Full Text Available The sheep is an important economic livestock species, contributing greatly to the Indian economy, especially in arid, semi arid and mountain areas. The current population in world is 1110.78 millions, around 44.85 millions (1987 sheeps in India (ICAR., 2002. Sheeps are mostly reared for meat and wool. The average annual wool production per sheep is between 3.5 to 5.5 kg of fine quality wool in Australia, New Zealand and U.S.S.R., where as in India except Magra sheep which annually yield more than 2 kg wool having staple length 5.8 cm, the average of rest of the wool produced is less than 1.0 kg per sheep of inferior quality (Banerjee G.C., 1998. Therefore many farmers in southern India adapted sheep rearing for meat production than for wool production. For yielding more production from sheep farming one should have sound knowledge of general information related to the reproduction and different breeding practices. [Vet. World 2009; 2(1.000: 43-44
Cristina Santos Sotomaior
Full Text Available It is well known that the susceptibility of sheep to scrapie is determined by the host’s prion protein gene (PRNP. PRNP polymorphisms at codons 136 (alanine, A/valine, V, 154 (histidine, H/arginine, R and 171 (glutamine, Q/histidine, H/arginine, R are the main determinants of sheep susceptibility/resistance to classical scrapie. There are four major variants of the wild-type ARQ allele: VRQ, AHQ, ARH and ARR. Breeding programs have been developed in the European Union and the USA to increase the frequency of the resistant ARR allele while decreasing the frequency of the susceptible VRQ allele in sheep populations. In Brazil, little PRNP genotyping data are available for sheep, and thus far, no controlled breeding scheme for scrapie has been implemented. This review will focus on important epidemiological aspects of scrapie and the use of genetic resistance as a tool in breeding programs to control the disease.
Mohammad Farhadian; Ali Hashemi; Sarrain Razzagzadeh; Reza Darvishzadeh; Ghader Manafiazar; Shoja Jafari
The Makuie sheep is a fat-tailed sheep breed which can be found in the Azerbaijan province of Iran. In 1986, a Makuie sheep breeding station was established in the city of Maku in order to breed, protect and purify this breed. The genetic parameters for birth weight, weaning weight (3 months), 6-month, 9-month and yearling weight, and average daily gain from birth to weaning traits were estimated based on 25 years of data using DFREML software. Six different models were applied and a likeliho...
Windig Jack J; Komen Hans; Gizaw Solomon; Hanotte Olivier; Van Arendonk Johan AM
Abstract Prioritizing livestock breeds for conservation needs to incorporate both genetic and non-genetic aspects important for the survival of the breeds. Here, we apply a maximum-utility-strategy to prioritize 14 traditional Ethiopian sheep breeds based on their threat status, contributions to farmer livelihoods (current breed merits) and contributions to genetic diversity. Contributions of the breeds to genetic diversity were quantified using Eding's marker-estimated kinship approaches. No...
Full Text Available In this investigation Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP markers have been used to assess genetic diversity and relationship among three local Albanian sheep breeds. A total of 93 unrelated individuals were analysed by three EcoRI/TaqI primer combination that produced 92 AFLP markers. Nei’s GST index was calculated to investigate the partition of diversity within and between breeds. The mean value of this index was 0.039, indicating that only 4% of the total genetic variation is due to between breeds differences, while 96% of the diversity is accounted by differences among individuals within breeds. The mean expected heterozygosity value for the whole population was 0.259, indicating that a high level of diversity is present in Albanian sheep compared to estimates in other regions. According to what indicated by the GST index, model-based clustering did not differentiate the breeds. The results obtained by AFLP data sets indicate high diversity in Albania but small genetic distances between breeds, confirming previous results obtained with microsatellites. These results reflect Albanian sheep management practices, which have facilitated a relevant gene flow between breeds. These results are useful to design proper breeding programs suited to conserve the genetic diversity presently existing in Albanian sheep
Windig Jack J
Full Text Available Abstract Prioritizing livestock breeds for conservation needs to incorporate both genetic and non-genetic aspects important for the survival of the breeds. Here, we apply a maximum-utility-strategy to prioritize 14 traditional Ethiopian sheep breeds based on their threat status, contributions to farmer livelihoods (current breed merits and contributions to genetic diversity. Contributions of the breeds to genetic diversity were quantified using Eding's marker-estimated kinship approaches. Non-genetic aspects included threats (e.g. low population size, low preferences by farmers and current merits (economic, ecological and cultural merits. Threat analysis identified eight of the 14 breeds as threatened. Analysis of current merits showed that sub-alpine and arid-lowland breeds contribute most to farmer livelihoods in comparison to other breeds. The highest contribution to the genetic diversity conserved was from the Simien breed. Simien showed high between-breed (low between-breed kinship = 0.04 as well as high within-breed diversity (low within-breed kinship = 0.09 and high HE = 0.73 and allelic richness = 6.83. We combined the results on threat status, current breed merits and contributions to genetic diversity to produce a ranking of the 14 breeds for conservation purposes. Our results balance the trade-offs between conserving breeds as insurance against future uncertainties and current sustainable utilization. The ranking of breeds provides a basis for conservation strategies for Ethiopian sheep and contributes to a regional or global conservation plan.
Full Text Available The Makuie sheep is a fat-tailed sheep breed which can be found in the Azerbaijan province of Iran. In 1986, a Makuie sheep breeding station was established in the city of Maku in order to breed, protect and purify this breed. The genetic parameters for birth weight, weaning weight (3 months, 6-month, 9-month and yearling weight, and average daily gain from birth to weaning traits were estimated based on 25 years of data using DFREML software. Six different models were applied and a likelihood ratio test (LRT was used to select the appropriate model. Bivariate analysis was used to define the genetic correlation between studied traits. Based on the LRT, model II was selected as an appropriate model for all studied traits. Direct heritability estimates of birth, weaning, 6-month, 9-month and yearling weights and average daily gain from birth to weaning were 0.36, 0.41, 0.48, 0.42, 0.36 and 0.37, respectively. Estimates of direct genetic correlation between birth and weaning weights, birth and 6-month weights, birth and 9-month weights, as well as between birth and yearling weights were 0.57, 0.49, 0.46 and 0.32, respectively. The results suggest there is a substantial additive genetic variability for studied traits in the Makuie sheep breed population, and the direct additive effect and maternal permanent environment variance are the main source of phenotypic variance.
Full Text Available Production data of Bovec and Improved (with East-Friesian Bovec sheep born between years 1989 and 2006 were used for the analysis of culling dynamics and lifetime production. Lifetime production was calculated as the sum of production at each lambing (number of born and liveborn lambs and litter birth weight, weaning (number of weaned lambs and litter weaning weight or during each lactation (milk yield, fat (6.5 % and protein (5.8 % corrected milk yield (FPC; Pulina et al., 2005., and fat and protein yield for culled sheep. Animals with any missing records from the first till the last lambing, weaning or lactation were removed from the analysis. Animals that left the system of animal recording alive, due to selling or the cancellation of recording by a breeder were also excluded. Dataset included records for 2254 sheep: 1734 of Bovec and 520 of Improved Bovec breed. Data preparation and statistical analysis were performed with the use of a statistical program R (R Development Core Team, 2007. and additional packages Zelig (Imai et al., 2007; Bailey and Alimadhi, 2007; Imai et al., 2008 and lme4 (Bates and DebRoy, 2004; Bates, 2007. Results have shown that in the period ?1996 Bovec breed had on average 4.4 lactations in their lifetime, which was almost one lactation more than in Improved Bovec breed. In the period after the year 1996 the highest proportion of animals were culled in the first lactation (as expected due to culling dynamics, with slightly higher proportion in Improved Bovec breed than in Bovec breed. Lifetime number of born, liveborn and weaned lambs was higher for about one lamb in Improved Bovec breed. Lifetime lamb weight gain did not differ between breeds, due to the high frequency of early weaning in Improved Bovec breed. During lifetime, Improved Bovec sheep produced around 200 kg (~34 % more milk, around 190 kg (~32 % more FPC milk, around 12 kg (~32 % more milk fat, and around 10 kg (~34 % more milk protein than Bovec breed. However, if the mean metabolic weight of breeds is taken into account the difference in milk production amounts to only ~6 % (~2 % for FPC milk. These results show that Bovec breed has satisfactory milk production, but too low body weight for intensive milk production. On the other hand, low body weight makes this breed suitable for extensive farming in hill and mountain areas. Improved Bovec breed has good results in Slovenian conditions, due to the similarity of environmental conditions with East Friesian’s country of origin.
O.T., Zishiri; S.W.P., Cloete; J.J., Olivier; K., Dzama.
Full Text Available Genetic trends were constructed for early growth traits in the Dormer and Ile de France terminal sire sheep breeds. The traits that were considered were birth weight, pre-weaning weight, weaning weight and post-weaning weight. However, pre-weaning weights were only available for the Ile de France br [...] eed and post-weaning weights were only available for the Dormer breed. Regressions of average annual breeding values on birth year indicated significant genetic gains in all early growth traits during the evaluation period. The average predicted direct breeding value of birth weight decreased by 0.055% per annum whereas weaning weight increased by 0.12% per annum and post-weaning weight improved by 0.32% per annum in the Dormer breed. The Ile de France registered an undesirable increase in the predicted direct breeding value of birth weight which amounted to 0.025% per annum. Predicted direct breeding values for pre-weaning weight increased at an annual rate of 0.23% and that of weaning weight by 1.21% per annum. Although adequate genetic variation for substantial genetic progress was available, only modest rates of progress were attained for all the traits in both breeds. The only possible exception was weaning weight in the Ile de France breed, which was improved at > 1% per annum. At least all changes were in the desired direction, barring the direct genetic trend for birth weight in the Ile de France breed. Breeders should be encouraged to record data consistently, as one of the major shortcomings in the data for both breeds were a lack of continuity in the submission of data to the NSIS. More informative analyses ought to be feasible if this requisite is met.
Full Text Available Myostatin or growth and differentiation factor 8 (GDF8, has been known as the factor causing double muscling phenotypes in which a series of mutations make the myostatin protein inactive, hence disabling it to regulate the deposition of muscle fibre. This phenotype happens with high frequency in a breed of sheep known as the Texel. Quantitative trait loci (QTL studies show that a portion of the OAR2 that encompasses GDF8 has a major effect on muscular growth of Belgian Texel, on the muscling and fat depth in New Zealand Texel sires, and UK Texel and Charollais sheep. The functional polymorphism resides inside the GDF8 non-coding region. To date, there have been studies showing biallelic SNPs with significantly different allelic frequencies between hyper-muscled Texel and control animals including one in the 3'UTR (g.+6223G>A and one in 2.5 kb upstream from the GDF8 transcription start site (g.-2449G>C. The GDF8 allele of the Texel sheep is characterized by one G to A transition in the 3'UTR, creating a target site for mir1 and mir206 which are highly expressed in skeletal muscles. This prevents myostatin gene translation, thus contributing to the double muscling of Texel sheep. Therefore, the GDF8 g. +6223A allele seems to be a causative variable increasing muscularity in the Texel rams and could be identified as a quantitative trait nucleotide.
Full Text Available The genetic variability and genetic relationship of the fifteen sheep breeds were studied. The genotypes of 14 indigenous Chinese sheep breeds and one crossbreed of wild sheep were investigated using 13 microsatellite DNA markers recommended by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO and the International Society of Animal Genetics (ISAG through PCR. The allele frequency, heterozygosity and Genetic Differentiation Index (Fst were computed to estimate the genetic variation of each population. To determine the genetic relationships among the breeds, phylogenetic trees were constructed based on Nei’s genetic distance using the unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic mean and neighbor-joining method. A total of 15 breeds were clustered into three groups. The first group included Altay sheep and Duolang sheep, the second group was very large and complicated, the third group was a Kazark sheep. The thirteen microsatellite loci were effective markers for the analysis of genetic relationship among sheep breeds. In addition, genetic distance among groups is not according with their geographic distribution and groups or breeds with low production performance can easily impacted by breeds with better production performance. As for the results, it may be result from applying on artificial insemination and extension of commercial cross breeding technique in sheep production system recent years in China.
de Vries, F; Borchers, N; Hamann, H; Drögemüller, C; Reinecke, S; Lüpping, W; Distl, O
The prion protein (PrP) genotypes of four German meat breeds of sheep were examined in relation to their scores for muscle mass, conformation, wool quality, daily liveweight gain and ultrasonic measurements of the depth of back muscle and back fat. The dataset included 912 genotyped German texel sheep among 10,383 recorded sheep, 474 genotyped Suffolk sheep among 4079 recorded sheep, 271 genotyped German white-headed mutton sheep among 3393 recorded sheep, and 99 genotyped German black-headed mutton sheep among 1642 recorded sheep. The model included the fixed effects of PrP genotype, herd, year and season, test day, sex, rearing method, the regression coefficient of average age, and the random additive genetic effect of the animal. In all four breeds there were no statistically significant associations between these performance traits and the occurrence of ARR alleles and the ARR/ARR genotype except for the depth of back muscle and the daily liveweight gain of German black-headed mutton sheep; however, in this breed, the interpretation could be affected by the small number of animals involved. All the genotyped sheep had significantly better performance traits than the non-genotyped sheep. PMID:15338706
Full Text Available Safety and quality foods of animal origin are extremely important for consumers. The aim of this work was to evaluate the feasibility of a method to track the breed origin of sheep meat all along the production chain using molecular genetics tools. A total of 800 samples evenly distributed among seven Italian sheep breeds have been typed at 19 STR markers, together with 90 samples from both imported sheep animals and local crossbred animals withdrawn at slaughterhouses. A maximum likelihood assignment test was adopted to evaluate STR ability to allocate samples to their true breed of origin. Sarda animals were all correctly allocated, as well as more than 98% of samples from the other breeds. Only slightly worst allocation performances were observed for imported and crossbred animals. Preliminary results seem quite promising, though further analyses will be needed in order to better understand the statistical power of such an assignment test before implementation in the sheep meat production chain.
Organic livestock has grown in Romania in recent years, especially after 2000, because animal breeding in organic farming system represent a niche activity for farmers. The purpose of this paper was to make a radiograph at national level as regards the sheep breeding in organic farming system. The share of organic production within total production varies according to the different animal sectors. The statistic data showed that cattle and sheep are the most popular species reared using organi...
Leroy, G; Danchin-Burge, C; Palhiere, I; Baumung, R; Fritz, S; Mériaux, J C; Gautier, M
On the basis of correlations between pairwise individual genealogical kinship coefficients and allele sharing distances computed from genotyping data, we propose an approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) approach to assess pedigree file reliability through gene-dropping simulations. We explore the features of the method using simulated data sets and show precision increases with the number of markers. An application is further made with five dog breeds, four sheep breeds and one cattle breed raised in France and displaying various characteristics and population sizes, using microsatellite or SNP markers. Depending on the breeds, pedigree error estimations range between 1% and 9% in dog breeds, 1% and 10% in sheep breeds and 4% in cattle breeds. PMID:22486502
Full Text Available Istrian dairy sheep is a local breed essential for the identity and development of the Northern- Adriatic karstic region through high-quality products, primarily the hard sheep artisanal cheese. Border changes fragmented the initial Istrian dairy sheep population in three genetically isolated sub-populations in Italy (1000 animals, Slovenia (1150 animals and Croatia (2500 animals. Due to the drastic reduction of their population sizes and fragmentation, the populations in Croatia and Slovenia are included in governmentally supported conservation programs. The initial subpopulation in Italy was restored after near extinction with stock from Slovenia, and is used today in meat production. The aim of this study was to provide an initial understanding of the current genetic structure and distribution of the genetic variability that exists in Istrian sheep by analysing individuals sampled in two regional groups of Istrian sheep from Croatia and Slovenia. Cres island sheep and Lika pramenka sheep were used as out-groups for comparison. Genetic differentiation was analysed using factorial correspondence analysis and structure clustering over 26 microsatellite loci for a total of 104 sheep belonging to three breeds from Croatia and Slovenia. Factorial correspondence analysis and clustering-based structure analysis both showed three distinct populations: Lika pramenka sheep, Cres island sheep and Istrian sheep. We did not find a marked genetic divergence of the regional groups of Istrian sheep. Istrian sheep regional group from Slovenia showed lower genetic variability compared to the one from Croatia. Variability and structure information obtained in this study considered alongside with socio-cultural-contexts and economic goals for the Istrian sheep reared in Croatia and Slovenia indicate that the cross-border exchange of genetic material of animals carrying private alleles among populations would maintain these alleles at low frequencies and minimize the inbreeding rate.
Almahdy, H; Tess, M W; El-Tawil, E; Shehata, E; Mansour, H
Objectives for this study were to estimate relative economic weights for performance traits for two native and two composite sheep breeds under two management systems in Egypt. Breeds studied were Rahmani (R), Ossimi (O), 3/4R-1/4Finnish Landrace (RFR), and 3/4O-1/4Finn (OFO); OFO and RFR were composite breeds. Management systems were one mating season per year (1M) and three mating seasons per 2 yr (3M). A dynamic computer model was used to simulate animal performance and enterprise efficiency and profit. Input parameters for the model were obtained from published results and analyses of data collected from experimental flocks of the same genetic stocks in Egypt. Responses for two measures of life-cycle feed conversion and one measure of enterprise profit were evaluated. Life-cycle feed conversion was calculated as kilograms of TDN input per kilogram of empty body weight output (TDN/EBW) and kilograms of TDN input per kilogram of carcass lean output (TDN/CLN). Profit was measured as annual gross margin/ewe (GM/EWE). Traits evaluated were conception rate (CR), lambing rate (LR), mortality rate (MR), mature weight (MW), and milk production (MK). Based on responses to percentage changes in trait means, CR was most important for TDN/EBW, followed by LR and MR. For TDN/CLN, LR, MR, and CR were most important. For GM/EWE, CR was most important, followed by LR, MW, and MR. In the systems studied, there was little response to changes in MK. Based on changes in GM/EWE per genetic standard deviation change, LR was most important, followed by CR, MR, MW, and MK in all systems. Relative economic weights for O and OFO were similar, as were weights for R and RFR. Differences in economic weights between management systems for the same breed were not large enough to justify separate selection lines within breeds. PMID:10709919
Marcel Theodor PARASCHIVESCU
Full Text Available Among genetic species of farm animals sheep has the highest artificial biodiversity. There are plenty of breeds due to the many kinds of biological production of human interest and to the large areas from plains to mountains and fro Equator to Poles engaged in sheep breeding. Sheep are producing wool (thin, meddle or thick, lambs, mouton (lean or fat, milk, pelts, furs or leather, each of them acting as single selection criterion or as component of selection indexes. Each kind of resulted product has its own commercial value and its way of appreciation it. In many cases the commercial value of sheep breeding is related to the ewes’ fertility. On the other hand ewes have seasonal sexual activity including a longer or shorter period of anoestrus when produce nothing related to their fertility. Biotechnological means as artificial insemination, estrus induction, arouse of ovulation rate, embryo transfer, MOET, embryo cloning, in vitro fertilization, transgenice engineering are able to influence the economic efficiency of sheep breeding. The present essay is configuring modalities of estimating the increase of economic value of sheep products when research programs of developing reproductive biotechnologies in ewes implemented in sheep farming.
Full Text Available About 90% of bovine malignant catarrhal fever (BMCF PCR-positive cases in South Africa are caused by alcelaphine herpesvirus-1 (AlHV-1 and the other 10 % by ovine herpesvirus-2 (OvHV-2. The prevalence of OvHV-2 in different sheep breeds in South Africa was determined in order to investigate whether the lower incidence of BMCF caused by OvHV-2 in comparison with AlHV-1 can be ascribed to a low incidence of the virus in sheep. A single-tube hemi-nested PCR was developed, evaluated and applied to detect OvHV-2 DNA. The prevalence of the virus in 4 sheep breeds from various regions in South Africa was shown to be 77 %. No statistically significant difference was found amongst the sheep breeds tested.
Legarra Andrés; Parada Analia; Alfonso Leopoldo; Ugarte Eva; Arana Ana
Abstract Breeding sheep populations for scrapie resistance could result in a loss of genetic variability. In this study, the effect on genetic variability of selection for increasing the ARR allele frequency was estimated in the Latxa breed. Two sources of information were used, pedigree and genetic polymorphisms (fifteen microsatellites). The results based on the genealogical information were conditioned by a low pedigree completeness level that revealed the interest of also using the inform...
Full Text Available We aim at understanding the genomic influence on milk quality and synthesis by comparing two sheep breeds using sheep-specific microarray technology. From sheep ESTs deposited at NCBI we generated a chip carrying about 22,000 non-redundant features in quadruplicate, achieving very good technical outcomes. Oligos were in situ generated on chip using the Combimatrix equipment. We analysed the mammary transcriptome in individuals of two sheep breeds at two lactation stages, to identify genes controlling milk production and metabolic pathways in which these genes are involved. With |FC|>1.4, and p-value?0.05, 142 and 14 genes resulted differentially expressed in stages 01 and 02, respectively.
Full Text Available This study was done from September 2006 to May 2007. A total of 105 Menz breed sheep from Yemenze Gera Midir district in the Amhara National Regional State, Ethiopia. The spatial distribution of sheep keds (Melophagus ovinus and chewing lice (Bovicola ovis on Menz breed sheep were examined which were naturally infested. The densities if sheep keds and lice were determined through counting after parting of the fleece/wool at five (5 points on a length of 10 cm areas of six (6 different regions (neck, shoulder, belly, back, rump and flank on both sides of the body which sum up sixty (60 points of count. The percentage values of Bovicola ovis distribution on the sheep for the inspected regions were 57.5% on shoulder, 53.32% neck, 51% rump, 49.25% flank, 45.36% belly and 45.28 back. For Melophagus ovinus infested sheep, the sites more parasitized were flank, shoulder, rump, neck, belly and back with proportion of 69, 60.12, 51, 42, 33 and 21, respectively in order of importance. The minimum and maximum keds and lice count on a sheep at a time were varied between 0 to 178 and 0 to 1050 respectively. However, most frequently the number of keds and lice were range between 18-30 and 0-100 respectively. Infestation of sheep with sheep keds has statistical significant difference among the different regions examined and no statistical significant difference exist for lice at 95% confidence interval (CI and p value of less than 0.05.
Full Text Available Linear scoring is widely applied in domestic animal species, mainly in cattle and horses. There are only few cases of linear scoring in sheep, probably because the small body size and the narrow range of the classes make difficult to correctly evaluate the measures. In this paper the results of a linear scoring test carried out on Merinizzata Italiana sheep breed in order to verify the feasibility of this method in sheep, are reported. Twenty untrained people, with three different levels of scoring experience in meat sheep morphology, evaluated 52 pluriparous ewes for body length, chest circumference, chest width, rump height, rump width, and withers height; to check for misclassification, their scores were compared with a reference score, previously obtained measuring the same animals by the suitable tools (measuring tape and a Lydtin stick. The percentage of correct scoring ranged from 44.4% for body length to 61.8% for withers height, and was not affected by the experience of the judge. In all characters, the distance of the class from the trait mean had a significant effect in increasing the intensity of misclassifications; the judge’s experience showed a positive effect in reducing the intensity of the misclassification for body length, that was the hardest trait to score. These results encourage to further verifying in practice the linear scoring in the Merinizzata Italiana sheep and in other meat breeds.
S, Tehmina; R, Shahina; A, Razzaq; I.B, Marghazani; A.N, Khosa.
Full Text Available La prevalencia de la infestación por Paramphistomum cervi en ovinos de Balochi, Babrik y Harnai, Balochistan (Pakistan) fue estudiada de septiembre a diciembre de 2010. Con este fin, fueron examinados los recintos ruminales de ovinos faenados en la ciudad de Quetta y alrededores (n=1200). Los result [...] ados muestran diferencias significativas (p Abstract in english The prevalence of Paramphistomum cervi infestation in Balochi, Babrik and Harnai sheep breeds from Balochistan (Pakistan) was studied during September to December 2010. For this purpose, rumen of slaughtered sheep in Quetta City and surroundings (n=1,200) were examined. Results showed significant di [...] fferences (p
Qanbari, S.; Osfoori, R.; Eskandari Nasab, M. P.
The traits with the greatest financial impact on sheep production are the number of lambs weaned per ewe and growth efficiency. FecB and Callipyge are the most well known major genes concerned with these traits. In order to conduct a Marker Assisted Introgression (MAI) program we surveyed the presence of responsible mutations in Afshari sheep breeding flock. Direct tests to detect of FecBB and CLPG alleles were conducted on 74 and 58 DNA samples respectively by PCR-RFLP assay. Also the polymo...
Ragkos, A; Abas, Z
Market failures are the main cause of poor acknowledgement of the true impact of functional sheep traits on the management and economic performance of farms, which results in their omission from the breeding goal or the estimation of non-representative economic weights in the breeding goal. Consequently, stated-preference non-market valuation techniques, which recently emerged to mitigate these problems, are necessary to estimate economic weights for functional traits. The purpose of this paper is to present an example of the use of a choice experiment (CE) in the estimation of economic weights for sheep traits for the design of breeding goals. Through a questionnaire survey the preferences of sheep farmers are recorded and their marginal willingness to pay (MWTP) for 10 production and functional traits is estimated. Data are analysed using random parameter logit models. The results reveal unobserved preference heterogeneity for fertility, adaptability to grazing and resistance to disease, thus highlighting that these traits are appreciated differently by farmers, because their needs are diverse. Positive MWTP is found for Greek breeds, high milk production and lambs with low fat deposition, for which there is high demand in Greek markets. On the other hand, MWTP for the cheese-making ability of milk is negative, stemming from the fact that sheep milk prices in Greece are not formulated according to milk composition. In addition, farmers seem to understand differences between udder shapes and attribute different values to various types. This application of the CE method indicates that communication channels among farmers and breeders should be established in order to enhance market performance and to provide orientation to the design of breeding programmes. Non-market valuation can be used complementarily to market valuation techniques, in order to provide accurate estimates for production and functional traits. PMID:25245334
Full Text Available Investigations were carried out in a commercial farm from Turnu, Arad County, on a number of 110 indigenous adultewes from the Tigaia breed. It is estimated by some authors that administration of subcutaneous melatonin implantsduring a period of 30 days, in lactating or dry ewes, would improve the reproductive performances in some sheepbreeds. Subcutaneous melatonin implants (Melovin were inserted to the ewes in doses of 18 mg. Current research,emphasized treated that from indigenous Tigaia breed, can be obtained superior reproduction indexes if the animalsare treated with melatonin implants with 35 days before the mating season, differences from the untreated groupbeing significantly (p<0.001. However, in sheep treated used melatonin implants, the lambing interval were reducedwith 40 to 50%. It seems that use of melatonin implants Melovin type near the beginning of normal breeding season,increases the reproductive performance of adult ewes from the Tigaia breed.
Gregor Gorjanc; Vesna Gantner; Dragomir Kompan
Production data of Bovec and Improved (with East-Friesian) Bovec sheep born between years 1989 and 2006 were used for the analysis of culling dynamics and lifetime production. Lifetime production was calculated as the sum of production at each lambing (number of born and liveborn lambs and litter birth weight), weaning (number of weaned lambs and litter weaning weight) or during each lactation (milk yield, fat (6.5 %) and protein (5.8 %) corrected milk yield (FPC; Pulina et al., 2005.), and f...
Szilvia, Kusza; Doytcho, Dimov; István, Nagy; Zsuzsanna, Bõsze; András, Jávor; Sándor, Kukovics.
Full Text Available Herein, genetic relationships among five breeds of Bulgarian sheep were estimated using microsatellite markers. The total number of alleles identified was 226 at the 16 loci examined. D A distance values were used for phylogenetic tree construction with the UPGMA algorithm. The two Tsigai and two Ma [...] ritza populations were found to be geneticallvery closely related to each other y (0.198, and 0.258 respectively). The Pleven Black Head population was distinct from the other four. These results could be useful for preserving genes in these breeds, thereby ensuring their preservation in Bulgaria.
Erika Pellattiero; Alessio Cecchinato; Massimo De Marchi; Mauro Penasa; Nicola Tormen; Stefano Schiavon; Martino Cassandro; Giovanni Bittante
A fattening and slaughter trial was carried out on 36 lambs of Alpagota, Brogna and Foza sheep breeds native of Veneto Region Alps (six male and six female lambs per breed) divided in three groups depending on the type of feed used: pasture, hay and concentrate, hay and concentrate supplemented with conjugated linoleic acid. Lambs were slaughtered at 225 days (mean weight: 30 kg). Infra-vitam and post-mortem data were analyzed by using a linear model that included the cross-classified effect ...
Full Text Available Hyperprolific phenotype of Booroola sheep was first discovered in the Australian Merino breed. This phenotype is due to the action of a single autosomal gene that influences the number of ovulations per estrogenic cycle. Recent discoveries have revealed that high prolificacy in Booroola Merino sheep is the result of a mutation (FecB in the bone morphogenetic protein receptor 1B (BMPR-1B gene. This mutation is located in the highly conserved kinase domain of the bone morphogenetic protein receptor IB, and is characterized by precocious differentiation of ovarian follicles, leading to the production of large numbers of ovulatory follicles. Our objective was to develop an easy method to identify the FecB mutation in order to screen sheep populations in terms of prolificacy. We designed primers to amplify a 190 bp fragment from the BMPR-1B gene containing or lacking the mutation. The PCR product was cut with AvaII endonuclease and the restriction products were analysed by agarose gel electrophoresis. Using the PCR-RFLP technique, we established an easy and efficient method that can be used to screen the FecB mutation. Therefore, these new methods increase the panel of molecular tools available for sheep breeders to choose the most prolific genotypes for improving artificial selection.
S.W.P., Cloete; J.J., Olivier; L., Sandenbergh; M.A., Snyman.
Full Text Available The history of sheep breeding research in South Africa can be divided roughly into four eras, namely the research and development phase, the commencement of recording and evaluation, the expansion of recording schemes, and, most recently, the adaptation of schemes to international benchmarks. The mo [...] st recent era has presented scientists with the greatest challenges, namely the inclusion of genomic breeding values in routine sheep recording and of disease-resistance traits during routine evaluation. The establishment of reference populations for the major South African sheep breeds to estimate genomic breeding values is an immediate challenge. This process may be facilitated by a number of genetic resource flocks that are phenotyped for traits that are not routinely recorded in the national evaluation. A limited number of these animals are also genotyped. There is strong evidence that resistance of sheep to external and internal parasites is heritable, and may be improved by purposeful selection. Efforts should be concentrated on the inclusion of disease resistance traits in national analyses where appropriate. However, seen against the background that South African investment in research is appreciably less than in developed countries, lack of funding and high-capacity manpower may impede rapid progress. There thus seem to be many challenges for future generations of sheep breeding scientists.
Full Text Available This study was carried out to investigate the fertility, milk production and body weight of ewes and the survival rates and growth characteristics for K?v?rc?k, Gokceada and Sak?z breeds of sheep kept as gene resources in western part of Turkiye. K?v?rc?k, Gokceada and Sak?z breeds of sheep are included in the project for conservation of indigenious breeds as genetic resources.Lambing rate, litter size, milk yield and live weight for K?v?rc?k, Gökçeada and Sak?z ewes were 79.8 %, 67.6 % and 74.5 %; 1.26, 1.24 and 1.83; 41.8, 51.1 and 58.0 kg; 62.60, 51.39, and 48.52 kg. respectively. The lambs produced by K?v?rc?k, Gokceada and Sak?z ewes had 97 %, 94.7 % and 92.2 % survival rates to weaning; 4.09, 3.52 and 3.93 kg. birth weights; 38.17, 29.25 and 30.82 kg. weaning weights; 43.14, 35.57 and 34.64 kg. sixth month weights; 49.13, 39.70 and 37.39 kg. yearling weights respectively.
Full Text Available The traits with the greatest financial impact on sheep production are the number of lambs weaned per ewe and growth efficiency. FecB and Callipyge are the most well known major genes concerned with these traits. In order to conduct a Marker Assisted Introgression (MAI program we surveyed the presence of responsible mutations in Afshari sheep breeding flock. Direct tests to detect of FecBB and CLPG alleles were conducted on 74 and 58 DNA samples respectively by PCR-RFLP assay. Also the polymorphism content of the breeding flock was investigated by genotyping of one hundred randomly sampled animals at eighteen microsatellite loci selected on the chromosomes carrying and not carrying introgressed genes. A part from MCMA26 monomorphic pattern, microsatellite loci showed moderate level of polymorphism, as such totally 102 alleles were detected with a mean number of 6 alleles per locus. A full characterization of this set of seventeen polymorphic loci was carried out generating allele frequency distributions that were used to estimate genetic parameters of these loci, including expected heterozygosity, Polymorphism Information Content (PIC, probability of identity (I and discrimination power (D. The average expected heterozygosity was 0.72 (SD = 0.07 and the average PIC was 0.67 (SD = 0.08. Cumulative value of I considering for linked loci were estimated as 3.128E-13. The results of microsatellite analysis indicated that, despite the selective breeding and closed flock system over a number of generations, a relatively high level of heterozygosity still exists in the breeding flock. Besides, the banding patterns resulted from AvaII digestion of FecB and CLPG amplicons approved the absence of the mutations in this flock. These observations demonstrate applicability of marker data and would assist to make decision on starting MAI program for inclusion of FecB and CLPG genes into the Afshari breed.
Engel Bas; Davidse Aart; Bossers Alex; Melchior Marielle B; Hagenaars Thomas J; van Zijderveld Fred G
Abstract Background Susceptibility of sheep to scrapie infection is known to be modulated by the PrP genotype of the animal. In the Netherlands an ambitious scrapie control programme was started in 1998, based on genetic selection of animals for breeding. From 2002 onwards EU regulations required intensive active scrapie surveillance as well as certain control measures in affected flocks. Here we analyze the data on genotype frequencies and scrapie prevalence in the Dutch sheep population obt...
A Merino breeding resource flock was established at Rafter 7 Ranch, Yerington, Nevada through cooperation of the College of Agriculture, Biotechnology and Natural Resources, University of Nevada-Reno (UNR) and The Edwin L Wiegand Trust in 1990. Initially, 500 Rambouillet ewes were purchased from two established breeders in 1990. These ewes were bred naturally or by AI to imported rams from Australia and to rams selected within the flock. Over the 16 years, 16 rams and semen from 41 rams have been imported from Australia. Selection was based on objective wool measurements, subjective assessment, growth rate and reproductive performance traits. The flocks were expanded to 1300 ewes and were bred in 30 single sire-mating groups as of the 2005/2006 breeding seasons. Flock management is in two breeding lines, one as a registered Rafter 7 Pure Merino flock (n = 650) and the other (Merino x Rambouillet) as Rafter 7 Merino Line (n = 650), which are selected for high fleece weight and quality, twinning and growth traits. The spring lambing flock winters on desert rangelands, is grazed on irrigated pasture from shearing through lambing and early weaning. Merino crossbred ewes showed that wool fibre density, clean wool yield, staple length, and grease fleece weight were increased by 41% per unit area of skin, 15%, 2.5 cm and 1.14 kg per head shorn, respectively. The wool clip is classed on pre-shearing mid-side wool sample tests (OFDA 2000 system). Fleece weight and fibre diamet00 system). Fleece weight and fibre diameter and staple length measurements are significantly improved over the years. Wool sales from the Rafter 7 Ranch have increased for volume, value and quality over years. Rafter 7 Ranch wool clip has topped seventh consecutive annual shearing for the highest price of US grown wool. Sheep producers from 18 states, and Mexico and Canada have purchased breeding rams and ewes annually from Rafter 7 ranch over the past 12 years. Objective and subjective measurement qualities are significantly improved in sale rams. Over 1000 breeding rams and 500 replacement ewes were distributed to range flocks in the western states in the last decade, which made a notable improvement for fleece weight, fibre diameter and yield in client's flocks. The dissemination of introduced Merino genetics in the western range sheep flocks will improve wool quality and clip profits, which strengthen a long-term competitive advantage for the US wool and sheep production sectors. (author)
Full Text Available Abstract Background Susceptibility of sheep to scrapie infection is known to be modulated by the PrP genotype of the animal. In the Netherlands an ambitious scrapie control programme was started in 1998, based on genetic selection of animals for breeding. From 2002 onwards EU regulations required intensive active scrapie surveillance as well as certain control measures in affected flocks. Here we analyze the data on genotype frequencies and scrapie prevalence in the Dutch sheep population obtained from both surveillance and affected flocks, to identify temporal trends. We also estimate the genotype-specific relative risks to become a detected scrapie case. Results We find that the breeding programme has produced a steady increase in the level of genetic scrapie resistance in the Dutch sheep population. We also find that a significant decline in the prevalence of scrapie in tested animals has occurred a number of years after the start of the breeding programme. Most importantly, the estimated scrapie prevalence level per head of susceptible genotype is also declining significantly, indicating that selective breeding causes a population effect. Conclusions The Dutch scrapie control programme has produced a steady rise in genetic resistance levels in recent years. A recent decline in the scrapie prevalence per tested sheep of susceptible prion protein genotype indicates that selective breeding causes the desired population effect.
Han, J; Forrest, R H; Hickford, J G H
Myostatin, which is also known as growth and differentiation factor 8 (GDF8), acts as a negative regulator of skeletal muscle growth. Variation in the myostatin gene (MSTN) has been associated with variation in muscularity in many animals including sheep. Polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformational polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) analysis was used to investigate MSTN in a diverse range of sheep breeds including the New Zealand (NZ) Romney, Coopworth, Corriedale, Dorper, Perendale, Suffolk, Merino, Dorset Down, Poll Dorset, Texel and other NZ cross-bred sheep. A total of 28 nucleotide substitutions were identified from nucleotide c.-1199 in the promoter region to c.*1813 (based on NCBI GenBank accession number DQ530260) and including the well-described substitution c.*1232G>A (MSTN g+6223G>A). Of these 28 substitutions, 3 were located in the promoter region, 3 in the 5'UTR, 11 in intron 1, 5 in intron 2 and 5 in the 3'UTR. One substitution in exon 1 (c.101G>A) potentially results in an amino acid substitution of glutamic acid (Glu) with glycine (Gly) at codon 34. Ten of these substitutions have not been reported previously. The genetic variation revealed in this study suggests this gene is more variable than hitherto reported and provides a foundation for future research into how this variation affects muscle and growth traits. PMID:24081623
Rajab, M H; Blackburn, H D; Cartwright, T C; Figueiredo, E A
The Texas A&M Sheep Simulation Model was used to examine genetic-environmental interactions (GEI) among Brazilian Somali, Morada Nova, and Santa Ines breeds and type and level of feed supplement in northeast Brazil. Two sets of simulations were conducted to examine effects of different supplement quality (napier grass vs cunha legume) and quantity (napier grass only). The analyses indicated the benefits from supplementing lambs at weaning during the dry season and from supplementing lactating ewes at the beginning of lambing season when forage is scarce. The cunha legume was an effective supplement, but choosing between cunha legume and napier grass is an economic consideration. Increasing the amount of napier grass supplement per ewe from 200 g/d to 400 g/d resulted in a significant GEI (i.e., different levels of response such as lamb mortality rate, lamb weaning weight, and lambing rate for different breeds). The Brazilian Somali was the least responsive, whereas the Santa Ines was the most responsive to supplementation. It was concluded that the level of supplement should be higher for the Santa Ines and Morada Nova than for the Somali. The amount of supplement should be regulated so that it neither substitutes for nor lowers the utilization of the native caatinga forage. None of the breeds was simulated to be superior in all environments. Thus, considering the wide range of resources of individual farmers, any one of these breeds may be the preferred choice, depending on the individual set of production resources. PMID:1752815
Full Text Available Abstract Breeding sheep populations for scrapie resistance could result in a loss of genetic variability. In this study, the effect on genetic variability of selection for increasing the ARR allele frequency was estimated in the Latxa breed. Two sources of information were used, pedigree and genetic polymorphisms (fifteen microsatellites. The results based on the genealogical information were conditioned by a low pedigree completeness level that revealed the interest of also using the information provided by the molecular markers. The overall results suggest that no great negative effect on genetic variability can be expected in the short time in the population analysed by selection of only ARR/ARR males. The estimated average relationship of ARR/ARR males with reproductive females was similar to that of all available males whatever its genotype: 0.010 vs. 0.012 for a genealogical relationship and 0.257 vs. 0.296 for molecular coancestry, respectively. However, selection of only ARR/ARR males implied important losses in founder animals (87 percent and low frequency alleles (30 percent in the ram population. The evaluation of mild selection strategies against scrapie susceptibility based on the use of some ARR heterozygous males was difficult because the genetic relationships estimated among animals differed when pedigree or molecular information was used, and the use of more molecular markers should be evaluated.
Concepta, McManus; Samuel Rezende, Paiva; Ronyere Olegário de, Araújo.
Full Text Available Estudos em genética e melhoramento de ovinos no Brasil têm aumentado significativamente nos últimos anos. Estes envolvem pesquisa em caracterização, criação e cruzamento de ovinos utilizando as novas tecnologias disponíveis, incorporando tanto a genética quantitativa clássica e molecular. São aborda [...] das sugestões para melhorias nas técnicas de estatística, nos recursos computacionais, bem como na análise de DNA e nas lacunas no conhecimento atual e possibilidades de possíveis investigações. Há uma necessidade de maior interação entre vários grupos de trabalho no país, bem como as interações com outras disciplinas, como Sistemas de Informação Geográfica, Estatística, Bioinformática, bem como estudos biológicos, como fisiologia e proteômica. Abstract in english Studies in genetics and breeding of sheep in Brazil have increased significantly in recent years. These involve research in characterization, breeding and crossing sheep using new technologies available incorporating both classical quantitative and molecular genetics. Improvements in statistical tec [...] hniques, computational resources as well as analysis of DNA and gaps in present knowledge and opportunities for possible research are pointed out. There is a need for greater interaction between various groups working in the country as well as interactions with other disciplines such as Geographical Information Systems, Statistics, Bioinformatics, as well as biological studies such as physiology and proteomics.
Olaleye, O D; Tomori, O; Fajimi, J L; Schmitz, H
Experimental infection of three indigenous breeds of sheep in Nigeria, namely the West African Dwarf (WAD), Yankasa and Ouda resulted in fatal disease with the Zinga Rift Valley Fever virus. Infected sheep of the three breeds responded by pyrexia within 24 h of infection, that lasted 6 to 7 days, but peaked between day 2 and 4 post-infection. Viraemia coincided with pyrexia and peaked (10(9) PFU/ml) 3 days p.i. in Yankasa and WAD sheep, but with highest titre (10(7.5) PFU/ml) in Ouda sheep. Zinga Rift Valley Fever virus infection of sheep was characterised by hyperactivity, watery and mucoid nasal discharges, projectiles and bloody diarrhoea, external haemorrhage and clinical manifestations of nervous disorders. Viraemia was followed by low level of antibody development in all the infected sheep. Haemotological changes included a sharp fall in the PCV, Hb concentration and total RBC count during the course of the disease. These changes were most severe in the Yankasa, followed by WAD and Ouda breeds. There were thrombocytopaenia, prolongation of prothrombin and clotting times in all the infected sheep. There was also progressive leucopaenia associated with lymphopaenia. The total protein and albumin levels were depressed, but the globulin level rose from day 5 p.i. The changes in the serum biochemical constituents included sharp and progressive increase in the level of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase. The sodium level decreased gradually while that of potassium was initially stable but later increased until the infected animals died. There was a significant increase in the level of blood urea nitrogen from day 3 p.i. that continued until the infected animals died. Gross and microscopic examinations of the carcasses of the infected sheep showed significant lesions in many organs, including disseminated intravascular coagulation. PMID:8881413
Getachew, Tesfaye; Alemu, Biruk; Sölkner, Johann; Gizaw, Solomon; Haile, Aynalem; Gosheme, Shenkute; Notter, David Russell
The aim of this study was to evaluate the relative resistance of Menz and Washera sheep breeds to artificial infection with Haemonchus contortus. The challenge trial was conducted at the Debre Berhan Agricultural Research Center in Ethiopia. A total of 39 (Menz?=?21, Washera?=?18) lambs of about 6 months old were used for the trial. All lambs were initially treated against internal parasite using albendazole and Fasinex to free them from internal parasites and kept indoors. H. contortus third-stage larvae (L3) were prepared according to standard procedure from adult female parasite collected from abattoirs and recovered using the Baerman technique. Approximately 5000 infective larvae were inoculated to the experimental lambs at about 5 weeks after deworming. Fecal egg count (FEC), packed cell volume (PCV), FAffa MAlan CHArt (FAMACHA) score, lamb body weight, and survival of lambs were recorded at 28, 35, and 42 days after challenge. Breed effect was not significant (P?>?0.05), whereas time of measurement and the interaction of breed and time had significant (P?0.05) effects on FEC and PCV. At 28 days after challenge, Menz sheep had lower FEC than Washera sheep, whereas at days 35 and 42, the Washera sheep had lower FEC than Menz lambs. The PCV decreased significantly throughout the post-challenge period. Despite their parasite burden, Menz sheep were able to maintain live weight during the 42 days of challenge. Chi-square tests for breed differences in lamb survival were not significant at any time (28, 35, and 42 days after challenge). Lower FEC at 28 days and delayed rise in FEC after infection in Menz lamb would allow in delaying anthelmintic treatment. In addition to maintain body weights during the infection period, sheep of both breeds exhibited substantial variability in PCV and FEC, suggesting opportunity to consider parasite resistance in selection program. PMID:25868601
F.G., Ríos; A., Gómez-Vázquez; J.M., Pinos-Rodríguez; J.C., García-López; A., Estrada-Angulo; J., Hernández-Bautista; J.J., Portillo.
Full Text Available To determine the effect of breed on growth performance and carcass characteristics in Mexican hair sheep, 48 lambs (average 38.9 ± 1.56 kg body weight, BW) were used in a completely randomized experimental design. The breed types assessed were 16 Pelibuey (PB), 16 Pelibuey x Katahdin (PB-KT) crossbr [...] ed and 16 Pelibuey x Dorper (PB-DP) crossbred lambs. The lambs were fed a maize grain-based diet (88% concentrate and 12% forage) containing 155 g CP and 12.13 MJ ME/kg DM. The growth performance trial lasted 45 days. The average daily gain was significantly higher for the PB breed than for the PB-KT and PB-DP cross-breds. Feed intake in the PB and PB-KT was significantly higher than in the PB-DP. The feed conversion ratio was lower for the PB than for PB-KT and PB-DP lambs. Hot carcass dressing and leg perimeters were significantly lower for the PB than for the PB-DP lambs, and similar to that of the PB-KT lambs. The lowest dorsal fat values were measured in the PB breed, compared with both the PB-KT and PB-DP cross-breds. Mesenteric fat (as % of BW) in the PB was significantly higher than in PB-KT and PB-DP lambs. Empty rumen and small intestine weights (as % of BW) in the PB lambs were significantly higher than in the PB-DP lambs, but their large intestine was significantly smaller than in the other two breeds. It was concluded that the PB lambs have a better growth performance and carcass characteristics than the PB-DM lambs, but similar to that of the PB-KT lambs.
Full Text Available Abstract Some demographic parameters, the genetic structure and the evolution of the genetic variability of six French meat sheep breeds were analysed in relation with their management. Four of these breeds are submitted to more or less intense selection: the Berrichon du Cher (BCH, Blanc du Massif Central (BMC, Charollais (CHA and Limousin (LIM; the other two breeds are under conservation: the Roussin de La Hague (RLH and Solognot (SOL. Genealogical data of the recorded animals born from 1970 to 2000 and of their known ancestors were used. The most balanced contributions of the different flocks to the sire-daughter path was found in the SOL. In the BCH, a single flock provided 43% of the sire-AI sire path, whereas the contributions of the flocks were more balanced in the BMC and LIM (the only other breeds where AI is used to a substantial amount. The distribution of the expected genetic contribution of the founder animals was found to be unbalanced, especially in the BCH and LIM. The effective numbers of ancestors (founders or not for the ewes born from 1996 to 2000 were equal to 35 (BCH, 144 (BMC, 112 (CHA, 69 (LIM, 40 (RLH and 49 (SOL. Inbreeding was not analysed in the BMC, due to incomplete pedigree information. From 1980 on, the rates of inbreeding, in percentage points per year, were +0.112 (BCH, +0.045 (CHA, +0.036 (LIM, +0.098 (RLH and +0.062 (SOL. The implications of the observed trends on genetic variability are discussed in relation to the genetic management of each breed. The need for a larger selection basis in the BCH, the efficiency of the rules applied in the SOL to preserve the genetic variability and the need for a more collective organisation in the CHA and RLH are outlined.
Full Text Available We have previously reported the possible segregation of major gene(s for milk yield and fat corrected milk (FCM in Chios sheep breed. In this study we demonstrate the association of an SNP marker, within the last exon of the Acetyl-CoA acyltransferase 2 (ACAA2 gene, with milk yield and FCM in the same breed. Moreover, we investigate the effect of this SNP marker along with other microsatellite markers. Fifteen microsatellite markers (SSR on 13 chromosomes were genotyped on 198 ewes of the Chios breed. The association analysis revealed significant association (P
SØrensen, Anders Christian; Valasek, P
The aim of this study was to estimate genetic parameters of lambing ease (LE) and litter size (LS) in four common Danish meat sheep breeds. Data from 1990 to 2006 were analysed. A bivariate animal model was used for estimation of genetic parameters. Lambing ease showed a low heritability, both for direct (1.4% to 9.5%) and maternal (5.9% to 6.9%) genetic effects. Moderate negative direct-maternal genetic correlations (-0.18 to -0.61) was found. Total heritabilities for LE were 3.8% to 9.7%. Litter size showed also a low heritability (6.4% to 9.0%). Low and non-significant correlations between the LE and LS was found, which means that selection to improve one trait should not affect the other trait. Lambing ease should therefore be included in the selection criterion.
Full Text Available The reproductive and lamb mortality data (n = 187 of the Local and crosses of Dorper × Local ewes following natural controlled breeding in Ethiopia were analysed. Data were collected during 2009-2011 at Sirinka breeding, evaluation and distribution site, eastern Amhara region of Ethiopia. Breed, lamb sex, birth season, birth year, birth type and ewes’ parity were considered as fixed effects. Data analyses were performed using general linear model procedures. Breed was a significant source of variation: the local sheep attained faster the age at first lambing than the crossbred ewe lambs (469 ± 8.45 vs. 555 ± 6.25 days, p < 0.0001, whereas the crossbred ewes weighed more than the local sheep ewes at the age of first lambing (32.7 ± 0.63 vs. 22.8 ± 0.43 kg, p < 0.0001. Birth year had also important influence on the age and weight at first lambing of ewes. Ewes showed better performance during the later study years, differences attributed due to the improved management advantages in later years. The crossbred and local ewes were comparable in their litter size, despite the fact that the lambing interval of crossbred ewes was longer than the local ewes (306 ± 4.62 vs. 287 ± 2.38 days. Additionally, there was no significant difference in mortality rate between the two breeds. This study confirms that the local ewes had higher annual reproductive rate than that of the crossbred sheep ewes (1.49 ± 0.02 vs. 1.37 ± 0.01 lambs under the same environmental conditions. The present results suggested that better management and breeding program probably will increase the productivity of the local sheep.
A Merino breeding resource flock was established at Rafter 7 Ranch, Yerington, Nevada. Initially, 500 Rambouillet ewes were purchased from two established breeders in 1990. These ewes were bred naturally or by artificial insemination (AI) to imported Merino rams from Australia and to crossbred rams selected within the flock. The flocks were expanded to 1300 ewes and bred in 30 single-sire mating groups as of the 2006 breeding season. Flock management is in two breeding lines, one as a registered Rafter 7 Merino flock (n = 650) and the other (Merino x Rambouillet) as Rafter 7 Line (n = 650). The spring lambing flock winters on desert rangelands, is grazed on irrigated pasture from shearing through lambing and early weaning. Compared with the original base ewe flock, Merino and Merino crossbred ewes produced higher clean wool yields, longer staple lengths, and higher grease fleece weights. The body weight and greasy fleece weight showed a significant (P < 0.05) difference between two flocks whereas no differences were observed for wool fibre diameter, length and comfort factor in most recent analysis. However, fibre diameter variation was significantly different (P < 0.05) between the two flocks for age groups and birth years. Body weight, fleece weight and fibre diameter showed significant (P < 0.05) but low to moderate correlations. Approximately 1000 breeding rams and 500 replacement ewes were distributed to commercial range flocks in the western states. The disseminflocks in the western states. The dissemination of introduced Merino genetics in the western range sheep flocks is expected to enhance wool quality and wool profits in the western region of the USA. (author)
L'Homme, Yvan; Leboeuf, Anne; Cameron, Johanne
The allele and genotype frequencies of the prion protein gene (PrP), known to have an impact on scrapie susceptibility, were determined by real-time PCR for 500 Quebec purebred rams. Molecular beacons were very efficient in discriminating the 5 alleles investigated. Polymorphisms at coding positions 136, 154, and 171 of the PrP gene were analyzed using 3 separate real-time PCR reactions and a total of 7 molecular beacons. A total of 4 different alleles (ARQ, ARR, AHR, and VRQ) were observed at different frequencies among the 7 breeds of sheep investigated. Results show that more than 50% of the rams in every breed carried at least one ARR allele, which is considered the most resistant to scrapie. The susceptibility ARQ allele was also present in every breed and together with the ARR allele, they were the most frequent alleles found in Quebec rams. The VRQ allele associated with the highest susceptibility to scrapie occurred in 5 of the 7 breeds, although at low frequencies. Overall, the results indicate that the frequencies of PrP alleles and genotypes in common breeds of sheep in Quebec make it feasible to reduce scrapie risk by selective breeding. PMID:18783020
In 17 gubernyias of the former Russian Empire of 1740-1812-1918 years, was identified (1912-1924) some 7 breeds of the Romanian Walachian phyletic group, of sheep breeds and in some gubernyias the Romanian Tsigai breed. It seems that from the present Moldavian Republic to the rivers Bug and Dnieper the sheep production was of sedentary type, connected with some local Romanian inhabitants. It see also that over the Dnieper the breed presence was connected also with the transhumance practiced u...
Masoud Negahdary; Abbas Hajihosseinlo; Marziyeh Ajdary
Molecular biology techniques genetic improvement by facilitating identification, mapping and analysis of polymorphism of genes by encoding proteins that act on metabolic pathways involved in economically interesting traits. This use of genetic markers can aid identification of those animals with the highest breeding values in sheep. On the basis of sheep genome mapping, information was examined on the ovine IGF1 and PIT1 genes as a possible genetic marker for growth traits in sheep. The curre...
Full Text Available In 17 gubernyias of the former Russian Empire of 1740-1812-1918 years, was identified (1912-1924 some 7 breeds of the Romanian Walachian phyletic group, of sheep breeds and in some gubernyias the Romanian Tsigai breed. It seems that from the present Moldavian Republic to the rivers Bug and Dnieper the sheep production was of sedentary type, connected with some local Romanian inhabitants. It see also that over the Dnieper the breed presence was connected also with the transhumance practiced up to 1918 by the Transylvanian Romanian transhumance shepherds, some of them organizers after 1918 Romanian of sheep breeds association in Crimea and North Caucasus area. The official statistics from 1925 year registered in the former SSSR (without Bassarabia some 259,324 Romanians. Different historical sources estimated a higher number (1.2 million, 600,000 just in Siberia A possible explanation of founded sheep and man presence in this area can be the fact that it was the antique borderland between Thraco-Dacia and Scythia border, and the Walachian (=Romanian sheep were the sheep of Thraco-Geto-Dacs, Romanian ancestors. Transylvanian transhumance and Romanian from SE Romania introduced later Tsigai in North Pontic, this breed being introduced later by Roman in Carpathian bend.
The following applications of radioimmunoassay were studied: 1) for early diagnosis of pregnance in caws and sheep by determination of progesterone (PG) in milk and blood plasma via veterinary radioimmunological test STERON - RM125; 2) for diagnosis and treatment of ovarian disturbances in cows by RIA of luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and PG in blood plasma; 3) for control of the biological efficiency of sheep estrus synchronisation with MAP (vaginal tampons) and Estrophan (PgF2?); 4) for control of the reproductive condition of rams and effect of Tribestan in treatment of different forms of impotention by RIA of testosterone in blood. It was established that the use of RIA objectified the process of decision-making in regulation of the reproduction deviations in ruminating farm animals by veterinary means. Conclusions are drawn and suppositions are made for introduction of the radioisotope methods in the reproduction control of cattle and sheep breeding in practice. 4 tabs.; 15 refs
Lavvaf, A.; Noshary, A.
The effects of different environmental factors and estimation of genetic parameters on early growth traits for Lori breed sheep including birth weight, weaning weight and body weight at 6 months of age using 19960 records from 35 herds of Lorestan Jahad Agriculture Organization were studied in the cities of Aleshtar, Khorramabad and Poldokhtar from 1995 to 2003. The effect of herd, sex of lambs, dam age and birth year on all traits and birth type had significant effect only on weaning weight....
Full Text Available Genetic mutations with major effects on ovulation rate in sheep were recently identified in two genes of the Transforming Growth Factor (TGF superfamily and a TGF receptor, namely BMP15, GDF9 and BMPRIB. The FecXG, FecGH and FecB were performed to screen four sheep breeds (small tailed Han, Wadi, big tailed Han and Shandi sheep distributed along the lower Yellow river valley of China by forced PCR-RFLP method if these genes are responsible for their high prolificacies. The FecB mutation was found in small tailed Han and Wadi sheep but absent in big tailed Han and Shandi sheep. The 154 small tailed Han sheep included all three genotypes (FecB/FecB, FecB/Fec+ and Fec+/Fec+ at frequencies of 0.54, 0.40 and 0.06, respectively whereas the samples of 30 Wadi sheep were only detected two genotypes, 4 were heterozygous FecB/Fec+ and 26 Fec+/Fec+. The frequency of the FecB allele in small tailed Han and Wadi sheep were 0.74 and 0.07, respectively. Results indicated that the FecB mutation is not fixed in two sheep population. The same FecXG mutation of the BMP-15 gene was only found in small tailed Han ewes as in Belclare and Cambridge ewes, frequencies of genotypes FecXG+, FecX ++ and FecXGG were 0.70, 0.27 and 0.03, respectively. There was no evidence of FecGH in any of the breeds sampled. The discovery of the FecB mutation in small tailed Han sheep and Wadi sheep will facilitate the use of FecB allele in improving the prolificacy of non-prolific sheep breeds of China.
Full Text Available A study was conducted, first, to compare the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), reticulo-rumens and intestinal capacities (relative to body weight) of ram lambs from six Turkish sheep breeds: Turkish Merino (TM, Anatolia Merino), Akkaraman (AK), K?v?rc?k (KV), Awassi (AW), Karayaka (KY) and Morkaraman (M [...] K), and second, to examine the influence of sheep breed on the pH of the digesta in the various segments (rumen, jejunum and caecum) of the GIT. Six ram lambs from each breed were slaughtered at 40.2 ± 0.80 kg liveweight. Lambs from the AK breed had a heavier GIT weight than the AW, KY or MK breeds. The weight of the full stomach was higher in AK lambs compared with the other lambs, except for KV lambs, while the relative weight of the empty stomachs was heavier in MK ram lambs than in TM, AW and KY lambs. The AK lambs had the highest relative empty intestinal weight. The relative weight of empty intestines was heavier in KV lambs than in KY lambs. The pH of the rumen content was higher in TM and AK lambs compared with KY and MK lambs, while the pH of the caecum content of KV lambs was higher than those of KY and MK lambs. In conclusion, significant differences were found among the six breeds in terms of some variables that were studied, although a higher proportional GIT weight in the fat-tail breeds such as the MK, AK and AW was not reflected in all components or in the pH of the GIT content.
Full Text Available Evaluation of the genetic diversity for six genes in forty animals of the Portuguese indigenous sheep breed (Ovis aries ""Churra da Terra Quente"" was done. A non-radioactive method to allow single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP detection was optimised, starting from genomic DNA and PCR amplification of seven fragments: exon 1 of the alpha-lactalbumin gene; exons 10 and 11 of the alpha s1-casein gene; exon 7 of the beta-casein gene; exon 4 of the kappa-casein gene; exons 4 and 5 of the growth hormone gene and exon 6 of the growth hormone receptor gene. Polymorphisms were detected in five of the seven PCR products. Only kappa-casein and growth hormone receptor were monomorphic. Alpha-lactalbumin and alpha s1-casein exons showed three conformational patterns, beta-casein and growth hormone exon 4 showed two electrophoretic patterns and growth hormone exon 5 showed five conformational patterns. These data provide evidence that ""Churra da Terra Quente"" has a high genetic variability, which opens interesting prospects for future selection programs and also for preservation strategies. Also, our data show that PCR-SSCP is an appropriate tool for evaluating genetic variability.
