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Sample records for sheep breeds electronic

  1. Mediterranean breeds of cattle, sheep and goats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breeds of cattle, sheep and goats in the Mediterranean region are considered. Cattle: original longhorned breeds in Spain, Portugal and southern France; original shorthorned breeds in North Africa, the eastern Mediterranean and Sardinia; Grey Steppe in Balkan lowlands and central and southern Italy; Brown Swiss and its crosses in parts of Spain, northern Italy, north-west Turkey and the Maghreb; Simmental in Yugoslavia and Hungary; Friesian now dominant in western Europe and spreading in North Africa, the Near East and eastern Europe. Sheep: original coarse woolled thin tailed breeds in Algeria, Morocco, parts of Spain, Portugal, Italy and the Balkans; Merino in Spain has produced new breeds in Portugal, southern France, and Italy and is now being used in the Balkans, Turkey and Egypt; fat tailed coarse woolled breeds in Africa and Asia from Tunisia to Turkey. Goats: short eared dairy breeds in Spain and Italy; black, long haired, lop eared, screw horned goats from Turkey to North Africa; Maltese (dairy) goats in several countries. (author). 3 refs, 1 tab

  2. Issues and perspectives in dairy sheep breeding

    OpenAIRE

    Pierlorenzo Secchiari; Aldo Cappio-Borlino; Marcello Mele; Nicolò Pietro Paolo Macciotta

    2010-01-01

    The present review consists of two parts. In the first part, the authors briefly describe the state of the art of breedingprogrammes for Italian dairy sheep; then they report new models for genetic evaluation and consider the problem ofgenotype x environment interaction and the impact of farming systems on the genetic merit of animals. In the secondpart new breeding goals regarding the evolution of milk quality concept and the increasing importance of functional traitsare reported. Regarding ...

  3. Basic Characteristics of Some Turkish Indigenous Sheep Breeds

    OpenAIRE

    M. Kaymakc; O. uz; C. Un; G. Bilgen; T. Taikin

    2001-01-01

    Turkey is among the major sheep raising countries of the world, with sheep population over 29.4 million head. Sheep have an important place in the economy of Turkey and in the nutrition of its people. Sheep breeding in Turkey is principally based on indigenous breeds, while studies on crossing and producing new types to increase fleece, meat and milk yield have been carried out. These indigenous breeds are more resistant to disease and parasites while also being able to survive even unfavoura...

  4. Issues and perspectives in dairy sheep breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierlorenzo Secchiari

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The present review consists of two parts. In the first part, the authors briefly describe the state of the art of breedingprogrammes for Italian dairy sheep; then they report new models for genetic evaluation and consider the problem ofgenotype x environment interaction and the impact of farming systems on the genetic merit of animals. In the secondpart new breeding goals regarding the evolution of milk quality concept and the increasing importance of functional traitsare reported. Regarding milk quality, the authors especially focus on the traits related to cheese-making ability and onthe nutraceutical aspects of milk. Among functional traits, resistance to diseases (mastitis and Scrapie has been highlightedfor its great importance in livestock species. Finally, the perspectives of marker-assisted selection have also beenreported.

  5. Basic Characteristics of Some Turkish Indigenous Sheep Breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kaymakc

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Turkey is among the major sheep raising countries of the world, with sheep population over 29.4 million head. Sheep have an important place in the economy of Turkey and in the nutrition of its people. Sheep breeding in Turkey is principally based on indigenous breeds, while studies on crossing and producing new types to increase fleece, meat and milk yield have been carried out. These indigenous breeds are more resistant to disease and parasites while also being able to survive even unfavourable environments and to maintain their productivity. At present, they contribute 27.18 % to the total read meat, 8.15 % to the total milk and 59.11 % to the total leather produced in the country. Sheep breeds in Turkey can be categorized into two main groups: Fat-tailed (White Karaman "Akkaraman", Red Karaman "K z lkaraman or Morkaraman", Daglic, Awassi " vesi" and fine-tailed (K v rc k, Karayaka, Chios "Sakiz", Imroz "Gokceada. For various reasons, it has been observed that indigenous sheep genetic resources in Turkey have been damaged. Some breeds have become extinct, some is under serious threat and some may be also considered as being under threat. The fact that the some conservation projects carried out by the government agencies is already at the stage of implementation may be regarded as a hopeful start.

  6. Genetic diversity in Algerian sheep breeds, using microsatellite markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two breeds - Ouled-Djellal and Hamra (85 animals) - were genotyped for 12 microsatellites using PCR and sequencing. Allele number and frequency were calculated, and 141 different alleles were found for these microsatellites, reflecting high genetic variability within these breeds. This study is being extended to other Algerian breeds to estimate variability and genetic distances between them. In parallel, blood samples from the various breeds are being collected to build up a DNA bank. The results should support establishment of a strategy to promote the use and development of locally adapted sheep resources. (author)

  7. Genetic analysis of growth traits in Iranian Makuie sheep breed

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    Mohammad Farhadian

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Makuie sheep is a fat-tailed sheep breed which can be found in the Azerbaijan province of Iran. In 1986, a Makuie sheep breeding station was established in the city of Maku in order to breed, protect and purify this breed. The genetic parameters for birth weight, weaning weight (3 months, 6-month, 9-month and yearling weight, and average daily gain from birth to weaning traits were estimated based on 25 years of data using DFREML software. Six different models were applied and a likelihood ratio test (LRT was used to select the appropriate model. Bivariate analysis was used to define the genetic correlation between studied traits. Based on the LRT, model II was selected as an appropriate model for all studied traits. Direct heritability estimates of birth, weaning, 6-month, 9-month and yearling weights and average daily gain from birth to weaning were 0.36, 0.41, 0.48, 0.42, 0.36 and 0.37, respectively. Estimates of direct genetic correlation between birth and weaning weights, birth and 6-month weights, birth and 9-month weights, as well as between birth and yearling weights were 0.57, 0.49, 0.46 and 0.32, respectively. The results suggest there is a substantial additive genetic variability for studied traits in the Makuie sheep breed population, and the direct additive effect and maternal permanent environment variance are the main source of phenotypic variance.

  8. The lifetime production of Bovec and Improved Bovec sheep breeds

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    Gregor Gorjanc

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Production data of Bovec and Improved (with East-Friesian Bovec sheep born between years 1989 and 2006 were used for the analysis of culling dynamics and lifetime production. Lifetime production was calculated as the sum of production at each lambing (number of born and liveborn lambs and litter birth weight, weaning (number of weaned lambs and litter weaning weight or during each lactation (milk yield, fat (6.5 % and protein (5.8 % corrected milk yield (FPC; Pulina et al., 2005., and fat and protein yield for culled sheep. Animals with any missing records from the first till the last lambing, weaning or lactation were removed from the analysis. Animals that left the system of animal recording alive, due to selling or the cancellation of recording by a breeder were also excluded. Dataset included records for 2254 sheep: 1734 of Bovec and 520 of Improved Bovec breed. Data preparation and statistical analysis were performed with the use of a statistical program R (R Development Core Team, 2007. and additional packages Zelig (Imai et al., 2007; Bailey and Alimadhi, 2007; Imai et al., 2008 and lme4 (Bates and DebRoy, 2004; Bates, 2007. Results have shown that in the period ?1996 Bovec breed had on average 4.4 lactations in their lifetime, which was almost one lactation more than in Improved Bovec breed. In the period after the year 1996 the highest proportion of animals were culled in the first lactation (as expected due to culling dynamics, with slightly higher proportion in Improved Bovec breed than in Bovec breed. Lifetime number of born, liveborn and weaned lambs was higher for about one lamb in Improved Bovec breed. Lifetime lamb weight gain did not differ between breeds, due to the high frequency of early weaning in Improved Bovec breed. During lifetime, Improved Bovec sheep produced around 200 kg (~34 % more milk, around 190 kg (~32 % more FPC milk, around 12 kg (~32 % more milk fat, and around 10 kg (~34 % more milk protein than Bovec breed. However, if the mean metabolic weight of breeds is taken into account the difference in milk production amounts to only ~6 % (~2 % for FPC milk. These results show that Bovec breed has satisfactory milk production, but too low body weight for intensive milk production. On the other hand, low body weight makes this breed suitable for extensive farming in hill and mountain areas. Improved Bovec breed has good results in Slovenian conditions, due to the similarity of environmental conditions with East Friesian’s country of origin.

  9. Reduced skull sexual dimorphism in a local sheep breed

    OpenAIRE

    Parés Casanova, Pere-Miquel

    2014-01-01

    This study estimated the magnitude of sexual dimorphism in a relict sheep from Catalunya (NE Spain), called Fardasca, using geometric morphometric techniques. For these analyses, a total of 18 skull specimens (2 adult males and 16 females) were studied. Our results suggest that the breed is not cranially dimorphic, so sex determination using landmarks described here as criteria is likely to yield poor results.

  10. Genetic trends in South African terminal sire sheep breeds

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    O.T., Zishiri; S.W.P., Cloete; J.J., Olivier; K., Dzama.

    Full Text Available Genetic trends were constructed for early growth traits in the Dormer and Ile de France terminal sire sheep breeds. The traits that were considered were birth weight, pre-weaning weight, weaning weight and post-weaning weight. However, pre-weaning weights were only available for the Ile de France br [...] eed and post-weaning weights were only available for the Dormer breed. Regressions of average annual breeding values on birth year indicated significant genetic gains in all early growth traits during the evaluation period. The average predicted direct breeding value of birth weight decreased by 0.055% per annum whereas weaning weight increased by 0.12% per annum and post-weaning weight improved by 0.32% per annum in the Dormer breed. The Ile de France registered an undesirable increase in the predicted direct breeding value of birth weight which amounted to 0.025% per annum. Predicted direct breeding values for pre-weaning weight increased at an annual rate of 0.23% and that of weaning weight by 1.21% per annum. Although adequate genetic variation for substantial genetic progress was available, only modest rates of progress were attained for all the traits in both breeds. The only possible exception was weaning weight in the Ile de France breed, which was improved at > 1% per annum. At least all changes were in the desired direction, barring the direct genetic trend for birth weight in the Ile de France breed. Breeders should be encouraged to record data consistently, as one of the major shortcomings in the data for both breeds were a lack of continuity in the submission of data to the NSIS. More informative analyses ought to be feasible if this requisite is met.

  11. [Bluetongue disease in Swiss sheep breeds: clinical signs after experimental infection with bluetongue virus serotype 8].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worwa, G; Thür, B; Griot, C; Hofmann, M; MacLachlan, J N; Chaignat, V

    2008-10-01

    Clinical disease of bluetongue (BT) in sheep may differ depending on breed, age and immunity of infected sheep and may also vary between serotype and strain of BT virus (BTV). Since there are no data available on the susceptibility of Swiss sheep breeds for BT, we performed experimental infection of the 4 most common Swiss sheep breeds and the highly susceptible Poll Dorset sheep with the BTV serotype 8 (BTV-8) circulating in Northern Europe since 2006. Clinical signs were assessed regarding severity, localisation, progression and time point of their appearance. The results clearly show that the Swiss sheep breeds investigated were susceptible to BTV-8 infection. They developed moderate, BT-characteristic symptoms, which were similar to those observed in Poll Dorset sheep. Regardless of breed, the majority of infected animals showed fever, swelling of the head as well as erosions of the mouth and subcutaneous haemorrhages. PMID:18821508

  12. Resistance of four sheep breeds to natural and subsequent artificial Haemonchus contortus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugambi, J M; Bain, R K; Wanyangu, S W; Ihiga, M A; Duncan, J L; Murray, M; Stear, M J

    1997-05-01

    The response of Red Maasai sheep to natural and artificial Haemonchus contortus infections was compared with sheep of Blackheaded Somali, Dorper and Romney Marsh breeds. Significant breed differences in egg count, packed cell volume (PCV), and mortality rates showed that the Red Maasai sheep were more resistant to natural H. contortus infection than sheep from the other three breeds. Of the initial groups of 15 wethers of each breed, two animals from each of the Dorper and Blackheaded Somali groups and nine from the Romney Marsh group died with haemonchosis during a 12 month field study. Following artificial infection of the Red Maasai, Dorpers and Blackheaded Somalis, with 10000 H. contortus L3, the Red Maasai sheep maintained a lower egg output and a higher PCV than animals of the other two breeds. The results clearly showed that breed substitution with the Red Maasai is a control option in areas where sheep are kept for meat and H. contortus is endemic. PMID:9195736

  13. RESEARCH ON THE SHEEP BREEDING IN ORGANIC FARMING SYSTEM IN ROMANIA

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    Ion R?DUCU??

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Organic livestock has grown in Romania in recent years, especially after 2000, because animal breeding in organic farming system represent a niche activity for farmers. The purpose of this paper was to make a radiograph at national level as regards the sheep breeding in organic farming system. The share of organic production within total production varies according to the different animal sectors. The statistic data showed that cattle and sheep are the most popular species reared using organic production methods. The highest share is found in the sheep sector due to lower difficulties to convert to organic production. Indeed the productive system of sheep farming in the hill and mountainous areas of Romania is considered to be very close to that of organic sheep farming and this fact, gives a competitive advantage to the Romanian sheep farmers. Organic sheep breeding in Romania is based on native breeds, which are well adapted to their life environment. Most of these organic sheep farms are situated in the hill and mountains areas, places where the prevalent breed is Tsurcana. The sheep livestock farmed organically in 2010 was 58,372 heads and in present 0.70% from the sheep livestock are reared organically. Sheep breeding into organic farming system has a strong growing tendency in our country in the future and this is confirmed by the fact that in 2011 the number of sheep and goats farmed organically reached to 168,593 heads.

  14. Application of myostatin in sheep breeding programs: A review

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    Younes Miar

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Myostatin or growth and differentiation factor 8 (GDF8, has been known as the factor causing double muscling phenotypes in which a series of mutations make the myostatin protein inactive, hence disabling it to regulate the deposition of muscle fibre. This phenotype happens with high frequency in a breed of sheep known as the Texel. Quantitative trait loci (QTL studies show that a portion of the OAR2 that encompasses GDF8 has a major effect on muscular growth of Belgian Texel, on the muscling and fat depth in New Zealand Texel sires, and UK Texel and Charollais sheep. The functional polymorphism resides inside the GDF8 non-coding region. To date, there have been studies showing biallelic SNPs with significantly different allelic frequencies between hyper-muscled Texel and control animals including one in the 3'UTR (g.+6223G>A and one in 2.5 kb upstream from the GDF8 transcription start site (g.-2449G>C. The GDF8 allele of the Texel sheep is characterized by one G to A transition in the 3'UTR, creating a target site for mir1 and mir206 which are highly expressed in skeletal muscles. This prevents myostatin gene translation, thus contributing to the double muscling of Texel sheep. Therefore, the GDF8 g. +6223A allele seems to be a causative variable increasing muscularity in the Texel rams and could be identified as a quantitative trait nucleotide.

  15. VALACHIAN CORKSCREW HORNS SHEEP BREED (“RATSCA” - A HISTORICAL DOCUMENT

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    Condrea DRAGANESCU

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Corkscrew horns Valachian sheep is a breed from the Early Egyptian (Ovis paleoegiptica phileic group, located in Serbia, Montenegro, Panonia, and Romanian border with Serbia. The tribe was named by Buffon (1780, Darwin (1865 Valachian, by Serbs Corkscrew Horns Valachian (Valaska vitorogta, by Hungarian Racka (=Serbian, by Linnaeus O.a.strpsiceros. The translation of strepsiceros into German=Zackel (Nathusius 1890, produced a confusion with the Valachian philetic group descending from the Thrakian philetic group. To avoid confusion, we proposed (1994 to use for this philetic group the Serbian name Valachian Corkscrew Horns. It is a sedentary sheep, not adapted to transhumance and large flocks, it does not support wintering in open field, even to stay in the rain. It has a smaller weight of fine fibbers in the mixed wool, it seems that its black colour is recessive, reverse than in Valachia (Tsurcana breeds. It is economically not competitive with other local and improved breeds and it is in danger of extinction in Serbia and even Romania and well conserved in Hungary. It was considered as a historical document (Dunka 1984 and perhaps it is. It is a proof for the former existence of a Valachian tribe in this area, implicit for the Valachian contribution to the ethno genesis of nations in this region. As an interesting genetic resource, but also for the aesthetic aspect of its horns and for some cultural reasons, it deserves to have a good genetic conservation programme.

  16. Analysis of Genetic Diversity on 15 Sheep Breeds in Xinjiang of China

    OpenAIRE

    C. W. Tang; W.T. Xing; Shi, L; Fang, Y.; Liu, W. J.; X. X. Huang; Yu, X; Brown, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    The genetic variability and genetic relationship of the fifteen sheep breeds were studied. The genotypes of 14 indigenous Chinese sheep breeds and one crossbreed of wild sheep were investigated using 13 microsatellite DNA markers recommended by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the International Society of Animal Genetics (ISAG) through PCR. The allele frequency, heterozygosity and Genetic Differentiation Index (Fst) were computed to estimate the genetic va...

  17. Facilities, breed and experience affect ease of sheep handling: the livestock transporter's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnard, C L; Pitchford, W S; Hocking Edwards, J E; Hazel, S J

    2015-08-01

    An understanding of the perceived importance of a variety of factors affecting the ease of handling of sheep and the interactions between these factors is valuable in improving profitability and welfare of the livestock. Many factors may contribute to animal behaviour during handling, and traditionally these factors have been assessed in isolation under experimental conditions. A human social component to this phenomenon also exists. The aim of this study was to gain a deeper understanding of the importance of a variety of factors affecting ease of handling, and the interactions between these from the perspective of the livestock transporter. Qualitative interviews were used to investigate the factors affecting sheep behaviour during handling. Interview transcripts underwent thematic analysis. Livestock transporters discussed the effects of attitudes and behaviours towards sheep, helpers, facilities, distractions, environment, dogs and a variety of sheep factors including breed, preparation, experience and sex on sheep behaviour during handling. Transporters demonstrated care and empathy and stated that patience and experience were key factors determining how a person might deal with difficult sheep. Livestock transporters strongly believed facilities (ramps and yards) had the greatest impact, followed by sheep experience (naivety of the sheep to handling and transport) and breed. Transporters also discussed the effects of distractions, time of day, weather, dogs, other people, sheep preparation, body condition and sheep sex on ease of handling. The concept of individual sheep temperament was indirectly expressed. PMID:25874817

  18. THE BREED TRACEABILITY OF SHEEP MEAT BY USING MOLECULAR GENETICS METHODS: PRELIMINARY RESULTS

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    A. Bramante

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Safety and quality foods of animal origin are extremely important for consumers. The aim of this work was to evaluate the feasibility of a method to track the breed origin of sheep meat all along the production chain using molecular genetics tools. A total of 800 samples evenly distributed among seven Italian sheep breeds have been typed at 19 STR markers, together with 90 samples from both imported sheep animals and local crossbred animals withdrawn at slaughterhouses. A maximum likelihood assignment test was adopted to evaluate STR ability to allocate samples to their true breed of origin. Sarda animals were all correctly allocated, as well as more than 98% of samples from the other breeds. Only slightly worst allocation performances were observed for imported and crossbred animals. Preliminary results seem quite promising, though further analyses will be needed in order to better understand the statistical power of such an assignment test before implementation in the sheep meat production chain.

  19. RESEARCH ON THE SHEEP BREEDING IN ORGANIC FARMING SYSTEM IN ROMANIA

    OpenAIRE

    Ion R?DUCU??

    2012-01-01

    Organic livestock has grown in Romania in recent years, especially after 2000, because animal breeding in organic farming system represent a niche activity for farmers. The purpose of this paper was to make a radiograph at national level as regards the sheep breeding in organic farming system. The share of organic production within total production varies according to the different animal sectors. The statistic data showed that cattle and sheep are the most popular species reared using organi...

  20. Genetic variation of 5 SNPs of MC1R gene in Chinese indigenous sheep breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, G L; Fu, D L; Lang, X; Ylan, Y F; Luo, Y Z

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess genetic diversity, genetic differentiation.relationship and population structure among 10 Chinese sheep populations using 5 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). in MC1R gene. The genetic diversity indices suggested that the intra-population variation levels of Chinese Merino and Large-tailed Han,breeds were lowest than Kazakh Fat-Rumped. Chinese sheep breeds have maintained a high intra-population variation levels (95.23%). The genetic differentiation patterns and genetic relationships among Chinese sheep breeds displayed a high consistency with the traditional classification. The cluster trees were constructed by UPMGA method. The results showed that Chinese indigenous sheep populations have distinct genetic differentiation. The inter-population variation levels in Chinese sheep populations indicated three geographically independent domestication events have occurred. The Bayesian cluster analyses also showed a reliable clustering pattern, which revealed three major clusters in.Chinese indigenous sheep populations (Mongolian group, Kazakh group and Tibetan group), except for Duolang and Minxian Black-fur. There were probably caused by different breeding history, geography isolation and different levels of inbreeding. The findings supported the related records in literature, ten sheep populations originated on different time stage from the primogenitor population and communicated genetically with each other in the process of natural and artificial selection, and in different ecological environment. It is concluded that Chinese indigenous sheep have higher genetic variation and diversity, genetic differentiation exist between Chinese sheep populations. The majority breeds are consistent with the geographical distribution and breed characteristic. PMID:25720251

  1. Breeding programs for smallholder sheep farming systems: I. Evaluation of alternative designs of breeding schemes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gizaw, S; Rischkowsky, B; Valle-Zárate, A; Haile, A; van Arendonk, J A M; Mwai, A O; Dessie, T

    2014-10-01

    Village- and central nucleus-based schemes were simulated and evaluated for their relative bio-economic efficiencies, using Ethiopia's Menz sheep as example. The schemes were: village-based 2-tier (Scheme-1) and 1-tier (Scheme-2) cooperative village breeding schemes, dispersed village-based nuclei scheme (Scheme-3), conventional 2-tier central nucleus-based scheme (Scheme-4), and schemes linking a central nucleus and village multiplier nuclei with selection in central nucleus (Scheme-5) or in both central and village nuclei (Scheme-6). Among village-based schemes, Scheme-1 gave the highest genetic progress, while Scheme-2 was economically the most efficient with genetic gain in the breeding objective of Birr 5.6 and a profit of Birr 37.2/ewe/year. The central nucleus schemes were more efficient than the village schemes. Scheme-4 was the most efficient with genetic gain in the breeding objective of Birr 13.5 and a profit of Birr 71.2, but is operationally more difficult as it requires a very large central nucleus. The choice between village and central nucleus-based schemes would depend on local conditions (availability of infrastructure, logistics and technical knowhow and support). Linking central nucleus with village-based nuclei (Scheme-6) would be a feasible option to overcome the operational difficulties of the conventional central nucleus scheme. If a village-based breeding program is envisaged as should be the 1st step in most low-input systems, then Scheme-2 is the most efficient. To scale out to an entire Menz breed level, Scheme-3 would be recommended. PMID:24943247

  2. Microsatellite based genetic structure of regional transboundary Istrian sheep breed populations in Croatia and Slovenia

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    Beatriz Gutierrez-Gil

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Istrian dairy sheep is a local breed essential for the identity and development of the Northern- Adriatic karstic region through high-quality products, primarily the hard sheep artisanal cheese. Border changes fragmented the initial Istrian dairy sheep population in three genetically isolated sub-populations in Italy (1000 animals, Slovenia (1150 animals and Croatia (2500 animals. Due to the drastic reduction of their population sizes and fragmentation, the populations in Croatia and Slovenia are included in governmentally supported conservation programs. The initial subpopulation in Italy was restored after near extinction with stock from Slovenia, and is used today in meat production. The aim of this study was to provide an initial understanding of the current genetic structure and distribution of the genetic variability that exists in Istrian sheep by analysing individuals sampled in two regional groups of Istrian sheep from Croatia and Slovenia. Cres island sheep and Lika pramenka sheep were used as out-groups for comparison. Genetic differentiation was analysed using factorial correspondence analysis and structure clustering over 26 microsatellite loci for a total of 104 sheep belonging to three breeds from Croatia and Slovenia. Factorial correspondence analysis and clustering-based structure analysis both showed three distinct populations: Lika pramenka sheep, Cres island sheep and Istrian sheep. We did not find a marked genetic divergence of the regional groups of Istrian sheep. Istrian sheep regional group from Slovenia showed lower genetic variability compared to the one from Croatia. Variability and structure information obtained in this study considered alongside with socio-cultural-contexts and economic goals for the Istrian sheep reared in Croatia and Slovenia indicate that the cross-border exchange of genetic material of animals carrying private alleles among populations would maintain these alleles at low frequencies and minimize the inbreeding rate.

  3. Genetic distinctiveness of the Herdwick sheep breed and two other locally adapted hill breeds of the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowles, Dianna; Carson, Amanda; Isaac, Peter

    2014-01-01

    There is considerable interest in locally adapted breeds of livestock as reservoirs of genetic diversity that may provide important fitness traits for future use in agriculture. In marginal areas, these animals contribute to food security and extract value from land unsuitable for other systems of farming. In England, close to 50% of the national sheep flock is farmed on grassland designated as disadvantaged areas for agricultural production. Many of these areas are in the uplands, where some native breeds of sheep continue to be commercially farmed only in highly localised geographical regions to which they are adapted. This study focuses on three of these breeds, selected for their adaptation to near identical environments and their geographical concentration in regions close to one another. Our objective has been to use retrotyping, microsatellites and single nucleotide polymorphisms to explore the origins of the breeds and whether, despite their similar adaptations and proximity, they are genetically distinctive. We find the three breeds each have a surprisingly different pattern of retrovirus insertions into their genomes compared with one another and with other UK breeds. Uniquely, there is a high incidence of the R0 retrotype in the Herdwick population, characteristic of a primitive genome found previously in very few breeds worldwide and none in the UK mainland. The Herdwick and Rough Fells carry two rare retroviral insertion events, common only in Texels, suggesting sheep populations in the northern uplands have a historical association with the original pin-tail sheep of Texel Island. Microsatellite data and analyses of SNPs associated with RXFP2 (horn traits) and PRLR (reproductive performance traits) also distinguished the three breeds. Significantly, an SNP linked to TMEM154, a locus controlling susceptibility to infection by Maedi-Visna, indicated that all three native hill breeds have a lower than average risk of infection to the lentivirus. PMID:24489968

  4. Indigenous sheep breeds of North Ethiopia: characterization of their phenotype and major production system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebretsadik, Zelealem Tesfay; Anal, Anil Kumar

    2014-02-01

    A study was conducted in Tigrai, Northern Ethiopia to describe the sheep breeds and their production system. The survey was done in selected districts known for their high sheep population density. The phenotype characterization identified distinct features for each breed. The breeds are Aberegelle, Ille, Begait, and the common Tigrai highland sheep. The strong discriminating phenotypes are face profile, tail type, and compactness; accounting for 83.48, 17.95, and 2.93% respectively of the total variability among breeds. The flock structure are affected by the market demand; requirements of breeding females and feed availability. Farmers tend to keep more female sheep for longer (culling age of 5.9 ± 0.4 and 1.9 ± 0.5 for females and males, respectively) for the reasons of feed shortage and need to maximize number of breeding female. The ratio of male to overall female is large (1:6) and thus a single ram gets maximum contact time with ewes and ewe lambs. The overall average age at puberty for females is 9-14 months. However, the presence of very young lamb rams and uncontrolled mating system lead to early breeding of females which results in low conception rate, low birth weight, poor survival rates, and in extreme cases causing inbreeding. It was also possible to identify the critical control points such as breed, age of animals, nutrition, and feeding systems affecting the provision of live animals for good meat quality. PMID:24233461

  5. COMPARATIVE PHYSIOLOGICAL AND MOLECULAR STUDY OF SOME SHEEP BREEDS IN SAUDI ARABIA

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad S. AL-Harbi; Hamed S. Alwagdany; Amer, Sayed A. M.

    2013-01-01

    Naemi, Heri, Najdi and Sawakni sheep breeds inhabiting Kingdom of Saudi Arabia were studied on both physiological and molecular bases. Native polyacrylamide gel-electrophoreses for two enzymes Malate Dehydrogenase (Mdh) and Malic Enzyme (Me) recorded 5 isoenzyme loci from which 4 were polymorphic and 1 was monomorphic. Mdh showed three fractions, the first was recorded in Sawakni and Najdi breeds, the second was monomorphic and was recorded in all breeds while the third was recorded in all ex...

  6. Mitochondrial DNA and Y-chromosomal diversity in ancient populations of domestic sheep (Ovis aries) in Finland: comparison with contemporary sheep breeds

    OpenAIRE

    Niemi Marianna; Bläuer Auli; Iso-Touru Terhi; Nyström Veronica; Harjula Janne; Taavitsainen Jussi-Pekka; Storå Jan; Lidén Kerstin; Kantanen Juha

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Several molecular and population genetic studies have focused on the native sheep breeds of Finland. In this work, we investigated their ancestral sheep populations from Iron Age, Medieval and Post-Medieval periods by sequencing a partial mitochondrial DNA D-loop and the 5’-promoter region of the SRY gene. We compared the maternal (mitochondrial DNA haplotypes) and paternal (SNP oY1) genetic diversity of ancient sheep in Finland with modern domestic sheep populations in Eu...

  7. Genetic parameters and factors influencing survival to 24 hrs after birth in Danish meat sheep breeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maxa, J; Sharifi, A R; Pedersen, J; Gauly, M; Simianer, H; Norberg, Elise

    2009-01-01

    In this study, influential factors and (co)variance components for survival to 24 h after birth were determined and estimated for Texel, Shropshire, and Oxford Down, the most common sheep breeds in Denmark. Data from 1992 to 2006 containing 138,813 survival records were extracted from the sheep recording database at the Danish Agricultural Advisory Service. Estimation of (co)variance components was carried out using univariate animal models, applying logistic link functions. The logistic functio...

  8. Economic values for traits in breeding objectives for sheep in the tropics: impact of tangible and intangible benefits

    OpenAIRE

    I.S. Kosgey; Van Arendonk, J A M; Baker, R. L.

    2004-01-01

    In traditional management systems in the tropics, sheep constitute a source of easily convertible capital for financing purposes and insurance, a means of cultural and ceremonial functions, and a source of prestige, meat, manure and skins. In this study, breeding objectives were derived for an indigenous tropical sheep breed under pastoral production. Economic values were calculated for five situations: (i) base accounting for both tangible and intangible roles of sheep; (ii) accounting for m...

  9. Genetic relationships between six eastern Pyrenean sheep breeds assessed using microsatellites

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrando, Ainhoa; Goyache, Félix; Parés Casanova, Pere-Miquel; Carrión, Carlos; Miró, Jordi; Jordana i Vidal, Jordi

    2014-01-01

    The knowledge of the genetic composition and relationships among livestock breeds is a necessary step for the implementation of management and conservation plans. This study aims to characterise the genetic diversity and relationships among six sheep breeds of meat aptitude that are spread through the eastern Pyrenees: Tarasconnaise, Castillonnaise and Rouge du Roussillon from France, and Aranesa, Xisqueta and Ripollesa from Spain. All but Tarasconnaise are catalogued as endangered. These bre...

  10. Genetic Distinctiveness of the Herdwick Sheep Breed and Two Other Locally Adapted Hill Breeds of the UK

    OpenAIRE

    Bowles, Dianna; Carson, Amanda; Isaac, Peter

    2014-01-01

    There is considerable interest in locally adapted breeds of livestock as reservoirs of genetic diversity that may provide important fitness traits for future use in agriculture. In marginal areas, these animals contribute to food security and extract value from land unsuitable for other systems of farming. In England, close to 50% of the national sheep flock is farmed on grassland designated as disadvantaged areas for agricultural production. Many of these areas are in the uplands, where some...

  11. Blood protein polymorphism in three sheep breeds from the south of Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaldi Zahrane,

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Biochemical polymorphism was studied in the native ovine Barbarine (BAR and Queue Fine de l’Ouest (QF breeds as well as in the exotic D’man (DMN breed in the South of Tunisia using a panel of six protein coding loci: Haemoglobin (Hb, Carbonic anhydrase (Ca, Albumin (Al, Transferrin (Tf, X-protein (X-p and Arylesterase A (EsA. Polymorphic loci were detected by means of horizontal starch gel electrophoresis. All tested loci were polymorphic. The Tf locus exhibited the highest number of alleles while the other loci showed two alleles in all sampled breeds. Estimates of expected heterozygosity were almost twice those of observed heterosigositiy in all sheep populations and the high level of heterozygosity was observed in DMN breed. Genetic distances observed between BAR-DMN and between QF-DMN were larger than those found between BAR-QF breeds.

  12. Neosporosis in Sheep and Different Breeds of Goats from Southern Jordan: Prevalence and Risk Factors Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Majali A. N.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A cross sectional study was performed to investigate the epidemiology of Neospora caninum infection in Southern Jordan. A total of 320 sheep and 300 goats from 38 and 24, sheep and goat flocks, respectively, were randomly sampled and assayed for presence of antibodies against N. caninum. A structured pre-tested questionnaire was administered to collect information on flocks' health and management. A multivariable logistic regression model was constructed to investigate risk factors associated with seropositivity to N. caninum. The individual true seroprevalence of N. caninum in sheep and goats was 4.3 and 5.7%, respectively. The sheep and goat flock level true seroprevalence for N. caninum was 45.8 and 48.7%, respectively. The logistic regression model revealed small herd size, having more than one dog and grazing in communal pastures as risk factors for N. caninum seropositivity in both sheep and goats. Damascus breed goats were more likely to be seropositive than goats of other breeds.

  13. Prevalence of Paramphistomum cervi in different sheep breeds of Balochistan (Pakistan)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    S, Tehmina; R, Shahina; A, Razzaq; I.B, Marghazani; A.N, Khosa.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available La prevalencia de la infestación por Paramphistomum cervi en ovinos de Balochi, Babrik y Harnai, Balochistan (Pakistan) fue estudiada de septiembre a diciembre de 2010. Con este fin, fueron examinados los recintos ruminales de ovinos faenados en la ciudad de Quetta y alrededores (n=1200). Los result [...] ados muestran diferencias significativas (p Abstract in english The prevalence of Paramphistomum cervi infestation in Balochi, Babrik and Harnai sheep breeds from Balochistan (Pakistan) was studied during September to December 2010. For this purpose, rumen of slaughtered sheep in Quetta City and surroundings (n=1,200) were examined. Results showed significant di [...] fferences (p

  14. COMPARATIVE PHYSIOLOGICAL AND MOLECULAR STUDY OF SOME SHEEP BREEDS IN SAUDI ARABIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad S. AL-Harbi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Naemi, Heri, Najdi and Sawakni sheep breeds inhabiting Kingdom of Saudi Arabia were studied on both physiological and molecular bases. Native polyacrylamide gel-electrophoreses for two enzymes Malate Dehydrogenase (Mdh and Malic Enzyme (Me recorded 5 isoenzyme loci from which 4 were polymorphic and 1 was monomorphic. Mdh showed three fractions, the first was recorded in Sawakni and Najdi breeds, the second was monomorphic and was recorded in all breeds while the third was recorded in all except Heri. Malic enzyme showed two polymorphic fractions, the first was recorded in Heri and Naemi and the second was recorded in all breeds. Both metabolic enzymes activities were higher in Sawakni than in the native breeds. 607, 227, 498 and 595 bp nucleotides from CO1, ND4, cytb genes and d-loop, respectively, were sequenced with no base substitutions among and/or within breeds except for ND4 gene and d-loop. The molecular tree clustered the three breeds other than Naemi in one group and Naemi was basal. Isoenzymes therefore, discriminate clearly the studied breeds although they are not as accurate as molecular tools indicating their applicability with more efficiency in physiology than in genetics while the d-loop was efficient in discriminating the studied breeds phynotypically.

  15. Genetic variation and population structure of Italian native sheep breeds undergoing in situ conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalvit, C; De Marchi, M; Zanetti, E; Cassandro, M

    2009-12-01

    The genetic variability and presence of population substructures in 4 native Northern Italian sheep breeds, Alpagota, Brogna, Foza, and Lamon, undergoing in situ conservation, and 1 widespread Italian breed, Bergamasca, were studied by investigating 19 microsatellite markers. The breeds showed considerable genetic variability in terms of number of alleles and heterozygosity, with the exception of Alpagota, which was the least variable (0.607). Nevertheless, a significant deficit of heterozygotes was observed in each breed due to rather increased levels of inbreeding or to the presence of population substructures, probably caused by increased genetic variation in the founder populations. The analyses evidenced clear genetic differentiation (F(ST) = 0.085), reduced levels of admixture, and presence of private alleles among the breeds, confirming their genetic uniqueness. In particular, according to Reynolds genetic distances, Alpagota was the most differentiated, perhaps because it had been bred mostly in a rather isolated area. Loss of any of the investigated breeds would result in a loss of genetic diversity ranging from 0.5 to 1.6% of the total observed gene diversity. Results supported the decision to safeguard these breeds as important reservoirs of genetic diversity and suggested breeding and mating practices to maintain variability and to overcome within-breed substructures. PMID:19717776

  16. Effect of Using Melatonin Implants on Postpartum Reproductive Indices in Tigaia Sheep Breed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Padeanu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Investigations were carried out in a commercial farm from Turnu, Arad County, on a number of 110 indigenous adultewes from the Tigaia breed. It is estimated by some authors that administration of subcutaneous melatonin implantsduring a period of 30 days, in lactating or dry ewes, would improve the reproductive performances in some sheepbreeds. Subcutaneous melatonin implants (Melovin were inserted to the ewes in doses of 18 mg. Current research,emphasized treated that from indigenous Tigaia breed, can be obtained superior reproduction indexes if the animalsare treated with melatonin implants with 35 days before the mating season, differences from the untreated groupbeing significantly (p<0.001. However, in sheep treated used melatonin implants, the lambing interval were reducedwith 40 to 50%. It seems that use of melatonin implants Melovin type near the beginning of normal breeding season,increases the reproductive performance of adult ewes from the Tigaia breed.

  17. Microsatellite analysis to estimate genetic relationships among five bulgarian sheep breeds

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Szilvia, Kusza; Doytcho, Dimov; István, Nagy; Zsuzsanna, Bõsze; András, Jávor; Sándor, Kukovics.

    Full Text Available Herein, genetic relationships among five breeds of Bulgarian sheep were estimated using microsatellite markers. The total number of alleles identified was 226 at the 16 loci examined. D A distance values were used for phylogenetic tree construction with the UPGMA algorithm. The two Tsigai and two Ma [...] ritza populations were found to be geneticallvery closely related to each other y (0.198, and 0.258 respectively). The Pleven Black Head population was distinct from the other four. These results could be useful for preserving genes in these breeds, thereby ensuring their preservation in Bulgaria.

  18. Growth Rate, Slaughter Traits and Meat Quality of Lambs of Three Alpine Sheep Breeds

    OpenAIRE

    Erika Pellattiero; Alessio Cecchinato; Massimo De Marchi; Mauro Penasa; Nicola Tormen; Stefano Schiavon; Martino Cassandro; Giovanni Bittante

    2011-01-01

    A fattening and slaughter trial was carried out on 36 lambs of Alpagota, Brogna and Foza sheep breeds native of Veneto Region Alps (six male and six female lambs per breed) divided in three groups depending on the type of feed used: pasture, hay and concentrate, hay and concentrate supplemented with conjugated linoleic acid. Lambs were slaughtered at 225 days (mean weight: 30 kg). Infra-vitam and post-mortem data were analyzed by using a linear model that included the cross-classified effect ...

  19. Phylogenetic relationships of three Italian merino-derived sheep breeds evaluated through a complete mitogenome analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancioni, Hovirag; Di Lorenzo, Piera; Ceccobelli, Simone; Perego, Ugo A; Miglio, Arianna; Landi, Vincenzo; Antognoni, Maria T; Sarti, Francesca M; Lasagna, Emiliano; Achilli, Alessandro

    2013-01-01

    In Italy, the crisis of the wool industry triggered the necessity to reconvert the two traditional Merino-derived breeds, Gentile di Puglia and Sopravissana, to meat production, by creating the Merinizzata Italiana. The aim of the present study was to assess the genetic diversity of these three Italian Merino-derived (IMd) breeds by examining the molecular information encoded in the maternally-inherited mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). A parallel molecular investigation was performed on the putative paternal and maternal breeds, the Merino from Spain and the Appenninica from Italy, respectively, as well as on three unrelated dairy breeds (Sarda and Comisana from Italy, and Lacaune from France). Firstly, the mtDNA control region of 291 samples was analyzed. When comparing the overall genetic distances among the eight stocks, the three IMd breeds clustered together close to the Appenninica, thus confirming its parental role. Among the 90 IMd samples, 82 different haplotypes were observed, almost all belonging to haplogroup B, and only one to A. For 23 mtDNAs, including nine IMd, the analysis was then brought to the level of entire mitogenomes. Three distinct sub-haplogroups within B were found to encompass the IMd samples, with one clade (B1a2a1) apparently restricted to those sheep. Thus, despite experiencing a drastic reduction in number (mainly due to changes in breeding practices driven by the economy), the IMd breeds still represent a reservoir of distinctive mitochondrial variants, which could potentially contribute to the development of conservation and management programs of Italian sheep breeds. PMID:24040036

  20. Effects of sheep breed and soybean meal supplementation on rumen environment and degradation kinetics

    OpenAIRE

    Lourenco, A.; Cone, J.W.; Fontes, P.; Dias-da-Silva, A

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate if the in vivo digestibility and intake differences, observed in previous studies, between Ile-de-France (IF) and Churra-da-Terra-Quente (CTQ) sheep breeds, were due to rumen environment and degradability differences. The intake, digestibility, rumen environment and degradability and urinary allantoin-nitrogen excretion were evaluated in 8 adult cannulated ewes (4 CTQ and 4 IF ewes). The animals were fed ad libitum hay – with and without a soybean meal su...

  1. Breeding objectives for sheep should be customised depending on variation in pasture growth across years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, G; Mulder, H A; Thompson, A N; van der Werf, J H J; van Arendonk, J A M

    2015-08-01

    Breeding programmes for livestock require economic weights for traits that reflect the most profitable animal in a given production system, which affect the response in each trait after selection. The profitability of sheep production systems is affected by changes in pasture growth as well as grain, meat and wool prices between seasons and across years. Annual pasture growth varies between regions within Australia's Mediterranean climate zone from low growth with long periods of drought to high growth with shorter periods of drought. Therefore, the objective of this study was to assess whether breeding objectives need to be adapted for regions, depending on how reliable the pasture growth is across years. We modelled farms with Merino sheep bred for wool and meat in 10 regions in Western Australia. Across these 10 regions, mean annual pasture growth decreased, and the CV of annual pasture growth increased as pasture growth for regions became less reliable. We calculated economic values for nine traits, optimising management across 11 years, including variation for pasture growth and wool, meat and grain prices between and within years from 2002 to 2012. These economic values were used to calculate responses to selection for each trait for the 10 regions. We identified two potential breeding objectives, one for regions with low or high reliability and the other for regions with medium reliability of pasture growth. Breeding objectives for high or low pasture growth reliability had more emphasis on live weight traits and number of lambs weaned. Breeding objectives for medium reliability of pasture growth had more emphasis on decreasing fibre diameter. Relative economic weights for fleece weight did not change across the regions. Regions with low or high pasture reliability had similar breeding objectives and response to selection, because the relationship between the economic values and CV of pasture growth were not linear for live weight traits and the number of lambs weaned. This non-linearity was caused by differences in distribution of pasture growth between regions, particularly during summer and autumn, when ewes were pregnant, with increases in energy requirements affecting the value of lambs weaned. In addition, increasing live weight increased the intake capacity of sheep, which meant that more poor quality pasture could be consumed during summer and autumn, which had more value in regions with low and high pasture reliability. We concluded that breeding values for sheep production systems should be customised depending on the reliability of pasture growth between years. PMID:25857317

  2. A study of the influence of breed and strain on the susceptibility of sheep to Haemonchus controtus infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breed appears to influence the susceptibility of sheep to Haemonchus contortus infection. Experiments on Masai and Merino sheep indicated that the Masai appear innately capable of reacting more vigorously to throw off H. contortus infection, this reaction being enhanced by previous experience. Following challenge, tangible resistance develops consistently in Masai, compared to a partial resistance, at best, in Merino. Resistance appears to be a short-lived phenomenon in both breeds. A field trial was carried out, to determine the influence of hemoglobin type on the susceptibility of Merino sheep. Sheep of hemoglobin types AA, AB and BB were used. A lower egg production occurred in hemoglobin type AA sheep, contrary to results obtained in the laboratory where ''massive'' experimental infection (250 Haemonchus larvae/kg liveweight) was effected. Tracer techniques involving 51Cr- labelled erythrocytes and 125I-tagged plasma were applied

  3. Treatment of mange infection in a weaner flock of sheep with ivermectin at sheep breeding farm Hardishiva of Kashmir valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Asif; Baba, M Ashraf; Shah, Maroof; Mushtaq, Iram; Sakina, Abeen; Wani, Shamim

    2015-06-01

    An outbreak of Sarcoptes scabiei mange occured in a weaner flock that comprised of 74 animals including 31 male and 43 female at sheep breeding farm Hardishiva of Kashmir valley. All the animals in the flock were affected. Animals were very weak and emaciated skin lesions were confined to the lips, nostrils, ears, face, and were characterized by pruritus, erythema, papule formation, alopecia and scab formation. Microscopic examination of skin scraping revealed S. scabiei mange infestation. The affected animals were treated with ivermectin at 1 ml/50 kg b.wt. S/C, as single dose along with supportive therapy. 7th day post treatment scrapping examinations revealed absence of mites or their eggs in these scrapings. PMID:26063994

  4. Mitochondrial DNA and Y-chromosomal diversity in ancient populations of domestic sheep (Ovis aries in Finland: comparison with contemporary sheep breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niemi Marianna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several molecular and population genetic studies have focused on the native sheep breeds of Finland. In this work, we investigated their ancestral sheep populations from Iron Age, Medieval and Post-Medieval periods by sequencing a partial mitochondrial DNA D-loop and the 5’-promoter region of the SRY gene. We compared the maternal (mitochondrial DNA haplotypes and paternal (SNP oY1 genetic diversity of ancient sheep in Finland with modern domestic sheep populations in Europe and Asia to study temporal changes in genetic variation and affinities between ancient and modern populations. Results A 523-bp mitochondrial DNA sequence was successfully amplified for 26 of 36 sheep ancient samples i.e. five, seven and 14 samples representative of Iron Age, Medieval and Post-Medieval sheep, respectively. Genetic diversity was analyzed within the cohorts. This ancient dataset was compared with present-day data consisting of 94 animals from 10 contemporary European breeds and with GenBank DNA sequence data to carry out a haplotype sharing analysis. Among the 18 ancient mitochondrial DNA haplotypes identified, 14 were present in the modern breeds. Ancient haplotypes were assigned to the highly divergent ovine haplogroups A and B, haplogroup B being the major lineage within the cohorts. Only two haplotypes were detected in the Iron Age samples, while the genetic diversity of the Medieval and Post-Medieval cohorts was higher. For three of the ancient DNA samples, Y-chromosome SRY gene sequences were amplified indicating that they originated from rams. The SRY gene of these three ancient ram samples contained SNP G-oY1, which is frequent in modern north-European sheep breeds. Conclusions Our study did not reveal any sign of major population replacement of native sheep in Finland since the Iron Age. Variations in the availability of archaeological remains may explain differences in genetic diversity estimates and patterns within the cohorts rather than demographic events that occurred in the past. Our ancient DNA results fit well with the genetic context of domestic sheep as determined by analyses of modern north-European sheep breeds.

  5. The Effects of Good Breeding Practices on Brucellosis Incidence in Kangal Akkaraman Sheep Flocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Ziya O?rak

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to compare the incidence of brucellosis in groups of Kangal Akkaraman sheep flocks raised in farm conditions in Sivas province. The first and second groups of the sheep flocks were part of the 8 sub-projects which belong to The Project entitled “Nationwide Genetic Improvement of Small Ruminants in Farm Condition” continued for 7 and 1-3 years, respectively. The third group of the sheep flocks was not part of this nationwide project. The study material consisted of 1491 units of blood serum (n=278, 1166 and 47 for the first, second and third groups, respectively. Brucella antibodies were looked for in blood serum using tube and slide agglutination tests. The incidences of brucellosis were 4% and 7.5% in flocks which were part of the nationwide project continued for 7 and 3 years, respectively and 25.5% for the flocks not part of the nationwide project. The differences between groups were found statistically significant. Even though there was no brucella vaccination programs in the flocks of the nationwide project, practices such as regular controls of the flocks by veterinary technicians, drug/vaccination applications for parasites and some other diseases, removal of rams positive for brucella before breeding season significantly reduced the incidence of brucella. As a result, promoting good breeding practices along with the brucella vaccination program applied by the related Ministry can be very beneficial for the eradication of brucella disease that is a big problem for the country.

  6. The adaption of the South Africa sheep industry to new trends in animal breeding and genetics: A review

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    S.W.P., Cloete; J.J., Olivier; L., Sandenbergh; M.A., Snyman.

    Full Text Available The history of sheep breeding research in South Africa can be divided roughly into four eras, namely the research and development phase, the commencement of recording and evaluation, the expansion of recording schemes, and, most recently, the adaptation of schemes to international benchmarks. The mo [...] st recent era has presented scientists with the greatest challenges, namely the inclusion of genomic breeding values in routine sheep recording and of disease-resistance traits during routine evaluation. The establishment of reference populations for the major South African sheep breeds to estimate genomic breeding values is an immediate challenge. This process may be facilitated by a number of genetic resource flocks that are phenotyped for traits that are not routinely recorded in the national evaluation. A limited number of these animals are also genotyped. There is strong evidence that resistance of sheep to external and internal parasites is heritable, and may be improved by purposeful selection. Efforts should be concentrated on the inclusion of disease resistance traits in national analyses where appropriate. However, seen against the background that South African investment in research is appreciably less than in developed countries, lack of funding and high-capacity manpower may impede rapid progress. There thus seem to be many challenges for future generations of sheep breeding scientists.

  7. Study of genetic diversity in Algerian sheep breeds using microsatellite markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: In order to realize the preservation and exploitation of domestic animal biodiversity and to define a global strategy for the management of Algerian sheep genetic resources, the goals of our research are the knowledge of the degree of genetic variability, the partition of this variability and the genetic distance among ovine breeds. This information will be obtained by analyzing directly the genome at molecular level. In this study DNA of 85 animals from two breeds, Ouled-Djellal and Hamra, was PCR amplified at the following microsatellite loci: McM42, TGLA53, MAF65, McM527, OarFCB20, INRA49, OarFCB11, OarCP49, CSSM66, MAF36, Oar HH56 and ILST05. Number of alleles and allele frequencies were calculated. The results showed that these breeds presented a polymorphism with these microsatellite markers reflecting a genetic variability among them. However, highest differences in allele frequencies were found at loci: McM527, ILSTS05, OarFCB20, INRA49, MAF36, McM42, MAF65, OarFCB11, OarCP49, CSSM66, while at the other loci the alleles at the highest frequency are the same. This study is being extended to five other Algerian breeds: Taadmit, Barbarine, D'men, Sidaou and Berbere to estimate their variability and genetic distance between them. Now, we are collecting blood from these different breeds to constitute a DNA bank. The results will allow establishment of the strategy to promote the use and development of locally adapted sheep resources. (author)

  8. Lambing Ease is Heritable but not Correlated to Litter Size in Danish Meat Sheep Breeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Anders Christian; Valasek, P; Pedersen, Jørn; Norberg, Elise

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate genetic parameters of lambing ease (LE) and litter size (LS) in four common Danish meat sheep breeds. Data from 1990 to 2006 were analysed. A bivariate animal model was used for estimation of genetic parameters. Lambing ease showed a low heritability, both for direct (1.4% to 9.5%) and maternal (5.9% to 6.9%) genetic effects. Moderate negative direct-maternal genetic correlations (-0.18 to -0.61) was found. Total heritabilities for LE were 3.8% to 9.7%. Litt...

  9. Pathophysiology of Trypanosoma congolense infection in two breeds of sheep, Scottish blackface and Finn Dorset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katunguka-Rwakishaya, E; Murray, M; Holmes, P H

    1997-02-01

    The pathophysiology of Trypanosoma congolense infection was studied in two breeds of sheep, the Scottish Blackface (SB) and Finn Dorset (FD), which were known from previous studies to differ significantly in their susceptibility to haemonchosis, in which anaemia is also the primary pathophysiological effect. It was found that infected SB and FD lambs developed similar intensities of parasitaemia. However, infected SB lambs developed a higher degree of anaemia, more severe thrombocytopaenia and hypoalbuminaemia than infected FD. Following infection, the concentrations of plasma cholesterol, serum phospholipids and total lipids decreased. The decline in these lipid components appeared to be greater in infected SB than in infected FD lambs. PMID:9066067

  10. Comparative Susceptibility of Sheep of Different Origins, Breeds and PRNP Genotypes to Challenge with Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy and Scrapie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, Fiona; Goldmann, Wilfred; Foster, James; González, Lorenzo; Jeffrey, Martin; Hunter, Nora

    2015-01-01

    Sheep are natural hosts of the prion disease, scrapie. They are also susceptible to experimental challenge with various scrapie strains and with bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), which affects cattle and has been accidentally transmitted to a range of other species, including man. Incidence and incubation period of clinical disease in sheep following inoculation is controlled by the PRNP gene, which has different alleles defined on the basis of polymorphisms, particularly at codons 136, 154 and 171, although other codons are associated with survival time, and the exact responses of the sheep may be influenced by other breed-related differences. Here we report the results of a long term single study of experimental scrapie and BSE susceptibility of sheep of Cheviot, Poll Dorset and Suffolk breeds, originating from New Zealand and of a wide range of susceptible and resistant PRNP genotypes. Responses were compared with those of sheep from a closed Cheviot flock of UK origin (Roslin Cheviot flock). The unusually long observation period (6–8 years for most, but up to 12 years for others) allows us to draw robust conclusions about rates of survival of animals previously regarded as resistant to infection, particularly PRNP heterozygotes, and is the most comprehensive such study reported to date. BSE inoculation by an intracerebral route produced disease in all genotype groups with differing incubation periods, although M112T and L141F polymorphisms seemed to give some protection. Scrapie isolate SSBP/1, which has the shortest incubation period in sheep with at least one VRQ PRNP allele, also produced disease following sub-cutaneous inoculation in ARQ/ARQ animals of New Zealand origin, but ARQ/ARQ sheep from the Roslin flock survived the challenge. Our results demonstrate that the links between PRNP genotype and clinical prion disease in sheep are much less secure than previously thought, and may break down when, for example, a different breed of sheep is moved into a new flock. PMID:26587837

  11. Merino breeding program improves wool production in the western USA range sheep flocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Merino breeding resource flock was established at Rafter 7 Ranch, Yerington, Nevada through cooperation of the College of Agriculture, Biotechnology and Natural Resources, University of Nevada-Reno (UNR) and The Edwin L Wiegand Trust in 1990. Initially, 500 Rambouillet ewes were purchased from two established breeders in 1990. These ewes were bred naturally or by AI to imported rams from Australia and to rams selected within the flock. Over the 16 years, 16 rams and semen from 41 rams have been imported from Australia. Selection was based on objective wool measurements, subjective assessment, growth rate and reproductive performance traits. The flocks were expanded to 1300 ewes and were bred in 30 single sire-mating groups as of the 2005/2006 breeding seasons. Flock management is in two breeding lines, one as a registered Rafter 7 Pure Merino flock (n = 650) and the other (Merino x Rambouillet) as Rafter 7 Merino Line (n = 650), which are selected for high fleece weight and quality, twinning and growth traits. The spring lambing flock winters on desert rangelands, is grazed on irrigated pasture from shearing through lambing and early weaning. Merino crossbred ewes showed that wool fibre density, clean wool yield, staple length, and grease fleece weight were increased by 41% per unit area of skin, 15%, 2.5 cm and 1.14 kg per head shorn, respectively. The wool clip is classed on pre-shearing mid-side wool sample tests (OFDA 2000 system). Fleece weight and fibre diameter and staple length measurements are significantly improved over the years. Wool sales from the Rafter 7 Ranch have increased for volume, value and quality over years. Rafter 7 Ranch wool clip has topped seventh consecutive annual shearing for the highest price of US grown wool. Sheep producers from 18 states, and Mexico and Canada have purchased breeding rams and ewes annually from Rafter 7 ranch over the past 12 years. Objective and subjective measurement qualities are significantly improved in sale rams. Over 1000 breeding rams and 500 replacement ewes were distributed to range flocks in the western states in the last decade, which made a notable improvement for fleece weight, fibre diameter and yield in client's flocks. The dissemination of introduced Merino genetics in the western range sheep flocks will improve wool quality and clip profits, which strengthen a long-term competitive advantage for the US wool and sheep production sectors. (author)

  12. Serodiagnosis of haemonchosis with a somatic antigen (Hc26) in several breeds of sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Muñoz, M T; Domínguez, I A; Gómez-Iglesias, L A; Fernández-Pérez, F J; Méndez, S; de la Fuente, C; Alunda, J M; Cuquerella, M

    2000-07-01

    Sera from 53 sheep belonging to Castellano, Churro, Manchego, and Merino breeds were analyzed to test the diagnostic value of a 26-kD antigen from adult Haemonchus contortus at prepatency and early and late patency of experimental haemonchosis. Animals that received zero, 1, or 2 infections with the parasite were tested. In addition, sera from 20 experimentally infected and 10 noninfected Texel sheep were used to test the antigen. Sera from 37 infected animals at prepatency as well as at patency in primary and secondary infection were found positive with the 26-kD antigen. However, sera from 10 animals with the lowest worm burdens (second infection) did not recognize the antigen during early patency (day 28 postinfection). IgG1 was the only isotype implicated in antigen recognition because IgG2, IgA, and IgM, in the same sera, showed no reactivity with the peptide. Antigen specificity was confirmed because hyperimmune sera against infective larvae and adult stages of the most common gastrointestinal nematodes found in natural infections in sheep (Trichostrongylus colubriformis and Teladorsagia circumcincta) did not recognize this peptide. The antigen was recognized only by anti-adult H. contortus hyperimmune sera and appeared to be absent in the L3 parasite stage. In addition, the partial N-terminal amino acid sequence of the diagnostic peptide is reported. PMID:10907865

  13. Genetics and breeding of sheep in Brazil / Genética e melhoramento de ovinos no Brasil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Concepta, McManus; Samuel Rezende, Paiva; Ronyere Olegário de, Araújo.

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Estudos em genética e melhoramento de ovinos no Brasil têm aumentado significativamente nos últimos anos. Estes envolvem pesquisa em caracterização, criação e cruzamento de ovinos utilizando as novas tecnologias disponíveis, incorporando tanto a genética quantitativa clássica e molecular. São aborda [...] das sugestões para melhorias nas técnicas de estatística, nos recursos computacionais, bem como na análise de DNA e nas lacunas no conhecimento atual e possibilidades de possíveis investigações. Há uma necessidade de maior interação entre vários grupos de trabalho no país, bem como as interações com outras disciplinas, como Sistemas de Informação Geográfica, Estatística, Bioinformática, bem como estudos biológicos, como fisiologia e proteômica. Abstract in english Studies in genetics and breeding of sheep in Brazil have increased significantly in recent years. These involve research in characterization, breeding and crossing sheep using new technologies available incorporating both classical quantitative and molecular genetics. Improvements in statistical tec [...] hniques, computational resources as well as analysis of DNA and gaps in present knowledge and opportunities for possible research are pointed out. There is a need for greater interaction between various groups working in the country as well as interactions with other disciplines such as Geographical Information Systems, Statistics, Bioinformatics, as well as biological studies such as physiology and proteomics.

  14. Relative resistance of Menz and Washera sheep breeds to artificial infection with Haemonchus contortus in the highlands of Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getachew, Tesfaye; Alemu, Biruk; Sölkner, Johann; Gizaw, Solomon; Haile, Aynalem; Gosheme, Shenkute; Notter, David Russell

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the relative resistance of Menz and Washera sheep breeds to artificial infection with Haemonchus contortus. The challenge trial was conducted at the Debre Berhan Agricultural Research Center in Ethiopia. A total of 39 (Menz?=?21, Washera?=?18) lambs of about 6 months old were used for the trial. All lambs were initially treated against internal parasite using albendazole and Fasinex to free them from internal parasites and kept indoors. H. contortus third-stage larvae (L3) were prepared according to standard procedure from adult female parasite collected from abattoirs and recovered using the Baerman technique. Approximately 5000 infective larvae were inoculated to the experimental lambs at about 5 weeks after deworming. Fecal egg count (FEC), packed cell volume (PCV), FAffa MAlan CHArt (FAMACHA) score, lamb body weight, and survival of lambs were recorded at 28, 35, and 42 days after challenge. Breed effect was not significant (P?>?0.05), whereas time of measurement and the interaction of breed and time had significant (P?sheep had lower FEC than Washera sheep, whereas at days 35 and 42, the Washera sheep had lower FEC than Menz lambs. The PCV decreased significantly throughout the post-challenge period. Despite their parasite burden, Menz sheep were able to maintain live weight during the 42 days of challenge. Chi-square tests for breed differences in lamb survival were not significant at any time (28, 35, and 42 days after challenge). Lower FEC at 28 days and delayed rise in FEC after infection in Menz lamb would allow in delaying anthelmintic treatment. In addition to maintain body weights during the infection period, sheep of both breeds exhibited substantial variability in PCV and FEC, suggesting opportunity to consider parasite resistance in selection program. PMID:25868601

  15. Genetic Structure and Diversity of Four Chilean Sheep Breeds Estructura Genética y Diversidad de Cuatro Razas Ovinas Chilenas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo de la Barra

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Chilean sheep breeds have a significant founder effect since they descend from very few parents, in some cases population inbreeding has increased and in others there have been significant differentiation processes as compared to their original population. The objective of this study was to estimate the current status of genetic diversity in sheep herds, which comprise the main sheep breeds in Chile, using molecular methods. Animals from four breeding herds were sampled and analyzed. The breeds studied were Corriedale, Suffolk Down, Romney Marsh and Chilota, these are the predominant numerical pure breeds in Chile. From each breed population 40 animals were sampled. Genetic characterization was done using nine microsatellite molecular markers (SSR recommended by FAO-ISAG. Results showed that in the Chilean sheep herds there are low genetic complementarities among breeds and a high risk of losing genetic diversity due to inbreeding in Chilota and Romney Marsh breeds.Las razas ovinas presentes en Chile presentan un importante efecto fundador, al descender de un reducido número de progenitores. En algunos casos se sospecha que ha aumentado el grado de consanguinidad poblacional, mientras que en otros se observan procesos significativos de diferenciación respecto a sus poblaciones de origen. El objetivo del presente estudio fue estimar el estado actual de la diversidad genética de los planteles que gestionan las principales razas utilizadas en la ganadería ovina chilena. Para ello se utilizaron las razas Corriedale, Sufolk Down, Romney Marsh y Chilota, dado que son las predominantes en Chile como poblaciones puras. Se analizaron 40 animales de cada raza, pertenecientes a cuatro planteles de reproductores. Para la caracterización genética de los animales se utilizaron nueve marcadores moleculares de tipo microsatélite (SSR recomendados por FAO-ISAG. Los resultados indican una baja complementariedad genética entre las razas ovinas predominantes en Chile, advirtiéndose además una potencial pérdida de diversidad genética en todas las razas así como un elevado riesgo de incremento en esta pérdida por efecto de la endogamia en las razas Chilota y Romney Marsh.

  16. Genetic variability of six French meat sheep breeds in relation to their genetic management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coralie Danchin-Burge

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Some demographic parameters, the genetic structure and the evolution of the genetic variability of six French meat sheep breeds were analysed in relation with their management. Four of these breeds are submitted to more or less intense selection: the Berrichon du Cher (BCH, Blanc du Massif Central (BMC, Charollais (CHA and Limousin (LIM; the other two breeds are under conservation: the Roussin de La Hague (RLH and Solognot (SOL. Genealogical data of the recorded animals born from 1970 to 2000 and of their known ancestors were used. The most balanced contributions of the different flocks to the sire-daughter path was found in the SOL. In the BCH, a single flock provided 43% of the sire-AI sire path, whereas the contributions of the flocks were more balanced in the BMC and LIM (the only other breeds where AI is used to a substantial amount. The distribution of the expected genetic contribution of the founder animals was found to be unbalanced, especially in the BCH and LIM. The effective numbers of ancestors (founders or not for the ewes born from 1996 to 2000 were equal to 35 (BCH, 144 (BMC, 112 (CHA, 69 (LIM, 40 (RLH and 49 (SOL. Inbreeding was not analysed in the BMC, due to incomplete pedigree information. From 1980 on, the rates of inbreeding, in percentage points per year, were +0.112 (BCH, +0.045 (CHA, +0.036 (LIM, +0.098 (RLH and +0.062 (SOL. The implications of the observed trends on genetic variability are discussed in relation to the genetic management of each breed. The need for a larger selection basis in the BCH, the efficiency of the rules applied in the SOL to preserve the genetic variability and the need for a more collective organisation in the CHA and RLH are outlined.

  17. Traditional breeding objectives and practices of goat, sheep and cattle smallholders in The Gambia and implications in relation to the design of breeding interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejlertsen, Maria; Poole, Jane; Marshall, Karen

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the traditional breeding objectives and practices of West African Dwarf goat, Djallonke sheep, and N'dama cattle keepers in The Gambia and discusses the implications of these on the design of breeding-related interventions to improve livestock productivity. Data were collected via surveys implemented within three study sites in The Gambia, where traditional mixed crop-livestock smallholder farming predominates. The surveys comprised a participatory rural appraisal conducted in nine communities and a household questionnaire targeting 238 households. Livestock-keeping households were classified as 'poorer' or 'wealthier' based on the number of cattle owned. The most important objectives for keeping all species of livestock for the poorer groups (0 to 10 cattle) was 'savings and insurance', followed by 'income' and 'ceremonial/dowry' for the small ruminants and 'manure' and 'draught' for both cows and bulls. In contrast, for the wealthier group (more than 10 cattle), savings and insurance was the fourth to seventh ranked production objective (depending on species), with the most important production objectives being ceremonial/dowry for goats, income for sheep and manure for cows and bulls. An analysis of breeding practices indicated that breeding animals are selected on criteria which partially align to the breeding objectives, animals are rarely purchased for the purpose of breed improvement, knowledge of the cause and consequence of inbreeding is low and breeding decision makers may not necessarily be the livestock owner, particularly if the livestock owner is a women. Given this, it is suggested that capacity building on breeding-related issues, particularly in relation to the selection of breeding animals and specifically targeted at the different socioeconomic groups of livestock keepers, may be an appropriate, effective and relatively low-cost breeding intervention. PMID:22706889

  18. A comparative study of clinical manifestations, haematological and serological responses after experimental infection with Anaplasma phagocytophilum in two Norwegian sheep breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandstedt Karin

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been questioned if the old native Norwegian sheep breed, Old Norse Sheep (also called Norwegian Feral Sheep, normally distributed on coastal areas where ticks are abundant, is more protected against tick-borne infections than other Norwegian breeds due to a continuously high selection pressure on pasture. The aim of the present study was to test this hypothesis in an experimental infection study. Methods Five-months-old lambs of two Norwegian sheep breeds, Norwegian White (NW sheep and Old Norse (ON sheep, were experimentally infected with a 16S rRNA genetic variant of Anaplasma phagocytophilum (similar to GenBank accession number M73220. The experiment was repeated for two subsequent years, 2008 and 2009, with the use of 16 lambs of each breed annually. Ten lambs of each breed were inoculated intravenously each year with 0.4 ml A. phagocytophilum-infected blood containing approximately 0.5 × 106 infected neutrophils/ml. Six lambs of each breed were used as uninfected controls. Half of the primary inoculated lambs in each breed were re-challenged with the same infectious dose at nine (2008 and twelve (2009 weeks after the first challenge. The clinical, haematological and serological responses to A. phagocytophilum infection were compared in the two sheep breeds. Results The present study indicates a difference in fever response and infection rate between breeds of Norwegian sheep after experimental infection with A. phagocytophilum. Conclusion Although clinical response seems to be less in ON-lambs compared to NW-lambs, further studies including more animals are needed to evaluate if the ON-breed is more protected against tick-borne infections than other Norwegian breeds.

