Full Text Available The sheep is an important economic livestock species, contributing greatly to the Indian economy, especially in arid, semi arid and mountain areas. The current population in world is 1110.78 millions, around 44.85 millions (1987 sheeps in India (ICAR., 2002. Sheeps are mostly reared for meat and wool. The average annual wool production per sheep is between 3.5 to 5.5 kg of fine quality wool in Australia, New Zealand and U.S.S.R., where as in India except Magra sheep which annually yield more than 2 kg wool having staple length 5.8 cm, the average of rest of the wool produced is less than 1.0 kg per sheep of inferior quality (Banerjee G.C., 1998. Therefore many farmers in southern India adapted sheep rearing for meat production than for wool production. For yielding more production from sheep farming one should have sound knowledge of general information related to the reproduction and different breeding practices. [Vet. World 2009; 2(1.000: 43-44
Genetic variability at 18 microsatellites was analysed on the basis of individual genotypes in five Spanish breeds of sheep – Churra, Latxa, Castellana, Rasa-Aragonesa and Merino -, with Awassi also being studied as a reference breed. The degree of population subdivision calculated between Spanish breeds from FST diversity indices was around 7% of total variability. A high degree of reliability was obtained for individual-breed assignment from the 18 loci by using different approaches among...
Arranz, Juan-jose?; Bayo?n, Yolanda; Primitivo, Fermi?n San
The sheep is an important economic livestock species, contributing greatly to the Indian economy, especially in arid, semi arid and mountain areas. The current population in world is 1110.78 millions, around 44.85 millions (1987) sheeps in India (ICAR., 2002). Sheeps are mostly reared for meat and wool. The average annual wool production per sheep is between 3.5 to 5.5 kg of fine quality wool in Australia, New Zealand and U.S.S.R., where as in India except Magra sheep which annually yield mor...
Khanvilkar, A. V.; Shejal, M. A.; Belhekar, S. D. Rahane And D. R.
Full Text Available Among the most important breeds of sheep, used for the milk production in Croatia, are the sheep from Pag, Bra?, Cres, Istrian and Travnik?s sheep, different crossbreeds and, recently, East Friesian sheep. The aim of the research was to determine the genotype effect on lactation period, milk yield and protein and fat content, which are important in cheese making. The longest lactation period (213 days had East Friesian sheep, while the highest total milk production (294 kg and the highest production of milk fat (13.38 kg and proteins (11.88 kg had crossbreeds (Cres sheep x East Friesian x Awassi. However, the highest content of milk fat (8.12 and 7.81% and proteins (6.36 and 6.26% were established in Istrian and Pag sheep milk. The longest milking period (145 days and the shortest suckling period (28 days was found in Pag sheep, while the longest suckling period was found in Istra (78 days and East Friesian (74 days sheep. The least milk in suckling period (17.46 kg or 13.38% was sucked by lambs of Pag sheep, and the most by East Friesian (111.18 kg or 39.39% and Istra sheep lambs (94.3 kg or 42.95%.
Genetic variability at 18 microsatellites was analysed on the basis of individual genotypes in five Spanish breeds of sheep--Churra, Latxa, Castellana, Rasa-Aragonesa and Merino--with Awassi also being studied as a reference breed. The degree of population subdivision calculated between Spanish breeds from F(ST) diversity indices was around 7% of total variability. A high degree of reliability was obtained for individual-breed assignment from the 18 loci by using different approaches among which the Bayesian method provided to be the most efficient, with an accuracy for nine microsatellites of over 99%. Analysis of the Bayesian assignment criterion illustrated the divergence between any one breed and the others, which was highest for Awassi sheep, while no great differences were evident among the Spanish breeds. Relationships between individuals were analysed from the proportion of shared alleles. The resulting dendrogram showed a remarkable breed structure, with the highest level of clustering among members of the Spanish breeds in Latxa and the lowest in Merino sheep, the latter breed exhibiting a peculiar pattern of clustering, with animals grouped into several closely set nodes. Analysis of individual genotypes provided valuable information for understanding intra- and inter-population genetic differences and allowed for a discussion with previously reported results using populations as taxonomic units. PMID:11712973
Arranz, J J; Bayón, Y; San Primitivo, F
Full Text Available Abstract Genetic variability at 18 microsatellites was analysed on the basis of individual genotypes in five Spanish breeds of sheep – Churra, Latxa, Castellana, Rasa-Aragonesa and Merino -, with Awassi also being studied as a reference breed. The degree of population subdivision calculated between Spanish breeds from FST diversity indices was around 7% of total variability. A high degree of reliability was obtained for individual-breed assignment from the 18 loci by using different approaches among which the Bayesian method provided to be the most efficient, with an accuracy for nine microsatellites of over 99%. Analysis of the Bayesian assignment criterion illustrated the divergence between any one breed and the others, which was highest for Awassi sheep, while no great differences were evident among the Spanish breeds. Relationships between individuals were analysed from the proportion of shared alleles. The resulting dendrogram showed a remarkable breed structure, with the highest level of clustering among members of the Spanish breeds in Latxa and the lowest in Merino sheep, the latter breed exhibiting a peculiar pattern of clustering, with animals grouped into several closely set nodes. Analysis of individual genotypes provided valuable information for understanding intra- and inter-population genetic differences and allowed for a discussion with previously reported results using populations as taxonomic units.
Breeds of cattle, sheep and goats in the Mediterranean region are considered. Cattle: original longhorned breeds in Spain, Portugal and southern France; original shorthorned breeds in North Africa, the eastern Mediterranean and Sardinia; Grey Steppe in Balkan lowlands and central and southern Italy; Brown Swiss and its crosses in parts of Spain, northern Italy, north-west Turkey and the Maghreb; Simmental in Yugoslavia and Hungary; Friesian now dominant in western Europe and spreading in North Africa, the Near East and eastern Europe. Sheep: original coarse woolled thin tailed breeds in Algeria, Morocco, parts of Spain, Portugal, Italy and the Balkans; Merino in Spain has produced new breeds in Portugal, southern France, and Italy and is now being used in the Balkans, Turkey and Egypt; fat tailed coarse woolled breeds in Africa and Asia from Tunisia to Turkey. Goats: short eared dairy breeds in Spain and Italy; black, long haired, lop eared, screw horned goats from Turkey to North Africa; Maltese (dairy) goats in several countries. (author). 3 refs, 1 tab
Although genomic selection offers the prospect of improving the rate of genetic gain in meat, wool and dairy sheep breeding programs, the key constraint is likely to be the cost of genotyping. Potentially, this constraint can be overcome by genotyping selection candidates for a low density (low cost) panel of SNPs with sparse genotype coverage, imputing a much higher density of SNP genotypes using a densely genotyped reference population. These imputed genotypes would then be used with a prediction equation to produce genomic estimated breeding values. In the future, it may also be desirable to impute very dense marker genotypes or even whole genome re-sequence data from moderate density SNP panels. Such a strategy could lead to an accurate prediction of genomic estimated breeding values across breeds, for example. We used genotypes from 48?640 (50K) SNPs genotyped in four sheep breeds to investigate both the accuracy of imputation of the 50K SNPs from low density SNP panels, as well as prospects for imputing very dense or whole genome re-sequence data from the 50K SNPs (by leaving out a small number of the 50K SNPs at random). Accuracy of imputation was low if the sparse panel had less than 5000 (5K) markers. Across breeds, it was clear that the accuracy of imputing from sparse marker panels to 50K was higher if the genetic diversity within a breed was lower, such that relationships among animals in that breed were higher. The accuracy of imputation from sparse genotypes to 50K genotypes was higher when the imputation was performed within breed rather than when pooling all the data, despite the fact that the pooled reference set was much larger. For Border Leicesters, Poll Dorsets and White Suffolks, 5K sparse genotypes were sufficient to impute 50K with 80% accuracy. For Merinos, the accuracy of imputing 50K from 5K was lower at 71%, despite a large number of animals with full genotypes (2215) being used as a reference. For all breeds, the relationship of individuals to the reference explained up to 64% of the variation in accuracy of imputation, demonstrating that accuracy of imputation can be increased if sires and other ancestors of the individuals to be imputed are included in the reference population. The accuracy of imputation could also be increased if pedigree information was available and was used in tracking inheritance of large chromosome segments within families. In our study, we only considered methods of imputation based on population-wide linkage disequilibrium (largely because the pedigree for some of the populations was incomplete). Finally, in the scenarios designed to mimic imputation of high density or whole genome re-sequence data from the 50K panel, the accuracy of imputation was much higher (86-96%). This is promising, suggesting that in silico genome re-sequencing is possible in sheep if a suitable pool of key ancestors is sequenced for each breed. PMID:22221027
Hayes, B J; Bowman, P J; Daetwyler, H D; Kijas, J W; van der Werf, J H J
Turkey is among the major sheep raising countries of the world, with sheep population over 29.4 million head. Sheep have an important place in the economy of Turkey and in the nutrition of its people. Sheep breeding in Turkey is principally based on indigenous breeds, while studies on crossing and producing new types to increase fleece, meat and milk yield have been carried out. These indigenous breeds are more resistant to disease and parasites while also being able to survive even unfavoura...
Kaymakc, M.; Uz, O.; Un, C.; Bilgen, G.; Taikin, T.
The Makuie sheep is a fat-tailed sheep breed which can be found in the Azerbaijan province of Iran. In 1986, a Makuie sheep breeding station was established in the city of Maku in order to breed, protect and purify this breed. The genetic parameters for birth weight, weaning weight (3 months), 6-month, 9-month and yearling weight, and average daily gain from birth to weaning traits were estimated based on 25 years of data using DFREML software. Six different models were applied and a likeliho...
Shoja Jafari; Ali Hashemi; Ghader Manafiazar; Reza Darvishzadeh; Sarrain Razzagzadeh; Mohammad Farhadian
Chapter 6. Mating structure of the sheep industry. 21. 6.1. Pure breeding. 21. 6.2 \\... were retained from these first crosses to act as mothers of meat lambs. Almost \\.... with specific ram breeds to produce stock for breeding or meat production. ..... \\23 in 2003, of which 26 (67%) and 17 (74%) respectively .... source of income.
Full Text Available In this investigation Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP markers have been used to assess genetic diversity and relationship among three local Albanian sheep breeds. A total of 93 unrelated individuals were analysed by three EcoRI/TaqI primer combination that produced 92 AFLP markers. Nei’s GST index was calculated to investigate the partition of diversity within and between breeds. The mean value of this index was 0.039, indicating that only 4% of the total genetic variation is due to between breeds differences, while 96% of the diversity is accounted by differences among individuals within breeds. The mean expected heterozygosity value for the whole population was 0.259, indicating that a high level of diversity is present in Albanian sheep compared to estimates in other regions. According to what indicated by the GST index, model-based clustering did not differentiate the breeds. The results obtained by AFLP data sets indicate high diversity in Albania but small genetic distances between breeds, confirming previous results obtained with microsatellites. These results reflect Albanian sheep management practices, which have facilitated a relevant gene flow between breeds. These results are useful to design proper breeding programs suited to conserve the genetic diversity presently existing in Albanian sheep
Full Text Available This research was carried out to make a difference and to predict genetic distance some sheep that are genetically related to each other based on the body size measurements. Nineteen bodies size of 323 sheeps of five sheep breeds; namely Barbados Black Belly Cross (BC, Garut Local (GL, Garut Composite (GC, Sumatra Composite (SC and St. Croix Cross (SCC were measured. Analysis of variance and canonical discriminant analysis, Mahalanobis distance, plotting canonical and dendogram were performed using PROC GLM, PROC CANDISC, PROC CLUSTER and PROC TREE of SAS software ver. 9.0. Index Length, Width Slope, Depth Slope, Balance and Cumulative Index of GC sheep were significantly higher than the four other breeds. Canonical discriminant analysis successfully could differentiate among the five sheep breeds. All five breed were divided into two groups: the first group consisted of SCC, SC and BC; and the second group consisted of the GL and GC. The results of genetic distance estimation showed that the SCC had a value of sheep genetic distance closest to SC (10.83 and BC (27.98, while GL had the closest distance to GC (66.60. The tail width, horn base circumference, horn length (canonical 1 and variable length of the tail and body length (canonical 2 were the breed differentiation variable in this study.
Full Text Available Turkey is among the major sheep raising countries of the world, with sheep population over 29.4 million head. Sheep have an important place in the economy of Turkey and in the nutrition of its people. Sheep breeding in Turkey is principally based on indigenous breeds, while studies on crossing and producing new types to increase fleece, meat and milk yield have been carried out. These indigenous breeds are more resistant to disease and parasites while also being able to survive even unfavourable environments and to maintain their productivity. At present, they contribute 27.18 % to the total read meat, 8.15 % to the total milk and 59.11 % to the total leather produced in the country. Sheep breeds in Turkey can be categorized into two main groups: Fat-tailed (White Karaman "Akkaraman", Red Karaman "K z lkaraman or Morkaraman", Daglic, Awassi " vesi" and fine-tailed (K v rc k, Karayaka, Chios "Sakiz", Imroz "Gokceada. For various reasons, it has been observed that indigenous sheep genetic resources in Turkey have been damaged. Some breeds have become extinct, some is under serious threat and some may be also considered as being under threat. The fact that the some conservation projects carried out by the government agencies is already at the stage of implementation may be regarded as a hopeful start.
Despite challenges in the implementation of livestock genetic improvement programs in developing regions, including centralized nucleus breeding schemes, these programs can contribute to the improvement of the livelihood of smallholder farmers. In this paper, we present a community- or village-based breeding scheme in which breeding activities are carried out by communities of smallholder farmers. We evaluated genetic responses and the rate of inbreeding from alternative village sheep breedin...
In Denmark there are small populations of five Nordic sheep breeds, two of which are Danish in origin. The purpose of this study was to estimate trends in inbreeding for these breeds. All five breeds have been recording pedigrees for decades, so pedigree completeness is adequate. The rate of inbreeding is more than 1% per generation in all breeds, and more than 2% per generation in the Danish breeds, which have no options for importing, if they aim to continue pure breeding. The Danish breeds have not allowed recent animals to contribute heavily, so the rate of coancestry is not too high (â?¼1% per generation). However, they could use more rotation of rams between flocks to reduce the rate of inbreeding Udgivelsesdato: March
SÃ¸rensen, Anders Christian; Norberg, Elise
Full Text Available The Makuie sheep is a fat-tailed sheep breed which can be found in the Azerbaijan province of Iran. In 1986, a Makuie sheep breeding station was established in the city of Maku in order to breed, protect and purify this breed. The genetic parameters for birth weight, weaning weight (3 months, 6-month, 9-month and yearling weight, and average daily gain from birth to weaning traits were estimated based on 25 years of data using DFREML software. Six different models were applied and a likelihood ratio test (LRT was used to select the appropriate model. Bivariate analysis was used to define the genetic correlation between studied traits. Based on the LRT, model II was selected as an appropriate model for all studied traits. Direct heritability estimates of birth, weaning, 6-month, 9-month and yearling weights and average daily gain from birth to weaning were 0.36, 0.41, 0.48, 0.42, 0.36 and 0.37, respectively. Estimates of direct genetic correlation between birth and weaning weights, birth and 6-month weights, birth and 9-month weights, as well as between birth and yearling weights were 0.57, 0.49, 0.46 and 0.32, respectively. The results suggest there is a substantial additive genetic variability for studied traits in the Makuie sheep breed population, and the direct additive effect and maternal permanent environment variance are the main source of phenotypic variance.
Full Text Available This experiment was aimed to identify characteristics and comparative merits of Iranian sheep wool breeds. Fiber characteristics of 75 male and 137 female of 1, 2, 3 and 4 yr of age belonging to Afshari, Zandi, Mehrabani, Lori, and Baluchi sheep breeds were studied. Samples of fiber were taken from the left midside of sheep and analyzed using standard objective measurements for staple length (SL, mean fiber diameter (MFD, coefficient of variation of fiber diameter (FDCV, inner coat fiber ICF, outer coat fiber (OCF, kemp fiber (KF and yield (Y. A general linear model including sex and age as fixed effects and breed as random effect was used to analyze the data. The mean (and s.e for SL, MFD, FDCV, ICF, OCF, KF and Y were 110.8±0.1 mm, 36.9±0.5 µm, 50.2%±0.8%, 84.2%±0.6%, 9.8%±0.4%, 5.9%±0.4% and 69.3%±0.7% respectively. MFD of 22% of all wool samples was between 22–30 µm. MFD of a further 36% and 42% of wool samples was between 31–37 µm and coarser than 37 µm. SL of 12% of wool samples was shorter than 100 mm and 38% of samples between 100–120 mm and 50% of samples were longer than 120 mm. There is substantial scope to improve the quality of fiber produced by Iranian sheep breeds through genetic selection.
H. R. Ansari-Renani
Full Text Available The conservation of genetic variability is one of the main objectives in the field of genetics applied to domestic livestock. A strong input in that direction was made by molecular biology techniques. Among molecular markers nowadays available, microsatellites are particularly appreciated and widely utilized for the study of animal genome. In this study, a genetic characterization of Appenninica sheep breed was carried out with thirty microsatellite markers; the genetic relationships between Appenninica and three Italian merinos-derived breeds were also investigated. The results show a good genetic variability of Appenninica and all the other studied breeds. At the same time, the genetic identity of each breed is confirmed. These molecular data can be utilized to improve the present selection schemes and the plans to preserve the genetic diversity.
Francesca Maria Sarti
We identified 37 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in sheep and screened 16 individuals from 8 different sheep breeds selected throughout Europe. Population genetic measures based on the genotyping of about 30 sheep from the same 8 breeds are reported. To date, there are no sheep SNPs documented in the National Center for Biotechnology Information dbSNP database. Therefore, the markers presented here contribute significantly to those currently available. PMID:16973784
Pariset, Lorraine; Cappuccio, Irene; Ajmone-Marsan, Paolo; Bruford, Michael; Dunner, Susana; Cortes, Oscar; Erhardt, Georg; Prinzenberg, Eva-Maria; Gutscher, Katja; Joost, Stephane; Pinto-Juma, Gabriela; Nijman, Isaäc J; Lenstra, Johannes A; Perez, Trinidad; Valentini, Alessio
Designing breeding schemes suitable for smallholder livestock production systems in developing regions has hitherto been a challenge. The suggested schemes either do not address farmers' breeding goals (centralized station-based nucleus schemes) or yield slow genetic progress (village-based schemes). A new breeding scheme that integrates the merits of previously suggested schemes has been designed for Menz sheep improvement in Ethiopia. It involves selection based on breeding values in nucleus flocks to produce elite rams, a one-time only provision of improved rams to villagers and a follow-up village-based selection to sustain genetic progress in village flocks. Here, we assessed whether conventional selection of breeding rams based on breeding values for production traits, which is the practice in station-based nucleus flocks, meets farmers' breeding objectives. We also elicited determinants of farmers' ram choice. Low but significant correlations were found between rankings of rams based on farmers' selection criteria, estimated breeding values (EBV) and body weight (BW). Appearance traits (such as color and horn) and meat production traits (BW and linear size traits) significantly determined farmers' breeding ram choice. The results imply that conventional selection criteria based solely on EBV for production traits do not address farmers' trait preferences fully, but only partially. Thus, a two-stage selection procedure involving selection on breeding values in nucleus centers followed by farmers' selection among top- ranking candidate rams is recommended. This approach accommodates farmers' preferences and speeds up genetic progress in village-based selection. The Menz sheep scheme could be applied elsewhere with similar situations to transform conventional station-based nucleus breeding activities into participatory breeding programs. PMID:22440095
Gizaw, S; Getachew, T; Tibbo, M; Haile, A; Dessie, T
Full Text Available The genetic variability and genetic relationship of the fifteen sheep breeds were studied. The genotypes of 14 indigenous Chinese sheep breeds and one crossbreed of wild sheep were investigated using 13 microsatellite DNA markers recommended by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO and the International Society of Animal Genetics (ISAG through PCR. The allele frequency, heterozygosity and Genetic Differentiation Index (Fst were computed to estimate the genetic variation of each population. To determine the genetic relationships among the breeds, phylogenetic trees were constructed based on Nei’s genetic distance using the unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic mean and neighbor-joining method. A total of 15 breeds were clustered into three groups. The first group included Altay sheep and Duolang sheep, the second group was very large and complicated, the third group was a Kazark sheep. The thirteen microsatellite loci were effective markers for the analysis of genetic relationship among sheep breeds. In addition, genetic distance among groups is not according with their geographic distribution and groups or breeds with low production performance can easily impacted by breeds with better production performance. As for the results, it may be result from applying on artificial insemination and extension of commercial cross breeding technique in sheep production system recent years in China.
Fifty-nine female yearlings of local Awassi sheep were randomly divided into 2 groups. Animals in group T (treated) were fitted with intravaginal sponges containing 60 mg of medroxyprogesterone acetate for 14 days followed by 400 IU of pregnant mare's serum gonadotrophin (PMSG) at sponge withdrawal, whereas group C (control) received no treatment. Oestrus rate was 92.7% and 11.2% for groups T and C, respectively. Lambing rate was 78% and 5.6% for groups T and C, respectively. Twinning rate was 31.3% in group T compared to zero in group C. Average birth weight for single born lams (4.7 ± 0.6 kg) was significantly (P > 0.05) higher than twin born lams (3.0 ± 0.5 kg) in group T. The average concentration of blood progesterone collected between days 17-19 after mating was 19.30 nmol/1 and the accuracy of early pregnancy diagnosis was 100%. It was concluded that, it is possible to induce synchronized oestrus, and to increase the twinning rate in Syrian Awassi sheep yearlings outside the breeding season, using intravaginal sponges and PMSG. In addition, early pregnancy diagnosis could be successfully determined in female Awassi sheep yearlings between days 17-19 after-mating. (author)
Safety and quality foods of animal origin are extremely important for consumers. The aim of this work was to evaluate the feasibility of a method to track the breed origin of sheep meat all along the production chain using molecular genetics tools. A total of 800 samples evenly distributed among seven Italian sheep breeds have been typed at 19 STR markers, together with 90 samples from both imported sheep animals and local crossbred animals withdrawn at slaughterhouses. A maximum likelihood a...
Among genetic species of farm animals sheep has the highest artificial biodiversity. There are plenty of breeds due to the many kinds of biological production of human interest and to the large areas from plains to mountains and fro Equator to Poles engaged in sheep breeding. Sheep are producing wool (thin, meddle or thick), lambs, mouton (lean or fat), milk, pelts, furs or leather, each of them acting as single selection criterion or as component of selection indexes. Each kind of resulted p...
Genomic selection aims to increase accuracy and to decrease generation intervals, thus increasing genetic gains in animal breeding. Using real data of the French Lacaune dairy sheep breed, the purpose of this study was to compare the observed accuracies of genomic estimated breeding values using different models (infinitesimal only, markers only, and joint estimation of infinitesimal and marker effects) and methods [BLUP, Bayes C?, partial least squares (PLS), and sparse PLS]. The training data set included results of progeny tests of 1,886 rams born from 1998 to 2006, whereas the validation set had results of 681 rams born in 2007 and 2008. The 3 lactation traits studied (milk yield, fat content, and somatic cell scores) had heritabilities varying from 0.14 to 0.41. The inclusion of molecular information, as compared with traditional schemes, increased accuracies of estimated breeding values of young males at birth from 18 up to 25%, according to the trait. Accuracies of genomic methods varied from 0.4 to 0.6, according to the traits, with minor differences among genomic approaches. In Bayes C?, the joint estimation of marker and infinitesimal effects had a slightly favorable effect on the accuracies of genomic estimated breeding values, and were especially beneficial for somatic cell counts, the less heritable trait. Inclusion of infinitesimal effects also improved slopes of predictive regression equations. Methods that select markers implicitly (Bayes C? and sparse PLS) were advantageous for some models and traits, and are of interest for further quantitative trait loci studies. PMID:22541502
Duchemin, S I; Colombani, C; Legarra, A; Baloche, G; Larroque, H; Astruc, J-M; Barillet, F; Robert-Granié, C; Manfredi, E
Full Text Available Safety and quality foods of animal origin are extremely important for consumers. The aim of this work was to evaluate the feasibility of a method to track the breed origin of sheep meat all along the production chain using molecular genetics tools. A total of 800 samples evenly distributed among seven Italian sheep breeds have been typed at 19 STR markers, together with 90 samples from both imported sheep animals and local crossbred animals withdrawn at slaughterhouses. A maximum likelihood assignment test was adopted to evaluate STR ability to allocate samples to their true breed of origin. Sarda animals were all correctly allocated, as well as more than 98% of samples from the other breeds. Only slightly worst allocation performances were observed for imported and crossbred animals. Preliminary results seem quite promising, though further analyses will be needed in order to better understand the statistical power of such an assignment test before implementation in the sheep meat production chain.
Linear scoring is widely applied in domestic animal species, mainly in cattle and horses. There are only few cases of linear scoring in sheep, probably because the small body size and the narrow range of the classes make difficult to correctly evaluate the measures. In this paper the results of a linear scoring test carried out on Merinizzata Italiana sheep breed in order to verify the feasibility of this method in sheep, are reported. Twenty untrained people, with three different levels of s...
Camillo Pieramati; Emiliano Lasagna; Francesco Panella; Fabrizio Piro; Andrea Giontella; Francesca Maria Sarti
Aim of the current study was to evaluate the effects of turning from conventional to organic production systems on the reproductive performance of native Romanian Turcana sheep breed reared for lamb-meat production under highlands conditions. Researches were carried out in two farms from highlands of western Romania, one farm was registered for organic production and the other reared sheep under conventional practices. In Turcana breed, average conception rate registered under organic prod...
China is abundant of sheep genetic resources. A total of 55 sequences containing the Ovis aries mtDNA D: -loop of three large-fat-tailed sheep breeds, named Lanzhou, Tong, and Han were retrieved from GenBank to investigate their genetic diversity, origin, and phylogenetic evolution. The results showed that the sheep breeds in our study proved to be extremely diverse, the average haplotype diversity and nucleotide diversity were 0.987?±?0.006 and 0.03956?±?0.00206, respectively. The 55 sequences gave 39 different haplotypes. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that there were three distinct mtDNA haplogroups: A, B, and C, in which haplogroup A was predominant and had experienced population expansion events. Clustering analysis showed that the large-fat-tailed sheep breeds clustered into one group and were closely related to the Mongolian sheep and then European mouflon sheep (Ovis musimon). The results contribute to the knowledge of Chinese sheep breeds and the plan of conservation programs on large-fat-tailed sheep. PMID:21503751
Zhao, Yongju; Zhao, Erhu; Zhang, Nanyang; Duan, Chaowei
Full Text Available About 90% of bovine malignant catarrhal fever (BMCF PCR-positive cases in South Africa are caused by alcelaphine herpesvirus-1 (AlHV-1 and the other 10 % by ovine herpesvirus-2 (OvHV-2. The prevalence of OvHV-2 in different sheep breeds in South Africa was determined in order to investigate whether the lower incidence of BMCF caused by OvHV-2 in comparison with AlHV-1 can be ascribed to a low incidence of the virus in sheep. A single-tube hemi-nested PCR was developed, evaluated and applied to detect OvHV-2 DNA. The prevalence of the virus in 4 sheep breeds from various regions in South Africa was shown to be 77 %. No statistically significant difference was found amongst the sheep breeds tested.
Full Text Available Chilota sheep is a typical animal population from Chiloé Archipelago in the south of Chile. First sheep were introduced in Chiloé in 1568 with Spanish conquerors. In 2010 Chilota sheep was recognized as the first original breed of Chile. Blood samples were obtained from 40 Chilota individuals from 40 flocks spread throughout Chiloé Archipelago. A maximum of one individual per flock were sampled. Up to 21 microsatellites, previously used to characterize both betweenand within-breed genetic relationships in sheep were analyzed in all the individuals. Results show that Chilota sheep shows a population structure that doesn´t differ significantly from that presented in the Spanish racial groups previously analyzed. A deficit of heterozygotes is also observed possibly because of geographic isolation on the islands within the archipelago of Chiloé.
R. de la Barra
Prion protein (PrP) gene of 308 sheep was genotyped to investigate polymorphisms at scrapie-associated codons 136, 154 and 171 to assess the resistance of nine different Pakistani sheep breeds to natural/typical scrapie. As a result six genotypes were established on the basis of polymorphic codons 154 and 171. The most scrapie-susceptible codon 136 (A/V) was monomorphic (A) in all breeds. Wild-type genotype ARQ/ARQ was detected with maximum prevalence ranging from 63.2% in crossbred Pak-karakul to 100% in native Buchi, Kachi and Thalli breeds. The most frequent of typical scrapie-associated genotypes was ARQ/ARR as indicated by five of nine breeds. The coding region of PrP gene of 49 animals from the total sampled was also sequenced to ascertain additional polymorphisms. Polymorphism was found in 13 animals of the six breeds in codons 101(Q/R), 112(M/T), 146(N/S) and 189(Q/L) and ten genotypes were established on the basis of these polymorphic codons. Only Hissardale possessed five of the ten genotypes. The most frequent genotype was M(112)ARQ/T(112)ARQ detected in Hissardale, Pak-karakul and Awassi, whereas genotypes ARQr(231)/ARQr(231) and ARQR(231)/ARQr(231) (established on the basis of silent polymorphism agg/cgg-R/R) were detected in all breeds. Some animals consisted of three polymorphisms at different PrP codons that are not common in European breeds. An infrequent double heterozygosity (c/c a/g g/t) for codon 171 resulting in a genotype R/H was also detected in three animals each one from Kajli, Hissardale and Pak-karakul. This study concludes that all native sheep breeds are poor in scrapie-resistant PrP genotypes and could contract scrapie if exposed to prions. PMID:18297414
Babar, M E; Farid, A; Benkel, B F; Ahmad, J; Nadeem, A; Imran, M
Full Text Available We aim at understanding the genomic influence on milk quality and synthesis by comparing two sheep breeds using sheep-specific microarray technology. From sheep ESTs deposited at NCBI we generated a chip carrying about 22,000 non-redundant features in quadruplicate, achieving very good technical outcomes. Oligos were in situ generated on chip using the Combimatrix equipment. We analysed the mammary transcriptome in individuals of two sheep breeds at two lactation stages, to identify genes controlling milk production and metabolic pathways in which these genes are involved. With |FC|>1.4, and p-value?0.05, 142 and 14 genes resulted differentially expressed in stages 01 and 02, respectively.
Through their domestication and subsequent selection, sheep have been adapted to thrive in a diverse range of environments. To characterise the genetic consequence of both domestication and selection, we genotyped 49,034 SNP in 2,819 animals from a diverse collection of 74 sheep breeds. We find the majority of sheep populations contain high SNP diversity and have retained an effective population size much higher than most cattle or dog breeds, suggesting domestication occurred from a broad ge...
Genotypes, phenotypes and pedigrees of 6 breeds of dairy sheep (including subdivisions of Latxa, Manech, and Basco-Béarnaise) from the Spain and France Western Pyrenees were used to estimate genetic relationships across breeds (together with genotypes from the Lacaune dairy sheep) and to verify by forward cross-validation single-breed or multiple-breed genetic evaluations. The number of rams genotyped fluctuated between 100 and 1,300 but generally represented the 10 last cohorts of progeny-tested rams within each breed. Genetic relationships were assessed by principal components analysis of the genomic relationship matrices and also by the conservation of linkage disequilibrium patterns at given physical distances in the genome. Genomic and pedigree-based evaluations used daughter yield performances of all rams, although some of them were not genotyped. A pseudo-single step method was used in this case for genomic predictions. Results showed a clear structure in blond and black breeds for Manech and Latxa, reflecting historical exchanges, and isolation of Basco-Béarnaise and Lacaune. Relatedness between any 2 breeds was, however, lower than expected. Single-breed genomic predictions had accuracies comparable with other breeds of dairy sheep or small breeds of dairy cattle. They were more accurate than pedigree predictions for 5 out of 6 breeds, with absolute increases in accuracy ranging from 0.05 to 0.30 points. They were significantly better, as assessed by bootstrapping of candidates, for 2 of the breeds. Predictions using multiple populations only marginally increased the accuracy for a couple of breeds. Pooling populations does not increase the accuracy of genomic evaluations in dairy sheep; however, single-breed genomic predictions are more accurate, even for small breeds, and make the consideration of genomic schemes in dairy sheep interesting. PMID:24630656
Legarra, A; Baloche, G; Barillet, F; Astruc, J M; Soulas, C; Aguerre, X; Arrese, F; Mintegi, L; Lasarte, M; Maeztu, F; Beltrán de Heredia, I; Ugarte, E
This study was carried out to evaluate three Pakistani sheep breeds (Kachhi, Lohi and Thalli) for their natural resistance against artificial infection of Haemonchus contortus. Lambs were weaned at 3 months of age, housed in separate pens and treated with Avermectin to eliminate gastrointestinal nematode infection. Each lamb was infected orally with approximately 10,000 third stage larvae of H. contortus. Selected breeds were compared on the basis of parasitological, haematological, biochemical and histopathological parameters over a period of 9 weeks. Faecal egg counts were measured weekly while packed cell volume, total serum protein, serum albumin and live weight were determined fortnightly. At 9th-week post-infection, 10 animals of each breed were randomly selected and slaughtered for worm, eosinophil and mast cell counts from the abomasum of each animal. Faecal egg counts and worm burden were significantly lower (PLohi sheep than Kachhi and Thalli breeds. Furthermore, the Lohi breed also exhibited the highest levels of packed cell volume, total serum protein, albumin as well as eosinophils and mast cell counts. Breed x week interaction also remained significant (PLohi breed. The results suggested that Lohi breed expressed a significant innate resistance to artificial infection of H. contortus. PMID:19939567
Saddiqi, H A; Iqbal, Z; Khan, M N; Sarwar, M; Muhammad, G; Yaseen, M; Jabbar, A
Full Text Available This study was done from September 2006 to May 2007. A total of 105 Menz breed sheep from Yemenze Gera Midir district in the Amhara National Regional State, Ethiopia. The spatial distribution of sheep keds (Melophagus ovinus and chewing lice (Bovicola ovis on Menz breed sheep were examined which were naturally infested. The densities if sheep keds and lice were determined through counting after parting of the fleece/wool at five (5 points on a length of 10 cm areas of six (6 different regions (neck, shoulder, belly, back, rump and flank on both sides of the body which sum up sixty (60 points of count. The percentage values of Bovicola ovis distribution on the sheep for the inspected regions were 57.5% on shoulder, 53.32% neck, 51% rump, 49.25% flank, 45.36% belly and 45.28 back. For Melophagus ovinus infested sheep, the sites more parasitized were flank, shoulder, rump, neck, belly and back with proportion of 69, 60.12, 51, 42, 33 and 21, respectively in order of importance. The minimum and maximum keds and lice count on a sheep at a time were varied between 0 to 178 and 0 to 1050 respectively. However, most frequently the number of keds and lice were range between 18-30 and 0-100 respectively. Infestation of sheep with sheep keds has statistical significant difference among the different regions examined and no statistical significant difference exist for lice at 95% confidence interval (CI and p value of less than 0.05.
PrP genotypes at codons 136 and 171 in 120 Iranian Ghezel sheep breeds were studied using allele-specific PCR amplification and compared with the well-known sheep breeds in North America, the United States and Europe. The frequency of V allele and VV genotype at codon 136 of Ghezel sheep breed was significantly lower than AA and AV. At codon 171, the frequency of allele H was significantly lower than Q and R. Despite the similarities of PrP genotypes at codons 136 and 171 between Iranian Ghez...
Full Text Available A cross sectional study was performed to investigate the epidemiology of Neospora caninum infection in Southern Jordan. A total of 320 sheep and 300 goats from 38 and 24, sheep and goat flocks, respectively, were randomly sampled and assayed for presence of antibodies against N. caninum. A structured pre-tested questionnaire was administered to collect information on flocks' health and management. A multivariable logistic regression model was constructed to investigate risk factors associated with seropositivity to N. caninum. The individual true seroprevalence of N. caninum in sheep and goats was 4.3 and 5.7%, respectively. The sheep and goat flock level true seroprevalence for N. caninum was 45.8 and 48.7%, respectively. The logistic regression model revealed small herd size, having more than one dog and grazing in communal pastures as risk factors for N. caninum seropositivity in both sheep and goats. Damascus breed goats were more likely to be seropositive than goats of other breeds.
Al-Majali A. N.
The Local Awassi, a triple-purpose breed for meat, milk, and carpet-wool production, is a low-prolific, hardy breed that is well adapted to the unfavorable conditions of the Middle East, where it is managed under traditionally extensive to semi-extensive conditions. Breeding work with the Awassi has included within-breed selection, crossbreeding, and gene introgression. Those efforts resulted in a variety of Awassi-derived genotypes that successfully occupy semi-intensive as well as intensive production systems. Thus, within-breed selection resulted in development of the "Improved Awassi"-a dairy-type Awassi strain which, under intensive management, produces over 500 l milk/ewe annually; crossbreeding with the East Friesian breed led to the development of the Assaf dairy breed, which exceeds the Improved Awassi in prolificacy and in year-round breeding activity, and introgression of the B allele of the FecB locus into the Awassi and Assaf breeds resulted in the formation of the prolific Afec Awassi and Afec Assaf strains, with prolificacies of 1.9 and 2.5 lambs born per ewe lambing, respectively. Advanced molecular genetics tools have enabled a better understanding of how the Awassi breed was formed during domestication and have uncovered differences in its genetic structure compared to other breeds. Implementing large-scale selection schemes that implement emerging new information on the sheep genome, overcoming threats of inbreeding depression, and further breeding for high uterine capacity are the new breeding goals for the Awassi, Assaf, and their derivatives. PMID:21512726
Implementing the use of spine traits in a commercial breeding program has been seen to improve meat production from the carcass of larger-bodied pigs. The aim of this study was to assess the extent of variation in spine characteristics within and between breeds of sheep and to investigate the association with body length and tissues traits to deliberate if a similar approach could be applicable in the sheep sector. Spine traits (vertebrae number, VN; spine region length, SPL; individual vertebra length, VL) of the thoracic (THOR) lumbar (LUM) and thoracolumbar (T+L) spine regions were measured using x-ray computed tomography (CT) on 254 Texel (TEX), 1100 Scottish Blackface (SBF), 326 Texel cross Mule (TEX × MULE), and 178 Poll Dorset cross Mule (PD × MULE) lambs. Simple descriptive statistics inform that variation in thoracolumbar VN exists within all breeds and crosses; TEX animals showed the largest range of variation in thoracolumbar VN (17 to 21) and the TEX × MULE the smallest (18 to 20). Significant differences were not observed between sexes, but did occur between breeds (P meat production from these longer-bodied sheep. PMID:23243168
Donaldson, C L; Lambe, N R; Maltin, C A; Knott, S; Bunger, L
The aim of the present work was to evaluate the breed and season effects on scrotal circumference (SC) and semen characteristics of 28 mature hair sheep rams kept under tropical conditions. SCs, sperm concentration (SPC) and abnormal sperm were significantly affected by breed effect (p < 0.001). The season effect was significant in SPC (p < 0.0001) while ejaculate volume, mass motility and SPC were affected by breed × season interaction effect (p < 0.001). It can be concluded that the magnitude of the breed and season effects were not sufficient to affect the reproductive capacity of hair sheep rams throughout the year. PMID:22372836
Cárdenas-Gallegos, M A; Aké-López, J R; Centurión-Castro, F; Magaña-Monforte, J G
In Italy, the crisis of the wool industry triggered the necessity to reconvert the two traditional Merino-derived breeds, Gentile di Puglia and Sopravissana, to meat production, by creating the Merinizzata Italiana. The aim of the present study was to assess the genetic diversity of these three Italian Merino-derived (IMd) breeds by examining the molecular information encoded in the maternally-inherited mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). A parallel molecular investigation was performed on the putative paternal and maternal breeds, the Merino from Spain and the Appenninica from Italy, respectively, as well as on three unrelated dairy breeds (Sarda and Comisana from Italy, and Lacaune from France). Firstly, the mtDNA control region of 291 samples was analyzed. When comparing the overall genetic distances among the eight stocks, the three IMd breeds clustered together close to the Appenninica, thus confirming its parental role. Among the 90 IMd samples, 82 different haplotypes were observed, almost all belonging to haplogroup B, and only one to A. For 23 mtDNAs, including nine IMd, the analysis was then brought to the level of entire mitogenomes. Three distinct sub-haplogroups within B were found to encompass the IMd samples, with one clade (B1a2a1) apparently restricted to those sheep. Thus, despite experiencing a drastic reduction in number (mainly due to changes in breeding practices driven by the economy), the IMd breeds still represent a reservoir of distinctive mitochondrial variants, which could potentially contribute to the development of conservation and management programs of Italian sheep breeds.
Lancioni, Hovirag; Di Lorenzo, Piera; Ceccobelli, Simone; Perego, Ugo A.; Miglio, Arianna; Landi, Vincenzo; Antognoni, Maria T.; Sarti, Francesca M.
In Italy, the crisis of the wool industry triggered the necessity to reconvert the two traditional Merino-derived breeds, Gentile di Puglia and Sopravissana, to meat production, by creating the Merinizzata Italiana. The aim of the present study was to assess the genetic diversity of these three Italian Merino-derived (IMd) breeds by examining the molecular information encoded in the maternally-inherited mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). A parallel molecular investigation was performed on the putative paternal and maternal breeds, the Merino from Spain and the Appenninica from Italy, respectively, as well as on three unrelated dairy breeds (Sarda and Comisana from Italy, and Lacaune from France). Firstly, the mtDNA control region of 291 samples was analyzed. When comparing the overall genetic distances among the eight stocks, the three IMd breeds clustered together close to the Appenninica, thus confirming its parental role. Among the 90 IMd samples, 82 different haplotypes were observed, almost all belonging to haplogroup B, and only one to A. For 23 mtDNAs, including nine IMd, the analysis was then brought to the level of entire mitogenomes. Three distinct sub-haplogroups within B were found to encompass the IMd samples, with one clade (B1a2a1) apparently restricted to those sheep. Thus, despite experiencing a drastic reduction in number (mainly due to changes in breeding practices driven by the economy), the IMd breeds still represent a reservoir of distinctive mitochondrial variants, which could potentially contribute to the development of conservation and management programs of Italian sheep breeds. PMID:24040036
Lancioni, Hovirag; Di Lorenzo, Piera; Ceccobelli, Simone; Perego, Ugo A; Miglio, Arianna; Landi, Vincenzo; Antognoni, Maria T; Sarti, Francesca M; Lasagna, Emiliano; Achilli, Alessandro
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Herein, genetic relationships among five breeds of Bulgarian sheep were estimated using microsatellite markers. The total number of alleles identified was 226 at the 16 loci examined. D A distance values were used for phylogenetic tree construction with the UPGMA algorithm. The two Tsigai and two Ma [...] ritza populations were found to be geneticallvery closely related to each other y (0.198, and 0.258 respectively). The Pleven Black Head population was distinct from the other four. These results could be useful for preserving genes in these breeds, thereby ensuring their preservation in Bulgaria.
Kusza, Szilvia; Dimov, Doytcho; Nagy, István; Bõsze, Zsuzsanna; Jávor, András; Kukovics, Sándor.
Breed appears to influence the susceptibility of sheep to Haemonchus contortus infection. Experiments on Masai and Merino sheep indicated that the Masai appear innately capable of reacting more vigorously to throw off H. contortus infection, this reaction being enhanced by previous experience. Following challenge, tangible resistance develops consistently in Masai, compared to a partial resistance, at best, in Merino. Resistance appears to be a short-lived phenomenon in both breeds. A field trial was carried out, to determine the influence of hemoglobin type on the susceptibility of Merino sheep. Sheep of hemoglobin types AA, AB and BB were used. A lower egg production occurred in hemoglobin type AA sheep, contrary to results obtained in the laboratory where ''massive'' experimental infection (250 Haemonchus larvae/kg liveweight) was effected. Tracer techniques involving "5"1Cr- labelled erythrocytes and "1"2"5I-tagged plasma were applied
The aim of this study is to investigate the profile of ovine PrP gene by amino acid polymorphism at codons 136, 141, 154, and 171 for determining the genetic predisposition to the Scrapie disease for the tribal sheep and rams, with different numbers and distribution in Bulgaria. Three hundred twenty four animals originating from 41 tribal herds comprising eight breeds were included in the study. DNA was isolated from blood samples specifically amplified by PCR and sequenced. The alignments of codons 136, 141, 154, and 171 were determined. Based on the sequencing, it was established that Bulgarian breeds belong to the second and third risk groups, those with low and moderate risk of Scrapie disease. Establishment of 11 genotypes in Synthetic Population Bulgarian Milk breed reveals it to have the highest risk of the Scrapie disease; moreover, the conducting of the program will be more difficult in comparison with other investigated breeds. Evidence for the internal cross breeding is the presence of the five or six genotypes in the Copper-Red Shoumen, Replian, Karakachan, and Duben Bulgarian native breeds. PMID:21533749
Sirakov, Ivo; Peshev, Raiko; Christova, Lilia
In this study, influential factors and (co)variance components for survival to 24 h after birth were determined and estimated for Texel, Shropshire, and Oxford Down, the most common sheep breeds in Denmark. Data from 1992 to 2006 containing 138,813 survival records were extracted from the sheep recording database at the Danish Agricultural Advisory Service. Estimation of (co)variance components was carried out using univariate animal models, applying logistic link functions. The logistic functions were also used for estimation of fixed effects. Both direct and maternal additive genetic effects, as well as common litter effects, were included in the models. The mean survival to 24 h after birth was 92.5, 91.7, and 88.5% for Texel, Shropshire, and Oxford Down, respectively. There was a curvilinear relationship between survival to 24 h after birth and birth weight, with survival less for light and heavy lambs. Male lambs, as well as lambs from ewes in the first parity or with difficult lambing, had the least survival to 24 h after birth. Survival to 24 h after birth was greater in twin-born Texel and Shropshire lambs compared with singletons and vice versa in Oxford Down. Estimates of direct heritability were in the range from 0.05 to 0.07. Maternal heritability estimates were slightly greater (0.06 and 0.07) than direct heritabilities in Texel and Shropshire and less (0.04) in Oxford Down. The estimated genetic correlations between direct and maternal effects for survival to 24 h after birth were negative, which will make breeding for this trait more difficult. However, on the basis of estimated genetic parameters, it can be concluded that it is possible to improve survival to 24 h after birth in meat sheep breeds by accounting for both direct and maternal genetic effects in breeding programs
Maxa, J; Sharifi, A R
Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to compare the incidence of brucellosis in groups of Kangal Akkaraman sheep flocks raised in farm conditions in Sivas province. The first and second groups of the sheep flocks were part of the 8 sub-projects which belong to The Project entitled “Nationwide Genetic Improvement of Small Ruminants in Farm Condition” continued for 7 and 1-3 years, respectively. The third group of the sheep flocks was not part of this nationwide project. The study material consisted of 1491 units of blood serum (n=278, 1166 and 47 for the first, second and third groups, respectively. Brucella antibodies were looked for in blood serum using tube and slide agglutination tests. The incidences of brucellosis were 4% and 7.5% in flocks which were part of the nationwide project continued for 7 and 3 years, respectively and 25.5% for the flocks not part of the nationwide project. The differences between groups were found statistically significant. Even though there was no brucella vaccination programs in the flocks of the nationwide project, practices such as regular controls of the flocks by veterinary technicians, drug/vaccination applications for parasites and some other diseases, removal of rams positive for brucella before breeding season significantly reduced the incidence of brucella. As a result, promoting good breeding practices along with the brucella vaccination program applied by the related Ministry can be very beneficial for the eradication of brucella disease that is a big problem for the country.