Brown, C; Orford, M; Tzamaloukas, O; Mavrogenis, A P; Miltiadou, D
Inbreeding in a small population of Chios sheep undergoing intense selection for the PrP gene was assessed 10?years after the beginning of a scrapie resistance selection programme. Inbreeding in this stock, already under selection for production traits, was analysed by using pedigree records containing 10,492 animals from 1968 to 2008, and also by genotyping 192 individuals with a panel of 15 microsatellites. Genetic markers indicated a loss of heterozygosity (FIS over all loci was 0.059) and allelic diversity (mean effective number of alleles was 3.075±0.275). The annual rate of inbreeding increased significantly after the start of the scrapie resistance programme, ?F=0.005 compared with ?F=0.001 before 1999, and was subjected to several genetic bottlenecks, mainly due to the low initial frequency of resistant animals. However, the mean individual inbreeding coefficient estimated from the pedigree - in this closed stock resembling the case of a rare breed - stood at the level of 4.5 per cent, five generations after the implementation of selection for the PrP gene. The inbreeding coefficient estimated by genetic markers was 4.37 per cent, implying that such a marker panel could be a useful and cost-effective tool for estimating inbreeding in unrecorded populations. PMID:25280776
Moore, R C; Boulton, K; Bishop, S C
The Ram Genotyping Scheme was launched in Great Britain in 2001 as part of the National Scrapie Plan and was devised to reduce and eventually eradicate classical scrapie susceptible genotypes from the national pedigree flock. Anecdotal claims from breeders suggest that sheep with more resistant PrP genotypes may have inferior phenotypes. In this study, we test this possibility for lamb production traits in three breeds of lowland sheep: Charollais (22 752 lambs), Poll Dorset (22 589 lambs) and Texel (23 492 lambs). Data were received from 50 breeders and comprised weights at birth, 8 weeks and scanning (from which average daily weight gain was derived), and ultrasonic muscle and fat depths. Animal (direct) genetic effects and up to three maternal effects were fitted in linear mixed models for each trait. Fitting either PrP genotype or number of copies of individual alleles carried as fixed effects allowed potential associations with the PrP gene to be assessed. There were no significant associations seen in the Poll Dorset breed; however, significant associations were found with the number of allele copies carried in the other two breeds included in this study. Charollais lambs carrying one copy of the VRQ allele had significantly (P fat depth (0.2 mm) than non-carriers. In the Texel breed, lambs with one ARR allele were significantly heavier than those with two or zero ARR alleles; heterozygous ARR lambs were 0.07 kg heavier at birth (P PrP genotype is unlikely to have any noticeable impact on the measured growth and carcass traits in sheep. PMID:22443553
Full Text Available RFLP analysis of mitochondrial DNA cytochrome b gene was conducted to determine the diversity, status and close genetic relationships in a population of Batur sheep with the Merino and local sheep breeds (Garut, Thin Tail and Fat Tail. The research used genomic DNA of 27 samples of Batur, 15 Merino, 17 Garut, 15 Thin Tails and 15 Fat Tails sheep. The PCR process used two types of 25 nucleotides primers. The PCR products were checked by using 2% agarose gel electrophoresis. The PCR DNA fragment was digested by using Hae III at 37 oC and incubated for 10 hours. Similarities and differences of cytochrome b gene RFLP bands between individual samples of one and across populations, genetic distance, and close genetic relationship, were identified. The PCR process of the cytochrome b gene metochondrial DNA of the 45 samples of sheep yielded 359 bp band types. The digestion (cutting of the PCR products of mitochondrial DNA cytochrome b gene by using Hae III resulted in RFLP band profiles of 128 up to 231 bp polymorphisms of cytochrome b gene. Although the Hae III restriction enzyme recognized only one restriction site, however, between samples of Batur, Merino, Garut, Thin Tail, and Fat Tails, there were monomorphism and polymorphism Hae III loci.Key Words: RFLP, cytochrome b gene, genetic markers, genetic similarity, Batur shee
Aali, Mohsen; Moradi-Shahrbabak, Mohammad; Moradi-Shahrbabak, Hosein; Sadeghi, Mostafa
Calpastatin has been introduced as a potential candidate gene for growth and meat quality traits. In this study, genetic variability was investigated in the exon 6 and its intron boundaries of ovine CAST gene by PCR-SSCP analysis and DNA sequencing. Also a protein sequence and structural analysis were performed to predict the possible impact of amino acid substitutions on physicochemical properties and structure of the CAST protein. A total of 487 animals belonging to four ancient Iranian sheep breeds with different fat metabolisms, Lori-Bakhtiari and Chall (fat-tailed), Zel-Atabay cross-bred (medium fat-tailed) and Zel (thin-tailed), were analyzed. Eight unique SSCP patterns, representing eight different sequences or haplotypes, CAST-1, CAST-2 and CAST-6 to CAST-11, were identified. Haplotypes CAST-1 and CAST-2 were most common with frequency of 0.365 and 0.295. The novel haplotype CAST-8 had considerable frequency in Iranian sheep breeds (0.129). All the consensus sequences showed 98-99%, 94-98%, 92-93% and 82-83% similarity to the published ovine, caprine, bovine and porcine CAST locus sequences, respectively. Sequence analysis revealed four SNPs in intron 5 (C24T, G62A, G65T and T69-) and three SNPs in exon 6 (c.197A>T, c.282G>T and c.296C>G). All three SNPs in exon 6 were missense mutations which would result in p.Gln 66 Leu, p.Glu 94 Asp and p.Pro 99 Arg substitutions, respectively, in CAST protein. All three amino acid substitutions affected the physicochemical properties of ovine CAST protein including hydrophobicity, amphiphilicity and net charge and subsequently might influence its structure and effect on the activity of Ca2+ channels; hence, they might regulate calpain activity and afterwards meat tenderness and growth rate. The Lori-Bakhtiari population showed the highest heterozygosity in the ovine CAST locus (0.802). Frequency difference of haplotypes CAST-10 and CAST-8 between Lori-Bakhtiari (fat-tailed) and Zel (thin-tailed) breeds was highly significant (P<0.001), indicating that these two haplotypes might be breed-specific haplotypes that distinguish between fat-tailed and thin-tailed sheep breeds. PMID:24401538
Moore, R C; Boulton, K; Bishop, S C
The National Scrapie Plan (NSP) was launched in Great Britain in 2001, with the aim of eventually eradicating scrapie, a small ruminant transmissible spongiform encephalopathy, from the national sheep flock. Specifically, a selective breeding programme, the Ram Genotyping Scheme, was devised enabling pedigree ram breeders to reduce the number of scrapie-susceptible genotypes from their flocks. The effect of large-scale manipulation of PrP genotypes on commercially important traits within the sheep industry is, however, unknown. We have therefore examined production traits in a total of 43 968 lambs from 32 pedigree breeders across three British hill breeds, comprising 8163 North Country Cheviot (Hill), 21 366 Scottish Blackface and 14 439 Welsh Mountain lambs. Traits examined included: weights at birth, 8 and 20 weeks; ultrasonic fat and muscle depth, and average daily weight gain from 8 to 20 weeks. Linear mixed models were fitted for each trait, including animal (direct) genetic effects and up to three maternal effects. Potential associations with the PrP gene were assessed by fitting either PrP genotype or number of copies of individual alleles as fixed effects. A number of breed-specific significant associations between production traits and the PrP gene were found, but no consistent significant effects were detected across the three breeds. Breed-specific effects were as follows: (i) 0.37 kg higher birth weights (BWTs) in AHQ homozygous North Country Cheviot (Hill) lambs (P fat depths in heterozygous VRQ Welsh Mountain lambs (P PrP locus. PMID:22444303
Full Text Available Two Italian sheep breeds – Gentile di Puglia and Sopravissana – have undergone a consistent decline in numbers and have been widely substituted by the Sarda breed, which gives higher milk yield. With the aim to provide a basis for con- servation decisions, the genetic variability of the three breeds was investigated in this study. DNA of 60 animals was PCR amplified at the following microsatellite loci: CSSM43, CSSM47, CSSM60, TGLA110, TGLA122, TGLA126, TGLA377, ETH3, ETH10, ETH225, NRAMP1, OARCP20 and SPS115. Allele frequencies, gene diversity and genetic distances were calculat- ed. The highest differences in allele frequencies were found at the following loci: TGLA377, TGLA122, NRAMP1, OARCP20 and ETH3, while at the other loci the most frequent alleles were the same. The average inbreeding rate was 0.156 in the Gentile di Puglia, 0.158 in the Sopravissana and 0.137 in the Sarda. Average gene diversity of the analysed microsatel- lites was 0.59. Genetic distance between Gentile di Puglia and Sopravissana (0.081 indicates moderate differentiation; distances between the Sarda and the endangered breeds – 0.111 from the Gentile di Puglia and 0.107 from the Sopravissana - indicate a medium-high differentiation rate. The disappearance of the two less productive breeds would entail a consistent loss of genetic diversity. The inbreeding values are low enough to allow the implementation of sound conservation programmes.
M., Ghaffari; A., Nejati-Javaremi; G., Rahimi-Mianji.
Full Text Available The families of TGF-? proteins are the most important growth factors in the ovary for growth and differentiation of early ovarian follicles. Three related oocyte-derived members of the transforming growth factor-? superfamily, namely GDF9, BMP15 and BMPR-IB have been shown to be essential for follic [...] ular growth and ovulation. The aim of the present study was to detect the incidence of mutation in exon two of GDF9 as a major gene in the Shal sheep breed. Blood samples were collected from 239 sheep and genomic DNA was extracted using the modified salting-out method. The quantity and quality of extracted DNA was examined using spectrophotometery and gel electrophoresis, respectively. A fragment with the size of 139 bp from exon two of GDF9 gene (FecG H) was amplified using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with a pair of specific primers. The amplified PCR products were digested with DdeI restriction enzyme. In the presence of mutations at this locus, the DdeI enzyme cannot recognize the restriction site. However, in the absence of mutations, the enzyme recognizes one restriction site and divides the amplified fragment into two fragments of 31 and 108 bp. In the present study only the wild type alleles were detected and all the samples showed the AA genotype. The analysis of polymorphism for GDF9 (FecG H) loci in Shal sheep indicates that the genetic factor responsible for twinning or multiple lambing rates is not related to reported mutated alleles at the GDF9 major gene in this breed. Therefore, we should attempt to detect other SNP for the GDF9 gene and/or other loci responsible for twining rate in this breed.
Theodorou, G; Kominakis, A; Rogdakis, E; Politis, I
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of breed, stage of lactation, and health status of the udder on the plasmin-plasminogen system in ovine milk. A total of 38 ewes were used from 3 breeds [Boutsiko (n = 12), Chios (n = 12), and a synthetic breed (50% Boutsiko, 25% Arta, and 25% Chios, n = 14)] with major differences in their genetic potential with respect to milk yield. Milk samples were collected every 2 wk throughout the lactation period and were analyzed for fat, protein, lactose, and somatic cell count (SCC). In addition, milk plasmin (PL), plasminogen (PG), and plasminogen activator (PA) activities were determined. The Chios breed had the greatest average daily milk yield, the synthetic breed had an intermediate milk yield, and ewes of the Boutsiko breed had the lowest milk yield. Milk samples obtained from the Boutsiko breed had similar PL and PA activities, compared with those obtained from the other 2 breeds. The ratio of PG:PL was less in milk samples from the Boutsiko breed compared with the other 2 breeds, indicative of an increased rate of conversion of PG to PL for this breed. There was no correlation between PL activity and daily milk yield in ewes from all 3 breeds. Activities of PL, PG, and PA were greater in ovine milk with elevated SCC (>300,000/mL) compared with activities in milk with low SCC (milk (mo 5 to 6) when compared with early or mid lactation milk (mo 1 to 4). Thus, the PL-PG system is affected by breed, stage of lactation, and the health status of the udder. No relationship was found between PL activity and daily milk yield in the 3 Greek dairy sheep breeds. Plasmin is not a marker for gradual involution in the Greek sheep breeds studied. PMID:17582110
Jorge, Ramírez-Retamal; Rodrigo, Morales.
Full Text Available This paper reviews two factors (breed and feed) affecting the carcass and meat quality of sheep. The quality of livestock products has acquired greater importance from the distinct perspectives of the different participants in the agricultural food chain. Consumers, producers and the industry give d [...] ifferent levels of importance to the parameters of meat and carcass quality. Nevertheless, all the participants in the meat production chain must ensure quality to improve their competitiveness. The quality of the carcass and meat can be influenced by different factors such as breed and type of feed. The breed can influence weight, yields, and the conformation of the carcass, among other variables, as well as the pH level and the fatty acid composition of the meat, whereas the feed mainly affects carcass conformation and several physicochemical and organoleptic parameters of meat quality such as proximal composition, the fatty acid profile, tenderness and color. Consequently, the effects of breed and feed type should be considered to obtain a quality product that satisfies consumer demand.
Full Text Available The effects of different environmental factors and estimation of genetic parameters on early growth traits for Lori breed sheep including birth weight, weaning weight and body weight at 6 months of age using 19960 records from 35 herds of Lorestan Jahad Agriculture Organization were studied in the cities of Aleshtar, Khorramabad and Poldokhtar from 1995 to 2003. The effect of herd, sex of lambs, dam age and birth year on all traits and birth type had significant effect only on weaning weight. Different single trait animal models estimated the components of direct additive genetic variance, maternal genetic variance and maternal permanent environment variance through restricted maximum likelihood using environmental factors as a fixe effect and different random effects. The results showed that direct additive genetic effect had additionally significant effect on all traits moreover maternal additive genetic and maternal permanent environment effects. Results also revealed that the maternal permanent environment variance for all traits is higher than maternal genetic variance. Also the direct heritability for all traits was higher than maternal heritability. Estimation of the direct heritability from the birth to 6 months of age showed a reducing trend that could arise from high dependence of birth and weaning weight on maternal environment conditions as compared with the age conditions afterward. The genetic assessment of growth traits in Lori breed sheep without inclusion of maternal effect in animal model causes decreased selection accuracy and incorrect genetic assessment of the lambs.
Windig, J. J.; Meuleman, H.; Lansbergen, L. M. T. E.
Scrapie is a fatal infectious neurodegenerative disease for which susceptibility is associated with polymorphisms in the ovine prion protein (PrP) gene. Scrapie-eradication programmes are based on eliminating the susceptible VRQ allele and/or breeding for the resistant ARR allele. In rare breeds or breeds with a low frequency of the ARR allele this can lead to unacceptably high inbreeding rates with associated increased risk of genetic defects and inbreeding depression. The conservation statu...
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine some of the structural and technical features of sheep breeding in the Southeastern Anatolia Project (GAP region of Turkey. To reach this aim a survey was carry out in the 251 farms located in 52 villages of 14 districts of 4 provinces including Gaziantep, Sanliurfa, Adiyaman and Diyarbakir provinces in GAP region which were selected by simple random sampling method. As the basis for sheep farming in the GAP region built (84.9% and upland (15.1% system has been identified in this study. The results showed that the average of sheep farming was 43.9 years in provinces of this study conducted. In addition, the average of sheep was determined as 105.4 heads and 88% of them were Avassi and 30% of them were White Anatolian, respectively.
Full text: Each cell of an animal's body contains full genetic code for the whole animal and nuclear transfer provides a way of converting cells to whole animal. Cells from endangered breeds collected by biopsy or from scrapings of soft skin or ear tissue or from hair follicle can be grown and multiplied in a laboratory and this would then be stored frozen indefinitely at 196 deg. C in liquid nitrogen. Mammary gland cells from sheep, mouse cumulus granulosa cells, bovine mural granulosa cells and fibroblast cells have all generated viable clones. The currently available methods of conservation, deep freezing of sperms (haploid genome) and storage of a large number of embryos are too expensive. In comparison, adult skin fibroblast cells are easy to obtain, hardy in culture and freezing, a good source of donor DNA without the limitations of age, sex and physiological state. Progenies were successfully obtained from nuclear transfer of serum-starved fibroblast cells from cattle, sheep and goat. Several other cell types successfully used for cloning are limited to female donors (cumulus and mammary epithelial, mural granulosa and oviductal cells) and are more difficult for long-term culture. Live progenies using skin fibroblasts have been produced in cattle. Sample collection and development of primary cultures: Samples were collected by biopsy of skin from ear pinna and transported in a complete medium (DMEM + HamsF12 with 10% FBS and penicillin and streptomycin) at 4 deS and penicillin and streptomycin) at 4 deg. C. Tissue samples were processed by removing hair form both sides, cut into small pieces and seeded in petridish containing fibroblast culture medium (DMEM + HamsF12, 10% FBS, penicillin and streptomycin and L-glutamine). The primary skin fibroblast cells started emerging out of tissues within 4-6 days and were allowed to grow up to 12-15 days till nearly 80% confluency was attained. Purification and sub-culturing of skin fibroblast cells: In isolated cases, there were contaminations of epithelial cells but these were removed mechanically as well as enzymatically to get pure fibroblasts. Sub-culturing or 'splitting cells' was done periodically removing growth media, washing the plate, dissociating the cells and diluting cell suspension in fresh media. Standard growth curve: Whenever, a new batch of culture media supplement was introduced, it was checked for its efficacy for growth of cells in culture and compared with standard growth curve. Goat skin fibroblasts remained in lag phase for initial two days when they settled on the solid surface of culture vessel and then came to log phase when maximum growth took place spanning from the third to the seventh day. As the confluencey level increased and media supplement was depleted, cells stopped dividing and a plateau was attained from the eighth day onwards and then showed decline due to contact inhibition. Cell proliferation index: Under standard culture conditions, skin fibroblast cells divide once in 24 hours but it is rarely achieved in normal culturing. The population doubling time and cell proliferation rate per day were checked at regular interval for quality assessment. For this, ELISA based MTT assay, incorporation of 5-bromo-de-oxyuridine method, and flow cytometer methods were used. Evaluation of cells for ploidy level: During long-term culturing the cells are likely to develop one or other type of chromosomal abnormalities. It must be ensured that the cells in different passages be checked for normal ploidy so that viable clones can be developed from them. Cultures showing increased frequency of aneuploidy or polyploidy must be terminated from further passaging. DNA from cultured somatic cells can be isolated using available DNA isolation kits and checked for its quality on 2% agarose. Cryo-freezing of cells: Cells are best frozen as cell suspension. Healthy culture were always employed to provide the stock to freeze cells. The cells were frozen at controlled freezing rate. The cells were kept at -80 deg. C as well as at -196 deg. C in Liquid nitrogen. C
Wang, Weimin; Liu, Shijia; Li, Fadi; Pan, Xiangyu; Li, Chong; Zhang, Xiaoxue; Ma, Youji; La, Yongfu; Xi, Rui; Li, Tingfu
The Small Tailed Han sheep and Hu sheep are two prolific local sheep in China. In this study, the polymorphisms of BMPR-IB (Bone morphogenetic protein receptor IB), BMP-15 (Bone morphogenetic protein 15) and FSHR (follicle stimulating hormone receptor) were investigated to check whether they are associated with litter size in Small Tailed Han sheep and Hu sheep. Consequently, three polymorphisms, FecB mutation in BMPR-IB (c.746A>G), FecG mutation in BMP-15 (c.718C>T) and the mutation (g. 47C>T) in FSHR were found in the above two sheep breeds with a total number of 1630 individuals. The single marker association analysis showed that the three mutations were significantly associated with litter size. The ewes with genotype FecBB/FecBB and FecBB/FecB+ had 0.78 and 0.58 more lambs (p BMP-15 and FSHR genes on litter size. In addition, the Han and Hu ewes with BB/G+/CC genotype harbor the highest litter size among ewes analyzed in current study. In conclusion, BMPR-IB, BMP-15 and FSHR polymorphisms could be used as genetic markers in multi-gene pyramiding for improving litter size in sheep husbandry. PMID:25993301
An experiment was conducted to estimate direct breed effects on growth, carcass, and meat quality traits. Rams of nine breeds (Composite, Dorper, Dorset, Finnsheep, Katahdin, Rambouillet, Romanov, Suffolk, and Texel) were mated to Composite ewes. Data recorded on 804 progeny of 130 rams were analy...
S, Jafari; A, Hashemi.
Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to estimate the genetic parameters for body measurement and yearling live bodyweight traits in the Makuie sheep breed. The data set consisted of 2 144 lambs from 122 sires and 984 dams recorded in 21 years from 1989 to 2009 at the Makuie Sheep Breeding and Raisin [...] g Station (MSBS). The traits that were studied were height at withers, height at rump, body length, heart girth, leg circumference and yearling weight. The analyses were carried out based on an animal model with the restricted maximum likelihood (REML) approach using a derivate-free (DF) algorithm. Six animal models were fitted, differentiated by including or excluding maternal effects, and with and without covariance between maternal and direct genetic effects. Ignoring the maternal effects, the direct heritability was estimated as 0.20, 0.24, 0.10, 0.14, 0.02 and 0.36 for height at wither, height at rump, body length, heart girth, leg circumference and yearling weight, respectively. The estimates were slightly higher when maternal effects, genetic or environmental, were ignored in the analyses. Using bivariate analysis, the estimates for additive genetic correlations ranged from 0.56 to 0.81 among the studied traits. A log-likelihood ratio test (LRT) was used to select the most appropriate univariate model for each trait. Based on LRT, the direct additive genetic and maternal permanent environmental effects were regarded as an important source of variation of the studied traits. The estimates of genetic parameters can be considered a basis for calculating selection indices for body measurements, as well as revealing their association with yearling bodyweight traits.
Bruno do Amaral, Crispim; Leonardo de Oliveira, Seno; Andréa Alves do, Egito; Fernando Miranda de, Vargas Junior; Alexéia Barufatti, Grisolia.
Full Text Available Background The aim of the present study was to assess the genetic diversity of Pantaneiro sheep, using microsatellite markers, in order to assist maintenance and management plans, enhance mating systems and reduce the inbreeding rate. A total of 127 animals were genotyped at eight microsatellite loc [...] i. They belonged to populations from the Experimental Farm of the Universidade Federal da Grande Dourados (UFGD) (Dourados/MS/Brazil) and Embrapa Pantanal (Corumbá/MS/Brazil). Results The population of Pantaneiro sheep from the UFGD exhibited a high mean number of alleles (11.13) and allelic richness (10.66). The polymorphic information content was highly informative in the locus studied, resulting in a mean value of 0.71. Observed heterozygosity was lower than expected for all molecular markers assessed. The analysis of molecular variance showed a differentiation rate of 5.2% between populations. Conclusions The results of the statistical parameters indicated that populations of Pantaneiro sheep require special attention on herd management, and it's further necessary to implement breeder exchange programs in order to preserve the genetic variability of these populations. Furthermore, the maintenance of those populations in their typical habitats is rather required to allow different responses from the herds to the interactions between genotype and environment.
DNA-based parentage determination accelerates genetic improvement by increasing pedigree accuracy. However, the utility of any “parentage SNP” varies by breed depending on its minor allele frequency (MAF) and its sequence context. Our aims were to identify parentage SNPs with exceptional qualities...
Full Text Available The Gentile di Pugliais a breed created in the 15th century by crossing Merino Spanish rams and “gentile” ewes reared in some areas of Southern Italy, mainly Apulia and Basilicata. The crisis of the wool industry, the poor quantity of milk, the inadequacy of Gentile di Pugliato be milked by machine and the passage from transhumant to permanent rearing caused a dramatic reduction of this population, which was largely crossed with other breeds and declined from about one million heads in the sixties to 5,000 at the present time. In order to save the ancient typical Gentile di Pugliabreed, the aim of this work was to estimate the “genetic integrity” of the remaining Gentile di Pugliapopulation by means of an analysis of wool quality measured through the diameter of the fibre and the homogeneity of the fleece. Our hypothesis was that the animals originated from outcrosses to other Merino derived breeds specialised for meat would show larger diameters of the fibres and a reduced homogeneity of the fleece. The research was carried out using Herd Book registered animals from 9 farms: 1 from Isernia, 2 from Campobasso and 6 from Foggia province. The statistical analysis on the diameter of the fibre was carried out on a dataset of 38,200 observations (200 records x 191 animals divided in four classes (ultrafine, fine, croisè, ordinary. The high frequencies of ultrafine and fine fibre classes show that the quality of the wool is still good in the population. This consideration can be extended to all the farms involved in the study that could therefore be suitable in the conservation programs for this breed. The homogeneity of the fleece was also good in provid- ing further evidence of the genetic integrity of the population. Other analysis carried out on the quality of the wool in relation to the body size confirmed that the observed Gentile di Pugliais well representative of the ancient breed.
Mantecón, Ángel R.; Revesado, P. R.; Lavín, Paz; Frutos, Pilar
The aim of this work is to know the nutritive value of six hill communities, and the diet selected on them by two different breeds of sheep (Churra and Merina) during summer grazing period. Six hill communities were studied: Nardus stricta, Bromus erectus, Calluna-vulgaris, Erica arborea, Genista occidentalis and Genista florida, during the last week of June, July, August and September 1990, and eight oesophageal fistulated wether lambs (four Churro and four Merino) were used a...
The Possibilities of Developing Dam and Sire Lines Using Akkaraman, Sak?z and K?v?rc?k Sheep Breeds for Lamb Production I. Fertility in Akkaraman Sheep, Survival Rate and Growth Characteristics of Sak?z x Akkaraman F1 and K?v?rc?k x Akkaraman F1 Lambs
AKÇAPINAR, Halil; Özbeyaz, Ceyhan; ÜNAL, Necmettin
This study was conducted to investigate the possibilities of developing terminal male and female lines for lamb production by the crossing of native breeds, that is, Akkaraman, Sak?z (Chios) and K?v?rc?k breeds. The Akkaraman sheep is a fattailed breed raised in central Anatolia, while Sak?z and K?v?rc?k sheep aren non fattailed breeds raised in western and northern-western Anatolia. The Birth rate of Akkaraman x Akkaraman (AA), Sak?z x Akkaraman (SA) and K?v?rc?k x Akkaraman (K...
Y?lmaz, Orhan; Wilson, Richard Trevor; Cengiz, F?rat; Ertug?rul, Mehmet
Biodiversity richness indicates the economic and genetic wealth of a country. Turkey is like a bridge between Europe and Asia; hence it has been used by traders, travellers or intruders for centuries which resulted with the existence of considerably different kinds of domestic animals. Although some of the genotypes are extinct or are crucially under the risk of extinction, the domestic livestock resources of Turkey have not been adequately appraised. On one hand new breeds are created by hum...
Y?lmaz, Orhan; Wilson, Richard Trevor; Kor, As?k?n; Ertug?rul, Mehmet; Cengiz, F?rat
Biodiversity richness indicates the economic and genetic wealth of a country. Turkey is like a bridge between Europe and Asia; hence it has been used by traders, travelers or intruders for centuries which cause existence of considerable different kinds of domestic animals. Although some of genotypes extinct or crucially under extinction risk, domestic livestock resources of Turkey have not been adequately appraised. On one hand new breeds are domesticated by human, on the other hand much more...
Full Text Available The Small Tailed Han sheep and Hu sheep are two prolific local sheep in China. In this study, the polymorphisms of BMPR-IB (Bone morphogenetic protein receptor IB, BMP-15 (Bone morphogenetic protein 15 and FSHR (follicle stimulating hormone receptor were investigated to check whether they are associated with litter size in Small Tailed Han sheep and Hu sheep. Consequently, three polymorphisms, FecB mutation in BMPR-IB (c.746A>G, FecG mutation in BMP-15 (c.718C>T and the mutation (g. 47C>T in FSHR were found in the above two sheep breeds with a total number of 1630 individuals. The single marker association analysis showed that the three mutations were significantly associated with litter size. The ewes with genotype FecBB/FecBB and FecBB/FecB+ had 0.78 and 0.58 more lambs (p < 0.01 than those with genotype FecB+/FecB+, respectively. The heterozygous Han and Hu ewes with FecXG/FecX+ genotype showed 0.30 (p = 0.05 more lambs than those with the FecX+/FecX+ genotype. For FSHR gene, the ewes with genotype CC had 0.52 (p < 0.01 and 0.75 (p < 0.01 more lambs than those with genotypes TC and TT, respectively. Combined effect analyses indicated an extremely significant interaction (p < 0.01 between the random combinations of BMPR-IB, BMP-15 and FSHR genes on litter size. In addition, the Han and Hu ewes with BB/G+/CC genotype harbor the highest litter size among ewes analyzed in current study. In conclusion, BMPR-IB, BMP-15 and FSHR polymorphisms could be used as genetic markers in multi-gene pyramiding for improving litter size in sheep husbandry.
Ruiz-Fons, Francisco; González-Barrio, David; Aguilar-Ríos, Fernando; Soler, Ana J; Garde, José Julián; Gortázar, Christian; Fernández-Santos, María Del Rocío
Conservation of genetic resources from endangered breeds may be conducted through germinal banks. Preservation of healthy samples is paramount to avoid preserving pathogens shed with germinal products. The black variety of Manchega sheep (BMS), and endangered breed endemic to south-central Spain, is the subject of a conservation program; a germinal bank has been recently established. However, several pathogens circulating in BMS flocks may be shed with semen and threaten BMS preservation. Therefore, we investigated the sanitary status of BMS flocks and semen samples from 4 of the 17 flocks in which this variety is bred worldwide. A serological screening for Maedi-Visna virus, bluetongue virus, Pestivirus spp., Brucella spp., Coxiella burnetii, Chlamydophila spp., Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis, Anaplasma spp., Mycoplasma agalactiae, Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum was performed to assess for pathogens potentially shed by semen. Semen samples from 11 of the 35 BMS rams and 4 samples from coexisting rams of the white variety (WMS) were analyzed by PCR to detect Maedi-Visna virus, C. burnetii, Anaplasma marginale, Anaplasma phagocytophilum and T. gondii. Maedi-Visna virus RNA was detected in 3 semen samples (2 BMS and 1 WMS) while C. burnetii DNA was detected in 3 samples from WMS rams. Pathogens that can be transmitted by semen were present in BMS flocks, and Maedi-Visna virus and C. burnetii showed the highest potential for transmission by artificial insemination. Our results point to the need of testing semen samples kept for conservation purposes of BMS before using them for artificial insemination. PMID:25066603
E., Maleki; F., Kafilzadeh; G.Y., Meng; M.A., Rajion; M., Ebrahimi.
Full Text Available A study was conducted to evaluate the fatty acid (FA) profile of subcutaneous adipose tissue and tailfat of two fat-tailed sheep breeds under identical feeding conditions. Twelve male lambs from two breeds, Sanjabi (n = 6), weighing 23.3 ± 0.48 kg, and Mehraban (n = 6), weighing 26.1 ± 2.14 kg, were [...] used in this investigation. All animals were weighed and slaughtered at the end of a 90-day fattening period and FA composition of subcutaneous adipose tissue and tailfat was determined. Significant breed differences in total FA, total polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) and n-6PUFA contents were observed in the subcutaneous adipose tissue, but not in the tailfat. Breed differences were observed in the conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) content of subcutaneous adipose tissue, with higher levels in Sanjabi than in Mehraban lambs. Linoleic and ?-linolenic acid of subcutaneous adipose were significantly higher in the Sanjabi breed than in the Mehraban breed. Thus, adipose tissue from fat-tailed Sanjabi lamb has a higher proportion of health-promoting linoleic and ?-linolenic acids, unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) and CLA, suggesting that the Sanjabi breed could be used for producing healthier lamb products.
Full Text Available Abstract Effective selection on the PrP gene has been implemented since October 2001 in all French sheep breeds. After four years, the ARR "resistant" allele frequency increased by about 35% in young males. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of this strong selection on genetic variability. It is focussed on four French sheep breeds and based on the comparison of two groups of 94 animals within each breed: the first group of animals was born before the selection began, and the second, 3–4 years later. Genetic variability was assessed using genealogical and molecular data (29 microsatellite markers. The expected loss of genetic variability on the PrP gene was confirmed. Moreover, among the five markers located in the PrP region, only the three closest ones were affected. The evolution of the number of alleles, heterozygote deficiency within population, expected heterozygosity and the Reynolds distances agreed with the criteria from pedigree and pointed out that neutral genetic variability was not much affected. This trend depended on breed, i.e. on their initial states (population size, PrP frequencies and on the selection strategies for improving scrapie resistance while carrying out selection for production traits.
Almahdy, H; Tess, M W; El-Tawil, E; Shehata, E; Mansour, H
Our objective was to evaluate life-cycle performance of flocks of two Egyptian breeds, Rahmani (R) and Ossimi (O), and their crosses with Finnish Landrace (F) in two management systems. Management systems were one mating season per year (1M) and three mating seasons per 2 yr (3M). Breeds and crosses studied included purebred R and O, F1 crosses 1/2F-1/2R (FR) and 1/2F-1/2O (FO), and inter se matings of 1/4 F-3/4 R (RFR) and 1/4 F-3/4 O (OFO). A dynamic computer model was used to simulate animal performance and enterprise efficiency and profit. Two measures of lifecycle feed conversion (biological efficiency) were computed: kilograms of TDN input per kilograms of empty body weight output (TDN/EBW) and kilograms of TDN input per kilogram of carcass lean output (TDN/CLN). Profit was measured as gross margin (income minus variable costs per ewe per year, GM/EWE). Input parameters for the model were obtained from published results and analyses of data collected from experimental flocks of the same genetic stocks in Egypt. Profit for FR and RFR was 42 and 6% higher in 1M than in 3M. However, profit for all other genetic types was 4 to 8% greater in 3M than in 1M. Breed rankings changed depending on the measure of evaluation (i.e., biological efficiency or profit). Maximization of system output did not necessarily improve efficiency. Under accelerated lambing systems, greater overhead costs associated with labor and feed offset gains in ewe productivity. Genetic stocks should be matched to resources and management systems. PMID:10709918
Skin samples from ear pinna of 10 male and 10 female sheep were collected and cultured in DMEM+Ham's F12 nutrient medium. Cell viability was 95 to 100% in different cultures. Mean cell proliferation rates were 0.94-0.67 and 1.15-0.56 for males and females in different passages, respectively. Cell proliferation rates were highest in first passage and then showed an age-related decline. Average cell doubling time was 30 h in males and 29.6 h in females. Skin fibroblast cell growth curves were in lag phase for the first 2 days, entered log phase (3rd to 7th days) and plateaued on day 8. Diploid chromosomal counts in proliferating cells up to the 5th passage were normal (2N=54), with no gross chromosomal aberrations recorded. Cells frozen from cycling cells at 80-90% confluency showed superior post-thaw growth compared with cells from overconfluent cultures. DMSO at 10% (v/v) in freezing media was optimal. Controlled-rate freezing at -1 deg. C/min showed better post-thaw cell viability and growth potential. Direct plating of thawed cells without removing DMSO and other contents of the freezing medium gave better post-thaw survival and proliferation rates. (author)
Pavol, Makovický; Melinda, Nagy; Peter, Makovický.
Full Text Available Morphological udder traits have recently become of greater interest from farmers to researchers. In dairy ewes, the udder is very important due to its physiological and conformational characteristics. External udder traits were measured in ewes (Ovis aries L.) of nine genotypes (355 ewes) created of [...] the basis of Improved Valachian (IV), Tsigai (T), and Lacaune (LC) breeds (six traits; 1185 data for each trait) during the milking period 2002-2008. Udder measurements were assessed for: udder length (UL), udder width (UW), rear udder depth (RUD), cistern depth (CDE), teat length (TL), and teat angle (TA). Data were processed by restricted maximum likelihood (REML) methodology using a MIXED procedure from the SAS statistical package. All studied parameters were influenced by the genotype (P
Daetwyler Hans D
Full Text Available Abstract Background Genomic predictions can be applied early in life without impacting selection candidates. This is especially useful for meat quality traits in sheep. Carcass and novel meat quality traits were predicted in a multi-breed sheep population that included Merino, Border Leicester, Polled Dorset and White Suffolk sheep and their crosses. Methods Prediction of breeding values by best linear unbiased prediction (BLUP based on pedigree information was compared to prediction based on genomic BLUP (GBLUP and a Bayesian prediction method (BayesR. Cross-validation of predictions across sire families was used to evaluate the accuracy of predictions based on the correlation of predicted and observed values and the regression of observed on predicted values was used to evaluate bias of methods. Accuracies and regression coefficients were calculated using either phenotypes or adjusted phenotypes as observed variables. Results and conclusions Genomic methods increased the accuracy of predicted breeding values to on average 0.2 across traits (range 0.07 to 0.31, compared to an average accuracy of 0.09 for pedigree-based BLUP. However, for some traits with smaller reference population size, there was no increase in accuracy or it was small. No clear differences in accuracy were observed between GBLUP and BayesR. The regression of phenotypes on breeding values was close to 1 for all methods, indicating little bias, except for GBLUP and adjusted phenotypes (regression = 0.78. Accuracies calculated with adjusted (for fixed effects phenotypes were less variable than accuracies based on unadjusted phenotypes, indicating that fixed effects influence the latter. Increasing the reference population size increased accuracy, indicating that adding more records will be beneficial. For the Merino, Polled Dorset and White Suffolk breeds, accuracies were greater than for the Border Leicester breed due to the smaller sample size and limited across-breed prediction. BayesR detected only a few large marker effects but one region on chromosome 6 was associated with large effects for several traits. Cross-validation produced very similar variability of accuracy and regression coefficients for BLUP, GBLUP and BayesR, showing that this variability is not a property of genomic methods alone. Our results show that genomic selection for novel difficult-to-measure traits is a feasible strategy to achieve increased genetic gain.
Negahdary, Masoud; Hajihosseinlo, Abbas; Ajdary, Marziyeh
Molecular biology techniques genetic improvement by facilitating identification, mapping and analysis of polymorphism of genes by encoding proteins that act on metabolic pathways involved in economically interesting traits. This use of genetic markers can aid identification of those animals with the highest breeding values in sheep. On the basis of sheep genome mapping, information was examined on the ovine IGF1 and PIT1 genes as a possible genetic marker for growth traits in sheep. The current study was designed to estimate the frequencies of putative IGF-1 and PIT-1 genes SNPs and investigate associations with calculated EBVs of growth traits in Makooei sheep. PCR-SSCP analysis of the exon1 of IGF-I gene and include a part of intron2, exon3 and a part of intron3 and PIT-1 gene revealed the following banding patterns; three (AA, AG, GG) and four AA (p1), AB (p2), CC (p3), CD (p4), banding patterns respectively. Results from this study demonstrated higher performance of AA animals in BW and GBW, and AG animal in WW and W6 that may be related to the role of IGF-1 at the pre-puberty and puberty stages. Also higher performance of p3 animals in W9, YW and GSN, and p1 animal in GNY may be related to the PIT-1 role in post-puberty. PMID:24383003
Morphostructural Differentiation and Variability of Merino Sheep Breed Under Sustained Directional Selection / Diferenciación y Variabilidad Morfoestructural de Ovinos de Raza Merino Sometidos a Selección Direccional Sostenida
R, de la Barra; E, Latorre; M. E, Martínez; C, Calderón.
Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se analiza el grado de diferenciación y variabilidad morfoestructural alcanzado por el tipo de animal resultante de una selección direccional sostenida y sus implicancias en la emergencia de un nuevo grupo racial ovino. Se midieron 25 machos y 200 ovejas adultas. Se tomaron 13 [...] medidas corporales, evaluando la diferenciación de la morfología estructural y el dimorfismo sexual. Estas mediciones se compararon con las realizadas en animales de raza Merino Australiano y Marin Magellan Meat Merino. La homogeneidad intrapoblacional se evaluó a través de los coeficientes de variación porcentual de las medias de las medidas corporales. Se concluye que la selección direccional realizada de forma sostenida ha generado una diferenciación del formato morfoestructural al comparar a la población sujeta a selección con las principales raza de tipo Merino existentes en la Patagonia Chilena. La población evaluada evidencia una variabilidad morfoestructural similar, y en muchos casos menor a la encontrada en razas ovinas reconocidas como tales en Chile, con lo cual es posible señalar que se comporta como un grupo animal distinguible con caracteres de raza. Abstract in english In this paper, the degree of differentiation and morphostructural variability reached by the type of animal resulting from sustained directional selection, in addition to its implications for the emergence of a new sheep breed are analyzed. Twenty-five rams and 200 ewes from a sheep flock submitted [...] to directional selection since 1987 were measured. Thirteen body measurements were taken in other to evaluate the structural morphology and sexual dimorphism. These measurements were compared with identical measures taken in Australian Merino and Marin Magellan Meat Merino sheep breeds. The intrapopulation homogeneity was assessed using the coefficients of variation of the average percentage of body measurements. It is concluded that sustained directional selection has generated the differentiation of the morphostructural format of the subject population compared to the main Merino-type breeds in the Chilean Patagonia. The population shows a similar (and in some cases lower) morphostructural variability than those found in recognized sheep breeds in Chile, so it is possible to state that this population behaves like a different animal group, with breed characteristics.
Milton Rezende, Teixeira Neto; Jurandir Ferreira da, Cruz; Paulo Luiz Souza, Carneiro; Carlos Henrique Mendes, Malhado; Helder Henrique Neves, Faria.
Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a estrutura populacional de ovinos da raça Santa Inês criados no Brasil. Foram utilizados dados de pedigree de 13.216 animais, pertencentes a 53 rebanhos de oito estados brasileiros, nascidos no período de 1976 a 2010. O programa Endog foi utilizado para análise [...] do pedigree e estimação dos parâmetros populacionais. Do total de animais estudados, 80,86% apresentaram pedigree na primeira ascendência, 73,78% na segunda e 67,75% na terceira. O número máximo de gerações conhecidas foi de 19, e a média de gerações equivalentes foi de 4,67. A média do intervalo de gerações foi de 3,22±1,77 anos. O tamanho efetivo da população apresentou média de 172,5 animais. O número de animais fundadores foi 829, mas o número efetivo de fundadores foi apenas 50. Os 17 principais ancestrais explicaram 50% da variabilidade genética total. O coeficiente médio de relação foi de 3,87% e o de endogamia, de 6,92%. Apesar do satisfatório coeficiente médio de endogamia nas últimas gerações, este coeficiente requer monitoramento por sua proximidade do limite recomendável. O fluxo de genes entre os rebanhos é o principal fator para o aumento do tamanho efetivo e a manutenção da variabilidade genética da raça Santa Inês. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to evaluate the population structure of the sheep breed Santa Inês raised in Brazil. Pedigree data from 13,216 animals, belonging to 53 herds from eight Brazilian states, born between 1976 and 2010, were used. The program Endog was used for pedigree analysis and estima [...] tion of population parameters. From the total number of animals studied, 80.86% had a pedigree in the first ascendancy, 73.78% in the second, and 67.75% in the third. The maximum number of known generations was 19, and the average of equivalent generations was 4.67. The average generation interval was 3.22±1.77 years. The mean effective population size was of 172.5 animals. The number of founder animals was 829, but the effective number of founders was only 50. The 17 main ancestors accounted for 50% of the total genetic variability. The average relatedness coefficient was of 3.87% and the average inbreeding coefficient, of 6.92%. Despite the satisfactory average inbreeding coefficient in recent generations, this coefficient requires monitoring because of its proximity to the recommended limit. Gene flow among herds is the main factor for the increase of effective size and the maintenance of genetic variability in the breed Santa Inês.
Full Text Available The effect of water deprivation and rehydration on some of blood constituents during different seasons in two local sheep breeds of Saudi Arabia, Awassi and Najdi, was investigated. Water deprivation induced significant (P<0.01 elevations in packed cell volume, plasma osmolality, total protein, sodium, creatinine and urea levels which were progressively increased with advance of water deprivation. Moreover, these responses were more pronounced during summer. Glucose levels tended to increase only following three days of water deprivation during summer. Both breeds responded to water deprivation in a similar manner during winter and spring seasons. On the other hand, Najdi breed had consistently higher responses during summer dehydration period particularly for plasma sodium and urea. Rehydration resulted in decline in the determined parameters, but more time was needed to regain normal levels during spring and summer. These results might suggest that there was not any differences in withstanding ability to water deprivation during winter and spring between the two breeds, however Awassi breed might have a better tolerance to dehydration during hot summer.
Y.Z., Njisane; V., Muchenje.
Full Text Available The effect of abattoir type, age, sheep breed and sex on avoidance-related behaviour and bleeding times at slaughter were determined. Castrates and ewes of different age groups and breeds were used. From the commercial abattoir, 90 castrates and 110 ewes were used while 66 castrates and 19 ewes were [...] obtained from the municipal abattoir. Avoidance-related behaviour and bleeding times differed with abattoir type and age classes. Animals slaughtered at the commercial abattoir were calmer and had shorter bleeding times (61 ± 1.16 s) than those slaughtered at the municipal abattoir which had a mean bleeding time of 74.2 ± 2.11 s. Older animals were calmer and had longer bleeding times (67.5 ± 1.82 s) than the younger animals which had a mean bleeding time of 61.6 ± 2.64 s. Avoidance-related behaviour also differed with breed and the sex of the animals with Merino and Dorper + Merino crosses being the calmer than the pure Dorper breed. About 95% of ewes were calmer than the castrates. It can be concluded that abattoir type, age, breed and sex have an effect on animal behaviour at slaughter. Only abattoir type and sex had an effect on bleeding times.
Evaluación biológica de dos sistemas de apareamiento en ovinos de raza Columbia en producción intensiva / Biological evaluation of two breeding systems of intensive production in the Columbia breed sheep
José, de Lucas Tron; Luis Alberto, Zarco Quintero; Everardo, González Padilla; Jorge, Tórtora Pérez; Carlos, Vásquez Peláez.
Full Text Available Se evaluó la eficacia biológica de dos sistemas de apareamiento en ovinos del altiplano central de México. Un total de 300 ovejas adultas y 60 de reemplazo de la raza Columbia se distribuyeron al azar en dos grupos de 150 adultas y 30 jóvenes (edad promedio al primer parto de 18 meses). En el primer [...] grupo (sistema intensivo) se realizaron empadres de 36 días, con monta natural cada ocho meses (marzo, noviembre y julio), mientras que en el segundo grupo (sistema anual) se llevó a cabo un empadre de 45 días, iniciando en noviembre de cada año. En todos los casos, quince días antes del empadre se introdujeron machos marcadores, que en la fecha de inicio del empadre se sustituían por sementales en proporción de un macho por cada 20 hembras. Mensualmente se evaluó la condición física de todas las hembras. Los animales pastorearon de ocho a nueve horas diarias en praderas de alfalfa (Medicago sativa) y pastos orchard (Dactylis glomerata) y rye grass (Lolium perenne) irrigadas por aspersión. Solamente las ovejas del sistema intensivo recibieron complemento durante la lactancia y el reempadre. En los dos sistemas se lograron apareamientos en todas las épocas, la fertilidad en los tres empadres del sistema intensivo fue de 83.9%, mientras que el promedio de los dos empadres anuales fue de 88.3% (P 0.05); la tasa de destete, 0.89 vs 1.09 (P Abstract in english The biological efficiency of two breeding systems for sheep in the Mexican high plateau was evaluated. A total of 300 adult and 60 replacement sheep of the Columbia breed were randomly distributed into two groups of 150 adults and 30 young ones (mean age to first birth of 18 months). Mates of 36 day [...] s with natural mount every eight months (March, November and July) were done in the first group (intensive system). In the second group (annual system), a 45-day mating was done starting on November every year. Marker males were introduced 15 days before mating in all cases, which were replaced on the first day of mating for stallions at a one male for every 20 female ratios. The physical condition of all females was evaluated every month. The animals grazed 8 to 9 hours in grasslands of alfalfa (Medicago sativa) and Orchard (Dactylis glomerata) and Rye (Lolium perenne) grasses irrigated by aspersion. Only the sheep in the intensive system received supplement during lactation and re-mating. Breeding was achieved in both systems in all seasons. The mean fertility of the three breeding of the intensive system was 83.9%; while the mean fertility of the two annual breeding was 88.3% (P
da Silva, José Givanildo; Alves, Bruno Henrique L S; Melo, Renata Pimentel B; Kim, Pomy Cássia P; Souza Neto, Orestes L; Bezerra, Mauro José G; Sá, Silvio G; Mota, Rinaldo A
The aim of the present study was to detect Toxoplasma gondii DNA in raw milk samples of goats and sheep of local breeds from the semi-arid region of the states of Pernambuco and Paraíba, Northeastern Brazil. Serum and milk samples were collected from 243 animals (186 goats and 57 sheep). The Indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) was used to search for anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies with a cutoff of 64. Subsequently, the raw milk samples were subjected to DNA extraction and PCR to detect DNA of T. gondii. The IFAT results showed a 6.58% (16/243) positivity when all the samples were considered and a positivity of 15.78% (9/57) and 3.76% (7/186) for goats and sheep samples, respectively. The PCR assay detected T. gondii DNA in 2.06% (5/243) of all the samples tested. All the PCR positive samples were from goats. This result shows the importance of adopting measures of flock's sanitary management and avoiding the consumption of raw milk may constitute a potential risk to the health of milk consumers in this region. PMID:25438258
Mesfin Lakew; Mussie Haile-Melekot; Getinet Mekuriaw; Solomon Abreha; Haimanot Setotaw
The reproductive and lamb mortality data (n = 187) of the Local and crosses of Dorper × Local ewes following natural controlled breeding in Ethiopia were analysed. Data were collected during 2009-2011 at Sirinka breeding, evaluation and distribution site, eastern Amhara region of Ethiopia. Breed, lamb sex, birth season, birth year, birth type and ewes’ parity were considered as fixed effects. Data analyses were performed using general linear model procedures. Breed was a significant source...
Orlando Rus, Barbosa; Francisco de Assis Fonseca de, Macedo; Roland Van de, Groes; José Maurício Franco, Guedes.
Full Text Available Utilizaram-se 45 fêmeas ovinas adultas (15 Hampshire Down [HD], 15 Texel [TE] e 15 Ile de France [IF]), para propor um zoneamento bioclimático da ovinocultura no Estado do Paraná. Mediram-se a temperatura retal (Tr), da epiderme (Te), do interior do velo (Tiv) e da superfície do velo (Tsv); a frequê [...] ncia respiratória (Fr); a temperatura do ar (Ta), pressão de vapor (e), velocidade do vento (v) e carga térmica radiante (CTR). O Índice de Conforto Térmico utilizado foi ICT= 0,6678Ta + 0,4969e + 0,5444Tg + 0,1038v. A regressão do ICT sobre Tr mostrou efeito quadrático para as três raças. Para ICT=24,3, 27,3 e 20,6, os valores de Tr foram respectivamente: 39,10ºC para a raça HD, 39,05ºC para TE e 39,09ºC para IF, atingindo 40,40; 40,50; e 40,28ºC, respectivamente, para ICT=58. As três raças aumentaram sua Tr a partir de ICT=26, com a TE apresentando menor Tr até o valor ICT=46; neste ponto, as três raças foram semelhantes, tendo a TE apresentado maiores valores. Para ICT igual a 27,6; 29,7; e 27,0, os valores de Fr foram, respectivamente, 89,63; 77,08; e 78,77 resp./min., para as raças HD, TE e IF. A raça TE apresentou menor Fr (77,08 resp./min.), para ICT=29,7 e para ICT=48, valores semelhantes aos da IF (181,96 resp./min.); a partir deste índice, passou a ser maior que as demais raças, atingindo valores de 288,66 resp./min. no ICT=56, porém inferior à HD (289,01 resp./min.). Neste índice, a raça IF foi a que apresentou a menor Fr (275,72 resp./min.). Uma extensa faixa ao longo do litoral do Estado, entrando cerca de 200 km para o interior até os limites das cidades de Castro, Telêmaco Borba, Laranjeiras do Sul e Pato Branco, permite a criação das três raças, sem exigir grandes esforços de termorregulação. Abstract in english Forty five adult ewes were used, 15 for each of the three breeds: Hampshire Down (HD), Texel (TE) and Ile de France (IF). These animals were measured for rectal temperature (Rt), skin temperature (St), fleece temperature (Ft), temperature of the coat surface (Cst) and respiratory rate (Rr), Air temp [...] erature (At), air vapour pressure (Avp), wind speed (Ws), globe temperature (Gt) and radiant heat load (Rhl) were also recorded. The Thermal Comfort Index equation was used: TCI = 0.6678Ta + 0.4969e + 0.5444Tg + 0.1038v. Regression of TCI on Rt showed quadratic effect for the three breeds. For a TCI = 24.3, 27.3 and 20.6, Rt values were: 39.10ºC, for HD, 39.05ºC for TE, and 39.09ºC; for IF sheeps and for TCI=58, these values were respectively 40.40ºC, 40.50ºC and 40.28ºC. All the animals presented increased Rt under theses index, with Texel showed the least Rt for TCI=46, but was the only group with higher Rt values for TCI>48. For TCI=27.6, 29.7 and 27.0, Fr values were respectively: 89.63 resp./min. for HD, 77.08 resp./min. for TE and 78.77 resp./min. for IF. TE presented smaller Rr (77.08 resp./min.), for TCI=29.7, and values similar to IF (179.63 resp./min.), under TCI=48. After this level TE values were higher than those of the other breeds, reaching 288.66 resp./min. for TCI=56, but inferior that HD (289.01 resp./min.); IF, presented lower Rr (275.72 resp./min.). An extensive strip of land along the Parana State coast, heading inland 200 km up to the borders Castro, Telêmaco Borba, Laranjeiras do Sul and Pato Branco cities, allows the creation of the three breeds.
A.Y., Chulayo; V., Muchenje.
Full Text Available The effects of pre-slaughter conditions and breed on physico-chemical characteristics of mutton were determined. The study was conducted at Adelaide Municipal abattoir in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. Records were taken from 84 sheep from the South African Mutton Merino, Blackhead Persian [...] and Dorper breeds as identified on arrival at the abattoir. The South African Mutton Merino (SAMM) had the highest values for meat pH at 24 hours (pH24) (5.9 ± 0.64), lightness; L* (34.2 ± 0.97), yellowness; b* (12.2 ± 0.50) and Warner-Braztler shear force WBSF (26.8 ± 1.51). Linear relationships were also observed between pre-slaughter variables and physico-chemical characteristics of mutton. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) showed a large variation being contributed by meat pH24 and L*. It was therefore concluded that, transport time and lairage duration negatively affected the quality of mutton. Furthermore, breed affected the physico-chemical characteristics of meat.
Tahmoorespur, Mojtaba; Taheri, Amir; Gholami, Hamid; Ansary, Maziar
Growth hormone (GH) selected for its important role in economically relevant traits and signal transducers and activators of transcription 5A (STAT5A) is also known as a main mediator of growth hormone action on target genes. A total number of 190 lambs of Iranian purebred Baluchi sheep were genotyped at exon 5 of GH and exons 7 and 8 of STAT5A genes by using PCR-SSCP analysis. GH gene revealed three (G1, G2, and G3) conformational patterns; however, STAT5A loci were not polymorphic. Breeding values of growth traits including birth weight, weaning weight, 6 months weight, 9 months weight, and yearling weight were estimated by using the Best Linear Unbiased Prediction based on an animal model with a relationship matrix. Studied growth traits were examined for association analysis. Our findings suggest that animals with G2 genotype have highest breeding value for six month weight, while these animals have lowest breeding value for pre-weaning traits. Higher performance of G2 animals in adult ages may be related to the growth hormone role in puberty ages. The other traits showed no relationship to the genotypes examined. PMID:21328104
Concepta, McManus; Tiago do Prado, Paim; Helder, Louvandini; Bruno Stéfano Lima, Dallago; Laila Talarico, Dias; Rodrigo Almeida, Teixeira.
Full Text Available A ultrassonografia pode ser uma importante ferramenta para a avaliação da composição da carcaça por ser uma técnica não invasiva que permite quantificar diferentes tecidos em animais vivos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estimar as correlações entre medidas tomadas in vivo, por meio do ultrassom e do [...] adipômetro, e na carcaça de ovinos da raça Santa Inês. Utilizaram-se 81 machos, entre 8 e 18 meses de idade, com peso médio de 31 kg. As medidas in vivo obtidas por ultrassonografia foram medida diagonal longitudinal, área de olho de lombo longitudinal, medida diagonal transversal e área de olho de lombo transversal. Determinou-se o peso de carcaça quente, rendimento da carcaça, gordura de cobertura da carcaça, comprimento de carcaça, área de olho de lombo da carcaça e peso dos cortes comerciais: pernil, lombo, paleta, costela e pescoço. As análises de variância, componentes principais, regressão polinomial e correlação foram realizadas utilizando-se programa estatístico SAS®. Não houve diferença entre animais castrados e inteiros para qualidade e componentes de carcaça, indicando, portanto, que a castração não proporciona uma carcaça de melhor qualidade. Os animais com os pesos de pernil, paleta e costela maiores apresentam menores peso de pele, altura de cernelha e peso dos órgãos abdominais, caracterizando um biotipo de animal que seria mais desejável a ser selecionado. Peso vivo, comprimento corporal e área de olho de lombo por ultrassom (in vivo) podem ser usados para predizer a área do olho de lombo da carcaça, peso do pernil, comprimento da carcaça, peso da carcaça quente e da meia carcaça. No entanto, o peso do lombo, pescoço, costela, rendimento de carcaça e peso dos órgãos abdominais não podem ser preditos por estas medidas in vivo. As medidas realizadas com adipômetro não apresentaram correlações significativas com medidas da carcaça, o que indica que não são eficientes para esta predição e, portanto, não devem ser utilizadas. Abstract in english Ultrassonography is an important option to evaluate carcass composition and quality, as it is a non-invasive technique which quantifies different tissues in live animals. The objective of this study was to estimate the correlation between measurements taken in vivo, using ultrasound and skinfold thi [...] ckness, in sheep carcasses from Santa Inês breed. Eighty-one males, aging 8 to 18 months, and weighting on average 31 kg live weight were used. The measures taken in vivo by ultrassonography were longitudinal diagonal length, longitudinal rib eye area, transversal diagonal length, transversal rib eye area. Hot carcass weight, carcass yield, carcass fat thickness, carcass length, carcass rib eye area and commercial retail cut weight (leg, loin, shoulder, ribs and neck) were determined. The analyses of variance, main components, polynomial regression and correlation were carried out using SAS® statistical program. There was no difference between castrated and intact animals for carcass quality and components, indicating that castration does not provide better carcass quality. Animals with higher leg, shoulder and rib weights had lower skin weight, wither height and weight of abdominal organs, indicating a more desirable body type for selection. Body weight, body length and rib eye area by ultrasound (in vivo) can predict the rib eye area, leg weight, carcass length, hot and half carcass weight. However, loin, neck and rib weights, carcass yield and weight of abdominal organs cannot be predicted by these in vivo measurements. The measurements taken with skinfold showed no significant correlations with carcass measures, which indicates that they are not efficient for prediction of carcass components and therefore should not be used.
Abdullahi Ali, Ibrahim; Jibril, Aliyu; Rabi Muhammad, Ashiru; Mustapha, Jamilu.
Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio comparativo de la biometría testicular en carneros con las tres razas principales de ovejas de Nigeria. Los parámetros biométricos observados fueron la circunferencia escrotal (CE), peso testicular (PT), longitud testicular (LT), peso de la túnica albugínea (PTA), volumen testi [...] cular (VT), densidad testicular (DT), peso del epidídimo (PE), longitud del epidídimo (EL), peso de la cabeza (CA), cuerpo (CU) y cauda (CA), volumen del epidídimo (VE) y densidad del epidídimo (ED). Los resultados mostraron diferencias significativas (p Abstract in english A comparative study of testicular biometry was done in rams using three major breeds of sheep in Nigeria. Biometrical parameters observed were scrotal circumference (SC), testes weight (TW), testes length (TL), tunica albuginea weight (TAW), testes volume (TV), testes density (TD), epididymal weight [...] (EW), epididymal length (EL), caput (CA), corpus (CO), cauda weight (CU), epididymal volume (EV) and epididymal density (ED). The results showed significant differences (p
Hamada Hamada Dahy Mahboub
Full Text Available This study was carried out to illustrate seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and Brucella melitensis in local sheep and goat flocks living in Nile Delta regions of Egypt as well as to investigate its effects on animals’ health and performance. In trial 1: 492 serum samples were collected from domestic ewes and does flocks suffering from abortion and stillbirths were used in this survey. In trial (2: 100 serum samples collected from toxoplasma or brucella infected or non infected sheep and goats were used to study the effects of toxoplasmosis and brucellosis on animals, health. This study revealed that 142 (28.86% sera contained antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii and 89 (18.09% were positive for Brucella melitensis. The incidences of toxoplasmosis and brucellosis were 31.01% and 12.26% in sheep, respectively and 17.11% and 36.84% in goats, respectively. Higher seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii was recorded in sheep with high flock size. Farmers using set stocking management had lower seroprevalence toxoplasmosis and brucellosis. Toxoplasmosis and brucellosis lowered serum albumin level and liver enzymes activities while, increased serum levels of globulin, urea, triglyceride and cholesterol in ewes. Serum levels of total protein, albumin and urea and the activity of serum aspartate amino transferase were decreased, however serum level of C reactive protein was increased in infected does. These results indicated that toxoplasmosis is widely spread than brucellosis in small ruminants living in the provinces of Nile Delta. Both toxoplasmosis and brucellosis inversely affected animals’ health. Management practices had a role in spread of these agents.
Water requirements and metabolism and some physiological and blood characteristics were studied in dry non-pregnant Barki and Rahmani ewes and in Baladi goats during spring, summer and winter seasons. The Rahmani sheep showed greater thermal discomfort than the Barki during the summer season. Pregnancy was associated with a significant increase in body weight and a decline in PCV and total serum protein, and these changes were greater in goats than in sheep. They were accompanied by significant increases in TBW and WTR. All these changes were more pronounced during late pregnancy than during mid-pregnancy, although the effect of stage of pregnancy on TBW did not occur in the Barki ewes. The pregnancy induced changes in total protein and WTR were greater in spring, while those in TBW were greater in winter. The above parameters also showed similar changes during lactation (particularly during early lactation), but lactating animals showed a decrease instead of an increase in body weight. Goats showed greater reductions in body weight, PCV and water t1/2 and greater increases in WTR than sheep during the spring season. Withdrawal of drinking water for four days caused a reduction in body weight, blood glucose and plasma T3 and T4, and an increase in PCV, total serum protein and plasma osmolality. Plasma aldosterone increased slightly during dehydration but increased markedly during the rehydration period, particularly in the Rahmani sheen period, particularly in the Rahmani sheep during the summer season. The above parameters changed similarly when the animals were starved for four days (feed but not water was withheld), but total serum protein showed a decrease instead of an increase. Changes during dehydration were more pronounced in summer, while those during starvation were greater in winter. 32 refs, 4 figs, 2 tabs
Full Text Available The paper presents the results of a extensive study concerning the parasites andcomplexe problems of the poly-parasitism on sheep and goats in Dobrudja. In thispaper we proposed ourselves to establish the sheep and goats endoparasites, thedistribution and frequency of these function to age, sex and maintenance conditions.The increase of morbidity through parasitical diseases, as well as the ecological andeconomic consequences of poly-parasitism represent a important problem in theintegration conditions of Romania in UE and imposes to apply some efficientmethods of prophylaxis and control of parasitosis and parasito- zoonozis. Thedrawing of copro-parazitologic samples was effected directly from rectum of sheepand goats, testing 10% of each lot, during grazing season and in period of keepingin sheds. The copro-parasitological examinations were carried out ovoscopicaly(flotation, by next methods: Willis, Mc. Master and sediment, by Benedect-Nemesseri and polyvalent methods, as well as larvoscopicaly by Baermann method.After copro-parasitological examinations of samples which were harvested fromthese animals it comes out that both sheep and goats presents poly-parasitism withsporozoa (coccidiae: Eimeria spp. , cestodae (Moniezia expansa and Monieziabenedeni, gastro-intestinal nematodes (Nematodirus spp. ,Trichostrongylidae,Strongyloides papillosus and pulmonary nematodes (Protostrongylus rufescens,Dictyocaulus filaria, Muellerius capillaris, the degree of parasitical infestationdepending on species, age, sex, maintenance conditions and environmental factors.