  19. A Genomic Association Analysis of Milk Production Traits in Chios Sheep Breed Using Microsatellite (SSR and SNP Markers

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    Dimitrios Chatziplis

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available We have previously reported the possible segregation of major gene(s for milk yield and fat corrected milk (FCM in Chios sheep breed. In this study we demonstrate the association of an SNP marker, within the last exon of the Acetyl-CoA acyltransferase 2 (ACAA2 gene, with milk yield and FCM in the same breed. Moreover, we investigate the effect of this SNP marker along with other microsatellite markers. Fifteen microsatellite markers (SSR on 13 chromosomes were genotyped on 198 ewes of the Chios breed. The association analysis revealed significant association (P

  20. Merino breeding program improves wool production in western US range sheep flocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Merino breeding resource flock was established at Rafter 7 Ranch, Yerington, Nevada. Initially, 500 Rambouillet ewes were purchased from two established breeders in 1990. These ewes were bred naturally or by artificial insemination (AI) to imported Merino rams from Australia and to crossbred rams selected within the flock. The flocks were expanded to 1300 ewes and bred in 30 single-sire mating groups as of the 2006 breeding season. Flock management is in two breeding lines, one as a registered Rafter 7 Merino flock (n = 650) and the other (Merino x Rambouillet) as Rafter 7 Line (n = 650). The spring lambing flock winters on desert rangelands, is grazed on irrigated pasture from shearing through lambing and early weaning. Compared with the original base ewe flock, Merino and Merino crossbred ewes produced higher clean wool yields, longer staple lengths, and higher grease fleece weights. The body weight and greasy fleece weight showed a significant (P < 0.05) difference between two flocks whereas no differences were observed for wool fibre diameter, length and comfort factor in most recent analysis. However, fibre diameter variation was significantly different (P < 0.05) between the two flocks for age groups and birth years. Body weight, fleece weight and fibre diameter showed significant (P < 0.05) but low to moderate correlations. Approximately 1000 breeding rams and 500 replacement ewes were distributed to commercial range flocks in the western states. The dissemination of introduced Merino genetics in the western range sheep flocks is expected to enhance wool quality and wool profits in the western region of the USA. (author)

  1. Differential expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ?, fatty acid synthase, and hormone-sensitive lipase in fat-tailed and thin-tailed sheep breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, X C; Li, B B; Wei, X; Yang, Y X; Wang, X L; Chen, Y L

    2015-01-01

    Tail fat content affects meat quality, and it varies in different sheep breeds. Theoretically, lipid metabolism contributes to variation in tail fat content. Tail length, tail width, and tail girth were measured in live Tong sheep (with both short fat tail and long fat tail), Shaanbei fine wool sheep (long thin tail), Tan sheep (short fat tail), Kazakh sheep (hip fat tail), and Tibetan sheep (short thin tail). The expression levels of genes related to tail adipose tissue lipid metabolism were investigated, which included lipogenetic genes (PPAR? and FAS) and lipolytic gene (HSL). Differences were observed (P 0.05) in Tong sheep with short fat tail, Tong sheep with long fat tail, Shaanbei fine wool sheep, and Tibetan sheep; HSL mRNA expression levels were not different (P > 0.05) in Tong sheep. PPAR? and HSL protein expression levels differed (P 0.05) in Tong sheep with short fat tails and Shaanbei fine wool sheep. These results provide useful information to further understand the function of PPAR?, FAS, and HSL in sheep tail lipid metabolism, which should be applicable to studies on the regulation of fat deposition and improvement of meat quality. PMID:26634530

  2. Recent advances in understanding the genetic resources of sheep breeds locally-adapted to the UK uplands: opportunities they offer for sustainable productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowles, Dianna

    2015-01-01

    Locally adapted breeds of livestock are of considerable interest since they represent potential reservoirs of adaptive fitness traits that may contribute to the future of sustainable productivity in a changing climate. Recent research, involving three hill sheep breeds geographically concentrated in the northern uplands of the UK has revealed the extent of their genetic diversity from one another and from other breeds. Results from the use of SNPs, microsatellites, and retrovirus insertions are reviewed in the context of related studies on sheep breeds world-wide to highlight opportunities offered by the genetic resources of locally adapted hill breeds. One opportunity concerns reduced susceptibility to Maedi Visna, a lentivirus with massive impacts on sheep health and productivity globally. In contrast to many mainstream breeds used in farming, each of the hill breeds analyzed are likely to be far less susceptible to the disease threat. A different opportunity, relating specifically to the Herdwick breed, is the extent to which the genome of the breed has retained primitive features, no longer present in other mainland breeds of sheep in the UK and offering a new route for discovering unique genetic traits of use to agriculture. PMID:25729388

  3. Diagnostic and control functions of the radioisotope methods for the reproduction management of cattle and sheep breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The following applications of radioimmunoassay were studied: 1) for early diagnosis of pregnance in caws and sheep by determination of progesterone (PG) in milk and blood plasma via veterinary radioimmunological test STERON - RM125; 2) for diagnosis and treatment of ovarian disturbances in cows by RIA of luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and PG in blood plasma; 3) for control of the biological efficiency of sheep estrus synchronisation with MAP (vaginal tampons) and Estrophan (PgF2?); 4) for control of the reproductive condition of rams and effect of Tribestan in treatment of different forms of impotention by RIA of testosterone in blood. It was established that the use of RIA objectified the process of decision-making in regulation of the reproduction deviations in ruminating farm animals by veterinary means. Conclusions are drawn and suppositions are made for introduction of the radioisotope methods in the reproduction control of cattle and sheep breeding in practice. 4 tabs.; 15 refs

  4. Genetic Structure and Diversity of Four Chilean Sheep Breeds / Estructura Genética y Diversidad de Cuatro Razas Ovinas Chilenas

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rodrigo, de la Barra; Héctor, Uribe; Etel, Latorre; Fermín, San Primitivo; Juan, Arranz.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Las razas ovinas presentes en Chile presentan un importante efecto fundador, al descender de un reducido número de progenitores. En algunos casos se sospecha que ha aumentado el grado de consanguinidad poblacional, mientras que en otros se observan procesos significativos de diferenciación respecto [...] a sus poblaciones de origen. El objetivo del presente estudio fue estimar el estado actual de la diversidad genética de los planteles que gestionan las principales razas utilizadas en la ganadería ovina chilena. Para ello se utilizaron las razas Corriedale, Sufolk Down, Romney Marsh y Chilota, dado que son las predominantes en Chile como poblaciones puras. Se analizaron 40 animales de cada raza, pertenecientes a cuatro planteles de reproductores. Para la caracterización genética de los animales se utilizaron nueve marcadores moleculares de tipo microsatélite (SSR) recomendados por FAO-ISAG. Los resultados indican una baja complementariedad genética entre las razas ovinas predominantes en Chile, advirtiéndose además una potencial pérdida de diversidad genética en todas las razas así como un elevado riesgo de incremento en esta pérdida por efecto de la endogamia en las razas Chilota y Romney Marsh. Abstract in english Chilean sheep breeds have a significant founder effect since they descend from very few parents, in some cases population inbreeding has increased and in others there have been significant differentiation processes as compared to their original population. The objective of this study was to estimate [...] the current status of genetic diversity in sheep herds, which comprise the main sheep breeds in Chile, using molecular methods. Animals from four breeding herds were sampled and analyzed. The breeds studied were Corriedale, Suffolk Down, Romney Marsh and Chilota, these are the predominant numerical pure breeds in Chile. From each breed population 40 animals were sampled. Genetic characterization was done using nine microsatellite molecular markers (SSR) recommended by FAO-ISAG. Results showed that in the Chilean sheep herds there are low genetic complementarities among breeds and a high risk of losing genetic diversity due to inbreeding in Chilota and Romney Marsh breeds.

  5. Associations between lamb survival and prion protein genotype: analysis of data for ten sheep breeds in Great Britain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bishop Stephen C

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Selective breeding programmes, based on prion protein (PrP genotype, have been introduced throughout the European Union to reduce the risk of sheep transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs. These programmes could have negative consequences on other important traits, such as fitness and production traits, if the PrP gene has pleiotropic effects or is in linkage disequilibrium with genes affecting these traits. This paper presents the results of an investigation into associations between lamb survival and PrP genotype in ten mainstream sheep breeds in Great Britain (GB. In addition, the reasons for lamb deaths were examined in order to identify any associations between these and PrP genotype. Results Survival times from birth to weaning were analysed for over 38000 lambs (2427 dead and 36096 live lambs from 128 flocks using Cox proportional hazard models for each breed, including additive animal genetic effects. No significant associations between PrP genotype and lamb survival were identified, except in the Charollais breed for which there was a higher risk of mortality in lambs of the ARR/VRQ genotype compared with those of the ARR/ARR genotype. Significant effects of birth weight, litter size, sex, age of dam and year of birth on survival were also identified. For all breeds the reasons for death changed significantly with age; however, no significant associations between reason for death and PrP genotype were found for any of the breeds. Conclusion This study found no evidence to suggest that a selective breeding programme based on PrP genotype will have a detrimental effect on lamb survival. The only significant effect of PrP genotype identified was likely to be of little consequence because an increased risk of mortality was associated with a genotype that is selected against in current breeding strategies.

  6. Polymorphic Study of FecXG, FecGH and FecB Mutations in Four Domestic Sheep Breeds in the Lower Yellow River Valley of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Xin Fu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Genetic mutations with major effects on ovulation rate in sheep were recently identified in two genes of the Transforming Growth Factor (TGF superfamily and a TGF receptor, namely BMP15, GDF9 and BMPRIB. The FecXG, FecGH and FecB were performed to screen four sheep breeds (small tailed Han, Wadi, big tailed Han and Shandi sheep distributed along the lower Yellow river valley of China by forced PCR-RFLP method if these genes are responsible for their high prolificacies. The FecB mutation was found in small tailed Han and Wadi sheep but absent in big tailed Han and Shandi sheep. The 154 small tailed Han sheep included all three genotypes (FecB/FecB, FecB/Fec+ and Fec+/Fec+ at frequencies of 0.54, 0.40 and 0.06, respectively whereas the samples of 30 Wadi sheep were only detected two genotypes, 4 were heterozygous FecB/Fec+ and 26 Fec+/Fec+. The frequency of the FecB allele in small tailed Han and Wadi sheep were 0.74 and 0.07, respectively. Results indicated that the FecB mutation is not fixed in two sheep population. The same FecXG mutation of the BMP-15 gene was only found in small tailed Han ewes as in Belclare and Cambridge ewes, frequencies of genotypes FecXG+, FecX ++ and FecXGG were 0.70, 0.27 and 0.03, respectively. There was no evidence of FecGH in any of the breeds sampled. The discovery of the FecB mutation in small tailed Han sheep and Wadi sheep will facilitate the use of FecB allele in improving the prolificacy of non-prolific sheep breeds of China.

  7. A study on gastrointestinal tract characteristics of ram lambs at the same weights from six Turkish sheep breeds

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    A, Y& #305; ld& #305; r& #305; m; Z, Uluta& #351; ; N, Ocak; E, & #350; irin; Y, Aksoy.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted, first, to compare the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), reticulo-rumens and intestinal capacities (relative to body weight) of ram lambs from six Turkish sheep breeds: Turkish Merino (TM, Anatolia Merino), Akkaraman (AK), K?v?rc?k (KV), Awassi (AW), Karayaka (KY) and Morkaraman (M [...] K), and second, to examine the influence of sheep breed on the pH of the digesta in the various segments (rumen, jejunum and caecum) of the GIT. Six ram lambs from each breed were slaughtered at 40.2 ± 0.80 kg liveweight. Lambs from the AK breed had a heavier GIT weight than the AW, KY or MK breeds. The weight of the full stomach was higher in AK lambs compared with the other lambs, except for KV lambs, while the relative weight of the empty stomachs was heavier in MK ram lambs than in TM, AW and KY lambs. The AK lambs had the highest relative empty intestinal weight. The relative weight of empty intestines was heavier in KV lambs than in KY lambs. The pH of the rumen content was higher in TM and AK lambs compared with KY and MK lambs, while the pH of the caecum content of KV lambs was higher than those of KY and MK lambs. In conclusion, significant differences were found among the six breeds in terms of some variables that were studied, although a higher proportional GIT weight in the fat-tail breeds such as the MK, AK and AW was not reflected in all components or in the pH of the GIT content.

  8. Effect of Body Weight of Ewes on Birth Weight of Lambs In Rambouillet Breed of Sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hussain

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Data on 1816 dam-lamb pairs of Rambouillet breed of sheep maintained at Livestock Experimental Station, Jaba, District Mansehra (NWFP during the period 1957-86 were used to study the effect of body weight of ewes at service on birth weight of lambs. The weight of dam at service and birth weight of lamb averaged 48.66 ? 1.14 and 3.67 ? 0.08 kg, respectively. It has been observed that weight of the dam significantly effect the birth weight of lambs. The correlation and regression coefficients between the above mentioned two traits were 0.30 and 0.042 ? 3.157 x1-3. Analysis of variance of weight of the dam at service and birth weight of lambs due to regression revealed that this regression is statistically significant (P<0.01. The results of the present study indicated that the dams weight had a positive relationship with birth weight of lambs which will be helpful in the selection of young lambs even before their birth.

  9. Electronic Resources: A Wolf in Sheep's Clothing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffner, Bradley L.

    2001-01-01

    Examines the impact of electronic technology on libraries and scholarship. Focuses on some of the challenges of using electronic resources in research libraries, which include cost of acquiring electronic formats and the effect such expenditures have on other library services and collection development practices. Explores how electronic resources…

  10. RFLP Marker Variation of Cytocrome b Gene and Genetic Relationship among Batur, Merino and Local Sheep Breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prayitno

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available RFLP analysis of mitochondrial DNA cytochrome b gene was conducted to determine the diversity, status and close genetic relationships in a population of Batur sheep with the Merino and local sheep breeds (Garut, Thin Tail and Fat Tail. The research used genomic DNA of 27 samples of Batur, 15 Merino, 17 Garut, 15 Thin Tails and 15 Fat Tails sheep. The PCR process used two types of 25 nucleotides primers. The PCR products were checked by using 2% agarose gel electrophoresis. The PCR DNA fragment was digested by using Hae III at 37 oC and incubated for 10 hours. Similarities and differences of cytochrome b gene RFLP bands between individual samples of one and across populations, genetic distance, and close genetic relationship, were identified. The PCR process of the cytochrome b gene metochondrial DNA of the 45 samples of sheep yielded 359 bp band types. The digestion (cutting of the PCR products of mitochondrial DNA cytochrome b gene by using Hae III resulted in RFLP band profiles of 128 up to 231 bp polymorphisms of cytochrome b gene. Although the Hae III restriction enzyme recognized only one restriction site, however, between samples of Batur, Merino, Garut, Thin Tail, and Fat Tails, there were monomorphism and polymorphism Hae III loci.Key Words: RFLP, cytochrome b gene, genetic markers, genetic similarity, Batur shee

  11. PASTORSHIP AND THE ROMANIANS’ ETNOGENESIS - VALACHIAN CORKSCREW HORNS SHEEP BREED (“RATSCA” - AN INTERESTING BIOLOGICAL AND HISTORICAL DOCUMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Condrea DRAGANESCU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Corkscrew horns Valachian sheep it is a breed from the Early Egyptian (Ovis paleoegiptica phileic group, located in Serbia, Montenegro, Panonia, and Romanian border with Serbia. The tribe was named by Buffon (1780, Darwin (1865 Valachian, by Serbs Corkscrew Horns Valachian (Valaska vitorogta, by Hungarian Racka (=Serbian, by Linnaeus O.a.strpsiceros. The translation of strepsiceros into German=Zackel (Nathusius 1890, produced a confusion with the Valachian philetic group descending from the Thrakian philetic group. To avoid confusion, we proposed (1994 to use for this philetic group the Serbian name Valachian Corkscrew Horns. It is a sedentary sheep, not adapted to transhumance and to big flocks, not adapted to support wintering in open field, even to stay in the rain. Have a smaller weight of fine fibbers in the mixed wool, it seem black colour recessive, inverse than in Valachia (Tsurcana breeds. It is economically not competitive with others local and improved breed and it is in danger of extinction in Serbia and even Romania and well conserved in Hungary. It was considered as an historical document (Dunka 1984 and perhaps it is. Document the former existence of a Valachian tribe in this area, implicit the Valachian contribution to the ethno genesis of nations from this area. As an interesting genetic resource, but also for the aesthetic aspect of his horns and for some cultural reasons it deserves to have a good genetic conservation program.

  12. Analysis of the genetic diversity between Gentile di Puglia, Sopravissana and Sarda sheep breeds using microsatellite markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gennaro Catillo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Two Italian sheep breeds – Gentile di Puglia and Sopravissana – have undergone a consistent decline in numbers and have been widely substituted by the Sarda breed, which gives higher milk yield. With the aim to provide a basis for con- servation decisions, the genetic variability of the three breeds was investigated in this study. DNA of 60 animals was PCR amplified at the following microsatellite loci: CSSM43, CSSM47, CSSM60, TGLA110, TGLA122, TGLA126, TGLA377, ETH3, ETH10, ETH225, NRAMP1, OARCP20 and SPS115. Allele frequencies, gene diversity and genetic distances were calculat- ed. The highest differences in allele frequencies were found at the following loci: TGLA377, TGLA122, NRAMP1, OARCP20 and ETH3, while at the other loci the most frequent alleles were the same. The average inbreeding rate was 0.156 in the Gentile di Puglia, 0.158 in the Sopravissana and 0.137 in the Sarda. Average gene diversity of the analysed microsatel- lites was 0.59. Genetic distance between Gentile di Puglia and Sopravissana (0.081 indicates moderate differentiation; distances between the Sarda and the endangered breeds – 0.111 from the Gentile di Puglia and 0.107 from the Sopravissana - indicate a medium-high differentiation rate. The disappearance of the two less productive breeds would entail a consistent loss of genetic diversity. The inbreeding values are low enough to allow the implementation of sound conservation programmes.

  13. Genetic variability of the Brazilian hair sheep breeds Variabilidade genética de raças de ovelhas deslanadas do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Rezende Paiva

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this work were to investigate the genetic structure of the Brazilian hair sheep breeds and to determine the origin of the Santa Inês breed. Molecular similarity was determined using Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA - Polymerase Chain Reaction markers in 238 individuals from five naturalized sheep breeds: Santa Inês (48 animals, Rabo Largo (48, Somali (48, Morada Nova (48 and Bergamasca (46, collected in Goiás, Sergipe, Bahia, and Ceará States as well as in the Federal District. Fifty-four loci were selected from 19 primers, after a pilot test using 140 primers. Qualitative analyses indicate diagnostic markers for all breeds. All breeds were significantly different from each other. Interbreed differences were explained by 14.92% of the total variation. Santa Inês clustered with Bergamasca (97% bootstrap and with Rabo Largo, composing the third member of the group (81% bootstrap while Morada Nova and Somali breeds clustered separately. Each breed should be considered as a separate management and conservation unit, and special care should be taken with Rabo Largo, Morada Nova and Somali breeds, represented by small herds in Brazil.Os objetivos deste trabalho foram identificar a origem racial de ovinos Santa Inês e avaliar a unicidade das populações das principais raças naturalizadas brasileiras de ovinos deslanado. Foi realizado um estudo dos padrões de semelhança molecular a partir de marcadores RAPD-PCR, utilizando-se 238 indivíduos dos Estados de Goiás, Sergipe, Bahia, e Ceará assim como do Distrito Federal, distribuídos entre as raças Santa Inês (48 animais, Bergamácia (46, Rabo Largo (48, Morada Nova (48 e Somali (48. Após triagem com 140 primers, foram selecionados 54 locos a partir de 19 primers e todas as raças apresentaram marcadores específicos. Análises qualitativas mostraram a presença de marcadores diagnóstico-específicos para todas as raças. As diferenças inter-raciais foram significativas e responsáveis por 14,92% da variação total observada. Na análise de agrupamento, a raça Santa Inês ficou próxima à Bergamácia (com 97% de valor bootstrap. A raça Rabo Largo apresentou maior similaridade com este grupo (com 81% bootstrap do que as raças Morada Nova e Somali. Cada raça deve ser considerada como unidade de conservação e manejo, especialmente as raças Rabo Largo, Morada Nova e Somali, as quais apresentam as menores populações no País.

  14. Genetic variability of the Brazilian hair sheep breeds / Variabilidade genética de raças de ovelhas deslanadas do Brasil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Samuel Rezende, Paiva; Vanessa Chaves, Silvério; Andréa Alves, Egito; Concepta, McManus; Danielle Assis de, Faria; Arthur da Silva, Mariante; Sílvia Ribeiro, Castro; Maria do Socorro Maués, Albuquerque; Jorge Abdala, Dergam.

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos deste trabalho foram identificar a origem racial de ovinos Santa Inês e avaliar a unicidade das populações das principais raças naturalizadas brasileiras de ovinos deslanado. Foi realizado um estudo dos padrões de semelhança molecular a partir de marcadores RAPD-PCR, utilizando-se 238 i [...] ndivíduos dos Estados de Goiás, Sergipe, Bahia, e Ceará assim como do Distrito Federal, distribuídos entre as raças Santa Inês (48 animais), Bergamácia (46), Rabo Largo (48), Morada Nova (48) e Somali (48). Após triagem com 140 primers, foram selecionados 54 locos a partir de 19 primers e todas as raças apresentaram marcadores específicos. Análises qualitativas mostraram a presença de marcadores diagnóstico-específicos para todas as raças. As diferenças inter-raciais foram significativas e responsáveis por 14,92% da variação total observada. Na análise de agrupamento, a raça Santa Inês ficou próxima à Bergamácia (com 97% de valor bootstrap). A raça Rabo Largo apresentou maior similaridade com este grupo (com 81% bootstrap) do que as raças Morada Nova e Somali. Cada raça deve ser considerada como unidade de conservação e manejo, especialmente as raças Rabo Largo, Morada Nova e Somali, as quais apresentam as menores populações no País. Abstract in english The objectives of this work were to investigate the genetic structure of the Brazilian hair sheep breeds and to determine the origin of the Santa Inês breed. Molecular similarity was determined using Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA - Polymerase Chain Reaction markers in 238 individuals from five [...] naturalized sheep breeds: Santa Inês (48 animals), Rabo Largo (48), Somali (48), Morada Nova (48) and Bergamasca (46), collected in Goiás, Sergipe, Bahia, and Ceará States as well as in the Federal District. Fifty-four loci were selected from 19 primers, after a pilot test using 140 primers. Qualitative analyses indicate diagnostic markers for all breeds. All breeds were significantly different from each other. Interbreed differences were explained by 14.92% of the total variation. Santa Inês clustered with Bergamasca (97% bootstrap) and with Rabo Largo, composing the third member of the group (81% bootstrap) while Morada Nova and Somali breeds clustered separately. Each breed should be considered as a separate management and conservation unit, and special care should be taken with Rabo Largo, Morada Nova and Somali breeds, represented by small herds in Brazil.

  15. Short communication: Effect of concentrate supplementation and prolificacy on the productive and economic performance of autochthonous sheep breeds fed forage-based diets

    OpenAIRE

    Ripoll Bosch, R.; Joy, M.; Sanz, A.; Blasco, I.; Ripoll, G.; Álvarez-Rodríguez, J.

    2014-01-01

    Sheep farming systems in Spain are experiencing an intensification process, characterised by a general selection criteria of enhancing prolificacy in ewes, and by increasing indoor feeding with concentrates to the detriment of grazing. This study evaluated the effects of concentrate supplementation and prolificacy on productive and economic performance of a local sheep breed in different price scenarios. Ewes were fed forage hay ad libitum, without (in prepartum period, PRE-HAY; and in post-p...

  16. The Effects of Pre-slaughter Stress and Season on the Activity of Plasma Creatine Kinase and Mutton Quality from Different Sheep Breeds Slaughtered at a Smallholder Abattoir

    OpenAIRE

    Chulayo, A. Y.; Muchenje, V.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the current study was to determine the effect of pre-slaughter stress, season and breed on the activity of plasma creatine kinase (CK) and the quality of mutton. One hundred and seventy-three (173) castrated sheep from Dormer (DM), South African Mutton Merino (SAMM), Dorper (DP) and Blackhead Persian (BP) sheep breeds were used in the study. The animals were grouped according to age-groups as follows: Group 1 (6 to 8 months), Group 2 (9 to 12 months) and Group 3 (13 to 16 mon...

  17. Influence of breed and feeding on the main quality characteristics of sheep carcass and meat: A review

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jorge, Ramírez-Retamal; Rodrigo, Morales.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews two factors (breed and feed) affecting the carcass and meat quality of sheep. The quality of livestock products has acquired greater importance from the distinct perspectives of the different participants in the agricultural food chain. Consumers, producers and the industry give d [...] ifferent levels of importance to the parameters of meat and carcass quality. Nevertheless, all the participants in the meat production chain must ensure quality to improve their competitiveness. The quality of the carcass and meat can be influenced by different factors such as breed and type of feed. The breed can influence weight, yields, and the conformation of the carcass, among other variables, as well as the pH level and the fatty acid composition of the meat, whereas the feed mainly affects carcass conformation and several physicochemical and organoleptic parameters of meat quality such as proximal composition, the fatty acid profile, tenderness and color. Consequently, the effects of breed and feed type should be considered to obtain a quality product that satisfies consumer demand.

  18. Animal breeding in the age of biotechnology: the investigative pathway behind the cloning of Dolly the sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Sancho, Miguel

    2015-09-01

    This paper addresses the 1996 cloning of Dolly the sheep, locating it within a long-standing tradition of animal breeding research in Edinburgh. Far from being an end in itself, the cell-nuclear transfer experiment from which Dolly was born should be seen as a step in an investigative pathway that sought the production of medically relevant transgenic animals. By historicising Dolly, I illustrate how the birth of this sheep captures a dramatic redefinition of the life sciences, when in the 1970s and 1980s the rise of neo-liberal governments and the emergence of the biotechnology market pushed research institutions to show tangible applications of their work. Through this broader interpretative framework, the Dolly story emerges as a case study of the deep transformations of agricultural experimentation during the last third of the twentieth century. The reorganisation of laboratory practice, human resources and institutional settings required by the production of transgenic animals had unanticipated consequences. One of these unanticipated effects was that the boundaries between animal and human health became blurred. As a result of this, new professional spaces emerged and the identity of Dolly the sheep was reconfigured, from an instrument for livestock improvement in the farm to a more universal symbol of the new cloning age. PMID:26205201

  19. Does the application of geometric morphometric methods on skull allow a differentiation of domestic sheep breeds?

    OpenAIRE

    Parés Casanova, Pere-Miquel

    2014-01-01

    Geometric morphometric methods (GMM) make it possible to study shape and size independently. The skulls of 58 adult specimens of different domestic breeds of Ovis were analysed by means of GMM in order to know if shape and size would allow their racial grouping. For this purpose, breeds were grouped a priori in four groups according to the general area of the origin of each breed:"West Mediterranean" (Fardasca breed, n=21),"Central Europe" (German breeds, n=12, Friesland, n=3 and Ile de Franc...

  20. Somatic cell banking - An alternative technology for conservation of endangered sheep breeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Each cell of an animal's body contains full genetic code for the whole animal and nuclear transfer provides a way of converting cells to whole animal. Cells from endangered breeds collected by biopsy or from scrapings of soft skin or ear tissue or from hair follicle can be grown and multiplied in a laboratory and this would then be stored frozen indefinitely at 196 deg. C in liquid nitrogen. Mammary gland cells from sheep, mouse cumulus granulosa cells, bovine mural granulosa cells and fibroblast cells have all generated viable clones. The currently available methods of conservation, deep freezing of sperms (haploid genome) and storage of a large number of embryos are too expensive. In comparison, adult skin fibroblast cells are easy to obtain, hardy in culture and freezing, a good source of donor DNA without the limitations of age, sex and physiological state. Progenies were successfully obtained from nuclear transfer of serum-starved fibroblast cells from cattle, sheep and goat. Several other cell types successfully used for cloning are limited to female donors (cumulus and mammary epithelial, mural granulosa and oviductal cells) and are more difficult for long-term culture. Live progenies using skin fibroblasts have been produced in cattle. Sample collection and development of primary cultures: Samples were collected by biopsy of skin from ear pinna and transported in a complete medium (DMEM + HamsF12 with 10% FBS and penicillin and streptomycin) at 4 deg. C. Tissue samples were processed by removing hair form both sides, cut into small pieces and seeded in petridish containing fibroblast culture medium (DMEM + HamsF12, 10% FBS, penicillin and streptomycin and L-glutamine). The primary skin fibroblast cells started emerging out of tissues within 4-6 days and were allowed to grow up to 12-15 days till nearly 80% confluency was attained. Purification and sub-culturing of skin fibroblast cells: In isolated cases, there were contaminations of epithelial cells but these were removed mechanically as well as enzymatically to get pure fibroblasts. Sub-culturing or 'splitting cells' was done periodically removing growth media, washing the plate, dissociating the cells and diluting cell suspension in fresh media. Standard growth curve: Whenever, a new batch of culture media supplement was introduced, it was checked for its efficacy for growth of cells in culture and compared with standard growth curve. Goat skin fibroblasts remained in lag phase for initial two days when they settled on the solid surface of culture vessel and then came to log phase when maximum growth took place spanning from the third to the seventh day. As the confluencey level increased and media supplement was depleted, cells stopped dividing and a plateau was attained from the eighth day onwards and then showed decline due to contact inhibition. Cell proliferation index: Under standard culture conditions, skin fibroblast cells divide once in 24 hours but it is rarely achieved in normal culturing. The population doubling time and cell proliferation rate per day were checked at regular interval for quality assessment. For this, ELISA based MTT assay, incorporation of 5-bromo-de-oxyuridine method, and flow cytometer methods were used. Evaluation of cells for ploidy level: During long-term culturing the cells are likely to develop one or other type of chromosomal abnormalities. It must be ensured that the cells in different passages be checked for normal ploidy so that viable clones can be developed from them. Cultures showing increased frequency of aneuploidy or polyploidy must be terminated from further passaging. DNA from cultured somatic cells can be isolated using available DNA isolation kits and checked for its quality on 2% agarose. Cryo-freezing of cells: Cells are best frozen as cell suspension. Healthy culture were always employed to provide the stock to freeze cells. The cells were frozen at controlled freezing rate. The cells were kept at -80 deg. C as well as at -196 deg. C in Liquid nitrogen. Cells were found viable for subsequent grow

  1. Evaluation certain environment factors on wool characteristics of Arabi sheep breeds

    OpenAIRE

    Mahnaz Salehi; Nosratollah Taherpour; Farhad Mirzaei

    2012-01-01

    Evaluation and grading of wool based on sex and age can help to improve economic value of wool. This study was conducted to investigate the wool production and fleece characteristics of Arabi sheep in Khuzestan province The right mid-side wool samples were taken from 90 Arabi sheep (1 - 4 years; 16 male and 74 female) by hand shearing. The staple length of shoulder, flank and rump were 13.18 ± 0.27, 13.31 ± 0.22 and 14.27 ± 0.25 cm, respectively. The greasy fleece weight, wool wax, vegetable ...

  2. USING OF MOLECULAR GENETIC MARKERS TO IMPROVE THE TELEORMAN BLACK HEAD TSIGAI SHEEP BREED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MONICA PÂRVU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The investigation involved 66 Teleorman Black Head Tsigai sheep. The animals were monitored throughout their twelve controls determining the total amount of milk. The genetic markers considered by the investigation were the haemoglobin and transferrin. They were identified two genotypes (HbA/HbB and HbB/HbB at the haemoglobin locus and eight genotypes at the transferrin locus. The simultaneous analysis of the two studied markers reveals the superiority of the heterozygous sheep HbA HbB/TfMTfE, which displayed the highest productive performance for the study character.

  3. Problems with readings of electronic tagged sheep in dairy flocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antun Kosteli?

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Reliable traceability system in animal production is a crucial part for protection of animal and human health. Small ruminants are usually ear’ tagged but this tagging system especially in extensive production systems is not reliable. The use of Radio Frequency Indentifying Devices (RFID, or electronic identification is more suitable. Ruminal boluses (Rumitag 20 gr, hdx are first chosen for ruminant tagging because they are easy and early applicable, easy to read and fraud resistant but they encounter some problems, mainly reading failure. In our trial we investigated reading failure on one sheep dairy farm. Six hundred and eight sheep have been milked during the trial and read for four times during milking. In all four readings we had quite high reading failure in comparison to other author findings. Probable cause for this very high failure could be the use of hand held readers in crowded environment which caused lot of double reading. This means that reading protocol should be improved. Unfortunately we did not have fixed reader so we could not compare readings.

  4. BREED EFFECTS ON GROWTH, CARCASS AND MEAT QUALITY TRAITS OF SHEEP

    Science.gov (United States)

    An experiment was conducted to estimate direct breed effects on growth, carcass, and meat quality traits. Rams of nine breeds (Composite, Dorper, Dorset, Finnsheep, Katahdin, Rambouillet, Romanov, Suffolk, and Texel) were mated to Composite ewes. Data recorded on 804 progeny of 130 rams were analy...

  5. Estimation of genetic parameters for body measurements and their association with yearling liveweight in the Makuie sheep breed

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    S, Jafari; A, Hashemi.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to estimate the genetic parameters for body measurement and yearling live bodyweight traits in the Makuie sheep breed. The data set consisted of 2 144 lambs from 122 sires and 984 dams recorded in 21 years from 1989 to 2009 at the Makuie Sheep Breeding and Raisin [...] g Station (MSBS). The traits that were studied were height at withers, height at rump, body length, heart girth, leg circumference and yearling weight. The analyses were carried out based on an animal model with the restricted maximum likelihood (REML) approach using a derivate-free (DF) algorithm. Six animal models were fitted, differentiated by including or excluding maternal effects, and with and without covariance between maternal and direct genetic effects. Ignoring the maternal effects, the direct heritability was estimated as 0.20, 0.24, 0.10, 0.14, 0.02 and 0.36 for height at wither, height at rump, body length, heart girth, leg circumference and yearling weight, respectively. The estimates were slightly higher when maternal effects, genetic or environmental, were ignored in the analyses. Using bivariate analysis, the estimates for additive genetic correlations ranged from 0.56 to 0.81 among the studied traits. A log-likelihood ratio test (LRT) was used to select the most appropriate univariate model for each trait. Based on LRT, the direct additive genetic and maternal permanent environmental effects were regarded as an important source of variation of the studied traits. The estimates of genetic parameters can be considered a basis for calculating selection indices for body measurements, as well as revealing their association with yearling bodyweight traits.

  6. Relative expression analysis of IL-5 and IL-6 genes in tropical sheep breed Pelibuey infected with Haemonchus contortus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada-Reyes, Z M; López-Reyes, A G; Lagunas-Martínez, A; Ramírez-Vargas, G; Olazarán-Jenkins, S; Hernández-Romano, J; Mendoza-de-Gives, P; López-Arellano, M E

    2015-09-01

    Haemonchus contortus is a parasitic nematode of Pelibuey sheep, a meat breed used in tropical regions. Due to anthelmintic problems, the identification of hosts resistant to H. contortus is another option of control. The aim of this study was to analyse the relative expression of IL-5 and IL-6 genes in Pelibuey sheep after H. contortus infection. Nineteen lambs infected with H. contortus and three more lambs without infection were studied. The haemonchosis was determined by the number of eggs per gram of faeces (epg) and by the estimation of the percentage of the packed cell volume (%pcv). Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were obtained to extract RNA at 0, 1, 2, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days after infection to quantify the relative expression of IL-5, IL-6 and GAPDH by real-time PCR. Five lambs were classified as low responders (lr) to haemonchosis with averages of 1519 ± 315·3 epg and 31·49 ± 5·13%pcv, and 14 lambs were identified as high responders (hr) with averages of 530 ± 132 epg and 34·88 ± 3·75%pcv. The expression ratio of IL-5 was significantly different compared with control lambs at 2, 7 and 14 days post-infection (PI), and IL-6 was significantly different after 14 days. The highest level of relative expression for IL-5 and IL-6 genes was 9·9-fold and 12-fold after 2 and 14 days for hr hosts (P < 0·05) compared with control group, respectively. In conclusion, the Pelibuey breed in grazing areas exhibited different expression of IL-5 and IL-6 obtained from PBMCs against H. contortus, suggesting the importance of these cytokines in regulating the nematode infection. PMID:26094646

  7. Phylogenetic Relationships of Three Italian Merino-Derived Sheep Breeds Evaluated through a Complete Mitogenome Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Lancioni, Hovirag; Di Lorenzo, Piera; Ceccobelli, Simone; Perego, Ugo A.; Miglio, Arianna; Landi, Vincenzo; Antognoni, Maria T.; Sarti, Francesca M.; Lasagna, Emiliano; Achilli, Alessandro

    2013-01-01

    In Italy, the crisis of the wool industry triggered the necessity to reconvert the two traditional Merino-derived breeds, Gentile di Puglia and Sopravissana, to meat production, by creating the Merinizzata Italiana. The aim of the present study was to assess the genetic diversity of these three Italian Merino-derived (IMd) breeds by examining the molecular information encoded in the maternally-inherited mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). A parallel molecular investigation was performed on the putativ...

  8. Application of microsatellite markers for breeding and genetic conservation of herds of Pantaneiro sheep

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Bruno do Amaral, Crispim; Leonardo de Oliveira, Seno; Andréa Alves do, Egito; Fernando Miranda de, Vargas Junior; Alexéia Barufatti, Grisolia.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background The aim of the present study was to assess the genetic diversity of Pantaneiro sheep, using microsatellite markers, in order to assist maintenance and management plans, enhance mating systems and reduce the inbreeding rate. A total of 127 animals were genotyped at eight microsatellite loc [...] i. They belonged to populations from the Experimental Farm of the Universidade Federal da Grande Dourados (UFGD) (Dourados/MS/Brazil) and Embrapa Pantanal (Corumbá/MS/Brazil). Results The population of Pantaneiro sheep from the UFGD exhibited a high mean number of alleles (11.13) and allelic richness (10.66). The polymorphic information content was highly informative in the locus studied, resulting in a mean value of 0.71. Observed heterozygosity was lower than expected for all molecular markers assessed. The analysis of molecular variance showed a differentiation rate of 5.2% between populations. Conclusions The results of the statistical parameters indicated that populations of Pantaneiro sheep require special attention on herd management, and it's further necessary to implement breeder exchange programs in order to preserve the genetic variability of these populations. Furthermore, the maintenance of those populations in their typical habitats is rather required to allow different responses from the herds to the interactions between genotype and environment.

  9. Gastrointestinal parasitic infection of slaughtered sheep (Zel breed in Fereidoonkenar city, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraya Naem

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to determine parasitic infection of sheep with gastrointestinal helminthes in a slaughterhouse in Fereidoonkenar city, Iran. A total number of 50 sheep were examined from April to September 2008. Nematodes were removed from abomasums, small and large intestines, and kept in A.F.A. solution (alcohol, formaldeyde, acetic acid, distilled water, and glycerine for further diagnosis. Cestodes were removed from small intestine, washed with water, and stained with carmine acid. The results of this study indicated that 70% of examined animals were infected as follows: Ostertagia circumcincta and Marshallagia marshalli (38%, Trichostrongylus colubriformis (16%, Nematodirus spathiger (14%, Skrjabinema ovis (12%, Haemonchus contortus (10%, Camelostrongylus mentolatus (4%, and Gongylonema pulchrum, Cooperia punctata, Bunostomum trigonocephalum, Chabertia ovina (2%. Among examined animals, 14% infected with Moniezia expansa, 10% with Avitellina centripunctata and 2% with Helicometra giardi. The infection rate in younger animals was higher than in adults. The maximum infection rate was with O. circumcincta and M. marshali. No infection was found in examined rumens.

  10. Biometric Study of the Reproductive Organs of Three Breeds of Sheep in Nigeria Estudio Biométrico de los Órganos Reproductivos de Tres Razas de Ovejas en Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Abdullahi Ali Ibrahim; Jibril Aliyu; Rabi Muhammad Ashiru; Mustapha Jamilu

    2012-01-01

    A comparative study of testicular biometry was done in rams using three major breeds of sheep in Nigeria. Biometrical parameters observed were scrotal circumference (SC), testes weight (TW), testes length (TL), tunica albuginea weight (TAW), testes volume (TV), testes density (TD), epididymal weight (EW), epididymal length (EL), caput (CA), corpus (CO), cauda weight (CU), epididymal volume (EV) and epididymal density (ED). The results showed significant differences (p

  11. Polymorphisms of the Ovine BMPR-IB, BMP-15 and FSHR and Their Associations with Litter Size in Two Chinese Indigenous Sheep Breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weimin Wang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The Small Tailed Han sheep and Hu sheep are two prolific local sheep in China. In this study, the polymorphisms of BMPR-IB (Bone morphogenetic protein receptor IB, BMP-15 (Bone morphogenetic protein 15 and FSHR (follicle stimulating hormone receptor were investigated to check whether they are associated with litter size in Small Tailed Han sheep and Hu sheep. Consequently, three polymorphisms, FecB mutation in BMPR-IB (c.746A>G, FecG mutation in BMP-15 (c.718C>T and the mutation (g. 47C>T in FSHR were found in the above two sheep breeds with a total number of 1630 individuals. The single marker association analysis showed that the three mutations were significantly associated with litter size. The ewes with genotype FecBB/FecBB and FecBB/FecB+ had 0.78 and 0.58 more lambs (p < 0.01 than those with genotype FecB+/FecB+, respectively. The heterozygous Han and Hu ewes with FecXG/FecX+ genotype showed 0.30 (p = 0.05 more lambs than those with the FecX+/FecX+ genotype. For FSHR gene, the ewes with genotype CC had 0.52 (p < 0.01 and 0.75 (p < 0.01 more lambs than those with genotypes TC and TT, respectively. Combined effect analyses indicated an extremely significant interaction (p < 0.01 between the random combinations of BMPR-IB, BMP-15 and FSHR genes on litter size. In addition, the Han and Hu ewes with BB/G+/CC genotype harbor the highest litter size among ewes analyzed in current study. In conclusion, BMPR-IB, BMP-15 and FSHR polymorphisms could be used as genetic markers in multi-gene pyramiding for improving litter size in sheep husbandry.

  12. The effect of breed on fatty acid composition of subcutaneous adipose tissues in fat-tailed sheep under identical feeding conditions

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    E., Maleki; F., Kafilzadeh; G.Y., Meng; M.A., Rajion; M., Ebrahimi.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to evaluate the fatty acid (FA) profile of subcutaneous adipose tissue and tailfat of two fat-tailed sheep breeds under identical feeding conditions. Twelve male lambs from two breeds, Sanjabi (n = 6), weighing 23.3 ± 0.48 kg, and Mehraban (n = 6), weighing 26.1 ± 2.14 kg, were [...] used in this investigation. All animals were weighed and slaughtered at the end of a 90-day fattening period and FA composition of subcutaneous adipose tissue and tailfat was determined. Significant breed differences in total FA, total polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) and n-6PUFA contents were observed in the subcutaneous adipose tissue, but not in the tailfat. Breed differences were observed in the conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) content of subcutaneous adipose tissue, with higher levels in Sanjabi than in Mehraban lambs. Linoleic and ?-linolenic acid of subcutaneous adipose were significantly higher in the Sanjabi breed than in the Mehraban breed. Thus, adipose tissue from fat-tailed Sanjabi lamb has a higher proportion of health-promoting linoleic and ?-linolenic acids, unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) and CLA, suggesting that the Sanjabi breed could be used for producing healthier lamb products.

  13. Impact of strong selection for the PrP major gene on genetic variability of four French sheep breeds (Open Access publication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pantano Thais

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Effective selection on the PrP gene has been implemented since October 2001 in all French sheep breeds. After four years, the ARR "resistant" allele frequency increased by about 35% in young males. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of this strong selection on genetic variability. It is focussed on four French sheep breeds and based on the comparison of two groups of 94 animals within each breed: the first group of animals was born before the selection began, and the second, 3–4 years later. Genetic variability was assessed using genealogical and molecular data (29 microsatellite markers. The expected loss of genetic variability on the PrP gene was confirmed. Moreover, among the five markers located in the PrP region, only the three closest ones were affected. The evolution of the number of alleles, heterozygote deficiency within population, expected heterozygosity and the Reynolds distances agreed with the criteria from pedigree and pointed out that neutral genetic variability was not much affected. This trend depended on breed, i.e. on their initial states (population size, PrP frequencies and on the selection strategies for improving scrapie resistance while carrying out selection for production traits.

  14. Somatic cell banking - An alternative technology for the conservation of endangered sheep breeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skin samples from ear pinna of 10 male and 10 female sheep were collected and cultured in DMEM+Ham's F12 nutrient medium. Cell viability was 95 to 100% in different cultures. Mean cell proliferation rates were 0.94-0.67 and 1.15-0.56 for males and females in different passages, respectively. Cell proliferation rates were highest in first passage and then showed an age-related decline. Average cell doubling time was 30 h in males and 29.6 h in females. Skin fibroblast cell growth curves were in lag phase for the first 2 days, entered log phase (3rd to 7th days) and plateaued on day 8. Diploid chromosomal counts in proliferating cells up to the 5th passage were normal (2N=54), with no gross chromosomal aberrations recorded. Cells frozen from cycling cells at 80-90% confluency showed superior post-thaw growth compared with cells from overconfluent cultures. DMSO at 10% (v/v) in freezing media was optimal. Controlled-rate freezing at -1 deg. C/min showed better post-thaw cell viability and growth potential. Direct plating of thawed cells without removing DMSO and other contents of the freezing medium gave better post-thaw survival and proliferation rates. (author)

  15. Accuracy of pedigree and genomic predictions of carcass and novel meat quality traits in multi-breed sheep data assessed by cross-validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daetwyler Hans D

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genomic predictions can be applied early in life without impacting selection candidates. This is especially useful for meat quality traits in sheep. Carcass and novel meat quality traits were predicted in a multi-breed sheep population that included Merino, Border Leicester, Polled Dorset and White Suffolk sheep and their crosses. Methods Prediction of breeding values by best linear unbiased prediction (BLUP based on pedigree information was compared to prediction based on genomic BLUP (GBLUP and a Bayesian prediction method (BayesR. Cross-validation of predictions across sire families was used to evaluate the accuracy of predictions based on the correlation of predicted and observed values and the regression of observed on predicted values was used to evaluate bias of methods. Accuracies and regression coefficients were calculated using either phenotypes or adjusted phenotypes as observed variables. Results and conclusions Genomic methods increased the accuracy of predicted breeding values to on average 0.2 across traits (range 0.07 to 0.31, compared to an average accuracy of 0.09 for pedigree-based BLUP. However, for some traits with smaller reference population size, there was no increase in accuracy or it was small. No clear differences in accuracy were observed between GBLUP and BayesR. The regression of phenotypes on breeding values was close to 1 for all methods, indicating little bias, except for GBLUP and adjusted phenotypes (regression = 0.78. Accuracies calculated with adjusted (for fixed effects phenotypes were less variable than accuracies based on unadjusted phenotypes, indicating that fixed effects influence the latter. Increasing the reference population size increased accuracy, indicating that adding more records will be beneficial. For the Merino, Polled Dorset and White Suffolk breeds, accuracies were greater than for the Border Leicester breed due to the smaller sample size and limited across-breed prediction. BayesR detected only a few large marker effects but one region on chromosome 6 was associated with large effects for several traits. Cross-validation produced very similar variability of accuracy and regression coefficients for BLUP, GBLUP and BayesR, showing that this variability is not a property of genomic methods alone. Our results show that genomic selection for novel difficult-to-measure traits is a feasible strategy to achieve increased genetic gain.

  16. Morphostructural Differentiation and Variability of Merino Sheep Breed Under Sustained Directional Selection / Diferenciación y Variabilidad Morfoestructural de Ovinos de Raza Merino Sometidos a Selección Direccional Sostenida

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    R, de la Barra; E, Latorre; M. E, Martínez; C, Calderón.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se analiza el grado de diferenciación y variabilidad morfoestructural alcanzado por el tipo de animal resultante de una selección direccional sostenida y sus implicancias en la emergencia de un nuevo grupo racial ovino. Se midieron 25 machos y 200 ovejas adultas. Se tomaron 13 [...] medidas corporales, evaluando la diferenciación de la morfología estructural y el dimorfismo sexual. Estas mediciones se compararon con las realizadas en animales de raza Merino Australiano y Marin Magellan Meat Merino. La homogeneidad intrapoblacional se evaluó a través de los coeficientes de variación porcentual de las medias de las medidas corporales. Se concluye que la selección direccional realizada de forma sostenida ha generado una diferenciación del formato morfoestructural al comparar a la población sujeta a selección con las principales raza de tipo Merino existentes en la Patagonia Chilena. La población evaluada evidencia una variabilidad morfoestructural similar, y en muchos casos menor a la encontrada en razas ovinas reconocidas como tales en Chile, con lo cual es posible señalar que se comporta como un grupo animal distinguible con caracteres de raza. Abstract in english In this paper, the degree of differentiation and morphostructural variability reached by the type of animal resulting from sustained directional selection, in addition to its implications for the emergence of a new sheep breed are analyzed. Twenty-five rams and 200 ewes from a sheep flock submitted [...] to directional selection since 1987 were measured. Thirteen body measurements were taken in other to evaluate the structural morphology and sexual dimorphism. These measurements were compared with identical measures taken in Australian Merino and Marin Magellan Meat Merino sheep breeds. The intrapopulation homogeneity was assessed using the coefficients of variation of the average percentage of body measurements. It is concluded that sustained directional selection has generated the differentiation of the morphostructural format of the subject population compared to the main Merino-type breeds in the Chilean Patagonia. The population shows a similar (and in some cases lower) morphostructural variability than those found in recognized sheep breeds in Chile, so it is possible to state that this population behaves like a different animal group, with breed characteristics.

  17. Quality traits and modeling of coagulation, curd firming, and syneresis of sheep milk of Alpine breeds fed diets supplemented with rumen-protected conjugated fatty acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittante, G; Pellattiero, E; Malchiodi, F; Cipolat-Gotet, C; Pazzola, M; Vacca, G M; Schiavon, S; Cecchinato, A

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to test the modeling of curd-firming (CF) measures and to compare the sheep milk of 3 Alpine breeds supplemented with or without rumen-protected conjugated linoleic acid (rpCLA). Twenty-four ewes of the Brogna, Foza, and Lamon breeds were allotted to 6 pens (2 pens/breed) and fed a diet composed of corn grain, corn silage, dried sugar beet pulp, soybean meal, wheat bran, wheat straw, and a vitamin-mineral mixture. The rpCLA supplement (12 g/d per ewe plus 4 g/d for each lamb older than 30 d) was mixed into the diet of 1 pen per sheep breed (3 pens/treatment) to provide an average of 0.945 and 0.915 g/d per ewe of the cis-9,trans-11 C18:2 and trans-10,cis-12 C18:2 conjugated linoleic acid isomers, respectively. The trial started at 38 ± 23 d after parturition, and individual morning milk samples were collected on d 16, 23, 37, 44, and 59 of the trial. Milk samples were analyzed for composition, and duplicate samples were assessed for milk coagulation properties (MCP). A total of 180 CF measures for each sample (1 every 15s) were recorded. Model parameters were the rennet coagulation time, the asymptotic potential CF, the CF instant rate constant, the syneresis instant rate constant, the maximum CF achieved within 45 min (CFmax), and the time at achievement of CFmax. The data were analyzed using a hierarchical model that considered the fixed effects of breed, diet, lamb birth, and initial days in milk, which were tested on individual ewe (random) variance; the fixed effect of sampling day, which was tested on the within-ewe sample (random) variance; and the fixed effect of instrument or cuvette position (only for MCP), which was tested on the residual (replicates within samples) variance. The local Alpine sheep breeds displayed similar milk compositions, traditional MCP, and CF modeling parameters. Supplementation with rpCLA triggered changes in milk composition and worsened MCP (e.g., delayed rennet coagulation time, slower CF instant rate constant, and a doubling of syneresis instant rate constant), but did not influence potential CF. Overall, our results indicate that rpCLA supplementation reduced the actual maximum CF (CFmax) but did not modify the interval between rennet addition and CFmax or time to CFmax. PMID:24819130

  18. Effects of Water Deprivation and Season on Some Biochemical Constituents of Blood in Awassi and Najdi Sheep Breeds in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Alamer

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of water deprivation and rehydration on some of blood constituents during different seasons in two local sheep breeds of Saudi Arabia, Awassi and Najdi, was investigated. Water deprivation induced significant (P<0.01 elevations in packed cell volume, plasma osmolality, total protein, sodium, creatinine and urea levels which were progressively increased with advance of water deprivation. Moreover, these responses were more pronounced during summer. Glucose levels tended to increase only following three days of water deprivation during summer. Both breeds responded to water deprivation in a similar manner during winter and spring seasons. On the other hand, Najdi breed had consistently higher responses during summer dehydration period particularly for plasma sodium and urea. Rehydration resulted in decline in the determined parameters, but more time was needed to regain normal levels during spring and summer. These results might suggest that there was not any differences in withstanding ability to water deprivation during winter and spring between the two breeds, however Awassi breed might have a better tolerance to dehydration during hot summer.

  19. Quantifying avoidance-related behaviour and bleeding times of sheep of different ages, sex and breeds slaughtered at a municipal and a commercial abattoirs

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Y.Z., Njisane; V., Muchenje.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The effect of abattoir type, age, sheep breed and sex on avoidance-related behaviour and bleeding times at slaughter were determined. Castrates and ewes of different age groups and breeds were used. From the commercial abattoir, 90 castrates and 110 ewes were used while 66 castrates and 19 ewes were [...] obtained from the municipal abattoir. Avoidance-related behaviour and bleeding times differed with abattoir type and age classes. Animals slaughtered at the commercial abattoir were calmer and had shorter bleeding times (61 ± 1.16 s) than those slaughtered at the municipal abattoir which had a mean bleeding time of 74.2 ± 2.11 s. Older animals were calmer and had longer bleeding times (67.5 ± 1.82 s) than the younger animals which had a mean bleeding time of 61.6 ± 2.64 s. Avoidance-related behaviour also differed with breed and the sex of the animals with Merino and Dorper + Merino crosses being the calmer than the pure Dorper breed. About 95% of ewes were calmer than the castrates. It can be concluded that abattoir type, age, breed and sex have an effect on animal behaviour at slaughter. Only abattoir type and sex had an effect on bleeding times.

  20. Genetic Polymorphism in GDF9 and FecB Genes in Dalagh Sheep Breed of Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Alireza Khan Ahmadi; Rasoul Khatam Nejhad

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to identify polymorphisms in GDF9 and FecB genes in Dalagh sheep breed. About 100 mature ewes from three flocks in Golestan province were genotype for the GDF9 ligand (FecGH) and fecB (BMPRIB) receptor. Using two pairs of specific primers, DNA fragments with the size of 139 and 190 bp were amplified by using polymerase chain reaction. The PCR products were digested using DdeI and AvaII restriction enzymes for GDF9 and FecB loci, respectively. The results showed no dif...

  1. Acute monensin toxicosis in sheep: light and electron microscopic changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, T D; Van Alstine, W G; Ficken, M D; Miskimins, D W; Carson, T L; Osweiler, G D

    1984-06-01

    Monensin was administered orally to 3 sheep at dosages of 12 (the LD50), 16, and 24 mg/kg of body weight, respectively. Clinical signs of monensin toxicosis were observed in the sheep in 24 to 36 hours of administration. Clinical signs included CNS depression, anorexia, diarrhea, and stiffness. Increased serum creatine phosphokinase and aspartate aminotransferase activities identified possible muscle damage. Sheep were euthanatized at 54 hours after dosing; at necropsy, there were skeletal muscle hemorrhages, pale myocardium, and pulmonary edema. Ultrastructural lesions were in the liver, diaphragm, and myocardium; diaphragm and myocardium were most severely affected. Mitochondrial swelling and cristolysis, swollen sarcoplasmic reticulum, and disruption of myofibrillar architecture were prominent. These ultrastructural changes are consistent with the hypothesis that monensin causes muscle cell necrosis due to its ionophorous properties and disruption of cellular Na+:Ca2+ balance. It is proposed that this upset of normal ionic processes allows increased intracellular calcium, which directly leads to the functional and structural mitochondrial changes observed. PMID:6742573

  2. Evaluación biológica de dos sistemas de apareamiento en ovinos de raza Columbia en producción intensiva / Biological evaluation of two breeding systems of intensive production in the Columbia breed sheep

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    José, de Lucas Tron; Luis Alberto, Zarco Quintero; Everardo, González Padilla; Jorge, Tórtora Pérez; Carlos, Vásquez Peláez.

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó la eficacia biológica de dos sistemas de apareamiento en ovinos del altiplano central de México. Un total de 300 ovejas adultas y 60 de reemplazo de la raza Columbia se distribuyeron al azar en dos grupos de 150 adultas y 30 jóvenes (edad promedio al primer parto de 18 meses). En el primer [...] grupo (sistema intensivo) se realizaron empadres de 36 días, con monta natural cada ocho meses (marzo, noviembre y julio), mientras que en el segundo grupo (sistema anual) se llevó a cabo un empadre de 45 días, iniciando en noviembre de cada año. En todos los casos, quince días antes del empadre se introdujeron machos marcadores, que en la fecha de inicio del empadre se sustituían por sementales en proporción de un macho por cada 20 hembras. Mensualmente se evaluó la condición física de todas las hembras. Los animales pastorearon de ocho a nueve horas diarias en praderas de alfalfa (Medicago sativa) y pastos orchard (Dactylis glomerata) y rye grass (Lolium perenne) irrigadas por aspersión. Solamente las ovejas del sistema intensivo recibieron complemento durante la lactancia y el reempadre. En los dos sistemas se lograron apareamientos en todas las épocas, la fertilidad en los tres empadres del sistema intensivo fue de 83.9%, mientras que el promedio de los dos empadres anuales fue de 88.3% (P 0.05); la tasa de destete, 0.89 vs 1.09 (P Abstract in english The biological efficiency of two breeding systems for sheep in the Mexican high plateau was evaluated. A total of 300 adult and 60 replacement sheep of the Columbia breed were randomly distributed into two groups of 150 adults and 30 young ones (mean age to first birth of 18 months). Mates of 36 day [...] s with natural mount every eight months (March, November and July) were done in the first group (intensive system). In the second group (annual system), a 45-day mating was done starting on November every year. Marker males were introduced 15 days before mating in all cases, which were replaced on the first day of mating for stallions at a one male for every 20 female ratios. The physical condition of all females was evaluated every month. The animals grazed 8 to 9 hours in grasslands of alfalfa (Medicago sativa) and Orchard (Dactylis glomerata) and Rye (Lolium perenne) grasses irrigated by aspersion. Only the sheep in the intensive system received supplement during lactation and re-mating. Breeding was achieved in both systems in all seasons. The mean fertility of the three breeding of the intensive system was 83.9%; while the mean fertility of the two annual breeding was 88.3% (P

  3. Polymorphic Study of FecXG, FecGH and FecB Mutations in Four Domestic Sheep Breeds in the Lower Yellow River Valley of China

    OpenAIRE

    Zhi-Xin Fu; Zheng-Zhu Liu,; Du, Li-Xin; Li-Ying Geng; Chuan-Sheng Zhang; Min-Shan Feng; Yuan-Fang Gong

    2011-01-01

    Genetic mutations with major effects on ovulation rate in sheep were recently identified in two genes of the Transforming Growth Factor (TGF) superfamily and a TGF receptor, namely BMP15, GDF9 and BMPRIB. The FecXG, FecGH and FecB were performed to screen four sheep breeds (small tailed Han, Wadi, big tailed Han and Shandi sheep) distributed along the lower Yellow river valley of China by forced PCR-RFLP method if these genes are responsible for their high prolificacies. The FecB mutation was...

  4. Zoneamento bioclimático da ovinocultura no Estado do Paraná / Bioclimatical zoning of sheep breeding in the State of Parana

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Orlando Rus, Barbosa; Francisco de Assis Fonseca de, Macedo; Roland Van de, Groes; José Maurício Franco, Guedes.

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Utilizaram-se 45 fêmeas ovinas adultas (15 Hampshire Down [HD], 15 Texel [TE] e 15 Ile de France [IF]), para propor um zoneamento bioclimático da ovinocultura no Estado do Paraná. Mediram-se a temperatura retal (Tr), da epiderme (Te), do interior do velo (Tiv) e da superfície do velo (Tsv); a frequê [...] ncia respiratória (Fr); a temperatura do ar (Ta), pressão de vapor (e), velocidade do vento (v) e carga térmica radiante (CTR). O Índice de Conforto Térmico utilizado foi ICT= 0,6678Ta + 0,4969e + 0,5444Tg + 0,1038v. A regressão do ICT sobre Tr mostrou efeito quadrático para as três raças. Para ICT=24,3, 27,3 e 20,6, os valores de Tr foram respectivamente: 39,10ºC para a raça HD, 39,05ºC para TE e 39,09ºC para IF, atingindo 40,40; 40,50; e 40,28ºC, respectivamente, para ICT=58. As três raças aumentaram sua Tr a partir de ICT=26, com a TE apresentando menor Tr até o valor ICT=46; neste ponto, as três raças foram semelhantes, tendo a TE apresentado maiores valores. Para ICT igual a 27,6; 29,7; e 27,0, os valores de Fr foram, respectivamente, 89,63; 77,08; e 78,77 resp./min., para as raças HD, TE e IF. A raça TE apresentou menor Fr (77,08 resp./min.), para ICT=29,7 e para ICT=48, valores semelhantes aos da IF (181,96 resp./min.); a partir deste índice, passou a ser maior que as demais raças, atingindo valores de 288,66 resp./min. no ICT=56, porém inferior à HD (289,01 resp./min.). Neste índice, a raça IF foi a que apresentou a menor Fr (275,72 resp./min.). Uma extensa faixa ao longo do litoral do Estado, entrando cerca de 200 km para o interior até os limites das cidades de Castro, Telêmaco Borba, Laranjeiras do Sul e Pato Branco, permite a criação das três raças, sem exigir grandes esforços de termorregulação. Abstract in english Forty five adult ewes were used, 15 for each of the three breeds: Hampshire Down (HD), Texel (TE) and Ile de France (IF). These animals were measured for rectal temperature (Rt), skin temperature (St), fleece temperature (Ft), temperature of the coat surface (Cst) and respiratory rate (Rr), Air temp [...] erature (At), air vapour pressure (Avp), wind speed (Ws), globe temperature (Gt) and radiant heat load (Rhl) were also recorded. The Thermal Comfort Index equation was used: TCI = 0.6678Ta + 0.4969e + 0.5444Tg + 0.1038v. Regression of TCI on Rt showed quadratic effect for the three breeds. For a TCI = 24.3, 27.3 and 20.6, Rt values were: 39.10ºC, for HD, 39.05ºC for TE, and 39.09ºC; for IF sheeps and for TCI=58, these values were respectively 40.40ºC, 40.50ºC and 40.28ºC. All the animals presented increased Rt under theses index, with Texel showed the least Rt for TCI=46, but was the only group with higher Rt values for TCI>48. For TCI=27.6, 29.7 and 27.0, Fr values were respectively: 89.63 resp./min. for HD, 77.08 resp./min. for TE and 78.77 resp./min. for IF. TE presented smaller Rr (77.08 resp./min.), for TCI=29.7, and values similar to IF (179.63 resp./min.), under TCI=48. After this level TE values were higher than those of the other breeds, reaching 288.66 resp./min. for TCI=56, but inferior that HD (289.01 resp./min.); IF, presented lower Rr (275.72 resp./min.). An extensive strip of land along the Parana State coast, heading inland 200 km up to the borders Castro, Telêmaco Borba, Laranjeiras do Sul and Pato Branco cities, allows the creation of the three breeds.

  5. Sequence analysis and identification of new variations in the coding sequence of melatonin receptor gene (MTNR1A of Indian Chokla sheep breed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Kumar Saxena

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Melatonin receptor 1A gene is the prime receptor mediating the effect of melatonin at the neuroendocrine level for control of seasonal reproduction in sheep. The aims of this study were to examine the polymorphism pattern of coding sequence of MTNR1A gene in Chokla sheep, a breed of Indian arid tract and to identify new variations in relation to its aseasonal status. Genomic DNAs of 101 Chokla sheep were collected and an 824 bp coding sequence of Exon II was amplified. RFLP was performed with enzyme RsaI and MnlI to assess the presence of polymorphism at position C606T and G612A, respectively. Genotyping revealed significantly higher frequency of M and R alleles than m and r alleles. RR and MM were found to be dominantly present in the group of studied population. Cloning and sequencing of Exon II followed by mutation/polymorphism analysis revealed ten mutations of which three were non-synonymous mutations (G706A, C893A, G931C. G706A leads to substitution of valine by isoleucine Val125I (U14109 in the fifth transmembrane domain. C893A leads to substitution of alanine by aspartic acid in the third extracellular loop. G931C mutation brings about substitution of amino acid alanine by proline in the seventh transmembrane helix, can affect the conformational stability of the molecule. Polyphen-2 analysis revealed that the polymorphism at position 931 is potentially damaging while the mutations at positions 706 and 893 were benign. It is concluded that G931C mutation of MTNR 1A gene, may explain, in part, the importance of melatonin structure integrity in influencing seasonality in sheep.

