success appears to be a function of lifespan as opposed to fecundity. Analysis of litter size revealed no overall or genotype differences among the five sheep flocks. Survival, however, depends on the individual's scrapie status (infected or not) and its PrP genotype. Susceptible genotypes appear to perform less well in lifetime breeding success and life expectancy even if they are never affected with clinical scrapie. One possible explanation for these results is the effect of pre-clinical scrapie. Additional evidence supporting this hypothesis is discussed. PMID:15784917

Chase-Topping, Margo E; Kruuk, Loeske E B; Lajous, Daniel; Touzeau, Suzanne; Matthews, Louise; Simm, Geoff; Foster, James D; Rupp, Rachel; Eychenne, Francis; Hunter, Nora; Elsen, Jean-Michel; Woolhouse, Mark E J

2005-04-01

60

Comparative digestion of herbage by two breeds of sheep: effects of grass maturity stage and level of intake  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

10 pages, 4 tables, 3 figures. , Two trials were conducted to study the effect of the stage of maturity of fresh herbage on its digestibility by two breeds of sheep (Churra v. Merino). The sward consisted of a mixture of grasses and clover, and was harvested either in late May (early cut, EC) or in lat...

López, Secundino; Frutos, Pilar; Mantecón, Ángel R.; Giráldez, Francisco Javier

 
 
 
 
61

Altitude, pasture type, and sheep breed affect bone metabolism and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D in grazing lambs.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study aimed to investigate the bone development of two mountain sheep breeds during natural summer grazing either in the lowlands or on different characteristic alpine pastures. Pasture types differed in topographic slope, plant species composition, general nutritional feeding value, Ca and P content, and Ca:P ratio of herbage. Twenty-seven Engadine sheep (ES) lambs and 27 Valaisian Black Nose sheep (VS) lambs were divided into four groups of 6 to 7 animals per breed and allocated to three contrasting alpine pasture types and one lowland pasture type. The lambs were slaughtered after 9 wk of experimental grazing. The steep alpine pastures in combination with a high (4.8) to very high (13.6) Ca:P ratio in the forage decreased total bone mineral content as measured in the middle of the left metatarsus of the lambs from both breeds, and cortical bone mineral content and cortical bone mineral density of ES lambs. Breed × pasture type interactions occurred in the development of total and cortical bone mineral content, and in cortical thickness, indicating that bone metabolism of different genotypes obviously profited differently from the varying conditions. An altitude effect occurred for 25-hydroxyvitamin D with notably higher serum concentrations on the three alpine sites, and a breed effect led to higher concentrations for ES than VS. Despite a high variance, there were pasture-type effects on serum markers of bone formation and resorption. PMID:23471950

Willems, Helen; Leiber, Florian; Kohler, Martina; Kreuzer, Michael; Liesegang, Annette

2013-03-07

62

Altitude, pasture type, and sheep breed affect bone metabolism and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D in grazing lambs.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study aimed to investigate the bone development of two mountain sheep breeds during natural summer grazing either in the lowlands or on different characteristic alpine pastures. Pasture types differed in topographic slope, plant species composition, general nutritional feeding value, Ca and P content, and Ca:P ratio of herbage. Twenty-seven Engadine sheep (ES) lambs and 27 Valaisian Black Nose sheep (VS) lambs were divided into four groups of 6 to 7 animals per breed and allocated to three contrasting alpine pasture types and one lowland pasture type. The lambs were slaughtered after 9 wk of experimental grazing. The steep alpine pastures in combination with a high (4.8) to very high (13.6) Ca:P ratio in the forage decreased total bone mineral content as measured in the middle of the left metatarsus of the lambs from both breeds, and cortical bone mineral content and cortical bone mineral density of ES lambs. Breed × pasture type interactions occurred in the development of total and cortical bone mineral content, and in cortical thickness, indicating that bone metabolism of different genotypes obviously profited differently from the varying conditions. An altitude effect occurred for 25-hydroxyvitamin D with notably higher serum concentrations on the three alpine sites, and a breed effect led to higher concentrations for ES than VS. Despite a high variance, there were pasture-type effects on serum markers of bone formation and resorption.

Willems H; Leiber F; Kohler M; Kreuzer M; Liesegang A

2013-05-01

63

Relationship between beta lactoglobulin and subclinical mastitis in Valle del Belice sheep breed  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of the following research was to determine the effect of LGB genotypes on subclinical mastitis in Valle del Belice dairy sheep. Ewes were classified as affected or not by subclinical mastitis within a lactation based on i) a positive culture in one of the test-days and ii) more than 750,000 somatic cells. Generalized linear mixed models were fitted to assess the significance of LGB genotypes on MTB and MTC. The LGB genotypes significantly affected MTB (p=0.0387), and showed a tendency on MTC (p=0.1104). Least square means showed that in the analysis for MTB, individuals with genotypes BB and AB had a higher frequency of subclinical mastitis. Moreover, the least square differences showed that the incidence was significantly higher in BB ewes than in AA ewes (p<0.001), and a tendency of a higher incidence among AB ewes than in AA ewes (p=0.0630). In conclusion, the results of this work show that LGB genotype BB seems to be less favourable in terms of mastitis resistance in Valle del Belice sheep breed.

I. Gigli; V. Riggio; G. Monteleone; D. Cacioppo; A.J.M. Rosa; D.O. Maizon

2010-01-01

64

Investigation on the BMPR 1B, BMP15 and GDF9 genes polymorphism and its association with prolificacy in five sheep breeds reared in Tunisia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of this research was to investigate the genetic structure at BMPR 1B, BMP15 and GDF9 prolificacy genes in five sheep breeds reared in Tunisia: Barbarine, Queue Fin de L’Ouest, Noire de Thibar, Sicilo-Sarde and D’man. Genomic DNA of 204 sheep was investigated for the FecBB (BMPR 1B...

Dhaouadi, Anissa

65

Evaluation of connectedness in the registered population of the Sardinian dairy sheep breed  

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Full Text Available Connectedness across flocks of the registered population of the Sardinian dairy sheep breed was evaluated. Used criteria were: number of sires used in the same contemporary group; number of direct links and the average within and between contemporary group relationship coefficients. Dataset including yearlings’ first lactation records of 1990 and 2008 were compared to evaluate the effect of coupling artificial insemination with controlled natural mating on connectedness. An increase of number of sires and direct links were registered between 1990 and 2008. These results confirm that the across years prolonged use of well planned moderate rates of artificial insemination had a strong effect on the overall statistical connectedness across flocks so permitting more accurate estimations of the management and genetic effects. As a whole, the decreasing of the average relationship within flock coupled to a marked enhance of the average relationship between contemporary groups, indicates that the genetic connectedness of the Sardinian registered population presents a clearly increasing trend. This fact assures that current genetic evaluations are reliable across flocks.

Sotero Salaris; Pancrazio Fresi; Sara Casu

2010-01-01

66

Single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) detection in six genes in Portuguese indigenous sheep breed  

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Full Text Available Evaluation of the genetic diversity for six genes in forty animals of the Portuguese indigenous sheep breed (Ovis aries) ""Churra da Terra Quente"" was done. A non-radioactive method to allow single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) detection was optimised, starting from genomic DNA and PCR amplification of seven fragments: exon 1 of the alpha-lactalbumin gene; exons 10 and 11 of the alpha s1-casein gene; exon 7 of the beta-casein gene; exon 4 of the kappa-casein gene; exons 4 and 5 of the growth hormone gene and exon 6 of the growth hormone receptor gene. Polymorphisms were detected in five of the seven PCR products. Only kappa-casein and growth hormone receptor were monomorphic. Alpha-lactalbumin and alpha s1-casein exons showed three conformational patterns, beta-casein and growth hormone exon 4 showed two electrophoretic patterns and growth hormone exon 5 showed five conformational patterns. These data provide evidence that ""Churra da Terra Quente"" has a high genetic variability, which opens interesting prospects for future selection programs and also for preservation strategies. Also, our data show that PCR-SSCP is an appropriate tool for evaluating genetic variability.

Bastos E.; Guedes-Pinto H.; Cravador A.; Azevedo J.

2001-01-01

67

The effect of a split feeding regimen and breed on body temperature of hair sheep ewes in the tropics.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Lactating St. Croix White and Dorper X St. Croix White ewes were used to evaluate the effect of breed and feeding a split ration on body temperature during the cool (March - April) and warm (July - August) seasons in the US Virgin Islands. Within each season ewes were assigned to treatments (n = 8/treatment) based on breed, age and number of lambs. Treatments consisted of individually feeding ewes daily 0.9 kg concentrate (16.4 % CP, 68 % TDN) in the morning (AM) or afternoon (PM), 0.45 kg in the morning and afternoon (AM-PM) or no feed (Control) for 56 d beginning on d 7 (lambing = d 0). Ewes were fitted with intravaginal temperature data loggers, set to record vaginal temperature (VT) at 5-min intervals, for 48 h in wk 2 (d 8-14), 5 (d 29-35) and 8 (d 50-56) postpartum. Repeated measures analysis of VT was conducted using a model including treatment, season and breed as fixed effects. There was no effect of season so data were pooled across season. The interaction of breed with treatment or season was not significant so breed comparisons was made using data pooled across treatments and season. The mean temperature, relative humidity and temperature humidity index during the cool and warm seasons were 25.8 °C, 85.9 % and 76.1 and 28.3 °C, 86.7 % and 80.6, respectively. There was no effect of season or the breed x treatment x season interaction on VT (P > 0.10) so all data were pooled across season and breed for analysis of the treatment effect. During wk 2 there was no difference (P > 0.10) in VT among treatment groups. During wk 5 the AM-PM ewes had higher (P < 0.01) VT than AM, PM or Control ewes. During wk 8 the AM-PM and PM ewes had higher VT (P < 0.01) than either the AM or Control ewes. To evaluate breed effect, data were pooled across treatments and seasons and analyzed using breed as the single main effect. Dorper X St. Croix White ewes had higher (P < 0.0001) VT than St. Croix White ewes. The results show that body temperature of ewes can be influenced by time of feeding and breed. The local breed of sheep, St. Croix White, had a lower body temperature than Dorper x St. Croix White sheep. Ewes that were fed in the afternoon for an extended time during the postpartum period developed elevated body temperatures which could make them more susceptible to heat stress.

Godfrey RW; Vinson MC; Ketring RC

2013-09-01

68

Comparative efficacy of standard AGID, CCIE and competitive ELISA for detecting bluetongue virus antibodies in indigenous breeds of sheep and goats in Rajasthan, India.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The sero-prevalence of antibodies against blue tongue virus (BTV) in 408 local breeds of sheep in Rajasthan state in India was investigated using standard agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) test. Maximum seropositivities of 11.3% (13/115), 10.7% (13/121), 7.1% (11/155) and 5.9% (1/17) were recorded in the Chokla, Magra, Nali and Pugal breeds, respectively. Out of 107 goat serum samples, 6 (5.6%) were AGID positive. The performance of the standard AGID, counter current immuno-electrophoresis (CCIE) and the competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA) for the detection of serum antibody against BTV in indigenous breeds of sheep were compared. Out of 178 sheep serum samples tested, 17 (9.5%), 22 (12.3%) and 54 (30.3%) were positive for group-specific bluetongue antibodies by AGID, CCIE and cELISA, respectively. There was appreciable difference in the seroprevalence detected by AGID, CCIE and cELISA in clinically healthy and diseased sheep with regard to relative sensitivities and specificities of the tests with cELISA being highly sensitive and specific followed by CCIE and AGID test. It was concluded that these indigenous breeds of sheep may be a potential reservoir of BTV infection and cELISA should be routinely used for the detection of antibodies against BTV in these local breeds of sheep.

Shringi S; Shringi BN

2005-03-01

69

[Fertility after treatment with Eazi-breedTM CIDR G for 6 or 12 days outside the breeding season in Lacaune dairy sheep].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study compares the fertility after short- and long-term synchronization using a progesterone intravaginal device in Lacaune dairy sheep outside the breeding season. For the experiment 108 Lacaune sheep were treated with Eazi-breed™ CIDR® G intravaginal devices (Pfizer Animal Health, Zürich) for 12 days (Group L, n = 60) or 6 days (Group K, n = 48) in combination with eCG (Group L) or with eCG and 125 ?g Cloprostenol (Group K) at device removal. Thereafter the ewes were kept together with rams for 60 days, ewes in estrus were recorded and the fertility was assessed after lambing. Blood progesterone concentration was measured at device application, withdrawal and 14 days later. Results show that neither treatment nor parity had an influence on estrus rate (Group L 91.7 %, Group K 93.8 %, nulli- and pluriparous animals 96.9 % and 90.8 %, respectively). Group L showed a tendency towards a better first cycle lambing rate and a significantly (P < 0.05) higher overall lambing rate compared to sheep of Group K (71.7 % vs. 60.4 % and 83.3 % vs. 72.9 %). Pluriparous ewes had higher (P < 0.05) lambing rates and greater (P < 0.05) numbers of lambs born per synchronized ewe than nulliparous sheep for the first cycle (75.0 % vs. 46.9 % and 1.4 ± 1.0 vs. 0.9 ± 1.1) as well as for the overall service period (92.1 % vs. 46.9 % and 1.7 ± 0.8 vs. 0.9 ± 1.1). Fourteen days after insert withdrawal progesterone concentrations were higher (P < 0.05) in Group L than in Group K (7.7 ± 4.3 vs. 5.6 ± 2.7 ng/mL) and in nulli- compared to pluriparous (9.1 ± 5.6 vs. 5.7 ± 2.1 ng/mL) ewes. In conclusion, the overall lambing rate was higher after long-term compared to short progesterone treatment and nulliparous ewes were less suitable for estrus induction outside the breeding season.

Fleisch A; Piechotta M; Bollwein H; Janett F

2013-07-01

70

Analysis of the genetic diversity between Gentile di Puglia, Sopravissana and Sarda sheep breeds using microsatellite markers  

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Full Text Available Two Italian sheep breeds – Gentile di Puglia and Sopravissana – have undergone a consistent decline in numbers and have been widely substituted by the Sarda breed, which gives higher milk yield. With the aim to provide a basis for con- servation decisions, the genetic variability of the three breeds was investigated in this study. DNA of 60 animals was PCR amplified at the following microsatellite loci: CSSM43, CSSM47, CSSM60, TGLA110, TGLA122, TGLA126, TGLA377, ETH3, ETH10, ETH225, NRAMP1, OARCP20 and SPS115. Allele frequencies, gene diversity and genetic distances were calculat- ed. The highest differences in allele frequencies were found at the following loci: TGLA377, TGLA122, NRAMP1, OARCP20 and ETH3, while at the other loci the most frequent alleles were the same. The average inbreeding rate was 0.156 in the Gentile di Puglia, 0.158 in the Sopravissana and 0.137 in the Sarda. Average gene diversity of the analysed microsatel- lites was 0.59. Genetic distance between Gentile di Puglia and Sopravissana (0.081) indicates moderate differentiation; distances between the Sarda and the endangered breeds – 0.111 from the Gentile di Puglia and 0.107 from the Sopravissana - indicate a medium-high differentiation rate. The disappearance of the two less productive breeds would entail a consistent loss of genetic diversity. The inbreeding values are low enough to allow the implementation of sound conservation programmes.

Bianca Moioli; Francesco Napolitano; Luigi Orrù; Gennaro Catillo

2010-01-01

71

Genetic variability of the Brazilian hair sheep breeds/ Variabilidade genética de raças de ovelhas deslanadas do Brasil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Os objetivos deste trabalho foram identificar a origem racial de ovinos Santa Inês e avaliar a unicidade das populações das principais raças naturalizadas brasileiras de ovinos deslanado. Foi realizado um estudo dos padrões de semelhança molecular a partir de marcadores RAPD-PCR, utilizando-se 238 indivíduos dos Estados de Goiás, Sergipe, Bahia, e Ceará assim como do Distrito Federal, distribuídos entre as raças Santa Inês (48 animais), Bergamácia (46), Rabo (more) Largo (48), Morada Nova (48) e Somali (48). Após triagem com 140 primers, foram selecionados 54 locos a partir de 19 primers e todas as raças apresentaram marcadores específicos. Análises qualitativas mostraram a presença de marcadores diagnóstico-específicos para todas as raças. As diferenças inter-raciais foram significativas e responsáveis por 14,92% da variação total observada. Na análise de agrupamento, a raça Santa Inês ficou próxima à Bergamácia (com 97% de valor bootstrap). A raça Rabo Largo apresentou maior similaridade com este grupo (com 81% bootstrap) do que as raças Morada Nova e Somali. Cada raça deve ser considerada como unidade de conservação e manejo, especialmente as raças Rabo Largo, Morada Nova e Somali, as quais apresentam as menores populações no País. Abstract in english The objectives of this work were to investigate the genetic structure of the Brazilian hair sheep breeds and to determine the origin of the Santa Inês breed. Molecular similarity was determined using Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA - Polymerase Chain Reaction markers in 238 individuals from five naturalized sheep breeds: Santa Inês (48 animals), Rabo Largo (48), Somali (48), Morada Nova (48) and Bergamasca (46), collected in Goiás, Sergipe, Bahia, and Ceará States (more) as well as in the Federal District. Fifty-four loci were selected from 19 primers, after a pilot test using 140 primers. Qualitative analyses indicate diagnostic markers for all breeds. All breeds were significantly different from each other. Interbreed differences were explained by 14.92% of the total variation. Santa Inês clustered with Bergamasca (97% bootstrap) and with Rabo Largo, composing the third member of the group (81% bootstrap) while Morada Nova and Somali breeds clustered separately. Each breed should be considered as a separate management and conservation unit, and special care should be taken with Rabo Largo, Morada Nova and Somali breeds, represented by small herds in Brazil.

Paiva, Samuel Rezende; Silvério, Vanessa Chaves; Egito, Andréa Alves; McManus, Concepta; Faria, Danielle Assis de; Mariante, Arthur da Silva; Castro, Sílvia Ribeiro; Albuquerque, Maria do Socorro Maués; Dergam, Jorge Abdala

2005-09-01

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Lack of polymorphism in the oocyte derived growth factor (GDF9) gene in the Shal breed of sheep  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english The families of TGF-? proteins are the most important growth factors in the ovary for growth and differentiation of early ovarian follicles. Three related oocyte-derived members of the transforming growth factor-? superfamily, namely GDF9, BMP15 and BMPR-IB have been shown to be essential for follicular growth and ovulation. The aim of the present study was to detect the incidence of mutation in exon two of GDF9 as a major gene in the Shal sheep breed. Blood sam (more) ples were collected from 239 sheep and genomic DNA was extracted using the modified salting-out method. The quantity and quality of extracted DNA was examined using spectrophotometery and gel electrophoresis, respectively. A fragment with the size of 139 bp from exon two of GDF9 gene (FecG H) was amplified using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with a pair of specific primers. The amplified PCR products were digested with DdeI restriction enzyme. In the presence of mutations at this locus, the DdeI enzyme cannot recognize the restriction site. However, in the absence of mutations, the enzyme recognizes one restriction site and divides the amplified fragment into two fragments of 31 and 108 bp. In the present study only the wild type alleles were detected and all the samples showed the AA genotype. The analysis of polymorphism for GDF9 (FecG H) loci in Shal sheep indicates that the genetic factor responsible for twinning or multiple lambing rates is not related to reported mutated alleles at the GDF9 major gene in this breed. Therefore, we should attempt to detect other SNP for the GDF9 gene and/or other loci responsible for twining rate in this breed.

Ghaffari, M.; Nejati-Javaremi, A.; Rahimi-Mianji, G.

2009-01-01

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[Active surveillance for scrapie in the Netherlands: effect of a breeding programme on the prevalence of scrapie in sheep (2002-2010)?].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The susceptibility of sheep to scrapie is modulated by the prion protein (PrP) genotype of the animal. An ambitious voluntary scrapie control programme was started in the Netherlands in 1998, based on selection of rams with theARR/ARR genotype for breeding. This programme was followed by an obligatory programme in 2004; the programme has been voluntary since 2007. We monitored the prevalence of PrP genotype frequencies and the prevalence of scrapie in the Dutch sheep population between 2002 and June 2010. Results showed that selection for scrapie-resistant sheep resulted in an increase in the ARR allele frequency in the Dutch national flock from 37.5% in 2005 to 61.4% in 2009. Moreover, surveillance data showed that there was a significant decrease in the prevalence of scrapie a few years after the start of the obligatory breeding programme, from more than 0.2% in 2004 to 0.015% in 2009. This decrease is a consequence of the increased number of scrapie-resistant sheep in the Dutch sheep population. To date, the results and the models based on the data show that the selective breeding programme should be continued for several years in order to successfully eradicate scrapie. It will be important to monitor the PrP frequency and scrapie prevalence in the Dutch sheep population in the coming years.

Melchior MB; Hagenaars TJ; Davidse A; van Keulen LJ; Bossers A; van Zijderveld FG

2011-02-01

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Diagnostic and control functions of the radioisotope methods for the reproduction management of cattle and sheep breeding  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The following applications of radioimmunoassay were studied: 1) for early diagnosis of pregnance in caws and sheep by determination of progesterone (PG) in milk and blood plasma via veterinary radioimmunological test STERON - RM125; 2) for diagnosis and treatment of ovarian disturbances in cows by RIA of luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and PG in blood plasma; 3) for control of the biological efficiency of sheep estrus synchronisation with MAP (vaginal tampons) and Estrophan (PgF2?); 4) for control of the reproductive condition of rams and effect of Tribestan in treatment of different forms of impotention by RIA of testosterone in blood. It was established that the use of RIA objectified the process of decision-making in regulation of the reproduction deviations in ruminating farm animals by veterinary means. Conclusions are drawn and suppositions are made for introduction of the radioisotope methods in the reproduction control of cattle and sheep breeding in practice. 4 tabs.; 15 refs

1988-01-01

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Estimation of Genetic Parameters and Environmental Factors on Early Growth Traits for Lori Breed Sheep Using Single Trait Animal Model  

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Full Text Available The effects of different environmental factors and estimation of genetic parameters on early growth traits for Lori breed sheep including birth weight, weaning weight and body weight at 6 months of age using 19960 records from 35 herds of Lorestan Jahad Agriculture Organization were studied in the cities of Aleshtar, Khorramabad and Poldokhtar from 1995 to 2003. The effect of herd, sex of lambs, dam age and birth year on all traits and birth type had significant effect only on weaning weight. Different single trait animal models estimated the components of direct additive genetic variance, maternal genetic variance and maternal permanent environment variance through restricted maximum likelihood using environmental factors as a fixe effect and different random effects. The results showed that direct additive genetic effect had additionally significant effect on all traits moreover maternal additive genetic and maternal permanent environment effects. Results also revealed that the maternal permanent environment variance for all traits is higher than maternal genetic variance. Also the direct heritability for all traits was higher than maternal heritability. Estimation of the direct heritability from the birth to 6 months of age showed a reducing trend that could arise from high dependence of birth and weaning weight on maternal environment conditions as compared with the age conditions afterward. The genetic assessment of growth traits in Lori breed sheep without inclusion of maternal effect in animal model causes decreased selection accuracy and incorrect genetic assessment of the lambs.

A. Lavvaf; A. Noshary

2008-01-01

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Somatic cell banking - An alternative technology for conservation of endangered sheep breeds  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Each cell of an animal's body contains full genetic code for the whole animal and nuclear transfer provides a way of converting cells to whole animal. Cells from endangered breeds collected by biopsy or from scrapings of soft skin or ear tissue or from hair follicle can be grown and multiplied in a laboratory and this would then be stored frozen indefinitely at 196 deg. C in liquid nitrogen. Mammary gland cells from sheep, mouse cumulus granulosa cells, bovine mural granulosa cells and fibroblast cells have all generated viable clones. The currently available methods of conservation, deep freezing of sperms (haploid genome) and storage of a large number of embryos are too expensive. In comparison, adult skin fibroblast cells are easy to obtain, hardy in culture and freezing, a good source of donor DNA without the limitations of age, sex and physiological state. Progenies were successfully obtained from nuclear transfer of serum-starved fibroblast cells from cattle, sheep and goat. Several other cell types successfully used for cloning are limited to female donors (cumulus and mammary epithelial, mural granulosa and oviductal cells) and are more difficult for long-term culture. Live progenies using skin fibroblasts have been produced in cattle. Sample collection and development of primary cultures: Samples were collected by biopsy of skin from ear pinna and transported in a complete medium (DMEM + HamsF12 with 10% FBS and penicillin and streptomycin) at 4 deg. C. Tissue samples were processed by removing hair form both sides, cut into small pieces and seeded in petridish containing fibroblast culture medium (DMEM + HamsF12, 10% FBS, penicillin and streptomycin and L-glutamine). The primary skin fibroblast cells started emerging out of tissues within 4-6 days and were allowed to grow up to 12-15 days till nearly 80% confluency was attained. Purification and sub-culturing of skin fibroblast cells: In isolated cases, there were contaminations of epithelial cells but these were removed mechanically as well as enzymatically to get pure fibroblasts. Sub-culturing or 'splitting cells' was done periodically removing growth media, washing the plate, dissociating the cells and diluting cell suspension in fresh media. Standard growth curve: Whenever, a new batch of culture media supplement was introduced, it was checked for its efficacy for growth of cells in culture and compared with standard growth curve. Goat skin fibroblasts remained in lag phase for initial two days when they settled on the solid surface of culture vessel and then came to log phase when maximum growth took place spanning from the third to the seventh day. As the confluencey level increased and media supplement was depleted, cells stopped dividing and a plateau was attained from the eighth day onwards and then showed decline due to contact inhibition. Cell proliferation index: Under standard culture conditions, skin fibroblast cells divide once in 24 hours but it is rarely achieved in normal culturing. The population doubling time and cell proliferation rate per day were checked at regular interval for quality assessment. For this, ELISA based MTT assay, incorporation of 5-bromo-de-oxyuridine method, and flow cytometer methods were used. Evaluation of cells for ploidy level: During long-term culturing the cells are likely to develop one or other type of chromosomal abnormalities. It must be ensured that the cells in different passages be checked for normal ploidy so that viable clones can be developed from them. Cultures showing increased frequency of aneuploidy or polyploidy must be terminated from further passaging. DNA from cultured somatic cells can be isolated using available DNA isolation kits and checked for its quality on 2% agarose. Cryo-freezing of cells: Cells are best frozen as cell suspension. Healthy culture were always employed to provide the stock to freeze cells. The cells were frozen at controlled freezing rate. The cells were kept at -80 deg. C as well as at -196 deg. C in Liquid nitrogen. Cells were found viable for subsequent grow

2003-01-01

77

Phenotypic diversity of Tuscany’s endangered sheep breeds: a canonical discriminant approach  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The determination of the degree of differentiation of animal populations at breed level is an important issue for conservation purposes. Morphometric divergences can be an indicator of adaptative or selective differences between breeds. In fact, due to the natural and artificial selection that conti...

P. Diaz Rivera; P. Degl’Innocenti; C. Sargentini; M. Moretti; R. Bozzi

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BREED EFFECTS ON GROWTH, CARCASS AND MEAT QUALITY TRAITS OF SHEEP  

Science.gov (United States)

An experiment was conducted to estimate direct breed effects on growth, carcass, and meat quality traits. Rams of nine breeds (Composite, Dorper, Dorset, Finnsheep, Katahdin, Rambouillet, Romanov, Suffolk, and Texel) were mated to Composite ewes. Data recorded on 804 progeny of 130 rams were analy...

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Association analysis of a CCR5 variant with ewe lifetime production in 3 breeds of sheep.  

Science.gov (United States)

A deletion in the promoter region of CCR5 associates with a 50% reduction in proviral concentration (log10 env copies/microgram DNA) of ovine progressive pneumonia virus (OPPV) in blood. Nearly half of all flocks in the U.S. have at least one sheep infected with OPPV. Because OPP provirus concentr...

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Analysis of polymorphism within POU1F1 gene in relation to milk production traits in dairy Sarda sheep breed.  

Science.gov (United States)

The ovine POU1F1 gene is localized on chromosome 1 and it contains five introns and six exons. In different mammalian species some mutations in different exons are associated with different production traits. The aim of our research was to study the POU1F1 gene nucleotide sequence to detect possible polymorphisms and their relationships with milk productive traits in Sarda breed sheep. The study had been conducted on 140 ewes, 4 or 5 years old coming from a farm located in Sardinia. All the animals were multiparous, lactating and in their third to fifth lactation. Individual milk yield had been recorded monthly and for each sample fat, protein, casein, lactose, and somatic cell count values were analysed. A jugular blood sample was collected from each ewe to perform genomic DNA extraction. PCR, SSCP and sequencing analysis were carried out to examine the six exons to highlight possible SNPs. One-way ANOVA was used to analyse association of variants with milk yield and/or its composition. Two novel SNP were found: 121 C>T in the 5'UTR of the fourth intron fragment and 249 G>A in the 3'UTR of the sixth exon fragment. The statistical analysis did not shown association between milk productive traits and the found polymorphisms. However, further investigations about the promoter region or the prophet genes, like the PROP-1, could clarify its exact role in regulating the productive traits in sheep. PMID:22311029

Mura, Maria Consuelo; Daga, Cinzia; Paludo, Marta; Luridiana, Sebastiano; Pazzola, Michele; Bodano, Sara; Dettori, Maria Luisa; Vacca, Giuseppe Massimo; Carcangiu, Vincenzo

2012-02-04

 
 
 
 
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Analysis of polymorphism within POU1F1 gene in relation to milk production traits in dairy Sarda sheep breed.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The ovine POU1F1 gene is localized on chromosome 1 and it contains five introns and six exons. In different mammalian species some mutations in different exons are associated with different production traits. The aim of our research was to study the POU1F1 gene nucleotide sequence to detect possible polymorphisms and their relationships with milk productive traits in Sarda breed sheep. The study had been conducted on 140 ewes, 4 or 5 years old coming from a farm located in Sardinia. All the animals were multiparous, lactating and in their third to fifth lactation. Individual milk yield had been recorded monthly and for each sample fat, protein, casein, lactose, and somatic cell count values were analysed. A jugular blood sample was collected from each ewe to perform genomic DNA extraction. PCR, SSCP and sequencing analysis were carried out to examine the six exons to highlight possible SNPs. One-way ANOVA was used to analyse association of variants with milk yield and/or its composition. Two novel SNP were found: 121 C>T in the 5'UTR of the fourth intron fragment and 249 G>A in the 3'UTR of the sixth exon fragment. The statistical analysis did not shown association between milk productive traits and the found polymorphisms. However, further investigations about the promoter region or the prophet genes, like the PROP-1, could clarify its exact role in regulating the productive traits in sheep.

Mura MC; Daga C; Paludo M; Luridiana S; Pazzola M; Bodano S; Dettori ML; Vacca GM; Carcangiu V

2012-06-01

82

Evaluation certain environment factors on wool characteristics of Arabi sheep breeds  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Evaluation and grading of wool based on sex and age can help to improve economic value of wool. This study was conducted to investigate the wool production and fleece characteristics of Arabi sheep in Khuzestan province The right mid-side wool samples were taken from 90 Arabi sheep (1 - 4 years; 16 male and 74 female) by hand shearing. The staple length of shoulder, flank and rump were 13.18 ± 0.27, 13.31 ± 0.22 and 14.27 ± 0.25 cm, respectively. The greasy fleece weight, wool wax, vegetable matter, yield percentage, fiber diameter and its coefficient variation measures were 1.72 ± 0.06 Kg; 2.77% ± 0.12%; 0.54% ± 0.07%; 73.36% ± 0.68%; 30 ± 0.41 ?m; 30.23% ± 0.3% respectively. Correspondingly, the medulated fibers, true wool fiber and Kemp fibers were 21.6% ± 1.9%, 76.1% ± 2.04% and 2.5% ± 0.57% respectively. Age and sex had a significant influence on staple lengths. Fleece weight (P < 0.01) and wool wax were (P < 0.05) affected by sex. There was no significant interaction between age and sex groups for fiber characteristics, but it was important for staple between body location (P < 0.05). There were a low considerable kemp and CV of wool diameter percentage on Arabi sheep in comparison with the other Iranian native sheep. The wide variation in fleece weight (0.8 - 3.9 kg); mean staple lengths (8.8 - 19.2 cm); medulated and kemp (0 - 84.04 and 0% - 30.22%); fiber diameter (24.9 - 37.43 ?m) suggest potential for improvement of economical traits.

Nosratollah Taherpour; Mahnaz Salehi; Farhad Mirzaei

2012-01-01

83

Determination of Animal Unit Size and Animal Unit Requirement of Fashandy Sheep Breed Grazing on Rangelands (Case Study: Taleghan)  

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Full Text Available Information on animal requirements for determination of rangeland grazing capacity is essential. Animal requirements depend on its live weight, age, physiological condition and quality of available forage. There are more than 20 sheep breeds with different body sizes grazing in various climatic zone's rangelands of Iran, so animal unit equivalent of each breed should be determined independently. In this research, live weight of animal unit of Fashandy sheep based on average live weight of 3 and 4 year old ewes was determined. Three herds with more than 100 Fashandy ewes among existing herds in Taleghan region were selected. In each herd, 15 three year old ewes, 15 four year old ewes, 5 three year old rams, and 5 four year old rams were selected. They were weighed three times including at the time of beginning of grazing in highlands, end of grazing season in highlands, and once in winter. In each herd, also 5 three month old lambs in the beginning of grazing season and 5 six month old lambs at the end of grazing season were weighed. The amount of daily forage requirement according to live weight and energy requirement of animal unit equivalent for maintenance condition was calculated using NRC (1985) tables and MAFF (1984) formula. It was multiplied by 1.5 because of mountainous condition of rangelands and distances from watering points and villages. The SAS statistical software was used for data analyses according to factorial experiment in the form of completely random design. According to the results, the live weight of animal unit of Fashandy breed was 60.7 Kg. The average live weight of 3 and 4 year old rams were 80.3 and 85.3 kg, respectively. Live weights of 3 and 6 month old lambs were 21.4 and 37.8 kg, respectively. Therefore, animal unit equivalents for rams, 3 and 6 month old lambs were 1.36, 0.35 and 0.62 respectively. According to NRC tables, daily metabolisable energy requirement was 13.8 Mj, and based on MAFF formula it was 11.8 Mj (including that multiplied by 1.5).

H Arzani; M Mosayebi; A Nikkhah

2009-01-01

84

Wool quality in Gentile di Puglia sheep breed as measure of genetic integrity  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Gentile di Pugliais a breed created in the 15th century by crossing Merino Spanish rams and “gentile” ewes reared in some areas of Southern Italy, mainly Apulia and Basilicata. The crisis of the wool industry, the poor quantity of milk, the inadequacy of Gentile di Pugliato be milked...

Francesca Maria Sarti; Emiliano Lasagna; Francesco Panella; Gianvincenzo Lebboroni; Carlo Renieri

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Climatic conditions and gastrointestinal nematode egg production: observations in breeding sheep and goats.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Parasitic egg production was studied in sheep and goats affected by parasitic gastroenteritis. The herds studied were located at different altitudes and in different climatic conditions. Samples were taken every month and the number of eggs per grams of feces was calculated. Observation of preliminary data shows that the maximum peak of egg production was during the winter period, whereas in other countries winter is a period of hypobiosis. This study shows that understanding peak time of infection related to different climatic and environmental conditions will help improve anthelminthic treatments and animal health strategies.

Torina A; Ferrantelli V; Sparagano OA; Reale S; Vitale F; Caracappa S

2004-10-01

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Wool quality in Gentile di Puglia sheep breed as measure of genetic integrity  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Gentile di Pugliais a breed created in the 15th century by crossing Merino Spanish rams and “gentile” ewes reared in some areas of Southern Italy, mainly Apulia and Basilicata. The crisis of the wool industry, the poor quantity of milk, the inadequacy of Gentile di Pugliato be milked by machine and the passage from transhumant to permanent rearing caused a dramatic reduction of this population, which was largely crossed with other breeds and declined from about one million heads in the sixties to 5,000 at the present time. In order to save the ancient typical Gentile di Pugliabreed, the aim of this work was to estimate the “genetic integrity” of the remaining Gentile di Pugliapopulation by means of an analysis of wool quality measured through the diameter of the fibre and the homogeneity of the fleece. Our hypothesis was that the animals originated from outcrosses to other Merino derived breeds specialised for meat would show larger diameters of the fibres and a reduced homogeneity of the fleece. The research was carried out using Herd Book registered animals from 9 farms: 1 from Isernia, 2 from Campobasso and 6 from Foggia province. The statistical analysis on the diameter of the fibre was carried out on a dataset of 38,200 observations (200 records x 191 animals) divided in four classes (ultrafine, fine, croisè, ordinary). The high frequencies of ultrafine and fine fibre classes show that the quality of the wool is still good in the population. This consideration can be extended to all the farms involved in the study that could therefore be suitable in the conservation programs for this breed. The homogeneity of the fleece was also good in provid- ing further evidence of the genetic integrity of the population. Other analysis carried out on the quality of the wool in relation to the body size confirmed that the observed Gentile di Pugliais well representative of the ancient breed.

Francesca Maria Sarti; Emiliano Lasagna; Francesco Panella; Gianvincenzo Lebboroni; Carlo Renieri

2010-01-01

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Genetic polymorphism at the milk protein genes (CSN1S1, CSN2, and CSN3) in the Czech Sumava and Walachian sheep breeds  

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Full Text Available The aim of this work was to determine allele and genotype frequencies at the casein loci, alphaS1-casein (CSN1S1), beta-casein (CSN2) and kappa-casein (CSN3) in two endangered Czech sheep breeds. The study was carried out on 265 sheep (133 Sumava, 132 Walachian) by means of PCR-RFLP and Light Cycler Analysis. These breeds are kept mainly for their good combined efficiency (milk, meat, wool). In particular, the genetic variant C at the CSN1S1 locus occurred with high frequency in both breeds Sumava (0.981) and Walachian (0.992). Variants A and D were either “absent” in Walachian (A=0.008, D=0), or present with a very low frequency in Sumava (A=0.008, D=0.011). Molecular analysis of the CSN2 locus showed that the genetic variant A were predominant, had higher frequency (Sumava, 0.778; Walachian, 0.829) than did variant G (Sumava, 0.222; Walachian, 0.171) in both sheep populations. The CSN3 locus was found to be monomorphic, with no polymorphism typed in either population. According to Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, both breeds were in genetic equilibrium at the loci CSN1S1 and CSN2 (P<0.05). The information on the aggregate genotype variability in both breeds could be exploited in the future using specific breeding programs aimed at preserving biodiversity or select animals for the production of both unusual and typical milk products in the Czech Republic.

Zuzana Sztankóová; V?ra Mátlová; Jana Rychtá?ová

2012-01-01

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Plasma melatonin in domestic female Mediterranean sheep (Comisana breed) and goats (Maltese and Red Syrian).  

Science.gov (United States)

The plasma melatonin nychtemeral profiles in Mediterranean ewes and goats were evaluated six times throughout the year. Melatonin levels were high throughout the night and generally below the assay detection limit during daytime. However, during long days, 30% of the last daytime samples had high melatonin concentrations. Plasma melatonin levels were higher in Comisana sheep than in goats, and higher in Maltese than in Red Syrian goats, with highly significant effect of the individual animal and high repeatability. Plasma melatonin was higher in April than in August. When there was a large difference between the duration of day and night, the plasma melatonin pattern and the light/dark cycle did not always match exactly, suggesting some form of superimposition and/or the prevalence of an endogenous rhythm. The difference found at similar scotoperiods with increasing or decreasing day length may be involved in the perception of the photoperiodic changes. PMID:20542527

Todini, L; Terzano, G M; Borghese, A; Debenedetti, A; Malfatti, A

2010-06-09

89

Plasma melatonin in domestic female Mediterranean sheep (Comisana breed) and goats (Maltese and Red Syrian).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The plasma melatonin nychtemeral profiles in Mediterranean ewes and goats were evaluated six times throughout the year. Melatonin levels were high throughout the night and generally below the assay detection limit during daytime. However, during long days, 30% of the last daytime samples had high melatonin concentrations. Plasma melatonin levels were higher in Comisana sheep than in goats, and higher in Maltese than in Red Syrian goats, with highly significant effect of the individual animal and high repeatability. Plasma melatonin was higher in April than in August. When there was a large difference between the duration of day and night, the plasma melatonin pattern and the light/dark cycle did not always match exactly, suggesting some form of superimposition and/or the prevalence of an endogenous rhythm. The difference found at similar scotoperiods with increasing or decreasing day length may be involved in the perception of the photoperiodic changes.

Todini L; Terzano GM; Borghese A; Debenedetti A; Malfatti A

2011-02-01

90

Microsatellite Variation in One Breed of Iranian Sheep with 12 Markers  

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Full Text Available Polymorphic loci, genetic parameters (Polymorphic Information Content, heterozygosity, Shannon Index, the number of actual alleles, the number of effective alleles) and genetic variation within Balouchi sheep population located in Abbasabad station of Mashad, was assessed using 12 microsatellite markers. The Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) reactions were successfully done with all primers except for OarHH62 and OarAE64, one locus (CSSM059) was monomorph, whereas the other 9 loci containing CSSM018, CSSM006, BMS1004, BMS2361, BMS744, BMS799, BMS1316, BMS2213 and TGLA122 were polymorph with 6, 6, 4, 4, 5, 4, 2, 3 and 3 number of alleles, respectively. In this population, heterozygosity varied from 0.5 to 0.72; among 9 polymorphic loci, BMS1316 and BMS2361 had the most and the least diversity, respectively. The study of Shannon Index and Polymorphic Information Content (PIC) indicate the least and the most values for BMS1316 and BMS2213 loci, respectively. The most number of actual alleles were belong to CSSM018 and CSSM006 loci with 6 alleles and the least was belong to BMS1316 locus with 2 alleles. BMS2361 locus had the most and BMS1316 locus had the least number of effective alleles. All loci were at Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (p< 0.005). In this population, average heterozygosity was estimated as 0.54. In general, it can be concluded that Balouchi sheep population of Abbasabad station in Mashad (in Iran) has approximately high genetic diversity with respect to the studied microsatellites and microsatellite markers have approximately high polymorphism and therefore can be used for genetic studies.

Zahedi- Zahra; S. Esmaeelkhanian; R. Vaez Torshizi

2007-01-01

91

The content of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomer groups in milk of two Polish sheep breeds determined by silver ion liquid chromatography (Ag(+)-HPLC).  

Science.gov (United States)

Sheep milk is rich in CLA isomers which are biologically active components influencing human health. There are four geometric CLA isomer pairs: cis, trans; trans, cis; trans, trans and cis, cis. The aim of the present study was the analysis of CLA isomer groups content by Ag+-HPLC in milk fat of Zelazne?ska (ZS) and Wrzosówka (WS) sheep breeds. The ewes of both breeds were kept under the same environmental and nutritional conditions. Milk samples were collected from 60 suckling ewes (30 from each breed), at the age of 3-4 years and in their 4th week of lactation. A higher total amount of all CLA isomer groups was obtained in milk of ZS ewes, however, this result was statistically insignificant. The percentage of the main c9, t11 isomer in total CLA was higher in Wrzosówka milk (68% vs. 74%). The content of the trans, trans isomer group in milk fat of the studied breeds was similar. The percentage of this group in total CLA in milk of WS and ZS constitutes 7.2% and 7.7%, respectively. The amount of cis,cis isomers in milk fat of ZS was higher thanWS (P < or = 0.01). PMID:23767301

Rozbicka-Wieczorek, Agnieszka; Radzik-Rant, Aurelia; Rant, Witold; Czauderna, Marian

2013-01-01

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The content of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomer groups in milk of two Polish sheep breeds determined by silver ion liquid chromatography (Ag(+)-HPLC).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Sheep milk is rich in CLA isomers which are biologically active components influencing human health. There are four geometric CLA isomer pairs: cis, trans; trans, cis; trans, trans and cis, cis. The aim of the present study was the analysis of CLA isomer groups content by Ag+-HPLC in milk fat of Zelazne?ska (ZS) and Wrzosówka (WS) sheep breeds. The ewes of both breeds were kept under the same environmental and nutritional conditions. Milk samples were collected from 60 suckling ewes (30 from each breed), at the age of 3-4 years and in their 4th week of lactation. A higher total amount of all CLA isomer groups was obtained in milk of ZS ewes, however, this result was statistically insignificant. The percentage of the main c9, t11 isomer in total CLA was higher in Wrzosówka milk (68% vs. 74%). The content of the trans, trans isomer group in milk fat of the studied breeds was similar. The percentage of this group in total CLA in milk of WS and ZS constitutes 7.2% and 7.7%, respectively. The amount of cis,cis isomers in milk fat of ZS was higher thanWS (P < or = 0.01).

Rozbicka-Wieczorek A; Radzik-Rant A; Rant W; Czauderna M

2013-01-01

93

Impact of strong selection for the PrP major gene on genetic variability of four French sheep breeds (Open Access publication)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Effective selection on the PrP gene has been implemented since October 2001 in all French sheep breeds. After four years, the ARR "resistant" allele frequency increased by about 35% in young males. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of this strong selection on genetic variability. It is focussed on four French sheep breeds and based on the comparison of two groups of 94 animals within each breed: the first group of animals was born before the selection began, and the second, 3–4 years later. Genetic variability was assessed using genealogical and molecular data (29 microsatellite markers). The expected loss of genetic variability on the PrP gene was confirmed. Moreover, among the five markers located in the PrP region, only the three closest ones were affected. The evolution of the number of alleles, heterozygote deficiency within population, expected heterozygosity and the Reynolds distances agreed with the criteria from pedigree and pointed out that neutral genetic variability was not much affected. This trend depended on breed, i.e. on their initial states (population size, PrP frequencies) and on the selection strategies for improving scrapie resistance while carrying out selection for production traits.