Martínez-Royo, A; Lahoz, B; Alabart, J L; Folch, J; Calvo, J H
The ovine Melatonin Receptor 1A (MTNR1A) gene was structurally characterised and association between its variants and the reproductive seasonality was examined in a daughter design comprising three families of Rasa Aragonesa sheep breed. Sequencing of six Rasa Aragonesa ewes with extreme values for seasonality trait revealed 28 polymorphisms: 11 SNPs in the coding region (all in Exon 2), and 17 SNPs in the promoter region MTNR1A. All the substitutions in the coding region were found most likely lacking any phenotypic effect, because they are conservative mutations or were not part of the transmembrane domain. The silent mutations, which had shown association with reproductive seasonality in other breeds, were also found and genotyped in Rasa Aragonesa. The T allele of SNP606/RsaI of MNTR1A gene was associated with a greater percentage of oestrous cyclic ewes in the Rasa Aragonesa breed, indicating that this SNP may be in linkage disequilibrium with a mutation responsible for this trait close to MTNR1A, or in regulatory sequences of the gene. In this sense, several SNPs affecting a binding element for some transcription factors have been identified in the promoter region. The SNPs at 422 and 527 positions could constitute a binding element for some transcription factors (TFs), located in an EF2 and SRY consensus sites in the promoter region, respectively. Haplotype h(5) showed significant differences with the h(2) haplotype (66% compared to 49.2%) on oestrous cyclicity, thus these results are consistent with genotypic associations for each SNP. Haplotype with T, A and T alleles for SNPs 422, 677 (promoter region) and 612 (Exon 2) showed an increase of the percentage of oestrous cyclic ewes. Although some of these mutations have been associated with seasonal reproduction, further studies with a more appropriate animal design as well as functional studies of TF binding activity are needed. PMID:22809454
A., Sanz; J.H., Calvo; J.I., Martí.; J.L., Alabart; M., Joy; G., Ripoll; J., Álvarez-Rodríguez.
Full Text Available En el caso de la raza Churra Tensina, en peligro de extinción y originaria del Pirineo Oscense, se realizó una prospección de individuos y una caracterización del sistema productivo a través de encuestas a ganaderos, definiéndose explotaciones de mediano tamaño que tienen su continuidad garantizada. [...] Se estudió la morfología racial a partir de medidas zoométricas y caracteres fanerópticos de los animales inscritos en la Asociación (ATURA), lo que permitió clasificar la raza como mediolínea, dolicocéfala y eumétrica. Se estudiaron los parámetros productivos y reproductivos, así como la calidad de canal y carne de los tipos de cordero lechal, ternasco y pastenco, confirmando su viabilidad comercial. La caracterización genética mostró una raza homogénea, con niveles altos de variabilidad genética y bajos de consanguinidad. Finalmente, se han creado bancos de semen y embriones, estando representados los distintos genotipos de resistencia a Scrapie. La evolución positiva del censo en los últimos 10 años, añadida a la viabilidad de sus productos comerciales, garantiza la preservación de la Churra Tensina y de determinados sistemas ganaderos ligados a la tierra. Abstract in english This work aims to present the research activities in the Churra Tensina sheep breed, raised on the mountain area of Huesca Pyrenees. The population structure was prospected and the farming system was characterized through surveys to farmers. The animal morphology was studied through zoometric measur [...] ements and phaneroptic characters assessment of the individuals belonging to the breeders' Association (ATURA), showing a mediolineous, dolicocephalous and eumetric breed. The productive and reproductive parameters were analysed, and the commercial value of the suckling, light and heavy lamb categories was confirmed. The genetic studies showed that Churra Tensina is an homogeneous breed, with high genetic variability and low inbreeding. This breed was self-genetic differentiated, and has no crossbreeding with other Churro group populations. Finally, semen and embryos banks were established, being the different Scrapie resistance genotypes represented. The increasing census evolution in the past 10 years and the observed commercial viability assure the long term maintenance of this breed in their original location.
MacDonald, T. D.; Simon, M. C.; Bale, J. C.; Chowdhury, U.; Eibach, M.; Gallant, A. T.; Lennarz, A.; Simon, V. V.; Chaudhuri, A.; Grossheim, A.; Kwiatkowski, A. A.; Schultz, B. E.; Dilling, J.
Penning trap mass spectrometry is the most accurate and precise method available for performing atomic mass measurements. TRIUMF's Ion Trap for Atomic and Nuclear science is currently the only facility to couple its Penning trap to a rare isotope facility and an electron beam ion trap (EBIT). The EBIT is a valuable tool for beam preparation: since the precision scales linearly with the charge state, it takes advantage of the precision gained by using highly charged ions. However, this precision gain is contingent on fast and efficient charge breeding. An optimization algorithm has been developed to identify the optimal conditions for running the EBIT. Taking only the mass number and half-life of the isotope of interest as inputs, the electron beam current density, charge breeding time, charge state, and electron beam energy are all specified to maximize this precision. An overview of the TITAN charge breeding program, and the results of charge breeding simulations will be presented.
Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine first age reproduction characteristics of indigenous K?v?rc?k, Sak?z and Gökçeada sheep breeds and growth performances of ewe lambs which have been kept in Band?rma Sheep Research Station (BSRS. The data of reproduction characteristics of ewes and growth characteristics of lambs were collected on 15 K?v?rc?k, 8 Sak?z and 10 Gökçeada ewes, and on 16 K?v?rc?k, 12 Sak?z and 11 Gökçeada lambs, respectively. After the lambs completed their fifth month ages, estrus detection was carried out with a teaser ram twice a day with 12 hour intervals. For the K?v?rc?k, Sak?z and Gökçeada lambs, the first oestrus weights were 37.93, 33.35 and 29.75 kg; first oestrus ages were 315, 320 and 337 days; oestrus durations were 30.99, 25.85 and 20.28 hours and the duration of the oestrus cycles were 16.59, 19.91 and 17.76 days, respectively. The birth weights of K?v?rc?k, Sak?z and Gökçeada lambs were found to be 3.64, 3.91, 3.28 kg; the weaning weight (WW, 31.01, 25.44 and 23.67 kg, the six month live weight (SMLW, 32.87, 26.95 and 24.15 kg, the yearling live weight (YLW, 39.01, 30.95 and 30.27 kg and the average daily weight gain (ADWG, 0.271 0.257 and 0.202 kg, respectively.
Charge state of an ion can precisely be tuned in an Electron Bean Ion-charge Breeding Source (EBIBS) and further the highly pure beam of common or rare species can be extracted for various applications in medical, material, atomic, nuclear and other science and engineering. It has been envisaged that the ion source under study will be highly beneficial for the rare isotope project at our centre. An EBIBS essentially consists of a high perveance electron gun to generate electron beam up to >10A using proper design and a superconducting solenoid of ?1.2m length and ?5T axial magnetic field and a water cooled electron collector and ion extractor chamber. It is very important to study the electron beam optics throughout the source for smooth transmission and compatible design of subsystems. The gun will be using cathode, which will project axially high current beam under magnetic field. A large number of thin combined electric and magnetic lenses have been modelled to study the individual projected electrons as well as whole electron beam throughout the length with and without space charge effect. The electron optical details are presented. (author)
The present study was carried out to determine the effect of ewes breeds on some blood biochemical and hormones levels during mating, pregnancy and post.partum periods. A total number of 42 ewes, 1.5 . 3.5 years of age with body weight ranged between 45 to 55 kg from breeding flock in Research Farm of Nuclear Research Centre, Atomic Energy Authority were used in this study. Animals were divided into two groups according to their breed. The first group included 18 Ossimi breed ewes and the second group included 24 Rahmani breed ewes. Blood samples were collected from both breed at 10, 20, 30, 50, 100, 120, 140, and 145 days up to parturitions and at 30 and 60 days of post. partum. Serum total lipids and cholesterol, progesterone (P4) and estradiol . 17? (E2) were determined. It was found that Ossimi ewes had lower level of both sexual hormones than Rahmani once. Plasma progesterone and estradiol-17 ? levels increased gradually as pregnancy time passed reaching its maximum level at the 140th day of the pregnancy period in Rahmani and Ossimi, then decreased during the last 5 days. Additionally, Rahmani ewes had relatively higher mean values of estradiol-17 ? at 30th and 60th days compared with Ossime ewes. While, the least squares mean of progesterone decreased in Rahmani ewes compared with Ossime ewes at the same time of estimation. Ossimi ewes having higher means of total lipids (L) and cholesterol (C) than in Rahmani ewes while, the values of L/C ratio were found te, the values of L/C ratio were found to be higher in Rahmani ewes than Ossimi ones. Total lipids level increased gradually from Farghaly et al., J. Rad. Res. Appl. Sci., Vol. 1318 4, No. 4(B) (2011) 10th days of pregnancy from 273.09 and 267.75mg/dI to 342.92 and 338.9 mg/dl in 145th days in Ossimi and Rahmani ewes, respectively. Similarly, the levels of cholesterol were 93.49 and 90.35 mg /dl in 10th days of pregnancy and 134.79 and 141.81 mg/dl in 145th days of pregnancy for Ossimi and Rahmani ewes, respectively. The same trend was found for the plasma value of L/G ratio due to the effect of days of pregnancy
Maurício, Quesada; Concepta, McManus; Flávio Augusto D' Araújo, Couto.
Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar efeitos da temperatura ambiental sobre características fisiológicas de ovinos, no Distrito Federal. Foram selecionados dois grupos de 25 fêmeas vazias ou prenhas das raças Morada Nova e Santa Inês com idade variando entre dois e quatro anos. As fêmeas tiveram seus [...] dados coletados seis vezes entre os meses de fevereiro e julho. As medições incluíram o peso vivo ( PV) (kg), a temperatura retal (TR), a freqüência respiratória (FR) e o batimento cardíaco (BC), às 8 e 14h, depois de expostas ao sol por um período de seis horas. Foram utilizados os procedimentos GLM, CORR e PRINCOMP do SAS e, para determinar grupamento e dissimilaridade, utilizou-se o programa GENES. Observaram-se grupos de alta e baixa resistência a ação do efeito calórico. As médias dos grupos às 14 hs foram: TR: 38,8 e 38,7°C; FR: 23,4 e 22,8 bat./min. e BC: 99,9 e 94,0 bat./min. para os animais das raças Morada Nova e Santa Inês, respectivamente. Houve ainda diferenças significativas entre matrizes não paridas e as paridas no período estudado, sendo maiores para não paridas: TR: 38,78 e 38,52°C; BC:23,13 e 22,82 bat./min.; FR: 96,98 e 96,36 bat./min., respectivamente. Os animais expostos ao sol pelo período de seis horas apresentaram resposta significativa ao estresse calórico, expresso pelo aumento da temperatura retal e pelo aumento no ritmo dos batimentos cardíacos e na freqüência respiratória. Os resultados obtidos permitiram estabelecer grupos de animais com maior e menor resistência às variações climáticas, ensejando a possibilidade de utilizar esses dados para seleção de animais em trabalhos de melhoramento. Abstract in english The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of increased environmental temperature on physiological traits of Morada Nova (MN) and Santa Ines (SI) sheep breeds in the Federal District, Brazil. Two groups (25 MN and 25 SI) were selected for study and included both pregnant (EP) and non-pre [...] gnant (EPN) ewes, aged betwen 2 and 4 years. The fifty ewes were recorded, once a month, for six months, at 8 am and 2 pm, and measurements included body weight (W), RT (Rectal Temperature), RR (Respiration rate), and CR (Cardiac Rate) were analyzed using SAS (GLM, CORR, PRINCOMP procedures) and the program GENES. The differences between the two breeds were: RT: 38.8 and 38.7°C; RR: 23.4 and 22.8 (rate/min.); CR: 99.9 and 94.0 (rate/min.), for Morada Nova and Santa Ines breeds, respectively. Difference between non-pregnant and pregnant ewes were: RT: 38.78 and 38.52°C; RR: 23.13 and 22.82 (Rate/min); CR: 96.98 and 96.36 (Rate/min), respectively. Differences between breeds were significant, as were differences between animals within groups. It was therefore possible therefore to identify animals within a breed more or less resitant to the climate conditions. This information may be used in future breeding programs.
A., Camacho; V., Pérez; J., Mata; L.A., Bermejo.
Full Text Available Se estudiaron dos razas ovinas locales: la Canaria y la Canaria de Pelo. Los animales se criaron en sistema intensivo. Se consideraron dos pesos vivos de sacrificio (15,30 ± 0,67 y 24,23 ± 0,69 kg) y dos sexos. Se determinaron las correlaciones entre los porcentajes de los tejidos de la canal y los [...] de las piezas obtenidas de la media canal izquierda. Se obtuvieron ecuaciones para predecir la composición tisular de la canal, a partir de las piezas con mejores coeficientes de regresión. El costillar fue la pieza que mejor predijo el músculo y la grasa. La pierna fue mejor predictora para el hueso. Abstract in english Two local sheep breeds were studied: the Canarian and the Canarian Haired. Animals were intensively reared. Two slaughter weights were considered (15 and 24 kg live weight). Correlations among carcass tissue percentage and tissue percentage in the seven joints in the left halfcarcass were obtained. [...] Equations were obtained to predict carcass tissue composition using most correlated joints. Ribs was the best predictor joint of muscle and fat. Leg was the best predictor of bone.
Qualidade da carne de ovinos de diferentes raças de reprodutores terminados sob dois sistemas de produção / Meat quality of sheep of different breeds of breeding terminated under two production systems
Edmilson Lima de, Menezes Junior; Ana Sancha Malveira, Batista; Aline Vieira, Landim; José Teodorico de, Araújo Filho; Evandro Vasconcelos, Holanda Junior.
Full Text Available Objetivou-se investigar a influência da dieta na terminação de ovinos de diferentes raças de reprodutores sobre a qualidade física, química e sensorial da carne. Foram avaliados 36 cordeiros, filhos de fêmeas mestiças Santa Inês x Somalis com reprodutores puros de três raças: Santa Inês, Dorper e So [...] malis, distribuídos em dois sistemas de produção, terminação a pasto nativo e cultivado, 12 de cada raças de reprodutores, todos machos, inteiros e distribuídos em dois sistemas de produção. Os animais tiveram acesso a alimentação e água ad libitum, sendo abatidos ao atingirem aproximadamente 180 dias.Determinou-se, no músculo Longissimus dorsi, os teores de umidade, proteína, lipídios, cinzas, textura, perda de peso por cocção, capacidade de retenção de água; colesterol e o perfil de ácidos graxos, bem como a avaliação dos parâmetros sensoriais de sabor, aroma, dureza, suculência e aceitação global. O grupamento Somalis apresentou menores teores de cinzas e lipídeos. Os animais Dorper e Santa Inês obtiveram resultados semelhantes em, PPC (perda de peso por cocção), os ácidos graxos C14:0 (mirístico) e C17:0 (margárico) e aceitação global. O pasto cultivado apresentou melhores resultados para, proteína, lipídeos, PPC (perda de peso por cocção), CRA (capacidade de retenção de água), C16:1 (palmitoleico), C18:1n9c (oleico), C18:1n9t (Elaídico), AGM (ácido graxo monoinsaturado), HH (hipocolesterolêmicos e hipercolesterolêmicos) e aceitação global, e resultados inferiores para, AGP (ácido graxo poli-insaturado), AGP:AGS (ácido graxo poli-insaturado) , AGD (ácido graxo desejáveis). A raça do reprodutor e sistema de produção influenciam as características físicas e químicas da carne de cordeiro. Abstract in english This study aimed to investigate the influence of diet on sheep of different breeds reprodutoresgenótipos on the physical, chemical and sensory dae his flesh termination. Santa Inês and Dorper Somalis, distributed in two production systems, the termination native and cultivated pasture, 12 of each ge [...] nótiporaças breeding, all males: 36 lambs, sons of female crossbred Santa Ines x Somalis with pure breeding three breeds were evaluated , whole and divided into two production systems. The animals had access to food and water ad libitum, and were sent to abatidose dias25 to reach approximately 180 kg live weight. It was determined, the longissimus muscle, the moisture, protein, lipid, ash, texture, weight loss by cooking, water holding capacity; cholesterol and fatty acid profile, as well as evaluating the sensory parameters of flavor, aroma, hardness, juiciness and overall acceptability. The genotype and production system influence the physical and chemical characteristics of lamb. The Somali group had lower levels of ash and lipids. The Dorper and St. Agnes animals yielded similar results, PPC (weight loss by cooking), the fatty acid C14: 0 (myristic) and C17: 0 (margaric) and overall acceptability. The cultivated pasture showed better results for protein, lipid, PPC (weight loss by cooking), WHC (water holding capacity), C16: 1 (palmitoleic), C18: 1n9c (oleic acid), C18: 1n9t (elaidic) AGM (monounsaturated fatty acid), HH (hipocolesterolemics hypercholesterolemic) and overall acceptability, and lower results for AGP (polyunsaturated fatty acid), AGP: AGS (polyunsaturated fatty acid), AGD (desirable fatty acid). AO genotype sire breed and production system influence the physical and chemical characteristics of lamb.
Ana Fabrícia Braga, Magalhães; Raimundo Nonato Braga, Lobo; Olivardo, Facó.
Full Text Available Objetivou-se estimar parâmetros genéticos para características de crescimento em ovinos da raça Somalis Brasileira. Os dados utilizados neste estudo foram provenientes do rebanho da Embrapa Caprinos e Ovinos, localizado na cidade de Sobral - CE. Os dados continham registros de 1.120 animais no arqui [...] vo de pedigree. As características analisadas foram: peso ao nascer (PN), peso ao desmame (PD), ganho de peso do nascimento ao desmame (GND) e peso adulto (PA). As estimativas dos componentes de (co)variâncias e os parâmetros genéticos foram obtidos pelo método da Máxima Verossimilhança Restrita não Derivativa (DFREML), utilizando o programa MTDFREML. Nas análises unicaracterística, as herdabilidades foram de magnitude baixa a moderada. As magnitudes das herdabilidades maternas foram todas superiores às herdabilidades diretas. As herdabilidades das análises multicaracterísticas entre PN, PD e GND superaram as análises unicaracterísticas. As correlações genéticas apresentaram grande variação quanto aos seus valores. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to estimate genetic parameters for growth traits in Somalis Brasileira hair sheep breed. The data used in this study were from the flock of Embrapa Caprinos and Ovinos, located in the city of Sobral - CE, Brazil. Data contained records of 1,120 animals in the pedigree file. [...] The analyzed traits were birth weight (PN), weaning weight (PD), weight gain from birth to weaning (GND) and adult weight (PA). Estimates of (co)variances and genetic parameters were obtained by Derivative Free Restricted Maximum Likelihood Method (DFREML) using the MTDFREML software. The heritabilities were low to moderate in univariate analysis. The maternal heritabilities were higher than direct heritabilities. The heritabilities in multivariate analysis exceeded those in univariate analysis. The values of genetic correlations varied widely.
Relationship of intestinal histology with the resistance to Trichostrongylus colubriformis infection in three breeds of sheep Associação entre a resposta celular no intestino e a resistência à infecção por Trichostrongylus colubriformis em três raças de ovinos
Alessandro F.T. Amarante
Full Text Available The study was carried out to evaluate the relationship of inflammatory intestinal cells with the resistance to Trichostrongylus colubriformis infections in three breeds of sheep (Santa Ines, Suffolk and Ile de France, naturally infected. Mast cells, eosinophils, and globule leucocytes were enumerated in intestinal mucosa. Histamine concentration was estimated in intestinal tissue samples and the length of male and female specimens were determined. The three breeds of sheep showed similar cellular response in the small intestine mucosa (P>0.05. There was extensive variation among sheep in the parasitological and inflammatory cell variables, even in lambs of the same breed. In general, animals presenting less inflammatory cells had a larger worm burden, higher fecal egg counts, and larger T. colubriformis worms. The inflammatory cells possibly impaired the parasite's establishment, development, and survival.Avaliaram-se a associação entre o número de células inflamatórias no intestino delgado e a resistência à infecção por Trichostrongylus colubriformis em ovinos de três raças (Santa Inês, Suffolk e Ile de France, naturalmente infectados. Mastócitos, eosinófilos e leucócitos globulares foram quantificados na mucosa intestinal. A concentração de histamina foi estimada em amostras teciduais do intestino, bem como foi determinado o comprimento de machos e fêmeas de T. colubriformis. A resposta celular foi similar na mucosa intestinal das três raças ovinas (P>0,05. Houve grande variação entre os ovinos em relação aos resultados parasitológicos e celulares, mesmo nos animais de mesma raça. Em geral, os animais que apresentaram número menor de células inflamatórias tiveram cargas parasitárias maiores, contagens de ovos por grama de fezes mais altas e exemplares de T. colubriformis maiores. Os resultados indicaram que mastócitos, eosinófilos e leucócitos globulares prejudicaram o estabelecimento, o desenvolvimento e a sobrevivência dos parasitas.
K. Javed, S. M. Hussain1, and M. Afzal1
The feasibility of using the ram effect to stimulate oestrus/ovulation in Lohi sheep at Sheep Breeding Section of Livestock Production Research Institute, Bahadumagar Distt. Okara was investigated. The experiment was conducted in two phases. In the first phase, a group of 43 ewes was stimulated for the imitation of oestrus through ram effect during the month of August (off breeding season). Eighty four percent ewes exhibited oestrus and were served. During September (normal breeding season) 1...
Vondrasek, R.; Delahaye, P.; Kutsaev, Sergey; Maunoury, L.
The Californium Rare Isotope Breeder Upgrade is a new radioactive beam facility for the Argonne Tandem Linac Accelerator System (ATLAS). The facility utilizes a 252Cf fission source coupled with an electron cyclotron resonance ion source to provide radioactive beam species for the ATLAS experimental program. The californium fission fragment distribution provides nuclei in the mid-mass range which are difficult to extract from production targets using the isotope separation on line technique and are not well populated by low-energy fission of uranium. To date the charge breeding program has focused on optimizing these mid-mass beams, achieving high charge breeding efficiencies of both gaseous and solid species including 14.7% for the radioactive species 143Ba27+. In an effort to better understand the charge breeding mechanism, we have recently focused on the low-mass species sodium and potassium which up to present have been difficult to charge breed efficiently. Unprecedented charge breeding efficiencies of 10.1% for 23Na7+ and 17.9% for 39K10+ were obtained injecting stable Na+ and K+ beams from a surface ionization source.
Li, Bi-Xia; Chu, Ming-Xing; Wang, Jin-Yu
Growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9) is a growth factor secreted by oocytes in growing ovarian follicles, which is essential for growth and differentiation of early ovarian follicles. The polymorphism of GDF9 gene in Small Tail Han sheep, Hu sheep, Dorset sheep and Suffolk sheep was analyzed by PCR-SSCP. The results indicated that there were three genotypes (AA, AB and BB) detected by primer 1. AA genotype was detected in four sheep breeds. AB genotype was detected in Hu sheep, Dorset sheep and Suffolk sheep. BB genotype was only detected in Suffolk sheep. Frequency of A allele was obviously higher than frequency of B allele in four sheep breeds. There were two genotypes (AA and AB) detected by primer 2. AA genotype was detected in four sheep breeds. AB genotype was detected in Hu sheep, Dorset sheep and Suffolk sheep. BB genotype was not detected in four sheep breeds. Frequency of AA genotype was the highest, and frequency of A allele was obviously higher than frequency of B allele in four sheep breeds. The polymorphic fragments amplified by primer 1 were cloned and sequenced. The sequencing results showed that there was one single nucleotide mutation: A-->G at cDNA 152 of GDF9 gene in sheep, and this mutation resulted in an amino acid change: asparagine-->aspartic acid. PMID:12812052
Ait-Saidi, A; Caja, G; Salama, A A K; Milán, M J
Costs and secondary benefits of implementing electronic identification (e-ID) for performance recording (i.e., lambing, body weight, inventory, and milk yield) in dairy and meat ewes were assessed by using the results from a previous study in which manual (M), semiautomatic (SA), and automatic (AU) data collection systems were compared. Ewes were identified with visual ear tags and electronic rumen boluses. The M system used visual identification, on-paper data recording, and manual data uploading to a computer. The SA system used e-ID with a handheld reader in which performances were typed and automatic uploaded to a computer. The use of a personal digital assistant (PDA) for recording and automatic data uploading, which transformed M in a SA system, was also considered. The AU system was only used for BW recording and consisted of e-ID, automatic data recording in an electronic scale, and uploading to a computer. The cost-benefit study was applied to 2 reference sheep farms of 700 meat ewes, under extensive or intensive production systems, and of 400 dairy ewes, practicing once- or twice-a-day machine milkings. Sensitivity analyses under voluntary and mandatory e-ID scenarios were also included. Benefits of using e-ID for SA or AU performance recording mainly depended on sheep farm purpose, number of test days per year, handheld reader and PDA prices, and flock size. Implementing e-ID for SA and AU performance recording saved approximately 50% of the time required by the M system, and increased the reliability of the data collected. Use of e-ID increased the cost of performance recording in a voluntary e-ID scenario, paying only partially the investment made (15 to 70%). For the mandatory e-ID scenario, in which the cost of e-ID devices was not included, savings paid 100% of the extra costs needed for using e-ID in all farm types and conditions. In both scenarios, the reader price was the most important extra cost (40 to 90%) for implementing e-ID in sheep farms. Calculated extra costs of using the PDA covered more than 100% of the implementation costs in all type of sheep farms, indicating that this device was cost-effective for sheep-performance recording. PMID:25282418
Sheep pox and goat pox are diseases of sheep and goats caused by pox virus. The variety and range of clinical signs produced by a single strains of virus in different breeds and age groups of animal tends to overlap those produced by different viruses within the same group or even different groups of pox viruses. Thus, contagious pustular dermatitis, easy to diagnose in countries considered free of sheep and goat pox, is probably frequently diagnosed as sheep or goat pox where the diseases co-exist. In the past, vaccinia infection of sheep and goats could also have been misdiagnosed. PMID:6099642
Diógenes, Valerio; Gustavo, Gutiérrez; Juan, Chávez.
Full Text Available Con el objetivo de estimar los efectos genéticos - directo y materno - vinculados a la expresión de características de crecimiento en corderos de la raza Junín, se aplicaron cuatro modelos mixtos en el estudio de sus pesos de nacimiento (PN), destete (PD), primera esquila (PE) y ganancia diaria del [...] nacimiento al destete (GPND), a través de análisis univariado y bivariado. Los modelos usados en análisis univariado incluyeron como efectos fijos el año de nacimiento y sexo, y como covariables el peso de la madre al empadre (para PN y PD), la edad del cordero al destete (para PD y GPND) y la edad a la primera esquila (para PE). El Modelo 1 incluyó los efectos fijos y el efecto genético aditivo directo (a); el Modelo 2, similar al 1, adicionó el efecto genético aditivo materno (m), considerando la Cov am= 0; en el Modelo 3, igual al 2, se asumió la Cov = A? ; y el Modelo 4, igual al 3, se adicionó el efecto del ambiente permanente materno (c). Los modelos para el análisis bivariado fueron extensiones del univariado, empleándose en todos los análisis el método de máxima verosimilitud restringida (REML), instrumentado en el programa ASReml. En el análisis univariado, el Modelo 2, y en el bivariado el Modelo 3, estimaron mejor los parámetros genéticos, incluidas las correlaciones entre los efectos aditivos directos y maternos para las características. Los valores estimados de heredabilidad variaron entre bajos y moderados, indicando la posibilidad de ser aplicados en planes de mejora genética del ovino Junín, los mismos que incrementarían su eficiencia al adicionarse a ellos los valores, entre moderados y altos, de las correlaciones genéticas y fenotípicas estimadas. Abstract in english In order to estimate the genetic effects - direct and maternal - linked to the expression of growth traits in lambs of Junín breed, four mixed models were applied in the study of the birth weight (PN), weaning weight (PD), first shearing weight (PE) and daily body weight gain from birth to weaning ( [...] GPND), through univariate and bivariate analysis. The models used in univariate analysis included as fixed effects year of birth and sex, and as covariates the mother’s weight at mating (for PN and PD), age of lamb at weaning (for PD and GPND), and age at first shearing (for PE). Model 1 included the fixed effects and the direct additive genetic effect (a); Model 2, similar to 1, added additive maternal genetic effect (m), considering Cov am=0; Model 3, similar to 2, assumed Cov=A? ; and Model 4, equal to 3, added the maternal permanent environmental effect (c). All bivariate models were extensions of the univariate ones. In all the analyses, the restricted maximum likelihood (REML) method, implemented in the ASReml program was applied. Univariate Model 2 and bivariate Model 3 estimated the best genetic parameters, including correlations between direct and maternal additive effects for the traits. The estimated heritability values ranged from low to moderate, indicating the possibility of its application in genetic improvement plans for Junín sheep, which would increase its efficiency when the estimated, moderate to high genetic and phenotypic correlations are also included.
Immunization of sheep against GnRH early in life: effects on gonadotropins, follicular growth and responsiveness of granulosa cells to FSH and IGF-I in two breeds of sheep with different prolificacy (Romanov and Ile-de-France).
Mariana, J C; Monniaux, D; Caraty, A; Pisselet, C; Fontaine, J; Solari, A
The profile Romanov (R, ovulation rate = 3) and non-prolific Ile-de-France (IF, ovulation rate = 1) breeds were compared for their ovarian sensitivity to gonadotropins and IGF-I before puberty. For this purpose, the effects of in vivo immunization against GnRH on populations of ovarian follicles and in vitro sensitivity of granulosa cells to FSH and IGF-I were studied in prepuberal lambs from both breeds. Seventeen prepuberal lambs of each breed were actively immunized against GnRH between 3 wk and 6 mo of age. Relative to untreated lambs, FSH levels at 4, 5, and 6 mo of age were (respectively) 41%, 25% and 29% for IF, and 43%, 24%, and 36% for R lambs. In a first experiment, histological analysis of ovaries was performed. Immunization treatment decreased the number of small (100-390 microns in diameter) and large size follicles (< 1500 microns) in both breeds at 6 mo of age. In both breeds, gonadotropin (FSH-LH-hCG) treatment increased the number of large size follicles (< 1500 microns in diameter) and induced the formation of preovulatory follicles in immunized as well as untreated lambs. The ovulation rate was less in immunized animals, but it was not different between breeds. In a second experiment, the effects of FSH and IGF-I were studied on granulosa cells from follicles between 1000 and 2000 microns in diameter. In both breeds, IGF-I increased granulosa cell proliferation, but enhanced progesterone secretion was observed only in R lambs after FSH and IGF-I stimulation. Granulosa cell response to FSH treatment was lost by immunization, whereas response to IGF-I remained unchanged in both breeds. These results indicate that long-term immunization of prepuberal lambs against GnRH reduced systemic concentrations of FSH, follicular development, and response to gonadotropins in vivo, similarly in the prolific R and the non-prolific IF breed. However, granulosa cells from R lambs had higher steroidogenic capacities and were more responsive to FSH. In addition, these results suggest that IGF-I could play an important role in regulating growth of small follicles both in immunized and non-immunized lambs. PMID:9673452
Parámetros de crecimiento y de la canal de corderos de la raza Ovella Galega sacrificados a 45 días / Growth and carcass parameters of the Ovella Galega sheep breed lambs at the slaughter age of 45 days
M., Fernández; S., Adán; B., Domínguez; C.J., Rivero; J.R., Justo; A., Arias; M.C., García-Fontán; J.M., Lorenzo; J.J., Lama; C., López; D., Rois; J., Feijóo; D., Franco.
Full Text Available Actualmente la raza Ovella Galega se encuentra en peligro de extinción, por lo que está sometida a un Programa de Conservación y Recuperación donde prima la preservación de la variabilidad genética. En este trabajo se estudió el crecimiento y la canal en corderos de la raza, para profundizar en su c [...] aracterización. Se han utilizado 10 corderos machos de parto simple inscritos en el Libro Genealógico de la raza, criados sólo con leche materna hasta la edad de sacrificio de 45 días. El crecimiento y las GMD son acordes con los resultados publicados en otros estudios sobre la raza, y a pesar de que ésta presenta un pequeño formato, entre los resultados obtenidos cabe destacar su alto rendimiento comercial (59%) así como un adecuado porcentaje en piezas de 1ª y 2ª categoría. Abstract in english The Ovella Galega is a endangered sheep breed and is protected by a Conservation and Recovery Programme, in order to keep the genetic variability. A growth and carcass study was made on Ovella Galega lambs, whose main objetive is its characterization. Ten male lambs from single birth and fed solely [...] on their mother´s milk, all of them registered in the Record of Births of Stud-Book, were slaughtered at 45 days old. The growth and average dayly gain are in accordance to results published in other breed studies. The results show a high commercial yield (59%), apart from appropriate percentages in 1st and 2nd market categories.
Vondrasek, R; Levand, A; Pardo, R; Savard, G; Scott, R
The Californium Rare Ion Breeder Upgrade (CARIBU) of the Argonne National Laboratory ATLAS facility will provide low-energy and reaccelerated neutron-rich radioactive beams for the nuclear physics program. A 70 mCi (252)Cf source produces fission fragments which are thermalized and collected by a helium gas catcher into a low-energy particle beam with a charge of 1+ or 2+. An electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source functions as a charge breeder in order to raise the ion charge sufficiently for acceleration in the ATLAS linac. The final CARIBU configuration will utilize a 1 Ci (252)Cf source to produce radioactive beams with intensities up to 10(6) ions?s for use in the ATLAS facility. The ECR charge breeder has been tested with stable beam injection and has achieved charge breeding efficiencies of 3.6% for (23)Na(8+), 15.6% for (84)Kr(17+), and 13.7% for (85)Rb(19+) with typical breeding times of 10 ms?charge state. For the first radioactive beams, a charge breeding efficiency of 11.7% has been achieved for (143)Cs(27+) and 14.7% for (143)Ba(27+). The project has been commissioned with a radioactive beam of (143)Ba(27+) accelerated to 6.1 MeV?u. In order to take advantage of its lower residual contamination, an EBIS charge breeder will replace the ECR charge breeder in the next two years. The advantages and disadvantages of the two techniques are compared taking into account the requirements of the next generation radioactive beam facilities. PMID:22380254
Vondrasek, R.; Levand, A.; Pardo, R.; Savard, G.; Scott, R.
The Californium Rare Ion Breeder Upgrade (CARIBU) of the Argonne National Laboratory ATLAS facility will provide low-energy and reaccelerated neutron-rich radioactive beams for the nuclear physics program. A 70 mCi 252Cf source produces fission fragments which are thermalized and collected by a helium gas catcher into a low-energy particle beam with a charge of 1+ or 2+. An electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source functions as a charge breeder in order to raise the ion charge sufficiently for acceleration in the ATLAS linac. The final CARIBU configuration will utilize a 1 Ci 252Cf source to produce radioactive beams with intensities up to 106 ions/s for use in the ATLAS facility. The ECR charge breeder has been tested with stable beam injection and has achieved charge breeding efficiencies of 3.6% for 23Na8+, 15.6% for 84Kr17+, and 13.7% for 85Rb19+ with typical breeding times of 10 ms/charge state. For the first radioactive beams, a charge breeding efficiency of 11.7% has been achieved for 143Cs27+ and 14.7% for 143Ba27+. The project has been commissioned with a radioactive beam of 143Ba27+ accelerated to 6.1 MeV/u. In order to take advantage of its lower residual contamination, an EBIS charge breeder will replace the ECR charge breeder in the next two years. The advantages and disadvantages of the two techniques are compared taking into account the requirements of the next generation radioactive beam facilities.
Luís Gabriel Alves Cirne
Full Text Available The experiment evaluated the effects of strategic shearing on feeding behavior in Ile de France ewes in Bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon grazing during breeding season. A total of 20 ewes, female, Ile de France breed, 4 years old, 71.10 kg of body weight, in grazing, in a completely randomized design with two treatments and ten repetitions, in which the treatments were composed by shorn and non-shorn animals. The length of the breeding season was 90 days, where the evaluations occurred in the 86th, 87th and 88th day of the experimental period. The grazing time (6.50 hours, rumination (1.59 hours and idle (3.97 hours have not changed (P> 0.05 by strategic shearing of the animals, as well as the frequency and the time by frequency grazing (18.33 grazing and 21.49 min/grazing, rumination (10.71 ruminations and 8.83 min/rumination and idle (18.83 idles and 12.66 min/idle. In the same way, the number of bits per minute (26.37 bits and the total daily bits (19.116 bits of the animals were not affected. Thus, the strategic shearing in Ile de France ewes in Bermudagrass grazing during the breeding season does not alter animal feeding behavior.
Full Text Available The investigations on the incidence and intensity of parasitism in some endoparasytes in sheep performed on 376 animals (260 sheep and 116 young adult sheep Turcana breed, Gil?u area, Cluj County, indicated an increased incidence in trihostrongilidys of 72.7% in young sheep and 65.0% in adult sheep. The incidence of monesya had different values ??depending on age group, 45.5% at young sheep and 10.0% in adult sheep. The data obtained regarding the prevalence of hepatobiliary trematodsys of sheep in the study, indicates similar values ??for the two categories, 27.2% young sheep and 30.0% for adult sheep. Instead the extensivity of lung strongilatosys showed notable differences between the two groups of animals, 18.1% at young sheep and 35.0% in adult sheep. The cop microscopic pollution degree with trihostrongily eggs in correlation with age group, indicated a dominance of low infestation (50% young sheep and 61.5% adult sheep. In exchange, the data obtained on parasitism intensity with cestode oncospheres expresses a dominance of medium infestation (60.0% in young sheep and the low (10.0% in adult sheep. The intensity level of Hepatobiliary trematodosys parasitism in the young sheep showed a dominance of small and medium infestations (37.5% and in adult sheep are dominant only at low infestations (45.4%. The larvae strongilatosys parasitism intensity in the lung detected similar values ??in the two age groups (50.0% in young sheep and 17.2% in adult sheep.
Ligda, C.; Mizeli, C.; Carson, A.; Duclos, D.; Haas, Y.; Kompan, D.; Bowles, D.; Georgoudis, A.
The sustainable use of farm animal genetic resources is connected with the recognition of their contribution to the society and the environment and the assessment of the threats they are facing. The category of the heritage breeds, which are genetically distinct, geographically concentrated, adapted to their environment, commercially farmed to contribute to the local economy were considered in the frame of the HERITAGESHEEP project. The aim of this project was to deliver the potential of the ...
The mineral requirements of dairy sheep under semi-intensive and intensive management systems are reviewed. Basically, mineral requirements obtained with mutton breeds are supplemented with specific information obtained with dairy sheep. The daily requirements of sheep in major elements have been estimated using the factorial method, first to calculate the net requirements during maintenance, growth, reproduction and lactation, and second to assess the efficiency of absorption for converting net requirements into dietary allowance. The requirements in trace elements were estimated from the results of feeding trials. The choice of values for endogenous losses and particularly the precision with which efficiency of absorption can be predicted are the main sources of error in estimates of dietary allowances, especially when efficiency of absorption is low. The net requirements in major elements are given for maintenance, pregnancy and lactation, together with the recommended coefficients of absorption. Dietary requirements in trace elements are expressed as milligram per kilogram dry matter. The requirements in all nutrients and particularly in Ca and P increase during late pregnancy, especially during lactation. The requirements during lactation mainly reflect milk composition, the level of milk yield and lactation length, but also the feed intake level. The factors related to the confinement, feeding and management of dairy breeds, which differ from those of mutton breeds, may affect their mineral requirements. Changes in husbandry practices resulting in increased production may increase the stress on the animal and therefore alter its metabolic equilibrium. Direct supplementation of the diet of dairy sheep is the cheapest and most convenient method of mineral supplementation. The cost is outweighed by the enhanced performance of sheep. Determination of the mineral composition of feedstuffs available for feeding dairy sheep indicates the type and level of mineral supplementation needed. (author)
Full Text Available The research was carried out on 4,030 Polish Merino ewes born in the years 1991- 2001, kept in 15 flocks from the Pomorze and Kujawy region. Fertility of ewes in subsequent reproduction seasons was analysed with the use of multiple logistic regression. The research showed that there is a statistical influence of the flock, year of birth, age of dam, flock year interaction of birth on the ewes fertility. In order to estimate the genetic parameters, the Gibbs sampling method was applied, using the univariate animal models, both linear as well as threshold. Estimates of fertility depending on the model equalled 0.067 to 0.104, whereas the estimates of repeatability equalled respectively: 0.076 and 0.139. The obtained genetic parameters were then used to estimate the breeding values of the animals in terms of controlled trait (Best Linear Unbiased Prediction method using linear and threshold models. The obtained animal breeding values rankings in respect of the same trait with the use of linear and threshold models were strongly correlated with each other (rs = 0.972. Negative genetic trends of fertility (0.01-0.08% per year were found.
Chessa, Bernado; Pereira, Filipe
The domestication of livestock represented a crucial step in human history. By using endogenous retroviruses as genetic markers, we found that sheep differentiated on the basis of their "retrotype" and morphological traits dispersed across Eurasia and Africa via separate migratory episodes. Relicts of the first migrations include the Mouflon, as well as breeds previously recognized as "primitive" on the basis of their morphology, such as the Orkney, Soay, and the Nordic short-tailed sheep now confined to the periphery of northwest Europe. A later migratory episode, involving sheep with improved production traits, shaped the great majority of present-day breeds. The ability to differentiate genetically primitive sheep from more modern breeds provides valuable insights into the history of sheep domestication
Evaluation of the interaction between nutrition and reproduction in Mediterranean sheep requires knowledge of the energy requirements of animals in different productive and reproductive stages. The available energy systems developed for temperate climates and genotypes are not directly applicable to Mediterranean breeds of dairy sheep. Using already available data, metabolizable energy requirements for these types of animals are proposed. (author). 59 refs, 9 tabs
Fabiano A. de, Oliveira; Sílvia H. N., Turco; Gherman G. L . de, Aaraújo; Carlos A. A., Clemente; Tadeu V., Voltolini; Marlon S., Garrido.
Full Text Available Com o objetivo de observar os efeitos do sombreamento propiciado pela tela de polipropileno sobre o comportamento de ovinos da raça Santa Inês em diferentes épocas do ano, montou-se um experimento em Petrolina, PE, no período de junho a novembro de 2010. Utilizaram-se 40 animais distribuídos em igua [...] l quantidade em dois tratamentos (Sombreado e Não sombreado) com oferta de pastagem (Tiffton 85) irrigada. Foram feitas aferições dos dados meteorológicos em todas as épocas, com a montagem de termômetros de globo negro e psicrômetros nas duas áreas e de uma mini-estação meteorológica na área sombreada. Nessas épocas foram realizados ensaios de comportamento tendo-se feito observações visuais pelo método da varredura instantânea em intervalos de 10 min no período diurno, verificando-se o percentual de animais quanto à alimentação, ruminação e ócio, a partir da metodologia proposta por Johnson & Combs (1991) adaptada para o tempo de 12h. O sombreamento não influenciou no número de animais em referência às atividades avaliadas nos diferentes tratamentos. A procura por sombra foi intensa nos períodos mais quentes do dia para a atividade de ócio. Abstract in english With the goal of observing the effects of shade provided by polypropylene screen on the behaviour of Santa Inês sheep, in different times of year, an experiment was set up in Petrolina, PE, in the period from June to November 2010. Forty animals divided into equal quantity in two treatments (shaded [...] and non-shaded) were used with supply of irrigated pastures (Tiffton 85). Measurements of meteorological data were made at all times, with the assembly of black globe thermometers and psychrometers in the two areas, and a mini-weather station, at the shaded area. Under these conditions a trials was carried out on behavior of animals, being made visual observations by the method of instantaneous scan at intervals of 10 min during the daytime period, checking the percentage of animals under food, rumination and leisure using the methodology proposed by Johnson & Combs (1991), adapted for a period of 12 h. The shading did not influence the number of animals under the activities evaluated in different treatments. The search for shade was intense in the hottest periods of the day for leisure activity.
Estimativas de componentes de (co)variância e herdabilidade direta e materna de pesos corporais em ovinos da raça Santa Inês / Estimates of (co) variance components and direct and maternal heritability for growth traits in Santa Inês sheep breed
Wandrick Hauss de, Sousa; Carmen Silva, Pereira; José Aurélio Garcia, Bergmann; Francisco Luiz Ribeiro da, Silva.
Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estimar os componentes de (co)variância e herdabilidade direta e materna de pesos corporais em ovinos da raça Santa Inês. Um total de 3971 registros de pesos de crias da raça Santa Inês, filhas de 114 reprodutores e 758 ovelhas, foi analisado, obtido de rebanhos experim [...] entais do SNPA da Embrapa, no período de 1983 a 1995. Componentes de covariância e parâmetros genéticos resultantes de efeito genético aditivo direto, efeitos genético materno e de ambiente permanente, bem como a covariância entre esses efeitos, para peso ao nascer (PN), aos 112 (P112) e 196 dias de idade (P196), foram estimados pelo método da máxima verossimilhança restrita (REML), usando o aplicativo MTDFREML sob modelo animal. Incluindo ou não efeitos genéticos materno ou de ambiente materno permanente, bem como a covariância genética entre os efeitos direto e materno, cinco diferentes modelos de análises foram usados para determinar o modelo mais apropriado para descrever cada uma das características. Em geral, o modelo mais completo (modelo 4) foi o que apresentou maior valor para logaritmo da função de verossimilhança (log de L) para todas características estudadas. Quando efeitos maternos foram excluidos, estimativas de herdabilidade direta foram substancialmente inflacionadas (0,31 a 0,37). Efeitos maternos foram importantes para todas as características, mesmo as medidas após o desmame. Correlações genéticas entre os efeitos direto e materno para PN e P112 foram negativas e de baixa magnitude (-0,31 a - 0,10), porém, para P196, estes valores foram positivos e de alta magnitude (0,67 a 0,98). A exclusão dos efeitos maternos, quando importantes, resultou em superestimativa das herdabilidade. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to estimate the (co) variance components and direct and maternal heritability of the body weights of sheep of Santa Inês breed. A total of 3,771 lambs weights records of the Santa Inês hair sheep breed, progenies of 114 sires, and 758 ewes were analyzed, obtained from [...] experimental herds of EMBRAPA - SNPA from 1985 to 1995. The covariance components and genetic parameters from additive genetic effects, maternal and permanent environmental effects, as well as the covariance between those effects for birth weight (BW), weight at 112 (W112) and weight at 196 days of age (W196), were estimated by Restricted Maximum Likelihood (REML) using MTDFREML program, under animal model. Including or not the maternal genetic effect or permanent environmental effect, as well as the genetic covariance between the direct and maternal effects, five different animal models were used to determine the most appropriate model for each trait. In general, the most comprehensive model (Model 4) was the one that presented the greatest value for the maximum log likelihood function (log of L) for all studied traits. When maternal effects were excluded, estimates of direct heritabilities were substantially inflated (.31 to .37). The maternal effects were important for all traits, even those that were measured after weaning. Genetic correlation between direct and maternal effects for BW and W112 were negative and low (from -.31 to -.10), however, for W196 this value was positive and high (from .67 to .98). The exclusion of the maternal effects, when they are important, resulted in overestimates of heritability.
Annett, R W; Carson, A F; Dawson, L E R; Kilpatrick, D J
The objectives of this study were to investigate the effect of dietary lipid source on the growth and carcass characteristics of lambs sourced from a range of crossbred hill ewes. Over a 2-year period, 466 lambs representing the progeny of Scottish Blackface (BF × BF), Swaledale (SW) × BF, North Country Cheviot (CH) × BF, Lleyn (LL) × BF and Texel (T) × BF ewes were sourced from six commercial hill flocks and finished on one of four diets: grass pellets (GP), cereal-based concentrate (CC), CC enriched with oilseed rape (CR) and CC enriched with fish oil (CF). Dry matter intake (DMI) was highest (P < 0.001) in lambs offered GP; however, carcass weight gain (CWG) and feed conversion efficiency were higher (P < 0.001) in lambs fed concentrate-based diets. For lambs offered concentrate-based diets, DMI and live weight gain were lower (P < 0.001) for CF than CC or CR. Lambs with T × BF dams achieved a higher (P < 0.05) daily CWG and CWG/kg DMI than BF × BF, SW × BF or LL × BF dams. When lambs were slaughtered at fat score 3, CH × BF, LL × BF and T × BF dams increased carcass weight by 0.8 to 1.4 kg (P < 0.001) and conformation score (CS) by 0.2 to 0.4 units (P < 0.001) compared with BF × BF or SW × BF dams. However, breed effects on carcass conformation were reduced by 50% when lambs were slaughtered at a constant carcass weight. Diets CC and CR increased carcass weight by 0.8 to 1.6 kg (P < 0.001) and CS by 0.1 to 0.3 units (P < 0.001) compared with GP and CF. Both, dam breed and dietary effects on carcass conformation were associated with an increase (P < 0.001) in shoulder width of the lambs. Lambs fed CF and slaughtered at a constant carcass weight had more subcutaneous fat over the Longissumus dorsi (P < 0.05), Iliocostalis thoracis (P < 0.001) and Obliquus internus abdominis (P < 0.001) compared with those fed CC. However, these effects were removed when lambs were slaughtered at a constant fat score. At both endpoints, lambs from T × BF dams contained less (P < 0.05) perinephric and retroperitoneal fat than SW × BF or LL × BF dams fed GP or CC, respectively. The results from this study show that using crossbred ewes sired by CH, LL or T sires will increase carcass weight and improve carcass conformation of lambs sourced from hill flocks. Inclusion of oilseed rape in lamb finishing diets had only minor effects on performance compared with a standard CC but feeding fish oil or GP impacted negatively on lamb growth and carcass quality. PMID:22440098
Bayón Yolanda; San Primitivo Fermín; Molina Antonio; Brito Nuno; Arranz Juan-José; Pedrosa Susana
Abstract Mitochondrial DNA diversity was analysed in 19 Iberian and six foreign sheep breeds. Three mtDNA lineages (B, A and C) were found in the Iberian sheep, with type B clearly predominating over the others. The results were analysed for each of the morphologically determined breed groups in Iberian sheep: Merino, Entrefino, Churro and Iberian trunks. MtDNA lineage C was found only in the Iberian trunk composed of Montesina and Ojalada. These two populations had high mtDNA variability, an...
A total of 6440 female sheep from Burkina Faso were scored for seven body measurements and four qualitative morphological traits. Sampling included the three main environmental areas and sheep breeds of Burkina Faso: the Sahel area (Burkina-Sahel sheep), the Sudan- Sahel area (Mossi sheep) and the Sudan area (Djallonke sheep). Canonical analyses showed that differences in body measurements between the Sudan and the Sudan-Sahel sheep were small even though most body traits showed higher average values in the Burkina-Sahel sheep: the shortest Mahalanobis distance was found between the Sudan and the Sudan-Sahel populations (1.54), whilst that between the Sudan and the Sahelian populations was the largest (7.88). Discriminant analysis showed that most Sudan (Djallonke) individuals (60.85%) were classified as Sudan-Sahel (Mossi) individuals whilst most Burkina-Sahel individuals were classified into their environmental area of sampling (89.5%). Correspondence analyses indicated that the Burkina-Sahel sheep population clustered together with dropping ears, black and brown colour patterns and presence of wattles, the Sudan sheep were closely associated with long hair and vertical and curled ears and that the Sudan-Sahel sheep did not have clear associations with qualitative phenotypic traits. At the morphological level, the Sudan-Sahel (Mossi) sheep population can be considered a geographical subpopulation belonging to the Djallonke breed, showing some particularities, namelyreed, showing some particularities, namely larger body size, due to the particular environmental condition of the area in which it is managed and a continuous gene flow from Sahelian sheep, The information reported in this study will be the basis for the establishment of further characterization, conservation and selection strategies for Burkina Faso sheep. (author)
Bhanuprakash, V; Venkatesan, G; Balamurugan, V; Hosamani, M; Yogisharadhya, R; Chauhan, R S; Pande, A; Mondal, B; Singh, R K
Sheeppox and goatpox outbreaks occur often in India incurring huge economic loss to the small ruminant industry. This paper describes two sheeppox outbreaks, of which one occurred in an organized sheep breeding farm at Makhdoom (Uttar Pradesh), India, during 2007 and another in goats at the Central Institute of Research on Goats, Makhdoom (Uttar Pradesh), India during 2008. In the first outbreak, a local Muzaffarnagari sheep breed was affected (n=477) with morbidity and mortality rates, respectively, of 100% and 53.9% accompanied by significant productivity losses. In the 2008 outbreaks, a small number of goats were affected without any mortality. The tissue and swabs collected from both the outbreaks were processed and inoculated onto Vero cells, and the causative agent of the outbreaks, capripox virus (CaPV), was isolated. The identity of the virus was confirmed as CaPV based on electron microscopy, experimental pathogenesis in sheep, capripox-specific conventional and real-time PCRs. Sequence analysis of the P32 envelope protein gene revealed that the causative agent of both outbreaks was confirmed as sheeppox virus (SPPV) implying SPPV infection not only in sheep but also goats in India. PMID:20673232
Modelos linear e não linear em análises genéticas para sobrevivência de crias de ovinos da raça Santa Inês Linear and nonlinear models in genetic analyses of lamb survival in the Santa Inês hair sheep breed
Full Text Available Registros de sobrevivência do nascimento ao desmame de 3846 crias de ovinos da raça Santa Inês foram analisados por modelos de reprodutor linear e não linear (modelo de limiar, para estimar componentes de variância e herdabilidade. Os modelos usados para sobrevivência, analisada como característica da cria, incluíram os efeitos fixos de sexo, da combinação tipo de nascimento-criação da cria e da idade da ovelha ao parto, efeito da covariável peso da cria ao nascer e efeitos aleatórios de reprodutor, da classe rebanho-ano-estação e do resíduo. Componentes de variância para o modelo linear foram estimados pelo método da máxima verossimilhança restrita (REML e para o modelo não linear por uma aproximação da máxima verossimilhança marginal (MML, pelo programa CMMAT2. O coeficiente de herdabilidade (h² estimado pelo modelo de limiar foi de 0,29, e pelo modelo linear, 0,14. A correlação de ordem de Spearman entre as capacidades de transmissão dos reprodutores, com base nos dois modelos foi de 0,96. As estimativas de h² obtidas indicam a possibilidade de se obter, por seleção, ganho genético para sobrevivência.Records of 3,846 lambs survival from birth to weaning of Santa Inês hair sheep breed, were analyzed by linear and non linear sire models (threshold model to estimate variance components and heritability (h². The models that were used to analyze survival, considered in this study as a lamb trait, included the fixed effects of sex of the lamb, combination of type of birth-rearing of lamb, and age of ewe, birth weight of lamb as covariate, and random effects of sire, herd-year-season and residual. Variance components were obtained using restricted maximum likelihood (REML, in linear model and marginal maximum likelihood in threshold model through CMMAT2 program. Estimate of heritability (h² obtained by threshold model was 0.29 and by linear model was 0.14. Rank correlation of Spearman, between sire solutions based on the two models was 0.96. The obtained estimates in this study indicate that it is possible to acquire genetic gain to survival by selection.
Lindroos, M; Wenander, F J C
The development of an efficient charge breeding scheme for the next generation of RIB facilities will have a strong impact on the post-accelerator for several Radioactive Ion Beam (RIB) projects at European large scale facilities. At ISOLDE/CERN there will be the unique possibility to carry out experiments with the two possible charge breeding set-ups with a large variety of radioactive isotopes using identical injection conditions. One charge breeding set-up is the Penning trap/EBIS combination which feeds the REX-ISOLDE linear accelerator and which is in commissioning now. The second charge breeder is a new ECRIS PHOENIX developed at the ISN ion source laboratory at Grenoble. This ECRIS is now under investigation with a 14 GHz amplifier to characterize its performance. The experiments are accompanied by theoretical studies in computer simulations in order to optimize the capture of the ions in the ECRIS plasma. A second identical PHOENIX ECRIS which is under investigation at the Daresbury Laboratory is avai...
Kassa, Beneberu Teferra; Haile, Anteneh Girma; Essa, John Abdu
In order to assess and identify the determinants of sheep price and price variation across time, a time series data were collected from four selected markets in North Shewa, Northeastern Ethiopia on weekly market day basis for a period of 2 years. Data on animal characteristics and purpose of buying were collected on a weekly basis from randomly selected 15-25 animals, and a total of 7,976 transactions were recorded. A general linear model technique was used to identify factors influencing sheep price, and the results showed that sheep price (liveweight sheep price per kilogram taken as a dependent variable) is affected by animal characteristics such as weight, sex, age, condition, season, and color. Most of the markets' purpose for which the animal was purchased did not affect significantly the price per kilogram. This may be due to the similarity of the markets in terms of buyer's purpose. The results suggest that there will be benefit from coordinated fattening, breeding, and marketing programs to take the highest advantage from the preferred animals' characteristics and selected festival markets. Finally, the study recommends for a coordinated action to enhance the benefit generated for all participant actors in the sheep value chain through raising sheep productivity, improving the capacity of sheep producers and agribusiness entrepreneurs to access and use latest knowledge and technologies; and strengthening linkages among actors in the sheep value chain. PMID:21465103
Bai, Ding-ping; Yu, Cheng-jiang; Chen, Yu-lin.
Full Text Available Arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AA-NAT) is critical enzyme in Melatonin (MLT) biosynthesis for MLT regulating the animal seasonal breeding. In this study, DNA sequencing methods were applied to detect the polymorphisms of the AA-NAT gene in 179 Chinese sheep belonging to two non-seasonal reprodu [...] ction breeds and two seasonal reproduction breeds. One mutation at exon 3 (NM_001009461:c.486A > G) was ?rstly described at the sheep AA-NAT locus. Hence, we described the SmaI PCR-RFLP method for detecting EX3 486A > G mutation, frequencies of the AA-NAT-G allele varied from 0.871 to 0.908 in two non-seasonal reproduction breeds and 0.517 to 0.578 in two seasonal reproduction breeds. The associations of SmaI polymorphism with estrus traits was analyzed in non-seasonal reproduction breeds sheep and seasonal reproduction breeds sheep, the signi?cant statistical results were found between them, the GG genotype frequencies was higher in non-seasonal reproduction breeds (p G mutation could facilitate association analysis and serve as a genetic marker for Chinese sheep breeding and genetics.
Manuel Antônio Chagas, Jacinto; Fernando Miranda de, Vargas Junior; Charles Ferreira, Martins; Guilherme dos Santos, Pinto; Fernando Alvarenga, Reis; Alexandra Rocha de, Oliveira.
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of crossings between sheep breeds on the intrinsic quality of leather. It was used the skins of 36 lambs (18 females and 18 males), resulting from crosses between ewes of a native breed from the Brazilian state of Mato Grosso do Sul and rams [...] of the same native breed as well as the Texel and Santa Inês genetic groups. The animals were raised in confinement until slaughter weight, from 28 to 32 kg. After slaughter, samples were taken from the skins for histological analysis. The skins were tanned with chromium, retanned and greased. It was taken from the leather samples for electromicrographs and for tests for tensile and tear strength (intrinsic quality). Morphological aspects from the skin as well as from the leather help to understand the results found and they evidence that breeds or crossings among breeds interfere in the intrinsic quality of leather and skin of sheep.
Manuel Antônio Chagas Jacinto
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of crossings between sheep breeds on the intrinsic quality of leather. It was used the skins of 36 lambs (18 females and 18 males, resulting from crosses between ewes of a native breed from the Brazilian state of Mato Grosso do Sul and rams of the same native breed as well as the Texel and Santa Inês genetic groups. The animals were raised in confinement until slaughter weight, from 28 to 32 kg. After slaughter, samples were taken from the skins for histological analysis. The skins were tanned with chromium, retanned and greased. It was taken from the leather samples for electromicrographs and for tests for tensile and tear strength (intrinsic quality. Morphological aspects from the skin as well as from the leather help to understand the results found and they evidence that breeds or crossings among breeds interfere in the intrinsic quality of leather and skin of sheep.
Full Text Available The West African sheep was originated in the West African countries, brought to Sudan in 1930. These breeds include (Uda, Sankara and Weila strains. They are normally reared to gather as mixed pastoral flocks, followed different routes during summer and autumn seasons. In the first phase of this study 75 females and 10 males were selected with typical characteristics of the breed, brought to the University of Nyala experimental farm. In the second phase basic information from tribal breeders and their sheep flocks were collected. For each phase flock statistics were recorded and then some reproductive and productive traits were estimated. Season and age effect on mortality of sheep flock was estimated. Likewise feed lot experiment was done to examine the possibility of sheep for improvement of meat production. Body length, heart girth, height at withers and chest depth were measured for lambs at birth to one year age and similar measurements were taken for adult flocks.
The title page of Chapter 9 in Fundamentals of Physics (Halliday, Resnick, and Walker, 8th Edition, p. 201) shows a dramatic photograph of two Big Horn sheep butting heads and promises to explain how sheep survive such violent clashes without serious injury. However, the answer presented in sample problem 9-4 (p. 213) errs in presuming an interaction time of 0.27 s which results in an unrealistically long stopping distance of 0.62 m. Furthermore, the assertion that the horns provide necessary cushioning of the blow is inconsistent with the absence of concussions in domestic breeds of hornless sheep. Results from traumatic brain injury (TBI) research allow acceleration tolerance of sheep to be estimated as 450 g facilitating an analysis of sheep collisions that is more consistent with available observations (stopping distance less than 1 cm, impact time of roughly 2 ms).
Sheep scrapie susceptibility or resistance is a function of genotype with polymorphisms at codon 171 in the sheep prion gene playing a major role. Glutamine (Q) at 171 contributes to scrapie susceptibility while arginine (R) is associated with resistance. In some breeds, lysine (K) occurs at codon 1...
Full Text Available Abstract Background The progression of scrapie is known to be influenced by the amino acid polymorphisms of the host prion protein (PrP gene. There is no breeding programme for TSE resistance in sheep in Finland, but a scrapie control programme has been in place since 1995. In this study we have analysed PrP genotypes of total of 928 purebred and crossbred sheep together with the data of scrapie survey carried out in Finland during 2002–2008 in order to gain knowledge of the genotype distribution and scrapie prevalence in Finnish sheep. Results The ARQ/ARQ genotype was the most common genotype in all breeds studied. ARR allele frequency was less than 12% in purebred Finnish sheep and in most genotypes heterozygous for ARR, the second allele was ARQ. The VRQ allele was not detected in the Grey race sheep of Kainuu or in the Aland sheep, and it was present in less than 6% of the Finnish Landrace sheep. Leucine was the most prominent amino acid found in codon 141. In addition, one novel prion dimorphisms of Q220L was detected. During the scrapie survey of over 15 000 sheep in 2002–2008, no classical scrapie cases and only five atypical scrapie cases were detected. Conclusions The results indicate that the Finnish sheep populations have genetically little resistance to classical scrapie, but no classical scrapie was detected during an extensive survey in 2002–2008. However, five atypical scrapie cases emerged; thus, the disease is present in the Finnish sheep population at a low level.