Yusuf Ziya O?rak
Full Text Available This study was carried out to investigate the fertility, milk production and body weight of ewes and the survival rates and growth characteristics for K?v?rc?k, Gokceada and Sak?z breeds of sheep kept as gene resources in western part of Turkiye. K?v?rc?k, Gokceada and Sak?z breeds of sheep are included in the project for conservation of indigenious breeds as genetic resources.Lambing rate, litter size, milk yield and live weight for K?v?rc?k, Gökçeada and Sak?z ewes were 79.8 %, 67.6 % and 74.5 %; 1.26, 1.24 and 1.83; 41.8, 51.1 and 58.0 kg; 62.60, 51.39, and 48.52 kg. respectively. The lambs produced by K?v?rc?k, Gokceada and Sak?z ewes had 97 %, 94.7 % and 92.2 % survival rates to weaning; 4.09, 3.52 and 3.93 kg. birth weights; 38.17, 29.25 and 30.82 kg. weaning weights; 43.14, 35.57 and 34.64 kg. sixth month weights; 49.13, 39.70 and 37.39 kg. yearling weights respectively.
Full text: In order to realize the preservation and exploitation of domestic animal biodiversity and to define a global strategy for the management of Algerian sheep genetic resources, the goals of our research are the knowledge of the degree of genetic variability, the partition of this variability and the genetic distance among ovine breeds. This information will be obtained by analyzing directly the genome at molecular level. In this study DNA of 85 animals from two breeds, Ouled-Djellal and Hamra, was PCR amplified at the following microsatellite loci: McM42, TGLA53, MAF65, McM527, OarFCB20, INRA49, OarFCB11, OarCP49, CSSM66, MAF36, Oar HH56 and ILST05. Number of alleles and allele frequencies were calculated. The results showed that these breeds presented a polymorphism with these microsatellite markers reflecting a genetic variability among them. However, highest differences in allele frequencies were found at loci: McM527, ILSTS05, OarFCB20, INRA49, MAF36, McM42, MAF65, OarFCB11, OarCP49, CSSM66, while at the other loci the alleles at the highest frequency are the same. This study is being extended to five other Algerian breeds: Taadmit, Barbarine, D'men, Sidaou and Berbere to estimate their variability and genetic distance between them. Now, we are collecting blood from these different breeds to constitute a DNA bank. The results will allow establishment of the strategy to promote the use and development of locally adapted sheep resources. (author)
Data on 1816 dam-lamb pairs of Rambouillet breed of sheep maintained at Livestock Experimental Station, Jaba, District Mansehra (NWFP) during the period 1957-86 were used to study the effect of body weight of ewes at service on birth weight of lambs. The weight of dam at service and birth weight of lamb averaged 48.66 ? 1.14 and 3.67 ? 0.08 kg, respectively. It has been observed that weight of the dam significantly effect the birth weight of lambs. The correlation and regression coefficie...
Full Text Available The present investigation was carried out to examine the presence of Booroola FecB mutation gene in 124 selected prolific ewes from 6 flocks representing two Saudi Arabian local sheep breeds by forced PCR-RFLP method. Genomic DNA was extracted from the blood of 69 Najdi and 55 Naeimi matured ewes with litter size varied from 2.01-2.16 lambs per ewe lambing. Digestion of FecB gene 190 base pair with AvaII restriction enzyme resulted in non carrier 190 bp band wild type in all samples which revealed the absence of this mutation in the tested Najdi and Naeimi sheep breeds.
Sera from 53 sheep belonging to Castellano, Churro, Manchego, and Merino breeds were analyzed to test the diagnostic value of a 26-kD antigen from adult Haemonchus contortus at prepatency and early and late patency of experimental haemonchosis. Animals that received zero, 1, or 2 infections with the parasite were tested. In addition, sera from 20 experimentally infected and 10 noninfected Texel sheep were used to test the antigen. Sera from 37 infected animals at prepatency as well as at patency in primary and secondary infection were found positive with the 26-kD antigen. However, sera from 10 animals with the lowest worm burdens (second infection) did not recognize the antigen during early patency (day 28 postinfection). IgG1 was the only isotype implicated in antigen recognition because IgG2, IgA, and IgM, in the same sera, showed no reactivity with the peptide. Antigen specificity was confirmed because hyperimmune sera against infective larvae and adult stages of the most common gastrointestinal nematodes found in natural infections in sheep (Trichostrongylus colubriformis and Teladorsagia circumcincta) did not recognize this peptide. The antigen was recognized only by anti-adult H. contortus hyperimmune sera and appeared to be absent in the L3 parasite stage. In addition, the partial N-terminal amino acid sequence of the diagnostic peptide is reported. PMID:10907865
Gómez-Muñoz, M T; Domínguez, I A; Gómez-Iglesias, L A; Fernández-Pérez, F J; Méndez, S; de la Fuente, C; Alunda, J M; Cuquerella, M
Full Text Available Aim of the current study was to evaluate the effects of turning from conventional to organic production systems on the reproductive performance of native Romanian Turcana sheep breed reared for lamb-meat production under highlands conditions. Researches were carried out in two farms from highlands of western Romania, one farm was registered for organic production and the other reared sheep under conventional practices. In Turcana breed, average conception rate registered under organic production system was of 97.94%, while in conventional rearing the conception rate was of 94.72%, differences registered between the two system being significantly statistic (p?0.05. Prolificacy was not influenced (p?0.05 by the production system in Turcana ewes, with average values registered of 118.18% under organic production system and of 115.16% under conventional conditions, respectively. It was concluded that shortcomings caused by restrictions required by organic production can be surpassed throughout proper management and rearing conditions.
Abstract Background It has been questioned if the old native Norwegian sheep breed, Old Norse Sheep (also called Norwegian Feral Sheep), normally distributed on coastal areas where ticks are abundant, is more protected against tick-borne infections than other Norwegian breeds due to a continuously high selection pressure on pasture. The aim of the present study was to test this hypothesis in an experimental infection study. Methods Five-months-old lambs of two N...
Stuen Snorre; Grøva Lise; Granquist Erik G; Sandstedt Karin; Olesen Ingrid; Steinshamn Håvard
Full Text Available This study was aimed to clarify the differences among the indigenous farm animal breeds by means microsatellite DNA polymorphism. The microsatellite DNA polymorphism in the Kivircik, Akkaraman, Awassi, Turkgeldi and Konya Merino sheep breeds were investigated. Repeated determined number of nucleotide as length of 1-6 nucleotide so called microsatellite are informative in phylogenetic studies. Three different microsatellite region of OarFCB304, OarFCB20, MAF65 were used in this study to compare the breeds genetically. The homozygote and heterozygote types of three mentioned loci were determined. The variation in the several wool characteristics of 5 native sheep breed investigated were examined according to the microsatellite DNA types. The relationship between several wool traits of material such as length, work to rupture, thickness, elongation, tenacity, etc and microsatellite DNA types were analysed.
This study was aimed to clarify the differences among the indigenous farm animal breeds by means microsatellite DNA polymorphism. The microsatellite DNA polymorphism in the Kivircik, Akkaraman, Awassi, Turkgeldi and Konya Merino sheep breeds were investigated. Repeated determined number of nucleotide as length of 1-6 nucleotide so called microsatellite are informative in phylogenetic studies. Three different microsatellite region of OarFCB304, OarFCB20, MAF65 were used in this study to compar...
Soysal, M. I.; Tuna, Y. T.; ?zkan, E.; G?rcan, E. K.; Togan, I.; Altunok, V.
Full Text Available Chilean sheep breeds have a significant founder effect since they descend from very few parents, in some cases population inbreeding has increased and in others there have been significant differentiation processes as compared to their original population. The objective of this study was to estimate the current status of genetic diversity in sheep herds, which comprise the main sheep breeds in Chile, using molecular methods. Animals from four breeding herds were sampled and analyzed. The breeds studied were Corriedale, Suffolk Down, Romney Marsh and Chilota, these are the predominant numerical pure breeds in Chile. From each breed population 40 animals were sampled. Genetic characterization was done using nine microsatellite molecular markers (SSR recommended by FAO-ISAG. Results showed that in the Chilean sheep herds there are low genetic complementarities among breeds and a high risk of losing genetic diversity due to inbreeding in Chilota and Romney Marsh breeds.Las razas ovinas presentes en Chile presentan un importante efecto fundador, al descender de un reducido número de progenitores. En algunos casos se sospecha que ha aumentado el grado de consanguinidad poblacional, mientras que en otros se observan procesos significativos de diferenciación respecto a sus poblaciones de origen. El objetivo del presente estudio fue estimar el estado actual de la diversidad genética de los planteles que gestionan las principales razas utilizadas en la ganadería ovina chilena. Para ello se utilizaron las razas Corriedale, Sufolk Down, Romney Marsh y Chilota, dado que son las predominantes en Chile como poblaciones puras. Se analizaron 40 animales de cada raza, pertenecientes a cuatro planteles de reproductores. Para la caracterización genética de los animales se utilizaron nueve marcadores moleculares de tipo microsatélite (SSR recomendados por FAO-ISAG. Los resultados indican una baja complementariedad genética entre las razas ovinas predominantes en Chile, advirtiéndose además una potencial pérdida de diversidad genética en todas las razas así como un elevado riesgo de incremento en esta pérdida por efecto de la endogamia en las razas Chilota y Romney Marsh.
Rodrigo de la Barra
Full Text Available Abstract Some demographic parameters, the genetic structure and the evolution of the genetic variability of six French meat sheep breeds were analysed in relation with their management. Four of these breeds are submitted to more or less intense selection: the Berrichon du Cher (BCH, Blanc du Massif Central (BMC, Charollais (CHA and Limousin (LIM; the other two breeds are under conservation: the Roussin de La Hague (RLH and Solognot (SOL. Genealogical data of the recorded animals born from 1970 to 2000 and of their known ancestors were used. The most balanced contributions of the different flocks to the sire-daughter path was found in the SOL. In the BCH, a single flock provided 43% of the sire-AI sire path, whereas the contributions of the flocks were more balanced in the BMC and LIM (the only other breeds where AI is used to a substantial amount. The distribution of the expected genetic contribution of the founder animals was found to be unbalanced, especially in the BCH and LIM. The effective numbers of ancestors (founders or not for the ewes born from 1996 to 2000 were equal to 35 (BCH, 144 (BMC, 112 (CHA, 69 (LIM, 40 (RLH and 49 (SOL. Inbreeding was not analysed in the BMC, due to incomplete pedigree information. From 1980 on, the rates of inbreeding, in percentage points per year, were +0.112 (BCH, +0.045 (CHA, +0.036 (LIM, +0.098 (RLH and +0.062 (SOL. The implications of the observed trends on genetic variability are discussed in relation to the genetic management of each breed. The need for a larger selection basis in the BCH, the efficiency of the rules applied in the SOL to preserve the genetic variability and the need for a more collective organisation in the CHA and RLH are outlined.
Full Text Available We have previously reported the possible segregation of major gene(s for milk yield and fat corrected milk (FCM in Chios sheep breed. In this study we demonstrate the association of an SNP marker, within the last exon of the Acetyl-CoA acyltransferase 2 (ACAA2 gene, with milk yield and FCM in the same breed. Moreover, we investigate the effect of this SNP marker along with other microsatellite markers. Fifteen microsatellite markers (SSR on 13 chromosomes were genotyped on 198 ewes of the Chios breed. The association analysis revealed significant association (P
Through their domestication and subsequent selection, sheep have been adapted to thrive in a diverse range of environments. To characterise the genetic consequence of both domestication and selection, we genotyped 49,034 SNP in 2,819 animals from a diverse collection of 74 sheep breeds. We find the majority of sheep populations contain high SNP diversity and have retained an effective population size much higher than most cattle or dog breeds, suggesting domestication occurred from a broad genetic base. Extensive haplotype sharing and generally low divergence time between breeds reveal frequent genetic exchange has occurred during the development of modern breeds. A scan of the genome for selection signals revealed 31 regions containing genes for coat pigmentation, skeletal morphology, body size, growth, and reproduction. We demonstrate the strongest selection signal has occurred in response to breeding for the absence of horns. The high density map of genetic variability provides an in-depth view of the genetic history for this important livestock species. PMID:22346734
Kijas, James W; Lenstra, Johannes A; Hayes, Ben; Boitard, Simon; Porto Neto, Laercio R; San Cristobal, Magali; Servin, Bertrand; McCulloch, Russell; Whan, Vicki; Gietzen, Kimberly; Paiva, Samuel; Barendse, William; Ciani, Elena; Raadsma, Herman; McEwan, John; Dalrymple, Brian
Through their domestication and subsequent selection, sheep have been adapted to thrive in a diverse range of environments. To characterise the genetic consequence of both domestication and selection, we genotyped 49,034 SNP in 2,819 animals from a diverse collection of 74 sheep breeds. We find the majority of sheep populations contain high SNP diversity and have retained an effective population size much higher than most cattle or dog breeds, suggesting domestication occurred from a broad genetic base. Extensive haplotype sharing and generally low divergence time between breeds reveal frequent genetic exchange has occurred during the development of modern breeds. A scan of the genome for selection signals revealed 31 regions containing genes for coat pigmentation, skeletal morphology, body size, growth, and reproduction. We demonstrate the strongest selection signal has occurred in response to breeding for the absence of horns. The high density map of genetic variability provides an in-depth view of the genetic history for this important livestock species.
Kijas, James W.; Lenstra, Johannes A.; Hayes, Ben; Boitard, Simon; Porto Neto, Laercio R.; San Cristobal, Magali; Servin, Bertrand; McCulloch, Russell; Whan, Vicki; Gietzen, Kimberly; Paiva, Samuel; Barendse, William; Ciani, Elena; Raadsma, Herman; McEwan, John; Dalrymple, Brian
Full Text Available Objective. Estimate the genetic parameters for milk traits in a Romanian local sheep population Teleorman Black Head. Material and methods. Records of 262 sheep belonging to 17 rams and 139 ewes were used in the study. The following traits were investigated: milk yield, fat yield, protein yield, fat percentage and protein percentage. The genetic parameters were estimated using the Restricted Maximum Likelihood method, with a model including maternal effects. Results. The results from our study revealed that direct heritability estimates were moderate for milk yield (0.449, fat yield (0.442, protein yield (0.386 while for protein percentage (0.708 and fat percentage (0.924 were high. The high direct and maternal genetic correlation was between milk yield and protein yield (0.979, 0.973 and between protein yield and fat yield (0.952, 0.913 while the phenotypic correlation between the milk yield and fat yield (0.968, the milk yield and protein yield (0.967, fat yield and protein yield (0.936 was high and positive. Conclusions. The genetic parameters are important in selection program on this breed for genetic improvement.
Full Text Available The objective of the following research was to determine the effect of LGB genotypes on subclinical mastitis in Valle del Belice dairy sheep. Ewes were classified as affected or not by subclinical mastitis within a lactation based on i a positive culture in one of the test-days and ii more than 750,000 somatic cells. Generalized linear mixed models were fitted to assess the significance of LGB genotypes on MTB and MTC. The LGB genotypes significantly affected MTB (p=0.0387, and showed a tendency on MTC (p=0.1104. Least square means showed that in the analysis for MTB, individuals with genotypes BB and AB had a higher frequency of subclinical mastitis. Moreover, the least square differences showed that the incidence was significantly higher in BB ewes than in AA ewes (p<0.001, and a tendency of a higher incidence among AB ewes than in AA ewes (p=0.0630. In conclusion, the results of this work show that LGB genotype BB seems to be less favourable in terms of mastitis resistance in Valle del Belice sheep breed.
Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to determine the influence of application site and sheep breed on the efficacy of a flumethrin (1 % m/v solution for the control of 'bont'-legged (Hyalomma spp. and red-legged ticks (Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi. This study was conducted from November 1996 to February 1997 on 3 farms in the southwestern Free State Province. Two trials were conducted on Dorper sheep and 2 on Merino sheep. For each specific application 30 sheep were selected and allocated to 3 groups of 10 animals each using randomisation through minimisation, with pre-treatment total tick count as only criterion. Groups consisted of an untreated control group, a group treated with 3 m of a flumethrin (1 % m/v solution applied only to the anogenital region, and a group treated at a dose rate of 1 m flumethrin (1% m/v/5 kg host body mass. The total dose volume for animals in the last group was divided into 3 equal parts and applied to the brisket/axillae, groin and anogenital regions respectively. Animals grazed under extensive farming conditions and were infested by ticks that occurred naturally in the environment. Ticks were counted and removed weekly over a 6-week period. In all 4 trials, Rhipicephalus e. evertsi was the dominant tick species, followed, in 3 of the trials, by Hyalomma spp. Efficacy (% of control against ticks for Dorper sheep, treated only on the anogenital region, was variable, ranging between 29.5 and 97 %. In Merino sheep the efficacy values ranged between 23.1 and 90 %. The site-spcific (anogenital region efficacy of control against ticks infesting Merino sheep was in general 100 % or almost 100 %. In Dorper sheep the efficacy values were >80 % for 3-5 weeks. The efficacy (% of control against ticks for sheep treated on the brisket/axillae, groin and anogenital regions was always higher compared to sheep treated only on the anogenital region. In Dorper sheep, efficacy of control was >80 % for up to 4 weeks and in Merino sheep >80 % for 6 weeks.
Morphological traits of the whole udder (circumference, width, height, and length), teats (angle, length and width), udder cistern (teat opening and cistern height), and milk yield were measured over one lactation in a total of 18 ewes (nine Chilota and nine Suffolk Down sheep) belonging to the same experimental flock (Centro Experimental INIA Butalcura, Chiloé, Chile). Analysis of variance showed significant effects for breed, sheep within breed, and stage of lactation. Chilota ewes evidenc...
Marti?nez, Mari?a E.; Cecilia Calderón; Rodrigo de la Barra; Fernando La Fuente, L.; Carlos Gonzalo
Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish Las razas ovinas presentes en Chile presentan un importante efecto fundador, al descender de un reducido número de progenitores. En algunos casos se sospecha que ha aumentado el grado de consanguinidad poblacional, mientras que en otros se observan procesos significativos de diferenciación respecto [...] a sus poblaciones de origen. El objetivo del presente estudio fue estimar el estado actual de la diversidad genética de los planteles que gestionan las principales razas utilizadas en la ganadería ovina chilena. Para ello se utilizaron las razas Corriedale, Sufolk Down, Romney Marsh y Chilota, dado que son las predominantes en Chile como poblaciones puras. Se analizaron 40 animales de cada raza, pertenecientes a cuatro planteles de reproductores. Para la caracterización genética de los animales se utilizaron nueve marcadores moleculares de tipo microsatélite (SSR) recomendados por FAO-ISAG. Los resultados indican una baja complementariedad genética entre las razas ovinas predominantes en Chile, advirtiéndose además una potencial pérdida de diversidad genética en todas las razas así como un elevado riesgo de incremento en esta pérdida por efecto de la endogamia en las razas Chilota y Romney Marsh. Abstract in english Chilean sheep breeds have a significant founder effect since they descend from very few parents, in some cases population inbreeding has increased and in others there have been significant differentiation processes as compared to their original population. The objective of this study was to estimate [...] the current status of genetic diversity in sheep herds, which comprise the main sheep breeds in Chile, using molecular methods. Animals from four breeding herds were sampled and analyzed. The breeds studied were Corriedale, Suffolk Down, Romney Marsh and Chilota, these are the predominant numerical pure breeds in Chile. From each breed population 40 animals were sampled. Genetic characterization was done using nine microsatellite molecular markers (SSR) recommended by FAO-ISAG. Results showed that in the Chilean sheep herds there are low genetic complementarities among breeds and a high risk of losing genetic diversity due to inbreeding in Chilota and Romney Marsh breeds.
Rodrigo, de la Barra; Héctor, Uribe; Etel, Latorre; Fermín, San Primitivo; Juan, Arranz.
Full Text Available Data on 1816 dam-lamb pairs of Rambouillet breed of sheep maintained at Livestock Experimental Station, Jaba, District Mansehra (NWFP during the period 1957-86 were used to study the effect of body weight of ewes at service on birth weight of lambs. The weight of dam at service and birth weight of lamb averaged 48.66 ? 1.14 and 3.67 ? 0.08 kg, respectively. It has been observed that weight of the dam significantly effect the birth weight of lambs. The correlation and regression coefficients between the above mentioned two traits were 0.30 and 0.042 ? 3.157 x1-3. Analysis of variance of weight of the dam at service and birth weight of lambs due to regression revealed that this regression is statistically significant (P<0.01. The results of the present study indicated that the dams weight had a positive relationship with birth weight of lambs which will be helpful in the selection of young lambs even before their birth.
Full Text Available Genetic mutations with major effects on ovulation rate in sheep were recently identified in two genes of the Transforming Growth Factor (TGF superfamily and a TGF receptor, namely BMP15, GDF9 and BMPRIB. The FecXG, FecGH and FecB were performed to screen four sheep breeds (small tailed Han, Wadi, big tailed Han and Shandi sheep distributed along the lower Yellow river valley of China by forced PCR-RFLP method if these genes are responsible for their high prolificacies. The FecB mutation was found in small tailed Han and Wadi sheep but absent in big tailed Han and Shandi sheep. The 154 small tailed Han sheep included all three genotypes (FecB/FecB, FecB/Fec+ and Fec+/Fec+ at frequencies of 0.54, 0.40 and 0.06, respectively whereas the samples of 30 Wadi sheep were only detected two genotypes, 4 were heterozygous FecB/Fec+ and 26 Fec+/Fec+. The frequency of the FecB allele in small tailed Han and Wadi sheep were 0.74 and 0.07, respectively. Results indicated that the FecB mutation is not fixed in two sheep population. The same FecXG mutation of the BMP-15 gene was only found in small tailed Han ewes as in Belclare and Cambridge ewes, frequencies of genotypes FecXG+, FecX ++ and FecXGG were 0.70, 0.27 and 0.03, respectively. There was no evidence of FecGH in any of the breeds sampled. The discovery of the FecB mutation in small tailed Han sheep and Wadi sheep will facilitate the use of FecB allele in improving the prolificacy of non-prolific sheep breeds of China.
Calpastatin has been introduced as a potential candidate gene for growth and meat quality traits. In this study, genetic variability was investigated in the exon 6 and its intron boundaries of ovine CAST gene by PCR-SSCP analysis and DNA sequencing. Also a protein sequence and structural analysis were performed to predict the possible impact of amino acid substitutions on physicochemical properties and structure of the CAST protein. A total of 487 animals belonging to four ancient Iranian sheep breeds with different fat metabolisms, Lori-Bakhtiari and Chall (fat-tailed), Zel-Atabay cross-bred (medium fat-tailed) and Zel (thin-tailed), were analyzed. Eight unique SSCP patterns, representing eight different sequences or haplotypes, CAST-1, CAST-2 and CAST-6 to CAST-11, were identified. Haplotypes CAST-1 and CAST-2 were most common with frequency of 0.365 and 0.295. The novel haplotype CAST-8 had considerable frequency in Iranian sheep breeds (0.129). All the consensus sequences showed 98-99%, 94-98%, 92-93% and 82-83% similarity to the published ovine, caprine, bovine and porcine CAST locus sequences, respectively. Sequence analysis revealed four SNPs in intron 5 (C24T, G62A, G65T and T69-) and three SNPs in exon 6 (c.197A>T, c.282G>T and c.296C>G). All three SNPs in exon 6 were missense mutations which would result in p.Gln 66 Leu, p.Glu 94 Asp and p.Pro 99 Arg substitutions, respectively, in CAST protein. All three amino acid substitutions affected the physicochemical properties of ovine CAST protein including hydrophobicity, amphiphilicity and net charge and subsequently might influence its structure and effect on the activity of Ca2+ channels; hence, they might regulate calpain activity and afterwards meat tenderness and growth rate. The Lori-Bakhtiari population showed the highest heterozygosity in the ovine CAST locus (0.802). Frequency difference of haplotypes CAST-10 and CAST-8 between Lori-Bakhtiari (fat-tailed) and Zel (thin-tailed) breeds was highly significant (P<0.001), indicating that these two haplotypes might be breed-specific haplotypes that distinguish between fat-tailed and thin-tailed sheep breeds. PMID:24401538
Aali, Mohsen; Moradi-Shahrbabak, Mohammad; Moradi-Shahrbabak, Hosein; Sadeghi, Mostafa
Enzootic abortion in sheep, caused by Chlamydia psittaci, has been associated with pregnancy failure in most sheep-producing countries. Late-term abortions or the birth of weak low-birth-weight lambs occurred following primary C. psittaci infection in pregnant ewes. However, the mode by which C. psittaci can be transmitted among sheep has not been established. The present study was designed to determine whether the vaginal tracts of nonpregnant ewes were susceptible to C. psittaci infection a...
Papp, J. R.; Shewen, P. E.
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Os objetivos deste trabalho foram identificar a origem racial de ovinos Santa Inês e avaliar a unicidade das populações das principais raças naturalizadas brasileiras de ovinos deslanado. Foi realizado um estudo dos padrões de semelhança molecular a partir de marcadores RAPD-PCR, utilizando-se 238 i [...] ndivíduos dos Estados de Goiás, Sergipe, Bahia, e Ceará assim como do Distrito Federal, distribuídos entre as raças Santa Inês (48 animais), Bergamácia (46), Rabo Largo (48), Morada Nova (48) e Somali (48). Após triagem com 140 primers, foram selecionados 54 locos a partir de 19 primers e todas as raças apresentaram marcadores específicos. Análises qualitativas mostraram a presença de marcadores diagnóstico-específicos para todas as raças. As diferenças inter-raciais foram significativas e responsáveis por 14,92% da variação total observada. Na análise de agrupamento, a raça Santa Inês ficou próxima à Bergamácia (com 97% de valor bootstrap). A raça Rabo Largo apresentou maior similaridade com este grupo (com 81% bootstrap) do que as raças Morada Nova e Somali. Cada raça deve ser considerada como unidade de conservação e manejo, especialmente as raças Rabo Largo, Morada Nova e Somali, as quais apresentam as menores populações no País. Abstract in english The objectives of this work were to investigate the genetic structure of the Brazilian hair sheep breeds and to determine the origin of the Santa Inês breed. Molecular similarity was determined using Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA - Polymerase Chain Reaction markers in 238 individuals from five [...] naturalized sheep breeds: Santa Inês (48 animals), Rabo Largo (48), Somali (48), Morada Nova (48) and Bergamasca (46), collected in Goiás, Sergipe, Bahia, and Ceará States as well as in the Federal District. Fifty-four loci were selected from 19 primers, after a pilot test using 140 primers. Qualitative analyses indicate diagnostic markers for all breeds. All breeds were significantly different from each other. Interbreed differences were explained by 14.92% of the total variation. Santa Inês clustered with Bergamasca (97% bootstrap) and with Rabo Largo, composing the third member of the group (81% bootstrap) while Morada Nova and Somali breeds clustered separately. Each breed should be considered as a separate management and conservation unit, and special care should be taken with Rabo Largo, Morada Nova and Somali breeds, represented by small herds in Brazil.
Samuel Rezende, Paiva; Vanessa Chaves, Silvério; Andréa Alves, Egito; Concepta, McManus; Danielle Assis de, Faria; Arthur da Silva, Mariante; Sílvia Ribeiro, Castro; Maria do Socorro Maués, Albuquerque; Jorge Abdala, Dergam.
Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english The families of TGF-? proteins are the most important growth factors in the ovary for growth and differentiation of early ovarian follicles. Three related oocyte-derived members of the transforming growth factor-? superfamily, namely GDF9, BMP15 and BMPR-IB have been shown to be essential [...] for follicular growth and ovulation. The aim of the present study was to detect the incidence of mutation in exon two of GDF9 as a major gene in the Shal sheep breed. Blood samples were collected from 239 sheep and genomic DNA was extracted using the modified salting-out method. The quantity and quality of extracted DNA was examined using spectrophotometery and gel electrophoresis, respectively. A fragment with the size of 139 bp from exon two of GDF9 gene (FecG H) was amplified using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with a pair of specific primers. The amplified PCR products were digested with DdeI restriction enzyme. In the presence of mutations at this locus, the DdeI enzyme cannot recognize the restriction site. However, in the absence of mutations, the enzyme recognizes one restriction site and divides the amplified fragment into two fragments of 31 and 108 bp. In the present study only the wild type alleles were detected and all the samples showed the AA genotype. The analysis of polymorphism for GDF9 (FecG H) loci in Shal sheep indicates that the genetic factor responsible for twinning or multiple lambing rates is not related to reported mutated alleles at the GDF9 major gene in this breed. Therefore, we should attempt to detect other SNP for the GDF9 gene and/or other loci responsible for twining rate in this breed.
Ghaffari, M.; Nejati-Javaremi, A.; Rahimi-Mianji, G..
Twenty-one of the world's prolific sheep breeds and strains were tested for the presence of the FecB mutation of BMPR1B and the FecX(I) mutation of BMP15. The breeds studied were Romanov (2 strains), Finn (2 strains), East Friesian, Teeswater, Blueface Leicester, Hu, Han, D'Man, Chios, Mountain Sheep (three breeds), German Whiteheaded Mutton, Lleyn, Loa, Galician, Barbados Blackbelly (pure and crossbred) and St. Croix. The FecB mutation was found in two breeds, Hu and Han from China, but not in any of the other breeds. The 12 Hu sheep sampled were all homozygous carriers of FecB (FecB(B)/FecB(B)) whereas the sample of 12 Han sheep included all three genotypes (FecB(B)/FecB(B), FecB(B)/FecB+, FecB+/FecB+) at frequencies of 0.33, 0.58 and 0.08, respectively. There was no evidence of FecX(I) in any of the breeds sampled. PMID:15982834
Davis, G H; Balakrishnan, L; Ross, I K; Wilson, T; Galloway, S M; Lumsden, B M; Hanrahan, J P; Mullen, M; Mao, X Z; Wang, G L; Zhao, Z S; Zeng, Y Q; Robinson, J J; Mavrogenis, A P; Papachristoforou, C; Peter, C; Baumung, R; Cardyn, P; Boujenane, I; Cockett, N E; Eythorsdottir, E; Arranz, J J; Notter, D R
Scrapie is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder of sheep and goats caused by post-translational conformational change in the host-encoded prion protein (PrPC). Susceptibility or resistance to scrapie has been associated with the presence of polymorphisms in the prion protein (PrP) gene. In the present study, we analyzed the PrP gene sequence to determine the frequency of polymorphisms in 56 sheep (28 each from Damani and Hashtnagri breeds) and 56 goats (28 each from Kamori and Local Hairy breed...
Hussain, Amjed; Babar, Masroor E.; Imran, Muhammad; Haq, Ikram U.; Javed, Muhammad M.
Full Text Available Abstract Scrapie is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder of sheep and goats caused by post-translational conformational change in the host-encoded prion protein (PrPC. Susceptibility or resistance to scrapie has been associated with the presence of polymorphisms in the prion protein (PrP gene. In the present study, we analyzed the PrP gene sequence to determine the frequency of polymorphisms in 56 sheep (28 each from Damani and Hashtnagri breeds and 56 goats (28 each from Kamori and Local Hairy breeds. A total of 7 amino acid polymorphisms were detected in the PrP gene for sheep and 4 for goats. These amino acid polymorphisms were combined in 13 alleles and 15 genotypes in sheep and 5 alleles and 6 genotypes in goats. The overall frequency of the most sheep scrapie-resistant polymorphism (Q171R was calculated to be 0.107. The most scrapie-susceptible polymorphism (A136V was not detected in any of the studied sheep. The overall frequency of scrapie-associated polymorphism (H143R in goats was found to be 0.152. Along with already known amino acid polymorphisms, two novel polymorphisms were also detected for each of sheep (Q171N and T191I and goats (G22C and P63L. However, the overall frequency of these polymorphisms was extremely low.
In this study nine sheep and one goat were tested by the Sabin Feldman dye test for the presence of antibodies to Toxoplasma spp over a period of 12 months. No significant signs of a seasonal variation in dye test titres of infected animals could be demonstrated. The possible source of infection of two sheep, exhibiting a sudden rise in antibody titre during the course of the observations is discussed. PMID:601989
Owen, D; Chessum, B S
Full Text Available Dorper (DO is a meat-specialized hair composite breed, intensively selected for growth rates, carcass quality, unselective grazing. The aim of the current comparative study was to evaluate the adaptability and performance of DO breed under Hungarian and Romanian rearing conditions. DO breed was introduced into Hungary to Debrecen University in 2008. Under Hungarian rearing conditions the DO breed maintained its non-seasonal reproduction and reproductive precocity, with maiden ewes being put to ram starting the age of 9 months. Lamb crops of 2 weaned per year are common under proper management and feeding conditions. In Romania DO breed was introduced starting 2007, with the heard-book and genetic improvement plan of the breed being established in 2009. Under Romanian farming conditions the DO rams are usually used as terminal sires which are crossed with indigenous Turcana and Tsigai breeds, being preferred by the farmers to sire the crossbreds because of the high growth rates and non-selective grazing of the crossbreds. Fertility of DO ewes and survival rates of the DO sired lambs until weaning were not affected when compared to native Turcana breed. It was concluded that DO breed has adapted and performs extremely well under both Hungarian and Romanian rearing conditions.
Full text: Each cell of an animal's body contains full genetic code for the whole animal and nuclear transfer provides a way of converting cells to whole animal. Cells from endangered breeds collected by biopsy or from scrapings of soft skin or ear tissue or from hair follicle can be grown and multiplied in a laboratory and this would then be stored frozen indefinitely at 196 deg. C in liquid nitrogen. Mammary gland cells from sheep, mouse cumulus granulosa cells, bovine mural granulosa cells and fibroblast cells have all generated viable clones. The currently available methods of conservation, deep freezing of sperms (haploid genome) and storage of a large number of embryos are too expensive. In comparison, adult skin fibroblast cells are easy to obtain, hardy in culture and freezing, a good source of donor DNA without the limitations of age, sex and physiological state. Progenies were successfully obtained from nuclear transfer of serum-starved fibroblast cells from cattle, sheep and goat. Several other cell types successfully used for cloning are limited to female donors (cumulus and mammary epithelial, mural granulosa and oviductal cells) and are more difficult for long-term culture. Live progenies using skin fibroblasts have been produced in cattle. Sample collection and development of primary cultures: Samples were collected by biopsy of skin from ear pinna and transported in a complete medium (DMEM + HamsF12 with 10% FBS and penicillin and streptomycin) at 4 deg. C. Tissue samples were processed by removing hair form both sides, cut into small pieces and seeded in petridish containing fibroblast culture medium (DMEM + HamsF12, 10% FBS, penicillin and streptomycin and L-glutamine). The primary skin fibroblast cells started emerging out of tissues within 4-6 days and were allowed to grow up to 12-15 days till nearly 80% confluency was attained. Purification and sub-culturing of skin fibroblast cells: In isolated cases, there were contaminations of epithelial cells but these were removed mechanically as well as enzymatically to get pure fibroblasts. Sub-culturing or 'splitting cells' was done periodically removing growth media, washing the plate, dissociating the cells and diluting cell suspension in fresh media. Standard growth curve: Whenever, a new batch of culture media supplement was introduced, it was checked for its efficacy for growth of cells in culture and compared with standard growth curve. Goat skin fibroblasts remained in lag phase for initial two days when they settled on the solid surface of culture vessel and then came to log phase when maximum growth took place spanning from the third to the seventh day. As the confluencey level increased and media supplement was depleted, cells stopped dividing and a plateau was attained from the eighth day onwards and then showed decline due to contact inhibition. Cell proliferation index: Under standard culture conditions, skin fibroblast cells divide once in 24 hours but it is rarely achieved in normal culturing. The population doubling time and cell proliferation rate per day were checked at regular interval for quality assessment. For this, ELISA based MTT assay, incorporation of 5-bromo-de-oxyuridine method, and flow cytometer methods were used. Evaluation of cells for ploidy level: During long-term culturing the cells are likely to develop one or other type of chromosomal abnormalities. It must be ensured that the cells in different passages be checked for normal ploidy so that viable clones can be developed from them. Cultures showing increased frequency of aneuploidy or polyploidy must be terminated from further passaging. DNA from cultured somatic cells can be isolated using available DNA isolation kits and checked for its quality on 2% agarose. Cryo-freezing of cells: Cells are best frozen as cell suspension. Healthy culture were always employed to provide the stock to freeze cells. The cells were frozen at controlled freezing rate. The cells were kept at -80 deg. C as well as at -196 deg. C in Liquid nitrogen. Cells were found viable for subsequent grow
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine some of the structural and technical features of sheep breeding in the Southeastern Anatolia Project (GAP region of Turkey. To reach this aim a survey was carry out in the 251 farms located in 52 villages of 14 districts of 4 provinces including Gaziantep, Sanliurfa, Adiyaman and Diyarbakir provinces in GAP region which were selected by simple random sampling method. As the basis for sheep farming in the GAP region built (84.9% and upland (15.1% system has been identified in this study. The results showed that the average of sheep farming was 43.9 years in provinces of this study conducted. In addition, the average of sheep was determined as 105.4 heads and 88% of them were Avassi and 30% of them were White Anatolian, respectively.
Here we have tested the hypothesis of association between different levels of agouti signalling peptide (ASIP) mRNA and the recessive black coat colour in the rare Xalda breed of sheep. To deal with this task, we first tested the possible action of both the dominant black extension allele (E(D)) and a 5-bp deletion (X99692:c.100_104del; A(del)) in the ovine ASIP coding sequence on the black coat colour pattern in 188 Xalda individuals. The E(D) allele was not present in the sample and only 11 individuals were homozygous for the A(del)ASIP allele. All Xalda individuals carrying the A(del)/A(del) genotype were phenotypically black. However, most black-coated individuals (109 out of 120) were not homozygous for the 5-bp deletion, thus rejecting the A(del)/A(del) genotype as the sole cause of recessive black coat colour in sheep. Differences in expression of ASIP mRNA were assessed via RT-PCR in 14 black-coated and 10 white-coated Xalda individuals showing different ASIP genotypes (A(wt)/A(wt), A(wt)/A(del) and A(del)/A(del)). Levels of expression in black animals were significantly (P < 0.0001) lower than those assessed for white-coated individuals. However, the ASIP genotype did not influence the ASIP mRNA level of expression. The consistency of these findings with those recently reported in humans is discussed, and the need to isolate the promoter region of ovine ASIP to obtain further evidence for a role of ASIP in recessive black ovine pigmentation is pointed out. PMID:18384465
Royo, L J; Alvarez, I; Arranz, J J; Fernández, I; Rodríguez, A; Pérez-Pardal, L; Goyache, F
A study was conducted to assess the effect of genetic and non-genetic factors (litter size, sex of lamb, and parity of dam) on pre-weaning growth performance of crossbred lambs (75% Dorper (DR) 25% indigenous lambs; and 50% Dorper 50% indigenous lambs) under semi-intensive husbandry practices in eastern Ethiopia. Data from a total of 275 Dorper sire breed × indigenous (Blackhead Ogaden [BHO] and Hararghe Highland [HH]) crossbred lambs with different genetic group of the parental breeds were collected for three consecutive years (2009 to 2011). Pre-weaning growth performance attributes of crossbred lambs studied were birth weight, weaning weight, and pre-weaning average daily gain. Data were analyzed using the GLM procedure of SAS (2003). Breed group and non-genetic factors significantly affected pre-weaning growth performance. Lambs with 75% Dorper and 25% indigenous had higher (P < 0.01) birth weight than 50% DR and 50% HH but similar to 50% DR and 50% BHO. Weaning weight and pre-weaning live weight gain were higher (P < 0.01) for ¾DR¼BHO and ¾DR¼HH than 50% Dorper inheritance. Single-born lambs had higher weight at birth, weaning weight, and pre-weaning average daily gain as compared to twins. Sex comparison is significant (P < 0.05) and male lambs recorded highest pre-weaning growth performance compared to female counterparts. Parity, season, and lambing year significantly (P < 0.01) influenced the pre-weaning growth of crossbred lambs. Therefore, it could be concluded that 50-75% Dorper inheritance improved pre-weaning growth performance of indigenous breeds of Hararghe Highland and Blackhead Ogaden sheep. The result also suggested culling of ewes older than fourth parity to improve the pre-weaning growth performance of lambs. PMID:24307389
Teklebrhan, Tsegay; Urge, Mengistu; Mekasha, Yoseph; Baissa, Merga
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the effect of different breeding areas (south-west and north-east part of the island of Pag on daily milk, fat and protein yield in Pag sheep. The aim of thisstudy was also to determine the shape of lactation curves as well as the herd effect on Pag sheep milk traits. Research was conducted on 32 herds reared in the south-western (23 and north-eastern (9 part of the island of Pag. Data included 21.033 test-day records of 2.332 ewes. Daily milk yield and milk components were recorded using AT4 method for the period from 2004 to 2008. The rearing area had statistically significant effect on the daily milk yield (P<0.001, daily fat and protein yield. Ewes reared on the south-western part of the island had larger average daily production than ewes reared on its north-eastern part. The stage of lactation, described by Ali and Schaeffer lactation curve nested within rearing area, had significant effect (P<0.0001 on all milk traits. The peak of lactation production was achieved around the 20th day of lactation in both areas and was somewhat higher for ewes kept in the south-western compared to the north-eastern part of the island. Flock nested within rearing area had statistically significant effect on all milk traits (P<0.0001. Results obtained in the study showed potential possibilities for breeders to enlarge milk production and consequently economically benefit through improved herd management of Pag sheep.
The aim of this study was to determine some of the structural and technical features of sheep breeding in the Southeastern Anatolia Project (GAP) region of Turkey. To reach this aim a survey was carry out in the 251 farms located in 52 villages of 14 districts of 4 provinces including Gaziantep, Sanliurfa, Adiyaman and Diyarbakir provinces in GAP region which were selected by simple random sampling method. As the basis for sheep farming in the GAP region built (84.9%) and upland (15.1%) syste...
Relationship of intestinal histology with the resistance to Trichostrongylus colubriformis infection in three breeds of sheep Associação entre a resposta celular no intestino e a resistência à infecção por Trichostrongylus colubriformis em três raças de ovinos
The study was carried out to evaluate the relationship of inflammatory intestinal cells with the resistance to Trichostrongylus colubriformis infections in three breeds of sheep (Santa Ines, Suffolk and Ile de France), naturally infected. Mast cells, eosinophils, and globule leucocytes were enumerated in intestinal mucosa. Histamine concentration was estimated in intestinal tissue samples and the length of male and female specimens were determined. The three breeds of sheep showed similar cel...
Amarante, Alessandro F. T.; Rocha, Raquel A.; Bricarello, Patrizia A.
Massese is an Italian dairy sheep breed characterized by animals with black skin and horns and black or apparent grey hairs. Owing to the presence of these two coat colour types, this breed can be considered an interesting model to evaluate the effects of coat colour gene polymorphisms on this phenotypic trait. Two main loci have been already shown to affect coat colour in sheep: Agouti and Extension coding for the agouti signalling protein (ASIP) and melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) genes, respectively. The Agouti locus is affected by a large duplication including the ASIP gene that may determine the Agouti white and tan allele (A(Wt)). Other disrupting or partially inactivating mutations have been identified in exon 2 (a deletion of 5 bp, D(5); and a deletion of 9 bp, D(9)) and in exon 4 (g.5172T>A, p.C126S) of the ASIP gene. Three missense mutations in the sheep MC1R gene cause the dominant black E(D) allele (p.M73K and p.D121N) and the putative recessive e allele (p.R67C). Here, we analysed these ASIP and MC1R mutations in 161 Massese sheep collected from four flocks. The presence of one duplicated copy allele including the ASIP gene was associated with grey coat colour (P = 9.4E-30). Almost all animals with a duplicated copy allele (37 out of 41) showed uniform apparent grey hair and almost all animals without a duplicated allele (117 out of 120) were completely black. Different forms of duplicated alleles were identified in Massese sheep including, in almost all cases, copies with exon 2 disrupting or partially inactivating mutations making these alleles different from the A(Wt) allele. A few exceptions were observed in the association between ASIP polymorphisms and coat colour: three grey sheep did not carry any duplicated copy allele and four black animals carried a duplicated copy allele. Of the latter four sheep, two carried the E(D) allele of the MC1R gene that may be the cause of their black coat colour. The coat colour of all other black animals may be determined by non-functional ASIP alleles (non-agouti alleles, A(a)) and in a few cases by the E(D) Extension allele. At least three frequent ASIP haplotypes ([D(5):g.5172T], [N:g.5172A] and [D(5):g.5172A]) were detected (organized into six different diplotypes). In conclusion, the results indicated that coat colours in the Massese sheep breed are mainly derived by combining ASIP and MC1R mutations. PMID:22440696
Fontanesi, L; Dall'Olio, S; Beretti, F; Portolano, B; Russo, V
Full Text Available Young rams of Merino of Cluj (M, Tsigai and Turcana breed (n=15 were submitted to an100 days intensive fattening, in order to obtain superior quality carcasses. The fattening unrolledduring two consecutive years, and included three successive phases: accommodation (15 days – 16%CP, growing-fattening (65 days – 15% CP, respectively finishing (20 days – 13% CP. At the end offattening period, the appreciation of carcasses and meat quality has been done (n=5, using subjectiveand objective methods: the carcass estimation using EUROP system, the analysis of slaughter yield,muscular fiber diameter and chemical composition of meat. The Merino of Cluj breed presentedsuperior fattening qualities and a higher score to subjective and objective appreciation.
We study the relationship between the Grazalema Merino and the Lebrija Churro breeds and the ethnic trunks from which they descend. The drift effect among the various stocks of Grazalema Merino has also been obtained. Although the total size of the populations investigated does not justify the results obtained for Merinos in terms of erosion coefficients, the effective number and the reproduction schemes are perfectly capable of having produced those. For the Churro types, the differences may...
Gutie?rrez Cabezas, M. J.; Herrera Garci?a, M.; Haba Giraldo, M. R. La; Rodero Serrano, E.