  6. Reproductive pattern of local sheep in Egypt with special reference to the effects of breed, season and management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of season on ovulation has been monitored in two local breeds of Egyptian ewes - the Barki (desert type), and the Rahmani (fat tailed Nile valley breed), by sequentially measuring cyclic changes in plasma progesterone concentration throughout a period of one year in the absence of any possible ram effect. The modal length of the ovulatory cycle was 17-18 days for both breeds, with the progesterone concentration peaking around day 11. No effect of season on progesterone concentration was apparent for the Barki breed but in the Rahmani, progesterone values were lower (P < 0.05) during the summer than during the autumn months. While the Barki have a restricted breeding season from June to November, the Rahmani have only a short period of anovulation within April. Thirty-three per cent of the Rahmani breed were identified as having cycled throughout the year. (author). 9 refs, 4 figs

  7. Avaliação ultrasonográfica da qualidade de carcaça de ovinos Santa Inês / Ultrassonography evaluation of sheep carcass quality of Santa Inês breed

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Concepta, McManus; Tiago do Prado, Paim; Helder, Louvandini; Bruno Stéfano Lima, Dallago; Laila Talarico, Dias; Rodrigo Almeida, Teixeira.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A ultrassonografia pode ser uma importante ferramenta para a avaliação da composição da carcaça por ser uma técnica não invasiva que permite quantificar diferentes tecidos em animais vivos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estimar as correlações entre medidas tomadas in vivo, por meio do ultrassom e do [...] adipômetro, e na carcaça de ovinos da raça Santa Inês. Utilizaram-se 81 machos, entre 8 e 18 meses de idade, com peso médio de 31 kg. As medidas in vivo obtidas por ultrassonografia foram medida diagonal longitudinal, área de olho de lombo longitudinal, medida diagonal transversal e área de olho de lombo transversal. Determinou-se o peso de carcaça quente, rendimento da carcaça, gordura de cobertura da carcaça, comprimento de carcaça, área de olho de lombo da carcaça e peso dos cortes comerciais: pernil, lombo, paleta, costela e pescoço. As análises de variância, componentes principais, regressão polinomial e correlação foram realizadas utilizando-se programa estatístico SAS®. Não houve diferença entre animais castrados e inteiros para qualidade e componentes de carcaça, indicando, portanto, que a castração não proporciona uma carcaça de melhor qualidade. Os animais com os pesos de pernil, paleta e costela maiores apresentam menores peso de pele, altura de cernelha e peso dos órgãos abdominais, caracterizando um biotipo de animal que seria mais desejável a ser selecionado. Peso vivo, comprimento corporal e área de olho de lombo por ultrassom (in vivo) podem ser usados para predizer a área do olho de lombo da carcaça, peso do pernil, comprimento da carcaça, peso da carcaça quente e da meia carcaça. No entanto, o peso do lombo, pescoço, costela, rendimento de carcaça e peso dos órgãos abdominais não podem ser preditos por estas medidas in vivo. As medidas realizadas com adipômetro não apresentaram correlações significativas com medidas da carcaça, o que indica que não são eficientes para esta predição e, portanto, não devem ser utilizadas. Abstract in english Ultrassonography is an important option to evaluate carcass composition and quality, as it is a non-invasive technique which quantifies different tissues in live animals. The objective of this study was to estimate the correlation between measurements taken in vivo, using ultrasound and skinfold thi [...] ckness, in sheep carcasses from Santa Inês breed. Eighty-one males, aging 8 to 18 months, and weighting on average 31 kg live weight were used. The measures taken in vivo by ultrassonography were longitudinal diagonal length, longitudinal rib eye area, transversal diagonal length, transversal rib eye area. Hot carcass weight, carcass yield, carcass fat thickness, carcass length, carcass rib eye area and commercial retail cut weight (leg, loin, shoulder, ribs and neck) were determined. The analyses of variance, main components, polynomial regression and correlation were carried out using SAS® statistical program. There was no difference between castrated and intact animals for carcass quality and components, indicating that castration does not provide better carcass quality. Animals with higher leg, shoulder and rib weights had lower skin weight, wither height and weight of abdominal organs, indicating a more desirable body type for selection. Body weight, body length and rib eye area by ultrasound (in vivo) can predict the rib eye area, leg weight, carcass length, hot and half carcass weight. However, loin, neck and rib weights, carcass yield and weight of abdominal organs cannot be predicted by these in vivo measurements. The measurements taken with skinfold showed no significant correlations with carcass measures, which indicates that they are not efficient for prediction of carcass components and therefore should not be used.

  8. Biometric Study of the Reproductive Organs of Three Breeds of Sheep in Nigeria / Estudio Biométrico de los Órganos Reproductivos de Tres Razas de Ovejas en Nigeria

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Abdullahi Ali, Ibrahim; Jibril, Aliyu; Rabi Muhammad, Ashiru; Mustapha, Jamilu.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio comparativo de la biometría testicular en carneros con las tres razas principales de ovejas de Nigeria. Los parámetros biométricos observados fueron la circunferencia escrotal (CE), peso testicular (PT), longitud testicular (LT), peso de la túnica albugínea (PTA), volumen testi [...] cular (VT), densidad testicular (DT), peso del epidídimo (PE), longitud del epidídimo (EL), peso de la cabeza (CA), cuerpo (CU) y cauda (CA), volumen del epidídimo (VE) y densidad del epidídimo (ED). Los resultados mostraron diferencias significativas (p Abstract in english A comparative study of testicular biometry was done in rams using three major breeds of sheep in Nigeria. Biometrical parameters observed were scrotal circumference (SC), testes weight (TW), testes length (TL), tunica albuginea weight (TAW), testes volume (TV), testes density (TD), epididymal weight [...] (EW), epididymal length (EL), caput (CA), corpus (CO), cauda weight (CU), epididymal volume (EV) and epididymal density (ED). The results showed significant differences (p

  9. Quantitative estimation of genetic risk for atypical scrapie in French sheep and potential consequences of the current breeding programme for resistance to scrapie on the risk of atypical scrapie

    OpenAIRE

    Laurent Pascal; Moazami-Goudarzi Katayoun; Gasqui Patrick; Calavas Didier; Fediaevsky Alexandre; Arsac Jean-Noël; Ducrot Christian; Moreno Carole

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Since 2002, active surveillance programmes have detected numerous atypical scrapie (AS) and classical scrapie cases (CS) in French sheep with almost all the PrP genotypes. The aim of this study was 1) to quantify the genetic risk of AS in French sheep and to compare it with the risk of CS, 2) to quantify the risk of AS associated with the increase of the ARR allele frequency as a result of the current genetic breeding programme against CS. Methods We obtained genotypes at ...

  10. Actividades emprendidas para recuperar y preservar la raza ovina Churra Tensina / Undertaken activities to recover and preserve the Churra Tensina sheep breed

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    A., Sanz; J.H., Calvo; J.I., Martí.; J.L., Alabart; M., Joy; G., Ripoll; J., Álvarez-Rodríguez.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available En el caso de la raza Churra Tensina, en peligro de extinción y originaria del Pirineo Oscense, se realizó una prospección de individuos y una caracterización del sistema productivo a través de encuestas a ganaderos, definiéndose explotaciones de mediano tamaño que tienen su continuidad garantizada. [...] Se estudió la morfología racial a partir de medidas zoométricas y caracteres fanerópticos de los animales inscritos en la Asociación (ATURA), lo que permitió clasificar la raza como mediolínea, dolicocéfala y eumétrica. Se estudiaron los parámetros productivos y reproductivos, así como la calidad de canal y carne de los tipos de cordero lechal, ternasco y pastenco, confirmando su viabilidad comercial. La caracterización genética mostró una raza homogénea, con niveles altos de variabilidad genética y bajos de consanguinidad. Finalmente, se han creado bancos de semen y embriones, estando representados los distintos genotipos de resistencia a Scrapie. La evolución positiva del censo en los últimos 10 años, añadida a la viabilidad de sus productos comerciales, garantiza la preservación de la Churra Tensina y de determinados sistemas ganaderos ligados a la tierra. Abstract in english This work aims to present the research activities in the Churra Tensina sheep breed, raised on the mountain area of Huesca Pyrenees. The population structure was prospected and the farming system was characterized through surveys to farmers. The animal morphology was studied through zoometric measur [...] ements and phaneroptic characters assessment of the individuals belonging to the breeders' Association (ATURA), showing a mediolineous, dolicocephalous and eumetric breed. The productive and reproductive parameters were analysed, and the commercial value of the suckling, light and heavy lamb categories was confirmed. The genetic studies showed that Churra Tensina is an homogeneous breed, with high genetic variability and low inbreeding. This breed was self-genetic differentiated, and has no crossbreeding with other Churro group populations. Finally, semen and embryos banks were established, being the different Scrapie resistance genotypes represented. The increasing census evolution in the past 10 years and the observed commercial viability assure the long term maintenance of this breed in their original location.

  11. Problems with readings of electronic tagged sheep in dairy flocks

    OpenAIRE

    Antun Kosteli?; Željko Mikulec; Anamaria Ekert Kabalin; Ivo Karadjole; Velimir Suši?; Igor Štokovi?

    2010-01-01

    Reliable traceability system in animal production is a crucial part for protection of animal and human health. Small ruminants are usually ear’ tagged but this tagging system especially in extensive production systems is not reliable. The use of Radio Frequency Indentifying Devices (RFID, or electronic identification) is more suitable. Ruminal boluses (Rumitag 20 gr, hdx ) are first chosen for ruminant tagging because they are easy and early applicable, easy to read and fraud resistant ...

  12. Charge Breeding Techniques in an Electron Beam Ion Trap for High Precision Mass Spectrometry at TITAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, T. D.; Simon, M. C.; Bale, J. C.; Chowdhury, U.; Eibach, M.; Gallant, A. T.; Lennarz, A.; Simon, V. V.; Chaudhuri, A.; Grossheim, A.; Kwiatkowski, A. A.; Schultz, B. E.; Dilling, J.

    2012-10-01

    Penning trap mass spectrometry is the most accurate and precise method available for performing atomic mass measurements. TRIUMF's Ion Trap for Atomic and Nuclear science is currently the only facility to couple its Penning trap to a rare isotope facility and an electron beam ion trap (EBIT). The EBIT is a valuable tool for beam preparation: since the precision scales linearly with the charge state, it takes advantage of the precision gained by using highly charged ions. However, this precision gain is contingent on fast and efficient charge breeding. An optimization algorithm has been developed to identify the optimal conditions for running the EBIT. Taking only the mass number and half-life of the isotope of interest as inputs, the electron beam current density, charge breeding time, charge state, and electron beam energy are all specified to maximize this precision. An overview of the TITAN charge breeding program, and the results of charge breeding simulations will be presented.

  13. Características de crescimento para avaliar o desempenho de ovelhas lanadas em cruzamento absorvente Growth characteristics to evaluate the wool sheep performance at cross-breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Aidar de Queiroz

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de estudar o desempenho produtivo de cruzas de animais lanados, foram utilizados os dados da escrituração zootécnica do rebanho ovino pertencente à FCAV/Unesp, Jaboticabal, SP. Os dados da escrituração foram oriundos de 312 ovelhas, com 129 da raça Ideal, 44 1/2 Ile de France 1/2 Ideal, 98 3/4 Ile de France 1/4 Ideal e 41 7/8 Ile de France 1/8 Ideal, submetidas ao cruzamento absorvente para a raça Ile de France. As análises das características produtivas peso ao nascer, peso ao desmame, peso aos 180 dias, ganho médio diário e tempo para o animal atingir 32kg de peso corporal foram realizadas no SAS (1996. Não foram observadas diferenças entre os genótipos avaliados para as caracteristicas produtivas peso ao nascer, peso ao desmame, e tempo para o animal atingir 32kg de peso corporal com valores médios de 3,08, 15, 67kg e 270,75 dias, respectivamente. Para as características ganho médio diário e peso aos 180 dias, houve efeito significativo para o genótipo 7/8 Ile de France 1/8 Ideal com volores de 0,214 e 40,53kg respectivamente. O sistema de cruzamento utilizado possibilita às próximas gerações características produtivas satisfatórias para produção de carne, e as fêmeas provenientes desses cruzamentos que forem utilizadas para reposição podem aumentar as características produtivas de seus descendentes.In order to study productive and reproductive performance of crossbred sheep, data from the sheep recording of the ovine cattle from Paulista State University, FCAV/Unesp, Jaboticabal, SP, Brazil were used. The record data came from 312 sheep (129 of Polwarth breed, 44 1/2 Ile de France 1/2 Polwarth, 98 3/4 Ile de France 1/4 Polwarth and 41 7/8 Ile de France 1/8 Polwarth submitted to absorber cross-breeding for Ile de France. Productive characteristic analysis: body weight at birth, body weight at weaning, body weight with 180 days, daily weight gain average and necessary period for animals to get 32kg of body weight were carried out at SAS statistical analysis (1996. No significant alterations were observed among the genotypes for the productive characteristics body weight at birth, body weight at weaning and necessary period for animals to get 32kg of body weight with mean values of 3,08, 15, 67kg and 270,75 days, respectively. For the characteristics daily weight gain average and weight with 180 days, there was significant effect for the genotype 7/8 Ile de France 1/8 Ideal with values of 0,214 and 40,53kg, respectively. The type of cross-breeding used gives the possibility for the next generation to have satisfactory productive characteristics for meat production, as the females of this cross-bred can increase the productive characteristics of their descendents.

  14. Effect of breed of female local sheep on blood biochemical and sexual hormonal levels during mating, pregnancy and lactation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study was carried out to determine the effect of ewes breeds on some blood biochemical and hormones levels during mating, pregnancy and post.partum periods. A total number of 42 ewes, 1.5 . 3.5 years of age with body weight ranged between 45 to 55 kg from breeding flock in Research Farm of Nuclear Research Centre, Atomic Energy Authority were used in this study. Animals were divided into two groups according to their breed. The first group included 18 Ossimi breed ewes and the second group included 24 Rahmani breed ewes. Blood samples were collected from both breed at 10, 20, 30, 50, 100, 120, 140, and 145 days up to parturitions and at 30 and 60 days of post. partum. Serum total lipids and cholesterol, progesterone (P4) and estradiol . 17? (E2) were determined. It was found that Ossimi ewes had lower level of both sexual hormones than Rahmani once. Plasma progesterone and estradiol-17 ? levels increased gradually as pregnancy time passed reaching its maximum level at the 140th day of the pregnancy period in Rahmani and Ossimi, then decreased during the last 5 days. Additionally, Rahmani ewes had relatively higher mean values of estradiol-17 ? at 30th and 60th days compared with Ossime ewes. While, the least squares mean of progesterone decreased in Rahmani ewes compared with Ossime ewes at the same time of estimation. Ossimi ewes having higher means of total lipids (L) and cholesterol (C) than in Rahmani ewes while, the values of L/C ratio were found to be higher in Rahmani ewes than Ossimi ones. Total lipids level increased gradually from Farghaly et al., J. Rad. Res. Appl. Sci., Vol. 1318 4, No. 4(B) (2011) 10th days of pregnancy from 273.09 and 267.75mg/dI to 342.92 and 338.9 mg/dl in 145th days in Ossimi and Rahmani ewes, respectively. Similarly, the levels of cholesterol were 93.49 and 90.35 mg /dl in 10th days of pregnancy and 134.79 and 141.81 mg/dl in 145th days of pregnancy for Ossimi and Rahmani ewes, respectively. The same trend was found for the plasma value of L/G ratio due to the effect of days of pregnancy

  15. Oestrous behaviour and ovarian activity in D'man and Sardi breeds of Moroccan sheep under normal and experimental photoperiods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of photoperiod on sexual activity was investigated in Sardi and D'man ewes. Twenty ewes from each breed were subjected to an experimental photoperiod corresponding to latitude 56 deg. N. Control ewes (12 per breed) were maintained under natural photoperiod (32 deg. N). Behavioural oestrus and ovarian activity were monitored using penis deviated rams and plasma progesterone levels. Preliminary results from this study show that an increase in amplitude of photoperiod variations causes a decrease in the expression of oestrous behaviour in D'man ewes during the period of decreasing daylight. Ovarian activity remained unchanged. Sardi ewes were not markedly affected by change in photoperiod. (author). 13 refs, 3 figs, 1 tab

  16. Fecal egg counts for gastrointestinal nematodes are associated with a polymorphism in the MHC-DRB1 gene in the Iranian Ghezel sheep breed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valilou, Rahman Hajializadeh; Rafat, Seyed A; Notter, David R; Shojda, Djalil; Moghaddam, Gholamali; Nematollahi, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Genetic variation among sheep breeds in resistance to gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) has been demonstrated in several production environments. Relationships between the ovine major histocompatibility complex and resistance to GIN have been studied, but few studies have systematically examined this issue in less-developed and semi-arid regions. The aim of the current study was to explore associations between fecal worm egg counts (FEC) for several GIN and polymorphisms in the DRB1 gene. One hundred male lambs were selected at 4-6 months of age from weaned animals in five flocks (n = 20 per flock). Body weights were determined, FAMACHA scores based on color of the ocular mucous membranes were assigned as an indicator of anemia, and blood and fecal samples were collected twice to evaluate FEC and blood packed cell volume (PCV) and for DNA isolation. A repeated-measures analysis of variance was used to test effects of genotype on FEC. The model included fixed effects of flock, genotype, time of measurement (1 or 2), and flock × time and genoype × time interactions, and a random (repeated) effect of lamb. Two genotypes (A1A1 and A1A2) were observed following digestion of Region 1 of Ovar-DRB1 with PstI. Genotypic frequencies were 0.73 for A1A1 and 0.27 for A1A2. FEC differed between Ovar_DRB1 genotypes A1A1 and A1A2 for Marshallagia marshalli, Strongyle, and total nematode FEC. Observed FEC were 30-41% lower for genotype A1A1. Differences among genotypes were consistent across measurement times, with no effect of genotype × measurement time interaction for any parasite class (P ? 0.34). A significant association was observed between FAMACHA scores and lamb PCV, and the residual correlation between these two variables was -0.51 (P < 0.001). FAMACHA scores can thus be used to detect differences among lambs in PCV, and polymorphic markers of Ovar-DRB1 have potential value as an indicator of parasite resistance in applied animal breeding programs on sheep farms in this region. PMID:25852746

  17. Tolerância ao calor de duas raças de ovinos deslanados no Distrito Federal Heat tolerance of two hair sheep breeds in the Federal District, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício Quesada

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar efeitos da temperatura ambiental sobre características fisiológicas de ovinos, no Distrito Federal. Foram selecionados dois grupos de 25 fêmeas vazias ou prenhas das raças Morada Nova e Santa Inês com idade variando entre dois e quatro anos. As fêmeas tiveram seus dados coletados seis vezes entre os meses de fevereiro e julho. As medições incluíram o peso vivo ( PV (kg, a temperatura retal (TR, a freqüência respiratória (FR e o batimento cardíaco (BC, às 8 e 14h, depois de expostas ao sol por um período de seis horas. Foram utilizados os procedimentos GLM, CORR e PRINCOMP do SAS e, para determinar grupamento e dissimilaridade, utilizou-se o programa GENES. Observaram-se grupos de alta e baixa resistência a ação do efeito calórico. As médias dos grupos às 14 hs foram: TR: 38,8 e 38,7°C; FR: 23,4 e 22,8 bat./min. e BC: 99,9 e 94,0 bat./min. para os animais das raças Morada Nova e Santa Inês, respectivamente. Houve ainda diferenças significativas entre matrizes não paridas e as paridas no período estudado, sendo maiores para não paridas: TR: 38,78 e 38,52°C; BC:23,13 e 22,82 bat./min.; FR: 96,98 e 96,36 bat./min., respectivamente. Os animais expostos ao sol pelo período de seis horas apresentaram resposta significativa ao estresse calórico, expresso pelo aumento da temperatura retal e pelo aumento no ritmo dos batimentos cardíacos e na freqüência respiratória. Os resultados obtidos permitiram estabelecer grupos de animais com maior e menor resistência às variações climáticas, ensejando a possibilidade de utilizar esses dados para seleção de animais em trabalhos de melhoramento.The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of increased environmental temperature on physiological traits of Morada Nova (MN and Santa Ines (SI sheep breeds in the Federal District, Brazil. Two groups (25 MN and 25 SI were selected for study and included both pregnant (EP and non-pregnant (EPN ewes, aged betwen 2 and 4 years. The fifty ewes were recorded, once a month, for six months, at 8 am and 2 pm, and measurements included body weight (W, RT (Rectal Temperature, RR (Respiration rate, and CR (Cardiac Rate were analyzed using SAS (GLM, CORR, PRINCOMP procedures and the program GENES. The differences between the two breeds were: RT: 38.8 and 38.7°C; RR: 23.4 and 22.8 (rate/min.; CR: 99.9 and 94.0 (rate/min., for Morada Nova and Santa Ines breeds, respectively. Difference between non-pregnant and pregnant ewes were: RT: 38.78 and 38.52°C; RR: 23.13 and 22.82 (Rate/min; CR: 96.98 and 96.36 (Rate/min, respectively. Differences between breeds were significant, as were differences between animals within groups. It was therefore possible therefore to identify animals within a breed more or less resitant to the climate conditions. This information may be used in future breeding programs.

  18. Polymorphisms of the Ovine BMPR-IB, BMP-15 and FSHR and Their Associations with Litter Size in Two Chinese Indigenous Sheep Breeds

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Weimin; Liu, Shijia; Li, Fadi; Pan, Xiangyu; Chong LI; Zhang, Xiaoxue; Ma, Youji; La, Yongfu; Xi, Rui; Li, Tingfu

    2015-01-01

    The Small Tailed Han sheep and Hu sheep are two prolific local sheep in China. In this study, the polymorphisms of BMPR-IB (Bone morphogenetic protein receptor IB), BMP-15 (Bone morphogenetic protein 15) and FSHR (follicle stimulating hormone receptor) were investigated to check whether they are associated with litter size in Small Tailed Han sheep and Hu sheep. Consequently, three polymorphisms, FecB mutation in BMPR-IB (c.746A>G), FecG mutation in BMP-15 (c.718C>T) and the mutation (g. 47C>...

  19. Qualidade da carne de ovinos de diferentes raças de reprodutores terminados sob dois sistemas de produção / Meat quality of sheep of different breeds of breeding terminated under two production systems

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Edmilson Lima de, Menezes Junior; Ana Sancha Malveira, Batista; Aline Vieira, Landim; José Teodorico de, Araújo Filho; Evandro Vasconcelos, Holanda Junior.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se investigar a influência da dieta na terminação de ovinos de diferentes raças de reprodutores sobre a qualidade física, química e sensorial da carne. Foram avaliados 36 cordeiros, filhos de fêmeas mestiças Santa Inês x Somalis com reprodutores puros de três raças: Santa Inês, Dorper e So [...] malis, distribuídos em dois sistemas de produção, terminação a pasto nativo e cultivado, 12 de cada raças de reprodutores, todos machos, inteiros e distribuídos em dois sistemas de produção. Os animais tiveram acesso a alimentação e água ad libitum, sendo abatidos ao atingirem aproximadamente 180 dias.Determinou-se, no músculo Longissimus dorsi, os teores de umidade, proteína, lipídios, cinzas, textura, perda de peso por cocção, capacidade de retenção de água; colesterol e o perfil de ácidos graxos, bem como a avaliação dos parâmetros sensoriais de sabor, aroma, dureza, suculência e aceitação global. O grupamento Somalis apresentou menores teores de cinzas e lipídeos. Os animais Dorper e Santa Inês obtiveram resultados semelhantes em, PPC (perda de peso por cocção), os ácidos graxos C14:0 (mirístico) e C17:0 (margárico) e aceitação global. O pasto cultivado apresentou melhores resultados para, proteína, lipídeos, PPC (perda de peso por cocção), CRA (capacidade de retenção de água), C16:1 (palmitoleico), C18:1n9c (oleico), C18:1n9t (Elaídico), AGM (ácido graxo monoinsaturado), HH (hipocolesterolêmicos e hipercolesterolêmicos) e aceitação global, e resultados inferiores para, AGP (ácido graxo poli-insaturado), AGP:AGS (ácido graxo poli-insaturado) , AGD (ácido graxo desejáveis). A raça do reprodutor e sistema de produção influenciam as características físicas e químicas da carne de cordeiro. Abstract in english This study aimed to investigate the influence of diet on sheep of different breeds reprodutoresgenótipos on the physical, chemical and sensory dae his flesh termination. Santa Inês and Dorper Somalis, distributed in two production systems, the termination native and cultivated pasture, 12 of each ge [...] nótiporaças breeding, all males: 36 lambs, sons of female crossbred Santa Ines x Somalis with pure breeding three breeds were evaluated , whole and divided into two production systems. The animals had access to food and water ad libitum, and were sent to abatidose dias25 to reach approximately 180 kg live weight. It was determined, the longissimus muscle, the moisture, protein, lipid, ash, texture, weight loss by cooking, water holding capacity; cholesterol and fatty acid profile, as well as evaluating the sensory parameters of flavor, aroma, hardness, juiciness and overall acceptability. The genotype and production system influence the physical and chemical characteristics of lamb. The Somali group had lower levels of ash and lipids. The Dorper and St. Agnes animals yielded similar results, PPC (weight loss by cooking), the fatty acid C14: 0 (myristic) and C17: 0 (margaric) and overall acceptability. The cultivated pasture showed better results for protein, lipid, PPC (weight loss by cooking), WHC (water holding capacity), C16: 1 (palmitoleic), C18: 1n9c (oleic acid), C18: 1n9t (elaidic) AGM (monounsaturated fatty acid), HH (hipocolesterolemics hypercholesterolemic) and overall acceptability, and lower results for AGP (polyunsaturated fatty acid), AGP: AGS (polyunsaturated fatty acid), AGD (desirable fatty acid). AO genotype sire breed and production system influence the physical and chemical characteristics of lamb.

  20. Estimativas de parâmetros genéticos para características de crescimento em ovinos da raça Somalis Brasileira / Genetic parameters estimates for growth traits in Somalis Brasileira hair sheep breed

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ana Fabrícia Braga, Magalhães; Raimundo Nonato Braga, Lobo; Olivardo, Facó.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se estimar parâmetros genéticos para características de crescimento em ovinos da raça Somalis Brasileira. Os dados utilizados neste estudo foram provenientes do rebanho da Embrapa Caprinos e Ovinos, localizado na cidade de Sobral - CE. Os dados continham registros de 1.120 animais no arqui [...] vo de pedigree. As características analisadas foram: peso ao nascer (PN), peso ao desmame (PD), ganho de peso do nascimento ao desmame (GND) e peso adulto (PA). As estimativas dos componentes de (co)variâncias e os parâmetros genéticos foram obtidos pelo método da Máxima Verossimilhança Restrita não Derivativa (DFREML), utilizando o programa MTDFREML. Nas análises unicaracterística, as herdabilidades foram de magnitude baixa a moderada. As magnitudes das herdabilidades maternas foram todas superiores às herdabilidades diretas. As herdabilidades das análises multicaracterísticas entre PN, PD e GND superaram as análises unicaracterísticas. As correlações genéticas apresentaram grande variação quanto aos seus valores. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to estimate genetic parameters for growth traits in Somalis Brasileira hair sheep breed. The data used in this study were from the flock of Embrapa Caprinos and Ovinos, located in the city of Sobral - CE, Brazil. Data contained records of 1,120 animals in the pedigree file. [...] The analyzed traits were birth weight (PN), weaning weight (PD), weight gain from birth to weaning (GND) and adult weight (PA). Estimates of (co)variances and genetic parameters were obtained by Derivative Free Restricted Maximum Likelihood Method (DFREML) using the MTDFREML software. The heritabilities were low to moderate in univariate analysis. The maternal heritabilities were higher than direct heritabilities. The heritabilities in multivariate analysis exceeded those in univariate analysis. The values of genetic correlations varied widely.

  1. Relationship of intestinal histology with the resistance to Trichostrongylus colubriformis infection in three breeds of sheep / Associação entre a resposta celular no intestino e a resistência à infecção por Trichostrongylus colubriformis em três raças de ovinos

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alessandro F.T., Amarante; Raquel A., Rocha; Patrizia A., Bricarello.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se a associação entre o número de células inflamatórias no intestino delgado e a resistência à infecção por Trichostrongylus colubriformis em ovinos de três raças (Santa Inês, Suffolk e Ile de France), naturalmente infectados. Mastócitos, eosinófilos e leucócitos globulares foram quantific [...] ados na mucosa intestinal. A concentração de histamina foi estimada em amostras teciduais do intestino, bem como foi determinado o comprimento de machos e fêmeas de T. colubriformis. A resposta celular foi similar na mucosa intestinal das três raças ovinas (P>0,05). Houve grande variação entre os ovinos em relação aos resultados parasitológicos e celulares, mesmo nos animais de mesma raça. Em geral, os animais que apresentaram número menor de células inflamatórias tiveram cargas parasitárias maiores, contagens de ovos por grama de fezes mais altas e exemplares de T. colubriformis maiores. Os resultados indicaram que mastócitos, eosinófilos e leucócitos globulares prejudicaram o estabelecimento, o desenvolvimento e a sobrevivência dos parasitas. Abstract in english The study was carried out to evaluate the relationship of inflammatory intestinal cells with the resistance to Trichostrongylus colubriformis infections in three breeds of sheep (Santa Ines, Suffolk and Ile de France), naturally infected. Mast cells, eosinophils, and globule leucocytes were enumerat [...] ed in intestinal mucosa. Histamine concentration was estimated in intestinal tissue samples and the length of male and female specimens were determined. The three breeds of sheep showed similar cellular response in the small intestine mucosa (P>0.05). There was extensive variation among sheep in the parasitological and inflammatory cell variables, even in lambs of the same breed. In general, animals presenting less inflammatory cells had a larger worm burden, higher fecal egg counts, and larger T. colubriformis worms. The inflammatory cells possibly impaired the parasite's establishment, development, and survival.

  2. Quantitative estimation of genetic risk for atypical scrapie in French sheep and potential consequences of the current breeding programme for resistance to scrapie on the risk of atypical scrapie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Pascal

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since 2002, active surveillance programmes have detected numerous atypical scrapie (AS and classical scrapie cases (CS in French sheep with almost all the PrP genotypes. The aim of this study was 1 to quantify the genetic risk of AS in French sheep and to compare it with the risk of CS, 2 to quantify the risk of AS associated with the increase of the ARR allele frequency as a result of the current genetic breeding programme against CS. Methods We obtained genotypes at codons 136, 141, 154 and 171 of the PRNP gene for representative samples of 248 AS and 245 CS cases. We used a random sample of 3,317 scrapie negative animals genotyped at codons 136, 154 and 171 and we made inferences on the position 141 by multiple imputations, using external data. To estimate the risk associated with PrP genotypes, we fitted multivariate logistic regression models and we estimated the prevalence of AS for the different genotypes. Then, we used the risk of AS estimated for the ALRR-ALRR genotype to analyse the risk of detecting an AS case in a flock homogenous for this genotype. Results Genotypes most at risk for AS were those including an AFRQ or ALHQ allele while genotypes including a VLRQ allele were less commonly associated with AS. Compared to ALRQ-ALRQ, the ALRR-ALRR genotype was significantly at risk for AS and was very significantly protective for CS. The prevalence of AS among ALRR-ALRR animals was 0.6‰ and was not different from the prevalence in the general population. Conclusion In conclusion, further selection of ALRR-ALRR animals will not result in an overall increase of AS prevalence in the French sheep population although this genotype is clearly susceptible to AS. However the probability of detecting AS cases in flocks participating in genetic breeding programme against CS should be considered.

  3. Polymorphism of the CSN1s1 casein gene in position 663 in Polish lowland sheep breeds from the Podlasie region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Ni?nikowski

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The studies were conducted on 431 sheep (406? and 25? of three varieties of Polish lowland sheep: ?elazna sheep, corriedale sheep and Polish lowland sheep from the Podlasie region. All animals were subjected to the identification of the alpha-S1 casein gene – CSN1S1. On the basis of the research two alleles (C and T and three genotypes (CC, CT and TT were identified. A balanced frequency of alleles C and T in all investigated varieties was identified, which translated into a balanced distribution of genotypes: the T allele and the TT genotype occurred more frequently than C allele and CC and CT genotypes. There was significantly higher frequency of C allele and lower of T allele in ewes compared to rams in all studied varieties. The study concluded that in the frequency of alleles and genotypes of casein gene alpha-S1 in position 663 the genetic alignments in all three varieties of Polish lowland sheep were observed.

  4. Efectos Genéticos Directo y Materno sobre el Crecimiento de Ovinos de la Raza Junín / Direct and maternal genetic effects on the growth of Junín sheep breed

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Diógenes, Valerio; Gustavo, Gutiérrez; Juan, Chávez.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de estimar los efectos genéticos - directo y materno - vinculados a la expresión de características de crecimiento en corderos de la raza Junín, se aplicaron cuatro modelos mixtos en el estudio de sus pesos de nacimiento (PN), destete (PD), primera esquila (PE) y ganancia diaria del [...] nacimiento al destete (GPND), a través de análisis univariado y bivariado. Los modelos usados en análisis univariado incluyeron como efectos fijos el año de nacimiento y sexo, y como covariables el peso de la madre al empadre (para PN y PD), la edad del cordero al destete (para PD y GPND) y la edad a la primera esquila (para PE). El Modelo 1 incluyó los efectos fijos y el efecto genético aditivo directo (a); el Modelo 2, similar al 1, adicionó el efecto genético aditivo materno (m), considerando la Cov am= 0; en el Modelo 3, igual al 2, se asumió la Cov = A? ; y el Modelo 4, igual al 3, se adicionó el efecto del ambiente permanente materno (c). Los modelos para el análisis bivariado fueron extensiones del univariado, empleándose en todos los análisis el método de máxima verosimilitud restringida (REML), instrumentado en el programa ASReml. En el análisis univariado, el Modelo 2, y en el bivariado el Modelo 3, estimaron mejor los parámetros genéticos, incluidas las correlaciones entre los efectos aditivos directos y maternos para las características. Los valores estimados de heredabilidad variaron entre bajos y moderados, indicando la posibilidad de ser aplicados en planes de mejora genética del ovino Junín, los mismos que incrementarían su eficiencia al adicionarse a ellos los valores, entre moderados y altos, de las correlaciones genéticas y fenotípicas estimadas. Abstract in english In order to estimate the genetic effects - direct and maternal - linked to the expression of growth traits in lambs of Junín breed, four mixed models were applied in the study of the birth weight (PN), weaning weight (PD), first shearing weight (PE) and daily body weight gain from birth to weaning ( [...] GPND), through univariate and bivariate analysis. The models used in univariate analysis included as fixed effects year of birth and sex, and as covariates the mother’s weight at mating (for PN and PD), age of lamb at weaning (for PD and GPND), and age at first shearing (for PE). Model 1 included the fixed effects and the direct additive genetic effect (a); Model 2, similar to 1, added additive maternal genetic effect (m), considering Cov am=0; Model 3, similar to 2, assumed Cov=A? ; and Model 4, equal to 3, added the maternal permanent environmental effect (c). All bivariate models were extensions of the univariate ones. In all the analyses, the restricted maximum likelihood (REML) method, implemented in the ASReml program was applied. Univariate Model 2 and bivariate Model 3 estimated the best genetic parameters, including correlations between direct and maternal additive effects for the traits. The estimated heritability values ranged from low to moderate, indicating the possibility of its application in genetic improvement plans for Junín sheep, which would increase its efficiency when the estimated, moderate to high genetic and phenotypic correlations are also included.

  5. The use of 2-dimensional gas chromatography to investigate the effect of rumen-protected conjugated linoleic acid, breed, and lactation stage on the fatty acid profile of sheep milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellattiero, E; Cecchinato, A; Tagliapietra, F; Schiavon, S; Bittante, G

    2015-04-01

    In this study, 2-dimensional gas chromatography (GC × GC) was used to obtain a detailed fatty acid (FA) profile of sheep milk and to evaluate the effects of a rumen-protected conjugated linoleic acid (rpCLA) supply, breed, days in milk (DIM), sampling period, and number of lambs suckling on the FA profile. Twenty-four ewes, from 3 autochthonous breeds of the Veneto Alps (Brogna, Foza, and Lamon), were housed in 6 pens (2 pens/breed), according to DIM (38 ± 23 d) and body weight (61 ± 13 kg). The ewes and their offspring of 3 pens (1 pen/breed) were fed ad libitum a total mixed ration (control), and the other animals received the same diet supplemented with 12 g/d per ewe, plus 4 g/d for each lamb older than 30 d, of an rpCLA mixture. The study lasted 63 d. Two composite milk samples for each ewe were prepared during the first and second months of the trial. The pooled milk samples were analyzed in duplicate for FA profile by 2-dimensional gas chromatography, which allowed us to obtain a detailed FA profile of sheep milk, with 170 different FA detected, including many that were present in small concentrations. The milk relative proportions of individual FA, groups of FA, or FA indices were analyzed by PROC MIXED of SAS (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC), considering diet, breed, DIM, and sampling period as sources of variation. The random effect of animal was used to test diet, breed, and DIM, whereas the effects of period were tested on the residual. Breed had a small influence on milk FA profile, mainly on branched- and odd-chain FA. Within breed, animal repeatability for the relative proportions of milk FA was notable for almost all monounsaturated FA and for saturated FA with 14 to 19 carbon atoms, except C16:0, and less so for polyunsaturated FA. The inclusion of rpCLA (CLA cis-9,trans-11 and CLA trans-10,cis-12) increased the presence of the same CLA isomers in the milk as well as that of CLA trans-9,trans-11, and decreased the proportions of de novo-synthesized short-chain FA. From a cluster analysis based on the matrix of correlation coefficients among all FA relative proportions, 3 main FA groups were observed: the first included mainly odd- or branched-chain saturated FA, C18:0, C16:0 and CLA trans-10,cis-12; the second included monounsaturated FA or polyunsaturated FA with 16 to 20 carbons, CLA cis-9,trans-11, and CLA trans-9,trans-11; and the third included short- to medium-chain saturated FA, polyunsaturated FA with 2 to 5 double bonds, and 3 CLA isomers not affected by rpCLA addition (CLA trans-11,cis-13, CLA cis-9,cis-11, and CLA cis-10,cis-12). PMID:25648807

  6. Comparison of four European endangered red sheep based on fleece characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Parés Casanova, Pere-Miquel; Perezgrovas Garza, Raúl; Jordana i Vidal, Jordi

    2011-01-01

    Patterns of wool variations found in modern sheep breeds may shed some light on the history of circum-Mediterranean migrations, which at present are still largely unknown. In this study, the characteristics of wool from five different local European breeds were investigated. Wool samples were taken from the following sheep breeds: Aranese, Roussillon Red, Castillonnais, Levant Red and Majorcan Red. Specimens were collected from 88 animals in different herds for each breed. The following sheep...

  7. The influence of selected genes on sheep performance traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena KOLENDA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to enhance breeding progress, genes that affect the performance of sheep are being identified. In Poland, sheep breeding programs focus mainly on meat performance, therefore, it is important to identify genes that affect it. Moreover, studies on reproductive performance of sheep have been made. Myostatin (GDF8, calpastatin (CAST and calpain have been identified as the candidate genes affecting meat quality. Whereas, BMP15 and GDF9, also called fertility genes (Fec, have been reported to affect reproduction traits. The knowledge of the association between the polymorphic forms of these genes and sheep performance traits may contribute to the determination of genetic markers that could be used in sheep breeding programs. The aim of this study is to gather the latest information about the use of genomic selection in breeding programs and the association between polymorphisms in BMP15, GDF8, GDF9 and CAST genes and sheep performance.

  8. Parámetros de crecimiento y de la canal de corderos de la raza Ovella Galega sacrificados a 45 días / Growth and carcass parameters of the Ovella Galega sheep breed lambs at the slaughter age of 45 days

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M., Fernández; S., Adán; B., Domínguez; C.J., Rivero; J.R., Justo; A., Arias; M.C., García-Fontán; J.M., Lorenzo; J.J., Lama; C., López; D., Rois; J., Feijóo; D., Franco.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Actualmente la raza Ovella Galega se encuentra en peligro de extinción, por lo que está sometida a un Programa de Conservación y Recuperación donde prima la preservación de la variabilidad genética. En este trabajo se estudió el crecimiento y la canal en corderos de la raza, para profundizar en su c [...] aracterización. Se han utilizado 10 corderos machos de parto simple inscritos en el Libro Genealógico de la raza, criados sólo con leche materna hasta la edad de sacrificio de 45 días. El crecimiento y las GMD son acordes con los resultados publicados en otros estudios sobre la raza, y a pesar de que ésta presenta un pequeño formato, entre los resultados obtenidos cabe destacar su alto rendimiento comercial (59%) así como un adecuado porcentaje en piezas de 1ª y 2ª categoría. Abstract in english The Ovella Galega is a endangered sheep breed and is protected by a Conservation and Recovery Programme, in order to keep the genetic variability. A growth and carcass study was made on Ovella Galega lambs, whose main objetive is its characterization. Ten male lambs from single birth and fed solely [...] on their mother´s milk, all of them registered in the Record of Births of Stud-Book, were slaughtered at 45 days old. The growth and average dayly gain are in accordance to results published in other breed studies. The results show a high commercial yield (59%), apart from appropriate percentages in 1st and 2nd market categories.

  9. Immune Responses Associated with Resistance to Haemonchosis in Sheep

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando Alba-Hurtado; Marco Antonio Muñoz-Guzmán

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the known immunological and genetic factors associated with sheep resistance to infection by Haemonchus contortus. Such resistance is an inheritable genetic trait (h2, 0.22–0.63) associated with certain sheep breeds. Resistant sheep do not completely reject the disease; they only harbor fewer parasites than susceptible sheep and therefore have a lower fecal egg count. Protective immune response to haemonchosis is an expression of genetic resistance. Genes associated with r...

  10. Genetically resistant sheep avoid parasites to a greater extent than do susceptible sheep

    OpenAIRE

    Hutchings, M. R.; Knowler, K.J; McAnulty, R; McEwan, J. C.

    2007-01-01

    Livestock breeding programmes have created resistant (R) and susceptible (S) sheep that differ in their ability to control parasites through their immune function but potentially also their grazing behaviour (i.e. parasite avoidance). Using the Perendale genetic lines, we tested the hypothesis that R-sheep avoid parasites more effectively, reducing their parasite exposure/challenge, compared with S-sheep. However, in grazing systems, parasite-rich areas are also forage rich, suggesting that p...

  11. Efecto de la raza, peso de sacrificio y sexo en el quinto cuarto en razas ovinas canarias / The effect of breed, slaughter weight and sex in fifth-quarter in Canary sheep breeds

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    V., Pérez; A., Camacho; J., Mata; L., Bermejo.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Se estudiaron 60 corderos de raza Canaria y 60 de raza Canaria de Pelo, mitad machos y mitad hembras, sacrificados a 9,78±0,49 kg; 15,8±0,66 kg y 24,9±0,76 kg. El objetivo del trabajo fue conocer el efecto de la raza, sexo y peso de sacrificio sobre la importancia porcentual del quinto cuarto y sus [...] componentes. El peso total del quinto cuarto fue mayor en la raza Canaria, aunque su porcentaje de órganos comestibles, fue inferior al de la raza Canaria de Pelo. Los intestinos, la piel y la cabeza fueron las partes que mayor peso porcentual tuvieron. Al aumentar el peso de sacrificio, la importancia del quinto cuarto se redujo debido al menor porcentaje de cabeza y autópodos. En los machos, la cabeza, vejiga y autópodos, alcanzaron mayor proporción y en las hembras, la piel. El porcentaje de piel incrementó al aumentar el peso de sacrificio sólo en los corderos de lana. Abstract in english Sixty Canaria lambs and 60 Canaria Hair breed lambs (half male and half female), slaughtered to 9.78±0.49, 15.8±0.66 and 24.9±0.76 kg live weight were studied. The objective of study was to determine the effect of breed, slaughter weight and sex of lamb on percentages of fifth quarter and their comp [...] onents. Canaria breed lambs showed a higher weight for fifth quarter, and its percentage of edible organs was lower than in Canaria Hair breed. The intestines, skin and head were the parts that had greater weight percentage. The importance of the fifth quarter was reduced when slaughter weight increased due to lower percentage of head and legs. Males showed higher values for head, legs and bladder; females showed higher values for the skin. Skin percentage increased when increasing the slaughter weight only in wool lambs.

  12. Mineral requirements of dairy sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mineral requirements of dairy sheep under semi-intensive and intensive management systems are reviewed. Basically, mineral requirements obtained with mutton breeds are supplemented with specific information obtained with dairy sheep. The daily requirements of sheep in major elements have been estimated using the factorial method, first to calculate the net requirements during maintenance, growth, reproduction and lactation, and second to assess the efficiency of absorption for converting net requirements into dietary allowance. The requirements in trace elements were estimated from the results of feeding trials. The choice of values for endogenous losses and particularly the precision with which efficiency of absorption can be predicted are the main sources of error in estimates of dietary allowances, especially when efficiency of absorption is low. The net requirements in major elements are given for maintenance, pregnancy and lactation, together with the recommended coefficients of absorption. Dietary requirements in trace elements are expressed as milligram per kilogram dry matter. The requirements in all nutrients and particularly in Ca and P increase during late pregnancy, especially during lactation. The requirements during lactation mainly reflect milk composition, the level of milk yield and lactation length, but also the feed intake level. The factors related to the confinement, feeding and management of dairy breeds, which differ from those of mutton breeds, may affect their mineral requirements. Changes in husbandry practices resulting in increased production may increase the stress on the animal and therefore alter its metabolic equilibrium. Direct supplementation of the diet of dairy sheep is the cheapest and most convenient method of mineral supplementation. The cost is outweighed by the enhanced performance of sheep. Determination of the mineral composition of feedstuffs available for feeding dairy sheep indicates the type and level of mineral supplementation needed. (author)

  13. Revealing the history of domesticated sheep using retrovirus integrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chessa, Bernado; Pereira, Filipe

    2009-01-01

    The domestication of livestock represented a crucial step in human history. By using endogenous retroviruses as genetic markers, we found that sheep differentiated on the basis of their "retrotype" and morphological traits dispersed across Eurasia and Africa via separate migratory episodes. Relicts of the first migrations include the Mouflon, as well as breeds previously recognized as "primitive" on the basis of their morphology, such as the Orkney, Soay, and the Nordic short-tailed sheep now confined to the periphery of northwest Europe. A later migratory episode, involving sheep with improved production traits, shaped the great majority of present-day breeds. The ability to differentiate genetically primitive sheep from more modern breeds provides valuable insights into the history of sheep domestication

  14. Estimativas de componentes de (covariância e herdabilidade direta e materna de pesos corporais em ovinos da raça Santa Inês Estimates of (co variance components and direct and maternal heritability for growth traits in Santa Inês sheep breed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wandrick Hauss de Sousa

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estimar os componentes de (covariância e herdabilidade direta e materna de pesos corporais em ovinos da raça Santa Inês. Um total de 3971 registros de pesos de crias da raça Santa Inês, filhas de 114 reprodutores e 758 ovelhas, foi analisado, obtido de rebanhos experimentais do SNPA da Embrapa, no período de 1983 a 1995. Componentes de covariância e parâmetros genéticos resultantes de efeito genético aditivo direto, efeitos genético materno e de ambiente permanente, bem como a covariância entre esses efeitos, para peso ao nascer (PN, aos 112 (P112 e 196 dias de idade (P196, foram estimados pelo método da máxima verossimilhança restrita (REML, usando o aplicativo MTDFREML sob modelo animal. Incluindo ou não efeitos genéticos materno ou de ambiente materno permanente, bem como a covariância genética entre os efeitos direto e materno, cinco diferentes modelos de análises foram usados para determinar o modelo mais apropriado para descrever cada uma das características. Em geral, o modelo mais completo (modelo 4 foi o que apresentou maior valor para logaritmo da função de verossimilhança (log de L para todas características estudadas. Quando efeitos maternos foram excluidos, estimativas de herdabilidade direta foram substancialmente inflacionadas (0,31 a 0,37. Efeitos maternos foram importantes para todas as características, mesmo as medidas após o desmame. Correlações genéticas entre os efeitos direto e materno para PN e P112 foram negativas e de baixa magnitude (-0,31 a - 0,10, porém, para P196, estes valores foram positivos e de alta magnitude (0,67 a 0,98. A exclusão dos efeitos maternos, quando importantes, resultou em superestimativa das herdabilidade.The objective of this work was to estimate the (co variance components and direct and maternal heritability of the body weights of sheep of Santa Inês breed. A total of 3,771 lambs weights records of the Santa Inês hair sheep breed, progenies of 114 sires, and 758 ewes were analyzed, obtained from experimental herds of EMBRAPA - SNPA from 1985 to 1995. The covariance components and genetic parameters from additive genetic effects, maternal and permanent environmental effects, as well as the covariance between those effects for birth weight (BW, weight at 112 (W112 and weight at 196 days of age (W196, were estimated by Restricted Maximum Likelihood (REML using MTDFREML program, under animal model. Including or not the maternal genetic effect or permanent environmental effect, as well as the genetic covariance between the direct and maternal effects, five different animal models were used to determine the most appropriate model for each trait. In general, the most comprehensive model (Model 4 was the one that presented the greatest value for the maximum log likelihood function (log of L for all studied traits. When maternal effects were excluded, estimates of direct heritabilities were substantially inflated (.31 to .37. The maternal effects were important for all traits, even those that were measured after weaning. Genetic correlation between direct and maternal effects for BW and W112 were negative and low (from -.31 to -.10, however, for W196 this value was positive and high (from .67 to .98. The exclusion of the maternal effects, when they are important, resulted in overestimates of heritability.

  15. Immune responses associated with resistance to haemonchosis in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alba-Hurtado, Fernando; Muñoz-Guzmán, Marco Antonio

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the known immunological and genetic factors associated with sheep resistance to infection by Haemonchus contortus. Such resistance is an inheritable genetic trait (h(2), 0.22-0.63) associated with certain sheep breeds. Resistant sheep do not completely reject the disease; they only harbor fewer parasites than susceptible sheep and therefore have a lower fecal egg count. Protective immune response to haemonchosis is an expression of genetic resistance. Genes associated with resistance and susceptibility are described. Genetically resistant sheep have nonspecific mechanisms that block the initial colonization by Haemonchus contortus larvae. These sheep also have an efficacious Th2 type response (e.g., increases in blood and tissue eosinophils, specific IgE class antibodies, mast cells, IL-5, IL-13, and TNF?) that protects them against the infection; in contrast, susceptible sheep do not efficiently establish this type of immune response. Finally, the main reported antigens of H. contortus were reviewed. PMID:23509684

  16. Charge Breeding of Radioactive Ions in an Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Source(ECRIS) at ISOLDE

    CERN Multimedia

    Wenander, F J C; Lindroos, M

    2002-01-01

    The development of an efficient charge breeding scheme for the next generation of RIB facilities will have a strong impact on the post-accelerator for several Radioactive Ion Beam (RIB) projects at European large scale facilities. At ISOLDE/CERN there will be the unique possibility to carry out experiments with the two possible charge breeding set-ups with a large variety of radioactive isotopes using identical injection conditions. One charge breeding set-up is the Penning trap/EBIS combination which feeds the REX-ISOLDE linear accelerator and which is in commissioning now. The second charge breeder is a new ECRIS PHOENIX developed at the ISN ion source laboratory at Grenoble. This ECRIS is now under investigation with a 14 GHz amplifier to characterize its performance. The experiments are accompanied by theoretical studies in computer simulations in order to optimize the capture of the ions in the ECRIS plasma. A second identical PHOENIX ECRIS which is under investigation at the Daresbury Laboratory is avai...

  17. Lines of Evidence–Incremental Markings in Molar Enamel of Soay Sheep as Revealed by a Fluorochrome Labeling and Backscattered Electron Imaging Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kierdorf, Horst; Kierdorf, Uwe; Frölich, Kai; Witzel, Carsten

    2013-01-01

    We studied the structural characteristics and periodicities of regular incremental markings in sheep enamel using fluorochrome injections for vital labeling of forming enamel and backscattered electron imaging in the scanning electron microscope. Microscopic analysis of mandibular first molars revealed the presence of incremental markings with a daily periodicity (laminations) that indicated successive positions of the forming front of interprismatic enamel. In addition to the laminations, incremental markings with a sub-daily periodicity were discernible both in interprismatic enamel and in enamel prisms. Five sub-daily increments were present between two consecutive laminations. Backscattered electron imaging revealed that each sub-daily growth increment consisted of a broader and more highly mineralized band and a narrower and less mineralized band (line). The sub-daily markings in the prisms of sheep enamel morphologically resembled the (daily) prisms cross striations seen in primate enamel. Incremental markings with a supra-daily periodicity were not observed in sheep enamel. Based on the periodicity of the incremental markings, maximum mean daily apposition rates of 17.0 µm in buccal enamel and of 13.4 µm in lingual enamel were recorded. Enamel extension rates were also high, with maximum means of 180 µm/day and 217 µm/day in upper crown areas of buccal and lingual enamel, respectively. Values in more cervical crown portions were markedly lower. Our results are in accordance with previous findings in other ungulate species. Using the incremental markings present in primate enamel as a reference could result in a misinterpretation of the incremental markings in ungulate enamel. Thus, the sub-daily growth increments in the prisms of ungulate enamel might be mistaken as prism cross striations with a daily periodicity, and the laminations misidentified as striae of Retzius with a supra-daily periodicity. This would lead to a considerable overestimation of crown formation times in ungulate teeth. PMID:24040293

  18. Modelos linear e não linear em análises genéticas para sobrevivência de crias de ovinos da raça Santa Inês Linear and nonlinear models in genetic analyses of lamb survival in the Santa Inês hair sheep breed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.H. Sousa

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Registros de sobrevivência do nascimento ao desmame de 3846 crias de ovinos da raça Santa Inês foram analisados por modelos de reprodutor linear e não linear (modelo de limiar, para estimar componentes de variância e herdabilidade. Os modelos usados para sobrevivência, analisada como característica da cria, incluíram os efeitos fixos de sexo, da combinação tipo de nascimento-criação da cria e da idade da ovelha ao parto, efeito da covariável peso da cria ao nascer e efeitos aleatórios de reprodutor, da classe rebanho-ano-estação e do resíduo. Componentes de variância para o modelo linear foram estimados pelo método da máxima verossimilhança restrita (REML e para o modelo não linear por uma aproximação da máxima verossimilhança marginal (MML, pelo programa CMMAT2. O coeficiente de herdabilidade (h² estimado pelo modelo de limiar foi de 0,29, e pelo modelo linear, 0,14. A correlação de ordem de Spearman entre as capacidades de transmissão dos reprodutores, com base nos dois modelos foi de 0,96. As estimativas de h² obtidas indicam a possibilidade de se obter, por seleção, ganho genético para sobrevivência.Records of 3,846 lambs survival from birth to weaning of Santa Inês hair sheep breed, were analyzed by linear and non linear sire models (threshold model to estimate variance components and heritability (h². The models that were used to analyze survival, considered in this study as a lamb trait, included the fixed effects of sex of the lamb, combination of type of birth-rearing of lamb, and age of ewe, birth weight of lamb as covariate, and random effects of sire, herd-year-season and residual. Variance components were obtained using restricted maximum likelihood (REML, in linear model and marginal maximum likelihood in threshold model through CMMAT2 program. Estimate of heritability (h² obtained by threshold model was 0.29 and by linear model was 0.14. Rank correlation of Spearman, between sire solutions based on the two models was 0.96. The obtained estimates in this study indicate that it is possible to acquire genetic gain to survival by selection.

  19. Sheep Feed and Scrapie, France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippe, Sandrine; Ducrot, Christian; Roy, Pascal; Remontet, Laurent; Jarrige, Nathalie

    2005-01-01

    Scrapie is a small ruminant, transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE). Although in the past scrapie has not been considered a zoonosis, the emergence of bovine spongiform encephalopathy, transmissible to humans and experimentally to sheep, indicates that risk exists for small ruminant TSEs in humans. To identify the risk factors for introducing scrapie into sheep flocks, a case-control study was conducted in France from 1999 to 2000. Ninety-four case and 350 control flocks were matched by location and main breed. Three main hypotheses were tested: direct contact between flocks, indirect environmental contact, and foodborne risk. Statistical analysis was performed by using adjusted generalized linear models with the complementary log-log link function, considering flock size as an offset. A notable effect of using proprietary concentrates and milk replacers was observed. The risk was heterogeneous among feed factories. Contacts between flocks were not shown to be a risk factor. PMID:16102318

  20. Association between AA-NAT gene polymorphism and reproductive performance in sheep

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Bai, Ding-ping; Yu, Cheng-jiang; Chen, Yu-lin.

    2012-03-15

    Full Text Available Arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AA-NAT) is critical enzyme in Melatonin (MLT) biosynthesis for MLT regulating the animal seasonal breeding. In this study, DNA sequencing methods were applied to detect the polymorphisms of the AA-NAT gene in 179 Chinese sheep belonging to two non-seasonal reprodu [...] ction breeds and two seasonal reproduction breeds. One mutation at exon 3 (NM_001009461:c.486A > G) was ?rstly described at the sheep AA-NAT locus. Hence, we described the SmaI PCR-RFLP method for detecting EX3 486A > G mutation, frequencies of the AA-NAT-G allele varied from 0.871 to 0.908 in two non-seasonal reproduction breeds and 0.517 to 0.578 in two seasonal reproduction breeds. The associations of SmaI polymorphism with estrus traits was analyzed in non-seasonal reproduction breeds sheep and seasonal reproduction breeds sheep, the signi?cant statistical results were found between them, the GG genotype frequencies was higher in non-seasonal reproduction breeds (p G mutation could facilitate association analysis and serve as a genetic marker for Chinese sheep breeding and genetics.

  1. Genes Contributing to Genetic Variation of Muscling in Sheep

    OpenAIRE

    Tellam, Ross L.; Cockett, Noelle E.; Vuocolo, Tony; Bidwell, Christopher A

    2012-01-01

    Selective breeding programs aiming to increase the productivity and profitability of the sheep meat industry use elite, progeny tested sires. The broad genetic traits of primary interest in the progeny of these sires include skeletal muscle yield, fat content, eating quality, and reproductive efficiency. Natural mutations in sheep that enhance muscling have been identified, while a number of genome scans have identified and confirmed quantitative trait loci (QTL) for skeletal muscle traits. T...

  2. Quantitative trait loci for internal nematode resistance in sheep: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominik Sonja

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Internal nematode resistance in sheep has a large impact on the economy of sheep industries. Selection for nematode resistance in sheep breeding schemes would help to reduce the direct and indirect cost of parasitism to these industries. However, this is not widely practiced because of the difficulty of measuring parasite resistance or correlated indirect selection criteria. The identification of genes or linked markers that have a significant association with the variance of indicator traits of internal nematode resistance in sheep would facilitate the inclusion of nematode resistance in sheep breeding operations. This review summarises findings reported in the literature of quantitative trait loci for internal nematode resistance in sheep. Issues relating to the analytical and phenotypic complexity of nematode resistance are discussed in the context of the findings of quantitative trait loci for nematode resistance published to date.

  3. Sheep Collisions: the Good, the Bad, and the TBI

    CERN Document Server

    Courtney, Michael

    2007-01-01

    The title page of Chapter 9 in Fundamentals of Physics (Halliday, Resnick, and Walker, 8th Edition, p. 201) shows a dramatic photograph of two Big Horn sheep butting heads and promises to explain how sheep survive such violent clashes without serious injury. However, the answer presented in sample problem 9-4 (p. 213) errs in presuming an interaction time of 0.27 s which results in an unrealistically long stopping distance of 0.62 m. Furthermore, the assertion that the horns provide necessary cushioning of the blow is inconsistent with the absence of concussions in domestic breeds of hornless sheep. Results from traumatic brain injury (TBI) research allow acceleration tolerance of sheep to be estimated as 450 g facilitating an analysis of sheep collisions that is more consistent with available observations (stopping distance less than 1 cm, impact time of roughly 2 ms).

  4. Farm buildings and working conditions in sheep farms: actual situation in Trás-os-Montes, Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Barbosa, José Carlos; Fitas da Cruz, Vasco

    2009-01-01

    In the region of Trás-os-Montes, in the Northeast of Portugal, the breeding of sheep is quite relevant, not only because of meat and milk production, but also because breeders are dealing with mountainous areas or regions where agriculture is the main activity and alternative economic activities are very scarce. Sheep are raised in extensive systems according to traditional farming systems and flocks are small. In this region, sheep farms don't use animal housing intensively. ...

  5. The callipyge mutation and other genes that affect muscle hypertrophy in sheep

    OpenAIRE

    Cockett Noelle E; Smit Maria A; Bidwell Christopher A; Segers Karin; Hadfield Tracy L; Snowder Gary D; Georges Michel; Charlier Carole

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Genetic strategies to improve the profitability of sheep operations have generally focused on traits for reproduction. However, natural mutations exist in sheep that affect muscle growth and development, and the exploitation of these mutations in breeding strategies has the potential to significantly improve lamb-meat quality. The best-documented mutation for muscle development in sheep is callipyge (CLPG), which causes a postnatal muscle hypertrophy that is localized to the pelvic l...

  6. Quantitative trait loci for internal nematode resistance in sheep: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Dominik Sonja

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Internal nematode resistance in sheep has a large impact on the economy of sheep industries. Selection for nematode resistance in sheep breeding schemes would help to reduce the direct and indirect cost of parasitism to these industries. However, this is not widely practiced because of the difficulty of measuring parasite resistance or correlated indirect selection criteria. The identification of genes or linked markers that have a significant association with the variance of indicat...

  7. Comparison of strategies for substantiating freedom from scrapie in a sheep flock

    OpenAIRE

    Ducrot Christian; Calavas Didier; Martinez Marie-José; Durand Benoit

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background The public health threat represented by a potential circulation of bovine spongiform encephalopathy agent in sheep population has led European animal health authorities to launch large screening and genetic selection programmes. If demonstrated, such a circulation would have dramatic economic consequences for sheep breeding sector. In this context, it is important to evaluate the feasibility of qualification procedures that would allow sheep breeders demonstrating their fl...

  8. Genotyping and surveillance for scrapie in Finnish sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hautaniemi Maria

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The progression of scrapie is known to be influenced by the amino acid polymorphisms of the host prion protein (PrP gene. There is no breeding programme for TSE resistance in sheep in Finland, but a scrapie control programme has been in place since 1995. In this study we have analysed PrP genotypes of total of 928 purebred and crossbred sheep together with the data of scrapie survey carried out in Finland during 2002–2008 in order to gain knowledge of the genotype distribution and scrapie prevalence in Finnish sheep. Results The ARQ/ARQ genotype was the most common genotype in all breeds studied. ARR allele frequency was less than 12% in purebred Finnish sheep and in most genotypes heterozygous for ARR, the second allele was ARQ. The VRQ allele was not detected in the Grey race sheep of Kainuu or in the Aland sheep, and it was present in less than 6% of the Finnish Landrace sheep. Leucine was the most prominent amino acid found in codon 141. In addition, one novel prion dimorphisms of Q220L was detected. During the scrapie survey of over 15 000 sheep in 2002–2008, no classical scrapie cases and only five atypical scrapie cases were detected. Conclusions The results indicate that the Finnish sheep populations have genetically little resistance to classical scrapie, but no classical scrapie was detected during an extensive survey in 2002–2008. However, five atypical scrapie cases emerged; thus, the disease is present in the Finnish sheep population at a low level.

  9. Biodiversity and traditional sheep grazing in the south Banat region

    OpenAIRE

    Grdovi? Svetlana; Savi? Mila; Be?kei Ž.; Dimitrijevi? B.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper the capacity for reintroduction of traditional sheep breeds as key resources for biodiversity conservation systems in HNV farming system of the South Banat region was analyzed. Taking the vulnerability of the ecosystem into consideration when creating the optimal grazing system based on traditional rearing breeds, can contribute to the protection of biodiversity in the South Banat region. The representatives of Fabaceae, Poaceae, Lamiaceae, Ro...

  10. A Tool for Sheep Product Quality: Custom Microarrays from Public Databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorraine Pariset

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Milk and dairy products are an essential food and an economic resource in many countries. Milk component synthesis and secretion by the mammary gland involve expression of a large number of genes whose nutritional regulation remains poorly defined. The purpose of this study was to gain an understanding of the genomic influence on milk quality and synthesis by comparing two sheep breeds with different milking attitude (Sarda and Gentile di Puglia using sheep-specific microarray technology. From sheep ESTs deposited at NCBI, we have generated the first annotated microarray developed for sheep with a coverage of most of the genome.

  11. The callipyge mutation and other genes that affect muscle hypertrophy in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cockett Noelle E

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Genetic strategies to improve the profitability of sheep operations have generally focused on traits for reproduction. However, natural mutations exist in sheep that affect muscle growth and development, and the exploitation of these mutations in breeding strategies has the potential to significantly improve lamb-meat quality. The best-documented mutation for muscle development in sheep is callipyge (CLPG, which causes a postnatal muscle hypertrophy that is localized to the pelvic limbs and loin. Enhanced skeletal muscle growth is also observed in animals with the Carwell (or rib-eye muscling mutation, and a double-muscling phenotype has been documented for animals of the Texel sheep breed. However, the actual mutations responsible for these muscular hypertrophy phenotypes in sheep have yet to be identified, and further characterization of the genetic basis for these phenotypes will provide insight into the biological control of muscle growth and body composition.

  12. Estudo anatomorfológico, radiográfico e tomográfico de Schistosomus reflexus em ovino da raça Dorper: relato de caso / Anatomorphological, radiographic and tomographic studies of Schistosomus reflexus in Dorper breed sheep: case report

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    D.O.L., Ferreira; B.P., Santarosa; C.D., Monteiro-Toma; A.F., Belotta; S.B., Chiacchio; V.M.V., Machado; R.C., Gonçalves; N.C., Prestes.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available O Schistosomus reflexus (SR) é uma anomalia congênita fatal e rara, primariamente observada em ruminantes, a qual apresenta feto com dorsoflexão da coluna vertebral, exposição das vísceras abdominais e torácicas e escoliose. Foi realizada uma cesariana de ovelha da raça Dorper, em propriedade da reg [...] ião de Botucatu-SP. Pelas características gerais e achados de necropsia, tratava-se de um caso de SR. A radiografia revelou acentuado desvio ventrodorsal do segmento da coluna vertebral toracolombar e deformidades das costelas. Na tomografia computadorizada, observou-se presença da integridade dos ossos e órgãos, exceto ausência de uma vértebra lombar. Não havia dados na literatura de diagnóstico por imagem de SR em ovinos, portanto procedeu-se, de forma inédita, a exames radiográfico e tomográfico do feto. Abstract in english Schistosomus reflexus (SR) is a rare and fatal congenital anomaly, primarily observed in ruminants, presenting fetus with dorsiflexion of the vertebral column, exposure of thoracic and visceral organs, and scoliosis. A caesarian was performed on a Dorper sheep on a farm in Botucatu-SP and according [...] to the general characteristics and findings observed in the necropsy of the fetus it was an SR case. The radiography indicated a marked ventro-dorsal deviation of the thoracolumbar column segment and deformity of the ribs. On the computed tomography the integrity of the bones and organs were detected, except for the absence of a lumbar vertebra. No data were available in the literature for SR diagnosis in sheep by image, so radiographic and tomographic exams of the fetus were done.

  13. The Hematological Indexes Values in Sheep Correlated with Season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Mo?

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available From 40 healthy sheep breeding in good conditions of hygiene and feeding belonging to particular herds from the West side of the country were been taken blood samples in most important seasons of the year: in spring, before pasturage period and in autumn, after pasturage period. Sheep were been periodically preventive treated against parasites and were clinically healthy. Were been followed haematological parameters like haemogram (number of erithrocytes, haemoglobin, haematocrit, erithrocytic indexes, leucogram (number of leucocytes, leucocytic formula and those blood biochemicals indexes (total seric proteins, proteic fractions, glucose, uric acid, GPT, creatinin, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium. The obtain values in spring season were smaller in comparison with those from autumn as a result of less favourable conditions in winter, when sheep can't have the same benefits like in warm season, with high quality fresh food and life conditions. This fact is emphasized in these sheep obtained productions.