Lalatta-Costerbosa, Giovanna; Mazzoni, Maurizio; Clavenzani, Paolo; Di Guardo, Giovanni; Mazzuoli, Gemma; Marruchella, Giuseppe; De Grossi, Luigi; Agrimi, Umberto; Chiocchetti, Roberto
Until now, significant differences in the neurochemical pattern of enteric neurons have been demonstrated in all species studied; however, some strong similarities also occur across species, such as the occurrence of nitric oxide synthase immunoreactivity (NOS-IR) in inhibitory motor neurons to muscle. In consideration of the insufficient data regarding the enteric nervous system (ENS) of sheep, we investigated the myenteric plexus and submucosal plexus of the ovine ileum. Since the pivotal role of the ENS in the early pathogenesis of sheep scrapie, the "prototype" of prion diseases, has been suggested, we have focused our observations also on the host's PrP genotype. We have studied the morphology and distribution of NOS-IR neurons and their relationships with the enteric glia in whole-mount preparations and in cryostat sections. NOS-IR neurons, always encircled by glial processes, were located in both plexuses. Many NOS-IR fibers were seen in the circular muscle layer, in the submucosa, and in the mucosa. In the submucosa they were close to the lymphoid tissue. No differences in the distribution and percentage of NOS-IR fibers and neurons were observed among sheep carrying different PrP genotype, thus making unlikely their contribution in the determinism of susceptibility/resistance to scrapie infection. PMID:17210925
Lei, Gao; Min, Shen; Shangquan, Gan; Jingquan, Yang; Yiyuan, Zhang
The CCNG1 gene encodes cyclin G1, which is an important cell cycle regulator and has been reported to be involved in reproductive biological processes, such as oocyte maturation and granule cell proliferation in mammals. But the study of CCNG1 in sheep has been rarely reported. To examine the effects of CCNG1 on estrous control and seasonal breeding in sheep, we first cloned and characterized the expression level of the sheep CCNG1 gene. Then by Real-time PCR, we detected and analyzed the expressions of CCNG1 gene at mRNA levels in the hypothalamus-pituitary-ovary (HPO) axis in different stages of an estrous cycle in Duo Lang sheep (non-seasonal breeding) and Merino sheep (seasonal breeding). The results showed that the open reading frame of the sheep CCNG1 gene is 885 bp in length and encodes 294 amino acids. Bioinformatic analysis indicated that the secondary structure of the sheep CCNG1 protein contained multiple phosphorylation sites and some Protein Kinase C phosphorylation sites. CCNG1 mRNA was identified in all tissues tested, with the levels in ovary and kidney higher than others. The expression profiles of CCNG1 in the HPO axis in different stages of an estrous cycle were similar in different sheep breeds: the expression levels of CCNG1 in the ovary, uterus, pineal gland and pituitary gland all peaked in the estrus phase. But there were significant differences for expression change extent of CCNG1 in ovaries in the oestrus and metestrus phase between different sheep breeds. The results suggested that CCNG1 probably participated in the regulation of estrous behavior and seasonal reproduction through controling the growth and development of follicles in sheep. PMID:25881703
Full Text Available The aim of the research was to learn from a survey about the production and economic characteristics of sheep production as well as economic position and developmental orientation of sheep breeders on the island of Pag. Data on production and economic characteristics of sheep production on the island of Pag were collected from a survey and processed through relevant descriptive statistics methods. The respondents have on average 47 breeding sheep, 2 rams and 9 sheep intended for flock renewal rate (not older than one year; which means an average flock has 58 sheep. The average total income from sheep production in 2009 was 72,460.10 HRK. The average total production costs in 2009 were 13,260.10 HRK, including the costs of fodder and veterinary services. All farms achieved positive financial results of 59,199.90 HRK in average. As many as three quarters of respondents indicated profitability of sheep production as the main motivation to engage in sheep production; very few indicated that heritage and inability to do other jobs were the main motivation. Important limiting factors for future development of sheep breeding on the island of Pag in most farms are lack of potential heirs and high average age of farm holders. Regarding the effects of joining the European Union, half the breeders intend to improve their production and harmonise it with the EU requirements and standards; one quarter of them intend to keep the existing production capacity; and another quarter intend to quit with production.
Full Text Available The research done in this paper was made in Transylvania and Banat. The autochthon domestic endangered animal breeds were inventoried, zonal maps on where to encounter these breeds being drawn. The list of these species contains: the gray cattle, the Mocanitza (the mountain breed sheep, the Transylvanian Pinzgau, the black Pinzgau, the Transylvanian bull, the Nonius horse, the Western mountain hores breed, the Mangalitza breed, the Bazna breed, the black of Strei, the Transylvanian Merino, the curly haired sheep of Banat, the white goat of Banat, the hound of Ardeal region. In the last 20 years, in these species there was a significant drop in numbers and, in some cases, even in quality. If urgent measures to preserve these species will not be taken, there is a possibility that in the next 10 years, some of them will disappear. The protection plans for these breeds are, in the majority of the cases, just simple projects that no one is applying. Since 2007, in the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine there is a Data Base to monitor the native domestic animals from the western area of Romania. The data from this data base are used by farmers, pickers and specialists from the food industry.
Electron beam was used to irradiate different flowers and plants. The results showed that the suitable doses were 30-50 Gy for the young plant from cultured tissue of chrysanthemum, 60-80 Gy for gladiolus and 15-60 Gy for lily. In these dose range, the posterity had higher variation and wider mutation range, and mutation characters were stable. The mutation rates were 18.2%-30.8% for chrysanthemum, 8.7%-30.8% for gladiolus and more than 35% for lily. The blossom were 60, 21, 10 days earlier than the check for chrysanthemum, gladiolus and lily respectively. But the mutation rate of color varied greatly with different varieties
Full Text Available Milk and dairy products are an essential food and an economic resource in many countries. Milk component synthesis and secretion by the mammary gland involve expression of a large number of genes whose nutritional regulation remains poorly defined. The purpose of this study was to gain an understanding of the genomic influence on milk quality and synthesis by comparing two sheep breeds with different milking attitude (Sarda and Gentile di Puglia using sheep-specific microarray technology. From sheep ESTs deposited at NCBI, we have generated the first annotated microarray developed for sheep with a coverage of most of the genome.
Efeitos da oferta de forragem, do método de pastejo, dos dias de avaliação e da raça no comportamento e temperamento de ovinos Effect of forage supply, methods of grazing, evaluation days and breed on the behavior and the temperament of sheep
José Manuel Díaz Gómez
Full Text Available Objetivou-se estudar comportamento e o temperamento de ovinos de três raças (Suffolk, Texel, Ile de France submetidas a dois métodos de pastejo (contínuo e rotacionado, com duas ofertas de forragem (10 e 20 kg de MS de pastagem de azevém/100 kg de peso vivo/dia durante quatro avaliações, entre agosto e novembro de 2006. Utilizou-se o delineamento completamente casualizado em parcelas subsubdivididas, de modo que os métodos de pastejo e as ofertas de forragem constituíram as parcelas, as raças as subparcelas e os dias de avaliação as subsubparcelas. Foram utilizadas 48 fêmeas ovinas com peso médio inicial de 27,59 kg e idade entre 15 e 25 meses. Na avaliação do temperamento, efetuaram-se medidas comportamentais pelo teste de arena, tipo de marcha e tempo de fuga e atributos fisiológicos, como temperatura corporal e frequências cardiorrespiratórias. No método contínuo com baixa oferta de forragem, observou-se maior número de micções. Conforme as avaliações ocorreram, houve aumento da movimentação, das tentativas de fuga, mas menor número de vocalizações durante o isolamento. A raça Ile de France apresentou maior número de tentativas de fuga e de dejeções durante o isolamento. No pastejo rotacionado com alta oferta de forragem, o ganho de peso foi menor. A movimentação no isolamento e na presença do observador foi negativamente relacionada ao ganho de peso. As variáveis descritoras do temperamento apresentaram baixa repetibilidade. O temperamento dos ovinos foi modificado principalmente pelo dia de avaliação e pela raça, ao contrário do sistema de pastejo e da oferta de pasto, embora esses fatores tenham apresentado interação com os dias de avaliação e a raça do animal.This work aimed to study the temperament and the behavior of three sheep breeds (Suffolk, Texel, Ile de France submitted to two grazing methods (continuous and rotational with two forage supplies (10 and 20 kg of Italian ryegrass DM/100 kg body weight/day during four evaluations from August to November 2006. A random block design was used with split-plots, so the grazing methods and forage supplies were the plots, breeds were the sub-plots, and days of evaluation were the sub-sub-plots. It was used 48 ewe lambs with 27.59 kg of initial weight at 15 to 25 months of age. For evaluation of temperament, behavioral measures were taken by the arena test, and qualitative and quantitative flight time test, and physiological attributes such as body temperature and cardiorespiratory rates. For continuous method with low forage supply, it was observed a higher number of urination events. As evaluations were carried out, physical activity and flight events increased, but number of vocalization decreased during social isolation. Ile de France breed showed higher number of flight attempts and excretion events during social isolation. In the rotational grazing method with high forage supply, weight gain was lower. Physical activity during social isolation and at the observer presence was negatively related to weight gain. Variables used to describe the temperament showed low consistency. The temperament of sheep is mainly affected by evaluation day and breed, unlike grazing method and forage supply, although these factors show interaction with evaluation days and breed.
Efeitos da oferta de forragem, do método de pastejo, dos dias de avaliação e da raça no comportamento e temperamento de ovinos / Effect of forage supply, methods of grazing, evaluation days and breed on the behavior and the temperament of sheep
José Manuel Díaz, Gómez; Vivian, Fischer; César Henrique Espírito Candal, Poli; Paulo César de Faccio, Carvalho; Eliezer José, Pegoraro; Stefani, Macari.
Full Text Available Objetivou-se estudar comportamento e o temperamento de ovinos de três raças (Suffolk, Texel, Ile de France) submetidas a dois métodos de pastejo (contínuo e rotacionado), com duas ofertas de forragem (10 e 20 kg de MS de pastagem de azevém/100 kg de peso vivo/dia) durante quatro avaliações, entre ag [...] osto e novembro de 2006. Utilizou-se o delineamento completamente casualizado em parcelas subsubdivididas, de modo que os métodos de pastejo e as ofertas de forragem constituíram as parcelas, as raças as subparcelas e os dias de avaliação as subsubparcelas. Foram utilizadas 48 fêmeas ovinas com peso médio inicial de 27,59 kg e idade entre 15 e 25 meses. Na avaliação do temperamento, efetuaram-se medidas comportamentais pelo teste de arena, tipo de marcha e tempo de fuga e atributos fisiológicos, como temperatura corporal e frequências cardiorrespiratórias. No método contínuo com baixa oferta de forragem, observou-se maior número de micções. Conforme as avaliações ocorreram, houve aumento da movimentação, das tentativas de fuga, mas menor número de vocalizações durante o isolamento. A raça Ile de France apresentou maior número de tentativas de fuga e de dejeções durante o isolamento. No pastejo rotacionado com alta oferta de forragem, o ganho de peso foi menor. A movimentação no isolamento e na presença do observador foi negativamente relacionada ao ganho de peso. As variáveis descritoras do temperamento apresentaram baixa repetibilidade. O temperamento dos ovinos foi modificado principalmente pelo dia de avaliação e pela raça, ao contrário do sistema de pastejo e da oferta de pasto, embora esses fatores tenham apresentado interação com os dias de avaliação e a raça do animal. Abstract in english This work aimed to study the temperament and the behavior of three sheep breeds (Suffolk, Texel, Ile de France) submitted to two grazing methods (continuous and rotational) with two forage supplies (10 and 20 kg of Italian ryegrass DM/100 kg body weight/day) during four evaluations from August to No [...] vember 2006. A random block design was used with split-plots, so the grazing methods and forage supplies were the plots, breeds were the sub-plots, and days of evaluation were the sub-sub-plots. It was used 48 ewe lambs with 27.59 kg of initial weight at 15 to 25 months of age. For evaluation of temperament, behavioral measures were taken by the arena test, and qualitative and quantitative flight time test, and physiological attributes such as body temperature and cardiorespiratory rates. For continuous method with low forage supply, it was observed a higher number of urination events. As evaluations were carried out, physical activity and flight events increased, but number of vocalization decreased during social isolation. Ile de France breed showed higher number of flight attempts and excretion events during social isolation. In the rotational grazing method with high forage supply, weight gain was lower. Physical activity during social isolation and at the observer presence was negatively related to weight gain. Variables used to describe the temperament showed low consistency. The temperament of sheep is mainly affected by evaluation day and breed, unlike grazing method and forage supply, although these factors show interaction with evaluation days and breed.
Cockett Noelle E
Full Text Available Abstract Genetic strategies to improve the profitability of sheep operations have generally focused on traits for reproduction. However, natural mutations exist in sheep that affect muscle growth and development, and the exploitation of these mutations in breeding strategies has the potential to significantly improve lamb-meat quality. The best-documented mutation for muscle development in sheep is callipyge (CLPG, which causes a postnatal muscle hypertrophy that is localized to the pelvic limbs and loin. Enhanced skeletal muscle growth is also observed in animals with the Carwell (or rib-eye muscling mutation, and a double-muscling phenotype has been documented for animals of the Texel sheep breed. However, the actual mutations responsible for these muscular hypertrophy phenotypes in sheep have yet to be identified, and further characterization of the genetic basis for these phenotypes will provide insight into the biological control of muscle growth and body composition.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Following EU decision 2003/100/EC Member States have recently implemented sheep breeding programmes to reduce the prevalence of sheep with TSE susceptible prion genotypes. The present paper investigates the progress of the breeding programme in the Netherlands. The PrP genotype frequencies were monitored through time using two sets of random samples: one set covers the years 2005 to 2008 and is taken from national surveillance programme; the other is taken from 168 random sheep farms in 2007. The data reveal that although the level of compliance to the breeding programme has been high, the frequency of susceptible genotypes varies substantially between farms. The 168 sheep farms are a subset of 689 farms participating in a postal survey inquiring about management and breeding strategies. This survey aimed to identify how much these strategies varied between farms, in order to inform assessment of the expected future progress towards eradication of classical scrapie. Results On the one hand, we found that compliance to the national breeding program has been high, and the frequency of resistant genotypes is expected to increase further in the next few years. On the other hand, we observed a large variation in prevalence of the scrapie resistant PrP genotype ARR between farms, implicating a large variation of genetic resistance between farms. Substantial between-flock differences in management and breeding strategies were found in the postal survey, suggesting considerable variation in risk of scrapie transmission between farms. Conclusions Our results show that although there has been a good progress in the breeding for scrapie resistance and the average farm-level scrapie susceptibility in the Netherlands has been significantly reduced, still a considerable proportion of farms contain high frequencies of susceptible genotypes in their sheep population. Since 2007 the breeding for genetic resistance is voluntarily again, and participation to selective breeding can decrease as a result of this. This, together with the patterns of direct and indirect contact between sheep farms, might present a challenge of the aim of scrapie eradication. Communication to sheep owners of the effect of the breeding programme thus far, and of the prospects for classical scrapie eradication in The Netherlands might be essential for obtaining useful levels of participation to the voluntary continuation of the breeding programme.
This online Flash game gets learners thinking like geneticists in order to breed a border collie puppy with select traits, including coat color, coat length, and ear length. Progressive levels of play encourage learners as they move from novice to master breeders. Learners can click on the Why button to learn more about genes and dog breeding.
Apricot orchard area and fruit production are increasing worldwide. Breeding programs engage in apricot development to provide new varieties to meet needs of producers and consumers. Over the last 20 years, breeders have used new techniques to assist in variety development and to increase breeding...
Full Text Available From 40 healthy sheep breeding in good conditions of hygiene and feeding belonging to particular herds from the West side of the country were been taken blood samples in most important seasons of the year: in spring, before pasturage period and in autumn, after pasturage period. Sheep were been periodically preventive treated against parasites and were clinically healthy. Were been followed haematological parameters like haemogram (number of erithrocytes, haemoglobin, haematocrit, erithrocytic indexes, leucogram (number of leucocytes, leucocytic formula and those blood biochemicals indexes (total seric proteins, proteic fractions, glucose, uric acid, GPT, creatinin, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium. The obtain values in spring season were smaller in comparison with those from autumn as a result of less favourable conditions in winter, when sheep can't have the same benefits like in warm season, with high quality fresh food and life conditions. This fact is emphasized in these sheep obtained productions.
A consumer-responsive goal of the sheep industry is consistent production of uniform, safe, nutritious, lean lamb that results in an enjoyable and pleasant eating experience. Important differences may exist between breeds of sheep for traits that affect consumer perceptions of lamb quality. Theref...
Wernike, Kerstin; Hoffmann, Bernd
Since late 2011, a novel orthobunyavirus, named Schmallenberg virus (SBV), has been implicated in many cases of severely malformed bovine and ovine offspring in Europe. In adult cattle, SBV is known to cause a mild transient disease; clinical signs include short febrile episodes, decreased milk production and diarrhoea for a few days. However, the knowledge about clinical signs and pathogenesis in adult sheep is limited.In the present study, adult sheep of European domestic breeds were inoculated with SBV either as cell culture grown virus or as virus with no history of passage in cell cultures. Various experimental set-ups were used. Sampling included blood collection at different time points during the experimental period and selected organ material at autopsy.Data from this study showed, that the RNAemic period in sheep was as short as reported for cattle; viral genome was detectable for about 3–5 days by real-time RT-PCR. In total, 13 out of 30 inoculated sheep became RNAemic, with the highest viral load in animals inoculated with virus from low cell culture passaged or the animal passaged material. Contact animals remained negative throughout the study. One RNAemic sheep showed diarrhoea for several days, but fever was not recorded in any of the animals. Antibodies were first detectable 10–14 days post inoculation. Viral RNA was detectable in spleen and lymph nodes up to day 44 post inoculation.In conclusion, as described for cattle, SBV-infection in adult sheep predominantly results in subclinical infection, transient RNAemia and a specific antibody response. Maintenance of viral RNA in the lymphoreticular system is observed for an extended period.
Pilot study for feeding preferences and grazing behavior in two breeds of sheep on a secondary succession of the Chiloé Archipelago / Estudio piloto para preferencias y comportamiento en pastoreo en dos razas ovinas sobre una sucesión secundaria del Archipiélago de Chiloé
María A, Gallardo; Rubén, Pulido; Rodrigo, de la Barra; María E, Martínez.
Full Text Available M.A. Gallardo, R. Pulido, R. de la Barra y M.E. Martínez. 2014. Estudio piloto para preferencias y comportamiento en pastoreo en dos razas ovinas sobre una sucesión secundaria del Archipiélago de Chiloé. Cien. Inv. Agr. 41(2):249-254. Un estudio piloto fue realizado para determinar el patrón de pref [...] erencias y comportamiento en pastoreo de la raza ovina Chilota en el Archipiélago de Chiloé. Primero, ocho ovejas Chilota y ocho Suffolk Down fueron enfrentadas a diferente número de especies vegetales (no consideradas como suplemento), ofrecidas sólo por 10 min post-ayuno y post-pastoreo de un calafatal, una sucesión secundaria dominada por arbustos. El experimento fue repetido cuatro veces en un lapso de 22 d, considerando además un período pre-experimental de un mes. Posteriormente, seis Chilota y seis Suffolk (aleatoriamente seleccionadas desde los mismos grupos) fueron ubicadas para pastorear un calafatal dividido en tres potreros de 10 x 10 m para poder rotar los animales. Las observaciones fueron realizadas por 1 minuto, a intervalos de 1-hora por 11 horas diarias, durante 10 d consecutivos, registrando diferentes comportamientos, tales como: pastoreo, ramoneo, descanso, rumia, interacción y acicalamiento. Considerando la ingesta de materia seca de cada una de las tres especies presentes en todos los desafíos (B. chilensis, G. mucronata y D. winteri), los resultados mostraron que D. winteri fue la más consumida y B. chilensis, la menos consumida. El comportamiento en pastoreo mostró que el pastoreo fue la principal actividad registrada para ambas razas (especialmente en Suffolk Down) durante la mañana y la tarde, mientras descanso y rumia fueron las principales actividades durante las horas de mayor calor. En resumen, ambas razas mostraron similar patrón de preferencias, aunque diferente comportamiento en pastoreo en una sucesión secundaria de Chiloé. Abstract in english M.A. Gallardo, R. de la Barra, and M.E. Martínez. 2014. Pilot study for feeding preferences and grazing behavior in two breeds of sheep on a secondary succession of the Chiloé Archipelago. Cien. Inv. Agr. 41(2):249-254. A pilot study was undertaken to determine the pattern of feeding preferences and [...] grazing behavior of the Chilota breed of sheep in the Chiloé Archipelago. First, eight Chilota and eight Suffolk Down ewes were faced with different numbers of plant species (offered only for 10 min), after fasting and after grazing a calafatal, a secondary succession dominated by shrubs. The experiment was repeated four times within a period of 22 d and included a 1-month pre-experimental period. Second, six Chilota and six Suffolk Down ewes, randomly selected from the same groups, were placed to graze on a calafatal divided into three 10-by-10 m paddocks to facilitate rotation of the animals. Observations were performed for 1 minute at 1-hour intervals for 11 hours a day, over 10 consecutive days, recording the following behaviors: grazing, browsing, resting, ruminating, and grooming. Regarding the dry matter intake of each of the three plant species present in all trials (B. chilensis, G. mucronata and D. winteri), results showed D. winteri was the most consumed and B. chilensis the least. The grazing behavior showed grazing was the main activity recorded for both breeds (especially for Suffolk Down) during the morning and evening, while resting and ruminating were the main activities recorded during the warmest hours. In summary, the breeds showed similar preferences but different grazing behavior pattern on a secondary succession of the Chiloé Archipelago.
Ait-Saidi, A; Caja, G; Salama, A A K; Carné, S
With the aim of assessing the secondary benefits of using electronic identification (e-ID) in sheep farms, we compared the use of manual (M), semiautomatic (SA), and automatic (AU) data-collection systems for performance recording (i.e., milk, lambing, and weight) in 3 experiments. Ewes were identified with visual ear tags and electronic rumen boluses. The M system consisted of visual ear tags, on-paper data recording, and manual data uploading to a computer; the use of a personal digital assistant (PDA) for data recording and data uploading was also done in M. The SA system used a handheld reader (HHR) for e-ID, data recording, and uploading. Both PDA and HHR used Bluetooth for uploading. The AU system was only used for body weight recording and consisted of e-ID, data recording in an electronic scale, and data uploading. In experiment 1, M and SA milk-recording systems were compared in a flock of 48 dairy ewes. Ewes were milked once- (×1, n=24) or twice- (×2, n=24) daily in a 2 × 12 milking parlor and processed in groups of 24. Milk yield (1.21 ± 0.04 L/d, on average) was 36% lower in ×1 than ×2 ewes and milk recording time correlated positively with milk yield (R(2)=0.71). Data transfer was markedly faster for PDA and HHR than for M. As a result, overall milk recording time was faster in SA (×1=12.1 ± 0.6 min/24 ewes; ×2=22.1 ± 0.9 min/24 ewes) than M (×1=14.9 ± 0.6 min/24 ewes; ×2=27.9 ± 1.0 min/24 ewes). No differences between PDA and HHR were detected. Time savings, with regard to M, were greater for ×2 than for ×1 (5.6 ± 0.2 vs. 2.8 ± 0.1 min per 24 ewes, respectively), but similar for PDA and HHR. Data transfer errors averaged 3.6% in M, whereas no errors were found in either SA system. In experiment 2, 73 dairy and 80 meat ewes were monitored at lambing using M and SA. Overall time for lambing recording was greater in M than SA in dairy (1.67 ± 0.06 vs. 0.87 ± 0.04 min/ewe) and meat (1.30 ± 0.03 vs. 0.73 ± 0.03 min/ewe) ewes. Recording errors were greater in dairy (9.6%) than in meat (1.9%) ewes. Data uploading errors only occurred in M (4.9%). In experiment 3, 120 dairy and 120 meat ewes were weighed using M and AU systems. In both flocks, mean BW recording and data uploading times, as well as overall BW recording time (0.63 ± 0.02 and 0.25 ± 0.01 min/ewe, respectively) were greater in M than in AU, and uploading errors only occurred in M (8.8%). In conclusion, HHR and PDA systems were time-effective for performance recording, both saving time and improving data accuracy. Working load and time for ewe identification were faster in HHR but it did not affect the performance recording time. The PDA was the fastest device for data download. Further research will evaluate the costs of implementing e-ID for performance recording and other uses in sheep farms. PMID:25282408
Estudo anatomorfológico, radiográfico e tomográfico de Schistosomus reflexus em ovino da raça Dorper: relato de caso / Anatomorphological, radiographic and tomographic studies of Schistosomus reflexus in Dorper breed sheep: case report
D.O.L., Ferreira; B.P., Santarosa; C.D., Monteiro-Toma; A.F., Belotta; S.B., Chiacchio; V.M.V., Machado; R.C., Gonçalves; N.C., Prestes.
Full Text Available O Schistosomus reflexus (SR) é uma anomalia congênita fatal e rara, primariamente observada em ruminantes, a qual apresenta feto com dorsoflexão da coluna vertebral, exposição das vísceras abdominais e torácicas e escoliose. Foi realizada uma cesariana de ovelha da raça Dorper, em propriedade da reg [...] ião de Botucatu-SP. Pelas características gerais e achados de necropsia, tratava-se de um caso de SR. A radiografia revelou acentuado desvio ventrodorsal do segmento da coluna vertebral toracolombar e deformidades das costelas. Na tomografia computadorizada, observou-se presença da integridade dos ossos e órgãos, exceto ausência de uma vértebra lombar. Não havia dados na literatura de diagnóstico por imagem de SR em ovinos, portanto procedeu-se, de forma inédita, a exames radiográfico e tomográfico do feto. Abstract in english Schistosomus reflexus (SR) is a rare and fatal congenital anomaly, primarily observed in ruminants, presenting fetus with dorsiflexion of the vertebral column, exposure of thoracic and visceral organs, and scoliosis. A caesarian was performed on a Dorper sheep on a farm in Botucatu-SP and according [...] to the general characteristics and findings observed in the necropsy of the fetus it was an SR case. The radiography indicated a marked ventro-dorsal deviation of the thoracolumbar column segment and deformity of the ribs. On the computed tomography the integrity of the bones and organs were detected, except for the absence of a lumbar vertebra. No data were available in the literature for SR diagnosis in sheep by image, so radiographic and tomographic exams of the fetus were done.
Snoep, J J; Sol, J; Sampimon, O C; Roeters, N; Elbers, A R W; Scholten, H W; Borgsteede, F H M
In 1999, among 164 randomly selected Dutch sheep farmers, a questionnaire was carried out to estimate the prevalence of myiasis in sheep and to investigate factors associated with the occurrence of myiasis. The total number of sheep and/or lambs on the reference date 1 August 1999 was 12,200: 5243 ewes, 225 rams, 3393 ewe- and 3339 ram lambs. On 86 (52.4%) of the farms 349 (2.9%) of all sheep and/or lambs contracted myiasis, of which two died. Myiasis was seen significantly more frequently on farms with over 25 ewes compared to smaller farms. Cases of myiasis were detected from April to September, with a peak (47.1%) in August. Occurrence of myiasis was most frequently associated with hot and humid weather and was mainly observed (69.1%) in the area around the tail.Ewes and ewe lambs had significantly more myiasis when compared with rams and ram lambs. There was no relationship with tail docking, with breed, with the time of shearing, with the kind of soil (clay, sand, etc.), with the environment (bush, trees, water, etc.), with the type of treatment (pour on, dipping, spraying), the used insecticides (synthetic pyrethroïds, diazinon, cyromazin, etc.), the number of preventive treatments, the time of treatment or the number of observations on the herd (once a day, once a week, etc.). PMID:12079741
CARMEN ANA PIVODA
Full Text Available Female lambs and kids at the age of 9-10 months were used for early reproduction and it was noticed that the medium values of the weight of the lambs calved by female sheep and the kids calved by female kids are close to the medium values of the weight of the lambs and kids calved by adult sheep and goats. The main index of reproduction accomplished by the youth female situated at he level of the values characteristic to the sheep and goats breeds or populations belonging to Carpatina breed, registering lower values. By the early usage of sheep and goats male youth the following were noticed: Palas Merino male lambs, capable for reproduction 80%; the male lambs from Palas prolific population, capable for reproduction 88,8; out of the he-goats lots of Carpatina breed, at the age of 7-10 months, 83.33% the males manifested a normal sexual behaviour; the males which did not have sexual reflexes at the age of 7-10 months and at the age of 19-22 months they were not capable for reproduction, and the ones that had the seminal material of low quality continued to be so.
Fois, N.; Sitzia, M.; Ligios, S.; Piras, M.
Sheep breeding in Sardinia is based on two lambing seasons: in autumn for adult and in late winter for primiparous ewes. The milk production is concentrated within the winter-spring period, determining a break in the cheese factories’ activities from the middle summer to the middle autumn. In order to have a continuous milk production over all the year an out-of-season sheep farming model was tested in Sardinian irrigated lowland. 52 Sarda dairy ewes, 20% of which primiparous, were mated in...
Full Text Available Paratuberculosis is an incurable chronic disease of ruminants, which is manifested with clinical signs of diarrhea and progressive weight loss. Causative agent is Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, and the disiase occurs in cattle, sheep and goats. The outspread of paratuberculosis is huge in the whole world, especially in the countries where animal breeding is a developed branch of economy. Animals get infected with food and water contaminated with feces of infected animals. The infection spreads within infected pastures and also when trading animals with latent infection. Clinical manifestation of the disease can firstly be noticed in young categories of sheep, which is different than in cattle. Primary clinical symptom is chronic weight loss. It is rather hard to determine the level of prevalence of the disease, in a certain region, because the diagnostic procedure is complex and not always reliable enough. Detection of antibodies with ELISA test is considered a method of choice for diagnostic of paratuberculosis, because of fast gaining of the results and relatively low price of the test. By applying the ELISA test, we have analysed 2000 sheep blood samples. Positive results for paratuberculosis were found in 66 ( 3,30% animals in total. In sheep samples from southern Backa region, positive findings were gained from 42 (3,89% samples, and in Srem region, positive finding were found in samples from 24 sheep (2,60%. Control programs are based on the removal of all infected animals, application of general preventive measures and vaccination. Application of vaccination aims for elimination of clinical form of the disease. An effective treatment has not been determined so far.
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate fiber quality characteristics of Naeini sheep. An experiment was carried out on six flocks from different regions of Isfahan province. Two hundred and twenty seven Naeini sheep (191 ewes and 36 rams were sampled from a 100 cm2 surface on the mid-side. Fleeces shorn in 1999 within two sampling seasons (June and December were sent to the laboratory of Animal Sciences at Isfahan University of Technology in order to study some wool quality traits including: fiber diameter mean, variability in fiber diameter, percent of true, modulated and heterotype fibers, accumulation of scales in 100 ?m fiber lengths and diameter mean of modulated and heterotype fibers on Naeini sheep. Fiber diameter mean, within sample variability of fiber diameter and diameter mean of heterotype and modulated fibers were estimated 28.51, 11.19, 46.67 and 65.78 ?m, respectively. The percentages of true, modulated and heterotype fibers were 89.53, 5.93 and 4.38, respectively and the average number of scales was 6.2 per 100 ?m length of fiber. Herd and season had significant effects on all of the studied measures. Herd effects may be due to genetic, environment and pasture (nutritional differences between herds. Also, the results of this study showed that there would be finer wool type at June than December shearing times for Naeini sheep. Age had a significant effect on % of heterotype fibers only and sex effect was only significant on the scales accumulation. On average, Naeini rams had finer fibers than ewes, which indicate higher selection intensities on rams. The results of this study revealed that Naeini sheep has great qualifications for carpet industry. However, further breeding programs are needed to meet textile industries qualifications.
Full Text Available The objective of this study is to compare the partition of heat energy (HE in two sheep breeds by indirect calorimetry and integral calculus. An experiment was conducted with two Spanish native sheep breeds (dry and non-pregnant which were fed with pelleted mixed diets above maintenance. Six Guirras and six Manchegas breed sheep were selected (58.8 ± 3.1 and 60.2 ± 3.2 kg body weight, respectively. All sheep were fed with the same concentrate mixed ration (0.300 kg cereal straw as forage and 0.700 kg concentrate in two meals. Half the daily ration was offered at 800 h and another half at 1600 h. The sheep had free access to water. Sheep were allocated in metabolic cages; energy balance and gas exchange were assessed in each sheep. The statistical analyses included the fixed effect of breed and random effect of sheep. The metabolic energy (ME for maintenance represented 69% of the total ME intake and the average was 354 kJ per kg of metabolic body weight (kg0.75 BW on average. The basal metabolism (HeE was greater (P < 0.05 in Guirra than Manchega breed (270 ± 18 vs. 247 ± 15 kJ/kg0.75 BW and day. As sheep were fed with above maintenance, the retained energy in the body accounted for 22% of the ME intake and 77% of the ME intake was lost as heat. 51% of the MEI was converted to HeE; 5% was lost as physical activity of standing and lying down (HjE, and 13% was associated with the process of feeding and work of digestion and metabolism (HdE. Within HdE, 47% represented the cost of intake and feeding and 54% the cost of digestion and metabolism. No differences in HE partition between breeds were found, although Guirra breed showed less efficiency of energy retention than Manchega breed. Therefore, this study demonstrated a tentative approach of partitioning HE, combining indirect calorimetry and integral calculus.
Full Text Available The study was carried on 1425 ewes Transilvanian Merinos sheep in the farm belonging to SC Sinnagro SA, Timis country, regarding the reproduction during breeding season and in extra- season. The investigation revealed that these sheep held in good condition do express estrus (88% during spring-summer (May-June and are lambing during autumn (82% with a lower prolificacy (109%. During fall, almost all sheep (98% displayed estrus, lambing in a proportion of 94,8%, with a prolificacy of 127,1%. The statistical analysis emphasized that all reproductive indexes are higher (p<0.01 subsequent to breeding during normal season, compared to the extra-season, excepting fertility. These findings suggest that Transilvanian Merinos sheep are suitable for generating autumn lambs, for which does exists a great demand abroad.
Qualitative and quantitative histological changes in the sexual apparatus of slovak merino ewes were studies in the anoestrous period after irradiation (2.5 Gy) and hormonal stimulation. Estrus synchronization of the sheep has been carried out by application of 20 mg chlorosuperlutine in impregnated vaginal Ageline sponges. The sheep were hormone stimulated by application of 1500 IU of Serum gonadotrophin. The animals were killed approximately 120 h after the application of the hormone. Samples from the sexual apparatus were processed by the common histological methods for examination under a light microscope and for examination under a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Despite higher number of ovulations in irradiated and hormonally stimulated sheep, the examination of viability of irradiated oocytes showed absence of pregnancy in all 20 sheep after mating. This indicated that the dose of 2.5 Gy was not harmless to the reproductive system of sheep. (authors)
Recently, designer mutts like the Labradoodle -- a cross between a Labarador retriever and a poodle -- have become popular. A listener wanted to know if some kinds of dogs are just too different to make puppies. This Science Update explores the cross breeding of species.
Empadre controlado, distribución de partos y prolificidad en ovejas de pelo en el trópico seco de Guerrero, México (Controlled breeding, prolificacy and delivery distribution in hair sheep in the dry tropic of Guerrero, México
Mireles Martínez, Esteban Julián
Full Text Available ResumenEl objetivo del presente estudio retrospectivo fue conocer la duración de los días de empadre con monta (DECM, la presentación de los partos con empadre continuo y controlado y el índice de prolificidad, por medio de los registros de un empadre continúo de junio 2002 a marzo 2003 y 11 períodos de empadres controlados de septiembre 2003 a diciembre del 2009 y sus respectivos períodos de nacimientos, en una unidad productiva de Cd.SummaryThe objective of this retrospective study was to know the lasting of mating with the days of riding (DMWR, continuous presentation of mating, presentation of continuous mating births, controlled and the rate of prolificacy, through information from the records in a continuous breeding season in June 2002 to March 2003 and 11 controlled mating periods in September 2003 to December 2009 and their periods of birth, in a production unit in Ciudad Altamirano, Guerrero, Mexico, composed of 45 multiparous ewes, 15 lambs and a stallion pubescent.
A. Ameur Ameur; F. Chougrani; A. Cheriguene; Halbouche, M; N. Karam
In order to study the race effect on the physico-chemical characteristics and protein profile, two sheep or ovine breeds Hamra and Ouled Djellal were raised in the same condition sat the ITELV (National institute of breeding) (Ain Hajar-Saida, Algeria). The analyses were focused on the pH, density, freezing, fat, total protein, dry defatted extract and total dry extract. The results obtained or these parameters showed no significant differences between the two races. Then the protein fraction...
This book, edited by the colleague Giuseppe Pulina, is the result of the project "Further development of a diet formulation model for sheep and goat", supported by the Ministry of Agricultural and Forestry Policies, in Italy.
Van den Brom, R; Moll, L; Kappert, C; Vellema, P
In a sheep farm in the Netherlands with a suspected Haemonchus contortus resistance to monepantel (Zolvix®, Novartis Animal Health), a fecal egg count reduction test was carried out in two groups of lambs, according to the method of the World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology. Group 1 was the untreated control group, and group 2 was treated with monepantel at the manufacturer's recommended dose rate. Efficacy of treatment with monepantel was 0%. Larval identification of pre- and post-treatment coprocultures revealed 100% H. contortus larvae. On this farm, after a perceived reduction in efficacy of ivermectin and doramectin, the sheep farmer started using monepantel in July 2012, and since then, monepantel was used as the sole anthelmintic. Breeding sheep were treated twice each year in 2013 and 2014, and lambs two times in 2012, four times in 2013, and three times in 2014, before monepantel resistance was suspected, and confirmed three weeks later. Although the frequency of monepantel treatments on this farm was relatively high with treatments on thirteen separate occasions in two years time, possibly establishing favorable conditions for a competitive advantage for resistant H. contortus, it is remarkable that resistance to monepantel was established in such a very short period. This study confirms, to the best of our knowledge, the first case of H. contortus resistance to monepantel occurring in the field. PMID:25770852
Full Text Available The sheeps breeding is an old and traditional activity in Romania country. Depending on the number of sheeps and goats, Romania ranks in the fourth among E.U. countries. The research was conducted on three groups of sheeps, from same breed. All groups sheeps were feeding with the same amount of food, but the ratio structure was different, in the following scheme conformities: group I - has been used a fibrous ratio; group II – has been used a juicy ratio; group III – has been used a concentrate ratio. Also, in all the groups was recorded the milk production and the weight of lambs in the first month of the life. Based on research conducted, the fallowing conclusions were drawn: The highest milk production was produced by sheeps in group I and group II; The weight of lambs in the first month of life was also influenced by the mother sheeps ratio structure; The largest increase growth was made of lambs coming from a group III, and the smallest increase was made of lambs coming a group II. As a general conclusion, the best results are obtained when the mother sheeps are fed with concentrate ratio type and fibrous ratio type.
Yadav, Devesh K; Taraphder, Subhash; Sahoo, Ajit K; Dhara, K C
The aim of this study was to determine the genetics of polymorph systems of Transferrin in Garole sheep breed. The present study was conducted on 95 adult Garole sheep comprising 52 ewes and 43 rams, maintained at Sheep and Goat Breeding Farm of West Bengal University of Animal and Fishery Sciences, West Bengal, during the period from April-September, 2009. The polymorphism of transferrin was determined through SDS-Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis technique. It was found that the transferrin type was controlled by five codominant alleles (TfA, TfB, TfC TfD and TfE) in Garole sheep. These five alleles, because of co-dominant nature of inheritance, determined the occurrence of nine transferrin genotypes in the analyzed flock. Four (TfAA, TfBB, TfCC and TfDD) of these were homozygous and the remaining five (TfAD, TfBC, TfBD, TfCD and TfDE) heterozygous. It was found that the TfDD genotype (0.263) was predominant while TfDE genotype (0.042) was least common in the analyzed flock. Frequencies of other genotypes were as: TfCD(0.242), TfBD(0.126), TfCC(0.084), TfBB(0.074), TfAA(0.063), TfAD and TfBC (0.053 for each genotype ) in whole population. From the result it was found that in whole population combined, the heterozygotic genotypic frequency (0.516) was more than that of homozygotic genotypic frequency (0.484). Considerable variations were recognized in the frequencies of transferrin alleles. In the whole population frequencies of transferrin alleles were found to be TfA = 0.089, TfB = 0.163, TfC = 0.232, TfD = 0.495 and TfE = 0.021. Transferrin system has shown an absence of genetic equilibrium among the analyzed herd (chi2 value = 51.31). In conclusion, there were polymorphism in Transferrin types and the presence of differences among the frequencies of the five alleles by categories could be a source of genetic variation in Garole sheep. PMID:20349135
Full Text Available A total of 334 ewes recorded with twining births from the Tunisian fat tail Barbarine sheep were genotyped in the objective to identify the FecXI and FecXH mutations. The genotyping was carried out by forced restriction fragment length polymorphism PCR (RFLP-PCR. None of mutations was detected in Barbarine sheep. Results showed that all analyzed ewes were homozygous non carriers. These results suggest that fecundity of this breed is not linked to the same mutations. Therefore, it is necessary to seek for other mutations or fecundity genes in order to develop marker assistance selection techniques and study the prolific mechanism of the Barbarine breed.
Notter David R
Full Text Available Abstract Genetic improvement in traits associated with seasonal breeding in sheep is challenging because these traits have low heritabilities, are generally not expressed until late in life, are commonly recorded only in females, and are expressed only in some lambing seasons and management systems. Detection of quantitative trait loci and their use in marker-assisted selection could therefore substantially enhance selection responses. A population of sheep with an extended breeding season was developed through selection for fertility in spring matings and provides opportunities for further study of candidate genes influencing seasonal breeding. In particular, the melatonin receptor 1a gene is polymorphic in many sheep breeds and appears to influence a number of seasonal reproductive responses. In addition, a variety of clock genes have been identified in laboratory mammals and shown to influence biological rhythms. Mutations in these clock genes have been identified and shown to influence circadian periodicities and reproductive patterns in golden hamster and mouse. In sheep, expression of clock genes in the suprachaismatic nucleus and pars tuberalis (PT suggests that "calendar" cells in the ovine PT play a role in maintaining circannual rhythms. Thus the various clock genes represent potentially important candidate genes that may be involved in control of seasonal breeding.
José Lindenberg Rocha, Sarmento; Robledo de Almeida, Torres; Raimundo Nonato Braga, Lôbo; Lucia Galvão de, Albuquerque; Wandrick Hauus de, Sousa; José Ernandes Rufino de, Sousa.
Full Text Available Utilizaram-se 17.767 registros de peso de 4.210 cordeiros da raça Santa Inês com o objetivo de comparar modelos de regressão aleatória com diferentes estruturas para modelar a variância residual em estudos genéticos da curva de crescimento. Os efeitos fixos incluídos na análise foram: grupo contempo [...] râneo e idade da ovelha no parto. As regressões fixas e aleatórias foram ajustadas por meio de polinômios de Legendre de ordens 4 e 3, respectivamente. A variância residual foi ajustada por meio de classes heterogêneas e por funções de variância empregando polinômios ordinários e de Legendre de ordens 2 a 8. O modelo considerando homogeneidade de variâncias residuais mostrou-se inadequado. De acordo com os critérios utilizados, a variância residual contendo sete classes heterogêneas proporcionou melhor ajuste, embora um mais parcimonioso, com cinco classes, pudesse ser utilizado sem perdas na qualidade de ajuste da variância nos dados. O ajuste de funções de variância com qualquer ordem foi melhor que o obtido por meio de classes. O polinômio ordinário de ordem 6 proporcionou melhor ajuste entre as estruturas testadas. A modelagem do resíduo interferiu nas estimativas de variâncias e parâmetros genéticos. Além da alteração da classificação dos reprodutores, a magnitude dos valores genéticos preditos apresenta variações significativas, de acordo com o ajuste da variância residual empregado. Abstract in english It was used 17,767 weight records of 4,210 Santa Inês breed lambs aiming to compare random regression models with different structures to model the residual variance in genetic studies of the growth curve. The fixed effects included in the analysis were contemporary group and age of the ewe at lambi [...] ng. Fixed and random regressions were fitted through Legendry polynomials of orders 4 and 3, respectively. The residual variance was fitted by heterogeneous classes and by functions of variances employing ordinary polynomials and Legendry polynomials of the orders 2 to 8. The model considering homogeneity of residual variances was inadequate. Accordingly to the used criteria, the residual variance containing seven heterogeneous classes provided the best fit, although a more parsimonious one, with five classes, could be used without losses on the quality of variance fit on the data. The fit of functions of variances with any order was better than that obtained through classes. The ordinary polynomial of order 6 provided the best fit among the tested structures. The modeling of the residue interfered on the estimative of the variances and genetic parameters. In addition to changes in the classification of the reproducers, the magnitude of the predicted genetic values shows significant variations, accordingly to the fitting of the used residual variance.
Full Text Available Small ruminants are the most extensively farmed livestock species in Europe, as a result being extremely exposed to natural hazards which leads to strong interactions between genotype and environment. Aim of the current review was to outline and discuss the main welfare issues and economic implications with regards to the genotype by environment interactions in dairy sheep. Researches concerning the additive genetic effect on milk yield, shown that this accounts only for 10%, while the milk production is 90% influenced by environmental factors, highlighting the major role that management and nutrition play in the dairy production of sheep. Nowadays, dairy sheep breeds (e.g. Eastern Friesian and Lacaune, are being introduced and reared in various countries under an extremely wide range of rearing conditions, without adequate knowledge on their acclimatization to the new specific conditions. It was concluded that a welfare assessment protocol for dairy sheep does not exist up today, moreover, there is a serious lack of data concerning the genetic and environmental factors affecting the welfare status of dairy sheep at farm level under different production systems.
The paper concerns the effects of fallout from the Chernobyl reactor accident on the environment in Britain. A description is given of the distribution and movement of fallout in Britain, as well as the type of contamination. The regions that received the highest deposits from Chernobyl were large areas in the uplands used mainly for sheep farming, and grazing in these areas led to high levels of radioactivity in sheep. Monitoring studies of caesium levels in sheep grazing on contaminated pastures are described, as well as studies of the movement of caesium in the soil to plants. Finally Chernobyl fallout in food in different European countries, and ways of ridding contaminated animals of their radioactive caesium, are both discussed. (UK)
Microbial breakdown of cellulose is a rather slow process. Therefore the retention time of digesta and the volume of the fermentation chamber are factors limiting the quantity of fibrous diets that can be digested. Indigenous ruminants can generally adapt to harsh grazing conditions better than conventional breeds. Unexpectedly high rumen volumes were reported in a number of indigenous ruminants. In studies reported in this paper, Heidschnucken, an indigenous breed of sheep in the heather region of Northern Germany, were able to increase their rumen volume from 14% to 22% of body weight during adaptation to a low quality fibrous diet. Heidschnucken did not lose significant body weight, whereas Blackface sheep lost 20% and failed to adapt the rumen volume. Rumen volume of indigenous sheep and goats in Northern Kenya was 20% of body weight while grazing in the thornbush savannah during the dry season, compared with 9-12% while kept indoors on a hay-concentrate diet. Mean retention time of particles in the total gastrointestinal tract of goats and sheep in Kenya was 38 h and 46 h respectively. In the experiment with Heidschnucken, these sheep increased the retention time of particles to 71 h on a straw diet, while Blackface sheep retained particles 58 h. Dietary preference and feed intake have been studied in indigenous sheep and goats in Kenya at seasonal pasture conditions in the thornbush savannah. Goats have a higher preference to dicotyledon species (92-97%) than shce to dicotyledon species (92-97%) than sheep, who are less selective grazers. The feeding behaviour of indigenous sheep and goats was complementary rather than competitive. Feeding observations indicate that this is also the case when cattle (grazers) and camels (browsers) are included in such a comparison. (author)
Yang, Guo; Zhou, Huitong; Hu, Jiang; Luo, Yuzhu; Hickford, Jon G H
The beta(3)-adrenergic receptor (ADRB3) is the main mediator of the lipolytic and thermogenic effects of high catecholamine concentrations. Polymorphism in the ovine ADRB3 gene has been reported to be associated with birth weight, growth rate, carcass composition, and cold survival. Eight alleles have been identified in New Zealand sheep, but to date, breeds from other countries have not been studied in detail. In this study, we employed PCR-SSCP to detect ADRB3 polymorphism in the Hu, Tan, small-tailed Han, and Tibet breeds of Chinese sheep. Thirteen SSCP patterns were observed, including the eight previously reported and five new patterns. The newly identified SSCP patterns represent five novel sequences, increasing the reported number of alleles of ADRB3 from 8 to 13. In these Chinese sheep, the most common allele was the previously reported allele C (49.0%); the A allele was the next most common (22.0%). These results suggest that Chinese sheep have more diversity in ADRB3 than New Zealand sheep and therefore have possibly been selected either naturally or via breeding for different traits. PMID:19507019
Seasonal changes that occur in body weight, body temperature, total body water and water turnover were investigated in grazing sheep and goats at different times of the year to understand how different breeds adapt to the environmental conditions in Sudan. (author)
Ao, Iyiola-tunji; Ts, Olugbemi; Ao, Ali; Ao, Ojo
This study attempted to determine the inter-relationship between market price and body measurements among different breeds of sheep in open markets of six Local Government Areas of Kano State (Municipal, Taruauni, Gmale, Nassarawa, Fagge and Dala) of Kano city. Body measurements and prices of sheep used for this study were obtained from Unguwa Uku, Dorayi, Kara, Bachirawa, yankaba, Mariri and Kabara livestock markets in Kano. The Sudanese price was the highest (N 30,000±0.0), followed by Uda...
Andrés N, Grasso; Virginia, Goldberg; Elly A, Navajas; Wanda, Iriarte; Diego, Gimeno; Ignacio, Aguilar; Juan F, Medrano; Gonzalo, Rincón; Gabriel, Ciappesoni.
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the genetic diversity within and among three breeds of sheep: Corriedale, Merino and Creole. Sheep from the three breeds (Merino n = 110, Corriedale n = 108 and Creole n = 10) were genotyped using the Illumina Ovine SNP50 beadchip®. Genetic diversity was eval [...] uated by comparing the minor allele frequency (MAF) among breeds. Population structure and genetic differentiation were assessed using STRUCTURE software, principal component analysis (PCA) and fixation index (F ST). Fixed markers (MAF = 0) that were different among breeds were identified as specific breed markers. Using a subset of 18,181 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), PCA and STUCTURE analysis were able to explain population stratification within breeds. Merino and Corriedale divergent lines showed high levels of polymorphism (89.4% and 86% of polymorphic SNPs, respectively) and moderate genetic differentiation (F ST = 0.08) between them. In contrast, Creole had only 69% polymorphic SNPs and showed greater genetic differentiation from the other two breeds (F ST = 0.17 for both breeds). Hence, a subset of molecular markers present in the OvineSNP50 is informative enough for breed assignment and population structure analysis of commercial and Creole breeds.
Full Text Available Romania, by its genetic found made up of over 7.4 millions sheep and 1.8 millionsyoung sheep exported in EU countries, represents an important mark in bothEuropean and World sheep breeding sector, in last years marked by many ESSTcenters. The apparition of this disease and its high risk of danger for reared effectiveconstraint EEC countries to interfere by law regulations concerning scrapie controland stopping disease spreading. In our country, controls identified the presence ofscrapie in livestock. The international reference laboratories post mortem certifiedthe presence of disease. Immunohistochemical detection of PrPSc is a standarddiagnostic method for sheep scrapie. By immunohistochemistry (IHC, PrPSc isdetected in lymphoid tissues during preclinical and clinical disease. Aftergenotypization at PrnP locus, the marker assisted selection is compulsory, and flocksinclude only genotypes with high disease resistance.
Kitching, R P; Taylor, W P
Isolates of sheep pox and goat pox from Nigeria, Sudan, Kenya, Yemen Arab Republic, Turkey, Pakistan and India were inoculated into British breeds of sheep and goats. Although the isolates displayed a host preference the gross clinical pathology of the disease produced by the different isolates was indistinguishable. The Yemen, Nigeria and India isolates could not be distinguished using homologous and heterologous antisera in neutralisation tests. Animals that had recovered from infection with one isolate were resistant to challenge with any of the other isolates and a single vaccine for use against sheep pox and goat pox is described. The classification of the malignant pox diseases of sheep and goats is discussed. PMID:2411036
Full Text Available Scientific research on factors causing the reduction of well-being in sheep and goats is rather recent, as are studies of strategies to minimize the adverse effects of environmental challenges and improper management practices on flock welfare. Sheep and goats, considered very rustic animals, are reared prevalently under extensive production systems and are widespread mainly in marginal areas. For these reasons, only few studies on the welfare of these species have been carried out in the past. More recently, the scenario has changed, due to a gradual diffusion of intensive and semi-intensive production systems, especially in dairy sheep and goat breeds, to the growing concern of consumers about the life conditions of farmed animals, and to the issuing of a number of rules and laws on the safety of animal products and well-being of farmed livestock. As a consequence, several research groups have turned their attention to the welfare of sheep and goats. Nevertheless, information on this topic is still scarce. This paper reviews major critical points regarding the endangerment of welfare in farmed sheep and goats. Climatic extremes and seasonal fluctuations in herbage amount and quality are discussed as important causes of the reduction of well-being in extensive production systems, which can impair production efficiency of grazing animals and dramatically affect the welfare and health status of sheep and goats. Space allowance and structures of sheep and goat houses are described as the main potential sources of discomfort for housed flocks, together with inadequate control of micro-environment, and inappropriate milking procedures and human-animal interactions. Recent studies on the impact of high ambient temperature, different ventilation regimes, high stocking densities, reduced airspace and poor litter management on behaviour, immune and endocrine response, and on performance of sheep and goats are discussed. The effects of inadequate milking procedures and improper milking technical parameters on welfare and udder health of sheep and goats are also discussed. Finally, some practices aimed at minimizing emotional and nutritional stresses of lambs and kids after early separation from the mother, before the transition to artificial rearing, and at weaning time are described.
Gan, Shang-Quan; Zhang, Wei; Shen, Min; Li, Huan; Yang, Jing-Quan; Liang, Yao-Wei; Gao, Lei; Liu, Shou-Ren; Wang, Xin-Hua
Fat tail or fat rump is one of essential traits for surviving in harsh environments, and the mechanism of fat deposition and its inheritable characters in sheep are still unclear. Therefore, the 59383635th locus on X chromosome in our unpublished chip data was chosen as candidate SNP, PCR-SSCP method was used to detect genotypes in five sheep breeds which have extreme differences in tail types (Altay, Small Tail Han Sheep, Hu, Chinese Merino and Suffolk), and the mathematical model was employed to analyze the correlation between the polymorphism and the trait of fat tail or fat rump. The results in this study showed that the high frequency of allele T exists in Altay flock, and the frequency of allele C appears to be particularly high in the thin tail sheep breeds. The result of mathematical model showed that the ratio of T/C increased exponentially with the increase of phenotype score. These results suggest that there is a big difference in the SNP distribution between fat tail (rump) and thin tail sheep populations, and the SNP can be used as an ideal molecular marker in high-fat or low-fat sheep breeding. However, the biological function of the SNP remains to be further studied. PMID:24459894
Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Silva-Aguilar, Dante; Villena, Isabelle; Dubey, Jitender P
Toxoplasma gondii infection in sheep is of public health and economic importance. Seroprevalence of T. gondii infection and correlates were determined in 405 sheep from 7 farms in 4 geographical regions in Michoacán State, Mexico using the modified agglutination test (MAT). General sheep and environmental characteristics were obtained by a questionnaire. All sheep were raised in semi-extensive conditions in temperate climate. Antibodies to T. gondii were found in 121 (29.9%) of the 405 sheep with MAT titers of 1:25 in 46, 1:50 in 20, 1:100 in 7, 1:200 in 5, 1:400 in 7, 1:800 in 11, 1:1600 in 5, and 1:3200 or higher in 20. Seropositivity did not vary significantly with age, sex or breed. In contrast, seroprevalence varied among farms, geographic region, municipality, altitude, mean annual temperature, and mean annual rainfall. The median seroprevalence in farms was 32.6% (range 7.1-71.4%). Sheep raised in farms at ?1900 m above sea level had a higher seroprevalence (44.1%) than those in farms at lower sea level (16.3%). Sheep raised in municipalities with ?17.7 °C mean annual temperature had a higher seroprevalence (37.2%) than those in municipalities with higher mean annual temperature (14.1%). Sheep raised in a municipality with 600 mm of mean annual rainfall had a higher seroprevalence (71.4%) than municipalities with higher mean annual rainfall (29.1%). This is the first report on the seroprevalence and correlates of T. gondii infection in sheep in Michoacán State, Mexico. The role of environmental characteristics for T. gondii infection in sheep deserves further research. PMID:24063950
Silvana, Bravo; Giovanni, Larama; Manuel, Ortíz; Néstor, Sepúlveda.
Full Text Available Genetic diversity studies in domestic animals allow evaluating genetic variation within and among breeds mainly for conservation purposes. In Chile exist isolated recovery programs, conservation and characterization of animal genetic resources, a consequence of which the vast majority of them have n [...] ot been characterized, poorly used, and some of them have become extinct. The aim of this research was to determine genetic diversity and relationship between 'Araucana' creole and 'Hampshire Down' sheeps based on microsatellite markers; sheep breeds with similar phenotypic characteristics, raised in the south of Chile. A total of 64 'Araucana' sheep ('Araucana' from Freire, AF: 27, 'Araucana' from Padre Las Casas, AP: 10, 'Araucana' from Chol Chol, AC: 15, 'Araucana' from Villarrica, AV: 12) and 43 'Hampshire Down' sheep ('Hampshire' from Marchigue, HM: 18, 'Hampshire' from Valdivia, HV: 11, 'Hampshire' from San José, HS: 14) were analyzed using 17 microsatellite markers for determine the genetic diversity and relationship between breeds. A total of 284 alleles were observed with average polymorphic information content equal to 0.76, showing that the microsatellites panel used was highly informative. Estimated heterozygosity ranged from 0.73 in 'Hampshire Down' to 0.85 in 'Araucana'. The low inbreeding or endogamy coefficient (F IS, 0.022) and total inbreeding estimate (F IT, 0.070) indicated low level of inbreeding within and among breeds. The phylogenetic tree showed a separation between HS and HV, and the other sheep populations. The results indicated high genetic variability, low inbreeding, and low genetic differentiation, except for HV and HS, and were in according with geographical location and breeding practices.
CAMELIA ZOIA ZAMFIR
Full Text Available The introduction of HACCP system within sheep exploitations represents a unitary control manner, scientifically proved, which enforces the discipline and correctness, allows an objective evaluation of sheep and goat meat and milk quality. When determining the main components of sheep and goat milk from the animals that grazed on the pasture fertilized with stable manure, within ecologic conditions, the following results were obtained: at sheep there was a fat percent of 6.22% and 6.11%, protein 5.32% and 5.52%, and dry substance 14.25% and 14.21%, normal values for sheep milk; at goats the fat percent was that of 6.22% and 6.11%, protein 5.32% and 5.52%, and dry substance 14.25% and 14.21%, normal values for goat milk. The milk samples taken from the sheep belonging to Palas Merino breed and from Carpatina breed were also analysed with regard to the toxic residues and it has been stated that the values obtained fit within the normal norms admitted by the food domain’ standards, being in compliance with the safety and protection of the consumers. The elimination of chemical fertilizers, pesticides and herbicides has led to the non-noticing of their presence within the sheep and goat products. By the regulation of ecologic products’ quality, in relation with the consumers’ and environment’s protection, a balance was created between the producers’ interests and obligations, those of the merchants and also those of the consumers. On the basis of results obtained through the microbiological examination of milk and meat samples taken from the sheep it has been stated that the microbial flora identified is formed by representatives of Staphylococcus–72.72% Streptococcus ? hemolitic – 9.09% and Fungi filamentous – 18.18%. The microbial flora is non pathogen for man.
Agerholm, JØrgen S.; Aalbæk, Bent
The Danish sheep population totals around 144,000 animals, but little is known of the causes and prevalance of diseases. This study focuses on the causes of abortion in Danish sheep. During one breeding season, aborted foetuses and stillbirths with signs of intrauterine death or malformation were submitted for laboratory examination from a population of 3,758 breeding ewes. Samples from 24 incidents of abortion and 21 ewes delivering malformed lambs or lambs with ante partum decomposition were submitted. A specific aetiology was established in 66.7% and 14.3% of the cases, respectively. Bacterial pathogens were the most prevalent cause of abortion. Several of the abortifacients were zoonotic microorganisms, for example Listeria monocytogenes, Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus, Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and Toxoplasma gondii. The identified microorganisms probably represent the most common causes of abortion in Danish sheep but occurrence in Denmark of other pathogens such as Coxiella burnetii and Chlamydophila abortus cannot be excluded. Due to the high prevalence of zoonotic microorganisms, precautions must be taken in handling abortions or assisting lambing, especially for pregnant women.
Sheep and goats are often kept in low input production systems, often at subsistence levels. In such systems, the uptake of effective commercial breeding programmes is limited, let alone the uptake of more advanced technologies such as those needed for marker-assisted selection (MAS). However, effective breeding programmes exist in a number of countries, the largest ones in Australia and New Zealand aiming for genetic improvement of meat and wool characteristics as well as disease resistance and fecundity. Advances have been made in sheep gene mapping with the marker map consisting of more than 1 200 microsatellites, and a virtual genome sequence together with a very dense single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) map are expected within a year. Significant research efforts into quantitative trait loci (QTL) are under way and a number of commercial sheep gene tests have already become available, mainly for single gene effects but some for muscularity and disease resistance. Gene mapping in goats is much less advanced with mainly some activity in dairy goats. Integration of genotypic information into commercial genetic evaluation and optimal selection strategies is a challenge that deserves more development. (author)
Full Text Available In 1995 several outbreaks of food poisoning in humans occurred in Iceland, that were traced to salmonella contamination of singed sheep heads. This prompted us to study the prevalence of salmonella infection in sheep and to trace where and how infection might have occurred. Faecal, intestinal contents and tonsillar samples were collected in the spring and autumn from sheep on 50 farms in the southwestern part of the country, where salmonellosis had been detected and from 5 farms in the northwestern part of the country. All faecal samples from the southwest were negative, whereas samples from 3 farms obtained in the autumn in the northwest were positive. Tonsillae taken in the autumn were positive in sheep from 3 farms in the southwest and 2 in the northwest. Our results show that salmonella infection is rare in Icelandic sheep but healthy carriers may harbour the bacteria in tonsillae. Salmonella was not detected in drainage from slaughterhouses nor in singed sheep heads.