Follicular growth was studied in 16 ewes of different breeds (Romanov, mean ovulation rate 3.0, and Ile-de-France, mean ovulation rate 1.6), stage of cycle (Day 0 or 7) and season (December and June). The follicular growth rates, determined by measuring the mitotic index before and 2 h after colchicine treatment, varied greatly between animals studied and did not vary significantly between breeds, time of cycle or season. From 3 layers of granulosa cells until antrum formation the mitotic index increased slowly but then the follicles grew rapidly reaching maximum growth rate at a follicular diameter of 0.85 mm; thereafter the mitotic index decreased almost to zero in preovulatory follicles. The mean time for a follicle to pass from 3 layers of granulosa cells (200 cells) to preovulatory size (3 x 10(6) cells) was estimated to be about 6 months. The total number of normal follicles with > 3 layers of granulosa cells in Ile-de-France ewes was similar in the anoestrous (3 ovaries studied) and breeding (3 ovaries) seasons, but there were more antral follicles in the latter. Highly significant correlations existed in each ewe between the number of follicles and the mean mitotic index per class, suggesting the existence of an intraovarian mechanism regulating folliculogenesis. PMID:7191893
Cahill, L P; Mauléon, P
The aim of this work is to know the nutritive value of six hill communities, and the diet selected on them by two different breeds of sheep (Churra and Merina) during summer grazing period. Six hill communities were studied: Nardus stricta, Bromus erectus, Calluna-vulgaris, Erica arborea, Genista occidentalis and Genista florida, during the last week of June, July, August and September 1990, and eight oesophageal fistulated wether lambs (four Churro and four Merino) were used a...
Manteco?n, A?ngel R.; Revesado, P. R.; Lavi?n, Paz; Frutos, Pilar
The effect of water deprivation and rehydration on some of blood constituents during different seasons in two local sheep breeds of Saudi Arabia, Awassi and Najdi, was investigated. Water deprivation induced significant (P<0.01) elevations in packed cell volume, plasma osmolality, total protein, sodium, creatinine and urea levels which were progressively increased with advance of water deprivation. Moreover, these responses were more pronounced during summer. Glucose levels tended to increase...
In the present study, 1,635 lambing records of Ghezel (n=766) and Mehraban (n=869) breeds were used to evaluate the early growth traits, litter size, and lamb survival in sheep reared in Fars Province, southern Iran, during a 5-year-long period. The least squares means (± SE) of lamb birth weight for Ghezel were 5.27 (± 0.22), 5.02 (± 0.22), and 3.98 (± 0.23) kg for single males, single females, and twin lambs, respectively; whereas, the corresponding values for Mehraban were 4.39 (± 0.18), 4.18 (± 0.18), and 3.50 (± 0.19) kg. The least squares means of pre-weaning lamb growth (gram per day) for Ghezel were 239 (± 15), 218 (± 15), and 181 (± 16) for single males, single females, and twin lambs, respectively, and the corresponding values for Mehraban were 204 (± 12), 187 (± 12), and 156 (± 13). Lambs from 2 year old ewes or younger were on average lighter at birth and at weaning and had a lower average daily gain than those from older ewes (PGhezel and Mehraban, respectively (PGhezel and Mehraban, respectively. PMID:23135983
Atashi, Hadi; Izadifard, Jamshid; Zamiri, Mohammad Javad; Akhlaghi, Amir
Full Text Available Morphological traits of the whole udder (circumference, width, height, and length, teats (angle, length and width, udder cistern (teat opening and cistern height, and milk yield were measured over one lactation in a total of 18 ewes (nine Chilota and nine Suffolk Down sheep belonging to the same experimental flock (Centro Experimental INIA Butalcura, Chiloé, Chile. Analysis of variance showed significant effects for breed, sheep within breed, and stage of lactation. Chilota ewes evidenced greater udder circumference (433 mm, udder length (86 mm, teat opening (96º, and milk yield (947 mL d-1 than Suffolk Down ewes (410 mm, 77 mm, 93º, and 559 mL d-1, respectively. Udder circumference, udder width, udder length, cistern height and teat size significantly decreased throughout lactation. Repeatabilities of all traits were between 0.17 and 0.60; the highest repeatability was for udder circumference. This trait is easy to measure and had a discriminatory value for breed differentiation. In conclusion, Chilota sheep had a dairy aptitude greater than Suffolk Down sheep and similar to Spanish and Mediterranean dairy sheep breeds at beginning of their breeding programs.Los caracteres morfológicos de la ubre (perímetro, anchura, longitud y altura, de los pezones (ángulo de inclinación, longitud y anchura, de las cisternas mamarias (apertura de los pezones y altura de la cisterna y la producción lechera fueron medidos a lo largo de una lactación en un total de 18 ovejas del mismo rebaño (Centro Experimental INIA Butalcura, Chiloé, Chile, nueve de raza Chilota y nueve de raza Suffolk Down. El análisis de varianza mostró efectos significativos de la raza, la oveja dentro de la raza y del estado de lactación sobre las variables estudiadas. La raza Chilota evidenció un mayor perímetro de la ubre (433 mm, longitud de la ubre (86 mm, abertura de los pezones (96º, y producción lechera (947 mL d-1 que la Suffolk Down ( 410 mm, 77 mm, 93º, y 559 mL d-1, respectivamente. El perímetro, longitud y anchura de la ubre, junto con la altura de las cisternas y el tamaño de los pezones disminuyeron significativamente a medida que avanzó la lactación. Las repetibilidades de todos los caracteres estudiados oscilaron entre 0.17 y 0.60. La mayor repetibilidad se encontró en el perímetro de la ubre; este carácter es fácil de medir y posee poder discriminante para la diferenciación racial. Se concluye que la raza Chilota posee una aptitud lechera superior a la Suffolk Down y similar a la de las razas españolas y mediterráneas al inicio de sus programas de selección lechera.
María E Martínez
Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish Los caracteres morfológicos de la ubre (perímetro, anchura, longitud y altura), de los pezones (ángulo de inclinación, longitud y anchura), de las cisternas mamarias (apertura de los pezones y altura de la cisterna) y la producción lechera fueron medidos a lo largo de una lactación en un total de 18 [...] ovejas del mismo rebaño (Centro Experimental INIA Butalcura, Chiloé, Chile), nueve de raza Chilota y nueve de raza Suffolk Down. El análisis de varianza mostró efectos significativos de la raza, la oveja dentro de la raza y del estado de lactación sobre las variables estudiadas. La raza Chilota evidenció un mayor perímetro de la ubre (433 mm), longitud de la ubre (86 mm), abertura de los pezones (96º), y producción lechera (947 mL d-1) que la Suffolk Down ( 410 mm, 77 mm, 93º, y 559 mL d-1, respectivamente). El perímetro, longitud y anchura de la ubre, junto con la altura de las cisternas y el tamaño de los pezones disminuyeron significativamente a medida que avanzó la lactación. Las repetibilidades de todos los caracteres estudiados oscilaron entre 0.17 y 0.60. La mayor repetibilidad se encontró en el perímetro de la ubre; este carácter es fácil de medir y posee poder discriminante para la diferenciación racial. Se concluye que la raza Chilota posee una aptitud lechera superior a la Suffolk Down y similar a la de las razas españolas y mediterráneas al inicio de sus programas de selección lechera. Abstract in english Morphological traits of the whole udder (circumference, width, height, and length), teats (angle, length and width), udder cistern (teat opening and cistern height), and milk yield were measured over one lactation in a total of 18 ewes (nine Chilota and nine Suffolk Down sheep) belonging to the same [...] experimental flock (Centro Experimental INIA Butalcura, Chiloé, Chile). Analysis of variance showed significant effects for breed, sheep within breed, and stage of lactation. Chilota ewes evidenced greater udder circumference (433 mm), udder length (86 mm), teat opening (96º), and milk yield (947 mL d-1) than Suffolk Down ewes (410 mm, 77 mm, 93º, and 559 mL d-1, respectively). Udder circumference, udder width, udder length, cistern height and teat size significantly decreased throughout lactation. Repeatabilities of all traits were between 0.17 and 0.60; the highest repeatability was for udder circumference. This trait is easy to measure and had a discriminatory value for breed differentiation. In conclusion, Chilota sheep had a dairy aptitude greater than Suffolk Down sheep and similar to Spanish and Mediterranean dairy sheep breeds at beginning of their breeding programs.
María E, Martínez; Cecilia, Calderón; Rodrigo, de la Barra; L. Fernando, de la Fuente; Carlos, Gonzalo.
Sheep milk is rich in CLA isomers which are biologically active components influencing human health. There are four geometric CLA isomer pairs: cis, trans; trans, cis; trans, trans and cis, cis. The aim of the present study was the analysis of CLA isomer groups content by Ag+-HPLC in milk fat of Zelazne?ska (ZS) and Wrzosówka (WS) sheep breeds. The ewes of both breeds were kept under the same environmental and nutritional conditions. Milk samples were collected from 60 suckling ewes (30 from each breed), at the age of 3-4 years and in their 4th week of lactation. A higher total amount of all CLA isomer groups was obtained in milk of ZS ewes, however, this result was statistically insignificant. The percentage of the main c9, t11 isomer in total CLA was higher in Wrzosówka milk (68% vs. 74%). The content of the trans, trans isomer group in milk fat of the studied breeds was similar. The percentage of this group in total CLA in milk of WS and ZS constitutes 7.2% and 7.7%, respectively. The amount of cis,cis isomers in milk fat of ZS was higher thanWS (P < or = 0.01). PMID:23767301
Rozbicka-Wieczorek, Agnieszka; Radzik-Rant, Aurelia; Rant, Witold; Czauderna, Marian
Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english Morphological udder traits have recently become of greater interest from farmers to researchers. In dairy ewes, the udder is very important due to its physiological and conformational characteristics. External udder traits were measured in ewes (Ovis aries L.) of nine genotypes (355 ewes) created of [...] the basis of Improved Valachian (IV), Tsigai (T), and Lacaune (LC) breeds (six traits; 1185 data for each trait) during the milking period 2002-2008. Udder measurements were assessed for: udder length (UL), udder width (UW), rear udder depth (RUD), cistern depth (CDE), teat length (TL), and teat angle (TA). Data were processed by restricted maximum likelihood (REML) methodology using a MIXED procedure from the SAS statistical package. All studied parameters were influenced by the genotype (P
Pavol, Makovický; Melinda, Nagy; Peter, Makovický.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Identification of genomic regions that have been targets of selection for phenotypic traits is one of the most important and challenging areas of research in animal genetics. However, currently there are relatively few genomic regions identified that have been subject to positive selection. In this study, a genome-wide scan using ~50,000 Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs was performed in an attempt to identify genomic regions associated with fat deposition in fat-tail breeds. This trait and its modification are very important in those countries grazing these breeds. Results Two independent experiments using either Iranian or Ovine HapMap genotyping data contrasted thin and fat tail breeds. Population differentiation using FST in Iranian thin and fat tail breeds revealed seven genomic regions. Almost all of these regions overlapped with QTLs that had previously been identified as affecting fat and carcass yield traits in beef and dairy cattle. Study of selection sweep signatures using FST in thin and fat tail breeds sampled from the Ovine HapMap project confirmed three of these regions located on Chromosomes 5, 7 and X. We found increased homozygosity in these regions in favour of fat tail breeds on chromosome 5 and X and in favour of thin tail breeds on chromosome 7. Conclusions In this study, we were able to identify three novel regions associated with fat deposition in thin and fat tail sheep breeds. Two of these were associated with an increase of homozygosity in the fat tail breeds which would be consistent with selection for mutations affecting fat tail size several thousand years after domestication.
Moradi Mohammad Hossein
Full Text Available Abstract Background Genomic predictions can be applied early in life without impacting selection candidates. This is especially useful for meat quality traits in sheep. Carcass and novel meat quality traits were predicted in a multi-breed sheep population that included Merino, Border Leicester, Polled Dorset and White Suffolk sheep and their crosses. Methods Prediction of breeding values by best linear unbiased prediction (BLUP based on pedigree information was compared to prediction based on genomic BLUP (GBLUP and a Bayesian prediction method (BayesR. Cross-validation of predictions across sire families was used to evaluate the accuracy of predictions based on the correlation of predicted and observed values and the regression of observed on predicted values was used to evaluate bias of methods. Accuracies and regression coefficients were calculated using either phenotypes or adjusted phenotypes as observed variables. Results and conclusions Genomic methods increased the accuracy of predicted breeding values to on average 0.2 across traits (range 0.07 to 0.31, compared to an average accuracy of 0.09 for pedigree-based BLUP. However, for some traits with smaller reference population size, there was no increase in accuracy or it was small. No clear differences in accuracy were observed between GBLUP and BayesR. The regression of phenotypes on breeding values was close to 1 for all methods, indicating little bias, except for GBLUP and adjusted phenotypes (regression = 0.78. Accuracies calculated with adjusted (for fixed effects phenotypes were less variable than accuracies based on unadjusted phenotypes, indicating that fixed effects influence the latter. Increasing the reference population size increased accuracy, indicating that adding more records will be beneficial. For the Merino, Polled Dorset and White Suffolk breeds, accuracies were greater than for the Border Leicester breed due to the smaller sample size and limited across-breed prediction. BayesR detected only a few large marker effects but one region on chromosome 6 was associated with large effects for several traits. Cross-validation produced very similar variability of accuracy and regression coefficients for BLUP, GBLUP and BayesR, showing that this variability is not a property of genomic methods alone. Our results show that genomic selection for novel difficult-to-measure traits is a feasible strategy to achieve increased genetic gain.
Daetwyler Hans D
Cyclic animals showed an increase around oestrus in rectal temperature (RT), serum protein, blood total leucocyte counts and neutrophils, and plasma cortisol and thyroxine (T4). This was accompanied by a decline in blood haemoglobin (Hb) and lymphocytes and in plasma progesterone levels. The lower incidence of oestrous activity during the spring season was associated with higher average plasma progesterone levels. The seasonal changes in plasma cortisol and T4 were noted only in Rahmani ewes. In the pregnant animals there was a gradual decline in blood glucose, Hb and serum proteins, with minimum values at parturition. This was associated with a decline in plasma osmolality and an increase in plasma aldosterone during the second half of gestation. There was a rise in plasma cortisol, accompanied by a rise in blood total leucocyte counts and neutrophils and a decline in lymphocytes two weeks before parturition, showing a peak on day of lambing. Plasma T4 and triiodothyronine (T3) declined particularly during late pregnancy. Progesterone concentration increased with the advance of pregnancy, showing a sharp rise after the third month and a sharp decline during the week before parturition. Plasma progesterone level can be used successfully for the early diagnosis of pregnancy. Summer pregnancy was associated with a decrease in the overall mean plasma T4, and an increase in plasma osmolality, aldosterone, progesterone and cortisol; these seasonal changes were noted only in the Rahmani ewes. Plasma cortisol and T3 were low during early lactation, tended to rise around mid-lactation to late lactation, and were negatively related to levels of milk production. Present results suggest that the temperate evolved Rahmani is more sensitive to unfavourable environmental conditions than the desert adapted Barki breed. 39 refs, 5 figs
Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english The effect of abattoir type, age, sheep breed and sex on avoidance-related behaviour and bleeding times at slaughter were determined. Castrates and ewes of different age groups and breeds were used. From the commercial abattoir, 90 castrates and 110 ewes were used while 66 castrates and 19 ewes were [...] obtained from the municipal abattoir. Avoidance-related behaviour and bleeding times differed with abattoir type and age classes. Animals slaughtered at the commercial abattoir were calmer and had shorter bleeding times (61 ± 1.16 s) than those slaughtered at the municipal abattoir which had a mean bleeding time of 74.2 ± 2.11 s. Older animals were calmer and had longer bleeding times (67.5 ± 1.82 s) than the younger animals which had a mean bleeding time of 61.6 ± 2.64 s. Avoidance-related behaviour also differed with breed and the sex of the animals with Merino and Dorper + Merino crosses being the calmer than the pure Dorper breed. About 95% of ewes were calmer than the castrates. It can be concluded that abattoir type, age, breed and sex have an effect on animal behaviour at slaughter. Only abattoir type and sex had an effect on bleeding times.
Y.Z., Njisane; V., Muchenje.
Full Text Available The effect of water deprivation and rehydration on some of blood constituents during different seasons in two local sheep breeds of Saudi Arabia, Awassi and Najdi, was investigated. Water deprivation induced significant (P<0.01 elevations in packed cell volume, plasma osmolality, total protein, sodium, creatinine and urea levels which were progressively increased with advance of water deprivation. Moreover, these responses were more pronounced during summer. Glucose levels tended to increase only following three days of water deprivation during summer. Both breeds responded to water deprivation in a similar manner during winter and spring seasons. On the other hand, Najdi breed had consistently higher responses during summer dehydration period particularly for plasma sodium and urea. Rehydration resulted in decline in the determined parameters, but more time was needed to regain normal levels during spring and summer. These results might suggest that there was not any differences in withstanding ability to water deprivation during winter and spring between the two breeds, however Awassi breed might have a better tolerance to dehydration during hot summer.
The aim of this study was to test the modeling of curd-firming (CF) measures and to compare the sheep milk of 3 Alpine breeds supplemented with or without rumen-protected conjugated linoleic acid (rpCLA). Twenty-four ewes of the Brogna, Foza, and Lamon breeds were allotted to 6 pens (2 pens/breed) and fed a diet composed of corn grain, corn silage, dried sugar beet pulp, soybean meal, wheat bran, wheat straw, and a vitamin-mineral mixture. The rpCLA supplement (12g/d per ewe plus 4g/d for each lamb older than 30d) was mixed into the diet of 1 pen per sheep breed (3 pens/treatment) to provide an average of 0.945 and 0.915g/d per ewe of the cis-9,trans-11 C18:2 and trans-10,cis-12 C18:2 conjugated linoleic acid isomers, respectively. The trial started at 38±23d after parturition, and individual morning milk samples were collected on d 16, 23, 37, 44, and 59 of the trial. Milk samples were analyzed for composition, and duplicate samples were assessed for milk coagulation properties (MCP). A total of 180 CF measures for each sample (1 every 15s) were recorded. Model parameters were the rennet coagulation time, the asymptotic potential CF, the CF instant rate constant, the syneresis instant rate constant, the maximum CF achieved within 45min (CFmax), and the time at achievement of CFmax. The data were analyzed using a hierarchical model that considered the fixed effects of breed, diet, lamb birth, and initial days in milk, which were tested on individual ewe (random) variance; the fixed effect of sampling day, which was tested on the within-ewe sample (random) variance; and the fixed effect of instrument or cuvette position (only for MCP), which was tested on the residual (replicates within samples) variance. The local Alpine sheep breeds displayed similar milk compositions, traditional MCP, and CF modeling parameters. Supplementation with rpCLA triggered changes in milk composition and worsened MCP (e.g., delayed rennet coagulation time, slower CF instant rate constant, and a doubling of syneresis instant rate constant), but did not influence potential CF. Overall, our results indicate that rpCLA supplementation reduced the actual maximum CF (CFmax) but did not modify the interval between rennet addition and CFmax or time to CFmax. PMID:24819130
Bittante, G; Pellattiero, E; Malchiodi, F; Cipolat-Gotet, C; Pazzola, M; Vacca, G M; Schiavon, S; Cecchinato, A
Abstract Background Since 2002, active surveillance programmes have detected numerous atypical scrapie (AS) and classical scrapie cases (CS) in French sheep with almost all the PrP genotypes. The aim of this study was 1) to quantify the genetic risk of AS in French sheep and to compare it with the risk of CS, 2) to quantify the risk of AS associated with the increase of the ARR allele frequency as a result of the current genetic breeding programme against CS. Methods
Fediaevsky Alexandre; Calavas Didier; Gasqui Patrick; Moazami-Goudarzi Katayoun; Laurent Pascal; Arsac Jean-Noël; Ducrot Christian; Moreno Carole
The purpose of this study was to evaluate electronic identification, in the form of an ear tag, in 4-H beef, sheep and swine. The objectives of this study were to determine the retention rate, as well as the readability of the ear tags over various lengths of time. The researcher placed electronic identification (EID) ear tags in 4-H animals at time of county livestock enrollment. A total of 428 beef, 457 sheep and 885 swine were tagged at individual county enrollment days. During weigh-in at...
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Utilizaram-se 45 fêmeas ovinas adultas (15 Hampshire Down [HD], 15 Texel [TE] e 15 Ile de France [IF]), para propor um zoneamento bioclimático da ovinocultura no Estado do Paraná. Mediram-se a temperatura retal (Tr), da epiderme (Te), do interior do velo (Tiv) e da superfície do velo (Tsv); a frequê [...] ncia respiratória (Fr); a temperatura do ar (Ta), pressão de vapor (e), velocidade do vento (v) e carga térmica radiante (CTR). O Índice de Conforto Térmico utilizado foi ICT= 0,6678Ta + 0,4969e + 0,5444Tg + 0,1038v. A regressão do ICT sobre Tr mostrou efeito quadrático para as três raças. Para ICT=24,3, 27,3 e 20,6, os valores de Tr foram respectivamente: 39,10ºC para a raça HD, 39,05ºC para TE e 39,09ºC para IF, atingindo 40,40; 40,50; e 40,28ºC, respectivamente, para ICT=58. As três raças aumentaram sua Tr a partir de ICT=26, com a TE apresentando menor Tr até o valor ICT=46; neste ponto, as três raças foram semelhantes, tendo a TE apresentado maiores valores. Para ICT igual a 27,6; 29,7; e 27,0, os valores de Fr foram, respectivamente, 89,63; 77,08; e 78,77 resp./min., para as raças HD, TE e IF. A raça TE apresentou menor Fr (77,08 resp./min.), para ICT=29,7 e para ICT=48, valores semelhantes aos da IF (181,96 resp./min.); a partir deste índice, passou a ser maior que as demais raças, atingindo valores de 288,66 resp./min. no ICT=56, porém inferior à HD (289,01 resp./min.). Neste índice, a raça IF foi a que apresentou a menor Fr (275,72 resp./min.). Uma extensa faixa ao longo do litoral do Estado, entrando cerca de 200 km para o interior até os limites das cidades de Castro, Telêmaco Borba, Laranjeiras do Sul e Pato Branco, permite a criação das três raças, sem exigir grandes esforços de termorregulação. Abstract in english Forty five adult ewes were used, 15 for each of the three breeds: Hampshire Down (HD), Texel (TE) and Ile de France (IF). These animals were measured for rectal temperature (Rt), skin temperature (St), fleece temperature (Ft), temperature of the coat surface (Cst) and respiratory rate (Rr), Air temp [...] erature (At), air vapour pressure (Avp), wind speed (Ws), globe temperature (Gt) and radiant heat load (Rhl) were also recorded. The Thermal Comfort Index equation was used: TCI = 0.6678Ta + 0.4969e + 0.5444Tg + 0.1038v. Regression of TCI on Rt showed quadratic effect for the three breeds. For a TCI = 24.3, 27.3 and 20.6, Rt values were: 39.10ºC, for HD, 39.05ºC for TE, and 39.09ºC; for IF sheeps and for TCI=58, these values were respectively 40.40ºC, 40.50ºC and 40.28ºC. All the animals presented increased Rt under theses index, with Texel showed the least Rt for TCI=46, but was the only group with higher Rt values for TCI>48. For TCI=27.6, 29.7 and 27.0, Fr values were respectively: 89.63 resp./min. for HD, 77.08 resp./min. for TE and 78.77 resp./min. for IF. TE presented smaller Rr (77.08 resp./min.), for TCI=29.7, and values similar to IF (179.63 resp./min.), under TCI=48. After this level TE values were higher than those of the other breeds, reaching 288.66 resp./min. for TCI=56, but inferior that HD (289.01 resp./min.); IF, presented lower Rr (275.72 resp./min.). An extensive strip of land along the Parana State coast, heading inland 200 km up to the borders Castro, Telêmaco Borba, Laranjeiras do Sul and Pato Branco cities, allows the creation of the three breeds.
Orlando Rus, Barbosa; Francisco de Assis Fonseca de, Macedo; Roland Van de, Groes; José Maurício Franco, Guedes.
The effect of season on ovulation has been monitored in two local breeds of Egyptian ewes - the Barki (desert type), and the Rahmani (fat tailed Nile valley breed), by sequentially measuring cyclic changes in plasma progesterone concentration throughout a period of one year in the absence of any possible ram effect. The modal length of the ovulatory cycle was 17-18 days for both breeds, with the progesterone concentration peaking around day 11. No effect of season on progesterone concentration was apparent for the Barki breed but in the Rahmani, progesterone values were lower (P < 0.05) during the summer than during the autumn months. While the Barki have a restricted breeding season from June to November, the Rahmani have only a short period of anovulation within April. Thirty-three per cent of the Rahmani breed were identified as having cycled throughout the year. (author). 9 refs, 4 figs
Recent studies have proposed the use of molecular coancestry coefficients as a measure of genetic variability and as a useful tool for conservation purposes. Using simulated data, molecular coancestry has been shown to become constant very quickly after separation of populations, leading to population diversity remaining constant. However, the use of molecular coancestry information to study the genetic relationships between breeds has not yet been widely explored. Here we analyze the polymorphism of 14 microsatellites in 222 unrelated individuals belonging to seven native Spanish breeds to ascertain the usefulness of molecular coancestry-based methodologies in providing information on their genetic relationships. Average kinship distance (D(k)) and average molecular coancestry coefficients (f(ij)) were compared with well-known genetic distances, such as between-breed Reynolds' distance (D(R)), Nei's standard distance (D(s)), and shared allele distance (D(AS)). Kinship distance and f(ij) have moderate to low correlations with the other genetic distances, showing that they provide different information: both D(k) and f(ij) account for the allele frequencies in the founder population, whereas D(R), D(s), and D(AS) characterize the short-term evolution of the populations. Furthermore, D(k) and f(ij) were only moderately correlated (-0.500). The present study used field data to confirm previous research pointing out the ability of molecular coancestry coefficients to assess genetic differentiation of an ancestral origin. In this respect, molecular coancestry-based parameters may be used with classical genetic parameters to obtain information on population dynamics in livestock breeds. This study additionally presents reliable evidence on the history of these sheep breeds. PMID:15753326
Alvarez, I; Gutiérrez, J P; Royo, L J; Fernández, I; Gómez, E; Arranz, J J; Goyache, F
Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english The effects of pre-slaughter conditions and breed on physico-chemical characteristics of mutton were determined. The study was conducted at Adelaide Municipal abattoir in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. Records were taken from 84 sheep from the South African Mutton Merino, Blackhead Persian [...] and Dorper breeds as identified on arrival at the abattoir. The South African Mutton Merino (SAMM) had the highest values for meat pH at 24 hours (pH24) (5.9 ± 0.64), lightness; L* (34.2 ± 0.97), yellowness; b* (12.2 ± 0.50) and Warner-Braztler shear force WBSF (26.8 ± 1.51). Linear relationships were also observed between pre-slaughter variables and physico-chemical characteristics of mutton. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) showed a large variation being contributed by meat pH24 and L*. It was therefore concluded that, transport time and lairage duration negatively affected the quality of mutton. Furthermore, breed affected the physico-chemical characteristics of meat.
Chulayo, A.Y.; Muchenje, V..
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A ultrassonografia pode ser uma importante ferramenta para a avaliação da composição da carcaça por ser uma técnica não invasiva que permite quantificar diferentes tecidos em animais vivos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estimar as correlações entre medidas tomadas in vivo, por meio do ultrassom e do [...] adipômetro, e na carcaça de ovinos da raça Santa Inês. Utilizaram-se 81 machos, entre 8 e 18 meses de idade, com peso médio de 31 kg. As medidas in vivo obtidas por ultrassonografia foram medida diagonal longitudinal, área de olho de lombo longitudinal, medida diagonal transversal e área de olho de lombo transversal. Determinou-se o peso de carcaça quente, rendimento da carcaça, gordura de cobertura da carcaça, comprimento de carcaça, área de olho de lombo da carcaça e peso dos cortes comerciais: pernil, lombo, paleta, costela e pescoço. As análises de variância, componentes principais, regressão polinomial e correlação foram realizadas utilizando-se programa estatístico SAS®. Não houve diferença entre animais castrados e inteiros para qualidade e componentes de carcaça, indicando, portanto, que a castração não proporciona uma carcaça de melhor qualidade. Os animais com os pesos de pernil, paleta e costela maiores apresentam menores peso de pele, altura de cernelha e peso dos órgãos abdominais, caracterizando um biotipo de animal que seria mais desejável a ser selecionado. Peso vivo, comprimento corporal e área de olho de lombo por ultrassom (in vivo) podem ser usados para predizer a área do olho de lombo da carcaça, peso do pernil, comprimento da carcaça, peso da carcaça quente e da meia carcaça. No entanto, o peso do lombo, pescoço, costela, rendimento de carcaça e peso dos órgãos abdominais não podem ser preditos por estas medidas in vivo. As medidas realizadas com adipômetro não apresentaram correlações significativas com medidas da carcaça, o que indica que não são eficientes para esta predição e, portanto, não devem ser utilizadas. Abstract in english Ultrassonography is an important option to evaluate carcass composition and quality, as it is a non-invasive technique which quantifies different tissues in live animals. The objective of this study was to estimate the correlation between measurements taken in vivo, using ultrasound and skinfold thi [...] ckness, in sheep carcasses from Santa Inês breed. Eighty-one males, aging 8 to 18 months, and weighting on average 31 kg live weight were used. The measures taken in vivo by ultrassonography were longitudinal diagonal length, longitudinal rib eye area, transversal diagonal length, transversal rib eye area. Hot carcass weight, carcass yield, carcass fat thickness, carcass length, carcass rib eye area and commercial retail cut weight (leg, loin, shoulder, ribs and neck) were determined. The analyses of variance, main components, polynomial regression and correlation were carried out using SAS® statistical program. There was no difference between castrated and intact animals for carcass quality and components, indicating that castration does not provide better carcass quality. Animals with higher leg, shoulder and rib weights had lower skin weight, wither height and weight of abdominal organs, indicating a more desirable body type for selection. Body weight, body length and rib eye area by ultrasound (in vivo) can predict the rib eye area, leg weight, carcass length, hot and half carcass weight. However, loin, neck and rib weights, carcass yield and weight of abdominal organs cannot be predicted by these in vivo measurements. The measurements taken with skinfold showed no significant correlations with carcass measures, which indicates that they are not efficient for prediction of carcass components and therefore should not be used.
Concepta, McManus; Tiago do Prado, Paim; Helder, Louvandini; Bruno Stéfano Lima, Dallago; Laila Talarico, Dias; Rodrigo Almeida, Teixeira.
Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish Se realizó un estudio comparativo de la biometría testicular en carneros con las tres razas principales de ovejas de Nigeria. Los parámetros biométricos observados fueron la circunferencia escrotal (CE), peso testicular (PT), longitud testicular (LT), peso de la túnica albugínea (PTA), volumen testi [...] cular (VT), densidad testicular (DT), peso del epidídimo (PE), longitud del epidídimo (EL), peso de la cabeza (CA), cuerpo (CU) y cauda (CA), volumen del epidídimo (VE) y densidad del epidídimo (ED). Los resultados mostraron diferencias significativas (p Abstract in english A comparative study of testicular biometry was done in rams using three major breeds of sheep in Nigeria. Biometrical parameters observed were scrotal circumference (SC), testes weight (TW), testes length (TL), tunica albuginea weight (TAW), testes volume (TV), testes density (TD), epididymal weight [...] (EW), epididymal length (EL), caput (CA), corpus (CO), cauda weight (CU), epididymal volume (EV) and epididymal density (ED). The results showed significant differences (p
Abdullahi Ali, Ibrahim; Jibril, Aliyu; Rabi Muhammad, Ashiru; Mustapha, Jamilu.
Evaluación biológica de dos sistemas de apareamiento en ovinos de raza Columbia en producción intensiva / Biological evaluation of two breeding systems of intensive production in the Columbia breed sheep
Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se evaluó la eficacia biológica de dos sistemas de apareamiento en ovinos del altiplano central de México. Un total de 300 ovejas adultas y 60 de reemplazo de la raza Columbia se distribuyeron al azar en dos grupos de 150 adultas y 30 jóvenes (edad promedio al primer parto de 18 meses). En el primer [...] grupo (sistema intensivo) se realizaron empadres de 36 días, con monta natural cada ocho meses (marzo, noviembre y julio), mientras que en el segundo grupo (sistema anual) se llevó a cabo un empadre de 45 días, iniciando en noviembre de cada año. En todos los casos, quince días antes del empadre se introdujeron machos marcadores, que en la fecha de inicio del empadre se sustituían por sementales en proporción de un macho por cada 20 hembras. Mensualmente se evaluó la condición física de todas las hembras. Los animales pastorearon de ocho a nueve horas diarias en praderas de alfalfa (Medicago sativa) y pastos orchard (Dactylis glomerata) y rye grass (Lolium perenne) irrigadas por aspersión. Solamente las ovejas del sistema intensivo recibieron complemento durante la lactancia y el reempadre. En los dos sistemas se lograron apareamientos en todas las épocas, la fertilidad en los tres empadres del sistema intensivo fue de 83.9%, mientras que el promedio de los dos empadres anuales fue de 88.3% (P 0.05); la tasa de destete, 0.89 vs 1.09 (P Abstract in english The biological efficiency of two breeding systems for sheep in the Mexican high plateau was evaluated. A total of 300 adult and 60 replacement sheep of the Columbia breed were randomly distributed into two groups of 150 adults and 30 young ones (mean age to first birth of 18 months). Mates of 36 day [...] s with natural mount every eight months (March, November and July) were done in the first group (intensive system). In the second group (annual system), a 45-day mating was done starting on November every year. Marker males were introduced 15 days before mating in all cases, which were replaced on the first day of mating for stallions at a one male for every 20 female ratios. The physical condition of all females was evaluated every month. The animals grazed 8 to 9 hours in grasslands of alfalfa (Medicago sativa) and Orchard (Dactylis glomerata) and Rye (Lolium perenne) grasses irrigated by aspersion. Only the sheep in the intensive system received supplement during lactation and re-mating. Breeding was achieved in both systems in all seasons. The mean fertility of the three breeding of the intensive system was 83.9%; while the mean fertility of the two annual breeding was 88.3% (P
de Lucas Tron, José; Zarco Quintero, Luis Alberto; González Padilla, Everardo; Tórtora Pérez, Jorge; Vásquez Peláez, Carlos.
Water requirements and metabolism and some physiological and blood characteristics were studied in dry non-pregnant Barki and Rahmani ewes and in Baladi goats during spring, summer and winter seasons. The Rahmani sheep showed greater thermal discomfort than the Barki during the summer season. Pregnancy was associated with a significant increase in body weight and a decline in PCV and total serum protein, and these changes were greater in goats than in sheep. They were accompanied by significant increases in TBW and WTR. All these changes were more pronounced during late pregnancy than during mid-pregnancy, although the effect of stage of pregnancy on TBW did not occur in the Barki ewes. The pregnancy induced changes in total protein and WTR were greater in spring, while those in TBW were greater in winter. The above parameters also showed similar changes during lactation (particularly during early lactation), but lactating animals showed a decrease instead of an increase in body weight. Goats showed greater reductions in body weight, PCV and water t1/2 and greater increases in WTR than sheep during the spring season. Withdrawal of drinking water for four days caused a reduction in body weight, blood glucose and plasma T3 and T4, and an increase in PCV, total serum protein and plasma osmolality. Plasma aldosterone increased slightly during dehydration but increased markedly during the rehydration period, particularly in the Rahmani sheep during the summer season. The above parameters changed similarly when the animals were starved for four days (feed but not water was withheld), but total serum protein showed a decrease instead of an increase. Changes during dehydration were more pronounced in summer, while those during starvation were greater in winter. 32 refs, 4 figs, 2 tabs
Full Text Available This study was carried out to illustrate seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and Brucella melitensis in local sheep and goat flocks living in Nile Delta regions of Egypt as well as to investigate its effects on animals’ health and performance. In trial 1: 492 serum samples were collected from domestic ewes and does flocks suffering from abortion and stillbirths were used in this survey. In trial (2: 100 serum samples collected from toxoplasma or brucella infected or non infected sheep and goats were used to study the effects of toxoplasmosis and brucellosis on animals, health. This study revealed that 142 (28.86% sera contained antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii and 89 (18.09% were positive for Brucella melitensis. The incidences of toxoplasmosis and brucellosis were 31.01% and 12.26% in sheep, respectively and 17.11% and 36.84% in goats, respectively. Higher seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii was recorded in sheep with high flock size. Farmers using set stocking management had lower seroprevalence toxoplasmosis and brucellosis. Toxoplasmosis and brucellosis lowered serum albumin level and liver enzymes activities while, increased serum levels of globulin, urea, triglyceride and cholesterol in ewes. Serum levels of total protein, albumin and urea and the activity of serum aspartate amino transferase were decreased, however serum level of C reactive protein was increased in infected does. These results indicated that toxoplasmosis is widely spread than brucellosis in small ruminants living in the provinces of Nile Delta. Both toxoplasmosis and brucellosis inversely affected animals’ health. Management practices had a role in spread of these agents.
Hamada Hamada Dahy Mahboub
In order to investigate the pathogenic profile of Escherichia coli hosted in "Sarda" sheep, autochthonous race present in Sardinia, thirty-seven E. coli strains collected from different sources (fleeces, carcass swabs and gut mucosa) of pre-chill slaughtered sheep (ewes and lambs) were serotyped using pheno- and genotypic methods. Furthermore, the presence of genes encoding for virulence factors and mediating for localized mucosal adherence factors was investigated, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) characterization was performed. Twenty-one (56.8%) of the isolates belonged to O91 serogroup and sixteen (43.2%) belonged to nine different serotypes (O5:H11, O8:H14, O26:H2, O38:H26, O116:H9, O116:H11, O132:H34, O149:H?, O161:H-). Of these non-O91 strains, five (13.5%) were able to produce verocytotoxin (VT) and were ascribed to VTEC pathogroup, eleven (29.7%) were attributed to the Enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) pathogroup; the other strains (n.21) cannot be ascribed to a pathogenic group. However, various associated virulence genes were observed in all isolated strains. Macrorestriction analysis highlighted a large heterogeneity of the E. coli strains. The results confirm the role of sheep as reservoir of pathogenic E. coli serotypes potentially able to colonize and to damage the intestinal mucosa. PMID:24309402
Busia, Gianluca; Mureddu, Anna; Mazza, Roberta; Meloni, Domenico; Consolati, Simonetta G; Piras, Francesca; Burgess, Catherine M; Duffy, Geraldine; Mazzette, R
Full Text Available The paper presents the results of a extensive study concerning the parasites andcomplexe problems of the poly-parasitism on sheep and goats in Dobrudja. In thispaper we proposed ourselves to establish the sheep and goats endoparasites, thedistribution and frequency of these function to age, sex and maintenance conditions.The increase of morbidity through parasitical diseases, as well as the ecological andeconomic consequences of poly-parasitism represent a important problem in theintegration conditions of Romania in UE and imposes to apply some efficientmethods of prophylaxis and control of parasitosis and parasito- zoonozis. Thedrawing of copro-parazitologic samples was effected directly from rectum of sheepand goats, testing 10% of each lot, during grazing season and in period of keepingin sheds. The copro-parasitological examinations were carried out ovoscopicaly(flotation, by next methods: Willis, Mc. Master and sediment, by Benedect-Nemesseri and polyvalent methods, as well as larvoscopicaly by Baermann method.After copro-parasitological examinations of samples which were harvested fromthese animals it comes out that both sheep and goats presents poly-parasitism withsporozoa (coccidiae: Eimeria spp. , cestodae (Moniezia expansa and Monieziabenedeni, gastro-intestinal nematodes (Nematodirus spp. ,Trichostrongylidae,Strongyloides papillosus and pulmonary nematodes (Protostrongylus rufescens,Dictyocaulus filaria, Muellerius capillaris, the degree of parasitical infestationdepending on species, age, sex, maintenance conditions and environmental factors.
The aim of this research was to investigate the genetic structure at BMPR 1B, BMP15 and GDF9 prolificacy genes in five sheep breeds reared in Tunisia: Barbarine, Queue Fin de L’Ouest, Noire de Thibar, Sicilo-Sarde and D’man. Genomic DNA of 204 sheep was investigated for the FecBB (BMPR 1B), FecXR, FecXH, FecXI, FecXL, FecXG, FecXB (BMP15) and FecGH (GDF9) mutations. The sequence variability of the diff...
As the most ambitious concept of isotope separation on line (ISOL) facility, EURISOL aims at producing unprecedented intensities of post-accelerated radioactive isotopes. Charge breeding, which transforms the charge state of radioactive beams from 1+ to an n+ charge state prior to post-acceleration, is a key technology which has to overcome the following challenges: high charge states for high energies, efficiency, rapidity and purity. On the roadmap to EURISOL, a dedicated R and D is being undertaken to push forward the frontiers of the present state-of-the-art techniques which use either electron cyclotron resonance or electron beam ion sources. We describe here the guidelines of this R and D.
Delahaye, P.; Jardin, P.; Maunoury, L.; Traykov, E.; Varenne, F. [GANIL, CEA/DSM-CNRS/IN2P3, Bd. Becquerel, BP 55027, 14076 Caen Cedex 05 (France); Galata, A.; Porcellato, A. M.; Prete, G. F. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Viale dell' Universita 2, 35020 Legnaro, Padova (Italy); Angot, J.; Lamy, T.; Sortais, P.; Thuillier, T. [LPSC Grenoble, 53, rue des Martyrs, 38026 Grenoble Cedex (France); Ban, G. [LPC Caen, 6 bd Marechal Juin, 14050 Caen Cedex (France); Celona, L.; Lunney, D. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, via S.Sofia 62, 95125 Catania (Italy); Choinski, J.; Gmaj, P.; Jakubowski, A.; Steckiewicz, O. [Heavy Ion Laboratory, University of Warsaw, ul. Pasteura 5a, 02 093 Warsaw (Poland); Kalvas, T. [Department of Physics, University of Jyvaeskylae, PB 35 (YFL) 40351 Jyvaeskylae (Finland); and others
The present study was carried out to determine the effect of ewes breeds on some blood biochemical and hormones levels during mating, pregnancy and post.partum periods. A total number of 42 ewes, 1.5 . 3.5 years of age with body weight ranged between 45 to 55 kg from breeding flock in Research Farm of Nuclear Research Centre, Atomic Energy Authority were used in this study. Animals were divided into two groups according to their breed. The first group included 18 Ossimi breed ewes and the second group included 24 Rahmani breed ewes. Blood samples were collected from both breed at 10, 20, 30, 50, 100, 120, 140, and 145 days up to parturitions and at 30 and 60 days of post. partum. Serum total lipids and cholesterol, progesterone (P4) and estradiol . 17? (E2) were determined. It was found that Ossimi ewes had lower level of both sexual hormones than Rahmani once. Plasma progesterone and estradiol-17 ? levels increased gradually as pregnancy time passed reaching its maximum level at the 140th day of the pregnancy period in Rahmani and Ossimi, then decreased during the last 5 days. Additionally, Rahmani ewes had relatively higher mean values of estradiol-17 ? at 30th and 60th days compared with Ossime ewes. While, the least squares mean of progesterone decreased in Rahmani ewes compared with Ossime ewes at the same time of estimation. Ossimi ewes having higher means of total lipids (L) and cholesterol (C) than in Rahmani ewes while, the values of L/C ratio were found to be higher in Rahmani ewes than Ossimi ones. Total lipids level increased gradually from Farghaly et al., J. Rad. Res. Appl. Sci., Vol. 1318 4, No. 4(B) (2011) 10th days of pregnancy from 273.09 and 267.75mg/dI to 342.92 and 338.9 mg/dl in 145th days in Ossimi and Rahmani ewes, respectively. Similarly, the levels of cholesterol were 93.49 and 90.35 mg /dl in 10th days of pregnancy and 134.79 and 141.81 mg/dl in 145th days of pregnancy for Ossimi and Rahmani ewes, respectively. The same trend was found for the plasma value of L/G ratio due to the effect of days of pregnancy
Full Text Available Com o objetivo de estudar o desempenho produtivo de cruzas de animais lanados, foram utilizados os dados da escrituração zootécnica do rebanho ovino pertencente à FCAV/Unesp, Jaboticabal, SP. Os dados da escrituração foram oriundos de 312 ovelhas, com 129 da raça Ideal, 44 1/2 Ile de France 1/2 Ideal, 98 3/4 Ile de France 1/4 Ideal e 41 7/8 Ile de France 1/8 Ideal, submetidas ao cruzamento absorvente para a raça Ile de France. As análises das características produtivas peso ao nascer, peso ao desmame, peso aos 180 dias, ganho médio diário e tempo para o animal atingir 32kg de peso corporal foram realizadas no SAS (1996. Não foram observadas diferenças entre os genótipos avaliados para as caracteristicas produtivas peso ao nascer, peso ao desmame, e tempo para o animal atingir 32kg de peso corporal com valores médios de 3,08, 15, 67kg e 270,75 dias, respectivamente. Para as características ganho médio diário e peso aos 180 dias, houve efeito significativo para o genótipo 7/8 Ile de France 1/8 Ideal com volores de 0,214 e 40,53kg respectivamente. O sistema de cruzamento utilizado possibilita às próximas gerações características produtivas satisfatórias para produção de carne, e as fêmeas provenientes desses cruzamentos que forem utilizadas para reposição podem aumentar as características produtivas de seus descendentes.In order to study productive and reproductive performance of crossbred sheep, data from the sheep recording of the ovine cattle from Paulista State University, FCAV/Unesp, Jaboticabal, SP, Brazil were used. The record data came from 312 sheep (129 of Polwarth breed, 44 1/2 Ile de France 1/2 Polwarth, 98 3/4 Ile de France 1/4 Polwarth and 41 7/8 Ile de France 1/8 Polwarth submitted to absorber cross-breeding for Ile de France. Productive characteristic analysis: body weight at birth, body weight at weaning, body weight with 180 days, daily weight gain average and necessary period for animals to get 32kg of body weight were carried out at SAS statistical analysis (1996. No significant alterations were observed among the genotypes for the productive characteristics body weight at birth, body weight at weaning and necessary period for animals to get 32kg of body weight with mean values of 3,08, 15, 67kg and 270,75 days, respectively. For the characteristics daily weight gain average and weight with 180 days, there was significant effect for the genotype 7/8 Ile de France 1/8 Ideal with values of 0,214 and 40,53kg, respectively. The type of cross-breeding used gives the possibility for the next generation to have satisfactory productive characteristics for meat production, as the females of this cross-bred can increase the productive characteristics of their descendents.
Sandra Aidar de Queiroz
Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine first age reproduction characteristics of indigenous K?v?rc?k, Sak?z and Gökçeada sheep breeds and growth performances of ewe lambs which have been kept in Band?rma Sheep Research Station (BSRS. The data of reproduction characteristics of ewes and growth characteristics of lambs were collected on 15 K?v?rc?k, 8 Sak?z and 10 Gökçeada ewes, and on 16 K?v?rc?k, 12 Sak?z and 11 Gökçeada lambs, respectively. After the lambs completed their fifth month ages, estrus detection was carried out with a teaser ram twice a day with 12 hour intervals. For the K?v?rc?k, Sak?z and Gökçeada lambs, the first oestrus weights were 37.93, 33.35 and 29.75 kg; first oestrus ages were 315, 320 and 337 days; oestrus durations were 30.99, 25.85 and 20.28 hours and the duration of the oestrus cycles were 16.59, 19.91 and 17.76 days, respectively. The birth weights of K?v?rc?k, Sak?z and Gökçeada lambs were found to be 3.64, 3.91, 3.28 kg; the weaning weight (WW, 31.01, 25.44 and 23.67 kg, the six month live weight (SMLW, 32.87, 26.95 and 24.15 kg, the yearling live weight (YLW, 39.01, 30.95 and 30.27 kg and the average daily weight gain (ADWG, 0.271 0.257 and 0.202 kg, respectively.