Palhiere Isabelle; Brochard Mickaël; Moazami-Goudarzi Katayoun; Laloë Denis; Amigues Yves; Bed'hom Bertrand; Neuts Étienne; Leymarie Cyril; Pantano Thais; Cribiu Edmond; Bibé Bernard; Verrier Étienne

2008-01-01

94

Somatic cell banking - An alternative technology for the conservation of endangered sheep breeds  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Skin samples from ear pinna of 10 male and 10 female sheep were collected and cultured in DMEM+Ham's F12 nutrient medium. Cell viability was 95 to 100% in different cultures. Mean cell proliferation rates were 0.94-0.67 and 1.15-0.56 for males and females in different passages, respectively. Cell proliferation rates were highest in first passage and then showed an age-related decline. Average cell doubling time was 30 h in males and 29.6 h in females. Skin fibroblast cell growth curves were in lag phase for the first 2 days, entered log phase (3rd to 7th days) and plateaued on day 8. Diploid chromosomal counts in proliferating cells up to the 5th passage were normal (2N=54), with no gross chromosomal aberrations recorded. Cells frozen from cycling cells at 80-90% confluency showed superior post-thaw growth compared with cells from overconfluent cultures. DMSO at 10% (v/v) in freezing media was optimal. Controlled-rate freezing at -1 deg. C/min showed better post-thaw cell viability and growth potential. Direct plating of thawed cells without removing DMSO and other contents of the freezing medium gave better post-thaw survival and proliferation rates. (author)

2005-01-01

95

Hormone profiles and haematological characteristics during oestrous cycle, pregnancy and lactation in Egyptian breeds of sheep  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Cyclic animals showed an increase around oestrus in rectal temperature (RT), serum protein, blood total leucocyte counts and neutrophils, and plasma cortisol and thyroxine (T4). This was accompanied by a decline in blood haemoglobin (Hb) and lymphocytes and in plasma progesterone levels. The lower incidence of oestrous activity during the spring season was associated with higher average plasma progesterone levels. The seasonal changes in plasma cortisol and T4 were noted only in Rahmani ewes. In the pregnant animals there was a gradual decline in blood glucose, Hb and serum proteins, with minimum values at parturition. This was associated with a decline in plasma osmolality and an increase in plasma aldosterone during the second half of gestation. There was a rise in plasma cortisol, accompanied by a rise in blood total leucocyte counts and neutrophils and a decline in lymphocytes two weeks before parturition, showing a peak on day of lambing. Plasma T4 and triiodothyronine (T3) declined particularly during late pregnancy. Progesterone concentration increased with the advance of pregnancy, showing a sharp rise after the third month and a sharp decline during the week before parturition. Plasma progesterone level can be used successfully for the early diagnosis of pregnancy. Summer pregnancy was associated with a decrease in the overall mean plasma T4, and an increase in plasma osmolality, aldosterone, progesterone and cortisol; these seasonal changes were noted only in the Rahmani ewes. Plasma cortisol and T3 were low during early lactation, tended to rise around mid-lactation to late lactation, and were negatively related to levels of milk production. Present results suggest that the temperate evolved Rahmani is more sensitive to unfavourable environmental conditions than the desert adapted Barki breed. 39 refs, 5 figs

1988-01-01

96

Technical note: A simplified PCR-based assay for the characterization of two prolactin variants that affect milk traits in sheep breeds.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In the present study, a rapid and cost-effective PCR-based assay was developed for the genetic identification of 2 different variants within intron 2 of the prolactin gene. This polymorphism has previously been associated with milk traits in some ovine breeds and was recently proposed as a potential marker for future breeding schemes in dairy sheep. Until now, 2 alleles (A and B) have been identified by PCR-RFLP that included HaeIII digestion of a 2.5-kb PCR fragment. By partial sequencing of the prolactin gene intron 2, it was found that the B variant results from a 23-bp deletion of the A variant of the prolactin gene and not from an extra HaeIII digestion site, as had been reported. This finding assisted the design of new primers for analysis of prolactin intron 2 variants based on the size of an easily amplified short PCR product, thereby avoiding the need and cost for additional digestions. The method was validated by genotyping 80 animals from 2 breeds and showed 100% sensitivity and specificity compared with the PCR-RFLP assay. The established simplified PCR assay was then successfully used to genotype 356 Chios sheep.

Orford M; Tzamaloukas O; Papachristoforou C; Miltiadou D

2010-12-01

97

Technical note: A simplified PCR-based assay for the characterization of two prolactin variants that affect milk traits in sheep breeds.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the present study, a rapid and cost-effective PCR-based assay was developed for the genetic identification of 2 different variants within intron 2 of the prolactin gene. This polymorphism has previously been associated with milk traits in some ovine breeds and was recently proposed as a potential marker for future breeding schemes in dairy sheep. Until now, 2 alleles (A and B) have been identified by PCR-RFLP that included HaeIII digestion of a 2.5-kb PCR fragment. By partial sequencing of the prolactin gene intron 2, it was found that the B variant results from a 23-bp deletion of the A variant of the prolactin gene and not from an extra HaeIII digestion site, as had been reported. This finding assisted the design of new primers for analysis of prolactin intron 2 variants based on the size of an easily amplified short PCR product, thereby avoiding the need and cost for additional digestions. The method was validated by genotyping 80 animals from 2 breeds and showed 100% sensitivity and specificity compared with the PCR-RFLP assay. The established simplified PCR assay was then successfully used to genotype 356 Chios sheep. PMID:21094774

Orford, M; Tzamaloukas, O; Papachristoforou, C; Miltiadou, D

2010-12-01

98

Effects of Water Deprivation and Season on Some Biochemical Constituents of Blood in Awassi and Najdi Sheep Breeds in Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The effect of water deprivation and rehydration on some of blood constituents during different seasons in two local sheep breeds of Saudi Arabia, Awassi and Najdi, was investigated. Water deprivation induced significant (P<0.01) elevations in packed cell volume, plasma osmolality, total protein, sodium, creatinine and urea levels which were progressively increased with advance of water deprivation. Moreover, these responses were more pronounced during summer. Glucose levels tended to increase only following three days of water deprivation during summer. Both breeds responded to water deprivation in a similar manner during winter and spring seasons. On the other hand, Najdi breed had consistently higher responses during summer dehydration period particularly for plasma sodium and urea. Rehydration resulted in decline in the determined parameters, but more time was needed to regain normal levels during spring and summer. These results might suggest that there was not any differences in withstanding ability to water deprivation during winter and spring between the two breeds, however Awassi breed might have a better tolerance to dehydration during hot summer.

Mohammed Alamer

2005-01-01

99

Quantifying avoidance-related behaviour and bleeding times of sheep of different ages, sex and breeds slaughtered at a municipal and a commercial abattoirs  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english The effect of abattoir type, age, sheep breed and sex on avoidance-related behaviour and bleeding times at slaughter were determined. Castrates and ewes of different age groups and breeds were used. From the commercial abattoir, 90 castrates and 110 ewes were used while 66 castrates and 19 ewes were obtained from the municipal abattoir. Avoidance-related behaviour and bleeding times differed with abattoir type and age classes. Animals slaughtered at the commercial abattoi (more) r were calmer and had shorter bleeding times (61 ± 1.16 s) than those slaughtered at the municipal abattoir which had a mean bleeding time of 74.2 ± 2.11 s. Older animals were calmer and had longer bleeding times (67.5 ± 1.82 s) than the younger animals which had a mean bleeding time of 61.6 ± 2.64 s. Avoidance-related behaviour also differed with breed and the sex of the animals with Merino and Dorper + Merino crosses being the calmer than the pure Dorper breed. About 95% of ewes were calmer than the castrates. It can be concluded that abattoir type, age, breed and sex have an effect on animal behaviour at slaughter. Only abattoir type and sex had an effect on bleeding times.

Njisane, Y.Z.; Muchenje, V.

2013-07-01

100

Zoneamento bioclimático da ovinocultura no Estado do Paraná Bioclimatical zoning of sheep breeding in the State of Parana  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Utilizaram-se 45 fêmeas ovinas adultas (15 Hampshire Down [HD], 15 Texel [TE] e 15 Ile de France [IF]), para propor um zoneamento bioclimático da ovinocultura no Estado do Paraná. Mediram-se a temperatura retal (Tr), da epiderme (Te), do interior do velo (Tiv) e da superfície do velo (Tsv); a frequência respiratória (Fr); a temperatura do ar (Ta), pressão de vapor (e), velocidade do vento (v) e carga térmica radiante (CTR). O Índice de Conforto Térmico utilizado foi ICT= 0,6678Ta + 0,4969e + 0,5444Tg + 0,1038v. A regressão do ICT sobre Tr mostrou efeito quadrático para as três raças. Para ICT=24,3, 27,3 e 20,6, os valores de Tr foram respectivamente: 39,10ºC para a raça HD, 39,05ºC para TE e 39,09ºC para IF, atingindo 40,40; 40,50; e 40,28ºC, respectivamente, para ICT=58. As três raças aumentaram sua Tr a partir de ICT=26, com a TE apresentando menor Tr até o valor ICT=46; neste ponto, as três raças foram semelhantes, tendo a TE apresentado maiores valores. Para ICT igual a 27,6; 29,7; e 27,0, os valores de Fr foram, respectivamente, 89,63; 77,08; e 78,77 resp./min., para as raças HD, TE e IF. A raça TE apresentou menor Fr (77,08 resp./min.), para ICT=29,7 e para ICT=48, valores semelhantes aos da IF (181,96 resp./min.); a partir deste índice, passou a ser maior que as demais raças, atingindo valores de 288,66 resp./min. no ICT=56, porém inferior à HD (289,01 resp./min.). Neste índice, a raça IF foi a que apresentou a menor Fr (275,72 resp./min.). Uma extensa faixa ao longo do litoral do Estado, entrando cerca de 200 km para o interior até os limites das cidades de Castro, Telêmaco Borba, Laranjeiras do Sul e Pato Branco, permite a criação das três raças, sem exigir grandes esforços de termorregulação.Forty five adult ewes were used, 15 for each of the three breeds: Hampshire Down (HD), Texel (TE) and Ile de France (IF). These animals were measured for rectal temperature (Rt), skin temperature (St), fleece temperature (Ft), temperature of the coat surface (Cst) and respiratory rate (Rr), Air temperature (At), air vapour pressure (Avp), wind speed (Ws), globe temperature (Gt) and radiant heat load (Rhl) were also recorded. The Thermal Comfort Index equation was used: TCI = 0.6678Ta + 0.4969e + 0.5444Tg + 0.1038v. Regression of TCI on Rt showed quadratic effect for the three breeds. For a TCI = 24.3, 27.3 and 20.6, Rt values were: 39.10ºC, for HD, 39.05ºC for TE, and 39.09ºC; for IF sheeps and for TCI=58, these values were respectively 40.40ºC, 40.50ºC and 40.28ºC. All the animals presented increased Rt under theses index, with Texel showed the least Rt for TCI=46, but was the only group with higher Rt values for TCI>48. For TCI=27.6, 29.7 and 27.0, Fr values were respectively: 89.63 resp./min. for HD, 77.08 resp./min. for TE and 78.77 resp./min. for IF. TE presented smaller Rr (77.08 resp./min.), for TCI=29.7, and values similar to IF (179.63 resp./min.), under TCI=48. After this level TE values were higher than those of the other breeds, reaching 288.66 resp./min. for TCI=56, but inferior that HD (289.01 resp./min.); IF, presented lower Rr (275.72 resp./min.). An extensive strip of land along the Parana State coast, heading inland 200 km up to the borders Castro, Telêmaco Borba, Laranjeiras do Sul and Pato Branco cities, allows the creation of the three breeds.

Orlando Rus Barbosa; Francisco de Assis Fonseca de Macedo; Roland Van de Groes; José Maurício Franco Guedes

2001-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Zoneamento bioclimático da ovinocultura no Estado do Paraná/ Bioclimatical zoning of sheep breeding in the State of Parana  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Utilizaram-se 45 fêmeas ovinas adultas (15 Hampshire Down [HD], 15 Texel [TE] e 15 Ile de France [IF]), para propor um zoneamento bioclimático da ovinocultura no Estado do Paraná. Mediram-se a temperatura retal (Tr), da epiderme (Te), do interior do velo (Tiv) e da superfície do velo (Tsv); a frequência respiratória (Fr); a temperatura do ar (Ta), pressão de vapor (e), velocidade do vento (v) e carga térmica radiante (CTR). O Índice de Conforto Térmico utilizado (more) foi ICT= 0,6678Ta + 0,4969e + 0,5444Tg + 0,1038v. A regressão do ICT sobre Tr mostrou efeito quadrático para as três raças. Para ICT=24,3, 27,3 e 20,6, os valores de Tr foram respectivamente: 39,10ºC para a raça HD, 39,05ºC para TE e 39,09ºC para IF, atingindo 40,40; 40,50; e 40,28ºC, respectivamente, para ICT=58. As três raças aumentaram sua Tr a partir de ICT=26, com a TE apresentando menor Tr até o valor ICT=46; neste ponto, as três raças foram semelhantes, tendo a TE apresentado maiores valores. Para ICT igual a 27,6; 29,7; e 27,0, os valores de Fr foram, respectivamente, 89,63; 77,08; e 78,77 resp./min., para as raças HD, TE e IF. A raça TE apresentou menor Fr (77,08 resp./min.), para ICT=29,7 e para ICT=48, valores semelhantes aos da IF (181,96 resp./min.); a partir deste índice, passou a ser maior que as demais raças, atingindo valores de 288,66 resp./min. no ICT=56, porém inferior à HD (289,01 resp./min.). Neste índice, a raça IF foi a que apresentou a menor Fr (275,72 resp./min.). Uma extensa faixa ao longo do litoral do Estado, entrando cerca de 200 km para o interior até os limites das cidades de Castro, Telêmaco Borba, Laranjeiras do Sul e Pato Branco, permite a criação das três raças, sem exigir grandes esforços de termorregulação. Abstract in english Forty five adult ewes were used, 15 for each of the three breeds: Hampshire Down (HD), Texel (TE) and Ile de France (IF). These animals were measured for rectal temperature (Rt), skin temperature (St), fleece temperature (Ft), temperature of the coat surface (Cst) and respiratory rate (Rr), Air temperature (At), air vapour pressure (Avp), wind speed (Ws), globe temperature (Gt) and radiant heat load (Rhl) were also recorded. The Thermal Comfort Index equation was used: TC (more) I = 0.6678Ta + 0.4969e + 0.5444Tg + 0.1038v. Regression of TCI on Rt showed quadratic effect for the three breeds. For a TCI = 24.3, 27.3 and 20.6, Rt values were: 39.10ºC, for HD, 39.05ºC for TE, and 39.09ºC; for IF sheeps and for TCI=58, these values were respectively 40.40ºC, 40.50ºC and 40.28ºC. All the animals presented increased Rt under theses index, with Texel showed the least Rt for TCI=46, but was the only group with higher Rt values for TCI>48. For TCI=27.6, 29.7 and 27.0, Fr values were respectively: 89.63 resp./min. for HD, 77.08 resp./min. for TE and 78.77 resp./min. for IF. TE presented smaller Rr (77.08 resp./min.), for TCI=29.7, and values similar to IF (179.63 resp./min.), under TCI=48. After this level TE values were higher than those of the other breeds, reaching 288.66 resp./min. for TCI=56, but inferior that HD (289.01 resp./min.); IF, presented lower Rr (275.72 resp./min.). An extensive strip of land along the Parana State coast, heading inland 200 km up to the borders Castro, Telêmaco Borba, Laranjeiras do Sul and Pato Branco cities, allows the creation of the three breeds.

Barbosa, Orlando Rus; Macedo, Francisco de Assis Fonseca de; Groes, Roland Van de; Guedes, José Maurício Franco

2001-04-01

102

Reproductive pattern of local sheep in Egypt with special reference to the effects of breed, season and management  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The effect of season on ovulation has been monitored in two local breeds of Egyptian ewes - the Barki (desert type), and the Rahmani (fat tailed Nile valley breed), by sequentially measuring cyclic changes in plasma progesterone concentration throughout a period of one year in the absence of any possible ram effect. The modal length of the ovulatory cycle was 17-18 days for both breeds, with the progesterone concentration peaking around day 11. No effect of season on progesterone concentration was apparent for the Barki breed but in the Rahmani, progesterone values were lower (P

1988-01-01

103

Effect of pre-slaughter conditions on physico-chemical characteristics of mutton from three sheep breeds slaughtered at a smallholder rural abattoir  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english The effects of pre-slaughter conditions and breed on physico-chemical characteristics of mutton were determined. The study was conducted at Adelaide Municipal abattoir in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. Records were taken from 84 sheep from the South African Mutton Merino, Blackhead Persian and Dorper breeds as identified on arrival at the abattoir. The South African Mutton Merino (SAMM) had the highest values for meat pH at 24 hours (pH24) (5.9 ± 0.64), lightne (more) ss; L* (34.2 ± 0.97), yellowness; b* (12.2 ± 0.50) and Warner-Braztler shear force WBSF (26.8 ± 1.51). Linear relationships were also observed between pre-slaughter variables and physico-chemical characteristics of mutton. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) showed a large variation being contributed by meat pH24 and L*. It was therefore concluded that, transport time and lairage duration negatively affected the quality of mutton. Furthermore, breed affected the physico-chemical characteristics of meat.

Chulayo, A.Y.; Muchenje, V.

2013-07-01

104

EVALUATION OF DORSET, FINNSHEEP, ROMANOV, TEXEL AND MONTADALE BREEDS OF SHEEP: III. WOOL CHARACTERISTICS OF F1 EWES  

Science.gov (United States)

An experiment was designed to evaluate the effects of five sire breeds (Dorset, Finnsheep, Romanov, Texel, and Montadale), two dam breeds (Composite III (CIII) and northwestern whiteface (WF)), and three shearing seasons (December, February, and April; corresponding to August, October, and December ...

105

Cholesterol Metabolism in Brain and Skin Fibroblasts from Sarda Breed Sheep With Scrapie-resistant and Scrapie-susceptible Genotypes  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Scrapie is a fatal spongiform encephalopathy of sheep, a transmissible form of prion disease caused by neuronal accumulation of the aberrantly conformed prion protein (PrPsc). Currently, no ante-mortem diagnostic tests are available to detect this untreatable disease in the pre-clinical stage...

Alessandra Pani; Claudia Abete; Claudia Norfo; Claudia Mulas; Marirosa Putzolu; Sergio Laconi; M. Dolores Cannas

106

Actividades emprendidas para recuperar y preservar la raza ovina Churra Tensina/ Undertaken activities to recover and preserve the Churra Tensina sheep breed  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish En el caso de la raza Churra Tensina, en peligro de extinción y originaria del Pirineo Oscense, se realizó una prospección de individuos y una caracterización del sistema productivo a través de encuestas a ganaderos, definiéndose explotaciones de mediano tamaño que tienen su continuidad garantizada. Se estudió la morfología racial a partir de medidas zoométricas y caracteres fanerópticos de los animales inscritos en la Asociación (ATURA), lo que permitió clas (more) ificar la raza como mediolínea, dolicocéfala y eumétrica. Se estudiaron los parámetros productivos y reproductivos, así como la calidad de canal y carne de los tipos de cordero lechal, ternasco y pastenco, confirmando su viabilidad comercial. La caracterización genética mostró una raza homogénea, con niveles altos de variabilidad genética y bajos de consanguinidad. Finalmente, se han creado bancos de semen y embriones, estando representados los distintos genotipos de resistencia a Scrapie. La evolución positiva del censo en los últimos 10 años, añadida a la viabilidad de sus productos comerciales, garantiza la preservación de la Churra Tensina y de determinados sistemas ganaderos ligados a la tierra. Abstract in english This work aims to present the research activities in the Churra Tensina sheep breed, raised on the mountain area of Huesca Pyrenees. The population structure was prospected and the farming system was characterized through surveys to farmers. The animal morphology was studied through zoometric measurements and phaneroptic characters assessment of the individuals belonging to the breeders' Association (ATURA), showing a mediolineous, dolicocephalous and eumetric breed. The (more) productive and reproductive parameters were analysed, and the commercial value of the suckling, light and heavy lamb categories was confirmed. The genetic studies showed that Churra Tensina is an homogeneous breed, with high genetic variability and low inbreeding. This breed was self-genetic differentiated, and has no crossbreeding with other Churro group populations. Finally, semen and embryos banks were established, being the different Scrapie resistance genotypes represented. The increasing census evolution in the past 10 years and the observed commercial viability assure the long term maintenance of this breed in their original location.

Sanz, A.; Calvo, J.H.; Martí., J.I.; Alabart, J.L.; Joy, M.; Ripoll, G.; Álvarez-Rodríguez, J.

2011-09-01

107

Sheep colon acellular matrix: Immunohistologic, biomechanical, scanning electron microscopic evaluation and collagen quantification.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Colon decellularization provides three-dimensional biologic scaffold without any cell elements with preservation of extracellular matrix in order to enable autologous cell seeding for tissue augmentation without any immunological response. This study was performed to investigate the safety and feasibility of sheep colon decellularization as a first step of colon tissue engineering. The process of sheep colon decellularization was done in four stages which included scaffold preparation, histologic examination and microscopic investigations to reveal the remaining cellular deposits, biomechanical evaluation and collagen quantification studies by measurement of hydroxyproline content of normal and decellularized sheep colon. Decellularized colon scaffold revealed complete cell removal under a light microscope while 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole, di-hydrochloride (DAPI) staining confirmed no deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) residues. Decellularized colon displayed preserved ultrastructure, comparable biophysical properties (resistance to unidirectional stretch forces) and higher hydroxyproline content. The results of biomechanical tests proved that the decellularized matrix did not bear any unexpected damages or structural changes which would make it unable to tolerate in vivo forces and stretches. The microscopic images captured after staining the tissue with Picro-sirius red also showed that the collagen in extracellular matrix is well preserved; this was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy. This implies that the scaffold prepared by this method is suitable for tissue augmentation or transplantation.

Kajbafzadeh AM; Masoumi A; Hosseini M; Borjian MA; Akbarzadeh A; Mohseni MJ

2013-08-01

108

Wall-loss distribution of charge breeding ions in an electron cyclotron resonance ion source.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The ion loss distribution in an electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) was investigated to understand the element dependence of the charge breeding efficiency in an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) charge breeder. The radioactive (111)In(1+) and (140)Xe(1+) ions (typical nonvolatile and volatile elements, respectively) were injected into the ECR charge breeder at the Tokai Radioactive Ion Accelerator Complex to breed their charge states. Their respective residual activities on the sidewall of the cylindrical plasma chamber of the source were measured after charge breeding as functions of the azimuthal angle and longitudinal position and two-dimensional distributions of ions lost during charge breeding in the ECRIS were obtained. These distributions had different azimuthal symmetries. The origins of these different azimuthal symmetries are qualitatively discussed by analyzing the differences and similarities in the observed wall-loss patterns. The implications for improving the charge breeding efficiencies of nonvolatile elements in ECR charge breeders are described. The similarities represent universal ion loss characteristics in an ECR charge breeder, which are different from the loss patterns of electrons on the ECRIS wall.

Jeong SC; Oyaizu M; Imai N; Hirayama Y; Ishiyama H; Miyatake H; Niki K; Okada M; Watanabe YX; Otokawa Y; Osa A; Ichikawa S

2011-03-01

109

Effect of breed of female local sheep on blood biochemical and sexual hormonal levels during mating, pregnancy and lactation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The present study was carried out to determine the effect of ewes breeds on some blood biochemical and hormones levels during mating, pregnancy and post.partum periods. A total number of 42 ewes, 1.5 . 3.5 years of age with body weight ranged between 45 to 55 kg from breeding flock in Research Farm of Nuclear Research Centre, Atomic Energy Authority were used in this study. Animals were divided into two groups according to their breed. The first group included 18 Ossimi breed ewes and the second group included 24 Rahmani breed ewes. Blood samples were collected from both breed at 10, 20, 30, 50, 100, 120, 140, and 145 days up to parturitions and at 30 and 60 days of post. partum. Serum total lipids and cholesterol, progesterone (P4) and estradiol . 17? (E2) were determined. It was found that Ossimi ewes had lower level of both sexual hormones than Rahmani once. Plasma progesterone and estradiol-17 ? levels increased gradually as pregnancy time passed reaching its maximum level at the 140th day of the pregnancy period in Rahmani and Ossimi, then decreased during the last 5 days. Additionally, Rahmani ewes had relatively higher mean values of estradiol-17 ? at 30th and 60th days compared with Ossime ewes. While, the least squares mean of progesterone decreased in Rahmani ewes compared with Ossime ewes at the same time of estimation. Ossimi ewes having higher means of total lipids (L) and cholesterol (C) than in Rahmani ewes while, the values of L/C ratio were found to be higher in Rahmani ewes than Ossimi ones. Total lipids level increased gradually from Farghaly et al., J. Rad. Res. Appl. Sci., Vol. 1318 4, No. 4(B) (2011) 10th days of pregnancy from 273.09 and 267.75mg/dI to 342.92 and 338.9 mg/dl in 145th days in Ossimi and Rahmani ewes, respectively. Similarly, the levels of cholesterol were 93.49 and 90.35 mg /dl in 10th days of pregnancy and 134.79 and 141.81 mg/dl in 145th days of pregnancy for Ossimi and Rahmani ewes, respectively. The same trend was found for the plasma value of L/G ratio due to the effect of days of pregnancy

2011-01-01

110

Role of self-sufficiency, productivity and diversification on the economic sustainability of farming systems with autochthonous sheep breeds in less favoured areas in Southern Europe.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Traditional mixed livestock cereal- and pasture-based sheep farming systems in Europe are threatened by intensification and specialisation processes. However, the intensification process does not always yield improved economic results or efficiency. This study involved a group of farmers that raised an autochthonous sheep breed (Ojinegra de Teruel) in an unfavourable area of North-East Spain. This study aimed to typify the farms and elucidate the existing links between economic performance and certain sustainability indicators (i.e. productivity, self-sufficiency and diversification). Information was obtained through direct interviews with 30 farms (73% of the farmers belonging to the breeders association). Interviews were conducted in 2009 and involved 32 indicators regarding farm structure, management and economic performance. With a principal component analysis, three factors were obtained explaining 77.9% of the original variance. This factors were named as inputs/self-sufficiency, which included the use of on-farm feeds, the amount of variable costs per ewe and economic performance; productivity, which included lamb productivity and economic autonomy; and productive orientation, which included the degree of specialisation in production. A cluster analysis identified the following four groups of farms: high-input intensive system; low-input self-sufficient system; specialised livestock system; and diversified crops-livestock system. In conclusion, despite the large variability between and within groups, the following factors that explain the economic profitability of farms were identified: (i) high feed self-sufficiency and low variable costs enhance the economic performance (per labour unit) of the farms; (ii) animal productivity reduces subsidy dependence, but does not necessarily imply better economic performance; and (iii) diversity of production enhances farm flexibility, but is not related to economic performance.

Ripoll-Bosch R; Joy M; Bernués A

2013-04-01

111

Oestrous behaviour and ovarian activity in D'man and Sardi breeds of Moroccan sheep under normal and experimental photoperiods  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The effect of photoperiod on sexual activity was investigated in Sardi and D'man ewes. Twenty ewes from each breed were subjected to an experimental photoperiod corresponding to latitude 56 deg. N. Control ewes (12 per breed) were maintained under natural photoperiod (32 deg. N). Behavioural oestrus and ovarian activity were monitored using penis deviated rams and plasma progesterone levels. Preliminary results from this study show that an increase in amplitude of photoperiod variations causes a decrease in the expression of oestrous behaviour in D'man ewes during the period of decreasing daylight. Ovarian activity remained unchanged. Sardi ewes were not markedly affected by change in photoperiod. (author). 13 refs, 3 figs, 1 tab

1988-01-01

112

Fatty acid composition of lambs of indigenous dairy Greek breeds of sheep as affected by post-weaning nutritional management and weight at slaughter.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The objective was to assess the effect of breed, sex, post-weaning nutrition and weight at slaughter on the fatty acids (FA) composition in carcass fat of lambs of indigenous Greek dairy breeds of sheep, the Boutsko (B), Serres (S) and Karagouniko (K) breed. The lambs (weaned at approximately 42 days) had been reared under different conditions of housing and feeding in three consecutive experiments (Experiment). In Experiment 1, lambs (n = 120) were individually penned and fed ad libitum on a concentrate feed (11.3 MJ metabolisable energy (ME)/kg DM and 192 g crude protein (CP)/kg DM) together with 100 g/day of Lucerne hay (8.3 MJ ME/kg DM and 182 g CP/kg DM). In Experiment 2, lambs (n = 108) were fed the same concentrate on 3 different levels: High (H), Medium (M) and Low (L) and ad libitum on Lucerne hay. In Experiment 3, lambs (n = 108) were initially group fed indoors for 63 days on 3 different levels of concentrate (H, M and L) together with ad libitum Lucerne hay. Thereafter they were finished on irrigated, sown pasture. Lambs were slaughtered at one of 5 standard proportions of mature weight (PMW) for each breed in Experiment 1 (i.e. 0.20, 0.30, 0.45, 0.60 and 0.90); at 3 fixed live weights in Experiment 2 (TSLW; i.e. 23, 28 and 33 kg) and at 3 fixed PMW in Experiment 3 (PMW; i.e. 0.20, 0.48 and 0.54). The right hand side of their carcasses was minced and a random sample, around 200 g, was taken. It was freeze-dried and then grounded to obtain a quantity of 2 g for lipid extraction and preparation of fatty acid methyl esters, which were assayed by gas-liquid chromatography to identify. Results were analysed separately for each experiment by analysis of variance. In Experiment 1, breed of lambs had significant effects (P < 0.001) on C14:0, C16:0, C17:0, C18:2, C18:3 and C18:1 (P < 0.05), whereas sex affected only the percentage of C15:0, C16:1 (P < 0.001), C18:0 (P < 0.01) and C18:2 (P < 0.05). Live weight of lambs at slaughter had significant effects (P < 0.05-0.001) on all the fatty acids. In Experiment 2, with the exception of C18:0 and C20:0, all other fatty acids were significantly affected by Breed (P < 0.05-0.001). However, only C17:0, C18:0, C18:1 and C18:2 were significantly (P < 0.001) affected by the level of concentrates in the diet. The major finding in Experiment 3 was the trend for saturated fatty acids to be lower; possibly due to the fact that lambs finished at pasture. It is concluded that there are possibilities of modifying FA composition in carcass fat of lambs by manipulation of post-weaning nutrition and slaughtering them at a wide range of live weights.

Arsenos G; Kufidis D; Zygoyiannis D; Katsaounis N; Stamataris C

2006-05-01

113

Electronic measurement of tritium breeding in a fusion blanket assembly  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The tritium production rate (TPR) distribution in a fusion blanket assembly previously determined from measurements of tritium beta activity was remeasured using an independent electronic method. The results agreed within the experimental errors and confirmed the previously reported discrepancies with predictions based on three-dimensional Monte Carlo calculations and multigroup cross sections. The experimental agreement reduced the possibility that results based on the conventional chemical separation of the tritium produce could be subject to a common systematic error and confirmed the validity of the electronic method for TPR measurement.

Dalton, A.W.

1989-01-01

114

ASSESSMENTS REGARDING SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPEMENT ON ECOECONOMIC AND BIOECONOMIC PRINCIPLES, OF THE LOCAL COMMUNITIES IN THE SHEEP BREEDING VILLAGES FROM “DRUMUL REGELUI” (KING'S ROAD)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Purpose of the research is knowing the current status of pastoral villages in the mountain area of our country. Methods and materials: sociological inquiries among the inhabitants of pastoral villages, comparative study of existing monographs. Importance of the work: it presents the current natural and human heritage of the pastoral village, from "the Kings Road" in the context of sustainable development of mountain area, Marginime Sibiu, directly related to the main occupation of residents: sheep breeding. Kings Road was created to improve road links across the Carpathians between Transylvania and the eastern and southern parts of the country. This road passed through villages S?li?te Tili?ca, Rod, Poiana and Jina (Sibiu county), ?ugag (Alba). Then he made contact with "high road" Sebes River valley upstream to Lotrului originated from there, over mountains Latoritei, Parang and the Capatanii, to Novaci town (Gorj county). The road was opened in 1935 by King Carol II and was considered a great technical achievement, with important economic, strategic and military. Rehabilitation of this road which crosses three counties would lead to exploitation by the rural tourism of natural and anthropogenic pastoral villages he passed by.

Mirela STANCIU; Gligor CIORTEA; Camelia SAND; Iulian VLAD; Iuliana ANTONIE; Maria T?NASE; Robert BLAJ

2012-01-01

115

Ecuaciones predictoras de la composición tisular de la canal en dos razas ovinas canarias/ Predicting equations for tisular composition in carcass of two Canary sheep breeds  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Se estudiaron dos razas ovinas locales: la Canaria y la Canaria de Pelo. Los animales se criaron en sistema intensivo. Se consideraron dos pesos vivos de sacrificio (15,30 ± 0,67 y 24,23 ± 0,69 kg) y dos sexos. Se determinaron las correlaciones entre los porcentajes de los tejidos de la canal y los de las piezas obtenidas de la media canal izquierda. Se obtuvieron ecuaciones para predecir la composición tisular de la canal, a partir de las piezas con mejores coeficient (more) es de regresión. El costillar fue la pieza que mejor predijo el músculo y la grasa. La pierna fue mejor predictora para el hueso. Abstract in english Two local sheep breeds were studied: the Canarian and the Canarian Haired. Animals were intensively reared. Two slaughter weights were considered (15 and 24 kg live weight). Correlations among carcass tissue percentage and tissue percentage in the seven joints in the left halfcarcass were obtained. Equations were obtained to predict carcass tissue composition using most correlated joints. Ribs was the best predictor joint of muscle and fat. Leg was the best predictor of bone.

Camacho, A.; Pérez, V.; Mata, J.; Bermejo, L.A.

2011-12-01

116

Application of Random Regression Model to Estimate Genetic Parameters for Average Daily Gains in Lori-Bakhtiari Sheep Breed of Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A random regression model was applied to estimate (co) variances, heritabilities and additive genetic correlations among average daily gains. The data was a total of 10876 records belonging to 1828 lambs (progenies of 123 sires and 743 dams) born between 1995 and 2001 in a single large size flock of Lori-Bakhtiari sheep breed in Iran. In the model, fixed environmental effects of year-season of birth, sex, birth type, age of dam and random effects of direct and maternal additive genetic and permanent environment were included. Orthogonal polynomial regression (on the Legendre scale) of third order (cubic) was utilized to model the genetic and permanent environmental (co) variance structure throughout the growth trajectory. Direct and maternal heritability estimates of average daily gains ranged from 0.011 to 0.131 and 0.008 to 0.181, respectively in which pre-weaning average daily gain (0-3 in months) had the lowest direct and highest maternal heritability estimates among the other age groups. The highest and lowest positive direct additive genetic correlations were found to be 0.993 and 0.118 between ADG (0-9) and ADG (0-12) and between ADG (0-3) and ADG (0-12), respectively. The direct additive genetic correlations between adjacent age groups were more closely than between remote age groups.

H. Farhangfar; H. Naeemipour; B. Zinvand

2007-01-01

117

Occurrence of congenital disorders in Swiss sheep.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The rates of congenital disorders in Swiss sheep were determined by a questionnaire which was sent to 3,183 members of the Swiss Sheep Breeders' Association. FINDINGS: A total of 993 questionnaires were returned, giving a response rate of 31.2%. Of these, 862 questionnaires originated from farms keeping one of the predominant Swiss sheep breeds: Swiss White Alpine sheep, Brown-Headed Meat sheep, Swiss Black Brown Mountain sheep and Valais Blacknose sheep. During a 10-year-period, entropion was reported in 33.6% of the farms, brachygnathia inferior in 29.5%, abdominal/umbilical hernia in 15.9%, cryptorchidism in 10.5% and torticollis in 10.5%. The most significant difference between the four breeds (P<0.001) occurred for entropion in Swiss White Alpine sheep and Brown-Headed Meat sheep, brachygnathia inferior in Swiss Black Brown Mountain sheep, and scrotal/inguinal hernia in Valais Blacknose sheep. The Swiss White Alpine breed showed a significantly higher animal prevalence of entropion (6.2% in 2011 and 5.5% in 2012) than other breeds (P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate a breed-specific necessity for action, particularly regarding Swiss animal welfare legislation, especially entropion in Swiss White Alpine sheep is concerned. In general, careful selection of breeding stock is to be recommended.

Greber D; Doherr M; Drögemüller C; Steiner A

2013-01-01

118

STUDIES ON RAM EFFECT IN LOHI SHEEP  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The feasibility of using the ram effect to stimulate oestrus/ovulation in Lohi sheep at Sheep Breeding Section of Livestock Production Research Institute, Bahadumagar Distt. Okara was investigated. The experiment was conducted in two phases. In the first phase, a group of 43 ewes was stimulated for the imitation of oestrus through ram effect during the month of August (off breeding season). Eighty four percent ewes exhibited oestrus and were served. During September (normal breeding season) 100% ewes showed oestrus activity. In the second phase, all of the ewes exhibited oestrus activity during December (Off breeding season) and March (normal breeding season). These results indicated that adjacent (four to six weeks before or after) to normal breeding season the “ram effect” are more effective to initiate the oestrus activity in Lohi sheep. Being the first report on Pakistani sheep, more studies on other sheep as well as goat breeds are suggested.

K. Javed, S. M. Hussain1, and M. Afzal1

2004-01-01

119

Status of charge breeding with electron cyclotron resonance ion sources (invited)  

CERN Multimedia

Due to the production methods of exotic nuclei, an efficient acceleration of radioactive ion beams needs charge breeding of weakly charged ions. The upgrade of existing isotope separator on-line facilities (TRIUMF-isotope separation and acceleration, CERN-isotope separation on-line detector, etc.) or the development of projects for the acceleration of radioactive ion beams (GANIL-SPIRAL2, MAFF, EURISOL, etc.) requires charge breeders with high efficiency, fast charge breeding time, low background levels, and high intensity acceptance either in continuous or in pulsed mode. The optimization of these parameters is a challenge for the electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) community and is useful to get a better understanding of plasma physics in ECR ion sources (ECRISs). The ECR charge breeding technique has been developed for more than ten years at LPSC (former ISN) Grenoble, typical 1+rightward arrown+ efficiencies are in the 3%-10% range depending on the nature of the incoming beam (metallic, alkaline, and gaseo...

Lamy, T; Sortais, P; Thuillier, T; 10.1063/1.2149300

2006-01-01

120

Urea concentration in sheep’s milk  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Determining urea concentration in milk is a useful indicator for controlling supply of proteins to organisms, as well as the relationship of energy and protein in the food, thus it is finding more and more ways of practical use. The concentration of urea in milk, along with the feeding process, is influenced by a number of other factors such as: breed, stage and sequence of lactation, body mass, daily production and chemical structure of milk, number of somatic cells, season, milking.The goal of the research was to establish the influence of the breed (Island of Krk, East Frisian), lactation stage (beginning, middle and the end) and the herd (3) to the concentration of urea in milk during lactation.For each breed there has been established daily quantity of milk, protein share and the concentration of urea in milk.Statistical analysis of data was conducted by using General Linear Models procedure, SAS program system (1999).The breed of sheep considerably (P<0.001) influenced daily quantity of milk, protein share and the concentration of urea in the milk.East Frisian sheep produced on average almost double the daily quantities of milk (1070 mL) compared to the Krk sheep (588 mL).Protein share and the urea concentration in Krk sheep milk were higher (5.99 % and 35.97 mg/100 mL) then in the milk of East Frisian sheep (5.12 % and 33.31 mg/100 mL).For both breeds the significant influence of lactation stage to the daily milk quantity has been established (0.001), that is also for the urea concentration in the milk of Krk sheep (0.001), as well as protein share in the milk of East Frisian sheep (0.001).Herd influence significantly affected daily milk quantities (0.001) and concentration of urea in the milk (0.05).The defining of the urea concentration in sheep milk should be occasionally carried out in the Republic of Croatia to establish the standard physiological values typical for the particular sheep breed.

Darija Bendelja; Neven Antunac; Nataša Mikulec; Ivan Vnu?ec; Tomislav Mašek; Željko Mikulec; Jasmina Havranek

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Estimativas de parâmetros genéticos para características de crescimento em ovinos da raça Somalis Brasileira/ Genetic parameters estimates for growth traits in Somalis Brasileira hair sheep breed  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Objetivou-se estimar parâmetros genéticos para características de crescimento em ovinos da raça Somalis Brasileira. Os dados utilizados neste estudo foram provenientes do rebanho da Embrapa Caprinos e Ovinos, localizado na cidade de Sobral - CE. Os dados continham registros de 1.120 animais no arquivo de pedigree. As características analisadas foram: peso ao nascer (PN), peso ao desmame (PD), ganho de peso do nascimento ao desmame (GND) e peso adulto (PA). As estimat (more) ivas dos componentes de (co)variâncias e os parâmetros genéticos foram obtidos pelo método da Máxima Verossimilhança Restrita não Derivativa (DFREML), utilizando o programa MTDFREML. Nas análises unicaracterística, as herdabilidades foram de magnitude baixa a moderada. As magnitudes das herdabilidades maternas foram todas superiores às herdabilidades diretas. As herdabilidades das análises multicaracterísticas entre PN, PD e GND superaram as análises unicaracterísticas. As correlações genéticas apresentaram grande variação quanto aos seus valores. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to estimate genetic parameters for growth traits in Somalis Brasileira hair sheep breed. The data used in this study were from the flock of Embrapa Caprinos and Ovinos, located in the city of Sobral - CE, Brazil. Data contained records of 1,120 animals in the pedigree file. The analyzed traits were birth weight (PN), weaning weight (PD), weight gain from birth to weaning (GND) and adult weight (PA). Estimates of (co)variances and genetic paramete (more) rs were obtained by Derivative Free Restricted Maximum Likelihood Method (DFREML) using the MTDFREML software. The heritabilities were low to moderate in univariate analysis. The maternal heritabilities were higher than direct heritabilities. The heritabilities in multivariate analysis exceeded those in univariate analysis. The values of genetic correlations varied widely.

Magalhães, Ana Fabrícia Braga; Lobo, Raimundo Nonato Braga; Facó, Olivardo

2013-05-01

122

Biometric Study of the Reproductive Organs of Three Breeds of Sheep in Nigeria Estudio Biométrico de los Órganos Reproductivos de Tres Razas de Ovejas en Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A comparative study of testicular biometry was done in rams using three major breeds of sheep in Nigeria. Biometrical parameters observed were scrotal circumference (SC), testes weight (TW), testes length (TL), tunica albuginea weight (TAW), testes volume (TV), testes density (TD), epididymal weight (EW), epididymal length (EL), caput (CA), corpus (CO), cauda weight (CU), epididymal volume (EV) and epididymal density (ED). The results showed significant differences (pSe realizó un estudio comparativo de la biometría testicular en carneros con las tres razas principales de ovejas de Nigeria. Los parámetros biométricos observados fueron la circunferencia escrotal (CE), peso testicular (PT), longitud testicular (LT), peso de la túnica albugínea (PTA), volumen testicular (VT), densidad testicular (DT), peso del epidídimo (PE), longitud del epidídimo (EL), peso de la cabeza (CA), cuerpo (CU) y cauda (CA), volumen del epidídimo (VE) y densidad del epidídimo (ED). Los resultados mostraron diferencias significativas (p <0,05) entre la raza Uda, Balami y Yankasa para la CE, PT, VT, PE, LE, CA, CU, CA, y VE. La raza Uda tuvo valores significativamente mayores (p <0,05) en la mayoría de los parámetros analizados con las otras dos razas. Se observó una simetría bilateral en el peso de los testículos y el volumen de los testículos para las razas Uda y Balami. Se concluyó que la biometría testicular observada en las razas Uda y Balami son sugerentes de alta cantidad de espermatozoides por unidad de masa de los testículos y el epidídimo, y subsecuentemente una alta fertilidad. La biometría de éstos pueden ser utilizada por los agricultores en la selección de buenos animales para la mejora genética de las crías.

Abdullahi Ali Ibrahim; Jibril Aliyu; Rabi Muhammad Ashiru; Mustapha Jamilu

2012-01-01

123

Estimativas de parâmetros genéticos para características de crescimento em ovinos da raça Somalis Brasileira/ Genetic parameters estimates for growth traits in Somalis Brasileira hair sheep breed  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Objetivou-se estimar parâmetros genéticos para características de crescimento em ovinos da raça Somalis Brasileira. Os dados utilizados neste estudo foram provenientes do rebanho da Embrapa Caprinos e Ovinos, localizado na cidade de Sobral - CE. Os dados continham registros de 1.120 animais no arquivo de pedigree. As características analisadas foram: peso ao nascer (PN), peso ao desmame (PD), ganho de peso do nascimento ao desmame (GND) e peso adulto (PA). As estimat (more) ivas dos componentes de (co)variâncias e os parâmetros genéticos foram obtidos pelo método da Máxima Verossimilhança Restrita não Derivativa (DFREML), utilizando o programa MTDFREML. Nas análises unicaracterística, as herdabilidades foram de magnitude baixa a moderada. As magnitudes das herdabilidades maternas foram todas superiores às herdabilidades diretas. As herdabilidades das análises multicaracterísticas entre PN, PD e GND superaram as análises unicaracterísticas. As correlações genéticas apresentaram grande variação quanto aos seus valores. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to estimate genetic parameters for growth traits in Somalis Brasileira hair sheep breed. The data used in this study were from the flock of Embrapa Caprinos and Ovinos, located in the city of Sobral - CE, Brazil. Data contained records of 1,120 animals in the pedigree file. The analyzed traits were birth weight (PN), weaning weight (PD), weight gain from birth to weaning (GND) and adult weight (PA). Estimates of (co)variances and genetic paramete (more) rs were obtained by Derivative Free Restricted Maximum Likelihood Method (DFREML) using the MTDFREML software. The heritabilities were low to moderate in univariate analysis. The maternal heritabilities were higher than direct heritabilities. The heritabilities in multivariate analysis exceeded those in univariate analysis. The values of genetic correlations varied widely.

Magalhães, Ana Fabrícia Braga; Lobo, Raimundo Nonato Braga; Facó, Olivardo

2013-01-01

124

Jaagsiekte Sheep Retrovirus Biology and Oncogenesis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV) is the causative agent of a lung cancer in sheep known as ovine pulmonary adenocarcinoma (OPA). The disease has been identified around the world in several breeds of sheep and goats, and JSRV infection typically has a serious impact on affected flocks. In addition,...