Lapierre, A; Schwarz, S; Baumann, T M; Cooper, K; Kittimanapun, K; Rodriguez, A J; Sumithrarachchi, C; Williams, S J; Wittmer, W; Leitner, D; Bollen, G
An electron-beam ion trap (EBIT) charge breeder is being brought into operation at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory at Michigan State University. The EBIT is part of the ReA post-accelerator for reacceleration of rare isotopes, which are thermalized in a gas "stopping" cell after being produced at high energy by projectile fragmentation. The ReA EBIT has a distinctive design; it is characterized by a high-current electron gun and a two-field superconducting magnet to optimize the capture and charge-breeding efficiency of continuously injected singly charged ion beams. Following a brief overview of the reaccelerator system and the ReA EBIT, this paper presents the latest commissioning results, particularly, charge breeding and reacceleration of the highly charged rare isotopes, (76)Ga(24 +, 25 +). PMID:24593600
Moioli, B; Napolitano, F; Orrù, L; Catillo, G
Three novel SNPs were identified in the locus OAR292286, encoding the DNA sequence of promoter III of the ovine acetyl-CoA carboxylase-alpha gene, in Italian sheep of four breeds: Gentile di Puglia (25 individuals) and Sopravissana (31) which are triple-purpose local endangered breeds, Comisana (25) which is a local non-selected, non-endangered dairy breed and Sarda (15) which is a popular selected high yielding dairy breed. Variant alleles are: G/T at 1330 bp, C/G at 1338 bp and C/T at 1430 bp. Frequencies of the variant alleles were calculated and chi-squared analysis of the differences in allele frequency between breed pairs was performed. Allele frequencies of the Sarda breed differ significantly from the other considered breeds. PMID:16274427
J. A. Akankali; E.I. Seighabo; J. F.N. Abowei
Fish breeding is a very important activity ensuring availability of fingerlings for the stocking of ponds, pens, tanks and cages. The breeding habits of fishes in nature differ from specie to specie Different species of fish choose different places in the aquatic environment for breeding. Most species do not breed when in captivity due to a number of factors. In Nigeria, induced breeding of African mud catfish through injection of ova prim hormone or pituitary gland is the main practice. This...
Full Text Available Turkish Karayaka sheep breed that is one of the important native breed at Black Sea Region in Turkey was genotyped for 13 RAPD primers. Genotypes of 100 were collected from five different herds (BA, BF, LA, LD and KP herds localized in the Samsun territory. The genetic similarity was obtained on the dendrograms individuals and herd. Within herds, individuals showed a similarity index between 0.857 to 0.420. The similarity index between populations ranged from 0.520 to 0.710. The binary results also were utilised by principal component analysis for comparison of herds and individuals. The genetic relationship of animals shows a difference among herds in terms of number of RAPD bands. These results show that some herds are effected possibly from other sheep breeds or reared purely such as KP.
M. A. Mahmoud
Full Text Available Aim: The study was undertaken to understand the epidemiological status of bluetongue infection in Egypt. Materials and Methods: Serum samples were collected from clinically healthy as well as suspected sheep and goats. Samples were collected during the vector breeding season from September to November 2010, from 14 Egyptian governorates which represent different geographical regions of Egypt, and were tested by Agar Gel Immuno-precipitation Test (AGPT. Results: Out of total 1293 animal serum samples (sheep-1028 and goats-265, 17.5% of sheep and 14.7% of goats serum samples were found positive. The overall prevalence of anti-BT antibodies in different governorates was 16.9%. The highest prevalence of bluetongue group specific antibodies was detected in Beni-Suef, Giza, and Al Sharqia governorates (13.2%. The results indicate that there is a necessity to run further studies to identify the negative governorates. In addition, there is a lack in information regarding the BTV serotypes in Egypt. Conclusion: This study reflected high seroprevalence of bluetongue infection in sheep than goats. The results indicated that further studies are needed to identify the vectors from different agro-climatic zones, in addition, the BTV serotypes that are circulating in Egypt.
Pan, Xiao-Liang; Wen, Zheng-Shun; Zou, Xiao-Ting; Zhou, En-Ku; Kou, Huan-Qi; Xu, Zi-Rong; Zhang, Wen-Ju
The chemical composition and microstructure of five urolith samples (4 bladder stones and one kidney stone) associated with the feeding of high level of cottonseed meal (CSM) diet to Chinese merino fine wool sheep (Junken breed, Xinjiang) were examined by optical microscope, X-ray diffraction, X-ray energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and infrared spectroscopy analysis. The bladder stone samples appeared yellow or white, small powder and loose mass, and as finely granular under the optical microscope. However, the kidney stone samples from a experimental sheep were found as small brown mass, higher hardness, and as a cracklike structure. Oxygen, phosphorus, potassium and magnesium were found as four major elements in these uroliths by X-ray energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS). Potassium magnesium phosphate (MgKPO(4)) and potassium magnesium phosphate hexahydrate (MgKPO(4)·6H(2)O) were major components in the bladder stones, while less magnesium ammonium phosphate hexahydrate (MgNH(4)PO(4)·6H(2)O) examined by X-ray diffraction and infrared spectroscopy analysis. However, the newly found prismatic crystals, which were rich in magnesium and pyrophosphate, were identified as magnesium pyrophosphate (Mg(2)P(2)O(7)) in the kidney stone. The bladder stone samples appeared irregular mass and balls, cracked under SEM with low magnification, while appeared cracked, irregular layer-like, honeycomb-like or tiny balls under high magnification. The kidney stone samples were observed as cone, irregular block or layered crystal structures. PMID:20933249
Science NetLinks (The museum of science, art and human perception at the Palace of Fine Arts; )
A sheep brain is used to teach about memory and where it takes place because its brain structure and functions are similar to the human brain. Students will be exposed briefly to the fact that electrochemical connections made between brain cells help us remember the thoughts, skills, experiences, and knowledge that make each of us unique. Through dissections, students will learn about the cortex, brain cells, and where the three main subdivisions of memory (working, long-term, and skill memory) take place.
Full Text Available The Central Anatolia Region is one of the seven geographical regions which are 151 thousand square meters of surface area and it is about 21.0% of Turkey's land area. The population rate of cattle breeds in the Central Anatolia Region is 20.4% exotic cattle breeds, 19.1% crossbred, 11.6% native cattle breeds and total 18.1% in Turkey. The Central Anatolia Region cattle population is consists of 43.9% of exotic breed, 43.5% crossbred and 12.6% the native cattle breeds. The population of exotic cattle breeds (69.5% in Nigde province is the first place and followed by Eskisehir provinces rate of 65.6% in the Central Anatolia Region. The rate of crossbred cattle population is the highest rate (65.0% province of Sivas and followed by Çank?r? province (62.8%. Ankara and Yozgat province has the highest rate of native cattle breed 28.3% and 25.5%, respectively. The total populations of cattle breeds in Konya and K?r?kkale provinces were found maximum 518.291 cattle and minimum 45.426 cattle, respectively, in the Central Anatolia Region. The population rate of exotic and crossbred cattle breeds has increased 67.0% and 11.8%, respectively, while population rate of native cattle breeds has decreased 30.3% from 2007 to 2011 in the Central Anatolia Region. The 20.1% of sheep, 8.2% of goat and 18.3% rates of total livestock population in Turkey are in the Central Anatolia Region. The population rate of sheep and goat of the Central Anatolia Region is 20.1% and 9.5%, sheep and goat respectively and 18.3% total in Turkey. The 70.9% for Angora goats, 8.2% hair of goats, and 17.7% indigenous of sheep breeds and 66.0% crossbreed to national Sheep and Goat population has risen in the Central Anatolia Region. All of these results are evaluated, Central Anatolia Region, Turkey, the contribution of animal products grown by population of cattle and small ruminants is important and can be considered a center of attraction for investment in animal breeding
Full Text Available This study attempted to determine the inter-relationship between market price and body measurements among different breeds of sheep in open markets of six Local Government Areas of Kano State (Municipal, Taruauni, Gmale, Nassarawa, Fagge and Dala of Kano city. Body measurements and prices of sheep used for this study were obtained from Unguwa Uku, Dorayi, Kara, Bachirawa, yankaba, Mariri and Kabara livestock markets in Kano. The Sudanese price was the highest (N 30,000±0.0, followed by Uda, Balami and Yankasa with the least cost being N 10, 614±3,137. Similarly the Sudanese breed recorded highest body weight, back length, lion girth and height at wither compared to all other breeds, while Balami had a higher chest girth (78.77±6.0 cm, followed by Uda and Yankasa, which recorded the least. The extra large animals weighed 58.75± 1.25 kg, which was more than the body weight of the large, medium and small sheep which weighed 42.48±0.34kg, 34.93±0.21 and 27.92±0.26, respectively. The price of these animals also follow the same pattern as the extra large cost more than all the other weight classes. The prices were N 25,750±8,500, N 15,524±2,263, N 11,284±2792 and N 8,324±1,584 for extra large, large, medium and the small sheep, respectively. Price of sheep was positive and highly correlated to weight of the sheep (0.826. Price was also positive and moderately correlated to back length (0.579, chest girth (0.538, height at wither (0.535 and leg length (0.464 at 1% level of significance. Leg length was highly and positively correlated with height at wither (0.717. Height at whither together with back length are important additional variables to chest girth to obtain up to 38% prediction of price of rams. The price of any sheep breed is subjected to the weight and the price of sheep in an open market can best be predicted from a combination of leg length and loin girth. (Animal Production 13 (1:64-68 (2011Key Words: price of sheep, sheep breeds and open markets
Full Text Available A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence and risk factors for ectoparasites infestation in sheep in three agro-ecological zones in central Oromia, Ethiopia, from October 2009 to April 2010. The study revealed that 637 (48.1% of the 1325 sheep examined were infested with one or more ectoparasites. The ectoparasites identified were Bovicola ovis (27.2%, Melophagus ovinus (16.4%, Ctenocephalides sp. (2.3%, Linognathus africanus (1.2%, Linognathus ovillus (0.3%, Sarcoptes sp. (1.2%, Amblyomma variegatum (4.4%, Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi (1.9%, Rhipicephalus pravus (1.9%, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus decoloratus (1.1%, Rhipicephalus sanguineus (0.9%, Rhipicephalus praetextatus (1.1% and Hyalomma truncatum (1.6%. Statistically significant difference was observed in prevalence of B. ovis amongst study agroecological zones: highland 36.6%, midland 20.9% and lowland 14.0%. Significantly higher prevalence was recorded in highland agroecological zone. A significantly (OR = 0.041, p 0.05 was never recorded in the prevalence of all the identified species of ectoparasites between male and female sheep hosts. However, a significantly (p = 0.006 higher prevalence of B. ovis was recorded between young and adult sheep. The risk of B. ovis infestation was 1.45 times higher in young than the adult sheep. Furthermore, a significantly (p < 0.001 higher prevalence of M. ovinus, B. ovis and Sarcoptes sp. was found between sheep with poor and a good body condition. The ever increasing threat of ectoparasites on overall sheep productivity and tanning industry in Ethiopia warrants urgent control intervention. Further studies on the role of ectoparasites in transmission of diseases to sheep, zoonotic importance, comparative prevalence and load, and the importance of sheep as alternative hosts in different agroecological zones, breeds and management systems in Ethiopia are recommended so as to design applicable control programme in the country.
Degtyar A. S.
Full Text Available The article presents the results of the control slaughter of purebred and crossbred lambs. It was found that the index of compactness and the main killer performance superiority had two or three breed lambs obtained from crosses involving sheep southern meat breed. The experimental animals were taken measurements of carcasses, which give a fairly complete and objective view of the differences in the length of the torso, hips, mascara and hip girth. There are specific differences in the yield of the most valuable cuts of the first grade the rams depending on the origin. The superiority of crossbred calves over the control for this indicator amounted to 16.4 and 33.4%. The chemical composition of the meat fine-wool lambs contained more moisture and less fat and less calories than meat crossbred animals. Increasing the hybrids values of the protein quality index indicates an increase in meat share of muscle proteins and the reduction of connective tissue, and consequently, improving the quality of the raw meat. Animals obtained by crossing, have wide and deep body, well-developed muscles of the thighs, the best quality characteristics of meat productivity
Donald P. Knowles
Full Text Available Small ruminant lentiviruses include members that infect sheep (ovine lentivirus [OvLV]; also known as ovine progressive pneumonia virus/maedi-visna virus and goats (caprine arthritis encephalitis virus [CAEV]. Breed differences in seroprevalence and proviral concentration of OvLV had suggested a strong genetic component in susceptibility to infection by OvLV in sheep. A genetic marker test for susceptibility to OvLV has been developed recently based on the TMEM154 gene with validation data from over 2,800 sheep representing nine cohorts. While no single genotype has been shown to have complete resistance to OvLV, consistent association in thousands of sheep from multiple breeds and management conditions highlight a new strategy for intervention by selective breeding. This genetic marker-assisted selection (MAS has the potential to be a useful addition to existing viral control measures. Further, the discovery of multiple additional genomic regions associated with susceptibility to or control of OvLV suggests that additional genetic marker tests may be developed to extend the reach of MAS in the future. This review will cover the strengths and limitations of existing data from host genetics as an intervention and outline additional questions for future genetic research in sheep, goats, small ruminant lentiviruses, and their host-pathogen interactions.
Full Text Available The proximate composition and mineral content of light lambs muscle (derived from Istrian and Dalmatian Pramenka breeds were studied. The M. Longissimus dorsi (MLD samples of 30 carcasses were analysed and the effects of breed and sex were studied. Although lambs of investigated breeds were similar for slaughter age (2.5 months, Dalmatian Pramenka had significantly higher carcass weights (CW; P<0.05. Breed had a significant influence on moisture and fat contents, whilst mineral composition (with the exception of selenium was scarcely affected by breed and sex. Fat and moisture contents were significantly correlated with cold CW. The magnesium, calcium, manganese and selenium contents were significantly correlated (r=0.50, -0.46, 0.44, 0.54; P<0.05 respectively with CW. This study contributes to characterization of lamb carcasses from Istrian Sheep and Dalmatian Pramenka breeds and provides new data on the composition of the MLD of light lambs.
Gelasakis, A I; Valergakis, G E; Arsenos, G; Banos, G
The aim was to assess the intensified dairy sheep farming systems of the Chios breed in Greece, establishing a typology that may properly describe and characterize them. The study included the total of the 66 farms of the Chios sheep breeders' cooperative Macedonia. Data were collected using a structured direct questionnaire for in-depth interviews, including questions properly selected to obtain a general description of farm characteristics and overall management practices. A multivariate statistical analysis was used on the data to obtain the most appropriate typology. Initially, principal component analysis was used to produce uncorrelated variables (principal components), which would be used for the consecutive cluster analysis. The number of clusters was decided using hierarchical cluster analysis, whereas, the farms were allocated in 4 clusters using k-means cluster analysis. The identified clusters were described and afterward compared using one-way ANOVA or a chi-squared test. The main differences were evident on land availability and use, facility and equipment availability and type, expansion rates, and application of preventive flock health programs. In general, cluster 1 included newly established, intensive, well-equipped, specialized farms and cluster 2 included well-established farms with balanced sheep and feed/crop production. In cluster 3 were assigned small flock farms focusing more on arable crops than on sheep farming with a tendency to evolve toward cluster 2, whereas cluster 4 included farms representing a rather conservative form of Chios sheep breeding with low/intermediate inputs and choosing not to focus on feed/crop production. In the studied set of farms, 4 different farmer attitudes were evident: 1) farming disrupts sheep breeding; feed should be purchased and economies of scale will decrease costs (mainly cluster 1), 2) only exercise/pasture land is necessary; at least part of the feed (pasture) must be home-grown to decrease costs (clusters 1 and 4), 3) providing pasture to sheep is essential; on-farm feed production decreases costs (mainly cluster 3), and 4) large-scale farming (feed production and cash crops) does not disrupt sheep breeding; all feed must be produced on-farm to decrease costs (mainly cluster 3). Conducting a profitability analysis among different clusters, exploring and discovering the most beneficial levels of intensified management and capital investment should now be considered. PMID:22612943
Hallauer, Arnel R.
Plant breeding is considered one of the longest ongoing activities undertaken by humans, who select plantsmore productive and useful to themselves and the animals for at least 10,000 years ago. The evolution of civilizationsparalleled the success of plant breeding, although this has not been recognized by the public. The reason may be lack ofunderstanding of what plant breeding encompasses. The concept of plant breeding evolved, depending on the time it wasformulated, but without losing the e...
How many of you all grew up on a cattle farm? This is a diagram that we will use to tell some advantages and disadvantages about beef cattle as we study different beef breeds. Diagram Advantages and Disadvantages of beef cattle breeds The first website that we will look at for the identification of beef cattle breeds is The Beef Site. Choose three breeds and look for some advantages ...
The milk somatic cell count (MSCC) forms the basis of abnormal milk control programs world wide for goats, cows and sheep. To better understand factors that contribute to elevations in MSCC, the effects of stage of lactation, parity, breed and state/area in the United States (US) on goat MSCC were ...
This book presents the current status of chickpea breeding and management by experts from around the world. It thoroughly covers a wide array of subject on chickpea genetics and breeding ranging from cytogenetics, wild relatives and biodiversity, conventional and modern breeding techniques and achi...
Xiao Yun Shen
Full Text Available Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2 (BMP2 plays a crucial role in bone growth. The objective of this study was to investigate variations in sheep BMP2 gene and their associations with growth traits in 320 Guizhou Semi-Fine Wool sheep. Five fragments of BMP-2 gene were investigated only exon2 region of BMP-2 gene showed polymorphism after PCR-SSCP and DNA sequencing methods. There was one G>A (g. 273 G>A mutation located in nucleotide position of GenBank Accession No. EU854586 which constructed three genotypes (LL, LW and WW. The frequencies of allele L and genotype LL were dominant in Guizhou Semi-Fine Wool sheep. The PIC (Polymorphism Information Content values of the Guizhou Semi-Fine Wool sheep were 0.3261 belong to median polymorphism. Associations between growth traits and BMP2 gene polymorphism were investigated and significant statistical association results were found in body height, body length and chest circumference (pBMP2 gene is a candidate gene that influences growth traits in Guizhou Semi-Fine Wool sheep. Further investigations are required for detecting the polymorphism of this gene in a broad variety of sheep breeds and populations.
Scala, A; Mazzette, R
The authors analyse the current epidemiological situation of sheep Cystic Echinococcosis (CE) in Sardinia, where the prevalence of ovine CE is still very high (70%) and this parasitosis is also frequently found in the human population. For this reason Sardinia represents a peculiar model for CE study, because there are particular conditions that allow Echinococcus granulosus to complete its life cycle. Some social and economical factors support the persistence of sheep CE: over 3 million Sarda breed heads are extensively bred; the presence, at farm level, of a strong relationship between dog, sheep and human; the low commercial value of meat coming from adult sheep, which results in a large number of sheep being slaughtered at home or on the farm rather than in authorized slaughterhouses. Moreover Sardinia is the only Italian region where partially successful echinococcosis control plans have been applied. The authors suggest some indirect and direct initiatives, including the use of a new vaccine against the development of this metacestode in sheep, to reduce the prevalence of CE. PMID:19588262
Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the functional capacity of the liver based on the activity of specific enzymes and bilirubin in serum and also to investigate the influence of mechanical and toxic effects of Fasciola hepatica on the structures of the blood vessels and biliary tract in the sheep liver.Methods: Blood samples and liver of 63 indigenous sheep of Pramenka breed, slaughtered in the period from March to December 2009 were used. Based on parasitological findings in the liver, all animals were divided into two groups: control (n=34 and infected group (n=29. For investigation and description of pathological changes in sheep liver, naturally infected with F. hepatica, corrosion cast technique was used.Results: Biochemical analysis of tested parameters showed a significant elevation (P?0.05 of serum gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT, total bilirubin (TBIL and direct bilirubin (DBIL in infected sheep group comparing with the control group. No significant differences were observed for activity of aspartate aminotranferase (AST between groups. Vascular and biliary systems of the liver were found to be affected.Conclusion: Results of biochemical analysis are consistent with pathological findings and measuring of tested parameters could be used in early diagnosis of sheep fasciolosis and to test the effectiveness of anthelmintic therapy. Corrosion cast technique is very useful for investigation of pathological changes and neoangiogenesis of vascular and biliary system in sheep liver, caused by mechanical and toxic effects of F. hepatica.
Kondrashev, S.; Barcikowski, A.; Dickerson, C.; Ostroumov, P. N.; Sharamentov, S.; Vondrasek, R.; Pikin, A.
The Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS) developed to breed CARIBU radioactive beams at ATLAS is currently in the off-line commissioning stage. The beam commissioning is being performed using a low emittance surface ionization source producing singly-charged cesium ions. The primary goal of the off-line commissioning is the demonstration of high-efficiency charge breeding in the pulsed injection mode. An overview of the final design of the CARIBU EBIS charge breeder, the off-line commissioning installation and the first results on charge breeding of stable cesium ions are presented and discussed.
Full Text Available The paper presents results of investigating possibilities for organizing and developing organic production in sheep farming, in the territory of the Sjenica-Pešter plateau. The results of investigations on yield, floristic and chemical composition, as well as harmful matter, demonstrate that conditions exist for the development of organic production, in particular of organic lamb meet. On the grounds of its known characteristics, the Sjenica-Pešter Pramenka breed presents the most suitable breed for organizing organic sheep production. Organic sheep production can largely contribute to rural development and the advancement of this region. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TP 31085: Organizovanje održive proizvodnje organskog uzgoja jagnjadi kao podrška ruralnom razvoju
Wenander, F J C
Charge breeding is a technique to increase the charge state of ions, in many cases radioactive ions. The singly charged radioactive ions, produced in an isotope separator on-line facility, and extracted with a low kinetic energy of some tens of keV, are injected into a charge breeder, where the charge state is increased to Q. The transformed ions are either directed towards a dedicated experiment requiring highly charged ions, or post-accelerated to higher beam energies. In this paper the physics processes involved in the production of highly charged ions will be introduced, and the injection and extraction beam parameters of the charge breeder defined. A description of the three main charge-breeding methods is given, namely: electron stripping in gas jet or foil; external ion injection into an electron-beam ion source/trap (EBIS/T); and external ion injection into an electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS). In addition, some preparatory devices for charge breeding and practical beam delivery aspects ...
Esmailizadeh, Ali K; Nemati, Mostafa; Mokhtari, Mortaza S
A crossbreeding experiment was carried out to determine the sire breed effects on fattening performance of fat-tailed lambs. Rams from four Iranian fat-tailed sheep breeds, namely Kurdi (K), Afshari (A), Chaal (C) and Sanjabi (S) were mated to Kurdi ewes producing 454 progeny of four genotype groups (KK, AK, CK and SK). A total of 80 lambs comprising ten female and ten male lambs from each genotype group were used in a fattening experiment during a period of 88 days. Genotype of the lamb had significant effect on average dry matter intake (ADMI) (P dry matter intake and carcass conformation in the fat-tailed sheep. PMID:22076663
Khaled Bani Al-Harbi
Full Text Available Abscess disease (caseous lymphadenitis and Morel disease is a worldwide contagious bacterial disease of sheep and goats and is adversely affecting the development of the sheep industry in Saudi Arabia. Fifteen sheep and 12 goat farms at Qassim region, central Saudi Arabia, were surveyed during September and October 2008 for the determination of the prevalence and the etiology of abscess disease. One hundred and twenty pus samples were collected from affected external lymph nodes of clinically-ill sheep and goats and from infected internal lymph nodes and organs condemned during meat inspection in the slaughterhouses, for the isolation and identification of pathogenic bacteria causing sheep abscess disease. The prevalence of abscess disease varied between 5%– 44.1% in sheep farms, being highest in the Najdi breed, and between 2.2 % – 6.5 % in goat farms. Males of both sheep and goats had the highest rate of infection compared to females (p <0.01. Bacterial isolates were obtained from 97 out of the 120 collected pus samples (80.83%. The remaining 23 samples were sterile. Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis and Staphylococcus aureus subsp. anaerobius accounted for about 54% of isolates, with almost equal frequencies (p =0.5. Other pyogenic bacteria such as S. aureus, Streptococci, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Actinomyces pyogenes were also isolated from infected abscesses. They represented about 46% of the isolated etiological agents of sheep abscesses. This explains why available vaccines (bactrins against caseous lymphadenitis (CLA are poorly protective against abscess disease in Saudi Arabia. [Vet. World 2011; 4(11.000: 495-499
Neurosecretion, PAS-positive mucopolysaccharides and the Nissl substance were studied in the neurons of the rostral, medial and caudal hypothalamus of continuously irradiated ewes. The study was performed on 21 ewes of the Slovak Merino breed of a live weight of 34 kg. The animals were in the period of physiological anoestrus and their age was two to three years. The first group of six ewes was the control. The second group included 15 sheep irradiated with a total dose of 6.7 Gy (700 R) for seven days. Co60 was used as the source of irradiation. The animals of this group were killed seven days following treatment. The ewes in the third group were left for the study of mortality. The brains were perfused with 2% buffered paraformaldehyde immediately after the bleeding of the sheep; then the brains were removed from the skulls and fixed in buffered picroformol. Paraffin slices were stained with haematoxylin-eosine, aldehyde-fuchsine and alcian blue for neurosecretion, by the PAS reaction for mucopolysaccharides and with cresyl violet for the Nissl substance. It was found that irradiation of the whole body inhibited the activity of neurosecretory cells in the rostral and medial hypothalamus, thus reducing neurosecretion. These regions also showed a reduced activity of the PAS reaction used for the demonstration of mucopolysaccharides. The observed changes also included damage of the endothelium of blood vessels with the occurrence of erythrocyte extravasates he occurrence of erythrocyte extravasates and with haemorrhages. In this way, the trophism of neurosecretory cells was affected, which is ascribed to the decrease in the amount of neurosecretory material. In the caudal hypothalamus, neurosecretion and PAS-positivity were slightly stimulated by irradiation. The Nissl substance disappeared as a result of irradiation. (author)
Full Text Available Biological control of parasitic nematodes of livestock is currently under development and represents another tool that may be integrated into helminth parasite control strategies. This paper presents a brief introduction to commercial sheep farming in South Africa and currently available nematode parasite control methods. These include the FAMACHA(r clinical assay, strategies of pasture management, dilution of resistant worm species by introduction of susceptible worms, breed resistant sheep and nutritional supplementation. The purpose of this paper is to outline the principles of biological control using nematophagous fungi and how it may be applied on sheep farms in South Africa.
Prada Jiménez de Cisneros, Joaquín; Stear, Michael J; Mair, Colette; Singleton, Darran; Stefan, Thorsten; Stear, Abigail; Marion, Glenn; Matthews, Louise
Gastrointestinal nematodes are a global cause of disease and death in humans, wildlife and livestock. Livestock infection has historically been controlled with anthelmintic drugs, but the development of resistance means that alternative controls are needed. The most promising alternatives are vaccination, nutritional supplementation and selective breeding, all of which act by enhancing the immune response. Currently, control planning is hampered by reliance on the faecal egg count (FEC), which suffers from low accuracy and a nonlinear and indirect relationship with infection intensity and host immune responses. We address this gap by using extensive parasitological, immunological and genetic data on the sheep-Teladorsagia circumcincta interaction to create an immunologically explicit model of infection dynamics in a sheep flock that links host genetic variation with variation in the two key immune responses to predict the observed parasitological measures. Using our model, we show that the immune responses are highly heritable and by comparing selective breeding based on low FECs versus high plasma IgA responses, we show that the immune markers are a much improved measure of host resistance. In summary, we have created a model of host-parasite infections that explicitly captures the development of the adaptive immune response and show that by integrating genetic, immunological and parasitological understanding we can identify new immune-based markers for diagnosis and control. PMID:25121649
Ovulation rate, embryo survival, postnatal mortality, interval from parturition to conception, age at first parturition, number of parturitions before culling, and age at culling collectively declineate the ability of a breed to cope with the local environment and management which are often harsh and suboptimal. In tropical and subtropical countries, the reproductive performance of goat and sheep is low and far from their maximum potential. Identification of the main limiting factors and determination of the breed's sensitivity to these factors are essential preliminary steps before choosing the method(s) to improve reproductive performance in such countries. (author)
White, S. N.; Mousel, M. R.; Reynolds, J. O.; Herrmann-hoesing, L. M.; Knowles, D. P.
Ovine lentivirus (OvLV) is a macrophage-tropic lentivirus found in many countries that causes interstitial pneumonia, mastitis, arthritis and cachexia in sheep. There is no preventive vaccine and no cure, but breed differences suggest marker-assisted selective breeding might improve odds of infection and control of OvLV post-infection. Although variants in TMEM154 have consistent association with odds of infection, no variant in any gene has been associated with host control of OvLV post-infe...
Crispim, B A; Grisolia, A B; Seno, L O; Egito, A A; Vargas Junior, F M; Souza, M R
Sheep of the Pantaneiro breed and seven other breeds, raised in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, were genotyped using eight microsatellite loci. The aim of the present study was to determine the genetic variability, phylogenetic relationship, and patterns of gene introgression and miscegenation among the animals surveyed, to obtain information about the genetic structure of locally adapted sheep in Mato Grosso do Sul. A total of 195 animals were used for genetic analysis. The Pantaneiro breed had the largest average number of alleles/locus (9.25), and higher allelic richness (6.95), while the Dorper population had the lowest values for these parameters (4.88 and 3.86, respectively). Analysis of genetic distance values and genetic structure between populations made it possible to characterize these animals with regard to distinct genetic groups. Average expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.72 (Pantaneiro) to 0.55 (Dorper), while average observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.63 (White Dorper) to 0.54 (Dorper). On the basis of the statistical parameters evaluated, it was possible to demonstrate that when compared to other populations, the Pantaneiro breed represented a reservoir of genetic diversity with rare and useful alleles for genetic improvement, emphasizing the importance of preserving the breed. PMID:24301918
Lam Mary K
Full Text Available Abstract Background In sheep dairy production, total lactation performance, and length of lactation of lactation are of economic significance. A more persistent lactation has been associated with improved udder health. An extended lactation is defined by a longer period of milkability. This study is the first investigation to examine the presence of quantitative trait loci (QTL for extended lactation and lactation persistency in sheep. Methods An (Awassi × Merino × Merino single-sire backcross family with 172 ewes was used to map QTL for lactation persistency and extended lactation traits on a framework map of 189 loci across all autosomes. The Wood model was fitted to data from multiple lactations to estimate parameters of ovine lactation curves, and these estimates were used to derive measures of lactation persistency and extended lactation traits of milk, protein, fat, lactose, useful yield, and somatic cell score. These derived traits were subjected to QTL analyses using maximum likelihood estimation and regression analysis. Results Overall, one highly significant (LOD > 3.0, four significant (2.0 Conclusion This study identified ten novel QTL for lactation persistency and extended lactation in sheep, but results suggest that lactation persistency and extended lactation do not have a major gene in common. These results provide a basis for further validation in extended families and other breeds as well as targeting regions for genome-wide association mapping using high-density SNP arrays.
The model of radiocaesium transfer to sheep presented by Galer et al.  provides reliable predictions only for sheep of a similar body weight to those used in the development of the model (approximately 30 kg). To extend the applicability of the model, it was necessary to re-parameterise it in terms of activity concentrations in tissues rather than total activities within them (although for gut compartments the use of activity has been retained). The rate coefficients for the new model have been estimated by fitting the model to the data used by Galer et al.  which was derived from a single ''calibration'' experiment. The new model was found to account for 94% of the observed variation in the data (n = 42), a result similar to that obtained by Galer et al. . The model has also been tested against data not used in its development but obtained from four separate experiments undertaken by three different laboratories. Good agreement between the predictions of the new model and observations was found for most circumstances and for several breeds of sheep with different body weights. It is concluded that the new model provides a useful dynamic description of radiocaesium transfers to the tissues of sheep of different breeds and under different contamination scenarios. (orig.)
Ruchi Maan; Nalini Kataria,
The purpose of the study was to evaluate oxidative stress during adverse environmentalconditions in Marwari sheep breed, to monitor the health status. Six hundred and thirty animals weresampled belonging to arid tracts of Rajasthan, India during adverse environmental conditions includingextreme hot and extreme cold. Oxidative stress was evaluated by determining serum catalase activitiesby basic colorimetric method in which serum was reacted with hydrogen peroxide for specific period oftime. T...
A. Baldi; F. Cheli; Pinotti, L.; C. Pecorini; E. Fusi; R. Rebucci
Milk composition and quality are affected by several factors of which stage of lactation and mammary gland health status represent the main ones. These two factors become more effective in small dairy ruminants, for which stage of lactation is synchronized as result of the seasonal breeding cycle. As a consequence in dairy sheep and goats milk quality and cheese making properties tend to decline. Most of these effects on milk quality are also associated with an increase in the somatic cell co...
Kang, Xiaolong; Liu, Gang; Liu, Yufang; Xu, Qinqin; Zhang, Ming; Fang, Meiying
Tan sheep (Ovis aries), a Chinese indigenous breed, has special curly fleece after birth, especially at one month old. However, this unique phenotype disappears gradually with age and the underlying reasons of trait evolvement are still unknown. In this study, skin transcriptome data was used to study this issue. In total 51,215 transcripts including described transcripts and transfrags were identified. Pathway analysis of the top 100 most highly expressed transcripts, which included TCHH and...
Full Text Available Abstract Organising the breeding plan of a seasonally breeding species, such as sheep, presents a challenge to farmers and the industry as a whole, since both economical and biological considerations need to be carefully balanced. Understanding the breeding activity of individual animals becomes a prerequisite for a successful breeding program. This study set out to investigate the sources of variation and the genetic profile of the spontaneous, out-of-season ovulatory activity of ewes of the Chios dairy sheep breed in Greece. The definition of the trait was based on blood progesterone levels, measured before exposing the ewes to rams, which marks the onset of the usual breeding season. Data were 707 records, taken over two consecutive years, of 435 ewes kept at the Agricultural Research Station of Chalkidiki in northern Greece. When all available pedigree was included, the total number of animals involved was 1068. On average, 29% of all ewes exhibited spontaneous, out-of-season ovulatory activity, with no substantial variation between the years. Significant sources of systematic variation were the ewe age and live weight, and the month of previous lambing. Older, heavier ewes, that had lambed early the previous autumn, exhibited more frequent activity. Heritability estimates were 0.216 (± 0.084 with a linear and 0.291 with a threshold model. The latter better accounts for the categorical nature of the trait. The linear model repeatability was 0.230 (± 0.095. The results obtained in this study support the notion that spontaneous out-of-season ovulatory activity can be considered in the development of a breeding plan for the Chios sheep breed.
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the level of inbreeding of meat performance tested herd book sheep in Austria and to evaluate the effect of individual inbreeding on growth and CT (computer tomography scan carcass traits. Performance data (13,614 records, five breeds: Merinoland, Suff olk, Texel, German Blackheaded Meat sheep, Jura were collected in the years 2000-2010. The traits analysed were live weight and average daily gain, as well as traits of body frame, back fat and eye muscle area, all measured on live animals with CT. Inbreeding coefficients (F were calculated with the soft ware PEDIG. F was nested within breed and tested in a mixed model using ASReml. Levels of inbreeding were low with O F of 1.5-3.1%. Only few traits were significantly affected by inbreeding. Both positive and negative effects were found. The effects were small, most oft en nonlinear and vary across breeds. Inbreeding and its effects on performance traits do not seem to be an issue in Austrian meat sheep populations at the moment. However, monitoring and further analyses are recommended.
A. Ameur Ameur
Full Text Available In order to study the race effect on the physico-chemical characteristics and protein profile, two sheep or ovine breeds Hamra and Ouled Djellal were raised in the same condition sat the ITELV (National institute of breeding (Ain Hajar-Saida, Algeria. The analyses were focused on the pH, density, freezing, fat, total protein, dry defatted extract and total dry extract. The results obtained or these parameters showed no significant differences between the two races. Then the protein fractions were isolated and analyzed by Poly Acryl Amide Gel Electrophoresis (PAGE under different conditions (native and in presence of urea. The resulting electrophoretic profiles have identified similarities between the two breeds milk.
Dettori, Maria Luisa; Pazzola, Michele; Pira, Emanuela; Paschino, Pietro; Vacca, Giuseppe Massimo
Growth hormone (GH) is encoded by the GH gene, which may be single copy or duplicate in sheep. The two copies of the sheep GH gene (GH1/GH2-N and GH2-Z) were entirely sequenced in one 106 ewes of Sarda breed, in order to highlight sequence polymorphisms and investigate possible association between genetic variants and milk traits. Milk traits included milk yield, fat, protein, casein and lactose percentage. We evidenced 75 nucleotide changes. Transcription factor binding site prediction revealed two sequences potentially recognised by the pituitary-specific transcription factor POU1FI at the GH1/GH2-N gene, which were lost at the promoter of GH2-Z, which might explain the different tissues of expression of GH1/GH2-N (pituitary) and GH2-Z (placenta). Significant differences in milk traits were observed among genotypes at polymorphic loci only for the GH2-Z gene. Sheep with homozygote genotype ss748770547 CC had higher fat percentage (P factor binding site for C/EBP alpha (CCAAT/Enhancer Binding Protein), which is involved in the regulation of adipogenesis and adipoblast differentiation. SNP ss748770547, located in the GH2-Z gene 5' flanking region, may be a causal mutation affecting milk fat content. These findings might contribute to the knowledge of the sheep GH locus and might be useful in selection processes in sheep. PMID:25669323
This is the fourth in a series of lessons specifically designed to instruct individuals without any formal training in genetics or statistics about the science of corn breeding. Individuals with formal training in genetics or statistics but without any training in plant breeding also may benefit from taking these lessons.
Blackberry (Rubus L. subgenus Rubus Watson) improvement has made substantial progress with over 400 cultivars named originating from wild selections to many releases from breeding efforts. Public breeding has been ongoing for over 100 years. The result of these improvements is commercial production ...
Tritium breeding materials are essential to the operation of D-T fusion facilities. Both of the present options - solid ceramic breeding materials and liquid metal materials are reviewed with emphasis not only on their attractive features but also on critical materials issues which must be resolved
Chu, M X; Li, B X; Wang, J Y; Ye, S C; Fang, L
Small Tail Han sheep that has significant characteristics of high prolificacy and nonseasonal ovulatory activity is an excellent local sheep breed in P.R. China. The lambing percentage averaged 260% in Small Tail Han sheep. Growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9) gene, which was essential for growth and differentiation of early ovarian follicles, was considered as a possible candidate gene for litter size in Small Tail Han sheep. The genetic polymorphism of a part of the GDF9 gene was detected in 130 ewes of Small Tail Han sheep by PCR-SSCP. The results indicated that there were two genotypes (AA and AB) detected by two primer pairs. In both exon 1 and exon 2 of the GDF9 gene in Small Tail Han sheep, frequencies of AA genotype were 0.846 and 0.908, frequencies of AB genotype were 0.154 and 0.092, frequencies of A allele were 0.923 and 0.954, and frequencies of B allele were 0.077 and 0.046, respectively. The results of chi2 fitness test indicated that both exon 1 and exon 2 of the GDF9 gene were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (p > 0.05) in Small Tail Han sheep. Least squares means of litter size in the first and the second parity for genotype AA were 0.30 (p 0.05) on litter size in both the first and the second parity in Small Tail Han sheep. Litter size in sheep is lowly heritable, expressed only in females, and manifested relatively late in life. Access to genetic markers would thus be advantageous in selection programs. PMID:15595697
Full Text Available Differently from what one could formerly imagine, that buffalo breeding activity would be solely directed to fill the so called cattle breeding gaps determined by inadequate environmental conditions for ordinary cattle breeding, it has been actually seen that in those areas where breeders could successfully organize industrial-agricultural chains, either on meat or milk and its related products production, there has been an expressive expansion .Buffalo breeding has shown to be an important alternative not only in farms of higher technological level as also , and mainly, on small farms where it has become a key factor for increasing the average income, besides keeping labor force in country areas. This article intends to point out and examine some aspects of buffalo breeding and its potentialities in Brazil.
The terms of reference for ITER provide for incorporation of a tritium breeding blanket with a breeding ratio as close to unity as practical. A breeding blanket is required to assure an adequate supply of tritium to meet the program objectives. Based on specified design criteria, a ceramic breeder concept with water coolant and an austenitic steel structure has been selected as the first option and lithium-lead blanket concept has been chosen as an alternate option. The first wall, blanket, and shield are integrated into a single unit with separate cooling systems. The design makes extensive use of beryllium to enhance the tritium breeding ratio. The design goals with a tritium breeding ratio of 0.8--0.9 have been achieved and the R ampersand D requirements to qualify the design have been identified. 4 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs
Jorge, Ramírez-Retamal; Rodrigo, Morales; M. Eugenia, Martínez; Rodrigo, de la Barra.
Full Text Available The Chilote sheep has been developed in an isolated environment, based on grazing lands with low nutritive value belonging to small-scale producers, because of which there is little information about the use of this breed for meat production. The objective of this work was to determine the effects o [...] n lamb carcasses of two breeds with different productive purposes and fed on pastures with different nutritional quality. Three groups of lambs were used. The first and second groups were composed of 13 and 11 Chilote lambs respectively, and the third composed of six Suffolk Down lambs. Lambs remained with their mothers, the first group on naturalized pasture and the rest on rangeland. Animals were slaughtered at 90 d of age. Live weight, carcass weight and yield, and several zoometric parameters were determined, as well as the weight of commercial cuts and the muscle, bone and fat ratios. Hide and hoof weights were also measured. For the effect of breed, Chilote lamb is narrower (P
Baylis, M.; Houston, F.; Kao, Rr; Mclean, AR; Hunter, N.; Gravenor, Mb
The entire sheep flock in the UK has been threatened with slaughter if BSE is found in farmed sheep, largely on the grounds that an epidemic of BSE in sheep could be harder to contain than was the case for cattle, and that lamb could present a greater risk to consumers than beef. However, identifying BSE in a sheep is not straightforward, because of its similarities to the related disease, scrapie. Here, we review the likelihood that any UK sheep have BSE, how they might have got it, how a ca...
Carpenter, Tim E; Coggins, Victor L; McCarthy, Clinton; O'Brien, Chans S; O'Brien, Joshua M; Schommer, Timothy J
Bighorn sheep currently occupy just 30% of their historic distribution, and persist in populations less than 5% as abundant overall as their early 19th century counterparts. Present-day recovery of bighorn sheep populations is in large part limited by periodic outbreaks of respiratory disease, which can be transmitted to bighorn sheep via contact with domestic sheep grazing in their vicinity. In order to assess the viability of bighorn sheep populations on the Payette National Forest (PNF) under several alternative proposals for domestic sheep grazing, we developed a series of interlinked models. Using telemetry and habitat data, we characterized herd home ranges and foray movements of bighorn sheep from their home ranges. Combining foray model movement estimates with known domestic sheep grazing areas (allotments), a Risk of Contact Model estimated bighorn sheep contact rates with domestic sheep allotments. Finally, we used demographic and epidemiologic data to construct population and disease transmission models (Disease Model), which we used to estimate bighorn sheep persistence under each alternative grazing scenario. Depending on the probability of disease transmission following interspecies contact, extirpation probabilities for the seven bighorn sheep herds examined here ranged from 20% to 100%. The Disease Model allowed us to assess the probabilities that varied domestic sheep management scenarios would support persistent populations of free-ranging bighorn sheep. PMID:24507886
The achievements made in mutation breeding in Japan over the past 40 years are outlined from the viewpoint of practical breeding. Fifty-four varieties of 23 crops were obtained by direct use of induced mutants. These include 12 cereal mutant varieties, five food legumes, nine industrial crops, seven vegetables and 18 ornamentals. Ten varieties were obtained by national breeding institutes, 14 by prefectural stations and 30 by universities or private firms. The varieties produced by the national breeding programme were registered and released with Norin numbers. In most cases, ionizing radiation was used. Forty additional mutant varieties were developed through cross-breeding using induced mutants as the gene sources. Of the 33 rice varieties in this category, 21, including six national varieties, resulted from crosses involving Reimei, a semi-dwarf mutant variety. Another semi-dwarf mutant parent was used to breed two more national varieties. Three early heading mutants were also integrated into cross-breeding programmes and produced three national and two prefectural varieties. A large grain mutant produced three varieties for sake brewing. A new recessive resistant mutant allele to the soil borne virus (BaYMV) was induced in barley. One variety was bred using this mutant as a parent. Another promising disease resistant clone was induced by chronic irradiation in a gamma field in the leading Japanese pear variety Nijisseiki, which is susceptible to black spot diseasewhich is susceptible to black spot disease caused by Alternaria alternata (Fr.) Keissler. This mutant clone maintained all the superior qualities of the original variety. The significant role of the Institute of Radiation Breeding as a core in mutation breeding is mentioned briefly. (author). 10 refs, 2 figs, 6 tabs
Wang, Yutao; Xu, Lei; Yan, Wei; Li, Shaobin; Wang, Jiqing; Liu, Xiu; Hu, Jiang; Luo, Yuzhu
Investigations on the variation present at the male-specific Y chromosome region provide strong information to understand the origin and evolution of domestic sheep. One SNP OY1 (g.88A>G) in the upstream region of SRY gene, and the microsatellite SRYM18 locus within ovine Y chromosome were analyzed in one hundred and forty five samples collected from eleven breeds in China. SNP OY1 was analyzed using PCR-SSCP method and sequencing. Two different PCR-SSCP patterns represented two specific sequences with sequence analysis revealing SNP-OY1 (g.88A>G) were observed, while SNP A-OY1 showed the most common frequency (82.8%). Sequencing of the SRYM18 region revealed one novel size fragment (A2) with different repetitive units. Seven haplotypes (H4, H5, H6, H7, H8, H9 and H12) and two novel haplotypes (Ha and Hb) were established using combined genotype analysis. H6 showed the highest frequency (43.4%) across all breeds, and H8 showed the second frequency (24.1%). Ha was only found in one breed (Tan), while Hb was present in three breeds (Gansu alpine, White Suffolk and Duolang). Our findings reveal one novel allele in SRYM18 region and two novel male haplotypes of domestic sheep in China. PMID:25865303
Full Text Available From a complex experiment of establishing the effects of lecithin supplemented in the diet of small ruminants, in this paper we present the influence of lecithin on some sanguine biochemical parameters at lactating sheep and goat. The researches were made on a experimental group formed by 5 sheep from ?urcana breed and 5 goats from Crapatina breed, which were fed in the first experimental period with a base ratio (Br formed by 1.5 kg of hill hay and 0.2 kg concentrate forage mixture, in the second experimental period the Br was supplemented with 100 g lecithin/day/animal. At the end of each experimental period were taken blood samples to establish some biochemical parameters from sanguine serum. The supplementation of base ration with 100 g lecithin/day/animal at lactating sheep and goats did not produced significant changes to values of total proteins (TS, albumin, creatinine, urea and total bilirubins (TB from sanguine serum. Contrary to expectation the cholesterol and triglycerides were higher than normal both in sheep (from 82 mg/dl to 83 mg/dl for cholesterol and from 23 mg/dl to 45 mg/dl for triglycerides but specially in goats (from 59 mg/dl to 68 mg/dl for cholesterol and from 24 mg/dl to 55 mg/dl for triglycerides. Were registered significant increment of activity of alkaline phosphatase and in ? – GT and a decrease of plasmatic activity of pancreatic ?-amylase both in sheep and goats.
Garcia-Gamez, Elsa; Sahana, Goutam
BACKGROUND: Genomic technologies, such as high-throughput genotyping based on SNP arrays, have great potential to decipher the genetic architecture of complex traits and provide background information concerning genome structure in domestic animals, including the extent of linkage disequilibrium (LD) and haplotype blocks. The objective of this study was to estimate LD, the population evolution (past effective population size) and the level of inbreeding in Spanish Churra sheep. RESULTS: A total of 43,784 SNPs distributed in the ovine autosomal genome was analyzed in 1,681 Churra ewes. LD was assessed by measuring r2 between all pairs of loci. For SNPs up to 10 kb apart, the average r2 was 0.329; for SNPs separated by 200-500 kb the average r2 was 0.061. When SNPs are separated by more than 50 Mbp, the average r2 is the same as between non-syntenic SNP pairs (0.003). The effective population size has decreased through time, faster from 1,000 to 100 years ago and slower since the selection scheme started (15-25 generations ago). In the last generation, four years ago, the effective population size was estimated to be 128 animals. Inbreeding coefficients, although differed depending on the estimation approaches, were generally low and showed the same trend, which indicates that since 2003, inbreeding has been slightly increasing in the studied resource population. CONCLUSIONS: The extent of LD in Churra sheep persists over much more limited distances than reported in dairy cattle and seems to be similar to other ovine populations. Churra sheep show a wide genetic base, with a long-term viable effective population size that has been slightly decreasing since selection scheme began in 1986. The genomic dataset analyzed provided useful information for identifying low-level inbreeding in the sample, whereas based on the parameters reported here, a higher marker density than that analyzed here will be needed to successfully conduct accurate mapping of genes underlying production traits and genomic selection prediction in this sheep breed. Although the Ovine Assembly development is still in a draft stage and future refinements will provide a more accurate physical map that will improve LD estimations, this work is a first step towards the understanding of the genetic architecture in sheep.
Campbell, M.L.H.; SandØe, Peter
Welfare problems related to the way horses are bred, whether by coitus or by the application of artificial reproduction techniques (ARTs), have been given no discrete consideration within the academic literature. This paper reviews the existing knowledge base about welfare issues in horse breeding and identifies areas in which data is lacking. We suggest that all methods of horse breeding are associated with potential welfare problems, but also that the judicious use of ARTs can sometimes help to address those problems. We discuss how negative welfare effects could be identified and limited and how positive welfare effects associated with breeding might be maximised. Further studies are needed to establish an evidence base about how stressful or painful various breeding procedures are for the animals involved, and what the lifetime welfare implications of ARTs are for future animal generations.
California Department of Resources — This data set provides access to information gathered on annual breeding bird surveys in California using a map layer developed by the Department. This data layer...
The evolution, domestication, variability and adaptation of fibre jutes in Bangladesh are described. Domestication of fibre jutes, in evolutionary terms, is recent and the spectrum of variability within them is narrow. Yield improvement by breeding has been minimal and the reasons for this are suggested. Recent germplasm collecting expeditions to the eastern hill tracts of Bangladesh have revealed wide-spectrum diversity among the vegetable jutes grown there. Variability among the vegetable types can be utilized to improve the fibre types and to this end various hybridization schemes have now been initiated by the Bangladesh Jute Research Institute. The initial breeding priority is yield per se but ideotype characteristics have been delineated. The objectives of the breeding programme are likely to become more specific as the agronomic worth of these characteristics becomes more clearly defined. The rationale for mutation breeding in jute has been the narrow-spectrum diversity within the fibre types; the wide-spectrum diversity among the hill tract vegetable jutes should, however, be exploited in imaginative hybridization programmes before resorting to large-scale mutation breeding programmes. Mutation breeding may, however, be a valuable tool for inducing changes in fibre quality characteristics when technologists identify new uses for jute and specify their requirements. At present, however, quality is assessed subjectively. (author) (author)
Francesca Maria Sarti
Full Text Available The conservation of genetic variability is one of the main objectives in the field of genetics applied to domestic livestock. Among molecular markers, microsatellites are particularly appreciated and widely utilized for the study of animal genome. In this study a genetic characterization of three Italian Merino derived sheep breeds was carried out by 30 microsatellites markers; the genetic relationships between these breeds and the Spanish ancestors were also investigated. All the microsatellites examined resulted polymorphic and a total of 375 alleles were detected. FIS values of the three Italian Merinos demonstrate a low level of inbreeding. The results show a good genetic variability of all the studied breeds; at the same time, the genetic identity of each breed is confirmed. These molecular data can be utilized to improve the present selection schemes and the plans to preserve genetic diversity.
Chronic cardiomyopathy and encephalic spongy changes in sheep experimentally fed Ateleia glazioviana Miocardiopatia crônica e degeneração esponjosa do encéfalo em ovinos intoxicados experimentalmente por Ateleia glazioviana
Margarida Buss Raffi; Raquel Rubia Rech; Elisa Simone Viegas Sallis; Aline Rodrigues; Claudio Severo Lombardo Barros
Fifteen mature crossbred sheep were fed different daily amounts (2.5-35g kg-1 bw) of the fresh green leaves of Ateleia glazioviana for different periods of time (1-24 days). One sheep was not fed the plant and served as a control. All 16 sheep were euthanatized at different stages of the experiment, necropsied, and several organs, including heart and brain were evaluated histologically. Samples of five brain regions from three affected sheep were evaluated by electron microscopy. Clinical sig...
Pascual-Linaza, Ana V; Martínez-López, Beatriz; Pfeiffer, Dirk U; Moreno, José Carlos; Sanz, Cristina; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, José Manuel
Extremadura has been one of the regions in Spain most severely affected by Bluetongue (BT) epidemics. The first incursion of BTV, which was successfully eradicated one year later, occurred in 2004, involving the BTV-serotype 4. However, a second incursion occurred in September 2007, this time involving serotype 1. Since then, the implementation of intensive vaccination programs have significantly reduced BTV-1 occurrence, but the disease has not been completely eradicated yet. This study aimed to provide, for the first time, a complete description of the spatial and temporal patterns of BTV-1 occurrence in sheep in Extremadura from 2007 to 2011 and to identify the risk factors that contributed to the seasonal occurrence of BTV-1 in this region. The results showed that risk factors contributing to BTV-1 occurrence in sheep changed between 2007 and 2011. Initially, when the population was still immunologically naïve, the main risk factors for BTV-1 occurrence were extensive management practices, large sheep farms and Culicoides abundance on farms. However, after the implementation of vaccination, other factors became more relevant for BTV-1 occurrence, mostly related to BTV reservoirs, such as the proximity of cattle farms or the introduction of cattle into farms. The Talaverana sheep breed also seemed to be associated with a significantly higher risk of BTV-1 occurrence, although it may be due to confounding factors, such as the geographical concentration of where this breed is kept and/or management practises used for this breed. The results of this study suggest that preventive and control strategies, including vaccination and active surveillance strategies, should be primarily focused on cattle farms kept in close vicinity to sheep flocks as well as in high-risk sheep farms (i.e. farms with a large farm size keeping both cattle and sheep and with a high number of animal introductions). Methods and results presented here may be used to guide decisions for the annual update of the control and eradication program in Spain. PMID:24929438
Fišter Svetlana L.
Full Text Available This paper presents the results of cytogenetic studies in sheep from the region of Bujanovac that was contaminated by depleted uranium during the NATO air strikes in 1999. The study was conducted on sheep blood lymphocytes, in order to determine the frequency of chromosomal aberrations and to assess the presence of genetic risk as a result of the possible impact of depleted uranium. Blood samples for lymphocyte cultures were taken at random from the 20 animals of the households in the village of Borovac, near Bujanovac. The animals were chosen because they were pastured, fed, and watered in the NATO bombing area. With the purpose of comparing the results two control groups were cytogenetically analyzed, each consisted of 20 sheep from Zemun and Ov?a, two northern localities that were not contaminated with depleted uranium. The established structural chromosomal changes were of breaks and gap types, and their frequencies in sheep of all surveyed localities were within the range of basic level values that are commonly found in the sheep lymphocyte cultures analyses. Significant differences are apparent between the values defined in the sheep from Bujanovac compared to those obtained in the sheep from the northern locality (Zemun, probably as a result of breeding of animals in the farm conditions and their being less exposed to the impact of environmental agents. There were neither elevated values of polyploid and aneuploid cells nor significant differences between the sites. According to earlier known data, depleted uranium was below the detection limit of the method applied both in the soil and feed given to cytogenetically analyzed animals. Based on the low-level changes that are in the range of the basic level changes, commonly observed in sheep lymphocytes control cultures, it cannot be said with certainty that it was depleted uranium that caused the changes, or that it is wide-spread in the region of Bujanovac. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 1518/2002, br. 20061-TR i br. 173034
Bai, Hai; Wang, Zhixian; Hu, Rui; Kan, Tongtong; Li, Yan; Zhang, Xiaosheng; Zhang, Jinlong; Lian, Ling; Han, Hongbing; Lian, Zhengxing
Genetic modification offers alternative strategies to traditional animal breeding. However, the food safety of genetically modified (GM) animals has attracted increasing levels of concern. In this study, we produced GM sheep overexpressing TLR4, and the transgene-positive offsprings (F1) were confirmed using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Southern blot. The expression of TLR4 was 2.5-fold compared with that of the wild-type (WT) sheep samples. During the 90-day safety study, Sprague-Dawley rats were fed with three different dietary concentrations (3.75%, 7.5%, and 15% wt/wt) of GM sheep meat, WT sheep meat or a commercial diet (CD). Blood samples from the rats were collected and analyzed for hematological and biochemical parameters, and then compared with hematological and biochemical reference ranges. Despite a few significant differences among the three groups in some parameters, all other values remained within the normal reference intervals and thus were not considered to be affected by the treatment. No adverse diet-related differences in body weights or relative organ weights were observed. Furthermore, no differences were observed in the gross necropsy findings or microscopic pathology of the rats whose diets contained the GM sheep meat compared with rats whose diets contained the WT sheep meat. Therefore, the present 90-day rat feeding study suggested that the meat of GM sheep overexpressing TLR4 had no adverse effect on Sprague-Dawley rats in comparison with WT sheep meat. These results provide valuable information regarding the safety assessment of meat derived from GM animals. PMID:25874566
Miao, Xiangyang; Luo, Qingmiao; Qin, Xiaoyu
Sheep are highly diverse species raised for meat and other agricultural products. The aim of the present study was to investigate the genetic regulators that could control muscle growth and development in different sheep breeds. The study showed that the differentially expressed genes are involved in various cellular activities, such as metabolic cascades, catalytic function and signaling pathway. Many signaling molecules are also found to be differentially expressed, suggesting important roles of signaling pathways contributing to genetic diversity and sheep development. Analysis of miRNAs suggested important roles of miRNAs in controlling muscle differences. This study provided a genome-wide resolution of mRNA and miRNA regulations in muscles from Dorset and Han sheep. PMID:25732516
Kumsa, Bersissa; Beyecha, Kebede; Geloye, Mesula
A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence and risk factors for ectoparasites infestation in sheep in three agro-ecological zones in central Oromia, Ethiopia, from October 2009 to April 2010. The study revealed that 637 (48.1%) of the 1325 sheep examined were infested with one or more ectoparasites. The ectoparasites identified were Bovicola ovis (27.2%), Melophagus ovinus (16.4%), Ctenocephalides sp. (2.3%), Linognathus africanus (1.2%), Linognathus ovillus (0.3%), Sarcoptes sp. (1.2%), Amblyomma variegatum (4.4%), Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi (1.9%), Rhipicephalus pravus (1.9%), Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) decoloratus (1.1%), Rhipicephalus sanguineus (0.9%), Rhipicephalus praetextatus (1.1%) and Hyalomma truncatum (1.6%). Statistically significant difference was observed in prevalence of B. ovis amongst study agroecological zones: highland 36.6%, midland 20.9% and lowland 14.0%. Significantly higher prevalence was recorded in highland agroecological zone. A significantly (OR = 0.041, p Linognathus and Sarcoptes species. Statistically significant variation (p > 0.05) was never recorded in the prevalence of all the identified species of ectoparasites between male and female sheep hosts. However, a significantly (p = 0.006) higher prevalence of B. ovis was recorded between young and adult sheep. The risk of B. ovis infestation was 1.45 times higher in young than the adult sheep. Furthermore, a significantly (p < 0.001) higher prevalence of M. ovinus, B. ovis and Sarcoptes sp. was found between sheep with poor and a good body condition. The ever increasing threat of ectoparasites on overall sheep productivity and tanning industry in Ethiopia warrants urgent control intervention. Further studies on the role of ectoparasites in transmission of diseases to sheep, zoonotic importance, comparative prevalence and load, and the importance of sheep as alternative hosts in different agroecological zones, breeds and management systems in Ethiopia are recommended so as to design applicable control programme in the country. PMID:23327319
Full Text Available Background: Multiple births occur frequently in some Iranian sheep breeds, while infertilityscarcely occurs. Mutation detection in major fecundity genes has been explored in most of Iraniansheep flocks over the last decade. However, previously reported single nucleotide polymorphisms(SNPs for bone morphogenetic protein receptor-(BMPR-1B and growth differentiation factor GDF9( known to affect fertility have not been detected. This study was conducted to assess whetherany significant mutations in GDF9 were extracted from slaughtered ewe ovaries of Iranian Afsharisheep breed.Materials and Methods: Ovaries defined as poor, fair, and excellent quality based on externalvisual appearance of follicles were used for histology and RNA extraction processes. High qualityRNAs underwent reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR from GDF9 mRNA,and the products sequenced.Results: No streak ovaries, which are considered indicators of infertility due to homozygocity forsome mutations in GDF9 and BMP15, were found. Sequencing results from GDF9 cDNA showedthat G2 (C471T, G3 (G477A, and G4 (G721A mutations were observed from 1, 4, and 1 out of12 ewes, respectively. Though all 3 mutations were previously reported, this is the first report ontheir presence in Iranian breeds. The first and second mutations do not alter the amino acids, whileG4 is a non-conservative mutation leading to E241K in the prohormone.Conclusion: As the G4 mutation was observed only in ovaries defined superficially as top quality,it could be considered as one of reasons for higher ovulation rate in some sheep. Furthermore sincemultiple mutations were observed in some cases, it might be possible that combinations of minormutations in GDF9 and BMP15 interact to affect fecundity in some Iranian sheep breeds.
Leroy, G; Verrier, E; Meriaux, J C; Rognon, X
Genetic relationships between 61 dog breeds were investigated, using a sampling of 1514 animals and a panel of 21 microsatellite markers. Based on the results from distance-based and Bayesian methods, breed constituted the main genetic structure, while groups including genetically close breeds showed a very weak structure. Depending on the method used, between 85.7% and 98.3% of dogs could be assigned to their breed, with large variations according to the breed. However, breed heterozygosity influenced assignment results differently according to the method used. Within-breed and between-breed diversity variations when breeds were removed were highly negatively correlated (r = -0.963, P < 0.0001), because of the genetic structure of the breed set. PMID:19222436
...2010-01-01 false Sheep and goats from Canada. 93.419 Section 93.419 Animals...CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Canada 8 § 93.419 Sheep and goats from Canada. (a) Sheep and goats intended for...
Full Text Available Milk production represents a relevant quota of the energy consumption of the dairy ewe. Studies on relationships among level of production, milk composition and metabolic aspects are the first fundamental step in the development of a feed- ing system aimed at satisfying nutritive requirements of the animals. This paper reviews the knowledge about the milk composition of main Italian dairy sheep breeds, the relationship among secretion kinetics of milk and protein and pro- ductive level of animals, the algorithms used for estimating fat (6.5% and protein (5.8% corrected milk yield, the evolution over time of milk production during lactation and the relationships between feeding and milk composition.
Full Text Available Serum samples from sheep collected from the Sokoto city abattoir were tested for brucellosis using the Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT, the Serum Agglutination Test (SAT and the Competitive ELISA (Compelisa. A sero prevalence rate of 23.61% was recorded. The prevalence was higher among the females (26.71% than males (15.30% and also in those within the age band of 12-24 months (26.19%. Out of the three breeds of Udah, Yankassa and Balami, Udah was observed to have the highest prevalence of 30.76%. It is recommended that a large monitoring of the disease in small ruminants as well as mass vaccination should be embarked upon in the State.