The effect of photoperiod on sexual activity was investigated in Sardi and D'man ewes. Twenty ewes from each breed were subjected to an experimental photoperiod corresponding to latitude 56 deg. N. Control ewes (12 per breed) were maintained under natural photoperiod (32 deg. N). Behavioural oestrus and ovarian activity were monitored using penis deviated rams and plasma progesterone levels. Preliminary results from this study show that an increase in amplitude of photoperiod variations causes a decrease in the expression of oestrous behaviour in D'man ewes during the period of decreasing daylight. Ovarian activity remained unchanged. Sardi ewes were not markedly affected by change in photoperiod. (author). 13 refs, 3 figs, 1 tab
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar efeitos da temperatura ambiental sobre características fisiológicas de ovinos, no Distrito Federal. Foram selecionados dois grupos de 25 fêmeas vazias ou prenhas das raças Morada Nova e Santa Inês com idade variando entre dois e quatro anos. As fêmeas tiveram seus [...] dados coletados seis vezes entre os meses de fevereiro e julho. As medições incluíram o peso vivo ( PV) (kg), a temperatura retal (TR), a freqüência respiratória (FR) e o batimento cardíaco (BC), às 8 e 14h, depois de expostas ao sol por um período de seis horas. Foram utilizados os procedimentos GLM, CORR e PRINCOMP do SAS e, para determinar grupamento e dissimilaridade, utilizou-se o programa GENES. Observaram-se grupos de alta e baixa resistência a ação do efeito calórico. As médias dos grupos às 14 hs foram: TR: 38,8 e 38,7°C; FR: 23,4 e 22,8 bat./min. e BC: 99,9 e 94,0 bat./min. para os animais das raças Morada Nova e Santa Inês, respectivamente. Houve ainda diferenças significativas entre matrizes não paridas e as paridas no período estudado, sendo maiores para não paridas: TR: 38,78 e 38,52°C; BC:23,13 e 22,82 bat./min.; FR: 96,98 e 96,36 bat./min., respectivamente. Os animais expostos ao sol pelo período de seis horas apresentaram resposta significativa ao estresse calórico, expresso pelo aumento da temperatura retal e pelo aumento no ritmo dos batimentos cardíacos e na freqüência respiratória. Os resultados obtidos permitiram estabelecer grupos de animais com maior e menor resistência às variações climáticas, ensejando a possibilidade de utilizar esses dados para seleção de animais em trabalhos de melhoramento. Abstract in english The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of increased environmental temperature on physiological traits of Morada Nova (MN) and Santa Ines (SI) sheep breeds in the Federal District, Brazil. Two groups (25 MN and 25 SI) were selected for study and included both pregnant (EP) and non-pre [...] gnant (EPN) ewes, aged betwen 2 and 4 years. The fifty ewes were recorded, once a month, for six months, at 8 am and 2 pm, and measurements included body weight (W), RT (Rectal Temperature), RR (Respiration rate), and CR (Cardiac Rate) were analyzed using SAS (GLM, CORR, PRINCOMP procedures) and the program GENES. The differences between the two breeds were: RT: 38.8 and 38.7°C; RR: 23.4 and 22.8 (rate/min.); CR: 99.9 and 94.0 (rate/min.), for Morada Nova and Santa Ines breeds, respectively. Difference between non-pregnant and pregnant ewes were: RT: 38.78 and 38.52°C; RR: 23.13 and 22.82 (Rate/min); CR: 96.98 and 96.36 (Rate/min), respectively. Differences between breeds were significant, as were differences between animals within groups. It was therefore possible therefore to identify animals within a breed more or less resitant to the climate conditions. This information may be used in future breeding programs.
Maurício, Quesada; Concepta, McManus; Flávio Augusto D' Araújo, Couto.
Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se estudiaron dos razas ovinas locales: la Canaria y la Canaria de Pelo. Los animales se criaron en sistema intensivo. Se consideraron dos pesos vivos de sacrificio (15,30 ± 0,67 y 24,23 ± 0,69 kg) y dos sexos. Se determinaron las correlaciones entre los porcentajes de los tejidos de la canal y los [...] de las piezas obtenidas de la media canal izquierda. Se obtuvieron ecuaciones para predecir la composición tisular de la canal, a partir de las piezas con mejores coeficientes de regresión. El costillar fue la pieza que mejor predijo el músculo y la grasa. La pierna fue mejor predictora para el hueso. Abstract in english Two local sheep breeds were studied: the Canarian and the Canarian Haired. Animals were intensively reared. Two slaughter weights were considered (15 and 24 kg live weight). Correlations among carcass tissue percentage and tissue percentage in the seven joints in the left halfcarcass were obtained. [...] Equations were obtained to predict carcass tissue composition using most correlated joints. Ribs was the best predictor joint of muscle and fat. Leg was the best predictor of bone.
A., Camacho; V., Pérez; J., Mata; L.A., Bermejo.
Estrogen receptor a (ERalpha) gene has previously been found to related with sexual development and reproduction. In this study, on the basis of the sequences of human, cattle and caprine estrogen receptor a (ERalpha) genes, available in the GenBank database, sets of PCR primers were designed and used to amplify the ovine ERalpha gene exon 4 region. We identified six single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in the ERalpha exon 4. Some variations determined for exon 4 g.43A > G, p.T43A; g.49C > T, p.L49F; g.178A > T, p.T178S led to changes in the amino acids, but no amino acid changes were determined in g. 18G > C, g.27C > T, g.96G > A. These fragments were deposited in the GenBank database under accession number: JF262030-JF262035. It was noted in particular that White Karaman and Awassi breeds were similar to each other, whereas the Chios breed had a different variation. PMID:23270267
Ozmen, O; Seker, I; Kul, B C; Ertugrul, O
The tritium production rate (TPR) distribution in a fusion blanket assembly previously determined from measurements of tritium beta activity was remeasured using an independent electronic method. The results agreed within the experimental errors and confirmed the previously reported discrepancies with predictions based on three-dimensional Monte Carlo calculations and multigroup cross sections. The experimental agreement reduced the possibility that results based on the conventional chemical separation of the tritium produce could be subject to a common systematic error and confirmed the validity of the electronic method for TPR measurement.
The effects of imidacloprid (Advantage) on sheep keds (Melophagus ovinus Linne 1758) were studied in vivo and in vitro by means of direct observation (monitored on video tape) and by light and electron microscopy. It was found that: 1. Imidacloprid acted rapidly on all motile stages of the sheep keds. Within 3-4 min after exposure they became immobile and their legs and the abdomen started tetanic trembling movements for 15-30 min, leading to death. 2. The compound is apparently taken up by the body, since it also acted on those sheep keds that had been exclusively exposed to imidacloprid-contaminated filter papers. 3. The compound is available and active for more than 1 month in the wool of sheep; even rainfall does not reduce its efficacy. Body contact between treated mother sheep and their lambs protects them from infestation with these ectoparasites. 4. The compound initiates an ultimately lethal destruction of the ganglia, nerve chords and related muscle fibers, as can be seen in electron micrographs. PMID:11355684
Mehlhorn, H; D'Haese, J; Mencke, N; Hansen, O
This paper summarizes the results of studies to enhance the performance of Dresden Electron Beam Ion Traps regarding aspects which are important for charge breeding, i.e. the injection of externally produced low charged ions and their conversion to highly charged ions. The properties of the electron beam of this compact room-temperature operated EBIT were investigated via position sensitive X-ray detection. A detailed analysis of the spatial distribution as well as the energy of the X-ray photons emitted from the electron beam region allowed for the determination of the source parameters needed to guarantee optimal ion trapping conditions and ionization rates. The parameters found in this investigation were applied for the successful realization of charge breeding with the Dresden EBIT.
Thorn, A; Ritter, E; Zschornack, G [Fachrichtung Physik, Technische Universitaet Dresden, Helmholtzstrasse 10, 01062 Dresden (Germany); Sokolov, A; Vorobjev, G; Herfurth, F [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Planckstrasse 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Bischoff, L; Pilz, W [Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Bautzner Landstrasse 400, 01328 Dresden (Germany); Kester, O [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 (United States); Thorn, D B [ExtreMe Matter Institute EMMI, Planckstrasse 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Ullmann, F, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Dreebit GmbH, Zur Wetterwarte 50, 01109 Dresden (Germany)
Full Text Available A comparative study of testicular biometry was done in rams using three major breeds of sheep in Nigeria. Biometrical parameters observed were scrotal circumference (SC, testes weight (TW, testes length (TL, tunica albuginea weight (TAW, testes volume (TV, testes density (TD, epididymal weight (EW, epididymal length (EL, caput (CA, corpus (CO, cauda weight (CU, epididymal volume (EV and epididymal density (ED. The results showed significant differences (pSe realizó un estudio comparativo de la biometría testicular en carneros con las tres razas principales de ovejas de Nigeria. Los parámetros biométricos observados fueron la circunferencia escrotal (CE, peso testicular (PT, longitud testicular (LT, peso de la túnica albugínea (PTA, volumen testicular (VT, densidad testicular (DT, peso del epidídimo (PE, longitud del epidídimo (EL, peso de la cabeza (CA, cuerpo (CU y cauda (CA, volumen del epidídimo (VE y densidad del epidídimo (ED. Los resultados mostraron diferencias significativas (p <0,05 entre la raza Uda, Balami y Yankasa para la CE, PT, VT, PE, LE, CA, CU, CA, y VE. La raza Uda tuvo valores significativamente mayores (p <0,05 en la mayoría de los parámetros analizados con las otras dos razas. Se observó una simetría bilateral en el peso de los testículos y el volumen de los testículos para las razas Uda y Balami. Se concluyó que la biometría testicular observada en las razas Uda y Balami son sugerentes de alta cantidad de espermatozoides por unidad de masa de los testículos y el epidídimo, y subsecuentemente una alta fertilidad. La biometría de éstos pueden ser utilizada por los agricultores en la selección de buenos animales para la mejora genética de las crías.
Abdullahi Ali Ibrahim
considerable change in the size and structure of the UK sheep industry. Breeding \\sheep numbers ... Over the same time period the number of holdings with a \\sheep flock has increased,. (Table 2.3) .... old for breeding per flock .... flock \\structure is likely to result in heavier weight ewes being kept increasing grazing \\pressure.
Five indigenous Spanish breeds of sheep, Churra, Latxa, Manchega, Rasa-Aragonesa and Merino, with Awassi sheep as a reference breed were genotyped for 19 DNA microsatellites. Allele frequencies and mean heterozygosities revealed the greatest genetic variation in Merino sheep and the lowest in Awassis. Differences in variability were not great in the other breeds studied. The dendrograms obtained based on genetic distances showed a large differentiation between Awassi sheep and the Spanish breeds, as was to be expected from their distinct genetic origin. Merinos appeared separated from the other four breeds, of which, according to a classification based on the fleece characteristics, Churra and Latxa belong to the churro type and Manchega and Rasa-Aragonesa to the so called entrefino type, though no clear separation was evident between the two types. These results suggest that morphological data alone are insufficient for determining relationships between breeds and that studies involving genetic markers may be of great assistance. PMID:9883504
Arranz, J J; Bayón, Y; San Primitivo, F
The feasibility of using the ram effect to stimulate oestrus/ovulation in Lohi sheep at Sheep Breeding Section of Livestock Production Research Institute, Bahadumagar Distt. Okara was investigated. The experiment was conducted in two phases. In the first phase, a group of 43 ewes was stimulated for the imitation of oestrus through ram effect during the month of August (off breeding season). Eighty four percent ewes exhibited oestrus and were served. During September (normal breeding season) 1...
Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to evaluate egg quality and ultrastructural measurements of eggshell in two Egyptian local breeds of chicken (Fayoumi and Dandarawi. A total of 162 females representing the two breeds were randomly assigned to the current experiment. They were housed in individual cages placed in an open-sided house under the same environmental, managerial and hygienic conditions. Maturation measurements including body weight and age at sexual maturity were determined. Also, egg production (number and weight was recorded for the first 3 months of production cycle to calculate egg mass. To assess egg quality parameters (internal and external, a total of 90 eggs were randomly collected from each breed at 26 weeks of age. In addition, eggshell samples were prepared to investigate ultrastructural variations using scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The current results revealed that Fayoumi breed had a better performance at sexual maturity compared to Dandarawi one. Inferior egg production parameters during the first 3 months of laying cycle were associated with Dandarawi breed. With respect to internal egg quality, there were no significant differences between Fayoumi and Dandarawi breeds for liquid components as a percentage of egg weight. In addition, Haugh unit and yolk index as indicators to the quality of albumen and yolk, did not exhibit a difference between breeds. Regarding eggshell quality traits, it could be noticed that Fayoumi breed significantly increased specific gravity and eggshell strength compared to Dandarawi one. In terms of ultrastructural measurements of eggshell, SEM inspection revealed that eggshell of Fayoumi breed had a higher effective thickness (palisade layer compared to Dandarawi one. On the other hand, the length of mammillary layer (absolute or relative was significantly lower in eggshells of Fayoumi hens compared to those of Dandarawi counterparts. Type B bodies, which are rounded and located among mammillary caps, were more frequent in eggshell of Dandarawi breed resulting in poor shell quality. However, Fayoumi breed had good rounded caps and early fusion as compared to Dandarawi one. The incidence of mammillary alignment and erosion were more common in eggshell of Dandarawi breed suggesting poor shell strength. In conclusion, Fayoumi breed had genetically not only better egg production and egg quality but also good ultrastructural formation of eggshell compared to Dandarawi breed.
The Californium Rare Ion Breeder Upgrade (CARIBU) of the Argonne National Laboratory ATLAS facility will provide low-energy and reaccelerated neutron-rich radioactive beams for the nuclear physics program. A 70 mCi (252)Cf source produces fission fragments which are thermalized and collected by a helium gas catcher into a low-energy particle beam with a charge of 1+ or 2+. An electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source functions as a charge breeder in order to raise the ion charge sufficiently for acceleration in the ATLAS linac. The final CARIBU configuration will utilize a 1 Ci (252)Cf source to produce radioactive beams with intensities up to 10(6) ions?s for use in the ATLAS facility. The ECR charge breeder has been tested with stable beam injection and has achieved charge breeding efficiencies of 3.6% for (23)Na(8+), 15.6% for (84)Kr(17+), and 13.7% for (85)Rb(19+) with typical breeding times of 10 ms?charge state. For the first radioactive beams, a charge breeding efficiency of 11.7% has been achieved for (143)Cs(27+) and 14.7% for (143)Ba(27+). The project has been commissioned with a radioactive beam of (143)Ba(27+) accelerated to 6.1 MeV?u. In order to take advantage of its lower residual contamination, an EBIS charge breeder will replace the ECR charge breeder in the next two years. The advantages and disadvantages of the two techniques are compared taking into account the requirements of the next generation radioactive beam facilities. PMID:22380254
Vondrasek, R; Levand, A; Pardo, R; Savard, G; Scott, R
...for draft, breeding, dairy, or sporting purposes...taxpayer for draft, breeding, or dairy purposes, and held by...mules, donkeys, sheep, goats, fur-bearing animals...taxpayer for draft, breeding, dairy, or sporting...
Full Text Available In this study external fat-tail dimensions (upper, middle and lower width, length, length of gap, depth and upper circumference and fat-tail weights collected on 724 Lori-Bakhtiari sheep were used to study external fat-tail dimensions and their relationships with fat-tail weights. Sheep were 3 months to 6 years old and slaughtered at the industrial slaughter house of Joneghan in Chaharmohal and Bakhtiari province in 2003. The mean of fat-tail dimensions were estimated as 15.83, 23.85, 24.73, 26.52, 14.96, 14.12 and 52.59 cm for upper width, middle width, lower width, length, length of gap, depth and upper circumference, respectively. Fat-tail weight varied from 0.10 to 20.60 with overall mean of 2.71 kg. Fat-tail percentage varied from 1.18 to 37.18 with overall mean of 11.87 percent. The effects of fixed factors of age, sex and body condition of sheep on all of traits were highly significant (p
S. R. Miraei-Ashtiani
A survey of veterinary diagnostic laboratories revealed that intranasal tumors occur in sheep in most provinces of Canada. Tumors were diagnosed in 44 sheep of several breeds including Polled Dorset, Suffolk, Cheviot, Rambouillet and various crossbreeds. Twenty-seven percent of tumors occurred in sheep that were less than two years old. Most tumors were sporadic but 33% of cases occurred in six related flocks, indicating that this disease can be an enzootic problem. The clinical signs were pe...
Mckinnon, A. O.; Thorsen, J.; Hayes, M. A.; Misener, C. R.
Full Text Available In order to enhance breeding progress, genes that affect the performance of sheep are being identified. In Poland, sheep breeding programs focus mainly on meat performance, therefore, it is important to identify genes that affect it. Moreover, studies on reproductive performance of sheep have been made. Myostatin (GDF8, calpastatin (CAST and calpain have been identified as the candidate genes affecting meat quality. Whereas, BMP15 and GDF9, also called fertility genes (Fec, have been reported to affect reproduction traits. The knowledge of the association between the polymorphic forms of these genes and sheep performance traits may contribute to the determination of genetic markers that could be used in sheep breeding programs. The aim of this study is to gather the latest information about the use of genomic selection in breeding programs and the association between polymorphisms in BMP15, GDF8, GDF9 and CAST genes and sheep performance.
In this paper an evaluation in dollars of the cost of the Andalusian rare indegenaus breeds conservation by several methods is presented. It constitutets a preliminary aproach to the development of conservation and preservation planes from the official and privates institutions. In this study we include seven cattle breeds, fo+ir sheep breeds, and three goat breed.
Camacho Vallejo, M. E.; Rodero Serrano, E.; Rodero Franganillo, Antonio; Delgado-bermejo, J. V.
Sheep are seasonal breeders, experiencing a period of reproductive quiescence during spring and early summer. During the non-breeding period, kisspeptin expression in the arcuate nucleus is markedly reduced. This strongly suggests that the mechanisms that control seasonal changes in reproductive function involve kisspeptin neurons. Kisspeptin cells appear to regulate GnRH neurons and transmit sex-steroid feedback to the reproductive axis. Since the non-breeding season is characterized by incr...
This paper examines the known immunological and genetic factors associated with sheep resistance to infection by Haemonchus contortus. Such resistance is an inheritable genetic trait (h2, 0.22–0.63) associated with certain sheep breeds. Resistant sheep do not completely reject the disease; they only harbor fewer parasites than susceptible sheep and therefore have a lower fecal egg count. Protective immune response to haemonchosis is an expression of genetic resistance. Genes associated with...
Alba-hurtado, Fernando; Mun?oz-guzma?n, Marco Antonio
Parámetros de crecimiento y de la canal de corderos de la raza Ovella Galega sacrificados a 45 días / Growth and carcass parameters of the Ovella Galega sheep breed lambs at the slaughter age of 45 days
Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Actualmente la raza Ovella Galega se encuentra en peligro de extinción, por lo que está sometida a un Programa de Conservación y Recuperación donde prima la preservación de la variabilidad genética. En este trabajo se estudió el crecimiento y la canal en corderos de la raza, para profundizar en su c [...] aracterización. Se han utilizado 10 corderos machos de parto simple inscritos en el Libro Genealógico de la raza, criados sólo con leche materna hasta la edad de sacrificio de 45 días. El crecimiento y las GMD son acordes con los resultados publicados en otros estudios sobre la raza, y a pesar de que ésta presenta un pequeño formato, entre los resultados obtenidos cabe destacar su alto rendimiento comercial (59%) así como un adecuado porcentaje en piezas de 1ª y 2ª categoría. Abstract in english The Ovella Galega is a endangered sheep breed and is protected by a Conservation and Recovery Programme, in order to keep the genetic variability. A growth and carcass study was made on Ovella Galega lambs, whose main objetive is its characterization. Ten male lambs from single birth and fed solely [...] on their mother´s milk, all of them registered in the Record of Births of Stud-Book, were slaughtered at 45 days old. The growth and average dayly gain are in accordance to results published in other breed studies. The results show a high commercial yield (59%), apart from appropriate percentages in 1st and 2nd market categories.
M., Fernández; S., Adán; B., Domínguez; C.J., Rivero; J.R., Justo; A., Arias; M.C., García-Fontán; J.M., Lorenzo; J.J., Lama; C., López; D., Rois; J., Feijóo; D., Franco.
Background: Cryopreservation of three endangered Belgian sheep breeds required to characterize their intra-breed genetic diversity. It is assumed that the genetic structure of a livestock breed depends mostly on gene flow due to exchanges between herds. To quantify this relation, molecular data and analyses of the exchanges were combined for three endangered Belgian breeds. Methods: For each breed, between 91 and 225 sheep were genotyped with 19 microsatellites. Genetic differentiations betwe...
Dumasy, Jean-franc?ois; Daniaux, C.; Donnay, Isabelle; Baret, Philippe
Full Text Available The research was carried out on 4,030 Polish Merino ewes born in the years 1991- 2001, kept in 15 flocks from the Pomorze and Kujawy region. Fertility of ewes in subsequent reproduction seasons was analysed with the use of multiple logistic regression. The research showed that there is a statistical influence of the flock, year of birth, age of dam, flock year interaction of birth on the ewes fertility. In order to estimate the genetic parameters, the Gibbs sampling method was applied, using the univariate animal models, both linear as well as threshold. Estimates of fertility depending on the model equalled 0.067 to 0.104, whereas the estimates of repeatability equalled respectively: 0.076 and 0.139. The obtained genetic parameters were then used to estimate the breeding values of the animals in terms of controlled trait (Best Linear Unbiased Prediction method using linear and threshold models. The obtained animal breeding values rankings in respect of the same trait with the use of linear and threshold models were strongly correlated with each other (rs = 0.972. Negative genetic trends of fertility (0.01-0.08% per year were found.
Full Text Available The investigations on the incidence and intensity of parasitism in some endoparasytes in sheep performed on 376 animals (260 sheep and 116 young adult sheep Turcana breed, Gil?u area, Cluj County, indicated an increased incidence in trihostrongilidys of 72.7% in young sheep and 65.0% in adult sheep. The incidence of monesya had different values ??depending on age group, 45.5% at young sheep and 10.0% in adult sheep. The data obtained regarding the prevalence of hepatobiliary trematodsys of sheep in the study, indicates similar values ??for the two categories, 27.2% young sheep and 30.0% for adult sheep. Instead the extensivity of lung strongilatosys showed notable differences between the two groups of animals, 18.1% at young sheep and 35.0% in adult sheep. The cop microscopic pollution degree with trihostrongily eggs in correlation with age group, indicated a dominance of low infestation (50% young sheep and 61.5% adult sheep. In exchange, the data obtained on parasitism intensity with cestode oncospheres expresses a dominance of medium infestation (60.0% in young sheep and the low (10.0% in adult sheep. The intensity level of Hepatobiliary trematodosys parasitism in the young sheep showed a dominance of small and medium infestations (37.5% and in adult sheep are dominant only at low infestations (45.4%. The larvae strongilatosys parasitism intensity in the lung detected similar values ??in the two age groups (50.0% in young sheep and 17.2% in adult sheep.
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Com o objetivo de observar os efeitos do sombreamento propiciado pela tela de polipropileno sobre o comportamento de ovinos da raça Santa Inês em diferentes épocas do ano, montou-se um experimento em Petrolina, PE, no período de junho a novembro de 2010. Utilizaram-se 40 animais distribuídos em igua [...] l quantidade em dois tratamentos (Sombreado e Não sombreado) com oferta de pastagem (Tiffton 85) irrigada. Foram feitas aferições dos dados meteorológicos em todas as épocas, com a montagem de termômetros de globo negro e psicrômetros nas duas áreas e de uma mini-estação meteorológica na área sombreada. Nessas épocas foram realizados ensaios de comportamento tendo-se feito observações visuais pelo método da varredura instantânea em intervalos de 10 min no período diurno, verificando-se o percentual de animais quanto à alimentação, ruminação e ócio, a partir da metodologia proposta por Johnson & Combs (1991) adaptada para o tempo de 12h. O sombreamento não influenciou no número de animais em referência às atividades avaliadas nos diferentes tratamentos. A procura por sombra foi intensa nos períodos mais quentes do dia para a atividade de ócio. Abstract in english With the goal of observing the effects of shade provided by polypropylene screen on the behaviour of Santa Inês sheep, in different times of year, an experiment was set up in Petrolina, PE, in the period from June to November 2010. Forty animals divided into equal quantity in two treatments (shaded [...] and non-shaded) were used with supply of irrigated pastures (Tiffton 85). Measurements of meteorological data were made at all times, with the assembly of black globe thermometers and psychrometers in the two areas, and a mini-weather station, at the shaded area. Under these conditions a trials was carried out on behavior of animals, being made visual observations by the method of instantaneous scan at intervals of 10 min during the daytime period, checking the percentage of animals under food, rumination and leisure using the methodology proposed by Johnson & Combs (1991), adapted for a period of 12 h. The shading did not influence the number of animals under the activities evaluated in different treatments. The search for shade was intense in the hottest periods of the day for leisure activity.
Fabiano A. de, Oliveira; Sílvia H. N., Turco; Gherman G. L . de, Aaraújo; Carlos A. A., Clemente; Tadeu V., Voltolini; Marlon S., Garrido.
Full Text Available Com o objetivo de observar os efeitos do sombreamento propiciado pela tela de polipropileno sobre o comportamento de ovinos da raça Santa Inês em diferentes épocas do ano, montou-se um experimento em Petrolina, PE, no período de junho a novembro de 2010. Utilizaram-se 40 animais distribuídos em igual quantidade em dois tratamentos (Sombreado e Não sombreado com oferta de pastagem (Tiffton 85 irrigada. Foram feitas aferições dos dados meteorológicos em todas as épocas, com a montagem de termômetros de globo negro e psicrômetros nas duas áreas e de uma mini-estação meteorológica na área sombreada. Nessas épocas foram realizados ensaios de comportamento tendo-se feito observações visuais pelo método da varredura instantânea em intervalos de 10 min no período diurno, verificando-se o percentual de animais quanto à alimentação, ruminação e ócio, a partir da metodologia proposta por Johnson & Combs (1991 adaptada para o tempo de 12h. O sombreamento não influenciou no número de animais em referência às atividades avaliadas nos diferentes tratamentos. A procura por sombra foi intensa nos períodos mais quentes do dia para a atividade de ócio.With the goal of observing the effects of shade provided by polypropylene screen on the behaviour of Santa Inês sheep, in different times of year, an experiment was set up in Petrolina, PE, in the period from June to November 2010. Forty animals divided into equal quantity in two treatments (shaded and non-shaded were used with supply of irrigated pastures (Tiffton 85. Measurements of meteorological data were made at all times, with the assembly of black globe thermometers and psychrometers in the two areas, and a mini-weather station, at the shaded area. Under these conditions a trials was carried out on behavior of animals, being made visual observations by the method of instantaneous scan at intervals of 10 min during the daytime period, checking the percentage of animals under food, rumination and leisure using the methodology proposed by Johnson & Combs (1991, adapted for a period of 12 h. The shading did not influence the number of animals under the activities evaluated in different treatments. The search for shade was intense in the hottest periods of the day for leisure activity.
Fabiano A. de Oliveira
The mineral requirements of dairy sheep under semi-intensive and intensive management systems are reviewed. Basically, mineral requirements obtained with mutton breeds are supplemented with specific information obtained with dairy sheep. The daily requirements of sheep in major elements have been estimated using the factorial method, first to calculate the net requirements during maintenance, growth, reproduction and lactation, and second to assess the efficiency of absorption for converting net requirements into dietary allowance. The requirements in trace elements were estimated from the results of feeding trials. The choice of values for endogenous losses and particularly the precision with which efficiency of absorption can be predicted are the main sources of error in estimates of dietary allowances, especially when efficiency of absorption is low. The net requirements in major elements are given for maintenance, pregnancy and lactation, together with the recommended coefficients of absorption. Dietary requirements in trace elements are expressed as milligram per kilogram dry matter. The requirements in all nutrients and particularly in Ca and P increase during late pregnancy, especially during lactation. The requirements during lactation mainly reflect milk composition, the level of milk yield and lactation length, but also the feed intake level. The factors related to the confinement, feeding and management of dairy breeds, which differ from those of mutton breeds, may affect their mineral requirements. Changes in husbandry practices resulting in increased production may increase the stress on the animal and therefore alter its metabolic equilibrium. Direct supplementation of the diet of dairy sheep is the cheapest and most convenient method of mineral supplementation. The cost is outweighed by the enhanced performance of sheep. Determination of the mineral composition of feedstuffs available for feeding dairy sheep indicates the type and level of mineral supplementation needed. (author)
Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to study genetic diversity in Indonesian sheep population using microsatellite markers. A total of 18 microsatellite loci have been used for genotyping Indonesian sheep. Total sheep blood 200 samples were extracted from garut sheep of fighting and meat types, purbalingga sheep, batur sheep and jember sheep populations by using a salting out method. Microsatellite loci data were analyzed using POPGENE 3.2 software. Based on this study obtained 180 alleles from 17 microsatellite loci, while average number of alleles was 6.10 alleles (6 to 18 alleles from five Indonesian sheep populations (garut sheep of fighting type, garut sheep of meat type, purbalingga sheep, batur sheep and jember sheep population. The average of observed heterozygosity (Ho and expected heterozygosity (He values were 0.5749 and 0.6896, respectively, while the genetic differentiation for inbreeding among population (FIS, within population (FIT and average genetic differentiation (FST were 0.1006, 0.1647 and 0.0712, respectively. Genetic distance and genetic tree showed that Indonesian sheep population was distinct from garut sheep of fighting and meat types, purbalingga sheep, batur sheep and jember sheep population. Based on this results were needed a strategy for conservation and breeding programs in each Indonesian sheep population.
Full Text Available Sheep scab mites, Psoroptes ovis, collected from a Merino donor sheep, were used to infest Merino and Dorper sheep, and Angora and Boer goats. Mites were placed on the sheep on 1 or 2 occasions and on 5 occasions on the goats. All the animals were examined at regular intervals for the presence of scab lesions and living mites. Both sheep breeds developed lesions, but those on the Merino sheep were always larger than those on the Dorper sheep at the same intervals after infestation. None of the goats developed lesions or showed signs of irritation, or harboured any mites.
Sheep scab mites, Psoroptes ovis, collected from a Merino donor sheep, were used to infest Merino and Dorper sheep, and Angora and Boer goats. Mites were placed on the sheep on 1 or 2 occasions and on 5 occasions on the goats. All the animals were examined at regular intervals for the presence of scab lesions and living mites. Both sheep breeds developed lesions, but those on the Merino sheep were always larger than those on the Dorper sheep at the same intervals after in...
Meintjies, T.; Fourie, L. J.; Horak, I. G.
Over a 15 year period, MUSC has implemented an evolving set of commercially available “best of breed” clinical information systems throughout the enterprise. Successful systems integration efforts allow users to enter and retrieve information across a wide array of systems. Careful assessments of human impact and aggressive efforts to involve stakeholding users beginning early in systems design and implementation processes have been instrumental in securing widespread acceptance and effective use of new systems. The MUSC Electronic Medical Record (EMR) will be demonstrated, focusing particularly on its applications on the clinical “front lines.”
Afrin, Lawrence B.; Northrup, David J.; Daniels, Mark R.; Irving, Michael G.
Full Text Available The population variability of three breeds of Nigerian sheep was investigated using multivariate discriminant analyses. The sampled populations comprised mature 331 Yankasa, 296 Uda and 166 Balami sheep kept by traditional farmers in northern Nigerian. A total of ten morphological traits (withers height, rump height, body length, face length, rump length, tail length, chest circumference, head width, shoulder width and rump width were collected on each animal. The body measures of Balami sheep were significantly higher (P<0.05 than the others with the exception of tail length. Uda sheep also had comparative advantage over their Yankasa counterparts in all the morphological traits analysed. The stepwise discriminant analysis revealed that head width chronologically followed by tail length, chest circumference and body length were more discriminating in separating the three populations. The Mahalanobis distance between Yankasa and Balami sheep was highest (4.83 while the least differentiation was observed between Uda and Yankasa sheep (1.79. Nearest neighbour discriminant analysis showed that most Balami sheep (61.45% were classified into their source genetic group. While 41.22% of Uda sheep were misclassified as Yankasa sheep, 35.35% of Yankasa were wrongly assigned as Uda sheep, showing the level of genetic exchange that has taken place between the two breeds overtime. The present information could be complemented with genetic analyses geared towards designing appropriate breeding and selection strategies.
The development of an efficient charge breeding scheme for the next generation of RIB facilities will have a strong impact on the post-accelerator for several Radioactive Ion Beam (RIB) projects at European large scale facilities. At ISOLDE/CERN there will be the unique possibility to carry out experiments with the two possible charge breeding set-ups with a large variety of radioactive isotopes using identical injection conditions. One charge breeding set-up is the Penning trap/EBIS combination which feeds the REX-ISOLDE linear accelerator and which is in commissioning now. The second charge breeder is a new ECRIS PHOENIX developed at the ISN ion source laboratory at Grenoble. This ECRIS is now under investigation with a 14 GHz amplifier to characterize its performance. The experiments are accompanied by theoretical studies in computer simulations in order to optimize the capture of the ions in the ECRIS plasma. A second identical PHOENIX ECRIS which is under investigation at the Daresbury Laboratory is avai...
Villari, A; Warner, D; Barton, C J; Lindroos, M; Wenander, F J C
The domestication of livestock represented a crucial step in human history. By using endogenous retroviruses as genetic markers, we found that sheep differentiated on the basis of their "retrotype" and morphological traits dispersed across Eurasia and Africa via separate migratory episodes. Relicts of the first migrations include the Mouflon, as well as breeds previously recognized as "primitive" on the basis of their morphology, such as the Orkney, Soay, and the Nordic short-tailed sheep now confined to the periphery of northwest Europe. A later migratory episode, involving sheep with improved production traits, shaped the great majority of present-day breeds. The ability to differentiate genetically primitive sheep from more modern breeds provides valuable insights into the history of sheep domestication
Chessa, Bernado; Pereira, Filipe
Sheep were studied in the periods of anestrum and estrum, giving a description in a comparative aspect of the endocrine structures of the ovary. During estrus a strongly developed theca interna was found. Contrary to other mammals the interstitial gland in sheep was less developed during estrus than during anestrum. This was due to the season, the duration of the phases, and the types of follicle atresia. PMID:4082490
Pamukova, D; Takeva, Ts; Nestorov, N
Evaluation of the interaction between nutrition and reproduction in Mediterranean sheep requires knowledge of the energy requirements of animals in different productive and reproductive stages. The available energy systems developed for temperate climates and genotypes are not directly applicable to Mediterranean breeds of dairy sheep. Using already available data, metabolizable energy requirements for these types of animals are proposed. (author). 59 refs, 9 tabs
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Objetivou-se nesse trabalho, estimar os parâmetros genéticos para características de crescimento em ovinos da raça Santa Inês através do Método da Máxima Verossimilhança Restrita (REML). Os componentes de (co)variâncias e os parâmetros genéticos foram estimados pelo Software MTDFREML (Multiple Trait [...] Derivative-Free Restricted Maximum Likelihood). As características avaliadas em modelos uni e bicaracterística foram: peso ao nascimento (PN) e peso ao desmame (P90). Além dos efeitos fixos de sexo, grupo contemporâneo e tipo de parto, foram utilizados os seguintes efeitos aleatórios: efeito genético aditivo direto, efeito genético aditivo materno e efeito residual. As estimativas de herdabilidade aditiva direta para PN foram 0,20 e 0,21, para os modelos uni e bicaracterística, respectivamente. As estimativas de herdabilidade aditiva direta para P90 foram 0,04 e 0,07, para os modelos uni e bicaracterística, respectivamente. A correlação genética entre PN e P90 foi de 0,11, indicando que ambas as características devem ser trabalhadas simultaneamente. Abstract in english The objective of this study is to estimate genetic parameters for growth traits in sheep Santa Ines breed by Restricted Maximum Likelihood (REML). The (co)variance components and genetic parameters were estimated by MTDFREML Software (Multiple Trait Derivative-Free Restricted Maximum Likelihood). Th [...] e characteristics evaluated in single and two-trait models were: birth weight (BW) and weaning weight (WW). In addition to the fixed effects of sex, contemporary group and parity type, we used the following random effects: direct genetic effect, maternal additive genetic and residual effects. The direct additive heritability estimates for BW were 0.20 and 0.21 for single and two-trait models, respectively. Heritability estimates for direct additive WW were 0.04 and 0.07 for single and two-trait models, respectively. The genetic correlation between BW and WW was 0.11, indicating that both traits should be worked on simultaneously.
Carvalho, Geane Conceição; Barbosa, Leandro Teixeira; Oliveira, Tatiana Maia de; Fonseca, Fernanda Érica Pereira; Muniz, Evandro Neves; Azevedo, Hymerson Costa.
Mitochondrial DNA diversity was analysed in 19 Iberian and six foreign sheep breeds. Three mtDNA lineages (B, A and C) were found in the Iberian sheep, with type B clearly predominating over the others. The results were analysed for each of the morphologically determined breed groups in Iberian sheep: Merino, Entrefino, Churro and Iberian trunks. MtDNA lineage C was found only in the Iberian trunk composed of Montesina and Ojalada. These two populations had high mtDNA variability, and in the ...
Pedrosa, Susana; Arranz, Juan-jose?; Brito, Nuno; Molina, Antonio; San Primitivo, Fermi?n; Bayo?n, Yolanda
Full Text Available The prevalence of paramphislome infection in sheep slaughtered at Maiduguri abattoir, Nigeria was studied. Of the 100 slaughtered sheep examined, 28.0% were infected, with an overall worm burden of 203. Of 39 males, 23.1% were infested with a worn burden of 63, while of the 61 females examined, 31.1% were infested with a worm burden of 140. Also of the 91 adult sheep, 28.6% were infested with a worm burden of 189, while out of the 9 young sheep, 22.2% were infested, with a worm burden of 14. Among breeds, 50 Balami were examined with 32.0% infested, and a worm burden of 112, while of the 49 and 1 Udda and Yankassa sheep examined 24.5% and 0.0% were infested, respectively. However, the differences in the prevalence of paramphistomes between sexes, age groups and breeds of sheep were non significant. Identification of the parampluistomes of sheep based on their size and predilection site showed Paramhistome cervi to inhabit the rumen with a mean size of 8.5 x 3.5 mm, while Gastrothylax cruminefer inhabited also the rumen but of the size 13 x 5 mm. The distribution of paramphistome species based on the sex, age and breed of sheep examined showed that more females were infested with P. cervi (52.6% than the males (33.3%, while more males were infested with G. crumenifer (66.7% than the females (47.4%.
A. A. Biu and A. Oluwafunmilayo
Full Text Available Sheep fattening farms have been recently growing rapidly to produce better quality of sheep meat and fullfill consumer’s demand. Sheep fattening and breeding farms should be developed proportionally to obtain sustainable sheep flock in the market. Twelve male lambs (less than one year old were selected based on their average daily gain (ADG, consisting into two groups: 6 fast growing (FG and 6 slow growing (SG sheep. Some morphometric parameters in body and head parts of sheep and their carcass production and composition were measured and compared between the groups. The results show that chest circumference, body height, body length, head length and muzzle, top and bottom neck circumferences of FG sheep were significantly higher than in SG sheep (P0.05. It is concluded that selection of fast growing sheep can be recommended by using some morphometric parameters. The selection would not also negatively affect the weight and percentage of carcass composition.
Full Text Available The Booroola fecundity gene (FecB and growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9 gene belong to the transforming growth factor ? (TGF-? superfamily. The mutations of these genes have additive effects on the prolificacy in sheep. The aim of the present study was to determine the possible mutations of FecB and FecGH genes in Lory sheep breed of the Lorestan province, Iran. Sixty blood samples were collected and DNA was extracted from whole fresh blood. For detection of FecB and FecGH mutations, the PCR products were incubated with AvaII and DdeI restricted enzymes. Based on the results we did not find the FecB and FecGH mutations in this sheep breed population, so these mutations cannot the cause of the high prolificacy of Lory sheep breed and more study are needed to determine the genetic or environmental causes of high prolificacy of this sheep breed.
A serological study was done to assess the role of Maedi-Visna (MV) infection in sheep from flocks with high respiratory tract disease morbidity in Ethiopia. Of 105 sheep examined from central Ethiopia 78 (74%) were positive for MV-infection. However, antibodies to the virus were not detected in 48 sheep and 70 goats from elsewhere in Ethiopia. The infection was detected in all breeds of sheep examined (Awassi, Hampshire, Corriedale, indigenous Menz breeds and their crosses) but with a significant breed difference (chi 2 = 20, p Awassi sheep to 92% in the indigenous Menz sheep. This suggests that Menz sheep are more susceptible to infection, which may support the observation of a higher incidence of clinical disease in these sheep compared to exotic breeds and their crosses. It also supports recent studies indicating that MV is becoming one of the most important respiratory tract diseases in sheep in central Ethiopia. Our findings indicate that MV was introduced into Ethiopia via sheep imported into the central highlands and that it now constitutes an important emerging disease is discussed. Measures to control the disease are suggested. PMID:12494555
Woldemeskel, M; Tibbo, M; Potgieter, L N D
This study documents indigenous knowledge of breeds of cattle, sheep and goats in southwestern Niger, and includes both pastoralists and agropastoralists. Our study included sheep and goats in view of the increasing importance of small ruminants in livestock production systems in the Sahel since the drought of the 1970s and 1980s. This study was carried out under the Desert Margins Program (DMP) project on arresting land degradation and the conservation of biodiversity in desert margins of su...
The main breeds of sheep and goats in The Gambia, the Djallonke sheep and West African Dwarf goats are trypanotolerant. The Djallonke sheep, however, have a higher degree of trypanotolerance than the WAD goats. This trait is genetically linked although the mechanism of trypanotolerance is different from the one in cattle. It is defined as a resilience to infection rather than resistance. Both breeds are well adapted to the locally prevailing diseases and environmental conditions under which t...
Electron beam was used to irradiate different flowers and plants. The results showed that the suitable doses were 30-50 Gy for the young plant from cultured tissue of chrysanthemum, 60-80 Gy for gladiolus and 15-60 Gy for lily. In these dose range, the posterity had higher variation and wider mutation range, and mutation characters were stable. The mutation rates were 18.2%-30.8% for chrysanthemum, 8.7%-30.8% for gladiolus and more than 35% for lily. The blossom were 60, 21, 10 days earlier than the check for chrysanthemum, gladiolus and lily respectively. But the mutation rate of color varied greatly with different varieties
Scrapie is a small ruminant, transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE). Although in the past scrapie has not been considered a zoonosis, the emergence of bovine spongiform encephalopathy, transmissible to humans and experimentally to sheep, indicates that risk exists for small ruminant TSEs in humans. To identify the risk factors for introducing scrapie into sheep flocks, a case-control study was conducted in France from 1999 to 2000. Ninety-four case and 350 control flocks were matched by location and main breed. Three main hypotheses were tested: direct contact between flocks, indirect environmental contact, and foodborne risk. Statistical analysis was performed by using adjusted generalized linear models with the complementary log-log link function, considering flock size as an offset. A notable effect of using proprietary concentrates and milk replacers was observed. The risk was heterogeneous among feed factories. Contacts between flocks were not shown to be a risk factor. PMID:16102318
Philippe, Sandrine; Ducrot, Christian; Roy, Pascal; Remontet, Laurent; Jarrige, Nathalie; Calavas, Didier
Psoroptic mange is one of the most severe skin conditions of sheep. This highly contagious disease is responsible for huge economical losses in many sheep-raising countries. It is also a significant welfare concern. Our understanding of the biology of Psoroptes ovis and of the host-parasite relationship during psoroptic mange made remarkable progress during the last decade. These data combined with the availability of powerful molecular tools have opened new avenues of research. Clearly, there is still a long way to go before a vaccine becomes a reality. Additionally, other diagnostic tools and control methods should be further investigated such as breeding for genetic resistance and the use of biocontrol agents. PMID:22525584
Losson, Bertrand Jacques
Full Text Available Abstract Mitochondrial DNA diversity was analysed in 19 Iberian and six foreign sheep breeds. Three mtDNA lineages (B, A and C were found in the Iberian sheep, with type B clearly predominating over the others. The results were analysed for each of the morphologically determined breed groups in Iberian sheep: Merino, Entrefino, Churro and Iberian trunks. MtDNA lineage C was found only in the Iberian trunk composed of Montesina and Ojalada. These two populations had high mtDNA variability, and in the Iberian sheep only Merino Branco had more variation. The other three Merino types studied showed moderate variability, including the most authentic Merino, the Spanish Merino. These three Merinos clustered closely in a multidimensional scaling representation of distances, while the fourth breed (Merino Branco showed a clear separation. As for the other two trunks, breeds from the Churro group showed greater maternal uniformity while results for populations included in the so-called Entrefino trunk seemed to have a more heterogeneous maternal origin. The results obtained are discussed with available data from nuclear markers and with morphological classifications, and all this information is analysed in relation to the origin of the different Iberian sheep breeds.
Mitochondrial DNA diversity was analysed in 19 Iberian and six foreign sheep breeds. Three mtDNA lineages (B, A and C) were found in the Iberian sheep, with type B clearly predominating over the others. The results were analysed for each of the morphologically determined breed groups in Iberian sheep: Merino, Entrefino, Churro and Iberian trunks. MtDNA lineage C was found only in the Iberian trunk composed of Montesina and Ojalada. These two populations had high mtDNA variability, and in the Iberian sheep only Merino Branco had more variation. The other three Merino types studied showed moderate variability, including the most authentic Merino, the Spanish Merino. These three Merinos clustered closely in a multidimensional scaling representation of distances, while the fourth breed (Merino Branco) showed a clear separation. As for the other two trunks, breeds from the Churro group showed greater maternal uniformity while results for populations included in the so-called Entrefino trunk seemed to have a more heterogeneous maternal origin. The results obtained are discussed with available data from nuclear markers and with morphological classifications, and all this information is analysed in relation to the origin of the different Iberian sheep breeds. PMID:17212950
Pedrosa, Susana; Arranz, Juan-José; Brito, Nuno; Molina, Antonio; San Primitivo, Fermín; Bayón, Yolanda
Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english Arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AA-NAT) is critical enzyme in Melatonin (MLT) biosynthesis for MLT regulating the animal seasonal breeding. In this study, DNA sequencing methods were applied to detect the polymorphisms of the AA-NAT gene in 179 Chinese sheep belonging to two non-seasonal reprodu [...] ction breeds and two seasonal reproduction breeds. One mutation at exon 3 (NM_001009461:c.486A > G) was ?rstly described at the sheep AA-NAT locus. Hence, we described the SmaI PCR-RFLP method for detecting EX3 486A > G mutation, frequencies of the AA-NAT-G allele varied from 0.871 to 0.908 in two non-seasonal reproduction breeds and 0.517 to 0.578 in two seasonal reproduction breeds. The associations of SmaI polymorphism with estrus traits was analyzed in non-seasonal reproduction breeds sheep and seasonal reproduction breeds sheep, the signi?cant statistical results were found between them, the GG genotype frequencies was higher in non-seasonal reproduction breeds (p G mutation could facilitate association analysis and serve as a genetic marker for Chinese sheep breeding and genetics.