Hofacre, Andrew; Fan, Hung

125

Using Scanning Electron Microscopy to Detect the Ultrastructural Variations in Eggshell Quality of Fayoumi and Dandarawi Chicken Breeds  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to evaluate egg quality and ultrastructural measurements of eggshell in two Egyptian local breeds of chicken (Fayoumi and Dandarawi). A total of 162 females representing the two breeds were randomly assigned to the current experiment. They were housed in individual cages placed in an open-sided house under the same environmental, managerial and hygienic conditions. Maturation measurements including body weight and age at sexual maturity were determined. Also, egg production (number and weight) was recorded for the first 3 months of production cycle to calculate egg mass. To assess egg quality parameters (internal and external), a total of 90 eggs were randomly collected from each breed at 26 weeks of age. In addition, eggshell samples were prepared to investigate ultrastructural variations using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The current results revealed that Fayoumi breed had a better performance at sexual maturity compared to Dandarawi one. Inferior egg production parameters during the first 3 months of laying cycle were associated with Dandarawi breed. With respect to internal egg quality, there were no significant differences between Fayoumi and Dandarawi breeds for liquid components as a percentage of egg weight. In addition, Haugh unit and yolk index as indicators to the quality of albumen and yolk, did not exhibit a difference between breeds. Regarding eggshell quality traits, it could be noticed that Fayoumi breed significantly increased specific gravity and eggshell strength compared to Dandarawi one. In terms of ultrastructural measurements of eggshell, SEM inspection revealed that eggshell of Fayoumi breed had a higher effective thickness (palisade layer) compared to Dandarawi one. On the other hand, the length of mammillary layer (absolute or relative) was significantly lower in eggshells of Fayoumi hens compared to those of Dandarawi counterparts. Type B bodies, which are rounded and located among mammillary caps, were more frequent in eggshell of Dandarawi breed resulting in poor shell quality. However, Fayoumi breed had good rounded caps and early fusion as compared to Dandarawi one. The incidence of mammillary alignment and erosion were more common in eggshell of Dandarawi breed suggesting poor shell strength. In conclusion, Fayoumi breed had genetically not only better egg production and egg quality but also good ultrastructural formation of eggshell compared to Dandarawi breed.

M.M. Fathi; A. Zein El-Dein; S.A. El-Safty; Lamiaa M. Radwan

2007-01-01

126

Transformations of liquid products of thermal decomposition of oil-asphaltic breeds under influence of accelerated electrons  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text : This clause is devoted to consideration of importance of oil-asphaltic breed as potential raw material for chemical products and as alternative organic fuel of the future. After radiation-thermal cracking of this breed liquid products received from it were exposed to influence of stream of accelerated electrons. Then various quantities of the firm rest and gases (hydrogen, etc.) in various percentage parities were formed. Experimental data about boiling points of liquid products are also given. Dependence of gasification velocity and time from temperature under influence of accelerated electrons is in detail described

2004-01-01

127

EVALUATION OF DORSET, FINNSHEEP, ROMANOV, TEXEL, AND MONTADALE BREEDS OF SHEEP: IV. SURVIVAL, GROWTH, AND CARCASS TRAITS OF F1 LAMBS  

Science.gov (United States)

Objectives were to estimate effects of sire breed (Dorset, Finnsheep, Romanov, Texel, and Montadale), and dam breed (Composite III and northwestern whiteface) on survival, growth, carcass, and composition traits of F1 lambs. Effects of mating season (August, October, and December) were estimated fo...

128

Charge breeding results and future prospects with electron cyclotron resonance ion source and electron beam ion source (invited)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Californium Rare Ion Breeder Upgrade (CARIBU) of the Argonne National Laboratory ATLAS facility will provide low-energy and reaccelerated neutron-rich radioactive beams for the nuclear physics program. A 70 mCi {sup 252}Cf source produces fission fragments which are thermalized and collected by a helium gas catcher into a low-energy particle beam with a charge of 1+ or 2+. An electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source functions as a charge breeder in order to raise the ion charge sufficiently for acceleration in the ATLAS linac. The final CARIBU configuration will utilize a 1 Ci {sup 252}Cf source to produce radioactive beams with intensities up to 10{sup 6} ions/s for use in the ATLAS facility. The ECR charge breeder has been tested with stable beam injection and has achieved charge breeding efficiencies of 3.6% for {sup 23}Na{sup 8+}, 15.6% for {sup 84}Kr{sup 17+}, and 13.7% for {sup 85}Rb{sup 19+} with typical breeding times of 10 ms/charge state. For the first radioactive beams, a charge breeding efficiency of 11.7% has been achieved for {sup 143}Cs{sup 27+} and 14.7% for {sup 143}Ba{sup 27+}. The project has been commissioned with a radioactive beam of {sup 143}Ba{sup 27+} accelerated to 6.1 MeV/u. In order to take advantage of its lower residual contamination, an EBIS charge breeder will replace the ECR charge breeder in the next two years. The advantages and disadvantages of the two techniques are compared taking into account the requirements of the next generation radioactive beam facilities.

Vondrasek, R.; Levand, A.; Pardo, R.; Savard, G.; Scott, R. [Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States)

2012-02-15

129

Charge breeding results and future prospects with electron cyclotron resonance ion source and electron beam ion source (invited).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The Californium Rare Ion Breeder Upgrade (CARIBU) of the Argonne National Laboratory ATLAS facility will provide low-energy and reaccelerated neutron-rich radioactive beams for the nuclear physics program. A 70 mCi (252)Cf source produces fission fragments which are thermalized and collected by a helium gas catcher into a low-energy particle beam with a charge of 1+ or 2+. An electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source functions as a charge breeder in order to raise the ion charge sufficiently for acceleration in the ATLAS linac. The final CARIBU configuration will utilize a 1 Ci (252)Cf source to produce radioactive beams with intensities up to 10(6) ions?s for use in the ATLAS facility. The ECR charge breeder has been tested with stable beam injection and has achieved charge breeding efficiencies of 3.6% for (23)Na(8+), 15.6% for (84)Kr(17+), and 13.7% for (85)Rb(19+) with typical breeding times of 10 ms?charge state. For the first radioactive beams, a charge breeding efficiency of 11.7% has been achieved for (143)Cs(27+) and 14.7% for (143)Ba(27+). The project has been commissioned with a radioactive beam of (143)Ba(27+) accelerated to 6.1 MeV?u. In order to take advantage of its lower residual contamination, an EBIS charge breeder will replace the ECR charge breeder in the next two years. The advantages and disadvantages of the two techniques are compared taking into account the requirements of the next generation radioactive beam facilities.

Vondrasek R; Levand A; Pardo R; Savard G; Scott R

2012-02-01

130

Microsatellite analysis characterizes Burkina Faso as a genetic contact zone between Sahelian and Djallonke sheep.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A total of 123 sheep belonging to the Djallonke, Mossi, and Burkina-Sahel breeds, along with 41 Spanish Xalda sheep were genotyped for 27 microsatellites. The pair Djallonke-Mossi had the highest between breeds molecular coancestry. Admixture analysis informed on the parental role of the Burkina-Sahel and Djallonke breeds. The Mossi breed was a hybrid population nearer to the Djallonke breed. Only half of the Mossi individuals were correctly assigned to their breed. The Burkina-Sahel and Djallonke breeds can be considered ancestrally different genetic entities. Differentiation between the Djallonke and Mossi breeds may be due to introgression of Sahelian sheep.

Alvarez I; Traore A; Tamboura HH; Kabore A; Royo LJ; Fernandez I; Ouedraogo-Sanou G; Sawadogo L; Goyache F

2009-01-01

131

Microsatellite analysis characterizes Burkina Faso as a genetic contact zone between Sahelian and Djallonke sheep.  

Science.gov (United States)

A total of 123 sheep belonging to the Djallonke, Mossi, and Burkina-Sahel breeds, along with 41 Spanish Xalda sheep were genotyped for 27 microsatellites. The pair Djallonke-Mossi had the highest between breeds molecular coancestry. Admixture analysis informed on the parental role of the Burkina-Sahel and Djallonke breeds. The Mossi breed was a hybrid population nearer to the Djallonke breed. Only half of the Mossi individuals were correctly assigned to their breed. The Burkina-Sahel and Djallonke breeds can be considered ancestrally different genetic entities. Differentiation between the Djallonke and Mossi breeds may be due to introgression of Sahelian sheep. PMID:19370454

Alvarez, I; Traore, A; Tamboura, H H; Kabore, A; Royo, L J; Fernandez, I; Ouedraogo-Sanou, G; Sawadogo, L; Goyache, F

2009-01-01

132

Fattening Performance and Slaughter Traits of Lambs from the North-East Bulgarian Fine Wool Breed, and Its Crossings with Australian Merino and Ile de France Sheep – Internal Breeding  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A comparative study of fattening and slaughter traits of three groups of lambs was carried out: 14 lambsfrom the North-East Bulgarian Fine Wool breed, 14 crossbred lambs with ¼ blood of Australian Merino(internal breeding) and 14 crossbred lambs with ¼ blood of Ile de France (internal breeding).At the beginning of the experiment, the lambs were grouped according to age, gender, type of birth, liveweight of lamb in the group, and parity of the dam. lambs were fattened intensively under similar conditionsduring 130 days. The forage consumption was monitored on a daily basis and the live body weight ? at 14-day intervals with a precision of 0,1 kg. The carcass traits were determined via complete slaughter analysis atthe age of 100 and 130 days.The crossings from internal breeding with ¼ blood of Ile de France exhibited the best fattening andslaughter traits. The insignificant differences between the other two groups allowed to assume that theAustralian merino breed did not influence negatively the fattening performance and the slaughter traits in ¼blood crossings from internal breeding.

R. Slavov

2006-01-01

133

A Study of External Fat-Tail Dimensions and Their Relationships With Fat-Tail Weight in Lori-Bakhtiari Breed of Sheep  

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Full Text Available In this study external fat-tail dimensions (upper, middle and lower width, length, length of gap, depth and upper circumference) and fat-tail weights collected on 724 Lori-Bakhtiari sheep were used to study external fat-tail dimensions and their relationships with fat-tail weights. Sheep were 3 months to 6 years old and slaughtered at the industrial slaughter house of Joneghan in Chaharmohal and Bakhtiari province in 2003. The mean of fat-tail dimensions were estimated as 15.83, 23.85, 24.73, 26.52, 14.96, 14.12 and 52.59 cm for upper width, middle width, lower width, length, length of gap, depth and upper circumference, respectively. Fat-tail weight varied from 0.10 to 20.60 with overall mean of 2.71 kg. Fat-tail percentage varied from 1.18 to 37.18 with overall mean of 11.87 percent. The effects of fixed factors of age, sex and body condition of sheep on all of traits were highly significant (p

M. Vatankhah; M. Moradi-Sharbabak; A. Nejati-Javaremi; S. R. Miraei-Ashtiani; R. Vaez-Torshizi

2006-01-01

134

Genetic analysis of live weight and ultrasonic fat and muscle traits in a hill sheep flock undergoing breed improvement utilizing an embryo transfer programme.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Genetic parameters for pre-weaning live weights and ultrasonic scanning measurements were estimated from a flock of Scottish Blackface sheep undergoing an embryo transfer programme. Maternal environmental effects could be evaluated without confounding with maternal genetic effects because embryos were transferred to unrelated recipient ewes. The data for the study were collected over a 7-year period (1993-1999) and related to a conventional hill farming system. The data were from 1465 lambs, the progeny of 60 sires, 263 donors and 784 recipient ewes. The only exception to the conventional farming system was at mating time when embryos were collected from selected donor ewes, following superovulation, and transferred to unrelated recipient ewes. Maternal environmental effects were important for birth weight (BW), 4-week weight (W4) and weaning weight (WW) but of less importance for ultrasonic fat depth (UFD), muscle depth (UMD) and muscle width (UMW). The heritabilities of the pre-weaning weights were moderate (0.17 to 0.23). The heritabilities of UFD and UMD were 0.44 and 0.27 respectively and were higher than found in previous similar studies. The heritability of UMW was low, 0.06. The genetic and phenotypic correlations among the pre-weaning weight traits were positive and moderate. There was a positive genetic (+ 0.25) and phenotypic (+ 0.24) correlation between UFD and UMD. The phenotypic and genetic correlations between BW and W4 and the scanning traits (UFD, UMD and UMW) were close to zero, and the correlations of WW with UFD, UMD and UMW were positive. The results of this study clearly demonstrate the importance of maternal environmental effects for lamb weights up to weaning and also suggest that genetic improvement for carcass composition in some populations of extensively reared hill sheep could be achieved more rapidly than previously thought possible.

Roden JA; Merrell BG; Murray WA; Haresign W

2003-06-01

135

Fleece sheep nylon sheep coat  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The utility model discloses a fleece sheep nylon sheep coat, comprising a piece of rectangular soft fabric. Middle parts of four edges of the rectangular soft fabric are provided with elastic bands and at least two corners are provided with clothing buckles, which are annular buckle belts. The fleece sheep nylon sheep coat prevents wool pollution during wool production effectively, improves scouring yield of fine wool greatly and further improves or guarantees wool quality. The fleece sheep nylon sheep coat is easy to put on and put off, has the advantages of firmness, abrasion resistance, smoothness, and protection against rain and cold, guarantees production of high quality fine wool and cashmere meeting the requirements of wool processing industry, and has good demonstration and promotion prospects in the field of sustainable development of fleece sheep industry.

GUOQING SHI; PENGCHENG WAN; RONG DAI; YUAN SHEN

136

Genetic relationships among Turkish sheep  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Genetic relationships among Turkish sheep breeds were analysed on the basis of 30 microsatellite markers. Phylogenetic analyses based on the estimation of genetic distances revealed the closest relationships for the Akkaraman, Morkaraman and Tuj breeds, which were clearly differentiated from the others in the dendrogram. Our pattern was completely confirmed by results from the Factorial Correspondence Analysis. All the results described analysing either population parameters or individuals revealed a clear separation between the fat-tailed group and the others. These results, based on nuclear DNA, are discussed along with those already reported for these breeds through the investigation of mitochondrial DNA, which had revealed the invaluable significance of the genetic background of these Turkish sheep.

Uzun Metehan; Gutiérrez-Gil Beatriz; Arranz Juan-José; Primitivo Fermín; Saatci Mustafa; Kaya Mehmet; Bayón Yolanda

2006-01-01

137

Survival Time in Sheep Affected by Sheep Pox and Enterotoxaemia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available To assess the factors that influence the survival time of sheep affected by sheep pox or enterotoxaemia, 150 sheep farms affected by sheep pox (108) and enterotoxaemia (42) were selected through multistage random sampling technique from the purposively selected Dharmapuri district of Tamil Nadu. Relevant data were collected for the period of two years (2000-01 and 2001-02). The data so collected were used to fit Cox hazard functional models separately for each disease. One unit increase in breed and veterinary care indicators in sheep pox affected flock would increase the hazard rate by 10.49 and 15.61%, respectively. Similarly, one unit increase in age and vaccination would decrease hazard rate by 66.40 and 67.23%, respectively. The relative risk for the non-provision of veterinary care indicated that the risk of dying was 4.16 times higher for an animal provided with no veterinary care, compared to the one, which received veterinary care. One unit increase in breed and veterinary care indicators in enterotoxaemia affected flock would increase the hazard rate by 78.00 and 2.43%, respectively. Similarly, a unit increase in deworming would decrease the hazard rate by 36.01%. The relative risk for the non-provision of veterinary care indicated that the estimated risk of dying is 3.02 times higher for an animal provided with no veterinary care, compared to the one, which received veterinary care.

Senthilkumar, V.; M. Thirunavukkarasu; G. Kathiravan

2006-01-01

138

Comportamento de ovinos da raça Santa Inês em ambientes com e sem disponibilidade de sombra Behavior of sheep breed Santa Inês in environments with and without shade availability  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Com o objetivo de observar os efeitos do sombreamento propiciado pela tela de polipropileno sobre o comportamento de ovinos da raça Santa Inês em diferentes épocas do ano, montou-se um experimento em Petrolina, PE, no período de junho a novembro de 2010. Utilizaram-se 40 animais distribuídos em igual quantidade em dois tratamentos (Sombreado e Não sombreado) com oferta de pastagem (Tiffton 85) irrigada. Foram feitas aferições dos dados meteorológicos em todas as épocas, com a montagem de termômetros de globo negro e psicrômetros nas duas áreas e de uma mini-estação meteorológica na área sombreada. Nessas épocas foram realizados ensaios de comportamento tendo-se feito observações visuais pelo método da varredura instantânea em intervalos de 10 min no período diurno, verificando-se o percentual de animais quanto à alimentação, ruminação e ócio, a partir da metodologia proposta por Johnson & Combs (1991) adaptada para o tempo de 12h. O sombreamento não influenciou no número de animais em referência às atividades avaliadas nos diferentes tratamentos. A procura por sombra foi intensa nos períodos mais quentes do dia para a atividade de ócio.With the goal of observing the effects of shade provided by polypropylene screen on the behaviour of Santa Inês sheep, in different times of year, an experiment was set up in Petrolina, PE, in the period from June to November 2010. Forty animals divided into equal quantity in two treatments (shaded and non-shaded) were used with supply of irrigated pastures (Tiffton 85). Measurements of meteorological data were made at all times, with the assembly of black globe thermometers and psychrometers in the two areas, and a mini-weather station, at the shaded area. Under these conditions a trials was carried out on behavior of animals, being made visual observations by the method of instantaneous scan at intervals of 10 min during the daytime period, checking the percentage of animals under food, rumination and leisure using the methodology proposed by Johnson & Combs (1991), adapted for a period of 12 h. The shading did not influence the number of animals under the activities evaluated in different treatments. The search for shade was intense in the hottest periods of the day for leisure activity.

Fabiano A. de Oliveira; Sílvia H. N. Turco; Gherman G. L . de Aaraújo; Carlos A. A. Clemente; Tadeu V. Voltolini; Marlon S. Garrido

2013-01-01

139

Comportamento de ovinos da raça Santa Inês em ambientes com e sem disponibilidade de sombra/ Behavior of sheep breed Santa Inês in environments with and without shade availability  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Com o objetivo de observar os efeitos do sombreamento propiciado pela tela de polipropileno sobre o comportamento de ovinos da raça Santa Inês em diferentes épocas do ano, montou-se um experimento em Petrolina, PE, no período de junho a novembro de 2010. Utilizaram-se 40 animais distribuídos em igual quantidade em dois tratamentos (Sombreado e Não sombreado) com oferta de pastagem (Tiffton 85) irrigada. Foram feitas aferições dos dados meteorológicos em todas as (more) épocas, com a montagem de termômetros de globo negro e psicrômetros nas duas áreas e de uma mini-estação meteorológica na área sombreada. Nessas épocas foram realizados ensaios de comportamento tendo-se feito observações visuais pelo método da varredura instantânea em intervalos de 10 min no período diurno, verificando-se o percentual de animais quanto à alimentação, ruminação e ócio, a partir da metodologia proposta por Johnson & Combs (1991) adaptada para o tempo de 12h. O sombreamento não influenciou no número de animais em referência às atividades avaliadas nos diferentes tratamentos. A procura por sombra foi intensa nos períodos mais quentes do dia para a atividade de ócio. Abstract in english With the goal of observing the effects of shade provided by polypropylene screen on the behaviour of Santa Inês sheep, in different times of year, an experiment was set up in Petrolina, PE, in the period from June to November 2010. Forty animals divided into equal quantity in two treatments (shaded and non-shaded) were used with supply of irrigated pastures (Tiffton 85). Measurements of meteorological data were made at all times, with the assembly of black globe thermome (more) ters and psychrometers in the two areas, and a mini-weather station, at the shaded area. Under these conditions a trials was carried out on behavior of animals, being made visual observations by the method of instantaneous scan at intervals of 10 min during the daytime period, checking the percentage of animals under food, rumination and leisure using the methodology proposed by Johnson & Combs (1991), adapted for a period of 12 h. The shading did not influence the number of animals under the activities evaluated in different treatments. The search for shade was intense in the hottest periods of the day for leisure activity.

Oliveira, Fabiano A. de; Turco, Sílvia H. N.; Aaraújo, Gherman G. L . de; Clemente, Carlos A. A.; Voltolini, Tadeu V.; Garrido, Marlon S.

2013-03-01

140

Charge Breeding of Radioactive Ions in an Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Source(ECRIS) at ISOLDE  

CERN Multimedia

The development of an efficient charge breeding scheme for the next generation of RIB facilities will have a strong impact on the post-accelerator for several Radioactive Ion Beam (RIB) projects at European large scale facilities. At ISOLDE/CERN there will be the unique possibility to carry out experiments with the two possible charge breeding set-ups with a large variety of radioactive isotopes using identical injection conditions. One charge breeding set-up is the Penning trap/EBIS combination which feeds the REX-ISOLDE linear accelerator and which is in commissioning now. The second charge breeder is a new ECRIS PHOENIX developed at the ISN ion source laboratory at Grenoble. This ECRIS is now under investigation with a 14 GHz amplifier to characterize its performance. The experiments are accompanied by theoretical studies in computer simulations in order to optimize the capture of the ions in the ECRIS plasma. A second identical PHOENIX ECRIS which is under investigation at the Daresbury Laboratory is avai...

Villari, A; Warner, D; Barton, C J; Lindroos, M; Wenander, F J C

2002-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Mineral requirements of dairy sheep  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The mineral requirements of dairy sheep under semi-intensive and intensive management systems are reviewed. Basically, mineral requirements obtained with mutton breeds are supplemented with specific information obtained with dairy sheep. The daily requirements of sheep in major elements have been estimated using the factorial method, first to calculate the net requirements during maintenance, growth, reproduction and lactation, and second to assess the efficiency of absorption for converting net requirements into dietary allowance. The requirements in trace elements were estimated from the results of feeding trials. The choice of values for endogenous losses and particularly the precision with which efficiency of absorption can be predicted are the main sources of error in estimates of dietary allowances, especially when efficiency of absorption is low. The net requirements in major elements are given for maintenance, pregnancy and lactation, together with the recommended coefficients of absorption. Dietary requirements in trace elements are expressed as milligram per kilogram dry matter. The requirements in all nutrients and particularly in Ca and P increase during late pregnancy, especially during lactation. The requirements during lactation mainly reflect milk composition, the level of milk yield and lactation length, but also the feed intake level. The factors related to the confinement, feeding and management of dairy breeds, which differ from those of mutton breeds, may affect their mineral requirements. Changes in husbandry practices resulting in increased production may increase the stress on the animal and therefore alter its metabolic equilibrium. Direct supplementation of the diet of dairy sheep is the cheapest and most convenient method of mineral supplementation. The cost is outweighed by the enhanced performance of sheep. Determination of the mineral composition of feedstuffs available for feeding dairy sheep indicates the type and level of mineral supplementation needed. (author)

1986-01-01

142

THE USE OF MICROSATELLITE MARKERS TO STUDY GENETIC DIVERSITY IN INDONESIAN SHEEP  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to study genetic diversity in Indonesian sheep population using microsatellite markers. A total of 18 microsatellite loci have been used for genotyping Indonesian sheep. Total sheep blood 200 samples were extracted from garut sheep of fighting and meat types, purbalingga sheep, batur sheep and jember sheep populations by using a salting out method. Microsatellite loci data were analyzed using POPGENE 3.2 software. Based on this study obtained 180 alleles from 17 microsatellite loci, while average number of alleles was 6.10 alleles (6 to 18 alleles) from five Indonesian sheep populations (garut sheep of fighting type, garut sheep of meat type, purbalingga sheep, batur sheep and jember sheep population). The average of observed heterozygosity (Ho) and expected heterozygosity (He) values were 0.5749 and 0.6896, respectively, while the genetic differentiation for inbreeding among population (FIS), within population (FIT) and average genetic differentiation (FST) were 0.1006, 0.1647 and 0.0712, respectively. Genetic distance and genetic tree showed that Indonesian sheep population was distinct from garut sheep of fighting and meat types, purbalingga sheep, batur sheep and jember sheep population. Based on this results were needed a strategy for conservation and breeding programs in each Indonesian sheep population.

Jakaria; M.S.A. Zein; S. Sulandari; Subandriyo; Muladno

2012-01-01

143

Host preference of the sheep scab mite, Psoroptes ovis : short communication  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sheep scab mites, Psoroptes ovis, collected from a Merino donor sheep, were used to infest Merino and Dorper sheep, and Angora and Boer goats. Mites were placed on the sheep on 1 or 2 occasions and on 5 occasions on the goats. All the animals were examined at regular intervals for the presence of scab lesions and living mites. Both sheep breeds developed lesions, but those on the Merino sheep were always larger than those on the Dorper sheep at the same intervals after infestation. None of the goats developed lesions or showed signs of irritation, or harboured any mites.

T. Meintjies; L.J. Fourie; I.G. Horak

2012-01-01

144

Multivariate analysis of morphostructural characteristics in Nigerian indigenous sheep  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The population variability of three breeds of Nigerian sheep was investigated using multivariate discriminant analyses. The sampled populations comprised mature 331 Yankasa, 296 Uda and 166 Balami sheep kept by traditional farmers in northern Nigerian. A total of ten morphological traits (withers height, rump height, body length, face length, rump length, tail length, chest circumference, head width, shoulder width and rump width) were collected on each animal. The body measures of Balami sheep were significantly higher (P<0.05) than the others with the exception of tail length. Uda sheep also had comparative advantage over their Yankasa counterparts in all the morphological traits analysed. The stepwise discriminant analysis revealed that head width chronologically followed by tail length, chest circumference and body length were more discriminating in separating the three populations. The Mahalanobis distance between Yankasa and Balami sheep was highest (4.83) while the least differentiation was observed between Uda and Yankasa sheep (1.79). Nearest neighbour discriminant analysis showed that most Balami sheep (61.45%) were classified into their source genetic group. While 41.22% of Uda sheep were misclassified as Yankasa sheep, 35.35% of Yankasa were wrongly assigned as Uda sheep, showing the level of genetic exchange that has taken place between the two breeds overtime. The present information could be complemented with genetic analyses geared towards designing appropriate breeding and selection strategies.

Abdulmojeed Yakubu; Isa Alkali Ibrahim

2011-01-01

145

Revealing the history of domesticated sheep using retrovirus integrations  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The domestication of livestock represented a crucial step in human history. By using endogenous retroviruses as genetic markers, we found that sheep differentiated on the basis of their "retrotype" and morphological traits dispersed across Eurasia and Africa via separate migratory episodes. Relicts of the first migrations include the Mouflon, as well as breeds previously recognized as "primitive" on the basis of their morphology, such as the Orkney, Soay, and the Nordic short-tailed sheep now confined to the periphery of northwest Europe. A later migratory episode, involving sheep with improved production traits, shaped the great majority of present-day breeds. The ability to differentiate genetically primitive sheep from more modern breeds provides valuable insights into the history of sheep domestication

Chessa, Bernado; Pereira, Filipe

2009-01-01

146

Studies on monieziasis of sheep I. Prevalence and antihelminthic effects of some plant extracts, a light and electron microscopic study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Out of 2,343 examined sheep throughout the whole year, 271 were found to be infected with tapeworms (11.5%). The highest infection rate (22.1%) was recorded in autumn, while the lowest (6%) occurred in summer. Six species of cestodes were identified according to their prevalence: Moniezia expansa (74%), Moniezia denticulata (8.5%), Moniezia benedeni (4.8%), Moniezia trigonophora (2.7%), and Thysaniezia giardi (2.7%), T. giardi was recorded in Egypt for the first time. M. expansa was found throughout the year with two peaks in January (92.3%) and June (88.5%). SEM examination revealed that M. expansa scolex has four triangular suckers guarded by an X-shaped fibrous band that makes them open permanently. Also, there is a Y-shaped apical part at the scolex center which may be an embryonically non-developed rostellum. The whole worm body surface is covered with unidirectional microtriches. TEM showed that the tegument is underlaid by a thick fibrous interstitial layer below which an outer circular and an inner longitudinal muscular layer are arranged. Beneath these structures the subtegumental cells are found which have spherical electron-dense inclusions and various other cell organelles. Moreover, M. expansa has interproglottidal glands which contain secretory vesicles and secretions. For biological control of this parasite, different concentrations of crude plant extract of Artemisia cina were used in vitro and in vivo. In vitro, the results indicated that the plant extract is efficacious at all concentrations tested. Electron microscopic examination showed that many structures of the treated worms were affected. The most affected sites were the scolex and the microtriches of the outer tegumental surface. In vivo, treatment of heavily infected animals showed an antihelminthic effect, since the complete absence of eggs was recorded 9 days after treatment when fecal investigations were done.

Bashtar AR; Hassanein M; Abdel-Ghaffar F; Al-Rasheid K; Hassan S; Mehlhorn H; Al-Mahdi M; Morsy K; Al-Ghamdi A

2011-01-01

147

Studies on monieziasis of sheep I. Prevalence and antihelminthic effects of some plant extracts, a light and electron microscopic study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Out of 2,343 examined sheep throughout the whole year, 271 were found to be infected with tapeworms (11.5%). The highest infection rate (22.1%) was recorded in autumn, while the lowest (6%) occurred in summer. Six species of cestodes were identified according to their prevalence: Moniezia expansa (74%), Moniezia denticulata (8.5%), Moniezia benedeni (4.8%), Moniezia trigonophora (2.7%), and Thysaniezia giardi (2.7%), T. giardi was recorded in Egypt for the first time. M. expansa was found throughout the year with two peaks in January (92.3%) and June (88.5%). SEM examination revealed that M. expansa scolex has four triangular suckers guarded by an X-shaped fibrous band that makes them open permanently. Also, there is a Y-shaped apical part at the scolex center which may be an embryonically non-developed rostellum. The whole worm body surface is covered with unidirectional microtriches. TEM showed that the tegument is underlaid by a thick fibrous interstitial layer below which an outer circular and an inner longitudinal muscular layer are arranged. Beneath these structures the subtegumental cells are found which have spherical electron-dense inclusions and various other cell organelles. Moreover, M. expansa has interproglottidal glands which contain secretory vesicles and secretions. For biological control of this parasite, different concentrations of crude plant extract of Artemisia cina were used in vitro and in vivo. In vitro, the results indicated that the plant extract is efficacious at all concentrations tested. Electron microscopic examination showed that many structures of the treated worms were affected. The most affected sites were the scolex and the microtriches of the outer tegumental surface. In vivo, treatment of heavily infected animals showed an antihelminthic effect, since the complete absence of eggs was recorded 9 days after treatment when fecal investigations were done. PMID:20865430

Bashtar, Abdel-Rahman; Hassanein, Mohey; Abdel-Ghaffar, Fathy; Al-Rasheid, Khaled; Hassan, Soad; Mehlhorn, Heinz; Al-Mahdi, Magda; Morsy, Kareem; Al-Ghamdi, Ali

2010-09-24

148

Experimental Study on the Causative Agents of Hypobios is of Haemonchus contortus in Sheep in Iran  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

For determination the inducing factors of arrested development of 3th stage larvae of Haemonchus contortus as early L4 in sheep in 2 out of 4 climatic conditions of Iran, 24, six month old native sheep (shall breed) were randomly allocated into 3 equal groups I, II and III.Each sheep in each...

A. Nematollahi; S.H. Hosseini; A.Eslami

149

Quantitative trait loci for internal nematode resistance in sheep: a review  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Internal nematode resistance in sheep has a large impact on the economy of sheep industries. Selection for nematode resistance in sheep breeding schemes would help to reduce the direct and indirect cost of parasitism to these industries. However, this is not widely practiced because of the difficult...

Dominik, Sonja

150

Lines of evidence-incremental markings in molar enamel of soay sheep as revealed by a fluorochrome labeling and backscattered electron imaging study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We studied the structural characteristics and periodicities of regular incremental markings in sheep enamel using fluorochrome injections for vital labeling of forming enamel and backscattered electron imaging in the scanning electron microscope. Microscopic analysis of mandibular first molars revealed the presence of incremental markings with a daily periodicity (laminations) that indicated successive positions of the forming front of interprismatic enamel. In addition to the laminations, incremental markings with a sub-daily periodicity were discernible both in interprismatic enamel and in enamel prisms. Five sub-daily increments were present between two consecutive laminations. Backscattered electron imaging revealed that each sub-daily growth increment consisted of a broader and more highly mineralized band and a narrower and less mineralized band (line). The sub-daily markings in the prisms of sheep enamel morphologically resembled the (daily) prisms cross striations seen in primate enamel. Incremental markings with a supra-daily periodicity were not observed in sheep enamel. Based on the periodicity of the incremental markings, maximum mean daily apposition rates of 17.0 µm in buccal enamel and of 13.4 µm in lingual enamel were recorded. Enamel extension rates were also high, with maximum means of 180 µm/day and 217 µm/day in upper crown areas of buccal and lingual enamel, respectively. Values in more cervical crown portions were markedly lower. Our results are in accordance with previous findings in other ungulate species. Using the incremental markings present in primate enamel as a reference could result in a misinterpretation of the incremental markings in ungulate enamel. Thus, the sub-daily growth increments in the prisms of ungulate enamel might be mistaken as prism cross striations with a daily periodicity, and the laminations misidentified as striae of Retzius with a supra-daily periodicity. This would lead to a considerable overestimation of crown formation times in ungulate teeth.

Kierdorf H; Kierdorf U; Frölich K; Witzel C

2013-01-01

151

Lines of Evidence-Incremental Markings in Molar Enamel of Soay Sheep as Revealed by a Fluorochrome Labeling and Backscattered Electron Imaging Study  

Science.gov (United States)

We studied the structural characteristics and periodicities of regular incremental markings in sheep enamel using fluorochrome injections for vital labeling of forming enamel and backscattered electron imaging in the scanning electron microscope. Microscopic analysis of mandibular first molars revealed the presence of incremental markings with a daily periodicity (laminations) that indicated successive positions of the forming front of interprismatic enamel. In addition to the laminations, incremental markings with a sub-daily periodicity were discernible both in interprismatic enamel and in enamel prisms. Five sub-daily increments were present between two consecutive laminations. Backscattered electron imaging revealed that each sub-daily growth increment consisted of a broader and more highly mineralized band and a narrower and less mineralized band (line). The sub-daily markings in the prisms of sheep enamel morphologically resembled the (daily) prisms cross striations seen in primate enamel. Incremental markings with a supra-daily periodicity were not observed in sheep enamel. Based on the periodicity of the incremental markings, maximum mean daily apposition rates of 17.0 µm in buccal enamel and of 13.4 µm in lingual enamel were recorded. Enamel extension rates were also high, with maximum means of 180 µm/day and 217 µm/day in upper crown areas of buccal and lingual enamel, respectively. Values in more cervical crown portions were markedly lower. Our results are in accordance with previous findings in other ungulate species. Using the incremental markings present in primate enamel as a reference could result in a misinterpretation of the incremental markings in ungulate enamel. Thus, the sub-daily growth increments in the prisms of ungulate enamel might be mistaken as prism cross striations with a daily periodicity, and the laminations misidentified as striae of Retzius with a supra-daily periodicity. This would lead to a considerable overestimation of crown formation times in ungulate teeth.

Kierdorf, Horst; Kierdorf, Uwe; Frolich, Kai; Witzel, Carsten

2013-01-01

152

Immune responses associated with resistance to haemonchosis in sheep.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper examines the known immunological and genetic factors associated with sheep resistance to infection by Haemonchus contortus. Such resistance is an inheritable genetic trait (h(2), 0.22-0.63) associated with certain sheep breeds. Resistant sheep do not completely reject the disease; they only harbor fewer parasites than susceptible sheep and therefore have a lower fecal egg count. Protective immune response to haemonchosis is an expression of genetic resistance. Genes associated with resistance and susceptibility are described. Genetically resistant sheep have nonspecific mechanisms that block the initial colonization by Haemonchus contortus larvae. These sheep also have an efficacious Th2 type response (e.g., increases in blood and tissue eosinophils, specific IgE class antibodies, mast cells, IL-5, IL-13, and TNF?) that protects them against the infection; in contrast, susceptible sheep do not efficiently establish this type of immune response. Finally, the main reported antigens of H. contortus were reviewed. PMID:23509684

Alba-Hurtado, Fernando; Muñoz-Guzmán, Marco Antonio

2012-12-20

153

Immune responses associated with resistance to haemonchosis in sheep.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This paper examines the known immunological and genetic factors associated with sheep resistance to infection by Haemonchus contortus. Such resistance is an inheritable genetic trait (h(2), 0.22-0.63) associated with certain sheep breeds. Resistant sheep do not completely reject the disease; they only harbor fewer parasites than susceptible sheep and therefore have a lower fecal egg count. Protective immune response to haemonchosis is an expression of genetic resistance. Genes associated with resistance and susceptibility are described. Genetically resistant sheep have nonspecific mechanisms that block the initial colonization by Haemonchus contortus larvae. These sheep also have an efficacious Th2 type response (e.g., increases in blood and tissue eosinophils, specific IgE class antibodies, mast cells, IL-5, IL-13, and TNF?) that protects them against the infection; in contrast, susceptible sheep do not efficiently establish this type of immune response. Finally, the main reported antigens of H. contortus were reviewed.

Alba-Hurtado F; Muñoz-Guzmán MA

2013-01-01

154

Morphological and microsatellite DNA diversity of Nigerian indigenous sheep  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Sheep is important in the socio-economic lives of people around the world. It is estimated that more than half of our once common livestock breeds are now endangered. Since genetic characterization of Nigerian sheep is still lacking, we analyzed ten morphological traits on 402 animals and 15 microsatellite DNA markers in 384 animals of the 4 Nigerian sheep breeds to better understand genetic diversity for breeding management and germplasm conservation. Results Morphological traits of Uda and Balami were significantly (P?FST, FIT and FIS statistics across all loci were 0.088, 0.394 and 0.336 respectively. Yankasa and Balami are the most closely related breeds (DA?=?0.184) while WAD and Balami are the farthest apart breeds (DA?=?0.665), which is coincident with distance based on morphological analysis and population structure assessed by STRUCTURE. Conclusions These results suggest that within-breed genetic variation in Nigerian sheep is higher than between-breeds and may be a valuable tool for genetic improvement and conservation. The higher genetic variability in Yankasa suggests the presence of unique ancestral alleles reflecting the presence of certain functional genes which may result in better adaptability in more agro-ecological zones of Nigeria. These genetic characteristics are potentially useful in planning improvement and conservation strategies in Nigerian indigenous sheep.

Agaviezor Brilliant O; Peters Sunday O; Adefenwa Mufliat A; Yakubu Abdulmojeed; Adebambo Olufunmilayo A; Ozoje Michael O; Ikeobi Christian ON; Wheto Matthew; Ajayi Oyeyemi O; Amusan Samuel A; Ekundayo Oludotun J; Sanni Timothy M; Okpeku Moses; Onasanya Gbolabo O; De Donato Marcos; Ilori Babatunde M; Kizilkaya Kadir; Imumorin Ikhide G

2012-01-01

155

Characterization of sheep populations of Kenya using microsatellite markers: implications for conservation and management of indigenous sheep populations  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Indigenous sheep of Kenya are very important to resource-poor farmers and pastoralists. They have over time adapted to the harsh environmental conditions of the arid and semi-arid lands where they are faced with challenges of persistent droughts, diseases, conflicts and poor nutrition, yet show resistance to gastrointestinal nematodes. In recent years, these indigenous sheep populations have been crossbred indiscriminately to exotic breeds particularly the Dorper. A study (more) was undertaken to determine the level of genetic diversity and relatedness between the various sheep populations and breeds of Kenya. This paper reports results on the genetic diversity and admixture observed using microsatellite DNA markers.

Muigai, A.W.T.; Okeyo, A.M.; Kwallah, A.K.; Mburu, D.; Hanotte, O.

2009-01-01

156

IDENTIFICATION OF SOME PARAMPHISTOMES INFECTING SHEEP IN MAIDUGURI, NIGERIA  

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Full Text Available The prevalence of paramphislome infection in sheep slaughtered at Maiduguri abattoir, Nigeria was studied. Of the 100 slaughtered sheep examined, 28.0% were infected, with an overall worm burden of 203. Of 39 males, 23.1% were infested with a worn burden of 63, while of the 61 females examined, 31.1% were infested with a worm burden of 140. Also of the 91 adult sheep, 28.6% were infested with a worm burden of 189, while out of the 9 young sheep, 22.2% were infested, with a worm burden of 14. Among breeds, 50 Balami were examined with 32.0% infested, and a worm burden of 112, while of the 49 and 1 Udda and Yankassa sheep examined 24.5% and 0.0% were infested, respectively. However, the differences in the prevalence of paramphistomes between sexes, age groups and breeds of sheep were non significant. Identification of the parampluistomes of sheep based on their size and predilection site showed Paramhistome cervi to inhabit the rumen with a mean size of 8.5 x 3.5 mm, while Gastrothylax cruminefer inhabited also the rumen but of the size 13 x 5 mm. The distribution of paramphistome species based on the sex, age and breed of sheep examined showed that more females were infested with P. cervi (52.6%) than the males (33.3%), while more males were infested with G. crumenifer (66.7%) than the females (47.4%).

A. A. Biu and A. Oluwafunmilayo

2004-01-01

157

Using Scanning Electron Microscopy to Detect the Ultrastructural Variations in Eggshell Quality of Fayoumi and Dandarawi Chicken Breeds  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

An experiment was conducted to evaluate egg quality and ultrastructural measurements of eggshell in two Egyptian local breeds of chicken (Fayoumi and Dandarawi). A total of 162 females representing the two breeds were randomly assigned to the current experiment. They were housed in individual ca...

M.M. Fathi; A. Zein El-Dein; S.A. El-Safty; Lamiaa M. Radwan

158

Trypanotolerance in Djallonke sheep and West African Dwarf goats : Importance of trypanosomosis, nutrition, helminth infections and management factors  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The main breeds of sheep and goats in The Gambia, the Djallonke sheep and West African Dwarf goats are trypanotolerant. The Djallonke sheep, however, have a higher degree of trypanotolerance than the WAD goats. This trait is genetically linked although the mechanism of trypanotolerance is different ...

Osaer, S.; Goossens, B.

159

Determinants of sheep prices in the highlands of northeastern Ethiopia: implication for sheep value chain development.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In order to assess and identify the determinants of sheep price and price variation across time, a time series data were collected from four selected markets in North Shewa, Northeastern Ethiopia on weekly market day basis for a period of 2 years. Data on animal characteristics and purpose of buying were collected on a weekly basis from randomly selected 15-25 animals, and a total of 7,976 transactions were recorded. A general linear model technique was used to identify factors influencing sheep price, and the results showed that sheep price (liveweight sheep price per kilogram taken as a dependent variable) is affected by animal characteristics such as weight, sex, age, condition, season, and color. Most of the markets' purpose for which the animal was purchased did not affect significantly the price per kilogram. This may be due to the similarity of the markets in terms of buyer's purpose. The results suggest that there will be benefit from coordinated fattening, breeding, and marketing programs to take the highest advantage from the preferred animals' characteristics and selected festival markets. Finally, the study recommends for a coordinated action to enhance the benefit generated for all participant actors in the sheep value chain through raising sheep productivity, improving the capacity of sheep producers and agribusiness entrepreneurs to access and use latest knowledge and technologies; and strengthening linkages among actors in the sheep value chain.

Kassa BT; Haile AG; Essa JA

2011-12-01

160

Determinants of sheep prices in the highlands of northeastern Ethiopia: implication for sheep value chain development.  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to assess and identify the determinants of sheep price and price variation across time, a time series data were collected from four selected markets in North Shewa, Northeastern Ethiopia on weekly market day basis for a period of 2 years. Data on animal characteristics and purpose of buying were collected on a weekly basis from randomly selected 15-25 animals, and a total of 7,976 transactions were recorded. A general linear model technique was used to identify factors influencing sheep price, and the results showed that sheep price (liveweight sheep price per kilogram taken as a dependent variable) is affected by animal characteristics such as weight, sex, age, condition, season, and color. Most of the markets' purpose for which the animal was purchased did not affect significantly the price per kilogram. This may be due to the similarity of the markets in terms of buyer's purpose. The results suggest that there will be benefit from coordinated fattening, breeding, and marketing programs to take the highest advantage from the preferred animals' characteristics and selected festival markets. Finally, the study recommends for a coordinated action to enhance the benefit generated for all participant actors in the sheep value chain through raising sheep productivity, improving the capacity of sheep producers and agribusiness entrepreneurs to access and use latest knowledge and technologies; and strengthening linkages among actors in the sheep value chain. PMID:21465103

Kassa, Beneberu Teferra; Haile, Anteneh Girma; Essa, John Abdu

2011-04-05

 
 
 
 
161

Mitochondrial diversity and the origin of Iberian sheep  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Mitochondrial DNA diversity was analysed in 19 Iberian and six foreign sheep breeds. Three mtDNA lineages (B, A and C) were found in the Iberian sheep, with type B clearly predominating over the others. The results were analysed for each of the morphologically determined breed groups in Iberian sheep: Merino, Entrefino, Churro and Iberian trunks. MtDNA lineage C was found only in the Iberian trunk composed of Montesina and Ojalada. These two populations had high mtDNA variability, and in the Iberian sheep only Merino Branco had more variation. The other three Merino types studied showed moderate variability, including the most authentic Merino, the Spanish Merino. These three Merinos clustered closely in a multidimensional scaling representation of distances, while the fourth breed (Merino Branco) showed a clear separation. As for the other two trunks, breeds from the Churro group showed greater maternal uniformity while results for populations included in the so-called Entrefino trunk seemed to have a more heterogeneous maternal origin. The results obtained are discussed with available data from nuclear markers and with morphological classifications, and all this information is analysed in relation to the origin of the different Iberian sheep breeds.

Pedrosa Susana; Arranz Juan-José; Brito Nuno; Molina Antonio; San Primitivo Fermín; Bayón Yolanda

2007-01-01

162

Sheep Statistics, 2010.  

Science.gov (United States)

The number of sheep on Canadian farms also declined between January 1, 2009 and January 1, 2010. The total sheep inventory fell 0.2% to 806,600 head. The slaughter of sheep in Canada remained unchanged from levels a year ago. The number of sheep on Canadi...