M. ANWAR, A. RIAZ, N. ULLAH AND M. RAFIQ
Full Text Available The present study was conducted to determine the earliest stage of gestation at which pregnancy could be detected through transabdominal ultrasonography, to describe development characteristics of pregnancy from day 26 to day 60 of gestation, and to assess the accuracy of flock pregnancy diagnosis on day 75 after ram introduction in “Balkhi sheep” of Pakistan. A real time B-mode ultrasound scanner equipped with a 3.5 MHz probe was used for this purpose. A 100% accuracy of the pregnancy diagnosis was achieved at day 42 of gestation. Placentomes and leg buds were visible in 100% cases between 45 and 50 days of gestation, and vertebral column was apparent in 100% ewes between 51 and 55 days of gestation. Accuracy of flock pregnancy diagnosis was assessed by once only ultrasono- graphy at 75th day after introduction of ram in 71 ewes over two breeding seasons. Flock pregnancy test performed at this day was 97% accurate.
Pesquisa de anticorpos anti-Brucella abortus e anti-Brucella ovis em ovinos no município de Uberlândia, MG / Research of Brucella abortus and Brucella ovis antibodies in sheep of Uberlândia county, MG, Brazil
S.R.S., Salaberry; L.M., Paulin; R.L., Santana; J.R., Castro; A.M.C., Lima-Ribeiro.
Full Text Available [...] Abstract in english The first epidemiologic inquiry to Brucella abortus (B. abortus) and Brucella ovis (B. ovis) was carried out in sheep from Uberlândia county, MG. A total of 334 blood serum samples of sheep from both sexes and different ages and breeds were collected in 12 farms. An epidemiologic questionnaire was a [...] pplied for each farm. Tests for B. abortus and B. ovis antibodies were Buffered Acidified Antigen and Complement Fixation, respectively. None of the sheep was reactive to B. abortus and B. ovis; however, the adoption of sanitary measures is important to avoid the introduction of infections caused by these bacteria.
Pesquisa de anticorpos anti-Brucella abortus e anti-Brucella ovis em ovinos no município de Uberlândia, MG Research of Brucella abortus and Brucella ovis antibodies in sheep of Uberlândia county, MG, Brazil
Full Text Available The first epidemiologic inquiry to Brucella abortus (B. abortus and Brucella ovis (B. ovis was carried out in sheep from Uberlândia county, MG. A total of 334 blood serum samples of sheep from both sexes and different ages and breeds were collected in 12 farms. An epidemiologic questionnaire was applied for each farm. Tests for B. abortus and B. ovis antibodies were Buffered Acidified Antigen and Complement Fixation, respectively. None of the sheep was reactive to B. abortus and B. ovis; however, the adoption of sanitary measures is important to avoid the introduction of infections caused by these bacteria.
Moioli, B; Scatà, M C; De Matteis, G; Annicchiarico, G; Catillo, G; Napolitano, F
No major gene has yet been reported in sheep that explains the variation of milk fat content. The coding region of the acetyl-CoA carboxylase alpha (ACACA) gene, which plays an important role in de novo fatty acid synthesis, had been investigated, but no non-synonymous mutations have been reported. In this study, the genomic regions encoding the three promoters of the ACACA gene were directly sequenced in 264 sheep of three different breeds, and 10 SNPs were identified. Allele frequencies of most SNPs significantly differed (P = 0.05-0.0001) between breeds. The SNPs that potentially altered either gene regulatory elements or putative binding sites of transcription factors were made evident through in silico analysis. The association analysis with milk traits, performed for one SNP of PIII (GenBank AJ292286, g.1330G>T), showed a significant allelic substitution effect (+0.33%, P promoter element, and because PIII transcripts are expressed in the mammary gland, the SNP in PIII of the ACACA gene might affect the variation of fat content in sheep milk. PMID:23488977
Gandini Gustavo; Pizzi Flavia; Stella Alessandra; Boettcher Paul J
Abstract The aim of this work was to compare costs, in the horse, cattle, sheep, swine, and rabbit species, for the creation of gene banks for reconstruction of an extinct breed, using different strategies: embryos-only, embryos in combination with semen, and semen-only. Three cost measures were used: time required for population reconstruction, cost for creation of the gene bank, number of years-keeping-female to reach reconstruction. Semen costs were estimated across four scenarios: the pre...
The aim of this work was to compare costs, in the horse, cattle, sheep, swine, and rabbit species, for the creation of gene banks for reconstruction of an extinct breed, using different strategies: embryos- only, embryos in combination with semen, and semen- only. Three cost measures were used: time required for population reconstruction, cost for creation of the gene bank, number of years- keeping- female to reach reconstruction. Semen costs were estimated across four scenarios: the presence...
Evans, Darren M.; Redpath, Stephen M.; Evans, Sharon A.; Elston, David A.; Gardner, Charles J.; Dennis, Peter; Pakeman, Robin J.
Livestock grazing is a major driver of ecosystem change and has been associated with significant declines in various bird species in Britain and worldwide. However, there is little experimental evidence to show how grazing affects bird populations. We manipulated livestock densities in a replicated field experiment and found that mixed sheep and cattle grazing, at low intensity, improved the breeding abundance of a common upland passerine, the meadow pipit Anthus pratensis, after two years. P...
Fras, Marion; Leboeuf, Anne; Labrie, François-Mikaël; Laurin, Marc-André; Singh Sohal, Jagdip; L'Homme, Yvan
Previous molecular analyses of small ruminant lentivirus (SRLV) populations in single species herds in Quebec, Canada, have revealed a relatively simple structure where goats and sheep appeared exclusively infected with B1 and A2 subtypes respectively. The present work aimed at extending these earlier findings with the analysis of SRLVs in mixed flocks. Molecular analyses revealed a more complex picture of SRLV population structure in mixed herds compared to single species herds. Notably, phylogenetic analyses of long gag sequences strongly support transmission of A2 subtype from sheep to goats as well as transmission of B1 subtype from goats to sheep. Hence, this work uncovered for the first time natural transmission between sheep and goats of North American subtype A2. In addition, multiple evidences of mixed infection of sheep and goats with A2 and B1 subtypes were found. The data reported in this study reinforces the concept of a genetic continuum of SRLVs where strains are exchanged between sheep and goats under favourable conditions and in the absence of specific species barriers. Most interestingly, this study suggests that dual infection, which is a hallmark of the lentivirus paradigm HIV, may not be such rare events in small ruminants but may simply be understudied and underreported. Overall, the present data shows that sheep and goats in Canada can be infected with both SRLV A and B types, sometimes simultaneously, and that mixed flocks may represent a breeding ground for their evolution. PMID:23811153
Full Text Available In this study, the effects of a total solar eclipse, which was occurred in Elaz?? on August 11 1999, on sheep behaviours, were observed. For this purpose, 150 sheeps open shelter have been observed for six hour, from 11:00 am to 5:00 pm. All behaviours of sheep that were different than usual were recorded during observation. Sheeps started to show different behaviours including standing up, smelling the weather and watching around 30 minutes before solar eclipse. Total solar eclipse was occurred between 2:37 and 2:39 pm. During total solar eclipse, it was observed that they become very quiet did not move, turned their faces to the sun. During solar eclipse, sheep behaviour was obseved different than normal sunset darkness. Sheep might behave similar during earthquake disaster with solar eclipse.
Efeitos genéticos aditivos e não-aditivos em características de crescimento, reprodutivas e habilidade materna em ovinos das raças Santa Inês, Somalis Brasileira, Dorper e Poll Dorset Additive and non-additive genetic effects on growth, reproductive and maternal traits in sheep of Santa In??s, Brazilian Somali, Dorper and Poll Dorset breeds
Adriano Caminha Barbosa Neto
Full Text Available Efeitos genético aditivo, de dominância e de recombinação em cruzamentos entre as raças Santa Inês (SI, Somalis Brasileira (So, Dorper (Do e Poll Dorset (Po foram estimados para as características de crescimento, reprodutivas e de habilidade materna. Os dados foram obtidos da Gaasa e Alimentos LTDA, uma empresa que participa do Programa de Melhoramento Genético de Caprinos e Ovinos (GENECOC da Embrapa Caprinos. Inicialmente, 3.573 registros foram analisados por meio do procedimento MIXED do pacote estatístico SAS (1999. As análises foram realizadas considerando os efeitos da diferença genética aditiva entre as raças, de dominância e de recombinação. O peso ao nascer foi influenciado pelos efeitos genéticos aditivos, enquanto o peso ao desmame e o ganho de peso pré-desmame foram influenciados por efeitos genéticos não-aditivos. A estimativa de herdabilidade direta para o peso ao nascer foi moderada, o que indica a existência de variabilidade genética passível de ser explorada por meio da seleção individual. Do mesmo modo, as estimativas de herdabilidade das características idade ao primeiro parto e peso total das crias ao nascer indicaram a existência de variabilidade genética para obter ganhos genéticos por meio da seleção. Os genes das raças Poll Dorset e Dorper tiveram papel importante para melhor desempenho ponderal, portanto, essas raças podem ser indicadas como paternas no cruzamento terminal. A utilização de matrizes F1 Santa Inês x Somalis Brasileira em cruzamentos com reprodutores Poll Dorset pode levar a maior eficiência reprodutiva.Additive genetic, dominance and recombination effects in breedings among Santa Inês (SI, Brazilian Somali (So, Dorper (Do and Poll Dorset (Po breeds were estimated for growth, reproductive and maternal hability traits. Data were obtained from Gaasa e Alimentos LTDA, a company that participates on the Programa de Melhoramento Genético de Caprinos e Ovinos (GENECOC coordinated by Embrapa Caprinos. Initially, 3,573 records were analyzed using the MIXED procedure of the statistical package SAS (1999. The analyses were carried out considering the effects of additive genetic difference among breeds, dominance and recombination effects. Birth weight was mainly influenced by additive genetic effects, while weaning weight and pre-weaning weight gain were influenced by non-additive genetic effects. Direct heritability estimates for birth weight was moderate indicating that there is genetic variability believable to be exploited by individual selection. In the same way, heritability estimates for the traits age at first lambing and litter total weight at birth indicated the existence of genetic variability to obtain genetic gains through selection. Genes of the Poll Dorset and Dorper breeds had an important role for a better growth performance, therefore, these breeds can be indicated as sires in the terminal breeds. The use of F1 Santa Inês x Brazilian Somali females on crossbreeding with Poll Dorset rams can lead to a better reproductive efficiency.
Teixeira, A.; Pereira, Etelvina; Rodrigues, Sandra
The main objective of this work was to contribute to the characterization of a new product, based on goat and sheep meat with a strategy, which gives value-added to meat from culled goats and sheep, which have a very low commercial price. Carcasses from animals weighing more than the body weight allowed by PDO label specifications were used to produce fresh sausages. Sheep and goats sausages were produced in a traditional industry, in Northeast Portugal. The following character...
Sedcole J Richard
Full Text Available Abstract Background Feral sheep are considered to be a source of genetic variation that has been lost from their domestic counterparts through selection. Methods This study investigates variation in the genes KRTAP1-1, KRT33, ADRB3 and DQA2 in Merino-like feral sheep populations from New Zealand and its offshore islands. These genes have previously been shown to influence wool, lamb survival and animal health. Results All the genes were polymorphic, but no new allele was identified in the feral populations. In some of these populations, allele frequencies differed from those observed in commercial Merino sheep and other breeds found in New Zealand. Heterozygosity levels were comparable to those observed in other studies on feral sheep. Our results suggest that some of the feral populations may have been either inbred or outbred over the duration of their apparent isolation. Conclusion The variation described here allows us to draw some conclusions about the likely genetic origin of the populations and selective pressures that may have acted upon them, but they do not appear to be a source of new genetic material, at least for these four genes.
Snoj, T; Cebulj-Kadunc, N; Kobal, S
The aim of this study was to define the thyroid hormone-like activity of closantel in sheep by measuring some blood parameters that are known to be influenced by thyroid hormones triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4). Our hypothesis was that, if closantel possesses thyroid hormone-like activity, its use under in vivo conditions will result in changes similar to those in hyperthyroidism. The study was conducted in 20 Jezersko-Solchava breed sheep. Blood sampling was performed before and 10 days after routine anthelmintic treatment with closantel. Complete blood count, plasma cholesterol, triglycerides, protein, and albumin levels, as well as those of serum T3 and T4, were compared before and 10 days after closantel administration. This routine anthelmintic treatment of sheep with closantel did not significantly influence hematological parameters, thyroid hormone levels, or most of the biochemical parameters. No evidence was found for thyroid hormone-like activity of closantel in sheep. However, significantly (P < 0.01) elevated levels of plasma triglycerides were present 10 days after closantel administration. PMID:25410724
J. N. B. Shrestha
Full Text Available Domestic goat and sheep populations maintained for many generations with small numbers of male and female parents, or declining in total numbers, not only endure accumulated genetic drift but also a steady rise in inbreeding, which can be directly attributed to dispersive forces of evolutionary significance that influence gene frequency. Increasing effective population size shows theoretical promise in lessening the impact on erosion of biodiversity from genetic drift. For example, doubling the effective numbers of parents which increases effective population size reduces rate of inbreeding by nearly one-half in many of the scenarios in the present study. Similarly, equalizing the number of male and female parents can decrease the variance among progeny of each parent, which in turn increases effective population size. The recurring erosion of domestic goat and sheep diversity has contributed to decreased fecundity, reduced fitness and poor adaptability, all known to influence efficiency of production. The potential loss in performance of livestock and poultry following many generations of accumulated genetic drift, which often goes unnoticed, can be predicted for specific populations from precise estimates of their mean value, additive genetic variance and heritability along with their effective number of male and female parents. For example, when the effective population size decreases from 200 to 40, the potential reduction in mean performance for economically important traits of goat and sheep populations following 20 generations of accumulated genetic drift will nearly double. In contrast, increasing effective population size from 200 to 600 will have the potential reduction in mean performance. The accumulation of favourable mutations could imply an effective population size of 100 or more, which is equal to a rise in rate of inbreeding of 0.5% or less, may be acceptable in sustaining genetic response to artificial selection in commercial breeding populations. The application of quantitative genetic principles related to inbreeding and genetic drift make it possible to safeguard against erosion of genetic diversity in endangered breeds, populations and landraces while lessening the impact from potential loss in their performance. Conservation of domestic animal diversity can be achieved by managing the erosion of genetic variation based on breeding strategies which promote the mating of sires to all dams, in either ‘random bred’ or ‘balanced pedigreed’ breeding structure for populations of endangered domestic goats and sheep. Obviously, the in-situ and ex-situ conservation of live animals, along with cryogenic preservation of their gametes, stem cells, somatic cells, blood and gonads will be complementary to conservation breeding.
The blowfly Lucilia cuprina is the most important myiasis pet of sheep in Australia. Other species are associated with sheep myiasis, but L. cuprina is probably responsible for initiating more than 90% of infestations. Annual costs of production losses, prevention and treatment have been estimated at $149 millions in 1985. Prevention and treatment encompass both insecticidal applications to sheep and non-chemical management practices. In the absence of effective preventive measures, the sheep industry would be non-viable over much of Australia. Insecticide usage against L. cuprina has been marked by the appearance of widespread resistance to cyclodienes in 1956, the organophosphates in 1965, and carbamates in 1966. Resistance has not yet been reported against the triazine compounds introduced for blowfly control in 1981. The most effective non-chemical control measures are surgical (removal of skin from the breech in certain breeds of sheep, and tail-docking). They protect sheep by reducing favourable oviposition sites (dung and urine-stained wool). The spectre of insecticide resistance and the early success of the sterile insect technique (SIT) against screwworm fly in the U.S.A., led this Division to consider SIT and other autocidal methods in the 1960s. The L. cuprina genetics research program was established in 1966 and subsequently expanded in 1971. More recently, lobbying by animal welfare groups against surgical blowfly control practices, as well as increasing consumer awareness of insecticide residues in animal products, have accelerated the search for alternatives to chemical control. When SIT was first considered for L. cuprina control in 1960, little was known about the population dynamics of L. cuprina. There were insufficient ecological data to evaluate the prospects of alternative strategies such as suppression or containment. The number of flies which would have to be released in a SIT program was unknown, as were the costs. Assuming that the cost of SIT against L. cuprina in Australia would be similar to that reported for screwworm in Florida, the costs of a SIT campaign were estimated to be several times the potential annual benefits. The discover of meiotic drive (MD) in Drosophila rekindled interest in autocidal control and triggered establishment of the L. cuprina genetics research program in 1966. Subsequent research failed to detect MD systems suitable for genetic control, but by 1970 it was recognised that strains carrying chromosome rearrangements might be more cost-effective than SIT. This led in 1971 to expansion of the genetics and strain development program, and establishment of an ecological research program (quantification of population dynamics). Both programs have been enormously successful. Not only have they enabled the development and successful field testing of a genetic method of suppressing sheep blowfly populations, but they have increased our knowledge of this pest to the stage where a simulation model of genetic control (GENCON), which incorporates both genetic and ecological data, is a valuable tool in strain design, selection of control strategies, and evaluation of field trial data. Comparison using computer simulations, of SIT with female-killing (FK) systems based on sex-linked translocations, suggests that with a suppression and containment strategy, the latter would provide greater benefits for less cost than SIT. Moreover, our projections indicate that large-scale genetic control would be less costly and more effective than the current system based on insecticides and other pest control practices
Coulson, J. C.; Butterfield, J.; Thomas, C.
This paper presents evidence for the involvement of herring gulls (Larus argentatus) as vectors in the recent outbreaks of Salmonella montevideo in sheep and cattle in Scotland and suggests that the transfer can take place over considerable distances. The breeding area in Scotland of herring gulls which overwinter in N.E. England is remarkably similar to the geographical distribution of the outbreaks. This pattern, together with the feeding behaviour of herring gulls on farmland, the presence...
Gahlot, Ajey K.; Ruchi Maan; Kumar Kataria, A.; Nalini Kataria,
The clinical utility of serum enzymes of hepatic origin was evaluated by determining theirlevels in the adult sheep of Marwari breed belonging to farmers’ stock of arid tract of Rajasthan state,India. The animals were grouped into healthy and affected which comprised of fasciola infected,pneumonia affected, having enterotoxa122emia, and drought affected. The serum enzymes includedwere sorbitol dehydrogenase, malate dehydrogenase, glucose-6-phosphate-dehydrogenase, glutamatedehydrogenase, or...
Mohammad Reza Nassiry
Full Text Available Abstract: The genotypes for Beta-Lactoglobulin (BLG and calpastatin (CAST were determined by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR and restriction enzyme digestion and genotyped for calpain (CAPN by PCR-SSCP method in an Iranian breed sheep, Kurdi. Blood samples were collected from 100 pure bred Kurdi sheep from Kurdi breeding station located in Shirvan, Mashhad. The extraction of genomic DNA was based on Guanidin Thiocyanate-Silica gel method. After PCR reaction, amplicons were digested with restriction enzymes MspI and RsaI for beta-lactoglobulin and calpastatin genes, respectively. The beta-lactoglobulin locus had 3 genotypes with frequencies of 0.24, 0.54 and 0.22 for AA, AB and BB, respectively; calpastatin genotypes had 2 genotypes with frequencies of 0.76 and 0.24 for MM and MN genotypes, respectively. Calpain genotypes were analyzed with SSCP method, which had 2 genotypes with frequencies of 0.92 and 0.08 for AA and AB, respectively. Heterozygosity value for beta-lactoglobulin locus was 49% and for calpastatin and calpain loci was very low (24 and 8%, respectively. ?2 test confirmed the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium for three loci in this population. These data provide evidence that Iranian’s Kurdi sheep breed have a variability, which opens interesting prospects for future selection programs, especially marker-assistant selection between different genotypes of different locus and milk and cheese characteristics, gain and meat traits and also for preservation strategies.
Pollott, G E; Gootwine, E
The Assaf breed of dairy sheep, a stabilized cross of the Awassi and East Friesian breeds, has replaced the Awassi as the breed of choice in its country of origin, Israel, and has spread to other Mediterranean countries. In Israel the Assaf breed is managed under an intensive production system involving weaning lambs at birth, rearing them artificially, and milking ewes after parturition. There are several breeding periods in the year when ewes are mated following hormonally synchronized estrus. Records of 18,976 lactations from 5 farms were analyzed to investigate factors that influenced Assaf milk and reproductive performance. Lactation curves were fitted to each lactation, and a range of parameters and calculated values were analyzed. Daily milk yield records also were analyzed to describe a typical Assaf lactation and compared with those of the Awassi breed. Factors affecting age at first lambing also were studied. An average Assaf ewe kept under this intensive management regimen was found to produce 334 L of milk during a 173-d lactation. Mean litter size was 1.57 lambs/ewe lambing, and lambing interval was 272 d. Milk production was affected by litter size, with twin- and triplet-bearing ewes producing approximately 20 L more milk per lactation than single-bearing ewes. Day length was the major environmental variable influencing milk yield. The difference between midsummer and midwinter day lengths accounted for a difference in daily milk yield of 0.44 L in favor of summer. Ewe lambs that were mated for the first time at later ages produced more lambs and more milk due to greater early lactation characteristics. Milk production was found to be negatively associated with subsequent reproductive performance. Comparing these results with those from an earlier study in the Awassi breed, the Assaf was found to produce less milk during a shorter lactation than the Awassi, but its greater litter size made it a more profitable breed. PMID:15483153
Full Text Available Milk composition and quality are affected by several factors of which stage of lactation and mammary gland health status represent the main ones. These two factors become more effective in small dairy ruminants, for which stage of lactation is synchronized as result of the seasonal breeding cycle. As a consequence in dairy sheep and goats milk quality and cheese making properties tend to decline. Most of these effects on milk quality are also associated with an increase in the somatic cell count (SCC, which is in turn related with the gradual involution of mammary gland with the lactation progress (Fantuz et al., 2001; Baldi et al., 2002. However, high SCC in milk could be related to intramammary infections (IMI, sub-clinical and chronic mastitis in both sheep and goats.
This issue of the Mutation Breeding newsletter contains 39 articles dealing with radiation induced mutations and chemical mutagenesis techniques in plant breeding programs with the aims of improving crop productivity and disease resistance as well as exploring genetic variabilities
Wernike, Kerstin; Eschbaumer, Michael; Breithaupt, Angele; Maltzan, Julia; Wiesner, Henning; Beer, Martin; Hoffmann, Bernd
Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is a contagious viral disease of sheep and goats common in Africa and Asia. Its high morbidity and mortality has a devastating impact on agriculture in developing countries. As an example, an Asian lineage IV strain of PPRV was responsible for mass fatalities among wild goats in Kurdistan in 2010/2011. In separate experiments, three sheep and three goats of German domestic breeds were subcutaneously inoculated with the Kurdish virus isolate; three uninfected sheep and goats were housed together with the inoculated animals. All inoculated animals, all in-contact goats and two in-contact sheep developed high fever (up to 41.7 °C), depression, severe diarrhea, ocular and nasal discharge as well as ulcerative stomatitis and pharyngitis. Infected animals seroconverted within a few days of the first detection of viral genome. Clinical signs were more pronounced in goats; four out of six goats had to be euthanized. Necropsy revealed characteristic lesions in the alimentary tract. Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) RNA was detected in blood as well as nasal, oral and fecal swabs and tissues. The 2011 Kurdish strain of PPRV is highly virulent in European goats and spreads easily to in-contact animals, while disease severity and contagiosity in sheep are slightly lower. PPRV strains like the tested recent isolate can have a high impact on small ruminants in the European Union, and therefore, both early detection methods and intervention strategies have to be improved and updated regularly. PMID:24908276
Hardy begonia cultivars have potential as a new crop for Southern nurseries. Current begonia breeding efforts are focused on sections Begonia and Pritzelia. Diverse begonia germplasm has been collected to study fertility and hardiness.To date cold hardy germplasm which has produced viable seeds inc...
This interactive activity goes through the basic process used in a wheat breeding program. Crossing, genetic variation, selection and elements of DNA technology are discussed within this activity. The material is aimed towards high school or introductory life science undergraduate students.
This interactive activity goes through the basic process used in a traditional breeding program. Crossing, genetic variation, selection and elements of DNA technology are discussed within this activity. The material is aimed towards high school or introductory life science undergraduate students.
Full text: Feeding trials were carried out on-farm to examine the effect of supplementing urea treated sorghum stover (UTSS) with sesame cake (SC) or fishmeal (FM) on the body weight of sheep. Twenty-one male sheep were divided into three groups of seven sheep in each treatment. All the sheep used in this experiment were from the same breed (Gerej), with the same age and initial body weight from the same area. The experiment was conducted in Gash Barka, western lowlands of Eritrea. All the animals were fed on UTSS for an adaptation period of 15 d. The control diet consisted of UTSS fed ad libitum. The second and third treatments consisted of UTSS fed ad libitum supplemented daily with 80 g/head of SC and 60 g/head of FM, respectively. The experimental period lasted for 90 d. Feed intakes and body weights were recorded regularly. The dry matter intake (DMI) in sheep was significantly different (P < 0.05) between the control and SC supplemented groups, but not between the other treatments. It was highest for the SC supplemented group at 847 g/head/day followed by the FM supplemented group and the control at 826 and 821 g/head/day, respectively. Sheep supplemented with SC had the highest significant (P < 0.05) body weight gain (BWG) (134 g/head/day) followed by the group supplemented with FM (115 g/head/day). The BWG for the control was 66 g/head/day. Feed conversion was best on SC (6.92) followed by FM (7.70) supplementation. The lowest cost of feed per kg of BWG (16.91e lowest cost of feed per kg of BWG (16.91 Nfa) was attained by supplementing with SC. It can be concluded that feeding UTSS alone or supplementing with small amounts of sesame cake or fishmeal can increase the live weight of sheep at a reasonable cost. (author)
João M.A, Medeiros; Felício, Garino Junior; Arthur P, Almeida; Erasmo A, Lucena; Franklin, Riet-Correa.
Full Text Available Mediante o teste de ELISA foi determinada a presença de anticorpos para Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (map) em amostras de soro de 734 caprinos e 392 ovinos, sem sinais clìnicos aparentes, provenientes de 14 Municipios do semiárido Paraibano. Em caprinos, a frequência média de anticorp [...] os de 44,86± 22,91% e em ovinos foi de 52,96±31,49. Das 46 propriedades estudadas, 44 (95,65%) apresentaram pelo menos um animal soropositivo. Nos 14 municípios avaliados houve presença de animais sorologicamente positivos, variando de 20% a 70%. Em caprinos sem raça definida e mestiços a frequência (48,56%) foi significativamente inferior (P Abstract in english Antibodies to paratuberculosis were determined by ELISA in serum samples of 734 goats and 392 sheep, without clinical signs, from 14 municipalities of the semiarid region of Paraíba state, Brazil. In goats, average frequency of antibodies was 44.86±22.91% and in sheep was 52.96±31.49%. All municipal [...] ities had affected animals with a frequency varying from 20% to 70%. In goats of unknown breed and crossbreds the prevalence (48.56%) was significantly lower (P=0.0270) than in pure breed goats (57.24%). In sheep with body scores of 1 to 3, the frequency (59.39%) was significantly higher (P=0.0034) than in sheep with body score from 3 to 5 (42.42%). No significant differences were observed in goats and sheep of different ages, in goats with different body score, and in sheep of different breeds. In the microbiologic examination, after 16 weeks of incubation in HEYM medium with mycobactin J, colonies similar to those of do Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuber culosis were observed in cultures of 9 (6.58%) out of 180 fecal samples, being one from goats and 8 from sheep. In the Ziehl Nieelsen the bacteria had morphologic and staining characteristics similar to M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. These results suggest that paratuberculosis is endemic with high prevalence in the semiarid region of Paraíba. It is necessary to develop research on the epidemiology and control measures of the disease in the conditions of this region. Also the risk for human beings should be determined, mainly in relation with milking goats.
Moujahed, Nizar; Kayouli, Chedly; Thewis, Andre?; Beckers, Yves; Rezgui, S.
The effect of multinutrient block supply and polyethylene glycol 4000 (PEG) on intake, digestion and rumen fermentation was studied in sheep fed with air-dried Acacia cyanophylla foliage (acacia)-based diet. In Experiment I, six Noire de Thibar breed sheep (BW 46 kg) were used in double 3 3 Latin square design. All diets included about 360 g of dry matter (DM) of oat±vetch hay and acacia ad libitum. Diet D0 was without a block supplement. Diet D1 included a urea± molasses±mineral bl...
Sayre, Rebecca S; Lepiz, Mauricio A; Horsley, Kristen T; Pashmakova, Medora B; Barr, James W; Washburn, Shannon E
OBJECTIVE To establish the minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) of desflurane and evaluate the effects of 2 opioids on MAC in sheep. ANIMALS 8 adult nulliparous mixed-breed sheep. PROCEDURES A randomized crossover design was used. Each sheep was evaluated individually on 2 occasions (to allow assessment of the effects of each of 2 opioids), separated by a minimum of 10 days. On each occasion, sheep were anesthetized with desflurane in 100% oxygen, MAC of desflurane was determined, oxymorphone (0.05 mg/kg) or hydromorphone (0.10 mg/kg) was administered IV, and MAC was redetermined. Physiologic variables and arterial blood gas and electrolyte concentrations were measured at baseline (before MAC determination, with end-tidal desflurane concentration maintained at 10%) and each time MAC was determined. Timing of various stages of anesthesia was recorded for both occasions. RESULTS Mean ± SEM MAC of desflurane was 8.6 ± 0.2%. Oxymorphone or hydromorphone administration resulted in significantly lower MAC (7.6 ± 0.4% and 7.9 ± 0.2%, respectively). Cardiac output at MAC determination for desflurane alone and for desflurane with opioid administration was higher than that at baseline. No difference was identified among hematologic values at any point. Effects of oxymorphone and hydromorphone on durations of various stages of anesthesia did not differ significantly. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE MAC of desflurane in nulliparous adult sheep was established. Intravenous administration of oxymorphone or hydromorphone led to a decrease in MAC; however, the clinical importance of that decrease was minor relative to the effect in other species. PMID:26111087
Raed Mahmoud, Al-Atiyat; Naser M, Salameh; Mohammad J, Tabbaa.
Full Text Available Background Genetic diversity of sheep in Jordan was investigated using microsatellite markers (MS). Six ovine and bovine MS located on chromosomes 2 and 6 of sheep genome were genotyped on 294 individual from ten geographical regions. Results The number of alleles per locus (A), the expected heteroz [...] ygosity (He) and observed heterozygosity (Ho) were measured. Overall A, He and Ho were 12.67, 0.820 and 0.684, respectively. On the other hand, genetic distances undoubtedly revealed the expected degree of differentiation among the studied populations. The finding showed closeness of three populations from south (Maan, Showbak and Tafeilah) to each other. Populations from the middle regions of Jordan (Karak, Madaba, Amman, AzZarqa and Mafraq) were found to be in one cluster. Only two populations of the middle region were an exception: AlSalt and Dead Sea. Finally, sheep populations from Irbid were located in separated cluster. It was clear that the studied predefined populations were subdivided from four populations and would be most probably accounted as ancestral populations. These results indicate that number of population is less than the predefined population as ten based on geographical sampling areas. Conclusions The possible inference might be that geographical location, genetic migration, similar selection forces, and common ancestor account for population admixture and subdivision of Awassi sheep breed in Jordan. Finally, the present study sheds new light on the molecular and population genetics of Awassi sheep from different regions of Jordan and to utilize the possible findings for future management of genetic conservation under conditions of climate changes and crossbreeding policy.
Nougairede, Antoine; Fossati, Christelle; Salez, Nicolas; Cohen-Bacrie, Stephan; Ninove, Laetitia; Michel, Fabrice; Aboukais, Samer; Buttner, Mathias; Zandotti, Christine; De Lamballerie, Xavier; Charrel, Remi N.
Five persons in France were infected with Orf virus after skin wounds were exposed to infected sheep tissues during Eid al-Adha, the Muslim Feast of Sacrifice. Infections were confirmed by electron microscopy, PCR, and sequence analysis. Prevention and control of this underdiagnosed disease can be achieved by educating physicians, slaughterhouse workers, and persons participating in Eid al-Adha.
Full Text Available As a result of heavy rains from spring of 2010 became to appear, after two months of animals maintaining in high humidity conditions, some health problems. Were been examined by clinical point of view 280 sheep from four herds of Timi? district particular breeders from Transilvanian Merinos and ?urcan? breeds, 2-5 years aged. In the same time were been taken samples from foot lesions of affected sheep and were been examined from morphopathological point of view the 29 sheep bodies slaughtered by necessity. After all examinations was been observed that 197 sheep (70.35%, more than half from examined animals had foot lesions and respiratory clinic signs caused by exceeded rains from last months. From the necessity slaughtered sheep bodies were been isolated larvae from Dictyocaulus filaria, Oestrus ovis and adults of Psoroptes ovis, parasites who had found optimum conditions of development and to produce infections in rainy springs, with water and mud remained long time on pastures. From foot samples was been isolated in Microbiology laboratory Fusobacterium necrophorum, a bacteria responsible of interdigitally dermatitis in sheep. All these problems caused by heavy rains had as results important economic damages through milk and wool decreased productions and high costs with antiinfectious and antiparasitical treatments.
The pea as an ancient crop plant still today has wide uses and is an import source of food protein. It is also an important object for genetic studies and as such has been widely used in mutation induction experiments. However, in comparison with cereals this ancient crop plant (like several other grain legumes) has gained relatively little from advances in breeding. The review focuses on the prospects of genetic improvement of pea by induced mutations, discusses principles and gives methodological information. (author)
Características do sêmen de carneiros Dorper, Santa Inês e sem padrão racial definido, pré e pós-congelação, nos períodos chuvoso e seco / Characteristics of the semen of Dorper, Santa Ines and undefined breed sheep, pre-and post-freezing, in the rainy and dry period
J.M., Frazão Sobrinho; M.A. Castelo, Branco; A., Sousa Júnior; I.M.R., Nascimento; L.H.C.M., Mota; Y.N.T., Carvalho; S.B., Ferreira; D.N.M., Costa; F.J., Moraes Júnior; J.A.T., Souza.
Full Text Available Avaliaram-se as características espermáticas de carneiros Dorper, Santa Inês e sem padrão racial definido, nos períodos chuvoso e seco. Após ser colhido por vagina artificial, o sêmen foi avaliado quanto ao volume, ao turbilhonamento, à motilidade, ao vigor, à morfologia e à concentração, congelado [...] e armazenado em botijão criogênico. Depois de descongelado, foram avaliadas a cinemática espermática, a integridade da membrana plasmática, a integridade do acrossoma e a atividade mitocondrial. Vigor espermático, motilidade total, motilidade progressiva, velocidade em linha reta e defeitos maiores não diferiram entre os períodos chuvoso e seco, porém volume, turbilhonamento, linearidade, retilinearidade e frequência de batimentos de cauda foram mais baixos (P Abstract in english The sperm characteristics of Dorper, Santa Ines and undefined breed ram in the rainy and dry seasons was assessed. After collection with an artificial vagina, the semen was evaluated for volume, turbulence, motility, viability, morphology and concentration, frozen and stored in a cryogenic cylinder. [...] After thawing kinematic sperm, plasma membrane integrity, acrosome integrity and mitochondrial activity were evaluated. Sperm vigor, total motility, progressive motility, straight line speed and larger line defects did not differ between the rainy and dry seasons, however, volume, turbulence, linearity, straightness and frequency of tail beats were lower (P
Full Text Available The aim of work was to optimalize the ELISA method to detect the adulteration of sheep milk and sheep milk products by cow milk in the laboratory. We have focused on laboratory testing of ELISA kit (?-Lactoglobulin ELISA Set, SEDIUM R&D for detection of cow ?-Lg in sheep milk order to obtain high-quality, reliable and economically advantageous method suitable for routine use in practice. The results shown that for the quality of adulteration determination it is necessary to verify the sensitivity of applied kit by the samples dilution in accordance with the producer declared quantification range contained in the manual ELISA kit. The starting point for obtaining of relevant data was to create separate regression curves with high determination coefficient, which allowed to quickly and easily detect the cow milk additions in sheep milk, cloddish sheep and Slovak sheep cheese. doi:10.5219/78
M. A. Rahman
Full Text Available This experiment was conducted in the Genetics, Breeding and Reproductive Biotechnology Laboratory under Goat and Sheep Production Research Division, Bangladesh Livestock Research Institute (BLRI, Saver, Dhaka, Bangladesh. DNA was extracted from 14 goat breeds and the extracted DNA was observed by gel electrophoresis. Eight goat specific primers were synthesized by ASM-800 DNA synthesizer and screened in the study and all these primers were capable of priming polymorphic amplification pattern in both the breeds. Random amplification of polymorphic DNA â?? Polymerase Chain Reaction (RAPD-PCR analysis was carried out using DNA samples of 14 black bengal goat and Jamuna pari goat breeds. Only unambiguous, reproducible and scorable polymorphic fragments were taken into consideration for analysis. Data were analyzed by using a computer programe POPGENE (Version 1.31. Highest level of Nei's gene diversity value (0.4898 was observed in BMS 1494 locus and the mean genetic diversity was obtained 0.3724 among the 14 goat breeds. The highest number of polymorphism obserbed in primer BM1818.The pair-wise genetic distance value ranged from 0.2500 to 1.000. Dendrogram based on Nei's genetic distance using Unweighted Pair Group Method of Arithmetic Means (UPGMA indicated segregation of the 14 goat breeds. Within Jamuna pari goat genetic similarity is low as well as black Bengal goat.
FlockWatch is part of an ongoing sheep tracking research project. The goal of this project is to design a system for locating sheep or other animals grazing in the mountains by using sensor nodes (Waspmote), equipped with GPS, GPRS and long range radio transmitters. The specific aim of this thesis is to provide a control and monitoring system in the form of a desktop application capable of showing at any time the position of the nodes (sheep) on a map, able to facilitate the configuration of...
The monitoring of sheep and sheepmeat has been undertaken by the Nuclear Energy Board since 1987 and reports of the work have been published on an annual basis. The main components of previous programmes have been continued during 1990. including; in vivo monitoring of sheep at the main slaughterhouses dealing with both the domestic and export markets, laboratory analysis of sheepmeat collected from butchers' shops nationwide, in vivo monitoring of mountain sheep at selected farms during the months of summer grazing. In addition, baseline data on radiocaesium in soils and plants at 13 sites were collected during the second half of the year
Walker, Cassandra L.
There were approximately 9 million horses in the United States having a 102 billion impact on the U.S. economy (AHC, 2005). Over 1 million of those horses were involved in the breeding sector. In Kentucky, nearly 18% of the horse population have been involved in breeding. Managing an equine enterprise can be difficult, particularly given that many who undertake such endeavors do not have a background or education in business management. Kentucky Cooperative Extension has produced interactive spreadsheets to help horse owners better understand the costs associated with owning horses or managing certain equine businesses, including boarding and training operations. However, there has been little support for breeders. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to provide owners with a list of services offered for breeding and the costs associated with those services. Survey questions were created from a list of topics pertinent to equine breeding and from that list of questions, an electronic survey was created. The survey was sent via Qualtrics Survey Software to collect information on stallion and mare management costs as well as expenses related to owning and breeding. Question topics included veterinary and housing costs, management and advertising expenses, and membership fees. A total of 78 farms were selected from the 2013 breeder's listings for the Kentucky Quarter Horse Association (n = 39) and the Kentucky Thoroughbred Farm Managers' Club (n = 26), and other breed association contacts (n = 13). These farms were selected from the lists by outside individuals who were not related to the project. Participants were asked to answer all questions relevant to the farm. After the initial survey distribution, follow-up e-mails and phone calls were conducted in order to answer any questions participants might have had about the survey. Survey response rate was 32.1% (25 of 78 surveys returned). Farms in Kentucky had an average of two farm-owned and two outside stallions standing at stud. Artificial insemination was offered by 48% of the breeders. Of those that offered artificial insemination, only 2 farms provided frozen semen. Also of interest, 2 farms offered embryo transfer services. Farms spent approximately 13,536/year on advertising and 7,864/year on health care management of the stallions. The majority of farms that bred outside mares (13 of 25) bred fewer than 50 mares per year (n = 10). Outside mares were considered to be those that were transported to the farm for breeding. Some of those remained on the farm for mare care while others returned home after confirmed with foal. Approximately 70% of the farms gave discounts to individuals who bred multiple mares to the same stallion or farm. Over 85% of the farms surveyed provided mare care including breeding and foaling, though the number of days mares received care varied significantly. The average cost for mare care was 18.29 per day. All but one respondent provided a live foal guarantee. Breeding horses in Kentucky has been very important facet of the equine industry. However, many people who consider breeding a horse have little understanding of the costs associated with the process. The data provided by this study will be used to create a spreadsheet to assist people interested in breeding to better understand the financial considerations of this type of enterprise.
Cafaro, T A; Suarez, M F; Maldonado, C; Croxatto, J O; Insfrán, C; Urrets-Zavalía, J A; Serra, H M
Our study performed qualitative and quantitative studies on the corneal ultrastructure of healthy female Merino sheep of ages 4 months and 6 years old from the Argentinean Pampa. The corneas were evaluated using ex vivo laser-scanning confocal microscopy, light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Those studies allowed us to obtain detailed images of the corneal layers as well as quantitative data of the cellular and sub-basal nerve densities in the cornea from sheep of different ages. The density of the corneal cells was significantly different in the anterior versus the posterior epithelium and stroma. Moreover, the density of the epithelial, stromal cells and endothelial cells, as well as the sub-basal nerve density were significantly lower in adult than in young animals. Our work provided a wide-ranging description of the corneal ultrastructure of healthy female Merino sheep, which adds to the current knowledge about the ophthalmological aspects of this species and undoubtedly benefits veterinarians. PMID:25041260
Kong, Hanjin; Zhang, Keshan; Liu, Yongjie; Shang, Youjun; Wu, Bin; Liu, Xiangtao
Pseudorabies (PR, Aujeszky's disease) is an acute, contagious viral disease that affects a wide range of domestic and wild species. In the present study, an outbreak of PR in sheep induced by attenuated live vaccine (Bartha-K16) was diagnosed and analyzed in China. The presence of PR virus (PRV) in brain samples from infected sheep was confirmed by gC gene polymerase chain reaction amplification and PRV-like particle observation by electron microscopy. The molecular characterization of the PRV was performed with homology analysis and phylogenetic tree construction based on the gC gene. This is the first description of an outbreak of PR induced by a live attenuated vaccine (Bartha-K16), indicating that this vaccine is unsuitable for use in sheep. PMID:23797617
Martin, A M; Festa-Bianchet, M; Coltman, D W; Pelletier, F
The reliability and consistency of the many measures proposed to quantify sexual selection have been questioned for decades. Realized selection on quantitative characters measured by the selection differential i was approximated by metrics based on variance in breeding success, using either the opportunity for sexual selection Is or indices of inequality. There is no consensus about which metric best approximates realized selection on sexual characters. Recently, the opportunity for selection on character mean OSM was proposed to quantify the maximum potential selection on characters. Using 21 years of data on bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis), we investigated the correlations between seven indices of inequality, Is , OSM and i on horn length of males. Bighorn sheep are ideal for this comparison because they are highly polygynous and sexually dimorphic, ram horn length is under strong sexual selection, and we have detailed knowledge of individual breeding success. Different metrics provided conflicting information, potentially leading to spurious conclusions about selection patterns. I?, an index of breeding inequality, and, to a lesser extent, Is showed the highest correlation with i on horn length, suggesting that these indices document breeding inequality in a selection context. OSM on horn length was strongly correlated with i, Is and indices of inequality. By integrating information on both realized sexual selection and breeding inequality, OSM appeared to be the best proxy of sexual selection and may be best suited to explore its ecological bases. PMID:25418082
Hagenaars, T. H. J.; Melchior, M. B.; Windig, J. J.; Bossers, A.; Zijderveld, F. G.
Introduction. In the Netherlands an ambitious scrapie control program was started at the national level in 1998, based on genetic selection of animals for breeding. From 2002 onwards EU regulations required intensive active scrapie surveillance as well as certain control measures in affected flocks. Materials and Methods. Here we use standard statistical methods as well as mathematical modeling to analyze (1) data on genotype frequencies and scrapie prevalence in the Dutch sheep population ob...
Estudio Inmunohistoquímico Comparativo del Receptor de Estrógeno en Tejido Endometrial de Ovejas Razas Texel y Araucana / Comparative Inmunohistochemical Study of Estrogen Receptor in Endometrial Tissue from Texel and Araucana Sheeps
Adriana, Vasconcellos; Carla, Cisternas; Marco, Paredes.
Full Text Available La asociación de factores genéticos, nutricionales y ambientales afecta directamente la fertilidad de las ovejas sin embargo en condiciones de similitud ambiental, la raza es un factor determinante existiendo razas de alta fertilidad como por ejemplo Texel y Suffolk y otras de fertilidad estándar ta [...] les como Romney y Criolla Araucana. La fertilidad es modulada por las hormonas sexuales que actúan mediante la unión a receptores específicos. En ovinos el receptor de estrógeno alfa (ER-a) esta ampliamente distribuido en el sistema reproductivo y es responsable de la modulación de varios mecanismos asociados con la función del sistema reproductivo. Un factor posiblemente relacionado con la diferencia en la fertilidad entre razas de ovinos, es el nivel de expresión diferencial de estos receptores en el sistema reproductivo. En el presente estudio se realizo una comparación cuantitativa de la expresión inmunohistoquímica de ER-a se llevó en el endometrio de ovejas prepúberes de ovejas de alta fertilidad (Texel) y de fertilidad estándar (Araucana), mediante la medición de la densidad óptica integrada de la señal inmunohistoquímica en áreas específicas del endometrio. Los resultados indican una diferencia significativa entre la expresión del ER-a a favor de ovejas de raza Texel en todas las áreas de la raza del endometrio de ovejas prepúberes evaluadas. Esta expresión diferencial sugiere una posible relación entre la intensidad de la expresión de ER-a y la fertilidad en las razas ovinas estudiadas en este trabajo. Abstract in english In breeding sheep high fertility rate is an important consideration factor. The association of genetic, nutritional and environmental conditions directly affects the fertility of ewes. There are high fertility sheep breeds (Texel, Suffolk) and other standard fertility breeds as (Romney, Criolla Arau [...] cana). Animal reproduction is modulated by sex hormones that act by binding to specific receptors. In sheep, alpha (ER-a) estrogen receptor is widely distributed in the reproductive system, modulating several mechanisms associated with reproductive system function. One factor possibly related to the difference in fertility between sheep breeds, is the differential expression level of these receptors in the reproductive system. In the present study a quantitative comparison of the immunohistochemical expression of ER-a was carried out in prepubertal sheep endometrium in high fertility (Texel) breed versus standard fertility (Araucana) breed, by measuring the integrated optical density in specific areas of the endometrium. Results indicate a significant difference between ER-a expression in endometrium off Texel breed ewes and Araucana breed ewes, and registered higher levels in all areas of evaluated Texel breed prepubertal ewes. This differential expression suggests a possible link between ER-a expression intensity and fertility in the breeds studied in this work.
Full Text Available Calpastatin plays an essential role in the growth of skeletal muscles and post mortem meat tenderness. The objective of this research was to determine polymorphism in the calpastatin gene in a group of 212 sheep (192 ewes and 20 rams of four breeds: Polish Merino, Berrichon du Cher, Blackheaded Mutton Sheep, and Ile de France. Polymorphism was identified using the PCR -RFLP technique in accordance with methods by Palmer et al. . The amplified product with the length of 622 bp was digested with restriction enzymes MspI and NcoI. It was found that the M and N alleles were present in CA ST/MspI locus, their frequency being 83.5% and 16.5% respectively. Whereas in CA ST/NcoI locus the M allele occurred with the frequency of 95.8%, and the N allele with the frequency of 4.2%.Kalpastatyna odgrywa wa?n? rol? we wzro?cie mi??ni szkieletowych i procesie kruszenia mi?sa post mortem. Celem bada? by?o okre?lenie polimorfizmu w genie kalpastatyny w grupie 212 owiec (192 maciorki i 20 tryków czterech ras: merynos polski, berrichon du cher, czarnog?ówka i ile de france. Polimorfizm zosta? zidentyfikowany metod? PCR -RFLP wed?ug metodyki Palmera i wsp. . Zamplifikowany produkt o d?ugo?ci 622 pz poddano trawieniu enzymami restrykcyjnymi MspI i NcoI. Badania wykaza?y wyst?powanie alleli M i N w locus CA ST/MspI z frekwencj? odpowiednio 83,5% i 16,5%. Natomiast w locus CA ST/NcoI allel M wyst?pi? z cz?sto?ci? 95,8%, a allel N z cz?sto?ci? 4,2%.
This report summarises the work undertaken by the Board during the first nine months of 1988, and includes the results of in vivo farm measurements, slaughterhouse monitoring and butchers' shops surveys relating to sheep and sheepmeat.(author)
This report summarises the work undertaken by the Board during 1988 and includes the results of in vivo farm measurements, slaughterhouse monitoring and butcher's shops surveys relating to sheep and sheepmeat
This report details the work undertaken by the Board during 1989 and includes the results of on-farm measurements, slaughterhouse monitoring and butchers' shops surveys relating to sheep and sheepmeat (author)
Variale, V; Rainò, A C; Clauser, T
The charge breeding technique is used for radioactive ion beam (RIB) production in order of optimizing the re-acceleration of the radioactive element ions produced by a primary beam in a thick target. Charge breeding is achieved by means of a device capable of increasing the ion charge state from 1+ to a desired value n+. In order to get high intensity RIB, experiments with charge breeding of very high efficiency could be required. To reach this goal, the charge breeding simulation could help to optimize the high charge state production efficiency by finding more proper parameters for the radioactive 1+ ions. In this paper a device based on an electron beam ion source (EBIS) is considered. In order to study that problem, a code already developed for studying the ion selective containment in an EBIS with RF quadrupoles, BRICTEST, has been modified to simulate the ion charge state breeding rate for different 1+ ion injection conditions. Particularly, the charge breeding simulations for an EBIS with a hollow electron beam have been studied. PMID:22380242
Studies are reported on plant breeding using ionizing radiation which induces mutations. The notions are explained of radiostimulation, mutation, the nature of mutations, plant breeding and a survey is given of the uses of mutations in plant breeding. The types of radiation inducing mutations are given as are radiation doses, application, the interaction of ionizing radiation with the biological material, a survey of chemical mutagens, a comparison of physical and chemical mutagens and the results of mutation breeding and future prospects. (J.P.)
This issue of the Newsletter includes articles dealing with radiation induced mutation based plant breeding research findings aimed at improving productivity, disease resistance and tolerance of stress conditions
Full Text Available Brazil has the largest commercial beef cattle herd and is the main beef exporter in the world. Cultivated pastures arethe basis for the Brazilian beef production, and occupy an area of 101.4 million hectares. However, very few forage cultivars arecommercially available, and the majority of these are of apomictic reproduction, thus genetically homogeneous. Tropical foragebreeding is at its infancy, but much investment and efforts have been applied in the last three decades and some new cultivars havebeen released. In this paper, origin of different species, modes of reproduction, breeding programs and targets are discussed andthe resulting new cultivars released are presented.
Gabbianelli, F; Gargani, M; Pariset, L; Mariotti, M; Alhaique, F; De Minicis, E; Barelli, L; Ciammetti, E; Redi, F; Valentini, A
We retrieved 34 medieval ovicaprine remains, from three archaeological sites of central Italy dating to about 1000 years old, and analyzed them using mitochondrial DNA. We compared the reconstructed haplogroups with modern sheep samples from Europe and the Middle East and sequences from the literature. In modern sheep, haplogroup HA is present in countries with access to the Mediterranean and close to the domestication center, whereas it is very rare or absent in the rest of Europe. The haplogroup HB was predominant in ancient samples (90%), whereas haplogroup HA was found at 10%. Ancient haplogroups match the present distribution in modern sheep in Italy, indicating that the current proportion of HA/HB was already established in the Middle Ages and is not the result of subsequent events such as selective breeding practices. PMID:25917303
Tamgüney, Gültekin; Richt, Jürgen A; Hamir, Amir N; Greenlee, Justin J; Miller, Michael W.; Wolfe, Lisa L.; Sirochman, Tracey M; Young, Alan J; Glidden, David V; Johnson, Natrina L.; Giles, Kurt; DeArmond, Stephen J; Prusiner, Stanley B.
Scrapie of sheep and chronic wasting disease (CWD) of cervids are transmissible prion diseases. Milk and placenta have been identified as sources of scrapie prions but do not explain horizontal transmission. In contrast, CWD prions have been reported in saliva, urine and feces, which are thought to be responsible for horizontal transmission. While the titers of CWD prions have been measured in feces, levels in saliva or urine are unknown. Because sheep produce ?17 L/day of saliva and scrapie ...
Full Text Available In our study was followed occurrence of mastitis in herd of 430 sheep of breed zoslachtena valaska with hand milking technology examined two times during one lactation season. Individual examination consisted from clinical examination of udder and microbiological examination of milk samples. By PCR was determined presence of genes coding production of enterotoxins, and by ELISA methods production individual types of enterotoxins. From individual forms of mastitis were frequently detected subacute (6.7%, subclinical (5.7% and acute (2.9%. The coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS were identified in 102 (65.4% from all 156 positive isolates. The CNS and S. aureus caused subacute (5.1%, subclinical (3.9% and acute (2.4% forms of mastitis. The most frequently isolated were S. epidermidis, followed by S. chromogenes and S. xylosus from ewes with subacute and subclinical mastitis. From acute and chronical forms of mastitis were predominantly isolated S. aureus, S. uberis and S. epidermidis. The production of staphylococcal enterotoxins (SE - SEA, SEB, SEC, SED and the presence of genes sec (3, sea (2, seb (2 and sed (2 were determined in S. aureus, S. epidermidis, S. schleiferi and S. chromogenes, respectively. The results suggested on the high occurrence (12.4% of subacute and subclinical forms. Confirmed production of enterotoxins and presence of genes coding their production present a risk for human health and decreased a quality of milk and products from sheep´s milk.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The Orf virus (ORFV is the prototype of the parapoxvirus genus and it primarily causes contagious ecthyma in goats, sheep, and other ruminants worldwide. In this paper, we described the sequence and phylogenetic analysis of the B2L gene of ORFV from two natural outbreaks: i in autochthonous Croatian Cres-breed sheep and ii on small family goat farm. Results Sequence and phylogenetic analyses of the ORFV B2L gene showed that the Cro-Cres-12446/09 and Cro-Goat-11727/10 were not clustered together. Cro-Cres-12446/09 shared the highest similarity with ORFV NZ2 from New Zealand, and Ena from Japan; Cro-Goat-11727/10 was closest to the HuB from China and Taiping and Hoping from Taiwan. Conclusion Distinct ORFV strains are circulating in Croatia. Although ORFV infections are found ubiquitously wherever sheep and goats are farmed in Croatia, this is the first information on genetic relatedness of any Croatian ORFV with other isolates around the world.
Full Text Available The reproductive value of sheep belonging to the hill and mountain ecotypes of the Tsigaie breed was characterized based on the analysis of specific indexes. This operation was deemed necessary given our interest in the ex situ conservation of these ecotypes. Our research resulted in establishing that the hill ecotype is superior to the mountain ecotype, as is apparent by comparing indices for the two. The number of sheep in oestrus is higher by 9.56%, the pregnancy rate by 9.14%, the insemination index by 37.11%, the index of abortions by 6.96%, the fertility index by 19.76%, the sterility index by 14.18% and the number of lambed sheep by 15.06%. Only the prolificacy index is higher in the mountain ecotype by 5.96%. This situation stems from the particular biology of each ecotype and warrants optimal keeping and feeding for the mountain ecotype so that future research will not negatively influenced.
Raed M, Al-Atiyat.
Full Text Available Background In sheep breeding, there are situations where relationships recorded at the farm among pedigrees such as parent-offspring, full-sibs or half-sibs need to be tested. A panel of 28 microsatellite (MST) markers was tested to provide accurate pedigree information and resolve the common proble [...] m of significant error in pedigree records in Merino sheep. Three different flocks of Australian Merino sheep were investigated. A private farm flock represents a flock with no record availability. Two other flocks were maintained under good managements of full keeping records and being selected for high and low parasite resistances. Results In the studied panel, eight MSTs provided an average of Polymorphic Information content (PIC) equal to 0.65 or more in order to be sufficient to make an accurate and successful DNA-based parentage analysis. The panel of twenty-eight MST loci was obviously sufficient for providing 100% accurate pedigree and genotyping data. DNA-based pedigree records were constructed and all significant pedigree record errors were eliminated. Conclusions These results were used for further study of population genetic parameters such as recombination and haplotyping which heavily based on pedigree information. Nevertheless MST based parentage testing is still available and affordable in most countries and for each farmer with reasonable cost in comparison with fast growing SNP based parentage technologies.
Primitivo Fermin San
Full Text Available Abstract Background For ruminants reared on grazing systems, gastrointestinal nematode (GIN parasite infections represent the class of diseases with the greatest impact on animal health and productivity. Among the many possible strategies for controlling GIN infection, the enhancement of host resistance through the selection of resistant animals has been suggested by many authors. Because of the difficulty of routinely collecting phenotypic indicators of parasite resistance, information derived from molecular markers may be used to improve the efficiency of classical genetic breeding. Methods A total of 181 microsatellite markers evenly distributed along the 26 sheep autosomes were used in a genome scan analysis performed in a commercial population of Spanish Churra sheep to detect chromosomal regions associated with parasite resistance. Following a daughter design, we analysed 322 ewes distributed in eight half-sib families. The phenotypes studied included two faecal egg counts (LFEC0 and LFEC1, anti-Teladorsagia circumcincta LIV IgA levels (IgA and serum pepsinogen levels (Peps. Results The regression analysis revealed one QTL at the 5% genome-wise significance level on chromosome 6 for LFEC1 within the marker interval BM4621-CSN3. This QTL was found to be segregating in three out of the eight families analysed. Four other QTL were identified at the 5% chromosome-wise level on chromosomes 1, 10 and 14. Three of these QTL influenced faecal egg count, and the other one had an effect on IgA levels. Conclusion This study has successfully identified segregating QTL for parasite resistance traits in a commercial population. For some of the QTL detected, we have identified interesting coincidences with QTL previously reported in sheep, although most of those studies have been focused on young animals. Some of these coincidences might indicate that some common underlying loci affect parasite resistance traits in different sheep breeds. The identification of new QTL may suggest the existence of complex host-parasite relationships that have unique features depending on the host-parasite combination, perhaps due to the different mechanisms underlying resistance in adult sheep (hypersensitivity reactions and lambs (immunity. The most significant QTL identified on chromosome 6 for LFEC1 may be the target for future fine-mapping research efforts.
Jalil-Sarghale, A; Moradi Shahrbabak, M; Moradi Sharbabak, H; Sadeghi, M; Mura, M C
The pituitary-specific positive transcription factor 1 (POU1F1) gene has been the subject of many recent studies because of its important roles in growth and development of mammals. In this study, we investigated the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at the third exon of POU1F1 gene and its association with growth and biometric traits and blood metabolites in two Iranian sheep breeds, Zel and Lori-Bakhtiari. Blood samples from 90 Lori-Bakhtiari and 90 Zel sheep were collected to extract DNA and the 295-bp fragment of the POU1F1 gene was amplified and the restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) technique was adopted for genotyping. A SNP was identified in both Lori-Bakhtiari and Zel sheep breeds, which represents a non-synonymous single base mutation at restriction site for endonuclease AciI. The results revealed differential frequencies of alleles between the two studied breeds, where A allele was more frequent in Lori-Bakhtiari breed, while G allele was more frequent in Zel breed. When POU1F1 genotypes were tested, the animals with AA genotype had a higher weaning weight than those with GG genotype (p 0.05). These findings imply that the POU1F1 polymorphism may affect weaning weight, thus can be used as a molecular marker for this production trait. PMID:24965143
Song, Hi Sup; Kim, Jae Sung; Kim, Jin Kyu; Shin, In Chul; Lim, Young Taek
In order to develop an advanced technical knowledge for the selection of better mutants, some of the crops were irradiated and the mutation rate, the survival rate and the method for selction of a mutant were studied. Furthermore, this study aimed to obtain basic data applicable to the development of genetic resources by evaluation and analysis the specific character for selection of the superior mutant and its plant breeding. 1. selection of the mutant with a superior resistance against environment in the principal crops 1) New varieties of mutant rices such as Wonpyeongbyeo, Wongwangbyeo, Winmibyeo, and heogseon chalbeyeo (sticky forma) were registered in the national variety list and made an application to crop variety protection right. They are under review now. 2) We also keep on studying on the number of a grain of 8 lines of excellent mutant rice for the purpose of improvement of breeding . 3) We selected 3 lines which have a resistance to pod and stem blight in large soybean, 31 lines with small grain size and higher yield, 112 lines of soybean of cooking, 7 lines of low lipoxygenase content, and 12 lines with decreased phytic acid content by 20 % compared to the previous level. 2. Selection of advanced Mugunwha (Rose of Sharon) mutant 1) Bagseul, a new variety of mutant, was developed and 30 plantlets of it are being proliferated. 2) Fifty-three lines of a mutant having a various morphologies were selected.