Bai, Ding-ping; Yu, Cheng-jiang; Chen, Yu-lin.
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of crossings between sheep breeds on the intrinsic quality of leather. It was used the skins of 36 lambs (18 females and 18 males, resulting from crosses between ewes of a native breed from the Brazilian state of Mato Grosso do Sul and rams of the same native breed as well as the Texel and Santa Inês genetic groups. The animals were raised in confinement until slaughter weight, from 28 to 32 kg. After slaughter, samples were taken from the skins for histological analysis. The skins were tanned with chromium, retanned and greased. It was taken from the leather samples for electromicrographs and for tests for tensile and tear strength (intrinsic quality. Morphological aspects from the skin as well as from the leather help to understand the results found and they evidence that breeds or crossings among breeds interfere in the intrinsic quality of leather and skin of sheep.
Manuel Antônio Chagas Jacinto
Awassi is the local breed of sheep in Jordan and is the most important breed in the semi-arid regions of the near east countries. Awassi ram and ewe lambs reach puberty at around 8 and 9 months of age, respectively. The breeding season of Awassi ewes starts as early as April and lasts through September. After puberty, Awassi rams are sexually active throughout the year. The normal estrous cycle in Awassi ewes is 15-20 days (average 17 days). Estrus ranges from 16-59 h (average 29 h) during the breeding season. The reproductive performance of unimproved Awassi sheep has been low while improved Awassi has the highest fertility and milk production and are the heaviest among all Awassi populations. The gestation length varies from 149 to 155 days (average 152 days). Hormones that are commonly used for induction and synchronization of estrus in Awassi ewes include progestins, gonadotropins and PGF2?. An Awassi ewe produces 40-60 and 70-80 kg of milk per 150-day lactation period under traditional and improved production systems, respectively, in addition to the suckled milk left for lambs until weaning. The improved Awassi has the highest milk production among all Awassi populations and may reach 506 L over 214-day lactation period. The objective of this review is to summarize the reproductive pattern and milk production of Awassi sheep in the Middle East region. PMID:21509455
Talafha, Abdelsalam Q; Ababneh, Mohammed M
In Europe, especially in Mediterranean areas, the sheep has been traditionally exploited as a dual purpose species, with income from both meat and milk. Modernization of husbandry methods and the establishment of breeding schemes focused on milk production have led to the development of “dairy breeds.” This study investigated selective sweeps specifically related to dairy production in sheep by searching for regions commonly identified in different European dairy breeds. With this aim, genotypes from 44,545 SNP markers covering the sheep autosomes were analysed in both European dairy and non-dairy sheep breeds using two approaches: (i) identification of genomic regions showing extreme genetic differentiation between each dairy breed and a closely related non-dairy breed, and (ii) identification of regions with reduced variation (heterozygosity) in the dairy breeds using two methods. Regions detected in at least two breeds (breed pairs) by the two approaches (genetic differentiation and at least one of the heterozygosity-based analyses) were labeled as core candidate convergence regions and further investigated for candidate genes. Following this approach six regions were detected. For some of them, strong candidate genes have been proposed (e.g. ABCG2, SPP1), whereas some other genes designated as candidates based on their association with sheep and cattle dairy traits (e.g. LALBA, DGAT1A) were not associated with a detectable sweep signal. Few of the identified regions were coincident with QTL previously reported in sheep, although many of them corresponded to orthologous regions in cattle where QTL for dairy traits have been identified. Due to the limited number of QTL studies reported in sheep compared with cattle, the results illustrate the potential value of selection mapping to identify genomic regions associated with dairy traits in sheep.
Gutierrez-Gil, Beatriz; Arranz, Juan Jose; Pong-Wong, Ricardo; Garcia-Gamez, Elsa; Kijas, James; Wiener, Pamela
Full Text Available The West African sheep was originated in the West African countries, brought to Sudan in 1930. These breeds include (Uda, Sankara and Weila strains. They are normally reared to gather as mixed pastoral flocks, followed different routes during summer and autumn seasons. In the first phase of this study 75 females and 10 males were selected with typical characteristics of the breed, brought to the University of Nyala experimental farm. In the second phase basic information from tribal breeders and their sheep flocks were collected. For each phase flock statistics were recorded and then some reproductive and productive traits were estimated. Season and age effect on mortality of sheep flock was estimated. Likewise feed lot experiment was done to examine the possibility of sheep for improvement of meat production. Body length, heart girth, height at withers and chest depth were measured for lambs at birth to one year age and similar measurements were taken for adult flocks.
Variation in Kisspeptin and RFamide-Related Peptide (RFRP) Expression and Terminal Connections to Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Neurons in the Brain: A Novel Medium for Seasonal Breeding in the Sheep
Reproductive activity in sheep is seasonal, being activated by short-day photoperiods and inhibited by long days. During the nonbreeding season, GnRH secretion is reduced by both steroid-independent and steroid-dependent (increased response to estradiol negative feedback) effects of photoperiod. Kisspeptin (also known as metastin) and gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH, or RFRP) are two RFamide neuropeptides that appear critical in the regulation of the reproductive neuroendocrine axis. We...
Full Text Available Abstract Internal nematode resistance in sheep has a large impact on the economy of sheep industries. Selection for nematode resistance in sheep breeding schemes would help to reduce the direct and indirect cost of parasitism to these industries. However, this is not widely practiced because of the difficulty of measuring parasite resistance or correlated indirect selection criteria. The identification of genes or linked markers that have a significant association with the variance of indicator traits of internal nematode resistance in sheep would facilitate the inclusion of nematode resistance in sheep breeding operations. This review summarises findings reported in the literature of quantitative trait loci for internal nematode resistance in sheep. Issues relating to the analytical and phenotypic complexity of nematode resistance are discussed in the context of the findings of quantitative trait loci for nematode resistance published to date.
Genetic improvement in traits associated with seasonal breeding in sheep is challenging because these traits have low heritabilities, are generally not expressed until late in life, are commonly recorded only in females, and are expressed only in some lambing seasons and management systems. Detection of quantitative trait loci and their use in marker-assisted selection could therefore substantially enhance selection responses. A population of sheep with an extended breeding season was develop...
Notter, David R.; Cockett, Noelle E.
Genetic improvement in traits associated with seasonal breeding in sheep is challenging because these traits have low heritabilities, are generally not expressed until late in life, are commonly recorded only in females, and are expressed only in some lambing seasons and management systems. Detection of quantitative trait loci and their use in marker-assisted selection could therefore substantially enhance selection responses. A population of sheep with an extended breeding season was develo...
R Notter, David; E Cockett, Noelle
Proper knowledge about individual origin and pedigree is a major point for animal breeding and genetic livestock improvement. Mainly for goat, but also for sheep, breeding in Sicily information on these points is limited, and sometimes even misleading. Sheep and goat milk production is, in many regions and especially on Sicily, a rural enterprise, where males and females graze together and pedigree of offspring can be largely unknown. Genetic improvement in this situation is challenging. Mode...
Full Text Available Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV is the causative agent of a lung cancer in sheep known as ovine pulmonary adenocarcinoma (OPA. The disease has been identified around the world in several breeds of sheep and goats, and JSRV infection typically has a serious impact on affected flocks. In addition, studies on OPA are an excellent model for human lung carcinogenesis. A unique feature of JSRV is that its envelope (Env protein functions as an oncogene. The JSRV Env-induced transformation or oncogenesis has been studied in a variety of cell systems and in animal models. Moreover, JSRV studies have provided insights into retroviral genomic RNA export/expression mechanisms. JSRV encodes a trans-acting factor (Rej within the env gene necessary for the synthesis of Gag protein from unspliced viral RNA. This review summarizes research pertaining to JSRV?induced pathogenesis, Env transformation, and other aspects of JSRV biology.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The progression of scrapie is known to be influenced by the amino acid polymorphisms of the host prion protein (PrP gene. There is no breeding programme for TSE resistance in sheep in Finland, but a scrapie control programme has been in place since 1995. In this study we have analysed PrP genotypes of total of 928 purebred and crossbred sheep together with the data of scrapie survey carried out in Finland during 2002–2008 in order to gain knowledge of the genotype distribution and scrapie prevalence in Finnish sheep. Results The ARQ/ARQ genotype was the most common genotype in all breeds studied. ARR allele frequency was less than 12% in purebred Finnish sheep and in most genotypes heterozygous for ARR, the second allele was ARQ. The VRQ allele was not detected in the Grey race sheep of Kainuu or in the Aland sheep, and it was present in less than 6% of the Finnish Landrace sheep. Leucine was the most prominent amino acid found in codon 141. In addition, one novel prion dimorphisms of Q220L was detected. During the scrapie survey of over 15 000 sheep in 2002–2008, no classical scrapie cases and only five atypical scrapie cases were detected. Conclusions The results indicate that the Finnish sheep populations have genetically little resistance to classical scrapie, but no classical scrapie was detected during an extensive survey in 2002–2008. However, five atypical scrapie cases emerged; thus, the disease is present in the Finnish sheep population at a low level.
Efeitos da oferta de forragem, do método de pastejo, dos dias de avaliação e da raça no comportamento e temperamento de ovinos / Effect of forage supply, methods of grazing, evaluation days and breed on the behavior and the temperament of sheep
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Objetivou-se estudar comportamento e o temperamento de ovinos de três raças (Suffolk, Texel, Ile de France) submetidas a dois métodos de pastejo (contínuo e rotacionado), com duas ofertas de forragem (10 e 20 kg de MS de pastagem de azevém/100 kg de peso vivo/dia) durante quatro avaliações, entre ag [...] osto e novembro de 2006. Utilizou-se o delineamento completamente casualizado em parcelas subsubdivididas, de modo que os métodos de pastejo e as ofertas de forragem constituíram as parcelas, as raças as subparcelas e os dias de avaliação as subsubparcelas. Foram utilizadas 48 fêmeas ovinas com peso médio inicial de 27,59 kg e idade entre 15 e 25 meses. Na avaliação do temperamento, efetuaram-se medidas comportamentais pelo teste de arena, tipo de marcha e tempo de fuga e atributos fisiológicos, como temperatura corporal e frequências cardiorrespiratórias. No método contínuo com baixa oferta de forragem, observou-se maior número de micções. Conforme as avaliações ocorreram, houve aumento da movimentação, das tentativas de fuga, mas menor número de vocalizações durante o isolamento. A raça Ile de France apresentou maior número de tentativas de fuga e de dejeções durante o isolamento. No pastejo rotacionado com alta oferta de forragem, o ganho de peso foi menor. A movimentação no isolamento e na presença do observador foi negativamente relacionada ao ganho de peso. As variáveis descritoras do temperamento apresentaram baixa repetibilidade. O temperamento dos ovinos foi modificado principalmente pelo dia de avaliação e pela raça, ao contrário do sistema de pastejo e da oferta de pasto, embora esses fatores tenham apresentado interação com os dias de avaliação e a raça do animal. Abstract in english This work aimed to study the temperament and the behavior of three sheep breeds (Suffolk, Texel, Ile de France) submitted to two grazing methods (continuous and rotational) with two forage supplies (10 and 20 kg of Italian ryegrass DM/100 kg body weight/day) during four evaluations from August to No [...] vember 2006. A random block design was used with split-plots, so the grazing methods and forage supplies were the plots, breeds were the sub-plots, and days of evaluation were the sub-sub-plots. It was used 48 ewe lambs with 27.59 kg of initial weight at 15 to 25 months of age. For evaluation of temperament, behavioral measures were taken by the arena test, and qualitative and quantitative flight time test, and physiological attributes such as body temperature and cardiorespiratory rates. For continuous method with low forage supply, it was observed a higher number of urination events. As evaluations were carried out, physical activity and flight events increased, but number of vocalization decreased during social isolation. Ile de France breed showed higher number of flight attempts and excretion events during social isolation. In the rotational grazing method with high forage supply, weight gain was lower. Physical activity during social isolation and at the observer presence was negatively related to weight gain. Variables used to describe the temperament showed low consistency. The temperament of sheep is mainly affected by evaluation day and breed, unlike grazing method and forage supply, although these factors show interaction with evaluation days and breed.
José Manuel Díaz, Gómez; Vivian, Fischer; César Henrique Espírito Candal, Poli; Paulo César de Faccio, Carvalho; Eliezer José, Pegoraro; Stefani, Macari.
In order to design an effective small ruminant (i.e., goats and sheep) breeding program in Kenya and other areas with similar production circumstances, it is important to understand the socio-economic factors applying to the relevant production system. Information on these was obtained from a questionnaire carried out on both smallholders and pastoral/ extensive farmers in seven selected districts. From the 458 responding households, 18% kept only goats, 34% kept only sheep, and 48% kept bot...
In order to design an effective small ruminant (i.e., goats and sheep) breeding program in Kenya and other areas with similar production circumstances, it is important to understand the socio-economic factors applying to the relevant production system. Information on these was obtained from a questionnaire carried out on both smallholders and pastoral/ extensive farmers in seven selected districts. From the 458 responding households, 18% kept only goats, 34% kept only sheep, and 48% kept bo...
Believing that science is about precision in defining its terms, we propose the use of breeding as an all-encompassing term for mosquito activity does not always represent the reality of what is happening at a site where mosquitoes, in whatever stage, are present. We explore the breadth of the term breeding and propose alternative, more accurate uses for those who write about mosquitoes. We offer samples of what we see as a misuse of the word and provide what we feel is more scientifically acceptable terminology. PMID:17067065
Rupp, Henry; Bosak, Peter J; Reed, Lisa M
In this paper the capacity for reintroduction of traditional sheep breeds as key resources for biodiversity conservation systems in HNV farming system of the South Banat region was analyzed. Taking the vulnerability of the ecosystem into consideration when creating the optimal grazing system based on traditional rearing breeds, can contribute to the protection of biodiversity in the South Banat region. The representatives of Fabaceae, Poaceae, Lamiaceae, Rosaceae and Apiaceae family wer...
Grdovi? Svetlana; Savi? Mila; Z?, Bec?kei; Dimitrijevi? B.
The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the long-term osseointegration and biocompatibility of electron beam melted (EBM) free-form-fabricated (FFF titanium grade 5 (Ti6Al4V) implants. Porous and solid machined cylindrical and disk-shaped implants were prepared by EBM and implanted bilaterally in the femur and subcutaneously in the dorsum of the sheep. After 26 weeks, the implants and surrounding tissue were retrieved. The tissue response was examined qualitatively and quantitatively using histology and light microscopic (LM) morphometry. Selected bone implants specimens were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), and micro-computed tomography (mCT). The results showed that both porous and solid implants were osseointegrated and high bone-implant contact was observed throughout the porous implant. In the soft tissue, the porous implants showed thinner fibrous encapsulation while no signs of intolerance were observed for either implant type. Taken together, the present experimental results show that FFF Ti6Al4V with and without porous structures demonstrate excellent long-term soft tissue biocompatibility and a high degree of osseointegration. The present findings extend earlier, short-term experimental observations in bone and suggest that EBM, FFF Ti6Al4V implants possess valuable properties in bone and soft tissue applications. PMID:22207608
Palmquist, A; Snis, A; Emanuelsson, L; Browne, M; Thomsen, P
Full Text Available The aim of the research was to learn from a survey about the production and economic characteristics of sheep production as well as economic position and developmental orientation of sheep breeders on the island of Pag. Data on production and economic characteristics of sheep production on the island of Pag were collected from a survey and processed through relevant descriptive statistics methods. The respondents have on average 47 breeding sheep, 2 rams and 9 sheep intended for flock renewal rate (not older than one year; which means an average flock has 58 sheep. The average total income from sheep production in 2009 was 72,460.10 HRK. The average total production costs in 2009 were 13,260.10 HRK, including the costs of fodder and veterinary services. All farms achieved positive financial results of 59,199.90 HRK in average. As many as three quarters of respondents indicated profitability of sheep production as the main motivation to engage in sheep production; very few indicated that heritage and inability to do other jobs were the main motivation. Important limiting factors for future development of sheep breeding on the island of Pag in most farms are lack of potential heirs and high average age of farm holders. Regarding the effects of joining the European Union, half the breeders intend to improve their production and harmonise it with the EU requirements and standards; one quarter of them intend to keep the existing production capacity; and another quarter intend to quit with production.
Over a 15 year period, MUSC has implemented an evolving set of commercially available “best of breed” clinical information systems throughout the enterprise. Successful systems integration efforts allow users to enter and retrieve information across a wide array of systems. Careful assessments of human impact and aggressive efforts to involve stakeholding users beginning early in systems design and implementation processes have been instrumental in securing widespread acceptance and effec...
Afrin, Lawrence B.; Northrup, David J.; Daniels, Mark R.; Irving, Michael G.
Full Text Available The purpose of this present study was to investigate the seroprevalence of cystic echinococcosis (CE in Chinese merino sheep and Duolang sheep in Xinjiang, northwestern China. A total of 1219 serum samples of sheep (including 868 Chinese merino sheep from 6 farms in Ili, Tacheng and Shihezi as well as 351 Duolang sheep from 4 farms in Kashgar were detected by ELISA assay. The chi-square test was used to analyze the data and the area differences for CE prevalence were compared. Results showed that the overall seropositive percentage for CE was 31.1% in Chinese merino sheep, and sheep from Ili area (of which 48.8% were seropositive were significantly more likely to be seropositive than either sheep from Shihezi area (6.9% (P<0.01 or ones from Tacheng area (12.7% (P<0.01. In addition, seroprevalence for CE in Duolang sheep varied from 3.3% (farm No.45 to 30.7% (farm No.50A, with the average percentage of 21.7%, which was lower than that of Chinese merino sheep (31.1%, and statistically significant difference was observed between the two breeds in seroprevalence of CE (P<0.05. In conclusion, in Xinjiang, CE prevails differently in different areas in Chinese merino sheep and Duolang sheep. And also, serologically, Chinese merino sheep was more susceptible to CE than Duolang sheep. Comprehensive measures are needed to strengthen further prevention and control of disease in two breeds in Xinjiang.
Wenqiao Hui§, Xinli Du§, Bin Jia*, Xianxia Liu, Muyesaer, Junde Ma and Shijun Ma
This research paper presents the results obtained based on a study on the impact of crossing the Svrljig pramenika and East Friesian sheep breed on the milk protein content and yield in the F1 generation of crossbreeds in the course of lactation. In all the three sheep breeds, while the difference between the first and last lactation months was of exceptionally high significance. The average protein content in the milk yielded by the East Friesian sheep and crossbreeds is very similar and amo...
Recently, designer mutts like the Labradoodle -- a cross between a Labarador retriever and a poodle -- have become popular. A listener wanted to know if some kinds of dogs are just too different to make puppies. This Science Update explores the cross breeding of species.
Estudo anatomorfológico, radiográfico e tomográfico de Schistosomus reflexus em ovino da raça Dorper: relato de caso / Anatomorphological, radiographic and tomographic studies of Schistosomus reflexus in Dorper breed sheep: case report
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O Schistosomus reflexus (SR) é uma anomalia congênita fatal e rara, primariamente observada em ruminantes, a qual apresenta feto com dorsoflexão da coluna vertebral, exposição das vísceras abdominais e torácicas e escoliose. Foi realizada uma cesariana de ovelha da raça Dorper, em propriedade da reg [...] ião de Botucatu-SP. Pelas características gerais e achados de necropsia, tratava-se de um caso de SR. A radiografia revelou acentuado desvio ventrodorsal do segmento da coluna vertebral toracolombar e deformidades das costelas. Na tomografia computadorizada, observou-se presença da integridade dos ossos e órgãos, exceto ausência de uma vértebra lombar. Não havia dados na literatura de diagnóstico por imagem de SR em ovinos, portanto procedeu-se, de forma inédita, a exames radiográfico e tomográfico do feto. Abstract in english Schistosomus reflexus (SR) is a rare and fatal congenital anomaly, primarily observed in ruminants, presenting fetus with dorsiflexion of the vertebral column, exposure of thoracic and visceral organs, and scoliosis. A caesarian was performed on a Dorper sheep on a farm in Botucatu-SP and according [...] to the general characteristics and findings observed in the necropsy of the fetus it was an SR case. The radiography indicated a marked ventro-dorsal deviation of the thoracolumbar column segment and deformity of the ribs. On the computed tomography the integrity of the bones and organs were detected, except for the absence of a lumbar vertebra. No data were available in the literature for SR diagnosis in sheep by image, so radiographic and tomographic exams of the fetus were done.
Ferreira, D.O.L.; Santarosa, B.P.; Monteiro-Toma, C.D.; Belotta, A.F.; Chiacchio, S.B.; Machado, V.M.V.; Gonçalves, R.C.; Prestes, N.C..
Full Text Available Milk and dairy products are an essential food and an economic resource in many countries. Milk component synthesis and secretion by the mammary gland involve expression of a large number of genes whose nutritional regulation remains poorly defined. The purpose of this study was to gain an understanding of the genomic influence on milk quality and synthesis by comparing two sheep breeds with different milking attitude (Sarda and Gentile di Puglia using sheep-specific microarray technology. From sheep ESTs deposited at NCBI, we have generated the first annotated microarray developed for sheep with a coverage of most of the genome.
Full Text Available Abstract Genetic strategies to improve the profitability of sheep operations have generally focused on traits for reproduction. However, natural mutations exist in sheep that affect muscle growth and development, and the exploitation of these mutations in breeding strategies has the potential to significantly improve lamb-meat quality. The best-documented mutation for muscle development in sheep is callipyge (CLPG, which causes a postnatal muscle hypertrophy that is localized to the pelvic limbs and loin. Enhanced skeletal muscle growth is also observed in animals with the Carwell (or rib-eye muscling mutation, and a double-muscling phenotype has been documented for animals of the Texel sheep breed. However, the actual mutations responsible for these muscular hypertrophy phenotypes in sheep have yet to be identified, and further characterization of the genetic basis for these phenotypes will provide insight into the biological control of muscle growth and body composition.
Cockett Noelle E
Full Text Available In this research, it was aimed to determine the phenotypic correlations among some physical traits of Norduz and Karakas sheep. Animal material was consisted from 2-6 years of age of breeding flocks of 50 Norduz and 50 Karakas ewes. Traits measured were greasy fleece weight, fiber diameter, clean fleece percentage, staple length, single fiber actual length, single fiber natural length, breaking strength, elasticity and the number of crimp in 2.54 cm. There was a positive correlation between clean fleece percentage and fiber diameter, it was insignificant for both genotypes. The estimated phenotypic correlations between staple length and greasy fleece weight was 0.403 (p<0.01 and 0.445 (p<0.01 in Norduz and Karakas sheep, respectively. It was understood that traits like fiber diameter, length, fleece weight and the number of crimp should be evaluated together in breeding studies on fleece yield in Norduz and Karakas sheep.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of crossings between sheep breeds on the intrinsic quality of leather. It was used the skins of 36 lambs (18 females and 18 males), resulting from crosses between ewes of a native breed from the Brazilian state of Mato Grosso do Sul and rams of the same native breed as well as the Texel and Santa Inês genetic groups. The animals were raised in confinement until slaughter weight, from 28 to 32 kg. After slaughter, samples were taken fr...
Manuel Antônio Chagas Jacinto; Fernando Miranda de Vargas Junior; Charles Ferreira Martins; Guilherme dos Santos Pinto; Fernando Alvarenga Reis; Alexandra Rocha de Oliveira
Some sheep breeds are naturally prolific, and they are very informative for the studies of reproductive genetics and physiology. Major genes increasing litter size (LS) and ovulation rate (OR) were suspected in the French Grivette and the Polish Olkuska sheep populations, respectively. To identify genetic variants responsible for the highly prolific phenotype in these two breeds, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) followed by complementary genetic and functional analyses were performed. H...
Demars, Julie; Fabre, Ste?phane; Sarry, Julien; Rossetti, Raffaella; Gilbert, He?le?ne; Persani, Luca; Tosser-klopp, Gwenola; Mulsant, Philippe; Nowak, Zuzanna; Drobik, Wioleta; Martyniuk, Elzbieta; Bodin, Loys
The purpose of this study was to evaluate and establish the mean values of IOP in healthy adult sheep using an applanation tonometer. Information on age, sex, and breed was obtained for all animals included in this study. Twenty five healthy sheep (Ovis aries), of the same breed (Texel), male or female, with three years of age, received an ophthalmic examination in both eyes, including pupillary reflexes, Schirmer tear test, slit lamp biomicroscopy, and fluorescein staining. For all ophthalmi...
João Antonio Tadeu Pigatto; Fabiana Quartiero Pereira; Luciane Albuquerque; Luis Felipe Dutra Corrêa; Bernardo Stefano Bercht; Paula Stieven Hünning; Alberto Andre Ribeiro Silva; Luciana Vicente Rosa Pacicco de Freitas
Since late 2011, a novel orthobunyavirus, named Schmallenberg virus (SBV), has been implicated in many cases of severely malformed bovine and ovine offspring in Europe. In adult cattle, SBV is known to cause a mild transient disease; clinical signs include short febrile episodes, decreased milk production and diarrhoea for a few days. However, the knowledge about clinical signs and pathogenesis in adult sheep is limited. In the present study, adult sheep of European domestic breeds were inoculated with SBV either as cell culture grown virus or as virus with no history of passage in cell cultures. Various experimental set-ups were used. Sampling included blood collection at different time points during the experimental period and selected organ material at autopsy. Data from this study showed, that the RNAemic period in sheep was as short as reported for cattle; viral genome was detectable for about 3-5 days by real-time RT-PCR. In total, 13 out of 30 inoculated sheep became RNAemic, with the highest viral load in animals inoculated with virus from low cell culture passaged or the animal passaged material. Contact animals remained negative throughout the study. One RNAemic sheep showed diarrhoea for several days, but fever was not recorded in any of the animals. Antibodies were first detectable 10-14 days post inoculation. Viral RNA was detectable in spleen and lymph nodes up to day 44 post inoculation. In conclusion, as described for cattle, SBV-infection in adult sheep predominantly results in subclinical infection, transient RNAemia and a specific antibody response. Maintenance of viral RNA in the lymphoreticular system is observed for an extended period. PMID:23972950
Wernike, Kerstin; Hoffmann, Bernd; Bréard, Emmanuel; Bøtner, Anette; Ponsart, Claire; Zientara, Stéphan; Lohse, Louise; Pozzi, Nathalie; Viarouge, Cyril; Sarradin, Pierre; Leroux-Barc, Céline; Riou, Mickael; Laloy, Eve; Breithaupt, Angele; Beer, Martin
Since late 2011, a novel orthobunyavirus, named Schmallenberg virus (SBV), has been implicated in many cases of severely malformed bovine and ovine offspring in Europe. In adult cattle, SBV is known to cause a mild transient disease; clinical signs include short febrile episodes, decreased milk production and diarrhoea for a few days. However, the knowledge about clinical signs and pathogenesis in adult sheep is limited.In the present study, adult sheep of European domestic breeds were inoculated with SBV either as cell culture grown virus or as virus with no history of passage in cell cultures. Various experimental set-ups were used. Sampling included blood collection at different time points during the experimental period and selected organ material at autopsy.Data from this study showed, that the RNAemic period in sheep was as short as reported for cattle; viral genome was detectable for about 3â??5 days by real-time RT-PCR. In total, 13 out of 30 inoculated sheep became RNAemic, with the highest viral load in animals inoculated with virus from low cell culture passaged or the animal passaged material. Contact animals remained negative throughout the study. One RNAemic sheep showed diarrhoea for several days, but fever was not recorded in any of the animals. Antibodies were first detectable 10â??14 days post inoculation. Viral RNA was detectable in spleen and lymph nodes up to day 44 post inoculation.In conclusion, as described for cattle, SBV-infection in adult sheep predominantly results in subclinical infection, transient RNAemia and a specific antibody response. Maintenance of viral RNA in the lymphoreticular system is observed for an extended period.
Wernike, Kerstin; Hoffmann, Bernd
Trichinella spiralis spiralis infections were established in sheep by administering infective larvae via gavage or feeding infected musculature. Trichinella spiralis nativa infective larvae had a low infectivity for sheep although light infections may be established in some animals with large infective doses. For the most part, sheep were averse to ingesting musculature mixed in a grain ration unless it was camouflaged with molasses. The heaviest infections usually occurred in the masseter mu...
Smith, H. J.; Snowdon, K. E.
Utilização de carneiros de raças de corte para obtenção de cordeiros precoces para abate em plantéis produtores de lã / Use of meat sheep sire breed on fine wool ewe flocks to produce fast-growing lambs for slaughter
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese RESUMO - Sessenta e nove cordeiros filhos de ovelhas das raças Ideal ou Corriedale cobertas com machos das raças Suffolk, Ile de France, ou da mesma raça materna, foram usados para avaliar o seu desempenho e as características de carcaça. Os animais permaneceram em pastagem até o desmame (60 dias), [...] foram confinados por 90 dias e alimentados com ração à base de silagem de milho e concentrado. Foi usado delineamento completamente casualizado em esquema fatorial. O uso de machos de corte sobre fêmeas lanígeras não causou efeito sobre o peso ao nascer e ao desmame das crias, porém aumentou o peso e a compacidade das carcaças, sem alterar as proporções de traseiro e costilhar. A espessura de gordura subcutânea não foi influenciada pelo genótipo, apresentando-se maior para fêmeas. A área de olho de lombo não apresentou diferença entre genótipos. As medidas de carcaça mostraram diferença entre genótipos, sendo as do cruzamento com Suffolk mais compridas, seguidas pelos mestiços de Ile de France. Abstract in english ABSTRACT - Sixty-nine lambs from the crossbreeding Corriedale or Polwarth ewes with Suffolk, Ile de France rams or from the same ewe breed were used to evaluate their performance and carcass characteristics. Lambs were maintained under grazing until weaning time (60 days), then were confined for 90 [...] days and fed corn silage and concentrate based diet. A completely randomized design in a factorial arrangement was used. The use of meat type rams on fine wool ewes did not affect lamb birth and weaning weight, however increased the carcass weight and compacting, without effect on forequarter and ribs. Subcutaneous fat thickness was not affected by the genotype and it was greater for females. Loin eye area did not show difference between genotypes. Carcass measurements showed differences between genotypes, being the ones from Suffolk mating the longest, followed by the crossbred from Ile de France.
Eduardo Antonio da, Cunha; Luiz Eduardo dos, Santos; Mauro Sartori, Bueno; Domingos Sanchez, Roda; Frederico Fontoura, Leinz; Carlos Frederico de Carvalho, Rodrigues.
The present study was carried out to estimate the genetic and phenotypic parameters for growth traits in Ghezel sheep,using pedigree information and body weight records which collected from 2000 to 2009 at Ghezel Sheep Breeding Station.Traits of interest were birth weight (BW, n=2,073), weaning weight (WW, n=1,663) and six-month old weight (6MW, n=1,315).The environmental factors were studied using GLM procedure in SAS software. (Co) variance components estimated basedon multivariate animal m...
The present study aimed at detecting the association of ovine major histocompatibility complex class II (Ovar II) DRB1 gene second exon and susceptibility or resistance to hydatidosis in three sheep breeds of Sinkiang. The MHC-DRB1 second exon was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) from DNA samples of healthy sheep and sheep with hydatidosis. PCR products were characterized by the restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) technique. Five restriction enzymes, Mval, Haelll, Sacl, Sacll, Hin1l, were used, yielding 14 alleles and 31 restriction patterns. Frequencies of patterns Mvalbc, Hin1lab, Sacllab, Haelllde, Haellldf, Haellldd (P lbb, Haelllef (P lbb, Haelllcf, Haelllef (P < 0.01) in Chinese Merino sheep (Sinkiang Junken type) were significantly lower in healthy sheep compared with infected sheep. This indicated a strong association between these patterns and hydatidosis susceptibility. In addition, sheep with the pattern of Haelllef demonstrated a high hydatidosis susceptibility (P < 0.01) in all three breeds, while sheep with the pattern Haelllde demonstrated significant hydatidosis resistance (P < 0.01) in Kazakh and Chinese Merino sheep (Sinkiang Junken type). These results suggest that the Ovar-DRB1 gene plays a role in resistance to hydatidosis infection in the three sheep breeds. PMID:21678792
Li, R Y; Hui, W Q; Jia, B; Shi, G Q; Zhao, Z S; Shen, H; Peng, Q; Lv, L M; Zhou, Q W; Li, H T
In conventional small ruminant breeding programs, only pedigree and phenotype records are used to make selection decisions but prospects of including genomic information are now under consideration. The objective of this study was to assess the potential benefits of genomic selection on the genetic gain in French sheep and goat breeding designs of today. Traditional and genomic scenarios were modeled with deterministic methods for 3 breeding programs. The models included decisional variables related to male selection candidates, progeny testing capacity, and economic weights that were optimized to maximize annual genetic gain (AGG) of i) a meat sheep breeding program that improved a meat trait of heritability (h(2)) = 0.30 and a maternal trait of h(2) = 0.09 and ii) dairy sheep and goat breeding programs that improved a milk trait of h(2) = 0.30. Values of ±0.20 of genetic correlation between meat and maternal traits were considered to study their effects on AGG. The Bulmer effect was accounted for and the results presented here are the averages of AGG after 10 generations of selection. Results showed that current traditional breeding programs provide an AGG of 0.095 genetic standard deviation (?a) for meat and 0.061 ?a for maternal trait in meat breed and 0.147 ?a and 0.120 ?a in sheep and goat dairy breeds, respectively. By optimizing decisional variables, the AGG with traditional selection methods increased to 0.139 ?a for meat and 0.096 ?a for maternal traits in meat breeding programs and to 0.174 ?a and 0.183 ?a in dairy sheep and goat breeding programs, respectively. With a medium-sized reference population (nref) of 2,000 individuals, the best genomic scenarios gave an AGG that was 17.9% greater than with traditional selection methods with optimized values of decisional variables for combined meat and maternal traits in meat sheep, 51.7% in dairy sheep, and 26.2% in dairy goats. The superiority of genomic schemes increased with the size of the reference population and genomic selection gave the best results when nref > 1,000 individuals for dairy breeds and nref > 2,000 individuals for meat breed. Genetic correlation between meat and maternal traits had a large impact on the genetic gain of both traits. Changes in AGG due to correlation were greatest for low heritable maternal traits. As a general rule, AGG was increased both by optimizing selection designs and including genomic information. PMID:23736059
Shumbusho, F; Raoul, J; Astruc, J M; Palhiere, I; Elsen, J M
Full Text Available The study was carried on 1425 ewes Transilvanian Merinos sheep in the farm belonging to SC Sinnagro SA, Timis country, regarding the reproduction during breeding season and in extra- season. The investigation revealed that these sheep held in good condition do express estrus (88% during spring-summer (May-June and are lambing during autumn (82% with a lower prolificacy (109%. During fall, almost all sheep (98% displayed estrus, lambing in a proportion of 94,8%, with a prolificacy of 127,1%. The statistical analysis emphasized that all reproductive indexes are higher (p<0.01 subsequent to breeding during normal season, compared to the extra-season, excepting fertility. These findings suggest that Transilvanian Merinos sheep are suitable for generating autumn lambs, for which does exists a great demand abroad.
Full Text Available The estimation of archaism index was used to study the local differentiation of seven Albanian local sheep populations. The estimation of archaism index was carried out using the morph-metric data of several features: whither height, tail length, ears length, horns and wattles presence, coat color, frontal-nasal profile. The cluster analyses was carried out using the Euclidian’s distances between populations in the plan of two first principal components. The cluster analyzes showed the existence of four distinguish sheep groups: first group -Ruda, Bardhoke, Baca, second group – Shkodrane, third group - Lara of Polisi, Syska of Mati, and fourth group -Recka. Based on the geographic distances between the regions where are bred the animals of these local sheep breeds and their geographic isolation can be concluded that the presence of local differentiation of Albanian local sheep populations is caused by the isolation in distance. These results show that in currant sheep population of Albania it is possible to find direct descendants of animals that have populated the Balkan regions in the form of three migratory successive waves. Currant results could be consider as preliminary one because of limited number of features included in the study and the complicity of this topic. They can serve as a bases for in-depth studies on local differentiation hypotheses of Albanian local sheep population.
The numerous newly built and forthcoming post-accelerators for radioactive ions, produced with the isotope separator on-line (ISOL) technique, all have a need for an efficient method to accelerate the precious primary ions. The traditional foil or gas stripping technique was challenged some five to ten years ago by a novel scheme called charge breeding. The transformation from 1 + to n + charged ions takes place inside an Electron Beam Ion Source/Trap (EBIS/T) or Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Source/Trap (ECRIS/T) by electron-ion collisions. These charge breeders are located in the low-energy part of the machine before the accelerating structures. Because of the capability of these devices to produce highly charged ions, charge-to-mass ratios between 1/9 and 1/4 are easily obtained. In this article the performance and the features of the two charge breeding concepts will be compared and discussed. An outlook on charge breeders for the next generation of radioactive ion beam facilities is also given.
The numerous newly built and forthcoming post-accelerators for radioactive ions, produced with the isotope separator on-line (ISOL) technique, all have a need for an efficient method to accelerate the precious primary ions. The traditional foil or gas stripping technique was challenged some five to ten years ago by a novel scheme called charge breeding. The transformation from 1+ to n+ charged ions takes place inside an Electron Beam Ion Source/Trap (EBIS/T) or Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Source/Trap (ECRIS/T) by electron-ion collisions. These charge breeders are located in the low-energy part of the machine before the accelerating structures. Because of the capability of these devices to produce highly charged ions, charge-to-mass ratios between 1/9 and 1/4 are easily obtained. In this article the performance and the features of the two charge breeding concepts will be compared and discussed. An outlook on charge breeders for the next generation of radioactive ion beam facilities is also given
The numerous newly built and forthcoming post-accelerators for radioactive ions, produced with the isotope separator on-line (ISOL) technique, all have a need for an efficient method to accelerate the precious primary ions. By increasing the ion charge-to-mass ratio directly after the radioactive ion production stage, a short and compact linear accelerator can be employed. Not only the efficiency, but also the rapidity of such a charge-to-mass increasing process, called charge breeding, is a crucial factor for the often short-lived radioisotopes. The traditional foil or gas stripping technique was challenged some five to ten years ago by novel schemes for charge breeding. The transformation from 1+ to n+ charged ions takes place inside an Electron Beam Ion Source/Trap (EBIS/T) or Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Source/Trap (ECRIS/T) by electron-ion collisions. These charge breeders are located in the low-energy part of the machine before the accelerating structures. Because of the capability of these devices...
Between 1983 and 1997, a low incidence of seasonal allergic dermatitis was diagnosed in sheep in Israel aged eight months to eight years, in 10 flocks of a variety of breeds, but not the local Awassi breed. The 40 affected animals reacted with scratching, biting and vigorous stamping of the feet from April to November each year. The principal skin lesions were hyperkeratosis, spongiosis and infiltrations of eosinophils and mononuclear cells, typical of an allergic dermatitis which was probably a hypersensitivity reaction to biting insects. The epidemiological findings in relation to the area of Israel affected, the breeds of sheep and the distribution of the lesions suggested that the sheep's hypersensitivity was due to the bites of several species of Culicoides. PMID:11083047
Yeruham, I; Braverman, Y; Perl, S
A total of 334 ewes recorded with twining births from the Tunisian fat tail Barbarine sheep were genotyped in the objective to identify the FecXI and FecXH mutations. The genotyping was carried out by forced restriction fragment length polymorphism PCR (RFLP-PCR). None of mutations was detected in Barbarine sheep. Results showed that all analyzed ewes were homozygous non carriers. These results suggest that fecundity of this breed is not...
This study reports the statue of the Booroola fecundity gene (FecB) mutation in Barbarine sheep breed. A total of 334 ewes recorded with twining births from the Tunisian fat tail Barbarine sheep were genotyped in the objective to identify the FecB mutation. The FecB genotyping was carried out by forced restriction fragment length polymorphism PCR technique. Forced PCR of the FecB gene was amplified using a specific primer designed...
Growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9) which controls the fecundity of Belclare, Cambridge, Santa Ines, Moghani, Ghezel and Thoka ewes was studied as a candidate gene for the prolificacy of Small Tail Han sheep. According to the sequence of ovine GDF9 gene, six pairs of primers were designed to detect single nucleotide polymorphisms of two exons of GDF9 gene in both high fecundity breed (Small Tail Han sheep) and low fecundity breed (Dorset sheep) by polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP). Only the products amplified by primers 2-1 and 2-2 displayed polymorphisms. For primer 2-1, three genotypes (AA, AB and BB) were detected in both sheep breeds. Sequencing revealed one silent mutation (G477A) in exon 2 of GDF9 gene in the BB genotype in comparison with the AA, which was known as G3 mutation of GDF9 gene in Belclare and Cambridge ewes. The relationship of least squares means for litter size was AA > AB > BB in Small Tail Han sheep (P > 0.05). For primer 2-2, two genotypes (CC and CD) were detected in both sheep breeds. Sequencing revealed one novel single nucleotide mutation (G729T) in exon 2 of GDF9 gene in the CD genotype in comparison with the CC, which resulted in an amino acid change (Gln243His). The ewes with mutation heterozygous genotype CD had 0.77 (P < 0.01) lambs more than those with wild type CC in Small Tail Han sheep. These results preliminarily indicated that allele D of GDF9 gene was a potential genetic marker for improving litter size in Small Tail Han sheep. PMID:21184179
Chu, M X; Yang, J; Feng, T; Cao, G L; Fang, L; Di, R; Huang, D W; Tang, Q Q; Ma, Y H; Li, K; Li, N
Menz sheep are indigenous to the highlands of Ethiopia, and highly valued for their meat and wool production. The area is characterized as a low input mixed barley-sheep production system. In 1998, a selection experiment was set up to evaluate the response of Menz sheep to selection for yearling live weight (WT12) and greasy fleece weight (GFW) combined in an economic index. In this paper, we report the results of this breeding program obtained between 1998 and 2003. Average annual genetic se...
Gizaw, S.; Lemma, S.; Komen, J.; Arendonk, J. A. M.
Haematological values of Yankasa and Udah sheep were determined in three clinically healthy flocks and a fourth flock with mixed helminthiasis, predominantly haemonchosis. Values for Hb, PCV, RBC and WBC from the healthy flocks were similar. They were, however, lower than reported values for sheep in temperate zones except the WBC values which were higher. These parameters were lower in the infected flock and had a wider spread. It was concluded that haematological values from the clinically healthy flocks could serve as a baseline for interpreting haematological data from diseased local sheep. It is suggested that management and health status are more important than breed for differences in haematological values. PMID:595142
Saror, D I; Schillhorn van Veen, T W
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of crossings between sheep breeds on the intrinsic quality of leather. It was used the skins of 36 lambs (18 females and 18 males), resulting from crosses between ewes of a native breed from the Brazilian state of Mato Grosso do Sul and rams [...] of the same native breed as well as the Texel and Santa Inês genetic groups. The animals were raised in confinement until slaughter weight, from 28 to 32 kg. After slaughter, samples were taken from the skins for histological analysis. The skins were tanned with chromium, retanned and greased. It was taken from the leather samples for electromicrographs and for tests for tensile and tear strength (intrinsic quality). Morphological aspects from the skin as well as from the leather help to understand the results found and they evidence that breeds or crossings among breeds interfere in the intrinsic quality of leather and skin of sheep.
Manuel Antônio Chagas, Jacinto; Fernando Miranda de, Vargas Junior; Charles Ferreira, Martins; Guilherme dos Santos, Pinto; Fernando Alvarenga, Reis; Alexandra Rocha de, Oliveira.
Full Text Available This book, edited by the colleague Giuseppe Pulina, is the result of the project "Further development of a diet formulation model for sheep and goat", supported by the Ministry of Agricultural and Forestry Policies, in Italy.
Full Text Available Proper knowledge about individual origin and pedigree is a major point for animal breeding and genetic livestock improvement. Mainly for goat, but also for sheep, breeding in Sicily information on these points is limited, and sometimes even misleading. Sheep and goat milk production is, in many regions and especially on Sicily, a rural enterprise, where males and females graze together and pedigree of offspring can be largely unknown. Genetic improvement in this situation is challenging. Modern DNA techniques can help to identify the parentage (PI, parental identification. In this paper we discuss (1 our set of microsatellites markers in relation to the ECONOGENE set, (2 accuracy of microsatellite genotyping for a goat and a sheep breed, (3 the principle of verification and identification as tested on one goat breeding farm, and (4 direct use of the technique in a running sheep or goat breeding program. For a practical application we suggest the use of around 20 quality microsatellite markers, and the use of primiparous milk analysis.
Egbert Frank Knol
Full Text Available Abstract Genetic improvement in traits associated with seasonal breeding in sheep is challenging because these traits have low heritabilities, are generally not expressed until late in life, are commonly recorded only in females, and are expressed only in some lambing seasons and management systems. Detection of quantitative trait loci and their use in marker-assisted selection could therefore substantially enhance selection responses. A population of sheep with an extended breeding season was developed through selection for fertility in spring matings and provides opportunities for further study of candidate genes influencing seasonal breeding. In particular, the melatonin receptor 1a gene is polymorphic in many sheep breeds and appears to influence a number of seasonal reproductive responses. In addition, a variety of clock genes have been identified in laboratory mammals and shown to influence biological rhythms. Mutations in these clock genes have been identified and shown to influence circadian periodicities and reproductive patterns in golden hamster and mouse. In sheep, expression of clock genes in the suprachaismatic nucleus and pars tuberalis (PT suggests that "calendar" cells in the ovine PT play a role in maintaining circannual rhythms. Thus the various clock genes represent potentially important candidate genes that may be involved in control of seasonal breeding.
Notter David R
In this research, it was aimed to determine the phenotypic correlations among some physical traits of Norduz and Karakas sheep. Animal material was consisted from 2-6 years of age of breeding flocks of 50 Norduz and 50 Karakas ewes. Traits measured were greasy fleece weight, fiber diameter, clean fleece percentage, staple length, single fiber actual length, single fiber natural length, breaking strength, elasticity and the number of crimp in 2.54 cm. There was a positive correlation between c...
The objective of this paper was to investigate the prion protein (PrP) genotype and haplotype frequencies in three Sicilian dairy sheep populations. The three populations were: (1) 1096 Valle del Belice animals, (2) 1143 Comisana animals, and (3) 1771 individuals from 5 flocks with scrapie outbreaks, in which the animals were crossbreds derived from indigenous Sicilian dairy breeds. PrP genotypes are described for the three codons 136 (Alanine or Valine; A, V), 154 (Histidine or Arginine; H, ...
Kaam, Johannes B. C. H. M.; Raffaella Finocchiaro; Maria Vitale; Francesco Pinelli; Marina Scimonelli; Fabrizio Vitale; Baldassarre Portolano; Oltenacu, Pascal A.; Santo Caracappa
Research was performed on Tsigai, Merino of Cluj, and Corriedale breeds. The main blood constants: glicemy, cholesterol, total proteins, albumins, globulins, gamma globulin, creatinine, urea and iron, were determined in order to establish the feeding metabolism. Types of hemoglobin in young studied sheep also were determined, using electrophoresis on paper. The analyses of hemoglobin type performed on experimental groups show that in Tsigai prevails B hemoglobin type. Both B and AB hemoglobin...