2010-01-01

163

Genomic selection in animal breeding programs.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Genomic selection can have a major impact on animal breeding programs, especially where traits that are important in the breeding objective are hard to select for otherwise. Genomic selection provides more accurate estimates for breeding value earlier in the life of breeding animals, giving more selection accuracy and allowing lower generation intervals. From sheep to dairy cattle, the rates of genetic improvement could increase from 20 to 100 % and hard-to-measure traits can be improved more effectively.Reference populations for genomic selection need to be large, with thousands of animals measured for phenotype and genotype. The smaller the effective size of the breeding population, the larger the DNA segments they potentially share and the more accurate genomic prediction will be. The relative contribution of information from relatives in the reference population will be larger if the baseline accuracy is low, but such information is limited to closely related individuals and does not last over generations.

van der Werf J

2013-01-01

164

Evaluation of West African Sheep under Two Production Systems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The West African sheep was originated in the West African countries, brought to Sudan in 1930. These breeds include (Uda, Sankara and Weila) strains. They are normally reared to gather as mixed pastoral flocks, followed different routes during summer and autumn seasons. In the first phase of this study 75 females and 10 males were selected with typical characteristics of the breed, brought to the University of Nyala experimental farm. In the second phase basic information from tribal breeders and their sheep flocks were collected. For each phase flock statistics were recorded and then some reproductive and productive traits were estimated. Season and age effect on mortality of sheep flock was estimated. Likewise feed lot experiment was done to examine the possibility of sheep for improvement of meat production. Body length, heart girth, height at withers and chest depth were measured for lambs at birth to one year age and similar measurements were taken for adult flocks.

Musa, H.H; A.H. Suleiman; F.M. El amin; G.H. Chen; D.M. Mekki; B.C. Li

2005-01-01

165

Estimation of Genetic Diversity in Sheep (Ovis aries) using Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA  

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Full Text Available Domestic sheep (Ovis aries) belongs to order Artiod actyla. Despite its great economic importance, not much work has been done in Pakistan on breeding and genetics of sheep. Present research was initiated to analyze DNA based genetic diversity in Pakistani breeds of sheep. Total genomic DNA was isolated from blood of Rambouillet, Kaghani and Ramghani breeds. Polymerase Chain Reactions (PCR) were carried out using six Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) primers. Amplified fragments ranged in size from 500 bp to 2000 bp. On average, 3 alleles per genotype were amplified. Average genetic distance estimate ranged from 30-100%. Eleven comparisons showed maximum genetic diversity (GD = 100%) while 6 comparisons sowed minimum genetic diversity (GD = 30%) for the loci detected using 6 RAPD primers. Phylogenetic elaboration among the 14 sheep accessions were carried out using dendrogram analysis. The 14 accessions of sheep were grouped into 5 clusters comprising 3 , 3, 3, 3 and 2 accessions, respectively.

M. Qasim,

2011-01-01

166

Eradication of scrapie with selective breeding: are we nearly there?  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Following EU decision 2003/100/EC Member States have recently implemented sheep breeding programmes to reduce the prevalence of sheep with TSE susceptible prion genotypes. The present paper investigates the progress of the breeding programme in the Netherlands. The PrP genotype frequencies were monitored through time using two sets of random samples: one set covers the years 2005 to 2008 and is taken from national surveillance programme; the other is taken from 168 random sheep farms in 2007. The data reveal that although the level of compliance to the breeding programme has been high, the frequency of susceptible genotypes varies substantially between farms. The 168 sheep farms are a subset of 689 farms participating in a postal survey inquiring about management and breeding strategies. This survey aimed to identify how much these strategies varied between farms, in order to inform assessment of the expected future progress towards eradication of classical scrapie. Results On the one hand, we found that compliance to the national breeding program has been high, and the frequency of resistant genotypes is expected to increase further in the next few years. On the other hand, we observed a large variation in prevalence of the scrapie resistant PrP genotype ARR between farms, implicating a large variation of genetic resistance between farms. Substantial between-flock differences in management and breeding strategies were found in the postal survey, suggesting considerable variation in risk of scrapie transmission between farms. Conclusions Our results show that although there has been a good progress in the breeding for scrapie resistance and the average farm-level scrapie susceptibility in the Netherlands has been significantly reduced, still a considerable proportion of farms contain high frequencies of susceptible genotypes in their sheep population. Since 2007 the breeding for genetic resistance is voluntarily again, and participation to selective breeding can decrease as a result of this. This, together with the patterns of direct and indirect contact between sheep farms, might present a challenge of the aim of scrapie eradication. Communication to sheep owners of the effect of the breeding programme thus far, and of the prospects for classical scrapie eradication in The Netherlands might be essential for obtaining useful levels of participation to the voluntary continuation of the breeding programme.

Melchior Marielle B; Windig Jack J; Hagenaars Thomas J; Bossers Alex; Davidse Aart; van Zijderveld Fred G

2010-01-01

167

Sheep Collisions: the Good, the Bad, and the TBI  

CERN Multimedia

The title page of Chapter 9 in Fundamentals of Physics (Halliday, Resnick, and Walker, 8th Edition, p. 201) shows a dramatic photograph of two Big Horn sheep butting heads and promises to explain how sheep survive such violent clashes without serious injury. However, the answer presented in sample problem 9-4 (p. 213) errs in presuming an interaction time of 0.27 s which results in an unrealistically long stopping distance of 0.62 m. Furthermore, the assertion that the horns provide necessary cushioning of the blow is inconsistent with the absence of concussions in domestic breeds of hornless sheep. Results from traumatic brain injury (TBI) research allow acceleration tolerance of sheep to be estimated as 450 g facilitating an analysis of sheep collisions that is more consistent with available observations (stopping distance less than 1 cm, impact time of roughly 2 ms).

Courtney, Michael

2007-01-01

168

Jaagsiekte Sheep Retrovirus Biology and Oncogenesis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV) is the causative agent of a lung cancer in sheep known as ovine pulmonary adenocarcinoma (OPA). The disease has been identified around the world in several breeds of sheep and goats, and JSRV infection typically has a serious impact on affected flocks. In addition, studies on OPA are an excellent model for human lung carcinogenesis. A unique feature of JSRV is that its envelope (Env) protein functions as an oncogene. The JSRV Env-induced transformation or oncogenesis has been studied in a variety of cell systems and in animal models. Moreover, JSRV studies have provided insights into retroviral genomic RNA export/expression mechanisms. JSRV encodes a trans-acting factor (Rej) within the env gene necessary for the synthesis of Gag protein from unspliced viral RNA. This review summarizes research pertaining to JSRV?induced pathogenesis, Env transformation, and other aspects of JSRV biology.

Andrew Hofacre; Hung Fan

2010-01-01

169

Comparison of the Fleece Characteristics of Karakas and Norduz Sheep (Local Ewes in Turkey)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Data were collected from 10 Karakas and 10 Norduz sheep in Animal Science Breeding Farm, Yuzuncu Yil University, Turkey. Fleece characteristics in the sheep were investigated as greasy fleece weight (kg), clean fiber percentage (%), elasticity (%), breaking strength (g), fiber length (cm) and fiber ...

Kadir Karakus; Selcuk Seckin Tuncer; Serhat Arslan

170

SHEEP AND GOAT PREFERENCE FOR AND NUTRITIONAL VALUE OF MEDITERRANEAN MAQUIS SHRUBS  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this study was to evaluate the nutritive value, intake and preferences of sheep and goats for the dominant 6 shrubs of the holly oak maquis-type shrublands in Croatia. The experimental sheep (n=12, mean weight 28.5 kg) were a local Croatian mixed breed. The experimental goats (n=12,...

171

Long-term biocompatibility and osseointegration of electron beam melted, free-form-fabricated solid and porous titanium alloy: experimental studies in sheep.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the long-term osseointegration and biocompatibility of electron beam melted (EBM) free-form-fabricated (FFF titanium grade 5 (Ti6Al4V) implants. Porous and solid machined cylindrical and disk-shaped implants were prepared by EBM and implanted bilaterally in the femur and subcutaneously in the dorsum of the sheep. After 26 weeks, the implants and surrounding tissue were retrieved. The tissue response was examined qualitatively and quantitatively using histology and light microscopic (LM) morphometry. Selected bone implants specimens were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), and micro-computed tomography (mCT). The results showed that both porous and solid implants were osseointegrated and high bone-implant contact was observed throughout the porous implant. In the soft tissue, the porous implants showed thinner fibrous encapsulation while no signs of intolerance were observed for either implant type. Taken together, the present experimental results show that FFF Ti6Al4V with and without porous structures demonstrate excellent long-term soft tissue biocompatibility and a high degree of osseointegration. The present findings extend earlier, short-term experimental observations in bone and suggest that EBM, FFF Ti6Al4V implants possess valuable properties in bone and soft tissue applications.

Palmquist A; Snis A; Emanuelsson L; Browne M; Thomsen P

2013-05-01

172

EVALUATION OF WOOL AND HAIR BREEDS FOR GROWTH, CARCASS, AND MEAT QUALITY TRAITS  

Science.gov (United States)

A consumer-responsive goal of the sheep industry is consistent production of uniform, safe, nutritious, lean lamb that results in an enjoyable and pleasant eating experience. Important differences may exist between breeds of sheep for traits that affect consumer perceptions of lamb quality. Theref...

173

Dog Breeds  

Science.gov (United States)

Recently, designer mutts like the Labradoodle -- a cross between a Labarador retriever and a poodle -- have become popular. A listener wanted to know if some kinds of dogs are just too different to make puppies. This Science Update explores the cross breeding of species.

;

2004-07-05

174

Production and economic characteristics of sheep production on the island of Pag  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of the research was to learn from a survey about the production and economic characteristics of sheep production as well as economic position and developmental orientation of sheep breeders on the island of Pag. Data on production and economic characteristics of sheep production on the island of Pag were collected from a survey and processed through relevant descriptive statistics methods. The respondents have on average 47 breeding sheep, 2 rams and 9 sheep intended for flock renewal rate (not older than one year); which means an average flock has 58 sheep. The average total income from sheep production in 2009 was 72,460.10 HRK. The average total production costs in 2009 were 13,260.10 HRK, including the costs of fodder and veterinary services. All farms achieved positive financial results of 59,199.90 HRK in average. As many as three quarters of respondents indicated profitability of sheep production as the main motivation to engage in sheep production; very few indicated that heritage and inability to do other jobs were the main motivation. Important limiting factors for future development of sheep breeding on the island of Pag in most farms are lack of potential heirs and high average age of farm holders. Regarding the effects of joining the European Union, half the breeders intend to improve their production and harmonise it with the EU requirements and standards; one quarter of them intend to keep the existing production capacity; and another quarter intend to quit with production.

Josip Gugi?; Boro Mio?; Marina Krvavica; Ivo Grgi?; Ante ?emelji?

2012-01-01

175

Estudo anatomorfológico, radiográfico e tomográfico de Schistosomus reflexus em ovino da raça Dorper: relato de caso/ Anatomorphological, radiographic and tomographic studies of Schistosomus reflexus in Dorper breed sheep: case report  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O Schistosomus reflexus (SR) é uma anomalia congênita fatal e rara, primariamente observada em ruminantes, a qual apresenta feto com dorsoflexão da coluna vertebral, exposição das vísceras abdominais e torácicas e escoliose. Foi realizada uma cesariana de ovelha da raça Dorper, em propriedade da região de Botucatu-SP. Pelas características gerais e achados de necropsia, tratava-se de um caso de SR. A radiografia revelou acentuado desvio ventrodorsal do segmento (more) da coluna vertebral toracolombar e deformidades das costelas. Na tomografia computadorizada, observou-se presença da integridade dos ossos e órgãos, exceto ausência de uma vértebra lombar. Não havia dados na literatura de diagnóstico por imagem de SR em ovinos, portanto procedeu-se, de forma inédita, a exames radiográfico e tomográfico do feto. Abstract in english Schistosomus reflexus (SR) is a rare and fatal congenital anomaly, primarily observed in ruminants, presenting fetus with dorsiflexion of the vertebral column, exposure of thoracic and visceral organs, and scoliosis. A caesarian was performed on a Dorper sheep on a farm in Botucatu-SP and according to the general characteristics and findings observed in the necropsy of the fetus it was an SR case. The radiography indicated a marked ventro-dorsal deviation of the thoracolu (more) mbar column segment and deformity of the ribs. On the computed tomography the integrity of the bones and organs were detected, except for the absence of a lumbar vertebra. No data were available in the literature for SR diagnosis in sheep by image, so radiographic and tomographic exams of the fetus were done.

Ferreira, D.O.L.; Santarosa, B.P.; Monteiro-Toma, C.D.; Belotta, A.F.; Chiacchio, S.B.; Machado, V.M.V.; Gonçalves, R.C.; Prestes, N.C.

2013-08-01

176

Seroprevalence of Cystic Echinococcosis in Chinese Merino and Duolang Sheep in Xinjiang, China  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this present study was to investigate the seroprevalence of cystic echinococcosis (CE) in Chinese merino sheep and Duolang sheep in Xinjiang, northwestern China. A total of 1219 serum samples of sheep (including 868 Chinese merino sheep from 6 farms in Ili, Tacheng and Shihezi as well as 351 Duolang sheep from 4 farms in Kashgar) were detected by ELISA assay. The chi-square test was used to analyze the data and the area differences for CE prevalence were compared. Results showed that the overall seropositive percentage for CE was 31.1% in Chinese merino sheep, and sheep from Ili area (of which 48.8% were seropositive) were significantly more likely to be seropositive than either sheep from Shihezi area (6.9%) (P<0.01) or ones from Tacheng area (12.7%) (P<0.01). In addition, seroprevalence for CE in Duolang sheep varied from 3.3% (farm No.45) to 30.7% (farm No.50A), with the average percentage of 21.7%, which was lower than that of Chinese merino sheep (31.1%), and statistically significant difference was observed between the two breeds in seroprevalence of CE (P<0.05). In conclusion, in Xinjiang, CE prevails differently in different areas in Chinese merino sheep and Duolang sheep. And also, serologically, Chinese merino sheep was more susceptible to CE than Duolang sheep. Comprehensive measures are needed to strengthen further prevention and control of disease in two breeds in Xinjiang.

Wenqiao Hui§, Xinli Du§, Bin Jia*, Xianxia Liu, Muyesaer, Junde Ma and Shijun Ma

2012-01-01

177

A melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) gene polymorphism is useful for authentication of Massese sheep dairy products.  

Science.gov (United States)

Massese is an Italian sheep breed, with black or grey coat colour, mainly reared in the Tuscany and Emilia Romagna regions. Recently, the emerging interests in this breed have resulted in the production of Pecorino cheese obtained with only Massese milk. In order to be profitable, this marketing link between Massese breed and its products should be defended against fraudsters who could include milk of other sheep breeds or cow milk in Massese labelled productions. To identify the genetic factors affecting coat colour in sheep, we have recently analysed the melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) gene and identified several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). In this work, as a first step to set up a DNA based protocol for authentication of Massese dairy products, we further investigated the presence and distribution of one of these SNPs (c.-31G>A) in 143 Massese sheep and in another 13 sheep breeds (for a total of 351 animals). The Massese breed was fixed for allele c.-31A, whereas in all other breeds allele c.-31 G was the most frequent or with frequency of 0·50. At the same nucleotide position the cattle MC1R gene carries the G nucleotide. Using these data we developed a method to detect adulterating milk (from other sheep breeds or from cow) in Massese dairy products based on the analysis of the c.-31G>A SNP. We first tested the sensitivity of the protocol and then applied it to analyse DNA extracted from ricotta and Pecorino cheese obtained with only Massese milk or obtained with unrestricted sheep and cattle milk. To our knowledge, this system represents the first one that can be used for breed authentication of a sheep production and that, at the same time, can reveal frauds derived from the admixture of milk of an unreported species. PMID:21214968

Fontanesi, Luca; Beretti, Francesca; Dall'Olio, Stefania; Portolano, Baldassare; Matassino, Donato; Russo, Vincenzo

2011-02-01

178

A melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) gene polymorphism is useful for authentication of Massese sheep dairy products.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Massese is an Italian sheep breed, with black or grey coat colour, mainly reared in the Tuscany and Emilia Romagna regions. Recently, the emerging interests in this breed have resulted in the production of Pecorino cheese obtained with only Massese milk. In order to be profitable, this marketing link between Massese breed and its products should be defended against fraudsters who could include milk of other sheep breeds or cow milk in Massese labelled productions. To identify the genetic factors affecting coat colour in sheep, we have recently analysed the melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) gene and identified several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). In this work, as a first step to set up a DNA based protocol for authentication of Massese dairy products, we further investigated the presence and distribution of one of these SNPs (c.-31G>A) in 143 Massese sheep and in another 13 sheep breeds (for a total of 351 animals). The Massese breed was fixed for allele c.-31A, whereas in all other breeds allele c.-31 G was the most frequent or with frequency of 0·50. At the same nucleotide position the cattle MC1R gene carries the G nucleotide. Using these data we developed a method to detect adulterating milk (from other sheep breeds or from cow) in Massese dairy products based on the analysis of the c.-31G>A SNP. We first tested the sensitivity of the protocol and then applied it to analyse DNA extracted from ricotta and Pecorino cheese obtained with only Massese milk or obtained with unrestricted sheep and cattle milk. To our knowledge, this system represents the first one that can be used for breed authentication of a sheep production and that, at the same time, can reveal frauds derived from the admixture of milk of an unreported species.

Fontanesi L; Beretti F; Dall'Olio S; Portolano B; Matassino D; Russo V

2011-02-01

179

Association between AA-NAT gene polymorphism and reproductive performance in sheep  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AA-NAT) is critical enzyme in Melatonin (MLT) biosynthesis for MLT regulating the animal seasonal breeding. In this study, DNA sequencing methods were applied to detect the polymorphisms of the AA-NAT gene in 179 Chinese sheep belonging to two non-seasonal reproduction breeds and two seasonal reproduction breeds. One mutation at exon 3 (NM_001009461:c.486A > G) was ?rstly described at the sheep AA-NAT locus. Hence, we describe (more) d the SmaI PCR-RFLP method for detecting EX3 486A > G mutation, frequencies of the AA-NAT-G allele varied from 0.871 to 0.908 in two non-seasonal reproduction breeds and 0.517 to 0.578 in two seasonal reproduction breeds. The associations of SmaI polymorphism with estrus traits was analyzed in non-seasonal reproduction breeds sheep and seasonal reproduction breeds sheep, the signi?cant statistical results were found between them, the GG genotype frequencies was higher in non-seasonal reproduction breeds (p

Ding-ping, Bai; Cheng-jiang, Yu; Yu-lin, Chen

2012-03-01

180

Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in domestic sheep in Oaxaca State, Mexico.  

Science.gov (United States)

The seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in sheep in southern Mexico is largely unknown. Antibodies to T. gondii were determined in serum samples of 429 sheep from 4 farms in 2 geographical regions in Oaxaca State, Mexico, using the modified agglutination test (MAT); 99 (23.1%) of the 429 sheep had positive MAT titers: 1:25 in 35, 1:50 in 18, 1:100 in 7, 1:200 in 1, 1:400 in 3, 1:800 in 10, 1:1,600 in 5, and 1:3,200, or higher, in 20. Seroprevalence of T. gondii infection varied with management, breed of sheep, and location. It was significantly higher in sheep raised under semi-intensive (grazed on cultivated pasture and hay) conditions than in those raised under semi-extensive conditions (grazed on communal natural grass land). The seroprevalence of T. gondii infection was significantly higher in mixed-breed sheep than in pure breeds. Sheep raised in temperate climate in municipalities at 1,560-1,600 m above sea level (Central Valley region) had a significantly higher seroprevalence of T. gondii infection than those raised in semiarid and warm-humid climates in municipalities at 1,020-1,080 m of altitude (Cañada region) (29.8% vs. 7.1%, respectively). This is the first report of T. gondii infection in sheep in Oaxaca State, Mexico. PMID:22712886

Alvarado-Esquivel, C; Estrada-Malacón, M A; Reyes-Hernández, S O; Pérez-Ramírez, J A; Trujillo-López, J I; Villena, I; Dubey, J P

2012-06-19

 
 
 
 
181

Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in domestic sheep in Oaxaca State, Mexico.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in sheep in southern Mexico is largely unknown. Antibodies to T. gondii were determined in serum samples of 429 sheep from 4 farms in 2 geographical regions in Oaxaca State, Mexico, using the modified agglutination test (MAT); 99 (23.1%) of the 429 sheep had positive MAT titers: 1:25 in 35, 1:50 in 18, 1:100 in 7, 1:200 in 1, 1:400 in 3, 1:800 in 10, 1:1,600 in 5, and 1:3,200, or higher, in 20. Seroprevalence of T. gondii infection varied with management, breed of sheep, and location. It was significantly higher in sheep raised under semi-intensive (grazed on cultivated pasture and hay) conditions than in those raised under semi-extensive conditions (grazed on communal natural grass land). The seroprevalence of T. gondii infection was significantly higher in mixed-breed sheep than in pure breeds. Sheep raised in temperate climate in municipalities at 1,560-1,600 m above sea level (Central Valley region) had a significantly higher seroprevalence of T. gondii infection than those raised in semiarid and warm-humid climates in municipalities at 1,020-1,080 m of altitude (Cañada region) (29.8% vs. 7.1%, respectively). This is the first report of T. gondii infection in sheep in Oaxaca State, Mexico.

Alvarado-Esquivel C; Estrada-Malacón MA; Reyes-Hernández SO; Pérez-Ramírez JA; Trujillo-López JI; Villena I; Dubey JP

2013-02-01

182

Out of season sheep milk production in Sardinia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Sheep breeding in Sardinia is based on two lambing seasons: in autumn for adult and in late winter for primiparous ewes. The milk production is concentrated within the winter-spring period, determining a break in the cheese factories’ activities from the middle summer to the middle autumn. In order ...

Piras, Marco; Ligios, Sebastiano; Sitzia, Maria; Fois, Nicola

183

The callipyge mutation and other genes that affect muscle hypertrophy in sheep  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Genetic strategies to improve the profitability of sheep operations have generally focused on traits for reproduction. However, natural mutations exist in sheep that affect muscle growth and development, and the exploitation of these mutations in breeding strategies has the potential to significantly improve lamb-meat quality. The best-documented mutation for muscle development in sheep is callipyge (CLPG), which causes a postnatal muscle hypertrophy that is localized to the pelvic limbs and loin. Enhanced skeletal muscle growth is also observed in animals with the Carwell (or rib-eye muscling) mutation, and a double-muscling phenotype has been documented for animals of the Texel sheep breed. However, the actual mutations responsible for these muscular hypertrophy phenotypes in sheep have yet to be identified, and further characterization of the genetic basis for these phenotypes will provide insight into the biological control of muscle growth and body composition.

Cockett Noelle E; Smit Maria A; Bidwell Christopher A; Segers Karin; Hadfield Tracy L; Snowder Gary D; Georges Michel; Charlier Carole

2005-01-01

184

Diversity of ectoparasites in sheep flocks in São Paulo, Brazil.  

Science.gov (United States)

The occurrence of ectoparasites in sheep flocks is frequently reported but seldom quantified. Sheep production used to be a predominantly family activity in the state of São Paulo (Brazil), but it began to become a commercial activity in the past decade. Thus, information about the ectoparasites existing in sheep flocks has become necessary. The present data were obtained by means of questionnaires sent to all sheep breeders belonging to the 'Associação Paulista de Criadores de Ovinos' (ASPACO; São Paulo State Association of Sheep Breeders). Response reliability was tested by means of random visits paid to 10.6% of the respondents. Most of the properties (89.5%) reported the presence of one or more ectoparasites. Screw-worm (Cochliomyia hominivorax) was the most frequent ectoparasite (72.5%), followed by bot fly larvae (Dermatobia hominis, 45.0%), ticks (Amblyomma cajennense) and Boophilus microplus, 31.3%) and finally lice (Damalinia ovis, 13.8%). Combined infestations also occurred, the most common one being screw-worm with bot fly larvae (36.0%) followed by bot fly larvae with ticks (13.9%), screw-worm with ticks (9.3%), bot fly larvae with lice (6.9%), and ticks with lice (5.0%). The most common triple combination was screw-worm, bot fly larvae and ticks (12.8%). Breeds raised for meat or wool were attacked by bot fly larvae and ticks more often than other breeds. Lice were only absent from animals of indigenous breeds. The relationships among these ectoparasites are discussed in terms of sheep breeds, flock size, seasonality and the ectoparasitic combinations on the host. PMID:11020945

Madeira, N G; Amarante, A F; Padovani, C R

2000-08-01

185

DNA fingerprints of sheep using an M13 probe.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The bacteriophage M13 DNA was used to detect hypervariable minisatellites in several families of Booroola sheep as well as Merino and Suffolk sheep. Digestion of sheep DNA gave rise to three to eight fragments with different restriction enzymes demonstrating considerable polymorphism between the different breeds. The length of informative DNA fragments varied in size from 6 to 20kb. The DNA fingerprints generated were individual specific and allowed for differentiation between closely related animals. The pattern obtained with sheep DNA was different from that observed with humans and other vertebrates in the proportion of high molecular weight DNA fragments present. Pedigree analysis of DNA patterns of dams and their offspring for several sets of twins and triplets showed a clear distinction between individuals and failed to reveal the presence of monozygosity.

Gatei MH; Chen PM; Daniel RC; Lavin MF

1991-01-01

186

Erythrocyte glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and glutathione deficiency in sheep.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Erythrocytes of 145 sheep representing six breeds were assayed for glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase. All sheep had erythrocyte glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase values similar to glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficient erythrocytes of man. Mean erythrocyte glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase levels ranged from 0.65 to 1.54 micromoles of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate per gram of hemoglobin per minute. Many of these sheep also had low levels and/or unstable reduced glutathione. Sheep with low levels of erythrocyte glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and reduced glutathione were given large doses of oxidizing drugs or fed fresh fava beans to determine if they would develop intravascular hemolysis. No significant hemolysis was detected as a result of drug administration or fava bean ingestion.

Maronpot RR

1972-01-01

187

Schmallenberg virus experimental infection of sheep  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Since late 2011, a novel orthobunyavirus, named Schmallenberg virus (SBV), has been implicated in many cases of severely malformed bovine and ovine offspring in Europe. In adult cattle, SBV is known to cause a mild transient disease; clinical signs include short febrile episodes, decreased milk production and diarrhoea for a few days. However, the knowledge about clinical signs and pathogenesis in adult sheep is limited.In the present study, adult sheep of European domestic breeds were inoculated with SBV either as cell culture grown virus or as virus with no history of passage in cell cultures. Various experimental set-ups were used. Sampling included blood collection at different time points during the experimental period and selected organ material at autopsy.Data from this study showed, that the RNAemic period in sheep was as short as reported for cattle; viral genome was detectable for about 3–5 days by real-time RT-PCR. In total, 13 out of 30 inoculated sheep became RNAemic, with the highest viral load in animals inoculated with virus from low cell culture passaged or the animal passaged material. Contact animals remained negative throughout the study. One RNAemic sheep showed diarrhoea for several days, but fever was not recorded in any of the animals. Antibodies were first detectable 10–14 days post inoculation. Viral RNA was detectable in spleen and lymph nodes up to day 44 post inoculation.In conclusion, as described for cattle, SBV-infection in adult sheep predominantly results in subclinical infection, transient RNAemia and a specific antibody response. Maintenance of viral RNA in the lymphoreticular system is observed for an extended period.

Wernike, Kerstin; Hoffmann, Bernd

2013-01-01

188

Schmallenberg virus experimental infection of sheep.  

Science.gov (United States)

Since late 2011, a novel orthobunyavirus, named Schmallenberg virus (SBV), has been implicated in many cases of severely malformed bovine and ovine offspring in Europe. In adult cattle, SBV is known to cause a mild transient disease; clinical signs include short febrile episodes, decreased milk production and diarrhoea for a few days. However, the knowledge about clinical signs and pathogenesis in adult sheep is limited. In the present study, adult sheep of European domestic breeds were inoculated with SBV either as cell culture grown virus or as virus with no history of passage in cell cultures. Various experimental set-ups were used. Sampling included blood collection at different time points during the experimental period and selected organ material at autopsy. Data from this study showed, that the RNAemic period in sheep was as short as reported for cattle; viral genome was detectable for about 3-5 days by real-time RT-PCR. In total, 13 out of 30 inoculated sheep became RNAemic, with the highest viral load in animals inoculated with virus from low cell culture passaged or the animal passaged material. Contact animals remained negative throughout the study. One RNAemic sheep showed diarrhoea for several days, but fever was not recorded in any of the animals. Antibodies were first detectable 10-14 days post inoculation. Viral RNA was detectable in spleen and lymph nodes up to day 44 post inoculation. In conclusion, as described for cattle, SBV-infection in adult sheep predominantly results in subclinical infection, transient RNAemia and a specific antibody response. Maintenance of viral RNA in the lymphoreticular system is observed for an extended period. PMID:23972950

Wernike, Kerstin; Hoffmann, Bernd; Bréard, Emmanuel; Bøtner, Anette; Ponsart, Claire; Zientara, Stéphan; Lohse, Louise; Pozzi, Nathalie; Viarouge, Cyril; Sarradin, Pierre; Leroux-Barc, Céline; Riou, Mickael; Laloy, Eve; Breithaupt, Angele; Beer, Martin

2013-07-06

189

Sheep models of polycystic ovary syndrome phenotype.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a fertility disorder affecting 5-7% of reproductive-aged women. Women with PCOS manifest both reproductive and metabolic defects. Several animal models have evolved, which implicate excess steroid exposure during fetal life in the development of the PCOS phenotype. This review addresses the fetal and adult reproductive and metabolic consequences of prenatal steroid excess in sheep and the translational relevance of these findings to PCOS. By comparing findings in various breeds of sheep, the review targets the role of genetic susceptibility to fetal insults. Disruptions induced by prenatal testosterone excess are evident at both the reproductive and metabolic level with each influencing the other thus creating a self-perpetuating vicious cycle. The review highlights the need for identifying a common mediator of the dysfunctions at the reproductive and metabolic levels and developing prevention and treatment interventions targeting all sites of disruption in unison for achieving optimal success.

Padmanabhan V; Veiga-Lopez A

2013-07-01

190

Pruritus is a common feature in sheep infected with the BSE agent  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The variability in the clinical or pathological presentation of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) in sheep, such as scrapie and bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), has been attributed to prion protein genotype, strain, breed, clinical duration, dose, route and type of inoculum and the age at infection. The study aimed to describe the clinical signs in sheep infected with the BSE agent throughout its clinical course to determine whether the clinical signs were as variable as described for classical scrapie in sheep. The clinical signs were compared to BSE-negative sheep to assess if disease-specific clinical markers exist. Results Forty-seven (34%) of 139 sheep, which comprised 123 challenged sheep and 16 undosed controls, were positive for BSE. Affected sheep belonged to five different breeds and three different genotypes (ARQ/ARQ, VRQ/VRQ and AHQ/AHQ). None of the controls or BSE exposed sheep with ARR alleles were positive. Pruritus was present in 41 (87%) BSE positive sheep; the remaining six were judged to be pre-clinically infected. Testing of the response to scratching along the dorsum of a sheep proved to be a good indicator of clinical disease with a test sensitivity of 85% and specificity of 98% and usually coincided with weight loss. Clinical signs that were displayed significantly earlier in BSE positive cases compared to negative cases were behavioural changes, pruritic behaviour, a positive scratch test, alopecia, skin lesions, teeth grinding, tremor, ataxia, loss of weight and loss of body condition. The frequency and severity of each specific clinical sign usually increased with the progression of disease over a period of 16–20 weeks. Conclusion Our results suggest that BSE in sheep presents with relatively uniform clinical signs, with pruritus of increased severity and abnormalities in behaviour or movement as the disease progressed. Based on the studied sheep, these clinical features appear to be independent of breed, affected genotype, dose, route of inoculation and whether BSE was passed into sheep from cattle or from other sheep, suggesting that the clinical phenotype of BSE is influenced by the TSE strain more than by other factors. The clinical phenotype of BSE in the genotypes and breed studied was indistinguishable from that described for classical scrapie cases.

Konold Timm; Bone Gemma; Vidal-Diez Alberto; Tortosa Raul; Davis Andrew; Dexter Glenda; Hill Peter; Jeffrey Martin; Simmons Marion M; Chaplin Melanie J; Bellworthy Susan J; Berthelin-Baker Christine

2008-01-01

191

Survival Time in Sheep Affected by Sheep Pox and Enterotoxaemia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

To assess the factors that influence the survival time of sheep affected by sheep pox or enterotoxaemia, 150 sheep farms affected by sheep pox (108) and enterotoxaemia (42) were selected through multistage random sampling technique from the purposively selected Dharmapuri district of Tamil Nadu. Rel...

Senthilkumar, V.; M. Thirunavukkarasu; G. Kathiravan

192

Charge Breeding Techniques  

CERN Multimedia

The numerous newly built and forthcoming post-accelerators for radioactive ions, produced with the isotope separator on-line (ISOL) technique, all have a need for an efficient method to accelerate the precious primary ions. By increasing the ion charge-to-mass ratio directly after the radioactive ion production stage, a short and compact linear accelerator can be employed. Not only the efficiency, but also the rapidity of such a charge-to-mass increasing process, called charge breeding, is a crucial factor for the often short-lived radioisotopes. The traditional foil or gas stripping technique was challenged some five to ten years ago by novel schemes for charge breeding. The transformation from 1+ to n+ charged ions takes place inside an Electron Beam Ion Source/Trap (EBIS/T) or Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Source/Trap (ECRIS/T) by electron-ion collisions. These charge breeders are located in the low-energy part of the machine before the accelerating structures. Because of the capability of these devices...

Wenander, F

2004-01-01

193

Wool Fiber Quality of Naeini Sheep  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate fiber quality characteristics of Naeini sheep. An experiment was carried out on six flocks from different regions of Isfahan province. Two hundred and twenty seven Naeini sheep (191 ewes and 36 rams) were sampled from a 100 cm2 surface on the mid-side. Fleeces shorn in 1999 within two sampling seasons (June and December) were sent to the laboratory of Animal Sciences at Isfahan University of Technology in order to study some wool quality traits including: fiber diameter mean, variability in fiber diameter, percent of true, modulated and heterotype fibers, accumulation of scales in 100 ?m fiber lengths and diameter mean of modulated and heterotype fibers on Naeini sheep. Fiber diameter mean, within sample variability of fiber diameter and diameter mean of heterotype and modulated fibers were estimated 28.51, 11.19, 46.67 and 65.78 ?m, respectively. The percentages of true, modulated and heterotype fibers were 89.53, 5.93 and 4.38, respectively and the average number of scales was 6.2 per 100 ?m length of fiber. Herd and season had significant effects on all of the studied measures. Herd effects may be due to genetic, environment and pasture (nutritional) differences between herds. Also, the results of this study showed that there would be finer wool type at June than December shearing times for Naeini sheep. Age had a significant effect on % of heterotype fibers only and sex effect was only significant on the scales accumulation. On average, Naeini rams had finer fibers than ewes, which indicate higher selection intensities on rams. The results of this study revealed that Naeini sheep has great qualifications for carpet industry. However, further breeding programs are needed to meet textile industries qualifications.

G. Dashab; M.A. Edriss; A.A. Ghare Aghaji; H. Movasagh; M.A. Nilforooshan

2006-01-01

194

Classification of four ovine breeds of southern peninsular zone of India: Morphometric study using classical discriminant function analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Six morphometric traits (height at withers, body length, chest girth, ear length, tail length and body weight) were analyzed to characterize from a breed point of view 1981 sheep from four ovine breeds (Bellary, Kenguri, Hassan and Mandya) of southern peninsular zone of India. Discriminant Function Analysis was used to distinguish between four breeds by morphometric traits. The population variability showed Kenguri ewes were the largest and heaviest followed by Bellary, Hassan and Mandya whereas Kenguri rams were followed by Bellary, Mandya and Hassan. Overall sexual dimorphism (m/f) was 1.13, with Kenguri males being 47% heavier than females. The coefficient of variation of all traits in four breeds ranged from 4.06% to 30.28%. The flocks and age effects showed a high heterogeneity among females of different flocks. Height at withers was most discriminating trait in separating the four sheep breeds. The Mahalanobis distance of the morphological traits between Kenguri and Mandya sheep was most while the least differentiation was observed between Kenguri and Bellary sheep. Nearest neighbour discriminant analysis showed that most Kenguri sheep were classified into their source population followed by Mandya. However, varied percentages of misclassification between different breeds were observed showing the level of genetic exchange that has taken place between the breeds overtime. UPGMA based dendrogram showed formation of two separate groups; Mandya and Hassan clustered together while Bellary and Kenguri formed other group. PMID:23449966

Yadav, Dinesh Kumar; Jain, Anand; Kulkarni, Viswanath Sheshagirirao; Govindaiah, Mandera Giriyappa; Aswathnarayan, Thimmappa; Sadana, Devinder Kumar

2013-01-29

195

Classification of four ovine breeds of southern peninsular zone of India: Morphometric study using classical discriminant function analysis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Six morphometric traits (height at withers, body length, chest girth, ear length, tail length and body weight) were analyzed to characterize from a breed point of view 1981 sheep from four ovine breeds (Bellary, Kenguri, Hassan and Mandya) of southern peninsular zone of India. Discriminant Function Analysis was used to distinguish between four breeds by morphometric traits. The population variability showed Kenguri ewes were the largest and heaviest followed by Bellary, Hassan and Mandya whereas Kenguri rams were followed by Bellary, Mandya and Hassan. Overall sexual dimorphism (m/f) was 1.13, with Kenguri males being 47% heavier than females. The coefficient of variation of all traits in four breeds ranged from 4.06% to 30.28%. The flocks and age effects showed a high heterogeneity among females of different flocks. Height at withers was most discriminating trait in separating the four sheep breeds. The Mahalanobis distance of the morphological traits between Kenguri and Mandya sheep was most while the least differentiation was observed between Kenguri and Bellary sheep. Nearest neighbour discriminant analysis showed that most Kenguri sheep were classified into their source population followed by Mandya. However, varied percentages of misclassification between different breeds were observed showing the level of genetic exchange that has taken place between the breeds overtime. UPGMA based dendrogram showed formation of two separate groups; Mandya and Hassan clustered together while Bellary and Kenguri formed other group.

Yadav DK; Jain A; Kulkarni VS; Govindaiah MG; Aswathnarayan T; Sadana DK

2013-12-01

196

Effect of Flushing Hair Sheep Ewes During the Dry and Wet Seasons in the U.S. Virgin Islands  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

St. Croix White hair sheep ewes were used to evaluate the effect of supplemental nutrition prior to breeding during the dry and wet seasons on St. Croix. Beginning 21 d prior to breeding ewes were fed supplement in addition to grazing guineagrass pasture (FEED). Other ewes in the flock graz...

R.W. Godfrey; A.J. Weis; R.E. Dodson

197

MORE ABOUT ON LOCAL DIFFERENTIATION OF ALBANIAN LOCAL SHEEP POPULATIONS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The estimation of archaism index was used to study the local differentiation of seven Albanian local sheep populations. The estimation of archaism index was carried out using the morph-metric data of several features: whither height, tail length, ears length, horns and wattles presence, coat color, frontal-nasal profile. The cluster analyses was carried out using the Euclidian’s distances between populations in the plan of two first principal components. The cluster analyzes showed the existence of four distinguish sheep groups: first group -Ruda, Bardhoke, Baca, second group – Shkodrane, third group - Lara of Polisi, Syska of Mati, and fourth group -Recka. Based on the geographic distances between the regions where are bred the animals of these local sheep breeds and their geographic isolation can be concluded that the presence of local differentiation of Albanian local sheep populations is caused by the isolation in distance. These results show that in currant sheep population of Albania it is possible to find direct descendants of animals that have populated the Balkan regions in the form of three migratory successive waves. Currant results could be consider as preliminary one because of limited number of features included in the study and the complicity of this topic. They can serve as a bases for in-depth studies on local differentiation hypotheses of Albanian local sheep population.

Lumturi PAPA; Kristaq KUME; Fehmi XHEMO

2012-01-01

198

Prion protein coding gene (PRNP) variability in sheep from Turkey and Iran.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study was designed to analyze variation of ovine prion protein in sheep breeds in Iran and Turkey. A competitive approach was used to analyze the open reading frame (ORF) of the ovine PRNP gene using a total of 186 samples from five indigenous sheep breeds. The ARQ allele was found to be the predominant allele in five breeds. The ARR allele was not observed in homozygous combination among the 11 genotypes found in the study. In addition, six other polymorphisms were indicated. These findings have great significance for estimating genetic variability in the PRNP gene with regard to Iranian and Turkish sheep. Since no information on the susceptibility of some genotypes identified in this study has been reported, no grouping was made on the basis of susceptibility.

Frootan F; Nikbakht G; Ozgentürk NO; Un C

2012-04-01

199

Mutations in MC1R Gene Determine Black Coat Color Phenotype in Chinese Sheep.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The melanocortin receptor 1 (MC1R) plays a central role in regulation of animal coat color formation. In this study, we sequenced the complete coding region and parts of the 5'- and 3'-untranslated regions of the MC1R gene in Chinese sheep with completely white (Large-tailed Han sheep), black (Minxian Black-fur sheep), and brown coat colors (Kazakh Fat-Rumped sheep). The results showed five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs): two non-synonymous mutations previously associated with coat color (c.218 T>A, p.73 Met>Lys. c.361 G>A, p.121 Asp>Asn) and three synonymous mutations (c.429 C>T, p.143 Tyr>Tyr; c.600 T>G, p.200 Leu>Leu. c.735 C>T, p.245 Ile>Ile). Meanwhile, all mutations were detected in Minxian Black-fur sheep. However, the two nonsynonymous mutation sites were not in all studied breeds (Large-tailed Han, Small-tailed Han, Gansu Alpine Merino, and China Merino breeds), all of which are in white coat. A single haplotype AATGT (haplotype3) was uniquely associated with black coat color in Minxian Black-fur breed (P = 9.72E - 72, chi-square test). The first and second A alleles in this haplotype 3 represent location at 218 and 361 positions, respectively. Our results suggest that the mutations of MC1R gene are associated with black coat color phenotype in Chinese sheep.

Yang GL; Fu DL; Lang X; Wang YT; Cheng SR; Fang SL; Luo YZ

2013-01-01

200

Mutations in MC1R Gene Determine Black Coat Color Phenotype in Chinese Sheep  

Science.gov (United States)

The melanocortin receptor 1 (MC1R) plays a central role in regulation of animal coat color formation. In this study, we sequenced the complete coding region and parts of the 5?- and 3?-untranslated regions of the MC1R gene in Chinese sheep with completely white (Large-tailed Han sheep), black (Minxian Black-fur sheep), and brown coat colors (Kazakh Fat-Rumped sheep). The results showed five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs): two non-synonymous mutations previously associated with coat color (c.218 T>A, p.73 Met>Lys. c.361 G>A, p.121 Asp>Asn) and three synonymous mutations (c.429 C>T, p.143 Tyr>Tyr; c.600 T>G, p.200 Leu>Leu. c.735 C>T, p.245 Ile>Ile). Meanwhile, all mutations were detected in Minxian Black-fur sheep. However, the two nonsynonymous mutation sites were not in all studied breeds (Large-tailed Han, Small-tailed Han, Gansu Alpine Merino, and China Merino breeds), all of which are in white coat. A single haplotype AATGT (haplotype3) was uniquely associated with black coat color in Minxian Black-fur breed (P = 9.72E ? 72, chi-square test). The first and second A alleles in this haplotype 3 represent location at 218 and 361 positions, respectively. Our results suggest that the mutations of MC1R gene are associated with black coat color phenotype in Chinese sheep.

Yang, Guang-Li; Fu, Dong-Li; Lang, Xia; Wang, Yu-Tao; Cheng, Shu-Ru; Fang, Su-Li; Luo, Yu-Zhu

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Colitis in sheep due to a Campylobacter-like bacterium.  

Science.gov (United States)

Epidemic diarrhoea was observed in approximately 2,000 of 6,700 sheep on 9 farms. The disease, called weaner colitis, caused mortality of 1%, while morbidity varied from 20 to 75%. Colon contents from affected sheep were inoculated into 17 sheep, 13 of which developed diarrhoea 5 to 7 days after inoculation. Naturally and experimentally infected sheep had mild, erosive typhlitis and colitis. Microscopic examination of washed scrapings of colonic mucosa from all affected sheep revealed masses of curved bacteria that were not seen in controls. Electron microscopic examination showed similar bacteria adherent to colonic epithelium of an experimentally infected sheep. Curved, motile bacteria were isolated from 2 naturally occurring cases. One isolate was inoculated into 9 sheep, 2 of which developed diarrhoea. The other isolate was given to 4 sheep without observable effect. The curved bacteria grew only on media containing blood, in an atmosphere of approximately 10% air, 10% CO2 and 80% H2. They were Gram-negative, with a polar flagellum at one or both ends, they did not ferment glucose or give a positive catalase reaction. It is suggested that these bacteria are a new Campylobacter species and that they play a major role in the aetiology of weaner colitis. PMID:6497792

Stephens, L R; Browning, J W; Slee, K J; Hayes, J; Tzipori, S

1984-06-01

202

Colitis in sheep due to a Campylobacter-like bacterium.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Epidemic diarrhoea was observed in approximately 2,000 of 6,700 sheep on 9 farms. The disease, called weaner colitis, caused mortality of 1%, while morbidity varied from 20 to 75%. Colon contents from affected sheep were inoculated into 17 sheep, 13 of which developed diarrhoea 5 to 7 days after inoculation. Naturally and experimentally infected sheep had mild, erosive typhlitis and colitis. Microscopic examination of washed scrapings of colonic mucosa from all affected sheep revealed masses of curved bacteria that were not seen in controls. Electron microscopic examination showed similar bacteria adherent to colonic epithelium of an experimentally infected sheep. Curved, motile bacteria were isolated from 2 naturally occurring cases. One isolate was inoculated into 9 sheep, 2 of which developed diarrhoea. The other isolate was given to 4 sheep without observable effect. The curved bacteria grew only on media containing blood, in an atmosphere of approximately 10% air, 10% CO2 and 80% H2. They were Gram-negative, with a polar flagellum at one or both ends, they did not ferment glucose or give a positive catalase reaction. It is suggested that these bacteria are a new Campylobacter species and that they play a major role in the aetiology of weaner colitis.