In order to develop an advanced technical knowledge for the selection of better mutants, some of the crops were irradiated and the mutation rate, the survival rate and the method for selction of a mutant were studied. Furthermore, this study aimed to obtain basic data applicable to the development of genetic resources by evaluation and analysis the specific character for selection of the superior mutant and its plant breeding. 1. selection of the mutant with a superior resistance against environment in the principal crops 1) New varieties of mutant rices such as Wonpyeongbyeo, Wongwangbyeo, Winmibyeo, and heogseon chalbeyeo (sticky forma) were registered in the national variety list and made an application to crop variety protection right. They are under review now. 2) We also keep on studying on the number of a grain of 8 lines of excellent mutant rice for the purpose of improvement of breeding . 3) We selected 3 lines which have a resistance to pod and stem blight in large soybean, 31 lines with small grain size and higher yield, 112 lines of soybean of cooking, 7 lines of low lipoxygenase content, and 12 lines with decreased phytic acid content by 20 % compared to the previous level. 2. Selection of advanced Mugunwha (Rose of Sharon) mutant 1) Bagseul, a new variety of mutant, was developed and 30 plantlets of it are being proliferated. 2) Fifty-three lines of a mutant having a various morphologies were selected
Perentos, Nicholas; Martins, Amadeu Q; Watson, Thomas C; Bartsch, Ullrich; Mitchell, Nadia L; Palmer, David N; Jones, Matthew W; Morton, A Jennifer
Creating valid mouse models of slowly progressing human neurological diseases is challenging, not least because the short lifespan of rodents confounds realistic modelling of disease time course. With their large brains and long lives, sheep offer significant advantages for translational studies of human disease. Here we used normal and CLN5 Batten disease affected sheep to demonstrate the use of the species for studying neurological function in a model of human disease. We show that electroencephalography can be used in sheep, and that longitudinal recordings spanning many months are possible. This is the first time such an electroencephalography study has been performed in sheep. We characterized sleep in sheep, quantifying characteristic vigilance states and neurophysiological hallmarks such as sleep spindles. Mild sleep abnormalities and abnormal epileptiform waveforms were found in the electroencephalographies of Batten disease affected sheep. These abnormalities resemble the epileptiform activity seen in children with Batten disease and demonstrate the translational relevance of both the technique and the model. Given that both spontaneous and engineered sheep models of human neurodegenerative diseases already exist, sheep constitute a powerful species in which longitudinal in vivo studies can be conducted. This will advance our understanding of normal brain function and improve our capacity for translational research into neurological disorders. PMID:25724202
Morris, S T; Kenyon, P R
This paper details current production trends for sheep and beef cattle production in New Zealand and gives some insight into the opportunities for improvement based on New Zealand research at Massey University. Further it outlines some of the challenges the industries face in the near future. The New Zealand climate favours pasture growth and this is the key to sheep and beef cattle production with over 95% of the diet being grazed pasture or crop. Exports are the focus of the industry with 95% of sheep meat and wool, and 80% of beef exported. There have been considerable gains in production over the last 20 years but there still remains a huge opportunity for further intensification through breeding sheep at an earlier age, increasing the weight of lambs weaned per ewe per year and improving beef production systems. These improvements need to occur within a framework of minimal environmental footprint and produce products that are in demand in the high end international markets. PMID:24998778
Full Text Available Background: Ghezel sheep are highly prolific and one of the local sheep breeds in Iran andTurkey. Growth differentiation factor-9 (GDF9 gene has been found to be essential for growthand differentiation of early ovarian follicles. Novel mutations in GDF9 have been associated withincreased ovulation rates and high litter sizes in heterozygous carriers. Therefore, fecundity genefor GDF9 (FecGH mutation in GDF9 is considered as a possible candidate for the increased littersize observed in Ghezel ewes.Materials and Methods: The aim was to evaluate the frequency of recently reported SNP (FecGHusing polymerase chain reaction (PCR - single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP in 110Ghezel ewes with a history of high litter size reproductive activity and 75 fertile ewes with normalreproductive activity.Results: The GDF9 gene exon II was investigated by this technique to screen whether they are FecGH(S395F carriers or not. SSCP analysis identified four fragments that contained conformationaldifferences; however the combined results with sequencing analysis data did not reveal the FecGHmutation (C to T in GDF9 gene in Iranian Ghezel ewes.Conclusion: Current results confirmed that FecGH mutation is not present in the selected IranianGhezel sheep population and is not associated with Ghezel sheep high prolificacy performance.Therefore, this SNP may not represent a molecular marker for marker assisted selection programsin this population.
Tifrea, M.; Oprescu, I.; Indre, D.; Mirela Imre; Darabus, Gh
The study was carried out between January -February 2008, on 30 sheep Tigaie and Turcana breeds from Bilbor, Harghita County. Animals were distributed randomly into three groups (n = 10): group A1 (treated with albendazole), group B1 (treated with triclabendazole) and control group (M) - the dosage used was the one recommended by the producer. Coproscopical examination was made on days 0 and 14 using the methods recommended by WAAVP and the efficacy was evaluated using Presidente relation. In...
Liapi, M; Botsaris, G; Slana, I; Moravkova, M; Babak, V; Avraam, M; Di Provvido, A; Georgiadou, S; Pavlik, I
Paratuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map), is a chronic incurable infection of intestinal tract of animals. Molecular characterization of Map isolates classifies them into two major groups, 'Cattle' or Type II and 'Sheep' or Type I/III with a different phenotype, epidemiology, virulence and pathogenesis. The aim of this study was to examine 192 Map ELISA-positive sheep and goats from Cyprus using faecal culture and genotype Map isolates using IS1311 PCR and restriction endonuclease analysis (IS1311 PCR-REA) with HinfI restriction enzyme. Map was isolated from only four (4.6%) faecal samples out of 88 sheep and 15 (14.4%) faecal samples out of 104 goats. Genotyping of the isolates using IS1311 PCR-REA revealed that sheep and goat populations on the island are infected primarily by 'Sheep' strains. Only three Map isolates from goats originated from one farm were characterized as 'Cattle' strains. PMID:23683358
This is the third in a series of lessons specifically designed to instruct individuals without any formal training in genetics or statistics about the science of corn breeding. Individuals with formal training in genetics or statistics but without any training in plant breeding also may benefit from taking these lessons.
W.S., Proskura; R., Pilarczyk; S., Borkowska; A., Marciniak; I., Szatkowska; J., Wójcik; A., Dybus.
Full Text Available Prion protein (PrP) is a membrane glycoprotein whose abnormal form is believed to cause a group of disorders known as transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs), which affect the brain and nervous system of both human beings and animals. The most familiar TSEs are Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (CJ [...] D) in human beings, and bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) and scrapie in sheep and goats. It is well established that resistance or susceptibility to scrapie has a genetic background that is closely linked to amino acid variations within PrP at positions 136 (A/V), 154 (R/H) and 171 (Q/R). The ARR (alanine at codon 136 and arginine at codons 154 and 171) allele is associated with the highest resistance to scrapie, whereas the VRQ allele is linked to the highest susceptibility. In the present study the allelic and genotypic frequencies of the PRNP gene in the Rough-coated Pomeranian Landrace (RPL) were determined. Polymorphisms at codons 136, 154 and 171 were identified with the PCR-RFLP method. Of the eight observed genotypes, ARR/ARQ (35.9%) and ARQ/ARQ (24.4%) were the most frequent. This study reported a presence of AHQ/AHR genotype (2.6%) that has not previously been recorded in any sheep breed. The predominance of wild-type ARQ (46.8%) haplotype, which is linked to the risk of scrapie development, suggested a genetic susceptibility to scrapie in RPL sheep. Although the frequency of ARR/ARR in RPL sheep was low, the highest frequency of the ARR/ARQ genotype could be helpful in increasing the number of individuals carrying the ARR/ARR genotype and reducing the risk of genetic defects within the population.
Full Text Available The Icelandic sweater is presented and received as being traditional—even ancient—authentically Icelandic and hand made by Icelandic women from the wool of Icelandic sheep. Even so, the sweater type, the so-called ‘Icelandic sweater’ in English, only dates back to the mid-20th century and is not necessarily made in Iceland nor from indigenous wool. Nevertheless, the sweater is a successful invention of a tradition (Hobsbawm & Ranger, 1983, popular among Icelanders and tourists alike since its introduction in the mid-20th century. It has gained ground as a national symbol, particularly in times of crisis for example in the reconstruction of values in the aftermath of the Icelandic bank collapse of 2008. I traced the development of the discourse about wool and the origins of the Icelandic sweater by looking at publications of the Icelandic National Craft Association, current design discourse in Iceland and its effect on the development of the wool industry. I then tied these factors to notions of tradition, authenticity, national culture, image and souvenirs.
...AMS-LS-08-0064] National Sheep Industry Improvement Center AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION...SUMMARY: The Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS) is affirming...establishing a National Sheep Industry Improvement Center...consistent with the Food, Conservation,...
...AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 63...AMS-LS-08-0064] National Sheep Industry Improvement Center AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION...establishing a National Sheep Industry Improvement Center...consistent with the Food, Conservation,...
A breeding blanket design has been developed for ITER to provide the necessary tritium fuel to achieve the technical objectives of the Enhanced Performance Phase. It uses a ceramic breeder and water coolant for compatibility with the ITER machine design of the Basic Performance Phase. Lithium zirconate and lithium oxide am the selected ceramic breeders based on the current data base. Enriched lithium and beryllium neutron multiplier are used for both breeders. Both forms of beryllium material, blocks and pebbles are used at different blanket locations based on thermo-mechanical considerations and beryllium thickness requirements. Type 316LN austenitic steel is used as structural material similar to the shielding blanket. Design issues and required R ampersand D data are identified during the development of the design
Full Text Available Myostatin (MSTN is a protein inhibit muscle growth. This protein is a member of a superfamily of molecules called transforming growth factors beta (TGF-b. Deletion in c.960delG (1-bp deletion at position 960 disrupts the reading frame from amino acid (aa position 320 to ending in a premature stop codon in aa position 359 have been found in Norwegian White Sheep. This deletion in the myostatin gene is responsible to increase muscle mass, also known as double muscling, in sheep. The purpose of this study was to identify the polymorphism of myostatin gene in c.960delG locus of local sheep in Indonesia. The 832 DNA sampels from sheep were collected from 13 populations belonging to the Priangan (86, Javanese Thin Tail (389 i.e. Jonggol, Banjar, Ciomas, Javanese Fat Tail (94, West Nusa Tenggara (136, Rote Island/East Nusa Tenggara (35, Kisar Island/Southwest Maluku (22, Donggala/South East Celebes (45 and Batur cross breed/Wonosobo, Central Java (25. A gene fragment of MSTN c.960delG length 299 bp was successfully amplified by using the technique of PCR (polymerase chain reaction and genotyped by SSCP (single strand conformation polymorphism. The result showed no polymorphism in this gene. All sheep tested had G/G genotype for c.960delG locus.
PhD Margarita P Bracamonte (Northland Community & Technical College Biology)
Power Point slides that can be used during the sheep brain dissection laboratory to visually compare the sheep brain to the human brain structures with the goal to learn the anatomy of the human brain.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The applications of proteomic strategies to ovine medicine remain limited. The definition of serum proteome may be a good tool to identify useful protein biomarkers for recognising sub-clinical conditions and overt disease in sheep. Findings from bovine species are often directly translated for use in ovine medicine. In order to characterize normal protein patterns and improve knowledge of molecular species-specific characteristics, we generated a two-dimensional reference map of sheep serum. The possible application of this approach was tested by analysing serum protein patterns in ewes with mild broncho-pulmonary disease, which is very common in sheep and in the peripartum period which is a stressful time, with a high incidence of infectious and parasitic diseases. Results This study generated the first reference 2-DE maps of sheep serum. Overall, 250 protein spots were analyzed, and 138 identified. Compared with healthy sheep, serum protein profiles of animals with rhino-tracheo-bronchitis showed a significant decrease in protein spots identified as transthyretin, apolipoprotein A1 and a significant increase in spots identified as haptoglobin, endopin 1b and alpha1B glycoprotein. In the peripartum period, haptoglobin, alpha-1-acid glycoprotein, apolipoprotein A1 levels rose, while transthyretin content dropped. Conclusions This study describes applications of proteomics in putative biomarker discovery for early diagnosis as well as for monitoring the physiological and metabolic situations critical for ovine welfare.
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to establish the impact of crossing the indigenous Cres sheep with Awassi and, respectively, Awassi and East Friesian sheep on the milk yield and quality. For this purpose, through regular monthly milk yield recordings a total of 824individual milk samples from 139 sheep in the second lactation of the same flock were collected, of which: 46 purebred Cres sheep, CS; 33 crosses with 50 % Cres sheep and 50 % Awassi, CA; 60 crosses with 50 % Cres sheep, 25 % Awassi and 25 % East Friesian, CAEF. The obtained results show a significant (P<0.05; P<0.01 impact of the genotype and the lactation stage on the yield and chemical composition of milk, and the somatic cell count. The most milk was yielded by CAEF crosses (690 mL/ewe/day, i.e., 133.8 L per lactation and the least by CS (340 mL/ewe/day, i.e., 58.48 L per lactation. The content of total solids, fat and protein increased as lactation advanced, whereas the trend of the lactose content was opposite. The highest content of total solids, fat and protein were established in the milk of the indigenous Cres sheep. A positive correlation was established between the amount of yielded milk and the somatic cell count, whereas a negative correlation was established between the amount of milk and the content of solids, fat and proteins.
Vinayagamurthy Balamurugan; Madhusudan Hosamani; Paramasivaiah Saravanan; Veerakyathappa Bhanuprakash; Bimalendu Mondal; Raj Kumar Singh
Bluetongue (BT), peste des petits ruminants (PPR) and sheep pox are the most economically important viral diseases of sheep in India. Serum samples obtained from sheep in five northern states of the country were screened for antibody against these agents to explore the extent of spread of these infections. A total of 516 serum samples were screened for the presence of antibodies against BT and PPR viruses. Of these, 155 samples were also tested for antibodies against sheep pox virus. BT antib...
Full Text Available Footrot in sheep is a chronic, infectious disease of the acropodium in sheep, less frequently in goats and mountain goats, of a multifactor nature, which is also considered to be a disease of poor management in sheep breeding. Over the recent years, Dichelobacter nodosus is given as the main cause, previously known as Bacteroides nodosus. Coaction with several other saprophytic and pathogenic bacteria is no longer so significant in etiopathogenesis, and it is considered more important to determine the virulence of the strain D. nodosus. The disease is called contagiousus ovine digital dermatitis (CODD if the infection was caused by a very virulent strain of D. nodosus, and the disease often ends with the so-called removal of the foot. A speedy identification of the agent can provide insight into the clinical form of the disease, its course and predicted outcome. A benign strain of the agent causes only a mild to medium virulent laminitis, with poorly expressed interdigital dermatitis, when the animal openly limps on one or two legs. A very virulent strain leads to a grave form of infectious interdigital dermatitis, as a supurous-necrotic dermatitis, with significant damage to the bone and expressed limping of the animal. Footrot is present in sheep in almost all countries of the world, in particular in countries with a developed sheep production (New Zealand, Australia and the United Kingdom, where it causes significant economic damages. In our country, footrot in sheep occurs mainly in the Raska district, eastern Serbia and Vojvodina province, but the percentage varies from herd to herd. The irregular and incorrect processing of hoofs (an important zootechnical measure significantly contributes to the occurrence and spreading of this disease, as well as a series of other contributing factors, such as soft and moist earch, bad climatic conditions (warm and humid weather. In activities on prevention and prophylaxis of this disease, as well as the treatment of footrot in sheep, which is complex in nature, there have been attempts to apply different disinfectants. For instance, disinfection with 10% copper sulphate, 5-8% formalin, as well as, more recently, zink sulphate, either in the form of a powder or as a solution (from 10-20% ZnSO4, several times during different time intervals, are recommended in literature and are being implemented in practice. There are a number of prescriptions for disinfection of hoofs and some of them have been shown to be very efficient. Zinc sulphate has certain advantages in hoof disinfection: it is a bactericide, it penetrates deeper into the tissue in the crucial spot, it protects the horny part of the hoof, it is less toxic, ecologically acceptable (more readily disposable, and less expensive than other mentioned disinfectants. The use of antibiotics is justified only in individual isolated cases, in the treatment of interdigital dermatitis diagnosed on several legs. However, the application of wide-specter antibiotics sprayed into the interdigital space has proven justified and efficient. Immunoprophylaxis yields different results and is mostly implemented in lambs and sheep in early stages of gravidity. Only regular and expert processing of hoofs, using a zinc sulphate disinfectant in the form of a solution according to a prescribed procedure, the use of antibiotics in rare cases, putting animals to pasture in well-drained soil, and vaccination of certain categories of animals can all significantly contribute to the efficient eradication of this persistent disease in sheep.
Yu, Zengliang; Deng, Jianguo; He, Jianjun; Huo, Yuping; Wu, Yuejin; Wang, Xuedong; Lui, Guifu
Ion implantation as a new mutagenic method has been used in the rice breeding program since 1986, and for mutation breeding of other crops later. It has been shown, in principle and in practice, that this method has many outstanding advantages: lower damage rate; higher mutation rate and wider mutational spectrum. Many new lines of rice with higher yield rate; broader disease resistance; shorter growing period but higher quality have been bred from ion beam induced mutants. Some of these lines have been utilized for the intersubspecies hybridization. Several new lines of cotton, wheat and other crops are now in breeding. Some biophysical effects of ion implantation for crop seeds have been studied.
A. Supriyantono; Hakim, L.; Suyadi; Ismudiono
Growth performance of Bali cattle has been a major concern especially in the character of body weight at a certain age, birth weight and weaning weight. Efforts to increase the quality of the performance of Bali cattle have been carried out by the government by forming P3Bali. In the activities of quality improvement, the government is guided by the breeding program which has been prepared. To strengthen these activities further, the breeding program has been modified based on weaning weight...
Chickpea is an important food legume in Turkey. Turkey is one of the most important gene centers in the world for legumes. The most widely known characteristic of chickpea is that it is an important vegetable protein source used in human and animal nutrition. However, the dry grains of chickpea, has 2-3 times more protein than our traditional food of wheat. In addition, cheakpea is also energy source because of its high carbohydrate content. It is very rich in some vitamin and mineral basis. In the plant breeding, mutation induction has become an effective way of supplementing existing germplasm and improving cultivars. Many successful examples of mutation induction have proved that mutation breeding is an effective and important approach to food legume improvement. The induced mutation technique in chickpea has proved successful and good results have been attained. Realizing the potential of induced mutations, a mutation breeding programme was initiated at the Nuclear Agriculture Section of the Saraykoey Nuclear Research and Training Center in 1994. The purpose of the study was to obtain high yielding chickpea mutants with large seeds, good cooking quality and high protein content. Beside this some characters such as higher adaptation ability, tolerant to cold and drought, increased machinery harvest type, higher yield, resistant to diseases especially to antracnose and pest were investigated too. Parents varieties were ILC-482, AK-7114 and AKCIN-91 (9 % seed moisture content and germination percentage 98 %) in these experiments. The irradiation doses were 0 (control), 50, 100, 150, 200, 250, 300, 350, 400, 500 ve 600 Gy for greenhouse experiments and 0 (control), 50, 100, 150, 200, 250, 300, 350 ve 400 Gy for field experiments, respectively. One thousand seeds for per treatment were sown in the field for the M1. At maturity, 3500 single plants were harvested and 20 seeds were taken from each M1 plant and planted in the following season. During plant growth, mutants of the desired traits [earliness, yield per plant, first pot height and resistance to Ascochyta blight (Ascochyta rabiei)] were identified an isolated. 2520 desirable M2 mutants were selected and grown in progeny rows as the M3 generation. The protein contents of seeds were analyzed for the M3-M4 seeds. In M5-M7 generation, preliminary yield trials had been conducted and based on field observations, quality criteria (grain size, grain type, cooking and protein) analyses, and later 12 mutant lines were selected. The mutants and their controls were evaluated at two locations (Saraykoey and Haymana) in Central Anatolia for 2 years (M8, M9) for determination of yield performance using randomized complete block design with 3 replications. All the data were analysed statistically. As a result of these experiments, two promising mutant lines were chosen and given to the Seed Registration and Certification Center for official registration These two promising mutants were tested at five different locations of Turkey, in 2004 and 2005 years. After 2 years of registration experiments one of outstanding mutants was officially released as mutant chickpea variety under the name TAEK-SAGEL, in 2006. Some basic characteristics of this mutant are; earliness (95-100 day), high yield capacity (180-220 kg/da), high seed protein (22-25 %), first pot height (20-25 cm), 100 seeds weight (42-48 g), cooking time (35-40 min) and resistance to Ascochyta blight. (Includes 31 tables and 9 figures)
Dirk Booyse; Dehority, Burk A.
Protozoa species were identified in rumen contents of four domestic sheep (Ovis aries) from South Africa. All animals were fed a forage diet which consisted of 50% lucerne and 50% teff hay. Ten new host records were identified, bringing the total number of species and forms observed in sheep in South Africa to 30. The occurrence and geographic distribution of ciliate protozoa in both domestic and wild sheep from around the world are summarised. It was found that 15 genera...
Full Text Available The objective of this work was to investigate certain biochemical parameters in the blood of sheep in conditions of different intensity of parasitic infection with Strongyloides papillosus, and also after the therapy with albendazole. The research was carried out on the sheep of Wurtemberg breed (n = 30 in which there was determined low, medium and high intensity of parasitic infection with S. papillosus. The control group (n = 10 consisted of the sheep that were negative to the presence of the parasitic infection. The degree and type of changes were monitored by determining the concentration of glucose, total protein, albumin, Albumin/Globulin ratio, AST, urea, total bilirubin, calcium, phosphorus, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH total activity and isoenzyme distribution LDH1-5. On the basis of the obtained results it was concluded, through isoenzyme distribution of lactate dehydrogenase, that parasitic infection with S. papillosus can cause damage to the liver, heart muscle and lungs, while after the therapy with albendazole, the most affected organ is the liver. The concentration of glucose, total protein and albumin linearly decreased with the increase of intensity of the parasitic infection (p 0,05 as well as phosphorus (p < 0,05 linearly decreased with the parasitic infection intensity growth. Trend towards the decline of the concentration of these macroelements continues even after the therapy with albendazole (p < 0,001. Considering our previous research in the field of oxidative stress, a phenomenon that is fundamentally related to the changes determined in this work, we strongly recommend that besides antihelmintics, preparations with antioxidative properties should be used in antiparasitic protocols as well.
The paper describes mathematical models for 137Cs and 90Sr behavior in body of horses and sheep grazing the area adjacent to the 'Experimental Field' Technical Area of the Semipalatinsk test site. The models were parametrized on the basis of experimental data for those breeds of animals that are currently encountered within the Semipalatinsk test area. The predictive conclusions using devised models have shown that 137Cs and 90Sr concentration in milk of horses and sheep grazing the Experimental field are can exceed the adopted standards during a long period of time. (author)
This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants
This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants
This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants
This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and research abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants
California Department of Resources — These data come from observations of breeding tricolored blackbirds throughout their range in California. NAD27 coordinates are given in the data for each record....
This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and rea search abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants
This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and rea search abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants
This issue of the Newsletter presents abstracts and short communications of research results on radiation and chemical induced mutation breeding projects. Positive traits such as disease resistance and increased productivity are highlighted
This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and rea search abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants
This issue of the newsletter reports a number of research news and research abstracts on application of radiation induced mutation techniques to increase mutagenesis and mutation frequency in plant breeding projects
This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and research abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants
This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and research abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants
This issue of the Newsletter presents abstracts and short communications of research results on radiation and chemical induced mutation breeding projects. Positive traits such as disease resistance and increased productivity are highlighted
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Document contains route directions and map for the Dahomey Breeding Bird Survey route which was established in 2011 Document contains route directions and map for...
This newsletter contains a brief account of FAO/IAEA meetings held in 1990 on plant breeding involving the use of induced mutations. It also features a list of commercially available plant cultivars produced by such techniques. Refs and tabs
Carlos, Luna Palomera; Rogelio Alejandro, Alonso Morales.
Full Text Available El estudio genético en razas de ovejas que naturalmente presentan altas tasas de ovulación (TO) y de prolificidad, ha permitido detectar la participación de varios genes. Entre ellos están los relacionados a la superfamilia del factor de crecimiento transformante ? (BMPRIB, GDF9 y BMP-15), así como [...] de otros genes con efecto mayor, tales como el "distal-less homeobox 3" (FecL), el receptor de estrógenos (ESR), el receptor de prolactina (PRLR) y el de las inhibinas (INHA y INHB). Sin embargo, las ovejas homocigotas para la mayoría de las variantes alélicas en BMP-15 o GDF9 son estériles, por lo que es importante el entendimiento de las bases genéticas y moleculares de estos polimorfismos, para su uso en programas racionales de mejoramiento genético con énfasis en la prolificidad. El polimorfismo en el gen de la melatonina (MTNR1) se ha asociado con la no estacionalidad reproductiva en ovejas. La selección en varias razas de ovejas para estas características ha reducido significativamente el anestro estacional, mostrando actividad reproductiva durante la primavera y el verano. Sin embargo, parece ser que estos genes en algunas razas pueden estar interactuando aditivamente, y una variante alélica en una raza puede no aparecer en otra, o bien dos al mismo tiempo, por lo que son variados los mecanismos genéticos que afectan la tasa ovulatoria y prolificidad. Abstract in english The genetic study on sheep breeds with naturally high ovulation rate (OR) and prolificacy, has allowed to detect the participation of several genes. Among them there are the ones related to the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily (BMPRIB, GDF9 and BMP-15), as well as to other genes with majo [...] r effect, such as the distal-less homeobox 3' (FecL), estrogen receptor (ESR), prolactin receptor (PRLR) and inhibin receptor (INHA and INHB). However, sheep homozygous for the majority of the allelic variants in BMP-15 or GDF9 are sterile, for which it is important the understanding of the genetic and molecular basis of these polymorphisms, for their use in rational programs of genetic improvement on prolificacy. Polymorphism in the melatonin gene (MTNR1) has been associated with non-reproductive seasonality in sheep. Selecting several sheep breeds for these characteristics has significantly reduced the seasonal anoestrus, showing reproductive activity during spring and summer. It seems that these genes in some breeds may be interacting additively and an allelic variant in a breed may not be present in other, or two be present at the same time; therefore, the understanding of the genetic mechanisms that affect ovulation rate and prolificacy are important for the selection of reproductive traits.
Chickpea is an important food legume in Turkey. Turkey is one of the most important gene centers in the world for legumes. Realizing the potential of induced mutations, a mutation breeding programme was initiated at the Nuclear Agriculture Section of the Saraykoy Nuclear Research and Training Center in 1994. The purpose of the study was to obtain high yielding chickpea mutants with large seeds, good cooking quality and high protein content. Beside this some characters such as higher adaptation ability, tolerant to cold and drought, increased machinery harvest type, higher yield, resistant to diseases especially to antracnose and pest were investigated too. Parent varieties were ILC-482, AK-7114 and AKCIN-91 had been used in these experiments. The irradiation doses were 0 (control), 50, 100, 150, 200, 250, 300, 350 and 400 Gy for field experiments, respectively. As a result of these experiments, two promising mutant lines were chosen and given to the Seed Registration and Certification Center for official registration These two promising mutants were tested at five different locations of Turkey, in 2004 and 2005 years. After 2 years of registration experiments one of outstanding mutants was officially released as mutant chickpea variety under the name TAEK-SAGEL, in 2006. Some basic characteristics of this mutant are; earliness (95-100 day), high yield capacity (180-220 kg/da), high seed protein (22-25 %), first pot height (20-25 cm), 100 seeds weight (42-48 g), cooking time (35-40 min) and resistance to Ascochyta blight.
An indisputable need of D-T fusion power remains the identification of a reliable, safe and functional material which efficiently breeds tritium. Although two material classes - solid and liquid breeder material - have been used as the basis for reasonable blanket concepts, critical issues and uncertainty still remain for both. Liquid lithium is fraught mainly with safety (reactivity) concerns, but MHD effects remain a critical issue. Although lithium lead alloys are not as reactive with oxygen, the corrosion of structural materials by Li/sub 17/Pb/sub 83/ and the tritium permeation pose a separate class of risks. The inherent chemical stability of ceramic oxides stimulates the search for solid breeder materials unencumbered by these safety issues. But the accessibility of tritium generated in these materials and the ability to adequately generate tritium are questions which require early answers. In addition, lifetime limiting issues such as lithium transport and swelling, may decide the fate of the otherwise favored Li/sub 2/O, or may not enter in at all
Mutagenic studies in jute in general dealt with the morphological abnormalities of the M1 generation in great detail. Of late, induction of a wide spectrum of viable mutations have been reported in different varieties of both the species. Mutations affecting several traits of agronomic importance such as, plant height, time of flowering, fibre yield and quality, resistance to pests and diseases are also available. Cytological analysis of a large collection of induced mutants resulted in the isolation of seven trisomics in an olitorius variety. Several anatomical parameters which are the components of fibre yield, have also received attention. Some mutants with completely altered morphology were used for interpreting the evolution of leaf shape in Tiliaceas and related families. A capsularis variety developed using mutation breeding technique has been released for cultivation. Several others, including derivatives of inter-mutant hybridization have been found to perform well at different locations in the All India Coordinated Trials. Presently, chemical mutagenesis and induction of mutants of physiological significance are receiving considerable attention. The induced variability is being used in genetic and linkage studies. (author)
DeNardo, Paola; Bruni, Biagio; Paoletti, Luigi; Pasetto, Roberto; Sirianni, Bruno
In a national survey on mortality from malignant pleural neoplasms in Italy, aimed at detecting geographic clusters of cases of the disease, the town of Biancavilla, located in a volcanic area of Eastern Sicily, showed high risk of pleural mesothelioma in the absence of occupational asbestos exposure. An environmental survey suggested the stone quarries located in 'Monte Calvario', south-east of the town of Biancavilla, as a possible source of asbestiform fibre exposure. A subsequent crystal-chemistry investigation of the 'Monte Calvario' amphiboles identified the mineral asbestiform fibres as 'fluoro-edenite', a new end-member of the edenite ==> fluoro-edenite series. A collaborative epidemiological and environmental study was initiated to investigate the characteristics of the outbreak of malignant mesothelioma and test the hypothesis of a causal association with exposure to naturally occurring fibres. To investigate if a sheep population could be used to monitor the environmental diffusion of the fibres, we examined lung specimens from 27 culled sheep, at least 3 years old and living near Monte Calvario to check for the presence of fluoro-edenite fibres, using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis and X-ray microanalysis. Fourteen mineral species have been isolated in the mineral particulate matter taken from pulmonary parenchyma, and fluoro-edenite was detected in eight sheep. These preliminary data suggest a possible bio-indicative role of sheep as sentinel animals in the evaluation of environmental fibre diffusion, which merits further investigation. PMID:15144777
Massino De Marchi
Full Text Available Aims of this study were to apply AFLP markers to assess the genetic diversity and to define a marker-assisted traceability system in local chicken breeds. Data were based on 107 cocks of three different local chicken breeds from Veneto region (Italy: Robusta (PRR: n=54, Pepoi (PPP: n=33 and Padovana (PPD: n=20. Chickens were individually identified at birth with wing tag and reared in four different herds using a free-range system. Genomic DNA was extracted from whole blood and AFLP analysis was performed according to the protocol described in Barcaccia et al. (1998. Values of expected heterozygosity (H and polymorphism information content (PIC at AFLP loci were calculated for each breed. Genetic similarities of all possible pairs of genotypes were estimates using a Jaccard index; the values obtained were subsequently used in a factorial analysis in order to define latent variables which explain the whole genetic similarity relation system between individuals. The average PIC index within breed was generally low: 24.1% for PRR, 23.6% for PPD and 17.2% for PPP. The average heterozygosities of the three breeds for all markers were 29.5% for PRR and PPD and 21.3% for PPP. In the majority of cases (from 90% to 100% of individuals within breed, marker-assisted traceability system used in this research correctly identified the breed of cocks. Hence, results are promising to identify biological tissue (meat, gamets, embryo, etc. from these local chicken breeds. However, the method used in this study should be improved in terms of cost reduction for single sample, work effort, reproducibility and accuracy of results obtained.
Full Text Available This paper deals with changes in biodiversity during the course of evolution, plant domestication and plant breeding. It shows than man has had a strong influence on the progressive decrease of biodiversity, unconscious at first and deliberate in modern times. The decrease in biodiversity in the agricultures of the North causes a severe threat to food security and is in contrasts with the conservation of biodiversity which is part of the culture of several populations in the South. The concluding section of the paper shows that man could have guided evolution in a different way and shows an example of participatory plant breeding, a type of breeding which is done in collaboration with farmers and is based on selection for specific adaptation. Even though participatory plant breeding has been practiced for only about 20 years and by relatively few groups, the effects on both biodiversity and crop production are impressive. Eventually the paper shows how participatory plant breeding can be developed into ‘evolutionary plant breeding’ to cope in a dynamic way with climate changes.
S., Méndez; S., Dunner; B., Sañudo; J.A., García; S. de, Argüello; F., Barquín; N., Chomón; L.A., Calderón; J., Cañón.
Full Text Available Se caracterizaron genéticamente dos poblaciones ovinas, Guriezo y Blanca de la Peña, presentes en la C.A. de Cantabria y se analizaron las relaciones con otras razas afines geográfica o culturalmente. Para ello se genotiparon un total de 21 marcadores de tipo microsatélite en 457 muestras pertenecie [...] ntes a las dos razas locales cántabras, y a las razas Lacha, Bardhoka, Anogeiano, Gentile di Puglia, Laticauda, Churra Bragancana, Colmenareña, Manchega, Merina, Rubia del Molar y Segureña. Los resultados indicaron la proximidad genética esperada entre la oveja Lacha y la población de Guriezo, y la diferenciación de las dos poblaciones cántabras (tanto Guriezo como Blanca de la Peña) con respecto a las demás razas ovinas estudiadas. Abstract in english Two sheep populations present in the Cantabria region in the North of Spain and named Guriezo and Blanca de la Peña were genetically characterised, also their origin and relationships with other geographically or culturally connected breeds were studied. A total of 457 individuals belonging to the t [...] wo groups and to other such as Lacha, Bardhoka, Anogeiano, Gentile di Puglia, Laticauda, Churra Bragancana, Colmenareña, Manchega, Merina, Rubia del Molar and Segureña breeds were genotyped for 21 microsatellite markers. The results allow detecting the influence of the Lacha breed on the Guriezo population, but also the genetic differences of both sheep populations (Guriezo and Blanca de la Peña) from all others ovine breeds studied.
Liu, Kun; Luo, Hai-Ling; Zuo, Zhao-Yun; Jia, Hui-Na; Zhang, Yu-Wei; Chang, Yan-Fei; Jiao, Li-Juan
?-Tocopherol transfer protein (?-TTP) is a cytosolic protein that plays an important role in regulating concentrations of plasma ?-tocopherol (the most bio-active form of vitamin E). Despite the central roles that ?-TTP plays in maintaining vitamin E adequacy, we have only recently proved the existence of the ?-TTP gene in sheep and, for the first time, cloned its full-length cDNA. However, the study of sheep ?-TTP is still in its infancy. In the present study, thirty-five local male lambs of Tan sheep with similar initial body weight were randomly divided into five groups and fed with diets supplemented with 0 (control group), 20, 100, 200, 2000IU·sheep(-1)·d(-1) vitamin E for 120 days. At the end of the experiment, the plasma and liver vitamin E contents were analyzed first and then ?-TTP mRNA and protein expression levels were determined by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) and Western-blot analysis, respectively. In addition, as no sheep ?-TTP antibody was available, a specific monoclonal antibody (McAb) against the ovine ?-TTP protein was prepared. The effect of vitamin E supplementation was confirmed by the significant changes in the concentrations of vitamin E in the plasma and liver. As shown by qRT-PCR and Western-blot analysis, dietary vitamin E does not affect sheep ?-TTP gene expression, except for high levels of vitamin E supplementation, which significantly increased expression at the protein level. Importantly, the specific sheep anti-?-TTP McAb we generated could provide optimal recognition in ELISA, Western-blot and immunohistochemistry assays, which will be a powerful tool in future studies of the biological functions of sheep ?-TTP. PMID:24583170
Zhang, Wei; Wang, Limin; Zhou, Ping; Song, Guangchao; Shen, Min; Gan, Shangquan; Shi, Guoqing
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are key regulators in miRNA-mediated gene regulatory networks and play important roles in many biological processes, such as growth and development of mammals. In this study, we used microarrays to detect 261 miRNAs that are expressed in sheep skeletal muscle. We found 22 miRNAs that showed high levels of expression and equated to 89% of the total miRNA. Genetic variations in these 22 pri-miRNAs were further investigated using polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) and sequencing. A total of 49 genetic variations, which included 41 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 8 deletions/insertions, were identified in four sheep breeds. Three variations were further researched in a larger sample set, including five sheep breeds with different meat production performances. We found that the genotype and allele frequencies of the CCC deletion/insertion in pri-miR-133a were significantly related to the sheep meat production trait. Finally, cell assays and quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) were employed to investigate the effect of pri-miRNA genetic variation on the miRNA biogenesis process. The results confirmed that genetic variations can influence miRNA biogenesis and increase or decrease the levels of mature miRNAs, in accordance with the energy and stability change of hair-pin secondary structures. Our findings will help to further the understanding of the functions of genetic variations in sheep pri-miRNAs in skeletal muscle growth and development. PMID:25699993
How mutation induction is used for plant breeding in Brazil is reported. For upland rice, the combined treatment with gamma-ray and mutagens (ethylene imine or ethylmethane sulfonate) has been used on the variety, Dourado Precoce, and some mutants with shortculm length and/or earliness without altering the productivity have been obtained. A project on the quantitative and qualitative protein improvement in upland rice was also started in 1979. In corn, the effect of gamma-irradiation on heterosis has been analyzed, and it was found that the single hybrids from two parental lines derived from irradiated seeds had increased ear productivity. For beans (Phaseolus yulgaris), gamma-irradiation and chemical mutagens have been used to induce the mutants with different seed color, disease resistance to golden mosaic virus and Xanthomonas phaseoli, earliness, high productivity and high protein content. Some mutants with partly improved characters have been obtained in these experiments. Two varieties of wheat tolerant to aluminum toxicity have been obtained, but the one showed high lodging due to its unfavorable plant height, and the other was highly susceptible to culm rust. Therefore, irradiation experiments have been started to improve these characters. The projects involving the use of gamma-irradiation have been tested to obtain the mutant lines insensitive to photoperiod and resistant to bud-blight in soybean, the mutant lines resistant to mosaic virus in papaya, the phosistant to mosaic virus in papaya, the photoperiod-insensitive mutants in sorghum, the mosaic virus resistant and non-flowering mutants in sugar cane, and the Fusarium and nematode-resistant mutants in black pepper. (Kaihara, S.)
Liesenborgs, J.; de Rijcke, S.; Dejonghe, H.; Bekaert, P.
Gravitational lenses are a spectacular astrophysical phenomenon, a cosmic mirage caused by the gravitational deflection of light in which multiple images of a same background object can be seen. Their beauty is only exceeded by their usefulness, as the gravitational lens effect is a direct probe of the total mass of the deflecting object. Furthermore, since the image configuration arising from the gravitational lens effect depends on the exact gravitational potential of the deflector, it even holds the promise of learning about the distribution of the mass. In this presentation, a method for extracting the information encoded in the images and reconstructing the mass distribution is presented. Being a non-parametric method, it avoids making a priori assumptions about the shape of the mass distribution. At the core of the procedure lies a genetic algorithm, an optimization strategy inspired by Darwin's principle of ``survival of the fittest''. One only needs to specify a criterion to decide if one particular trial solution is deemed better than another, and the genetic algorithm will ``breed'' appropriate solutions to the problem. In a similar way, one can create a multi-objective genetic algorithm, capable of optimizing several fitness criteria at the same time. This provides a very flexible way to incorporate all the available information in the gravitational lens system: not only the positions and shapes of the multiple images are used, but also the so-called ``null space'', i.e. the area in which no such images can be seen. The effectiveness of this approach is illustrated using simulated data, which allows one to compare the reconstruction to the true mass distribution.
Coulson, J C; Butterfield, J; Thomas, C
This paper presents evidence for the involvement of herring gulls (Larus argentatus) as vectors in the recent outbreaks of Salmonella montevideo in sheep and cattle in Scotland and suggests that the transfer can take place over considerable distances. The breeding area in Scotland of herring gulls which overwinter in N.E. England is remarkably similar to the geographical distribution of the outbreaks. This pattern, together with the feeding behaviour of herring gulls on farmland, the presence of S. montevideo in herring gulls just before their departure from the wintering area and the timing of the return just before the peak of outbreaks are all circumstantial evidence implicating this gull in the outbreaks. The rapid return of these gulls to their breeding areas means that S. montevideo can be transported long distances in one day and raises the possibility that the original source of S. montevideo could have been in N.E. England rather than in Scotland. PMID:6663059
Bhanuprakash, V; Indrani, B K; Hosamani, M; Singh, R K
Sheep are the moving banks of shepherds and their economic contribution in terms of meat, wool and skin/hide is immense. Various infectious diseases jeopardize the optimum productivity; among which sheep pox is more important as the disease restricts the export of sheep and their products besides other economic losses. Although, clinical signs are indicative of the disease but a laboratory confirmation is necessary for unequivocal diagnosis and studying epidemiology. The causative agent, sheep pox virus (SPV), is antigenically and genetically closely related to goat pox virus (GPV) and lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV), the other members of the genus capripox virus. In some countries, SPV and GPV are cross infective to small ruminants posing problem in diagnosis and epidemiology. However, recent studies have showed that the viruses are phylogenetically distinct and can be differentiated by molecular tools. Prophylaxis using attenuated vaccines is the choice of control measure as the immunity is long lasting. Detailed information on isolation, identification, pathology, epidemiology, diagnosis and prophylaxis would not only help in updating the knowledge of scientific fraternity but will be useful to the policy makers in order to formulate appropriate measures for control and eradication of the disease. This synthesis is to present an up-to-date review of the disease and its control to provide the reader with an overview of the problem. PMID:16458357
Samuel Rezende Paiva
Full Text Available Sheep production is present on all continents and has been practiced in Brazil since the colonization. In this study, the multitemporal dynamics of sheep production in Brazil is examined using official government data (Brazilian Institute for Geography and Statistics-IBGE from 1976 to 2010. Maps of flock growth rates and growth acceleration maps by municipality were elaborated. The Southern states are seen to show a reduction in production mainly due to the wool crisis in the 1970s and 80s. The Northeast is seen to be important for meat production. More recently, centerwest and northern states have shown an increase in growth rates but this is still incipient. The maps of growth, acceleration and midpoint for sheep production showed a noticeable return to an increase in production in the South in recent years. The midpoint of production flow was in the northeast direction, which has stagnated. There was great dynamics in sheep production over the whole Brazilian territory, which affected supply chains due to the expansion of domestic and foreign markets. Areas with higher fluctuations in production are more vulnerable in terms of investment policies.
Elvira, Laura; Hernandez, Fernando; Cuesta, Pedro; Cano, Santiago; Gonzalez-Martin, Juan-Vicente; Astiz, Susana
This study investigated factors affecting milk production and lactation curves from complete lactations of Lacaune dairy sheep. Animals were part of a single flock under intensive management and were milked twice daily starting at lambing. The results of the analyses of 7788 complete lactations showed an average total milk yield of 434±183 l from lactations 234±63 d long, with an average lambing interval of 302±65 d. A Pollott additive mathematical model was used to estimate complete lactation curves. Clustering analysis identified four lactation types among Lacaune dairy sheep differing mainly in productivity i.e. milk yield per lactation (MY) and length of lactation (DIM). The so-called SL type involved short, less productive lactations (n=2137; 27·4%; MY=222±75·5 l and DIM=182±52·9 d). The SN type involved short lactations of normal productivity (n=2039; 26·2%; MY=396±73·7 l and DIM=205±33·1 d). The LP type involved long and productive lactations (n=2169; 27·9%; MY=487±70·5 l and DIM=265±40·7 d), while the LVP type included long and extremely productive lactations (n=1443; 18·5%; MY=694±114·0 l and DIM=295±54·7 d). Sheep showing the best lactation curves were usually younger than other sheep, and they had higher yield during the previous lactation, a shorter previous dry period (55±50·4 for LP and 61±55·0 d for LVP types) and longer lambing intervals. In addition, they tended to be born in September and to lamb in March, October and December. Sheep were remarkably stable in their lactation curve behaviour: the curve type observed for the first lactation was highly likely to persist in subsequent lactations (P<0·0001). These results suggest that farmers can use the shape of the first lactation curve to guide their selection of ewes for breeding and retention on the farm, thereby improving flock productivity. PMID:24000902
Following the 1986 Chernobyl accident large areas of uplands in the United Kingdom were contaminated by radiocaesium. Consequently, the level of radiocaesium in the tissues of some sheep exceeded 1000 Bq kg-1 fresh weight This is the limit adopted within the UK above which meat cannot enter the food chain. In 1986, restrictions were placed on the movement and slaughter of sheep in areas of west Cumbria, north Wales and Scotland. Whilst the number of farms under restriction has reduced considerably, some still remain restricted in 2002. Although a number of workers had noted considerable variability between the radiocaesium activities of individuals within sheep flocks there had been no analyses of causal effects. The work described here, combined studies on three upland farms within west Cumbria with controlled feeding experiments, to systematically assess the parameters which may contribute to such variability. Results from all three farms demonstrate a temporally consistent ranking of the 137Cs activity concentration of individual sheep within the study flocks. As there was also a correlation between the 137Cs activity concentration of ewes and their pre-weaned lambs it is likely that the same ewes are producing lambs in excess of the intervention limit in subsequent years. It is difficult to generalise as to which factors will contribute to 137Cs variability within a given upland flock; factors contributing to variation wflock; factors contributing to variation were not consistent between the study farms. However, the location grazed and/or vegetation selected by animals was a causal factor to the observed variability at all three farms. The transfer of radiocaesium from the diet to muscle of sheep was found to be determined by live-weight change and dry matter intake. Subsequent studies have suggested that protein turnover may be a potential mechanism for the relationship between dry matter intake and radiocaesium transfer. This hypothesis is supported by current understanding of protein-dry matter intake interactions. (author)
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the adverse effects of patulin on beef and dairy sheep. In the beef sheep trial, nine Corriedale lambs averaging 26 3 kg-1 BW were used. The treatment group, n=5, received 3.3 mg patulin/kg-1 BW twice daily (BID on days 0 through 2; 4.5 mg/kg-1 BW on days 3 through 5, and 5 mg/ kg-1 BW on day 6. Lambs received no patulin from day 7 through 13. The control lambs, n= 4, received an equal volume of water by stomach tube BID. The dry matter (DM intake in dosed sheep was 22 % less than that of control animals after three days of treatment with 3.3 mg patulin/ kg-1 BW. This difference increased to 40 % as the dose of patulin increased to 5 mg/kg-1 BW. Differences in DM consumption remained significant through day 13 ( P+ 6 kg-1 BW were used. The treatment group, n= 7, received 3.3 mg patulin/kg-1 BW divided BID. The control group, n=6, received an equal volume of water by stomach tube BID. Neither changes in body weight nor effects on feed intake were observed in the patulin treated group. Effects on milk production, serum biochemistry, electrolytes, and hematology parameters were not detected. Contrary to what it was expected patulin treatment in almost equal doses shown to be effective for beef sheep failed to influence production and health in dairy sheep. Factors such as age, diet and composition of rumen microflora might have contributed to the difference in behavior.
Full Text Available Abstract Scrapie eradication efforts cost 18 million dollars annually in the United States and rely heavily upon PRNP genotyping of sheep. Genetic resistance might reduce goat scrapie and limit the risk of goats serving as a scrapie reservoir, so PRNP coding sequences were examined from 446 goats of 10 breeds, 8 of which had not been previously examined at PRNP. The 10 observed alleles were all related to one of two central haplotypes by a single amino acid substitution. At least five of these alleles (M142, R143, S146, H154, and K222 have been associated with increased incubation time or decreased odds of scrapie. To the best of our knowledge, neither S146 nor K222 has been found in any goats with scrapie, though further evaluation will be required to demonstrate true resistance. S146 was more common, present in several breeds at widely varying frequencies, while K222 was observed only in two dairy breeds at low frequency. Overall, this study provides frequency data on PRNP alleles in US goats, shows the pattern of relationships between haplotypes, and demonstrates segregation of multiple scrapieassociated alleles in several breeds not examined before at PRNP.
Chung, S I; Livingston, C W; Jones, C W; Collisson, E W
Cache Valley virus (CVV), an arbovirus indigenous to the United States, has been implicated as an important teratogenic agent in sheep. The prevalence and distribution of Texas sheep with CVV-specific antibody were investigated. In 1981, 19.1% of 366 sheep located in 22 counties of Texas had antibodies specific for CVV. Of 50 flocks examined in the major sheep-producing counties in Texas, 34 had sheep with antibodies that reacted with CVV, including all sheep tested in 6 flocks that were seropositive. Sera obtained from sheep at the Texas Agricultural Experiment Station at San Angelo between 1986 and 1989 were also examined for CVV-specific antibody because this flock was the subject of the episode of CVV-associated congenital malformations during the 1986 and 1987 lambing season. Approximately 8.6% of 104 sheep in 1986, 63.4% of 164 in 1987, 11.3% of 44 in 1988, and 71.9% of 89 in 1989 from the Texas Agricultural Experiment Station at San Angelo tested were seropositive. The data indicate that CVV infections in sheep were widespread in Texas in 1981 and that the virus is enzootic in sheep at the Texas Agricultural Experiment Station in San Angelo, where the episode of congenital malformations had initially been reported in 1987. PMID:1917638
Amdi, C.; Williams, A. R.
In this study we test the hypothesis that selecting sheep for a low behavioural reactivity to stressful situations will improve their metabolic efficiency, and thereby feed efficiency, during a controlled trial in an animal house. Twenty-four Merino wethers were used, 12 each from lines selected for high (HBR) and low (LBR) behavioural reactivity to stressful stimuli (human presence and social isolation). The sheep were habituated to the experimental procedures for 10 days, followed by 45 days during which voluntary feed intake was measured so that total daily energy intake was quantified. The sheep were weighed twice weekly before daily feeding. Feed efficiency was determined by measuring net feed intake, average daily weight gain and body condition score. Our hypothesis was not supported by the results of this study. There was no difference betweenLBRandHBRsheep in average daily weight gain or body condition score. The net feed intake of HBR sheep was lower than that of LBR sheep (P = 0.02), indicating thatunder the conditions of our experiment, HBR sheep were actually more feed efficient than LBR sheep. This study was carried out on sheep with steady intakes and in familiar surroundings. It is possible that LBR sheep may be more efficient than HBR sheep in more stressful situations.
...National Sheep Industry Improvement Center...Program; Agricultural Marketing Service; U.S...National Sheep Industry Improvement Center...Title XI of the Food, Conservation...sheep and goat industries by strengthening...the production and marketing of sheep,...
Singh, Lakshya Veer; Jayakumar, S; Sharma, Anurodh; Gupta, Shishir Kumar; Dixit, S P; Gupta, Neelam; Gupta, S C
The most polymorphic milk protein gene is ?-casein; 13 protein variants are known in cattle. Milk protein genetic polymorphism has received considerable research interest in recent years because of possible associations between milk protein and economically important traits in livestock. The present study was undertaken to explore the genetic polymorphisms in exon 7 of ?-casein and exon 4 of ?-casein genes in Arunachali yaks (Bos grunniens), Sahiwal (Bos indicus) cattle, malpura sheep (Ovis aries) and Gaddi goat (Capra hircus). Results of the study revealed presence of 11 SNP variants in all livestock species. Four SNPs were observed in Bos indicus; two SNPs in Bos grunniens; three SNPs in Ovis aries and three SNPs in Capra hircus. These variations are found to be synonymous in nature as these variations do not result in their corresponding amino acids. A total of five polymorphic sites have been described at the ?-casein (CSN3) locus in the Indian domestic Gaddi goat (Capra hircus) when compared with exotic goat (X60763) while sequence analysis of ?-casein gene in sheep showed three novel nucleotide changes in malpura sheep when compared with the exotic sheep (AY237637). These results highlight the importance of taking into consideration the CSN3 SNPs when performing selection for milk composition in dairy livestock breeds. PMID:25905036
Full Text Available One of the most important problems concerning the conservation of animal biodiversity lies in the scarcity of funds that can be used for safeguard plans and in the lack of information available on the many threatened populations. Therefore, it is necessary to detect the populations that possess the highest amount of genetic variability. To achieve this objective it is essential to carry out a morphologic characterisation of the populations...
A., Vallecillo; M., Miró-Arias; A., Roca; A., Pons.
Full Text Available La oveja Menorquina está incluida en el grupo de razas en peligro de extinción según el Catálogo Oficial de Razas de Ganado de España. En el año 2003 estaban inscritos en el Libro Genealógico unos 2000 animales pertenecientes a 52 ganaderías. Actualmente, la raza cuenta, dentro del Programa de Conse [...] rvación ex situ, con un banco de germoplasma que comenzó en 2008 y sigue completándose anualmente. Este trabajo expone los primeros resultados de la caracterización seminal del morueco de raza ovina Menorquina, en el que se ha estudiado el efecto de variables tales como volumen y concentración seminal, así como la motilidad masal y progresiva, en relación al año de la extracción seminal. En total se analizaron 41 eyaculados de 8 sementales. Los datos preliminares ofrecieron las siguientes medias y desviaciones típicas: concentración, 3 897x10(6)±2,74 espermatozoides/ml; 4 456x10(6)±4,43 espermatozoides totales; motilidad progresiva 50±16,77 (0-100%); volumen 1,06±0,66 ml; motilidad masal 3,58±1,01 (1-5). Todas las variables mostraron diferencias significativas en relación al año. Abstract in english Menorquina sheep is included in the group of breeds in danger of extinction according the Offcial Spanish Catalogue of Livestock Breeds. In 2003, 2000 animals were enclosed in the herd book, all them belonging to 52 farms. Presently, the breed has, in the ex situ conservation program, a germplasm ba [...] nk which started in 2008 and continues completing yearly. This paper exposes the preliminary results of the semen characterization of the Menorquina sheep breed male, studying variables such as volume, concentration, basal and progressive motility, in relation to the year of collection. A total of 41 ejaculates from 8 males were studied. Preliminary data offered the following means and standard deviations: concentration, 3 897x10(6)±2,74 espermatozoa/ml; 4 456x10(6)±4,43 total spermatozoa; progressive motility 50±16,77 (0-100%); volume 1,06±0,66 ml; basal motility 3,58±1,01 (1-5). The variables shown differences statistically significant among years of collection.
Mudassar Jahan1,3, Mohammad Masood Tariq2*, Muhammad Azam Kakar3 and Abdul Waheed4
Full Text Available The data on reproductive performance of Balochi sheep (n=150 kept at three Government sheep farms in Balochistan, Quetta (KSBFM (n=50, Loralai (SRCY (n=50 and Usta Mohammad (UMSF (n=50, under semi-intensive management system, were analyzed. General linear model was used for analyzing the data. The fixed effects in the model included location of flock, age, type of birth, sex of lamb and their interactions. The overall findings of reproductive traits such as fertility, prolificacy, single lambing, twinning rate, lambs born alive and sex ratio (male: female were 92.67, 101.33, 89.86, 10.14, 96.33% and 50.33:49.67, respectively. The highest value for twinning rate was recorded in UMSF (13.04% and the lowest in KSBFM (6.52%. All traits were significantly different (P0.05 between flocks. The overall results revealed that age of dam, age at first service (AFS, service period (SP, age at first lambing (AFL and lambing interval (LI were 1078±2.2, 579.61±0.6, 206.25±0.2, 731.67±0.3 and 256.60±0.3 days, respectively. The results of ANOVA showed that locations had significant effect (P<0.05 on AFS and SP; however lambing interval and age at first lambing were not affected. Age of ewe, type of birth, sex of lamb(s born and interaction between these factors did not influence the traits significantly. It was concluded that reproductive performance of Balochi sheep was modest so it is vital to improve management, nutritional and breeding practices at the farm.
Ghafouri-Kesbi, Farhad; Abbasi, Mokhtar Ali; Afraz, Fazlollah; Babaei, Mohammad; Baneh, Hasan; Abdollahi Arpanahi, Rostam
Genetic parameters for average daily gain from birth to weaning (ADGa), birth to 6 months (ADGb), weaning to 6 months (ADGc), weaning to yearling age (ADGd), and corresponding Kleiber ratios (KRa, KRb, KRc, and KRd) were estimated by using records of 3,533 Zandi lambs, descendent of 163 sires and 1265 dams, born between 1991 and 2005 at the Zandi Sheep Breeding Station at Khojir National Park, Tehran, Iran. A derivative-free algorithm combined with a series of six single-trait linear animal models was used to estimate phenotypic variance and its direct, maternal, and residual components. In addition, bivariate analyses were done to estimate (co)variance components between traits. Estimates of direct heritability (h(2)) were 0.11, 0.15, 0.09, 0.10, 0.10, 0.10, 0.06, and 0.07 for ADGa, ADGb, ADGc, ADGd, KRa, KRb, KRc, and KRd, respectively, thereby indicating the presence of low additive genetic variation for growth rate and Kleiber ratio in this population of Zandi sheep. Maternal genetic component was found to be significant on ADGa and KRa and contributed 3% and 5%, respectively, in total phenotypic variance of ADGa and KRa. A widespread range of genetic correlations among traits studied was observed. Except for negative genetic correlations between ADGa and KRc, ADGa and KRd, and between KRa and KRc, in other cases, genetic correlations were positive and moderate to very high. Phenotypic correlations ranged from -0.49 (ADGa/KRd) to 0.94 (ADGc/KRc). These results indicate that selecting for improved growth rate or Kleiber ratio in Zandi sheep would generate a relatively slow genetic progress. PMID:21465106
Alécio Matos Pereira
Full Text Available Current assay evaluates thermoregulatory characteristics of native sheep in pregnancy and supplemented in grazing system. Were used 24 multiparous lactating ewes, 12 Santa Inês and 12 Morada Nova, with an average weight of 52.6 and 31.3 kg, respectively, were randomly distributed in a completely randomized split-split plot design. Physiological parameters such as heart rate (HR, respiratory rate (RR and rectal temperature (RT were measured in that order during the morning and afternoon, 06-07 and 13-14 h, respectively, every seven days, totaling 10 samples. The environmental temperature was higher (P<0.05 in the afternoon, probably due to the higher incidence and intensity of sunlight at this time, with index globe temperature and humidity presenting values that characterize an environment of danger to animal production, characteristics of the semiarid. Effect (P<0.05 turn and race on the thermoregulatory characteristics of the sheep were found, showing unfavorable conditions in the afternoon with greater intensity of use of heat dissipation mechanisms by Santa Inês ewes. Assessing the effect of supplementation on the physiology of these sheep, it appears that there is an influence (P<0.05 on the RR and HR, with higher values for Santa Inês ewes subjected to 1.5% concentrate diet. However, RT remained within the normal range, indicating that they are adapted breeds rearing conditions and experimental diet that have efficient mechanisms in respiratory heat dissipation, indicating also that they are qualified to productive farm animals in semi-arid conditions.
Mojtaba, Tahmoorespur; Mehdi Vafaye, Valeh; Mohammad Reza, Nassiry; Alireza Heravi, Moussavi; Maziar, Ansary.
Full Text Available The insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-I) gene has been described in several studies as a candidate gene for growth traits in farm animals. The present preliminary study attempts to establish associations between growth traits and genetic polymorphisms at the 5' flanking region s IGF-I in the Baluchi [...] sheep. The DNA of 102 sheep of the indigenous Iranian Baluchi breed was evaluated. Polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) analysis of the 5' flanking region (Exon1) of the ovine IGF-I gene revealed three banding patterns (genotypes) named as A/A, A/B and B/B. The evaluation of an association effect between these SSCP patterns with birth weight (BW), weaning weight (WW), and average daily gain from birth to weaning (GBW), weaning to six month (GWS) and from six month to yearling age (GSY) suggest a positive effect of pattern (Genotype) A/B with GBW and weaning weight (WW). Pattern (Genotype) B/B had a superior birth weight when compared to those of individuals with other patterns. Moreover, the A/A pattern (Genotype) appeared favourable for live weight at yearling age. These results confirmed the potential usefulness of this gene in marker-assisted selection programmes for sheep breeding.
Production, distribution, taxonomy, origin, breeding objectives and systems are reviewed. The main objective should be to obtain cultivars that are reduced in size, precocious, constantly and highly productive and early ripening in order to make mechanical harvesting in different environments feasible. Processing quality (for oil and table cultivars), winter hardiness and pest and disease resistance are highly desirable traits. In addition to clonal selection, mutation breeding is a very promising method of obtaining new, useful traits. To avoid the chimeric structure, use of tissue culture is suggested. (author)
Dalvit, C; De Marchi, M; Dal Zotto, R; Gervaso, M; Meuwissen, T; Cassandro, M
The assessment of a method able to assign individuals to the breed of origin is needed to certify origin and quality of livestock products. A set of 21 microsatellites was tested for breed identification in four native Italian beef breeds: Chianina, Marchigiana, Romagnola, and Piemontese. Two statistical approaches, based on maximum likelihood and on a Bayesian method, were evaluated. Different marker sets, chosen in order of the highest gene diversity and F(ST) estimates were also tested. The Bayesian method performed better, achieving a correct assignment rate of about 90% even with six microsatellites. The marker sets with the highest gene diversity were shown to perform best. Considering a threshold probability of 90%, only 52.5% of the genotypes were correctly allocated. Such results are mainly due to the low genetic differentiation estimates among breeds (F(ST)=0.049). These findings suggest that markers with high gene diversity and the presence of private alleles should be investigated and the Bayesian method used. PMID:22063344
Augusto José Savioli de Almeida Sampaio
Full Text Available Herniations and eventrations are ordinary events of buiatric clinic. Umbilical and inguinal hernias are well described, but perineal hernias in small ruminant animals are not so mentioned. Even though being the perineal hernia more common in cats and dogs, it might be occasionally observed in pregnant sheep close to delivery, being the gravid uterus rarely as content. The present study describes the event of perineal hernia with gravid uterus as content in a sheep of approximately one year old with no breed defined with a pregnancy period about 120 days. The adopted procedure included surgical reduction of the hernia, but without the closure of the hernial ring. The animal presented excellent recovery without post-surgery complications. Herniações e eventrações são ocorrências comuns na clinica buiátrica. Hérnia umbilical e inguino-escrotal são bem descritas, porém hérnias perineais em pequenos ruminantes são pouco relatadas. Apesar de a hérnia perineal ser mais comum em cães e gatos, pode ser ocasionalmente observada em ovelhas gestantes próximas ao parto sendo que raramente apresenta o útero como conteúdo. O presente relato descreve a ocorrência de hérnia perineal com útero gravídico como conteúdo em uma ovelha de aproximadamente um ano de idade sem raça definida com tempo de gestação aproximado de 120 dias. A terapêutica adotada incluiu a redução cirúrgica da hérnia, porém, sem a síntese do anel herniário. O animal apresentou excelente recuperação sem complicações pós-operatórias.