An electron-beam ion trap (EBIT) charge breeder is being brought into operation at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory at Michigan State University. The EBIT is part of the ReA post-accelerator for reacceleration of rare isotopes, which are thermalized in a gas "stopping" cell after being produced at high energy by projectile fragmentation. The ReA EBIT has a distinctive design; it is characterized by a high-current electron gun and a two-field superconducting magnet to optimize the capture and charge-breeding efficiency of continuously injected singly charged ion beams. Following a brief overview of the reaccelerator system and the ReA EBIT, this paper presents the latest commissioning results, particularly, charge breeding and reacceleration of the highly charged rare isotopes, (76)Ga(24 +, 25 +). PMID:24593600
Lapierre, A; Schwarz, S; Baumann, T M; Cooper, K; Kittimanapun, K; Rodriguez, A J; Sumithrarachchi, C; Williams, S J; Wittmer, W; Leitner, D; Bollen, G
Cyclic patterns and variations among sheep in numbers of Bovicola ovis are described in Polypay and Columbia ewes that were initially infested with equal numbers of lice and penned indoors continuously for 2 years. Bovicola ovis populations were censused at 3-4-week intervals at 69 body sites on each animal. In the second year of the study, the ewes were reinfested and half were mated. Louse populations were monitored on the resulting lambs from birth until 25 weeks of age. Strong seasonal cycles in louse numbers were observed on the ewes, with peaks in spring and troughs in summer. These cycles occurred in the absence of shearing, direct solar radiation or rainfall. Populations began to decline when daily mean and maximum temperatures were 11.5 degrees C and 15 degrees C, respectively, well below temperatures thought to cause warm season decline. Louse densities on Polypay ewes were approximately 10 times higher than on Columbias at most inspections. There were also large differences among sheep within breeds and sheep counts were highly correlated among dates, both within and between years. One third of the ewes failed to become infested despite having lice applied on five separate occasions and being penned together with other infested sheep. Pregnancy and lactation did not significantly affect louse numbers on the ewes. There was a significant negative correlation between louse counts and weight gains in the lambs, and lamb counts were significantly correlated with those of their dams up until, but not after, weaning. It is suggested that sheep may exert regulatory influences on lice which contribute to cycles in B. ovis populations. PMID:9512991
James, P J; Moon, R D; Brown, D R
The International Trypanotolerance Centre's small ruminant breeding programme was initiated in 1995. The aim was to increase the efficiency of meat production and the trypanotolerance of the animals (sheep and goat). To achieve that goal, selection was based on estimated breeding values for daily weight gain from 4 to 12 months of age measured on trypanotolerance challenge. The purpose of this study was to estimate genetic parameters for growth traits and to evaluate genetic trends in West Af...
Full Text Available The objective of the research was to characterise body and testes dimension of sheep, the optimal age of scrotal development for selection, and the correlation between body and scrotal measurements as a base for selection. The sheep surveyed were those owned by farmers at Pandeglang and Garut regencies that have been received grants from various government projects (Banpres, Bansos, Bangub, APBD, APBN. Pandeglang area was predominated by local sheep and crosbred between local and Garut sheep. Garut area was predominated by Garut sheep and fighter sheep. Variables observed consisted of body weight, height at withers, scrotal circumference and scrotal length. Data were analysed using one-way analysis of variance continued with Duncan’s multiple range test by mean of SAS software release 6.04. Results showed that fighter sheep have higher body and scrotal dimensions than other breeds. Optimum level of development of scrotal for selection was achieved when the sheep aged one year. Only scrotal circumference and length could be used for assessing sheep fertility, whereas body measurement and scrotal dimensions has low correlation. (Animal Production 10(3: 140-146 (2008 Key Words: Scrotal circumference, scrotal length, sheep, fighter, selection
A description of the different stages of Trypanosoma (M.) melophagium in different regions of the gut of the sheep ked (Melophagus ovinus) as observed by the SEM is presented. The extensive pile carpet or palisade colonization of the midgut and pylorus is described. The method of attachment and the relationship of the parasites to the microvilli in the midgut and the cuticle of the pylorus and ileum observed by other methods are confirmed. The micro-structure of the surfaces themselves in the regions of the gut to which parasites attach are described. The use of the technique for the study of other similar systems is discussed. PMID:32751
Molyneux, D H; Selkirk, M; Lavin, D
The single nucleotide polymorphism of BMPR-IB gene (bone morphogenetic protein receptor type IB) was analyzed using PCR-RFLP in Iranian native Kalehkoohi sheep. BMPR-IB which affects the fecundity of Booroola Merino sheep was studied as a candidate gene associated with the prolificacy of Kalehkoohi sheep. Improving the reproductive traits in sheep could be one of the key factors in increasing farm profitability. Major genes for litter size trait provide opportunities for large and rapid increases in the efficiency of sheep production. The same FecB (Booroola) mutation occurred in the BMPR-IB gene in Kalehkoohi sheep as found in Booroola Merino. Allele frequency for B and + was 0.35 and 0.65 respectively. The BB, B+ and ++ genotypes have been identified with the 0.13, 0.446 and 0.424, respectively. The Kalehkoohi sheep with genotypes BB and B+ had 0.52 and 0.35 lambs, more than the homozygous wild-type, respectively (PBB in litter size. Also the effect of parity and flock weren't significant in this study. Results of the present study support the concept that BMPR-IB significantly affected litter size and was associated with litter size in Kalehkoohi sheep and thus it could be used for Marker-assisted selection programmers for the genetic improvement of reproductive characteristics in this breed. PMID:24793585
Mahdavi, Morteza; Nanekarani, Shahram; Hosseini, Seyed Davood
Vizsgálataim során három olyan innovációt emeltem ki, melyek mindegyike egy olyan végtermék el?állítását szolgálja, mely egyedülálló hozzáadott értéket tartalmaz és számos további innovációs lehet?séget rejt magában. Ez a termék a juh kefir.
Elastic characteristics of the pig, sheep and cow vocal folds were investigated through a series of in vitro experiments. Sample strips of the vocal fold tissue were dissected from pig, sheep and cow vocal folds and mounted inside a saline-filled ergometer chamber that was maintained at 37°C ± 1°C. Sinusoidal elongation was applied on the samples to obtain the passive force measurements. Force and elongation data from the samples were recorded electronically with a dual-servo system (ergom...
Alipour, Fariborz; Jaiswal, Sanyukta; Vigmostad, Sarah
Microbial breakdown of cellulose is a rather slow process. Therefore the retention time of digesta and the volume of the fermentation chamber are factors limiting the quantity of fibrous diets that can be digested. Indigenous ruminants can generally adapt to harsh grazing conditions better than conventional breeds. Unexpectedly high rumen volumes were reported in a number of indigenous ruminants. In studies reported in this paper, Heidschnucken, an indigenous breed of sheep in the heather region of Northern Germany, were able to increase their rumen volume from 14% to 22% of body weight during adaptation to a low quality fibrous diet. Heidschnucken did not lose significant body weight, whereas Blackface sheep lost 20% and failed to adapt the rumen volume. Rumen volume of indigenous sheep and goats in Northern Kenya was 20% of body weight while grazing in the thornbush savannah during the dry season, compared with 9-12% while kept indoors on a hay-concentrate diet. Mean retention time of particles in the total gastrointestinal tract of goats and sheep in Kenya was 38 h and 46 h respectively. In the experiment with Heidschnucken, these sheep increased the retention time of particles to 71 h on a straw diet, while Blackface sheep retained particles 58 h. Dietary preference and feed intake have been studied in indigenous sheep and goats in Kenya at seasonal pasture conditions in the thornbush savannah. Goats have a higher preference to dicotyledon species (92-97%) than sheep, who are less selective grazers. The feeding behaviour of indigenous sheep and goats was complementary rather than competitive. Feeding observations indicate that this is also the case when cattle (grazers) and camels (browsers) are included in such a comparison. (author)
The ability of a sheep to shed its own wool has an attraction in scenarios where the costs of harvesting wool outweigh its value. Certain breeds and composites have the ability to shed their wool in the spring, and these are investigated in this work in an attempt to outline the genetics of wool shedding. One flock from a breeding group in Southern England (UK) containing sheep with wool-shedding characteristics provided shedding scores (1 to 5 scale; no shedding to complete shedding) that were used in a range of genetic analyses. The particular nature of wool shedding suggested that there may be a major gene segregating in these populations that facilitates wool shedding. In addition, there was clearly variation among wool shedders in the speed and extent of shedding, so a polygenic trait was also investigated. The breeding group used a range of shedding breeds and composites in a regular program to introduce wool-shedding genes into their flocks. This allowed the testing of Mendelian ratios for shedders:nonshedders in both first-cross and first-backcross animals. Four modes of inheritance were tested: autosomal recessive, sex-linked recessive, autosomal dominant, and sex-linked dominant. The most likely mode of inheritance was autosomal dominant (P gene needs to be introduced into the population, and then selection between animals can proceed by using EBV for the polygenic trait (speed or extent of shedding) as the basis for selection. PMID:21357446
Pollott, G E
Allele and genotype frequency distributions of prion protein (PrP) polymorphisms at three codons, 136, 154, and 171, in East Asian sheep were determined by PCR-RFLP analysis using 553 animals from nine local breeds of the northern group and four local breeds of the southern group. Based on the genotype distribution, the risk score for scrapie was estimated. Among the local breeds, ARQ appeared predominantly (0.7701-1), followed by ARH and ARR. From such a biased allele distribution, it was difficult to ascertain the prevalent genetic relationships. A marked difference in allele frequencies between the northern and southern groups was seen (P < 0.0001). The East Asian sheep had ARQ at the highest frequency (0.8834); in European sheep it was 0.5317. According to an assessment of scrapie risk in the PrP genotype classes, the predominant ARQ/ARQ in East Asian sheep corresponded to the risk score of R4. This finding suggests that East Asian sheep have a high level of genetic susceptibility to scrapie. PMID:19731007
Tsunoda, Kenji; Namikawa, Takao; Sato, Keizo; Hasnath, M A; Nyunt, Maung Maung; Rajbandary, Heramba B; Loc, Chau Ba; Zanchiv, Ts; Chang, Hong; Sun, Wei; Dorji, Tasi
A report about a case of St. John's wort poisoning in German Blackface sheep is given. After the ingestion of St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum) all slightly pigmented parts of the skin, that were rarely covered with hair, were photosensitized. In summer many sheep suffered from inflammatory skin alterations at the ears, the bridge of the nose and at the surroundings of the eyes. A literature review informs about etiology and treatment of photosensitivity disease and the St. John's wort is exactly described to facilitate recognition. PMID:2815063
This experiment was conducted in the Genetics, Breeding and Reproductive Biotechnology Laboratory under Goat and Sheep Production Research Division, Bangladesh Livestock Research Institute (BLRI), Saver, Dhaka, Bangladesh. DNA was extracted from 14 goat breeds and the extracted DNA was observed by gel electrophoresis. Eight goat specific primers were synthesized by ASM-800 DNA synthesizer and screened in the study and all these primers were capable of priming polymorphic amplification p...
Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this proteomics study was to identify proteins that changed expression as a result of copper challenge in the uniquely copper sensitive North Ronaldsay sheep and further, to compare those changes in expression with the more copper tolerant Cambridge breed. Such data gives us a proteome-centered perspective of the pathogenesis of copper-induced oxidative stress in this breed. Results Many proteins respond to copper challenge, but this study focuses on those exhibiting a differential response between the two breeds, related to liver copper content. As copper accumulated in the tissue, the pattern of expression of several proteins was markedly different, in North Ronaldsay sheep as compared to the Cambridge breed. Conclusion The pattern of changes was consistent with the greatly enhanced susceptibility of North Ronaldsay sheep to copper-induced oxidative stress, focused on mitochondrial disturbance with consequent activation of hepatic stellate cells. The expression profiles were sufficiently complex that the response could not simply be explained as a hypersensitivity to copper in North Ronaldsay sheep.
Background: Ghezel sheep are highly prolific and one of the local sheep breeds in Iran andTurkey. Growth differentiation factor-9 (GDF9) gene has been found to be essential for growthand differentiation of early ovarian follicles. Novel mutations in GDF9 have been associated withincreased ovulation rates and high litter sizes in heterozygous carriers. Therefore, fecundity genefor GDF9 (FecGH) mutation in GDF9 is considered as a possible candidate for the increased littersize observed in Gheze...
Charge breeding is a technique to increase the charge state of ions, in many cases radioactive ions. The singly charged radioactive ions, produced in an isotope separator on-line facility, and extracted with a low kinetic energy of some tens of keV, are injected into a charge breeder, where the charge state is increased to Q. The transformed ions are either directed towards a dedicated experiment requiring highly charged ions, or post-accelerated to higher beam energies. In this paper the physics processes involved in the production of highly charged ions will be introduced, and the injection and extraction beam parameters of the charge breeder defined. A description of the three main charge-breeding methods is given, namely: electron stripping in gas jet or foil; external ion injection into an electron-beam ion source/trap (EBIS/T); and external ion injection into an electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS). In addition, some preparatory devices for charge breeding and practical beam delivery aspects ...
Wenander, F J C
Full Text Available Many native breeds are facing the problem of extinction. Therefore, urgently, genetic diversity ofbreeds must be studied and the results must be employed to find out the conservation priority of the breeds .Microsatellites and mtDNA sequences are the two types of genetic markers that have been found useful andhave been employed widely in the studies revealing the genetic diversity of closely related populations.Studies based on these markers, in parallel to Archeological findings , indicated that the native Turkish cattle,goat and sheep breeds are close to one of the centers of domestication. Therefore, it is highly likely that thesebreeds are harboring potential genetic information to be utilized in the future. Hence, they must have highpriority in conservation on the global scale. Again, genetic studies indicated that, morphological characters ofthe breeds may give incomplete/wrong informat ion about the evolutionary history of the breeds.Furthermore, genetic studies indicated that, before the prioritizat ion of the breeds in conservation, first thegroup of breeds having the same evolutionary history must be determined. For this, breeds must be examinedwith respect to several types of genetic markers, differing in their modes of inheritance. Recently, todetermine the conservation priorities of the breeds, new methods, using various criteria, such as: geneticdistinctness, genetic diversity level, adaptation to special environmental conditions, risk of ext inction of thebreed, are being developed. Yet, they are not fully developed.Lastly, it is well known that breeds loose genetic informat ion as they go from one generation to thenext. Simulation studies, give insights about how to minimize this inevitable genetic loss by using molecularmarkers. However, at the current stage of technology, employment of the emerging rules are very expensive.
C. C. Berkman
Diarrhoea is a major impediment to profitable sheep production in many countries as it predisposes animals to blowfly strike and contaminates wool and meat carcasses. While it is accepted that nematode parasites are a major cause of diarrhoea in grazing animals, less is known about what facets of the host-parasite relationship lead to diarrhoea and what the most appropriate control strategies are. In this review, the relationship between gastrointestinal nematode infection and diarrhoea is discussed and it is concluded that in many cases, particularly in immunologically mature sheep, diarrhoea is not due to parasite infection per se but rather due to immunopathological processes. Mechanisms that lead to faecal softening in immune sheep are considered, and the question addressed as to whether anthelmintic treatment and selective breeding of naturally parasite-resistant sheep will effectively reduce the occurrence of diarrhoea.
Williams, Andrew Richard; Palmer, Dieter G
Nematode parasitism is a severe impediment to sustainable and profitable sheep production in many countries in the world. Parasite resistance to anthelmintic treatment and consumer demand for organic agricultural products has led to much research into harnessing natural immunity as a long-term control measure. However, there is evidence that many of the clinical signs of nematode infection in sheep are due to immune-mediated pathology rather than direct effects of the parasite. Therefore, the desirability of promoting a strong natural immunity in sheep has been questioned. This review attempts to clarify some of the arguments for and against promoting strong natural immunity, particularly through selective breeding of parasite-resistant animals. It is concluded that the detrimental effects of immune-mediated pathology are outweighed by epidemiological and welfare benefits. Thus, control of nematode parasites through selection of naturally resistant sheep is a sustainable and desirable objective.
Williams, Andrew Richard
This paper concerns the likely origin of three mutations with large effects on ovulation rate identified in the Belclare and Cambridge sheep breeds; two in the BMP15 gene (FecXG and FecXB) and the third (FecGH) in GDF9. All three mutations segregate in Belclare sheep while one, FecXB, has not been found in the Cambridge. Both Belclare and Cambridge breeds are relatively recently developed composites that have common ancestry through the use of genetic material from the Finnish Landrace and Ll...
Mullen, Michael P.; Hanrahan, James P.; Howard, Dawn J.; Powell, Richard
Full Text Available Small ruminant lentiviruses include members that infect sheep (ovine lentivirus [OvLV]; also known as ovine progressive pneumonia virus/maedi-visna virus and goats (caprine arthritis encephalitis virus [CAEV]. Breed differences in seroprevalence and proviral concentration of OvLV had suggested a strong genetic component in susceptibility to infection by OvLV in sheep. A genetic marker test for susceptibility to OvLV has been developed recently based on the TMEM154 gene with validation data from over 2,800 sheep representing nine cohorts. While no single genotype has been shown to have complete resistance to OvLV, consistent association in thousands of sheep from multiple breeds and management conditions highlight a new strategy for intervention by selective breeding. This genetic marker-assisted selection (MAS has the potential to be a useful addition to existing viral control measures. Further, the discovery of multiple additional genomic regions associated with susceptibility to or control of OvLV suggests that additional genetic marker tests may be developed to extend the reach of MAS in the future. This review will cover the strengths and limitations of existing data from host genetics as an intervention and outline additional questions for future genetic research in sheep, goats, small ruminant lentiviruses, and their host-pathogen interactions.
Donald P. Knowles
Full Text Available Scientific research on factors causing the reduction of well-being in sheep and goats is rather recent, as are studies of strategies to minimize the adverse effects of environmental challenges and improper management practices on flock welfare. Sheep and goats, considered very rustic animals, are reared prevalently under extensive production systems and are widespread mainly in marginal areas. For these reasons, only few studies on the welfare of these species have been carried out in the past. More recently, the scenario has changed, due to a gradual diffusion of intensive and semi-intensive production systems, especially in dairy sheep and goat breeds, to the growing concern of consumers about the life conditions of farmed animals, and to the issuing of a number of rules and laws on the safety of animal products and well-being of farmed livestock. As a consequence, several research groups have turned their attention to the welfare of sheep and goats. Nevertheless, information on this topic is still scarce. This paper reviews major critical points regarding the endangerment of welfare in farmed sheep and goats. Climatic extremes and seasonal fluctuations in herbage amount and quality are discussed as important causes of the reduction of well-being in extensive production systems, which can impair production efficiency of grazing animals and dramatically affect the welfare and health status of sheep and goats. Space allowance and structures of sheep and goat houses are described as the main potential sources of discomfort for housed flocks, together with inadequate control of micro-environment, and inappropriate milking procedures and human-animal interactions. Recent studies on the impact of high ambient temperature, different ventilation regimes, high stocking densities, reduced airspace and poor litter management on behaviour, immune and endocrine response, and on performance of sheep and goats are discussed. The effects of inadequate milking procedures and improper milking technical parameters on welfare and udder health of sheep and goats are also discussed. Finally, some practices aimed at minimizing emotional and nutritional stresses of lambs and kids after early separation from the mother, before the transition to artificial rearing, and at weaning time are described.
Full Text Available Fish breeding is a very important activity ensuring availability of fingerlings for the stocking of ponds, pens, tanks and cages. The breeding habits of fishes in nature differ from specie to specie Different species of fish choose different places in the aquatic environment for breeding. Most species do not breed when in captivity due to a number of factors. In Nigeria, induced breeding of African mud catfish through injection of ova prim hormone or pituitary gland is the main practice. This article reviews the wild sources of fish seeds, some cultivable fishes. carp breeding, relationship between the endocrine system and gonad development, function of the Central Nervous System (CNS in propagation, influence of ecological conditions on gonad development, artificial propagation of common carp, natural induced spawning, salmon culture and an innovation in the sea to educate fish breeders, fish genetics and fish culturist in other to facilitate their productivity.
For determination the inducing factors of arrested development of 3th stage larvae of Haemonchus contortus as early L4 in sheep in 2 out of 4 climatic conditions of Iran, 24, six month old native sheep (shall breed) were randomly allocated into 3 equal groups I, II and III.Each sheep in each group received 10000 local isolate of H.contortus larvae not known to exhibit hypobiosis as follow: (i)Freshly collected larvae were given to group I, (control group).(ii)Larvae stored at 8...
Nematollahi, A.; Hosseini, S. H.; Eslami, A.
Sheep and goats are often kept in low input production systems, often at subsistence levels. In such systems, the uptake of effective commercial breeding programmes is limited, let alone the uptake of more advanced technologies such as those needed for marker-assisted selection (MAS). However, effective breeding programmes exist in a number of countries, the largest ones in Australia and New Zealand aiming for genetic improvement of meat and wool characteristics as well as disease resistance and fecundity. Advances have been made in sheep gene mapping with the marker map consisting of more than 1 200 microsatellites, and a virtual genome sequence together with a very dense single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) map are expected within a year. Significant research efforts into quantitative trait loci (QTL) are under way and a number of commercial sheep gene tests have already become available, mainly for single gene effects but some for muscularity and disease resistance. Gene mapping in goats is much less advanced with mainly some activity in dairy goats. Integration of genotypic information into commercial genetic evaluation and optimal selection strategies is a challenge that deserves more development. (author)
The Danish sheep population totals around 144,000 animals, but little is known of the causes and prevalance of diseases. This study focuses on the causes of abortion in Danish sheep. During one breeding season, aborted foetuses and stillbirths with signs of intrauterine death or malformation were submitted for laboratory examination from a population of 3,758 breeding ewes. Samples from 24 incidents of abortion and 21 ewes delivering malformed lambs or lambs with ante partum decomposition were submitted. A specific aetiology was established in 66.7% and 14.3% of the cases, respectively. Bacterial pathogens were the most prevalent cause of abortion. Several of the abortifacients were zoonotic microorganisms, for example Listeria monocytogenes, Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus, Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and Toxoplasma gondii. The identified microorganisms probably represent the most common causes of abortion in Danish sheep but occurrence in Denmark of other pathogens such as Coxiella burnetii and Chlamydophila abortus cannot be excluded. Due to the high prevalence of zoonotic microorganisms, precautions must be taken in handling abortions or assisting lambing, especially for pregnant women.
Agerholm, JÃ¸rgen S.; AalbÃ¦k, Bent
Full Text Available In this study, 6574 growth trait records of Arman sheep bred and reared in Abbas-Abad sheep breeding station, Mashhad, Iran during 1997-2007 were used to estimate the genetic trends for some of the growth traits using Animal model for lambs, rams and ewes. Genetic trends were estimated for Birth Weight (BW, Weaning Weight (WW and 6 Months Weight (6 MW traits. Appropriate models from single and three-trait analysis were applied for research of traits. Predicted breeding values averaged by year of birth from both the single and three-trait analysis for growth traits increased over time. Genetic trends of studied traits were estimated by regressing mean of breeding values on birth year. Direct genetic trends were positive and highly significant (p-1, respectively. Also, maternal trends for BW and WW were positive and highly significant (p-1.
Full Text Available The introduction of HACCP system within sheep exploitations represents a unitary control manner, scientifically proved, which enforces the discipline and correctness, allows an objective evaluation of sheep and goat meat and milk quality. When determining the main components of sheep and goat milk from the animals that grazed on the pasture fertilized with stable manure, within ecologic conditions, the following results were obtained: at sheep there was a fat percent of 6.22% and 6.11%, protein 5.32% and 5.52%, and dry substance 14.25% and 14.21%, normal values for sheep milk; at goats the fat percent was that of 6.22% and 6.11%, protein 5.32% and 5.52%, and dry substance 14.25% and 14.21%, normal values for goat milk. The milk samples taken from the sheep belonging to Palas Merino breed and from Carpatina breed were also analysed with regard to the toxic residues and it has been stated that the values obtained fit within the normal norms admitted by the food domain’ standards, being in compliance with the safety and protection of the consumers. The elimination of chemical fertilizers, pesticides and herbicides has led to the non-noticing of their presence within the sheep and goat products. By the regulation of ecologic products’ quality, in relation with the consumers’ and environment’s protection, a balance was created between the producers’ interests and obligations, those of the merchants and also those of the consumers. On the basis of results obtained through the microbiological examination of milk and meat samples taken from the sheep it has been stated that the microbial flora identified is formed by representatives of Staphylococcus–72.72% Streptococcus ? hemolitic – 9.09% and Fungi filamentous – 18.18%. The microbial flora is non pathogen for man.
CAMELIA ZOIA ZAMFIR
Full Text Available The objective of the current study was to find out the litter size and lamb survivability of Batur sheep, and also to identify the effects of ewe parities on litter size and lamb survivability; and the effects of birth type on lamb survivability of Batur sheep. The study was conducted at the Batur sheep Farming Group in the upland areas of Banjarnegara regency, Central Java province of Indonesia. Data from 311 records of lambing of Batur sheep at the village breeding centre for Batur sheep were analyzed. Least squares procedure by the General Linear Model was used to identify the effect of parity on litter size at birth and at weaning. Preweaning survivability was analyzed using the Chi-squares. Results showed that average litter size at birth and at weaning, and lambs survivability till weaning were 1.55±0.03 and 1.36±0.03 lambs; and 88.42%, respectively. Litter size at weaning and lambs survivability was significantly different among ewe parities, and increased by advancing ewes parities. Its indicating that age of ewe was important factor for the success in early stage for producing lamb. Survivability of single lamb (93.62% was significantly higher that twins (84.11%. Increased care for twins by providing proper management might lead to a recognizable increase in lamb survival and flock productivity of Batur sheep.Key words: Batur sheep, litter size, lamb survivability, parity, preweaning
In 1995 several outbreaks of food poisoning in humans occurred in Iceland, that were traced to salmonella contamination of singed sheep heads. This prompted us to study the prevalence of salmonella infection in sheep and to trace where and how infection might have occurred. Faecal, intestinal contents and tonsillar samples were collected in the spring and autumn from sheep on 50 farms in the southwestern part of the country, where salmonellosis had been detected and from 5 farms in th...
Hjartardóttir S; Gunnarsson E; Sigvaldadóttir J
Genomic selection aims to increase accuracy and to decrease generation intervals, thus increasing genetic gains in animal breeding. Using real data of the French Lacaune dairy sheep breed, the purpose of this study was to compare the observed accuracies of genomic estimated breeding values using different models (infinitesimal only, markers only, and joint estimation of infinitesimal and marker effects) and methods [BLUP, Bayes C?, partial least squares (PLS), and sparse PLS]. The training d...
Duchemin, S. I.; Colombani, C.; Legarra, A.; Baloche, G.; Larroque, H.; Astruc, J. M.
This is the fourth in a series of lessons specifically designed to instruct individuals without any formal training in genetics or statistics about the science of corn breeding. Individuals with formal training in genetics or statistics but without any training in plant breeding also may benefit from taking these lessons.
The objective of this study was to estimate genetic parameters for reproductive traits in Shall sheep. Data included 1,316 records on reproductive performances of 395 Shall ewes from 41 sires and 136 dams which were collected from 2001 to 2007 in Shall breeding station in Qazvin province at the Northwest of Iran. Studied traits were litter size at birth (LSB), litter size at weaning (LSW), litter mean weight per lamb born (LMWLB), litter mean weight per lamb weaned (LMWLW), total litter weight at birth (TLWB), and total litter weight at weaning (TLWW). Test of significance to include fixed effects in the statistical model was performed using the general linear model procedure of SAS. The effects of lambing year and ewe age at lambing were significant (Pmeat production efficiency in Shall sheep. PMID:23334381
Amou Posht-e-Masari, Hesam; Shadparvar, Abdol Ahad; Ghavi Hossein-Zadeh, Navid; Hadi Tavatori, Mohammad Hossein
Full Text Available The aim of this work was to sequence the exons of ?-defensin 1 and 2 genes (SBD1 and SBD2 in Valle del Belice dairy sheep in order to identify polymorphisms. The study was conducted on 60 samples from three flocks. Six SNPs were identified: two in SBD1 and four in SBD2. Both genes consist of two exons and one intron. In SBD1 gene, SNPs were found only in the exon 2, whereas in SBD2, SNPs were detected in both exons. In both genes, SNPs were located in the coding regions and in the 3'-UTR. The SNP in SBD2 located at position 1659 determined a change in the protein sequence. Further studies will be necessary to investigate if the amino acid change modifies the biological function of the protein and the association with SCC, in order to use this information in a breeding program for mastitis resistance in Valle del Belice sheep.
Full Text Available In order to identify polymorphic microsatellite markers and evaluae genetic variation within Baluchi sheep population, nineteen microsatellite loci were studied. Whole Blood samples were collected from 156 sheep at north eastern animal breeding station of Iran (Abbasabad-Mashhad. DNA was extracted by salting-out procedure with some modifications. Polymerase chain reactions were successfully done except for UNC5C locus. PCR products were electrophoresed on 8% denaturing polyacrylamide gels stained according to rapid silver staining procedure. The genotype and allelic frequencies were calculated by direct counting and used for estimating of different polymorphism and genetic variation criteria. This population wasn't at Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium except for OarAE101 locus (P
Full Text Available This study attempted to determine the inter-relationship between market price and body measurements among different breeds of sheep in open markets of six Local Government Areas of Kano State (Municipal, Taruauni, Gmale, Nassarawa, Fagge and Dala of Kano city. Body measurements and prices of sheep used for this study were obtained from Unguwa Uku, Dorayi, Kara, Bachirawa, yankaba, Mariri and Kabara livestock markets in Kano. The Sudanese price was the highest (N 30,000±0.0, followed by Uda, Balami and Yankasa with the least cost being N 10, 614±3,137. Similarly the Sudanese breed recorded highest body weight, back length, lion girth and height at wither compared to all other breeds, while Balami had a higher chest girth (78.77±6.0 cm, followed by Uda and Yankasa, which recorded the least. The extra large animals weighed 58.75± 1.25 kg, which was more than the body weight of the large, medium and small sheep which weighed 42.48±0.34kg, 34.93±0.21 and 27.92±0.26, respectively. The price of these animals also follow the same pattern as the extra large cost more than all the other weight classes. The prices were N 25,750±8,500, N 15,524±2,263, N 11,284±2792 and N 8,324±1,584 for extra large, large, medium and the small sheep, respectively. Price of sheep was positive and highly correlated to weight of the sheep (0.826. Price was also positive and moderately correlated to back length (0.579, chest girth (0.538, height at wither (0.535 and leg length (0.464 at 1% level of significance. Leg length was highly and positively correlated with height at wither (0.717. Height at whither together with back length are important additional variables to chest girth to obtain up to 38% prediction of price of rams. The price of any sheep breed is subjected to the weight and the price of sheep in an open market can best be predicted from a combination of leg length and loin girth. (Animal Production 13 (1:64-68 (2011Key Words: price of sheep, sheep breeds and open markets
The terms of reference for ITER provide for incorporation of a tritium breeding blanket with a breeding ratio as close to unity as practical. A breeding blanket is required to assure an adequate supply of tritium to meet the program objectives. Based on specified design criteria, a ceramic breeder concept with water coolant and an austenitic steel structure has been selected as the first option and lithium-lead blanket concept has been chosen as an alternate option. The first wall, blanket, and shield are integrated into a single unit with separate cooling systems. The design makes extensive use of beryllium to enhance the tritium breeding ratio. The design goals with a tritium breeding ratio of 0.8--0.9 have been achieved and the R ampersand D requirements to qualify the design have been identified. 4 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs
The terms of reference for ITER provide for incorporation of a tritium breeding blanket with a breeding ratio as close to unity as practical. A breeding blanket is required to assure an adequate supply of tritium to meet the program objectives. Based on specified design criteria, a ceramic breeder concept with water coolant and an austenitic steel structure has been selected as the first option and lithium-lead blanket concept has been chosen as an alternate option. The first wall, blanket, and shield are integrated into a single unit with separate cooling systems. The design makes extensive use of beryllium to enhance the tritium breeding ratio. The design goals with a tritium breeding ratio of 0.8--0.9 have been achieved and the R D requirements to qualify the design have been identified. 4 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.
Smith, D.; Billone, M.; Gohar, Y. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA)); Baker, C. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Mori, S.; Kuroda, T.; Maki, K.; Takatsu, H.; Yoshida, H. (Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokyo (Japan)); Raffray, A. (California Univ., Los Angeles, CA (USA)); Sviatoslavsky, I. (Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI (USA)); Simbolotti, G. (ENEA, Frascati (Italy). Centro Ricerche Energia); Dae
Most sheep farmers are aware of the importance of monitoring animal health and well-being for profitable sheep production. Unfortunately, there are only a few benchmarked functional measures of sheep well-being but much can be gained from our understanding of other species. Moreover, comprehensive monitoring programs may be complex and relatively expensive to implement. Hence, this work reports the results of a research study on the usefulness of functional markers in measuring dairy sheep well-being, taking into account farm management and environmental conditions. The study was conducted on 11 farms breeding Italian islander sheep breeds. The husbandry and management parameters of each farm were assessed and, based on the findings, the farms were scored in ascending quality order. Flock information concerned housing, milking system, pen size, grazing hours, health management, and stockmanship. Medical history, clinical data, the most relevant haematological, chemical and biochemical parameters, as well as the haemoglobin genotype were recorded for 415 individuals. The whole data-set was analyzed by Spearman correlation and multivariate statistical procedures, showing that albumin, serum alkaline phosphatase, haematocrit, and haemoglobin were the most significant functional markers of a flock's general conditions. Haematocrit and haemoglobin reflect animal health status, while albumin and serum alkaline phosphatase are a measure of nutritional status and physical activity, respectively. These are objective parameters, which can be easily measured from blood samples and have proved to be effective for grouping to interpret animal well-being. PMID:19544000
Petazzi, F; Rubino, G; Alloggio, I; Caroli, A; Pieragostini, E
Fat-tailed sheep (FTS) is a group of breeds characterized by large (fatty) tails that it is commonly distributed in Africa, Middle East, Pakistan, and to a lesser extent in other countries. Awassi, a common FTS breed in many Mediterranean countries, is adaptive and suitable to live in harsh conditions of the arid and semiarid areas. One of the main constraints for sheep industry in those areas is the limited supply and variable quality and quantity of feedstuffs. Using several alternative feedstuffs (AF) has been a common practice to decrease production cost of Awassi sheep industry in those areas. The appropriate AF to be used is determined by several animal and feed factors. These AF includes, but not limited to, unconventional feedstuffs, agricultural byproducts, and agro-industrial byproducts. A good body of literature about the use of AF and the effects of such use on performance of Awassi sheep is available. Some of these AF have been shown to be safely used in Awassi diets with no detrimental effects on sheep performance or health and, thus, recommended to lower the production cost. Other AF has controversial effects and recommendations. This paper reviews the effects of using AF on performance of Awassi ewes and lambs. Effects on intake, nutrient digestibilities, growth rate, and carcass characteristics of lambs and on intake, nutrient digestibilities, body weight change, milk yield, and milk composition of ewes will be emphasized. Recommendations and limitations for using AF will also be briefly discussed. PMID:21512727
Awawdeh, Mofleh S
Knowledge of genetic diversity is important as it forms the basis for designing breeding programmes and making rational decisions on sustainable utilization of animal genetic resources. This study was designed to assess the efficiency of blood protein polymorphism as a rapid tool for assessing genetic diversity, using seven blood proteins (transferrin, albumin, haemoglobin, esterase A, esterase C, carbonic anhydrase and X-protein) and 457 indigenous fat-tailed (351) and fat-rumped (106) hair sheep in Kenya from 7 populations, with 40 Merino as controls. Transferrin was analysed using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and starch gel electrophoresis was used to analyse the other six loci. Of the seven loci analysed, two - carbonic anhydrase and X-protein - could not be interpreted. The five interpretable markers, however, showed low levels of polymorphism in allele numbers and heterozygosity. Multilocus mean FST values of 0.083 indicated a moderate genetic differentiation between the populations analysed. The Dm and Da genetic distance estimates showed the indigenous sheep populations in Kenya to be closely related genetically, with the dendrogram failing to resolve indigenous sheep into fat-tailed sheep and fat-rumped hair sheep. Due to its costs and modest equipment demands, blood protein polymorphism can be used as a rapid tool to assess genetic diversity and prioritize breeds to be analysed by microsatellite DNA markers. (author)
Seasonality of the reproductive cycle in sheep is a general phenomenon for mid-latitude breeds. The proximal part (breeding season) and also partially distal part (end of gestation and beginning of lactation) of this cycle is controlled by photoperiod, whatever the form of light regimens. Data are presented which indicate that male and female do not necessarily have the same photoperiodic sensitivity. Gonadal stimulation in the ram starts 1.5-2 months earlier than in the ewe under annual variations. Photoperiod controls the reproductive cycle by the intermediary of the hypothalamo-pituitary axis. There are both a steroid-independent and a steroid-dependent effect of light, depending on both decreasing and increasing daylength in mid-latitudes. Data are also presented which support Bunning's hypothesis on photoperiodic time measurement in mammals. Sheep measure photoperiodic time by using a circadian rhythm of photosensitivity. Daylength is not measured by the total duration of exposure to light but by the illumination of two special set points during the day, one of them entraining the circadian rhythm of photosensitivity and the other inducing or not inducing a physiological response if it is coincident, or not coincident, with photoinducible phase of that rhythm. A photoinducible phase has been found for prolactin secretion, and perhaps also for LH secretion. Melatonin secretion is used by sheep for measuring daylength. However, that secretion disappears during two set points during the day, thus raising the possibility of using alternatively melatonin and light pulse for controlling the reproductive cycle in sheep. PMID:3077741
Ortavant, R; Bocquier, F; Pelletier, J; Ravault, J P; Thimonier, J; Volland-Nail, P
the present study was conducted as in the experimental sheep farm of the nuclear research center, egyptian atomic energy authority in association with the institute of graduate studies and research. university of alexandria. this study aims to accurately and economically detect early pregnancy using techniques of biotechnology .consequently, the suggested method may replace techniques used nowadays for pregnancy detection since these techniques have disadvantages (e.g. long time before accurately determining pregnancy in rectal abdominal palpation and high cost and hazards of using serum progesterone radio immunoassay (RIA). the farmer may benefit from such detection economically by increasing his farm breeding cycle efficiency , reducing the breeding expenses . and isolating fertile ewes as early as possible. therefore reducing abortion incidences. stillbirths or production of weak lambs. this study was performed in two separate experiments. the first experiment: twenty four mixed breed sheep from the experimental sheep of the nuclear research center . egyptian atomic energy authority were used in this study. blood samples were taken at days 18.104.22.168.21.and 25 days after mating and a native- page were applied on the serum of these samples in correlation with serum progesterone RIA test. in addition . white blood cells were isolated from blood samples to obtain purified total RNA for RT-PCR. gel images were analyzed using totallab v.i.II(nonlinear dynamic, Newcastle upontyne. UK) computer software.the second experiment:nine pregnant and two non-pregnant ewes used in this experiment. blood sample were taken 0.25.30.35.40.45.and 50 days after mating and SDS-page were applied on the serum of theses samples. Native-page were applied for serum samples and stained for glycoproteins. gel images were analyzed using totallab v/1.11 (nonlinear dynamic. Newcastle upontyne. UK) computer software
A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence and risk factors for ectoparasites infestation in sheep in three agro-ecological zones in central Oromia, Ethiopia, from October 2009 to April 2010. The study revealed that 637 (48.1%) of the 1325 sheep examined were infested with one or more ectoparasites. The ectoparasites identified were Bovicola ovis (27.2%), Melophagus ovinus (16.4%), Ctenocephalides sp. (2.3%), Linognathus africanus (1.2%), Linognathus ovillus (0.3%), Sarcoptes sp. (1.2%), Amblyomma variegatum (4.4%), Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi (1.9%), Rhipicephalus pravus (1.9%), Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) decoloratus (1.1%), Rhipicephalus sanguineus (0.9%), Rhipicephalus praetextatus (1.1%) and Hyalomma truncatum (1.6%). Statistically significant difference was observed in prevalence of B. ovis amongst study agroecological zones: highland 36.6%, midland 20.9% and lowland 14.0%. Significantly higher prevalence was recorded in highland agroecological zone. A significantly (OR = 0.041, p 0.05) was never recorded in the prevalence of all the identified species of ectoparasites between male and female sheep hosts. However, a significantly (p = 0.006) higher prevalence of B. ovis was recorded between young and adult sheep. The risk of B. ovis infestation was 1.45 times higher in young than the adult sheep. Furthermore, a significantly (p < 0.001) higher prevalence of M. ovinus, B. ovis and Sarcoptes sp. was found between sheep with poor and a good body condition. The ever increasing threat of ectoparasites on overall sheep productivity and tanning industry in Ethiopia warrants urgent control intervention. Further studies on the role of ectoparasites in transmission of diseases to sheep, zoonotic importance, comparative prevalence and load, and the importance of sheep as alternative hosts in different agroecological zones, breeds and management systems in Ethiopia are recommended so as to design applicable control programme in the country. PMID:23327319
Kumsa, Bersissa; Beyecha, Kebede; Geloye, Mesula
Full Text Available A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence and risk factors for ectoparasites infestation in sheep in three agro-ecological zones in central Oromia, Ethiopia, from October 2009 to April 2010. The study revealed that 637 (48.1% of the 1325 sheep examined were infested with one or more ectoparasites. The ectoparasites identified were Bovicola ovis (27.2%, Melophagus ovinus (16.4%, Ctenocephalides sp. (2.3%, Linognathus africanus (1.2%, Linognathus ovillus (0.3%, Sarcoptes sp. (1.2%, Amblyomma variegatum (4.4%, Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi (1.9%, Rhipicephalus pravus (1.9%, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus decoloratus (1.1%, Rhipicephalus sanguineus (0.9%, Rhipicephalus praetextatus (1.1% and Hyalomma truncatum (1.6%. Statistically significant difference was observed in prevalence of B. ovis amongst study agroecological zones: highland 36.6%, midland 20.9% and lowland 14.0%. Significantly higher prevalence was recorded in highland agroecological zone. A significantly (OR = 0.041, p 0.05 was never recorded in the prevalence of all the identified species of ectoparasites between male and female sheep hosts. However, a significantly (p = 0.006 higher prevalence of B. ovis was recorded between young and adult sheep. The risk of B. ovis infestation was 1.45 times higher in young than the adult sheep. Furthermore, a significantly (p < 0.001 higher prevalence of M. ovinus, B. ovis and Sarcoptes sp. was found between sheep with poor and a good body condition. The ever increasing threat of ectoparasites on overall sheep productivity and tanning industry in Ethiopia warrants urgent control intervention. Further studies on the role of ectoparasites in transmission of diseases to sheep, zoonotic importance, comparative prevalence and load, and the importance of sheep as alternative hosts in different agroecological zones, breeds and management systems in Ethiopia are recommended so as to design applicable control programme in the country.
The genetic structure of populations of the Tuvinian short-fat-tailed sheep was studied with the use of the ISSR-PCR (Inter Simple Sequence Repeats) method in 18 farms of Tyva. Data on the spectrum of ISSR fragments of DNA were obtained using the (AG)9C primer. Analysis of intermicrosatellite polymorphism permitted us to determine genomic characteristics of the populations, their genealogical relations, and the parameters of genetic diversity within the populations and the breed as a whole. Three genetic notions were considered on the basis of the results of this analysis: gene pool profile, gene pool standard, and breed-specific pattern. The data obtained can be used to carry out population genetic monitoring, to develop a breeding strategy, and to conserve in situ the Tuvinian sheep breed and breeds of other domesticated species. PMID:21434419
Stolpovski?, Iu A; Kol, N V; Evsiukov, A N; Ruzina, M N; Shimiit, L V; Sulimova, G E
The achievements made in mutation breeding in Japan over the past 40 years are outlined from the viewpoint of practical breeding. Fifty-four varieties of 23 crops were obtained by direct use of induced mutants. These include 12 cereal mutant varieties, five food legumes, nine industrial crops, seven vegetables and 18 ornamentals. Ten varieties were obtained by national breeding institutes, 14 by prefectural stations and 30 by universities or private firms. The varieties produced by the national breeding programme were registered and released with Norin numbers. In most cases, ionizing radiation was used. Forty additional mutant varieties were developed through cross-breeding using induced mutants as the gene sources. Of the 33 rice varieties in this category, 21, including six national varieties, resulted from crosses involving Reimei, a semi-dwarf mutant variety. Another semi-dwarf mutant parent was used to breed two more national varieties. Three early heading mutants were also integrated into cross-breeding programmes and produced three national and two prefectural varieties. A large grain mutant produced three varieties for sake brewing. A new recessive resistant mutant allele to the soil borne virus (BaYMV) was induced in barley. One variety was bred using this mutant as a parent. Another promising disease resistant clone was induced by chronic irradiation in a gamma field in the leading Japanese pear variety Nijisseiki, which is susceptible to black spot disease caused by Alternaria alternata (Fr.) Keissler. This mutant clone maintained all the superior qualities of the original variety. The significant role of the Institute of Radiation Breeding as a core in mutation breeding is mentioned briefly. (author). 10 refs, 2 figs, 6 tabs
The present study was conducted on various herds of Kacchi and Lohi breeds of sheep in Southern Punjab, Pakistan to investigate the prevalence of gastrointestinal tract (GIT) parasites. A total of 523 sheep were examined. Out of which 240 were found to contain various GIT parasites. The overall prevalence rate was 46.33%. The prevalence of Fasciolia hepatica, Avitellina centripunctata, Haemonchus contortus and Trichuris globulosa was 21.41, 12.23, 6.50 and 5.73%, respectively. Sex wise p...
The occurrence of abscess disease, caseous lymphadenitis, and pulmonary adenomatosis in sheep in Denmark is reported for the first time. Subcutaneous abscesses were observed in imported 4- to 5-month-old lambs of the Lacaune breed 10 days after arrival in Denmark. Abscesses were mostly located in the head, neck and shoulder regions close to the regional lymph nodes. Bacteriological examinations revealed growth of Staphylococcus aureus ssp. anaerobius in all animals with subcutaneously located abscesses containing a viscous white-yellow odourless mass. In addition, Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis was isolated from abscesses in one animal and lesions consistent with pulmonary adenomatosis were found in four animals.
MÃ¸ller, Kristian; Agerholm, J.S.
Full Text Available Research was performed on Tsigai, Merino of Cluj, and Corriedale breeds. The main blood constants: glicemy, cholesterol, total proteins, albumins, globulins, gamma globulin, creatinine, urea and iron, were determined in order to establish the feeding metabolism. Types of hemoglobin in young studied sheep also were determined, using electrophoresis on paper. The analyses of hemoglobin type performed on experimental groups show that in Tsigai prevails B hemoglobin type. Both B and AB hemoglobin types were identified in Corriedale and Merino of Cluj, prevailing B type. The main biochemical parameter frames in the normal physiological limit, emphasizing the diet balance in all nourishing principles.