Stephens LR; Browning JW; Slee KJ; Hayes J; Tzipori S

1984-06-01

203

Genetic components of litter size variability in sheep  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Classical selection for increasing prolificacy in sheep leads to a concomitant increase in its variability, even though the objective of the breeder is to maximise the frequency of an intermediate litter size rather than the frequency of high litter sizes. For instance, in the Lacaune sheep breed raised in semi-intensive conditions, ewes lambing twins represent the economic optimum. Data for this breed, obtained from the national recording scheme, were analysed. Variance components were estimated in an infinitesimal model involving genes controlling the mean level as well as its environmental variability. Large heritability was found for the mean prolificacy, but a high potential for increasing the percentage of twins at lambing while reducing the environmental variability of prolificacy is also suspected. Quantification of the response to such a canalising selection was achieved.

SanCristobal-Gaudy Magali; Bodin Loys; Elsen Jean-Michel; Chevalet Claude

2001-01-01

204

Dairy Sheep Nutrition  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This book, edited by the colleague Giuseppe Pulina, is the result of the project "Further development of a diet formulation model for sheep and goat", supported by the Ministry of Agricultural and Forestry Policies, in Italy.

Rosanna Scipioni

2010-01-01

205

Dairy Sheep Nutrition  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This book, edited by the colleague Giuseppe Pulina, is the result of the project "Further development of a diet formulation model for sheep and goat", supported by the Ministry of Agricultural and Forestry Policies, in Italy.

Rosanna Scipioni

2011-01-01

206

Disease phenotype in sheep after infection with cloned murine scrapie strains.  

Science.gov (United States)

Prion diseases exhibit different disease phenotypes in their natural hosts and when transmitted to rodents, and this variability is regarded as indicative of prion strain diversity. Phenotypic characterization of scrapie strains in sheep can be attempted by histological, immunohistochemical and biochemical approaches, but it is widely considered that strain confirmation and characterization requires rodent bioassay. Examples of scrapie strains obtained from original sheep isolates by serial passage in mice include ME7, 79A, 22A and 87V. In order to address aspects of prion strain stability across the species barrier, we transmitted the above murine strains to sheep of different breeds and susceptible Prnp genotypes. The experiment included 40 sheep dosed by the oral route alone and 36 sheep challenged by combined subcutaneous and intracerebral routes. Overall, the combined route produced higher attack rates (~100%) than the oral route (~50%) and 2-4 times shorter incubation periods. Uniquely, 87V given orally was unable to infect any sheep. Overall, scrapie strains adapted and cloned in mice produce distinct but variable disease phenotypes in sheep depending on breed or Prnp genotype. Further re-isolation experiments in mice are in progress in order to determine whether the original cloned murine disease phenotype will reemerge. PMID:22421207

Sisó, Silvia; Chianini, Francesca; Eaton, Sam L; Witz, Janey; Hamilton, Scott; Martin, Stuart; Finlayson, Jeanie; Pang, Yvonne; Stewart, Paula; Steele, Philip; Dagleish, Mark P; Goldmann, Wilfred; Reid, Hugh W; Jeffrey, Martin; González, Lorenzo

2012-04-01

207

Disease phenotype in sheep after infection with cloned murine scrapie strains.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Prion diseases exhibit different disease phenotypes in their natural hosts and when transmitted to rodents, and this variability is regarded as indicative of prion strain diversity. Phenotypic characterization of scrapie strains in sheep can be attempted by histological, immunohistochemical and biochemical approaches, but it is widely considered that strain confirmation and characterization requires rodent bioassay. Examples of scrapie strains obtained from original sheep isolates by serial passage in mice include ME7, 79A, 22A and 87V. In order to address aspects of prion strain stability across the species barrier, we transmitted the above murine strains to sheep of different breeds and susceptible Prnp genotypes. The experiment included 40 sheep dosed by the oral route alone and 36 sheep challenged by combined subcutaneous and intracerebral routes. Overall, the combined route produced higher attack rates (~100%) than the oral route (~50%) and 2-4 times shorter incubation periods. Uniquely, 87V given orally was unable to infect any sheep. Overall, scrapie strains adapted and cloned in mice produce distinct but variable disease phenotypes in sheep depending on breed or Prnp genotype. Further re-isolation experiments in mice are in progress in order to determine whether the original cloned murine disease phenotype will reemerge.

Sisó S; Chianini F; Eaton SL; Witz J; Hamilton S; Martin S; Finlayson J; Pang Y; Stewart P; Steele P; Dagleish MP; Goldmann W; Reid HW; Jeffrey M; González L

2012-04-01

208

Genome-wide transcriptome analysis between small-tail Han sheep and the Surabaya fur sheep using high-throughput RNA sequencing.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The small-tail Han sheep and the Surabaya fur sheep are two local breeds in north China, which are characterized by high-fecundity and low-prolificacy breed respectively. Significant genetic differences between these two breeds have provided increasing interests in the identification and utilization of major prolificacy genes in these sheep. High prolificacy is a complex trait, and it is difficult to comprehensively identify the candidate genes related to this trait using the single molecular biology technique. To understand the molecular mechanisms of fecundity and provide more information about high prolificacy candidate genes in high- and low-fecundity sheep, we explored the utility of next-generation sequencing technology in this work. A total of 1.8?Gb sequencing reads were obtained and resulted in more than 20?000 contigs that averaged ?300 bp in length. Ten differentially expressed genes were further verified by quantitative real-time RT-PCR to confirm the reliability of RNA-seq results. Our work will provide a basis for the future research of the sheep reproduction.

Miao X; Luo Q

2013-06-01

209

Linkage disequilibrium compared between five populations of domestic sheep  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The success of genome-wide scans depends on the strength and magnitude of linkage disequilibrium (LD) present within the populations under investigation. High density SNP arrays are currently in development for the sheep genome, however little is known about the behaviour of LD in this livestock species. This study examined the behaviour of LD within five sheep populations using two LD metrics, D' and x2'. Four economically important Australian sheep flocks, three pure breeds (White Faced Suffolk, Poll Dorset, Merino) and a crossbred population (Merino × Border Leicester), along with an inbred Australian Merino museum flock were analysed. Results Short range LD (0 – 5 cM) was observed in all five populations, however the persistence with increasing distance and magnitude of LD varied considerably between populations. Average LD (x2') for markers spaced up to 20 cM exceeded the non-syntenic average within the White Faced Suffolk, Poll Dorset and Macarthur Merino. LD decayed faster within the Merino and Merino × Border Leicester, with LD below or consistent with observed background levels. Using marker-marker LD as a guide to the behaviour of marker-QTL LD, estimates of minimum marker spacing were made. For a 95% probability of detecting QTL, a microsatellite marker would be required every 0.1 – 2.5 centimorgans, depending on the population used. Conclusion Sheep populations were selected which were inbred (Macarthur Merino), highly heterogeneous (Merino) or intermediate between these two extremes. This facilitated analysis and comparison of LD (x2') between populations. The strength and magnitude of LD was found to differ markedly between breeds and aligned closely with both observed levels of genetic diversity and expectations based on breed history. This confirmed that breed specific information is likely to be important for genome wide selection and during the design of successful genome scans where tens of thousands of markers will be required.

Meadows Jennifer RS; Chan Eva KF; Kijas James W

2008-01-01

210

Impact of maedi-visna in intensively managed dairy sheep.  

Science.gov (United States)

Maedi-visna (MV) is a slow lentiviral disease of sheep that has a significant economic impact in many sheep-producing regions although there remains a paucity of data relating to actual production losses resulting from this disease. The objective of this study was to evaluate direct losses, through death or culling, from two dairy sheep flocks with high seroprevalences of infection over a 2year period. Maedi-visna was found, either alone or in combination with other diseases, to be the most common disease diagnosed in these sheep, and the major cause of direct animal losses in the two flocks. Moderate to severe lesions associated with MV were found in 52% and 80% of the sheep, respectively, affecting the lungs, brain and/or mammary glands. Despite the similarity of the two flocks under study in terms of breed, number of animals, geographical proximity, and inter-change of rams, a striking difference was observed regarding the clinical presentation of the disease: in one flock the respiratory form was dominant while in the other 70% of animals died or were culled because of neurological signs. PMID:23643869

Benavides, Julio; Fuertes, Miguel; García-Pariente, Carlos; Otaola, Javier; Delgado, Laetitia; Giraldez, Javier; García Marín, Juan Francisco; Carmen Ferreras, M; Pérez, Valentín

2013-05-01

211

Impact of maedi-visna in intensively managed dairy sheep.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Maedi-visna (MV) is a slow lentiviral disease of sheep that has a significant economic impact in many sheep-producing regions although there remains a paucity of data relating to actual production losses resulting from this disease. The objective of this study was to evaluate direct losses, through death or culling, from two dairy sheep flocks with high seroprevalences of infection over a 2year period. Maedi-visna was found, either alone or in combination with other diseases, to be the most common disease diagnosed in these sheep, and the major cause of direct animal losses in the two flocks. Moderate to severe lesions associated with MV were found in 52% and 80% of the sheep, respectively, affecting the lungs, brain and/or mammary glands. Despite the similarity of the two flocks under study in terms of breed, number of animals, geographical proximity, and inter-change of rams, a striking difference was observed regarding the clinical presentation of the disease: in one flock the respiratory form was dominant while in the other 70% of animals died or were culled because of neurological signs.

Benavides J; Fuertes M; García-Pariente C; Otaola J; Delgado L; Giraldez J; García Marín JF; Carmen Ferreras M; Pérez V

2013-05-01

212

Characteristics of Body Dimension and Male Reproduction on Groups of Sheep Population at Pandeglang and Garut Regencies  

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Full Text Available The objective of the research was to characterise body and testes dimension of sheep, the optimal age of scrotal development for selection, and the correlation between body and scrotal measurements as a base for selection. The sheep surveyed were those owned by farmers at Pandeglang and Garut regencies that have been received grants from various government projects (Banpres, Bansos, Bangub, APBD, APBN). Pandeglang area was predominated by local sheep and crosbred between local and Garut sheep. Garut area was predominated by Garut sheep and fighter sheep. Variables observed consisted of body weight, height at withers, scrotal circumference and scrotal length. Data were analysed using one-way analysis of variance continued with Duncan’s multiple range test by mean of SAS software release 6.04. Results showed that fighter sheep have higher body and scrotal dimensions than other breeds. Optimum level of development of scrotal for selection was achieved when the sheep aged one year. Only scrotal circumference and length could be used for assessing sheep fertility, whereas body measurement and scrotal dimensions has low correlation. (Animal Production 10(3): 140-146 (2008) Key Words: Scrotal circumference, scrotal length, sheep, fighter, selection

DM Nataatmaja; J Arifin

2008-01-01

213

Blackberry Breeding and Genetics  

Science.gov (United States)

Plant Breeding Reviews has been published since the early 1980s and each edition presents a thorough review of the state of the are on breeding and genetics of specific crop plant. The extensive chapter on blackberry breeding and genetics is organized as follows: INTRODUCTION (Origin and Speciation...

214

Adaptation of indigenous sheep, goats and camels in harsh grazing conditions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Microbial breakdown of cellulose is a rather slow process. Therefore the retention time of digesta and the volume of the fermentation chamber are factors limiting the quantity of fibrous diets that can be digested. Indigenous ruminants can generally adapt to harsh grazing conditions better than conventional breeds. Unexpectedly high rumen volumes were reported in a number of indigenous ruminants. In studies reported in this paper, Heidschnucken, an indigenous breed of sheep in the heather region of Northern Germany, were able to increase their rumen volume from 14% to 22% of body weight during adaptation to a low quality fibrous diet. Heidschnucken did not lose significant body weight, whereas Blackface sheep lost 20% and failed to adapt the rumen volume. Rumen volume of indigenous sheep and goats in Northern Kenya was 20% of body weight while grazing in the thornbush savannah during the dry season, compared with 9-12% while kept indoors on a hay-concentrate diet. Mean retention time of particles in the total gastrointestinal tract of goats and sheep in Kenya was 38 h and 46 h respectively. In the experiment with Heidschnucken, these sheep increased the retention time of particles to 71 h on a straw diet, while Blackface sheep retained particles 58 h. Dietary preference and feed intake have been studied in indigenous sheep and goats in Kenya at seasonal pasture conditions in the thornbush savannah. Goats have a higher preference to dicotyledon species (92-97%) than sheep, who are less selective grazers. The feeding behaviour of indigenous sheep and goats was complementary rather than competitive. Feeding observations indicate that this is also the case when cattle (grazers) and camels (browsers) are included in such a comparison. (author).

1986-01-01

215

Prevalence of bovine and avian tuberculosis in sheep and goat population of Bangladesh  

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Full Text Available An attempt was undertaken to investigate the occurrence of bovine and avian tuberculosis in sheep and goat population in Bangladesh. A total of 273 sheep and 155 goats were screened for bovine and avian tuberculosis by caudal fold tuberculin (CFT) and comparative cervical tuberculin (CCT) tests. The percentage of responders to CFT test in sheep and goat were 9.15% and 1.29% respectively. The overall percentage of reactors to CCT test in sheep and goats were 1.46% and 1.29% respectively. In CCT test the reactors were 0.36%, 1.29% for bovine tuberculosis, 1.09%, 1.29% for avian tuberculosis and 0.00%, 1.29% for mixed type for the sheep and goats respectively. In sheep of 3-4 years of age the reactors were 2.39 times higher than sheep below 3 years of age. In goats of 4.1-6 years of age the reactors were 2.40 times higher than goats below 3 years of age. The present prevalent study showed significant (PP>0.05) association in sheep. In sheep the percentages of reactors were 1.24 times higher in male (1.72%) than female (1.39%). Jamunapari (2.85%) breed of goat had 3.5 times higher percentage of reactors as compared to Black Bengal breed (0.83%). The study indicates that bovine and avian tuberculosis may cause dangerous effects on human health as well as livestock of Bangladesh so its prevention and eradication steps must be taken without any delay.

Md. Mashiur Rahman; Mohammad Ferdousur Rahman Khan; K. H. M. Nazmul Hussain Nazir; Md. Bahanur Rahman

2013-01-01

216

May sheep safely graze  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The paper concerns the effects of fallout from the Chernobyl reactor accident on the environment in Britain. A description is given of the distribution and movement of fallout in Britain, as well as the type of contamination. The regions that received the highest deposits from Chernobyl were large areas in the uplands used mainly for sheep farming, and grazing in these areas led to high levels of radioactivity in sheep. Monitoring studies of caesium levels in sheep grazing on contaminated pastures are described, as well as studies of the movement of caesium in the soil to plants. Finally Chernobyl fallout in food in different European countries, and ways of ridding contaminated animals of their radioactive caesium, are both discussed.

Howard, B.; Livens, F.

1987-04-23

217

Genetic diversity and population structure of the endangered Namaqua Afrikaner sheep.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The Namaqua Afrikaner is an endangered sheep breed indigenous to South Africa, primarily used in smallholder farming systems. Genetic characterization is essential for the breed's conservation and utilization. In this study, a genetic characterization was performed on 144 Namaqua Afrikaner sheep kept at the Karakul Experimental Station (KES), Carnarvon Experimental Station (CES), and a private farm Welgeluk (WGK) using 22 microsatellite markers. The mean number of alleles observed was low (3.7 for KES, 3.9 for CES, and 4.2 for WGK). Expected heterozygosity values across loci ranged between 46 % for WGK, 48 % for KES, and 55 % for CES, indicating low to moderate genetic variation. The analysis of molecular variance revealed that 89.5 % of the genetic variation was due to differences within populations. The population structure confirmed the differentiation of three clusters with high relationships between the CES and WGK populations. In the population structure comparison with Pedi and South African Mutton Merino sheep, limited hybridization between the Namaqua Afrikaner sheep and both of these breeds was observed. The results of this study will serve as a reference for genetic management and conservation of Namaqua Afrikaner sheep.

Qwabe SO; van Marle-Köster E; Visser C

2013-02-01

218

Comparison of the Fleece Characteristics of Karakas and Norduz Sheep (Local Ewes in Turkey)  

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Full Text Available Data were collected from 10 Karakas and 10 Norduz sheep in Animal Science Breeding Farm, Yuzuncu Yil University, Turkey. Fleece characteristics in the sheep were investigated as greasy fleece weight (kg), clean fiber percentage (%), elasticity (%), breaking strength (g), fiber length (cm) and fiber diameter ( m).The sheep produced 1.836?0.102 kg for average greasy fleece weight. Greasy fleece weight, clean fiber percentage, elasticity, breaking straight, fiber length were observed 1.72?0.14 kg, 48.18?1.93%, 24.68?1.11%, 7.97?1.02 g, 37.12?1.49 mm for Karakas and same traits were determined 1.96?0.14 kg, 55.76?2.53%, 29.66?1.88%, 10.95?0.89g and 41.54?2.30mm for Norduz were 1.72?0.14kg and 1.96?0.14 kg, respectively. Karakas and Norduz were produced medium quality fibers. Therefore, homogeneity of the fleece is very important as well as fiber diameter. Karakas and Norduz sheep produced 30.13?1.52 m and 32.24?1.18 m for fiber diameter, respectively. Difference between breed of sheep have been significant for the clean fiber percentage, elasticity and breaking straight. Differences between breed and sex have not importance for other fleece traits.

Kadir Karakus; Selcuk Seckin Tuncer; Serhat Arslan

2005-01-01

219

Review of Disease Related Conflicts between Domestic Sheep and Goats and Bighorn Sheep.  

Science.gov (United States)

Research shows that contact between bighorn sheep and domestic sheep and goats can lead to respiratory disease and fatal pneumonia in bighorn sheep. We reviewed experimental methods and evidence regarding respiratory disease in bighorn sheep relative to d...

M. M. Woolever T. J. Schommer

2008-01-01

220

The Relationship Between Plasma Leptin and FSH Concentrations with Ovulation Rate in Iranian Native Sheep  

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Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between plasma leptin and FSH concentration in Iranian sheep. Forty female Mehraban and Sanjabi sheep were used. All ewes were cyclic and synchronized with cloprestenol. The ewes were divided into two breed groups: Mehraban breed (n = 20) and Sanjabi breed (n = 20), feeding at maintenance level. On the first and second days of estrus cycle, blood samples were collected from the jugular vein. Ovulation number was determined by endoscopy 7 days after the second injection. Mean Plasma leptin concentrations on second day (4.74±0.15 and 4.68±0.10 ng mL-1) were significantly higher than those on first day (2.64±0.11 and 2.56±0.04 ng mL-1) for Mehraban and Sanjabi sheep, respectively (p-1) were also significantly greater than those on first day (1.19±0.05 and 1.19±0.04 ng mL-1) for Mehraban and Sanjabi ewes, respectively (p<0.01). In the present study, positive relationship has been shown between plasma Leptin and FSH concentrations (p<0.01) in Mehraban and Sanjabi sheep. Ovulation rate had a significant difference between Mehraban (1.20±0.33) and Sanjabi (1.07±0.1) ewes. Significant differences were not observed between concentrations of FSH and leptin with ovulation rate in both breeds (p?0.01).

A. Towhidi; R. Masoumi; M.M. Moeini; H. Solgi; H. Moravej

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Sheep Stockmanship (Lambing). Youth Training Scheme. Core Exemplar Work Based Project.  

Science.gov (United States)

This trainer's guide is intended to assist supervisors of work-based career training projects in helping students gather and record information about sheep breeding, learn about treatment of diseases, prepare the lambing area, and assist with the aftercare of lambs and ewes. The guide is one in a series of core curriculum modules that is intended…

Further Education Staff Coll., Blagdon (England).

222

Sister chromatid exchange in chromosomes of sheep (Ovis aries).  

Science.gov (United States)

Blood lymphocyte cultures from 32 Comisana and Laticauda sheep breeds (15 males and 17 females) raised in Southern Italy were studied using sister chromatid exchange (SCE) test. Of the 932 cells studied, the SCE-mean value was 7.20 +/- 2.5 per cell for both breeds. Indeed, the SCE mean values were 7.12 +/- 2.45 and 7.28 +/- 2.55 in Comisana and Laticauda breeds, respectively, and the differences were not significant. No statistical differences were noticed between male and female cells (7.25 +/- 2.39 and 7.16 +/- 2.60, respectively). The SCE frequency distribution did not follow a Poisson distribution. The number of SCE were significantly higher than expected in chromosomes 1, 2 and 3 (p < 0.001) and significantly lower than expected in the X and remaining chromosomes (p < 0.001) on the basis of relative chromosome lengths. PMID:10756979

Di Meo, G P; Perucatti, A; Fornataro, D; Incarnato, D; Ferrara, L; Matassino, D; Iannuzzi, L

2000-01-01

223

Sister chromatid exchange in chromosomes of sheep (Ovis aries).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Blood lymphocyte cultures from 32 Comisana and Laticauda sheep breeds (15 males and 17 females) raised in Southern Italy were studied using sister chromatid exchange (SCE) test. Of the 932 cells studied, the SCE-mean value was 7.20 +/- 2.5 per cell for both breeds. Indeed, the SCE mean values were 7.12 +/- 2.45 and 7.28 +/- 2.55 in Comisana and Laticauda breeds, respectively, and the differences were not significant. No statistical differences were noticed between male and female cells (7.25 +/- 2.39 and 7.16 +/- 2.60, respectively). The SCE frequency distribution did not follow a Poisson distribution. The number of SCE were significantly higher than expected in chromosomes 1, 2 and 3 (p < 0.001) and significantly lower than expected in the X and remaining chromosomes (p < 0.001) on the basis of relative chromosome lengths.

Di Meo GP; Perucatti A; Fornataro D; Incarnato D; Ferrara L; Matassino D; Iannuzzi L

2000-01-01

224

Circadian activity rhythm in sheep and goats housed in stable conditions.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The aim of this study was to establish the circadian rhythm of total activity in sheep and goats kept in housed conditions. For our study five Comisana breed sheep and five Maltese breed goats were kept in an individual box of 12 m2 under artificial 12/12 light/dark cycle for 14 days. We equipped the animals with Actiwatch-Mini, by means of collars. A two-way ANOVA was used to determine significant differences between experimental treatments. A paired Student t-test was used to evaluate the differences between photophase and scotophase. The results show that activity in sheep and goats is mainly diurnal, the activity rhythm reaches its peak in the middle of the day. In conclusion small ruminants can be classified as diurnal animals, even though they show a variable amounts of activity.

Piccione G; Giannetto C; Casella S; Caola G

2008-01-01

225

Circadian activity rhythm in sheep and goats housed in stable conditions.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to establish the circadian rhythm of total activity in sheep and goats kept in housed conditions. For our study five Comisana breed sheep and five Maltese breed goats were kept in an individual box of 12 m2 under artificial 12/12 light/dark cycle for 14 days. We equipped the animals with Actiwatch-Mini, by means of collars. A two-way ANOVA was used to determine significant differences between experimental treatments. A paired Student t-test was used to evaluate the differences between photophase and scotophase. The results show that activity in sheep and goats is mainly diurnal, the activity rhythm reaches its peak in the middle of the day. In conclusion small ruminants can be classified as diurnal animals, even though they show a variable amounts of activity. PMID:19055037

Piccione, Giuseppe; Giannetto, Claudia; Casella, Stefania; Caola, Giovanni

2008-01-01

226

Effect of breed on mineral composition of meat from light lambs  

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Full Text Available The proximate composition and mineral content of light lambs muscle (derived from Istrian and Dalmatian Pramenka breeds) were studied. The M. Longissimus dorsi (MLD) samples of 30 carcasses were analysed and the effects of breed and sex were studied. Although lambs of investigated breeds were similar for slaughter age (2.5 months), Dalmatian Pramenka had significantly higher carcass weights (CW; P<0.05). Breed had a significant influence on moisture and fat contents, whilst mineral composition (with the exception of selenium) was scarcely affected by breed and sex. Fat and moisture contents were significantly correlated with cold CW. The magnesium, calcium, manganese and selenium contents were significantly correlated (r=0.50, -0.46, 0.44, 0.54; P<0.05 respectively) with CW. This study contributes to characterization of lamb carcasses from Istrian Sheep and Dalmatian Pramenka breeds and provides new data on the composition of the MLD of light lambs.

Boro Mio?; Ivan Vnu?ec; Zvonimir Prpi?; Vesna Pavi?; Zvonko Antunovi?; Zdravko Bara?

2010-01-01

227

Molecular Marke rs in Conservation of the Breeds  

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Full Text Available Many native breeds are facing the problem of extinction. Therefore, urgently, genetic diversity ofbreeds must be studied and the results must be employed to find out the conservation priority of the breeds .Microsatellites and mtDNA sequences are the two types of genetic markers that have been found useful andhave been employed widely in the studies revealing the genetic diversity of closely related populations.Studies based on these markers, in parallel to Archeological findings , indicated that the native Turkish cattle,goat and sheep breeds are close to one of the centers of domestication. Therefore, it is highly likely that thesebreeds are harboring potential genetic information to be utilized in the future. Hence, they must have highpriority in conservation on the global scale. Again, genetic studies indicated that, morphological characters ofthe breeds may give incomplete/wrong informat ion about the evolutionary history of the breeds.Furthermore, genetic studies indicated that, before the prioritizat ion of the breeds in conservation, first thegroup of breeds having the same evolutionary history must be determined. For this, breeds must be examinedwith respect to several types of genetic markers, differing in their modes of inheritance. Recently, todetermine the conservation priorities of the breeds, new methods, using various criteria, such as: geneticdistinctness, genetic diversity level, adaptation to special environmental conditions, risk of ext inction of thebreed, are being developed. Yet, they are not fully developed.Lastly, it is well known that breeds loose genetic informat ion as they go from one generation to thenext. Simulation studies, give insights about how to minimize this inevitable genetic loss by using molecularmarkers. However, at the current stage of technology, employment of the emerging rules are very expensive.

I. Togan; M. I. Soysal; C. C. Berkman; E. Koban

2005-01-01

228

Agriculture. Sheep Livestock.  

Science.gov (United States)

This task-based curriculum guide for agricultural production, specifically for sheep, is intended to help the teacher develop a classroom management system where students learn by doing. Introductory materials include a Dictionary of Occupational Titles job code and title sheet, a task sheet for developing leadership skills, and a task list. Each…

Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Coll. of Agriculture and Natural Resources Education Inst.

229

Single nucleotide polymorphism detection in promoter III of the acetyl-CoA carboxylase-alpha gene in sheep.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Three novel SNPs were identified in the locus OAR292286, encoding the DNA sequence of promoter III of the ovine acetyl-CoA carboxylase-alpha gene, in Italian sheep of four breeds: Gentile di Puglia (25 individuals) and Sopravissana (31) which are triple-purpose local endangered breeds, Comisana (25) which is a local non-selected, non-endangered dairy breed and Sarda (15) which is a popular selected high yielding dairy breed. Variant alleles are: G/T at 1330 bp, C/G at 1338 bp and C/T at 1430 bp. Frequencies of the variant alleles were calculated and chi-squared analysis of the differences in allele frequency between breed pairs was performed. Allele frequencies of the Sarda breed differ significantly from the other considered breeds.

Moioli B; Napolitano F; Orrù L; Catillo G

2005-12-01

230

Single nucleotide polymorphism detection in promoter III of the acetyl-CoA carboxylase-alpha gene in sheep.  

Science.gov (United States)

Three novel SNPs were identified in the locus OAR292286, encoding the DNA sequence of promoter III of the ovine acetyl-CoA carboxylase-alpha gene, in Italian sheep of four breeds: Gentile di Puglia (25 individuals) and Sopravissana (31) which are triple-purpose local endangered breeds, Comisana (25) which is a local non-selected, non-endangered dairy breed and Sarda (15) which is a popular selected high yielding dairy breed. Variant alleles are: G/T at 1330 bp, C/G at 1338 bp and C/T at 1430 bp. Frequencies of the variant alleles were calculated and chi-squared analysis of the differences in allele frequency between breed pairs was performed. Allele frequencies of the Sarda breed differ significantly from the other considered breeds. PMID:16274427

Moioli, B; Napolitano, F; Orrù, L; Catillo, G

2005-12-01

231

Expanding Possibilities for Intervention against Small Ruminant Lentiviruses through Genetic Marker-Assisted Selective Breeding  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Small ruminant lentiviruses include members that infect sheep (ovine lentivirus [OvLV]; also known as ovine progressive pneumonia virus/maedi-visna virus) and goats (caprine arthritis encephalitis virus [CAEV]). Breed differences in seroprevalence and proviral concentration of OvLV had suggested a strong genetic component in susceptibility to infection by OvLV in sheep. A genetic marker test for susceptibility to OvLV has been developed recently based on the TMEM154 gene with validation data from over 2,800 sheep representing nine cohorts. While no single genotype has been shown to have complete resistance to OvLV, consistent association in thousands of sheep from multiple breeds and management conditions highlight a new strategy for intervention by selective breeding. This genetic marker-assisted selection (MAS) has the potential to be a useful addition to existing viral control measures. Further, the discovery of multiple additional genomic regions associated with susceptibility to or control of OvLV suggests that additional genetic marker tests may be developed to extend the reach of MAS in the future. This review will cover the strengths and limitations of existing data from host genetics as an intervention and outline additional questions for future genetic research in sheep, goats, small ruminant lentiviruses, and their host-pathogen interactions.

Stephen N. White; Donald P. Knowles

2013-01-01

232

Evolution of plant breeding  

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Full Text Available Plant breeding is considered one of the longest ongoing activities undertaken by humans, who select plantsmore productive and useful to themselves and the animals for at least 10,000 years ago. The evolution of civilizationsparalleled the success of plant breeding, although this has not been recognized by the public. The reason may be lack ofunderstanding of what plant breeding encompasses. The concept of plant breeding evolved, depending on the time it wasformulated, but without losing the essence of being art and science of manipulating plants for man. This review discusses theevolution of the concepts and the methods of plant breeding, here divided arbitrarily into selection based on phenotypes,breeding values and genotypes. No matter how big the pool of genetic information in recent years, the phenotype will continuesto be important in the present and future.

Arnel R. Hallauer

2011-01-01

233

Fish Breeding in Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Fish breeding is a very important activity ensuring availability of fingerlings for the stocking of ponds, pens, tanks and cages. The breeding habits of fishes in nature differ from specie to specie Different species of fish choose different places in the aquatic environment for breeding. Most species do not breed when in captivity due to a number of factors. In Nigeria, induced breeding of African mud catfish through injection of ova prim hormone or pituitary gland is the main practice. This article reviews the wild sources of fish seeds, some cultivable fishes. carp breeding, relationship between the endocrine system and gonad development, function of the Central Nervous System (CNS) in propagation, influence of ecological conditions on gonad development, artificial propagation of common carp, natural induced spawning, salmon culture and an innovation in the sea to educate fish breeders, fish genetics and fish culturist in other to facilitate their productivity.

J.A. Akankali; E.I. Seighabo; J.F.N. Abowei

2011-01-01

234

Investigation of genetic divergence and polymorphism of nuclear DNA in species and populations of domestic and wild sheep  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Genetic divergence in repetitive sequences of nuclear DNA of wild and domestic sheep was studied by general restriction endonuclease mapping (i.e., the taxonoprint method). The PCR RAPD method with one and two arbitrary primers was also used to analyze the nuclear DNA polymorphism in some other regions. The taxonoprint method, performed using six endonucleases, showed specificity and virtually complete similarity in the patterns of repetitive DNA sequences of two wild forms, argali and moufflon, and five domestic sheep breeds. Central Asian breeds, Kazakh fine-fleeced, karakuk, ghissar, and eadeelbay, and an English breed, Lincoln, were examined. The results confirm the opinion that wild and domestic sheep may be considered one polytypic species. The PCR-RAPD method, both with one and two arbitrary primers, revealed a closer similarity of all the sheep breeds examined when aragali, rather than with moufflon, was used. These results indicate that the domestication area of sheep was much more broader than was earlier presumed. Otherwise, hybridizations of domestic and wild forms could occasionally occur in the area of their coexistence. The amplification patterns of PCR-RAPD products are the most promising population genetic markers. 27 refs., 4 figs., 7 tabs.

Mel`nikova, M.N.; Grechko, V.V. [Moscow State Univ. (Russian Federation); Mednikov, B.M. [Engelhardt Institute of Molecular Biology, Moscow (Russian Federation)

1995-08-01

235

The Bela Krajina Pramenka Sheep- Conservation Strategies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The small ruminants have always been and will remain the most important group of farm animals in Slovenia. An important share of agricultural grassland can only be used for grazing, particularly by small ruminants. Due to the great diversity of landscape and many types of grassland in Slovenia, the small ruminant production developed well over past centuries. This article will describe the endangered Animal genetic resources (AnGR) from the Bela Krajina, a region in the southeast of Slovenia where the Bela krajina sheep are bred, suggest how to establish the value of the breed, discus what were the reasons for decrease in the population number and finally give policy recommendations for conservation.

Danijela Tomaži?

2003-01-01

236

Seroprevalence and correlates of Toxoplasma gondii infection in domestic sheep in Michoacan State, Mexico.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Toxoplasma gondii infection in sheep is of public health and economic importance. Seroprevalence of T. gondii infection and correlates were determined in 405 sheep from 7 farms in 4 geographical regions in Michoacán State, Mexico using the modified agglutination test (MAT). General sheep and environmental characteristics were obtained by a questionnaire. All sheep were raised in semi-extensive conditions in temperate climate. Antibodies to T. gondii were found in 121 (29.9%) of the 405 sheep with MAT titers of 1:25 in 46, 1:50 in 20, 1:100 in 7, 1:200 in 5, 1:400 in 7, 1:800 in 11, 1:1600 in 5, and 1:3200 or higher in 20. Seropositivity did not vary significantly with age, sex or breed. In contrast, seroprevalence varied among farms, geographic region, municipality, altitude, mean annual temperature, and mean annual rainfall. The median seroprevalence in farms was 32.6% (range 7.1-71.4%). Sheep raised in farms at ?1900m above sea level had a higher seroprevalence (44.1%) than those in farms at lower sea level (16.3%). Sheep raised in municipalities with ?17.7°C mean annual temperature had a higher seroprevalence (37.2%) than those in municipalities with higher mean annual temperature (14.1%). Sheep raised in a municipality with 600mm of mean annual rainfall had a higher seroprevalence (71.4%) than municipalities with higher mean annual rainfall (29.1%). This is the first report on the seroprevalence and correlates of T. gondii infection in sheep in Michoacán State, Mexico. The role of environmental characteristics for T. gondii infection in sheep deserves further research.

Alvarado-Esquivel C; Silva-Aguilar D; Villena I; Dubey JP

2013-09-01

237

Handmade cloned transgenic sheep rich in omega-3 Fatty acids.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Technology of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) has been adapted worldwide to generate transgenic animals, although the traditional procedure relies largely on instrumental micromanipulation. In this study, we used the modified handmade cloning (HMC) established in cattle and pig to produce transgenic sheep with elevated levels of omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids. Codon-optimized nematode mfat-1 was inserted into a eukaryotic expression vector and was transferred into the genome of primary ovine fibroblast cells from a male Chinese merino sheep. Reverse transcriptase PCR, gas chromatography, and chromosome analyses were performed to select nuclear donor cells capable of converting omega-6 (n-6) into n-3 fatty acids. Blastocysts developed after 7 days of in vitro culture were surgically transplanted into the uterus of female ovine recipients of a local sheep breed in Xinjiang. For the HMC, approximately 8.9% (n ?=925) of reconstructed embryos developed to the blastocyst stage. Four recipients became pregnant after 53 blastocysts were transplanted into 29 naturally cycling females, and a total of 3 live transgenic lambs were produced. Detailed analyses on one of the transgenic lambs revealed a single integration of the modified nematode mfat-1 gene at sheep chromosome 5. The transgenic sheep expressed functional n-3 fatty acid desaturase, accompanied by more than 2-folds reduction of n-6/n-3 ratio in the muscle (p<0.01) and other major organs/tissues (p<0.05). To our knowledge, this is the first report of transgenic sheep produced by the HMC. Compared to the traditional SCNT method, HMC showed an equivalent efficiency but proved cheaper and easier in operation.

Zhang P; Liu P; Dou H; Chen L; Chen L; Lin L; Tan P; Vajta G; Gao J; Du Y; Ma RZ

2013-01-01

238

Handmade cloned transgenic sheep rich in omega-3 Fatty acids.  

Science.gov (United States)

Technology of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) has been adapted worldwide to generate transgenic animals, although the traditional procedure relies largely on instrumental micromanipulation. In this study, we used the modified handmade cloning (HMC) established in cattle and pig to produce transgenic sheep with elevated levels of omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids. Codon-optimized nematode mfat-1 was inserted into a eukaryotic expression vector and was transferred into the genome of primary ovine fibroblast cells from a male Chinese merino sheep. Reverse transcriptase PCR, gas chromatography, and chromosome analyses were performed to select nuclear donor cells capable of converting omega-6 (n-6) into n-3 fatty acids. Blastocysts developed after 7 days of in vitro culture were surgically transplanted into the uterus of female ovine recipients of a local sheep breed in Xinjiang. For the HMC, approximately 8.9% (n ?=925) of reconstructed embryos developed to the blastocyst stage. Four recipients became pregnant after 53 blastocysts were transplanted into 29 naturally cycling females, and a total of 3 live transgenic lambs were produced. Detailed analyses on one of the transgenic lambs revealed a single integration of the modified nematode mfat-1 gene at sheep chromosome 5. The transgenic sheep expressed functional n-3 fatty acid desaturase, accompanied by more than 2-folds reduction of n-6/n-3 ratio in the muscle (p<0.01) and other major organs/tissues (p<0.05). To our knowledge, this is the first report of transgenic sheep produced by the HMC. Compared to the traditional SCNT method, HMC showed an equivalent efficiency but proved cheaper and easier in operation. PMID:23437077

Zhang, Peng; Liu, Peng; Dou, Hongwei; Chen, Lei; Chen, Longxin; Lin, Lin; Tan, Pingping; Vajta, Gabor; Gao, Jianfeng; Du, Yutao; Ma, Runlin Z

2013-02-20

239

Veterinary and medical aspects of abortion in Danish sheep  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The Danish sheep population totals around 144,000 animals, but little is known of the causes and prevalance of diseases. This study focuses on the causes of abortion in Danish sheep. During one breeding season, aborted foetuses and stillbirths with signs of intrauterine death or malformation were submitted for laboratory examination from a population of 3,758 breeding ewes. Samples from 24 incidents of abortion and 21 ewes delivering malformed lambs or lambs with ante partum decomposition were submitted. A specific aetiology was established in 66.7% and 14.3% of the cases, respectively. Bacterial pathogens were the most prevalent cause of abortion. Several of the abortifacients were zoonotic microorganisms, for example Listeria monocytogenes, Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus, Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and Toxoplasma gondii. The identified microorganisms probably represent the most common causes of abortion in Danish sheep but occurrence in Denmark of other pathogens such as Coxiella burnetii and Chlamydophila abortus cannot be excluded. Due to the high prevalence of zoonotic microorganisms, precautions must be taken in handling abortions or assisting lambing, especially for pregnant women.

Agerholm, JØrgen S.; Aalbæk, Bent

2006-01-01

240

Marker-assisted selection in sheep and goats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sheep and goats are often kept in low input production systems, often at subsistence levels. In such systems, the uptake of effective commercial breeding programmes is limited, let alone the uptake of more advanced technologies such as those needed for marker-assisted selection (MAS). However, effective breeding programmes exist in a number of countries, the largest ones in Australia and New Zealand aiming for genetic improvement of meat and wool characteristics as well as disease resistance and fecundity. Advances have been made in sheep gene mapping with the marker map consisting of more than 1 200 microsatellites, and a virtual genome sequence together with a very dense single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) map are expected within a year. Significant research efforts into quantitative trait loci (QTL) are under way and a number of commercial sheep gene tests have already become available, mainly for single gene effects but some for muscularity and disease resistance. Gene mapping in goats is much less advanced with mainly some activity in dairy goats. Integration of genotypic information into commercial genetic evaluation and optimal selection strategies is a challenge that deserves more development. (author)

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

The costs of breed reconstruction from cryopreserved material in mammalian livestock species  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of this work was to compare costs, in the horse, cattle, sheep, swine, and rabbit species, for the creation of gene banks for reconstruction of an extinct breed, using different strategies: embryos- only, embryos in combination with semen, and semen- only. Three cost measures were used: time...

GANDINI, GUSTAVO

242

Genetic Variation at Karayaka Sheep Herds Based on Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Markers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Turkish Karayaka sheep breed that is one of the important native breed at Black Sea Region in Turkey was genotyped for 13 RAPD primers. Genotypes of 100 were collected from five different herds (BA, BF, LA, LD and KP herds) localized in the Samsun territory. The genetic similarity was obtained on the dendrograms individuals and herd. Within herds, individuals showed a similarity index between 0.857 to 0.420. The similarity index between populations ranged from 0.520 to 0.710. The binary results also were utilised by principal component analysis for comparison of herds and individuals. The genetic relationship of animals shows a difference among herds in terms of number of RAPD bands. These results show that some herds are effected possibly from other sheep breeds or reared purely such as KP.

Ahmet Okumus; Levent Mercan

2007-01-01

243

Scientific animal breeding in Moravia before and after the rediscovery of Mendel's theory.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Leading Moravian sheep breeders, who joined with university professors and other educated citizens to form a Sheep Breeders' Society in 1814, looked to science to provide a reliable basis for breeding. Their activities reached a climax in the 1830s, when they defined and focused on heredity as the central research goal. Among the members taking part was Abbot Cyrill F Napp, who in 1843 would accept Mendel into the monastery. The contributions of Abbot Napp to the sheep breeders' view of heredity are here described. After 1900, when Moravian animal breeding sought to embrace Mendelism, in competition with other theories, a major influence was exerted by Jaroslav Krízenecký (1896-1964). In 1963, Krízenecký accepted responsibility for establishing the Mendel Museum (Mendelianum) in Brno as a vehicle for historical research into the origin and essence of Mendel's discovery.

Orel V; Wood RJ

2000-06-01

244

Methods to estimate effective population size using pedigree data: Examples in dog, sheep, cattle and horse.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Effective population sizes of 140 populations (including 60 dog breeds, 40 sheep breeds, 20 cattle breeds and 20 horse breeds) were computed using pedigree information and six different computation methods. Simple demographical information (number of breeding males and females), variance of progeny size, or evolution of identity by descent probabilities based on coancestry or inbreeding were used as well as identity by descent rate between two successive generations or individual identity by descent rate. RESULTS: Depending on breed and method, effective population sizes ranged from 15 to 133 056, computation method and interaction between computation method and species showing a significant effect on effective population size (P < 0.0001). On average, methods based on number of breeding males and females and variance of progeny size produced larger values (4425 and 356, respectively), than those based on identity by descent probabilities (average values between 93 and 203). Since breeding practices and genetic substructure within dog breeds increased inbreeding, methods taking into account the evolution of inbreeding produced lower effective population sizes than those taking into account evolution of coancestry. The correlation level between the simplest method (number of breeding males and females, requiring no genealogical information) and the most sophisticated one ranged from 0.44 to 0.60 according to species. CONCLUSIONS: When choosing a method to compute effective population size, particular attention should be paid to the species and the specific genetic structure of the population studied.

Leroy G; Mary-Huard T; Verrier E; Danvy S; Charvolin E; Danchin-Burge C

2013-01-01

245

Litter Size and Lamb Survivability of Batur Sheep in Upland Areas of Banjarnegara Regency, Indonesia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of the current study was to find out the litter size and lamb survivability of Batur sheep, and also to identify the effects of ewe parities on litter size and lamb survivability; and the effects of birth type on lamb survivability of Batur sheep. The study was conducted at the Batur sheep Farming Group in the upland areas of Banjarnegara regency, Central Java province of Indonesia. Data from 311 records of lambing of Batur sheep at the village breeding centre for Batur sheep were analyzed. Least squares procedure by the General Linear Model was used to identify the effect of parity on litter size at birth and at weaning. Preweaning survivability was analyzed using the Chi-squares. Results showed that average litter size at birth and at weaning, and lambs survivability till weaning were 1.55±0.03 and 1.36±0.03 lambs; and 88.42%, respectively. Litter size at weaning and lambs survivability was significantly different among ewe parities, and increased by advancing ewes parities. Its indicating that age of ewe was important factor for the success in early stage for producing lamb. Survivability of single lamb (93.62%) was significantly higher that twins (84.11%). Increased care for twins by providing proper management might lead to a recognizable increase in lamb survival and flock productivity of Batur sheep.Key words: Batur sheep, litter size, lamb survivability, parity, preweaning

Akhmad Sodiq; Pambudi Yuwono; SA Santosa

2011-01-01

246

Coxiella burnetii seroprevalence and risk factors in sheep farmers and farm residents in The Netherlands.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

SUMMARY In this study, Coxiella burnetii seroprevalence was assessed for dairy and non-dairy sheep farm residents in The Netherlands for 2009-2010. Risk factors for seropositivity were identified for non-dairy sheep farm residents. Participants completed farm-based and individual questionnaires. In addition, participants were tested for IgG and IgM C. burnetii antibodies using immunofluorescent assay. Risk factors were identified by univariate, multivariate logistic regression, and multivariate multilevel analyses. In dairy and non-dairy sheep farm residents, seroprevalence was 66·7% and 51·3%, respectively. Significant risk factors were cattle contact, high goat density near the farm, sheep supplied from two provinces, high frequency of refreshing stable bedding, farm started before 1990 and presence of the Blessumer breed. Most risk factors indicate current or past goat and cattle exposure, with limited factors involving sheep. Subtyping human, cattle, goat, and sheep C. burnetii strains might elucidate their role in the infection risk of sheep farm residents.