  14. Schmallenberg virus experimental infection of sheep

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wernike, Kerstin; Hoffmann, Bernd

    2013-01-01

    Since late 2011, a novel orthobunyavirus, named Schmallenberg virus (SBV), has been implicated in many cases of severely malformed bovine and ovine offspring in Europe. In adult cattle, SBV is known to cause a mild transient disease; clinical signs include short febrile episodes, decreased milk production and diarrhoea for a few days. However, the knowledge about clinical signs and pathogenesis in adult sheep is limited.In the present study, adult sheep of European domestic breeds were inoculated with SBV either as cell culture grown virus or as virus with no history of passage in cell cultures. Various experimental set-ups were used. Sampling included blood collection at different time points during the experimental period and selected organ material at autopsy.Data from this study showed, that the RNAemic period in sheep was as short as reported for cattle; viral genome was detectable for about 3–5 days by real-time RT-PCR. In total, 13 out of 30 inoculated sheep became RNAemic, with the highest viral load in animals inoculated with virus from low cell culture passaged or the animal passaged material. Contact animals remained negative throughout the study. One RNAemic sheep showed diarrhoea for several days, but fever was not recorded in any of the animals. Antibodies were first detectable 10–14 days post inoculation. Viral RNA was detectable in spleen and lymph nodes up to day 44 post inoculation.In conclusion, as described for cattle, SBV-infection in adult sheep predominantly results in subclinical infection, transient RNAemia and a specific antibody response. Maintenance of viral RNA in the lymphoreticular system is observed for an extended period.

  15. Implementing electronic identification for performance recording in sheep: I. Manual versus semiautomatic and automatic recording systems in dairy and meat farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ait-Saidi, A; Caja, G; Salama, A A K; Carné, S

    2014-12-01

    With the aim of assessing the secondary benefits of using electronic identification (e-ID) in sheep farms, we compared the use of manual (M), semiautomatic (SA), and automatic (AU) data-collection systems for performance recording (i.e., milk, lambing, and weight) in 3 experiments. Ewes were identified with visual ear tags and electronic rumen boluses. The M system consisted of visual ear tags, on-paper data recording, and manual data uploading to a computer; the use of a personal digital assistant (PDA) for data recording and data uploading was also done in M. The SA system used a handheld reader (HHR) for e-ID, data recording, and uploading. Both PDA and HHR used Bluetooth for uploading. The AU system was only used for body weight recording and consisted of e-ID, data recording in an electronic scale, and data uploading. In experiment 1, M and SA milk-recording systems were compared in a flock of 48 dairy ewes. Ewes were milked once- (×1, n=24) or twice- (×2, n=24) daily in a 2 × 12 milking parlor and processed in groups of 24. Milk yield (1.21 ± 0.04 L/d, on average) was 36% lower in ×1 than ×2 ewes and milk recording time correlated positively with milk yield (R(2)=0.71). Data transfer was markedly faster for PDA and HHR than for M. As a result, overall milk recording time was faster in SA (×1=12.1 ± 0.6 min/24 ewes; ×2=22.1 ± 0.9 min/24 ewes) than M (×1=14.9 ± 0.6 min/24 ewes; ×2=27.9 ± 1.0 min/24 ewes). No differences between PDA and HHR were detected. Time savings, with regard to M, were greater for ×2 than for ×1 (5.6 ± 0.2 vs. 2.8 ± 0.1 min per 24 ewes, respectively), but similar for PDA and HHR. Data transfer errors averaged 3.6% in M, whereas no errors were found in either SA system. In experiment 2, 73 dairy and 80 meat ewes were monitored at lambing using M and SA. Overall time for lambing recording was greater in M than SA in dairy (1.67 ± 0.06 vs. 0.87 ± 0.04 min/ewe) and meat (1.30 ± 0.03 vs. 0.73 ± 0.03 min/ewe) ewes. Recording errors were greater in dairy (9.6%) than in meat (1.9%) ewes. Data uploading errors only occurred in M (4.9%). In experiment 3, 120 dairy and 120 meat ewes were weighed using M and AU systems. In both flocks, mean BW recording and data uploading times, as well as overall BW recording time (0.63 ± 0.02 and 0.25 ± 0.01 min/ewe, respectively) were greater in M than in AU, and uploading errors only occurred in M (8.8%). In conclusion, HHR and PDA systems were time-effective for performance recording, both saving time and improving data accuracy. Working load and time for ewe identification were faster in HHR but it did not affect the performance recording time. The PDA was the fastest device for data download. Further research will evaluate the costs of implementing e-ID for performance recording and other uses in sheep farms. PMID:25282408

  16. Candidate Gene Approach for Parasite Resistance in Sheep – Variation in Immune Pathway Genes and Association with Fecal Egg Count

    OpenAIRE

    Periasamy, Kathiravan; Pichler, Rudolf; Poli, Mario; Cristel, Silvina; Cetrá, Bibiana; Medus, Daniel; Basar, Muladno; A. K., Thiruvenkadan; Ramasamy, Saravanan; Ellahi, Masroor Babbar; Mohammed, Faruque; Teneva, Atanaska; Shamsuddin, Mohammed; Podesta, Mario Garcia; Diallo, Adama

    2014-01-01

    Sheep chromosome 3 (Oar3) has the largest number of QTLs reported to be significantly associated with resistance to gastro-intestinal nematodes. This study aimed to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within candidate genes located in sheep chromosome 3 as well as genes involved in major immune pathways. A total of 41 SNPs were identified across 38 candidate genes in a panel of unrelated sheep and genotyped in 713 animals belonging to 22 breeds across Asia, Europe and South Americ...

  17. Genome-wide association studies identify two novel BMP15 mutations responsible for an atypical hyperprolificacy phenotype in sheep

    OpenAIRE

    ROSSETTI, RAFFAELLA; Persani, Luca

    2013-01-01

    Some sheep breeds are naturally prolific, and they are very informative for the studies of reproductive genetics and physiology. Major genes increasing litter size (LS) and ovulation rate (OR) were suspected in the French Grivette and the Polish Olkuska sheep populations, respectively. To identify genetic variants responsible for the highly prolific phenotype in these two breeds, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) followed by complementary genetic and functional analyses were performed. H...

  18. Pruritus is a common feature in sheep infected with the BSE agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Martin

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The variability in the clinical or pathological presentation of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs in sheep, such as scrapie and bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE, has been attributed to prion protein genotype, strain, breed, clinical duration, dose, route and type of inoculum and the age at infection. The study aimed to describe the clinical signs in sheep infected with the BSE agent throughout its clinical course to determine whether the clinical signs were as variable as described for classical scrapie in sheep. The clinical signs were compared to BSE-negative sheep to assess if disease-specific clinical markers exist. Results Forty-seven (34% of 139 sheep, which comprised 123 challenged sheep and 16 undosed controls, were positive for BSE. Affected sheep belonged to five different breeds and three different genotypes (ARQ/ARQ, VRQ/VRQ and AHQ/AHQ. None of the controls or BSE exposed sheep with ARR alleles were positive. Pruritus was present in 41 (87% BSE positive sheep; the remaining six were judged to be pre-clinically infected. Testing of the response to scratching along the dorsum of a sheep proved to be a good indicator of clinical disease with a test sensitivity of 85% and specificity of 98% and usually coincided with weight loss. Clinical signs that were displayed significantly earlier in BSE positive cases compared to negative cases were behavioural changes, pruritic behaviour, a positive scratch test, alopecia, skin lesions, teeth grinding, tremor, ataxia, loss of weight and loss of body condition. The frequency and severity of each specific clinical sign usually increased with the progression of disease over a period of 16–20 weeks. Conclusion Our results suggest that BSE in sheep presents with relatively uniform clinical signs, with pruritus of increased severity and abnormalities in behaviour or movement as the disease progressed. Based on the studied sheep, these clinical features appear to be independent of breed, affected genotype, dose, route of inoculation and whether BSE was passed into sheep from cattle or from other sheep, suggesting that the clinical phenotype of BSE is influenced by the TSE strain more than by other factors. The clinical phenotype of BSE in the genotypes and breed studied was indistinguishable from that described for classical scrapie cases.

  19. Morphometric dimensions allow differentiation of lamb carcasses for some breeds

    OpenAIRE

    Parés Casanova, Pere-Miquel

    2013-01-01

    Eight different morphometric dimensions were monitored on 106 lamb carcasses belonging to three Catalan meat sheep breeds (Ripollesa, Rousillon Red and Xisqueta). Our purpose was to examine differences with regard to measurable carcass dimensions and also to establish between and within breed relationships among the carcass components. Measured variables included: carcass weight (CW), leg length (LL), carcass internal length (IL), carcass length (CL), chest width (ChW), hip width (HW), chest ...

  20. Biodiversity and traditional sheep grazing in the south Banat region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grdovi? Svetlana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the capacity for reintroduction of traditional sheep breeds as key resources for biodiversity conservation systems in HNV farming system of the South Banat region was analyzed. Taking the vulnerability of the ecosystem into consideration when creating the optimal grazing system based on traditional rearing breeds, can contribute to the protection of biodiversity in the South Banat region. The representatives of Fabaceae, Poaceae, Lamiaceae, Rosaceae and Apiaceae family were described. Basic nutritive components of pasture and mixed hay: crude moisture, crude ash, crude protein, crude fat, crude cellulose, calcium (Ca, magnesium (Mg, phosphorous (P, copper (Cu, iron (Fe, manganese (Mn and zinc (Zn were measured. Botanical analysis has confirmed the presence of plant diversity, as well as the nutritive value of sheep pastures. Chemical analyses of samples pointed out that the levels of crude proteins, cellulose, fats, macro and trace elements are sufficient to satisfy the requirements of low input sheep farming system and therefore can be considered a solid base for reintroduction of autochthonous sheep breeds in the peripheral parts of the Deliblato Sands area. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31085: Management of sustainable farming of organic lamb production as a support to rural development

  1. Prevalence of paratuberculosis infection in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidi? Branka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Paratuberculosis is an incurable chronic disease of ruminants, which is manifested with clinical signs of diarrhea and progressive weight loss. Causative agent is Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, and the disiase occurs in cattle, sheep and goats. The outspread of paratuberculosis is huge in the whole world, especially in the countries where animal breeding is a developed branch of economy. Animals get infected with food and water contaminated with feces of infected animals. The infection spreads within infected pastures and also when trading animals with latent infection. Clinical manifestation of the disease can firstly be noticed in young categories of sheep, which is different than in cattle. Primary clinical symptom is chronic weight loss. It is rather hard to determine the level of prevalence of the disease, in a certain region, because the diagnostic procedure is complex and not always reliable enough. Detection of antibodies with ELISA test is considered a method of choice for diagnostic of paratuberculosis, because of fast gaining of the results and relatively low price of the test. By applying the ELISA test, we have analysed 2000 sheep blood samples. Positive results for paratuberculosis were found in 66 ( 3,30% animals in total. In sheep samples from southern Backa region, positive findings were gained from 42 (3,89% samples, and in Srem region, positive finding were found in samples from 24 sheep (2,60%. Control programs are based on the removal of all infected animals, application of general preventive measures and vaccination. Application of vaccination aims for elimination of clinical form of the disease. An effective treatment has not been determined so far.

  2. Empadre controlado, distribución de partos y prolificidad en ovejas de pelo en el trópico seco de Guerrero, México (Controlled breeding, prolificacy and delivery distribution in hair sheep in the dry tropic of Guerrero, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mireles Martínez, Esteban Julián

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available ResumenEl objetivo del presente estudio retrospectivo fue conocer la duración de los días de empadre con monta (DECM, la presentación de los partos con empadre continuo y controlado y el índice de prolificidad, por medio de los registros de un empadre continúo de junio 2002 a marzo 2003 y 11 períodos de empadres controlados de septiembre 2003 a diciembre del 2009 y sus respectivos períodos de nacimientos, en una unidad productiva de Cd.SummaryThe objective of this retrospective study was to know the lasting of mating with the days of riding (DMWR, continuous presentation of mating, presentation of continuous mating births, controlled and the rate of prolificacy, through information from the records in a continuous breeding season in June 2002 to March 2003 and 11 controlled mating periods in September 2003 to December 2009 and their periods of birth, in a production unit in Ciudad Altamirano, Guerrero, Mexico, composed of 45 multiparous ewes, 15 lambs and a stallion pubescent.

  3. Utilização de carneiros de raças de corte para obtenção de cordeiros precoces para abate em plantéis produtores de lã Use of meat sheep sire breed on fine wool ewe flocks to produce fast-growing lambs for slaughter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Antonio da Cunha

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO - Sessenta e nove cordeiros filhos de ovelhas das raças Ideal ou Corriedale cobertas com machos das raças Suffolk, Ile de France, ou da mesma raça materna, foram usados para avaliar o seu desempenho e as características de carcaça. Os animais permaneceram em pastagem até o desmame (60 dias, foram confinados por 90 dias e alimentados com ração à base de silagem de milho e concentrado. Foi usado delineamento completamente casualizado em esquema fatorial. O uso de machos de corte sobre fêmeas lanígeras não causou efeito sobre o peso ao nascer e ao desmame das crias, porém aumentou o peso e a compacidade das carcaças, sem alterar as proporções de traseiro e costilhar. A espessura de gordura subcutânea não foi influenciada pelo genótipo, apresentando-se maior para fêmeas. A área de olho de lombo não apresentou diferença entre genótipos. As medidas de carcaça mostraram diferença entre genótipos, sendo as do cruzamento com Suffolk mais compridas, seguidas pelos mestiços de Ile de France.ABSTRACT - Sixty-nine lambs from the crossbreeding Corriedale or Polwarth ewes with Suffolk, Ile de France rams or from the same ewe breed were used to evaluate their performance and carcass characteristics. Lambs were maintained under grazing until weaning time (60 days, then were confined for 90 days and fed corn silage and concentrate based diet. A completely randomized design in a factorial arrangement was used. The use of meat type rams on fine wool ewes did not affect lamb birth and weaning weight, however increased the carcass weight and compacting, without effect on forequarter and ribs. Subcutaneous fat thickness was not affected by the genotype and it was greater for females. Loin eye area did not show difference between genotypes. Carcass measurements showed differences between genotypes, being the ones from Suffolk mating the longest, followed by the crossbred from Ile de France.

  4. The influence of radiation on reproduction of sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qualitative and quantitative histological changes in the sexual apparatus of slovak merino ewes were studies in the anoestrous period after irradiation (2.5 Gy) and hormonal stimulation. Estrus synchronization of the sheep has been carried out by application of 20 mg chlorosuperlutine in impregnated vaginal Ageline sponges. The sheep were hormone stimulated by application of 1500 IU of Serum gonadotrophin. The animals were killed approximately 120 h after the application of the hormone. Samples from the sexual apparatus were processed by the common histological methods for examination under a light microscope and for examination under a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Despite higher number of ovulations in irradiated and hormonally stimulated sheep, the examination of viability of irradiated oocytes showed absence of pregnancy in all 20 sheep after mating. This indicated that the dose of 2.5 Gy was not harmless to the reproductive system of sheep. (authors)

  5. Dairy Sheep Nutrition

    OpenAIRE

    Rosanna Scipioni

    2010-01-01

    This book, edited by the colleague Giuseppe Pulina, is the result of the project "Further development of a diet formulation model for sheep and goat", supported by the Ministry of Agricultural and Forestry Policies, in Italy.

  6. Performance of sheep fed on annatto byproduct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorgival M. de Lima Júnior

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate intake, digestibility, and performance in sheep fed increasing levels of annatto byproduct (AB. A total of 32 male sheep without defined breed were used. Their initial weight was 23.17±1.45 kg. The animals were housed in individual pens and offered feed twice a day. Nutrient intake was quantified by the difference between the fractions present in the offered feed and the remains. The apparent digestibility was estimated with the aid of the external marker LIPE®. Weight gain was measured by the difference between the initial and final weight of the animals. The intake of dry matter (DM; g/day; g/kg BW; g/kg0.75, organic matter (g/day, crude protein (CP; g/day, and neutral detergent fibre (g/day was not affected (P>0.05 by addition of AB. The intake of ether extract (EE; g/day and non-fibre carbohydrates (g/day was influenced by the inclusion of AB. The apparent digestibility of DM, organic matter, CP, and EE was not affected (P>0.05 by the addition of AB. The AB can be included in the diet at levels up 300 g/kg of total DM without affecting consumption, digestibility, and weight gain in sheep.

  7. Haemonchus contortus resistance to monepantel in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Brom, R; Moll, L; Kappert, C; Vellema, P

    2015-04-30

    In a sheep farm in the Netherlands with a suspected Haemonchus contortus resistance to monepantel (Zolvix®, Novartis Animal Health), a fecal egg count reduction test was carried out in two groups of lambs, according to the method of the World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology. Group 1 was the untreated control group, and group 2 was treated with monepantel at the manufacturer's recommended dose rate. Efficacy of treatment with monepantel was 0%. Larval identification of pre- and post-treatment coprocultures revealed 100% H. contortus larvae. On this farm, after a perceived reduction in efficacy of ivermectin and doramectin, the sheep farmer started using monepantel in July 2012, and since then, monepantel was used as the sole anthelmintic. Breeding sheep were treated twice each year in 2013 and 2014, and lambs two times in 2012, four times in 2013, and three times in 2014, before monepantel resistance was suspected, and confirmed three weeks later. Although the frequency of monepantel treatments on this farm was relatively high with treatments on thirteen separate occasions in two years time, possibly establishing favorable conditions for a competitive advantage for resistant H. contortus, it is remarkable that resistance to monepantel was established in such a very short period. This study confirms, to the best of our knowledge, the first case of H. contortus resistance to monepantel occurring in the field. PMID:25770852

  8. Determining the value of Vlashko-Vitoroga Zackel sheep for the conservation process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savi? Mila

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Autochthonous Pramenka (Zackel sheep has been recognized as an important element of regional agro-biodiversity, relevant to the tradition that encompasses the cultural heritage of Serbia. The recognition that locally adapted animal breeds gained genetic resistance and adaptability through evolution; modern sustainable farming practices are far more attuned to the need for preserving and utilizing Zackel sheep types. The risk factors leading to rapid and severe decline in Vlashko-Vitoroga Zackel sheep population have been described in the paper. The objective of the study was to obtain the data necessary for development of conservation and sustainable use strategies of Vlashko-Vitoroga Zackel sheep. Determination of the conservation value upon characteristics of the breed was performed, in aim to identify priorities in accordance with the criteria of Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO. The positive and negative characteristics of the Vlashko-Vitoroga Zackel sheep, opportunities for utilization, as well as ambiental challenges that affect the breed were analyzed in the paper. The importance of this breed for maintenance of cultural tradition, landscape preservation and longterm rural development by in-situ conservation through utilization is also discussed in the paper. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR31085

  9. Effect of number of utilizations in a barley grass in Mediterranean conditions on biomass production and the admissibe stocking rate of Majorcan red sheep

    OpenAIRE

    Jaume, J.; Moya, J.; Joy Torrens, Margalida; Cifre, J.; Rovira, J.; Joy, S

    2011-01-01

    Majorcan Red Sheep is an endangered sheep breed and its conservation depends on the availability of feed resources and its use for feeding them Animal production is considered a multifunctional activity due to its implication in economic, ecological and social aspects, which are strongly linked to its sustainability The Majorcan Red Sheep production system has been directly linked to the exploitation of agricultura! production There is a claar positive economic impact when forage ...

  10. Influence of Nutrition in Milk Production of Sheep and Lambs in Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Ro?u

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The sheeps breeding is an old and traditional activity in Romania country. Depending on the number of sheeps and goats, Romania ranks in the fourth among E.U. countries. The research was conducted on three groups of sheeps, from same breed. All groups sheeps were feeding with the same amount of food, but the ratio structure was different, in the following scheme conformities: group I - has been used a fibrous ratio; group II – has been used a juicy ratio; group III – has been used a concentrate ratio. Also, in all the groups was recorded the milk production and the weight of lambs in the first month of the life. Based on research conducted, the fallowing conclusions were drawn: The highest milk production was produced by sheeps in group I and group II; The weight of lambs in the first month of life was also influenced by the mother sheeps ratio structure; The largest increase growth was made of lambs coming from a group III, and the smallest increase was made of lambs coming a group II. As a general conclusion, the best results are obtained when the mother sheeps are fed with concentrate ratio type and fibrous ratio type.

  11. Adaptations to Climate-Mediated Selective Pressures in Sheep

    OpenAIRE

    Lv, Feng-Hua; Agha, Saif; Kantanen, Juha; Colli, Licia; Stucki, Sylvie; Kijas, James W.; Joost, Stéphane; Li, Meng-Hua; Ajmone Marsan, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Following domestication, sheep (Ovis aries) have become essential farmed animals across the world through adaptation to a diverse range of environments and varied production systems. Climate-mediated selective pressure has shaped phenotypic variation and has left genetic “footprints” in the genome of breeds raised in different agroecological zones. Unlike numerous studies that have searched for evidence of selection using only population genetics data, here, we conducted an integrated coanaly...

  12. Linkage disequilibrium compared between five populations of domestic sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Eva KF

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The success of genome-wide scans depends on the strength and magnitude of linkage disequilibrium (LD present within the populations under investigation. High density SNP arrays are currently in development for the sheep genome, however little is known about the behaviour of LD in this livestock species. This study examined the behaviour of LD within five sheep populations using two LD metrics, D' and x2'. Four economically important Australian sheep flocks, three pure breeds (White Faced Suffolk, Poll Dorset, Merino and a crossbred population (Merino × Border Leicester, along with an inbred Australian Merino museum flock were analysed. Results Short range LD (0 – 5 cM was observed in all five populations, however the persistence with increasing distance and magnitude of LD varied considerably between populations. Average LD (x2' for markers spaced up to 20 cM exceeded the non-syntenic average within the White Faced Suffolk, Poll Dorset and Macarthur Merino. LD decayed faster within the Merino and Merino × Border Leicester, with LD below or consistent with observed background levels. Using marker-marker LD as a guide to the behaviour of marker-QTL LD, estimates of minimum marker spacing were made. For a 95% probability of detecting QTL, a microsatellite marker would be required every 0.1 – 2.5 centimorgans, depending on the population used. Conclusion Sheep populations were selected which were inbred (Macarthur Merino, highly heterogeneous (Merino or intermediate between these two extremes. This facilitated analysis and comparison of LD (x2' between populations. The strength and magnitude of LD was found to differ markedly between breeds and aligned closely with both observed levels of genetic diversity and expectations based on breed history. This confirmed that breed specific information is likely to be important for genome wide selection and during the design of successful genome scans where tens of thousands of markers will be required.

  13. Imported coenurosis in sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thirteen sheep from a milk producing farm in the Canton of Grisons that presented chronic coenurosis were examined and subjected to treatment trials at the veterinary hospital in Zurich. Symptoms were first observed around two months after the import of two dogs from Italy (Abruzza) of which one was infected with Taenia multiceps and Echinococcus granulosus. The most frequently observed clinical symptoms of the sheep were reduced general condition, circling, reduced menace reflex, apathy, unsteady gait and head tilt. Analyses of cerebrospinal fluid revealed an increased leucocyte count in 3 sheep and eosinophilia in 4 sheep. In 4 animals that underwent computertomography, one or more hypodense, definable lesions were found in the brain. In 2 sheep surgical treatment and in 10 animals medical treatment with either Praziquantel (n=8) or Oxfendazol (n=2) was attempted. Only one animal treated with Praziquantel needed not to be euthanized. At necropsy, one or two coenurus cysts could be found either in a side ventricle (n=2), in the cerebellum (n=3) or in the cerebrum (n=7). The locations corresponded with the clinical findings. Despite Praziquantel or Oxfendazol treatment, living protoscoleces could be found in the parasite cysts

  14. Implications of Genotype by Environment Interactions in Dairy Sheep Welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinu Gavojdian

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Small ruminants are the most extensively farmed livestock species in Europe, as a result being extremely exposed to natural hazards which leads to strong interactions between genotype and environment. Aim of the current review was to outline and discuss the main welfare issues and economic implications with regards to the genotype by environment interactions in dairy sheep. Researches concerning the additive genetic effect on milk yield, shown that this accounts only for 10%, while the milk production is 90% influenced by environmental factors, highlighting the major role that management and nutrition play in the dairy production of sheep. Nowadays, dairy sheep breeds (e.g. Eastern Friesian and Lacaune, are being introduced and reared in various countries under an extremely wide range of rearing conditions, without adequate knowledge on their acclimatization to the new specific conditions. It was concluded that a welfare assessment protocol for dairy sheep does not exist up today, moreover, there is a serious lack of data concerning the genetic and environmental factors affecting the welfare status of dairy sheep at farm level under different production systems.

  15. Virological and pathological findings in Bluetongue virus serotype 8 infected sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worwa, Gabriella; Hilbe, Monika; Chaignat, Valérie; Hofmann, Martin A; Griot, Christian; Ehrensperger, Felix; Doherr, Marcus G; Thür, Barbara

    2010-08-26

    Twenty-seven sheep of the four most common Swiss breeds and the English breed Poll Dorset were experimentally infected with a northern European field strain of bluetongue virus serotype 8 (BTV-8). Animals of all breeds developed clinical signs, viremia and pathological lesions, demonstrating that BTV-8 is fully capable of replicating and inducing bluetongue disease (BT) in the investigated sheep. Necropsy performed between 10 and 16 days post-infectionem (d.p.i.) revealed BT-typical hemorrhages, effusions, edema, erosions and activation of lymphatic tissues. Hemorrhages on the base of the Arteria pulmonalis and the left Musculus papillaris subauricularis were frequently present. Histology confirmed the macroscopical findings. Using a score system, clinical manifestation and pathology were found to be significantly related. Furthermore, clinical signs and fever were shown to be indicative for the concurrent presence of high amounts of viral ribonucleic acid (RNA) in blood. Spleen, lung, lymph nodes and tonsils from all animals were analyzed regarding viral RNA loads and infectivity using real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (rRT-PCR) and virus isolation in cell culture, respectively. The highest amount of viral RNA was detected in spleen and lung and rRT-PCR revealed to be a more sensitive method for virus detection compared to virus isolation. A long-term follow-up was performed with three sheep showing that BTV-8 viral RNA in blood was present up to 133 d.p.i. and in certain tissues even on 151 d.p.i. No significant breed-related differences were observed concerning clinicopathological picture and viremia, and the Swiss sheep were as susceptible to BTV-8 infection as Poll Dorset sheep, demonstrating a remarkably high virulence of BTV-8 for indigenous sheep breeds. PMID:20153937

  16. Genetic and phenotypic parameters of body weight in West African Dwarf goat and Djallonké sheep

    OpenAIRE

    Bosso, N.A.; Cissé, M.F.; Waaij, E.H., van der; Fall, A; Van Arendonk, J A M

    2007-01-01

    The International Trypanotolerance Centre's small ruminant breeding programme was initiated in 1995. The aim was to increase the efficiency of meat production and the trypanotolerance of the animals (sheep and goat). To achieve that goal, selection was based on estimated breeding values for daily weight gain from 4 to 12 months of age measured on trypanotolerance challenge. The purpose of this study was to estimate genetic parameters for growth traits and to evaluate genetic trends in West Af...

  17. Charge Breeding Techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Wenander, F

    2004-01-01

    The numerous newly built and forthcoming post-accelerators for radioactive ions, produced with the isotope separator on-line (ISOL) technique, all have a need for an efficient method to accelerate the precious primary ions. By increasing the ion charge-to-mass ratio directly after the radioactive ion production stage, a short and compact linear accelerator can be employed. Not only the efficiency, but also the rapidity of such a charge-to-mass increasing process, called charge breeding, is a crucial factor for the often short-lived radioisotopes. The traditional foil or gas stripping technique was challenged some five to ten years ago by novel schemes for charge breeding. The transformation from 1+ to n+ charged ions takes place inside an Electron Beam Ion Source/Trap (EBIS/T) or Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Source/Trap (ECRIS/T) by electron-ion collisions. These charge breeders are located in the low-energy part of the machine before the accelerating structures. Because of the capability of these devices...

  18. Sheep (radioactivity) (after Chernobyl)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of the radiation ban on sheep movements announced on 20 June are debated. This is of particular concern to the farmers of Wales, Cumbria and the South of Scotland for whom it poses grave financial problems. Several questions about statements made at the time of the Chernobyl incident and the resulting increased radiation levels in parts of the British Isles are raised, and criticisms of the Government attitude and information are made. The delay in announcing compensation is also criticised. The debate, which lasted over an hour, is reported verbatim. It includes discussions on markets and prices of the sheep in the areas of the ban. (UK)

  19. Adaptation of indigenous sheep, goats and camels in harsh grazing conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Microbial breakdown of cellulose is a rather slow process. Therefore the retention time of digesta and the volume of the fermentation chamber are factors limiting the quantity of fibrous diets that can be digested. Indigenous ruminants can generally adapt to harsh grazing conditions better than conventional breeds. Unexpectedly high rumen volumes were reported in a number of indigenous ruminants. In studies reported in this paper, Heidschnucken, an indigenous breed of sheep in the heather region of Northern Germany, were able to increase their rumen volume from 14% to 22% of body weight during adaptation to a low quality fibrous diet. Heidschnucken did not lose significant body weight, whereas Blackface sheep lost 20% and failed to adapt the rumen volume. Rumen volume of indigenous sheep and goats in Northern Kenya was 20% of body weight while grazing in the thornbush savannah during the dry season, compared with 9-12% while kept indoors on a hay-concentrate diet. Mean retention time of particles in the total gastrointestinal tract of goats and sheep in Kenya was 38 h and 46 h respectively. In the experiment with Heidschnucken, these sheep increased the retention time of particles to 71 h on a straw diet, while Blackface sheep retained particles 58 h. Dietary preference and feed intake have been studied in indigenous sheep and goats in Kenya at seasonal pasture conditions in the thornbush savannah. Goats have a higher preference to dicotyledon species (92-97%) than sheep, who are less selective grazers. The feeding behaviour of indigenous sheep and goats was complementary rather than competitive. Feeding observations indicate that this is also the case when cattle (grazers) and camels (browsers) are included in such a comparison. (author)

  20. First identification of Sarcocystis tenella (Railliet, 1886) Moulé, 1886 (Protozoa: Apicomplexa) by PCR in naturally infected sheep from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Rodrigo Costa; Su, Chunlei; Langoni, Helio

    2009-11-12

    Sarcocystis tenella is a dog-sheep protozoan parasite, causing a widespread enzootic muscle parasitosis and neurological disease mainly in lambs. This parasite is pathogenic to sheep and important to the economical production of sheep. The present study was initially aimed to determine Toxoplasma gondii infection and the occurrence of co-infection with other Apicomplexa parasites in 602 Brazilian sheep. Twenty of these sheep were positive with antibodies to T. gondii by MAT and IFAT-IgG tests, positive with PCR-RFLP genotyping at multiple loci, and parasites were isolated from mice infected with sheep tissue samples. Two additional sheep born in Brazil, a 2-year-old female Polwarth (Ideal) sheep, a breed originated from Australia (#1), and a 1-year-old male Corriedale sheep, a breed originated from New Zealand and Australia (#2) were positive to T. gondii antibodies by serum tests, and PCR, but negative for bioassay in mice. In genotyping at 12 loci, sheep #1 sample and #2 presented positive results only for some markers. PCR-RFLP of 18S ribosomal RNA (18S rRNA) was performed in all 22 animals to identify the possibility of co-infection of T. gondii with other Apicomplexa parasites, such as S. tenella, Neospora caninum and Hammondia hammondi, resulting in a T. gondii profile for the first 20 animals and a unique genotyping profile for sheep #1 and #2, identical to S. tenella. The 18S rRNA PCR products (approximately 310 bp) were sequenced and blasted to GenBank database at NCBI. Both samples were identical to S. tenella 18S rRNA gene (GenBank accession number L24383-1). These results suggest the existence of co-infection of S. tenella with T. gondii in ewes from Brazil. PMID:19647370

  1. Merits of the fat-tailed Barbarine sheep raised in different production systems in Tunisia: digestive, productive and reproductive characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Salem, Hichem; Lassoued, Narjess; Rekik, Mourad

    2011-10-01

    Barbarine sheep is the dominant breed in Tunisia. This fat-tailed breed present in all production systems is characterised by metabolic and digestive adaptation to the contrasting environment conditions prevailing in the country (heat stress, water deprivation, salinity etc.). The fat tail (1.5 to 7 kg) is an energy reservoir that is used in periods of feed scarcity. Moreover, the rumen of this breed harbours a microflora enabling it to valorize low-quality roughages and native range vegetation. Barbarine sheep could make benefit from a wide range of local feed resources like fodder shrubs (e.g. cactus and oldman saltbushes), tannin-containing shrubs (e.g. Acacia cyanophylla) and agro-industrial by-products (e.g. olive cake, bran etc. conserved in the form of feed blocks or pellets). It has a very shallow anoestrous, the intensity of which is dependant upon nutrition conditions rather than day length as temperate breeds. Productive and reproductive performances of late pregnant-early suckling, pre-mating ewes and also rams of this breed are not affected when some alternative feed resources replace common feedstuffs which are expensive and cannot afford regularly to smallholders. In brief, the merits of the Barbarine sheep in the production systems and other main adaptive mechanisms of this breed are discussed in this paper. The prospective of Barbarine sheep husbandry in the system dynamics, climate change and the evolution of the socioeconomic context are also envisaged. PMID:21533615

  2. A proteomics study of the response of North Ronaldsay sheep to copper challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haywood Susan

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this proteomics study was to identify proteins that changed expression as a result of copper challenge in the uniquely copper sensitive North Ronaldsay sheep and further, to compare those changes in expression with the more copper tolerant Cambridge breed. Such data gives us a proteome-centered perspective of the pathogenesis of copper-induced oxidative stress in this breed. Results Many proteins respond to copper challenge, but this study focuses on those exhibiting a differential response between the two breeds, related to liver copper content. As copper accumulated in the tissue, the pattern of expression of several proteins was markedly different, in North Ronaldsay sheep as compared to the Cambridge breed. Conclusion The pattern of changes was consistent with the greatly enhanced susceptibility of North Ronaldsay sheep to copper-induced oxidative stress, focused on mitochondrial disturbance with consequent activation of hepatic stellate cells. The expression profiles were sufficiently complex that the response could not simply be explained as a hypersensitivity to copper in North Ronaldsay sheep.

  3. A 90-Day Toxicology Study of Meat from Genetically Modified Sheep Overexpressing TLR4 in Sprague-Dawley Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Hai BAI; Wang, Zhixian; Hu, Rui; Kan, Tongtong; Li, Yan; Zhang, Xiaosheng; Zhang, Jinlong; Lian, Ling; Han, Hongbing; Lian, Zhengxing

    2015-01-01

    Genetic modification offers alternative strategies to traditional animal breeding. However, the food safety of genetically modified (GM) animals has attracted increasing levels of concern. In this study, we produced GM sheep overexpressing TLR4, and the transgene-positive offsprings (F1) were confirmed using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Southern blot. The expression of TLR4 was 2.5-fold compared with that of the wild-type (WT) sheep samples. During the 90-day safety study, Sprague-...

  4. Carbohydrate metabolism in sheep experimentally infected with “Trypanosoma vivax” Metabolismo de carboidratos em ovinos infectados experimentalmente por “Trypanosoma vivax”

    OpenAIRE

    Thuanny Lopes Nazaret; Rosangela Zacarias Machado; Fagner Luiz da Costa Freitas; Katyane Sousa Almeida; Celio Raimundo Machado; Adjair Antonio do Nascimento

    2010-01-01

    The present research evaluated carbohydrates metabolism alterations in sheep experimentally infected with Trypanosoma vivax. It were used eight male, adult, mixed breed sheep, randomly assigned in two groups: four animals in the witness group and four animals infected with 1x105 T. vivax trypomastigotes. For assessment of plasma glucose and free fatty acids, blood samples were collected from each animal external jugular vein, in both groups, two times before infection and later, in certain da...

  5. Genomic variation and population structure detected by single nucleotide polymorphism arrays in Corriedale, Merino and Creole sheep

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Andrés N, Grasso; Virginia, Goldberg; Elly A, Navajas; Wanda, Iriarte; Diego, Gimeno; Ignacio, Aguilar; Juan F, Medrano; Gonzalo, Rincón; Gabriel, Ciappesoni.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the genetic diversity within and among three breeds of sheep: Corriedale, Merino and Creole. Sheep from the three breeds (Merino n = 110, Corriedale n = 108 and Creole n = 10) were genotyped using the Illumina Ovine SNP50 beadchip®. Genetic diversity was eval [...] uated by comparing the minor allele frequency (MAF) among breeds. Population structure and genetic differentiation were assessed using STRUCTURE software, principal component analysis (PCA) and fixation index (F ST). Fixed markers (MAF = 0) that were different among breeds were identified as specific breed markers. Using a subset of 18,181 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), PCA and STUCTURE analysis were able to explain population stratification within breeds. Merino and Corriedale divergent lines showed high levels of polymorphism (89.4% and 86% of polymorphic SNPs, respectively) and moderate genetic differentiation (F ST = 0.08) between them. In contrast, Creole had only 69% polymorphic SNPs and showed greater genetic differentiation from the other two breeds (F ST = 0.17 for both breeds). Hence, a subset of molecular markers present in the OvineSNP50 is informative enough for breed assignment and population structure analysis of commercial and Creole breeds.

  6. Genomic variation and population structure detected by single nucleotide polymorphism arrays in Corriedale, Merino and Creole sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés N Grasso

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the genetic diversity within and among three breeds of sheep: Corriedale, Merino and Creole. Sheep from the three breeds (Merino n = 110, Corriedale n = 108 and Creole n = 10 were genotyped using the Illumina Ovine SNP50 beadchip®. Genetic diversity was evaluated by comparing the minor allele frequency (MAF among breeds. Population structure and genetic differentiation were assessed using STRUCTURE software, principal component analysis (PCA and fixation index (F ST. Fixed markers (MAF = 0 that were different among breeds were identified as specific breed markers. Using a subset of 18,181 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, PCA and STUCTURE analysis were able to explain population stratification within breeds. Merino and Corriedale divergent lines showed high levels of polymorphism (89.4% and 86% of polymorphic SNPs, respectively and moderate genetic differentiation (F ST = 0.08 between them. In contrast, Creole had only 69% polymorphic SNPs and showed greater genetic differentiation from the other two breeds (F ST = 0.17 for both breeds. Hence, a subset of molecular markers present in the OvineSNP50 is informative enough for breed assignment and population structure analysis of commercial and Creole breeds.

  7. Factors of welfare reduction in dairy sheep and goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Pazzona

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Scientific research on factors causing the reduction of well-being in sheep and goats is rather recent, as are studies of strategies to minimize the adverse effects of environmental challenges and improper management practices on flock welfare. Sheep and goats, considered very rustic animals, are reared prevalently under extensive production systems and are widespread mainly in marginal areas. For these reasons, only few studies on the welfare of these species have been carried out in the past. More recently, the scenario has changed, due to a gradual diffusion of intensive and semi-intensive production systems, especially in dairy sheep and goat breeds, to the growing concern of consumers about the life conditions of farmed animals, and to the issuing of a number of rules and laws on the safety of animal products and well-being of farmed livestock. As a consequence, several research groups have turned their attention to the welfare of sheep and goats. Nevertheless, information on this topic is still scarce. This paper reviews major critical points regarding the endangerment of welfare in farmed sheep and goats. Climatic extremes and seasonal fluctuations in herbage amount and quality are discussed as important causes of the reduction of well-being in extensive production systems, which can impair production efficiency of grazing animals and dramatically affect the welfare and health status of sheep and goats. Space allowance and structures of sheep and goat houses are described as the main potential sources of discomfort for housed flocks, together with inadequate control of micro-environment, and inappropriate milking procedures and human-animal interactions. Recent studies on the impact of high ambient temperature, different ventilation regimes, high stocking densities, reduced airspace and poor litter management on behaviour, immune and endocrine response, and on performance of sheep and goats are discussed. The effects of inadequate milking procedures and improper milking technical parameters on welfare and udder health of sheep and goats are also discussed. Finally, some practices aimed at minimizing emotional and nutritional stresses of lambs and kids after early separation from the mother, before the transition to artificial rearing, and at weaning time are described.

  8. INCREASING FOOD CHAIN SECURITY FOR SCRAPIE BY MARKER ASSISTED SELECTION IN SHEEP POPULATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VIORICA CO?IER

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Romania, by its genetic found made up of over 7.4 millions sheep and 1.8 millionsyoung sheep exported in EU countries, represents an important mark in bothEuropean and World sheep breeding sector, in last years marked by many ESSTcenters. The apparition of this disease and its high risk of danger for reared effectiveconstraint EEC countries to interfere by law regulations concerning scrapie controland stopping disease spreading. In our country, controls identified the presence ofscrapie in livestock. The international reference laboratories post mortem certifiedthe presence of disease. Immunohistochemical detection of PrPSc is a standarddiagnostic method for sheep scrapie. By immunohistochemistry (IHC, PrPSc isdetected in lymphoid tissues during preclinical and clinical disease. Aftergenotypization at PrnP locus, the marker assisted selection is compulsory, and flocksinclude only genotypes with high disease resistance.

  9. INCREASING FOOD CHAIN SECURITY FOR SCRAPIE BY MARKER ASSISTED SELECTION IN SHEEP POPULATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CO?IER VIORICA

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Romania, by its genetic found made up of over 7.4 millions sheep and 1.8 millionsyoung sheep exported in EU countries, represents an important mark in bothEuropean and World sheep breeding sector, in last years marked by many ESSTcenters. The apparition of this disease and its high risk of danger for reared effectiveconstraint EEC countries to interfere by law regulations concerning scrapie controland stopping disease spreading. In our country, controls identified the presence ofscrapie in livestock. The international reference laboratories post mortem certifiedthe presence of disease. Immunohistochemical detection of PrPSc is a standarddiagnostic method for sheep scrapie. By immunohistochemistry (IHC, PrPSc isdetected in lymphoid tissues during preclinical and clinical disease. Aftergenotypization at PrnP locus, the marker assisted selection is compulsory, and flocksinclude only genotypes with high disease resistance.

  10. [Correlation analysis between polymorphism of the 59383635th locus on X chromosome and fat-tail trait in sheep].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Shang-Quan; Zhang, Wei; Shen, Min; Li, Huan; Yang, Jing-Quan; Liang, Yao-Wei; Gao, Lei; Liu, Shou-Ren; Wang, Xin-Hua

    2013-10-01

    Fat tail or fat rump is one of essential traits for surviving in harsh environments, and the mechanism of fat deposition and its inheritable characters in sheep are still unclear. Therefore, the 59383635th locus on X chromosome in our unpublished chip data was chosen as candidate SNP, PCR-SSCP method was used to detect genotypes in five sheep breeds which have extreme differences in tail types (Altay, Small Tail Han Sheep, Hu, Chinese Merino and Suffolk), and the mathematical model was employed to analyze the correlation between the polymorphism and the trait of fat tail or fat rump. The results in this study showed that the high frequency of allele T exists in Altay flock, and the frequency of allele C appears to be particularly high in the thin tail sheep breeds. The result of mathematical model showed that the ratio of T/C increased exponentially with the increase of phenotype score. These results suggest that there is a big difference in the SNP distribution between fat tail (rump) and thin tail sheep populations, and the SNP can be used as an ideal molecular marker in high-fat or low-fat sheep breeding. However, the biological function of the SNP remains to be further studied. PMID:24459894

  11. Genetic differentiation between 'Araucana' creole and 'Hampshire Down' sheeps in Chile

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Silvana, Bravo; Giovanni, Larama; Manuel, Ortíz; Néstor, Sepúlveda.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Genetic diversity studies in domestic animals allow evaluating genetic variation within and among breeds mainly for conservation purposes. In Chile exist isolated recovery programs, conservation and characterization of animal genetic resources, a consequence of which the vast majority of them have n [...] ot been characterized, poorly used, and some of them have become extinct. The aim of this research was to determine genetic diversity and relationship between 'Araucana' creole and 'Hampshire Down' sheeps based on microsatellite markers; sheep breeds with similar phenotypic characteristics, raised in the south of Chile. A total of 64 'Araucana' sheep ('Araucana' from Freire, AF: 27, 'Araucana' from Padre Las Casas, AP: 10, 'Araucana' from Chol Chol, AC: 15, 'Araucana' from Villarrica, AV: 12) and 43 'Hampshire Down' sheep ('Hampshire' from Marchigue, HM: 18, 'Hampshire' from Valdivia, HV: 11, 'Hampshire' from San José, HS: 14) were analyzed using 17 microsatellite markers for determine the genetic diversity and relationship between breeds. A total of 284 alleles were observed with average polymorphic information content equal to 0.76, showing that the microsatellites panel used was highly informative. Estimated heterozygosity ranged from 0.73 in 'Hampshire Down' to 0.85 in 'Araucana'. The low inbreeding or endogamy coefficient (F IS, 0.022) and total inbreeding estimate (F IT, 0.070) indicated low level of inbreeding within and among breeds. The phylogenetic tree showed a separation between HS and HV, and the other sheep populations. The results indicated high genetic variability, low inbreeding, and low genetic differentiation, except for HV and HS, and were in according with geographical location and breeding practices.

  12. Genetic differentiation between 'Araucana' creole and 'Hampshire Down' sheeps in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Bravo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Genetic diversity studies in domestic animals allow evaluating genetic variation within and among breeds mainly for conservation purposes. In Chile exist isolated recovery programs, conservation and characterization of animal genetic resources, a consequence of which the vast majority of them have not been characterized, poorly used, and some of them have become extinct. The aim of this research was to determine genetic diversity and relationship between 'Araucana' creole and 'Hampshire Down' sheeps based on microsatellite markers; sheep breeds with similar phenotypic characteristics, raised in the south of Chile. A total of 64 'Araucana' sheep ('Araucana' from Freire, AF: 27, 'Araucana' from Padre Las Casas, AP: 10, 'Araucana' from Chol Chol, AC: 15, 'Araucana' from Villarrica, AV: 12 and 43 'Hampshire Down' sheep ('Hampshire' from Marchigue, HM: 18, 'Hampshire' from Valdivia, HV: 11, 'Hampshire' from San José, HS: 14 were analyzed using 17 microsatellite markers for determine the genetic diversity and relationship between breeds. A total of 284 alleles were observed with average polymorphic information content equal to 0.76, showing that the microsatellites panel used was highly informative. Estimated heterozygosity ranged from 0.73 in 'Hampshire Down' to 0.85 in 'Araucana'. The low inbreeding or endogamy coefficient (F IS, 0.022 and total inbreeding estimate (F IT, 0.070 indicated low level of inbreeding within and among breeds. The phylogenetic tree showed a separation between HS and HV, and the other sheep populations. The results indicated high genetic variability, low inbreeding, and low genetic differentiation, except for HV and HS, and were in according with geographical location and breeding practices.

  13. Veterinary and medical aspects of abortion in Danish sheep

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerholm, JØrgen S.; Aalbæk, Bent

    2006-01-01

    The Danish sheep population totals around 144,000 animals, but little is known of the causes and prevalance of diseases. This study focuses on the causes of abortion in Danish sheep. During one breeding season, aborted foetuses and stillbirths with signs of intrauterine death or malformation were submitted for laboratory examination from a population of 3,758 breeding ewes. Samples from 24 incidents of abortion and 21 ewes delivering malformed lambs or lambs with ante partum decomposition were submitted. A specific aetiology was established in 66.7% and 14.3% of the cases, respectively. Bacterial pathogens were the most prevalent cause of abortion. Several of the abortifacients were zoonotic microorganisms, for example Listeria monocytogenes, Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus, Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and Toxoplasma gondii. The identified microorganisms probably represent the most common causes of abortion in Danish sheep but occurrence in Denmark of other pathogens such as Coxiella burnetii and Chlamydophila abortus cannot be excluded. Due to the high prevalence of zoonotic microorganisms, precautions must be taken in handling abortions or assisting lambing, especially for pregnant women.

  14. Fibre Characterization of the fat tailed zambian ovine breed

    OpenAIRE

    Parés Casanova, Pere-Miquel; R Pérezgrovas; Mwaanga, Edwell S.

    2014-01-01

    To-date, no ethnological study of the Fat-tailed Zambian ovine breed has been published. In order to contribute to the knowledge of its wool, ten fleece samples were studied. Each sample was analysed for yield by isoalcohol scouring, fibre length for each kind of fibre, variation in fibre diameter, and proportions of non-medullated and medulla ted fibres. Fleeces of the Fat-tailed Zambian sheep breed can be described as pen-brush, 'closed' and relatively long. The high yield by isoalcohol sco...

  15. Investigation of Prolific Sheep from UK and Ireland for Evidence on Origin of the Mutations in BMP15 (FecXG, FecXB) and GDF9 (FecGH) in Belclare and Cambridge Sheep

    OpenAIRE

    Mullen, Michael P.; Hanrahan, James P; Howard, Dawn J; Powell, Richard

    2013-01-01

    This paper concerns the likely origin of three mutations with large effects on ovulation rate identified in the Belclare and Cambridge sheep breeds; two in the BMP15 gene (FecXG and FecXB) and the third (FecGH) in GDF9. All three mutations segregate in Belclare sheep while one, FecXB, has not been found in the Cambridge. Both Belclare and Cambridge breeds are relatively recently developed composites that have common ancestry through the use of genetic material from the Finnish Landrace and Ll...

  16. Experimental Study on the Causative Agents of Hypobios is of Haemonchus contortus in Sheep in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Hosseini, S.H.; Nematollahi, A.; Eslami, A

    2007-01-01

    For determination the inducing factors of arrested development of 3th stage larvae of Haemonchus contortus as early L4 in sheep in 2 out of 4 climatic conditions of Iran, 24, six month old native sheep (shall breed) were randomly allocated into 3 equal groups I, II and III.Each sheep in each group received 10000 local isolate of H.contortus larvae not known to exhibit hypobiosis as follow: (i)Freshly collected larvae were given to group I, (control group).(ii)Larvae stored at 8-10 oc and 70%...

  17. Estacionalidad reproductiva de la oveja en México / Reproductive seasonality of sheep in Mexico

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    J., Arroyo.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Con el propósito de discutir y analizar la información disponible, referente al comportamiento reproductivo estacional de los ovinos en la República Mexicana, se realizó la presente revisión. Se analizaron las bases neuroendocrinas que regulan el ciclo reproductivo anual en la oveja y posteriormente [...] se discutió el grado de estacionalidad reproductiva en ovejas criollas de lana, en razas originarias de latitudes altas y en ovejas de pelo, principalmente, en ovejas Pelibuey. Las ovejas criollas de lana, muestran un anestro estacional corto con tendencia a ovular todo el año. Las hembras de origen septentrional, expresan actividad reproductiva estacional, similar a la observada en los individuos ubicados geográficamente en latitudes mayores a 35°. Las ovejas Pelibuey, muestran comportamiento reproductivo anual variable, con reducido anestro estacional o ausencia del mismo. Se sugiere que los mecanismos neuroendocrinos que regulan el anestro estacional en los ovinos, se encuentran activos en las ovejas de origen septentrional que habitan en México; de manera contraria, no se activan en ovejas criollas y de pelo. Abstract in english In order to discuss and analyze the available information concerning the seasonal breeding behavior of sheep in Mexico, this review was conducted. We analyzed the neuroendocrine basis that modulate the annual reproductive cycle in sheep and then discussed the degree of reproductive seasonality in Cr [...] eole sheep wool, breeds originating in high latitudes and hair sheep, mainly in Pelibuey ewes. The Creole sheep wool show continuous annual reproductive activity and short seasonal anestrous. The females of northern origin, express seasonal reproductive activity, similar to that observed in individuals geographically located at latitudes above 35°. Pelibuey sheep show variable annual reproductive behavior with reduced anestrus or lack thereof. It is suggested that the neuroendocrine mechanisms regulating seasonal anestrus in ewes, are active in the sheep of northern origin that live in Mexico, in a manner contrary is not activated in Creole and hair sheep.

  18. TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO THE SHEEP AND GOAT MILK WITHIN ECHOLOGIC CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CAMELIA ZOIA ZAMFIR

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of HACCP system within sheep exploitations represents a unitary control manner, scientifically proved, which enforces the discipline and correctness, allows an objective evaluation of sheep and goat meat and milk quality. When determining the main components of sheep and goat milk from the animals that grazed on the pasture fertilized with stable manure, within ecologic conditions, the following results were obtained: at sheep there was a fat percent of 6.22% and 6.11%, protein 5.32% and 5.52%, and dry substance 14.25% and 14.21%, normal values for sheep milk; at goats the fat percent was that of 6.22% and 6.11%, protein 5.32% and 5.52%, and dry substance 14.25% and 14.21%, normal values for goat milk. The milk samples taken from the sheep belonging to Palas Merino breed and from Carpatina breed were also analysed with regard to the toxic residues and it has been stated that the values obtained fit within the normal norms admitted by the food domain’ standards, being in compliance with the safety and protection of the consumers. The elimination of chemical fertilizers, pesticides and herbicides has led to the non-noticing of their presence within the sheep and goat products. By the regulation of ecologic products’ quality, in relation with the consumers’ and environment’s protection, a balance was created between the producers’ interests and obligations, those of the merchants and also those of the consumers. On the basis of results obtained through the microbiological examination of milk and meat samples taken from the sheep it has been stated that the microbial flora identified is formed by representatives of Staphylococcus–72.72% Streptococcus ? hemolitic – 9.09% and Fungi filamentous – 18.18%. The microbial flora is non pathogen for man.

  19. Pesquisa de anticorpos anti-Brucella abortus e anti-Brucella ovis em ovinos no município de Uberlândia, MG Research of Brucella abortus and Brucella ovis antibodies in sheep of Uberlândia county, MG, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    S.R.S. Salaberry; L.M. Paulin; R.L. Santana; J. R. Castro; A.M.C. Lima-Ribeiro

    2011-01-01

    The first epidemiologic inquiry to Brucella abortus (B. abortus) and Brucella ovis (B. ovis) was carried out in sheep from Uberlândia county, MG. A total of 334 blood serum samples of sheep from both sexes and different ages and breeds were collected in 12 farms. An epidemiologic questionnaire was applied for each farm. Tests for B. abortus and B. ovis antibodies were Buffered Acidified Antigen and Complement Fixation, respectively. None of the sheep was reactive to B. abortus and B. ovis; ho...

  20. Genetic Variation at Karayaka Sheep Herds Based on Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Okumus

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Turkish Karayaka sheep breed that is one of the important native breed at Black Sea Region in Turkey was genotyped for 13 RAPD primers. Genotypes of 100 were collected from five different herds (BA, BF, LA, LD and KP herds localized in the Samsun territory. The genetic similarity was obtained on the dendrograms individuals and herd. Within herds, individuals showed a similarity index between 0.857 to 0.420. The similarity index between populations ranged from 0.520 to 0.710. The binary results also were utilised by principal component analysis for comparison of herds and individuals. The genetic relationship of animals shows a difference among herds in terms of number of RAPD bands. These results show that some herds are effected possibly from other sheep breeds or reared purely such as KP.

  1. Tulathromycin in the Treatment of Respiratory Infections in Sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Naccari

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study the effectiveness of tulathromycin, a new semi-synthetic macrolide, was assessed in treatment of sheep respiratory infection. The research was carried out on 36 half-breed sheep with clinical signs of bacterial respiratory infection. Specimens of nasal discharge (40-45 mL from all animals were collected for bacteriological tests, before treatment and 2, 5, 7 and 15 days after the drug injection. Bacteriological investigations showed the presence of gram-negative strains of Mannheima (Pasteurella haemolytica, P. multocida, Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae and Pseudomonas spp. The susceptibility of the isolated microorganisms to tulathromycin and other antimicrobials drugs used in veterinary medicine was estimated by in vitro test. A single dose of tulathromycin (DRAXXIN, Pfizer, Milan Italy (2.5 mg/kg b.w. was injected subcutaneously in the neck of each sheep. In treated animals, the symptomatology decreased rapidly 2 days after treatment and completely after 5-7 days, with remission and normal functioning of respirator activity. Actually, no literature data are present on tulathromycin treatment in sheep; therefore this research describes the first therapeutic use in this specie.

  2. Evolution of plant breeding

    OpenAIRE

    Hallauer, Arnel R.

    2011-01-01

    Plant breeding is considered one of the longest ongoing activities undertaken by humans, who select plantsmore productive and useful to themselves and the animals for at least 10,000 years ago. The evolution of civilizationsparalleled the success of plant breeding, although this has not been recognized by the public. The reason may be lack ofunderstanding of what plant breeding encompasses. The concept of plant breeding evolved, depending on the time it wasformulated, but without losing the e...

  3. Genomic dairy cattle breeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mark, Thomas; Sandøe, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to discuss the potential consequences of modern dairy cattle breeding for the welfare of dairy cows. The paper focuses on so-called genomic selection, which deploys thousands of genetic markers to estimate breeding values. The discussion should help to structure the thoughts of breeders and other stakeholders on how to best make use of genomic breeding in the future. Intensive breeding has played a major role in securing dramatic increases in milk yield since the Second ...

  4. The complete mitochondrial genome of domestic sheep, Ovis aries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiao-di; Gao, Li-Zhi

    2016-03-01

    In this study, we report a complete mitochondrial (mt) genome sequence of the Texel ewe, Ovis aries. The total genome is 16,615?bp in length and its overall base composition was estimated to be 33.68% for A, 27.36% for T, 25.86% for C, and 13.10% for G indicating an AT-rich (61.04%) feature in the O. aries mtgenome. It contains a total of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes and a control region (D-loop region). Comparisons with other publicly available sheep mitogenomes revealed a bunch of nucleotide diversity. This complete mitgenome sequence would enlarge useful genomic information for further studies on sheep evolution and domestication that will enhance germplasm conservation and breeding programs of O. aries. PMID:25163015

  5. Inter-relationship Between Body Measurements and Prices of Sheep in An Open Market in Kano State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AO Iyiola-Tunji

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study attempted to determine the inter-relationship between market price and body measurements among different breeds of sheep in open markets of six Local Government Areas of Kano State (Municipal, Taruauni, Gmale, Nassarawa, Fagge and Dala of Kano city. Body measurements and prices of sheep used for this study were obtained from Unguwa Uku, Dorayi, Kara, Bachirawa, yankaba, Mariri and Kabara livestock markets in Kano. The Sudanese price was the highest (N 30,000±0.0, followed by Uda, Balami and Yankasa with the least cost being N 10, 614±3,137. Similarly the Sudanese breed recorded highest body weight, back length, lion girth and height at wither compared to all other breeds, while Balami had a higher chest girth (78.77±6.0 cm, followed by Uda and Yankasa, which recorded the least. The extra large animals weighed 58.75± 1.25 kg, which was more than the body weight of the large, medium and small sheep which weighed 42.48±0.34kg, 34.93±0.21 and 27.92±0.26, respectively. The price of these animals also follow the same pattern as the extra large cost more than all the other weight classes. The prices were N 25,750±8,500, N 15,524±2,263, N 11,284±2792 and N 8,324±1,584 for extra large, large, medium and the small sheep, respectively. Price of sheep was positive and highly correlated to weight of the sheep (0.826. Price was also positive and moderately correlated to back length (0.579, chest girth (0.538, height at wither (0.535 and leg length (0.464 at 1% level of significance. Leg length was highly and positively correlated with height at wither (0.717. Height at whither together with back length are important additional variables to chest girth to obtain up to 38% prediction of price of rams. The price of any sheep breed is subjected to the weight and the price of sheep in an open market can best be predicted from a combination of leg length and loin girth. (Animal Production 13 (1:64-68 (2011Key Words: price of sheep, sheep breeds and open markets

  6. MEAT PRODUCTIVITY OF CROSSBRED SHEEP CALVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Degtyar A. S.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of the control slaughter of purebred and crossbred lambs. It was found that the index of compactness and the main killer performance superiority had two or three breed lambs obtained from crosses involving sheep southern meat breed. The experimental animals were taken measurements of carcasses, which give a fairly complete and objective view of the differences in the length of the torso, hips, mascara and hip girth. There are specific differences in the yield of the most valuable cuts of the first grade the rams depending on the origin. The superiority of crossbred calves over the control for this indicator amounted to 16.4 and 33.4%. The chemical composition of the meat fine-wool lambs contained more moisture and less fat and less calories than meat crossbred animals. Increasing the hybrids values of the protein quality index indicates an increase in meat share of muscle proteins and the reduction of connective tissue, and consequently, improving the quality of the raw meat. Animals obtained by crossing, have wide and deep body, well-developed muscles of the thighs, the best quality characteristics of meat productivity

  7. Genetic polymorphisms in ?-defensin II gene in Amazon sheep from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, B B; Barbosa, E M; Azevedo, J S N; Campelo, J E G; Rodrigues, L F S; Pinheiro, L M L; Silva, S C B; Schierholt, A S; Souza, P H; Gonçalves, E C; Silva Filho, E

    2015-01-01

    The northern region of Brazil produces a large number of sheep, with Pará being the largest sheep breeding state in the region. In the Amazon region, livestock production is a challenge due to the high diversity of pathogens affecting humans and animals. Defensins are antimicrobial peptides acting as a first barrier against micro-organisms and present high variation in different organisms. The objective of this study was to detect polymorphisms in exon II in ?-defensin II in Amazon sheep. The gene was amplified by PCR from DNA extracted from 47 sheep blood samples from the Santa Inês breed. Products were sequenced, aligned and analyzed. Three single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) positions were observed with transition substitutions (A?G) at positions 1643, 1659, and 1750. The 1643 and 1750 SNPs showed a low variability and significant deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) (P 0.05). Polymorphisms at 1643 and 1659 were predicted to modify amino acids in the peptide chain (isoleucine to valine and arginine to lysine, respectively) with no effects on protein function. Results from this study suggest that SNPs are important markers for ?-defensin II efficiency studies on the immune system of sheep in the Brazilian Amazon. PMID:26505431

  8. Suitability of blood protein polymorphisms in assessing genetic diversity in indigenous sheep in Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knowledge of genetic diversity is important as it forms the basis for designing breeding programmes and making rational decisions on sustainable utilization of animal genetic resources. This study was designed to assess the efficiency of blood protein polymorphism as a rapid tool for assessing genetic diversity, using seven blood proteins (transferrin, albumin, haemoglobin, esterase A, esterase C, carbonic anhydrase and X-protein) and 457 indigenous fat-tailed (351) and fat-rumped (106) hair sheep in Kenya from 7 populations, with 40 Merino as controls. Transferrin was analysed using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and starch gel electrophoresis was used to analyse the other six loci. Of the seven loci analysed, two - carbonic anhydrase and X-protein - could not be interpreted. The five interpretable markers, however, showed low levels of polymorphism in allele numbers and heterozygosity. Multilocus mean FST values of 0.083 indicated a moderate genetic differentiation between the populations analysed. The Dm and Da genetic distance estimates showed the indigenous sheep populations in Kenya to be closely related genetically, with the dendrogram failing to resolve indigenous sheep into fat-tailed sheep and fat-rumped hair sheep. Due to its costs and modest equipment demands, blood protein polymorphism can be used as a rapid tool to assess genetic diversity and prioritize breeds to be analysed by microsatellite DNA markers. (author)

  9. Ectoparasites of sheep in three agro-ecological zones in central Oromia, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bersissa Kumsa

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence and risk factors for ectoparasites infestation in sheep in three agro-ecological zones in central Oromia, Ethiopia, from October 2009 to April 2010. The study revealed that 637 (48.1% of the 1325 sheep examined were infested with one or more ectoparasites. The ectoparasites identified were Bovicola ovis (27.2%, Melophagus ovinus (16.4%, Ctenocephalides sp. (2.3%, Linognathus africanus (1.2%, Linognathus ovillus (0.3%, Sarcoptes sp. (1.2%, Amblyomma variegatum (4.4%, Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi (1.9%, Rhipicephalus pravus (1.9%, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus decoloratus (1.1%, Rhipicephalus sanguineus (0.9%, Rhipicephalus praetextatus (1.1% and Hyalomma truncatum (1.6%. Statistically significant difference was observed in prevalence of B. ovis amongst study agroecological zones: highland 36.6%, midland 20.9% and lowland 14.0%. Significantly higher prevalence was recorded in highland agroecological zone. A significantly (OR = 0.041, p 0.05 was never recorded in the prevalence of all the identified species of ectoparasites between male and female sheep hosts. However, a significantly (p = 0.006 higher prevalence of B. ovis was recorded between young and adult sheep. The risk of B. ovis infestation was 1.45 times higher in young than the adult sheep. Furthermore, a significantly (p < 0.001 higher prevalence of M. ovinus, B. ovis and Sarcoptes sp. was found between sheep with poor and a good body condition. The ever increasing threat of ectoparasites on overall sheep productivity and tanning industry in Ethiopia warrants urgent control intervention. Further studies on the role of ectoparasites in transmission of diseases to sheep, zoonotic importance, comparative prevalence and load, and the importance of sheep as alternative hosts in different agroecological zones, breeds and management systems in Ethiopia are recommended so as to design applicable control programme in the country.

  10. molecular and biochemical markers for early pregnancy detection in sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    the present study was conducted as in the experimental sheep farm of the nuclear research center, egyptian atomic energy authority in association with the institute of graduate studies and research. university of alexandria. this study aims to accurately and economically detect early pregnancy using techniques of biotechnology .consequently, the suggested method may replace techniques used nowadays for pregnancy detection since these techniques have disadvantages (e.g. long time before accurately determining pregnancy in rectal abdominal palpation and high cost and hazards of using serum progesterone radio immunoassay (RIA). the farmer may benefit from such detection economically by increasing his farm breeding cycle efficiency , reducing the breeding expenses . and isolating fertile ewes as early as possible. therefore reducing abortion incidences. stillbirths or production of weak lambs. this study was performed in two separate experiments. the first experiment: twenty four mixed breed sheep from the experimental sheep of the nuclear research center . egyptian atomic energy authority were used in this study. blood samples were taken at days 5.7.10.16.21.and 25 days after mating and a native- page were applied on the serum of these samples in correlation with serum progesterone RIA test. in addition . white blood cells were isolated from blood samples to obtain purified total RNA for RT-PCR. gel images were analyzed using totallab v.i.II(nonlinear dynamic, Newcastle upontyne. UK) computer software.the second experiment:nine pregnant and two non-pregnant ewes used in this experiment. blood sample were taken 0.25.30.35.40.45.and 50 days after mating and SDS-page were applied on the serum of theses samples. Native-page were applied for serum samples and stained for glycoproteins. gel images were analyzed using totallab v/1.11 (nonlinear dynamic. Newcastle upontyne. UK) computer software

  11. Charge Breeding of Radioactive Ions

    CERN Document Server

    Wenander, F J C

    2013-01-01

    Charge breeding is a technique to increase the charge state of ions, in many cases radioactive ions. The singly charged radioactive ions, produced in an isotope separator on-line facility, and extracted with a low kinetic energy of some tens of keV, are injected into a charge breeder, where the charge state is increased to Q. The transformed ions are either directed towards a dedicated experiment requiring highly charged ions, or post-accelerated to higher beam energies. In this paper the physics processes involved in the production of highly charged ions will be introduced, and the injection and extraction beam parameters of the charge breeder defined. A description of the three main charge-breeding methods is given, namely: electron stripping in gas jet or foil; external ion injection into an electron-beam ion source/trap (EBIS/T); and external ion injection into an electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS). In addition, some preparatory devices for charge breeding and practical beam delivery aspects ...