Full Text Available The present study was conducted on various herds of Kacchi and Lohi breeds of sheep in Southern Punjab, Pakistan to investigate the prevalence of gastrointestinal tract (GIT parasites. A total of 523 sheep were examined. Out of which 240 were found to contain various GIT parasites. The overall prevalence rate was 46.33%. The prevalence of Fasciolia hepatica, Avitellina centripunctata, Haemonchus contortus and Trichuris globulosa was 21.41, 12.23, 6.50 and 5.73%, respectively. Sex wise prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites was higher in male than female hosts (P<0.05. The maximum infection was observed in lambs compared to adults (P<0.05. The prevalence of different species of endoparasites also varied in sheep of different body weight groups (P<0.05. The highest infection was observed in Kacchi breed than Lohi breed. In conclusion, the data obtained in this study suggest that the age, sex, body weight and breed are important factors which influence the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites.
*Mushtaq H. Lashari and Zahida Tasawar
Full Text Available We determined the polymorphism C242T of the aromatase gene (Cyp19 and its allelic frequency, as well as the effect of the variants on productive and reproductive traits in 71 purebred Santa Inês sheep, 13 purebred Brazilian Somali sheep, nine purebred Poll Dorset sheep, and 18 crossbred 1/2 Dorper sheep. The animals were genotyped using the PCR-RFLP technique. The influence of the animal's genotype on its performance or on the performance of its lambs was analyzed by the least square method. Another factor assessed was the importance of the animal's genotype in analysis models for quantitative breeding value estimates, and whether there were differences among the averages of breeding values of animals with different genotypes for this gene. In the sample studied, no AA individuals were observed; the AB and BB frequencies were 0.64 and 0.36, respectively. All Brazilian Somali sheep were of genotype BB. All 1/2 Dorper BB animals presented a lower age at first lambing, and the Santa Inês BB ewes presented a lower lambing interval. In these same genetic groups, AB ewes presented higher litter weight at weaning. This is evidence that BB ewes have a better reproductive performance phenotype, whereas AB ewes present a better maternal ability phenotype. However, in general, animals with genotype AB presented better average breeding values than those with genotype BB.
Ana Maria Bezerra Oliveira Lôbo
Dolly, the world's first animal to be cloned from an adult cell, was put down February 14, 2003, due to a tumor in the lung. Her death has drawn increased attention to how little we really know about the potential health problems associated with genetic cloning. The journal Nature offers a special Web focus on "the life of this extraordinary sheep," including current and archived news articles and scientific papers. These resources offer a great way for readers to delve into this topic at depth and learn about the science behind the news.
Full Text Available The persistency of lactation, i.e. the ability of animals to maintain a rconstant level of production after the lactation peak, represents an interesting trait for animal breeding strategies, allowing for the increase of profitability of animal husbandry via the reduction of production costs. Dairy cattle with flatter curves show a higher reproductive efficiency, a better metabolic status and have their nutritional requirements more constantly spread throughout lactation, allowing for the use of cheaper feeds (Dekkers et al., 1998; Solkner and Fucks, 1987. Also in dairy sheep the persistency could represent an interesting trait for breeding purposes. A main problem for the introduction of this trait in an aggregate genotype is represented by the difficulty in finding an objective measure: several measurements of lactation persistency have been proposed but none of them is widely accepted (Gengler, 1996..........
We present a breeding protocol that distills pure copies of any stabilizer state from noisy copies and a pool of predistilled pure copies of the same state, by means of local Clifford operations, Pauli measurements and classical communication.
Hostens, E; Dehaene, J; Dehaene, Jeroen; Hostens, Erik; Moor, Bart De
Hydrothermal factors in Ningxia, an arid and semi-arid area in Northwestern China, were examined to determine their influence on the geographical differentiation of the wool quality of Tan sheep lambskin. Prospective areas for extension of the Tan sheep industry were also investigated. Two sheep groups were sampled; one consisted of artificial insemination flocks (1241 lambs sampled from 25 flocks) and the other of natural mating flocks (1009 lambs from 38 flocks). Six phenotypical traits were measured for each lamb and six hydrothermal factors were collected from the meteorological stations located in the sampling areas. A significant correlation was found between wool characteristics of the lambskin and hydrothermal conditions. Data further indicated that among all the hydrothermal factors measured, those causing the geographical differentiation of soil and vegetation were the major factors responsible for the corresponding differentiation of the lambskin and wool quality of Tan sheep. Thermal factors were mostly positively correlated with wool quality, while the influence of moisture was negative. Three eco-geographical regions were defined based on a combination of the hydrothermal conditions and corresponding wool characters: (i) typical region or super-suitable region, (ii) sub-typical region or suitable region and (iii) transitional region. The delimitation could be used as a basis for the extension of the Tan sheep industry. It is also suggested that the wool quality of lambskin of Tan sheep in these three regions could be improved by means of controlled breeding and selection.
Shen, C. J.; Shiquan, Wang
Full Text Available Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2 (BMP2 plays a crucial role in bone growth. The objective of this study was to investigate variations in sheep BMP2 gene and their associations with growth traits in 320 Guizhou Semi-Fine Wool sheep. Five fragments of BMP-2 gene were investigated only exon2 region of BMP-2 gene showed polymorphism after PCR-SSCP and DNA sequencing methods. There was one G>A (g. 273 G>A mutation located in nucleotide position of GenBank Accession No. EU854586 which constructed three genotypes (LL, LW and WW. The frequencies of allele L and genotype LL were dominant in Guizhou Semi-Fine Wool sheep. The PIC (Polymorphism Information Content values of the Guizhou Semi-Fine Wool sheep were 0.3261 belong to median polymorphism. Associations between growth traits and BMP2 gene polymorphism were investigated and significant statistical association results were found in body height, body length and chest circumference (pBMP2 gene is a candidate gene that influences growth traits in Guizhou Semi-Fine Wool sheep. Further investigations are required for detecting the polymorphism of this gene in a broad variety of sheep breeds and populations.
Xiao Yun Shen
Twenty-five sheep, experimentally (n = 15) or naturally (n = 6) infected with ovine progressive pneumonia virus and noninfected controls (n = 4), were evaluated for histological and ultrastructural lesions of mastitis. Histologically, nine of 15 experimentally infected sheep and all six naturally infected sheep had lympho-plasmacytic mastitis. Severity of the lesion increased with length of time after infection. Periductal lymphatic nodules were seen in five sheep experimentally infected for 2.8 years or longer and in five naturally infected sheep that were 3.7 years old or older. Ultrastructurally, responses to ovine progressive pneumonia virus were diffuse lympho-plasmacytic infiltrates in glandular interstitium, lymphocytic and occasional plasmacytic infiltrates in ductal walls and lumens, lymphoblasts surrounded by small lymphocytes in glandular interstitium, and degeneration of epithelium releasing cells and cellular debris into the lumen. Based on the prevalence of lesions, the mammary tissue was more susceptible to ovine progressive pneumonia virus than other target organs: lung, brain, and synovium. Lesions did not differ between breeds of sheep. Ovine progressive pneumonia virus was not seen in the mammary tissue but was isolated from 15 of 17 mammary glands. PMID:3008404
Deng, P; Cutlip, R C; Lehmkuhl, H D; Brogden, K A
Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english The Chilote sheep has been developed in an isolated environment, based on grazing lands with low nutritive value belonging to small-scale producers, because of which there is little information about the use of this breed for meat production. The objective of this work was to determine the effects o [...] n lamb carcasses of two breeds with different productive purposes and fed on pastures with different nutritional quality. Three groups of lambs were used. The first and second groups were composed of 13 and 11 Chilote lambs respectively, and the third composed of six Suffolk Down lambs. Lambs remained with their mothers, the first group on naturalized pasture and the rest on rangeland. Animals were slaughtered at 90 d of age. Live weight, carcass weight and yield, and several zoometric parameters were determined, as well as the weight of commercial cuts and the muscle, bone and fat ratios. Hide and hoof weights were also measured. For the effect of breed, Chilote lamb is narrower (P
Jorge, Ramírez-Retamal; Rodrigo, Morales; M. Eugenia, Martínez; Rodrigo, de la Barra.
Biological control of parasitic nematodes of livestock is currently under development and represents another tool that may be integrated into helminth parasite control strategies. This paper presents a brief introduction to commercial sheep farming in South Africa and currently available nematode parasite control methods. These include the FAMACHA(r) clinical assay, strategies of pasture management, dilution of resistant worm species by introduction of susceptible worms, breed resistant sheep...
Faedo, M.; Krecek, R. C.
The digestive capacity of the Portuguese native breed of Barrosão cattle and the Holstein-Friesian breed was measured when fed meadow hay (72-74 g CP and 641-671 g NDF/kg dry matter), offered either alone or supplemented with soya bean meal (150 g/kg dry matter), at maintenance level. Four mature cows of each breed were used. Average initial live weight (LW) was 457 and 635 kg for the Barrosão and the Holstein-Friesian cows respectively. The organic matter digestibility (OMD) of the meadow hay was higher in Holstein-Friesian than in Barrosão cows (p 0.05). The results obtained in this study suggest a higher ability to digest fibre in the large dairy breed than in the small native breed. This suggestion is also supported by previous findings with sheep breeds largely differing in mature live weight. PMID:23746083
Lourenço, A L; Dias-da-Silva, A; Santos, A S; Rodrigues, M A M; Cone, J W; Ferreira, L M M
Sheep chromosome 3 (Oar3) has the largest number of QTLs reported to be significantly associated with resistance to gastro-intestinal nematodes. This study aimed to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within candidate genes located in sheep chromosome 3 as well as genes involved in major immune pathways. A total of 41 SNPs were identified across 38 candidate genes in a panel of unrelated sheep and genotyped in 713 animals belonging to 22 breeds across Asia, Europe and South America. The variations and evolution of immune pathway genes were assessed in sheep populations across these macro-environmental regions that significantly differ in the diversity and load of pathogens. The mean minor allele frequency (MAF) did not vary between Asian and European sheep reflecting the absence of ascertainment bias. Phylogenetic analysis revealed two major clusters with most of South Asian, South East Asian and South West Asian breeds clustering together while European and South American sheep breeds clustered together distinctly. Analysis of molecular variance revealed strong phylogeographic structure at loci located in immune pathway genes, unlike microsatellite and genome wide SNP markers. To understand the influence of natural selection processes, SNP loci located in chromosome 3 were utilized to reconstruct haplotypes, the diversity of which showed significant deviations from selective neutrality. Reduced Median network of reconstructed haplotypes showed balancing selection in force at these loci. Preliminary association of SNP genotypes with phenotypes recorded 42 days post challenge revealed significant differences (P<0.05) in fecal egg count, body weight change and packed cell volume at two, four and six SNP loci respectively. In conclusion, the present study reports strong phylogeographic structure and balancing selection operating at SNP loci located within immune pathway genes. Further, SNP loci identified in the study were found to have potential for future large scale association studies in naturally exposed sheep populations.
Periasamy, Kathiravan; Pichler, Rudolf; Poli, Mario; Cristel, Silvina; Cetra, Bibiana; Medus, Daniel; Basar, Muladno; A. K., Thiruvenkadan; Ramasamy, Saravanan; Ellahi, Masroor Babbar; Mohammed, Faruque; Teneva, Atanaska; Shamsuddin, Mohammed; Podesta, Mario Garcia; Diallo, Adama
Full Text Available Abscess disease (caseous lymphadenitis and Morel disease is a worldwide contagious bacterial disease of sheep and goats and is adversely affecting the development of the sheep industry in Saudi Arabia. Fifteen sheep and 12 goat farms at Qassim region, central Saudi Arabia, were surveyed during September and October 2008 for the determination of the prevalence and the etiology of abscess disease. One hundred and twenty pus samples were collected from affected external lymph nodes of clinically-ill sheep and goats and from infected internal lymph nodes and organs condemned during meat inspection in the slaughterhouses, for the isolation and identification of pathogenic bacteria causing sheep abscess disease. The prevalence of abscess disease varied between 5%– 44.1% in sheep farms, being highest in the Najdi breed, and between 2.2 % – 6.5 % in goat farms. Males of both sheep and goats had the highest rate of infection compared to females (p <0.01. Bacterial isolates were obtained from 97 out of the 120 collected pus samples (80.83%. The remaining 23 samples were sterile. Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis and Staphylococcus aureus subsp. anaerobius accounted for about 54% of isolates, with almost equal frequencies (p =0.5. Other pyogenic bacteria such as S. aureus, Streptococci, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Actinomyces pyogenes were also isolated from infected abscesses. They represented about 46% of the isolated etiological agents of sheep abscesses. This explains why available vaccines (bactrins against caseous lymphadenitis (CLA are poorly protective against abscess disease in Saudi Arabia. [Vet. World 2011; 4(11.000: 495-499
Khaled Bani Al-Harbi
A Monte Carlo charge breeding code (MCBC) is being developed by FAR-TECH, Inc. to model the capture and charge breeding of 1+ ion beam in an electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) device. The ECRIS plasma is simulated using the generalized ECRIS model which has two choices of boundary settings, free boundary condition and Bohm condition. The charge state distribution of the extracted beam ions is calculated by solving the steady state ion continuity equations where the profiles of the captured ions are used as source terms. MCBC simulations of the charge breeding of Rb+ showed good agreement with recent charge breeding experiments at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). MCBC correctly predicted the peak of highly charged ion state outputs under free boundary condition and similar charge state distribution width but a lower peak charge state under the Bohm condition. The comparisons between the simulation results and ANL experimental measurements are presented and discussed.
Zhao, L.; Cluggish, B.; Kim, J. S. [FAR-TECH Inc., San Diego, California 92121 (United States); Pardo, R.; Vondrasek, R. [ANL, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States)
A Monte Carlo charge breeding code (MCBC) is being developed by FAR-TECH, Inc. to model the capture and charge breeding of 1+ ion beam in an electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) device. The ECRIS plasma is simulated using the generalized ECRIS model which has two choices of boundary settings, free boundary condition and Bohm condition. The charge state distribution of the extracted beam ions is calculated by solving the steady state ion continuity equations where the profiles of the captured ions are used as source terms. MCBC simulations of the charge breeding of Rb+ showed good agreement with recent charge breeding experiments at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). MCBC correctly predicted the peak of highly charged ion state outputs under free boundary condition and similar charge state distribution width but a lower peak charge state under the Bohm condition. The comparisons between the simulation results and ANL experimental measurements are presented and discussed.
Full Text Available Biological control of parasitic nematodes of livestock is currently under development and represents another tool that may be integrated into helminth parasite control strategies. This paper presents a brief introduction to commercial sheep farming in South Africa and currently available nematode parasite control methods. These include the FAMACHA(r clinical assay, strategies of pasture management, dilution of resistant worm species by introduction of susceptible worms, breed resistant sheep and nutritional supplementation. The purpose of this paper is to outline the principles of biological control using nematophagous fungi and how it may be applied on sheep farms in South Africa.
PURPOSE: To determine the analgesic, motor, sedation and systemic effects of lumbosacral epidural magnesium sulphate added to ketamine in the sheep. METHODS: Six healthy adult male mixed-breed sheep; weighing 43 ± 5 kg and aged 20-36 months. Each sheep underwent three treatments, at least 2 weeks apart, via epidural injection: (1) ketamine (KE; 2.5 mg/kg), (2) magnesium sulphate (MG; 100 mg), and (3) KE + MG (KEMG; 2.5 mg/kg + 100 mg, respectively). Epidural injections were administered thro...
Rafael DeRossi; Cassio Tadeu Dias Pompermeyer; Amadeu Batista Silva-Neto; Andrea Lantieri Correa de Barros; Paulo Henrique de Affonseca Jardim; Fabrício Oliveira Frazílio
Data from body weights at post-weaning were used to genetic trend for Zandi sheep reared in Khojir breeding station of Tehran-Iran over a 16 years period (1993-2008) using animal model for lambs, rams and ewes. Genetic trends were estimated for 6 Months Weight (6MW), 9 Months Weight (9MW) and Yearling Weight (YW) traits. For investigation of each trait appropriate models using 3-trait analysis were applied. Breeding values of animals were predicted by Best Linear Unbiased Prediction (BLUP) me...
Mohammadi, K.; Beigi Nassiri, M. T.; Roshanfekr, H.; Mirzadeh, K.; Aghaei, A.
In April 1978, an episode of pseudorabies involved swine, sheep, and cattle on a farm in north-central Missouri. The herd of 48 farrowing sows was vaccinated, then separated from the sheep and cattle by double fencing. Within 4 days, death losses in sheep and cattle ceased, indicating that separation by double fencing is an effective means of controlling interspecies virus spread. Monitoring of pseudorabies in sows and their vaccinated offspring was done by serum neutralization testing and virus culturing of pharyngeal swabs for the following 12 months. Pseudorabies virus carriers were in the sow herd 6 months after the initial episode. The serologic response to vaccination of the offspring from immune sows was poor, but pigs segregated from their dams at weaning remained free of detectable infection. It was concluded that segragation at weaning may be useful when expensive breeding lines must be salvaged from an infected herd. PMID:7380713
Thawley, D G; Wright, J C; Solorzano, R F
Observations were made on a small flock of 50 sheep of the native Slovenian Jezersko-Solcava breed by investigators with dental training. The aim was to determine the range of naturally occurring dental diseases, so postmortem examinations were performed on animals slaughtered for meat or culled due to disease. Additional data were obtained by examination of 25 specimens submitted for investigation of unexplained death at a pathology centre. Seventeen (34 per cent) of the flock had incisor disease but only five became clinically ill; all these five had advanced cheek tooth disease (gingival recession, periodontal pocketing, diastemata, missing teeth, occlusal wear abnormalities, food impaction, tooth mobility, tooth fracture, tooth loss and/or jaw abscessation). Advanced cheek tooth disease was found in 21 (84 per cent) of the sheep submitted to the pathology laboratory, while only seven (28 per cent) had advanced incisor disease. The results show that, as in other countries, dental disease is a serious problem for sheep in Slovenia. PMID:20656992
Erjavec, V; Crossley, D
In this study, the level of technical efficiency of 58 sheep farms rearing the Chios breed in Greece was measured through the application of the stochastic frontier analysis method. A Translog stochastic frontier production function was estimated using farm accounting data of Chios sheep farms and the impact of various socio-demographic and biophysical factors on the estimated efficiency of the farms was evaluated. The farms were classified into efficiency groups on the basis of the estimated level of efficiency and a technical and economic descriptive analysis was applied in order to illustrate an indicative picture of their structure and productivity. The results of the stochastic frontier model indicate that there are substantial production inefficiencies among the Chios sheep farms and that these farms could increase their production through the improvement of technical efficiency, whereas the results of the inefficiency effects model reveal that the farm-specific explanatory factors can partly explain the observed efficiency differentials. The measurement of technical inefficiency and the detection of its determinants can be used to form the basis of policy recommendations that could contribute to the development of the sector. PMID:24156392
Theodoridis, A; Ragkos, A; Roustemis, D; Arsenos, G; Abas, Z; Sinapis, E
Considerable advances have been made in the knowledge of the mechanisms and control of synthesis and degradation of proteins in animal tissues during the last decade. Most of the work on the measurement of synthetic and degradative rates of the mixed protein fraction from tissues has been conducted in the rat. There have, unfortunately, been few publications describing results of protein turnover studies with ruminants. Consideration is given here to the techniques used to measure protein turnover, and some of the results obtained, particularly with sheep, are summarized. No attempt has been made to discuss directly the situation in parasitized animals; rather the aim is to provide background information which complements other work dealing with the effects of parasites on the nitrogen metabolism of ruminants. (author)
This paper concerns the likely origin of three mutations with large effects on ovulation rate identified in the Belclare and Cambridge sheep breeds; two in the BMP15 gene (FecXG and FecXB) and the third (FecGH) in GDF9. All three mutations segregate in Belclare sheep while one, FecXB, has not been found in the Cambridge. Both Belclare and Cambridge breeds are relatively recently developed composites that have common ancestry through the use of genetic material from the Finnish Landrace and Lleyn breeds. The development of both composites also involved major contributions from exceptionally prolific ewes screened from flocks in Ireland (Belclare) and Britain (Cambridge) during the 1960s. The objective of the current study was to establish the likely origin of the mutations (FecXG, FecXB and FecGH) through analysis of DNA from Finnish Landrace and Lleyn sheep, and Galway and Texel breeds which contributed to the development of the Belclare breed. Ewes with exceptionally high prolificacy (hyper-prolific ewes) in current flocks on Irish farms were identified to simulate the screening of ewes from Irish flocks in the 1960s. DNA was obtained from: prolific ewes in extant flocks of Lleyn sheep (n?=?44) on the Lleyn peninsula in Wales; hyper-prolific ewes (n?=?41); prolific Galway (n?=?41) ewes; Finnish Landrace (n?=?124) and Texel (n?=?19) ewes. The FecXG mutation was identified in Lleyn but not in Finnish Landrace, Galway or Texel sheep; FecXB was only found among the hyper-prolific ewes. The FecGH mutation was identified in the sample of Lleyn sheep. It was concluded from these findings that the Lleyn breed was the most likely source of the FecXG and FecGH mutations in Belclare and Cambridge sheep and that the FecXB mutation came from the High Fertility line that was developed using prolific ewes selected from commercial flocks in Ireland in the 1960?s and subsequently used in the genesis of the Belclare.
Mullen, Michael P.; Hanrahan, James P.; Howard, Dawn J.
Full Text Available Abstract Organising the breeding plan of a seasonally breeding species, such as sheep, presents a challenge to farmers and the industry as a whole, since both economical and biological considerations need to be carefully balanced. Understanding the breeding activity of individual animals becomes a prerequisite for a successful breeding program. This study set out to investigate the sources of variation and the genetic profile of the spontaneous, out-of-season ovulatory activity of ewes of the Chios dairy sheep breed in Greece. The definition of the trait was based on blood progesterone levels, measured before exposing the ewes to rams, which marks the onset of the usual breeding season. Data were 707 records, taken over two consecutive years, of 435 ewes kept at the Agricultural Research Station of Chalkidiki in northern Greece. When all available pedigree was included, the total number of animals involved was 1068. On average, 29% of all ewes exhibited spontaneous, out-of-season ovulatory activity, with no substantial variation between the years. Significant sources of systematic variation were the ewe age and live weight, and the month of previous lambing. Older, heavier ewes, that had lambed early the previous autumn, exhibited more frequent activity. Heritability estimates were 0.216 (± 0.084 with a linear and 0.291 with a threshold model. The latter better accounts for the categorical nature of the trait. The linear model repeatability was 0.230 (± 0.095. The results obtained in this study support the notion that spontaneous out-of-season ovulatory activity can be considered in the development of a breeding plan for the Chios sheep breed.
The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between plasma leptin and FSH concentration in Iranian sheep. Forty female Mehraban and Sanjabi sheep were used. All ewes were cyclic and synchronized with cloprestenol. The ewes were divided into two breed groups: Mehraban breed (n = 20) and Sanjabi breed (n = 20), feeding at maintenance level. On the first and second days of estrus cycle, blood samples were collected from the jugular vein. Ovulation number was determined by endoscopy 7 days after the second injection. Mean Plasma leptin concentrations on second day (4.74 +/- 0.15 and 4.68 +/- 0.10 ng mL(-1)) were significantly higher than those on first day (2.64 +/- 0.11 and 2.56 +/- 0.04 ng mL(-1)) for Mehraban and Sanjabi sheep, respectively (p<0.01). Mean plasma FSH concentrations on second day (2.75 +/- 0.17 and 2.74 +/- 0.15 ng mL(-1)) were also significantly greater than those on first day (1.19 +/- 0.05 and 1.19 +/- 0.04 ng mL(-1)) for Mehraban and Sanjabi ewes, respectively (p<0.01). In the present study, positive relationship has been shown between plasma Leptin and FSH concentrations (p<0.01) in Mehraban and Sanjabi sheep. Ovulation rate had a significant difference between Mehraban (1.20 +/- 0.33) and Sanjabi (1.07 +/- 0.1) ewes. Significant differences were not observed between concentrations of FSH and leptin with ovulation rate in both breeds (p < or = 0.01). PMID:19070042
Towhidi, A; Masoumi, R; Moeini, M M; Solgi, H; Moravej, H
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between plasma leptin and FSH concentration in Iranian sheep. Forty female Mehraban and Sanjabi sheep were used. All ewes were cyclic and synchronized with cloprestenol. The ewes were divided into two breed groups: Mehraban breed (n = 20 and Sanjabi breed (n = 20, feeding at maintenance level. On the first and second days of estrus cycle, blood samples were collected from the jugular vein. Ovulation number was determined by endoscopy 7 days after the second injection. Mean Plasma leptin concentrations on second day (4.74±0.15 and 4.68±0.10 ng mL-1 were significantly higher than those on first day (2.64±0.11 and 2.56±0.04 ng mL-1 for Mehraban and Sanjabi sheep, respectively (p<0.01. Mean plasma FSH concentrations on second day (2.75±0.17 and 2.74±015 ng mL-1 were also significantly greater than those on first day (1.19±0.05 and 1.19±0.04 ng mL-1 for Mehraban and Sanjabi ewes, respectively (p<0.01. In the present study, positive relationship has been shown between plasma Leptin and FSH concentrations (p<0.01 in Mehraban and Sanjabi sheep. Ovulation rate had a significant difference between Mehraban (1.20±0.33 and Sanjabi (1.07±0.1 ewes. Significant differences were not observed between concentrations of FSH and leptin with ovulation rate in both breeds (p?0.01.
Milk composition and quality are affected by several factors of which stage of lactation and mammary gland health status represent the main ones. These two factors become more effective in small dairy ruminants, for which stage of lactation is synchronized as result of the seasonal breeding cycle. As a consequence in dairy sheep and goats milk quality and cheese making properties tend to decline. Most of these effects on milk quality are also associated with an increase in the somatic cell co...
Full Text Available Abstract Background In sheep dairy production, total lactation performance, and length of lactation of lactation are of economic significance. A more persistent lactation has been associated with improved udder health. An extended lactation is defined by a longer period of milkability. This study is the first investigation to examine the presence of quantitative trait loci (QTL for extended lactation and lactation persistency in sheep. Methods An (Awassi × Merino × Merino single-sire backcross family with 172 ewes was used to map QTL for lactation persistency and extended lactation traits on a framework map of 189 loci across all autosomes. The Wood model was fitted to data from multiple lactations to estimate parameters of ovine lactation curves, and these estimates were used to derive measures of lactation persistency and extended lactation traits of milk, protein, fat, lactose, useful yield, and somatic cell score. These derived traits were subjected to QTL analyses using maximum likelihood estimation and regression analysis. Results Overall, one highly significant (LOD > 3.0, four significant (2.0 Conclusion This study identified ten novel QTL for lactation persistency and extended lactation in sheep, but results suggest that lactation persistency and extended lactation do not have a major gene in common. These results provide a basis for further validation in extended families and other breeds as well as targeting regions for genome-wide association mapping using high-density SNP arrays.
Lam Mary K
Ectoparasites are a major concern in sheep flocks, wherever sheep are kept. Techniques to control and eradicate lice, ked, or scab have been available since the beginning of the 20th century, but the parasites still exist. Sheep scab (Psoroptes ovis) was eradicated from Australia in the late 1800s, before many of the more effective chemicals were available, and sheep ked is believed to also have been eradicated. Sheep scab has also been eradicated from North America. This article provides an overview of the common ectoparasites of sheep, effective products to control these parasites, and management factors that affect the success of these treatments. PMID:21215904
Plant, John W; Lewis, Christopher J
As part of a program to characterize the plant and animal life of the Laboratory site and the surrounding region, the two breeding bird censuses originated in 1977 were continued in 1980. Coverage was below that of previous years due to illness and travel of some participants, but 11 trips were made to the BNL plot and 8 to the Westhampton plot. Each was censused by separate teams of three volunteer observers. The number of breeding species and number of territorial males on the BNL plot have progressively declined since 1977 but little change has taken place in either number of territories or species composition on the Westhampton plot.
Full Text Available This study reports the statue of the Booroola fecundity gene (FecB mutation in Barbarine sheep breed. A total of 334 ewes recorded with twining births from the Tunisian fat tail Barbarine sheep were genotyped in the objective to identify the FecB mutation. The FecB genotyping was carried out by forced restriction fragment length polymorphism PCR technique. Forced PCR of the FecB gene was amplified using a specific primer designed to introduce a point mutation in the resulting PCR products with FecB non carriers sheep containing an AvaII restriction site, whereas products from non carriers lacked this site. Digestion of an amplified 140 base pair FecB gene with AvaII restriction enzyme resulted in a non-carrier 140 bp band (wild type in all studied animals which revealed absence of the AvaII restriction site in this breed. Considering the records of twinning in this breed, it can be concluded that the genetics factor controlling twinning is not related to this mutation, which has been reported Booroola as a major gene previously.
Gastrointestinal nematode parasitism is the most important disease affecting livestock production systems in developing countries, particularly small ruminant production systems. Of particular importance are infections with the strongyle Haemonchus contortus. Integrated disease control strategies are required, including improved management, nutrition and wise use of anthelmintic chemicals. Increasingly, selection of sheep or goats for improved nematode resistance is viewed as a valuable option to complement other control measures. Breeding for resistance is possible because of the existence of extensive genetic variation in resistance, both within and between breeds of sheep and goats. Such breeding schemes are most likely to be based on choice of appropriate breeds adapted to the local environmental conditions, followed by phenotypic selection for resistance. Goal and selection objective traits are likely to include performance (e.g. growth rate) under conditions of parasite challenge, faecal egg count (FEC) and measures of anaemia. With current technologies, genetic markers are likely to be too expensive and logistically difficult to incorporate into breeding schemes in tropical or developing countries. Genotype by environment interactions may be expected, particularly when comparing animals in environments that differ in the extent of parasite challenge or differ in the quality of available nutrition. However, there is no reason to expect antagonistic genetic relationships between performance and resistance, and selection indices should be readily constructed that improve both performance and resistance. If FEC is decreased, then pasture contamination should also decrease, leading to additional benefits for all sheep grazing the same pasture. Finally, breeding for nematode resistance should lead to lasting and sustained improvements in resistance or tolerance. There is no empirical evidence to suggest that nematodes will evolve rapidly in response to resistant hosts, and mathematical models based on genetic and biological principles also suggest that resistance should be sustainable. PMID:22558922
Bishop, S C
Full Text Available The parasitic resistance and the tendency of recent years to shift to organic systems has resulted in several alternative animal management as the selection of resistant breeds, integration with other animal species, phytotherapy, nematophagous fungi, nematodes vaccines, among others. Looking for an alternative control of nematode parasites of sheep, this paper aimed to analyze the effect of administration of inactivated larvae of Haemonchus and fresh garlic on the level infection with gastrointestinal nematodes in naturally infected sheep. Therefore, 32 animals were monitored for 144 days after phyto-biotherapy treatments in relation to reduction of parasite eggs (egg reduction rate - FECR, these treatments under the genres of helminths and hematological changes. It was observed significant increase in the EPGs of G1 (control group and G4 (fresh garlic. At the end of the experiment observed lower EPG in G3 (inactivated larvae + fresh garlic compared to G1, but no difference between the EPG of the other groups. As for FECR, there was an average reduction of 44% in egg count in G2 (inactivated larvae and G3 and an increase of 44% in G4. The effectiveness of the treatments under the genus Haemonchus ranged from 0 to 77%, the latter being rate observed in G3 in day 67, just 7 days after the significant increase of lymphocytes. It was concluded from this study that fresh garlic administered at 2.5 mg / kg concentration failed to reduce the parasite burden of sheep, but which, when associated with administration of inactivated larvae of Haemonchus may had contributed to immune stimulant and reduction of eggs eliminated in the faeces of sheep treated with inactivated larvae, though not enough to be considered an effective treatment, the study highlights the importance and use of vaccines to control this parasite.
Mangosteen the queen of the tropical fruits is apomitic and only a cultivar is reported and it reproduces asexually. Conventional breeding is not possible and the other methods to create variabilities are through genetic engineering and mutation breeding. The former technique is still in the infantry stage in mangosteen research while the latter has been an established tool in breeding to improve cultivars. In this mutation breeding seeds of mangosteen were irradiated using gamma rays and the LD 50 for mangosteen was determined and noted to be very low at 10 Gy. After sowing in the seedbed, the seedlings were transplanted in polybags and observed in the nursery bed for about one year before planted in the field under old oil palm trees in Station MARDI, Kluang. After evaluation and screening, about 120 mutant mangosteen plants were selected and planted in Kluang. The plants were observed and some growth data taken. There were some mutant plants that have good growth vigour and more vigorous that the control plants. The trial are now in the fourth year and the plants are still in the juvenile stage. (Author)
Electron microscope study of viral penetration at 4 degrees C shows that viral particles first attach to cells. The attachment sites are invaginations which later fuse to form phagocytic cytoplasmic vacuoles. Some virus particles with altered envelopes can be seen in the cytoplasm. After ten days of incubation at 29 degrees C, filamentous inclusions and mature viral particles are seen in the cytoplasm. The cellular membrane budding process and virus release observed at 37 degrees C have disappeared. When the above preparations are warmed to 37 degrees C, budding is seen, and two kinds of extracellular particles are present, one with a clear center and the other with a dense core (mature virus). PMID:186212
Pautrat, G; de Micco, P; Tamalet, J
This issue of the Mutation Breeding newsletter contains 39 articles dealing with radiation induced mutations and chemical mutagenesis techniques in plant breeding programs with the aims of improving crop productivity and disease resistance as well as exploring genetic variabilities
Sixteen female sheep of Degua breed were assigned to receive either the full dose of norgestomet ear implant and injectable solution containing norgestomet and estradiol valerate (n = 8) or half the dose (n = 8). The ear implants were removed in both groups on day 12. All ewes received an intramuscular administration of 500 IU PMSG at implant withdrawal. Synchronized ewes were individually hand mated twice at 48 and 60 hours after implant removal. One ewe in each group however refused mating on both occasions. Pregnancy diagnosis was conducted by bimanual external palpation 90 to 100 days post mating. The conception rates (3/7, 42.85%) and (5/7, 71.42%) were recorded in the two treatment groups, respectively. All eight ewes lambed between 145 to 153 days post mating. In group I ewes carried only singletons (prolificity rate 1.0) whereas in group II two ewes delivered twins, producing 7 lambs with prolificity rate of 1.4 (N.S). From this preliminary investigation it appears that the lower dose of norgestomet ear implants offers better option for estrus synchronization accompanied by higher fertility. PMID:19343528
Awel, Hayatu; Eshetu, Lisanework; Tadesse, Gebrehiwot; Birhanu, Alemselam; Khar, S K
The efficient transformation of radioactive beams by charge breeding devices, will critically influence the lay-out of the post accelerator of presently built first generation radioactive ion beam (RIB) facilities as well as new second generation facilities. The size of the post-accelerator needed to bring the unstable nuclei to the energies required to study nuclear reactions depends on the charge state of the radioactive ions. The capability to raise that charge state from 1+ to n+, where n may correspond to a charge-to- mass ratio of 0.15 or higher, will therefore produce an enormous reduction in cost as well as the possibility to accelerate heavier masses. Thus the efficiency of the charge breeding scheme in comparison to the stripping scheme will be explored in the frame of the EU-network charge breeding. The two possible charge breeding schemes using either an Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS) or an Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Source (ECRIS), the demands to the sources and the present status of exist...
Full Text Available In order to evaluate some physical and qualitative characteristics of Naeini sheep wool for using in textile industry, herds from 6 different regions of Isfahan province were chosen. Staple length from 3 different body parts (shoulder, side and britch was measured prior to shearing. Wool samples were taken from a 100 cm2 surface on the mid-side of the Animals. Then the samples were transferred to the Laboratory of Animal Sciences for evaluations of some quality characteristics and to the Fiber Physics Laboratory for measuring tenacity, breaking strength and elongation at break of fibers. The means and standard deviations of staple length were estimated (10.8 ±2.36, (9.71 ±3.14 and (10.99 ±2.49 cm for shoulder, side and britch parts, respectively. The total average staple length of Naeini sheep (10.5 cm is suitable for using in textile industry. Wool fibers of Naeini sheep have desirable tenacity and breaking strength (1.22 cN/dtex and 13.76 centi-Newton to resist against mechanical tensions of the spinning step. However, Naeini sheep wool fibers have an adequate, but not a desirable %elongation at break (28.6%. Based on the fiber diameter mean of Naeini sheep and its variation (28.51 ± 4.33 ?m the fleece grade of Naeini sheep was predicted 54`s, which is an intermediate grade. However, by conducting breeding programs toward enhancing fleece grade, Naeini sheep wool will be simply applicable in textile industry.
Full Text Available Leptin, a 16-kDa protein secreted from white adipocytes has been implicated in the regulation of food intake, energy expenditure and whole-body energy balance in animals and humans. It was the focus of this study to establish serum leptin values for several animal species and breeds. To this purpose, serum leptin concentrations were measured using a double antibody Radio Immuno Assay (RIA kit containing guinea pig multispecies leptin antibody. Serum leptin concentrations were determined in healthy subjects of various species and breeds including Brown Swiss and Holstein bull, Awessi sheep, Saanen and Turkish hair goat. They were as follows (avarege values in ng mL-1±SEM: Brown Swiss bull (12 months of age: 2.35±0.34, Holstein bull (12 months of age: 3.55±0.53, Awessi sheep (16 months of age: 2.16±0.29, Saanen goat (16 months of age: 2.23±0.46, Turkish hair goat (16 months of age: 0.94±0.10.
Forages rich in condensed tannins have repeatedly shown potential to reduce gastrointestinal nematode infection in sheep. Similarly, several breeds of sheep have shown a relative resistance to gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN). We hypothesised that additive or even synergic effects may arise from the combination of a relatively resistant breed and a diet rich in condensed tannins. In study I, 160 lambs of the native Red Engadine Sheep (RES) and 113 lambs of the Swiss White Alpine sheep (SWA) were artificially infected with GIN and subsequently grazed for 52 days. The lambs were then distributed to 2 groups for a 14-day experimental feeding period. One group received a diet with a proportion of 55% sainfoin and was compared to a control group on the basis of faecal egg counts (FEC). In study II, 25 RES and 27 SWA lambs grazed infectious pastures for 37 days and were subsequently fed for 13 consecutive days with approximately 100% sainfoin or control forage. In addition to the FEC determination at the start and the end of the experimental feeding, the 52 lambs in study II were slaughtered and necropsied to determine their worm burden. FEC at the end of the feeding period were significantly lower in sainfoin fed lambs compared to controls in study I (pHaemonchus spp., Teladorsagia spp., Nematodirus spp. and Trichostrongylus spp. Overall, RES had a significantly lower Haemonchus spp. (p=0.035) and Trichostrongylus spp. (p=0.003) worm burden compared to SWA. Regardless of breed, sainfoin feeding significantly reduced Teladorsagia spp. (p=0.049) and Nematodirus spp. (p<0.001) worm burden. Although, we could not demonstrate additive or synergic effects when using an integrated breed × sainfoin approach, the finding that a proportion of only 55% sainfoin in the diet led to a lower FEC compared to controls is important with respect to the implementation on producing farms. PMID:24183648
Werne, S; Isensee, A; Maurer, V; Perler, E; Drewek, A; Heckendorn, F
The aim of this work was to compare costs, in the horse, cattle, sheep, swine, and rabbit species, for the creation of gene banks for reconstruction of an extinct breed, using different strategies: embryos-only, embryos in combination with semen, and semen-only. Three cost measures were used: time required for population reconstruction, cost for creation of the gene bank, number of years-keeping-female to reach reconstruction. Semen costs were estimated across four scenarios: the presence or ...
The aim of this work was to compare costs, in the horse, cattle, sheep, swine, and rabbit species, for the creation of gene banks for reconstruction of an extinct breed, using different strategies: embryos- only, embryos in combination with semen, and semen- only. Three cost measures were used: time required for population reconstruction, cost for creation of the gene bank, number of years- keeping- female to reach reconstruction. Semen costs were estimated across four scenarios: the presence...
…Mobile dipping contractors - Handling and disposing of waste sheep dip Sheep dip products safeguard sheep from pests like scab, blowfly, ticks and lice. They contain chemical insecticides and so their misuse or careless use and/or their disposal can result in pollution of groundwater and/or surface…
Selective breeding of sheep for arginine (R) at prion gene (PRNP) codon 171 confers resistance to classical scrapie. However, other effects of 171R selection are uncertain. Ovine progressive pneumonia/Maedi-Visna virus (OPPV) may infect up to 66% of a flock thus any affect of 171R selection on OPPV susceptibility or disease progression could have major impact on the sheep industry. Hypotheses that the PRNP 171R allele is 1) associated with the presence of OPPV provirus and 2) associated with ...
Harrington, Robert D.; Herrmann-hoesing, Lynn M.; White, Stephen N.; O Rourke, Katherine I.; Knowles, Donald P.
The pea as an ancient crop plant still today has wide uses and is an import source of food protein. It is also an important object for genetic studies and as such has been widely used in mutation induction experiments. However, in comparison with cereals this ancient crop plant (like several other grain legumes) has gained relatively little from advances in breeding. The review focuses on the prospects of genetic improvement of pea by induced mutations, discusses principles and gives methodological information. (author)
Maize is one of the most important economic crops and the best studied and most tractable genetic system among monocots. The development of biotechnology has led to a great increase in our knowledge of maize genetics and understanding of the structure and behaviour of maize genomes. Conventional breeding practices can now be complemented by a number of new and powerful techniques. Some of these often referred to as molecular methods, enable scientists to see the layout of the entire genome of...
This review outlines innovative methods for garlic breeding improvement and discusses the techniques used to increase variation like mutagenesis and in vitro techniques, as well as the current developments in florogenesis, sexual hybridization, genetic transformation and mass propagation. Sexual sterility of garlic reduces its potential for improvement of desired traits. Restoring fertility in this crop, which has been vegetatively propagated for millenia, provides new genetic possibilities f...
Zheng, S. J.; Kamenetsky, R.; Fe?re?ol, L.; Barandiaran, X.; Rabinowitch, H. D.; Chovelon, V.; Kik, C.
Antibody levels produced in response to gastro-intestinal nematode (GIN) parasite infection are typically higher in GIN-resistant breeds than susceptible breeds. Consequently, GIN-resistant ewes should generate greater parasite-specific antibody in colostrum and milk, potentially providing greater passive immunity to young lambs. To test this hypothesis, we monitored immunoglobulin levels in wool and hair-type sheep infected with Haemonchus contortus for 35 days following the end of a 45-day autumn breeding season and subsequently for 6 weeks around the time of parturition. Ten, first-parity ewes of each type were infected with 12,000 H. contortus L3 larvae following the end of breeding. In response to infection, hair ewes generated greater serum IgA (P<0.05), although the pattern of IgA production was similar between the types. Following experimental infection, wool ewes were incapable of clearing the parasite infection well in advance of parturition. Prior to parturition, hair ewes had lower FEC and greater circulating H. contortus-specific IgA. However, no difference was seen in total or antigen-specific IgA production in the colostrum and milk of either breed. These data further demonstrate that hair-type sheep can rapidly reduce fecal egg output and generate greater humoral immunity as evidenced by higher levels of circulating antigen-specific antibody, but there is no evidence to suggest GIN-resistant sheep preferentially mobilize antigen-specific IgA to colostrum or milk. Thus, no clear difference exists between types of sheep in ability to deliver parasite-specific IgA to their offspring. PMID:23414615
Bowdridge, Scott; MacKinnon, Kathryn; McCann, Joshua C; Zajac, Anne M; Notter, David R
The objective of the present study was to examine the effect of the level of phosphorus (P) intake on ruminal P kinetics in sheep. Twelve Santa Ines male sheep (average body weight 36 kg) were fed a basal diet consisting of roughage (coast cross hay), concentrate mixture (cassava meal, soya bean meal and urea) and a mineral premix. The treatments consisted of the basal diet supplemented with 0, 1.5, 3 or 4.5 g/kg dry matter (DM) of mono-ammonium phosphate to provide increasing P levels repres...
Dias, R. S.; Lo?pez, Secundino; Silva, T.; Pardo, R. M. P.; Silva Filho, J. C.; Vitti, D. M. S. S.; Kebreab, E.; France, J.
Full Text Available This research was performed for screening polymorphism of Bone Morphogenic Protein 15 (BMP15 in two goat breeds Teddy and Beetal of Pakistan. Teddy is the more prolific than other breeds of goat found in the country. To find out molecular markers associate with fertility, the selection of animals based on single birth (Beetal and multiple births (Teddy history were collected. Forty five samples were collected from each breed, direct sequencing was done identify the genetic variation. While the mutations in the candidate gene associate with fecundity in sheep were not identified in investigated Pakistani goat breeds. Although the sequencing data showed six novel polymorphic sites in Teddy breed. Two intronic mutations in base No. 982 with T>C and 5572 with A>G and four exonic mutations at nucleotide position 6280 T>G, 6353 G>A, 6443 T>C and 6492 A>G were identified. All these mutations were reported and registered in NCBI with accession no. of JN655669 - JN655670. These finding furnished significant explanations for the conclusion of BMP15 gene may be a major gene which affects the prolificacy in Teddy goat. This study could provide basic molecular data on the reproductive characteristics of local breeds of Pakistan and a scientific basis for the conservation and utilization of goat breeds.