De Lange MM; Schimmer B; Vellema P; Hautvast JL; Schneeberger PM; VAN Duijnhoven YT

2013-08-01

247

Tritium breeding in fusion reactors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Key technological problems that influence tritium breeding in fusion blankets are reviewed. The breeding potential of candidate materials is evaluated and compared to the tritium breeding requirements. The sensitivity of tritium breeding to design and nuclear data parameters is reviewed. A framework for an integrated approach to improve tritium breeding prediction is discussed with emphasis on nuclear data requirements

1982-09-10

248

Salmonella in Sheep in Iceland  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In 1995 several outbreaks of food poisoning in humans occurred in Iceland, that were traced to salmonella contamination of singed sheep heads. This prompted us to study the prevalence of salmonella infection in sheep and to trace where and how infection might have occurred. Faecal, intestinal contents and tonsillar samples were collected in the spring and autumn from sheep on 50 farms in the southwestern part of the country, where salmonellosis had been detected and from 5 farms in the northwestern part of the country. All faecal samples from the southwest were negative, whereas samples from 3 farms obtained in the autumn in the northwest were positive. Tonsillae taken in the autumn were positive in sheep from 3 farms in the southwest and 2 in the northwest. Our results show that salmonella infection is rare in Icelandic sheep but healthy carriers may harbour the bacteria in tonsillae. Salmonella was not detected in drainage from slaughterhouses nor in singed sheep heads.

Hjartardóttir S; Gunnarsson E; Sigvaldadóttir J

2002-01-01

249

Biotechnology and mutation breeding  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Mutation breeding has been successful. New biotechnological techniques such as in vitro mutagenesis, in vitro selection, and haploidy may assist in, or improve mutation breeding where applicable. In vitro mutagenesis will increase the specificity of the mutation process. In vitro selection and haploidy will improve mutation identification and selection capabilities. These techniques, their uses, and their limitations are discussed. (author). 20 refs.

1988-01-01

250

Periacinar liver fibrosis caused by Tephrosia cinerea in sheep.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Tephrosia cinerea has been associated with ascites and liver fibrosis in sheep in Brazil. The dried plant was fed ad libitum to three sheep for 55-80 days. Three additional sheep were used as controls. All the treated sheep presented with hypoalbuminemia and increased ?-glutamyltransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities. Anorexia, apathy, rough coat, ascites, and emaciation were observed after 45-60 days of feeding with T. cinerea. At necropsy 55-80 days after feeding of the plant commenced, the treated sheep had ascites, hydrothorax and hydropericardium, and their livers were firm and whitish, with a nodular surface. Histologically, the main hepatic lesions were periacinar fibrosis associated with hemorrhages and necrosis. On electron microscopy, a severe swelling of sinusoidal endothelial cells, frequently obstructing the lumen of the sinusoid was observed. The space of Disse was compressed by the swollen endothelial cells and microvilli usually present on the surface of hepatocytes adjacent to the space of Disse were not apparent. Dense bundles of collagen fibers were present in the spaces of Disse and within the sinusoids between profiles of swollen endothelial cells. It is concluded that T. cinerea causes periacinar fibrosis, similar to poisoning by Galenia africana in sheep and goats and veno-occlusive disease in different species.

Riet-Correa F; Carvalho KS; Riet-Correa G; Barros SS; Simões SV; Soares MP; Medeiros RM

2013-08-01

251

Electric Sheep 2.6  

Science.gov (United States)

The title of this rather compelling application is derived from the thought-provoking novel by Philip K. Dick, "Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep?". Essentially, what this open source screen saver does is allow a vast number of computers to communicate with each other to create abstract animations known as "sheep". Visitors can also vote for their favorite "sheep" as well, thereby allowing other fellow users the ability to learn about their own preferences for abstract art. This version of Electric Sheep is compatible with most operating systems.

252

Sheep Brain Dissection  

Science.gov (United States)

A sheep brain is used to teach about memory and where it takes place because its brain structure and functions are similar to the human brain. Students will be exposed briefly to the fact that electrochemical connections made between brain cells help us remember the thoughts, skills, experiences, and knowledge that make each of us unique. Through dissections, students will learn about the cortex, brain cells, and where the three main subdivisions of memory (working, long-term, and skill memory) take place.

Science NetLinks (The museum of science, art and human perception at the Palace of Fine Arts;)

2004-04-30

253

Tritium breeding blanket  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The terms of reference for ITER provide for incorporation of a tritium breeding blanket with a breeding ratio as close to unity as practical. A breeding blanket is required to assure an adequate supply of tritium to meet the program objectives. Based on specified design criteria, a ceramic breeder concept with water coolant and an austenitic steel structure has been selected as the first option and lithium-lead blanket concept has been chosen as an alternate option. The first wall, blanket, and shield are integrated into a single unit with separate cooling systems. The design makes extensive use of beryllium to enhance the tritium breeding ratio. The design goals with a tritium breeding ratio of 0.8--0.9 have been achieved and the R ampersand D requirements to qualify the design have been identified. 4 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs

1991-01-01

254

Genetic Variation among Baluchi Sheep Population Using Microsatellite Markers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In order to identify polymorphic microsatellite markers and evaluae genetic variation within Baluchi sheep population, nineteen microsatellite loci were studied. Whole Blood samples were collected from 156 sheep at north eastern animal breeding station of Iran (Abbasabad-Mashhad). DNA was extracted by salting-out procedure with some modifications. Polymerase chain reactions were successfully done except for UNC5C locus. PCR products were electrophoresed on 8% denaturing polyacrylamide gels stained according to rapid silver staining procedure. The genotype and allelic frequencies were calculated by direct counting and used for estimating of different polymorphism and genetic variation criteria. This population wasn't at Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium except for OarAE101 locus (P

S. Esmail Khanian; A. Negati Javaremi; F. Afraz; P. Daneshyar; S. Ghanbari

2007-01-01

255

Study of ?-defensin polymorphisms in Valle del Belice dairy sheep  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this work was to sequence the exons of ?-defensin 1 and 2 genes (SBD1 and SBD2) in Valle del Belice dairy sheep in order to identify polymorphisms. The study was conducted on 60 samples from three flocks. Six SNPs were identified: two in SBD1 and four in SBD2. Both genes consist of two exons and one intron. In SBD1 gene, SNPs were found only in the exon 2, whereas in SBD2, SNPs were detected in both exons. In both genes, SNPs were located in the coding regions and in the 3'-UTR. The SNP in SBD2 located at position 1659 determined a change in the protein sequence. Further studies will be necessary to investigate if the amino acid change modifies the biological function of the protein and the association with SCC, in order to use this information in a breeding program for mastitis resistance in Valle del Belice sheep.

Giuseppina Monteleone; Davide Calascibetta; Rosa Reina; Baldassarre Portolano

2010-01-01

256

Inter-relationship Between Body Measurements and Prices of Sheep in An Open Market in Kano State  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study attempted to determine the inter-relationship between market price and body measurements among different breeds of sheep in open markets of six Local Government Areas of Kano State (Municipal, Taruauni, Gmale, Nassarawa, Fagge and Dala) of Kano city. Body measurements and prices of sheep used for this study were obtained from Unguwa Uku, Dorayi, Kara, Bachirawa, yankaba, Mariri and Kabara livestock markets in Kano. The Sudanese price was the highest (N 30,000±0.0), followed by Uda, Balami and Yankasa with the least cost being N 10, 614±3,137. Similarly the Sudanese breed recorded highest body weight, back length, lion girth and height at wither compared to all other breeds, while Balami had a higher chest girth (78.77±6.0 cm), followed by Uda and Yankasa, which recorded the least. The extra large animals weighed 58.75± 1.25 kg, which was more than the body weight of the large, medium and small sheep which weighed 42.48±0.34kg, 34.93±0.21 and 27.92±0.26, respectively. The price of these animals also follow the same pattern as the extra large cost more than all the other weight classes. The prices were N 25,750±8,500, N 15,524±2,263, N 11,284±2792 and N 8,324±1,584 for extra large, large, medium and the small sheep, respectively. Price of sheep was positive and highly correlated to weight of the sheep (0.826). Price was also positive and moderately correlated to back length (0.579), chest girth (0.538), height at wither (0.535) and leg length (0.464) at 1% level of significance. Leg length was highly and positively correlated with height at wither (0.717). Height at whither together with back length are important additional variables to chest girth to obtain up to 38% prediction of price of rams. The price of any sheep breed is subjected to the weight and the price of sheep in an open market can best be predicted from a combination of leg length and loin girth. (Animal Production 13 (1):64-68 (2011)Key Words: price of sheep, sheep breeds and open markets

AO Iyiola-Tunji; TS Olugbemi; AO Ali; AO Ojo

2011-01-01

257

Identification of enterotoxigenic staphylococci from sheep and sheep cheese.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The total of 127 Staphylococcus aureus strains obtained from sheep and sheep cheese were examined for their biochemical activities, biotypes, phage patterns, and ability to produce enterotoxins. Of the 83 staphylococcal strains isolated from animals 77 (93%) were classified as the C biotype. Of this...

Hájek, V

258

Alternative feedstuffs and their effects on performance of Awassi sheep: a review.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Fat-tailed sheep (FTS) is a group of breeds characterized by large (fatty) tails that it is commonly distributed in Africa, Middle East, Pakistan, and to a lesser extent in other countries. Awassi, a common FTS breed in many Mediterranean countries, is adaptive and suitable to live in harsh conditions of the arid and semiarid areas. One of the main constraints for sheep industry in those areas is the limited supply and variable quality and quantity of feedstuffs. Using several alternative feedstuffs (AF) has been a common practice to decrease production cost of Awassi sheep industry in those areas. The appropriate AF to be used is determined by several animal and feed factors. These AF includes, but not limited to, unconventional feedstuffs, agricultural byproducts, and agro-industrial byproducts. A good body of literature about the use of AF and the effects of such use on performance of Awassi sheep is available. Some of these AF have been shown to be safely used in Awassi diets with no detrimental effects on sheep performance or health and, thus, recommended to lower the production cost. Other AF has controversial effects and recommendations. This paper reviews the effects of using AF on performance of Awassi ewes and lambs. Effects on intake, nutrient digestibilities, growth rate, and carcass characteristics of lambs and on intake, nutrient digestibilities, body weight change, milk yield, and milk composition of ewes will be emphasized. Recommendations and limitations for using AF will also be briefly discussed.

Awawdeh MS

2011-10-01

259

Suitability of blood protein polymorphisms in assessing genetic diversity in indigenous sheep in Kenya  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Knowledge of genetic diversity is important as it forms the basis for designing breeding programmes and making rational decisions on sustainable utilization of animal genetic resources. This study was designed to assess the efficiency of blood protein polymorphism as a rapid tool for assessing genetic diversity, using seven blood proteins (transferrin, albumin, haemoglobin, esterase A, esterase C, carbonic anhydrase and X-protein) and 457 indigenous fat-tailed (351) and fat-rumped (106) hair sheep in Kenya from 7 populations, with 40 Merino as controls. Transferrin was analysed using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and starch gel electrophoresis was used to analyse the other six loci. Of the seven loci analysed, two - carbonic anhydrase and X-protein - could not be interpreted. The five interpretable markers, however, showed low levels of polymorphism in allele numbers and heterozygosity. Multilocus mean FST values of 0.083 indicated a moderate genetic differentiation between the populations analysed. The Dm and Da genetic distance estimates showed the indigenous sheep populations in Kenya to be closely related genetically, with the dendrogram failing to resolve indigenous sheep into fat-tailed sheep and fat-rumped hair sheep. Due to its costs and modest equipment demands, blood protein polymorphism can be used as a rapid tool to assess genetic diversity and prioritize breeds to be analysed by microsatellite DNA markers. (author)

2005-01-01

260

molecular and biochemical markers for early pregnancy detection in sheep  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

the present study was conducted as in the experimental sheep farm of the nuclear research center, egyptian atomic energy authority in association with the institute of graduate studies and research. university of alexandria. this study aims to accurately and economically detect early pregnancy using techniques of biotechnology .consequently, the suggested method may replace techniques used nowadays for pregnancy detection since these techniques have disadvantages (e.g. long time before accurately determining pregnancy in rectal abdominal palpation and high cost and hazards of using serum progesterone radio immunoassay (RIA). the farmer may benefit from such detection economically by increasing his farm breeding cycle efficiency , reducing the breeding expenses . and isolating fertile ewes as early as possible. therefore reducing abortion incidences. stillbirths or production of weak lambs. this study was performed in two separate experiments. the first experiment: twenty four mixed breed sheep from the experimental sheep of the nuclear research center . egyptian atomic energy authority were used in this study. blood samples were taken at days 5.7.10.16.21.and 25 days after mating and a native- page were applied on the serum of these samples in correlation with serum progesterone RIA test. in addition . white blood cells were isolated from blood samples to obtain purified total RNA for RT-PCR. gel images were analyzed using totallab v.i.II(nonlinear dynamic, Newcastle upontyne. UK) computer software.the second experiment:nine pregnant and two non-pregnant ewes used in this experiment. blood sample were taken 0.25.30.35.40.45.and 50 days after mating and SDS-page were applied on the serum of theses samples. Native-page were applied for serum samples and stained for glycoproteins. gel images were analyzed using totallab v/1.11 (nonlinear dynamic. Newcastle upontyne. UK) computer software.

2006-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

Mutation breeding in Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The achievements made in mutation breeding in Japan over the past 40 years are outlined from the viewpoint of practical breeding. Fifty-four varieties of 23 crops were obtained by direct use of induced mutants. These include 12 cereal mutant varieties, five food legumes, nine industrial crops, seven vegetables and 18 ornamentals. Ten varieties were obtained by national breeding institutes, 14 by prefectural stations and 30 by universities or private firms. The varieties produced by the national breeding programme were registered and released with Norin numbers. In most cases, ionizing radiation was used. Forty additional mutant varieties were developed through cross-breeding using induced mutants as the gene sources. Of the 33 rice varieties in this category, 21, including six national varieties, resulted from crosses involving Reimei, a semi-dwarf mutant variety. Another semi-dwarf mutant parent was used to breed two more national varieties. Three early heading mutants were also integrated into cross-breeding programmes and produced three national and two prefectural varieties. A large grain mutant produced three varieties for sake brewing. A new recessive resistant mutant allele to the soil borne virus (BaYMV) was induced in barley. One variety was bred using this mutant as a parent. Another promising disease resistant clone was induced by chronic irradiation in a gamma field in the leading Japanese pear variety Nijisseiki, which is susceptible to black spot disease caused by Alternaria alternata (Fr.) Keissler. This mutant clone maintained all the superior qualities of the original variety. The significant role of the Institute of Radiation Breeding as a core in mutation breeding is mentioned briefly. (author). 10 refs, 2 figs, 6 tabs

1991-01-01

262

Effects of shade on welfare and meat quality of grazing sheep under high ambient temperature.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of providing shade on growth performance, welfare, and meat quality of grazing sheep under high ambient temperature. A total of 120 healthy male Ujumqin wool sheep (a local breed; BW = 18.7 ± 1.27 kg; 14 wk old) were randomly and equally divided into shaded and unshaded treatments with 3 pens per treatment. Sheep were grazed on an unshaded pastureland from 0600 to 1000 h and 1400 to 1800 h. During other times, sheep were confined in shaded or unshaded pens. Body weight was recorded on d 1 and 42 of the experiment. Rectal temperature and respiration rate were recorded on d 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, and 42. At end of the trial, sheep were blood sampled and slaughtered to collect meat samples. Respiration rate was greater (P < 0.05) in the unshaded sheep than shaded sheep on d 14, 21, 28, 35, and 42 of the trial whereas no significant differences were found on d 7. Moreover, no differences were observed in final BW, ADG, or rectal temperature throughout the trial. The pH at 24 h postmortem (pH(24)) and cooking loss were greater (P < 0.01) in unshaded than shaded sheep. On the contrary, lightness (L*), redness (a*) and yellowness (b*) values at 24 h postmortem were lower (P < 0.05) in unshaded versus shaded sheep. The sheep in the unshaded group had a greater (P < 0.05) cortisol concentration compared with the shaded group. Sheep in the shaded group had lower creatine kinase activity (P < 0.01) as well as observed for glucose (P < 0.05), triiodothyronine (P < 0.01), and thyroxine (P < 0.05) concentrations and white blood cell count (P < 0.05). Compared with the unshaded group, sheep in the shaded group had a greater lymphocytes (LYM) count (P < 0.05). In contrast, the opposite was true for neutrophils (NEU) count (P < 0.01) and NEU:LYM ratio (P < 0.01). In conclusion, the shade cloth, although not enhancing ADG, improved meat quality traits and certain stress parameters in grazing sheep reared under high ambient temperature.

Liu HW; Cao Y; Zhou DW

2012-12-01

263

ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING WEANING WEIGHT IN LOHI SHEEP  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Data on 3984 lambing records of 1285 Lohi ewes kept at the Livestock Production Research Institute, Bahadurnagar, Okara for he period 1960-90 were analyzed by using Harvey’s Mixed Model Least Squares and Maximum Likelihood Computer Program. The purpose was to estimate the magnitude of various environmental sources of variation influencing weaning weight in this breed of sheep. The least squares mean for 120-day adjusted weaning weight was 23.09 ? 0.13 kg. The trait was significantly (P<0.01) influenced by the year and season of birth, type of birth and the sex of the lamb born.

M.E. Babar, Z. Ahmad, A. Nadeem and M. Yaqoob

2003-01-01

264

Abscess disease, caseous lymphadenitis, and pulmonary adenomatosis in imported sheep  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The occurrence of abscess disease, caseous lymphadenitis, and pulmonary adenomatosis in sheep in Denmark is reported for the first time. Subcutaneous abscesses were observed in imported 4- to 5-month-old lambs of the Lacaune breed 10 days after arrival in Denmark. Abscesses were mostly located in the head, neck and shoulder regions close to the regional lymph nodes. Bacteriological examinations revealed growth of Staphylococcus aureus ssp. anaerobius in all animals with subcutaneously located abscesses containing a viscous white-yellow odourless mass. In addition, Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis was isolated from abscesses in one animal and lesions consistent with pulmonary adenomatosis were found in four animals.

MØller, Kristian; Agerholm, J.S.

2000-01-01

265

Genetic testing for TMEM154 mutations associated with lentivirus susceptibility in sheep.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In sheep, small ruminant lentiviruses cause an incurable, progressive, lymphoproliferative disease that affects millions of animals worldwide. Known as ovine progressive pneumonia virus (OPPV) in the U.S., and Visna/Maedi virus (VMV) elsewhere, these viruses reduce an animal's health, productivity, and lifespan. Genetic variation in the ovine transmembrane protein 154 gene (TMEM154) has been previously associated with OPPV infection in U.S. sheep. Sheep with the ancestral TMEM154 haplotype encoding glutamate (E) at position 35, and either form of an N70I variant, were highly-susceptible compared to sheep homozygous for the K35 missense mutation. Our current overall aim was to characterize TMEM154 in sheep from around the world to develop an efficient genetic test for reduced susceptibility. The average frequency of TMEM154 E35 among 74 breeds was 0.51 and indicated that highly-susceptible alleles were present in most breeds around the world. Analysis of whole genome sequences from an international panel of 75 sheep revealed more than 1,300 previously unreported polymorphisms in a 62 kb region containing TMEM154 and confirmed that the most susceptible haplotypes were distributed worldwide. Novel missense mutations were discovered in the signal peptide (A13V) and the extracellular domains (E31Q, I74F, and I102T) of TMEM154. A matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) assay was developed to detect these and six previously reported missense and two deletion mutations in TMEM154. In blinded trials, the call rate for the eight most common coding polymorphisms was 99.4% for 499 sheep tested and 96.0% of the animals were assigned paired TMEM154 haplotypes (i.e., diplotypes). The widespread distribution of highly-susceptible TMEM154 alleles suggests that genetic testing and selection may improve the health and productivity of infected flocks.

Heaton MP; Kalbfleisch TS; Petrik DT; Simpson B; Kijas JW; Clawson ML; Chitko-McKown CG; Harhay GP; Leymaster KA

2013-01-01

266

Prevalence of Some Gastrointestinal Parasites in Sheep in Southern Punjab, Pakistan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present study was conducted on various herds of Kacchi and Lohi breeds of sheep in Southern Punjab, Pakistan to investigate the prevalence of gastrointestinal tract (GIT) parasites. A total of 523 sheep were examined. Out of which 240 were found to contain various GIT parasites. The overall prevalence rate was 46.33%. The prevalence of Fasciolia hepatica, Avitellina centripunctata, Haemonchus contortus and Trichuris globulosa was 21.41, 12.23, 6.50 and 5.73%, respectively. Sex wise prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites was higher in male than female hosts (P<0.05). The maximum infection was observed in lambs compared to adults (P<0.05). The prevalence of different species of endoparasites also varied in sheep of different body weight groups (P<0.05). The highest infection was observed in Kacchi breed than Lohi breed. In conclusion, the data obtained in this study suggest that the age, sex, body weight and breed are important factors which influence the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites.

*Mushtaq H. Lashari and Zahida Tasawar

2011-01-01

267

Aromatase gene and its effects on growth, reproductive and maternal ability traits in a multibreed sheep population from Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english We determined the polymorphism C242T of the aromatase gene (Cyp19) and its allelic frequency, as well as the effect of the variants on productive and reproductive traits in 71 purebred Santa Inês sheep, 13 purebred Brazilian Somali sheep, nine purebred Poll Dorset sheep, and 18 crossbred 1/2 Dorper sheep. The animals were genotyped using the PCR-RFLP technique. The influence of the animal's genotype on its performance or on the performance of its lambs was analyzed by th (more) e least square method. Another factor assessed was the importance of the animal's genotype in analysis models for quantitative breeding value estimates, and whether there were differences among the averages of breeding values of animals with different genotypes for this gene. In the sample studied, no AA individuals were observed; the AB and BB frequencies were 0.64 and 0.36, respectively. All Brazilian Somali sheep were of genotype BB. All 1/2 Dorper BB animals presented a lower age at first lambing, and the Santa Inês BB ewes presented a lower lambing interval. In these same genetic groups, AB ewes presented higher litter weight at weaning. This is evidence that BB ewes have a better reproductive performance phenotype, whereas AB ewes present a better maternal ability phenotype. However, in general, animals with genotype AB presented better average breeding values than those with genotype BB.

Lôbo, Ana Maria Bezerra Oliveira; Lôbo, Raimundo Nonato Braga; Paiva, Samuel Rezende

2009-01-01

268

Stabilizer state breeding  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We present a breeding protocol that distills pure copies of any stabilizer state from noisy copies and a pool of predistilled pure copies of the same state, by means of local Clifford operations, Pauli measurements, and classical communication

2006-01-01

269

Jute breeding in Bangladesh  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The evolution, domestication, variability and adaptation of fibre jutes in Bangladesh are described. Domestication of fibre jutes, in evolutionary terms, is recent and the spectrum of variability within them is narrow. Yield improvement by breeding has been minimal and the reasons for this are suggested. Recent germplasm collecting expeditions to the eastern hill tracts of Bangladesh have revealed wide-spectrum diversity among the vegetable jutes grown there. Variability among the vegetable types can be utilized to improve the fibre types and to this end various hybridization schemes have now been initiated by the Bangladesh Jute Research Institute. The initial breeding priority is yield per se but ideotype characteristics have been delineated. The objectives of the breeding programme are likely to become more specific as the agronomic worth of these characteristics becomes more clearly defined. The rationale for mutation breeding in jute has been the narrow-spectrum diversity within the fibre types; the wide-spectrum diversity among the hill tract vegetable jutes should, however, be exploited in imaginative hybridization programmes before resorting to large-scale mutation breeding programmes. Mutation breeding may, however, be a valuable tool for inducing changes in fibre quality characteristics when technologists identify new uses for jute and specify their requirements. At present, however, quality is assessed subjectively. (author)

1980-11-21

270

Study on Influence of Environmental Effect on Birth Weight, Weaning Weight and Daily Growth of Baluchi Sheep  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study investigates different environmental effects on birth and weaning weight and daily growth of Baluchi lambs. For this purpose, we analyzed 10680 records that collection within a period of 21 years (1983-2003) in Abbasabad Sheep Breeding Station, located in northeast of Mashhad, Iran. T...

D.A. Saghi; H. Khadivi; M. Navidzadeh; M. Nikbakhti

271

Effect of breed and feeding on the carcass characteristics of the Chilote breed lamb  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english The Chilote sheep has been developed in an isolated environment, based on grazing lands with low nutritive value belonging to small-scale producers, because of which there is little information about the use of this breed for meat production. The objective of this work was to determine the effects on lamb carcasses of two breeds with different productive purposes and fed on pastures with different nutritional quality. Three groups of lambs were used. The first and second (more) groups were composed of 13 and 11 Chilote lambs respectively, and the third composed of six Suffolk Down lambs. Lambs remained with their mothers, the first group on naturalized pasture and the rest on rangeland. Animals were slaughtered at 90 d of age. Live weight, carcass weight and yield, and several zoometric parameters were determined, as well as the weight of commercial cuts and the muscle, bone and fat ratios. Hide and hoof weights were also measured. For the effect of breed, Chilote lamb is narrower (P

Ramírez-Retamal, Jorge; Morales, Rodrigo; Martínez, M. Eugenia; de la Barra, Rodrigo

2013-03-01

272

Influence of Fasciola Hepatica on Serum Biochemical Parameters and Vascular and Biliary System of Sheep Liver  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the functional capacity of the liver based on the activity of specific enzymes and bilirubin in serum and also to investigate the influence of mechanical and toxic effects of Fasciola hepatica on the structures of the blood vessels and biliary tract in the sheep liver.Methods: Blood samples and liver of 63 indigenous sheep of Pramenka breed, slaughtered in the period from March to December 2009 were used. Based on parasitological findings in the liver, all animals were divided into two groups: control (n=34) and infected group (n=29). For investigation and description of pathological changes in sheep liver, naturally infected with F. hepatica, corrosion cast technique was used.Results: Biochemical analysis of tested parameters showed a significant elevation (P?0.05) of serum gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), total bilirubin (TBIL) and direct bilirubin (DBIL) in infected sheep group comparing with the control group. No significant differences were observed for activity of aspartate aminotranferase (AST) between groups. Vascular and biliary systems of the liver were found to be affected.Conclusion: Results of biochemical analysis are consistent with pathological findings and measuring of tested parameters could be used in early diagnosis of sheep fasciolosis and to test the effectiveness of anthelmintic therapy. Corrosion cast technique is very useful for investigation of pathological changes and neoangiogenesis of vascular and biliary system in sheep liver, caused by mechanical and toxic effects of F. hepatica.

A Hodži?; A Zuko; R Avdi?; A Ali?; J Omeragi?; A Jaži?

2013-01-01

273

Influence of Fasciola hepatica on Serum Biochemical Parameters and Vascular and Biliary System of Sheep Liver.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to evaluate the functional capacity of the liver based on the activity of specific enzymes and bilirubin in serum and also to investigate the influence of mechanical and toxic effects of Fasciola hepatica on the structures of the blood vessels and biliary tract in the sheep liver. METHODS: Blood samples and liver of 63 indigenous sheep of Pramenka breed, slaughtered in the period from March to December 2009 were used. Based on parasitological findings in the liver, all animals were divided into two groups: control (n = 34) and infected group (n = 29). For investigation and description of pathological changes in sheep liver, naturally infected with F. hepatica, corrosion cast technique was used. RESULTS: Biochemical analysis of tested parameters showed a significant elevation (P?0.05) of serum gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), total bilirubin (TBIL) and direct bilirubin (DBIL) in infected sheep group comparing with the control group. No significant differences were observed for activity of aspartate aminotranferase (AST) between groups. Vascular and biliary systems of the liver were found to be affected. CONCLUSION: Results of biochemical analysis are consistent with pathological findings and measuring of tested parameters could be used in early diagnosis of sheep fasciolosis and to test the effectiveness of anthelmintic therapy. Corrosion cast technique is very useful for investigation of pathological changes and neoangiogenesis of vascular and biliary system in sheep liver, caused by mechanical and toxic effects of F. hepatica.

Hodži? A; Zuko A; Avdi? R; Ali? A; Omeragi? J; Jaži? A

2013-01-01

274

A dual fluorescent multiprobe assay for prion protein genotyping in sheep.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Scrapie and BSE belong to a group of fatal, transmissible, neurodegenerative diseases called TSE. In order to minimize the risk of natural scrapie and presumed natural BSE in sheep, breeding programmes towards TSE resistance are conducted in many countries based on resistance rendering PRNP polymorphisms at codons 136 (A/V), 154 (R/H) and 171 (R/H/Q). Therefore, a reliable, fast and cost-effective method for routine PRNP genotyping in sheep, applicable in standard equipped molecular genetic laboratories, will be a vital instrument to fulfill the need of genotyping hundreds or thousands of sheep. METHODS: A dual fluorescent multiprobe assay consisting of 2 closed tube PCR reactions containing respectively 4 and 3 dual-labelled fluorescent ASO probes for the detection in real-time of the 7 allelic variants of sheep PRNP mentioned above. RESULTS: The assay is successfully performed using unpurified DNA as a template for PCR, without any post-PCR manipulations and with semi-automatic determination of the PRNP genotypes. The performance of the assay was confirmed via PCR-RFLP and sequencing in a cross-validation study with 50 sheep. CONCLUSIONS: We report the development and validation of a robust, reliable and reproducible method for PRNP genotyping of a few to many sheep samples in a fast, simple and cost-effective way, applicable in standard equipped molecular genetic laboratories. The described primer/probe design strategy can also be applied for the detection of other polymorphisms or disease causing mutations.

Van Poucke M; Vandesompele J; Mattheeuws M; Van Zeveren A; Peelman LJ

2005-01-01

275

Polymorphism of BMP2 Gene Associated with Growth Traits in Guizhou Semi-Fine Wool Sheep  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2 (BMP2) plays a crucial role in bone growth. The objective of this study was to investigate variations in sheep BMP2 gene and their associations with growth traits in 320 Guizhou Semi-Fine Wool sheep. Five fragments of BMP-2 gene were investigated only exon2 region of BMP-2 gene showed polymorphism after PCR-SSCP and DNA sequencing methods. There was one G>A (g. 273 G>A) mutation located in nucleotide position of GenBank Accession No. EU854586 which constructed three genotypes (LL, LW and WW). The frequencies of allele L and genotype LL were dominant in Guizhou Semi-Fine Wool sheep. The PIC (Polymorphism Information Content) values of the Guizhou Semi-Fine Wool sheep were 0.3261 belong to median polymorphism. Associations between growth traits and BMP2 gene polymorphism were investigated and significant statistical association results were found in body height, body length and chest circumference (pBMP2 gene is a candidate gene that influences growth traits in Guizhou Semi-Fine Wool sheep. Further investigations are required for detecting the polymorphism of this gene in a broad variety of sheep breeds and populations.

Li Juan Li; Yong Jun Li; Wen Ting Li; Xin Wang; Xiao Yun Shen

2012-01-01

276

Breed and breed x environment interaction effects for growth traits and survival rate from birth to weaning in crossbred lambs.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study was conducted to estimate the effects of sire breed (Charollais, Dorper, Dorset, Hampshire, and Suffolk) and genetic group of the dam [local whiteface (Criolla), grade Hampshire, grade Suffolk, F(1) Dorper × Pelibuey, Australian composite, hair sheep (Barbados Blackbelly or Pelibuey), Dorset, Hampshire and Suffolk] on birth weight, survival rate from birth to weaning, and weaning weight adjusted to 65 d of age. Data were recorded from 2004 to 2006 on crossbreed lambs obtained by artificial insemination from 114 flocks in Central Mexico. High (above the mean) or low (below the mean) environmental categories were assigned to each record from flock-year-season effects solutions obtained in fixed-effects linear model analyses. Birth weights of lambs sired by Charollais rams (3.94 kg) were heavier (P < 0.05) than those sired by Suffolk (3.69 kg) whereas Dorper-, Dorset-, and Hampshire-sired lambs were intermediate. For weaning weight, lambs sired by Charollais were the heaviest (19.16 kg) compared with lambs sired by Hampshire (17.86 kg), Suffolk (17.79 kg), and Dorper (17.28 kg) whereas Dorset sired were the lightest (16.77 kg; P < 0.05). Lambs sired by Dorset rams had a lower survival rate (77.1%) than lambs sired by Charollais, Dorper, Hampshire, or Suffolk (81.6 to 83.3%; P < 0.05). Lambs from Australian composite, Dorset, Hampshire, and Suffolk dams were heavier for birth and weaning compared with lambs from local whiteface (Criolla), hair sheep breeds (Barbados Blackbelly or Pelibuey), or crosses (F(1) Pelibuey × Dorper) dams (P < 0.05) whereas lambs from grade Hampshire and grade Suffolk were intermediate. The genetic group of the dam had no effect (P > 0.05) on survival rate. Sire breed × environmental category interaction effect was significant for birth weight (P < 0.01) and weaning weight (P < 0.05), but relatively small changes on the ranking of sire breeds were observed between environmental categories for weaning weight. Genetic group of the dam × environmental category interaction effect was significant for birth and weaning weights (P < 0.01). Weaning weight of lambs from hair sheep breeds (Barbados Blackbelly or Pelibuey) and crosses (F(1) Pelibuey × Dorper) as well as purebred Dorset, Hampshire, and Suffolk dams were more affected when changing from the high to the low environmental category compared with the other genetic groups. No breed of the sire or genetic group of the dam × environmental category interactions were (P > 0.05) observed for survival rate.

Osorio-Avalos J; Montaldo HH; Valencia-Posadas M; Castillo-Juárez H; Ulloa-Arvizu R

2012-12-01

277

Prevalence and Etiology of Abscess Disease of Sheep and Goats at Qassim Region, Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abscess disease (caseous lymphadenitis and Morel disease) is a worldwide contagious bacterial disease of sheep and goats and is adversely affecting the development of the sheep industry in Saudi Arabia. Fifteen sheep and 12 goat farms at Qassim region, central Saudi Arabia, were surveyed during September and October 2008 for the determination of the prevalence and the etiology of abscess disease. One hundred and twenty pus samples were collected from affected external lymph nodes of clinically-ill sheep and goats and from infected internal lymph nodes and organs condemned during meat inspection in the slaughterhouses, for the isolation and identification of pathogenic bacteria causing sheep abscess disease. The prevalence of abscess disease varied between 5%– 44.1% in sheep farms, being highest in the Najdi breed, and between 2.2 % – 6.5 % in goat farms. Males of both sheep and goats had the highest rate of infection compared to females (p <0.01). Bacterial isolates were obtained from 97 out of the 120 collected pus samples (80.83%). The remaining 23 samples were sterile. Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis and Staphylococcus aureus subsp. anaerobius accounted for about 54% of isolates, with almost equal frequencies (p =0.5). Other pyogenic bacteria such as S. aureus, Streptococci, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Actinomyces pyogenes were also isolated from infected abscesses. They represented about 46% of the isolated etiological agents of sheep abscesses. This explains why available vaccines (bactrins) against caseous lymphadenitis (CLA) are poorly protective against abscess disease in Saudi Arabia. [Vet. World 2011; 4(11.000): 495-499

Khaled Bani Al-Harbi

2011-01-01

278

[Relative quantification of mRNA transcription of Cry1 in different tissues of sheep in oestrous cycle by real-time quantitative PCR].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Studies have shown that clock gene Cry1 may have important roles in the endocrine process of seasonal reproduction in mammals. In this study, Duolang sheep (non-seasonal reproduction sheep breed) and Chinese Merino (seasonal reproduction sheep breed) were used to determine the expression change of Cry1 in hypothalamus-pituitary-ovary axis in different stage of estrous cycle by quantitative real-time PCR. The results showed that the Cry1 mRNA was expressed in all tested tissues, in which the expression levels in pineal gland and thyroid gland were higher than in other tissues. As far as different sheep breeds were concerned, the tissue expression profiles of Cry1 at different stage of estrous cycle were broadly similar. Besides hypothalamus, the expression levels of Cry1 in ovary, uterus, pineal gland, pituitary gland, and thyroid gland were all reached to peak in proestrus. The differences of expression change extent for Cry1 in vary, uterus, pineal gland, and pituitary gland in proestrus and oestrus were significant between different sheep breeds. The results suggested that Cry1 may play roles in switching on the estrus and seasonal reproduction.

Gao L; Gan SQ; Yang JQ; Yang JB; Liang YW; Abdulla AN; Shen M

2013-01-01

279

Identification and phylogenetic analysis of a sheep pox virus isolated from the Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region of China.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An outbreak of sheep pox was investigated in the Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region in China. Through immunofluorescence testing, isolated viruses, polymerase chain reaction identification, and electron microscopic examination, the isolated strain was identified as a sheep pox virus. The virus was identified through sequence and phylogenetic analysis of the P32 gene, open reading frame (ORF) 095, and ORF 103 genes. This study is the first to use the ORF 095 and ORF 103 genes as candidate genes for the analysis of sheep pox. The results showed that the ORF 095 and ORF 103 genes could be used for the genotyping of the sheep pox virus.

Zhu XL; Yang F; Li HX; Dou YX; Meng XL; Li H; Luo XN; Cai XP

2013-01-01

280

Possible application of a nematophagous fungus as a biological control agent of parasitic nematodes on commercial sheep farms in South Africa  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Biological control of parasitic nematodes of livestock is currently under development and represents another tool that may be integrated into helminth parasite control strategies. This paper presents a brief introduction to commercial sheep farming in South Africa and currently available nematode parasite control methods. These include the FAMACHA(r) clinical assay, strategies of pasture management, dilution of resistant worm species by introduction of susceptible worms, breed resistant sheep and nutritional supplementation. The purpose of this paper is to outline the principles of biological control using nematophagous fungi and how it may be applied on sheep farms in South Africa.

M. Faedo; R.C. Krecek

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Effects of Litter Size on Maternal – Offspring Interactions in Sheep  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of the current research was to evaluate the effects that litter size (single vs. twin born lambs) has on maternal – offspring interactions in Turcana mountain sheep breed during the first 4 weeks after lambing. Behavioural patterns such as dam – lamb(s) contact, suckling (duration and periods) and vocalization frequency were studied. During first 24 hours after lambing, ewes spend on average 40.9±3.15 minutes in close contact with their lambs, while the following weeks they have spent significantly (p?0.05) less time in contact with the lambs i.e. 20.6±3.17 in day 7, 16.8±2.15 in day 14 and 14.5±1.26 minutes in day 21. Litter size had no significant effect (p?0.05) on the frequency of vocalizations or the time spent in contact with their lamb(s) in Turcana ewes. Results of the current research shown that litter size in multiparous Turcana mountain sheep breed had limited effects on the ewe-lamb interactions. The experienced ewes, based on the excellent mothering ability and strong maternal instincts, can rear with minimal stress twin litters when winter lambing occurs indoors and under proper management. Further comparative studies are planned in order to study the effects of triplet births and parity on maternal-offspring interactions in Turcana ewes.

Dinu Gavojdian

2013-01-01

282

Out of season sheep milk production in Sardinia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sheep breeding in Sardinia is based on two lambing seasons: in autumn for adult and in late winter for primiparous ewes. The milk production is concentrated within the winter-spring period, determining a break in the cheese factories’ activities from the middle summer to the middle autumn. In order to have a continuous milk production over all the year an out-of-season sheep farming model was tested in Sardinian irrigated lowland. 52 Sarda dairy ewes, 20% of which primiparous, were mated in October with a lambing season in March. The experimental flock grazed rotationally a forage model based on 66% of irrigated surface. Flock fertility and prolificacy resulted 100% and 1.58, respectively. During the suckling period the average lamb growth rate was 255 + 0.08 g head d-1. The average milk yield resulted 279 l head-1 in 180 milking days (290 and 258 l head-1 for adult and primiparous ewes, respectively). Average milk fat and protein contents were 5.8% and 4.7% respectively. The study suggested that it is possible to integrate an out of season milk production with the traditional breeding system in Sardinian irrigated lowlands.

M. Piras; S. Ligios; M. Sitzia; N. Fois

2010-01-01

283

Reproductive biology of the Booroola Merino sheep.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This paper reviews the genetic and physiological characteristics of the Booroola Merino, one of the four most prolific sheep breeds in the world, and which was acquired by CSIRO in 1958 from a commercial sheep property, 'Booroola', Cooma, N.S.W. The exceptional prolificacy of this genotype--e.g. mean flock ovulation rate in 1982 of 4.2 (range 1-10) and mean litter size of 2.5 (range 1-7)--is largely attributable to a single gene (F) of uncertain origin which increases ovulation rate. Crosses of the Booroola with other Merinos produce progeny which have a 47-87% increase in ovulation rate, a 45-56% increase in litter size at birth, and a 1-33% reduction in lamb survival relative to control Merinos. This represents a 16-37% increase in the number of lambs weaned per ewe joined in favour of the Booroola crosses. The exact site of action of the F gene is not well established, although it is expressed primarily at the ovary, where more than the normal number of follicles mature and ovulate each oestrous cycle. This may result from some abnormality of the Booroola follicle itself or it may reflect differences in Booroola gonadotrophin secretion. There is some evidence that Booroola ewes have elevated plasma concentrations of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) early in life and during the oestrous cycle, and that FSH concentrations in the pituitary gland and urine of the adult ewe are also high. These elevated FSH levels in the adult are attributed to an ovarian feedback deficiency, probably because the inhibin content of the Booroola ovary is only one-third that of normal Merino ovaries. The low inhibin content appears to be due to Booroola follicles having significantly fewer granulosa cells than control Merinos. Analogous studies of the prolific D'man sheep of Morocco point to FSH as the main correlate of prolificacy. The testis growth rate, testis size and total daily production of spermatozoa of the Booroola ram are similar to those of normal Merinos, as also are the endocrine characteristics of adult rams. The Booroola gene's expression is evidently sex-limited. Several theories concerning the mode of action of the F gene are being tested.

Bindon BM

1984-01-01

284

Reproductive biology of the Booroola Merino sheep.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper reviews the genetic and physiological characteristics of the Booroola Merino, one of the four most prolific sheep breeds in the world, and which was acquired by CSIRO in 1958 from a commercial sheep property, 'Booroola', Cooma, N.S.W. The exceptional prolificacy of this genotype--e.g. mean flock ovulation rate in 1982 of 4.2 (range 1-10) and mean litter size of 2.5 (range 1-7)--is largely attributable to a single gene (F) of uncertain origin which increases ovulation rate. Crosses of the Booroola with other Merinos produce progeny which have a 47-87% increase in ovulation rate, a 45-56% increase in litter size at birth, and a 1-33% reduction in lamb survival relative to control Merinos. This represents a 16-37% increase in the number of lambs weaned per ewe joined in favour of the Booroola crosses. The exact site of action of the F gene is not well established, although it is expressed primarily at the ovary, where more than the normal number of follicles mature and ovulate each oestrous cycle. This may result from some abnormality of the Booroola follicle itself or it may reflect differences in Booroola gonadotrophin secretion. There is some evidence that Booroola ewes have elevated plasma concentrations of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) early in life and during the oestrous cycle, and that FSH concentrations in the pituitary gland and urine of the adult ewe are also high. These elevated FSH levels in the adult are attributed to an ovarian feedback deficiency, probably because the inhibin content of the Booroola ovary is only one-third that of normal Merino ovaries. The low inhibin content appears to be due to Booroola follicles having significantly fewer granulosa cells than control Merinos. Analogous studies of the prolific D'man sheep of Morocco point to FSH as the main correlate of prolificacy. The testis growth rate, testis size and total daily production of spermatozoa of the Booroola ram are similar to those of normal Merinos, as also are the endocrine characteristics of adult rams. The Booroola gene's expression is evidently sex-limited. Several theories concerning the mode of action of the F gene are being tested. PMID:6440523

Bindon, B M

1984-01-01

285

Trypanosomiosis in a Deccani Sheep  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Trypanosomiasis in a Deccani sheep has been cured with successful therapeutic regimen comprising Quinapyramines, dextrose-20%, B-complex, Antipyretic and antihistaminic preparations. [Veterinary World 2008; 1(8.000): 249-249

S. N. Dhonde; T.D. Rasal; V.V. Chavan; S. U. Digraskar and S.V. Londhe

2008-01-01

286

Tritium breeding blanket  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The inside of a blanket is divided into a breeding region and a cooling region disposed with cooling tubes. An aqueous solution of tritium salt is injected into the breeding region and filled usually in a stagnation state. Then, it is taken out for recovery by a required amount upon tritium recovery. The blanket is cooled by introducing coolants sent from independent cooling circuits into cooling tubes, first walls and coolant circuits of the blanket. Thus, it is possible to produce tritium at a reduced cost and decrease the capacity of the tritium recovery system. (K.M.).

1988-06-24

287

Accelerating plant breeding.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The growing demand for food with limited arable land available necessitates that the yield of major food crops continues to increase over time. Advances in marker technology, predictive statistics, and breeding methodology have allowed for continued increases in crop performance through genetic improvement. However, one major bottleneck is the generation time of plants, which is biologically limited and has not been improved since the introduction of doubled haploid technology. In this opinion article, we propose to implement in vitro nurseries, which could substantially shorten generation time through rapid cycles of meiosis and mitosis. This could prove a useful tool for speeding up future breeding programs with the aim of sustainable food production.

De La Fuente GN; Frei UK; Lübberstedt T

2013-09-01

288

Sources of variation and genetic profile of spontaneous, out-of-season ovulatory activity in the Chios sheep  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Organising the breeding plan of a seasonally breeding species, such as sheep, presents a challenge to farmers and the industry as a whole, since both economical and biological considerations need to be carefully balanced. Understanding the breeding activity of individual animals becomes a prerequisite for a successful breeding program. This study set out to investigate the sources of variation and the genetic profile of the spontaneous, out-of-season ovulatory activity of ewes of the Chios dairy sheep breed in Greece. The definition of the trait was based on blood progesterone levels, measured before exposing the ewes to rams, which marks the onset of the usual breeding season. Data were 707 records, taken over two consecutive years, of 435 ewes kept at the Agricultural Research Station of Chalkidiki in northern Greece. When all available pedigree was included, the total number of animals involved was 1068. On average, 29% of all ewes exhibited spontaneous, out-of-season ovulatory activity, with no substantial variation between the years. Significant sources of systematic variation were the ewe age and live weight, and the month of previous lambing. Older, heavier ewes, that had lambed early the previous autumn, exhibited more frequent activity. Heritability estimates were 0.216 (± 0.084) with a linear and 0.291 with a threshold model. The latter better accounts for the categorical nature of the trait. The linear model repeatability was 0.230 (± 0.095). The results obtained in this study support the notion that spontaneous out-of-season ovulatory activity can be considered in the development of a breeding plan for the Chios sheep breed.