  12. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING WEANING WEIGHT IN LOHI SHEEP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.E. Babar, Z. Ahmad, A. Nadeem and M. Yaqoob

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Data on 3984 lambing records of 1285 Lohi ewes kept at the Livestock Production Research Institute, Bahadurnagar, Okara for he period 1960-90 were analyzed by using Harvey’s Mixed Model Least Squares and Maximum Likelihood Computer Program. The purpose was to estimate the magnitude of various environmental sources of variation influencing weaning weight in this breed of sheep. The least squares mean for 120-day adjusted weaning weight was 23.09 ? 0.13 kg. The trait was significantly (P<0.01 influenced by the year and season of birth, type of birth and the sex of the lamb born.

  13. A comparison of some physical traits of Iraqi sheep wool

    OpenAIRE

    S.F. Al-Dabbagh; H.R. Sabbagh

    2014-01-01

    This study included analyzing data recorded of wool produced bales from Awassi, Karadi and Arabi sheep distributed in Mosul region, north and south of Iraq respectively for two years 2011 and 2012. Randomized samples were taken from these bales for dipped wool before shearing and raw wool (not dipped) to study percentage of clean wool (CW), vegetable matter (VM) and fiber diameter (FD). The results revealed a highly significant effects (P? 0.01) for the breeds and status of wool on these thre...

  14. No mutations of FecB and FecGH in Iranian Lory sheep

    OpenAIRE

    Zaynab Shafieiyan; Ghodratollah Mohammadi; Abbas Jolodarzadeh; Sara Amiri

    2014-01-01

    The Booroola fecundity gene (FecB) and growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9) gene belong to the transforming growth factor ? (TGF-?) superfamily. The mutations of these genes have additive effects on the prolificacy in sheep. The aim of the present study was to determine the possible mutations of FecB and FecGH genes in Lory sheep breed of the Lorestan province, Iran. Sixty blood samples were collected and DNA was extracted from whole fresh blood. For detection of FecB and FecGH mutations, t...

  15. Aromatase gene and its effects on growth, reproductive and maternal ability traits in a multibreed sheep population from Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ana Maria Bezerra Oliveira, Lôbo; Raimundo Nonato Braga, Lôbo; Samuel Rezende, Paiva.

    Full Text Available We determined the polymorphism C242T of the aromatase gene (Cyp19) and its allelic frequency, as well as the effect of the variants on productive and reproductive traits in 71 purebred Santa Inês sheep, 13 purebred Brazilian Somali sheep, nine purebred Poll Dorset sheep, and 18 crossbred 1/2 Dorper [...] sheep. The animals were genotyped using the PCR-RFLP technique. The influence of the animal's genotype on its performance or on the performance of its lambs was analyzed by the least square method. Another factor assessed was the importance of the animal's genotype in analysis models for quantitative breeding value estimates, and whether there were differences among the averages of breeding values of animals with different genotypes for this gene. In the sample studied, no AA individuals were observed; the AB and BB frequencies were 0.64 and 0.36, respectively. All Brazilian Somali sheep were of genotype BB. All 1/2 Dorper BB animals presented a lower age at first lambing, and the Santa Inês BB ewes presented a lower lambing interval. In these same genetic groups, AB ewes presented higher litter weight at weaning. This is evidence that BB ewes have a better reproductive performance phenotype, whereas AB ewes present a better maternal ability phenotype. However, in general, animals with genotype AB presented better average breeding values than those with genotype BB.

  16. ANTIPARASITICAL PROTECTION IN SHEEP FARMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DOINA ARDELEANU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Through our researches were carried out at ICDCOC- Palas, Constantza, we proposed ourselves to establish the poly-parasitism structure on sheep, as well as elaborating efficientical methods for anti-parasitical prophylaxis and fighting in sheep populations and pasture sourfaces, in order to ensuring anti-parasitical protection in sheep exploitations The copro-parasitological examinations was carried ovoscopicaly (flotation - by Willis and Mc. Master methods; sediment – by polyvalent method and larvoscopicaly – by Baermann method. The parasitological examination of coprological smears which were harvested on sheep showed the presence of polyparasitism phenomenon with protozoans (coccidiae: Eimeria spp. and helmints (cestodae: Moniesia expansa; gastro-intestinal nemathodes: Trichostrongylus spp., Nematodirus spp., Strongyloides papillosus and pulmonary nemathodes: Mu?ellerius capillaris, Protostrongylus rufescens, Dictyocaulus filaria. Also, we proposed ourselves to study the paresites and their intermediary stages on pastures which were exploited with sheep, comparatively with mowed pastures. In the ansamble of research activities a special place is occupied by testing differents methods, in order to prevention and fighting of parasitical infestations on sheep and pasture in sheep farms.

  17. Influence of Fasciola Hepatica on Serum Biochemical Parameters and Vascular and Biliary System of Sheep Liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Hodži?

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the functional capacity of the liver based on the activity of specific enzymes and bilirubin in serum and also to investigate the influence of mechanical and toxic effects of Fasciola hepatica on the structures of the blood vessels and biliary tract in the sheep liver.Methods: Blood samples and liver of 63 indigenous sheep of Pramenka breed, slaughtered in the period from March to December 2009 were used. Based on parasitological findings in the liver, all animals were divided into two groups: control (n=34 and infected group (n=29. For investigation and description of pathological changes in sheep liver, naturally infected with F. hepatica, corrosion cast technique was used.Results: Biochemical analysis of tested parameters showed a significant elevation (P?0.05 of serum gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT, total bilirubin (TBIL and direct bilirubin (DBIL in infected sheep group comparing with the control group. No significant differences were observed for activity of aspartate aminotranferase (AST between groups. Vascular and biliary systems of the liver were found to be affected.Conclusion: Results of biochemical analysis are consistent with pathological findings and measuring of tested parameters could be used in early diagnosis of sheep fasciolosis and to test the effectiveness of anthelmintic therapy. Corrosion cast technique is very useful for investigation of pathological changes and neoangiogenesis of vascular and biliary system in sheep liver, caused by mechanical and toxic effects of F. hepatica.

  18. Gene expression profiles of hair and wool sheep reveal importance of Th2 immune mechanisms for increased resistance to.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKinnon, K M; Bowdridge, S A; Kanevsky-Mullarky, I; Zajac, A M; Notter, D R

    2015-05-01

    Management of gastrointestinal parasites is a critical issue for sheep producers worldwide. Increases in the prevalence of drug-resistant worms have complicated parasite control and increased economic losses. Therefore, other methods of parasite control need to be assessed, including the use of genetically resistant animals in breeding programs. Hair sheep breeds such as the St. Croix have greater parasite resistance than conventional wool breeds. However, the immune mechanisms that control parasite resistance in hair or wool breeds have not yet been fully determined, and information on cytokine expression profiles for both wool sheep selected for increased resistance and hair sheep is limited. Our objective was to investigate gene expression differences in 24 parasite-resistant hair and 24 susceptible wool sheep to identify immune effectors associated with resistance to . One-half of the lambs were infected and sacrificed at 3 or 27 d after infection. Remaining lambs were not infected. Breed differences in expression of genes associated with Th1 and Th2 immune responses in lymph nodes and abomasal tissue were determined. Th2-associated genes included IL-4, IL-13, IL-5, IgE, the ? chain of the IL-4 receptor, and the ? chain of the high-affinity IgE receptor (Fc?RI). Th1-associated genes included interferon gamma (IFN-?), the p35 subunit of IL-12 (IL-12 p35), and the ?1 and ?2 chains of the IL-12 receptor (IL-12 R?1 and IL-12 R?2, respectively). In both hair and wool sheep, infection with resulted in greater expression of IgE, IL-13, IL-5, and IL-12 p35 and somewhat reduced expression of IFN? in lymph nodes. In abomasal tissue, parasite infection resulted in greater IgE, IL-13, Fc?RI, and IL-12 p35 expression in infected lambs compared with control lambs. Between breeds, hair sheep had a stronger Th2 response after infection than wool sheep, with increased expression of IgE and IL-13 and decreased expression of IFN? in lymph nodes and increased expression of IL-13 and decreased expression of IL-12 p35 in abomasal tissue. Expression of IL-4 in lymph nodes did not differ between hair and wool lambs, and IL-4, IL-5, IL-12 R?1, and IL-12 R?2 expression was too low to measure at the times sampled in abomasal tissue. PMID:26020303

  19. Contribution to reviewing potentials of natural resources of the Sjenica-Pešter plateau for organizing organic sheep production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savi? Mila

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of investigating possibilities for organizing and developing organic production in sheep farming, in the territory of the Sjenica-Pešter plateau. The results of investigations on yield, floristic and chemical composition, as well as harmful matter, demonstrate that conditions exist for the development of organic production, in particular of organic lamb meet. On the grounds of its known characteristics, the Sjenica-Pešter Pramenka breed presents the most suitable breed for organizing organic sheep production. Organic sheep production can largely contribute to rural development and the advancement of this region. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TP 31085: Organizovanje održive proizvodnje organskog uzgoja jagnjadi kao podrška ruralnom razvoju

  20. Possible application of a nematophagous fungus as a biological control agent of parasitic nematodes on commercial sheep farms in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    R.C. Krecek; M. Faedo

    2012-01-01

    Biological control of parasitic nematodes of livestock is currently under development and represents another tool that may be integrated into helminth parasite control strategies. This paper presents a brief introduction to commercial sheep farming in South Africa and currently available nematode parasite control methods. These include the FAMACHA(r) clinical assay, strategies of pasture management, dilution of resistant worm species by introduction of susceptible worms, breed resistant sheep...

  1. Changes in hypothalamus in continuously irradiated sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neurosecretion, PAS-positive mucopolysaccharides and the Nissl substance were studied in the neurons of the rostral, medial and caudal hypothalamus of continuously irradiated ewes. The study was performed on 21 ewes of the Slovak Merino breed of a live weight of 34 kg. The animals were in the period of physiological anoestrus and their age was two to three years. The first group of six ewes was the control. The second group included 15 sheep irradiated with a total dose of 6.7 Gy (700 R) for seven days. Co60 was used as the source of irradiation. The animals of this group were killed seven days following treatment. The ewes in the third group were left for the study of mortality. The brains were perfused with 2% buffered paraformaldehyde immediately after the bleeding of the sheep; then the brains were removed from the skulls and fixed in buffered picroformol. Paraffin slices were stained with haematoxylin-eosine, aldehyde-fuchsine and alcian blue for neurosecretion, by the PAS reaction for mucopolysaccharides and with cresyl violet for the Nissl substance. It was found that irradiation of the whole body inhibited the activity of neurosecretory cells in the rostral and medial hypothalamus, thus reducing neurosecretion. These regions also showed a reduced activity of the PAS reaction used for the demonstration of mucopolysaccharides. The observed changes also included damage of the endothelium of blood vessels with the occurrence of erythrocyte extravasates and with haemorrhages. In this way, the trophism of neurosecretory cells was affected, which is ascribed to the decrease in the amount of neurosecretory material. In the caudal hypothalamus, neurosecretion and PAS-positivity were slightly stimulated by irradiation. The Nissl substance disappeared as a result of irradiation. (author)

  2. Protein turnover in sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Considerable advances have been made in the knowledge of the mechanisms and control of synthesis and degradation of proteins in animal tissues during the last decade. Most of the work on the measurement of synthetic and degradative rates of the mixed protein fraction from tissues has been conducted in the rat. There have, unfortunately, been few publications describing results of protein turnover studies with ruminants. Consideration is given here to the techniques used to measure protein turnover, and some of the results obtained, particularly with sheep, are summarized. No attempt has been made to discuss directly the situation in parasitized animals; rather the aim is to provide background information which complements other work dealing with the effects of parasites on the nitrogen metabolism of ruminants. (author)

  3. Coccidiosis in sheep and goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreyt, W J

    1987-01-01

    Coccidiosis is one of the most important diseases of sheep and goats in the United States because of its effect of productivity, especially in the growing of lambs and kids. Control of coccidiosis is dependent on management techniques to reduce overcrowding, fecal contamination and stress, and on proper use of effective coccidiostats, such as lasalocid and decoquinate, to prevent clinical disease. The sheep and goat industries need two unrelated effective coccidiostats approved for use in these species. PMID:3303645

  4. Respostas fisiológicas e gradientes térmicos de ovinos das raças Santa Inês, morada nova e de seus cruzamentos com a raça Dorper às condições do semi-árido nordestino Physiologic responses and thermal variation of Santa Inês, Morada Nova sheep and their crossbreed with Dorper breed to the semi-arid northeastern of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Romulo Soares dos Santos

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi desenvolvido na Empresa Estadual de Pesquisa Agropecuária da Paraíba S.A. (EMEPA-PB, no município de Soledade, com o objetivo de avaliar os parâmetros fisiológicos (freqüência respiratória, freqüência cardíaca e temperatura retal e gradientes térmicos (entre temperatura retal e temperatura da superfície e entre temperatura da superfície e temperatura do ar de ovinos das raças Santa Inês, Morada Nova e seus mestiços F1 com ovinos Dorper, no semi-árido nordestino. Foram utilizados 30 ovinos, de cinco genótipos diferentes, distribuídos num delineamento inteiramente casualizado, num esquema fatorial 5 x 2; cinco genótipos (Santa Inês, Morada Nova, ½ Santa Inês + ½ Dorper, ½ Santa Inês + ½ Morada Nova, ½ Morada Nova + ½ Dorper vs dois turnos (manhã e tarde, com 6 repetições. Houve interação entre genótipo e turno. Detectou-se efeito significativo (PThis work was conducted in the State Company of Agricultural Research of Paraíba S.A. (EMEPA-PB, in the district of Soledade, with the objective of evaluating the physiologic parameters (breathing frequency, heart frequency and rectal temperature and thermal variation (between rectal and skin temperature and between skin and air temperature of Santa Inês and Morada Nova sheep and their crossbreeds F1 with the Dorper sheep, under to the climatic conditions of the semi-arid Northeastern. Thirty sheep were used, of five different genotypes, distributed in a random customized design, in a factorial outline 5 x 2; five genotypes (Santa Inês, Morada Nova, 1/2Santa Inês + 1/2Dorper, 1/2Santa Inês + 1/2Morada Nova, 1/2Morada Nova + 1/2Dorper vs two shifts (morning and afternoon, with 6 repetitions. Interaction was detected among variables genotype and shift. There was significant effect (P<0,05 among genotypes only on the variables heart frequency and thermal variation between skin and air temperature, in the shift of the morning. The shift influenced significantly (P <0,05 all the analyzed physiologic parameters. It is concluded that Santa Inês, and Morada Nova sheep and their crossbreeds with the Dorper sheep showed to have high adaptability in the semi-arid conditions of Brazil.

  5. Genes contributing to genetic variation of muscling in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellam, Ross L; Cockett, Noelle E; Vuocolo, Tony; Bidwell, Christopher A

    2012-01-01

    Selective breeding programs aiming to increase the productivity and profitability of the sheep meat industry use elite, progeny tested sires. The broad genetic traits of primary interest in the progeny of these sires include skeletal muscle yield, fat content, eating quality, and reproductive efficiency. Natural mutations in sheep that enhance muscling have been identified, while a number of genome scans have identified and confirmed quantitative trait loci (QTL) for skeletal muscle traits. The detailed phenotypic characteristics of sheep carrying these mutations or QTL affecting skeletal muscle show a number of common biological themes, particularly changes in developmental growth trajectories, alterations of whole animal morphology, and a shift toward fast twitch glycolytic fibers. The genetic, developmental, and biochemical mechanisms underpinning the actions of some of these genetic variants are described. This review critically assesses this research area, identifies gaps in knowledge, and highlights mechanistic linkages between genetic polymorphisms and skeletal muscle phenotypic changes. This knowledge may aid the discovery of new causal genetic variants and in some cases lead to the development of biochemical and immunological strategies aimed at enhancing skeletal muscle. PMID:22952470

  6. Lumbosacral epidural magnesium prolongs ketamine analgesia in conscious sheep Sulfato de magnésio prolonga a analgesia epidural lombosacral induzida pela quetamina em carneiros

    OpenAIRE

    Rafael DeRossi; Cassio Tadeu Dias Pompermeyer; Amadeu Batista Silva-Neto; Andrea Lantieri Correa de Barros; Paulo Henrique de Affonseca Jardim; Fabrício de Oliveira Frazílio

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: To determine the analgesic, motor, sedation and systemic effects of lumbosacral epidural magnesium sulphate added to ketamine in the sheep. METHODS: Six healthy adult male mixed-breed sheep; weighing 43 ± 5 kg and aged 20-36 months. Each sheep underwent three treatments, at least 2 weeks apart, via epidural injection: (1) ketamine (KE; 2.5 mg/kg), (2) magnesium sulphate (MG; 100 mg), and (3) KE + MG (KEMG; 2.5 mg/kg + 100 mg, respectively). Epidural injections were administered throu...

  7. Possible application of a nematophagous fungus as a biological control agent of parasitic nematodes on commercial sheep farms in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Faedo

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Biological control of parasitic nematodes of livestock is currently under development and represents another tool that may be integrated into helminth parasite control strategies. This paper presents a brief introduction to commercial sheep farming in South Africa and currently available nematode parasite control methods. These include the FAMACHA(r clinical assay, strategies of pasture management, dilution of resistant worm species by introduction of susceptible worms, breed resistant sheep and nutritional supplementation. The purpose of this paper is to outline the principles of biological control using nematophagous fungi and how it may be applied on sheep farms in South Africa.

  8. Tritium breeding materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tritium breeding materials are essential to the operation of D-T fusion facilities. Both of the present options - solid ceramic breeding materials and liquid metal materials are reviewed with emphasis not only on their attractive features but also on critical materials issues which must be resolved

  9. Genetic diversity of locally adapted sheep from Pantanal region of Mato Grosso do Sul.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crispim, B A; Grisolia, A B; Seno, L O; Egito, A A; Vargas Junior, F M; Souza, M R

    2013-01-01

    Sheep of the Pantaneiro breed and seven other breeds, raised in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, were genotyped using eight microsatellite loci. The aim of the present study was to determine the genetic variability, phylogenetic relationship, and patterns of gene introgression and miscegenation among the animals surveyed, to obtain information about the genetic structure of locally adapted sheep in Mato Grosso do Sul. A total of 195 animals were used for genetic analysis. The Pantaneiro breed had the largest average number of alleles/locus (9.25), and higher allelic richness (6.95), while the Dorper population had the lowest values for these parameters (4.88 and 3.86, respectively). Analysis of genetic distance values and genetic structure between populations made it possible to characterize these animals with regard to distinct genetic groups. Average expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.72 (Pantaneiro) to 0.55 (Dorper), while average observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.63 (White Dorper) to 0.54 (Dorper). On the basis of the statistical parameters evaluated, it was possible to demonstrate that when compared to other populations, the Pantaneiro breed represented a reservoir of genetic diversity with rare and useful alleles for genetic improvement, emphasizing the importance of preserving the breed. PMID:24301918

  10. Tritium breeding blanket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The terms of reference for ITER provide for incorporation of a tritium breeding blanket with a breeding ratio as close to unity as practical. A breeding blanket is required to assure an adequate supply of tritium to meet the program objectives. Based on specified design criteria, a ceramic breeder concept with water coolant and an austenitic steel structure has been selected as the first option and lithium-lead blanket concept has been chosen as an alternate option. The first wall, blanket, and shield are integrated into a single unit with separate cooling systems. The design makes extensive use of beryllium to enhance the tritium breeding ratio. The design goals with a tritium breeding ratio of 0.8--0.9 have been achieved and the R ampersand D requirements to qualify the design have been identified. 4 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs

  11. Buffaloes breeding in Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Bernardes

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Differently from what one could formerly imagine, that buffalo breeding activity would be solely directed to fill the so called cattle breeding gaps determined by inadequate environmental conditions for ordinary cattle breeding, it has been actually seen that in those areas where breeders could successfully organize industrial-agricultural chains, either on meat or milk and its related products production, there has been an expressive expansion .Buffalo breeding has shown to be an important alternative not only in farms of higher technological level as also , and mainly, on small farms where it has become a key factor for increasing the average income, besides keeping labor force in country areas. This article intends to point out and examine some aspects of buffalo breeding and its potentialities in Brazil.

  12. Housing conditions and management practices associated with neonatal lamb mortality in sheep flocks in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmøy, Ingrid H; Kielland, Camilla; Stubsjøen, Solveig Marie; Hektoen, Lisbeth; Waage, Steinar

    2012-12-01

    A study was conducted in order to obtain information about sheep farms in Norway and to identify housing and management characteristics that were risk factors for neonatal mortality of lambs 0-5 days of age. A questionnaire was submitted to sheep farmers, who provided demographic data and information on sheep housing conditions and feeding and management practices. Our description of farms is based on the questionnaire responses received from 2260 farmers. Data on lamb mortality during the preceding lambing season were available for those flocks that were enrolled in the Norwegian Sheep Recording System. Some flocks where the number of lambing ewes was less than 20 or greater than 400 were excluded. The total number of flocks included in the analysis of neonatal mortality was 1125. An increase in the mean number of live-born lambs per ewe per flock was associated with increasing neonatal mortality. Factors independently associated with increased neonatal survival were continuous monitoring of the ewes during the lambing season, active support to ensure sufficient colostrum intake of the lambs, feeding a combination of grass silage and hay compared with grass silage alone, and supplying roughage at least twice per day versus only once. Increased survival was also observed in flocks where the farmer had at least 15 years of experience in sheep farming. Flocks in which the Spæl breed predominated had lower odds for neonatal deaths compared to flocks in which the Norwegian White breed predominated. In conclusion, measures in sheep flocks targeted at feeding practices during the indoor feeding period and management practice during lambing season would be expected to reduce neonatal lamb mortality. PMID:22809562

  13. Adaptations to climate-mediated selective pressures in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Feng-Hua; Agha, Saif; Kantanen, Juha; Colli, Licia; Stucki, Sylvie; Kijas, James W; Joost, Stéphane; Li, Meng-Hua; Ajmone Marsan, Paolo

    2014-12-01

    Following domestication, sheep (Ovis aries) have become essential farmed animals across the world through adaptation to a diverse range of environments and varied production systems. Climate-mediated selective pressure has shaped phenotypic variation and has left genetic "footprints" in the genome of breeds raised in different agroecological zones. Unlike numerous studies that have searched for evidence of selection using only population genetics data, here, we conducted an integrated coanalysis of environmental data with single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) variation. By examining 49,034 SNPs from 32 old, autochthonous sheep breeds that are adapted to a spectrum of different regional climates, we identified 230 SNPs with evidence for selection that is likely due to climate-mediated pressure. Among them, 189 (82%) showed significant correlation (P ? 0.05) between allele frequency and climatic variables in a larger set of native populations from a worldwide range of geographic areas and climates. Gene ontology analysis of genes colocated with significant SNPs identified 17 candidates related to GTPase regulator and peptide receptor activities in the biological processes of energy metabolism and endocrine and autoimmune regulation. We also observed high linkage disequilibrium and significant extended haplotype homozygosity for the core haplotype TBC1D12-CH1 of TBC1D12. The global frequency distribution of the core haplotype and allele OAR22_18929579-A showed an apparent geographic pattern and significant (P ? 0.05) correlations with climatic variation. Our results imply that adaptations to local climates have shaped the spatial distribution of some variants that are candidates to underpin adaptive variation in sheep. PMID:25249477

  14. Genetic diversity and networks of exchange: a combined approach to assess intra-breed diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumasy Jean-François

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cryopreservation of three endangered Belgian sheep breeds required to characterize their intra-breed genetic diversity. It is assumed that the genetic structure of a livestock breed depends mostly on gene flow due to exchanges between herds. To quantify this relation, molecular data and analyses of the exchanges were combined for three endangered Belgian breeds. Methods For each breed, between 91 and 225 sheep were genotyped with 19 microsatellites. Genetic differentiations between breeds and among herds within a breed were evaluated and the genetic structure of the breeds was described using Bayesian clustering (Structure. Exchanges of animals between 20, 46 and 95 herds according to breed were identified via semi-directed interviews and were analyzed using the concepts of the network theory to calculate average degrees and shortest path lengths between herds. Correlation between the Reynolds’ genetic distances and the shortest path lengths between each pair of herds was assessed by a Mantel test approach. Results Genetic differentiation between breeds was high (0.16. Overall Fst values among herds were high in each breed (0.17, 0.11 and 0.10. Use of the Bayesian approach made it possible to identify genetic groups of herds within a breed. Significant correlations between the shortest path lengths and the Reynolds’ genetic distances were found in each breed (0.87, 0.33 and 0.41, which demonstrate the influence of exchanges between herds on the genetic diversity. Correlation differences between breeds could be explained by differences in the average degree of the animal exchange networks, which is a measure of the number of exchanges per herd. The two breeds with the highest average degree showed the lowest correlation. Information from the exchange networks was used to assign individuals to the genetic groups when molecular information was incomplete or missing to identify donors for a cryobank. Conclusions A fine-scale picture of the population genetic structure at the herd level was obtained for the three breeds. Network analysis made it possible to highlight the influence of exchanges on genetic structure and to complete or replace molecular information in establishing a conservation program.

  15. The relationship between morphometric and long bone measurements of the Morkaraman sheep

    OpenAIRE

    ALPAK, Hasan; Onar, Vedat; MUTU?, R?fat

    2009-01-01

    In this study, a total of 40 adult female Morkaraman sheep, a local Turkish breed, were used. After taking their body measurements and carcass weights, the meat was cut off the bones; the skeletal bones were then removed, macerated and every long bone weighed. Thereafter, morphometric measurements of the long bones were taken. The coefficients obtained from the correlation of osteometric measurements and morphological data were in general low (r < 0.600), though certain relationships were ...

  16. Biometrical multivariate study of the Zambian indigenous Fat-tailed sheep.

    OpenAIRE

    Parés Casanova, Pere-Miquel; Mwaanga, Edwell S.; Marta CABALLERO; Sabaté, J.; Valenzuela, Sílvia

    2013-01-01

    Body weight and twelve body measurements taken on fifteen ewes and five rams of the Zambian indigenous Fat-tailed were analysed. The sheep were extensively managed in the Southern and driest part of Zambia. The aim of the study was to achieve a preliminary assessment of type and function of the breed based on zoometrical indices produced from combinations of different morphometric values obtained from the field. The body measurements used were body length, cannon perimeter, chest depth, head ...

  17. Transcriptome Profile at Different Physiological Stages Reveals Potential Mode for Curly Fleece in Chinese Tan Sheep

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Xiaolong; Liu, Gang; Liu, Yufang; Xu, Qinqin; Zhang, Ming; Fang, Meiying

    2013-01-01

    Tan sheep (Ovis aries), a Chinese indigenous breed, has special curly fleece after birth, especially at one month old. However, this unique phenotype disappears gradually with age and the underlying reasons of trait evolvement are still unknown. In this study, skin transcriptome data was used to study this issue. In total 51,215 transcripts including described transcripts and transfrags were identified. Pathway analysis of the top 100 most highly expressed transcripts, which included TCHH and...

  18. Phyto-biotherapy to control gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciane Holsback

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The parasitic resistance and the tendency of recent years to shift to organic systems has resulted in several alternative animal management as the selection of resistant breeds, integration with other animal species, phytotherapy, nematophagous fungi, nematodes vaccines, among others. Looking for an alternative control of nematode parasites of sheep, this paper aimed to analyze the effect of administration of inactivated larvae of Haemonchus and fresh garlic on the level infection with gastrointestinal nematodes in naturally infected sheep. Therefore, 32 animals were monitored for 144 days after phyto-biotherapy treatments in relation to reduction of parasite eggs (egg reduction rate - FECR, these treatments under the genres of helminths and hematological changes. It was observed significant increase in the EPGs of G1 (control group and G4 (fresh garlic. At the end of the experiment observed lower EPG in G3 (inactivated larvae + fresh garlic compared to G1, but no difference between the EPG of the other groups. As for FECR, there was an average reduction of 44% in egg count in G2 (inactivated larvae and G3 and an increase of 44% in G4. The effectiveness of the treatments under the genus Haemonchus ranged from 0 to 77%, the latter being rate observed in G3 in day 67, just 7 days after the significant increase of lymphocytes. It was concluded from this study that fresh garlic administered at 2.5 mg / kg concentration failed to reduce the parasite burden of sheep, but which, when associated with administration of inactivated larvae of Haemonchus may had contributed to immune stimulant and reduction of eggs eliminated in the faeces of sheep treated with inactivated larvae, though not enough to be considered an effective treatment, the study highlights the importance and use of vaccines to control this parasite.

  19. Inbreeding and its Effect on Performance Traits in Austrian Meat Sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Maximini

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the level of inbreeding of meat performance tested herd book sheep in Austria and to evaluate the effect of individual inbreeding on growth and CT (computer tomography scan carcass traits. Performance data (13,614 records, five breeds: Merinoland, Suff olk, Texel, German Blackheaded Meat sheep, Jura were collected in the years 2000-2010. The traits analysed were live weight and average daily gain, as well as traits of body frame, back fat and eye muscle area, all measured on live animals with CT. Inbreeding coefficients (F were calculated with the soft ware PEDIG. F was nested within breed and tested in a mixed model using ASReml. Levels of inbreeding were low with O F of 1.5-3.1%. Only few traits were significantly affected by inbreeding. Both positive and negative effects were found. The effects were small, most oft en nonlinear and vary across breeds. Inbreeding and its effects on performance traits do not seem to be an issue in Austrian meat sheep populations at the moment. However, monitoring and further analyses are recommended.

  20. Mutation breeding in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The achievements made in mutation breeding in Japan over the past 40 years are outlined from the viewpoint of practical breeding. Fifty-four varieties of 23 crops were obtained by direct use of induced mutants. These include 12 cereal mutant varieties, five food legumes, nine industrial crops, seven vegetables and 18 ornamentals. Ten varieties were obtained by national breeding institutes, 14 by prefectural stations and 30 by universities or private firms. The varieties produced by the national breeding programme were registered and released with Norin numbers. In most cases, ionizing radiation was used. Forty additional mutant varieties were developed through cross-breeding using induced mutants as the gene sources. Of the 33 rice varieties in this category, 21, including six national varieties, resulted from crosses involving Reimei, a semi-dwarf mutant variety. Another semi-dwarf mutant parent was used to breed two more national varieties. Three early heading mutants were also integrated into cross-breeding programmes and produced three national and two prefectural varieties. A large grain mutant produced three varieties for sake brewing. A new recessive resistant mutant allele to the soil borne virus (BaYMV) was induced in barley. One variety was bred using this mutant as a parent. Another promising disease resistant clone was induced by chronic irradiation in a gamma field in the leading Japanese pear variety Nijisseiki, which is susceptible to black spot disease caused by Alternaria alternata (Fr.) Keissler. This mutant clone maintained all the superior qualities of the original variety. The significant role of the Institute of Radiation Breeding as a core in mutation breeding is mentioned briefly. (author). 10 refs, 2 figs, 6 tabs

  1. Haemophilus somnus (Histophilus somni) in bighorn sheep

    OpenAIRE

    Ward, Alton C.S.; Glen C. Weiser; Bruce C. Anderson; Patrick J. Cummings; Arnold, Karen F.; Corbeil, Lynette B.

    2006-01-01

    Respiratory disease and poor lamb recruitment have been identified as limiting factors for bighorn-sheep populations. Haemophilus somnus (recently reclassified as Histophilus somni) is associated with respiratory disease in American bison, domestic sheep, and cattle. It is also harbored in their reproductive tracts and has been associated with reproductive failure in domestic sheep and cattle. Therefore, reproductive tract and lung samples from bighorn sheep were evaluated for the presence of...

  2. Effect of breed and feeding on the carcass characteristics of the Chilote breed lamb

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jorge, Ramírez-Retamal; Rodrigo, Morales; M. Eugenia, Martínez; Rodrigo, de la Barra.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The Chilote sheep has been developed in an isolated environment, based on grazing lands with low nutritive value belonging to small-scale producers, because of which there is little information about the use of this breed for meat production. The objective of this work was to determine the effects o [...] n lamb carcasses of two breeds with different productive purposes and fed on pastures with different nutritional quality. Three groups of lambs were used. The first and second groups were composed of 13 and 11 Chilote lambs respectively, and the third composed of six Suffolk Down lambs. Lambs remained with their mothers, the first group on naturalized pasture and the rest on rangeland. Animals were slaughtered at 90 d of age. Live weight, carcass weight and yield, and several zoometric parameters were determined, as well as the weight of commercial cuts and the muscle, bone and fat ratios. Hide and hoof weights were also measured. For the effect of breed, Chilote lamb is narrower (P

  3. The effects of penalization of FAMACHA© scores of lambs treated for internal parasites on the estimation of genetic parameters and prediction of breeding values

    OpenAIRE

    Riley, D.G.; van Wyk, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    Internal parasite infestation in sheep can be practically assessed using a subjective score for the color of the inner eyelid (FAMACHA© score). Additive genetic variation for this trait would permit selection against internal parasite infection or for tolerance to internal parasites. However, medicated sheep have improved FAMACHA© scores shortly after treatment; use of these records could produce misleading breeding values. The objectives of this study were to (1) apply different penalties to...

  4. Welfare in horse breeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campbell, M.L.H.; SandØe, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Welfare problems related to the way horses are bred, whether by coitus or by the application of artificial reproduction techniques (ARTs), have been given no discrete consideration within the academic literature. This paper reviews the existing knowledge base about welfare issues in horse breeding and identifies areas in which data is lacking. We suggest that all methods of horse breeding are associated with potential welfare problems, but also that the judicious use of ARTs can sometimes help to address those problems. We discuss how negative welfare effects could be identified and limited and how positive welfare effects associated with breeding might be maximised. Further studies are needed to establish an evidence base about how stressful or painful various breeding procedures are for the animals involved, and what the lifetime welfare implications of ARTs are for future animal generations.

  5. Birds - Breeding [ds60

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This data set provides access to information gathered on annual breeding bird surveys in California using a map layer developed by the Department. This data layer...

  6. Tritium-breeding blanket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The INTOR breeding blanket design is based on economic and tritium availability considerations. The blanket concepts are based on Li2SiO3 with Li4SiO4 as a back-up material. Alternative blanket concepts with Li2O and Li17Pb83 as breeding materials are presented. The irradiation effects (swelling, recrystallization, trapping, etc.) have been analyzed. Thermohydraulic and stress analyses were performed

  7. Welfare in horse breeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campbell, M.L.H.; Sandøe, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Welfare problems related to the way horses are bred, whether by coitus or by the application of artificial reproduction techniques (ARTs), have been given no discrete consideration within the academic literature. This paper reviews the existing knowledge base about welfare issues in horse breeding and identifies areas in which data is lacking. We suggest that all methods of horse breeding are associated with potential welfare problems, but also that the judicious use of ARTs can sometimes help t...

  8. Comparative Study on Wool Yield and Wool Quality in Sheep Reared at Livestock Reach Station Jaba and Lalazar Alpine Pasture

    OpenAIRE

    Gulam Habib; Muhammad Zubair; Nazir Ahmad (S)

    2006-01-01

    An experiment in 23 factorial design involving two pasture locations, two sheep breeds and two age groups of sheep was conducted over 99 days during June to September, 2003. A total of 107 ewes (2 to 5 years age) and 79 lambs (one year age) of Rambouillet and Ramghani (F1, KaghanixRambouillet) were randomly divided in two groups. One group of 42 adult ewes and 21 lambs were kept at the Livestock Research Station (LRS) Jaba and the remaining ewes and lambs were shifted to Lalazar alpine pastur...

  9. Relationship Between Gestation Length and Birth Weight in Nigerian Sheep and Their Crosses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AO Iyiola-Tunji

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Effect of genotype and birth weight on gestation length was evaluated using Nigerian breeds of sheep and their crosses. The study was carried out at the Sheep Project Unit of Small Ruminant Research Programme (SRRP of National Animal Production Research Institute (NAPRI, Ahmadu Bello University, Shika-Zaria. The sheep breeds used were Balami, Uda and Yankasa. Heat (estrus detection was carried out twice daily; in the morning (07:00-08:00 hours; and in the evening (16:00-17:00 hours using apron fitted rams to pick does on heat. A total of 56 lambs were used for this study. The data obtained were subjected to analysis of variance using General Linear Model and Correlation Procedure of SAS. All the genotypes had similar gestation length with values between 150.3±0.61 days and 153.3±0.60 days, except for Balami pure breed (BAL X BAL lambs that recorded a shorter gestation length (137.1±0.81 days. There was a wide variation in the birth weight of lambs with the crosses between Balami rams and Yankasa ewes recording a distinct birth weight of 3.5±0.08 kg while the crosses obtained using Yankasa rams on Uda and Balami ewes gave the lowest birth weights (1.7±0.19 and 1.4±0.18, respectively. Sex and litter type have no significant effect (P>0.05 on gestation length. Birth weight was however affected by sex of lambs and their litter type. Litter type was negatively correlated with birth weight (-0.372. Gestation length had a low and non-significant relationship with birth weight; litter type and lamb genotype. Lamb genotype does not have a significant relationship with litter type. Genetic improvement of Nigeria sheep breed is possible if the resources of within and between breed is exploited. Selection for a reduction in gestation length may indirectly increase prolificacy. (Animal Production 12(3: 135-138 (2010Key Words : gestation length, birth weight, Nigerian Sheep

  10. Productivity Analysis of the Botosani Karakul Sheep Depending on the Genetic Types of Serum Transferrin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe Hrinc?

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the sheep productivity of the Botosani Karakul breed in relation to their belonging in different transferrin genotypes. Thirteen electrophoretic phenotypes of transferrin have been identified in this breed. Experimental results show that it is possible to establish correlations between genetic types of serum transferrin and quantitative characteristics of production (meat, wool, milk in this breed depending on age and sex of animals. In lambs, the values of the productive parameters are more grouped in most transferrin genotypes, while in adult animals, more important differentiations of productivity occur among different transferrin genotypes. In adult animals, the productive differentiation among the genotypes Tf is more obvious in rams than in ewes. Irrespective of age and sex, the differences of productivity among transferrin genotypes, in their reciprocity, seldom present significant statistical assurance, a relatively frequent part of them is situated near the first critical threshold of significance, and most of them are unsignificant. Thus, a certain production metabolism is characteristic to each genotype transferrin. But the transferrin genotypes which enhance the sheep productivity, those that differ significantly from the rest of transferrin genotypes, deserve to be taken into account, in the selection works of this breed for its productive improvement.

  11. Number Crunching: A Sheep's Tale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sam, Chris Lam

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author talks about an allegorical tale which he has written as a message for teachers of mathematics. The story is about Gordon, who led a flock of small sheep. Gordon was a mathematics genius; however, his flock criticized his teaching of numbers and his boring lectures. His furry-god-farmer advised him to share his…

  12. Prevalence of gastro-intestinal parasitic infections in Sheep of Kashmir valley of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Showkat Ahmad Bhat

    Full Text Available Background: Geologically the J&K state (2, 22, 800 sq. kms is both complex and varied. Climatic conditions of the state ranges from sub-tropical (Jammu, temperate (Kashmir to cold artic (Ladakh zones and belongs to the great Himalayan mountain range, which exerts significant influence on its agro-climatic conditions. Gastrointestinal parasitism is a major problem in sheep production worldwide, these parasites cause diarrhea, anaemia, reduced weight gain and increased production costs. Materials and Methods: Five hundred fecal samples of sheep (Ovis aries were taken from two farms. All fecal samples were examined to determine the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites. Direct microscopic examination, Centrifugation floatation and Sedimentation techniques were used to examine fecal samples. Results: Overall prevalence rate was 62.9%. most commonly encountered parasites were Strongyle spp., Strongyloides spp., Eimeria spp., Nematodirus spp., and Monezia spp. was 24.61, 15.5, 9.8, 9.0 and 3.3%, respectively. The highest prevalence of G.I parasites was recorded during monsoon season (March - May followed by summer season (June ? August whereas the lowest prevalence was recorded during winter season. Analysis of the data on the basis of sex revealed a significant difference (P<0.05 in the overall incidence of gastrointestinal parasites between male (75.6% and female (44.8% sheep. The maximum infection was observed in younger age groups compared to adults (P<0.05. The prevalence of different species of endoparasites also varied in sheep of different body weight groups (P<0.05. The highest infection was observed in Kashmir Marino breed than corriedale breed. Conclusion: The data obtained in this study suggest that the age, sex, body weight and breed are important factors which influence the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites. [Vet World 2012; 5(11.000: 667-671

  13. Genetic diversity and relationships among Italian Merino derived breeds assessed by microsatellites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Maria Sarti

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The conservation of genetic variability is one of the main objectives in the field of genetics applied to domestic livestock. Among molecular markers, microsatellites are particularly appreciated and widely utilized for the study of animal genome. In this study a genetic characterization of three Italian Merino derived sheep breeds was carried out by 30 microsatellites markers; the genetic relationships between these breeds and the Spanish ancestors were also investigated. All the microsatellites examined resulted polymorphic and a total of 375 alleles were detected. FIS values of the three Italian Merinos demonstrate a low level of inbreeding. The results show a good genetic variability of all the studied breeds; at the same time, the genetic identity of each breed is confirmed. These molecular data can be utilized to improve the present selection schemes and the plans to preserve genetic diversity.

  14. Linkage disequilibrium and inbreeding estimation in Spanish Churra sheep

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia-Gamez, Elsa; Sahana, Goutam

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Genomic technologies, such as high-throughput genotyping based on SNP arrays, have great potential to decipher the genetic architecture of complex traits and provide background information concerning genome structure in domestic animals, including the extent of linkage disequilibrium (LD) and haplotype blocks. The objective of this study was to estimate LD, the population evolution (past effective population size) and the level of inbreeding in Spanish Churra sheep. RESULTS: A total of 43,784 SNPs distributed in the ovine autosomal genome was analyzed in 1,681 Churra ewes. LD was assessed by measuring r2 between all pairs of loci. For SNPs up to 10 kb apart, the average r2 was 0.329; for SNPs separated by 200-500 kb the average r2 was 0.061. When SNPs are separated by more than 50 Mbp, the average r2 is the same as between non-syntenic SNP pairs (0.003). The effective population size has decreased through time, faster from 1,000 to 100 years ago and slower since the selection scheme started (15-25 generations ago). In the last generation, four years ago, the effective population size was estimated to be 128 animals. Inbreeding coefficients, although differed depending on the estimation approaches, were generally low and showed the same trend, which indicates that since 2003, inbreeding has been slightly increasing in the studied resource population. CONCLUSIONS: The extent of LD in Churra sheep persists over much more limited distances than reported in dairy cattle and seems to be similar to other ovine populations. Churra sheep show a wide genetic base, with a long-term viable effective population size that has been slightly decreasing since selection scheme began in 1986. The genomic dataset analyzed provided useful information for identifying low-level inbreeding in the sample, whereas based on the parameters reported here, a higher marker density than that analyzed here will be needed to successfully conduct accurate mapping of genes underlying production traits and genomic selection prediction in this sheep breed. Although the Ovine Assembly development is still in a draft stage and future refinements will provide a more accurate physical map that will improve LD estimations, this work is a first step towards the understanding of the genetic architecture in sheep.

  15. Efeitos genéticos aditivos e não-aditivos em características de crescimento, reprodutivas e habilidade materna em ovinos das raças Santa Inês, Somalis Brasileira, Dorper e Poll Dorset Additive and non-additive genetic effects on growth, reproductive and maternal traits in sheep of Santa In??s, Brazilian Somali, Dorper and Poll Dorset breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Caminha Barbosa Neto

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Efeitos genético aditivo, de dominância e de recombinação em cruzamentos entre as raças Santa Inês (SI, Somalis Brasileira (So, Dorper (Do e Poll Dorset (Po foram estimados para as características de crescimento, reprodutivas e de habilidade materna. Os dados foram obtidos da Gaasa e Alimentos LTDA, uma empresa que participa do Programa de Melhoramento Genético de Caprinos e Ovinos (GENECOC da Embrapa Caprinos. Inicialmente, 3.573 registros foram analisados por meio do procedimento MIXED do pacote estatístico SAS (1999. As análises foram realizadas considerando os efeitos da diferença genética aditiva entre as raças, de dominância e de recombinação. O peso ao nascer foi influenciado pelos efeitos genéticos aditivos, enquanto o peso ao desmame e o ganho de peso pré-desmame foram influenciados por efeitos genéticos não-aditivos. A estimativa de herdabilidade direta para o peso ao nascer foi moderada, o que indica a existência de variabilidade genética passível de ser explorada por meio da seleção individual. Do mesmo modo, as estimativas de herdabilidade das características idade ao primeiro parto e peso total das crias ao nascer indicaram a existência de variabilidade genética para obter ganhos genéticos por meio da seleção. Os genes das raças Poll Dorset e Dorper tiveram papel importante para melhor desempenho ponderal, portanto, essas raças podem ser indicadas como paternas no cruzamento terminal. A utilização de matrizes F1 Santa Inês x Somalis Brasileira em cruzamentos com reprodutores Poll Dorset pode levar a maior eficiência reprodutiva.Additive genetic, dominance and recombination effects in breedings among Santa Inês (SI, Brazilian Somali (So, Dorper (Do and Poll Dorset (Po breeds were estimated for growth, reproductive and maternal hability traits. Data were obtained from Gaasa e Alimentos LTDA, a company that participates on the Programa de Melhoramento Genético de Caprinos e Ovinos (GENECOC coordinated by Embrapa Caprinos. Initially, 3,573 records were analyzed using the MIXED procedure of the statistical package SAS (1999. The analyses were carried out considering the effects of additive genetic difference among breeds, dominance and recombination effects. Birth weight was mainly influenced by additive genetic effects, while weaning weight and pre-weaning weight gain were influenced by non-additive genetic effects. Direct heritability estimates for birth weight was moderate indicating that there is genetic variability believable to be exploited by individual selection. In the same way, heritability estimates for the traits age at first lambing and litter total weight at birth indicated the existence of genetic variability to obtain genetic gains through selection. Genes of the Poll Dorset and Dorper breeds had an important role for a better growth performance, therefore, these breeds can be indicated as sires in the terminal breeds. The use of F1 Santa Inês x Brazilian Somali females on crossbreeding with Poll Dorset rams can lead to a better reproductive efficiency.

  16. Precision animal breeding

    OpenAIRE

    Flint, A.P.F; Woolliams, J. A.

    2007-01-01

    We accept that we are responsible for the quality of life of animals in our care. We accept that the activities of man affect all the living things with which we share this planet. But we are slow to realize that as a result we have a duty of care for all living things. That duty extends to the breeding of animals for which we are responsible. When animals are bred by man for a purpose, the aim should be to meet certain goals: to improve the precision with which breeding outcomes can be predi...

  17. Sheep´s Milk, Production and Welfare in Rearing of Sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mária Angelovi?ová

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The milk of Reformed Wallachian sheep obtained by manual and machine milking of ewes contained in the 70.th day of lactation 16.87 g per 100 g-1 of dry matter, 6.36 g per 100 g-1of fat and 5.25 g per 100 g-1 of proteins. On the 130th day of lactation was statistically significant (P<0.05 the increase of the contents of dry matter to 17.85 g per 100 g-1,the fat to 6.83 g per 100 g-1 and the proteins to 11 g per 100 g-1. On the 190th day of lactation was statistically significant (P<0.05 the increase of dry matter content to 19.69 g per 100 g-1, the fat to 7.90 g per 100 g-1 and the proteins to 6.76 g per 100 g-1. Milk production in the year 2008 was 64.83 l and in the year 2009 62.7 l. On the farm was kept in the year 2008 the average of 712 ewes with the number of 724 lambs, 23 rams and 202 sheep over the age of 1 year. In the year 2009 there were about 721 ewes with 730 lambs, 25 rams and 210 sheep over the age of 1 year. The sheep were kept during the winter in a stall (deep litter. The sheep had unrestricted access to the grain feed and water.

  18. Low intensity, mixed livestock grazing improves the breeding abundance of a common insectivorous passerine

    OpenAIRE

    Evans, Darren M; Redpath, Stephen M.; Evans, Sharon A; Elston, David A; Gardner, Charles J; Dennis, Peter; Pakeman, Robin J

    2006-01-01

    Livestock grazing is a major driver of ecosystem change and has been associated with significant declines in various bird species in Britain and worldwide. However, there is little experimental evidence to show how grazing affects bird populations. We manipulated livestock densities in a replicated field experiment and found that mixed sheep and cattle grazing, at low intensity, improved the breeding abundance of a common upland passerine, the meadow pipit Anthus pratensis, after two years. P...

  19. A 90-day toxicology study of meat from genetically modified sheep overexpressing TLR4 in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Hai; Wang, Zhixian; Hu, Rui; Kan, Tongtong; Li, Yan; Zhang, Xiaosheng; Zhang, Jinlong; Lian, Ling; Han, Hongbing; Lian, Zhengxing

    2015-01-01

    Genetic modification offers alternative strategies to traditional animal breeding. However, the food safety of genetically modified (GM) animals has attracted increasing levels of concern. In this study, we produced GM sheep overexpressing TLR4, and the transgene-positive offsprings (F1) were confirmed using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Southern blot. The expression of TLR4 was 2.5-fold compared with that of the wild-type (WT) sheep samples. During the 90-day safety study, Sprague-Dawley rats were fed with three different dietary concentrations (3.75%, 7.5%, and 15% wt/wt) of GM sheep meat, WT sheep meat or a commercial diet (CD). Blood samples from the rats were collected and analyzed for hematological and biochemical parameters, and then compared with hematological and biochemical reference ranges. Despite a few significant differences among the three groups in some parameters, all other values remained within the normal reference intervals and thus were not considered to be affected by the treatment. No adverse diet-related differences in body weights or relative organ weights were observed. Furthermore, no differences were observed in the gross necropsy findings or microscopic pathology of the rats whose diets contained the GM sheep meat compared with rats whose diets contained the WT sheep meat. Therefore, the present 90-day rat feeding study suggested that the meat of GM sheep overexpressing TLR4 had no adverse effect on Sprague-Dawley rats in comparison with WT sheep meat. These results provide valuable information regarding the safety assessment of meat derived from GM animals. PMID:25874566

  20. The frequency of chromosomal aberrations in sheep from the area contaminated by depleted uranium during NATO air strikes in 1999

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fišter Svetlana L.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of cytogenetic studies in sheep from the region of Bujanovac that was contaminated by depleted uranium during the NATO air strikes in 1999. The study was conducted on sheep blood lymphocytes, in order to determine the frequency of chromosomal aberrations and to assess the presence of genetic risk as a result of the possible impact of depleted uranium. Blood samples for lymphocyte cultures were taken at random from the 20 animals of the households in the village of Borovac, near Bujanovac. The animals were chosen because they were pastured, fed, and watered in the NATO bombing area. With the purpose of comparing the results two control groups were cytogenetically analyzed, each consisted of 20 sheep from Zemun and Ov?a, two northern localities that were not contaminated with depleted uranium. The established structural chromosomal changes were of breaks and gap types, and their frequencies in sheep of all surveyed localities were within the range of basic level values that are commonly found in the sheep lymphocyte cultures analyses. Significant differences are apparent between the values defined in the sheep from Bujanovac compared to those obtained in the sheep from the northern locality (Zemun, probably as a result of breeding of animals in the farm conditions and their being less exposed to the impact of environmental agents. There were neither elevated values of polyploid and aneuploid cells nor significant differences between the sites. According to earlier known data, depleted uranium was below the detection limit of the method applied both in the soil and feed given to cytogenetically analyzed animals. Based on the low-level changes that are in the range of the basic level changes, commonly observed in sheep lymphocytes control cultures, it cannot be said with certainty that it was depleted uranium that caused the changes, or that it is wide-spread in the region of Bujanovac. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 1518/2002, br. 20061-TR i br. 173034

  1. Ectoparasites of sheep in three agro-ecological zones in central Oromia, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bersissa Kumsa

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence and risk factors for ectoparasites infestation in sheep in three agro-ecological zones in central Oromia, Ethiopia, from October 2009 to April 2010. The study revealed that 637 (48.1% of the 1325 sheep examined were infested with one or more ectoparasites. The ectoparasites identified were Bovicola ovis (27.2%, Melophagus ovinus (16.4%, Ctenocephalides sp. (2.3%, Linognathus africanus (1.2%, Linognathus ovillus (0.3%, Sarcoptes sp. (1.2%, Amblyomma variegatum (4.4%, Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi (1.9%, Rhipicephalus pravus (1.9%, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus decoloratus (1.1%, Rhipicephalus sanguineus (0.9%, Rhipicephalus praetextatus (1.1% and Hyalomma truncatum (1.6%. Statistically significant difference was observed in prevalence of B. ovis amongst study agroecological zones: highland 36.6%, midland 20.9% and lowland 14.0%. Significantly higher prevalence was recorded in highland agroecological zone. A significantly (OR = 0.041, p < 0.001 higher prevalence of M. ovinus in the highland (31.7% than in both the lowland (0% and midland (1.9% was observed. The risk of tick infestation in the lowland and midland was 9.883 times and 13.988 times higher than the risk in the highland, respectively. A significantly higher prevalence of Ctenocephalides species was encountered in both the lowland (OR = 4.738, p = 0.011 and midland (OR = 8.078, p = 0.000 than in the highland agro-ecological zone. However, a significant difference (p = 0.191 amongst agro-ecological zones was not found for the prevalence of Linognathus and Sarcoptes species. Statistically significant variation (p > 0.05 was never recorded in the prevalence of all the identified species of ectoparasites between male and female sheep hosts. However, a significantly (p = 0.006 higher prevalence of B. ovis was recorded between young and adult sheep. The risk of B. ovis infestation was 1.45 times higher in young than the adult sheep. Furthermore, a significantly (p < 0.001 higher prevalence of M. ovinus, B. ovis and Sarcoptes sp. was found between sheep with poor and a good body condition. The ever increasing threat of ectoparasites on overall sheep productivity and tanning industry in Ethiopia warrants urgent control intervention. Further studies on the role of ectoparasites in transmission of diseases to sheep, zoonotic importance, comparative prevalence and load, and the importance of sheep as alternative hosts in different agroecological zones, breeds and management systems in Ethiopia are recommended so as to design applicable control programme in the country.

  2. Chronic cardiomyopathy and encephalic spongy changes in sheep experimentally fed Ateleia glazioviana Miocardiopatia crônica e degeneração esponjosa do encéfalo em ovinos intoxicados experimentalmente por Ateleia glazioviana

    OpenAIRE

    Margarida Buss Raffi; Raquel Rubia Rech; Elisa Simone Viegas Sallis; Aline Rodrigues; Claudio Severo Lombardo de Barros

    2006-01-01

    Fifteen mature crossbred sheep were fed different daily amounts (2.5-35g kg-1 bw) of the fresh green leaves of Ateleia glazioviana for different periods of time (1-24 days). One sheep was not fed the plant and served as a control. All 16 sheep were euthanatized at different stages of the experiment, necropsied, and several organs, including heart and brain were evaluated histologically. Samples of five brain regions from three affected sheep were evaluated by electron microscopy. Clinical sig...

  3. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING BIRTH WEIGHT IN LOHI SHEEP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.E. Babar, Z. Ahmad, A. Nadeem and M. Yaqoob

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Data on 3984 lambing records of 1285 Lohi ewes kept at the Livestock Production Reserch Institute, Bahadurnagar, Okara for the period 1960-90 were analyzed by using Harvey’s Mixed Model Least Squares and Maximum Likelihood Computer Programme. The purpose was to estimate the magnitude of various environmental sources of variation influencing birth weight in this breed of sheep. The least squares mean for birth weight was 3.59 ? 0.02 kg. The trait was significantly (P< 0.01 influenced by the year and season of birth, type of birth and the sex of the lamb born. The age of the dam also had significant effect on birth weight of the lamb; the younger ewes produced lighter (3.48 ? 0.02 kg lambs than older ewes (3.67 ? 0.03 kg.

  4. Milk composition and feeding in the Italian dairy sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Nudda

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Milk production represents a relevant quota of the energy consumption of the dairy ewe. Studies on relationships among  level of production, milk composition and metabolic aspects are the first fundamental step in the development of a feed-  ing system aimed at satisfying nutritive requirements of the animals. This paper reviews the knowledge about the milk  composition of main Italian dairy sheep breeds, the relationship among secretion kinetics of milk and protein and pro-  ductive level of animals, the algorithms used for estimating fat (6.5% and protein (5.8% corrected milk yield, the  evolution over time of milk production during lactation and the relationships between feeding and milk composition. 

  5. A comparison of some physical traits of Iraqi sheep wool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.F. Al-Dabbagh

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study included analyzing data recorded of wool produced bales from Awassi, Karadi and Arabi sheep distributed in Mosul region, north and south of Iraq respectively for two years 2011 and 2012. Randomized samples were taken from these bales for dipped wool before shearing and raw wool (not dipped to study percentage of clean wool (CW, vegetable matter (VM and fiber diameter (FD. The results revealed a highly significant effects (P? 0.01 for the breeds and status of wool on these three traits, a significant effect (P? 0.05 for productive year only on (FD, and a highly significant effects (P? 0.01 for wool status on both (CW and (VM. No significant effects were noticed for the interactions between the three studied factors on the traits except for the interaction of productive year × wool status which affected significantly (P? 0.05 on (CW and (FD.

  6. b-Lactoglobulin Variants in Awassi and Morkaraman Sheep and their Association with the Composition and Rennet Clotting Time of the Milk

    OpenAIRE

    ÇEL?K, ?erafettin; ÖZDEM?R, Salih

    2006-01-01

    In this study, b-lactoglobulin (b-Lg) variants in Awassi and Morkaraman sheep were studied using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and their association with composition and rennet clotting time of the milk was estimated. Two alleles (A and B) and 3 different genotypes for b-Lg (AA, AB and BB) were observed in the whey from both breeds. The frequencies of b-Lg alleles were estimated as A 0.63 and B 0.37 in the Awassi breed, and A 0.56 and B 0.44 in the Morkaraman breed. These results indica...

  7. Serum Leptin Concentrations in Some Ruminant Species and Breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazmiye Gunes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Leptin, a 16-kDa protein secreted from white adipocytes has been implicated in the regulation of food intake, energy expenditure and whole-body energy balance in animals and humans. It was the focus of this study to establish serum leptin values for several animal species and breeds. To this purpose, serum leptin concentrations were measured using a double antibody Radio Immuno Assay (RIA kit containing guinea pig multispecies leptin antibody. Serum leptin concentrations were determined in healthy subjects of various species and breeds including Brown Swiss and Holstein bull, Awessi sheep, Saanen and Turkish hair goat. They were as follows (avarege values in ng mL-1±SEM: Brown Swiss bull (12 months of age: 2.35±0.34, Holstein bull (12 months of age: 3.55±0.53, Awessi sheep (16 months of age: 2.16±0.29, Saanen goat (16 months of age: 2.23±0.46, Turkish hair goat (16 months of age: 0.94±0.10.

  8. Management practices to control gastrointestinal parasites in sheep farms in Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurora M.G. Gouveia

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Parasite related problems are considered one of the major health problems for sheep breeding, causing considerable economic losses to commercial husbandry. The aim of this study was to determine the technological level and the level of knowledge of farmers regarding management practices to control gastrointestinal parasites in sheep in Minas Gerais state, southeastern Brazil. The analysis was based on 213 questionnaires applied by official veterinarians of the State Government Agency for Animal Health (Instituto Mineiro de Agropecuária, IMA, covering 16.6% of all counties. From two hundred and thirteen sheep farms sampled, 117 farms had their technological level determined. From the samples, 0.9% were characterized as high level, 45.3% as medium, and 53.0% as low technological level. The flock size ranged from 2 to 1843 with an average of 80.5 sheep per farm. The majority of the sheep production systems was extensive/semi-extensive (74.5%. The management practices adopted by the farmers to reduce parasitism were: split young and adult animals (5.6%, change pasture after deworm the animals (5.2%, use quarantine for incoming animals (2.3%, deworm newly arrived sheep (1.5%, and have regular technical assistance (31.9%. Although 76.5% of the farmers medicate the animals, treatments were performed without any major technical criteria, with an average interval of 4.6 months. The most commonly used drug families were macrocyclic lactones (38.5% and benzimidazoles (24.9%. The management practices adopted in Minas Gerais are based on old recommendations and may not return in a good set of strategies to prevent parasite infections. Field observations reinforce the finding where farmers have obtained unsatisfactory results in maintaining the health and productivity level of their enterprises.

  9. Sheep Behaviours During a Total Solar Eclipse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orhan ?zbey

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effects of a total solar eclipse, which was occurred in Elaz?? on August 11 1999, on sheep behaviours, were observed. For this purpose, 150 sheeps open shelter have been observed for six hour, from 11:00 am to 5:00 pm. All behaviours of sheep that were different than usual were recorded during observation. Sheeps started to show different behaviours including standing up, smelling the weather and watching around 30 minutes before solar eclipse. Total solar eclipse was occurred between 2:37 and 2:39 pm. During total solar eclipse, it was observed that they become very quiet did not move, turned their faces to the sun. During solar eclipse, sheep behaviour was obseved different than normal sunset darkness. Sheep might behave similar during earthquake disaster with solar eclipse.

  10. The host immune response to gastrointestinal nematode infection in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McRae, K M; Stear, M J; Good, B; Keane, O M

    2015-12-01

    Gastrointestinal nematode infection represents a major threat to the health, welfare and productivity of sheep populations worldwide. Infected lambs have a reduced ability to absorb nutrients from the gastrointestinal tract, resulting in morbidity and occasional mortality. The current chemo-dominant approach to nematode control is considered unsustainable due to the increasing incidence of anthelmintic resistance. In addition, there is growing consumer demand for food products from animals not subjected to chemical treatment. Future mechanisms of nematode control must rely on alternative, sustainable strategies such as vaccination or selective breeding of resistant animals. Such strategies take advantage of the host's natural immune response to nematodes. The ability to resist gastrointestinal nematode infection is considered to be dependent on the development of a protective acquired immune response, although the precise immune mechanisms involved in initiating this process remain to be fully elucidated. In this study, current knowledge on the innate and acquired host immune response to gastrointestinal nematode infection in sheep and the development of immunity is reviewed. PMID:26480845

  11. An Abattoir Study on Hepatic Tumors of Sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Mohajeri

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to assess the incidence and age distribution of hepatic tumors of sheep as well as study of their histopathologic characteristics. For this purpose, 3000 slaughtered sheep, consisting of 284 rams with approximate age of 7 to 20 months and 2716 ewes with approximate age of 3 to 7 years, were inspected during a routine postmortem examination. This study was conducted at Tabriz abattoir in the East Azerbaijan province of Iran, in a course of 8 months from March to November 2006. In this survey, two livers were encountered tumoral. Representative sections of the tumors were stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Gross and microscopic features of these tumors supported diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma and cholangiocellular carcinoma for a seven-years-old crossbreed ewe and a five-years-old native breed ewe respectively. In this survey, 0.074% of slaughtered ewes had hepatic neoplasia. That is, the prevalence of hepatocellular carcinoma and cholangiocellular carcinoma in aged ewes was equally 0.037% in this study.

  12. Multivariate genetic analysis on body weight traits in Ghezel sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Baneh

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to estimate the genetic and phenotypic parameters for growth traits in Ghezel sheep,using pedigree information and body weight records which collected from 2000 to 2009 at Ghezel Sheep Breeding Station.Traits of interest were birth weight (BW, n=2,073, weaning weight (WW, n=1,663 and six-month old weight (6MW, n=1,315.The environmental factors were studied using GLM procedure in SAS software. (Co variance components estimated basedon multivariate animal model by REML method, using DMU-package. All traits were significantly influenced by birth year,lamb’s sex, type of birth and dam age (p<0.01. Heritability estimates for BW, WW and 6MW were 0.16±0.05, 0.24±0.06 and0.35±0.07, respectively. All genetic correlations between traits were estimated positive and ranged from 0.57 (BW-6MW to0.97 (WW-6MW. The phenotypic correlations among all traits were also positive. The results of this study indicate thatbecause of high genetic correlation between traits, selection for each of these traits may result in improvement in other traitsas well.

  13. Prediction of feed intake in the Italian dairy sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcella Avondo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Recommendations on feed intake for sheep are based on assessments of genetic types, feeding systems and environ-  mental conditions that are very different from Italian ones. These considerations underline the need for intake data or  models that derive from local trials. For this reason intake data of lactating and dry ewes, pregnant ewes, rams and  growing lambs have been collected from selected literature based on sheep feeding trials mainly conducted on dairy  breeds in Italy or in other Mediterranean countries. Equations and intake tables differentiated according to the physio-  logical and productive categories, as well as feeding typology are reported. Particular consideration is given to pasture  intake with supplementation, reporting three equations developed for three qualitative levels of the pasture, recogniz-  able from the CP content of herbage: 16% DM. The equations include animal and  pasture variables and supplementation, expressed as grams of CP given with feeds other than pasture. Only when pas-  ture CP content is lower than 10% DM, supplement is not included in the equation, as no or negative substitution effect  is expected. 

  14. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 45

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This issue of the Mutation Breeding newsletter contains 39 articles dealing with radiation induced mutations and chemical mutagenesis techniques in plant breeding programs with the aims of improving crop productivity and disease resistance as well as exploring genetic variabilities

  15. Mutation breeding in mangosteen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mangosteen the queen of the tropical fruits is apomitic and only a cultivar is reported and it reproduces asexually. Conventional breeding is not possible and the other methods to create variabilities are through genetic engineering and mutation breeding. The former technique is still in the infantry stage in mangosteen research while the latter has been an established tool in breeding to improve cultivars. In this mutation breeding seeds of mangosteen were irradiated using gamma rays and the LD 50 for mangosteen was determined and noted to be very low at 10 Gy. After sowing in the seedbed, the seedlings were transplanted in polybags and observed in the nursery bed for about one year before planted in the field under old oil palm trees in Station MARDI, Kluang. After evaluation and screening, about 120 mutant mangosteen plants were selected and planted in Kluang. The plants were observed and some growth data taken. There were some mutant plants that have good growth vigour and more vigorous that the control plants. The trial are now in the fourth year and the plants are still in the juvenile stage. (Author)

  16. Pesquisa de anticorpos anti-Brucella abortus e anti-Brucella ovis em ovinos no município de Uberlândia, MG / Research of Brucella abortus and Brucella ovis antibodies in sheep of Uberlândia county, MG, Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    S.R.S., Salaberry; L.M., Paulin; R.L., Santana; J.R., Castro; A.M.C., Lima-Ribeiro.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available [...] Abstract in english The first epidemiologic inquiry to Brucella abortus (B. abortus) and Brucella ovis (B. ovis) was carried out in sheep from Uberlândia county, MG. A total of 334 blood serum samples of sheep from both sexes and different ages and breeds were collected in 12 farms. An epidemiologic questionnaire was a [...] pplied for each farm. Tests for B. abortus and B. ovis antibodies were Buffered Acidified Antigen and Complement Fixation, respectively. None of the sheep was reactive to B. abortus and B. ovis; however, the adoption of sanitary measures is important to avoid the introduction of infections caused by these bacteria.