Full Text Available Background: Geologically the J&K state (2, 22, 800 sq. kms is both complex and varied. Climatic conditions of the state ranges from sub-tropical (Jammu, temperate (Kashmir to cold artic (Ladakh zones and belongs to the great Himalayan mountain range, which exerts significant influence on its agro-climatic conditions. Gastrointestinal parasitism is a major problem in sheep production worldwide, these parasites cause diarrhea, anaemia, reduced weight gain and increased production costs. Materials and Methods: Five hundred fecal samples of sheep (Ovis aries were taken from two farms. All fecal samples were examined to determine the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites. Direct microscopic examination, Centrifugation floatation and Sedimentation techniques were used to examine fecal samples. Results: Overall prevalence rate was 62.9%. most commonly encountered parasites were Strongyle spp., Strongyloides spp., Eimeria spp., Nematodirus spp., and Monezia spp. was 24.61, 15.5, 9.8, 9.0 and 3.3%, respectively. The highest prevalence of G.I parasites was recorded during monsoon season (March - May followed by summer season (June ? August whereas the lowest prevalence was recorded during winter season. Analysis of the data on the basis of sex revealed a significant difference (P<0.05 in the overall incidence of gastrointestinal parasites between male (75.6% and female (44.8% sheep. The maximum infection was observed in younger age groups compared to adults (P<0.05. The prevalence of different species of endoparasites also varied in sheep of different body weight groups (P<0.05. The highest infection was observed in Kashmir Marino breed than corriedale breed. Conclusion: The data obtained in this study suggest that the age, sex, body weight and breed are important factors which influence the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites. [Vet World 2012; 5(11.000: 667-671
Showkat Ahmad Bhat
Bighorn sheep currently occupy just 30% of their historic distribution, and persist in populations less than 5% as abundant overall as their early 19th century counterparts. Present-day recovery of bighorn sheep populations is in large part limited by periodic outbreaks of respiratory disease, which can be transmitted to bighorn sheep via contact with domestic sheep grazing in their vicinity. In order to assess the viability of bighorn sheep populations on the Payette National Forest (PNF) under several alternative proposals for domestic sheep grazing, we developed a series of interlinked models. Using telemetry and habitat data, we characterized herd home ranges and foray movements of bighorn sheep from their home ranges. Combining foray model movement estimates with known domestic sheep grazing areas (allotments), a Risk of Contact Model estimated bighorn sheep contact rates with domestic sheep allotments. Finally, we used demographic and epidemiologic data to construct population and disease transmission models (Disease Model), which we used to estimate bighorn sheep persistence under each alternative grazing scenario. Depending on the probability of disease transmission following interspecies contact, extirpation probabilities for the seven bighorn sheep herds examined here ranged from 20% to 100%. The Disease Model allowed us to assess the probabilities that varied domestic sheep management scenarios would support persistent populations of free-ranging bighorn sheep. PMID:24507886
Carpenter, Tim E; Coggins, Victor L; McCarthy, Clinton; O'Brien, Chans S; O'Brien, Joshua M; Schommer, Timothy J
Using a large animal model of radiation lung injury--the sheep exposed to bilateral thoracic irradiation--we have recently shown the development of sustained pulmonary hypertension during the first 4 weeks following radiation. This is the period prior to the onset of pneumonitis and pulmonary fibrosis. In the present study, we have examined biopsy and autopsy lung tissue from these same sheep and assessed the sequential changes in lung morphology. Six unanesthetized sheep received bilateral thoracic irradiation (a total of 15 Gy); control sheep were sham irradiated. Lung biopsy tissue was taken prior to and at weekly or biweekly intervals during the 4 weeks immediately following radiation. The lungs were also removed at autopsy for light and electron microscopic examination. Our results show early (Week 1) interstitial and progressive intraalveolar edema accompanied by endothelial and epithelial injury. A gradual increase in number of interstitial mononuclear cells was evident from Week 1, both in the lung tissue and in perivascular cuffs. The number of peripheral lung interstitial mononuclear cells was twice baseline from Week 3 and included accumulation of lymphocytes, fibroblasts, and intravascular macrophages. The increased numbers of mononuclear cells paralleled the development of chronic pulmonary hypertension, perhaps suggesting their involvement in the pathogenesis of this disease. Alternatively, it may be that increased mononuclear cell number represents a stage of lung repair.
Guerry-Force, M.L.; Perkett, E.A.; Brigham, K.L.; Meyrick, B.
Reverse breeding (RB) is a novel plant breeding technique designed to directly produce parental lines for any heterozygous plant, one of the most sought after goals in plant breeding. RB generates perfectly complementing homozygous parental lines through engineered meiosis. The method is based on reducing genetic recombination in the selected heterozygote by eliminating meiotic crossing over. Male or female spores obtained from such plants contain combinations of non-recombinant parental chro...
Five experiments indicated that the sheep ked MELOPHAGUS OVINUS (L.), can transmit bluetongue virus (BTV) in sheep. It was not determined whether these were mechanical or biological transmissions, although the results suggested mechanical transmission. Sheep keds were manually transferred from a BTV-host sheep to 18 susceptible test sheep. Of these, 10 were positive (5 with mild reactions), 6 questionable, and 2 negative for BTV. Three of the mildly reacting sheep and 3 of the questionable sheep had highly intensified reactions on challenge inoculation. Five of the positive sheep were immune on challenge inoculation. Blood from 2 positive reactors was subpassaged into susceptible sheep, which reacted with typical disease signs.
Luedke, A. J.; Jochim, M. M.; Bowne, J. G.
Five experiments indicated that the sheep ked MELOPHAGUS OVINUS (L.), can transmit bluetongue virus (BTV) in sheep. It was not determined whether these were mechanical or biological transmissions, although the results suggested mechanical transmission. Sheep keds were manually transferred from a BTV-host sheep to 18 susceptible test sheep. Of these, 10 were positive (5 with mild reactions), 6 questionable, and 2 negative for BTV. Three of the mildly reacting sheep and 3 of the questionable sheep had highly intensified reactions on challenge inoculation. Five of the positive sheep were immune on challenge inoculation. Blood from 2 positive reactors was subpassaged into susceptible sheep, which reacted with typical disease signs. PMID:4221988
Luedke, A J; Jochim, M M; Bowne, J G
BACKGROUND: Genomic technologies, such as high-throughput genotyping based on SNP arrays, have great potential to decipher the genetic architecture of complex traits and provide background information concerning genome structure in domestic animals, including the extent of linkage disequilibrium (LD) and haplotype blocks. The objective of this study was to estimate LD, the population evolution (past effective population size) and the level of inbreeding in Spanish Churra sheep. RESULTS: A total of 43,784 SNPs distributed in the ovine autosomal genome was analyzed in 1,681 Churra ewes. LD was assessed by measuring r2 between all pairs of loci. For SNPs up to 10 kb apart, the average r2 was 0.329; for SNPs separated by 200-500 kb the average r2 was 0.061. When SNPs are separated by more than 50 Mbp, the average r2 is the same as between non-syntenic SNP pairs (0.003). The effective population size has decreased through time, faster from 1,000 to 100 years ago and slower since the selection scheme started (15-25 generations ago). In the last generation, four years ago, the effective population size was estimated to be 128 animals. Inbreeding coefficients, although differed depending on the estimation approaches, were generally low and showed the same trend, which indicates that since 2003, inbreeding has been slightly increasing in the studied resource population. CONCLUSIONS: The extent of LD in Churra sheep persists over much more limited distances than reported in dairy cattle and seems to be similar to other ovine populations. Churra sheep show a wide genetic base, with a long-term viable effective population size that has been slightly decreasing since selection scheme began in 1986. The genomic dataset analyzed provided useful information for identifying low-level inbreeding in the sample, whereas based on the parameters reported here, a higher marker density than that analyzed here will be needed to successfully conduct accurate mapping of genes underlying production traits and genomic selection prediction in this sheep breed. Although the Ovine Assembly development is still in a draft stage and future refinements will provide a more accurate physical map that will improve LD estimations, this work is a first step towards the understanding of the genetic architecture in sheep.
Garcia-Gamez, Elsa; Sahana, Goutam
The objective of this study was to establish the impact of crossing the indigenous Cres sheep with Awassi and, respectively, Awassi and East Friesian sheep on the milk yield and quality. For this purpose, through regular monthly milk yield recordings a total of 824individual milk samples from 139 sheep in the second lactation of the same flock were collected, of which: 46 purebred Cres sheep, CS; 33 crosses with 50 % Cres sheep and 50 % Awassi, CA; 60 crosses with 50 % Cres sheep, 25 % Awassi...
Full Text Available This paper reviews the major (Calcium, Phosphorus, Potassium, Sodium, Chlorine, Sulphur, Magnesium and the trace elements (Iron, Copper, Cobalt, Iodine, Manganese, Zync, Molybdenum, Selenium that play an essential role in animal metabolism. For each one the authors indicate not only the function, but also the more recent advances in terms of daily requirements for dairy sheep.
Full Text Available Background: Multiple births occur frequently in some Iranian sheep breeds, while infertilityscarcely occurs. Mutation detection in major fecundity genes has been explored in most of Iraniansheep flocks over the last decade. However, previously reported single nucleotide polymorphisms(SNPs for bone morphogenetic protein receptor-(BMPR-1B and growth differentiation factor GDF9( known to affect fertility have not been detected. This study was conducted to assess whetherany significant mutations in GDF9 were extracted from slaughtered ewe ovaries of Iranian Afsharisheep breed.Materials and Methods: Ovaries defined as poor, fair, and excellent quality based on externalvisual appearance of follicles were used for histology and RNA extraction processes. High qualityRNAs underwent reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR from GDF9 mRNA,and the products sequenced.Results: No streak ovaries, which are considered indicators of infertility due to homozygocity forsome mutations in GDF9 and BMP15, were found. Sequencing results from GDF9 cDNA showedthat G2 (C471T, G3 (G477A, and G4 (G721A mutations were observed from 1, 4, and 1 out of12 ewes, respectively. Though all 3 mutations were previously reported, this is the first report ontheir presence in Iranian breeds. The first and second mutations do not alter the amino acids, whileG4 is a non-conservative mutation leading to E241K in the prohormone.Conclusion: As the G4 mutation was observed only in ovaries defined superficially as top quality,it could be considered as one of reasons for higher ovulation rate in some sheep. Furthermore sincemultiple mutations were observed in some cases, it might be possible that combinations of minormutations in GDF9 and BMP15 interact to affect fecundity in some Iranian sheep breeds.
Some arguments currently used to support breed conservation are examined. The central point is that we cannot conserve all breeds because we do not have financial resources enough to keep everything (mainly in developing countries) and in many cases we do not have special reasons to conserve breeds. A breed is a human product and it should not be confused with specie. A breed can be generated or transformed. We can create synthetic breeds with the best characteristics of several breeds. Selec...
Full Text Available Brazil has the largest commercial beef cattle herd and is the main beef exporter in the world. Cultivated pastures arethe basis for the Brazilian beef production, and occupy an area of 101.4 million hectares. However, very few forage cultivars arecommercially available, and the majority of these are of apomictic reproduction, thus genetically homogeneous. Tropical foragebreeding is at its infancy, but much investment and efforts have been applied in the last three decades and some new cultivars havebeen released. In this paper, origin of different species, modes of reproduction, breeding programs and targets are discussed andthe resulting new cultivars released are presented.
There are several candidate concepts for tritium breeding blankets that make use of a number of special materials. These materials can be classified as Primary Blanket Materials, which have the greatest influence in determining the overall design and performance, and Secondary Blanket Materials, which have key functions in the operation of the blanket but are less important in establishing the overall design and performance. The issues associated with the blanket materials are specified and several examples of materials performance are given. Critical data needs are identified.
Mattas, R.F.; Billone, M.C.
There are several candidate concepts for tritium breeding blankets that make use of a number of special materials. These materials can be classified as Primary Blanket Materials, which have the greatest influence in determining the overall design and performance, and Secondary Blanket Materials, which have key functions in the operation of the blanket but are less important in establishing the overall design and performance. The issues associated with the blanket materials are specified and several examples of materials performance are given. Critical data needs are identified
Full Text Available This paper presents the results of cytogenetic studies in sheep from the region of Bujanovac that was contaminated by depleted uranium during the NATO air strikes in 1999. The study was conducted on sheep blood lymphocytes, in order to determine the frequency of chromosomal aberrations and to assess the presence of genetic risk as a result of the possible impact of depleted uranium. Blood samples for lymphocyte cultures were taken at random from the 20 animals of the households in the village of Borovac, near Bujanovac. The animals were chosen because they were pastured, fed, and watered in the NATO bombing area. With the purpose of comparing the results two control groups were cytogenetically analyzed, each consisted of 20 sheep from Zemun and Ov?a, two northern localities that were not contaminated with depleted uranium. The established structural chromosomal changes were of breaks and gap types, and their frequencies in sheep of all surveyed localities were within the range of basic level values that are commonly found in the sheep lymphocyte cultures analyses. Significant differences are apparent between the values defined in the sheep from Bujanovac compared to those obtained in the sheep from the northern locality (Zemun, probably as a result of breeding of animals in the farm conditions and their being less exposed to the impact of environmental agents. There were neither elevated values of polyploid and aneuploid cells nor significant differences between the sites. According to earlier known data, depleted uranium was below the detection limit of the method applied both in the soil and feed given to cytogenetically analyzed animals. Based on the low-level changes that are in the range of the basic level changes, commonly observed in sheep lymphocytes control cultures, it cannot be said with certainty that it was depleted uranium that caused the changes, or that it is wide-spread in the region of Bujanovac. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 1518/2002, br. 20061-TR i br. 173034
Fišter Svetlana L.
Full Text Available Milk production represents a relevant quota of the energy consumption of the dairy ewe. Studies on relationships among level of production, milk composition and metabolic aspects are the first fundamental step in the development of a feed- ing system aimed at satisfying nutritive requirements of the animals. This paper reviews the knowledge about the milk composition of main Italian dairy sheep breeds, the relationship among secretion kinetics of milk and protein and pro- ductive level of animals, the algorithms used for estimating fat (6.5% and protein (5.8% corrected milk yield, the evolution over time of milk production during lactation and the relationships between feeding and milk composition.
Full Text Available This study included analyzing data recorded of wool produced bales from Awassi, Karadi and Arabi sheep distributed in Mosul region, north and south of Iraq respectively for two years 2011 and 2012. Randomized samples were taken from these bales for dipped wool before shearing and raw wool (not dipped to study percentage of clean wool (CW, vegetable matter (VM and fiber diameter (FD. The results revealed a highly significant effects (P? 0.01 for the breeds and status of wool on these three traits, a significant effect (P? 0.05 for productive year only on (FD, and a highly significant effects (P? 0.01 for wool status on both (CW and (VM. No significant effects were noticed for the interactions between the three studied factors on the traits except for the interaction of productive year × wool status which affected significantly (P? 0.05 on (CW and (FD.
Commercial milking of sheep is a new agricultural industry in the United States starting approximately 30 yr ago. The industry is still small, but it is growing. The majority of the sheep milk is used in the production of specialty cheeses. The United States is the major importer of sheep milk cheeses with 50 to 60% of annual world exports coming to the United States during the past 20 yr. Therefore, there is considerable growth potential for the industry in the United States. The only dairy sheep research flock in North America is located at the Spooner Agricultural Research Station of the University of Wisconsin-Madison. The research program started in 1993 and has been multifaceted; dealing with several areas important to commercial dairy sheep farmers. The East Friesian and Lacaune dairy breeds were compared and introduced to the industry through the research program. Both dairy breeds produced significantly more milk than traditional meat-wool breeds found in the U.S., but the two breeds differed in their production traits. East Friesian-cross ewes produced more lambs and slightly more milk than Lacaune-cross ewes whereas Lacaune-cross ewes produced milk with a higher percentage of fat and protein than East Friesian-cross ewes. Lactation physiology studies have shown that ewes with active corpora lutea have increased milk yields, oxytocin release during milking is required to obtain normal fat percentages in the milk, large udder cisterns of dairy ewes can allow for increased milking intervals, and short daylengths during late pregnancy results in increased milk yield. In the nutrition area, legume-grass pastures and forages with a higher percentage of legume will result in increased milk production. Grazing ewes respond to additional supplementation with increased milk yield, but it is important to match the supplement to the quality of the grazing. Ewes on high quality legume-grass pastures that are high in rumen degradable protein respond with increased milk production to supplements high in energy and/or high in rumen undegraded protein.
This issue of the Newsletter includes articles dealing with radiation induced mutation based plant breeding research findings aimed at improving productivity, disease resistance and tolerance of stress conditions
In order to develop an advanced technical knowledge for the selection of better mutants, some of the crops were irradiated and the mutation rate, the survival rate and the method for selction of a mutant were studied. Furthermore, this study aimed to obtain basic data applicable to the development of genetic resources by evaluation and analysis the specific character for selection of the superior mutant and its plant breeding. 1. selection of the mutant with a superior resistance against environment in the principal crops 1) New varieties of mutant rices such as Wonpyeongbyeo, Wongwangbyeo, Winmibyeo, and heogseon chalbeyeo (sticky forma) were registered in the national variety list and made an application to crop variety protection right. They are under review now. 2) We also keep on studying on the number of a grain of 8 lines of excellent mutant rice for the purpose of improvement of breeding . 3) We selected 3 lines which have a resistance to pod and stem blight in large soybean, 31 lines with small grain size and higher yield, 112 lines of soybean of cooking, 7 lines of low lipoxygenase content, and 12 lines with decreased phytic acid content by 20 % compared to the previous level. 2. Selection of advanced Mugunwha (Rose of Sharon) mutant 1) Bagseul, a new variety of mutant, was developed and 30 plantlets of it are being proliferated. 2) Fifty-three lines of a mutant having a various morphologies were selected.
Song, Hi Sup; Kim, Jae Sung; Kim, Jin Kyu; Shin, In Chul; Lim, Young Taek
In order to develop an advanced technical knowledge for the selection of better mutants, some of the crops were irradiated and the mutation rate, the survival rate and the method for selction of a mutant were studied. Furthermore, this study aimed to obtain basic data applicable to the development of genetic resources by evaluation and analysis the specific character for selection of the superior mutant and its plant breeding. 1. selection of the mutant with a superior resistance against environment in the principal crops 1) New varieties of mutant rices such as Wonpyeongbyeo, Wongwangbyeo, Winmibyeo, and heogseon chalbeyeo (sticky forma) were registered in the national variety list and made an application to crop variety protection right. They are under review now. 2) We also keep on studying on the number of a grain of 8 lines of excellent mutant rice for the purpose of improvement of breeding . 3) We selected 3 lines which have a resistance to pod and stem blight in large soybean, 31 lines with small grain size and higher yield, 112 lines of soybean of cooking, 7 lines of low lipoxygenase content, and 12 lines with decreased phytic acid content by 20 % compared to the previous level. 2. Selection of advanced Mugunwha (Rose of Sharon) mutant 1) Bagseul, a new variety of mutant, was developed and 30 plantlets of it are being proliferated. 2) Fifty-three lines of a mutant having a various morphologies were selected
For the first time, the current study reports the genetic and phenotypic correlations between growth and reproductive traits in Zandi sheep. The data were comprised of 4,309 records of lamb growth traits from 1,378 dams and 273 sires plus 2,588 records of reproductive traits from 577 ewes. These data were extracted from available performance records at Khojir Breeding Station of Zandi sheep in Tehran, Iran, from 1993 to 2008. Correlations were estimated from two animal models in a bivariate analysis using restricted maximum likelihood procedure between lamb growth traits [birth weight (BW), weaning weight at 3 months of age (WW), as well as six-month weight (6 MW)] and ewe reproductive traits [litter size at birth (LSB), litter size at weaning (LSW), total litter weight at birth (TLWB), and total litter weight at weaning (TLWW)]. The genetic correlations between BW and reproductive traits varied from low to high ranges from 0.10 for BW-LSB to 0.86 for BW-TLWB. WW was moderately (0.37) to highly (0.96) correlated with all the reproductive traits. Moreover, the genetic correlations were observed between 6 MW and reproductive traits, varied from 0.19 to 0.95. Relationships between growth and reproductive traits ranged from 0.01 for BW-LSW to 0.28 for BW-TLWB in phenotypic effects. Results indicated that selection to improve WW would have high effect on genetic response in TLWW, and also, these results could be effective for all of the reproductive traits in Zandi sheep. PMID:24705699
Mohammadi, Kourosh; Beigi Nassiri, Mohammad Taghi; Rahmatnejad, Enayat; Abdollahi-Arpanahi, Rostam; Hossaini, Seyed Mohammad Reza; Hagh Nadar, Saman
Full Text Available The present study was carried out to estimate the genetic and phenotypic parameters for growth traits in Ghezel sheep,using pedigree information and body weight records which collected from 2000 to 2009 at Ghezel Sheep Breeding Station.Traits of interest were birth weight (BW, n=2,073, weaning weight (WW, n=1,663 and six-month old weight (6MW, n=1,315.The environmental factors were studied using GLM procedure in SAS software. (Co variance components estimated basedon multivariate animal model by REML method, using DMU-package. All traits were significantly influenced by birth year,lamb’s sex, type of birth and dam age (p<0.01. Heritability estimates for BW, WW and 6MW were 0.16±0.05, 0.24±0.06 and0.35±0.07, respectively. All genetic correlations between traits were estimated positive and ranged from 0.57 (BW-6MW to0.97 (WW-6MW. The phenotypic correlations among all traits were also positive. The results of this study indicate thatbecause of high genetic correlation between traits, selection for each of these traits may result in improvement in other traitsas well.
Previous molecular analyses of small ruminant lentivirus (SRLV) populations in single species herds in Quebec, Canada, have revealed a relatively simple structure where goats and sheep appeared exclusively infected with B1 and A2 subtypes respectively. The present work aimed at extending these earlier findings with the analysis of SRLVs in mixed flocks. Molecular analyses revealed a more complex picture of SRLV population structure in mixed herds compared to single species herds. Notably, phylogenetic analyses of long gag sequences strongly support transmission of A2 subtype from sheep to goats as well as transmission of B1 subtype from goats to sheep. Hence, this work uncovered for the first time natural transmission between sheep and goats of North American subtype A2. In addition, multiple evidences of mixed infection of sheep and goats with A2 and B1 subtypes were found. The data reported in this study reinforces the concept of a genetic continuum of SRLVs where strains are exchanged between sheep and goats under favourable conditions and in the absence of specific species barriers. Most interestingly, this study suggests that dual infection, which is a hallmark of the lentivirus paradigm HIV, may not be such rare events in small ruminants but may simply be understudied and underreported. Overall, the present data shows that sheep and goats in Canada can be infected with both SRLV A and B types, sometimes simultaneously, and that mixed flocks may represent a breeding ground for their evolution. PMID:23811153
Fras, Marion; Leboeuf, Anne; Labrie, François-Mikaël; Laurin, Marc-André; Singh Sohal, Jagdip; L'Homme, Yvan
Desert bighorn sheep use a lot of energy to regulate their internal temperature in the desert. During the summer the sheep eat plants and drink water every few days. In the winter, desert plants contain enough water for sheep survival.
Katie Hale (California State University, Fullerton;Student, Biological Sciences)
The objective of this study was to determine the genetic parameters of methane (CH4) emissions and their genetic correlations with key production traits. The trial measured the CH4 emissions, at 5-min intervals, from 1225 sheep placed in respiration chambers for 2 days, with repeat measurements 2 weeks later for another 2 days. They were fed in the chambers, based on live weight, a pelleted lucerne ration at 2.0 times estimated maintenance requirements. Methane outputs were calculated for g CH4/day and g CH4/kg dry matter intake (DMI) for each of the 4 days. Single trait models were used to obtain estimates of heritability and repeatability. Heritability of g CH4/day was 0.29 ± 0.05, and for g CH4/kg DMI 0.13 ± 0.03. Repeatability between measurements 14 days apart were 0.55 ± 0.02 and 0.26 ± 0.02, for the two traits. The genetic and phenotypic correlations of CH4 outputs with various production traits (weaning weight, live weight at 8 months of age, dag score, muscle depth and fleece weight at 12 months of age) measured in the first year of life, were estimated using bivariate models. With the exception of fleece weight, correlations were weak and not significantly different from zero for the g CH4/kg DMI trait. For fleece weight the phenotypic and genetic correlation estimates were -0.08 ± 0.03 and -0.32 ± 0.11 suggesting a low economically favourable relationship. These results indicate that there is genetic variation between animals for CH4 emission traits even after adjustment for feed intake and that these traits are repeatable. Current work includes the establishment of selection lines from these animals to investigate the physiological, microbial and anatomical changes, coupled with investigations into shorter and alternative CH4 emission measurement and breeding value estimation techniques; including genomic selection. PMID:23739473
Pinares-Patiño, C S; Hickey, S M; Young, E A; Dodds, K G; MacLean, S; Molano, G; Sandoval, E; Kjestrup, H; Harland, R; Hunt, C; Pickering, N K; McEwan, J C
Twenty eight per cent (15) of 53 workers engaged in a sheep blowfly breeding programme designed to control genetically the pest Lucilia cuprina experienced allergic manifestations resulting from contact with this insect. The most common symptoms were rhinitis, affected eyes, rashes, and lower respiratory symptoms, usually, but not always, immediate in type. A personal history of non-insect related asthma, allergic rhinitis, or eczema, or a combination of these was more common in the fly aller...
Kaufman, G. L.; Gandevia, B. H.; Bellas, T. E.; Tovey, E. R.; Baldo, B. A.
The clinical appearance and serum gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) activity were studied in 5 groups of sheep (12 per group) on kleingrass (Panicum coloratum) pasture plots and in 1 group of sheep (10 animals) on native buffalograss (Buchloë dactyloides) pasture. Eleven sheep (at least 1 from each group on kleingrass pasture plots) had elevated serum GGT activity. Seven of 11 sheep with elevated serum GGT activity developed signs of photosensitization. None of the sheep on buffalograss pasture developed signs of photosensitization or elevated GGT activity. The pathologic findings were similar in the sheep that had signs of photosensitization. Grossly, there was icterus and subcutaneous edema. The livers had tapeworms (Thysanosoma actinioides) in the bile ducts, were slightly swollen, and varied in color from yellow to ochre in severe cases of biliary system derangements. Microscopically, there was cholangitis. PMID:6108949
Muchiri, D J; Bridges, C H; Ueckert, D N; Bailey, E M
Full Text Available In this study, the effects of a total solar eclipse, which was occurred in Elaz?? on August 11 1999, on sheep behaviours, were observed. For this purpose, 150 sheeps open shelter have been observed for six hour, from 11:00 am to 5:00 pm. All behaviours of sheep that were different than usual were recorded during observation. Sheeps started to show different behaviours including standing up, smelling the weather and watching around 30 minutes before solar eclipse. Total solar eclipse was occurred between 2:37 and 2:39 pm. During total solar eclipse, it was observed that they become very quiet did not move, turned their faces to the sun. During solar eclipse, sheep behaviour was obseved different than normal sunset darkness. Sheep might behave similar during earthquake disaster with solar eclipse.
The Assaf breed of dairy sheep, a stabilized cross of the Awassi and East Friesian breeds, has replaced the Awassi as the breed of choice in its country of origin, Israel, and has spread to other Mediterranean countries. In Israel the Assaf breed is managed under an intensive production system involving weaning lambs at birth, rearing them artificially, and milking ewes after parturition. There are several breeding periods in the year when ewes are mated following hormonally synchronized estrus. Records of 18,976 lactations from 5 farms were analyzed to investigate factors that influenced Assaf milk and reproductive performance. Lactation curves were fitted to each lactation, and a range of parameters and calculated values were analyzed. Daily milk yield records also were analyzed to describe a typical Assaf lactation and compared with those of the Awassi breed. Factors affecting age at first lambing also were studied. An average Assaf ewe kept under this intensive management regimen was found to produce 334 L of milk during a 173-d lactation. Mean litter size was 1.57 lambs/ewe lambing, and lambing interval was 272 d. Milk production was affected by litter size, with twin- and triplet-bearing ewes producing approximately 20 L more milk per lactation than single-bearing ewes. Day length was the major environmental variable influencing milk yield. The difference between midsummer and midwinter day lengths accounted for a difference in daily milk yield of 0.44 L in favor of summer. Ewe lambs that were mated for the first time at later ages produced more lambs and more milk due to greater early lactation characteristics. Milk production was found to be negatively associated with subsequent reproductive performance. Comparing these results with those from an earlier study in the Awassi breed, the Assaf was found to produce less milk during a shorter lactation than the Awassi, but its greater litter size made it a more profitable breed. PMID:15483153
Pollott, G E; Gootwine, E
Pithomycotoxicosis, more commonly known as facial eczema (FE), is a liver disease that occurs predominantly in New Zealand because of its toxigenic Pithomyces chartarum strains. The first reported case was in sheep in 1887. Since the 1930s, a number of studies have been conducted in an attempt to mitigate the problems FE has on the sheep and dairy industries. The research in these studies included work on fungicide and biological control of the saprophytic fungus, use of different pasture plants to inhibit fungal growth, stock management with respect to pasture fungal spore counts and the use of zinc prophylaxis on animals. The finding that there was a genetic basis in FE sensitivity in sheep prompted research for a genetic approach to mitigation in the form of a diagnostic DNA test for susceptibility to the disease. Recently, we have used the Illumina OvineSNP50 BeadChip to develop a genome-enabled prediction approach to screen for FE-tolerant sheep. Our current best genomic prediction for FE is for the Romney breed and has an accuracy of 0.38. This prediction accuracy is not as high as the individual accuracy gained by an artificial challenge test (0.64). However, it has the advantage of being a non-invasive test and can be provided as part of genomic testing for other traits at minimal cost. PMID:24804852
Phua, S H; Hyndman, D L; Baird, H J; Auvray, B; McEwan, J C; Lee, M A; Dodds, K G
Full Text Available This experiment was conducted in the Genetics, Breeding and Reproductive Biotechnology Laboratory under Goat and Sheep Production Research Division, Bangladesh Livestock Research Institute (BLRI, Saver, Dhaka, Bangladesh. DNA was extracted from 14 goat breeds and the extracted DNA was observed by gel electrophoresis. Eight goat specific primers were synthesized by ASM-800 DNA synthesizer and screened in the study and all these primers were capable of priming polymorphic amplification pattern in both the breeds. Random amplification of polymorphic DNA â?? Polymerase Chain Reaction (RAPD-PCR analysis was carried out using DNA samples of 14 black bengal goat and Jamuna pari goat breeds. Only unambiguous, reproducible and scorable polymorphic fragments were taken into consideration for analysis. Data were analyzed by using a computer programe POPGENE (Version 1.31. Highest level of Nei's gene diversity value (0.4898 was observed in BMS 1494 locus and the mean genetic diversity was obtained 0.3724 among the 14 goat breeds. The highest number of polymorphism obserbed in primer BM1818.The pair-wise genetic distance value ranged from 0.2500 to 1.000. Dendrogram based on Nei's genetic distance using Unweighted Pair Group Method of Arithmetic Means (UPGMA indicated segregation of the 14 goat breeds. Within Jamuna pari goat genetic similarity is low as well as black Bengal goat.
M. A. Rahman
Full Text Available Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD technique was used to study the genetic relatedness among local Awassi lines Baladi, Sagri and Blackface and the black Najdi breed. Fifteen RAPD primers were initially applied and seven were chosen for further analysis, based on band pattern quality, reproducibility, and the presence of distinctive bands. Genetic distances between populations as computed from combined data for all seven primers ranged from 0.0165 (between local Awassi and Sagri Awassi to 0.0091 (between Blackface Awassi and Sagri Awassi. Phylogenetic relationship among these lines and breeds revealed two main clusters. Blackface Awassi and black Najdi breeds are closely related whereas the local Awassi was genetically distant from the other three groups and formed a separate cluster. Further analyses revealed the existence of genetic variability among and within studied sheep lines or breeds that can be used in selection or crossbreeding programs.
The outline of registered ornamental cultivars bred up by mutation breeding, the applied methods, and the radiosensitivity of air-dried seeds among ornamental plants are described. The mutation breeding of ornamental plants has not yet become a familiar means like cross breeding or line separation. But the number of the cultivars bred up by mutation breeding reached more than 270, and took a relatively large proportion of about 40 % of the agronomic cultivars bred up by mutation breeding in the world. The number of the species to which those improved cultivars belong is only 22. Considering the abundance of ornamental plant species and the successful results of mutation breeding in this field, mutation breeding techniques will be applied to many species which remain in the rudimentary stage or have never tried them. It is hoped that the information presented in this paper contributes to the promising future of ornamental plant breeding as the suggestion. Especially in ornamental plants, many spontaneously occurred novel mutants have been sought and treasured for a long time. Such mutants actually enriched the variety of flower colors, shapes and many other important characters required for being ornamentally valuable. (Kako, I.).
The outline of registered ornamental cultivars bred up by mutation breeding, the applied methods, and the radiosensitivity of air-dried seeds among ornamental plants are described. The mutation breeding of ornamental plants has not yet become a familiar means like cross breeding or line separation. But the number of the cultivars bred up by mutation breeding reached more than 270, and took a relatively large proportion of about 40 % of the agronomic cultivars bred up by mutation breeding in the world. The number of the species to which those improved cultivars belong is only 22. Considering the abundance of ornamental plant species and the successful results of mutation breeding in this field, mutation breeding techniques will be applied to many species which remain in the rudimentary stage or have never tried them. It is hoped that the information presented in this paper contributes to the promising future of ornamental plant breeding as the suggestion. Especially in ornamental plants, many spontaneously occurred novel mutants have been sought and treasured for a long time. Such mutants actually enriched the variety of flower colors, shapes and many other important characters required for being ornamentally valuable. (Kako, I.)
This is the third in a series of lessons specifically designed to instruct individuals without any formal training in genetics or statistics about the science of corn breeding. Individuals with formal training in genetics or statistics but without any training in plant breeding also may benefit from taking these lessons.
The blowfly Lucilia cuprina is the most important myiasis pet of sheep in Australia. Other species are associated with sheep myiasis, but L. cuprina is probably responsible for initiating more than 90% of infestations. Annual costs of production losses, prevention and treatment have been estimated at $149 millions in 1985. Prevention and treatment encompass both insecticidal applications to sheep and non-chemical management practices. In the absence of effective preventive measures, the sheep industry would be non-viable over much of Australia. Insecticide usage against L. cuprina has been marked by the appearance of widespread resistance to cyclodienes in 1956, the organophosphates in 1965, and carbamates in 1966. Resistance has not yet been reported against the triazine compounds introduced for blowfly control in 1981. The most effective non-chemical control measures are surgical (removal of skin from the breech in certain breeds of sheep, and tail-docking). They protect sheep by reducing favourable oviposition sites (dung and urine-stained wool). The spectre of insecticide resistance and the early success of the sterile insect technique (SIT) against screwworm fly in the U.S.A., led this Division to consider SIT and other autocidal methods in the 1960s. The L. cuprina genetics research program was established in 1966 and subsequently expanded in 1971. More recently, lobbying by animal welfare groups against surgical blowfly control practices, as well as increasing consumer awareness of insecticide residues in animal products, have accelerated the search for alternatives to chemical control. When SIT was first considered for L. cuprina control in 1960, little was known about the population dynamics of L. cuprina. There were insufficient ecological data to evaluate the prospects of alternative strategies such as suppression or containment. The number of flies which would have to be released in a SIT program was unknown, as were the costs. Assuming that the cost of SIT against L. cuprina in Australia would be similar to that reported for screwworm in Florida, the costs of a SIT campaign were estimated to be several times the potential annual benefits. The discover of meiotic drive (MD) in Drosophila rekindled interest in autocidal control and triggered establishment of the L. cuprina genetics research program in 1966. Subsequent research failed to detect MD systems suitable for genetic control, but by 1970 it was recognised that strains carrying chromosome rearrangements might be more cost-effective than SIT. This led in 1971 to expansion of the genetics and strain development program, and establishment of an ecological research program (quantification of population dynamics). Both programs have been enormously successful. Not only have they enabled the development and successful field testing of a genetic method of suppressing sheep blowfly populations, but they have increased our knowledge of this pest to the stage where a simulation model of genetic control (GENCON), which incorporates both genetic and ecological data, is a valuable tool in strain design, selection of control strategies, and evaluation of field trial data. Comparison using computer simulations, of SIT with female-killing (FK) systems based on sex-linked translocations, suggests that with a suppression and containment strategy, the latter would provide greater benefits for less cost than SIT. Moreover, our projections indicate that large-scale genetic control would be less costly and more effective than the current system based on insecticides and other pest control practices
Full Text Available Ovine ulcerative balanitis and vulvitis in sheep of the Dorper breed has been observed in South Africa since 1979. Its aetiology has not been conclusively resolved, and there is some discrepancy in descriptions of its clinical features. In order to identify the pathogenic microorganism / s that contribute to the occurrence of the disease, the microflora in the genital tracts of both clinically healthy and affected sheep were isolated and compared. Bacteriological examination of materials from affected and unaffected sheep resulted in the isolation of Arcanobacterium pyogenes from 44.2 % and 17.2 % of them respectively. This difference is statistically significant (P < 0.01. Seventy-four per cent of the isolates originated from severe clinical cases. Mycoplasmas were isolated from 49.3 % of 116 clinically normal sheep and 78.2%of 104 affected sheep. There were significant differences in their rates of isolation in clinical groups (P < 0.05. Of all the mycoplasma isolates, Mycoplasma mycoides mycoides large colony variant (MmmLC was isolated from 61.5 % of clinically diseased sheep while 6.0 % of the isolates were from apparently healthy animals (P < 0.05. The study threw light on the prevalence of mycoplasmas in the genital tract of apparently healthy sheep and, at the same time the identity of the mycoplasma pathogen associated with ulcerative balanitis and vulvitis was revealed. The findings of this investigation therefore confirmed the involvement of mycoplasma, particularly that of MmmLC large colony, in the disease in Dorper sheep in South Africa, and it was concluded that this microorganism is an important pathogen of balanitis and vulvitis in them. The study furthermore demonstrated a probable synergism between A. pyogenes and MmmLC. Finding these 2 organisms together occurred 53.4 times more frequently in the affected sheep than in the unaffected, which emphasises the probable multifactorial nature of the disease. The association between age and the presence of clinical signs was statistically significant. It was found that young sheep were more likely to have lesions than adult sheep. Clinical observations showed that the typical ulceration appears to be confined to the glans penis and lips of the vulva; no ulceration was observed on the shaft of the penis and prepuce or vaginal vestibule. In uncomplicated cases inflammation of the prepuce and vaginal vestibule is not a regular feature of the disease. Therefore the names ulcerative balanitis and vulvitis most accurately describe the nature of the disease in South Africa.
Full Text Available eep milk production and processing in last ten years show significant increase in Croatia. Market has recognized the product quality of sheep milk, so today even more number of cheese producers is interested for obtaining the protected geographical indication of products. Because of specific climate conditions on island Pag, as well as specific herbal cover, numerous aromatic plant varieties, milk, i.e. cheese, has specific taste and smell which consumers recognize, search and appreciate. Because of milk production increase and achieving better quality, production regularly controls and chemical composition analyzes and hygiene quality of sheep milk are conducted. In that propose during 2003 and 2004 years, research was carried out, which had for aim to explore milk quality of Pag sheep and to determine influence of paragenetic factors (year - climate on production, chemical composition (milk fat and proteins content and hygiene milk quality (number of somatic cells count, in two herds (A and B. Climate characteristics in 2003 and 2004 were different, regarding precipitations quantity and vegetation. Milking capacity control was carried out according to AT method. Chemical composition analyzes and hygiene quality of milk was carried out with infrared spectrometry and fluoro-opto-electronic method. During milking period in 2004, on island Pag, there were considerably more precipitations and due to the fact, vegetation was exuberant, which influenced on bigger total milk production in lactation (P<0.01 regarding to 2003. Average milk fat content (% in milk was in 2003 on family farm A, higher regarding on family farm B (P<0.01. However, because of higher quantities of produced milk on family farm B, total yield of milk fat (9.43 kg was higher (P<0.01 regarding to family farm A (7,93 kg. During 2004, differences in milk fat yield were very small and were not significant. Average daily milk quantity was from 689 mL (year 2003 to 940 mL (year 2004 on family farm A, apropos from 840 mL (year 2003 to 850 mL (year 2004 on family farm B. Between individual production features and individual milk quality parameters, significant correlations coefficients were determined. Based on results, it can be concluded that influence of paragenetic factors on individual production features and milk quality was significant.
Full Text Available A trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of FGA (Fluorogestone acetate and CIDR (Controlled internal drug release on the induction of estrus and pregnancy and fecundity rates of the Sanjabi and Lori sheep. A total of 360 Sanjabi and Lori sheep were randomly grouped into two treatments with intravaginal devices inserted for 13 days: Group FGA (40 mg FGA, n = 180 and Group CIDR (n = 180. All ewes received an i.m. injection of 400 IU eCG (equine chorionic gonadotrophin at devices removal. Estrous was assessed by exposing all ewes to vasectomized rams at 12 h intervals. Cervical artificial insemination was performed 12 h after estrus onset. The overall estrus response was 72.5%. The source of progestin did not influence the efficiency of estrus response but a significant difference (p<0.05 was found between the breed groups (Lori: 88.6%, Sanjabi: 58.3%. Among the sheep that received either CIDR or FGA, estrus response was significantly (p<0.05 higher in the Lori (CIDR: 82.2%, FGA: 91.1% than in the Sanjabi (CIDR: 64.4%, FGA: 52.2% breed. The lambing and fecundity rates for all groups were 60.2% and 1.2±0.03, respectively. No significant differences in term of the lambing and fecundity rates were recorded between CIDR and FGA groups and among Lori and Sanjabi breed. The results of this study indicate the source of progestin or sheep breed did not influence the pregnancy and fecundity rates. The sheep breed influences the estrous response rate while the source of progestin did not affect the estrous response.
A trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of FGA (Fluorogestone acetate) and CIDR (Controlled internal drug release) on the induction of estrus and pregnancy and fecundity rates of the Sanjabi and Lori sheep. A total of 360 Sanjabi and Lori sheep were randomly grouped into two treatments with intravaginal devices inserted for 13 days: Group FGA (40 mg FGA, n = 180) and Group CIDR (n = 180). All ewes received an i.m. injection of 400 IU eCG (equine chorionic gonadotrophin) at devices removal. Estrous was assessed by exposing all ewes to vasectomized rams at 12 h intervals. Cervical artificial insemination was performed 12 h after estrus onset. The overall estrus response was 72.5%. The source of progestin did not influence the efficiency of estrus response but a significant difference (p<0.05) was found between the breed groups (Lori: 88.6%, Sanjabi: 58.3%). Among the sheep that received either CIDR or FGA, estrus response was significantly (p<0.05) higher in the Lori (CIDR: 82.2%, FGA: 91.1%) than in the Sanjabi (CIDR: 64.4%, FGA: 52.2%) breed. The lambing and fecundity rates for all groups were 60.2% and 1.2 +/- 0.03, respectively. No significant differences in term of the lambing and fecundity rates were recorded between CIDR and FGA groups and among Lori and Sanjabi breed. The results of this study indicate the source of progestin or sheep breed did not influence the pregnancy and fecundity rates. The sheep breed influences the estrous response rate while the source of progestin did not affect the estrous response. PMID:19090233
Moeini, M M; Moghaddam, A A; Bahirale, A; Hajarian, H
Two anasarcous foetuses of Awassi sheep are described. The foetuses were removed from the dams by caesarean section because of dystocia due to failure of cervical dilation. Uterine incision was made in situ because uteri were so distended they could not be brought out from the site of incision. Large quantities of uterine fluids and abnormal thick placentas were found. One foetus weighed about 7 kg and the other 13 kg. The foetal heads were deformed: the upper jaw was prognathic and the left ear of the small foetus was cystic. Necropsy revealed subcutaneous musculature was soft and flabby and abdominal and thoracic cavities contained serosanguinous fluid. Histopathological examination revealed that only the larger foetus had focal aggregates of basophilic nucleated red blood cells and scattered megakaryocytes in the liver. We conclude that anasarca can occur in Awassi sheep, with and without associated extramedullary haematopoiesis. PMID:9140650
Hailat, N; Lafi, S Q; al-Darraji, A; el-Maghraby, H M; al-Ani, F; Fathalla, M
The charge breeding technique is used for radioactive ion beam (RIB) production in order of optimizing the re-acceleration of the radioactive element ions produced by a primary beam in a thick target. Charge breeding is achieved by means of a device capable of increasing the ion charge state from 1+ to a desired value n+. In order to get high intensity RIB, experiments with charge breeding of very high efficiency could be required. To reach this goal, the charge breeding simulation could help to optimize the high charge state production efficiency by finding more proper parameters for the radioactive 1+ ions. In this paper a device based on an electron beam ion source (EBIS) is considered. In order to study that problem, a code already developed for studying the ion selective containment in an EBIS with RF quadrupoles, BRICTEST, has been modified to simulate the ion charge state breeding rate for different 1+ ion injection conditions. Particularly, the charge breeding simulations for an EBIS with a hollow electron beam have been studied. PMID:22380242
Variale, V; Rainò, A C; Clauser, T
A long-term campaign to eradicate the medfly is being carried out in southern Japanese islands with the financial aid of the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry, arid Fisheries. In 1984, a mass-breeding facility was built for applying the sterile insect technique, in which controlled doses of radiation are used to sterilize flies to prevent reproduction. The campaign itself started in the Miyako islands in September 1984 to protect melon crops from the pest. After 2 years of extensive efforts, medflies there have almost been eliminated. It is expected that by 1992 the melon medfly will be eradicated from Japan. The accompanying photos illustrate some of the work involved in this extensive and promising campaign
Full Text Available This revised book is an expanded and updated version of the Australian Sheep and Wool Handbook published in 1991 and focuses on the sheep wool and meat industry. The book is divided in 5 sections, each including several chapters written by well-known and qualified researchers and industry representatives from many countries. The first section on Major sheep and wool industries, in my opinion, is particularly interesting because it explores the sheep and wool industries of leading countries (e.g. Australia, South Africa and New Zealand and continents (Europe and South America, and those of emerging countries (e.g. China.....
Full Text Available Maize is one of the most important economic crops and the best studied and most tractable genetic system among monocots. The development of biotechnology has led to a great increase in our knowledge of maize genetics and understanding of the structure and behaviour of maize genomes. Conventional breeding practices can now be complemented by a number of new and powerful techniques. Some of these often referred to as molecular methods, enable scientists to see the layout of the entire genome of any organism and to select plants with preferred characteristics by "reading" at the molecular level, saving precious time and resources. DNA markers have provided valuable tools in various analyses ranging from phylogenetic analysis to the positional cloning of genes. Application of molecular markers for genetic studies of maize include: assessment of genetic variability and characterization of germ plasm, identification and fingerprinting of genotypes, estimation of genetic distance, detection of monogamic and quantitative trait loci, marker assisted selection, identification of sequence of useful candidate genes, etc. The development of high-density molecular maps which has been facilitated by PCR-based markers, have made the mapping and tagging of almost any trait possible and serve as bases for marker assisted selection. Sequencing of maize genomes would help to elucidate gene function, gene regulation and their expression. Modern biotechnology also includes an array of tools for introducing or deieting a particular gene or genes to produce plants with novel traits. Development of informatics and biotechnology are resulted in bioinformatic as well as in expansion of microarrey technique. Modern biotechnologies could complement and improve the efficiency of traditional selection and breeding techniques to enhance agricultural productivity.
An outbreak of acute enteric paramphistomiasis was observed among Yankasa (indigenous) sheep that were herded with cattle on the University farm at Samaru in February 1973. Mortality was approximately thirty to forty per cent. The most important clinical signs were anorexia, unthriftiness and profuse foetid diarrhoea soiling the perianal region and hind legs. Diagnosis was based on the post-mortem findings, clinical signs and presence of conical flukes identified as Paramphistomum microbothrium. PMID:906085
Bida, S A; Schillhorn van Veen, T
Protein variation was identified in sheep when Western blots of polyacrylamide gels (routinely used to resolve transferrin polymorphism) were stained using antibodies to human plasminogen. The affinity of the antibodies to ovine plasma was less than 7% that of a human standard but they bound specifically to a single polymorphic protein. In 146 lambs and their parents the inheritance of the ovine plasminogen antigen polymorphism was consistent with four autosomal alleles segregating codominantly. However, an additional two lambs had types which were incompatible with their putative parents. The pedigrees of these lambs were tested by DNA fingerprinting and shown to have been incorrectly recorded. The genetic polymorphism detected by human plasminogen antiserum provided a probability of sire exclusion (PE) ranging from 0.04 to 0.32 and a polymorphic information content (PIC) of 0.08 to 0.50 in flocks of five sheep breeds: Perendale, Romney, Merino, Texel and Coopworth (in order of increasing genetic variation in this locus). Significant differences in allele frequency were observed between breeds but sampling did not assess the variation among flocks within a breed. PMID:1503278
Tate, M L; Manly, H C; Schmack, A