Avdi Melpomeni; Banos Georgios; Kouttos Athanasios; Bodin Loys; Chemineau Philippe

2003-01-01

289

Mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL) in sheep. IV. Analysis of lactation persistency and extended lactation traits in sheep  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background In sheep dairy production, total lactation performance, and length of lactation of lactation are of economic significance. A more persistent lactation has been associated with improved udder health. An extended lactation is defined by a longer period of milkability. This study is the first investigation to examine the presence of quantitative trait loci (QTL) for extended lactation and lactation persistency in sheep. Methods An (Awassi × Merino) × Merino single-sire backcross family with 172 ewes was used to map QTL for lactation persistency and extended lactation traits on a framework map of 189 loci across all autosomes. The Wood model was fitted to data from multiple lactations to estimate parameters of ovine lactation curves, and these estimates were used to derive measures of lactation persistency and extended lactation traits of milk, protein, fat, lactose, useful yield, and somatic cell score. These derived traits were subjected to QTL analyses using maximum likelihood estimation and regression analysis. Results Overall, one highly significant (LOD > 3.0), four significant (2.0 Conclusion This study identified ten novel QTL for lactation persistency and extended lactation in sheep, but results suggest that lactation persistency and extended lactation do not have a major gene in common. These results provide a basis for further validation in extended families and other breeds as well as targeting regions for genome-wide association mapping using high-density SNP arrays.

Jonas Elisabeth; Thomson Peter C; Hall Evelyn JS; McGill David; Lam Mary K; Raadsma Herman W

2011-01-01

290

Development and testing of a revised dynamic model of radiocaesium transfer to sheep tissues  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The model of radiocaesium transfer to sheep presented by Galer et al. [1] provides reliable predictions only for sheep of a similar body weight to those used in the development of the model (approximately 30 kg). To extend the applicability of the model, it was necessary to re-parameterise it in terms of activity concentrations in tissues rather than total activities within them (although for gut compartments the use of activity has been retained). The rate coefficients for the new model have been estimated by fitting the model to the data used by Galer et al. [1] which was derived from a single ``calibration`` experiment. The new model was found to account for 94% of the observed variation in the data (n = 42), a result similar to that obtained by Galer et al. [1]. The model has also been tested against data not used in its development but obtained from four separate experiments undertaken by three different laboratories. Good agreement between the predictions of the new model and observations was found for most circumstances and for several breeds of sheep with different body weights. It is concluded that the new model provides a useful dynamic description of radiocaesium transfers to the tissues of sheep of different breeds and under different contamination scenarios. (orig.)

Crout, N.M.J. [Department of Physiology and Environmental Science, University of Nottingham, Sutton Bonington LE12 5RD (United Kingdom); Beresford, N.A. [Institute of Terrestrial Ecology, Merlewood Research Station, Grange-over-Sands, Cumbria LA11 6JU (United Kingdom); Howard, B.J. [Institute of Terrestrial Ecology, Merlewood Research Station, Grange-over-Sands, Cumbria LA11 6JU (United Kingdom); Mayes, R.W. [Macaulay Land Use Research Institute, Craigiebuckler, Aberdeen AB9 2QJ (United Kingdom); Assimakopoulos, P.A. [Nuclear Physics Laboratory, The University of Ioannina, Gr-453 10 Ioannina (Greece); Vandecasteele, C.M. [CEN/SCK, Mol (Belgium)

1996-02-01

291

Inbreeding and its Effect on Performance Traits in Austrian Meat Sheep  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the level of inbreeding of meat performance tested herd book sheep in Austria and to evaluate the effect of individual inbreeding on growth and CT (computer tomography) scan carcass traits. Performance data (13,614 records, five breeds: Merinoland, Suff olk, Texel, German Blackheaded Meat sheep, Jura) were collected in the years 2000-2010. The traits analysed were live weight and average daily gain, as well as traits of body frame, back fat and eye muscle area, all measured on live animals with CT. Inbreeding coefficients (F) were calculated with the soft ware PEDIG. F was nested within breed and tested in a mixed model using ASReml. Levels of inbreeding were low with O F of 1.5-3.1%. Only few traits were significantly affected by inbreeding. Both positive and negative effects were found. The effects were small, most oft en nonlinear and vary across breeds. Inbreeding and its effects on performance traits do not seem to be an issue in Austrian meat sheep populations at the moment. However, monitoring and further analyses are recommended.

Lina Maximini; Alexander Manrique-Gomez; Birgit Fuerst-Waltl

2011-01-01

292

PCR-RFLP of BMPR-IB gene in North African Barbarine sheep  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study reports the statue of the Booroola fecundity gene (FecB) mutation in Barbarine sheep breed. A total of 334 ewes recorded with twining births from the Tunisian fat tail Barbarine sheep were genotyped in the objective to identify the FecB mutation. The FecB genotyping was carried out by forced restriction fragment length polymorphism PCR technique. Forced PCR of the FecB gene was amplified using a specific primer designed to introduce a point mutation in the resulting PCR products with FecB non carriers sheep containing an AvaII restriction site, whereas products from non carriers lacked this site. Digestion of an amplified 140 base pair FecB gene with AvaII restriction enzyme resulted in a non-carrier 140 bp band (wild type) in all studied animals which revealed absence of the AvaII restriction site in this breed. Considering the records of twinning in this breed, it can be concluded that the genetics factor controlling twinning is not related to this mutation, which has been reported Booroola as a major gene previously.

Jemmali Borni,; Bedhiaf Sonia; Djemali M. Naouer

2011-01-01

293

Wheat Breeding Activity  

Science.gov (United States)

This interactive activity goes through the basic process used in a wheat breeding program. Crossing, genetic variation, selection and elements of DNA technology are discussed within this activity. The material is aimed towards high school or introductory life science undergraduate students.

294

Fish transgenosis breeding method  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention relates to a fish transgenosis breeding method which belongs to the technical field of molecule biology fish breeding. The method mainly comprises the following steps: preprocessing the genome DNA of a fish and obtaining a DNA rearrangement fragment distinguished from the original genome DNA guiding the DNA rearrangement fragment into an oocyte of an original fish by a transgenosis method to achieve the function with the genome of the original fish forming a variable gene and generating individuals with mutational appearance screening the individual with favorable production characteristics and carrying out further breeding. The invention judges whether the DNA rearrangement fragment enters the genome of the original fish or not by a TRAP method, obtains the variable gene by a two-step amplification method, provides a base for carrying out functional genome research later and obtains a unique molecular mark. The method is simple and can be widely applied to the breeding of fishes, other animals and plants, and the like and the research of relevant functional genomes.

ZHEMING CAO; WEIDONG DING; JIAN YANG

295

[Values of acido-basic balance in the blood of the beagle breed dog in comparison with the German shepherd dog  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The values of acidobasic balance were examined in 101 dogs of the Beagle breed and in 20 German Sheep-Dogs. The Beagle dogs were divided into five age groups. A difference was found between the values obtained in the group of the youngest dogs and those in older age groups. In comparison with Beagle dogs, the values were higher in German Sheep-Dogs (pH, base excess). A figure is attached representing the deviations of the values of acidobasic balance of blood in the two breeds.

Komárek J; Jadrný L; Sýkora I

1975-01-01

296

Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 45  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This issue of the Mutation Breeding newsletter contains 39 articles dealing with radiation induced mutations and chemical mutagenesis techniques in plant breeding programs with the aims of improving crop productivity and disease resistance as well as exploring genetic variabilities

2001-01-01

297

Charge breeding of intense radioactive beams  

CERN Document Server

The efficient transformation of radioactive beams by charge breeding devices, will critically influence the lay-out of the post accelerator of presently built first generation radioactive ion beam (RIB) facilities as well as new second generation facilities. The size of the post-accelerator needed to bring the unstable nuclei to the energies required to study nuclear reactions depends on the charge state of the radioactive ions. The capability to raise that charge state from 1+ to n+, where n may correspond to a charge-to- mass ratio of 0.15 or higher, will therefore produce an enormous reduction in cost as well as the possibility to accelerate heavier masses. Thus the efficiency of the charge breeding scheme in comparison to the stripping scheme will be explored in the frame of the EU-network charge breeding. The two possible charge breeding schemes using either an Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS) or an Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Source (ECRIS), the demands to the sources and the present status of exist...

Kester, O

2001-01-01

298

Goniometric measurements of the forelimb and hindlimb joints in sheep.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate angle-of-motion values for the forelimb and hindlimb in clinically healthy adult Santa Ines sheep by means of a standard goniometer. METHODS: Twenty female Santa Ines sheep, ranging in age between three- to six-years-old, and weighing 32-45 kg (mean ± standard deviation [SD]: 30.4 ± 3.7) were used. A standard transparent plastic goniometer was used to measure passive maximum flexion, maximum extension, and range-of-motion (ROM) of the shoulder, elbow, carpal, hip, stifle, and tarsal joints in the right and left limbs. The goniometric measurements were done with the sheep awake and in a standing position. The measurements were made in triplicate by two independent investigators. RESULTS: In all evaluated joints, there was no significant difference either between the means of the two sides or between measurements performed by the two investigators. The mean ± SD values of the measurements (degrees) were as follows: 20 ± 1 (flexion), 170 ± 2 (extension), and 150 ± 2 (ROM) for the carpal joint; 34 ± 4 (flexion), 145 ± 6 (extension), and 110 ± 4 (ROM) for the elbow joint; 88 ± 2 (flexion), 144 ± 6 (extension), and 56 ± 5 (ROM) for shoulder joint; 35 ± 4 (flexion), 163 ± 3 (extension), and 129 ± 4 (ROM) for tarsal joint; 46 ± 4 (flexion), 146 ± 6 (extension), and 100 ± 4 (ROM) for the stifle joint; 54 ± 3 (flexion), 143 ± 7 (extension), and 89 ± 5 (ROM) for the hip joint. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: The data obtained provide useful and objective information on the joints. More studies are necessary using other sheep breeds.

Govoni VM; Rahal SC; Agostinho FS; Conceição RT; Tsunemi MH; El-Warrak AO

2012-07-01

299

Wool traits of three sympatric sheep populations in Chiapas Region, Mexico.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A total of 344 pure animals, representing seven American and South European breeds (White Chiapas Blanca, Brown Chiapas Café, Black Chiapas Negra, Churra Badana, Churra da Terra Quente, Chilean Latxa, and Spanish Merino), were randomly sampled and wool evaluated for isoalcohol scouring yield, length, and proportion for each type of fiber (long-thick, short-thin, and kemp), average of fiber diameter, and F30 (percentage of fibers with a diameter of >30 ?m). The objective of this study was to characterize these breeds according to their wool traits. A low percentage of the phenotypic variability in the analyzed animals was due to differences among breeds, and that the largest part of that variability is due to differences within breeds. The obtained topology in the principal coordinates analysis showed the grouping of the three Chiapas breeds clearly separated, but the similarity with their original breed was only evident for Brown Chiapas Café. The three Chiapas sheep breeds must be regarded as clearly sympatric populations.

Parés-Casanova PM; Perezgrovas R

2012-12-01

300

Wool traits of three sympatric sheep populations in Chiapas Region, México.  

Science.gov (United States)

A total of 344 pure animals, representing seven American and South European breeds (White Chiapas Blanca, Brown Chiapas Café, Black Chiapas Negra, Churra Badana, Churra da Terra Quente, Chilean Latxa, and Spanish Merino), were randomly sampled and wool evaluated for isoalcohol scouring yield, length, and proportion for each type of fiber (long-thick, short-thin, and kemp), average of fiber diameter, and F30 (percentage of fibers with a diameter of >30 ?m). The objective of this study was to characterize these breeds according to their wool traits. A low percentage of the phenotypic variability in the analyzed animals was due to differences among breeds, and that the largest part of that variability is due to differences within breeds. The obtained topology in the principal coordinates analysis showed the grouping of the three Chiapas breeds clearly separated, but the similarity with their original breed was only evident for Brown Chiapas Café. The three Chiapas sheep breeds must be regarded as clearly sympatric populations. PMID:22773118

Parés-Casanova, Pere M; Perezgrovas, Raúl

2012-07-08

 
 
 
 
301

Rice breeding problems in Korea  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This paper deals with general rice production in Korea and the problems encountered. The history of rice growing and breeding in Korea is outlined and a description of recent advances in rice breeding is given, including a discussion of some uses of radiation treatments in the breeding programme during the last few years. (author). 2 figs, 3 tabs

1968-01-01

302

Changes induced by natural scrapie in the calretinin-immunopositive cells and fibres of the sheep cerebellar cortex.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Calretinin (CR)-immunopositive cells and fibres in the cerebellar cortex (vermal archicerebellum and neocerebellum) of scrapie-affected, ARQ/ARQ, Rasa Aragonesa breed sheep were studied in comparison with healthy, young and aged, ARQ/ARQ, Rasa Aragonesa animals and with Manchega breed sheep. The scrapie-affected sheep showed signs of both cellular involution and hypertrophic/hyperimmunoreactive responses in all neuronal subtypes; the distribution of the neuronal subtypes in the archi- and neocerebellum, however, did not change compared with controls. The results suggest that the different CR expression and/or CR content of cerebellar cortical neurons in scrapie-affected sheep are more related to their specific functions than any neuroprotective response. The reduction in the cell density of some CR-immunopositive neuronal subsets (i.e. unipolar brush cells) is contradictory to the supposed neuroprotective role of the calcium binding protein CR. However, the hyperimmunoreactivity of many CR-immunopositive neuronal subsets (e.g. the Purkinje cells) suggests the involvement of an over-expression of CR (transitory or restricted to selected neurons) as an adaptative mechanism to fight against the neurodegeneration caused by this prion disease. The changes in the number of immunopositive cells and the hypertrophic/hyperimmunoreactive response seen in scrapie-affected and aged sheep suggests that some different and some similar mechanisms are at work in this disease and aging.

Toledano A; Alvarez MI; Monleón E; Toledano-Díaz A; Badiola JJ; Monzón M

2012-06-01

303

Changes induced by natural scrapie in the calretinin-immunopositive cells and fibres of the sheep cerebellar cortex.  

Science.gov (United States)

Calretinin (CR)-immunopositive cells and fibres in the cerebellar cortex (vermal archicerebellum and neocerebellum) of scrapie-affected, ARQ/ARQ, Rasa Aragonesa breed sheep were studied in comparison with healthy, young and aged, ARQ/ARQ, Rasa Aragonesa animals and with Manchega breed sheep. The scrapie-affected sheep showed signs of both cellular involution and hypertrophic/hyperimmunoreactive responses in all neuronal subtypes; the distribution of the neuronal subtypes in the archi- and neocerebellum, however, did not change compared with controls. The results suggest that the different CR expression and/or CR content of cerebellar cortical neurons in scrapie-affected sheep are more related to their specific functions than any neuroprotective response. The reduction in the cell density of some CR-immunopositive neuronal subsets (i.e. unipolar brush cells) is contradictory to the supposed neuroprotective role of the calcium binding protein CR. However, the hyperimmunoreactivity of many CR-immunopositive neuronal subsets (e.g. the Purkinje cells) suggests the involvement of an over-expression of CR (transitory or restricted to selected neurons) as an adaptative mechanism to fight against the neurodegeneration caused by this prion disease. The changes in the number of immunopositive cells and the hypertrophic/hyperimmunoreactive response seen in scrapie-affected and aged sheep suggests that some different and some similar mechanisms are at work in this disease and aging. PMID:22116659

Toledano, Adolfo; Alvarez, María-Isabel; Monleón, Eva; Toledano-Díaz, Adolfo; Badiola, Juan-José; Monzón, Marta

2012-06-01

304

Estimation of mature live weight using some body measurements in Karya sheep.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The aim of this study was to determine models which will be used for the estimation of adult live weights based on some body measurements using multiple regression model in Karya sheep of different age groups. Animal material of the study consisted of a total of 215 Karya sheep. Least squares means for live weight, body length, rump height, withers height, back height, chest depth, chest girth, and chest width of Karya sheep in Adnan Menderes University Group Sheep Breeding Program elite flock and breeder flocks were found as 47.24 kg, 67.08, 68.29, 68.58, 66.97, 30.04, 93.24, and 18.29 cm, respectively. Karya ewes were put into five categories according to ages (2-6 years). High positive phenotypic correlation coefficients were observed between live weight and body measurements of animals in different age groups (2-6 years). Among the formed multiple regression models, the highest coefficients of determination (R(2)) were obtained from the models formed for body length or body length and chest girth together (R(2) = 0.79, R (2) = 0.87). It is concluded that live weight of Karya sheep can be estimated with a high accuracy using some body measurements and statistical methods.

Yilmaz O; Cemal I; Karaca O

2013-02-01

305

Serum Leptin Concentrations in Some Ruminant Species and Breeds  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Leptin, a 16-kDa protein secreted from white adipocytes has been implicated in the regulation of food intake, energy expenditure and whole-body energy balance in animals and humans. It was the focus of this study to establish serum leptin values for several animal species and breeds. To this purpose, serum leptin concentrations were measured using a double antibody Radio Immuno Assay (RIA) kit containing guinea pig multispecies leptin antibody. Serum leptin concentrations were determined in healthy subjects of various species and breeds including Brown Swiss and Holstein bull, Awessi sheep, Saanen and Turkish hair goat. They were as follows (avarege values in ng mL-1±SEM): Brown Swiss bull (12 months of age): 2.35±0.34, Holstein bull (12 months of age): 3.55±0.53, Awessi sheep (16 months of age): 2.16±0.29, Saanen goat (16 months of age): 2.23±0.46, Turkish hair goat (16 months of age): 0.94±0.10.

Saime Guzel; Meltem Tanriverdi; Nazmiye Gunes

2012-01-01

306

A Study on Some Physical Attributes of Naeini Sheep Wool for Textile Industry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In order to evaluate some physical and qualitative characteristics of Naeini sheep wool for using in textile industry, herds from 6 different regions of Isfahan province were chosen. Staple length from 3 different body parts (shoulder, side and britch) was measured prior to shearing. Wool samples were taken from a 100 cm2 surface on the mid-side of the Animals. Then the samples were transferred to the Laboratory of Animal Sciences for evaluations of some quality characteristics and to the Fiber Physics Laboratory for measuring tenacity, breaking strength and elongation at break of fibers. The means and standard deviations of staple length were estimated (10.8 ±2.36), (9.71 ±3.14) and (10.99 ±2.49) cm for shoulder, side and britch parts, respectively. The total average staple length of Naeini sheep (10.5 cm) is suitable for using in textile industry. Wool fibers of Naeini sheep have desirable tenacity and breaking strength (1.22 cN/dtex and 13.76 centi-Newton) to resist against mechanical tensions of the spinning step. However, Naeini sheep wool fibers have an adequate, but not a desirable %elongation at break (28.6%). Based on the fiber diameter mean of Naeini sheep and its variation (28.51 ± 4.33 ?m) the fleece grade of Naeini sheep was predicted 54`s, which is an intermediate grade. However, by conducting breeding programs toward enhancing fleece grade, Naeini sheep wool will be simply applicable in textile industry.

M.A. Edriss; G. Dashab; A.A. Ghareh Aghaji; M.A. Nilforooshan; H. Movassagh

2007-01-01

307

Fecundity genes in sheep.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Since 1980 there has been increasing interest in the identification and utilisation of major genes for prolificacy in sheep. Mutations that increase ovulation rate have been discovered in the BMPR-1B, BMP15 and GDF9 genes, and others are known to exist from the expressed inheritance patterns although the mutations have not yet been located. In the case of BMP15, four different mutations have been discovered but each produces the same phenotype. The modes of inheritance of the different prolificacy genes include autosomal dominant genes with additive effects on ovulation rate (BMPR-1B; Lacaune), autosomal over-dominant genes with infertility in homozygous females (GDF9), X-linked over-dominant genes with infertility in homozygous females (BMP15), and X-linked maternally imprinted genes (FecX2). The size of the effect of one copy of a mutation on ovulation rate ranges from an extra 0.4 ovulations per oestrus for the FecX2 mutation to an extra 1.5 ovulations per oestrus for the BMPR-1B mutation. DNA tests enable some of these mutations to be used in genetic improvement programmes based on marker assisted selection.

Davis GH

2004-07-01

308

Sheep Production Occupations. Skills and Competencies.  

Science.gov (United States)

This report summarizes the findings of a national study to determine what skills and competencies are needed by beginning employees on sheep ranches and farms, lamb feedlots, and in the sheep shearing industry. The research procedure, which involved determining from the sheep industry the competencies needed by beginning employees in the thirteen…

Sabol, Joe

309

Plant breeding and biotechnology  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Crop improvement by traditional breeding versus biotechnology is analysed here. Since new technologies can truncate time and space and increase precision, plant improvement could become more factory like, creating a world where agriculture depends on industry. Private sector funding for research in biotechnology is increasing giving rise to a conflict of interests. Seed companies rather than farmers stand to benefit most, and marketing and advertising of seeds and chemicals will play an increasingly important role in the future. 42 references.

Hansen, M.; Busch, L.; Burkhardt, J.; Lacy, W.B.; Lacy, L.R.

1986-01-01

310

Relationship Between Gestation Length and Birth Weight in Nigerian Sheep and Their Crosses  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Effect of genotype and birth weight on gestation length was evaluated using Nigerian breeds of sheep and their crosses. The study was carried out at the Sheep Project Unit of Small Ruminant Research Programme (SRRP) of National Animal Production Research Institute (NAPRI), Ahmadu Bello University, Shika-Zaria. The sheep breeds used were Balami, Uda and Yankasa. Heat (estrus) detection was carried out twice daily; in the morning (07:00-08:00 hours); and in the evening (16:00-17:00 hours) using apron fitted rams to pick does on heat. A total of 56 lambs were used for this study. The data obtained were subjected to analysis of variance using General Linear Model and Correlation Procedure of SAS. All the genotypes had similar gestation length with values between 150.3±0.61 days and 153.3±0.60 days, except for Balami pure breed (BAL X BAL) lambs that recorded a shorter gestation length (137.1±0.81 days). There was a wide variation in the birth weight of lambs with the crosses between Balami rams and Yankasa ewes recording a distinct birth weight of 3.5±0.08 kg while the crosses obtained using Yankasa rams on Uda and Balami ewes gave the lowest birth weights (1.7±0.19 and 1.4±0.18, respectively). Sex and litter type have no significant effect (P>0.05) on gestation length. Birth weight was however affected by sex of lambs and their litter type. Litter type was negatively correlated with birth weight (-0.372). Gestation length had a low and non-significant relationship with birth weight; litter type and lamb genotype. Lamb genotype does not have a significant relationship with litter type. Genetic improvement of Nigeria sheep breed is possible if the resources of within and between breed is exploited. Selection for a reduction in gestation length may indirectly increase prolificacy. (Animal Production 12(3): 135-138 (2010)Key Words : gestation length, birth weight, Nigerian Sheep

AO Iyiola-Tunji; GN Akpa; BI Nwagu; IA Adeyinka; CU Osuhor; TT Lawal; OA Ojo

2010-01-01

311

Sea cucumber breeding cage  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A sea cucumber breeding cage belongs to the technical field of sea cucumber breeding cage design and manufacture. An upper cover of a cage body is in a taper shape, the upper cover is provided with an upper channel and a lower channel. An inlet and an outlet are arranged on the periphery, and two sides of the inlet and the outlet are provided with cleaning ports of dejection. A reinforcing rib is arranged under the upper cover and a movable through hole is arranged on the reinforcing rib. The using method of the sea cucumber breeding cage comprises: folding a plurality of cage bodies, and placing the cage bodies in a breading area. When the seawater temperature is cooled, sea cucumber can float and swim on the cage bodies through the upper channel and the lower channel, when the water temperature is heated, the sea cucumber can swim back to the cage bodies on the bottom, since the upper cover of the cage body is in a taper shape and has certain gradient, and the excrement can flow out automatically from the cleaning ports of dejection for reducing the infection of diseases. The inlet and the outlet on the periphery of the cage bodies can prevent big fish and crabs from entering the cage bodies to attack sea cucumber for guaranteeing safe growth of the sea cucumber. The product has simple structure, rational design and very ideal trial effect, and solves various problems in existing manual lapidation methods.

GENGYUAN DAI

312

Hair-type sheep generate an accelerated and longer-lived humoral immune response to Haemonchus contortus infection.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Antibody levels produced in response to gastro-intestinal nematode (GIN) parasite infection are typically higher in GIN-resistant breeds than susceptible breeds. Consequently, GIN-resistant ewes should generate greater parasite-specific antibody in colostrum and milk, potentially providing greater passive immunity to young lambs. To test this hypothesis, we monitored immunoglobulin levels in wool and hair-type sheep infected with Haemonchus contortus for 35 days following the end of a 45-day autumn breeding season and subsequently for 6 weeks around the time of parturition. Ten, first-parity ewes of each type were infected with 12,000 H. contortus L3 larvae following the end of breeding. In response to infection, hair ewes generated greater serum IgA (P<0.05), although the pattern of IgA production was similar between the types. Following experimental infection, wool ewes were incapable of clearing the parasite infection well in advance of parturition. Prior to parturition, hair ewes had lower FEC and greater circulating H. contortus-specific IgA. However, no difference was seen in total or antigen-specific IgA production in the colostrum and milk of either breed. These data further demonstrate that hair-type sheep can rapidly reduce fecal egg output and generate greater humoral immunity as evidenced by higher levels of circulating antigen-specific antibody, but there is no evidence to suggest GIN-resistant sheep preferentially mobilize antigen-specific IgA to colostrum or milk. Thus, no clear difference exists between types of sheep in ability to deliver parasite-specific IgA to their offspring.

Bowdridge S; MacKinnon K; McCann JC; Zajac AM; Notter DR

2013-09-01

313

Hair-type sheep generate an accelerated and longer-lived humoral immune response to Haemonchus contortus infection.  

Science.gov (United States)

Antibody levels produced in response to gastro-intestinal nematode (GIN) parasite infection are typically higher in GIN-resistant breeds than susceptible breeds. Consequently, GIN-resistant ewes should generate greater parasite-specific antibody in colostrum and milk, potentially providing greater passive immunity to young lambs. To test this hypothesis, we monitored immunoglobulin levels in wool and hair-type sheep infected with Haemonchus contortus for 35 days following the end of a 45-day autumn breeding season and subsequently for 6 weeks around the time of parturition. Ten, first-parity ewes of each type were infected with 12,000 H. contortus L3 larvae following the end of breeding. In response to infection, hair ewes generated greater serum IgA (P<0.05), although the pattern of IgA production was similar between the types. Following experimental infection, wool ewes were incapable of clearing the parasite infection well in advance of parturition. Prior to parturition, hair ewes had lower FEC and greater circulating H. contortus-specific IgA. However, no difference was seen in total or antigen-specific IgA production in the colostrum and milk of either breed. These data further demonstrate that hair-type sheep can rapidly reduce fecal egg output and generate greater humoral immunity as evidenced by higher levels of circulating antigen-specific antibody, but there is no evidence to suggest GIN-resistant sheep preferentially mobilize antigen-specific IgA to colostrum or milk. Thus, no clear difference exists between types of sheep in ability to deliver parasite-specific IgA to their offspring. PMID:23414615

Bowdridge, Scott; MacKinnon, Kathryn; McCann, Joshua C; Zajac, Anne M; Notter, David R

2013-01-21

314

Radiocaesium activity in mountain sheep  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The in vivo monitoring of mountain sheep grazing on heather dominant vegetation was undertaken in Co. Donegal, Ireland over a period of six weeks in 1987. The flocks studied were not chosen at random but were those most likely to be grazing at the highest altitudes. Portable gamma scintillation detectors were used to determine the specific activity of radiocaesium in the flesh of the animals. A total of 1295 sheep on 130 farms were monitored, of which 171 (13%) were shown to have a level of radiocaesium above 600 Bq kg-1. Of these, 25 (2% of the total) were above 1000 Bq kg-1. (author).

1989-01-01

315

A recursive method for computing expected kinship and inbreeding in complex and dynamic breeding programmes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In many livestock breeding programmes, the development of inbreeding is of critical importance. Thus, the assessment of the expected development of inbreeding should be an essential element in the design of breeding programmes. We propose a new method to deterministically predict the rate of inbreeding based on the gene-flow method in well-defined complex and dynamic breeding programmes. In the suggested approach, a breeding programme has to be structured in homogeneous age-sex-groups, so called cohorts, with a defined origin of genes. Starting from an initial setup (usually an unrelated and non-inbred base population), transition rules to calculate the kinship within and between cohorts originating from reproduction or ageing, respectively, are defined. Using this approach recursively provides the expected development of kinship within and between all cohorts over time, which can be combined into average kinships for the whole population or defined subsets. From these quantities, relevant parameters like the inbreeding rate or the effective population size are easily derived. We illustrate the method with a simple static example breeding programme in sheep. Based on this reference breeding programme, we demonstrate the use of our approach for dynamic breeding programmes, in which cohort sizes or vectors of gene origin change over time: here, we model the situation of exponential population growth and a bottleneck situation, respectively. The suggested approach does not account for the effect of selection on the development of inbreeding, but ideas to overcome this limitation are discussed.

Sitzenstock F; Ytournel F; Simianer H

2013-02-01

316

An association between lifespan and variation in insulin-like growth factor I receptor in sheep.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Longevity in livestock is a valuable trait. When productive animals live longer, fewer replacement animals need to be raised. However, selection for longevity is not commonly the focus of breeding programs as direct selection for long-lived breeding stock is virtually impossible until late in the reproductive life of the animal. Additionally the underlying genetic factors or genes associated with longevity are either not known, or not well understood. In humans, there is evidence that IGF 1 receptor (IGF1R) is involved in longevity. Polymorphism in the IGF1R gene has been associated with longevity in a number of species. Recently, 3 alleles of ovine IGF1R were identified, but no analysis of the effect of IGF1R variation on sheep longevity has been reported. In this study, associations between ovine IGF1R variation, longevity and fertility were investigated. Polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformational polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) was used to type IGF1R variation in 1,716 New Zealand sheep belonging to 6 breeds and 36 flocks. Ovine IGF1R C was associated with age when adjusting for flock (present 5.5 ± 0.2 yr, absent 5.0 ± 0.1 yr, P = 0.02). A general linear mixed effects model suggested an association (P = 0.06) between age and genotype, when correcting for flock. Pairwise comparison (least significant difference) of specific genotypes revealed the difference to be between AA (5.0 ± 0.1 yr) and AC (5.6 ± 0.2 yr, P = 0.02). A weak negative Pearson correlation between fertility and longevity traits was observed (r = -0.25, P < 0.01). The finding of an association between variation in IGF1R and lifespan in sheep may be useful in prolonging the lifespan of sheep.

Byun SO; Forrest RH; Frampton CM; Zhou H; Hickford JG

2012-08-01

317

Prevalence of gastro-intestinal parasitic infections in Sheep of Kashmir valley of India  

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Full Text Available Background: Geologically the J&K state (2, 22, 800 sq. kms) is both complex and varied. Climatic conditions of the state ranges from sub-tropical (Jammu), temperate (Kashmir) to cold artic (Ladakh) zones and belongs to the great Himalayan mountain range, which exerts significant influence on its agro-climatic conditions. Gastrointestinal parasitism is a major problem in sheep production worldwide, these parasites cause diarrhea, anaemia, reduced weight gain and increased production costs. Materials and Methods: Five hundred fecal samples of sheep (Ovis aries) were taken from two farms. All fecal samples were examined to determine the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites. Direct microscopic examination, Centrifugation floatation and Sedimentation techniques were used to examine fecal samples. Results: Overall prevalence rate was 62.9%. most commonly encountered parasites were Strongyle spp., Strongyloides spp., Eimeria spp., Nematodirus spp., and Monezia spp. was 24.61, 15.5, 9.8, 9.0 and 3.3%, respectively. The highest prevalence of G.I parasites was recorded during monsoon season (March - May) followed by summer season (June ? August) whereas the lowest prevalence was recorded during winter season. Analysis of the data on the basis of sex revealed a significant difference (P<0.05) in the overall incidence of gastrointestinal parasites between male (75.6%) and female (44.8%) sheep. The maximum infection was observed in younger age groups compared to adults (P<0.05). The prevalence of different species of endoparasites also varied in sheep of different body weight groups (P<0.05). The highest infection was observed in Kashmir Marino breed than corriedale breed. Conclusion: The data obtained in this study suggest that the age, sex, body weight and breed are important factors which influence the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites. [Vet World 2012; 5(11.000): 667-671

Showkat Ahmad Bhat; Manzoor Ur Rahman Mir; Sawleha Qadir; Idrees Mehraj Allaie; Hilal Musadiq Khan; Ishraq Husain; Bilal Ahmad Sheikh

2012-01-01

318

Reverse breeding: a novel breeding approach based on engineered meiosis  

Science.gov (United States)

Reverse breeding (RB) is a novel plant breeding technique designed to directly produce parental lines for any heterozygous plant, one of the most sought after goals in plant breeding. RB generates perfectly complementing homozygous parental lines through engineered meiosis. The method is based on reducing genetic recombination in the selected heterozygote by eliminating meiotic crossing over. Male or female spores obtained from such plants contain combinations of non-recombinant parental chromosomes which can be cultured in vitro to generate homozygous doubled haploid plants (DHs). From these DHs, complementary parents can be selected and used to reconstitute the heterozygote in perpetuity. Since the fixation of unknown heterozygous genotypes is impossible in traditional plant breeding, RB could fundamentally change future plant breeding. In this review, we discuss various other applications of RB, including breeding per chromosome.

Dirks, Rob; van Dun, Kees; de Snoo, C Bastiaan; van den Berg, Mark; Lelivelt, Cilia L C; Voermans, William; Woudenberg, Leo; de Wit, Jack P C; Reinink, Kees; Schut, Johan W; van der Zeeuw, Eveline; Vogelaar, Aat; Freymark, Gerald; Gutteling, Evert W; Keppel, Marina N; van Drongelen, Paul; Kieny, Matthieu; Ellul, Philippe; Touraev, Alisher; Ma, Hong; de Jong, Hans; Wijnker, Erik

2009-01-01

319

Sheep blowfly strike risk and management in Great Britain: a survey of current practice.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The methods used for the control of sheep blowfly strike (ovine cutaneous myiasis) and the farm management factors associated with strike prevalence were examined using data from questionnaire survey returns provided by 966 sheep farmers in Great Britain, based on the period between March 2003 and February 2004. Overall, 91% of participants treated prophylactically with insecticides against blowfly strike; 39% treated twice and 11% treated more than three times in the year. Insect growth regulators (IGRs) were the most commonly chosen product (40%), especially the IGR cyromazine. Only 12% of farmers opted to dip their sheep in organophosphate insecticide against fly strike and 2% of farmers reported applying inappropriate products against strike to their sheep, such as ivermectin or 'drenches'. Farmers worming their ewes more often were 0.8 times less likely to report blowfly strike, but those who wormed their lambs more often were 1.2 times more likely to report strike. Pure-breed flocks were 0.7 times less likely to record an outbreak of blowfly strike than cross-breed flocks. Strike was less likely in ewe flocks grazed at higher altitude; however, this relationship with altitude was not seen in lambs. The results show that insecticides remain the primary tool used by almost all farmers to prevent strike and that the type of insecticides used and means of application have altered dramatically over the past 15 years. However, the prevalence of strike has remained almost unchanged over this period. Clearly careful attention to the type and timing of insecticide application, in association with a detailed understanding of the husbandry factors that predispose sheep to higher strike risk, is essential to allow the optimal management of strike problems.

Bisdorff B; Wall R

2008-12-01

320

The evolution of intermittent breeding.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A central issue in life history theory is how organisms trade off current and future reproduction. A variety of organisms exhibit intermittent breeding, meaning sexually mature adults will skip breeding opportunities between reproduction attempts. It's thought that intermittent breeding occurs when reproduction incurs an extra cost in terms of survival, energy, or recovery time. We have developed a matrix population model for intermittent breeding, and use adaptive dynamics to determine under what conditions individuals should breed at every opportunity, and under what conditions they should skip some breeding opportunities (and if so, how many). We also examine the effect of environmental stochasticity on breeding behavior. We find that the evolutionarily stable strategy (ESS) for breeding behavior depends on an individual's expected growth and mortality, and that the conditions for skipped breeding depend on the type of reproductive cost incurred (survival, energy, recovery time). In constant environments there is always a pure ESS, however environmental stochasticity and deterministic population fluctuations can both select for a mixed ESS. Finally, we compare our model results to patterns of intermittent breeding in species from a range of taxonomic groups.

Shaw AK; Levin SA

2013-03-01

 
 
 
 
321

Linkage disequilibrium and inbreeding estimation in Spanish Churra sheep  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

BACKGROUND: Genomic technologies, such as high-throughput genotyping based on SNP arrays, have great potential to decipher the genetic architecture of complex traits and provide background information concerning genome structure in domestic animals, including the extent of linkage disequilibrium (LD) and haplotype blocks. The objective of this study was to estimate LD, the population evolution (past effective population size) and the level of inbreeding in Spanish Churra sheep. RESULTS: A total of 43,784 SNPs distributed in the ovine autosomal genome was analyzed in 1,681 Churra ewes. LD was assessed by measuring r2 between all pairs of loci. For SNPs up to 10 kb apart, the average r2 was 0.329; for SNPs separated by 200-500 kb the average r2 was 0.061. When SNPs are separated by more than 50 Mbp, the average r2 is the same as between non-syntenic SNP pairs (0.003). The effective population size has decreased through time, faster from 1,000 to 100 years ago and slower since the selection scheme started (15-25 generations ago). In the last generation, four years ago, the effective population size was estimated to be 128 animals. Inbreeding coefficients, although differed depending on the estimation approaches, were generally low and showed the same trend, which indicates that since 2003, inbreeding has been slightly increasing in the studied resource population. CONCLUSIONS: The extent of LD in Churra sheep persists over much more limited distances than reported in dairy cattle and seems to be similar to other ovine populations. Churra sheep show a wide genetic base, with a long-term viable effective population size that has been slightly decreasing since selection scheme began in 1986. The genomic dataset analyzed provided useful information for identifying low-level inbreeding in the sample, whereas based on the parameters reported here, a higher marker density than that analyzed here will be needed to successfully conduct accurate mapping of genes underlying production traits and genomic selection prediction in this sheep breed. Although the Ovine Assembly development is still in a draft stage and future refinements will provide a more accurate physical map that will improve LD estimations, this work is a first step towards the understanding of the genetic architecture in sheep.

Garcia-Gamez, Elsa; Sahana, Goutam

2012-01-01

322

Seasonal allergic dermatitis in sheep.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The lesions of a seasonal dermatitis in sheep occurred mainly on the ventral surface of the animals, but in other respects they resembled those of 'sweet itch' in horses. They were primarily an immediate hypersensitivity response and the circumstantial evidence indicated that they were due to the bites of Culicoides species, possibly C obsoletus.

Connan RM; Lloyd S

1988-09-01

323

Acute selenium toxicosis in sheep  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The toxicity, toxicokinetics, and progressive pathological changes produced by sodium selenite in sheep following parenteral administration were evaluated. In the intramuscular study, the LD/sub 50/ for sodium selenite was 0.7 mg selenium/kg body weight. In the continuous intravenous infusion study, a gradient of tissue selenium/kg body weight with a standard error of 0.035 over a 192 hour observation period. The most evident clinical signs were dyspnea and depression . At necropsy, the most consistent lesions were edematous lungs and pale mottled hearts. Highest tissue selenium concentrations in declining order were found in the liver, kidney, and heart. Four sheep injected intravenously with 0.7 mg selenium/kg body weight survived the 192 hour post-injection observation period. Semilogarithmic plots of blood selenium concentration versus time were triphasic. The ..cap alpha.. and ..gamma.. rate constants of sheep administered a single dose of selenium intravenously were significantly greater than those obtained when sheep were injected intramuscularly with 0.7 mg selenium concentrations was attained with 4, 8, and 12 hour infusions at steady state concentrations of 2500, 3000, and 3500 ppb selenium in the blood. The heart was the target organ of acute selenium toxicosis. A dose-response relationship was observed in the heart with degeneration evident in all hearts and necrosis present in the 2 hearts with the highest concentrations of selenium.

Blodgett, D.J.

1983-01-01

324

Mineral requirements of dairy sheep  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper reviews the major (Calcium, Phosphorus, Potassium, Sodium, Chlorine, Sulphur, Magnesium) and the trace  elements (Iron, Copper, Cobalt, Iodine, Manganese, Zync, Molybdenum, Selenium) that play an essential role in animal  metabolism. For each one the authors indicate not only the function, but also the more recent advances in terms of  daily requirements for dairy sheep

Giuseppe Moniello; Federico Infascelli; Walter Pinna; Giuseppina Camboni

2010-01-01

325

Breeding of hybrid rapeseed  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Increasing demand predominantly of vegetable oil, but also of protein for utilization in both food as well as industrial uses leads to the conclusion that there is a general need to improve productivity of rapeseed. This implies an increase in rapeseed yield per area unit (kg/ha). Since of the currently only 1 to 3% annual yield increase approximately 50 to 60% is due to genetics, fundamental changes in breeding for yield improvement are required to boost vegetable oil production. This bears in mind that the perspective for a general extension of the production area is very limited. (orig.)

Kley, G. [Deutsche Saatveredelung, Lippstadt (Germany)

1998-12-31

326

Intensive shrimp breeding process  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention relates to processes for intensive shrimp breeding, in tanks where a small proportion of the water is renewed, with a view to obtaining the growth of post-larvae more than 12-days old. Before placing the post-larvae in the tank, the water is prepared by filling up the tank progressively and adding daily to that water an artificial food containing nitrobenous organic products until flocs, formed of heterotroph and nitrifying bacteria and phytoplanktons, are obtined, serving as a complement of food to the shrimps which are fed with artificial food.

BLANCHETON JEAN-PAUL; CALVAS JACQUES; MICHEL ALAIN H; VONAU VINCENT

327

Ovine lentivirus is aetiologically associated with chronic respiratory disease of sheep on the Laikipia Plateau in Kenya.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A study was undertaken to investigate the occurrence of ovine lentivirus (OvLV) infection in sheep with chronic respiratory disease on the Laikipia Plateau, Kenya. All seven Merino crossbred sheep with chronic dyspnoea and emaciation examined for gross and microscopic lesions had lymphoid interstitial pneumonia (LIP), and one also had pulmonary abscesses. Two of the sheep with LIP also had lesions of ovine pulmonary carcinoma (OPC, jaagsiekte). Using in situ hybridization, OvLV DNA localized to a high proportion of pulmonary macrophages in lungs with lesions of LIP. Lung tissue samples from six of these sheep were positive for a syncytium-inducing virus in cultures of lamb testis cells. Thin-section electron microscopy of infected cells showed virions with morphogenesis typical of lentiviruses. In a western blotting assay, monoclonal antibodies to the OvLV capsid (CA, p27) and matrix (MA, p15) proteins of a North American OvLV isolate reacted with similar-sized bands of the virus, and serum from six of the sheep were reactive with CA from the Kenyan viral isolate. Using an OvLV agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) test, all seven sheep were positive for serum antiviral antibody, as were 29% of 63 clinically normal sheep from Laikipia District. However, when sera from the healthy sheep were tested in a western blot assay, only 52% had IgG reactive to the OvLV CA, indicating a high rate of false negative reactions with the AGID test. Serum samples from 87 Red Maasai or Dorper crossbred sheep from two farms in other parts of Kenya were OvLV seronegative by both the AGID test and the western blot assay. These results document the first identification of OvLV as a cause of chronic respiratory disease in sheep in Kenya and show a high rate of infection in sheep flocks, with a high prevalence of chronic respiratory disease.

Rwambo PM; Brodie SJ; DeMartini JC

2001-12-01

328

Presence of SNPs in GDF9 mRNA of Iranian Afshari Sheep  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Multiple births occur frequently in some Iranian sheep breeds, while infertilityscarcely occurs. Mutation detection in major fecundity genes has been explored in most of Iraniansheep flocks over the last decade. However, previously reported single nucleotide polymorphisms(SNPs) for bone morphogenetic protein receptor-(BMPR)-1B and growth differentiation factor )GDF9( known to affect fertility have not been detected. This study was conducted to assess whetherany significant mutations in GDF9 were extracted from slaughtered ewe ovaries of Iranian Afsharisheep breed.Materials and Methods: Ovaries defined as poor, fair, and excellent quality based on externalvisual appearance of follicles were used for histology and RNA extraction processes. High qualityRNAs underwent reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) from GDF9 mRNA,and the products sequenced.Results: No streak ovaries, which are considered indicators of infertility due to homozygocity forsome mutations in GDF9 and BMP15, were found. Sequencing results from GDF9 cDNA showedthat G2 (C471T), G3 (G477A), and G4 (G721A) mutations were observed from 1, 4, and 1 out of12 ewes, respectively. Though all 3 mutations were previously reported, this is the first report ontheir presence in Iranian breeds. The first and second mutations do not alter the amino acids, whileG4 is a non-conservative mutation leading to E241K in the prohormone.Conclusion: As the G4 mutation was observed only in ovaries defined superficially as top quality,it could be considered as one of reasons for higher ovulation rate in some sheep. Furthermore sincemultiple mutations were observed in some cases, it might be possible that combinations of minormutations in GDF9 and BMP15 interact to affect fecundity in some Iranian sheep breeds.

Shahin Eghbalsaied; Kamran Ghaedi; Somayeh Shahmoradi; Talat Saiedi; Linda Nicol, B.Sc; Alan McNeilly

2012-01-01

329

Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 43  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This issue of the Newsletter includes articles dealing with radiation induced mutation based plant breeding research findings aimed at improving productivity, disease resistance and tolerance of stress conditions.

1997-01-01

330

Induced mutations in plant breeding  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Studies are reported on plant breeding using ionizing radiation which induces mutations. The notions are explained of radiostimulation, mutation, the nature of mutations, plant breeding and a survey is given of the uses of mutations in plant breeding. The types of radiation inducing mutations are given as are radiation doses, application, the interaction of ionizing radiation with the biological material, a survey of chemical mutagens, a comparison of physical and chemical mutagens and the results of mutation breeding and future prospects. (J.P.)