  17. Meat quality of goat and sheep sausages

    OpenAIRE

    Teixeira, A.; Pereira, Etelvina; Rodrigues, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    The main objective of this work was to contribute to the characterization of a new product, based on goat and sheep meat with a strategy, which gives value-added to meat from culled goats and sheep, which have a very low commercial price. Carcasses from animals weighing more than the body weight allowed by PDO label specifications were used to produce fresh sausages. Sheep and goats sausages were produced in a traditional industry, in Northeast Portugal. The following character...

  18. Sheep Behaviours During a Total Solar Eclipse

    OpenAIRE

    Orhan ?zbey

    2004-01-01

    In this study, the effects of a total solar eclipse, which was occurred in Elaz?? on August 11 1999, on sheep behaviours, were observed. For this purpose, 150 sheeps open shelter have been observed for six hour, from 11:00 am to 5:00 pm. All behaviours of sheep that were different than usual were recorded during observation. Sheeps started to show different behaviours including standing up, smelling the weather and watching around 30 minutes before solar eclipse. Total solar eclipse was occur...

  19. The International Sheep and Wool Handbook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonello Cannas

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This revised book is an expanded and updated version of the Australian Sheep and Wool Handbook published in 1991 and focuses on the sheep wool and meat industry. The book is divided in 5 sections, each including several chapters written by well-known and qualified researchers and industry representatives from many countries. The first section on Major sheep and wool industries, in my opinion, is particularly interesting because it explores the sheep and wool industries of leading countries (e.g. Australia, South Africa and New Zealand and continents (Europe and South America, and those of emerging countries (e.g. China.....

  20. The sheep blowfly genetic control program in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The blowfly Lucilia cuprina is the most important myiasis pet of sheep in Australia. Other species are associated with sheep myiasis, but L. cuprina is probably responsible for initiating more than 90% of infestations. Annual costs of production losses, prevention and treatment have been estimated at $149 millions in 1985. Prevention and treatment encompass both insecticidal applications to sheep and non-chemical management practices. In the absence of effective preventive measures, the sheep industry would be non-viable over much of Australia. Insecticide usage against L. cuprina has been marked by the appearance of widespread resistance to cyclodienes in 1956, the organophosphates in 1965, and carbamates in 1966. Resistance has not yet been reported against the triazine compounds introduced for blowfly control in 1981. The most effective non-chemical control measures are surgical (removal of skin from the breech in certain breeds of sheep, and tail-docking). They protect sheep by reducing favourable oviposition sites (dung and urine-stained wool). The spectre of insecticide resistance and the early success of the sterile insect technique (SIT) against screwworm fly in the U.S.A., led this Division to consider SIT and other autocidal methods in the 1960s. The L. cuprina genetics research program was established in 1966 and subsequently expanded in 1971. More recently, lobbying by animal welfare groups against surgical blowfly control practices, as well as increasing consumer awareness of insecticide residues in animal products, have accelerated the search for alternatives to chemical control. When SIT was first considered for L. cuprina control in 1960, little was known about the population dynamics of L. cuprina. There were insufficient ecological data to evaluate the prospects of alternative strategies such as suppression or containment. The number of flies which would have to be released in a SIT program was unknown, as were the costs. Assuming that the cost of SIT against L. cuprina in Australia would be similar to that reported for screwworm in Florida, the costs of a SIT campaign were estimated to be several times the potential annual benefits. The discover of meiotic drive (MD) in Drosophila rekindled interest in autocidal control and triggered establishment of the L. cuprina genetics research program in 1966. Subsequent research failed to detect MD systems suitable for genetic control, but by 1970 it was recognised that strains carrying chromosome rearrangements might be more cost-effective than SIT. This led in 1971 to expansion of the genetics and strain development program, and establishment of an ecological research program (quantification of population dynamics). Both programs have been enormously successful. Not only have they enabled the development and successful field testing of a genetic method of suppressing sheep blowfly populations, but they have increased our knowledge of this pest to the stage where a simulation model of genetic control (GENCON), which incorporates both genetic and ecological data, is a valuable tool in strain design, selection of control strategies, and evaluation of field trial data. Comparison using computer simulations, of SIT with female-killing (FK) systems based on sex-linked translocations, suggests that with a suppression and containment strategy, the latter would provide greater benefits for less cost than SIT. Moreover, our projections indicate that large-scale genetic control would be less costly and more effective than the current system based on insecticides and other pest control practices

  1. Genetic diversity of selected genes that are potentially economically important in feral sheep of New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedcole J Richard

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Feral sheep are considered to be a source of genetic variation that has been lost from their domestic counterparts through selection. Methods This study investigates variation in the genes KRTAP1-1, KRT33, ADRB3 and DQA2 in Merino-like feral sheep populations from New Zealand and its offshore islands. These genes have previously been shown to influence wool, lamb survival and animal health. Results All the genes were polymorphic, but no new allele was identified in the feral populations. In some of these populations, allele frequencies differed from those observed in commercial Merino sheep and other breeds found in New Zealand. Heterozygosity levels were comparable to those observed in other studies on feral sheep. Our results suggest that some of the feral populations may have been either inbred or outbred over the duration of their apparent isolation. Conclusion The variation described here allows us to draw some conclusions about the likely genetic origin of the populations and selective pressures that may have acted upon them, but they do not appear to be a source of new genetic material, at least for these four genes.

  2. Sheep production and marketing system in southern Ethiopia: the case of Awassazuria district.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadesse, Estefanos; Negesse, Tegene; Abebe, Girma

    2015-10-01

    A survey was conducted in Awassazuria district of southern Ethiopia to characterize sheep production system. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data. Using purposive sampling, a total of 120 households from the district were included in the survey. Collected data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Result indicated that Kajima neighbourhood has more (p?market price, high market demand, immediate return, ease of management, equilibrium between benefits and risks and suitability for home consumption, ranked in decreasing order of importance. The sheep production in southern Ethiopia is constrained by shortage of grazing land (23.3 %), recurrent drought (17.5 %), disease and parasite (15 %), marketing (10.8 %), water shortage (9 %) and other constraints including predators and lack of input, capital and lack of extension service. The presence of diversified and environmentally adaptable sheep breeds, high demand of mutton in the Awassa town and presence of nutritious and unutilized feed resources like fish meal and poultry litter were some of the opportunities for sheep production in the area. PMID:25997416

  3. Sheep housing in Trás-os-Montes. Contribution to design buildings and equipment appropriate for local sheep farms

    OpenAIRE

    Barbosa, José Carlos

    2004-01-01

    Sheep farming has a great importance in the region of Trás-os-Montes, one of the most depopulated and least favoured Portuguese areas. We have studied the buildings for sheep housing, in this region, aiming to identify the aspects that may be considered as constraints or problems that can hinder the development of sheep farming in the region. Thus, we selected several villages where we have interviewed sheep raisers, aiming to get to know the sheep farming system and the sheep housing...

  4. Axonal degeneration in sheep caused by the ingestion of Halimium brasiliense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riet-Correa, Franklin; Barros, Severo S; Méndez, Maria C; Gevehr-Fernandes, Cristina; Pereira Neto, Otaviano A; Soares, Marcio P; McGavin, M Donald

    2009-07-01

    Nervous system disease is reported in sheep from 2 farms in southern Brazil and in 33 farms in Uruguay. The illness was seasonal, occurring from May to November, during the growing season of Halimium brasiliense, and primarily affected sheep older than 3 years of age. Clinical signs included transient seizures that occurred mainly when sheep were disturbed or frightened. Most affected sheep recovered when removed to other pastures. Feeding trials produced clinical signs in 1 sheep after the ingestion of 2,117 g/kg of body weight of H. brasiliense over 142 days. Two sheep that had previously recovered from spontaneous toxicosis developed clinical signs after the ingestion of 263 g and 565 g of H. brasiliense per kg body weight given over 36 and 31 days, respectively. The main histologic lesion was vacuolation of the brain and spinal cord, with rare axonal spheroid formation. Transmission electron microscopy revealed segmental axonal swelling with degeneration and disappearance of the axonal organelles and vacuolation of the axoplasm. A pigment identified as ceroid was also present in neurons, astrocytes, and macrophages. These lesions suggested a novel morphologic manifestation of a toxic axonopathy. PMID:19564495

  5. Seasonal dynamics of the Karoo paralysis tick (Ixodes rubicundus): a comparative study on Merino and Dorper sheep

    OpenAIRE

    L.J Fourie; Kok, D.J.

    1996-01-01

    Karoo paralysis in South Africa is induced in livestock by feeding female Ixodes rubicundus ticks when infestation densities on hosts exceed certain critical levels. It has been shown previously that Angora goats are at a higher risk of being paralysed than Merino sheep, and such differences have been related to differences in feeding behaviour and spatial distribution of the two small-stock breeds. We hypothesized that differences in infestation densities with Karoo paralysis ticks would als...

  6. A Divergent Artiodactyl MYADM-like Repeat Is Associated with Erythrocyte Traits and Weight of Lamb Weaned in Domestic Sheep

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez, Michael V.; Mousel, Michelle R.; Herndon, David R; Jiang, Yu; Dalrymple, Brian P; Reynolds, James O; Johnson, Wendell C.; Herrmann-Hoesing, Lynn M; Stephen N. White

    2013-01-01

    A genome-wide association study (GWAS) was performed to investigate seven red blood cell (RBC) phenotypes in over 500 domestic sheep (Ovis aries) from three breeds (Columbia, Polypay, and Rambouillet). A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) showed genome-wide significant association with increased mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC, P?=?6.2×10?14) and genome-wide suggestive association with decreased mean corpuscular volume (MCV, P?=?2.5×10?6). The ovine HapMap project found the ...

  7. Ulcerative balanitis and vulvitis of Dorper sheep in South Africa : a study on its aetiology and clinical features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kidanemariam

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Ovine ulcerative balanitis and vulvitis in sheep of the Dorper breed has been observed in South Africa since 1979. Its aetiology has not been conclusively resolved, and there is some discrepancy in descriptions of its clinical features. In order to identify the pathogenic microorganism / s that contribute to the occurrence of the disease, the microflora in the genital tracts of both clinically healthy and affected sheep were isolated and compared. Bacteriological examination of materials from affected and unaffected sheep resulted in the isolation of Arcanobacterium pyogenes from 44.2 % and 17.2 % of them respectively. This difference is statistically significant (P < 0.01. Seventy-four per cent of the isolates originated from severe clinical cases. Mycoplasmas were isolated from 49.3 % of 116 clinically normal sheep and 78.2%of 104 affected sheep. There were significant differences in their rates of isolation in clinical groups (P < 0.05. Of all the mycoplasma isolates, Mycoplasma mycoides mycoides large colony variant (MmmLC was isolated from 61.5 % of clinically diseased sheep while 6.0 % of the isolates were from apparently healthy animals (P < 0.05. The study threw light on the prevalence of mycoplasmas in the genital tract of apparently healthy sheep and, at the same time the identity of the mycoplasma pathogen associated with ulcerative balanitis and vulvitis was revealed. The findings of this investigation therefore confirmed the involvement of mycoplasma, particularly that of MmmLC large colony, in the disease in Dorper sheep in South Africa, and it was concluded that this microorganism is an important pathogen of balanitis and vulvitis in them. The study furthermore demonstrated a probable synergism between A. pyogenes and MmmLC. Finding these 2 organisms together occurred 53.4 times more frequently in the affected sheep than in the unaffected, which emphasises the probable multifactorial nature of the disease. The association between age and the presence of clinical signs was statistically significant. It was found that young sheep were more likely to have lesions than adult sheep. Clinical observations showed that the typical ulceration appears to be confined to the glans penis and lips of the vulva; no ulceration was observed on the shaft of the penis and prepuce or vaginal vestibule. In uncomplicated cases inflammation of the prepuce and vaginal vestibule is not a regular feature of the disease. Therefore the names ulcerative balanitis and vulvitis most accurately describe the nature of the disease in South Africa.

  8. IDENTIFICATION OF MOLECULAR MARKERS IN BMP15 GENE OF PAKISTANI GOAT BREEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Nawaz

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This research was performed for screening polymorphism of Bone Morphogenic Protein 15 (BMP15 in two goat breeds Teddy and Beetal of Pakistan. Teddy is the more prolific than other breeds of goat found in the country. To find out molecular markers associate with fertility, the selection of animals based on single birth (Beetal and multiple births (Teddy history were collected. Forty five samples were collected from each breed, direct sequencing was done identify the genetic variation. While the mutations in the candidate gene associate with fecundity in sheep were not identified in investigated Pakistani goat breeds. Although the sequencing data showed six novel polymorphic sites in Teddy breed. Two intronic mutations in base No. 982 with T>C and 5572 with A>G and four exonic mutations at nucleotide position 6280 T>G, 6353 G>A, 6443 T>C and 6492 A>G were identified. All these mutations were reported and registered in NCBI with accession no. of JN655669 - JN655670. These finding furnished significant explanations for the conclusion of BMP15 gene may be a major gene which affects the prolificacy in Teddy goat. This study could provide basic molecular data on the reproductive characteristics of local breeds of Pakistan and a scientific basis for the conservation and utilization of goat breeds.

  9. Epidemiology of gastrointestinal nematode parasitism in Suffolk and Gulf Coast Native sheep with special emphasis on relative susceptibility to Haemonchus contortus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, J E; Bahirathan, M; Lemarie, S L; Hembry, F G; Kearney, M T; Barras, S R

    1998-01-15

    An eight-year study was conducted to define the epidemiology of gastrointestinal nematode infection in Suffolk and Gulf Coast Native (Native) breeds of sheep, and to determine if the Native sheep is more resistant to infection. For the initial three years, each breed grazed separate pastures where anthelmintic treatments were administered to individual animals on a salvage basis. For the last five years, both breeds grazed concurrently; anthelmintic treatments were administered to individual animals on a salvage basis for the first three years, and to all animals, when treatment criteria were met, for the last two years. The fecal egg count (FEC) and blood packed cell volume (PCV) were monitored, and tracer lamb nematode burdens were determined. Overall, FEC for both breeds increased in the spring (periparturient rise) for most years and in the summer for all years. Under separate grazing conditions, Native ewes and lambs had consistently lower infection levels than Suffolk ewes and lambs. During the haemonchosis season (June-September) each year, Suffolk ewe and lamb PCV decreased, and Native ewe and lamb PCV remained relatively stable. The salvage treatment protocol resulted in 27 treatments for Suffolk and one for Native ewes; similarly for lambs, 13 for Suffolk and zero for Native. Tracer lambs grazed with their respective breed, and the FEC and mean total nematode burden corresponded with the pattern of infection for their respective breed. The predominant nematodes found in Suffolk and Native tracer lambs were Haemonchus contortus and Trichostrongylus spp., respectively. Under concurrent grazing conditions, the same seasonal repeatable pattern of infection was present and was exhibited by both breeds, with the Native ewes and lambs being consistently and significantly (p < or = 0.05) lower for FEC and higher for PCV. The salvage treatment protocol resulted in 57 and zero treatments for Suffolk and Native ewes, respectively; for lambs, 46 and 11. Tracer lamb nematode burdens again corresponded to their respective breed pattern of infection, with H. contortus and Trichostrongylus spp. being predominant in Suffolk and Native lambs, respectively. Data from all tracer lambs showed a relatively low level of hypobiosis (H. contortus only), and, although there was no consistent hypobiosis season, the tendency was for a higher level to occur in the fall. These results showed that the classic repeatable seasonal pattern of gastrointestinal nematode infection occurred in both breeds of sheep, and that Native sheep were more resistant to infection (specifically H. contortus) than Suffolk sheep. PMID:9493310

  10. The efficacy of the product Albendazole 10% of gastrointestinal nematode parasitism in sheep tested

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Stefan Hora

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Trichostrongylids are helminths of ruminants, located gastro intestinally. The disease generated by them is clinically manifested mainly by: diarrhea, weight loss, anemia and cachexia. They are produced by parasites belonging to the family Trichostrongylidae with genres: Ostertagia, Haemonchus, Trichostrongylus, Cooperia and Nematodirus. The study was accomplished in 2013 in Hidiseul de Sus village, Bihor County, and aimed to test the effectiveness of the Albendazole 10% in the natural infestations with gastrointestinal nematodes in sheep. Sheep studied consisted of 60 individuals from Turcana breed. Feces were examined by flotation method and to know the infestation level McMaster method was used, calculating the EPG value on day 0 of treatment, day 7 and day 14 post treatments. Anthelmintic efficacy (E% of the used product was of 97.03% after the FECRT formula. For a more meaningful expression it was used also Presidente and Borgsteede relations, where the result of efficiency for the tested product was 98% for both formulas.

  11. Spatio-temporal dynamics of pneumonia in bighorn sheep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassirer, E. Frances; Plowright, Raina K.; Manlove, Kezia R.; Cross, Paul C.; Dobson, Andrew P.; Potter, Kathleen A.; Hudson, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    Bighorn sheep mortality related to pneumonia is a primary factor limiting population recovery across western North America, but management has been constrained by an incomplete understanding of the disease. We analysed patterns of pneumonia-caused mortality over 14 years in 16 interconnected bighorn sheep populations to gain insights into underlying disease processes. 2. We observed four age-structured classes of annual pneumonia mortality patterns: all-age, lamb-only, secondary all-age and adult-only. Although there was considerable variability within classes, overall they differed in persistence within and impact on populations. Years with pneumonia-induced mortality occurring simultaneously across age classes (i.e. all-age) appeared to be a consequence of pathogen invasion into a naïve population and resulted in immediate population declines. Subsequently, low recruitment due to frequent high mortality outbreaks in lambs, probably due to association with chronically infected ewes, posed a significant obstacle to population recovery. Secondary all-age events occurred in previously exposed populations when outbreaks in lambs were followed by lower rates of pneumonia-induced mortality in adults. Infrequent pneumonia events restricted to adults were usually of short duration with low mortality. 3. Acute pneumonia-induced mortality in adults was concentrated in fall and early winter around the breeding season when rams are more mobile and the sexes commingle. In contrast, mortality restricted to lambs peaked in summer when ewes and lambs were concentrated in nursery groups. 4. We detected weak synchrony in adult pneumonia between adjacent populations, but found no evidence for landscape-scale extrinsic variables as drivers of disease. 5. We demonstrate that there was a >60% probability of a disease event each year following pneumonia invasion into bighorn sheep populations. Healthy years also occurred periodically, and understanding the factors driving these apparent fade-out events may be the key to managing this disease. Our data and modelling indicate that pneumonia can have greater impacts on bighorn sheep populations than previously reported, and we present hypotheses about processes involved for testing in future investigations and management.

  12. Mutation breeding in peas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pea as an ancient crop plant still today has wide uses and is an import source of food protein. It is also an important object for genetic studies and as such has been widely used in mutation induction experiments. However, in comparison with cereals this ancient crop plant (like several other grain legumes) has gained relatively little from advances in breeding. The review focuses on the prospects of genetic improvement of pea by induced mutations, discusses principles and gives methodological information. (author)

  13. Effect of urea-treated sorghum stover supplemented with local protein sources on the performance of sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Feeding trials were carried out on-farm to examine the effect of supplementing urea treated sorghum stover (UTSS) with sesame cake (SC) or fishmeal (FM) on the body weight of sheep. Twenty-one male sheep were divided into three groups of seven sheep in each treatment. All the sheep used in this experiment were from the same breed (Gerej), with the same age and initial body weight from the same area. The experiment was conducted in Gash Barka, western lowlands of Eritrea. All the animals were fed on UTSS for an adaptation period of 15 d. The control diet consisted of UTSS fed ad libitum. The second and third treatments consisted of UTSS fed ad libitum supplemented daily with 80 g/head of SC and 60 g/head of FM, respectively. The experimental period lasted for 90 d. Feed intakes and body weights were recorded regularly. The dry matter intake (DMI) in sheep was significantly different (P < 0.05) between the control and SC supplemented groups, but not between the other treatments. It was highest for the SC supplemented group at 847 g/head/day followed by the FM supplemented group and the control at 826 and 821 g/head/day, respectively. Sheep supplemented with SC had the highest significant (P < 0.05) body weight gain (BWG) (134 g/head/day) followed by the group supplemented with FM (115 g/head/day). The BWG for the control was 66 g/head/day. Feed conversion was best on SC (6.92) followed by FM (7.70) supplementation. The lowest cost of feed per kg of BWG (16.91 Nfa) was attained by supplementing with SC. It can be concluded that feeding UTSS alone or supplementing with small amounts of sesame cake or fishmeal can increase the live weight of sheep at a reasonable cost. (author)

  14. Características do sêmen de carneiros Dorper, Santa Inês e sem padrão racial definido, pré e pós-congelação, nos períodos chuvoso e seco / Characteristics of the semen of Dorper, Santa Ines and undefined breed sheep, pre-and post-freezing, in the rainy and dry period

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    J.M., Frazão Sobrinho; M.A. Castelo, Branco; A., Sousa Júnior; I.M.R., Nascimento; L.H.C.M., Mota; Y.N.T., Carvalho; S.B., Ferreira; D.N.M., Costa; F.J., Moraes Júnior; J.A.T., Souza.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se as características espermáticas de carneiros Dorper, Santa Inês e sem padrão racial definido, nos períodos chuvoso e seco. Após ser colhido por vagina artificial, o sêmen foi avaliado quanto ao volume, ao turbilhonamento, à motilidade, ao vigor, à morfologia e à concentração, congelado [...] e armazenado em botijão criogênico. Depois de descongelado, foram avaliadas a cinemática espermática, a integridade da membrana plasmática, a integridade do acrossoma e a atividade mitocondrial. Vigor espermático, motilidade total, motilidade progressiva, velocidade em linha reta e defeitos maiores não diferiram entre os períodos chuvoso e seco, porém volume, turbilhonamento, linearidade, retilinearidade e frequência de batimentos de cauda foram mais baixos (P Abstract in english The sperm characteristics of Dorper, Santa Ines and undefined breed ram in the rainy and dry seasons was assessed. After collection with an artificial vagina, the semen was evaluated for volume, turbulence, motility, viability, morphology and concentration, frozen and stored in a cryogenic cylinder. [...] After thawing kinematic sperm, plasma membrane integrity, acrosome integrity and mitochondrial activity were evaluated. Sperm vigor, total motility, progressive motility, straight line speed and larger line defects did not differ between the rainy and dry seasons, however, volume, turbulence, linearity, straightness and frequency of tail beats were lower (P

  15. Paratuberculose em caprinos e ovinos no Estado da Paraíba / Paratuberculosis in goats and sheep in the state of Paraiba

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    João M.A, Medeiros; Felício, Garino Junior; Arthur P, Almeida; Erasmo A, Lucena; Franklin, Riet-Correa.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Mediante o teste de ELISA foi determinada a presença de anticorpos para Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (map) em amostras de soro de 734 caprinos e 392 ovinos, sem sinais clìnicos aparentes, provenientes de 14 Municipios do semiárido Paraibano. Em caprinos, a frequência média de anticorp [...] os de 44,86± 22,91% e em ovinos foi de 52,96±31,49. Das 46 propriedades estudadas, 44 (95,65%) apresentaram pelo menos um animal soropositivo. Nos 14 municípios avaliados houve presença de animais sorologicamente positivos, variando de 20% a 70%. Em caprinos sem raça definida e mestiços a frequência (48,56%) foi significativamente inferior (P Abstract in english Antibodies to paratuberculosis were determined by ELISA in serum samples of 734 goats and 392 sheep, without clinical signs, from 14 municipalities of the semiarid region of Paraíba state, Brazil. In goats, average frequency of antibodies was 44.86±22.91% and in sheep was 52.96±31.49%. All municipal [...] ities had affected animals with a frequency varying from 20% to 70%. In goats of unknown breed and crossbreds the prevalence (48.56%) was significantly lower (P=0.0270) than in pure breed goats (57.24%). In sheep with body scores of 1 to 3, the frequency (59.39%) was significantly higher (P=0.0034) than in sheep with body score from 3 to 5 (42.42%). No significant differences were observed in goats and sheep of different ages, in goats with different body score, and in sheep of different breeds. In the microbiologic examination, after 16 weeks of incubation in HEYM medium with mycobactin J, colonies similar to those of do Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuber culosis were observed in cultures of 9 (6.58%) out of 180 fecal samples, being one from goats and 8 from sheep. In the Ziehl Nieelsen the bacteria had morphologic and staining characteristics similar to M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. These results suggest that paratuberculosis is endemic with high prevalence in the semiarid region of Paraíba. It is necessary to develop research on the epidemiology and control measures of the disease in the conditions of this region. Also the risk for human beings should be determined, mainly in relation with milking goats.

  16. Ivermectin pharmacokinetics in lactating sheep

    OpenAIRE

    Cerkvenik, V.; Grabnar, V.; Skubic, V.; Doganoc, D.Z.; Beek, W.M.J.; Keukens, H.J.; Kosorok, M.D.; Pogacnik, M.

    2002-01-01

    Ivermectin (IVM) concentrations in plasma and milk were studied in six Istrian Pramenka dairy sheep after a single subcutaneous dose of 0.2 mg/kg b.w. of IVM in the early lactation period to describe IVM disposition in milk and to evaluate the transfer of IVM residues via milk to suckling lambs. Large inter-animal in concentration variability of IVM in both matrices was observed. The highest overall concentration was found in the same animal: 21.7 ¿g/l of H2B1a in plasma on the second day and...

  17. Reverse breeding: a novel breeding approach based on engineered meiosis

    OpenAIRE

    Dirks, R; Dun, K.P.M., van; Snoo, B., de; Berg, M.; Lelivelt, C.L.C.; Voermans, W.; Woudenberg, L.; Wit, J.P.C., de; Reinink, K.; Schut, J.W.; Jong, J.H.S.G.M., de; Wijnker, T.G.

    2009-01-01

    Reverse breeding (RB) is a novel plant breeding technique designed to directly produce parental lines for any heterozygous plant, one of the most sought after goals in plant breeding. RB generates perfectly complementing homozygous parental lines through engineered meiosis. The method is based on reducing genetic recombination in the selected heterozygote by eliminating meiotic crossing over. Male or female spores obtained from such plants contain combinations of non-recombinant parental chro...

  18. SCREENING OF BREEDING BULLS OF DIFFERENT BREEDS THROUGH KARYOTYPING

    OpenAIRE

    I. Ahmad, K. Javed1 and A. Sattar

    2004-01-01

    A study of chromosomal analysis for 200 breeding bulls of different breeds of cattle (Jersey, Holstein Friesian, Sahiwal and Cross-bred) and Nili-Ravi buffalo, maintained at Semen Production Unit, Qadirabad and Livestock Experiment Station, Bhunikey (Pattoki) was carried out. Micromethod was adopted for leukocyte culture and chromosomes were trapped at metaphase stage. The diploid number of chromosomes in all breeds of cattle was found to be 60 (58 autosomes and 2 sex chromosomes: XY), while ...

  19. Larvicidal activity of Bacillus circulans against the gastrointestinal nematode Haemonchus contortus in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinott, M C; de Castro, L L Dias; Leite, F L L; Gallina, T; De-Souza, M T; Santos, D F L; Leite, F P L

    2016-01-01

    Efficient control of gastrointestinal parasites is necessary in sheep breeding. However, the available chemically based anthelmintics are becoming less effective due to the development of parasite resistance. An alternative to this problem is biological control. In the present study, we tested the larvicidal effect of Bacillus circulans by administering a spore suspension (2 × 109 colony forming units/ml) orally to lambs naturally infected with Haemonchus contortus. The number of faecal larvae was quantified daily and a significant reduction (~87%, Pparasite control. PMID:26693886

  20. Costs Associated with Equine Breeding in Kentucky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Cassandra L.

    There were approximately 9 million horses in the United States having a 102 billion impact on the U.S. economy (AHC, 2005). Over 1 million of those horses were involved in the breeding sector. In Kentucky, nearly 18% of the horse population have been involved in breeding. Managing an equine enterprise can be difficult, particularly given that many who undertake such endeavors do not have a background or education in business management. Kentucky Cooperative Extension has produced interactive spreadsheets to help horse owners better understand the costs associated with owning horses or managing certain equine businesses, including boarding and training operations. However, there has been little support for breeders. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to provide owners with a list of services offered for breeding and the costs associated with those services. Survey questions were created from a list of topics pertinent to equine breeding and from that list of questions, an electronic survey was created. The survey was sent via Qualtrics Survey Software to collect information on stallion and mare management costs as well as expenses related to owning and breeding. Question topics included veterinary and housing costs, management and advertising expenses, and membership fees. A total of 78 farms were selected from the 2013 breeder's listings for the Kentucky Quarter Horse Association (n = 39) and the Kentucky Thoroughbred Farm Managers' Club (n = 26), and other breed association contacts (n = 13). These farms were selected from the lists by outside individuals who were not related to the project. Participants were asked to answer all questions relevant to the farm. After the initial survey distribution, follow-up e-mails and phone calls were conducted in order to answer any questions participants might have had about the survey. Survey response rate was 32.1% (25 of 78 surveys returned). Farms in Kentucky had an average of two farm-owned and two outside stallions standing at stud. Artificial insemination was offered by 48% of the breeders. Of those that offered artificial insemination, only 2 farms provided frozen semen. Also of interest, 2 farms offered embryo transfer services. Farms spent approximately 13,536/year on advertising and 7,864/year on health care management of the stallions. The majority of farms that bred outside mares (13 of 25) bred fewer than 50 mares per year (n = 10). Outside mares were considered to be those that were transported to the farm for breeding. Some of those remained on the farm for mare care while others returned home after confirmed with foal. Approximately 70% of the farms gave discounts to individuals who bred multiple mares to the same stallion or farm. Over 85% of the farms surveyed provided mare care including breeding and foaling, though the number of days mares received care varied significantly. The average cost for mare care was 18.29 per day. All but one respondent provided a live foal guarantee. Breeding horses in Kentucky has been very important facet of the equine industry. However, many people who consider breeding a horse have little understanding of the costs associated with the process. The data provided by this study will be used to create a spreadsheet to assist people interested in breeding to better understand the financial considerations of this type of enterprise.

  1. Analysis of genetic diversity and differentiation of sheep populations in Jordan

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Raed Mahmoud, Al-Atiyat; Naser M, Salameh; Mohammad J, Tabbaa.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Genetic diversity of sheep in Jordan was investigated using microsatellite markers (MS). Six ovine and bovine MS located on chromosomes 2 and 6 of sheep genome were genotyped on 294 individual from ten geographical regions. Results The number of alleles per locus (A), the expected heteroz [...] ygosity (He) and observed heterozygosity (Ho) were measured. Overall A, He and Ho were 12.67, 0.820 and 0.684, respectively. On the other hand, genetic distances undoubtedly revealed the expected degree of differentiation among the studied populations. The finding showed closeness of three populations from south (Maan, Showbak and Tafeilah) to each other. Populations from the middle regions of Jordan (Karak, Madaba, Amman, AzZarqa and Mafraq) were found to be in one cluster. Only two populations of the middle region were an exception: AlSalt and Dead Sea. Finally, sheep populations from Irbid were located in separated cluster. It was clear that the studied predefined populations were subdivided from four populations and would be most probably accounted as ancestral populations. These results indicate that number of population is less than the predefined population as ten based on geographical sampling areas. Conclusions The possible inference might be that geographical location, genetic migration, similar selection forces, and common ancestor account for population admixture and subdivision of Awassi sheep breed in Jordan. Finally, the present study sheds new light on the molecular and population genetics of Awassi sheep from different regions of Jordan and to utilize the possible findings for future management of genetic conservation under conditions of climate changes and crossbreeding policy.

  2. Effects of the morphine-lidocaine-ketamine combination on cardiopulmonary function and isoflurane sparing in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzane Lilian Beier

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to evaluate the isoflurane sparing and clinical effects of a constant rate infusion of morphine – lidocaine – ketamine (MLK in healthy sheep undergoing experimental gastrointestinal surgery. Twelve adult female sheep (Texel breed were used, weighing 36.5 ± 8.1 kg. The sheep were anesthetized for the implantation of duodenal cannulas. The sheep were premedicated with 0.3 mg kg-1 intramuscular (IM morphine and 20 ?g kg-1 intravenous (IV detomidine. After premedication, anesthesia was induced using 5 mg kg-1 ketamine and 0.5 mg kg-1 diazepam IV and maintained using isoflurane in 100% oxygen. After the induction of anesthesia, the animals were allocated into two groups (each n=6; the GMLK (MLK group – 10 mg morphine, 150 mg lidocaine, 30 mg de ketamine were added in 500 mL saline received a 10 mL kg-1h-1 MLK infusion during the maintenance of anesthesia, and GCON (control group received 10 mL kg-1h-1 of 0.9% sodium chloride. The animals were mechanically ventilated. Cardiopulmonary variables and end-tidal isoflurane concentration (FE´Iso were measured at baseline (immediately before the surgery and 15, 30 and 45 minutes after initiation of surgery. In GMLK, there was a decrease in the FE´Iso at 15, 30 and 45 minutes, a reduction of up to 75.6% during the surgery. The HR was lower in GMLK compared with GCON at 30 minutes, and the MAP was at during baseline in GCON compared with GMLK. The standing time was less in GMLK than in GCON. The use of intravenous MLK was demonstrated to offer great efficiency as part of a balanced anesthesia protocol in sheep, with a 75.6% reduction in the need for isoflurane, providing stability of the cardiovascular parameters and blood gases with a shortened recovery period.

  3. Dynamics of the natural transmission of bovine spongiform encephalopathy within an intensively managed sheep flock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey, Martin; Witz, Janey P; Martin, Stuart; Hawkins, Steve A C; Bellworthy, Sue J; Dexter, Glenda E; Thurston, Lisa; González, Lorenzo

    2015-01-01

    Sheep are susceptible to the bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) agent and in the UK they may have been exposed to BSE via contaminated meat and bone meal. An experimental sheep flock was established to determine whether ovine BSE could be naturally transmitted under conditions of intensive husbandry. The flock consisted of 113 sheep of different breeds and susceptible PRNP genotypes orally dosed with BSE, 159 sheep subsequently born to them and 125 unchallenged sentinel controls. BSE was confirmed in 104 (92%) orally dosed sheep and natural transmission was recorded for 14 of 79 (18%) lambs born to BSE infected dams, with rates varying according to PRNP genotype. The likelihood of natural BSE transmission was linked to stage of incubation period of the dam: the attack rate for lambs born within 100 days of the death of BSE infected dams was significantly higher (9/22, 41%) than for the rest (5/57, 9%). Within the group of ewes lambing close to death, those rearing infected progeny (n = 8, for 9/12 infected lambs) showed a significantly greater involvement of lymphoid tissues than those rearing non-infected offspring (n = 8, for 0/10 infected lambs). Horizontal transmission to the progeny of non-infected mothers was recorded only once (1/205, 0.5%). This low rate of lateral transmission was attributed, at least partly, to an almost complete absence of infected placentas. We conclude that, although BSE can be naturally transmitted through dam-lamb close contact, the infection in this study flock would not have persisted due to low-efficiency maternal and lateral transmissions. PMID:26511838

  4. Effects of Breed and Progestin Source on Estrus Synchronization and Rates of Fertility and Fecundity in Iranian Sanjabi and Lori Ewes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Moeini

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of FGA (Fluorogestone acetate and CIDR (Controlled internal drug release on the induction of estrus and pregnancy and fecundity rates of the Sanjabi and Lori sheep. A total of 360 Sanjabi and Lori sheep were randomly grouped into two treatments with intravaginal devices inserted for 13 days: Group FGA (40 mg FGA, n = 180 and Group CIDR (n = 180. All ewes received an i.m. injection of 400 IU eCG (equine chorionic gonadotrophin at devices removal. Estrous was assessed by exposing all ewes to vasectomized rams at 12 h intervals. Cervical artificial insemination was performed 12 h after estrus onset. The overall estrus response was 72.5%. The source of progestin did not influence the efficiency of estrus response but a significant difference (p<0.05 was found between the breed groups (Lori: 88.6%, Sanjabi: 58.3%. Among the sheep that received either CIDR or FGA, estrus response was significantly (p<0.05 higher in the Lori (CIDR: 82.2%, FGA: 91.1% than in the Sanjabi (CIDR: 64.4%, FGA: 52.2% breed. The lambing and fecundity rates for all groups were 60.2% and 1.2±0.03, respectively. No significant differences in term of the lambing and fecundity rates were recorded between CIDR and FGA groups and among Lori and Sanjabi breed. The results of this study indicate the source of progestin or sheep breed did not influence the pregnancy and fecundity rates. The sheep breed influences the estrous response rate while the source of progestin did not affect the estrous response.

  5. Materials for breeding blankets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are several candidate concepts for tritium breeding blankets that make use of a number of special materials. These materials can be classified as primary blanket materials, which have the greatest influence in determining the overall design and performance, and secondary blanket materials, which have key functions in the operation of the blanket but are less important in establishing the overall design and performance. The issues associated with the blanket materials are specified and several examples of materials performance are given. Critical data needs are identified. (orig.)

  6. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasmosis in Sheep in Southern Punjab, Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    *Mushtaq H. Lashari and Zahida Tasawar

    2010-01-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in sheep in Southern Punjab, Pakistan. Blood samples were collected from 518 sheep of nine localities of three districts (Dera Ghazi Khan, Multan and Khanewal). The samples were tested by using latex agglutination test (LAT) and commercial ELISA method. The overall prevalence of T. gondii infection in sheep was 19.88%. In male sheep, the prevalence was higher (30.15%) than in female sheep (18.46%), the differen...

  7. Molecular Characterization of Black Bengal and Jamuna Pari Goat Breeds By RAPD Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Rahman

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted in the Genetics, Breeding and Reproductive Biotechnology Laboratory under Goat and Sheep Production Research Division, Bangladesh Livestock Research Institute (BLRI, Saver, Dhaka, Bangladesh. DNA was extracted from 14 goat breeds and the extracted DNA was observed by gel electrophoresis. Eight goat specific primers were synthesized by ASM-800 DNA synthesizer and screened in the study and all these primers were capable of priming polymorphic amplification pattern in both the breeds. Random amplification of polymorphic DNA â?? Polymerase Chain Reaction (RAPD-PCR analysis was carried out using DNA samples of 14 black bengal goat and Jamuna pari goat breeds. Only unambiguous, reproducible and scorable polymorphic fragments were taken into consideration for analysis. Data were analyzed by using a computer programe POPGENE (Version 1.31. Highest level of Nei's[1] gene diversity value (0.4898 was observed in BMS 1494 locus and the mean genetic diversity was obtained 0.3724 among the 14 goat breeds. The highest number of polymorphism obserbed in primer BM1818.The pair-wise genetic distance value ranged from 0.2500 to 1.000. Dendrogram based on Nei's[1] genetic distance using Unweighted Pair Group Method of Arithmetic Means (UPGMA indicated segregation of the 14 goat breeds. Within Jamuna pari goat genetic similarity is low as well as black Bengal goat.

  8. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 43

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This issue of the Newsletter includes articles dealing with radiation induced mutation based plant breeding research findings aimed at improving productivity, disease resistance and tolerance of stress conditions

  9. EVALUATION OF ELISA METHOD TO DETECTION OF COW ?-LACTOGLOBULIN IN SHEEP MILK AND SHEEP MILK PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juraj Paulov

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of work was to optimalize the ELISA method to detect the adulteration of sheep milk and sheep milk products by cow milk in the laboratory. We have focused on laboratory testing of ELISA kit (?-Lactoglobulin ELISA Set, SEDIUM R&D for detection of cow ?-Lg in sheep milk order to obtain high-quality, reliable and economically advantageous method suitable for routine use in practice. The results shown that for the quality of adulteration determination  it is necessary to verify the sensitivity of applied kit by the samples dilution in accordance with the producer declared quantification range contained in the manual ELISA kit. The starting point for obtaining of relevant data was to create separate regression curves with high deter­mination coefficient, which allowed to quickly and easily detect the cow milk additions in sheep milk, cloddish sheep and Slovak sheep cheese. doi:10.5219/78  

  10. Mutation Breeding in Sugarcane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present position of sugar industry particularly cane sugar production in the world has been discussed. The role of African Countries which can contribute more than the present 11% to world cane sugar production is presented. The breeding methods employed in cane growing court-tries indicate the biparental crossing and selection in F1 has been the major method used to develop varieties. Due to cytogenetical peculiarities, thousands of seedlings are grown to select the desirable genotype. Mutations or sports has been a source of variation for selection in nature. Induced mutations have only enhanced the mutation rate and has enabled the plant breeders to get better variation for selection. Though many mutagens have been used gamma rays have been most effective. Induced mutations for nonflowering, spineless leaf-sheath, higher sugar content, yield md resistance to diseases like smut and downy mildew have been reported. The methods of making mutated tissues express itself have been indicated. Mutation breeding holds out promise in sugarcane in that the basic variety or genotype can be kept intact and a few characters changed as desired by the plant breeder provided proper selection methods are employed. (author)

  11. Radiation mutation breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to develop an advanced technical knowledge for the selection of better mutants, some of the crops were irradiated and the mutation rate, the survival rate and the method for selction of a mutant were studied. Furthermore, this study aimed to obtain basic data applicable to the development of genetic resources by evaluation and analysis the specific character for selection of the superior mutant and its plant breeding. 1. selection of the mutant with a superior resistance against environment in the principal crops 1) New varieties of mutant rices such as Wonpyeongbyeo, Wongwangbyeo, Winmibyeo, and heogseon chalbeyeo (sticky forma) were registered in the national variety list and made an application to crop variety protection right. They are under review now. 2) We also keep on studying on the number of a grain of 8 lines of excellent mutant rice for the purpose of improvement of breeding . 3) We selected 3 lines which have a resistance to pod and stem blight in large soybean, 31 lines with small grain size and higher yield, 112 lines of soybean of cooking, 7 lines of low lipoxygenase content, and 12 lines with decreased phytic acid content by 20 % compared to the previous level. 2. Selection of advanced Mugunwha (Rose of Sharon) mutant 1) Bagseul, a new variety of mutant, was developed and 30 plantlets of it are being proliferated. 2) Fifty-three lines of a mutant having a various morphologies were selected

  12. Radiation mutation breeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Hi Sup; Kim, Jae Sung; Kim, Jin Kyu; Shin, In Chul; Lim, Young Taek

    1998-04-01

    In order to develop an advanced technical knowledge for the selection of better mutants, some of the crops were irradiated and the mutation rate, the survival rate and the method for selction of a mutant were studied. Furthermore, this study aimed to obtain basic data applicable to the development of genetic resources by evaluation and analysis the specific character for selection of the superior mutant and its plant breeding. 1. selection of the mutant with a superior resistance against environment in the principal crops 1) New varieties of mutant rices such as Wonpyeongbyeo, Wongwangbyeo, Winmibyeo, and heogseon chalbeyeo (sticky forma) were registered in the national variety list and made an application to crop variety protection right. They are under review now. 2) We also keep on studying on the number of a grain of 8 lines of excellent mutant rice for the purpose of improvement of breeding . 3) We selected 3 lines which have a resistance to pod and stem blight in large soybean, 31 lines with small grain size and higher yield, 112 lines of soybean of cooking, 7 lines of low lipoxygenase content, and 12 lines with decreased phytic acid content by 20 % compared to the previous level. 2. Selection of advanced Mugunwha (Rose of Sharon) mutant 1) Bagseul, a new variety of mutant, was developed and 30 plantlets of it are being proliferated. 2) Fifty-three lines of a mutant having a various morphologies were selected.

  13. Comparing measures of breeding inequality and opportunity for selection with sexual selection on a quantitative character in bighorn rams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, A M; Festa-Bianchet, M; Coltman, D W; Pelletier, F

    2015-01-01

    The reliability and consistency of the many measures proposed to quantify sexual selection have been questioned for decades. Realized selection on quantitative characters measured by the selection differential i was approximated by metrics based on variance in breeding success, using either the opportunity for sexual selection Is or indices of inequality. There is no consensus about which metric best approximates realized selection on sexual characters. Recently, the opportunity for selection on character mean OSM was proposed to quantify the maximum potential selection on characters. Using 21 years of data on bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis), we investigated the correlations between seven indices of inequality, Is , OSM and i on horn length of males. Bighorn sheep are ideal for this comparison because they are highly polygynous and sexually dimorphic, ram horn length is under strong sexual selection, and we have detailed knowledge of individual breeding success. Different metrics provided conflicting information, potentially leading to spurious conclusions about selection patterns. I?, an index of breeding inequality, and, to a lesser extent, Is showed the highest correlation with i on horn length, suggesting that these indices document breeding inequality in a selection context. OSM on horn length was strongly correlated with i, Is and indices of inequality. By integrating information on both realized sexual selection and breeding inequality, OSM appeared to be the best proxy of sexual selection and may be best suited to explore its ecological bases. PMID:25418082

  14. 1990 Sheep monitoring programme January - December 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The monitoring of sheep and sheepmeat has been undertaken by the Nuclear Energy Board since 1987 and reports of the work have been published on an annual basis. The main components of previous programmes have been continued during 1990. including; in vivo monitoring of sheep at the main slaughterhouses dealing with both the domestic and export markets, laboratory analysis of sheepmeat collected from butchers' shops nationwide, in vivo monitoring of mountain sheep at selected farms during the months of summer grazing. In addition, baseline data on radiocaesium in soils and plants at 13 sites were collected during the second half of the year

  15. Charge breeding simulations for radioactive ion beam production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Variale, V; Rainò, A C; Clauser, T

    2012-02-01

    The charge breeding technique is used for radioactive ion beam (RIB) production in order of optimizing the re-acceleration of the radioactive element ions produced by a primary beam in a thick target. Charge breeding is achieved by means of a device capable of increasing the ion charge state from 1+ to a desired value n+. In order to get high intensity RIB, experiments with charge breeding of very high efficiency could be required. To reach this goal, the charge breeding simulation could help to optimize the high charge state production efficiency by finding more proper parameters for the radioactive 1+ ions. In this paper a device based on an electron beam ion source (EBIS) is considered. In order to study that problem, a code already developed for studying the ion selective containment in an EBIS with RF quadrupoles, BRICTEST, has been modified to simulate the ion charge state breeding rate for different 1+ ion injection conditions. Particularly, the charge breeding simulations for an EBIS with a hollow electron beam have been studied. PMID:22380242

  16. Rumen protozoa in South African sheep with a summary of the worldwide distribution of sheep protozoa

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Dirk, Booyse; Burk A., Dehority.

    Full Text Available Protozoa species were identified in rumen contents of four domestic sheep (Ovis aries) from South Africa. All animals were fed a forage diet which consisted of 50% lucerne and 50% teff hay. Ten new host records were identified, bringing the total number of species and forms observed in sheep in Sout [...] h Africa to 30. The occurrence and geographic distribution of ciliate protozoa in both domestic and wild sheep from around the world are summarised. It was found that 15 genera and 131 species occur in domestic sheep globally.

  17. Rumen protozoa in South African sheep with a summary of the worldwide distribution of sheep protozoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Booyse

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Protozoa species were identified in rumen contents of four domestic sheep (Ovis aries from South Africa. All animals were fed a forage diet which consisted of 50% lucerne and 50% teff hay. Ten new host records were identified, bringing the total number of species and forms observed in sheep in South Africa to 30. The occurrence and geographic distribution of ciliate protozoa in both domestic and wild sheep from around the world are summarised. It was found that 15 genera and 131 species occur in domestic sheep globally.

  18. Paratuberculosis in sheep and goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windsor, P A

    2015-12-14

    Paratuberculosis is a chronic insidious, often serious, disease of the global small ruminant industries, mainly causing losses from mortalities and reduced productivity on-farm, interference in trading and, in Australia, profound socio-economic impacts that have periodically compromised harmony of rural communities. The pathogenesis, diagnosis, impacts and disease management options for ovine and caprine paratuberculosis are reviewed, comparing current controls in the extensive management system for sheep in wool flocks in Australia with the semi-intensive system of dairy flocks/herds in Greece. Improved understanding of the immune and cellular profiles of sheep with varying paratuberculosis outcomes and the recognition of the need for prolonged vaccination and biosecurity is considered of relevance to future control strategies. Paratuberculosis in goats is also of global distribution although the prevalence, economic impact and strategic control options are less well recognized, possibly due to the relatively meagre resources available for goat industry research. Although there have been some recent advances, more work is required on developing control strategies for goats, particularly in dairy situations where there is an important need for validation of improved diagnostic assays and the recognition of the potential impacts for vaccination. For all species, a research priority remains the identification of tests that can detect latent and subclinical infections to enhance removal of future sources of infectious material from flocks/herds and the food chain, plus predict the likely outcomes of animals exposed to the organism at an early age. Improving national paratuberculosis control programs should also be a priority to manage disease risk from trade. The importance of strong leadership and communication, building trust within rural communities confused by the difficulties in managing this insidious disease, reflects the importance of change management considerations for animal health authorities. Although concerns of vaccine efficacy, safety and issues with diagnosis and administration persist, vaccination is increasingly recognized as providing a robust strategy for managing paratuberculosis, having made important contributions to the health of Australian sheep and the lives of producers with affected properties, and offering a mechanism to reduce risk of infection entering the food chain in ovine and caprine products. PMID:26255556

  19. Mutation breeding of ornamental plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The outline of registered ornamental cultivars bred up by mutation breeding, the applied methods, and the radiosensitivity of air-dried seeds among ornamental plants are described. The mutation breeding of ornamental plants has not yet become a familiar means like cross breeding or line separation. But the number of the cultivars bred up by mutation breeding reached more than 270, and took a relatively large proportion of about 40 % of the agronomic cultivars bred up by mutation breeding in the world. The number of the species to which those improved cultivars belong is only 22. Considering the abundance of ornamental plant species and the successful results of mutation breeding in this field, mutation breeding techniques will be applied to many species which remain in the rudimentary stage or have never tried them. It is hoped that the information presented in this paper contributes to the promising future of ornamental plant breeding as the suggestion. Especially in ornamental plants, many spontaneously occurred novel mutants have been sought and treasured for a long time. Such mutants actually enriched the variety of flower colors, shapes and many other important characters required for being ornamentally valuable. (Kako, I.)

  20. Industry comments on accelerator breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief discussion is given on the relative merits of accelerator breeding of fissile materials. Spallation breeding is believed to be easier than fusion-fission hybrids. Technological and economic issues of the accelerator breeder should be considered rather than using nonproliferation as a justification

  1. Polymorphisms of calpastatin gene in sheep Polimorfizm genu kalpastatyny owiec

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Szkudlarek-Kowalczyk

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Calpastatin plays an essential role in the growth of skeletal muscles and post mortem meat tenderness. The objective of this research was to determine polymorphism in the calpastatin gene in a group of 212 sheep (192 ewes and 20 rams of four breeds: Polish Merino, Berrichon du Cher, Blackheaded Mutton Sheep, and Ile de France. Polymorphism was identified using the PCR -RFLP technique in accordance with methods by Palmer et al. [9]. The amplified product with the length of 622 bp was digested with restriction enzymes MspI and NcoI. It was found that the M and N alleles were present in CA ST/MspI locus, their frequency being 83.5% and 16.5% respectively. Whereas in CA ST/NcoI locus the M allele occurred with the frequency of 95.8%, and the N allele with the frequency of 4.2%.Kalpastatyna odgrywa wa?n? rol? we wzro?cie mi??ni szkieletowych i procesie kruszenia mi?sa post mortem. Celem bada? by?o okre?lenie polimorfizmu w genie kalpastatyny w grupie 212 owiec (192 maciorki i 20 tryków czterech ras: merynos polski, berrichon du cher, czarnog?ówka i ile de france. Polimorfizm zosta? zidentyfikowany metod? PCR -RFLP wed?ug metodyki Palmera i wsp. [9]. Zamplifikowany produkt o d?ugo?ci 622 pz poddano trawieniu enzymami restrykcyjnymi MspI i NcoI. Badania wykaza?y wyst?powanie alleli M i N w locus CA ST/MspI z frekwencj? odpowiednio 83,5% i 16,5%. Natomiast w locus CA ST/NcoI allel M wyst?pi? z cz?sto?ci? 95,8%, a allel N z cz?sto?ci? 4,2%.

  2. 1989 sheep monitoring programme January - December 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report details the work undertaken by the Board during 1989 and includes the results of on-farm measurements, slaughterhouse monitoring and butchers' shops surveys relating to sheep and sheepmeat (author)

  3. Sheep monitoring programme January - September 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarises the work undertaken by the Board during the first nine months of 1988, and includes the results of in vivo farm measurements, slaughterhouse monitoring and butchers' shops surveys relating to sheep and sheepmeat.(author)

  4. 1988 sheep monitoring programme January - December 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarises the work undertaken by the Board during 1988 and includes the results of in vivo farm measurements, slaughterhouse monitoring and butcher's shops surveys relating to sheep and sheepmeat

  5. 9 CFR 51.28 - Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. 51.28 Section 51...BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.28 Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. Goats, sheep,...

  6. Estudio Inmunohistoquímico Comparativo del Receptor de Estrógeno en Tejido Endometrial de Ovejas Razas Texel y Araucana / Comparative Inmunohistochemical Study of Estrogen Receptor in Endometrial Tissue from Texel and Araucana Sheeps

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Adriana, Vasconcellos; Carla, Cisternas; Marco, Paredes.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available La asociación de factores genéticos, nutricionales y ambientales afecta directamente la fertilidad de las ovejas sin embargo en condiciones de similitud ambiental, la raza es un factor determinante existiendo razas de alta fertilidad como por ejemplo Texel y Suffolk y otras de fertilidad estándar ta [...] les como Romney y Criolla Araucana. La fertilidad es modulada por las hormonas sexuales que actúan mediante la unión a receptores específicos. En ovinos el receptor de estrógeno alfa (ER-a) esta ampliamente distribuido en el sistema reproductivo y es responsable de la modulación de varios mecanismos asociados con la función del sistema reproductivo. Un factor posiblemente relacionado con la diferencia en la fertilidad entre razas de ovinos, es el nivel de expresión diferencial de estos receptores en el sistema reproductivo. En el presente estudio se realizo una comparación cuantitativa de la expresión inmunohistoquímica de ER-a se llevó en el endometrio de ovejas prepúberes de ovejas de alta fertilidad (Texel) y de fertilidad estándar (Araucana), mediante la medición de la densidad óptica integrada de la señal inmunohistoquímica en áreas específicas del endometrio. Los resultados indican una diferencia significativa entre la expresión del ER-a a favor de ovejas de raza Texel en todas las áreas de la raza del endometrio de ovejas prepúberes evaluadas. Esta expresión diferencial sugiere una posible relación entre la intensidad de la expresión de ER-a y la fertilidad en las razas ovinas estudiadas en este trabajo. Abstract in english In breeding sheep high fertility rate is an important consideration factor. The association of genetic, nutritional and environmental conditions directly affects the fertility of ewes. There are high fertility sheep breeds (Texel, Suffolk) and other standard fertility breeds as (Romney, Criolla Arau [...] cana). Animal reproduction is modulated by sex hormones that act by binding to specific receptors. In sheep, alpha (ER-a) estrogen receptor is widely distributed in the reproductive system, modulating several mechanisms associated with reproductive system function. One factor possibly related to the difference in fertility between sheep breeds, is the differential expression level of these receptors in the reproductive system. In the present study a quantitative comparison of the immunohistochemical expression of ER-a was carried out in prepubertal sheep endometrium in high fertility (Texel) breed versus standard fertility (Araucana) breed, by measuring the integrated optical density in specific areas of the endometrium. Results indicate a significant difference between ER-a expression in endometrium off Texel breed ewes and Araucana breed ewes, and registered higher levels in all areas of evaluated Texel breed prepubertal ewes. This differential expression suggests a possible link between ER-a expression intensity and fertility in the breeds studied in this work.

  7. Next generation breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barabaschi, Delfina; Tondelli, Alessandro; Desiderio, Francesca; Volante, Andrea; Vaccino, Patrizia; Valè, Giampiero; Cattivelli, Luigi

    2016-01-01

    The genomic revolution of the past decade has greatly improved our understanding of the genetic make-up of living organisms. The sequencing of crop genomes has completely changed our vision and interpretation of genome organization and evolution. Re-sequencing allows the identification of an unlimited number of markers as well as the analysis of germplasm allelic diversity based on allele mining approaches. High throughput marker technologies coupled with advanced phenotyping platforms provide new opportunities for discovering marker-trait associations which can sustain genomic-assisted breeding. The availability of genome sequencing information is enabling genome editing (site-specific mutagenesis), to obtain gene sequences desired by breeders. This review illustrates how next generation sequencing-derived information can be used to tailor genomic tools for different breeders' needs to revolutionize crop improvement. PMID:26566820

  8. Biotechnology in maize breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladenovi?-Drini? Snežana

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Maize is one of the most important economic crops and the best studied and most tractable genetic system among monocots. The development of biotechnology has led to a great increase in our knowledge of maize genetics and understanding of the structure and behaviour of maize genomes. Conventional breeding practices can now be complemented by a number of new and powerful techniques. Some of these often referred to as molecular methods, enable scientists to see the layout of the entire genome of any organism and to select plants with preferred characteristics by "reading" at the molecular level, saving precious time and resources. DNA markers have provided valuable tools in various analyses ranging from phylogenetic analysis to the positional cloning of genes. Application of molecular markers for genetic studies of maize include: assessment of genetic variability and characterization of germ plasm, identification and fingerprinting of genotypes, estimation of genetic distance, detection of monogamic and quantitative trait loci, marker assisted selection, identification of sequence of useful candidate genes, etc. The development of high-density molecular maps which has been facilitated by PCR-based markers, have made the mapping and tagging of almost any trait possible and serve as bases for marker assisted selection. Sequencing of maize genomes would help to elucidate gene function, gene regulation and their expression. Modern biotechnology also includes an array of tools for introducing or deieting a particular gene or genes to produce plants with novel traits. Development of informatics and biotechnology are resulted in bioinformatic as well as in expansion of microarrey technique. Modern biotechnologies could complement and improve the efficiency of traditional selection and breeding techniques to enhance agricultural productivity.

  9. Technological suitability of sheep milk for processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romualda Danków

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Annual world sheep milk production is estimated at the level of 8.2 million tons and constitutes 1.5% of the total milk production obtained from various species of mammals. Majority of this milk is used to manufacture cheeses and fermented beverages. These products are commonly considered as regional articles and are protected by legal regulations which guarantee their taste and aroma typical for a given region and which they owe to traditional production technologies. In Poland, sheep are reared, primarily, in mountainous areas (Podhale, Bieszczady but also in Wielkopolska and Podlasie. The sheep population in Poland is estimated at 223 000 animals but milk is obtained only from a small number of animals and its annual production is assessed at the level of 1000 t. The nutritional value of sheep milk is higher in comparison with goat or cow milk. Sheep milk protein is characterised by a high biological value comparable with the biological value of the whole chicken egg. In addition, products manufactured from sheep milk possess high nutritive value. Due to its rich chemical composition, sheep milk provides an excellent raw material for processing into maturing soft and hard cheeses (75-80% of protein is casein, for fermented beverages, both natural and with different tastes, as well as butter, ghee and ice-cream. High proportion of dry matter (up to 18% found in sheep milk does not require application of any thickeners in production of fermented beverages. That is why these beverages are fully natural and free of additives.

  10. Production of enterotoxins of Staphylococcus spp. isolated from samples of sheep milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    František Zigo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In our study was followed occurrence of mastitis in herd of 430 sheep of breed zoslachtena valaska with hand milking technology examined two times during one lactation season. Individual examination consisted from clinical examination of udder and microbiological examination of milk samples. By PCR was determined presence of genes coding production of enterotoxins, and by ELISA methods production individual types of enterotoxins. From individual forms of mastitis were frequently detected subacute (6.7%, subclinical (5.7% and acute (2.9%. The coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS were identified in 102 (65.4% from all 156 positive isolates. The CNS and S. aureus caused subacute (5.1%, subclinical (3.9% and acute (2.4% forms of mastitis. The most frequently isolated were S. epidermidis, followed by S. chromogenes and S. xylosus from ewes with subacute and subclinical mastitis. From acute and chronical forms of mastitis were  predominantly isolated S. aureus, S. uberis and S. epidermidis. The production of staphylococcal enterotoxins (SE - SEA, SEB, SEC, SED and the presence of genes sec (3, sea (2, seb (2 and sed (2 were determined in S. aureus, S. epidermidis, S. schleiferi and S. chromogenes, respectively. The results suggested on the high occurrence (12.4% of subacute and subclinical forms. Confirmed production of enterotoxins and presence of genes coding their production present a risk for human health and decreased a quality of milk and products from sheep´s milk.

  11. Descriptive epidemiology of insects infesting domestic sheep (ovis aries) of district toba tek singh, punjab, pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During a cross-sectional prospective epidemiological survey, a total of 2412 sheep were screened for the prevalence of insects. Out of which, 333 (13.80%) were harbored for insects including lice (36.57%), fleas (3.23%) and flies (1.62%). Among the identified species of lice, Haematopinus spp. (44.14%) was predominant followed in order by Damalinia ovis (26.42%) and Linognathus spp. (17.71%). The flea Ctenocepahlides (Ct). felis was more common (4.50%) than Ct. canis (3.30%). Stomoxys calcitrans (3.90%) was the only prevalent specie of fly in the study area. Infestation rate was higher in young sheep (72.68%) as compared to adults (27.32%) and level of infestation was significantly higher in females (75.37%) than males (24.62%). Amongst various breeds of sheep, Cholistani (19.81%) had the highest prevalence followed by Kajli (13.49%), Thalli (12.94%) and Lohi (11.80%). Prevalence of flies (37%) and lice (47%) was highest in December and January, respectively; whereas,that of fleas (39%) reached a peak in April. Among various associated determinants, stall feeding, closed housing, tethered animals and non-cemented floor were found positively associated (P<0.05) with insect infestation. The results showed that insect abundance and the variety of genera were wide in this part of Pakistan. This also causes concern over the emergence of insect-borne diseases in domestic animals. (author)

  12. The power of 28 microsatellite markers for parentage testing in sheep

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Raed M, Al-Atiyat.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background In sheep breeding, there are situations where relationships recorded at the farm among pedigrees such as parent-offspring, full-sibs or half-sibs need to be tested. A panel of 28 microsatellite (MST) markers was tested to provide accurate pedigree information and resolve the common proble [...] m of significant error in pedigree records in Merino sheep. Three different flocks of Australian Merino sheep were investigated. A private farm flock represents a flock with no record availability. Two other flocks were maintained under good managements of full keeping records and being selected for high and low parasite resistances. Results In the studied panel, eight MSTs provided an average of Polymorphic Information content (PIC) equal to 0.65 or more in order to be sufficient to make an accurate and successful DNA-based parentage analysis. The panel of twenty-eight MST loci was obviously sufficient for providing 100% accurate pedigree and genotyping data. DNA-based pedigree records were constructed and all significant pedigree record errors were eliminated. Conclusions These results were used for further study of population genetic parameters such as recombination and haplotyping which heavily based on pedigree information. Nevertheless MST based parentage testing is still available and affordable in most countries and for each farmer with reasonable cost in comparison with fast growing SNP based parentage technologies.

  13. Trends and challenges in the effective and sustainable control of Haemonchus contortus infection in sheep. Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getachew, T; Dorchies, P; Jacquiet, P

    2007-03-01

    Haemonchosis, with its very wide distribution, has become a very important production constraint in sheep farms in tropical, subtropical and temperate regions worldwide. Various intrinsic and extrinsic factors determine the survival of Haemonchus contortus and hence the development of the disease in the animal. In general, control of gastrointestinal nematode infestation in sheep relies heavily on anthelmintic treatments. However, the indiscriminate use of these drugs has led to the widespread emergence of drug resistant strains of parasites, that has necessitated the development and use of various parasite control methods such as grazing management, biological agents and vaccines and the selection of resistant breeds of animals, with or without moderate use of anthelmintics. The ultimate goal of such control programs is to enhance productivity, while minimising risks regarding drug resistance and consumer and environmental concerns. This review attempts to highlight the different methods employed in the control of haemonchosis in sheep and the practical limitations associated with both control programs and the internal and external factors associated with the parasite and its microenvironment. PMID:17432053

  14. Experimental Study on the Causative Agents of Hypobios is of Haemonchus contortus in Sheep in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.H. Hosseini

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available For determination the inducing factors of arrested development of 3th stage larvae of Haemonchus contortus as early L4 in sheep in 2 out of 4 climatic conditions of Iran, 24, six month old native sheep (shall breed were randomly allocated into 3 equal groups I, II and III.Each sheep in each group received 10000 local isolate of H.contortus larvae not known to exhibit hypobiosis as follow: (iFreshly collected larvae were given to group I, (control group.(iiLarvae stored at 8-10 oc and 70% humidity for six weeks (simulating autumn climatic conditions of zone I to group II.(iii-larvae exposed to 30-350oc and 40% humidity for six weeks (simulating autumn climatic conditions of zone III to group III.Two Iambs in each group at 12, 21, 35 and 60 days post infection were necropsies and the number of adult and larvae were counted. Our findings suggest that the rate of arrested larvae in group II were statistically significant (p< 0.01, whereas in two other groups only a very small number of larvae were subjected to hypobiosis. Meanwhile the number of adult worms recovered from group I receiving fresh larvae was higher than the other two groups.

  15. SCREENING OF BREEDING BULLS OF DIFFERENT BREEDS THROUGH KARYOTYPING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Ahmad, K. Javed1 and A. Sattar

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available A study of chromosomal analysis for 200 breeding bulls of different breeds of cattle (Jersey, Holstein Friesian, Sahiwal and Cross-bred and Nili-Ravi buffalo, maintained at Semen Production Unit, Qadirabad and Livestock Experiment Station, Bhunikey (Pattoki was carried out. Micromethod was adopted for leukocyte culture and chromosomes were trapped at metaphase stage. The diploid number of chromosomes in all breeds of cattle was found to be 60 (58 autosomes and 2 sex chromosomes: XY, while this number in Nili-Ravi buffalo bulls was 50 (48 autosomes and 2 sex chromosomes: XY. All the autosomes and sex chromosomes in males of both species were found normal.

  16. Quantitative trait loci for resistance to trichostrongylid infection in Spanish Churra sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Primitivo Fermin San

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For ruminants reared on grazing systems, gastrointestinal nematode (GIN parasite infections represent the class of diseases with the greatest impact on animal health and productivity. Among the many possible strategies for controlling GIN infection, the enhancement of host resistance through the selection of resistant animals has been suggested by many authors. Because of the difficulty of routinely collecting phenotypic indicators of parasite resistance, information derived from molecular markers may be used to improve the efficiency of classical genetic breeding. Methods A total of 181 microsatellite markers evenly distributed along the 26 sheep autosomes were used in a genome scan analysis performed in a commercial population of Spanish Churra sheep to detect chromosomal regions associated with parasite resistance. Following a daughter design, we analysed 322 ewes distributed in eight half-sib families. The phenotypes studied included two faecal egg counts (LFEC0 and LFEC1, anti-Teladorsagia circumcincta LIV IgA levels (IgA and serum pepsinogen levels (Peps. Results The regression analysis revealed one QTL at the 5% genome-wise significance level on chromosome 6 for LFEC1 within the marker interval BM4621-CSN3. This QTL was found to be segregating in three out of the eight families analysed. Four other QTL were identified at the 5% chromosome-wise level on chromosomes 1, 10 and 14. Three of these QTL influenced faecal egg count, and the other one had an effect on IgA levels. Conclusion This study has successfully identified segregating QTL for parasite resistance traits in a commercial population. For some of the QTL detected, we have identified interesting coincidences with QTL previously reported in sheep, although most of those studies have been focused on young animals. Some of these coincidences might indicate that some common underlying loci affect parasite resistance traits in different sheep breeds. The identification of new QTL may suggest the existence of complex host-parasite relationships that have unique features depending on the host-parasite combination, perhaps due to the different mechanisms underlying resistance in adult sheep (hypersensitivity reactions and lambs (immunity. The most significant QTL identified on chromosome 6 for LFEC1 may be the target for future fine-mapping research efforts.