1973-01-01

331

Radiation mutation breeding  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In order to develop an advanced technical knowledge for the selection of better mutants, some of the crops were irradiated and the mutation rate, the survival rate and the method for selction of a mutant were studied. Furthermore, this study aimed to obtain basic data applicable to the development of genetic resources by evaluation and analysis the specific character for selection of the superior mutant and its plant breeding. 1. selection of the mutant with a superior resistance against environment in the principal crops 1) New varieties of mutant rices such as Wonpyeongbyeo, Wongwangbyeo, Winmibyeo, and heogseon chalbeyeo (sticky forma) were registered in the national variety list and made an application to crop variety protection right. They are under review now. 2) We also keep on studying on the number of a grain of 8 lines of excellent mutant rice for the purpose of improvement of breeding . 3) We selected 3 lines which have a resistance to pod and stem blight in large soybean, 31 lines with small grain size and higher yield, 112 lines of soybean of cooking, 7 lines of low lipoxygenase content, and 12 lines with decreased phytic acid content by 20 % compared to the previous level. 2. Selection of advanced Mugunwha (Rose of Sharon) mutant 1) Bagseul, a new variety of mutant, was developed and 30 plantlets of it are being proliferated. 2) Fifty-three lines of a mutant having a various morphologies were selected.

Song, Hi Sup; Kim, Jae Sung; Kim, Jin Kyu; Shin, In Chul; Lim, Young Taek

1998-04-01

332

Radiation mutation breeding  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to develop an advanced technical knowledge for the selection of better mutants, some of the crops were irradiated and the mutation rate, the survival rate and the method for selction of a mutant were studied. Furthermore, this study aimed to obtain basic data applicable to the development of genetic resources by evaluation and analysis the specific character for selection of the superior mutant and its plant breeding. 1. selection of the mutant with a superior resistance against environment in the principal crops 1) New varieties of mutant rices such as Wonpyeongbyeo, Wongwangbyeo, Winmibyeo, and heogseon chalbeyeo (sticky forma) were registered in the national variety list and made an application to crop variety protection right. They are under review now. 2) We also keep on studying on the number of a grain of 8 lines of excellent mutant rice for the purpose of improvement of breeding . 3) We selected 3 lines which have a resistance to pod and stem blight in large soybean, 31 lines with small grain size and higher yield, 112 lines of soybean of cooking, 7 lines of low lipoxygenase content, and 12 lines with decreased phytic acid content by 20 % compared to the previous level. 2. Selection of advanced Mugunwha (Rose of Sharon) mutant 1) Bagseul, a new variety of mutant, was developed and 30 plantlets of it are being proliferated. 2) Fifty-three lines of a mutant having a various morphologies were selected

1998-01-01

333

Device for breeding fish  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PCT No. PCT/SE85/00457 Sec. 371 Date Jul. 18, 1986 Sec. 102(e) Date Jul. 18, 1986 PCT Filed Nov. 14, 1985 PCT Pub. No. WO86/03097 PCT Pub. Date Jun. 5, 1986.A device for breeding fish and the like in open sea or lake in at least a netted bag (12), which at its upper part is supported by a pontoon (11), the depth position of which is variable. The purpose is to provide a breeding device which on one hand allows an upper cover also for very big bags, and on the other hand can be boarded also by bigger ships and independent of the wind conditions, and furthermore is designed thus that the taking up of fish can be carried out in simple way without bigger manual work. These tasks have been solved thereby that at the side of the pontoon (11) facing away from the netted bag (12) there is arranged a stand (18) which is tapering in the direction upwards for supporting a freely rotatable platform (23), to which a boarding gangway (24) is articulatedly connected, and that a sinker (16) having water as ballast is arranged at the lower end of the netted bag (12), which sinker and thereby the bottom (14) of the netted bag (12) is liftable to the water surface by blowing the tanks of the sinker.

GOETMALM OERJAN

334

Biotechnology in soybean breeding  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Biotechnology can be defined broadly as a set of tools that allows scientists to genetically characterize or improve living organisms. Several emerging technologies, such as molecular characterization and genetic transformation, are already being used extensively for the purpose of plant improvement. Other emerging sciences, including genomics and proteomics, are also starting to impact plant improvement. Tools provided by biotechnology will not replace classical breeding methods, but rather will help provide new discoveries and contribute to improved nutritional value and yield enhancement through greater resistance to disease, herbicides and abiotic factors. In soybeans, biotechnology has and will continue to play a valuable role in public and private soybean breeding programs. Based on the availability and combination of conventional and molecular technologies, a substantial increase in the rate of genetic gain for economically important soybean traits can be predicted in the next decade. In this paper, a short review of technologies for molecular markers analysis in soybean is given as well as achievements in the area of genetic transformation in soybean.

Sudari? Aleksandra; Vratari? Marija; Mladenovi?-Drini? Snežana; Matosa Maja

2010-01-01

335

The rate of spread of sheep scab within small groups of Merino and Dorper sheep : short communication  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A single Merino sheep, artificially infested with the sheep scab mite, Psoroptes ovis, and a similarly infested Dorper sheep were placed with 9 uninfested Merino or 9 uninfested Dorper sheep respectively during winter and the rate of spread of infestation on the uninfested sheep...

T. Meintjies; L.J. Fourie; I.G. Horak

336

ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING BIRTH WEIGHT IN LOHI SHEEP  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Data on 3984 lambing records of 1285 Lohi ewes kept at the Livestock Production Reserch Institute, Bahadurnagar, Okara for the period 1960-90 were analyzed by using Harvey’s Mixed Model Least Squares and Maximum Likelihood Computer Programme. The purpose was to estimate the magnitude of various environmental sources of variation influencing birth weight in this breed of sheep. The least squares mean for birth weight was 3.59 ? 0.02 kg. The trait was significantly (P< 0.01) influenced by the year and season of birth, type of birth and the sex of the lamb born. The age of the dam also had significant effect on birth weight of the lamb; the younger ewes produced lighter (3.48 ? 0.02 kg) lambs than older ewes (3.67 ? 0.03 kg).

M.E. Babar, Z. Ahmad, A. Nadeem and M. Yaqoob

2004-01-01

337

[Electrocardiographic analysis of auricular electric systole in the sheep  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The different components of the electric auricular systole, as well as the possible relationship between them have been studied in 302 ECG from Merino Precoz sheep breed. A gradual increase in the P wave duration, RR interval, PQ interval and PQ segment accompanying the growth of the animal, has been obtained, whereas the P wave voltage decreases both gradually and significantly. An analysis of the P wave morphology shows a higher incidence of double waves over simple waves in 1 year old animals than in younger ones. A high correlation between the RR and PQ intervals as well as between the PQ interval and the PQ segment has been observed in all groups of the three leads studied.

Tovar P; Santisteban R; Porras A; Vivo R; Castejón FM

1985-09-01

338

Seroprevalence of Brucellosis in Sheep in Sokoto City Abattoir  

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Full Text Available Serum samples from sheep collected from the Sokoto city abattoir were tested for brucellosis using the Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT), the Serum Agglutination Test (SAT) and the Competitive ELISA (Compelisa). A sero prevalence rate of 23.61% was recorded. The prevalence was higher among the females (26.71%) than males (15.30%) and also in those within the age band of 12-24 months (26.19%). Out of the three breeds of Udah, Yankassa and Balami, Udah was observed to have the highest prevalence of 30.76%. It is recommended that a large monitoring of the disease in small ruminants as well as mass vaccination should be embarked upon in the State.

A.U. Junaidu; M.D. Salihu; M.L. Gulumbe

2006-01-01

339

USE OF ULTRASONOGRAPHY FOR PREGNANCY DIAGNOSIS IN BALKHI SHEEP  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present study was conducted to determine the earliest stage of gestation at which pregnancy could be detected through transabdominal ultrasonography, to describe development characteristics of pregnancy from day 26 to day 60 of gestation, and to assess the accuracy of flock pregnancy diagnosis on day 75 after ram introduction in “Balkhi sheep” of Pakistan. A real time B-mode ultrasound scanner equipped with a 3.5 MHz probe was used for this purpose. A 100% accuracy of the pregnancy diagnosis was achieved at day 42 of gestation. Placentomes and leg buds were visible in 100% cases between 45 and 50 days of gestation, and vertebral column was apparent in 100% ewes between 51 and 55 days of gestation. Accuracy of flock pregnancy diagnosis was assessed by once only ultrasono- graphy at 75th day after introduction of ram in 71 ewes over two breeding seasons. Flock pregnancy test performed at this day was 97% accurate.

M. ANWAR, A. RIAZ, N. ULLAH AND M. RAFIQ

2008-01-01

340

Ectoparasites of sheep in three agro-ecological zones in central Oromia, Ethiopia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence and risk factors for ectoparasites infestation in sheep in three agro-ecological zones in central Oromia, Ethiopia, from October 2009 to April 2010. The study revealed that 637 (48.1%) of the 1325 sheep examined were infested with one or more ectoparasites. The ectoparasites identified were Bovicola ovis (27.2%), Melophagus ovinus (16.4%), Ctenocephalides sp. (2.3%), Linognathus africanus (1.2%), Linognathus ovillus (0.3%), Sarcoptes sp. (1.2%), Amblyomma variegatum (4.4%), Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi (1.9%), Rhipicephalus pravus (1.9%), Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) decoloratus (1.1%), Rhipicephalus sanguineus (0.9%), Rhipicephalus praetextatus (1.1%) and Hyalomma truncatum (1.6%). Statistically significant difference was observed in prevalence of B. ovis amongst study agroecological zones: highland 36.6%, midland 20.9% and lowland 14.0%. Significantly higher prevalence was recorded in highland agroecological zone. A significantly (OR = 0.041, p < 0.001) higher prevalence of M. ovinus in the highland (31.7%) than in both the lowland (0%) and midland (1.9%) was observed. The risk of tick infestation in the lowland and midland was 9.883 times and 13.988 times higher than the risk in the highland, respectively. A significantly higher prevalence of Ctenocephalides species was encountered in both the lowland (OR = 4.738, p = 0.011) and midland (OR = 8.078, p = 0.000) than in the highland agro-ecological zone. However, a significant difference (p = 0.191) amongst agro-ecological zones was not found for the prevalence of Linognathus and Sarcoptes species. Statistically significant variation (p > 0.05) was never recorded in the prevalence of all the identified species of ectoparasites between male and female sheep hosts. However, a significantly (p = 0.006) higher prevalence of B. ovis was recorded between young and adult sheep. The risk of B. ovis infestation was 1.45 times higher in young than the adult sheep. Furthermore, a significantly (p < 0.001) higher prevalence of M. ovinus, B. ovis and Sarcoptes sp. was found between sheep with poor and a good body condition. The ever increasing threat of ectoparasites on overall sheep productivity and tanning industry in Ethiopia warrants urgent control intervention. Further studies on the role of ectoparasites in transmission of diseases to sheep, zoonotic importance, comparative prevalence and load, and the importance of sheep as alternative hosts in different agroecological zones, breeds and management systems in Ethiopia are recommended so as to design applicable control programme in the country.

Kumsa B; Beyecha K; Geloye M

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

A dual fluorescent multiprobe assay for prion protein genotyping in sheep  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Scrapie and BSE belong to a group of fatal, transmissible, neurodegenerative diseases called TSE. In order to minimize the risk of natural scrapie and presumed natural BSE in sheep, breeding programmes towards TSE resistance are conducted in many countries based on resistance rendering PRNP polymorphisms at codons 136 (A/V), 154 (R/H) and 171 (R/H/Q). Therefore, a reliable, fast and cost-effective method for routine PRNP genotyping in sheep, applicable in standard equipped molecular genetic laboratories, will be a vital instrument to fulfill the need of genotyping hundreds or thousands of sheep. Methods A dual fluorescent multiprobe assay consisting of 2 closed tube PCR reactions containing respectively 4 and 3 dual-labelled fluorescent ASO probes for the detection in real-time of the 7 allelic variants of sheep PRNP mentioned above. Results The assay is succesfully performed using unpurified DNA as a template for PCR, without any post-PCR manipulations and with semi-automatic determination of the PRNP genotypes. The performance of the assay was confirmed via PCR-RFLP and sequencing in a cross-validation study with 50 sheep. Conclusions We report the development and validation of a robust, reliable and reproducible method for PRNP genotyping of a few to many sheep samples in a fast, simple and cost-effective way, applicable in standard equipped molecular genetic laboratories. The described primer/probe design strategy can also be applied for the detection of other polymorphisms or disease causing mutations.

Van Poucke Mario; Vandesompele Jo; Mattheeuws Marc; Van Zeveren Alex; Peelman Luc J

2005-01-01

342

Power of Microsatellite Markers for Analysis of Genetic Variation and Parentage Verification in Sheep  

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Full Text Available We report the genetic analysis of 100 individuals of an elite breeding flock of Afshari sheep with a selected set of eighteen microsatellite markers. A full characterization of this set of eighteen loci was carried out generating allele frequency distributions that were used to estimate the genetic information content of these loci, including genetic variability, inbreeding, individual and parent verification parameters. Disregarding MCMA26 monomorphic pattern, microsatellite loci showed moderate level of polymorphism, as such totally 102 alleles were detected with a mean number of 6 alleles per locus. The average expected heterozygosity was 0.72 (SD = 0.07) and the average Polymorphism Information Content (PIC) was 0.67 (SD = 0.08). Total value of inbreeding based on marker data was estimated as -0.02 so it indicates that inbreeding occurred less than would be expected at random. The overall probability of identity considering all twelve independent loci combined was 3.148E-13 meaning lower than 1 in 31 trillions. The results of this study indicate, despite the selective breeding and closed flock system over a number of generations, a relatively high level of heterozygosity still exists in the representative sheep flock. The high degree of multiallelism and the clear and simple codominant Mendelian inheritance of the set of microsatellites used provide a powerful system for the unique identification of Afshari sheep individuals for fingerprinting purposes and parentage testing.

S. Qanbari; M.P. Eskandari Nasab; R. Osfoori; A. Hagh Nazari

2007-01-01

343

Transgenic cloned sheep overexpressing ovine toll-like receptor 4.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An ovine fetal fibroblast cell line highly expressing TLR4 was established by inserting TLR4 into a reconstructive p3S-LoxP plasmid. Transgenic sheep overexpressing TLR4 were produced by transferring TLR4-transfected fetal fibroblasts into metaphase (M)II-stage enucleated oocytes (using SCNT). Because reconstructed embryos derived from MII-stage enucleated oocytes matured in vivo using a delayed-activated method had a higher pregnancy rate (18.52%) than that from MII-stage enucleated oocytes matured in vitro, the former procedure was used. Nine TLR4-transgenic live births were confirmed using polymerase chain reaction and Southern blot analysis. Increased expression of TLR4 at mRNA and protein levels in ear tissues of transgenic lambs were verified using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry, respectively. More toll-like receptor 4 protein was expressed by peripheral blood monocytes and/or macrophages collected from 3-month-old TLR4-transgenic than nontransgenic lambs at 0, 1, and 4 hours after lipopolysaccharide stimulation. Furthermore, interferon-? and tumor necrosis factor ? secreted by monocytes and/or macrophages of TLR4-transgenic lambs were significantly higher at 1 hour. Therefore, lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory responses from monocytes and/or macrophages occurred sooner in TLR4-transgenic lambs, consistent with an enhanced host immune response. In conclusion, transgenic sheep overexpressing TLR4 are a primary model to investigate the role of transgenic animals in disease resistance and have potential for breeding sheep with disease resistance.

Deng S; Li G; Zhang J; Zhang X; Cui M; Guo Y; Liu G; Li G; Feng J; Lian Z

2013-07-01

344

Prediction of feed intake in the Italian dairy sheep  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Recommendations on feed intake for sheep are based on assessments of genetic types, feeding systems and environ-  mental conditions that are very different from Italian ones. These considerations underline the need for intake data or  models that derive from local trials. For this reason intake data of lactating and dry ewes, pregnant ewes, rams and  growing lambs have been collected from selected literature based on sheep feeding trials mainly conducted on dairy  breeds in Italy or in other Mediterranean countries. Equations and intake tables differentiated according to the physio-  logical and productive categories, as well as feeding typology are reported. Particular consideration is given to pasture  intake with supplementation, reporting three equations developed for three qualitative levels of the pasture, recogniz-  able from the CP content of herbage: 16% DM. The equations include animal and  pasture variables and supplementation, expressed as grams of CP given with feeds other than pasture. Only when pas-  ture CP content is lower than 10% DM, supplement is not included in the equation, as no or negative substitution effect  is expected. 

Marcella Avondo

2010-01-01

345

REPRODUCTIVE PERFORMANCE OF POMERANIAN SHEEP IN THE BALDRAM CONSERVATION HERD  

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Full Text Available This research presents the evaluation of the reproductive performance of Pomeranian sheep, bred in the Baldram conservation herd (Elblag province) over two consecutive years. The number of evaluated ewes in the selected farm was: 66 mated (including 61 lambing) in 2004 and 74 mated (including 74 lambing) in 2005. Fertility in 2004 was recorded at 92.4%, while the same in 2005 was 100.0%, prolificacy values were respectively: 155.7% and 139.2%, lamb rearing: 98.9% and 87.4%, and reproductive performance: 142.4% and 121.6%. The comparison of different time periods revealed a decline in the values of the reproductive parameters. Out of 198 lambs born in both years, 46.5% constituted ram lambs and 53.5% ewe lambs. Among the birth types, litters with single lamb were dominant (54.1%), while litters with twins constituted only 45.2%. Over the two years analysed, there was only 1 litter with triplets. On the basis of the results gathered, it can be concluded that the mean values of the reproductive indices, for both years of Pomeranian sheep breeding in the Baldram herd, do not

Ewa SIMINSKA; Henryka BERNACKA; Ma?gorzata DYMEK

2008-01-01

346

Heat tolerance in Brazilian sheep: physiological and blood parameters.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Thirty Santa Ines adult, non-lactating, non-pregnant ewes, ten with a brown coat, ten black coated and ten white coated, as well as ten Bergamasca and ten of mixed breed were used to evaluate the effect of climate on physiological and blood parameters in sheep. Two sample collections were taken (6 AM: and 2 PM: ) on six days. Sweating rate (SR), heart (HR) and breathing rates (BR), complete hemogram, rectal (RT) and skin temperatures (ST) were measured. Variance analyses were carried out using SAS(R). In general, there were significant differences between animals due to skin type, time and day of collection. White coated animals showed lower HR, BR and RT, with afternoon parameters higher than morning. Correlations between HR, BR, RT, SR and ST were medium and positive. Correlations between physiological and blood traits were in general negative and medium. Packed Cell Volume (PCV), total plasma proteins, red blood cell count and hemoglobin concentration had high positive correlations between each other. The first two autovectors explained 49% of variation between traits. White coated Santa Ines animals were shown to be better adapted to climatic conditions in Central Brazil and wool sheep more affected by heat.

McManus C; Paludo GR; Louvandini H; Gugel R; Sasaki LC; Paiva SR

2009-01-01

347

Heat tolerance in Brazilian sheep: physiological and blood parameters.  

Science.gov (United States)

Thirty Santa Ines adult, non-lactating, non-pregnant ewes, ten with a brown coat, ten black coated and ten white coated, as well as ten Bergamasca and ten of mixed breed were used to evaluate the effect of climate on physiological and blood parameters in sheep. Two sample collections were taken (6 AM: and 2 PM: ) on six days. Sweating rate (SR), heart (HR) and breathing rates (BR), complete hemogram, rectal (RT) and skin temperatures (ST) were measured. Variance analyses were carried out using SAS(R). In general, there were significant differences between animals due to skin type, time and day of collection. White coated animals showed lower HR, BR and RT, with afternoon parameters higher than morning. Correlations between HR, BR, RT, SR and ST were medium and positive. Correlations between physiological and blood traits were in general negative and medium. Packed Cell Volume (PCV), total plasma proteins, red blood cell count and hemoglobin concentration had high positive correlations between each other. The first two autovectors explained 49% of variation between traits. White coated Santa Ines animals were shown to be better adapted to climatic conditions in Central Brazil and wool sheep more affected by heat. PMID:19052907

McManus, Concepta; Paludo, Giane Regina; Louvandini, Helder; Gugel, Rosilene; Sasaki, Luiz Cláudio Bastos; Paiva, Samuel Rezende

2008-04-09

348

Phylogenetic analysis of small ruminant lentiviruses in mixed flocks: multiple evidence of dual infection and natural transmission of types A2 and B1 between sheep and goats.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Previous molecular analyses of small ruminant lentivirus (SRLV) populations in single species herds in Quebec, Canada, have revealed a relatively simple structure where goats and sheep appeared exclusively infected with B1 and A2 subtypes respectively. The present work aimed at extending these earlier findings with the analysis of SRLVs in mixed flocks. Molecular analyses revealed a more complex picture of SRLV population structure in mixed herds compared to single species herds. Notably, phylogenetic analyses of long gag sequences strongly support transmission of A2 subtype from sheep to goats as well as transmission of B1 subtype from goats to sheep. Hence, this work uncovered for the first time natural transmission between sheep and goats of North American subtype A2. In addition, multiple evidences of mixed infection of sheep and goats with A2 and B1 subtypes were found. The data reported in this study reinforces the concept of a genetic continuum of SRLVs where strains are exchanged between sheep and goats under favourable conditions and in the absence of specific species barriers. Most interestingly, this study suggests that dual infection, which is a hallmark of the lentivirus paradigm HIV, may not be such rare events in small ruminants but may simply be understudied and underreported. Overall, the present data shows that sheep and goats in Canada can be infected with both SRLV A and B types, sometimes simultaneously, and that mixed flocks may represent a breeding ground for their evolution.

Fras M; Leboeuf A; Labrie FM; Laurin MA; Singh J; L'homme Y

2013-06-01

349

Managing Genetic Variation to Conserve Genetic Diversity in Goats and Sheep  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Domestic goat and sheep populations maintained for many generations with small numbers of male and female parents, or declining in total numbers, not only endure accumulated genetic drift but also a steady rise in inbreeding, which can be directly attributed to dispersive forces of evolutionary significance that influence gene frequency. Increasing effective population size shows theoretical promise in lessening the impact on erosion of biodiversity from genetic drift. For example, doubling the effective numbers of parents which increases effective population size reduces rate of inbreeding by nearly one-half in many of the scenarios in the present study. Similarly, equalizing the number of male and female parents can decrease the variance among progeny of each parent, which in turn increases effective population size. The recurring erosion of domestic goat and sheep diversity has contributed to decreased fecundity, reduced fitness and poor adaptability, all known to influence efficiency of production. The potential loss in performance of livestock and poultry following many generations of accumulated genetic drift, which often goes unnoticed, can be predicted for specific populations from precise estimates of their mean value, additive genetic variance and heritability along with their effective number of male and female parents. For example, when the effective population size decreases from 200 to 40, the potential reduction in mean performance for economically important traits of goat and sheep populations following 20 generations of accumulated genetic drift will nearly double. In contrast, increasing effective population size from 200 to 600 will have the potential reduction in mean performance. The accumulation of favourable mutations could imply an effective population size of 100 or more, which is equal to a rise in rate of inbreeding of 0.5% or less, may be acceptable in sustaining genetic response to artificial selection in commercial breeding populations. The application of quantitative genetic principles related to inbreeding and genetic drift make it possible to safeguard against erosion of genetic diversity in endangered breeds, populations and landraces while lessening the impact from potential loss in their performance. Conservation of domestic animal diversity can be achieved by managing the erosion of genetic variation based on breeding strategies which promote the mating of sires to all dams, in either ‘random bred’ or ‘balanced pedigreed’ breeding structure for populations of endangered domestic goats and sheep. Obviously, the in-situ and ex-situ conservation of live animals, along with cryogenic preservation of their gametes, stem cells, somatic cells, blood and gonads will be complementary to conservation breeding.

J. N. B. Shrestha; G. H. Crow; M.I. Soysal

2010-01-01

350

Sheep Behaviours During a Total Solar Eclipse  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, the effects of a total solar eclipse, which was occurred in Elaz?? on August 11 1999, on sheep behaviours, were observed. For this purpose, 150 sheeps open shelter have been observed for six hour, from 11:00 am to 5:00 pm. All behaviours of sheep that were different than usual were recorded during observation. Sheeps started to show different behaviours including standing up, smelling the weather and watching around 30 minutes before solar eclipse. Total solar eclipse was occurred between 2:37 and 2:39 pm. During total solar eclipse, it was observed that they become very quiet did not move, turned their faces to the sun. During solar eclipse, sheep behaviour was obseved different than normal sunset darkness. Sheep might behave similar during earthquake disaster with solar eclipse.

Orhan ?zbey

2004-01-01

351

Breeding for eradication  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A long-term campaign to eradicate the medfly is being carried out in southern Japanese islands with the financial aid of the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry, arid Fisheries. In 1984, a mass-breeding facility was built for applying the sterile insect technique, in which controlled doses of radiation are used to sterilize flies to prevent reproduction. The campaign itself started in the Miyako islands in September 1984 to protect melon crops from the pest. After 2 years of extensive efforts, medflies there have almost been eliminated. It is expected that by 1992 the melon medfly will be eradicated from Japan. The accompanying photos illustrate some of the work involved in this extensive and promising campaign

1987-01-01

352

Over-breeding  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Greenhouse Effect has fuzzy parameters, as do the consequences of acid rain, accidental nuclear fallout, deforestation, even the depletion of oil and natural gas reserves, and other threatening calamities. But the consequences of human over-breeding do not fall within fuzzy parameters. Reliable demographic studies predict a world population by the year 2020 of twice the present four billion or so living human beings. Some of us will see that year. But the population will again have doubled by the year 2090: sixteen billion people. The author suggests in this paper some morally permissible steps that might be taken to circumvent what otherwise is most assuredly an impending world tragedy. We have an ethical obligation to future generations. They have the moral right to a qualitatively fulfilling life, not just on allotted number of years. Some of my suggestions will not be palatable to some readers. But I urge those readers seriously to consider and if possible, hopefully, to propose alternatives.

1991-01-01

353

ITER breeding blanket design  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A breeding blanket design has been developed for ITER to provide the necessary tritium fuel to achieve the technical objectives of the Enhanced Performance Phase. It uses a ceramic breeder and water coolant for compatibility with the ITER machine design of the Basic Performance Phase. Lithium zirconate and lithium oxide am the selected ceramic breeders based on the current data base. Enriched lithium and beryllium neutron multiplier are used for both breeders. Both forms of beryllium material, blocks and pebbles are used at different blanket locations based on thermo-mechanical considerations and beryllium thickness requirements. Type 316LN austenitic steel is used as structural material similar to the shielding blanket. Design issues and required R&D data are identified during the development of the design.

Gohar, Y.; Cardella, A.; Ioki, K.; Lousteau, D.; Mohri, K.; Raffray, R.; Zolti, E. [ITER Joint Central Team, Garching (Germany)] [and others

1995-12-31

354

ITER breeding blanket design  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] A breeding blanket design has been developed for ITER to provide the necessary tritium fuel to achieve the technical objectives of the Enhanced Performance Phase. It uses a ceramic breeder and water coolant for compatibility with the ITER machine design of the Basic Performance Phase. Lithium zirconate and lithium oxide am the selected ceramic breeders based on the current data base. Enriched lithium and beryllium neutron multiplier are used for both breeders. Both forms of beryllium material, blocks and pebbles are used at different blanket locations based on thermo-mechanical considerations and beryllium thickness requirements. Type 316LN austenitic steel is used as structural material similar to the shielding blanket. Design issues and required R ampersand D data are identified during the development of the design

1995-10-04

355

Toxoplasma gondii antibodies sheep in Lages, Santa Catarina, Brazil, and comparison using IFA and ELISA.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Toxoplasmosis in sheep is a disease of great importance in veterinary medicine, which causes economic losses in livestock and has a great impact on human health, since consumption of infected meat facilitates transmission of zoonotic infections. Blood samples from sheep (n = 360) were collected from 13 farm properties in the municipality of Lages, Santa Catarina, to estimate the prevalence of toxoplasmosis and identify risk factors associated with Toxoplasma gondii infection. T. gondii, antibodies were investigated by means of the indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Animals infected with T. gondii were found on 100% of the farms. IFA detected 56.9% (205/360) and ELISA 42.5% of the infected sheep. Breed was the only risk factor associated with the presence of T. gondii antibodies. ELISA showed sensitivity of 61%, specificity of 82% and kappa of 0.41, which was considered moderate. This allows use of ELISA as an alternative technique for diagnosing T. gondii in sheep.

Sakata FB; Bellato V; Sartor AA; de Moura AB; de Souza AP; Farias JA

2012-07-01

356

Production and milk quality of Pag sheep  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available eep milk production and processing in last ten years show significant increase in Croatia. Market has recognized the product quality of sheep milk, so today even more number of cheese producers is interested for obtaining the protected geographical indication of products. Because of specific climate conditions on island Pag, as well as specific herbal cover, numerous aromatic plant varieties, milk, i.e. cheese, has specific taste and smell which consumers recognize, search and appreciate. Because of milk production increase and achieving better quality, production regularly controls and chemical composition analyzes and hygiene quality of sheep milk are conducted. In that propose during 2003 and 2004 years, research was carried out, which had for aim to explore milk quality of Pag sheep and to determine influence of paragenetic factors (year - climate) on production, chemical composition (milk fat and proteins content) and hygiene milk quality (number of somatic cells count), in two herds (A and B). Climate characteristics in 2003 and 2004 were different, regarding precipitations quantity and vegetation. Milking capacity control was carried out according to AT method. Chemical composition analyzes and hygiene quality of milk was carried out with infrared spectrometry and fluoro-opto-electronic method. During milking period in 2004, on island Pag, there were considerably more precipitations and due to the fact, vegetation was exuberant, which influenced on bigger total milk production in lactation (P<0.01) regarding to 2003. Average milk fat content (%) in milk was in 2003 on family farm A, higher regarding on family farm B (P<0.01). However, because of higher quantities of produced milk on family farm B, total yield of milk fat (9.43 kg) was higher (P<0.01) regarding to family farm A (7,93 kg). During 2004, differences in milk fat yield were very small and were not significant. Average daily milk quantity was from 689 mL (year 2003) to 940 mL (year 2004) on family farm A, apropos from 840 mL (year 2003) to 850 mL (year 2004) on family farm B. Between individual production features and individual milk quality parameters, significant correlations coefficients were determined. Based on results, it can be concluded that influence of paragenetic factors on individual production features and milk quality was significant.

Zoran Vukašinovi?; Neven Antunac; Nataša Mikulec; Boro Mio?; Zdravko Bara?

2008-01-01

357

Biotechnology in maize breeding  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Maize is one of the most important economic crops and the best studied and most tractable genetic system among monocots. The development of biotechnology has led to a great increase in our knowledge of maize genetics and understanding of the structure and behaviour of maize genomes. Conventional breeding practices can now be complemented by a number of new and powerful techniques. Some of these often referred to as molecular methods, enable scientists to see the layout of the entire genome of any organism and to select plants with preferred characteristics by "reading" at the molecular level, saving precious time and resources. DNA markers have provided valuable tools in various analyses ranging from phylogenetic analysis to the positional cloning of genes. Application of molecular markers for genetic studies of maize include: assessment of genetic variability and characterization of germ plasm, identification and fingerprinting of genotypes, estimation of genetic distance, detection of monogamic and quantitative trait loci, marker assisted selection, identification of sequence of useful candidate genes, etc. The development of high-density molecular maps which has been facilitated by PCR-based markers, have made the mapping and tagging of almost any trait possible and serve as bases for marker assisted selection. Sequencing of maize genomes would help to elucidate gene function, gene regulation and their expression. Modern biotechnology also includes an array of tools for introducing or deieting a particular gene or genes to produce plants with novel traits. Development of informatics and biotechnology are resulted in bioinformatic as well as in expansion of microarrey technique. Modern biotechnologies could complement and improve the efficiency of traditional selection and breeding techniques to enhance agricultural productivity.

Mladenovi?-Drini? Snežana; Ignjatovi?-Mici? Dragana; Eri? Iva; An?elkovi? Violeta; Jelovac Dražen; Konstantinov Kosana

2004-01-01

358

Jaagsiekte Sheep Retrovirus Is Necessary and Sufficient To Induce a Contagious Lung Cancer in Sheep  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Sheep pulmonary adenomatosis (SPA) is a contagious and experimentally transmissible lung cancer of sheep resembling human bronchiolo-alveolar carcinoma. A type D retrovirus, known as jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV), has been associated with the etiology of SPA, but its exact role in the induction...

Palmarini, Massimo; Sharp, J. Michael; de las Heras, Marcelo; Fan, Hung

359

Effects of Breed and Progestin Source on Estrus Synchronization and Rates of Fertility and Fecundity in Iranian Sanjabi and Lori Ewes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of FGA (Fluorogestone acetate) and CIDR (Controlled internal drug release) on the induction of estrus and pregnancy and fecundity rates of the Sanjabi and Lori sheep. A total of 360 Sanjabi and Lori sheep were randomly grouped into two treatments with intravaginal devices inserted for 13 days: Group FGA (40 mg FGA, n = 180) and Group CIDR (n = 180). All ewes received an i.m. injection of 400 IU eCG (equine chorionic gonadotrophin) at devices removal. Estrous was assessed by exposing all ewes to vasectomized rams at 12 h intervals. Cervical artificial insemination was performed 12 h after estrus onset. The overall estrus response was 72.5%. The source of progestin did not influence the efficiency of estrus response but a significant difference (p<0.05) was found between the breed groups (Lori: 88.6%, Sanjabi: 58.3%). Among the sheep that received either CIDR or FGA, estrus response was significantly (p<0.05) higher in the Lori (CIDR: 82.2%, FGA: 91.1%) than in the Sanjabi (CIDR: 64.4%, FGA: 52.2%) breed. The lambing and fecundity rates for all groups were 60.2% and 1.2±0.03, respectively. No significant differences in term of the lambing and fecundity rates were recorded between CIDR and FGA groups and among Lori and Sanjabi breed. The results of this study indicate the source of progestin or sheep breed did not influence the pregnancy and fecundity rates. The sheep breed influences the estrous response rate while the source of progestin did not affect the estrous response.

M.M. Moeini; A.A. Moghaddam; H. Hajarian

2007-01-01

360

The International Sheep and Wool Handbook  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This revised book is an expanded and updated version of the Australian Sheep and Wool Handbook published in 1991 and focuses on the sheep wool and meat industry. The book is divided in 5 sections, each including several chapters written by well-known and qualified researchers and industry representatives from many countries. The first section on Major sheep and wool industries, in my opinion, is particularly interesting because it explores the sheep and wool industries of leading countries (e.g. Australia, South Africa and New Zealand) and continents (Europe and South America), and those of emerging countries (e.g. China).....

Antonello Cannas

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

Breeding strategy for short rotation woody species  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A method for breeding Salix is presented. The model has three main components, long-term tree breeding, short-term activity and supportive research. Successful long-term tree breeding requires a well functioning transfer of technique between the three components. There is a limited knowledge about breeding and genetics of short rotation woody species such as Salix. However, experience of breeding crops and conifers offers some information for designing a breeding plan for Salix. A breeding plan extending over 20 generations is presented. This plan utilizes inbreeding, to purge the deleterious genes, quickly expose the diverse properties of the breeding population, and enable the breeders to utilize hybridization techniques.

Perttu, K.L. (ed.)

1984-12-01

362

The rate of spread of sheep scab within small groups of Merino and Dorper sheep : short communication  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A single Merino sheep, artificially infested with the sheep scab mite, Psoroptes ovis, and a similarly infested Dorper sheep were placed with 9 uninfested Merino or 9 uninfested Dorper sheep respectively during winter and the rate of spread of infestation on the uninfested sheep observed. The same procedure was repeated in summer. It took 14 and 8 weeks respectively in winter before all sheep in the 2 groups displayed lesions of sheep scab, whereas in summer it took 10 and 12 weeks before all sheep had lesions.

T. Meintjies; L.J. Fourie; I.G. Horak

2012-01-01

363

Genetic study of Andalusia's ovine and caprine breeds.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

SUMMARY: Two different breeds of Andalusian sheep, 'Grazalema Merino' and 'Lebrijan Churro', and two different breeds of Andalusian goats, 'Andalusian White' and 'Andalusian Black', chosen by previous studies (Rodero et al. 1992a) as priority breeds for conservation, were studied. The systems used corresponded to ethnozootechnic characteristics, as well as the different biochemical-polymorphism variables. Farms were differentiated within breeds, or between themselves, and different tests were used of genetic and genotypic frequencies: Wright's indices, medium heterozygosities, Whalund's variances, G test of probability of reason, etc. Also Cavalli-Sforza's genetic distance was obtained. In the Andalusian Black and Grazalema Merino breeds, the Whalund's variances obtained were a result of selection, that has divided the breeds into distinct populations differentiated spatially. Medium heterozygosities of each breed do not differ much within themselves, but when each system is considered alone, discrepancies between ethnic groups are relevant. Wright's F indices demonstrated in the Andalusian White and Grazalema Merino breeds, genetic heterozygosities between populations or studied herds can be deduced, but this is not possible in the Andalusian Black. The F(IS) values indicated, despite the small size of the populations, that inbreeding has been avoided, probably because of the entry of foreign sires. In none of the breeds is there a significant excess of heterozygosis. The genetic distances between flocks within breeds do not differ from those found between breeds. RÉSUMÉ: On a travallé avec, differents troupeau des races de montons de l'Andalusie, Grazalema Merino et Lebrija Churro, et avec les races caprines Andalusian White et Andalusian Black, choisie entre les races Andaluciennes comme prioritaires pour la conservation, dans un etudie avant (Rodero et col. 1992a). Les sistémes utilicés dans cette travaille correspondent á charactérés etnozootechniques et á differents variables de polymorphism biochimique. Lorsque on fait differences entre troupeau, dedans de races, ou entre elles, on a utilicés differents preuves, á partir des fréquences géniques et génotipiques: l'index de Wright, hétérozygotie moyennes, variances de Whalund, preuve G de raison de probabilité, etc. Aussi le distance de Cavalli-Sforza. Comme conclusion, dans les races Andalusian Black et Grazalema Merino les variances de Whalund obtenues sont cosequences de l'action de la selection, donant different populations avec differentiation spaciale. Les hétérozygoties moyennes de chaque race sont parus, mais lorsque on considérent chaque systéme separé, les differences entre groupes ethniques sont importantes. Les indexes F de Wright demonstrent que, dans le races Andalusian White et Grazalema Merino on peuvent déduire d'heterozygoties génétique entre les populations ou troupeau analicées, dans le race Andalusian Black les differences valeurs de FIS indiquent que, malgré les petites dimensions des populations, on a evité la consanguinitée, due, probablement, á l'entrée d'étalons externes. Il n'y a pas, chez auqune race, d'un signifivative accroissement d'hétérizygosis. Les distances génétiques entre troupeau, dedans des races, en different pas des distances obtenues entre races. RESUMEN: Se ha trabajado con diferentes ganaderias de las razas ovinas andaluzas Merino de Grazalema y Churra Lebrijana, y con las caprinas Blanca Serrana y Negra Serrana, elegidas entre el resto de las razas de Andalucia como prioritarias pra la conservación, por estudio previo (Rodero y col., 1992a). Los sistemas utilizados en este trabajo corresponden tanto a caracteres etnozootécnicos como a diferentes variables de polimorfismos bioquimicos. Cuando se han diferenciado las ganaderias dentrde razas, o las ganaderias entre si, se han utilizado diferentes pruebas, a partir de las frecuencias genéticas y genotipicas: indices de Wright, heterocigosidades media, varianzas de Whalund, prueba G de razón de probabilidad, etc. También se obtuvieron

Rodero E; Haba MR; Rodero A

1997-01-01

364

Mutation breeding in chickpea  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Chickpea is an important food legume in Turkey. Turkey is one of the most important gene centers in the world for legumes. The most widely known characteristic of chickpea is that it is an important vegetable protein source used in human and animal nutrition. However, the dry grains of chickpea, has 2-3 times more protein than our traditional food of wheat. In addition, cheakpea is also energy source because of its high carbohydrate content. It is very rich in some vitamin and mineral basis. In the plant breeding, mutation induction has become an effective way of supplementing existing germplasm and improving cultivars. Many successful examples of mutation induction have proved that mutation breeding is an effective and important approach to food legume improvement. The induced mutation technique in chickpea has proved successful and good results have been attained. Realizing the potential of induced mutations, a mutation breeding programme was initiated at the Nuclear Agriculture Section of the Saraykoey Nuclear Research and Training Center in 1994. The purpose of the study was to obtain high yielding chickpea mutants with large seeds, good cooking quality and high protein content. Beside this some characters such as higher adaptation ability, tolerant to cold and drought, increased machinery harvest type, higher yield, resistant to diseases especially to antracnose and pest were investigated too. Parents varieties were ILC-482, AK-7114 and AKCIN-91 (9 % seed moisture content and germination percentage 98 %) in these experiments. The irradiation doses were 0 (control), 50, 100, 150, 200, 250, 300, 350, 400, 500 ve 600 Gy for greenhouse experiments and 0 (control), 50, 100, 150, 200, 250, 300, 350 ve 400 Gy for field experiments, respectively. One thousand seeds for per treatment were sown in the field for the M1. At maturity, 3500 single plants were harvested and 20 seeds were taken from each M1 plant and planted in the following season. During plant growth, mutants of the desired traits [earliness, yield per plant, first pot height and resistance to Ascochyta blight (Ascochyta rabiei)] were identified an isolated. 2520 desirable M2 mutants were selected and grown in progeny rows as the M3 generation. The protein contents of seeds were analyzed for the M3-M4 seeds. In M5-M7 generation, preliminary yield trials had been conducted and based on field observations, quality criteria (grain size, grain type, cooking and protein) analyses, and later 12 mutant lines were selected. The mutants and their controls were evaluated at two locations (Saraykoey and Haymana) in Central Anatolia for 2 years (M8, M9) for determination of yield performance using randomized complete block design with 3 replications. All the data were analysed statistically. As a result of these experiments, two promising mutant lines were chosen and given to the Seed Registration and Certification Center for official registration These two promising mutants were tested at five different locations of Turkey, in 2004 and 2005 years. After 2 years of registration experiments one of outstanding mutants was officially released as mutant chickpea variety under the name TAEK-SAGEL, in 2006. Some basic characteristics of this mutant are; earliness (95-100 day), high yield capacity (180-220 kg/da), high seed protein (22-25 %), first pot height (20-25 cm), 100 seeds weight (42-48 g), cooking time (35-40 min) and resistance to Ascochyta blight. (Includes 31 tables and 9 figures)

2009-01-01

365

Spatio-temporal dynamics of pneumonia in bighorn sheep  

Science.gov (United States)

Bighorn sheep mortality related to pneumonia is a primary factor limiting population recovery across western North America, but management has been constrained by an incomplete understanding of the disease. We analysed patterns of pneumonia-caused mortality over 14 years in 16 interconnected bighorn sheep populations to gain insights into underlying disease processes. 2. We observed four age-structured classes of annual pneumonia mortality patterns: all-age, lamb-only, secondary all-age and adult-only. Although there was considerable variability within classes, overall they differed in persistence within and impact on populations. Years with pneumonia-induced mortality occurring simultaneously across age classes (i.e. all-age) appeared to be a consequence of pathogen invasion into a naïve population and resulted in immediate population declines. Subsequently, low recruitment due to frequent high mortality outbreaks in lambs, probably due to association with chronically infected ewes, posed a significant obstacle to population recovery. Secondary all-age events occurred in previously exposed populations when outbreaks in lambs were followed by lower rates of pneumonia-induced mortality in adults. Infrequent pneumonia events restricted to adults were usually of short duration with low mortality. 3. Acute pneumonia-induced mortality in adults was concentrated in fall and early winter around the breeding season when rams are more mobile and the sexes commingle. In contrast, mortality restricted to lambs peaked in summer when ewes and lambs were concentrated in nursery groups. 4. We detected weak synchrony in adult pneumonia between adjacent populations, but found no evidence for landscape-scale extrinsic variables as drivers of disease. 5. We demonstrate that there was a >60% probability of a disease event each year following pneumonia invasion into bighorn sheep populations. Healthy years also occurred periodically, and understanding the factors driving these apparent fade-out events may be the key to managing this disease. Our data and modelling indicate that pneumonia can have greater impacts on bighorn sheep populations than previously reported, and we present hypotheses about processes involved for testing in future investigations and management.

Cassirer, E. Frances; Plowright, Raina K.; Manlove, Kezia R.; Cross, Paul C.; Dobson, Andrew P.; Potter, Kathleen A.; Hudson, Peter J.

2013-01-01

366

ITER tritium breeding blanket design  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The ITER tritium breeding blanket and shield system is designed to handle 1.5±0.3 GW of fusion power and 3 MWa/m2 average neutron fluence. The tritium breeding blanket design satisfies the technical objectives of the Enhanced Performance Phase of ITER operation for the Test Program. The design is based on a self-cooled liquid lithium system with vanadium structural material. Self-healing electrical insulator is used to reduce the MHD pressure drop in the system. Reactor relevancy, low tritium inventory, low activation material, and a tritium self-sufficiency goal are the main features of this breeding blanket design. (orig.)

1995-01-01

367

ITER tritium breeding blanket design  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The ITER tritium breeding blanket and shield system is designed to handle 1.5{+-}0.3 GW of fusion power and 3 MWa/m{sup 2} average neutron fluence. The tritium breeding blanket design satisfies the technical objectives of the Enhanced Performance Phase of ITER operation for the Test Program. The design is based on a self-cooled liquid lithium system with vanadium structural material. Self-healing electrical insulator is used to reduce the MHD pressure drop in the system. Reactor relevancy, low tritium inventory, low activation material, and a tritium self-sufficiency goal are the main features of this breeding blanket design. (orig.).

Gohar, Y. [ITER Garching Joint Work Site, Garching (Germany); Parker, R. [ITER Garching Joint Work Site, Garching (Germany); Rebut, P.H. [ITER San Diego Joint Work Site, La Jolla, CA (United States); Hua, T. [Fusion Power Program, Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Mattas, R. [Fusion Power Program, Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Smith, D. [Fusion Power Program, Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)