  17. Thermal stability of butter oils produced from sheep’s non-pasteurized and pasteurized milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FLAVIA POP

    Full Text Available The physical and chemical characteristics and thermal stability of butter oil produced from non-pasteurized and pasteurized sheep’s milk were studied. Thermal stability of samples was estimated by using the accelerated shelf-life testing method. Samples were stored at 50, 60 and 70oC in the dark and the reaction was monitored by measuring peroxide, thiobarbituric acid and free fatty acid values. The peroxide and thiobarbituric acid values increased as the temperature increased. The increase of acid values of the two samples was not significant. A slight increase in free fatty acid value showed that hydrolytic reactions were not responsible for the deterioration of butter oil samples in thermal stability studies. When compared, butter oil produced from pasteurized sheep’s milk has higher thermal stability than butter oil produced from non-pasteurized sheep’s milk. Although butter oil produced from non-pasteurized milk was not exposed to any heat treatment, the shelf-life of this product was lower than the shelf-life of butter oil produced from pasteurized sheep’s milk. Therefore, heat treatment for pasteurization did not affect the thermal stability of butter oil.

  18. Mutation breeding in chickpea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chickpea is an important food legume in Turkey. Turkey is one of the most important gene centers in the world for legumes. The most widely known characteristic of chickpea is that it is an important vegetable protein source used in human and animal nutrition. However, the dry grains of chickpea, has 2-3 times more protein than our traditional food of wheat. In addition, cheakpea is also energy source because of its high carbohydrate content. It is very rich in some vitamin and mineral basis. In the plant breeding, mutation induction has become an effective way of supplementing existing germplasm and improving cultivars. Many successful examples of mutation induction have proved that mutation breeding is an effective and important approach to food legume improvement. The induced mutation technique in chickpea has proved successful and good results have been attained. Realizing the potential of induced mutations, a mutation breeding programme was initiated at the Nuclear Agriculture Section of the Saraykoey Nuclear Research and Training Center in 1994. The purpose of the study was to obtain high yielding chickpea mutants with large seeds, good cooking quality and high protein content. Beside this some characters such as higher adaptation ability, tolerant to cold and drought, increased machinery harvest type, higher yield, resistant to diseases especially to antracnose and pest were investigated too. Parents varieties were ILC-482, AK-7114 and AKCIN-91 (9 % seed moisture content and germination percentage 98 %) in these experiments. The irradiation doses were 0 (control), 50, 100, 150, 200, 250, 300, 350, 400, 500 ve 600 Gy for greenhouse experiments and 0 (control), 50, 100, 150, 200, 250, 300, 350 ve 400 Gy for field experiments, respectively. One thousand seeds for per treatment were sown in the field for the M1. At maturity, 3500 single plants were harvested and 20 seeds were taken from each M1 plant and planted in the following season. During plant growth, mutants of the desired traits [earliness, yield per plant, first pot height and resistance to Ascochyta blight (Ascochyta rabiei)] were identified an isolated. 2520 desirable M2 mutants were selected and grown in progeny rows as the M3 generation. The protein contents of seeds were analyzed for the M3-M4 seeds. In M5-M7 generation, preliminary yield trials had been conducted and based on field observations, quality criteria (grain size, grain type, cooking and protein) analyses, and later 12 mutant lines were selected. The mutants and their controls were evaluated at two locations (Saraykoey and Haymana) in Central Anatolia for 2 years (M8, M9) for determination of yield performance using randomized complete block design with 3 replications. All the data were analysed statistically. As a result of these experiments, two promising mutant lines were chosen and given to the Seed Registration and Certification Center for official registration These two promising mutants were tested at five different locations of Turkey, in 2004 and 2005 years. After 2 years of registration experiments one of outstanding mutants was officially released as mutant chickpea variety under the name TAEK-SAGEL, in 2006. Some basic characteristics of this mutant are; earliness (95-100 day), high yield capacity (180-220 kg/da), high seed protein (22-25 %), first pot height (20-25 cm), 100 seeds weight (42-48 g), cooking time (35-40 min) and resistance to Ascochyta blight. (Includes 31 tables and 9 figures)

  19. Age and nutrition influence the concentrations of three branched chain fatty acids in sheep fat from Australian abattoirs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, P J; Rose, G; Salvatore, L; Allen, D; Tucman, D; Warner, R D; Dunshea, F R; Pethick, D W

    2010-11-01

    The characteristic mutton odour, associated with the cooked meat of older sheep, can be problematic for some consumers who find the odour disagreeable. Branch chain fatty acids (BCFAs) are considered to be the main determinants of mutton odour. In this study, the aim was to identify the factors influencing the BCFA content of animals at abattoirs in Australia. Samples of subcutaneous fat from over the chump (gluteus medius) were collected from 533 sheep carcasses at abattoirs in New South Wales, Victoria and Western Australia. The carcasses were from sheep differing in age, gender, breed and nutrition. The concentrations of three branched chain fatty acids (BCFAs); namely, 4-methyloctanoic (MOA), 4-ethyloctanoic (EOA) and 4-methylnonanoic acids (MNA), were determined. Statistical modelling showed that, with pre-slaughter nutrition in the model as a random term, BCFA concentrations could be used for discriminating the age of sheep. Fat samples from lamb carcasses had lower MOA and EOA concentrations and a higher concentration of MNA in comparison to hogget and mutton (P<0.05). When nutrition was excluded as a random effect from the statistical model, the MOA and MNA concentrations did not differentiate between lamb, hogget and mutton whereas, for EOA, lamb had a lower concentration than mutton (P<0.05) with hogget intermediate. An interaction existed between age and gender (P<0.05) where female lambs had lower EOA concentrations relative to the mutton but not for castrates. PMID:20696535

  20. Comparative Osteometric Study of Long Bones in Yankasa Sheep and Red Sokoto Goats Estudio Osteométrico Comparativo de los Huesos Largos entre Oveja Yankasa y las Cabras Rojas Sokoto

    OpenAIRE

    S.O. Salami; C.S. Ibe; A.D. Umosen; Ajayi, I. E.; S. M Maidawa

    2011-01-01

    A morphometric study was undertaken on the long bones in the two predominant breeds of small ruminant in Northern Guinea Savanna zone of Nigeria, to determine their anatomical differences and thus, provide a means of differentiating the remains of these two species during zooarchaeological studies and gross anatomy practical session. The pelvic and pectoral limbs from thirty animals (15 Yankasa sheep and 15 Red Sokoto goats) of both sexes were used for this study. The long bones of the pector...

  1. Proximate analysis of two breeds of goat meat (chevon) and assessment of perception on goat consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baharuddin, Azan Azuwan; Abdullah, Aminah

    2015-09-01

    Goat Meat (chevon) has been used as a source of protein and its demand for consumption is increasing yearly in Malaysia. The objective of the research was to determine proximate composition namely moisture, protein, fat and ash level in chevon from different type of breed i.e. Boer and Katjang. The goat breed proximate analyses were compared with sheep meat (mutton). The results for goat breeds were showing that the percentage of moisture, fat, protein and ash were of 73.06 - 74.99, 2.76 - 2.94, 20.81 - 22.47 and 0.97 - 1.21 respectively. Meanwhile the concentration of moisture, fat, protein and ash for mutton were 73.52, 5.06, 22.50 and 1.17 respectively. The pilot study on perception survey indicated that the highest respondent percentage on consumption of chevon was once in a month. Based on the survey, Boer was the most known breed compared to the other breed. Majority of respondents reported that chevon was fairly expensive meat but easier to obtain in the survey area.

  2. Mutation breeding in chickpea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chickpea is an important food legume in Turkey. Turkey is one of the most important gene centers in the world for legumes. Realizing the potential of induced mutations, a mutation breeding programme was initiated at the Nuclear Agriculture Section of the Saraykoy Nuclear Research and Training Center in 1994. The purpose of the study was to obtain high yielding chickpea mutants with large seeds, good cooking quality and high protein content. Beside this some characters such as higher adaptation ability, tolerant to cold and drought, increased machinery harvest type, higher yield, resistant to diseases especially to antracnose and pest were investigated too. Parent varieties were ILC-482, AK-7114 and AKCIN-91 had been used in these experiments. The irradiation doses were 0 (control), 50, 100, 150, 200, 250, 300, 350 and 400 Gy for field experiments, respectively. As a result of these experiments, two promising mutant lines were chosen and given to the Seed Registration and Certification Center for official registration These two promising mutants were tested at five different locations of Turkey, in 2004 and 2005 years. After 2 years of registration experiments one of outstanding mutants was officially released as mutant chickpea variety under the name TAEK-SAGEL, in 2006. Some basic characteristics of this mutant are; earliness (95-100 day), high yield capacity (180-220 kg/da), high seed protein (22-25 %), first pot height (20-25 cm), 100 seeds weight (42-48 g), cooking time (35-40 min) and resistance to Ascochyta blight.

  3. The PRNP gene polymorphism in Rough-coated Pomeranian Landrace sheep

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    W.S., Proskura; R., Pilarczyk; S., Borkowska; A., Marciniak; I., Szatkowska; J., Wójcik; A., Dybus.

    Full Text Available Prion protein (PrP) is a membrane glycoprotein whose abnormal form is believed to cause a group of disorders known as transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs), which affect the brain and nervous system of both human beings and animals. The most familiar TSEs are Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (CJ [...] D) in human beings, and bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) and scrapie in sheep and goats. It is well established that resistance or susceptibility to scrapie has a genetic background that is closely linked to amino acid variations within PrP at positions 136 (A/V), 154 (R/H) and 171 (Q/R). The ARR (alanine at codon 136 and arginine at codons 154 and 171) allele is associated with the highest resistance to scrapie, whereas the VRQ allele is linked to the highest susceptibility. In the present study the allelic and genotypic frequencies of the PRNP gene in the Rough-coated Pomeranian Landrace (RPL) were determined. Polymorphisms at codons 136, 154 and 171 were identified with the PCR-RFLP method. Of the eight observed genotypes, ARR/ARQ (35.9%) and ARQ/ARQ (24.4%) were the most frequent. This study reported a presence of AHQ/AHR genotype (2.6%) that has not previously been recorded in any sheep breed. The predominance of wild-type ARQ (46.8%) haplotype, which is linked to the risk of scrapie development, suggested a genetic susceptibility to scrapie in RPL sheep. Although the frequency of ARR/ARR in RPL sheep was low, the highest frequency of the ARR/ARQ genotype could be helpful in increasing the number of individuals carrying the ARR/ARR genotype and reducing the risk of genetic defects within the population.

  4. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 11

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  5. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 24

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and research abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  6. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 13

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  7. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 30

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  8. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and rea search abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  9. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and rea search abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  10. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 33

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This issue of the newsletter reports a number of research news and research abstracts on application of radiation induced mutation techniques to increase mutagenesis and mutation frequency in plant breeding projects

  11. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and rea search abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  12. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 32

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  13. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 23

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  14. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and rea search abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  15. Waterfowl breeding population figures, 1977

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Eleven tables show the adjusted duck breeding population indexes for the 14 year average 1957 to 1970 compared with 1977 figures for each stratum. The eleventh...

  16. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and rea search abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  17. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 25

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and research abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  18. Tricolored Blackbird - Breeding [ds20

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — These data come from observations of breeding tricolored blackbirds throughout their range in California. NAD27 coordinates are given in the data for each record....

  19. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and rea search abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  20. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  1. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 19

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  2. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 18

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  3. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  4. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 16

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  5. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  6. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 31

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  7. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 36

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This issue of the Newsletter presents abstracts and short communications of research results on radiation and chemical induced mutation breeding projects. Positive traits such as disease resistance and increased productivity are highlighted

  8. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 14

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  9. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 28

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and research abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  10. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 29

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and rea search abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  11. Mutation Breeding Newsletter. No. 37

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This newsletter contains a brief account of FAO/IAEA meetings held in 1990 on plant breeding involving the use of induced mutations. It also features a list of commercially available plant cultivars produced by such techniques. Refs and tabs

  12. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 15

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  13. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 17

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  14. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and rea search abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  15. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 22

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  16. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 34

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This issue of the Newsletter presents abstracts and short communications of research results on radiation and chemical induced mutation breeding projects. Positive traits such as disease resistance and increased productivity are highlighted

  17. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 26

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and research abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  18. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 27

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and research abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  19. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 20

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  20. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  1. Can live weight be used as a proxy for enteric methane emissions from pasture-fed sheep?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorby, J M; Fleming, H R; Theobald, V J; Fraser, M D

    2015-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that sheep live weight (LW) could be used to improve enteric methane (CH4) emission calculations, mature ewes of 4 different breeds representative of the UK sheep industry were studied: Welsh Mountain, Scottish Blackface, Welsh Mule and Texel (n?=?8 per breed). The ewes were housed and offered ad libitum access to fresh cut pasture of three different types, varying in digestibility: (a) a relatively high digestibility monoculture of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne), (b) a medium digestibility permanent pasture comprising a range of grass species, and (c) a relatively low digestibility native grassland pasture comprising mainly Molinia caerulea. Individual LW, feed dry matter intake (DMI), and CH4 emissions in chambers were measured. The linear functional relationship between DMI and CH4 emissions was positive (r?=?0.77) with little breed effect. The relationships between LW and DMI, and LW and CH4 emissions were also positive but weaker, regardless of pasture type. It is concluded that change to LW was a poor indicator of DMI and has limited value in the prediction of enteric CH4 emissions from mature ewes. PMID:26647754

  2. Carbon footprint of milk from sheep farming systems in northern Spain including soil carbon sequestration in grasslands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Batalla, Inma M.; Knudsen, Marie Trydeman

    2015-01-01

    The link between climate change and livestock production has made carbon footprint based on life cycle assessment a world-wide indicator to assess and communicate the amount of greenhouse gases emitted per unit of product. Nevertheless, the majority of studies have not included soil carbon sequestration in the carbon footprint calculations. Especially in grasslands, soil carbon sequestration might be a potential sink to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions in the livestock sector. However, there is no commonly accepted methodology on how to include soil carbon sequestration in carbon footprint calculations. In this study, the carbon footprint of sheep milk was estimated from 12 farms in Northern Spain. Before taken into account contribution from soil carbon sequestration in the calculation, the carbon footprint values varied from 2.0 to 5.2 kg CO2 eq. per kg Fat and Protein Corrected Milk (FPCM). Milk from semi-intensive systems with foreign breeds kept indoors had significantly lower carbon footprint than milk from semi-extensive systems with local breeds and grazing in mountain uplands during summer. However, no difference was found in the carbon footprint of sheep milk from different systems and breeds when soil carbon sequestration was included in the calculations. Four different approaches to estimate and include soil carbon sequestration in the carbon footprint calculations were tested. This study highlights the importance of including soil carbon sequestration in the carbon footprint calculations. Furthermore, it highlights the climate mitigation potential of the grazing systems.

  3. Collective-effect accelerators for electro-nuclear breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief review is given of current efforts in collective accelerator development and of factors which indicate that collective accelerators could be used for breeding fissile materials. A high efficiency of energy conversion from the electron beams to the ions and also some pulsed power technology developments will be required

  4. Rice Breeding with Induced Mutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A plant breeder may utilize the genetic variability from available natural resources, he may build up variability through hybridization, he can induce variability through mutagen treatments or he may use a combination of any of the three for the improvement of crop plants. A number of improved varieties of rice have been developed through mutation breeding. It is shown, how a breeder may utilize mutation induction to achieve successfully his breeding objectives. (author)

  5. Winter triticale breeding in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winter triticale is becoming an important cereal crop in Poland, as its acreage is expected to reach 1 million ha in 1990. It is to occupy a large part of the rye growing area. Three cultivars are registered and 11 more are under official trials. The actual state of breeding in connection with the main goals is presented. Breeding methods leading to further progress are briefly discussed. (author). 4 refs, 1 tab

  6. Seroepidemiology of Sheep Toxoplasmosis in Babol Northern Iran 2004

    OpenAIRE

    M.R. Youssefi; S.A.A. Sefidgar; Ghaffari, S.

    2007-01-01

    Abstract: This study is carried-out with the aim of determining the prevalence rate of toxoplasmosis in sheep at Babol (Bandpei part). In this study, 285 sheep of Bandpei area in Babol was selected. The samples studied with indirect immunofluorescence antibody. The results showed that 31.2% of sheep in this study were affected by toxoplasmosis. In positive cases, there was not any statistically significant difference between male and female sheep. The most positive cases observed by 1:200 tit...

  7. Hybrid breeding in autogamous cereals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longin, Carl Friedrich Horst; Mühleisen, Jonathan; Maurer, Hans Peter; Zhang, Hongliang; Gowda, Manje; Reif, Jochen Christoph

    2012-10-01

    Hybrid breeding in autogamous cereals has a long history of attempts with moderate success. There is a vast amount of literature investigating the potential problems and solutions, but until now, market share of hybrids is still a niche compared to line varieties. Our aim was to summarize the status quo of hybrid breeding efforts for the autogamous cereals wheat, rice, barley, and triticale. Furthermore, the research needs for a successful hybrid breeding in autogamous cereals are intensively discussed. To our opinion, the basic requirements for a successful hybrid breeding in autogamous cereals are fulfilled. Nevertheless, optimization of the existing hybridization systems is urgently required and should be coupled with the development of clear male and female pool concepts. We present a quantitative genetic framework as a first step to compare selection gain of hybrid versus line breeding. The lack of precise empirical estimates of relevant quantitative genetic parameters, however, is currently the major bottleneck for a robust evaluation of the potential of hybrid breeding in autogamous cereals. PMID:22918662

  8. Evolution, plant breeding and biodiversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Ceccarelli

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with changes in biodiversity during the course of evolution, plant domestication and plant breeding. It shows than man has had a strong influence on the progressive decrease of biodiversity, unconscious at first and deliberate in modern times. The decrease in biodiversity in the agricultures of the North causes a severe threat to food security and is in contrasts with the conservation of biodiversity which is part of the culture of several populations in the South. The concluding section of the paper shows that man could have guided evolution in a different way and shows an example of participatory plant breeding, a type of breeding which is done in collaboration with farmers and is based on selection for specific adaptation. Even though participatory plant breeding has been practiced for only about 20 years and by relatively few groups, the effects on both biodiversity and crop production are impressive. Eventually the paper shows how participatory plant breeding can be developed into ‘evolutionary plant breeding’ to cope in a dynamic way with climate changes.

  9. CLINICAL PICTURE AND THERAPEUTIC MANAGEMENT OF LEAD TOXICOSIS IN SHEEP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Zaneb, K. Pervez, M. S. Sarwar, S. Sindhu.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The project was aimed at evaluation of comparative therapeutic efficacy of two treatment regimes for the treatment of lead poisoning in sheep. For this purpose 20, two-months-old, lambs of Buchi breed were used as experimental animals. Five animals were kept as healthy control, whereas the remaining 15 animals were given oral aqueous solution of lead acetate daily. The dose was started from 5 mg/kg bodyweight and was increased gradually till it reached 100 mg/kg body weight by the end of 2nd month when clinical toxicosis was observed. Clinical findings included diarrhea, hindquarter weakness and reduction of feed intake, accompanied by anemia and elevated blood lead levels up to 2.72 ppm. The 15 toxicated animals were divided into three groups A, B and C comprising of 5 animals each. Disodium calcium edetate, which was used to treat animals of group A, resulted in 52.7% fall in blood lead level in 5 days. A combination of disodium calcium edetate and thiamine hydrochloride was used to treat animals of group B, which showed 73.8% fall in blood lead levels. Group C served as untreated control. Thus, combination therapy appears to be more effective for treatment of lead toxicosis.

  10. Milk yield and quality of Cres sheep and their crosses with Awassi and East Friesian sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boro Mio?

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to establish the impact of crossing the indigenous Cres sheep with Awassi and, respectively, Awassi and East Friesian sheep on the milk yield and quality. For this purpose, through regular monthly milk yield recordings a total of 824individual milk samples from 139 sheep in the second lactation of the same flock were collected, of which: 46 purebred Cres sheep, CS; 33 crosses with 50 % Cres sheep and 50 % Awassi, CA; 60 crosses with 50 % Cres sheep, 25 % Awassi and 25 % East Friesian, CAEF. The obtained results show a significant (P<0.05; P<0.01 impact of the genotype and the lactation stage on the yield and chemical composition of milk, and the somatic cell count. The most milk was yielded by CAEF crosses (690 mL/ewe/day, i.e., 133.8 L per lactation and the least by CS (340 mL/ewe/day, i.e., 58.48 L per lactation. The content of total solids, fat and protein increased as lactation advanced, whereas the trend of the lactose content was opposite. The highest content of total solids, fat and protein were established in the milk of the indigenous Cres sheep. A positive correlation was established between the amount of yielded milk and the somatic cell count, whereas a negative correlation was established between the amount of milk and the content of solids, fat and proteins.

  11. Mutation breeding in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    How mutation induction is used for plant breeding in Brazil is reported. For upland rice, the combined treatment with gamma-ray and mutagens (ethylene imine or ethylmethane sulfonate) has been used on the variety, Dourado Precoce, and some mutants with shortculm length and/or earliness without altering the productivity have been obtained. A project on the quantitative and qualitative protein improvement in upland rice was also started in 1979. In corn, the effect of gamma-irradiation on heterosis has been analyzed, and it was found that the single hybrids from two parental lines derived from irradiated seeds had increased ear productivity. For beans (Phaseolus yulgaris), gamma-irradiation and chemical mutagens have been used to induce the mutants with different seed color, disease resistance to golden mosaic virus and Xanthomonas phaseoli, earliness, high productivity and high protein content. Some mutants with partly improved characters have been obtained in these experiments. Two varieties of wheat tolerant to aluminum toxicity have been obtained, but the one showed high lodging due to its unfavorable plant height, and the other was highly susceptible to culm rust. Therefore, irradiation experiments have been started to improve these characters. The projects involving the use of gamma-irradiation have been tested to obtain the mutant lines insensitive to photoperiod and resistant to bud-blight in soybean, the mutant lines resistant to mosaic virus in papaya, the photoperiod-insensitive mutants in sorghum, the mosaic virus resistant and non-flowering mutants in sugar cane, and the Fusarium and nematode-resistant mutants in black pepper. (Kaihara, S.)

  12. Occurrences of anti-Toxoplasma gondii and anti-Neospora caninum antibodies in sheep from four districts of Tocantins state, Brazilian Legal Amazon Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andresa Guimarães

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasmosis and neosporosis have been recognized as economically important diseases with considerable impact on the livestock industry. Little is known concerning the occurrence of Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum in sheep from Tocantins state, Brazil. Here, we investigated antibodies against these parasites and associated factors in 182 sheep from Araguaína, Santa Terezinha do Tocantins, Arguianópolis and Palmeiras do Tocantins districts, Tocantins. Sheep sera were assayed for T. gondii and N. caninum IgG antibodies by indirect fluorescence antibody test (IFAT, using cut-off point at a dilution of 1:40 and 1:25 respectively. The prevalence of seropositive animal for T. gondii was 13.74% and 13.74% for N. caninum. None of the characteristics studied including reproductive problems, presence of cats, presence of dogs and veterinary care (p>0.05 was associated with occurrence of T. gondii or N. caninum infection. Only breed was identified as associated factor for the occurrence of toxoplasmosis in sheep (p<0.05. The present study is the first report on serum occurrence of T. gondii and N. caninum in sheep from the state of Tocantins, Brazil.

  13. Serological survey using ELISA to determine the prevalence of Coxiella burnetii infection (Q fever) in sheep and goats in Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambton, S L; Smith, R P; Gillard, K; Horigan, M; Farren, C; Pritchard, G C

    2016-01-01

    A survey of Coxiella burnetii infection (Q fever) in sheep flocks and goat herds in Great Britain was undertaken. A total of 5791 sheep (384 flocks) and 522 goats (145 herds) were examined for C. burnetii antibodies using an ELISA. Overall, 53 sheep (37 flocks), and four goats (four herds), tested positive. Estimates of individual animal, between-flock/-herd and within-flock/-herd crude prevalences were 0·9%, 10·2% and 9·0%, respectively, for sheep, and 0·8%, 3% and 26·3%, respectively, for goats. With sheep, the likelihood of an animal testing positive increased with total flock size (P = 0·002) and number of breeding ewes in the flock (P = 0·021). It also increased with number of goats within a 10 km radius (P = 0·038). There was no evidence for spatial clustering of positive herds above that expected by chance alone. No analysis of risk factors was attempted for goats because of the paucity of positives. PMID:25990008

  14. Native Pig and Chicken Breed Database: NPCDB

    OpenAIRE

    Jeong, Hyeon-Soo; Kim, Dae-Won; Chun, Se-Yoon; Sung, Samsun; Kim, Hyeon-Jeong; Cho, Seoae; Kim, Heebal; Oh, Sung-Jong

    2014-01-01

    Indigenous (native) breeds of livestock have higher disease resistance and adaptation to the environment due to high genetic diversity. Even though their extinction rate is accelerated due to the increase of commercial breeds, natural disaster, and civil war, there is a lack of well-established databases for the native breeds. Thus, we constructed the native pig and chicken breed database (NPCDB) which integrates available information on the breeds from around the world. It is a nonprofit pub...

  15. Semen quality of Italian local pig breeds

    OpenAIRE

    Gandini, G; L. Parodi; L. Zaniboni; Maldjian, A.; S. Cerolini; T.M. Gliozzi; Pizzi, F.

    2010-01-01

    From 1996 to 1999 a conservation programme was carried out within the framework of EC contract “European gene banking project for the pig genetic resources” (Ollivier et al., 2001) in the Italian local pig breeds. The aims of the program included the primary characterization of the breeds, i.e. information on the organization in charge of the breed, breeding population numbers, breed description and qualifications, and field trials on productive and reproductive performances. In t...

  16. Contemporary approach in diagnostics, prophylaxis and treatment of footrot in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radoji?i? Biljana

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Footrot in sheep is a chronic, infectious disease of the acropodium in sheep, less frequently in goats and mountain goats, of a multifactor nature, which is also considered to be a disease of poor management in sheep breeding. Over the recent years, Dichelobacter nodosus is given as the main cause, previously known as Bacteroides nodosus. Coaction with several other saprophytic and pathogenic bacteria is no longer so significant in etiopathogenesis, and it is considered more important to determine the virulence of the strain D. nodosus. The disease is called contagiousus ovine digital dermatitis (CODD if the infection was caused by a very virulent strain of D. nodosus, and the disease often ends with the so-called removal of the foot. A speedy identification of the agent can provide insight into the clinical form of the disease, its course and predicted outcome. A benign strain of the agent causes only a mild to medium virulent laminitis, with poorly expressed interdigital dermatitis, when the animal openly limps on one or two legs. A very virulent strain leads to a grave form of infectious interdigital dermatitis, as a supurous-necrotic dermatitis, with significant damage to the bone and expressed limping of the animal. Footrot is present in sheep in almost all countries of the world, in particular in countries with a developed sheep production (New Zealand, Australia and the United Kingdom, where it causes significant economic damages. In our country, footrot in sheep occurs mainly in the Raska district, eastern Serbia and Vojvodina province, but the percentage varies from herd to herd. The irregular and incorrect processing of hoofs (an important zootechnical measure significantly contributes to the occurrence and spreading of this disease, as well as a series of other contributing factors, such as soft and moist earch, bad climatic conditions (warm and humid weather. In activities on prevention and prophylaxis of this disease, as well as the treatment of footrot in sheep, which is complex in nature, there have been attempts to apply different disinfectants. For instance, disinfection with 10% copper sulphate, 5-8% formalin, as well as, more recently, zink sulphate, either in the form of a powder or as a solution (from 10-20% ZnSO4, several times during different time intervals, are recommended in literature and are being implemented in practice. There are a number of prescriptions for disinfection of hoofs and some of them have been shown to be very efficient. Zinc sulphate has certain advantages in hoof disinfection: it is a bactericide, it penetrates deeper into the tissue in the crucial spot, it protects the horny part of the hoof, it is less toxic, ecologically acceptable (more readily disposable, and less expensive than other mentioned disinfectants. The use of antibiotics is justified only in individual isolated cases, in the treatment of interdigital dermatitis diagnosed on several legs. However, the application of wide-specter antibiotics sprayed into the interdigital space has proven justified and efficient. Immunoprophylaxis yields different results and is mostly implemented in lambs and sheep in early stages of gravidity. Only regular and expert processing of hoofs, using a zinc sulphate disinfectant in the form of a solution according to a prescribed procedure, the use of antibiotics in rare cases, putting animals to pasture in well-drained soil, and vaccination of certain categories of animals can all significantly contribute to the efficient eradication of this persistent disease in sheep.

  17. Rumen protozoa in South African sheep with a summary of the worldwide distribution of sheep protozoa

    OpenAIRE

    Booyse, Dirk G.; Dehority, Burk A.

    2011-01-01

    Protozoa species were identified in rumen contents of four domestic sheep (Ovis aries) from South Africa. All animals were fed a forage diet which consisted of 50% lucerne and 50% teff hay. Ten new host records were identified, bringing the total number of species and forms observed in sheep in South Africa to 30. The occurrence and geographic distribution of ciliate protozoa in both domestic and wild sheep from around the world are summarised. It was found that 15 genera and 131 species occu...

  18. Rumen protozoa in South African sheep with a summary of the worldwide distribution of sheep protozoa

    OpenAIRE

    Dirk Booyse; Dehority, Burk A.

    2011-01-01

    Protozoa species were identified in rumen contents of four domestic sheep (Ovis aries) from South Africa. All animals were fed a forage diet which consisted of 50% lucerne and 50% teff hay. Ten new host records were identified, bringing the total number of species and forms observed in sheep in South Africa to 30. The occurrence and geographic distribution of ciliate protozoa in both domestic and wild sheep from around the world are summarised. It was found that 15 genera...

  19. Update on trematode infections in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojo-Vázquez, F A; Meana, A; Valcárcel, F; Martínez-Valladares, M

    2012-09-30

    Trematode parasites live in the liver, fore stomachs or blood vessels of a wide range of animals and humans. Most of them have a special economic and veterinary significance. Liver fluke disease of sheep and other animal species is caused by the common liver fluke Fasciola hepatica. Hepatic fasciolosis occurs throughout the world, where climatic conditions are suitable for the survival of aquatic intermediate host snails. Also of importance for ruminants, in some parts of the world, are Fasciola gigantica and Fascioloides magna. Other trematodes infecting ruminants include Dicrocoelium dendriticum; Eurytrema pancreaticum and Eurytrema coelomaticum. Among the Paramphistomidae, some species can infect sheep and other ruminants. Finally, Schistosoma spp. are found in the blood vessels of ruminants and are of minor importance in temperate regions. The manuscript concentrates on trematode species of veterinary importance for domestic sheep. PMID:22521973

  20. Genes con efecto mayor sobre la fertilidad de ovejas: Revisión / Genes with major effect on fertility in sheep: Review

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Carlos, Luna Palomera; Rogelio Alejandro, Alonso Morales.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available El estudio genético en razas de ovejas que naturalmente presentan altas tasas de ovulación (TO) y de prolificidad, ha permitido detectar la participación de varios genes. Entre ellos están los relacionados a la superfamilia del factor de crecimiento transformante ? (BMPRIB, GDF9 y BMP-15), así como [...] de otros genes con efecto mayor, tales como el "distal-less homeobox 3" (FecL), el receptor de estrógenos (ESR), el receptor de prolactina (PRLR) y el de las inhibinas (INHA y INHB). Sin embargo, las ovejas homocigotas para la mayoría de las variantes alélicas en BMP-15 o GDF9 son estériles, por lo que es importante el entendimiento de las bases genéticas y moleculares de estos polimorfismos, para su uso en programas racionales de mejoramiento genético con énfasis en la prolificidad. El polimorfismo en el gen de la melatonina (MTNR1) se ha asociado con la no estacionalidad reproductiva en ovejas. La selección en varias razas de ovejas para estas características ha reducido significativamente el anestro estacional, mostrando actividad reproductiva durante la primavera y el verano. Sin embargo, parece ser que estos genes en algunas razas pueden estar interactuando aditivamente, y una variante alélica en una raza puede no aparecer en otra, o bien dos al mismo tiempo, por lo que son variados los mecanismos genéticos que afectan la tasa ovulatoria y prolificidad. Abstract in english The genetic study on sheep breeds with naturally high ovulation rate (OR) and prolificacy, has allowed to detect the participation of several genes. Among them there are the ones related to the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily (BMPRIB, GDF9 and BMP-15), as well as to other genes with majo [...] r effect, such as the distal-less homeobox 3' (FecL), estrogen receptor (ESR), prolactin receptor (PRLR) and inhibin receptor (INHA and INHB). However, sheep homozygous for the majority of the allelic variants in BMP-15 or GDF9 are sterile, for which it is important the understanding of the genetic and molecular basis of these polymorphisms, for their use in rational programs of genetic improvement on prolificacy. Polymorphism in the melatonin gene (MTNR1) has been associated with non-reproductive seasonality in sheep. Selecting several sheep breeds for these characteristics has significantly reduced the seasonal anoestrus, showing reproductive activity during spring and summer. It seems that these genes in some breeds may be interacting additively and an allelic variant in a breed may not be present in other, or two be present at the same time; therefore, the understanding of the genetic mechanisms that affect ovulation rate and prolificacy are important for the selection of reproductive traits.

  1. Prediction of 137Cs and 90Sr accumulation in milk of horses and sheep grazing the area adjacent to the 'Experimental Field' technical area of the Semipalatinsk test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper describes mathematical models for 137Cs and 90Sr behavior in body of horses and sheep grazing the area adjacent to the 'Experimental Field' Technical Area of the Semipalatinsk test site. The models were parametrized on the basis of experimental data for those breeds of animals that are currently encountered within the Semipalatinsk test area. The predictive conclusions using devised models have shown that 137Cs and 90Sr concentration in milk of horses and sheep grazing the Experimental field are can exceed the adopted standards during a long period of time. (author)

  2. Parámetros genéticos de las poblaciones ovinas de la Comunidad Autónoma de Cantabria / Population genetic parameters of the sheep populations from the Comunidad Autónoma de Cantabria

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    S., Méndez; S., Dunner; B., Sañudo; J.A., García; S. de, Argüello; F., Barquín; N., Chomón; L.A., Calderón; J., Cañón.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Se caracterizaron genéticamente dos poblaciones ovinas, Guriezo y Blanca de la Peña, presentes en la C.A. de Cantabria y se analizaron las relaciones con otras razas afines geográfica o culturalmente. Para ello se genotiparon un total de 21 marcadores de tipo microsatélite en 457 muestras pertenecie [...] ntes a las dos razas locales cántabras, y a las razas Lacha, Bardhoka, Anogeiano, Gentile di Puglia, Laticauda, Churra Bragancana, Colmenareña, Manchega, Merina, Rubia del Molar y Segureña. Los resultados indicaron la proximidad genética esperada entre la oveja Lacha y la población de Guriezo, y la diferenciación de las dos poblaciones cántabras (tanto Guriezo como Blanca de la Peña) con respecto a las demás razas ovinas estudiadas. Abstract in english Two sheep populations present in the Cantabria region in the North of Spain and named Guriezo and Blanca de la Peña were genetically characterised, also their origin and relationships with other geographically or culturally connected breeds were studied. A total of 457 individuals belonging to the t [...] wo groups and to other such as Lacha, Bardhoka, Anogeiano, Gentile di Puglia, Laticauda, Churra Bragancana, Colmenareña, Manchega, Merina, Rubia del Molar and Segureña breeds were genotyped for 21 microsatellite markers. The results allow detecting the influence of the Lacha breed on the Guriezo population, but also the genetic differences of both sheep populations (Guriezo and Blanca de la Peña) from all others ovine breeds studied.

  3. Phenotypic diversity of Tuscany’s endangered sheep breeds: a descriptive approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Giorgetti

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important problems concerning the conservation of animal biodiversity lies in the scarcity of funds that can be used for safeguard plans and in the lack of information available on the many threatened populations. Therefore, it is necessary to detect the populations that possess the highest amount of genetic variability. To achieve this objective it is essential to carry out a morphologic characterisation of the populations...

  4. The current status of sheep pox disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhanuprakash, V; Indrani, B K; Hosamani, M; Singh, R K

    2006-01-01

    Sheep are the moving banks of shepherds and their economic contribution in terms of meat, wool and skin/hide is immense. Various infectious diseases jeopardize the optimum productivity; among which sheep pox is more important as the disease restricts the export of sheep and their products besides other economic losses. Although, clinical signs are indicative of the disease but a laboratory confirmation is necessary for unequivocal diagnosis and studying epidemiology. The causative agent, sheep pox virus (SPV), is antigenically and genetically closely related to goat pox virus (GPV) and lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV), the other members of the genus capripox virus. In some countries, SPV and GPV are cross infective to small ruminants posing problem in diagnosis and epidemiology. However, recent studies have showed that the viruses are phylogenetically distinct and can be differentiated by molecular tools. Prophylaxis using attenuated vaccines is the choice of control measure as the immunity is long lasting. Detailed information on isolation, identification, pathology, epidemiology, diagnosis and prophylaxis would not only help in updating the knowledge of scientific fraternity but will be useful to the policy makers in order to formulate appropriate measures for control and eradication of the disease. This synthesis is to present an up-to-date review of the disease and its control to provide the reader with an overview of the problem. PMID:16458357

  5. Dynamics of Sheep Production in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Rezende Paiva

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Sheep production is present on all continents and has been practiced in Brazil since the colonization. In this study, the multitemporal dynamics of sheep production in Brazil is examined using official government data (Brazilian Institute for Geography and Statistics-IBGE from 1976 to 2010. Maps of flock growth rates and growth acceleration maps by municipality were elaborated. The Southern states are seen to show a reduction in production mainly due to the wool crisis in the 1970s and 80s. The Northeast is seen to be important for meat production. More recently, centerwest and northern states have shown an increase in growth rates but this is still incipient. The maps of growth, acceleration and midpoint for sheep production showed a noticeable return to an increase in production in the South in recent years. The midpoint of production flow was in the northeast direction, which has stagnated. There was great dynamics in sheep production over the whole Brazilian territory, which affected supply chains due to the expansion of domestic and foreign markets. Areas with higher fluctuations in production are more vulnerable in terms of investment policies.

  6. Aspects of olive tree breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Production, distribution, taxonomy, origin, breeding objectives and systems are reviewed. The main objective should be to obtain cultivars that are reduced in size, precocious, constantly and highly productive and early ripening in order to make mechanical harvesting in different environments feasible. Processing quality (for oil and table cultivars), winter hardiness and pest and disease resistance are highly desirable traits. In addition to clonal selection, mutation breeding is a very promising method of obtaining new, useful traits. To avoid the chimeric structure, use of tissue culture is suggested. (author)

  7. Radiocaesium variability in upland sheep flocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following the 1986 Chernobyl accident large areas of uplands in the United Kingdom were contaminated by radiocaesium. Consequently, the level of radiocaesium in the tissues of some sheep exceeded 1000 Bq kg-1 fresh weight This is the limit adopted within the UK above which meat cannot enter the food chain. In 1986, restrictions were placed on the movement and slaughter of sheep in areas of west Cumbria, north Wales and Scotland. Whilst the number of farms under restriction has reduced considerably, some still remain restricted in 2002. Although a number of workers had noted considerable variability between the radiocaesium activities of individuals within sheep flocks there had been no analyses of causal effects. The work described here, combined studies on three upland farms within west Cumbria with controlled feeding experiments, to systematically assess the parameters which may contribute to such variability. Results from all three farms demonstrate a temporally consistent ranking of the 137Cs activity concentration of individual sheep within the study flocks. As there was also a correlation between the 137Cs activity concentration of ewes and their pre-weaned lambs it is likely that the same ewes are producing lambs in excess of the intervention limit in subsequent years. It is difficult to generalise as to which factors will contribute to 137Cs variability within a given upland flock; factors contributing to variation were not consistent between the study farms. However, the location grazed and/or vegetation selected by animals was a causal factor to the observed variability at all three farms. The transfer of radiocaesium from the diet to muscle of sheep was found to be determined by live-weight change and dry matter intake. Subsequent studies have suggested that protein turnover may be a potential mechanism for the relationship between dry matter intake and radiocaesium transfer. This hypothesis is supported by current understanding of protein-dry matter intake interactions. (author)

  8. The Rumen Metabolism Product in Male Sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SNO Suwandyastuti

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Generally, sheep are capable to cosume the forage about 90 percent of their dry matter requirement. In Indonesia, sheep generally accumulated in low land area, so that the requirement to be supply by dried field grass only. An experiment have been conducted at the Experimental Farm, Faculty of Animal Science, General Soedirman University. Twenty seven male sheep were used in a Completely Randomized Blok Design of three replication. The factors tested were : three levels of dried field grass at: 0, 21.25 and 42.50 percent dry matter of ration. The variables measured were: (1 crude fibre digestion coefficient; (2 Rumen metabolism product: volatile fatty acids, espencially acetate (C2, propionate (C3, butyrate (C4, and valerate (C5. The digestion trial was carried out by the Total Collection methods and the production of individual volatile fatty acids were determined by chromatography technique. The analysis of covariance shown, that there was no significantly effects of treatment tested upon the crude fibre digestion coefficient (P>0.005, but there were a highly significant effect ( P<0.001 upon the production of acetate ((C2 and propionate (C3. The relationship of ceude fibre digestion coefficient with all of the rumen metabilism product were shown to be same, in cubic form. Based on the crude fibre digestion coefficient and the production of individual volatile fatty acid, it was found that dried fields grass can be used up to 42.50 percent of ration dry matter for male sheep. (Animal Production 9(1: 9-13 (2007 Key Words : metabolism, forage, grass, sheep

  9. TOXIC EFFECTS OF PATULIN ON SHEEP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.O. Ortega

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the adverse effects of patulin on beef and dairy sheep. In the beef sheep trial, nine Corriedale lambs averaging 26 3 kg-1 BW were used. The treatment group, n=5, received 3.3 mg patulin/kg-1 BW twice daily (BID on days 0 through 2; 4.5 mg/kg-1 BW on days 3 through 5, and 5 mg/ kg-1 BW on day 6. Lambs received no patulin from day 7 through 13. The control lambs, n= 4, received an equal volume of water by stomach tube BID. The dry matter (DM intake in dosed sheep was 22 % less than that of control animals after three days of treatment with 3.3 mg patulin/ kg-1 BW. This difference increased to 40 % as the dose of patulin increased to 5 mg/kg-1 BW. Differences in DM consumption remained significant through day 13 ( P+ 6 kg-1 BW were used. The treatment group, n= 7, received 3.3 mg patulin/kg-1 BW divided BID. The control group, n=6, received an equal volume of water by stomach tube BID. Neither changes in body weight nor effects on feed intake were observed in the patulin treated group. Effects on milk production, serum biochemistry, electrolytes, and hematology parameters were not detected. Contrary to what it was expected patulin treatment in almost equal doses shown to be effective for beef sheep failed to influence production and health in dairy sheep. Factors such as age, diet and composition of rumen microflora might have contributed to the difference in behavior.

  10. Radiocaesium variability in upland sheep flocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beresford, N.A

    2002-07-01

    Following the 1986 Chernobyl accident large areas of uplands in the United Kingdom were contaminated by radiocaesium. Consequently, the level of radiocaesium in the tissues of some sheep exceeded 1000 Bq kg{sup -1} fresh weight This is the limit adopted within the UK above which meat cannot enter the food chain. In 1986, restrictions were placed on the movement and slaughter of sheep in areas of west Cumbria, north Wales and Scotland. Whilst the number of farms under restriction has reduced considerably, some still remain restricted in 2002. Although a number of workers had noted considerable variability between the radiocaesium activities of individuals within sheep flocks there had been no analyses of causal effects. The work described here, combined studies on three upland farms within west Cumbria with controlled feeding experiments, to systematically assess the parameters which may contribute to such variability. Results from all three farms demonstrate a temporally consistent ranking of the {sup 137}Cs activity concentration of individual sheep within the study flocks. As there was also a correlation between the {sup 137}Cs activity concentration of ewes and their pre-weaned lambs it is likely that the same ewes are producing lambs in excess of the intervention limit in subsequent years. It is difficult to generalise as to which factors will contribute to {sup 137}Cs variability within a given upland flock; factors contributing to variation were not consistent between the study farms. However, the location grazed and/or vegetation selected by animals was a causal factor to the observed variability at all three farms. The transfer of radiocaesium from the diet to muscle of sheep was found to be determined by live-weight change and dry matter intake. Subsequent studies have suggested that protein turnover may be a potential mechanism for the relationship between dry matter intake and radiocaesium transfer. This hypothesis is supported by current understanding of protein-dry matter intake interactions. (author)

  11. Charge breeding of radioactive ions with EBIS and EBIT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A charge state breeder, which transforms externally injected singly charged ions to a higher charge state q+, is an important tool which has applications within atomic, nuclear and even particle physics. The charge breeding concept of radioactive ions has already been demonstrated at REX-ISOLDE/CERN with the use of an Electron beam Ion Source (EBIS) and at several facilities employing Electron Resonance Cyclotron Ion Sources (ECRIS). As will be demonstrated in this paper, EBIS and Electron Beam Ion Traps (EBIT), are well suited for the task as they are capable of delivering clean, highly charged beams within a short transformation time. The increasing demand for highly charged ions of all kind of elements and isotopes, stable and radioactive, to be used for low-energy experiments such as TITAN at TRIUMF and MATS at FAIR, but also for post-acceleration to higher energies, is now pushing the development of the breeders. The next challenge will be to satisfy the needs, for example space-charge capacity, of the second generation radioactive beam facilities presently under construction or in the design stage, such as the MSU re-accelerator (ReA3), SPIRAL2, SPES and later on EURISOL. Radioactive trap facilities will also require high performance breeders geared towards rapid breeding times. The requirements and the critical issues of the breeding concept will be discussed and a review of the different facilities, operational and planned, will be given. The paper does furthermore feature a summary of the extensive breeding experience gained under operational conditions at REX-ISOLDE, including results from dedicated beam cleaning tests, isotope production using in-trap decay, high-current and continuous ion injection into the breeder, and closed-shell breeding.

  12. Nowitna NWR breeding pair survey, 1988

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the results of a waterfowl breeding pair survey taken on Nowitna National Wildlife Refuge in 1988. The breeding pair survey was conducted 31...

  13. Semen quality of Italian local pig breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Gandini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available From 1996 to 1999 a conservation programme was carried out within the framework of EC contract “European gene banking project for the pig genetic resources” (Ollivier et al., 2001 in the Italian local pig breeds. The aims of the program included the primary characterization of the breeds, i.e. information on the organization in charge of the breed, breeding population numbers, breed description and qualifications, and field trials on productive and reproductive performances. In this context the “Semen Bank of Italian local pig breeds” was built. A total of 30,835 straws of four Italian local pig breeds (Cinta Senese, Casertana, Mora Romagnola and Nero Siciliano, collected from 42 sires, have been stored. In this work semen quality traits, lipid composition and freezability of the four Italian local pig breeds are reported.

  14. Horse breed discrimination using machine learning methods.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Burócziová, Monika; Riha, J.

    2009-01-01

    Ro?. 50, ?. 4 (2009), s. 375-377. ISSN 1234-1983 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : Breed discrimination * Genetics diversity * Horse breeds Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.324, year: 2009

  15. Tritium breeding in hybrid reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The difficulty of achieving tritium self-sufficiency in a deuterium-tritium (D-T) hybrid has been reported in relation to different hybrid designs and concepts using lithium as the breeding material. Lithium-6 enrichment has been suggested to overcome this problem, provided the contribution of 7Li to tritium production is usually negligible, as is commented on at the end of the paper. On the other hand, the use of the tritium produced in light water reactors has been proposed to feed the hybrids unable to breed their own tritium requirements. In this paper, a criterion that establishes the conditions for tritium breeding will be derived. A subcritical multiplication model will be used to characterize the blanket neutronics. The analysis points out that 6Li enrichment is not the suitable proposal to obtain tritium breeding, because it does not affect the critical parameter in this context. On the other hand, the 7Li contribution to tritium production is almost negligible in multiplicative hybrids when the natural lithium is arranged only within the blanket lattice cell (and not in extra regions in the innermost part of the blanket). For thermal and epithermal blankets, the 7Li contribution is ? 0.2% of the total rate. For fast systems, this figure goes up to 5%, even though it decreases as K increases

  16. 1993 Waterfowl Breeding Pair Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Refuge breeding pair survey was conducted on the evening of April 29 from 5:40 pm until sunset at 7:40 pm. Weather consisted of clear skies, cool temperatures,...

  17. Selective breeding in organic dairy production

    OpenAIRE

    Nauta, W.J.

    2009-01-01

    Organic dairy farming started to take off in the early 1990s, when the European Union laid down organic standards for animal production. Until now, however, only incidental steps have been taken towards organic breeding and organic farmers mainly use breeding stock from conventional breeding programmes. This thesis focuses on the possibilities for breeding in organic dairy farming. This thesis starts with describing the basic backgrounds of organic dairy farming and the results of a study tha...

  18. Breeding for behavioural change in farm animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Eath, R.B.; Conington, J.; Lawrence, A.B.; Olsson, I.A.S.; Sandøe, Peter

    2010-01-01

    In farm animal breeding, behavioural traits are rarely included in selection programmes despite their potential to improve animal production and welfare. Breeding goals have been broadened beyond production traits in most farm animal species to include health and functional traits, and opportunities exist to increase the inclusion of behaviour in breeding indices. On a technical level, breeding for behaviour presents a number of particular challenges compared to physical traits. It is much more ...

  19. Breeding for behavioural change in farm animails

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandøe, Peter; D'eath, RB; Lawrence, AB; Conington, J; Olsson, IAS

    2009-01-01

    In farm animal breeding, behavioural traits are rarely included in selection programmes despite their potential to improve animal production and welfare. Breeding goals have been broadened beyond production traits in most farm animal species to include health and functional traits, and opportunities exist to increase the inclusion of behaviour in breeding indices. On a technical level, breeding for behaviour presents a number of particular challenges compared to physical traits. It is much more ...

  20. Assortative mating and fragmentation within dog breeds

    OpenAIRE

    Hailer Frank; Björnerfeldt Susanne; Nord Maria; Vilà Carles

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background There are around 400 internationally recognized dog breeds in the world today, with a remarkable diversity in size, shape, color and behavior. Breeds are considered to be uniform groups with similar physical characteristics, shaped by selection rooted in human preferences. This has led to a large genetic difference between breeds and a large extent of linkage disequilibrium within breeds. These characteristics are important for association mapping of candidate genes for di...

  1. Genetic diversity and structure of livestock breeds

    OpenAIRE

    Wilkinson, Samantha

    2012-01-01

    This thesis addresses the genetic characterisation of livestock breeds, a key aspect of the long-term future breed preservation and, thus, of primary interest for animal breeders and management in the industry. First, the genetic diversity and structure of breeds were investigated. The application of individual-based population genetic approaches at characterising genetic structure was assessed using the British pig breeds. All approaches, except for Principle Component Anal...

  2. Plant breeding and genetics newsletter. No. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the second issue of the Plant Breeding and Genetics Newsletter. The Newsletter will inform you about current activities of the FAO/IAEA sub-programme on plant breeding and genetics which is implemented by the Plant Breeding and Genetics Section of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture (Vienna) in close collaboration with the Plant Breeding Unit of the FAO/IAEA Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratory (Seibersdorf)

  3. Plant breeding and genetics newsletter. No. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the first issue of the Plant Breeding and Genetics Newsletter. The Newsletter will inform you about current activities of the FAO/IAEA sub-programme on plant breeding and genetics which is implemented by the Plant Breeding and Genetics Section of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture (Vienna) in close collaboration with the Plant Breeding Unit of the FAO/IAEA Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratory (Seibersdorf)

  4. Contents of some minor and trace elements in sheeps' wool from different areas of Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The trace element composition of sheeps' wool from six different localities in Norway was studied by means of neutron activation analysis. The following elements were investigated: Sodium, potassium, rubidium, cesium, chlorine, bromine, iodine, copper, zinc, aluminium, selenium and mercury. No difference was found in chemical composition related to difference in age or breed. The mean values from different localitiesare in general similar, although considerable variation between individuals within each locality is observed for some elements. For example a few animals from Tingvoll and Tjoetta show especially low contents in the wool of certain alkili metals and halogens. In general no clear connection between the trace element composition of wool and differences in the geochemical environment are evident from the present work. Appreciable differences in the K Rb ratio are however evident in wool from different localities. (Auth.)

  5. 9 CFR 51.22 - Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed. 51.22 Section 51.22...BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.22 Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed. (a) The...

  6. 9 CFR 51.27 - Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. 51.27 Section 51...BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.27 Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. The claimant must...

  7. 9 CFR 93.428 - Sheep and goats and wild ruminants from Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...Sheep and goats and wild ruminants from Mexico. 93.428 Section 93.428 Animals...AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Mexico 10 § 93.428 Sheep and goats and wild ruminants from Mexico. (a) Sheep and goats intended...

  8. Transcriptome Profile at Different Physiological Stages Reveals Potential Mode for Curly Fleece in Chinese Tan Sheep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yufang; Xu, Qinqin; Zhang, Ming; Fang, Meiying

    2013-01-01

    Tan sheep (Ovis aries), a Chinese indigenous breed, has special curly fleece after birth, especially at one month old. However, this unique phenotype disappears gradually with age and the underlying reasons of trait evolvement are still unknown. In this study, skin transcriptome data was used to study this issue. In total 51,215 transcripts including described transcripts and transfrags were identified. Pathway analysis of the top 100 most highly expressed transcripts, which included TCHH and keratin gene family members, such as KRT25, KRT5, KRT71, KRT14 and others, showed pathways known to be relevant to hair/fleece development and function. Six hundred differentially expressed (DE) transcripts were detected at two different physiological ages (one-month-old with curly fleece and 48-month-old without curly fleece) and were categorized into three major functional groups: cellular component, molecular function, and biological process. The top six functional categories included cell, cell part, cellular process, binding, intracellular, metabolic process. The detected differentially expressed genes were particularly involved in signal, signal peptide, disulfide bond, glycoprotein and secreted terms, respectively. Further splicing isoform analysis showed that the metallothionein 3 isoform was up-regulated in Tan lamb skin, indicating that it may be related to the conformation of curly fleece in Chinese Tan lamb. The hair-related important differentially expressed genes (SPINK4, FGF21, ESR?, EphA3, NTNG1 and GPR110) were confirmed by qPCR analysis. We deduced that the differences existed in expressed transcripts, splice isoforms and GO categories between the two different physiological stages, which might constitute the major reasons for explaining the trait evolvement of curly fleece in Chinese Tan sheep. This study provides some clues for elucidating the molecular mechanism of fleece change with age in Chinese Tan sheep, as well as supplying some potential values for understanding human hair disorder and texture changes. PMID:23990983

  9. Experimental embryology of mammals at the Jastrzebiec Institute of Genetics and Animal Breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karasiewicz, Jolanta; Andrzej-Modlinski, Jacek

    2008-01-01

    Our Department of Experimental Embryology originated from The Laboratory of Embryo Biotechnology, which was organized and directed by Dr. Maria Czlonkowska until her premature death in 1991. Proving successful international transfer of frozen equine embryos and generation of an embryonic sheep-goat chimaera surviving ten years were outstanding achievements of her term. In the 1990s, we produced advanced fetuses of mice after reconstructing enucleated oocytes with embryonic stem (ES) cells, as well as mice originating entirely from ES cells by substitution of the inner cell mass with ES cells. Attempts at obtaining ES cells in sheep resulted in the establishment of embryo-derived epithelioid cell lines from Polish Heatherhead and Polish Merino breeds, producing overt chimaeras upon blastocyst injection. Successful re-cloning was achieved from 8-cell rabbit embryos, and healthy animals were born from the third generation of cloned embryos. Recently mice were born after transfer of 8-cell embryonic nuclei into selectively enucleated zygotes, and mouse blastocysts were produced from selectively enucleated germinal vesicle oocytes surrounded by follicular cells, upon their reconstruction with 2-cell nuclei and subsequent activation. Embryonic-somatic chimaeras were born after transfer of foetal fibroblasts into 8-cell embryos (mouse) and into morulae and blastocysts (sheep). We also regularly perform the following applications: in vitro production of bovine embryos from slaughterhouse oocytes or those recovered by ovum pick up; cryopreservation of oocytes and embryos (freezing: mouse, rabbit, sheep, goat; vitrification: rabbit, cow); and banking of somatic cells from endangered wild mammalian species (mainly Cervidae). PMID:18311705

  10. Isolation, enumeration, molecular identification and probiotic potential evaluation of lactic acid bacteria isolated from sheep milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.B. Acurcio

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Lactic acid bacteria species were molecularly identified in milk from Lacaune, Santa Inês and crossbred sheep breeds and their in vitro probiotic potential was evaluated. The species identified were Enterococcus faecium (56.25%, E. durans (31.25% and E. casseliflavus (12.5%. No other lactic acid bacteria species, such as lactobacilli, was identified. Most of the isolated enterococci were resistant to gastric pH (2.0 and to 0.3% oxgall. All tested enterococci were resistant to ceftazidime, oxacillin and streptomycin and sensible to clindamycin, erythromycin and penicillin. The resistance to ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, tetracycline and vancomycin varied among tested species. All tested enterococci strongly inhibited (P<0.05 Escherichia coli and Listeria monocytogenes, moderately inhibited E. faecalis and Staphylococcus aureus and did not inhibit Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella enterica var. Typhimurium and also one E. durans sample isolated from sheep milk. Four samples of E. faecium, one of E. durans and one of E. casseliflavus presented the best probiotic potential.

  11. Adaptability of sheep and strategies to minimize the effects of climate in tropical regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo de Assis Silva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The ability to adapt to a particular region is of great importance when it comes to animal production, since the interaction between animals and the environment should be taken into consideration when you want to have maximum productivity. In this study we observed that several experiments evaluating physiological parameters, structures of the integument, hormonal and behavioral changes have been performed in order to verify the adaptability of sheep to a tropical climate. Several breeds have been studied in different types of environment and time of year, however, most of these works alone comes to matters related to adaptability. Therefore, we intended to make this review a junction of several major papers in the literature, in order to facilitate the understanding of how the climate and can interfere with the adaptation and its effects on sheep production in tropical regions, as well as reporting on the use of some strategies that can be used to minimize the climatic effects on productivity, which is the main goal of those working with livestock.

  12. Cytogenetical anchoring of sheep linkage map and syntenic groups using a sheep BAC library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cribiu Edmond-Paul

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In order to simultaneously integrate linkage and syntenic groups to the ovine chromosomal map, a sheep bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC library was screened with previously assigned microsatellites using a sheep-hamster hybrid panel and genetic linkage. Thirty-three BACs were obtained, fluorescently labelled and hybridised on sheep-goat hybrid metaphases (2n = 57. This study allowed us, (i, to anchor all linkage groups on sheep chromosomes, (ii, to give information on the probable position of the centromere on the linkage map for the centromeric chromosomes, (iii, to contradict the previous orientation of the ovine × linkage group by the mapping of BMS1008 on OARXq38. Concerning our somatic cell hybrid panel, this study resulted in the assignment of all the previously unassigned groups to ovine chromosomes and a complete characterisation of the hybrid panel. In addition, since hybridisations were performed on a sheep-goat hybrid, new marker/anchoring points were added to the caprine cytogenetic map.

  13. Surveillance of Rift Valley fever in cattle, goats and sheep in Uganda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Increasing occurrence of outbreaks of Rift Valley fever (RVF) has been witnessed in southern Somalia, north-eastern Kenya and northern Tanzania during heavy and prolonged, often unseasonal, rainfall since 1997-98. More recently epizootics were reported in Kenya, Somalia, Tanzania, Sudan, Madagascar and South Africa. Because Uganda is located in the endemic zone of RVF, surveillance was conducted to enable early detection of outbreaks. Testing of frozen and fresh bovine sera retrospectively from 1997 to 2008 using IgM ELISA revealed a seroprevalence ranging from 0 to 2.5%, while VNT revealed 9.65% prevalence. Testing of goat and sheep samples collected from 2005 to 2008 through a cross-sectional study targeting commercial farms and free-range flocks in flood-prone zones in Uganda revealed a seroprevalence ranging from 5.3-27.9% and 0-0.9% by IgG ELISA and IgM ELISA, respectively. Virus neutralization test revealed 32.3% prevalence among goat flocks from these same places. Although indigenous breeds of cattle, goats and sheep, known to be less susceptible to RVF than exotic breeds (Anon., 2005), are predominant in areas surveyed, it is likely that the RVF virus is circulating in livestock in some of these locations. Outbreaks are likely to occur once favourable conditions are met. Studies to establish the distribution of RVF vector mosquitoes and the proportion of susceptible hosts in areas with high sero-prevalence are required to further elucidate the status of RVF in Uganda

  14. Association of the polymorphism in the 5' flanking region of the ovine IGF-I gene with growth traits in the Baluchi sheep

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mojtaba, Tahmoorespur; Mehdi Vafaye, Valeh; Mohammad Reza, Nassiry; Alireza Heravi, Moussavi; Maziar, Ansary.

    Full Text Available The insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-I) gene has been described in several studies as a candidate gene for growth traits in farm animals. The present preliminary study attempts to establish associations between growth traits and genetic polymorphisms at the 5' flanking region s IGF-I in the Baluchi [...] sheep. The DNA of 102 sheep of the indigenous Iranian Baluchi breed was evaluated. Polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) analysis of the 5' flanking region (Exon1) of the ovine IGF-I gene revealed three banding patterns (genotypes) named as A/A, A/B and B/B. The evaluation of an association effect between these SSCP patterns with birth weight (BW), weaning weight (WW), and average daily gain from birth to weaning (GBW), weaning to six month (GWS) and from six month to yearling age (GSY) suggest a positive effect of pattern (Genotype) A/B with GBW and weaning weight (WW). Pattern (Genotype) B/B had a superior birth weight when compared to those of individuals with other patterns. Moreover, the A/A pattern (Genotype) appeared favourable for live weight at yearling age. These results confirmed the potential usefulness of this gene in marker-assisted selection programmes for sheep breeding.

  15. Assortative mating and fragmentation within dog breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hailer Frank

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are around 400 internationally recognized dog breeds in the world today, with a remarkable diversity in size, shape, color and behavior. Breeds are considered to be uniform groups with similar physical characteristics, shaped by selection rooted in human preferences. This has led to a large genetic difference between breeds and a large extent of linkage disequilibrium within breeds. These characteristics are important for association mapping of candidate genes for diseases and therefore make dogs ideal models for gene mapping of human disorders. However, genetic uniformity within breeds may not always be the case. We studied patterns of genetic diversity within 164 poodles and compared it to 133 dogs from eight other breeds. Results Our analyses revealed strong population structure within poodles, with differences among some poodle groups as pronounced as those among other well-recognized breeds. Pedigree analysis going three generations back in time confirmed that subgroups within poodles result from assortative mating imposed by breed standards as well as breeder preferences. Matings have not taken place at random or within traditionally identified size classes in poodles. Instead, a novel set of five poodle groups was identified, defined by combinations of size and color, which is not officially recognized by the kennel clubs. Patterns of genetic diversity in other breeds suggest that assortative mating leading to fragmentation may be a common feature within many dog breeds. Conclusion The genetic structure observed in poodles is the result of local mating patterns, implying that breed fragmentation may be different in different countries. Such pronounced structuring within dog breeds can increase the power of association mapping studies, but also represents a serious problem if ignored. In dog breeding, individuals are selected on the basis of morphology, behaviour, working or show purposes, as well as geographic population structure. The same processes which have historically created dog breeds are still ongoing, and create further subdivision within current dog breeds.

  16. Accuracy of genomic breeding values in multi-breed dairy cattle populations

    OpenAIRE

    Verbyla Klara; Chamberlain Amanda C; Bowman Phillip J; Hayes Ben J; Goddard Mike E

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Two key findings from genomic selection experiments are 1) the reference population used must be very large to subsequently predict accurate genomic estimated breeding values (GEBV), and 2) prediction equations derived in one breed do not predict accurate GEBV when applied to other breeds. Both findings are a problem for breeds where the number of individuals in the reference population is limited. A multi-breed reference population is a potential solution, and here we inv...

  17. Sulfur-induced polioencephalomalacia in sheep: some biochemical changes.

    OpenAIRE

    Gooneratne, S. R.; Olkowski, A A; Christensen, D. A.

    1989-01-01

    The effect of high dietary sulfur (S) supplementation on blood thiamine (B1) concentration, biochemical indices of liver, muscle and kidney damage and selected plasma electrolytes was studied in six sheep. Three of these sheep received an additional 230 mg thiamine/kg diet (Group 2). After approximately 2.5-3 weeks on this diet, all three sheep in the non-B1-supplemented group (Group 1) showed loss of appetite and developed mild neurological signs: depression, intermittent signs of excitation...

  18. Linkage disequilibrium compared between five populations of domestic sheep

    OpenAIRE

    Chan Eva KF; Meadows Jennifer RS; Kijas James W

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background The success of genome-wide scans depends on the strength and magnitude of linkage disequilibrium (LD) present within the populations under investigation. High density SNP arrays are currently in development for the sheep genome, however little is known about the behaviour of LD in this livestock species. This study examined the behaviour of LD within five sheep populations using two LD metrics, D' and x2'. Four economically important Australian sheep flocks, three pure bre...

  19. Genetic parameters for resistance to trichostrongylid infection in dairy sheep

    OpenAIRE

    Gutiérrez Gil, Beatriz; Pérez, Jorge; Fuente, L. F. de la; Meana, Aránzazu; Martínez Valladares, María; San Primitivo, Fermín; Rojo Vázquez, Francisco Antonio; Arranz, Juan José

    2010-01-01

    In sheep, the traditional chemical control of gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) parasites with anthelmintics has led to the widespread development of anthelmintic resistance. The selection of sheep with enhanced resistance to GIN parasites has been suggested as an alternative strategy to develop sustainable control of parasite infections. Most of the estimations of the genetic parameters for sheep resistance to GIN parasites have been obtained from young animals belonging to meat- and/or wool-s...

  20. Survey on coenurosis in sheep and goats in Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Enas A. Desouky; Ahmed I. Badawy; Refaat A. Refaat

    2011-01-01

    A total of 75 sheep and goats from apparently healthy and from clinically affected flocks were examined for Coenurus cerebralis cysts from different localities in Egypt. Of 25 animals examined from clinically diseased sheep and goats, 25 (100%) revealed the presence of infestation with one to four coenuri in the brain. The sites of predilection were the left hemisphere (48%), followed by the right hemisphere (40%) and the cerebellum (12%). There was no apparent effect of the age of sheep and ...

  1. Doramectin and albendazole resistance in sheep in the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Borgsteede, F.H.M.; Dercksen, D.D.; Huijbers, R.

    2007-01-01

    A faecal egg count reduction test was conducted on a sheep farm with suspected avermectin resistance. Five groups of 10 sheep were formed. Group 1 was the untreated control group. Groups 2¿5 were treated according to weight with the recommended dose of, respectively, levamisole, doramectin, moxidectin or albendazole. Resistance was found in the sheep treated with doramectin (15% efficacy) and albendazole (87% efficacy). Levamisole and moxidectin were 100 and 99% effective, respectively. Larva...

  2. Sheep internal parasites on Rab and Pag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Relja Beck

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of our research was to determine which groups and species of internal parasites endanger the health of sheep on the islands of Rab and Pag. The research was carried out in 10 flocks on both islands taking the fresh dung out of 30% of the total number of sheep in each flock. It was ascertained that the gastrointestinal parasites and protozoa of Eimeria genus are present in most flocks on both islands. The presence of the fluke Dicrocoelium dendriticum was ascertained in considerably larger number of flocks on the island of Rab than on the island of Pag. On the other hand, the presence of parasites of Moniezia and Nematodirus genus was ascertained in larger number of flocks on the island of Pag. In two flocks on Rab parasites of Protostrongylus genus were ascertained while on the island of Pag they were not found in any flock.

  3. Mastitis detection in sheep by infrared thermography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Rafhael Felipe Saraiva; do Prado Paim, Tiago; de Abreu Cardoso, Cyntia; Stéfano Lima Dallago, Bruno; de Melo, Cristiano Barros; Louvandini, Helder; McManus, Concepta

    2013-06-01

    This study aims to evaluate the use of an infrared thermograph for mastitis diagnosis in sheep. Thirty-seven Santa Inês ewes were evaluated weekly through infrared images obtained with thermograph FLIR System Series-i®. Milk was collected for somatic cell count and milk compound level determination. The clinical mastitis group had the highest fat and protein level, as well as the lowest lactose level. The udder temperatures were higher for subclinical mastitis group. The udder temperature data was able to correctly classify the animals into the mastitis groups and the canonical analysis showed that these temperatures clearly differentiated the subclinical mastitis groups from the others. Therefore, this study showed that udder infrared temperatures can be used as diagnostic method to mastitis in sheep. PMID:23178047

  4. Neutrophil extracellular traps in sheep mastitis

    OpenAIRE

    Pisanu, Salvatore; Cubeddu, Tiziana; Pagnozzi, Daniela; Rocca, Stefano; Cacciotto, Carla; Alberti, Alberto; Marogna, Gavino; Uzzau, Sergio; Addis, Maria Filippa

    2015-01-01

    Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) are structures composed of DNA, histones, and antimicrobial proteins that are released extracellularly by neutrophils and other immune cells as a means for trapping and killing invading pathogens. Here, we describe NET formation in milk and in mammary alveoli of mastitic sheep, and provide a dataset of proteins found in association to these structures. Nucleic acid staining, immunomicroscopy and fluorescent in-situ hybridization of mastitic mammary tissue...

  5. Prevalence and Incidence of Abnormal Behaviours in Individually Housed Sheep

    OpenAIRE

    Mariko Lauber; Judy A. Nash; Allan Gatt; Paul H. Hemsworth

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence and incidence of abnormal behaviour in sheep housed individually indoors. Ninety-six castrated Merino sheep were observed using 15-min instantaneous sampling between 08:15 and 18:15 h for two consecutive days over a 3-week period. Sheep on average spent 62% of their time idle, 17% feeding, 1% drinking, 5% pacing, 10% chewing pen fixtures and 4% nosing pen fixtures. Pacing behaviour was predominantly seen in the morning with sheep on average spending 14% of t...

  6. Effects of geolocator attachments on breeding parameters of Lesser Kestrels

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez, Airam; Negro, Juan J.; Fox, James W.; Afanasyev, Vsevolod

    2009-01-01

    . Light level geolocators, also known as GLS loggers, are electronic devices intended for tracking the location of wide-ranging animals using ambient light to estimate latitude and longitude. Miniaturized geolocators that can be used on relatively small migratory birds have recently become available, but little is known about the potential harmful effects of geolocators on birds. We examined the possible effects of 1.5-g geolocators (dimensions: 21 × 6.5 × 9 mm) on the breeding success an...

  7. Ultrastructure of sheep primordial follicles cultured in the presence of indol acetic acid, EGF, and FSH

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andrade, Evelyn Rabelo; Hyttel, Poul

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the ultrastructural characteristics of primordial follicles after culturing of sheep ovarian cortical slices in the presence of indol acetic acid (IAA), Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF), and FSH. To evaluate ultrastructure of primordial follicles cultured in MEM (control) or in MEM containing IAA, EGF, and FSH, fragments of cultured tissue were processes for transmission electron microscopy. Except in the control, primordial follicles cultured in supplemented media for 6¿d were ultrastructurally normal. They had oocyte with intact nucleus and the cytoplasm contained heterogeneous-sized lipid droplets and numerous round or elongated mitochondria with intact parallel cristae were observed. Rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) was rarely found. The granulosa cells cytoplasm contained a great number of mitochondria and abundant RER. In conclusion, the presence of IAA, EGF, and FSH helped to maintain ultrastructural integrity of sheep primordial follicles cultured in vitro.

  8. Effect of goat breed on the meat quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanovi? Snežana D.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The quality of goat meat has recently become an important aspect in the marketing of goats in Serbia. The aim of this study was to compare some goat meat quality parameters of various races and to determine the differences between them. Goat breeds were Balkan goat and Serbian White goat, both female in the age of four years. Analysis of quality parameters: chemical composition (moisture, protein, total fat, ash,, pH value, fatty acids, amino acids, microelements content, tenderness, cooking loss and colour measurements were done. Statistically significant difference was found between the samples of two groups of goat meat (P <0.05 in relation to: live weight (kg, water (%, fat (%, protein (%, ash (%, among 11 of 15 tested fatty acids, amino acid leucin, sensory examination of fresh meat for the palpatory evaluated firmness and in the content of copper and zinc. Statistically significant differences between the groups did not existed regarding the pH value, fatty acids eicosenoic, cis-heptadecenoic, t-elaidic, t-linolelaidic and amino acids alanine, arginine, aspartic acid, cysteine, glutamic acid, glycine, histidine, isoleucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, proline, serine, threonine, tryptophan, tyrosine, valine. Also there was no statistically significant difference in instrumental testing of the meat color, sensory evaluation of surface color, visual evaluated structure, olfactory evaluated odor and iron and manganese. These results suggest that the race of animal has an impact on meat quality. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31053: Implementation of new biotechnological solutions in breeding of cattle, sheep and goats for the purpose of obtaining biologically valuable and safe food

  9. Mutation breeding in winged bean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winged bean is the most important traditional legume in Papua New Guinea. Only recently the nutritional importance of this crop has been recognized both nationally and internationally. Almost all parts of the plant are edible including dry seeds, green pods, green seeds, young leaves, flowers and root tubers. A programme for the improvement of this species was started in 1973. The primary objective was to collect and conserve the genetic variation and to formulate a breeding programme. A Mutation Breeding Programme was initiated in 1975 and the primary aim was to search for an erect bush-type mutant. Gamma radiation and the chemical mutagen, EMS have been used for the induction of mutations. (author)

  10. Current trends in plant breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current world population is 6 billion and it is likely to reach 7 billion in 2010 and 8 billion 2025. Sufficient food must be produced for the ever increasing human population. The available suitable land for intensive agriculture is limited. We have to produce more food from less land, pesticide, labour and water resources. Hence, increase in crop productivity are essential to feed the world in the next century. Plant breeding provides the avenue to increase the food production to feed the growing world population. Development of a cultivar involves (I) Construction of a genetic model (II) creating a gene pool (III) selection among plants and (IV) testing the selected genotypes for adaptation to the biotic and abiotic environments (Frey, 1999). This paper discusses the trends in plant breeding using the oil palm as a model. It covers (i) genetic resources (ii) physiological traits (III) exploitation of genotype x environment interaction (IV) oil palm clones, and (v) biotechnology application. (Author)

  11. Genetic resistance to infections in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, S C

    2015-12-14

    This paper considers genetic resistance to infectious disease in sheep, with appropriate comparison with goats, and explores how such variation may be used to assist in disease control. Many studies have attempted to quantify the extent to which host animals differ genetically in their resistance to infection or in the disease side-effects of infection, using either recorded animal pedigrees or information from genetic markers to quantify the genetic variation. Across all livestock species, whenever studies are sufficiently well powered, then genetic variation in disease resistance is usually seen and such evidence is presented here for three infections or diseases of importance to sheep, namely mastitis, foot rot and scrapie. A further class of diseases of importance in most small ruminant production systems, gastrointestinal nematode infections, is outside the scope of this review. Existence of genetic variation implies the opportunity, at least in principle, to select animals for increased resistance, with such selection ideally used as part of an integrated control strategy. For each of the diseases under consideration, evidence for genetic variation is presented, the role of selection as an aid to disease control is outlined and possible side effects of selection in terms of effects in performance, effects on resistance to other diseases and potential parasite/pathogen coevolution risks are considered. In all cases, the conclusion is drawn that selection should work and it should be beneficial, with the main challenge being to define cost effective selection protocols that are attractive to sheep farmers. PMID:26260859

  12. Genetic resistance of sheep to Haemonchus contortus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To test the hypothesis that the response of sheep to primary infections with Haemonchus contortus is genetically determined, Scottish Blackface and Finn Dorset wethers of known haemoglobin type were each infected with 350 third-stage larvae/kg bodyweight. Resistance to the subsequent disease was monitored and compared by haematological, biochemical and radioisotopic methods, and resistance to parasite development and establishment by measurements of egg output and of worm recovery 32 days after infection. The results obtained demonstrated that sheep with HbA developed less severe clinical and pathophysiological disturbances, passed fewer eggs and harboured fewer worms at necropsy than animals with HbB, and that Scottish Blackfaces exhibited similar advantages over Finn Dorsets with the same haemoglobin type. Since variations in disease severity as judged by pathophysiological changes were broadly in line with parasite numbers, it appears that genetic resistance operates at its level of parasite establishment, which in turn is controlled by the immune response elicited. The mechanism of the immune response was not determined but appeared to act only against 4th and 5th stage larvae since no differences were found in the metabolic activities of individual adult worms within any of the experimental groups. A subsequent experiment, designed to examine the response of sheep to heavier infection (1400 larvae/kg), failed to reveal any correlation between haemoglobin type and worm establishment. It is suggested that this may be a reflection of a delayed immune response arising from exposure to excessive amounts of antigen. (author)

  13. Genetic variability in Bracco Italiano dog breed assessed by pedigree data

    OpenAIRE

    Andrea Spaterna; Roberta Ciampolini; Gisella Paci; Francesca Cecchi

    2013-01-01

    The Bracco Italiano is one of the oldest pointing dog breed, used for hunting ever since the Renaissance time. The complete electronic record of the breed was downloaded from the ENCI database [whole population (WP) = 24,613 animals registered since 1970 to 2011] with the aim to estimate genetic variability in Bracco Italiano dog breed using pedigree records. Up to 97% of the individuals had registered parents and 86% registered grand-fathers. Average generation interval was 4.68±0.545 for st...

  14. SNPs in candidate genes MX dynamin-like GTPase and chemokine (C-C motif) receptor-5 are associated with ovine pulmonary adenocarcinoma progression in Latxa sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larruskain, A; Esparza-Baquer, A; Minguijón, E; Juste, R A; Jugo, B M

    2015-12-01

    Ovine pulmonary adenocarcinoma (OPA) is a contagious lung cancer in sheep caused by Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV). OPA is present in many sheep-rearing countries causing economic and welfare issues, as currently no efficient vaccines or treatments are available. Breed differences suggest a host genetic component may influence the pathogenesis of OPA, but so far few genes have been identified. In this work, a genetic association study was carried out in Latxa dairy sheep which were classified as cases/controls based on the presence/absence of OPA lung tumours. Candidate genes included cytokines and a receptor and innate immunity genes. After SNPs in the candidate genes were identified, the distribution of alleles in cases and controls was compared by means of logistic regression analyses at the allelic, genotypic and haplotypic levels. The association analysis showed that several candidate genes were significantly associated with resistance or susceptibility to OPA; two of the candidates, CCR5 and MX1, remained significantly associated with resistance and susceptibility respectively, even after Bonferroni correction. PMID:26365162

  15. Evolution, plant breeding and biodiversity

    OpenAIRE

    Salvatore Ceccarelli

    2011-01-01

    This paper deals with changes in biodiversity during the course of evolution, plant domestication and plant breeding. It shows than man has had a strong influence on the progressive decrease of biodiversity, unconscious at first and deliberate in modern times. The decrease in biodiversity in the agricultures of the North causes a severe threat to food security and is in contrasts with the conservation of biodiversity which is part of the culture of several populations in the South. The conclu...

  16. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 41

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This newsletter contains short descriptions of research methods for the use of radiation to induce mutations and facilitate plant breeding. This method is used to develop species of plants that can survive in harsh climates and thus provide a food supply for humans and animals. Some of the mutants discussed include a salt tolerant barley, a disease resistant shrub, a cold tolerant chickpea, a highly productive Canavalia virosa and productive tomato. Refs, figs and tabs

  17. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 38

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This issue contains a number of contributions from readers describing experiments in plant breeding (the individual items are indexed separately) and a report on the 30th Gamma-Field Symposium held in Tsukuba, Japan in July 1991. Also included is a list of officially released mutant varieties of seed-propagated crops taken from the FAO/IAEA database of mutant varieties. It is planned to organize a database on available crop plant mutant variety germplasm collections. Refs, figs and tabs

  18. Genetic diversity of eleven European pig breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foulley Jean-Louis

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A set of eleven pig breeds originating from six European countries, and including a small sample of wild pigs, was chosen for this study of genetic diversity. Diversity was evaluated on the basis of 18 microsatellite markers typed over a total of 483 DNA samples collected. Average breed heterozygosity varied from 0.35 to 0.60. Genotypic frequencies generally agreed with Hardy-Weinberg expectations, apart from the German Landrace and Schwäbisch-Hällisches breeds, which showed significantly reduced heterozygosity. Breed differentiation was significant as shown by the high among-breed fixation index (overall FST = 0.27, and confirmed by the clustering based on the genetic distances between individuals, which grouped essentially all individuals in 11 clusters corresponding to the 11 breeds. The genetic distances between breeds were first used to construct phylogenetic trees. The trees indicated that a genetic drift model might explain the divergence of the two German breeds, but no reliable phylogeny could be inferred among the remaining breeds. The same distances were also used to measure the global diversity of the set of breeds considered, and to evaluate the marginal loss of diversity attached to each breed. In that respect, the French Basque breed appeared to be the most "unique" in the set considered. This study, which remains to be extended to a larger set of European breeds, indicates that using genetic distances between breeds of farm animals in a classical taxonomic approach may not give clear resolution, but points to their usefulness in a prospective evaluation of diversity.

  19. Seasonal Variation in the Histomorphology and Histochemistry of Ampulla of Vas Deferens of Gaddi Goat and Gaddi Sheep Variación Estacional en la Histomorfología e Histoquímica de la Ampolla del Conducto Deferente de Cabras y Ovejas Gaddi

    OpenAIRE

    Shalini Suri; Lakoju Sai Sudhakar; Ram Lal Bhardwaj

    2008-01-01

    The present study was conducted to record the seasonal variation in the histomorphology and the histochemistry of the ampulla of vas deferens of Gaddi goat and Gaddi sheep, one of the most important breeds of Himachal Pradesh, India. The study was conducted over a period of year during different seasons viz. spring (March - May), summer (June ­ August), autumn (September- November), winter (December-February).Six adult animals of each species were utilized to study histomorphology and histoch...

  20. Serological prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and its association with abortion in sheep in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein M.F.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate serological prevalence and titers of anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in ewes following waves of abortion and stillbirths in a commercial flock in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Serum samples from 168 aborted ewes and 52 breeding rams, were tested for toxoplasmosis using an indirect enzyme-linked-immunosorbent assay (ELISA and indirect haemagglutination test (IHA. 71 randomly sampled sheep from an abortion-free flock (60 ewes and 11 rams were also tested, which served as controls. 149 (88.7% ewes and 42 (80.8% breeding rams from the flock where abortions and stillbirths occurred were positive for anti-T. gondii antibodies by ELISA. 155 ewes (92.3% and 44 rams (84.6%, including all of the ELISA positive cases, were also positive by indirect haemagglutination test (IHA. More than 80% of the ELISA positive ewes had O.D. exceeding 100% and nearly 25% of them had O.D. of ?150%. The IHA results, on the other hand, indicated that more than 75% of the seropositive ewes had antibody titers ?1:1024, including 58 (37.4% ewes with IHA titer ranging between 1:4096-1:8192 Pyrexia, depression and vaginal discharge were recorded in some ewes shortly prior to abortion. Post-mortem examination of 5 aborted fetuses revealed blood-stained fluid in the abdominal and thoracic cavities and small inflammatory and necrotic foci in the brain, liver and lungs while the placenta was reddish and friable, and its cotyledons were speckled with small whitish foci of necrosis and mineralization. T. gondii tachyzoites were demonstrated in placental sections of two ewes. By contrast, only 7 (9.9% out of 71 randomly sampled sheep from an abortion-free flock (60 ewes and 11 rams, were positive for anti-T. gondii antibodies by ELISA and 6 (8.5% by indirect haemagglutination (IHA test and most of these had significantly lower titers compared to the flock where abortions and stillbirths were recorded. These results constitute the first detailed serological study of ovine toxoplasmosis in Saudi Arabia and strongly implicate toxoplasmosis as the cause of the abortions and stillbirths in these sheep.

  1. Partial Results Regarding Exploitation Characteristics, Morpho-Productive Traits for Saanen Breed Goats in South of the Country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulian Vlad

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Over about 92% from national goat livestock come from local unameliorated breeds, namely Carpathian breed whichis traditionally exploited in a mixed way next to sheep in a proportion of over 65% from the breed total.Expectations towards a qualitative and quantitative production led to pretty important imports for specialized breedslike the Saanen one, from communitary states, during the last 10 years.This study presents the results of someresearch started since the last semestre of the previous year on some goat livestock from Saanen breed, livestockwhich was brought to the Garbovi farm, Ialomita county. The livestock presents the following morpho-productivetraits, such as: weight 57.375±0.23 Kg as an average, back length 67.47±0,38cm, crupper length 69.25±0,41 cm,oblique body length 70,98±0,38 cm, thoracical perimeter 89.17cm±0.32 cm, resulting a dolicomorphe body structure.The medium milk production in is of 2.19 l/head/day during the stalling months November-February, with average ofNovember 58.05±1.77 l.,December 70.47±2,07 l.,January 92.30±2.93 l., and February 45.10±1.38 l.,only during thefirst 120 days, and the chemical composition of the main constituent parts: Dry matter nonfat 9.3%, protein 3.53%,fat 4.02%, a significant quantitative and qualitative gain of goat milk especially when the local breeds don’t yieldthem.The females prolificity is of 128%, being a lot below the breed average 150-170% in comparison with theaverage proven by the breed but also in comparison with the unameliorated breeds, this aspect being also a basicalelement in selection, next to the milk quantitative aspect. The gain recorded for goat youth over the 90 days iscomprised between 127g, 198g, 122g/day of males and 109g, 173g, 106 g/day of females, during the whole periodwhich was much over the average of Carpathian breed. Shortage of some agricultural policies on breed, of trainedstaff in the farm,speciality information concerning the exploitation of some performant breeds led to goats purchase,esppecially milk ones, which have typical dolicomorphe structure but with a great productive and somatometrichalvariability.

  2. Morphostructural characterization of female and young male of naturalized Sul-mato-grossenses “Pantaneiros” sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Portela de Oliveira

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Morphometric measurements are important to evaluate the variability, determine the racial standard and the existence of sexual dimorphism in genetic group. With this objective, were measured 20 morphometric measurements and one measurements of weight for 338 animals of the genetic group of Sul-mato-grossenses naturalized sheep belonging to Manoel de Barros Foundation and breeding at Centro Tecnologico de Ovinos from Anhanguera-Uniderp University and Federal University of the Grande Dourados. The statistical analyses were realized through software SAS. The females and young males showed short variation for morphometric measured of head and limbs region. However, higher variation was observed in the morphometric measurements taken from torso region, indicate that this region could be inserted in breeding programs like a selection criterion. The Pearson correlation coefficients between the morphostructural characteristics of females and young males, appears to have certain harmony degree in the morphostructural model. The females are characterized by animals with relatively large head, torso with proportional features and good angulations. The gender did not influence characteristics of the head region and body weight in the young animals. However, the characteristics of other regions, such as thoracic perimeter and posterior width of rump measured in the head region, and the perimeter of carpal and metacarpal in the limbs were influenced by gender in young animals.

  3. Safety and immunogenicity of Onderstepoort Biological Products’ Rift Valley fever Clone 13 vaccine in sheep and goats under field conditions in Senegal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Modou M. Lo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This blinded field safety study was conducted in Senegal to assess safety and immunogenicity of administration of the registered dose of Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV Clone 13 vaccine (Onderstepoort Biological Products to sheep and goats of West African breeds under natural conditions. A total of 267 small ruminants (220 sheep, 47 goats were included; half received RVFV Clone 13 vaccine at the recommended dose and half received the diluent (as placebo only. The study was performed on three commercial farms in the northern and eastern region of Senegal in accordance with veterinary good clinical practices. The animals were observed daily for 3 days after vaccination, and then weekly for 1 year. In both sheep and goats vaccinated against RVFV seroconversion rates above 70% were recorded. No seroconversion related to RVFV was observed in placebo-treated animals. No statistically significant differences were determined between placebo and vaccinated groups for mean rectal temperatures for the first 3 days after administration (p > 0.05. No abnormal clinical signs related to treatment were noted, and only one slight injection site reaction was observed in one vaccinated animal for 2 days after vaccination. Out of 176 births assessed over 1 year (93 from the vaccinated group, 83 from the placebo group, 9 were abnormal in the placebo group and 3 in the vaccinated group (p > 0.05. The frequency of adverse events was similar in the placebo and vaccinated groups. RVFV Clone 13 vaccine administered according to the manufacturer’s instructions was safe and well tolerated in West African breeds of sheep and goats, including animals of approximately 6 months of age and pregnant females, under field conditions in Senegal. Antibody levels persisted up to 1 year after vaccination.

  4. Safety and immunogenicity of Onderstepoort Biological Products' Rift Valley fever Clone 13 vaccine in sheep and goats under field conditions in Senegal

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Modou M., Lo; Victor, Mbao; Pascale, Sierra; Yaya, Thiongane; Mariame, Diop; Meritxell, Donadeu; Baptiste, Dungu.

    Full Text Available This blinded field safety study was conducted in Senegal to assess safety and immunogenicity of administration of the registered dose of Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) Clone 13 vaccine (Onderstepoort Biological Products) to sheep and goats of West African breeds under natural conditions. A total of [...] 267 small ruminants (220 sheep, 47 goats) were included; half received RVFV Clone 13 vaccine at the recommended dose and half received the diluent (as placebo) only. The study was performed on three commercial farms in the northern and eastern region of Senegal in accordance with veterinary good clinical practices. The animals were observed daily for 3 days after vaccination, and then weekly for 1 year. In both sheep and goats vaccinated against RVFV seroconversion rates above 70% were recorded. No seroconversion related to RVFV was observed in placebo-treated animals. No statistically significant differences were determined between placebo and vaccinated groups for mean rectal temperatures for the first 3 days after administration (p > 0.05). No abnormal clinical signs related to treatment were noted, and only one slight injection site reaction was observed in one vaccinated animal for 2 days after vaccination. Out of 176 births assessed over 1 year (93 from the vaccinated group, 83 from the placebo group), 9 were abnormal in the placebo group and 3 in the vaccinated group (p > 0.05). The frequency of adverse events was similar in the placebo and vaccinated groups. RVFV Clone 13 vaccine administered according to the manufacturer's instructions was safe and well tolerated in West African breeds of sheep and goats, including animals of approximately 6 months of age and pregnant females, under field conditions in Senegal. Antibody levels persisted up to 1 year after vaccination.

  5. Sistemas de producción de oveja Awassi y rendimiento reproductivo: una experiencia del medio oriente / Awassi sheep production systems and reproductive performance: an experience from the middle east

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rami T., Kridli; A.Y., Abdullah; L.M., Rousan; A., Gonzalez-Bulnes.

    Full Text Available Jordania es un país predominantemente semiárido. La mayor parte de la tierra es incultivable y sólo se puede utilizar para el pastoreo de rumiantes pequeños. La oveja Awassi de cola gruesa es la raza nativa de ovejas en Jordania. Esta raza es popular por varias razones, tales como su adaptabilidad a [...] ecosistemas difíciles, su producción lechera y por tener una carne con buenas características y un buen sabor. La industria ovejera en Jordania enfrenta muchos retos, el más importante es la escases de agua, que conlleva a una baja disponibilidad de forrajes y a un alza en los precios de los alimentos. A pesar de las dificultades, se realizan esfuerzos para mejorar la productividad de las ovejas Awassi mediante la selección, el cuidado veterinario, la evaluación de fuentes alternativas de alimentación y tratamientos hormonales para mejorar su fertilidad y fecundidad. Este estudio enfatiza la investigación principal llevada a cabo en ovejas Awassi en Jordania en la última década con un énfasis especial en el rendimiento reproductivo. Abstract in english Jordan is a predominantly semi arid country. Much of the land area is uncultivable and can only be used as a range for grazing small ruminants. Fat tailed Awassi is the indigenous sheep breed of Jordan. The breed is popular for many reasons such as the adaptability to harsh ecosystems, milk producti [...] on ability and having favorable meat flavor and characteristics. The sheep industry in Jordan faces many challenges, the most important of which is water shortage leading to low forage availability and high feed prices. Despite such hardships, efforts are made to improve productivity of Awassi sheep through selection, veterinary care, evaluating alternative feed sources and hormonal treatments to improve fertility and fecundity. This review highlights the major research conducted on Awassi sheep in Jordan over the last decade with special emphasis on reproductive performance.

  6. Survey on coenurosis in sheep and goats in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enas A. Desouky

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A total of 75 sheep and goats from apparently healthy and from clinically affected flocks were examined for Coenurus cerebralis cysts from different localities in Egypt. Of 25 animals examined from clinically diseased sheep and goats, 25 (100% revealed the presence of infestation with one to four coenuri in the brain. The sites of predilection were the left hemisphere (48%, followed by the right hemisphere (40% and the cerebellum (12%. There was no apparent effect of the age of sheep and goats on susceptibility to infestation with C. cerebralis. Another 50 animals from apparently healthy sheep and goat herds presented no C. cerebralis cysts. The cysts from infested sheep could infest newborn puppies experimentally, with a prepatent period of 60 days post infestation. A total of 15 immature worms that were recovered from one puppy did not reach patency until 105 days post infestation with C. cerebralis cyst scolices. Pathological changes in C. cerebralis-infested sheep brain revealed parasitic elements, demyelinated nerve tracts, hyperaemic blood vessels with round cell infiltration, encephalomalacia with round cell infiltration and palisading macrophages and giant cells, as well as focal replacement of the brain parenchyma with caseated and calcified materials. The morphological characteristics of both the larval stage from sheep and goats and adult worms of Taenia multiceps from experimentally infested dogs are described. The results conclude that C. cerebralis is one of the principal causes of nervous manifestations of coenurosis in clinically diseased sheep and goats in Egypt.

  7. Prevalence and Incidence of Abnormal Behaviours in Individually Housed Sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariko Lauber

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the prevalence and incidence of abnormal behaviour in sheep housed individually indoors. Ninety-six castrated Merino sheep were observed using 15-min instantaneous sampling between 08:15 and 18:15 h for two consecutive days over a 3-week period. Sheep on average spent 62% of their time idle, 17% feeding, 1% drinking, 5% pacing, 10% chewing pen fixtures and 4% nosing pen fixtures. Pacing behaviour was predominantly seen in the morning with sheep on average spending 14% of their time pacing. Sheep on average spent 4% of their time in the morning and 13% of their time in the afternoon chewing pen fixtures. In the afternoon, the predominant behaviour was idle with sheep on average spending 71% of their time idle. Seventy-one percent of the sheep displayed one or more of the behaviours of pacing, and chewing and nosing pen fixtures for more than 10% of the day and 47% displayed one or more of these behaviours for more than 20% of the day. The prevalence and incidence of these ‘abnormal’ behaviours appears high, especially in relation to that of sheep grazed outdoors on pasture, and raises the question of the welfare risk to these animals. However, without a more comprehensive appreciation of other aspects of the animal’s biology, such as stress physiology and fitness characteristics, it is difficult to understand the welfare implications of these behaviours.

  8. Breeding schemes in reindeer husbandry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Rönnegård

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the paper was to investigate annual genetic gain from selection (?G, and the influence of selection on the inbreeding effective population size (Ne, for different possible breeding schemes within a reindeer herding district. The breeding schemes were analysed for different proportions of the population within a herding district included in the selection programme. Two different breeding schemes were analysed: an open nucleus scheme where males mix and mate between owner flocks, and a closed nucleus scheme where the males in non-selected owner flocks are culled to maximise ?G in the whole population. The theory of expected long-term genetic contributions was used and maternal effects were included in the analyses. Realistic parameter values were used for the population, modelled with 5000 reindeer in the population and a sex ratio of 14 adult females per male. The standard deviation of calf weights was 4.1 kg. Four different situations were explored and the results showed: 1. When the population was randomly culled, Ne equalled 2400. 2. When the whole population was selected on calf weights, Ne equalled 1700 and the total annual genetic gain (direct + maternal in calf weight was 0.42 kg. 3. For the open nucleus scheme, ?G increased monotonically from 0 to 0.42 kg as the proportion of the population included in the selection programme increased from 0 to 1.0, and Ne decreased correspondingly from 2400 to 1700. 4. In the closed nucleus scheme the lowest value of Ne was 1300. For a given proportion of the population included in the selection programme, the difference in ?G between a closed nucleus scheme and an open one was up to 0.13 kg. We conclude that for mass selection based on calf weights in herding districts with 2000 animals or more, there are no risks of inbreeding effects caused by selection.

  9. EFSA BIOHAZ Panel (EFSA Panel on Biological Hazards), 2014. Scientific Opinion on the scrapie situation in the EU after 10 years of monitoring and control in sheep and goats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Tine; Baggesen, Dorte Lau

    2014-01-01

    To assess the effectiveness of the strategies implemented in the European Union (EU) to control Classical scrapie (CS), epidemiological data have been compared in the context of the efforts in terms of control measures applied over time. Official EU surveillance data and results from questionnaire surveys of EU Member States (MSs) have been used along with case studies. A spatio-temporal description of the occurrence of small ruminants TSEs in MSs in the period 2002-2012 is provided, with a particular focus on CS in sheep. Based on information collected from MSs, the potential effectiveness of breeding programmes for resistance to CS (BP-CS) in the dissemination of resistance into the general sheep population has been assessed for those countries for which the CS trend analysis has been performed. CS in sheep was reported in 17 MSs (average prevalence: 8.7 cases/10 000 tests), with heterogeneous trends and geographical distribution: among the 13 countries reporting a consistent number of cases, the trend analysis shows a statistically significant decreasing trend only for six of them. Variations in the implementation of genetic and non-genetic measures for the control of CS may explain the failure to improve the disease situation in the remaining seven MSs. At a national level, a reduction in CS seems to be linked to better-achieving BP-CSs. Control options applied to CS in sheep and goats indicate that a CS eradication policy that relies solely on the detection of infected flocks by post-mortem testing and subsequent depopulation would be unlikely to succeed. A minimum frequency of the ARR allele in a sheep population above which CS may be expected to fade-out could be estimated for each specific national sheep population. Recommendations for additional/alternative measures to control CS in sheep and goats are formulated.

  10. Kinematic parameters of sheep walking on a treadmill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentin, Stephanie; Essigbeck, Annika; Wolfram, Ines; Licka, Theresia

    2014-12-01

    Ovine locomotion studies are rare, despite their relevance for medical research. The aim of this preliminary study was to investigate habituation and temporospatial parameters during treadmill walking of seven Austrian Mountain sheep. Sheep were naïve to treadmill exercise. During five treadmill sessions, movement cycle duration (MCD), vertical trunk movement (VTM), stride height (SH), stride length (SL), and percentage of movement cycle at stance (%St) were assessed. Two sheep were excluded from the study because they would not walk on the treadmill. From the end measurement session, MCD (0.95?s) and %St (62%) were similar to reported kinetics of sheep walking over ground, although stride length (1.05?m) was longer in this study. These findings suggest that sheep may require more than five sessions to become habituated to treadmill walking. PMID:25457259

  11. Quantitation of phosphorus excretion in sheep by compartmental analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The control of phosphorus excretion in sheep has been examined by constructing a kinetic model that contains a mechanistic set of connections between blood and gastrointestinal tract. The model was developed using experimental data from chaff-fed sheep and gives an accurate description of the absorption and excretion of 32P phosphorus in feces and urine of the ruminating sheep. These results indicated the main control site for phosphorus excretion in the ruminating sheep was the gastrointestinal tract, whereas for the non-ruminating sheep fed the liquid diet, control was exerted by the kidney. A critical factor in the induction of adaptation of phosphorus reabsorption by the kidney was the reduction in salivation, and since this response occurred independently of marked changes in the delivery of phosphorus to the kidney, a humoral factor may be involved in this communication between salivary gland and kidney

  12. Oldest Directly Dated Remains of Sheep in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodson, John; Dodson, Eoin; Banati, Richard; Li, Xiaoqiang; Atahan, Pia; Hu, Songmei; Middleton, Ryan J.; Zhou, Xinying; Nan, Sun

    2014-11-01

    The origins of domesticated sheep (Ovis sp.) in China remain unknown. Previous workers have speculated that sheep may have been present in China up to 7000 years ago, however many claims are based on associations with archaeological material rather than independent dates on sheep material. Here we present 7 radiocarbon dates on sheep bone from Inner Mongolia, Ningxia and Shaanxi provinces. DNA analysis on one of the bones confirms it is Ovis sp. The oldest ages are about 4700 to 4400 BCE and are thus the oldest objectively dated Ovis material in eastern Asia. The graphitisised bone collagen had ?13C values indicating some millet was represented in the diet. This probably indicates sheep were in a domestic setting where millet was grown. The younger samples had ?13C values indicating that even more millet was in the diet, and this was likely related to changes in foddering practices

  13. Compatibility problems in tritium breeding blankets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Compatibility between tritium breeding materials (liquid or solid), neutron multiplier and structural steels is a concern for the choice of a tritium breeding blanket for NET. For solid tritium breeding blanket, it seems that the more severe compatibility problem is due to the interaction of beryllium with steel. As for the water-cooled Pb17Li blanket, the first results obtained in experimental conditions closed to the concept have evidenced lower corrosion rates than those measured in thermal convection loops

  14. Potato breeding for nematode and disease resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Ražukas, Almantas; Jundulas, Juozas

    2006-01-01

    Potato breeding has been performed at the Vok? Branch of the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture since 1958. The key objective of potato breeding is to produce early potato cultivars immune to wart disease Synchytrium endobioticum (Schilb.), resistant to Globodera rostochiensis (Woll.) pathotype of nematodes and major potato diseases. As a result of the breeding work seven potato cultivars of different maturity have been selected. Based on the high disease and pest resistance records, the cul...

  15. Use of induced mutations in soybean breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artificial induction of mutation in plants is carried out using #betta#-irradiation and ethyl metanesulphonate (EMS) to expand the genetic variability of locally-grown soybean. This aspect of mutation breeding complements of conventional breeding approach undertaken by the Joint Malaysia Soybean Breeding Project group. Recovery of agronomically-important mutants such as earliness, lateness, bigger seed size and improved plant architecture were recorded. The significance of these findings is discussed. (author)

  16. Towards F1 Hybrid Seed Potato Breeding

    OpenAIRE

    Lindhout, P.; Meijer, D.A.; Schotte, T.; Hutten, R.C.B.; Visser, R.G.F.; H. J. Van Eck

    2011-01-01

    Compared to other major food crops, progress in potato yield as the result of breeding efforts is very slow. Genetic gains cannot be fixed in potato due to obligatory out-breeding. Overcoming inbreeding depression using diploid self-compatible clones should enable to replace the current method of out-breeding and clonal propagation into an F1 hybrid system with true seeds. This idea is not new, but has long been considered unrealistic. Severe inbreeding depression and self-incompatibility in ...

  17. Breed predisposition to canine gastric carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seim-Wikse, Tonje; Jörundsson, Einar; Nødtvedt, Ane; Grotmol, Tom; Bjørnvad, Charlotte Reinhard; Kristensen, Annemarie Thuri; Skancke, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has indicated a breed predisposition to gastric carcinoma in dogs. However, results to date are inconsistent since several studies have failed to prove such a predisposition. Better knowledge of breeds at risk could facilitate early detection of gastric carcinoma in dogs. The aim of the study was to retrospectively investigate the proportion and possible breed predisposition to canine gastric carcinoma using the Norwegian Canine Cancer Register for calculations of proportional ...

  18. Genetic diversity of eleven European pig breeds

    OpenAIRE

    Foulley Jean-Louis; Geldermann Hermann; Beeckmann Petra; Jørgensen Claus B; Nissen Peter H; Andersson Leif; Giuffra Elisabetta; Groenen Martien AM; Milan Denis; Legault Christian; Iannuccelli Nathalie; Laval Guillaume; Chevalet Claude; Ollivier Louis

    2000-01-01

    Abstract A set of eleven pig breeds originating from six European countries, and including a small sample of wild pigs, was chosen for this study of genetic diversity. Diversity was evaluated on the basis of 18 microsatellite markers typed over a total of 483 DNA samples collected. Average breed heterozygosity varied from 0.35 to 0.60. Genotypic frequencies generally agreed with Hardy-Weinberg expectations, apart from the German Landrace and Schwäbisch-Hällisches breeds, which showed signific...

  19. Genetic diversity of 11 European pig breeds

    OpenAIRE

    Lavall, G.; Iannuccelli, N.; Legault, C; Milan, D; Groenen, M.A.M.; Andersson, L; Fredholm, M.; Geldermann, H.; Foulley, J.L.; Chevalet, C.; Ollivier, L

    2000-01-01

    A set of eleven pig breeds originating from six European countries, and including a small sample of wild pigs, was chosen for this study of genetic diversity. Diversity was evaluated on the basis of 18 microsatellite markers typed over a total of 483 DNA samples collected. Average breed heterozygosity varied from 0.35 to 0.60. Genotypic frequencies generally agreed with Hardy-Weinberg expectations, apart from the German Landrace and Schwäbisch-Hällisches breeds, which showed significantly red...

  20. Genetic diversity of eleven European pig breeds

    OpenAIRE

    Laval, Guillaume; Iannuccelli, Nathalie; Legault, Christian; Milan, Denis; Groenen, Martien; Giuffra, Elisabetta; Andersson, Leif; Nissen, Peter; Jørgensen, Claus; Beeckmann, Petra; Geldermann, Hermann; Foulley, Jean-Louis; Chevalet, Claude; Ollivier, Louis

    2000-01-01

    A set of eleven pig breeds originating from six European countries, and including a small sample of wild pigs, was chosen for this study of genetic diversity. Diversity was evaluated on the basis of 18 microsatellite markers typed over a total of 483 DNA samples collected. Average breed heterozygosity varied from 0.35 to 0.60. Genotypic frequencies generally agreed with Hardy-Weinberg expectations, apart from the German Landrace and Schwäbisch-Hällisches breeds, which showed significantly red...

  1. Gamma radiation and plant breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Radiation Breeding Laboratory of the Agricultural Technic Institute, Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries has a gamma ray field, which ranks second in the world in capacity and scale, and other gamma ray irradiation facilities. In commemoration of its 20th anniversary, the booklet described the history up to its establishment and introduced various facilities and the achievements of the laboratory. It also reviewed improved varieties produced by irradiation upon request and introduced radiation-improved varieties in Japan and abroad, characteristics of these mutation-improved varieties and irradiation methods. (Chiba, N.)

  2. Racial susceptibility of sheep to gastrointestinal helminthsSuscetibilidade racial de ovinos a helmintos gastrintestinais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adivaldo Henrique da Fonseca

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to compare the susceptibility of sheep breeds Lacaune, Bergamacia, Santa Ines and animals without defined breed (AWDB kept confined to gastrointestinal helminths. The design used was a randomized block design being considered treatment the breeds. For research, the animals kept at pasture, were exposed to natural infection and kept from March to September 2008. A month before the start of the experiment, all animals were dewormed and confined. The anthelmintic used contained the active ingredient Moxidectin (0.2 mg/kg, Cydectin®, Fort Dodge, Brazil. Fecal examinations were performed twice a week and the animals with fecal egg count (FEC over 4000 were dewormed. The mean variations of fecal egg count for the breed studied were: Lacaune 700-2600, Bergamacia 100-300, Santa Ines 61-200 and Natives 63-200. The average count of the sheep Lacaune FEC was significantly higher (p 0.05 among themselves. In coprologic tests, there was no difference between the percentage of helminths between the breeds, being identified the following genera: Haemonchus (70%, Trichostrongylus (20%, Cooperia (7% and Oesophagostomum (3%. When analyzed the degree of susceptible breeds.O objetivo do estudo foi comparar a suscetibilidade de ovinos das raças Lacaune, Bergamácia, Santa Inês e animais sem padrão racial definido (SPRD mantidos confinados a helmintos gastrintestinais. O delineamento utilizado foi blocos ao acaso, sendo considerado tratamento as raças. Para a pesquisa, animais mantidos a pasto, expostos a infecção natural, foram confinados de março a setembro de 2008. Um mês antes do inicio do experimento, todos os animais foram vermifugados e confinados. O anti-helmíntico utilizado continha o princípio ativo Moxidectin (0.2 mg/kg, Cydectin®, Fort Dodge, Brasil. Foram realizados quinzenalmente exames coproparasitológicos e os animais que apresentavam contagem de ovos nas fezes (OPG superior a 4000 eram vermifugados. A variação média da contagem de ovos nas fezes para as raça estudadas foi: Lacaune 700-2600, Bergamácia 100-300, Santa Inês 61- 200 e SPRD 63-200. A contagem média de OPG das ovelhas Lacaune foi significativamente superior (p 0,05 entre si. Nos exames coprológicos, não foi observada diferença entre os valores percentuais de helmintos entre as raças, sendo identificados os seguintes gêneros: Haemonchus (70%, Trichostrongylus (20%, Cooperia (7% e Oesophagostomum (3%. Quando analisado o grau de infecção dos animais Lacaune para o gênero Haemonchus, 28,33% apresentaram infecção leve, 46,67% moderada, 13,33% pesada e 11,67% fatal. Deste modo, conclui-se que animais da raça Lacaune foram mais suscetíveis a helmintoses gastrintestinais do que Bergamácia, Santa Inês e SPRD quando mantidos em condições de confinamento. Assim, embora o confinamento seja uma alternativa viável para minimizar os efeitos da verminose e aumentar a produtividade do rebanho, deve-se manter alerta a possíveis surtos de helmintoses quando se tratar de raças suscetíveis.

  3. A literature review and investigation of staphylococcal necrotic dermatitis in sheep

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    G F, Bath; A, Janse van Rensburg; K P, Pettey; M, van Vuuren; A, Kidanemariam.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available An outbreak of necrotic dermatitis in sheep was intensively investigated. Initially 19 of 147 Letelle (Merino-type) ewes were identified but closer inspection revealed 57 sheep that had skin lesions, some very slight, and that the majority (46 or 80 %) had lesions only above the lips. A small number [...] of them had multiple lesions on the legs or vulvae apart from lip lesions. Seven had only vulvar lesions and 2 only leg lesions. Among the sheep with lip lesions, twice as many had lesions on the right as on the left. Electron micrographs did not reveal any virus particles from the lesions, but all bacterial swabs yielded pure cultures of beta-haemolytic, Gram-positive cocci that were catalase, coagulase and DNase positive. The organism was identified as Staphylococcus aureus. Histopathology was consistent with a dermotoxic insult. A review of available literature indicated that this outbreak was consistent with a diagnosis of ovine necrotic (staphylococcal) dermatitis, supported by data on signalment, lesions, distribution, size, number, epidemiology as well as specific tests. The range of differential diagnoses and possible confusers are discussed.

  4. Induction of oestrus and early pregnancy diagnosis in Awassi sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An experiment on Syrian Awassi ewes and yearlings was conducted out-side the normal breeding season to study the possibility of inducing oestrus and increasing birth rate as an attempt to improve the reproductive efficiency, in addition to evaluating the possibility of early pregnancy diagnosis using progesterone radioimmunoassay kits. One-hundred-and fifty-five local female awassi sheep (96 ewes and 59 ewe lambs) were divided into 4 groups. Group T1 (n= 50 ewes) were fitted with itravaginal sponges containing 60 mg of medroxy progesterone acetate (MAP) for 14 days followd by 600 IU of pregnant mare's serum gonadotrophin (PMSG) at sponge withdrawal, whereas the control group C1 (n= 46 ewes) received no treatment. Group T2 (n= 41 yearlings) were fitted with itravaginal sponges containing 60 mg of MAP for 14 days followed by 400 IU PMSG at sponge withdrawal, whereas the control group C2 (n= 18 yearlings) received no treatment. The females in both T1 and T2 groups responded to the hormonal treatment, and showed oestrus behaviour within 36-48 h of sponge withdrawal. Total oestrus rate was 96% and 92.7% for groups T1 and T2, respectively. Lambing rates were 80%, 32.6%, 78.0% and 5.6% for groups T1, C1, T2 and C2, respectively. Twinning rates increased to 32.5% and 33.3% for groups T1 and T2, respectively, compared to 6.7% and 0% for groups C1 and C2, respectively. There were no significant differences in pregnancy duration between groups T1 (151.7 ± 1.7 days), and T2 (154.4 ± 1.5 days), and between single (154.4 ± 1.8 daus and 151.5 ± 1.6 days) and twin-born lambs (151.7 ± 1.5 days and 150.8 ± 1.3 days) for single and twin born lambs in groups T1 and T2, respectively. Hormonal treatment had no effect on the overall average lamb birth weight, which was 4.3 ± 1.0 Kg, 4.4 ± 0.7 Kg and 3.9 ± 1.0 Kg for groups T1, C1, and T2, respectively, and the birth weight for the only lamb born in group C2 was 4.0 kg. However, average birth weight for single born lambs was significantly (P<0.05) higher than twin-born lambs, reaching 5.0 ± 0.6 Kg and 3.9 ± 0.5 Kg, 4.7 ± 0.6 Kg and 3.0 ± 0.5 Kg for single and twin-born lambs in groups T1 and T2, respectively. There were no significant differences in average birth weight between male and female lambs. Average birth weight were 4.4 ± 0.9 Kg vs. 4.2 ± 1.0 Kg, 4.1 ± 0.7 Kg vs. 4.5 ± 0.7 Kg and 4.2 ± 1.0 Kg vs. 3.6 ± 1.0 Kg for male and female lambs in groups T1, C1 and C2, respectively. Average progesterone concentration between days 17-19 post-mating in the conceived and lambed animals was 19.3 ± 7.1 n mol/1 (range 8.3-37.9 n mol/1) for group T1, and 17.6 ± 8.3 n mol/1 (range 8.4-52.0 n mol/1) for group T2. Early pregnancy diagnosis was 100%. It was concluded that, it is possible to induce and synchronize oestrus, and to increase the twinning rate in Syrian Awassi sheep out-side the normal breeding season, using intravaginal sponges and pregnant mare's serum gonadotrophin. In addition, early pregnancey diagnosis could be successfully determined in female Awassi sheep between days 17-19 post-mating. (author). 67 refs., 7 figs., 13 tabs

  5. Miniaturized GPS Tags Identify Non-breeding Territories of a Small Breeding Migratory Songbird

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallworth, Michael T.; Marra, Peter P.

    2015-01-01

    For the first time, we use a small archival global positioning system (GPS) tag to identify and characterize non-breeding territories, quantify migratory connectivity, and identify population boundaries of Ovenbirds (Seiurus aurocapilla), a small migratory songbird, captured at two widely separated breeding locations. We recovered 15 (31%) GPS tags with data and located the non-breeding territories of breeding Ovenbirds from Maryland and New Hampshire, USA (0.50?±?0.15 ha, mean?±?SE). All non-breeding territories had similar environmental attributes despite being distributed across parts of Florida, Cuba and Hispaniola. New Hampshire and Maryland breeding populations had non-overlapping non-breeding population boundaries that encompassed 114,803 and 169,233?km2, respectively. Archival GPS tags provided unprecedented pinpoint locations and associated environmental information of tropical non-breeding territories. This technology is an important step forward in understanding seasonal interactions and ultimately population dynamics of populations throughout the annual cycle. PMID:26057892

  6. Miniaturized GPS Tags Identify Non-breeding Territories of a Small Breeding Migratory Songbird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallworth, Michael T; Marra, Peter P

    2015-01-01

    For the first time, we use a small archival global positioning system (GPS) tag to identify and characterize non-breeding territories, quantify migratory connectivity, and identify population boundaries of Ovenbirds (Seiurus aurocapilla), a small migratory songbird, captured at two widely separated breeding locations. We recovered 15 (31%) GPS tags with data and located the non-breeding territories of breeding Ovenbirds from Maryland and New Hampshire, USA (0.50 ± 0.15 ha, mean ± SE). All non-breeding territories had similar environmental attributes despite being distributed across parts of Florida, Cuba and Hispaniola. New Hampshire and Maryland breeding populations had non-overlapping non-breeding population boundaries that encompassed 114,803 and 169,233 km(2), respectively. Archival GPS tags provided unprecedented pinpoint locations and associated environmental information of tropical non-breeding territories. This technology is an important step forward in understanding seasonal interactions and ultimately population dynamics of populations throughout the annual cycle. PMID:26057892

  7. Coccidiosis and cryptosporidiosis in sheep and goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreyt, W J

    1990-11-01

    The protozoan diseases, coccidiosis and cryptosporidiosis, are important enteric diseases of sheep and goats, resulting in diarrhea, inefficient weight gains, and occasionally death. Coccidiosis is a widespread, serious economic disease affecting animals who are preweaned, recently weaned, or in unsanitary, stressful, or crowded conditions, as well as after entering feedlots. The Eimeria species in sheep and goats are relatively host specific. Control is accomplished through sanitation and by incorporating one of the modern coccidiostats, such as lasalocid or decoquinate, in feed or salt to ensure an intake of approximately 1 mg of drug per kg of body weight per day for at least 30 consecutive days. Prevention and control of coccidiosis results in significantly greater weight gains and production, whereas disease with or without treatment is likely to result in inefficient production and economic loss to the producer. Cryptosporidiosis, caused by Cryptosporidium parvum, is primarily a disease of lambs and kids less than 30 days of age and is usually a milder disease than coccidiosis. Infective oocysts are passed in feces and are transmitted by oral ingestion. Oocysts readily infect a variety of animals, including humans. Cryptosporidiosis is a prevalent disease in neonatal ruminants and in humans. Effective treatments are not available, but because the disease is usually mild and self-limited, supportive care, primarily hydration, is important. Control is strict sanitation and quarantine of sick animals. Disinfection of contaminated housing with ammonia or formalin will kill the oocysts. The cyst-forming coccidia diseases, toxoplasmosis and sarcocystosis, utilize two hosts in their life cycles: sheep or goats and carnivores. Abortions and reproductive failures are major manifestations of disease. Control is through elimination of carnivore feces from the premises through management. PMID:2245367

  8. Renal excretion of potassium in the sheep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewhurst, J. K.; Harrison, F. A.; Keynes, R. D.

    1968-01-01

    1. Observations were made on the daily intake and excretion of potassium and sodium in sheep housed in metabolism cages and fed once daily. 2. The diet of chaffed hay and crushed oats provided 400-600 m-moles K and 50-60 m-moles Na daily. About 90% of the K was excreted in the urine, and over 90% of the Na was found in the faeces. 3. In two groups of three experiments on each of three sheep, the urinary responses to intra-ruminal dosing just before feeding of (i) 1 l. distilled water, (ii) 1 l. 0·25 N-KCl, and (iii) 1 l. 0·125 N-NaCl, were studied. In the first group, urine was collected via the urine/faeces separator of the metabolism cage, whereas for part of the experiments in the second group it was collected by an indwelling bladder catheter. 4. In a third group of experiments with the same sheep, the effects on urinary excretion of K and Na of intra-ruminal dosing with (i) 1 l. distilled water, (ii) 1 l. 0·25 N-K acetate, and (iii) 1 l. 0·25 N-Na acetate were investigated. During part of these experiments urine was again collected via an indwelling bladder catheter. With chloride, 82% of the additional potassium was excreted in urine in the 24 hr after dosing, but with acetate only 65%. For sodium, the corresponding figures were 12-40% with chloride and 43% with acetate. 5. In most experiments, the administration of K salts produced a marked kaliuresis and, in spite of the low sodium intake, a natriuresis as well, which did not usually coincide with maximum K excretion. No adequately tested explanation appears to exist for the natriuresis observed in response to treatment with K salts. PMID:5649637

  9. Genomic Analyses of Modern Dog Breeds

    OpenAIRE

    Parker, Heidi G.

    2012-01-01

    A rose may be a rose by any other name, but when you call a dog a poodle it becomes a very different animal than if you call it a bulldog. Both the poodle and the bulldog are examples of dog breeds of which there are >400 recognized world-wide. Breed creation has played a significant role in shaping the modern dog from the length of his leg to the cadence of his bark. The selection and line-breeding required to maintain a breed has also reshaped the genome of the dog resulting in a unique gen...

  10. Mutation techniques in plant breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Interest in the use of mutation techniques for generating and selecting desired genetic variation in crop and model plant species has significantly increased over the past decade. This was mainly due to: (1) successful application of in vivo mutation techniques in the breeding of new, improved crop varieties; (2) new opportunities for induced mutation using in vitro techniques for improving vegetatively propagated crops; (3) emerging possibilities for applying in vitro selection of mutagenized cells and tissues; (4) increasing application of doubled haploids (DHs) for the rapid selection and shortening of the breeding cycle of improved varieties from desired mutants, and for the development of F1 performing DH lines from heterotic hybrids; (5) advancement of rapid, often non-destructive, mass screening methods; (6) enhanced demand for morphological, developmental and biochemical mutants of various species for studies on the molecular genetics of plant differentiation and development or on plant physiology; (7) wider availability of gene transformation technology that allows the transfer of desired mutated genes from model or other plant species to the desired crop plant (shuttle mutagenesis); and (8) application of mutation techniques for generating DNA polymorphism and for mapping particular genes. An overview of the results of applying mutation techniques for crop improvement is given. (author). 68 refs, 4 figs, 5 tabs

  11. Breeding for adaptation to drought

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: I will describe an approach we have used to breed improved cowpea varieties for an environment that experiences very severe droughts - the African Sahel. I will then speculate on how this approach might be enhanced for cowpea and some other C3 species by including selection for carbon stable isotope composition, i.e carbon isotope discrimination by plants (?). The approach in breeding for adaptation to drought involved selecting parents and then progeny with a type of grain desired by consumers and optimal time of flowering and cycle length, incorporating resistances to important diseases and pests, and yield-testing advanced lines in many locations throughout the target production zone in experiment station and farm conditions over several years. Can we now make further progress in breeding to improve adaptation to drought by including selection for ?? The approach I recommend is to choose varieties or elite lines as parents that have differences in ? but similar high grain quality and optimal time to flowering, cycle length and harvest index. In many cases, pre-breeding will be needed to develop appropriate elite lines and it may be difficult to develop lines that differ in ? but also have the other necessary traits. Then crosses would be made and progeny would be selected that have the required grain quality, phenology, harvest index, and multiple resistances to pests and diseases. Selected stable lines would be screened for ? values. Finally, selected advanced lines would be subjected to the necessary multilocation tests for yield, grain quality and other agronomic traits in the target production zone. But, should one select for ? values that are lower or higher than those of the best current cultivars? Theory and experimental tests have shown that for C3 species, ? is negatively correlated with intrinsic, integrated water-use efficiency. Water-use efficiency (W) is the ratio of crop biomass production to transpiration. A yield-component analysis might indicate that for water-limited environments one should select for greater W and thus lower ?. However, adaptation requires that W and other quantitative traits, such as time of flowering, cycle length and harvest index, be expressed at optimal intermediate levels because there are interactions among these traits. Thus, whether one should select for a higher or a lower ? depends on whether the best current varieties have a W that is greater than or less than the optimal value that is appropriate for a given target production environment and genetic background. What do genetic selection experiments tell us? My studies with selected cowpea lines having similar times of flowering and cycle lengths showed that grain yield was positively correlated with ? under both well-watered conditions and strongly water-limited conditions where plants were mainly supplied by water stored in the soil. The regression was linear with no indication that an optimum had been reached, suggesting that for both types of environment and this set of germplasm one may need to select for higher ?, that is lower W. In contrast, for some environments with very extreme water limitations, and species with genotypic variation in mesophyll photosynthetic capacity it may be useful to select for higher W. Selection for ? may only be useful for breeding programs that already have advanced conventional methodologies, varieties and elite lines, and sufficient resources to use the technology effectively. (author)

  12. Breeding material temperature control device in a thermonuclear breeding blanket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To obtain a device of recovering heat resistant material filled around cooling pipes, separating and recycling them while re-adjusting the ingredient ratio. Constitution: The temperature in the cold trap is set to an intermediate level for critical temperatures inherent to respective ingredients constituting the heat resistant material. Then, among the ingredients of the heat resistant material recovered from the breeding blanket only those of higher critical temperature are requefied in the cold trap. In this way, the heat resistant material is separated into liquid and gas by the difference of the critical temperatures and the ingredient separated by liquefication is reevaporized and stored in a reservoir tank, while gaseous components are stored in another reservoir. Then, respective ingredients are supplied from the respective reservoir tanks to a mixing device while controlling the flow rate and they are mixed to a predetermined ingredient ratio in the mixer to regenerate heat resistant material. (Yoshihara, H.)

  13. Die rol van Robbeneiland as veepos in die vestiging van die Kaap van Goeie Hoop as Verversingstasie / The role of Robben Island as a stock breeding station for the settlement at the Cape of Good Hope

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    A J, Snijders.

    Full Text Available The universal notoriety of Robben Island as a penitentiary for political prisoners, notably in the 19th and 20th centuries, overshadows its previous historical significance established centuries ago. The Island, initially a source of seals and penguins to European mariners rounding the southern tip [...] of Africa, and later for several other reasons, including its proximity to the Cape of Good Hope, played a pivotal role in the selection of this halfway station. The seals would provide blubber for train oil and the penguins, meat and eggs. The transhumant Peninsular Khoekhoe was to provide cattle and sheep by a barter process as before. Inconsistent access to Khoen livestock forced the Vereenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie (VOC) to consider their own breeding programmes and ultimately the establishment of Free Burgers. Van Riebeeck confirmed the suitability of Robben Island for the fattening and breeding of sheep and this island made a substantial contribution to the provision of sheep and mutton to the fleets and the local community. Khoen sheep did not do well in the Table Valley in early summer and it was expected that they would thrive on the drier island. Predators and stock theft were major problems at the Cape and neither occurred on the island. It is contended that it was unlikely that the settlement at the Cape would have occurred and succeeded without Robben Island.

  14. An Easy Technique for Sheep Vomeronasalectomisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Ungerfeld

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In mammals the vomeronasal organ (VNO plays an important role in detection and processing of pheromones related to social and reproductive behavior. To determine in which physiological functions the VNO is implied, different blocking techniques have been used. The aim of this work was to develop a simple, fast, and minimally invasive surgical technique to eliminate completely the VNO in sheep. Ten adult crossbreed sheep were anesthetized and intubated with a tracheotube. Two incisions in the nasal mucous membrane, on the floor of the nasal cavity lateral to the VNO, and in the nasal septum dorsal to the VNO were made. The VNO was eliminated through dragging movements with a Farabeuff separator shaped into a hook.. The hemorrhage was controlled in situ with ferric perclorure and cauterization with a burning cylindrical iron. Animals were slaughtered at different times after surgery, and the nose was opened to determine whether remnants of the VNO were still left. In the first slaughtered animal (one week after the surgery remnants of the VNO were observed in a necrotic area. However, in the animals slaughtered later than 4 weeks after surgery, there were no identifiable remnants of the VNO. We concluded that this is a simple, fast and effective technique to eliminate the VNO, and may be used in experiments aimed to determine long-term effects of vomeronasalectomisation.

  15. Recognition of lameness and decisions to catch for inspection among sheep farmers and specialists in GB

    OpenAIRE

    Green LE; Kaler J

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Epidemiological studies have used farmer estimates of the prevalence of lameness in their flocks. This assumes that farmers can identify lame sheep. Eight movie clips of sheep with locomotion from sound to moderately lame were used to investigate the ability of farmers and sheep specialists to recognise lame sheep. Each participant was asked to complete a form and indicate, for each movie clip, whether they thought the sheep was lame and whether they would catch it if it w...

  16. Domestic sheep as a rare definitive host of the large American liver fluke Fascioloides magna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreyt, W J

    1990-10-01

    Two domestic sheep were inoculated orally with 250 metacercariae of Fascioloides magna. One sheep died 4 mo after inoculation and 22 immature F. magna were recovered. The second sheep remained healthy and was killed 8 mo after inoculation. Ten mature F. magna were recovered from hepatic parenchyma, and eggs of F. magna were observed in areas of the liver where flukes resided and from feces. Although F. magna is almost always lethal to sheep, this sheep was a rare definitive host. PMID:2213420

  17. Producing consumer acceptable wool - A challenge for Australian sheep farmers facing animal welfare boycotts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livestock farming is a complex and demanding business and now is further complicated by consumers expecting greater care for the welfare of livestock and the environment. Meeting the expectations of customers while at the same time trying to make a living on a family farm is becoming far more difficult. Gone is the time when farmers, wherever they are, could rely on the image of idyllic rural scenes as a way of fulfilling the 'promise' of clean, green and ethically produced product. Australia, for many, still conjures up the image of a wide brown land with stockman droving contented sheep to shady riverbanks. However, this is changing as consumers become aware of current sheep management practices such as mulesing, which is portrayed as a barbaric act by animal welfare lobby groups. Since the early 1850's Australia has produced high quality apparel wool from Merino sheep, but early in the 20th century problems with sheep dying from 'flystrike' (infestations of maggots from the Australian sheep blowfly Lucilia cuprina), reached epidemic proportions, which threatened the industry with collapse. A history of selecting sheep with heavy fleeces and many skin wrinkles to produce more wool made them easy targets for the blowfly. This is because with extra wool around the tail area, then soiled with faecal material, the chances of infestation increase substantially. Sheep in Australia are run in big flocks on large properties (500 - 100,000ha) at low stocking rates (1-10 ewes/ha) and are usually managed by a single family. This means that it is very difficult to monitor sheep individually, on a daily basis, and also means that any control technique requires minimal intervention, and cannot be recurrent. To deal with these problems, research and development organisations began investigating methods of control and by the early 1950s, a surgical procedure called 'mulesing was developed. Mulesing involves stripping the skin away from the area around the anus and tail at three weeks of age. The area that grows back is bare of wool and therefore reduces the amount of wool and conditions favourable to fly strike. This method showed much promise in reducing mortality in sheep flocks. Many farmers saw mulesing as a bloody and unpalatable technique, and so it took extensive information programs run over 20 years to finally convince farmers it was worth doing to improve the welfare of their animals by reducing deaths from flystrike. In the late 1990s, extensive campaigning by People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA) led to a growing awareness of this practice by retailers in Europe and the USA. Believing it to be an invasive and painful practice, particularly without pain relief, some companies threaten to boycott Australian wool. In reaction to the growing pressure the Australian wool industry in 2004 agreed to phase out the practice of mulesing by 2010. The wool industry is now intensively seeking a viable and practical alternative to mulesing. Research into various technologies including intradermal injections and modification of the blowfly genome is continuing, and it is likely that a combination of technology and breeding will provide the ultimate solutions. In the short term, control will mean increased applications of chemicals and greater intervention and monitoring. This however, leaves the farmer with more complex decision-making, high labour costs and greater exposure to chemicals and residues. Understandably, some farmers are angry and upset by the reaction of the international retailers, as they believe they are doing the best thing to protect their sheep from a slow and painful death. This situation has lead to small numbers of defiant farmers stating they will continue to mules until a viable alternative is available. This is not the first time Australian farmers have faced challenging times. Australian farmers have an enviable reputation as innovators, and a capacity to adapt, with many recognising the importance of meeting consumer demands by ceasing mulesing. In 2009, at least 35% of Merino lambs born will be u

  18. Local Breeds: Can they be a Competitive Solution for Regional Development in the World of ‘Globalization’? The Cases of Greek and Romanian Local Breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Belibasaki

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The recent economic world crisis was a product based on the idea that globalized “free” economy market, is the onlyand ideal law for the development and well- being. In the whole world, countries had to change what it was commonpractice till today i.e. the tradition and the local economy rules according to the global mandates, namely‘globalization’. In the same time, people are becoming more and more aware of the lost values, lost products,healthy-life, the changes of the environment, and turn to scientists and politicians for sustainable solutions. Livestockcan make a positive contribution to the landscape and environmental management in this new world of globalization.Moreover, the local breeds are one of the main tools that hold people in rural areas and mountains, help the agrotourismand are connected to the tradition and culture of each area. This paper aims to present the role that localbreeds could play to the regional development of the countries, including social, environmental and economicalsustainability issues. The cases of Greek and Romanian local sheep and goats breeds are used as examples.

  19. Efficacy of albendazole against Fascioloides magna in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stromberg, B E; Schlotthauer, J C; Conboy, G A

    1984-01-01

    Sheep experimentally infected with Fascioloides magna were used in a controlled study to determine the flukicide activity of different doses of albendazole (methyl [5(propylthio)-1H-benzimidazol-2-yl] carbamate). Sheep, about 4 months old, were inoculated with 100 metacercariae of F magna and treated with the various doses of albendazole 10 weeks later. At 6 weeks after treatment, the sheep were necropsied, flukes were recovered and measured, and the pathologic changes were recorded. The sheep were given different doses of albendazole (5, 7.5 [single dose or double dose], 10, and 15 mg/kg) and were compared with both nontreated inoculated and nontreated noninoculated controls. There were up to 70% fewer worms recovered in the group given 2 doses of 7.5 mg/kg than there were in the nontreated controls. There was also a significant reduction in flukes recovered in the groups given the 7.5, 10, and 15 mg/kg doses. Because a single F magna fluke has the potential to kill a sheep, it is imperative to consider the number of sheep with no flukes after treatment. According to that criterion, 50% of the sheep were protected at dose rates of 7.5 (single dose, double dose), 10, and 15 mg/kg of body weight. PMID:6703459

  20. Mutation Breeding in Root and Tuber Crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proceeded by a few general considerations about problems and results of mutation breeding in vegetatively propagated plants a review is given of the results of mutation breeding programs up to new in the different (tropical) root and tuber crops (cassava, sweet potato, yam, potato and others). (author)