Faccia, M; Trani, A; Gambacorta, G; Loizzo, P; Cassone, A; Caponio, F
Innovation in the small ruminant dairy sector faces structural challenges because dairies are often involved in breeding and produce cheeses that appeal essentially to local markets using traditional technologies and facilities. An investigation was carried out to produce Fior di latte, a traditional, soft pasta filata cheese, from sheep and goat milks at the farm level. Fior di latte is an Italian high-moisture, round mozzarella currently produced from cow and water buffalo milks; it is very popular in Europe. Cheesemaking trials were performed and the most appropriate technology proved to be a combination of direct acidification and lactic fermentation, with some modifications to the milk coagulation phase. The gross composition of the experimental cheeses was similar to that of bovine Fior di latte, and the overall hygienic quality was satisfactory even though the milk had not been pasteurized. The new cheeses were similar in appearance to the bovine type, but some specific features were detected. Besides the typical "goaty" and "sheepy" flavors, some novel and distinctive descriptors of odor, flavor, and texture were noted. Our experiment showed that good quality Fior di latte cheese that complies with microbiological requirements of the European legislation can be obtained from sheep and goat milks by appropriately modifying the cheesemaking technology. PMID:25547300
Mara, L; Sanna, D; Casu, S; Dattena, M; Muñoz, I M Mayorga
It has been reported that the number and quality of in vitro produced embryos is season related. This study was conducted to assess the effect of season on cleavage, blastocyst and lambing rates of in vitro produced ovine embryos during 3 years of collection data. Ovaries of Sarda sheep were collected from a slaughterhouse. In total, 5035 oocytes were recovered and matured in TCM-199 with 4 mg/ml bovine serum albumin (BSA), 100 ?M cysteamine, 0.3 mM Na pyruvate, 0.1 UI/ml recombinant follicle-stimulating hormone (r-FSH), 0.1 UI/ml recombinant luteinising hormone (r-LH), and 1 ?g/ml estradiol-17?. Matured oocytes were fertilized with fresh semen in synthetic oviductal fluid (SOF) with 20% heat inactivated estrous sheep serum. The presumptive zygotes were cultured for 6-7 days (blastocyst stage) in SOF medium supplemented with 1% Basel Medium Eagle (BME), 1% Minimum Essential Medium, 1 mM glutamine and 8 mg/ml fatty acid-free BSA. The embryos produced were vitrified and a total of 165 blastocysts (80 from the breeding season and 85 from the anoestrous season) were transferred in pairs into recipient ewes during the reproductive period. There were no significant differences in cleavage rates between seasons in any of the 3 years examined (84% versus 83%, 81% versus 80% and 80% versus 79%, respectively). The blastocyst rate varied significantly between seasons in 2005 and 2007 (P < 0.05), and in 2006 (P < 0.001). There were no differences in pregnancy and lambing rates between embryos during anoestrous versus during the breeding season. In conclusion, only the blastocyst rate appeared to have been affected by season, possibly due to variation in the number of developmentally competent oocytes. PMID:23458093
Gonzalo, C; Carriedo, J A; Blanco, M A; Beneitez, E; Juárez, M T; De La Fuente, L F; Primitivo, F San
Between January and December 2002, a total of 21,685 records for bulk tank milk somatic cell count (BTSCC) were obtained from 309 dairy ewe herds belonging to the Sheep Improvement Consortium in Castilla-Leon, Spain. Based on the first statistical model, ANOVA detected significant effects of herd, breed, month within herd, dry therapy, type of milking, contagious agalactia, and installations within machine milking on logBTSCC. A second statistical model was used on herds with machine milking to study the effect of the vacuum level and pulsation rate on BTSCC. Herd and month within herd were important variation factors as they explained 48.4 and 16.1% of the variance in BTSCC. Variability in logBTSCC among breeds ranged from 5.84 (Castellana) to 6.09 (Awassi and Spanish Assaf). Implementing dry-ewe therapy (5.91) significantly reduced logBTSCC compared with when it was not implemented (6.10). Hand milking elicited greater logBTSCC (6.07) than machine milking (5.94). Machine milking of ewes in milking parlors (logBTSCC: 5.88 to 5.94) was associated with better udder health than was the use of bucket-milking machines (6.04). Reduced vacuum levels and elevated pulsation rate during machine milking optimized BTSCC. In all cases, clinical outbreaks of contagious agalactia increased BTSCC. As a result, dry therapy was proposed as the main tool to reduce BTSCC. Optimization of milking-machine standards and parlor systems also improved udder health in dairy sheep. PMID:15738231
Increasing occurrence of outbreaks of Rift Valley fever (RVF) has been witnessed in southern Somalia, north-eastern Kenya and northern Tanzania during heavy and prolonged, often unseasonal, rainfall since 1997-98. More recently epizootics were reported in Kenya, Somalia, Tanzania, Sudan, Madagascar and South Africa. Because Uganda is located in the endemic zone of RVF, surveillance was conducted to enable early detection of outbreaks. Testing of frozen and fresh bovine sera retrospectively from 1997 to 2008 using IgM ELISA revealed a seroprevalence ranging from 0 to 2.5%, while VNT revealed 9.65% prevalence. Testing of goat and sheep samples collected from 2005 to 2008 through a cross-sectional study targeting commercial farms and free-range flocks in flood-prone zones in Uganda revealed a seroprevalence ranging from 5.3-27.9% and 0-0.9% by IgG ELISA and IgM ELISA, respectively. Virus neutralization test revealed 32.3% prevalence among goat flocks from these same places. Although indigenous breeds of cattle, goats and sheep, known to be less susceptible to RVF than exotic breeds (Anon., 2005), are predominant in areas surveyed, it is likely that the RVF virus is circulating in livestock in some of these locations. Outbreaks are likely to occur once favourable conditions are met. Studies to establish the distribution of RVF vector mosquitoes and the proportion of susceptible hosts in areas with high sero-prevalence are required to further elucidate the status of RVF in to further elucidate the status of RVF in Uganda
Full Text Available Abstract In order to simultaneously integrate linkage and syntenic groups to the ovine chromosomal map, a sheep bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC library was screened with previously assigned microsatellites using a sheep-hamster hybrid panel and genetic linkage. Thirty-three BACs were obtained, fluorescently labelled and hybridised on sheep-goat hybrid metaphases (2n = 57. This study allowed us, (i, to anchor all linkage groups on sheep chromosomes, (ii, to give information on the probable position of the centromere on the linkage map for the centromeric chromosomes, (iii, to contradict the previous orientation of the ovine × linkage group by the mapping of BMS1008 on OARXq38. Concerning our somatic cell hybrid panel, this study resulted in the assignment of all the previously unassigned groups to ovine chromosomes and a complete characterisation of the hybrid panel. In addition, since hybridisations were performed on a sheep-goat hybrid, new marker/anchoring points were added to the caprine cytogenetic map.
Chauvin, Alain; Moreau, Emmanuelle; Boulard, Chantal
The response to Fasciola hepatica was studied in sheep infected with 5, 30, 150 metacercariae. The animals were necropsied 12 weeks post-infection (p-i) for counting and measuring flukes. Cellular and humoral responses were detected by peripheral eosinophil count, peripheral blood lymphocyte proliferation with excretory-secretory products (FhESP) and ELISA. All sheep were infected at necropsy except one sheep which was infected with 5 metacercariae. Mean parasitic intensities were 40% , 44% a...
Andrade, Evelyn Rabelo; Hyttel, Poul
The aim of this study was to investigate the ultrastructural characteristics of primordial follicles after culturing of sheep ovarian cortical slices in the presence of indol acetic acid (IAA), Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF), and FSH. To evaluate ultrastructure of primordial follicles cultured in MEM (control) or in MEM containing IAA, EGF, and FSH, fragments of cultured tissue were processes for transmission electron microscopy. Except in the control, primordial follicles cultured in supplemented media for 6¿d were ultrastructurally normal. They had oocyte with intact nucleus and the cytoplasm contained heterogeneous-sized lipid droplets and numerous round or elongated mitochondria with intact parallel cristae were observed. Rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) was rarely found. The granulosa cells cytoplasm contained a great number of mitochondria and abundant RER. In conclusion, the presence of IAA, EGF, and FSH helped to maintain ultrastructural integrity of sheep primordial follicles cultured in vitro.
Full Text Available From 1996 to 1999 a conservation programme was carried out within the framework of EC contract “European gene banking project for the pig genetic resources” (Ollivier et al., 2001 in the Italian local pig breeds. The aims of the program included the primary characterization of the breeds, i.e. information on the organization in charge of the breed, breeding population numbers, breed description and qualifications, and field trials on productive and reproductive performances. In this context the “Semen Bank of Italian local pig breeds” was built. A total of 30,835 straws of four Italian local pig breeds (Cinta Senese, Casertana, Mora Romagnola and Nero Siciliano, collected from 42 sires, have been stored. In this work semen quality traits, lipid composition and freezability of the four Italian local pig breeds are reported.
Burócziová, Monika; Riha, J.
Ro?. 50, ?. 4 (2009), s. 375-377. ISSN 1234-1983 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : Breed discrimination * Genetics diversity * Horse breeds Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.324, year: 2009
Electronics Theory and Practice introduces the key areas of analog electronics through practicals, worked examples and concise explanations. The author is a senior lecturer at De Montfort University and his approach is a proven way of teaching the essentials of electronics to groups with a variety of academic backgrounds. This is an ideal text for first year modules and HNC/D units - comprehensive, concise and affordable.
Although most people would scarcely be able to make it through the day without using some type of electronic device-computers, televisions, and MP3 players, to name a few-the inner workings of such devices remain a mystery to many. This insightful volume examines various components, such as electron tubes and semiconductors, that have been essential to electronics over the years, as well as the history of the field in general and its applications in everyday life.
Paiva, Samuel R; Facó, Olivardo; Faria, Danielle A; Lacerda, Thaísa; Barretto, Gabriel B; Carneiro, Paulo L S; Lobo, Raimundo N B; McManus, Concepta
The first registers of Somali sheep in Brazil are from the beginning of the 1900s. This breed, adapted to the dry climate and scarce food supply, is restricted in the northeast region of the country. Molecular marker technologies, especially those based on genotyping microsatellite and mtDNA loci, can be used in conjunction with breeding (pedigree analysis) and consequently the maintenance of genetic variation in herds. Animals from the Brazilian Somali Conservation Nuclei from Embrapa Sheep and Goats in Ceará State were used to validate genetic monitoring by traditional pedigree methods and molecular markers. Nineteen microsatellite markers and 404 base pairs from the control region of mtDNA were used. For total herd diversity, an average 5.32 alleles were found, with expected heterozygosity of 0.5896, observed heterozygosity of 0.6451, 0.4126 for molecular coancestrality, and coefficient of inbreeding (F (IS)) was -0.095. Comparing molecular coancestrality means over the years, there was a consistent increase in this parameter within the herd, increasing from 0.4157 to 0.4769 in 2 years (approx. 12% variation). Sixteen mtDNA haplotypes were identified. Inbreeding and other estimates from genealogical analyses confirm the results from molecular markers. From these results, it is possible to state that microsatellites are useful tools in genetic management of herds, especially when routine herd recording is not carried out, or there were gaps in recent generations. As well as pedigree control, genetic diversity can be optimized. Based on the results, and despite herd recording in the herd of Brazilian Somali of Embrapa Sheep and Goats, additional management measures need to be carried out in this herd to reduce inbreeding and optimize genetic variation. PMID:21533896
Mangana-Vougiouka, O; Markoulatos, P; Koptopoulos, G; Nomikou, K; Bakandritsos, N; Papadopoulos, O
A simple, rapid and specific diagnostic polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method was developed for sheep poxvirus identification. The primers used were from the sequenced genomes of the capripox viruses KS-1 and InS-1. Six different sheep pox isolates were tested against two orf (parapox) and three animal herpesviruses as controls. Material from uninfected cell cultures was also used as control. The sensitivity of the PCR was approximately equivalent with each of the two primers and for the six sheep pox isolates. All the negative control virus DNAs were negative and differed clearly from those of the sheep pox strains. PMID:10029327
A, Derakhshanfar; A A, Mozaffari.
Full Text Available Oligodendrogliomas occur most commonly in the dog, but have also been reported in cattle, horses and cats. A 1-year-old sheep with neurological disturbances, including blindness, ataxia, circling and incoordination was referred to the veterinary clinic of Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman. Followi [...] ng euthanasia and necropsy, a soft, relatively well-demarcated mass was observed in the white and grey matter of the right cerebral hemisphere, close to the sylvian fissure in the right cerebral hemisphere. Microscopic examination revealed a sheet of densely packed tumour cells with hyperchromatic nuclei, lightly staining cytoplasm and characteristic perinuclear halo effect which is consistent with a diagnosis of oligodendroglioma. This is the 1st report of oligodendroglioma in sheep.
Seasonal Variation in the Histomorphology and Histochemistry of Ampulla of Vas Deferens of Gaddi Goat and Gaddi Sheep Variación Estacional en la Histomorfología e Histoquímica de la Ampolla del Conducto Deferente de Cabras y Ovejas Gaddi
Shalini Suri; Lakoju Sai Sudhakar; Ram Lal Bhardwaj
The present study was conducted to record the seasonal variation in the histomorphology and the histochemistry of the ampulla of vas deferens of Gaddi goat and Gaddi sheep, one of the most important breeds of Himachal Pradesh, India. The study was conducted over a period of year during different seasons viz. spring (March - May), summer (June August), autumn (September- November), winter (December-February).Six adult animals of each species were utilized to study histomorphology and histoch...
This is the second issue of the Plant Breeding and Genetics Newsletter. The Newsletter will inform you about current activities of the FAO/IAEA sub-programme on plant breeding and genetics which is implemented by the Plant Breeding and Genetics Section of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture (Vienna) in close collaboration with the Plant Breeding Unit of the FAO/IAEA Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratory (Seibersdorf)
Dekkers, Jack C. M.
The main goal in animal breeding is to select individuals that have high breeding values for traits of interest as parents to produce the next generation and to do so as quickly as possible. To date, most programs rely on statistical analysis of large data bases with phenotypes on breeding populations by linear mixed model methodology to estimate breeding values on selection candidates. However, there is a long history of research on the use of genetic markers to identify quantitative trait l...
This is the first issue of the Plant Breeding and Genetics Newsletter. The Newsletter will inform you about current activities of the FAO/IAEA sub-programme on plant breeding and genetics which is implemented by the Plant Breeding and Genetics Section of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture (Vienna) in close collaboration with the Plant Breeding Unit of the FAO/IAEA Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratory (Seibersdorf)
Hailer Frank; Björnerfeldt Susanne; Nord Maria; Vilà Carles
Abstract Background There are around 400 internationally recognized dog breeds in the world today, with a remarkable diversity in size, shape, color and behavior. Breeds are considered to be uniform groups with similar physical characteristics, shaped by selection rooted in human preferences. This has led to a large genetic difference between breeds and a large extent of linkage disequilibrium within breeds. These characteristics are important for association mapping of candidate genes for di...
Nauta, W. J.
Organic dairy farming started to take off in the early 1990s, when the European Union laid down organic standards for animal production. Until now, however, only incidental steps have been taken towards organic breeding and organic farmers mainly use breeding stock from conventional breeding programmes. This thesis focuses on the possibilities for breeding in organic dairy farming. This thesis starts with describing the basic backgrounds of organic dairy farming and the results of a study tha...
Vegetables breed by seeds and vegetative organs. In main vegetables, the differentiation of clopping types, the adoption of monoculture and year-round production and shipment are carried out, adapting to various socio-economic and cultivation conditions. Protected agriculture has advanced mainly for fruit vegetables, and the seeds for sale have become almost hybrid varieties. Reflecting the situation like this, the demand for breeding is diversified and characteristic, and the case of applying mutation breeding seems to be many. The present status of the mutation breeding of vegetables is not yet well under way, but about 40 raised varieties have been published in the world. The characters introduced by induced mutation and irradiation were compact form, harvesting aptitude, the forms and properties of stems and leaves, anti-lodging property, the size, form and uniformity of fruits, male sterility and so on. The radiation sources used were mostly gamma ray or X-ray, but sometimes, combined irradiation was used. As the results obtained in Japan, burdocks as an example of gamma ray irradiation to seeds, tomatoes as an example of inducing the compound resistance against disease injury and lettuces as an example of internal beta irradiation are reported. (Kako, I.)
Students will see how evolution works with a simulated breeding bunnies lab using red and white beans, one representing dominant alleles and the other recessive alleles. This lesson can be used in sixth grade with some minor modifications of the directions and the data being recorded.
The scope of induced mutations in sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) breeding is reviewed. So far in Egypt, India, Iraq, Rep. of Korea, and Sri Lanka, 14 officially released varieties have been developed through induced mutations: 12 directly and 2 through cross breeding (one using the 'dt45' induced mutant from Israel). For another variety released in China there are no details. The induced mutations approach was adopted primarily in order to obtain genetic variability that was not available in the germplasm collection. The mutagens commonly applied have been gamma rays, EMS and sodium azide. Sesame seeds can withstand high mutagen doses, and there are genotypic differences in sensitivity between varieties. The mutants induced in the above named countries and others include better yield, improved seed retention, determinate habit, modified plant architecture and size, more uniform and shorter maturation period, earliness, resistance to diseases, genic male sterility, seed coat color, higher oil content and modified fatty acids composition. Some of the induced mutants have already given rise to improved varieties, the breeding value of other mutants is now being assessed and still others can serve as useful markers in genetic studies and breeding programmes. (author)
Luan Hajno; Lumturi Papa; Kristaq Kume
About 950,000 goats, farmed mostly in hilly and mountainous areas of Albania, contribute about 8% of the country’s total milk production. In order to increase milk production, farmers are currently using crosses of the local goat breed with exotic breeds, mainly the Alpine breed from France. This study examines milk production data of first lactation from 45 goats of the local breed, 82 goats of the Alpine breed and 58 F1 crosses (?Alpine breed x ?local breed). The goats were kept on sm...
Thirstrup, J P; Pertoldi, C
A genetic analysis was performed on three indigenous Danish horse breeds using 12 microsatellite markers from a standard kit for parental testing. These three breeds are all considered endangered based on their small population sizes. Genetic variation in these three breeds was comparable to other horse breeds in Europe, and they do not seem to be at immediate danger of extinction caused by genetic deterioration. The Knabstrupper breed had more genetic variation, as measured by expected heterozygosity and allelic richness, than the other two breeds (Frederiksborg and Jutland). F(ST) statistics and population assignments confirmed population differentiation into three distinct breeds. The Frederiksborg and Knabstrupper breeds were closer to each other than to the Jutland breed. When establishing conservation priorities for the breeds, the priorities will depend on the conservation goals. Different methods for establishing conservation priorities are also discussed.
Full Text Available Hair sheep ewes and lambs were used to evaluate the impact of feeding a split ration on productivity and growth. St., Croix White, Barbados Blackbelly and Barbados Blackbelly x St., Croix White lambs weaned at 63 days of age were group fed for 100 days beginning at 2 weeks after weaning. Treatments consisted of feeding concentrate (16% CP, 68% TDN in the morning (am; n = 19, afternoon (pm; n = 19 or split between the morning and afternoon (am to pm; n = 18 at 4% of BW/(lambAday. In a second study lactating St. Croix White and Dorper x St., Croix White ewes grazing guinea grass pastures were assigned to treatments (n = 16/treatment based on breed, age and number of lambs. Treatments consisted of individually feeding ewes 0.9 kg concentrate (16% CP, 68% TDN in the morning (am or afternoon (pm, 0.45 kg in the morning and afternoon (am to pm or no feed (Control beginning on day 7 (lambing = day 0. On day 21, 24 h milk production was measured. A sterile ram with a marking harness was used to detect estrus. The am and pm lambs gained less (p-1, respectively. The am to pm ewes consumed a higher (p0.10. Weight loss by control ewes was greater (p0.10. A split feeding regimen increased feed consumption and decreased post-partum weight loss but did not increase litter weaning weight or milk production of hair sheep ewes. It does not appear beneficial to feed hair sheep ewes during the post-partum period using either a once a day or a split feeding regimen. A split feeding regimen increased weight gain and ADG of weaned hair sheep lambs and it may be an option to utilize this management practice to increase gain if the economics of the added labor for twice a day feeding are feasible.
bin Tarif Abid; Lasecka Lidia; Holzer Barbara; Baron Michael D
Abstract Partly due to climate change, and partly due to changes of human habitat occupation, the impact of tick-borne viruses is increasing. Nairobi sheep disease virus (NSDV) and Ganjam virus (GV) are two names for the same virus, which causes disease in sheep and goats and is currently known to be circulating in India and East Africa. The virus is transmitted by ixodid ticks and causes a severe hemorrhagic disease. We have developed a real-time PCR assay for the virus genome and validated ...
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate serological prevalence and titers of anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in ewes following waves of abortion and stillbirths in a commercial flock in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Serum samples from 168 aborted ewes and 52 breeding rams, were tested for toxoplasmosis using an indirect enzyme-linked-immunosorbent assay (ELISA and indirect haemagglutination test (IHA. 71 randomly sampled sheep from an abortion-free flock (60 ewes and 11 rams were also tested, which served as controls. 149 (88.7% ewes and 42 (80.8% breeding rams from the flock where abortions and stillbirths occurred were positive for anti-T. gondii antibodies by ELISA. 155 ewes (92.3% and 44 rams (84.6%, including all of the ELISA positive cases, were also positive by indirect haemagglutination test (IHA. More than 80% of the ELISA positive ewes had O.D. exceeding 100% and nearly 25% of them had O.D. of ?150%. The IHA results, on the other hand, indicated that more than 75% of the seropositive ewes had antibody titers ?1:1024, including 58 (37.4% ewes with IHA titer ranging between 1:4096-1:8192 Pyrexia, depression and vaginal discharge were recorded in some ewes shortly prior to abortion. Post-mortem examination of 5 aborted fetuses revealed blood-stained fluid in the abdominal and thoracic cavities and small inflammatory and necrotic foci in the brain, liver and lungs while the placenta was reddish and friable, and its cotyledons were speckled with small whitish foci of necrosis and mineralization. T. gondii tachyzoites were demonstrated in placental sections of two ewes. By contrast, only 7 (9.9% out of 71 randomly sampled sheep from an abortion-free flock (60 ewes and 11 rams, were positive for anti-T. gondii antibodies by ELISA and 6 (8.5% by indirect haemagglutination (IHA test and most of these had significantly lower titers compared to the flock where abortions and stillbirths were recorded. These results constitute the first detailed serological study of ovine toxoplasmosis in Saudi Arabia and strongly implicate toxoplasmosis as the cause of the abortions and stillbirths in these sheep.
Full Text Available Abstract Background There are around 400 internationally recognized dog breeds in the world today, with a remarkable diversity in size, shape, color and behavior. Breeds are considered to be uniform groups with similar physical characteristics, shaped by selection rooted in human preferences. This has led to a large genetic difference between breeds and a large extent of linkage disequilibrium within breeds. These characteristics are important for association mapping of candidate genes for diseases and therefore make dogs ideal models for gene mapping of human disorders. However, genetic uniformity within breeds may not always be the case. We studied patterns of genetic diversity within 164 poodles and compared it to 133 dogs from eight other breeds. Results Our analyses revealed strong population structure within poodles, with differences among some poodle groups as pronounced as those among other well-recognized breeds. Pedigree analysis going three generations back in time confirmed that subgroups within poodles result from assortative mating imposed by breed standards as well as breeder preferences. Matings have not taken place at random or within traditionally identified size classes in poodles. Instead, a novel set of five poodle groups was identified, defined by combinations of size and color, which is not officially recognized by the kennel clubs. Patterns of genetic diversity in other breeds suggest that assortative mating leading to fragmentation may be a common feature within many dog breeds. Conclusion The genetic structure observed in poodles is the result of local mating patterns, implying that breed fragmentation may be different in different countries. Such pronounced structuring within dog breeds can increase the power of association mapping studies, but also represents a serious problem if ignored. In dog breeding, individuals are selected on the basis of morphology, behaviour, working or show purposes, as well as geographic population structure. The same processes which have historically created dog breeds are still ongoing, and create further subdivision within current dog breeds.
Andrea Spaterna; Roberta Ciampolini; Gisella Paci; Francesca Cecchi
The Bracco Italiano is one of the oldest pointing dog breed, used for hunting ever since the Renaissance time. The complete electronic record of the breed was downloaded from the ENCI database [whole population (WP) = 24,613 animals registered since 1970 to 2011] with the aim to estimate genetic variability in Bracco Italiano dog breed using pedigree records. Up to 97% of the individuals had registered parents and 86% registered grand-fathers. Average generation interval was 4.68±0.545 for s...
Azor, P J; Monteagudo, L V; Luque, M; Tejedor, M T; Rodero, E; Sierra, I; Herrera, M; Rodero, A; Arruga, M V
We partially sequenced the mitochondrial hypervariable region 1 (HVR1) in 60 goats belonging to six Spanish breeds. The analysis of these and previously published sequences reveals a weak phylogeographical structure in the Iberian Peninsula breeds. Individuals from a single breed did not group into a single cluster. Furthermore, individuals from different breeds often shared single phylogenetic tree branches after UPGMA analysis. This could reflect the non-existence of breed isolation because of traditional seasonal pastoralism and annual long-distance migrations. Three goats belonging to the C maternal lineage were found, demonstrating a wider than previously thought distribution for this lineage. PMID:16167986
Modou M., Lo; Victor, Mbao; Pascale, Sierra; Yaya, Thiongane; Mariame, Diop; Meritxell, Donadeu; Baptiste, Dungu.
Full Text Available This blinded field safety study was conducted in Senegal to assess safety and immunogenicity of administration of the registered dose of Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) Clone 13 vaccine (Onderstepoort Biological Products) to sheep and goats of West African breeds under natural conditions. A total of [...] 267 small ruminants (220 sheep, 47 goats) were included; half received RVFV Clone 13 vaccine at the recommended dose and half received the diluent (as placebo) only. The study was performed on three commercial farms in the northern and eastern region of Senegal in accordance with veterinary good clinical practices. The animals were observed daily for 3 days after vaccination, and then weekly for 1 year. In both sheep and goats vaccinated against RVFV seroconversion rates above 70% were recorded. No seroconversion related to RVFV was observed in placebo-treated animals. No statistically significant differences were determined between placebo and vaccinated groups for mean rectal temperatures for the first 3 days after administration (p > 0.05). No abnormal clinical signs related to treatment were noted, and only one slight injection site reaction was observed in one vaccinated animal for 2 days after vaccination. Out of 176 births assessed over 1 year (93 from the vaccinated group, 83 from the placebo group), 9 were abnormal in the placebo group and 3 in the vaccinated group (p > 0.05). The frequency of adverse events was similar in the placebo and vaccinated groups. RVFV Clone 13 vaccine administered according to the manufacturer's instructions was safe and well tolerated in West African breeds of sheep and goats, including animals of approximately 6 months of age and pregnant females, under field conditions in Senegal. Antibody levels persisted up to 1 year after vaccination.
Rami T., Kridli; A.Y., Abdullah; L.M., Rousan; A., Gonzalez-Bulnes.
Full Text Available Jordania es un país predominantemente semiárido. La mayor parte de la tierra es incultivable y sólo se puede utilizar para el pastoreo de rumiantes pequeños. La oveja Awassi de cola gruesa es la raza nativa de ovejas en Jordania. Esta raza es popular por varias razones, tales como su adaptabilidad a [...] ecosistemas difíciles, su producción lechera y por tener una carne con buenas características y un buen sabor. La industria ovejera en Jordania enfrenta muchos retos, el más importante es la escases de agua, que conlleva a una baja disponibilidad de forrajes y a un alza en los precios de los alimentos. A pesar de las dificultades, se realizan esfuerzos para mejorar la productividad de las ovejas Awassi mediante la selección, el cuidado veterinario, la evaluación de fuentes alternativas de alimentación y tratamientos hormonales para mejorar su fertilidad y fecundidad. Este estudio enfatiza la investigación principal llevada a cabo en ovejas Awassi en Jordania en la última década con un énfasis especial en el rendimiento reproductivo. Abstract in english Jordan is a predominantly semi arid country. Much of the land area is uncultivable and can only be used as a range for grazing small ruminants. Fat tailed Awassi is the indigenous sheep breed of Jordan. The breed is popular for many reasons such as the adaptability to harsh ecosystems, milk producti [...] on ability and having favorable meat flavor and characteristics. The sheep industry in Jordan faces many challenges, the most important of which is water shortage leading to low forage availability and high feed prices. Despite such hardships, efforts are made to improve productivity of Awassi sheep through selection, veterinary care, evaluating alternative feed sources and hormonal treatments to improve fertility and fecundity. This review highlights the major research conducted on Awassi sheep in Jordan over the last decade with special emphasis on reproductive performance.
Pakistan has 49.14 million goats. Goats are kept for milk and meat production and contribute significantly to the income of the rural farmers. Dairy goats are kept by the farmers belonging to poor socio-economic class of the society, mostly landless. Goat production is almost evenly distributed among all regions of Pakistan. The vast majority of small ruminant flock owners are small-scale farmers, sometimes landless. Mixed flocks are common, although separate flocks of sheep or goats can also be seen. The Northern Areas of Pakistan provide many chances for goat raising on pastures and goats are the main stay of the poorest segments of rural society. The data on goat breeds of Northern Areas is still lacking. The present study was planned to provide baseline information of growth traits of goat breeds of Northern Areas. Six goat breeds, found in the Northern Areas of Pakistan, Pameri, Gojali, Balti (pashmina bearing), Dareli, Jerakheil and Koh-e- Ghizer w ere studied for growth traits like birth weight, weaning weight, adult weight, body length, heart girth and height. The mean birth (males: 2.81 ± 0.111 females: 2.36 ± 0.777 kilograms), weaning (males: 13.14 ± females: 11.11 ± 0.779 kilograms) and adult (males: 70.79 C females: 46.11 ± 0.786 kilograms) weight was highest in Dareli followed by Jerakheil, Koh-e-Ghizer, Pameri, Balti and Gojali. Among the various breeds studied Jerakheil displayed higher body length (males: 85.93 ± 0.875 females: 75.48 ± 0.975 cm) ± 0.875 females: 75.48 ± 0.975 cm) followed by Daeli, Koh-e-Ghizer, Gojali, Pameri and Balti. Dareli was found the tallest breed (males: 85.41± 0.424 females: 74.13 ± 0.750 centimetres) and Pameri the shortest (males: 70.36 ± 0.710 females: 57.91 ± 0.342 centimetres). The mean heart girth was also highest in Dareli (males: 95.67 ± 2.00 females: 86.89 ± 0.475 centimetres) and lowest in Pameri (males: 70.42 ± 0.498 females: 65.32 ± 0.603 centimetres). The differences between sexes and breeds were significant for all the parameters. The study has provided baseline information on goat breeds of Northern Areas, which would be useful for further studies on breed conservation and genetic improvement programmes
Hald, Tine; Baggesen, Dorte Lau
To assess the effectiveness of the strategies implemented in the European Union (EU) to control Classical scrapie (CS), epidemiological data have been compared in the context of the efforts in terms of control measures applied over time. Official EU surveillance data and results from questionnaire surveys of EU Member States (MSs) have been used along with case studies. A spatio-temporal description of the occurrence of small ruminants TSEs in MSs in the period 2002-2012 is provided, with a particular focus on CS in sheep. Based on information collected from MSs, the potential effectiveness of breeding programmes for resistance to CS (BP-CS) in the dissemination of resistance into the general sheep population has been assessed for those countries for which the CS trend analysis has been performed. CS in sheep was reported in 17 MSs (average prevalence: 8.7 cases/10 000 tests), with heterogeneous trends and geographical distribution: among the 13 countries reporting a consistent number of cases, the trend analysis shows a statistically significant decreasing trend only for six of them. Variations in the implementation of genetic and non-genetic measures for the control of CS may explain the failure to improve the disease situation in the remaining seven MSs. At a national level, a reduction in CS seems to be linked to better-achieving BP-CSs. Control options applied to CS in sheep and goats indicate that a CS eradication policy that relies solely on the detection of infected flocks by post-mortem testing and subsequent depopulation would be unlikely to succeed. A minimum frequency of the ARR allele in a sheep population above which CS may be expected to fade-out could be estimated for each specific national sheep population. Recommendations for additional/alternative measures to control CS in sheep and goats are formulated.
Full Text Available Over about 92% from national goat livestock come from local unameliorated breeds, namely Carpathian breed whichis traditionally exploited in a mixed way next to sheep in a proportion of over 65% from the breed total.Expectations towards a qualitative and quantitative production led to pretty important imports for specialized breedslike the Saanen one, from communitary states, during the last 10 years.This study presents the results of someresearch started since the last semestre of the previous year on some goat livestock from Saanen breed, livestockwhich was brought to the Garbovi farm, Ialomita county. The livestock presents the following morpho-productivetraits, such as: weight 57.375±0.23 Kg as an average, back length 67.47±0,38cm, crupper length 69.25±0,41 cm,oblique body length 70,98±0,38 cm, thoracical perimeter 89.17cm±0.32 cm, resulting a dolicomorphe body structure.The medium milk production in is of 2.19 l/head/day during the stalling months November-February, with average ofNovember 58.05±1.77 l.,December 70.47±2,07 l.,January 92.30±2.93 l., and February 45.10±1.38 l.,only during thefirst 120 days, and the chemical composition of the main constituent parts: Dry matter nonfat 9.3%, protein 3.53%,fat 4.02%, a significant quantitative and qualitative gain of goat milk especially when the local breeds don’t yieldthem.The females prolificity is of 128%, being a lot below the breed average 150-170% in comparison with theaverage proven by the breed but also in comparison with the unameliorated breeds, this aspect being also a basicalelement in selection, next to the milk quantitative aspect. The gain recorded for goat youth over the 90 days iscomprised between 127g, 198g, 122g/day of males and 109g, 173g, 106 g/day of females, during the whole periodwhich was much over the average of Carpathian breed. Shortage of some agricultural policies on breed, of trainedstaff in the farm,speciality information concerning the exploitation of some performant breeds led to goats purchase,esppecially milk ones, which have typical dolicomorphe structure but with a great productive and somatometrichalvariability.
Winged bean is the most important traditional legume in Papua New Guinea. Only recently the nutritional importance of this crop has been recognized both nationally and internationally. Almost all parts of the plant are edible including dry seeds, green pods, green seeds, young leaves, flowers and root tubers. A programme for the improvement of this species was started in 1973. The primary objective was to collect and conserve the genetic variation and to formulate a breeding programme. A Mutation Breeding Programme was initiated in 1975 and the primary aim was to search for an erect bush-type mutant. Gamma radiation and the chemical mutagen, EMS have been used for the induction of mutations. (author)
This issue contains a number of contributions from readers describing experiments in plant breeding (the individual items are indexed separately) and a report on the 30th Gamma-Field Symposium held in Tsukuba, Japan in July 1991. Also included is a list of officially released mutant varieties of seed-propagated crops taken from the FAO/IAEA database of mutant varieties. It is planned to organize a database on available crop plant mutant variety germplasm collections. Refs, figs and tabs
This paper deals with changes in biodiversity during the course of evolution, plant domestication and plant breeding. It shows than man has had a strong influence on the progressive decrease of biodiversity, unconscious at first and deliberate in modern times. The decrease in biodiversity in the agricultures of the North causes a severe threat to food security and is in contrasts with the conservation of biodiversity which is part of the culture of several populations in the South. The conclu...
This newsletter contains short descriptions of research methods for the use of radiation to induce mutations and facilitate plant breeding. This method is used to develop species of plants that can survive in harsh climates and thus provide a food supply for humans and animals. Some of the mutants discussed include a salt tolerant barley, a disease resistant shrub, a cold tolerant chickpea, a highly productive Canavalia virosa and productive tomato. Refs, figs and tabs
bin Tarif Abid
Full Text Available Abstract Partly due to climate change, and partly due to changes of human habitat occupation, the impact of tick-borne viruses is increasing. Nairobi sheep disease virus (NSDV and Ganjam virus (GV are two names for the same virus, which causes disease in sheep and goats and is currently known to be circulating in India and East Africa. The virus is transmitted by ixodid ticks and causes a severe hemorrhagic disease. We have developed a real-time PCR assay for the virus genome and validated it in a pilot study of the pathogenicity induced by two different isolates of NSDV/GV. One isolate was highly adapted to tissue culture, grew in most cell lines tested, and was essentially apathogenic in sheep. The second isolate appeared to be poorly adapted to cell culture and retained pathogenicity in sheep. The real-time PCR assay for virus easily detected 4 copies or less of the viral genome, and allowed a quantitative measure of the virus in whole blood. Measurement of the changes in cytokine mRNAs showed similar changes to those observed in humans infected by the closely related virus Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever virus.
Dodson, John; Dodson, Eoin; Banati, Richard; Li, Xiaoqiang; Atahan, Pia; Hu, Songmei; Middleton, Ryan J.; Zhou, Xinying; Nan, Sun
The origins of domesticated sheep (Ovis sp.) in China remain unknown. Previous workers have speculated that sheep may have been present in China up to 7000 years ago, however many claims are based on associations with archaeological material rather than independent dates on sheep material. Here we present 7 radiocarbon dates on sheep bone from Inner Mongolia, Ningxia and Shaanxi provinces. DNA analysis on one of the bones confirms it is Ovis sp. The oldest ages are about 4700 to 4400 BCE and are thus the oldest objectively dated Ovis material in eastern Asia. The graphitisised bone collagen had ?13C values indicating some millet was represented in the diet. This probably indicates sheep were in a domestic setting where millet was grown. The younger samples had ?13C values indicating that even more millet was in the diet, and this was likely related to changes in foddering practices
Schons, Sandro V; de Mello, Taciane L; Riet-Correa, Franklin; Schild, Ana Lucia
The aim of this study was to determine the cause of sudden deaths in sheep in the Anari Valley of the state of Rondônia, in northern Brazil. In one outbreak, sheep were placed in an area where the owner had cut Amorimia (Mascagnia) sepium and let it dry for two days. Fourteen out of 35 sheep died with few outward clinical signs observed over a period of about 10 h after the ingestion of the dry plant. Dry A. sepium was administered experimentally to 9 sheep. Five died after the ingestion of single doses of 3-6.6 g/kg body weight (bw). Two sheep died after the ingestion of total doses of 6.4-31 g/kg bw over the course of 4 and 5 days, respectively, and one died after being treated with 33 daily doses of 0.56 g/kg bw. Six sheep died during exercise, and three died without exercise. Clinical signs were anorexia, muscular tremors, dyspnea, jugular engorgement, tachycardia, apathy, opisthotonos, foam in the nose, and recumbency. One sheep, which ingested a single dose of 1 g/kg bw, was not affected. The main macroscopic lesion was pulmonary edema. Histologic examination of the heart revealed degeneration and necrosis of cardiomyocytes, as well as multifocal inflammatory infiltrate of mononuclear cells. Fibrosis, neovascularization and infiltration by mononuclear inflammatory cells were observed in the sheep that ingested the plant for 33 days. Vacuolar-hydropic degeneration was observed in the epithelial cells of renal tubules of four sheep. It is concluded that A. sepium is responsible for sudden deaths in sheep. PMID:21333667
Hohenboken, W D
Animal breeding reports in the Journal of Animal Science (JAS) and in its predecessor, Proceedings of the American Society of Animal Production, were counted and categorized. In 22 volumes of the Proceedings of the American Society of Animal Production, 155 articles had animal breeding content, of which 54% were research reports, 17% extension communications, and 28% syntheses or reviews. Several of the latter featured advice from the livestock industry to the scientific community. Thirty-one percent of articles concerned swine, whereas beef cattle, dairy cattle, and sheep each accounted for an additional 20%. In the 67 yr of JAS publication, 3,045 research papers were identified with animal breeding content, nearly half of them published since 1990. Growth in publication output was modest during the 1950s, robust in the 1960s through 1980s, moderate in the 1990s, and static in the 2000s. Important topics included genetic resource evaluation (a subject in 55% of all manuscripts), genetic parameter estimation, selection programs, and nonrandom mating systems. Maternal effects and genotype x environment interactions were featured in 17 and 15% of all manuscripts, respectively, whereas 6% dealt with a simply inherited trait. Only 4% of manuscripts included economic analysis of a breeding program or intervention. Interest in molecular biology and biometry has surged in the 1990s and 2000s. Approximately 50% of all papers involved cattle, a fifth of which concerned dairy cattle or beef x dairy crossbreds. A quarter of papers concerned swine, 15% concerned sheep, and 3% considered laboratory rodents, with the proportional contribution of sheep research decreasing across time. Authors from the Midwestern and Southern sections of the American Society of Animal Science had greater proportional contributions than Western and Northeastern section authors, and contributions of university and state experiment station authors outnumbered those of USDA-ARS authors. The proportional contribution of international authors increased across time, reaching 45% for the 2000s, as that of university and experiment station authors decreased and that of USDA-ARS authors remained fairly constant. Subjective analysis suggested substantial levels of creativity, innovation, and cooperation in JAS animal breeding research, a strong international perspective, but also a marked degree of imitation and repetition in subject matter content. PMID:18765845
Karioti, Aggeliki; Hatzoglou, Chrissi; Zarogiannis, Sotirios; Deligiorgi, Triantafyllia; Kourti, Panagiota; Giannopoulou, Myrto; Arampatzis, Spyros; Liakopoulos, Vassilios; Gourgoulianis, Konstantinos; Molyvdas, Paschalis-Adam; Stefanidis, Ioannis
Aldosterone is a key component of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, and spironolactone, an aldosterone receptor blocker, shows beneficial effects in patients with end-stage renal disease and heart failure. The aim of the present study was to investigate by means of Ussing chamber technique the effect of spironolactone on the transmesothelial permeability of visceral sheep peritoneum in vitro. Peritoneal samples from the omentum of adult sheep were collected immediately after slaughter in a cooled and oxygenated Krebs-Ringer bicarbonate (KRB) solution. Isolated intact sheets of peritoneum were mounted in an Ussing-type chamber. Spironolactone (10(-5) mol/L) was added apically and basolaterally to the KRB solution. The transmesothelial resistance (R) was measured before and serially for 30 minutes after the addition of the substances. Data present the mean +/- standard error of 6 experiments in each case. The control R was 19.8 +/- 0.36 omega x cm2. The addition of spironolactone resulted in a reduction in the R, which became significant on both sides of the membrane within 10 minutes and remained significantly different thereafter. The maximum reduction of R (deltaR%) reached 24.8% +/- 2.3% (p < 0.01) apically and 26.3% +/- 3.2% (p < 0.01) basolaterally. Our data clearly show that spironolactone increases the permeability of visceral sheep peritoneum in a lasting manner. Increased peritoneal permeability could result in increased sodium removal, which has acknowledged beneficial effects both in patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis and in patients with heart failure. Further clinical studies investigating the effect of spironolactone on sodium removal in peritoneal dialysis are justified. PMID:19886311
Full Text Available The study was carried out between January -February 2008, on 30 sheep Tigaie and Turcana breeds from Bilbor, Harghita County. Animals were distributed randomly into three groups (n = 10: group A1 (treated with albendazole, group B1 (treated with triclabendazole and control group (M - the dosage used was the one recommended by the producer. Coproscopical examination was made on days 0 and 14 using the methods recommended by WAAVP and the efficacy was evaluated using Presidente relation. Investigations revealed an efficacy value of 98.35% for Fasinex and 71.55% for Rombendazol 10%.
A J, Snijders.
Full Text Available The universal notoriety of Robben Island as a penitentiary for political prisoners, notably in the 19th and 20th centuries, overshadows its previous historical significance established centuries ago. The Island, initially a source of seals and penguins to European mariners rounding the southern tip [...] of Africa, and later for several other reasons, including its proximity to the Cape of Good Hope, played a pivotal role in the selection of this halfway station. The seals would provide blubber for train oil and the penguins, meat and eggs. The transhumant Peninsular Khoekhoe was to provide cattle and sheep by a barter process as before. Inconsistent access to Khoen livestock forced the Vereenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie (VOC) to consider their own breeding programmes and ultimately the establishment of Free Burgers. Van Riebeeck confirmed the suitability of Robben Island for the fattening and breeding of sheep and this island made a substantial contribution to the provision of sheep and mutton to the fleets and the local community. Khoen sheep did not do well in the Table Valley in early summer and it was expected that they would thrive on the drier island. Predators and stock theft were major problems at the Cape and neither occurred on the island. It is contended that it was unlikely that the settlement at the Cape would have occurred and succeeded without Robben Island.
Livestock farming is a complex and demanding business and now is further complicated by consumers expecting greater care for the welfare of livestock and the environment. Meeting the expectations of customers while at the same time trying to make a living on a family farm is becoming far more difficult. Gone is the time when farmers, wherever they are, could rely on the image of idyllic rural scenes as a way of fulfilling the 'promise' of clean, green and ethically produced product. Australia, for many, still conjures up the image of a wide brown land with stockman droving contented sheep to shady riverbanks. However, this is changing as consumers become aware of current sheep management practices such as mulesing, which is portrayed as a barbaric act by animal welfare lobby groups. Since the early 1850's Australia has produced high quality apparel wool from Merino sheep, but early in the 20th century problems with sheep dying from 'flystrike' (infestations of maggots from the Australian sheep blowfly Lucilia cuprina), reached epidemic proportions, which threatened the industry with collapse. A history of selecting sheep with heavy fleeces and many skin wrinkles to produce more wool made them easy targets for the blowfly. This is because with extra wool around the tail area, then soiled with faecal material, the chances of infestation increase substantially. Sheep in Australia are run in big flocks on large properties (500 - 100,000ha) at low stocking rates (1-10 ewes00,000ha) at low stocking rates (1-10 ewes/ha) and are usually managed by a single family. This means that it is very difficult to monitor sheep individually, on a daily basis, and also means that any control technique requires minimal intervention, and cannot be recurrent. To deal with these problems, research and development organisations began investigating methods of control and by the early 1950s, a surgical procedure called 'mulesing was developed. Mulesing involves stripping the skin away from the area around the anus and tail at three weeks of age. The area that grows back is bare of wool and therefore reduces the amount of wool and conditions favourable to fly strike. This method showed much promise in reducing mortality in sheep flocks. Many farmers saw mulesing as a bloody and unpalatable technique, and so it took extensive information programs run over 20 years to finally convince farmers it was worth doing to improve the welfare of their animals by reducing deaths from flystrike. In the late 1990s, extensive campaigning by People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA) led to a growing awareness of this practice by retailers in Europe and the USA. Believing it to be an invasive and painful practice, particularly without pain relief, some companies threaten to boycott Australian wool. In reaction to the growing pressure the Australian wool industry in 2004 agreed to phase out the practice of mulesing by 2010. The wool industry is now intensively seeking a viable and practical alternative to mulesing. Research into various technologies including intradermal injections and modification of the blowfly genome is continuing, and it is likely that a combination of technology and breeding will provide the ultimate solutions. In the short term, control will mean increased applications of chemicals and greater intervention and monitoring. This however, leaves the farmer with more complex decision-making, high labour costs and greater exposure to chemicals and residues. Understandably, some farmers are angry and upset by the reaction of the international retailers, as they believe they are doing the best thing to protect their sheep from a slow and painful death. This situation has lead to small numbers of defiant farmers stating they will continue to mules until a viable alternative is available. This is not the first time Australian farmers have faced challenging times. Australian farmers have an enviable reputation as innovators, and a capacity to adapt, with many recognising the importance of meeting consumer demands by ceasing mulesing. In 2009, a
Compatibility between tritium breeding materials (liquid or solid), neutron multiplier and structural steels is a concern for the choice of a tritium breeding blanket for NET. For solid tritium breeding blanket, it seems that the more severe compatibility problem is due to the interaction of beryllium with steel. As for the water-cooled Pb17Li blanket, the first results obtained in experimental conditions closed to the concept have evidenced lower corrosion rates than those measured in thermal convection loops
Maischberger E; Ja, Irwin; Sd, Carrington; Ve, Duggan
Abstract The deposition of semen, bacteria and debris in the uterus of the mare after breeding normally induces a self-limiting endometritis. The resultant fluid and inflammatory products are cleared by 48 hours post cover. Mares that are susceptible to persistent post-breeding endometritis (PPBEM) have impaired uterine defence and clearance mechanisms, making them unable to resolve this inflammation within the normal time. This persists beyond 48 hours post-breeding and causes persistent flu...
Artificial induction of mutation in plants is carried out using #betta#-irradiation and ethyl metanesulphonate (EMS) to expand the genetic variability of locally-grown soybean. This aspect of mutation breeding complements of conventional breeding approach undertaken by the Joint Malaysia Soybean Breeding Project group. Recovery of agronomically-important mutants such as earliness, lateness, bigger seed size and improved plant architecture were recorded. The significance of these findings is discussed. (author)
Gibbons, Melissa M; Dang, Xinglai; Adkins, Mark; Powell, Brian; Chan, Philemon
A detailed 3D finite element model (FEM) of the sheep thorax was developed to predict heterogeneous and volumetric lung injury due to blast. A shared node mesh of the sheep thorax was constructed from a computed tomography (CT) scan of a sheep cadaver, and while most material properties were taken from literature, an elastic-plastic material model was used for the ribs based on three-point bending experiments performed on sheep rib specimens. Anesthetized sheep were blasted in an enclosure, and blast overpressure data were collected using the blast test device (BTD), while surface lung injury was quantified during necropsy. Matching blasts were simulated using the sheep thorax FEM. Surface lung injury in the FEM was matched to pathology reports by setting a threshold value of the scalar output termed the strain product (maximum value of the dot product of strain and strain-rate vectors over all simulation time) in the surface elements. Volumetric lung injury was quantified by applying the threshold value to all elements in the model lungs, and a correlation was found between predicted volumetric injury and measured postblast lung weights. All predictions are made for the left and right lungs separately. This work represents a significant step toward the prediction of localized and heterogeneous blast lung injury, as well as volumetric injury, which was not recorded during field testing for sheep. PMID:25411822
Hallworth, Michael T; Marra, Peter P
For the first time, we use a small archival global positioning system (GPS) tag to identify and characterize non-breeding territories, quantify migratory connectivity, and identify population boundaries of Ovenbirds (Seiurus aurocapilla), a small migratory songbird, captured at two widely separated breeding locations. We recovered 15 (31%) GPS tags with data and located the non-breeding territories of breeding Ovenbirds from Maryland and New Hampshire, USA (0.50?±?0.15 ha, mean?±?SE). All non-breeding territories had similar environmental attributes despite being distributed across parts of Florida, Cuba and Hispaniola. New Hampshire and Maryland breeding populations had non-overlapping non-breeding population boundaries that encompassed 114,803 and 169,233?km(2), respectively. Archival GPS tags provided unprecedented pinpoint locations and associated environmental information of tropical non-breeding territories. This technology is an important step forward in understanding seasonal interactions and ultimately population dynamics of populations throughout the annual cycle. PMID:26057892
Full Text Available In mammals the vomeronasal organ (VNO plays an important role in detection and processing of pheromones related to social and reproductive behavior. To determine in which physiological functions the VNO is implied, different blocking techniques have been used. The aim of this work was to develop a simple, fast, and minimally invasive surgical technique to eliminate completely the VNO in sheep. Ten adult crossbreed sheep were anesthetized and intubated with a tracheotube. Two incisions in the nasal mucous membrane, on the floor of the nasal cavity lateral to the VNO, and in the nasal septum dorsal to the VNO were made. The VNO was eliminated through dragging movements with a Farabeuff separator shaped into a hook.. The hemorrhage was controlled in situ with ferric perclorure and cauterization with a burning cylindrical iron. Animals were slaughtered at different times after surgery, and the nose was opened to determine whether remnants of the VNO were still left. In the first slaughtered animal (one week after the surgery remnants of the VNO were observed in a necrotic area. However, in the animals slaughtered later than 4 weeks after surgery, there were no identifiable remnants of the VNO. We concluded that this is a simple, fast and effective technique to eliminate the VNO, and may be used in experiments aimed to determine long-term effects of vomeronasalectomisation.
Full Text Available The objective of the paper was to investigate annual genetic gain from selection (?G, and the influence of selection on the inbreeding effective population size (Ne, for different possible breeding schemes within a reindeer herding district. The breeding schemes were analysed for different proportions of the population within a herding district included in the selection programme. Two different breeding schemes were analysed: an open nucleus scheme where males mix and mate between owner flocks, and a closed nucleus scheme where the males in non-selected owner flocks are culled to maximise ?G in the whole population. The theory of expected long-term genetic contributions was used and maternal effects were included in the analyses. Realistic parameter values were used for the population, modelled with 5000 reindeer in the population and a sex ratio of 14 adult females per male. The standard deviation of calf weights was 4.1 kg. Four different situations were explored and the results showed: 1. When the population was randomly culled, Ne equalled 2400. 2. When the whole population was selected on calf weights, Ne equalled 1700 and the total annual genetic gain (direct + maternal in calf weight was 0.42 kg. 3. For the open nucleus scheme, ?G increased monotonically from 0 to 0.42 kg as the proportion of the population included in the selection programme increased from 0 to 1.0, and Ne decreased correspondingly from 2400 to 1700. 4. In the closed nucleus scheme the lowest value of Ne was 1300. For a given proportion of the population included in the selection programme, the difference in ?G between a closed nucleus scheme and an open one was up to 0.13 kg. We conclude that for mass selection based on calf weights in herding districts with 2000 animals or more, there are no risks of inbreeding effects caused by selection.
Parker, Heidi G.
A rose may be a rose by any other name, but when you call a dog a poodle it becomes a very different animal than if you call it a bulldog. Both the poodle and the bulldog are examples of dog breeds of which there are >400 recognized world-wide. Breed creation has played a significant role in shaping the modern dog from the length of his leg to the cadence of his bark. The selection and line-breeding required to maintain a breed has also reshaped the genome of the dog resulting in a unique gen...
During the last years the major target of our apple breeding programme to diseases resistance were scab resistance as well as multiple resistance to powdery mildew and fire blight. The first promising result we received from Liberty, Generos, Florina and Dayton – o.p., i.e. between 75.0-50.0% scab resistant seedlings and between 31.2% to 41.2% mildew resistant ones. The resistance from German cultivars Renora, Reanda, Rebela and Rewena - o.p. were also very high, that is between 53.3 – 72...
The Radiation Breeding Laboratory of the Agricultural Technic Institute, Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries has a gamma ray field, which ranks second in the world in capacity and scale, and other gamma ray irradiation facilities. In commemoration of its 20th anniversary, the booklet described the history up to its establishment and introduced various facilities and the achievements of the laboratory. It also reviewed improved varieties produced by irradiation upon request and introduced radiation-improved varieties in Japan and abroad, characteristics of these mutation-improved varieties and irradiation methods. (Chiba, N.)
Are you considering bringing a canine into the family, and wondering which type of dog would be the best fit? This website from Animal Planet provides potential dog owners with information about a variety of breeds. The site directory lists dogs under such categories as Hound, Sporting, Terrier, Working, Herding, and more. Site visitors can view profiles for many different types of dogs including the Bernese Mountain Dog, Irish Setter, Old English Sheepdog, and Tibetan Spaniel. Dog profiles contain a photograph, Rating of Characteristics; and concise sections addressing History, Temperament, Form and Function, Upkeep, and Health. Profiles also include a hyperlinked list of related dogs.
Ridder, N., de; Benjamin, R.W.; van Keulen, H.
During 114 days of grazing, sheep grazing a dry annual pasture in Israel selected the fine fraction available with a higher nutritive value. As this fraction became depleted and feed quality dropped, organic matter intake dropped from 1.73 to 0.75 kg/sheep/d. Sheep lost weight, body condition and body energy. They did not adjust grazing time to compensate for lower feed availability. Nevertheless, condition remained good enough to attain 100% mating and 134-166% lambing rates.-from Authors
Background After addressing fundamental questions in preclinical models in vitro or in small animals in vivo, the translation into large animal models has become a prerequisite before transferring new findings to human medicine. Especially in cardiovascular, orthopaedic and reconstructive surgery, the sheep is an important in vivo model for testing innovative therapies or medical devices prior to clinical application. For a wide variety of sheep model based research projects, an optimal anticoagulation and antiplatelet therapy is mandatory. However, no standardised scheme for this model has been developed so far. Thus the efficacy of antiplatelet (acetylsalicylic acid, clopidogrel, ticagrelor) and anticoagulant (sodium enoxaparin, dabigatran etexilate) strategies was evaluated through aggregometry, anti-factor Xa activity and plasma thrombin inhibitor levels in sheep of different ages. Results Responses to antiplatelet and anticoagulant drugs in different concentrations were studied in the sheep. First, a baseline for the measurement of platelet aggregation was assessed in 20 sheep. The effectiveness of 225 mg clopidogrel twice daily (bid) in 2/5 sheep and 150 mg bid in 3/5 lambs could be demonstrated, while clopidogrel and its metabolite carboxylic acid were detected in every plasma sample. High dose ticagrelor (375 mg bid) resulted in sufficient inhibition of platelet aggregation in 1/5 sheep, while acetylsalicylic acid did not show any antiplatelet effect. Therapeutic anti-factor Xa levels were achieved with age-dependent dosages of sodium enoxaparin (sheep 3 mg/kg bid, lambs 5 mg/kg bid). Administration of dabigatran etexilate resulted in plasma concentrations similar to human ranges in 2/5 sheep, despite receiving quadruple dosages (600 mg bid). Conclusion High dosages of clopidogrel inhibited platelet aggregation merely in a low number of sheep despite sufficient absorption. Ticagrelor and acetylsalicylic acid cannot be recommended for platelet inhibition in sheep. Efficient anticoagulation can be ensured using sodium enoxaparin rather than dabigatran etexilate in age-dependent dosages. The findings of this study significantly contribute to the improvement of a safe and reliable prophylaxis for thromboembolic events in sheep. Applying these results in future translational experimental studies may help to avoid early dropouts due to thromboembolic events and associated unnecessary high animal numbers. PMID:24088206
Ruminal protozoa decrease the bioavailability of copper in sheep receiving soybean meal (SBM) but not in sheep receiving casein (CA) as a protein supplement. Protozoa ingest SBM and release inorganic sulfur and amino acids. The sulfur is reduced by bacteria in the rumen to sulfide, which forms insoluble complexes with copper and so lessens the bioavailability of this element. CA, however, is poorly metabolized by protozoa, and so protozoa have no effect on the dietary copper metabolism when sheep are fed CA supplements. 5 refs, 1 tab
Pfeifer, Edwin L.; Heimer, Wayne; Roffler, Gretchen; Valdez, Raul; Gahl, Megan
Wild sheep are sensitive to environmental change and may be an effective indicator species of climate change in arctic and high mountain ecosystems. To understand the effects of climatic changes on Dall sheep habitat, U.S. Geological Survey scientists have been studying selected areas in Alaska since 2007. The research focus is on forage quality, nutrient levels, and changes resulting from warming or cooling climate trends. Preliminary results indicate significant changes in Dall sheep diet accompanying vegetation changes and upslope retreat of glaciers.
Full Text Available The recent economic world crisis was a product based on the idea that globalized “free” economy market, is the onlyand ideal law for the development and well- being. In the whole world, countries had to change what it was commonpractice till today i.e. the tradition and the local economy rules according to the global mandates, namely‘globalization’. In the same time, people are becoming more and more aware of the lost values, lost products,healthy-life, the changes of the environment, and turn to scientists and politicians for sustainable solutions. Livestockcan make a positive contribution to the landscape and environmental management in this new world of globalization.Moreover, the local breeds are one of the main tools that hold people in rural areas and mountains, help the agrotourismand are connected to the tradition and culture of each area. This paper aims to present the role that localbreeds could play to the regional development of the countries, including social, environmental and economicalsustainability issues. The cases of Greek and Romanian local sheep and goats breeds are used as examples.
Owen Bishop's First Course starts with the basics of electricity and component types, introducing students to practical work almost straight away. No prior knowledge of electronics is required. The approach is student-centred with self-test features to check understanding, including numerous activities suitable for practicals, homework and other assignments. Multiple choice questions are incorporated throughout the text in order to aid student learning. Key facts, formulae and definitions are highlighted to aid revision, and theory is backed up by numerous examp
The results of measures providing for thyroid dose loading decreasing realized in May 1986 in the zone neighbouring the Chernobyl' NPP are analyzed. Dispensary surveillances of argicultural animals are organized begining from 1988. Experiments aimed at acceleration of radioactive cesium excretion from animal muscle tissue by using pharmacological and chemical preparations for different levels of diet contamination are conducted. Milk with increased radioactive cesium concentration is processed into butter from the first day of radioactive effuent up to now. The final product contains radioactive cesium amount decreased by the factor of 6 as compared with that for milk, and radioactive cesium traces only are present in melted butter. Sheep-breeding is forbidden in contaminated territories
Interest in the use of mutation techniques for generating and selecting desired genetic variation in crop and model plant species has significantly increased over the past decade. This was mainly due to: (1) successful application of in vivo mutation techniques in the breeding of new, improved crop varieties; (2) new opportunities for induced mutation using in vitro techniques for improving vegetatively propagated crops; (3) emerging possibilities for applying in vitro selection of mutagenized cells and tissues; (4) increasing application of doubled haploids (DHs) for the rapid selection and shortening of the breeding cycle of improved varieties from desired mutants, and for the development of F1 performing DH lines from heterotic hybrids; (5) advancement of rapid, often non-destructive, mass screening methods; (6) enhanced demand for morphological, developmental and biochemical mutants of various species for studies on the molecular genetics of plant differentiation and development or on plant physiology; (7) wider availability of gene transformation technology that allows the transfer of desired mutated genes from model or other plant species to the desired crop plant (shuttle mutagenesis); and (8) application of mutation techniques for generating DNA polymorphism and for mapping particular genes. An overview of the results of applying mutation techniques for crop improvement is given. (author). 68 refs, 4 figs, 5 tabs tabs
Full Text Available The book Soybean: Molecular Aspects of Breedingfocuses recent progress in our understanding of thegenetics and molecular biology of soybean. This book isdivided into four parts and contains 22 chapters. Part I,Molecular Biology and Biotechnology focuses advancesin molecular biology and laboratory procedures thathave been developed recently to manipulate DNA.Part II, Breeding for abiotic stress covers proteomicsapproaches form as a powerful tool for investigatingthe molecular mechanisms of the plant responses tovarious types of abiotic stresses. Part III, Breeding forbiotic stress addresses issues related to application ofmolecular based strategies in order to increase soybeanresistance to various biotic factors. Part IV, RecentTechnology reviews recent technologies into the realmof soybean monitoring, processing and product use.While the information accumulated in this book is ofprimary interest for plant breeders, valuable insightsare also offered to agronomists, molecular biologists,physiologists, plant pathologists, food scientists andstudents. The book is a result of efforts made by manyexperts from different countries (USA, Japan, Croatia,Serbia, China, Canada, Malawi, Iran, Hong Kong, Brasil,Mexico.
The literature review is largely limited to recent research conducted on hair sheep in Mexico and Venezuela. Whereas reproduction is the general topic reviewed, much of the research quoted deals with the influence of nutrition, management, climate and disease on various indices of reproduction in the ewe and ram. Areas where information is minimal are also identified, as are research topics which need to be addressed. (author). 90 refs, 5 figs, 2 tabs
Full text: I will describe an approach we have used to breed improved cowpea varieties for an environment that experiences very severe droughts - the African Sahel. I will then speculate on how this approach might be enhanced for cowpea and some other C3 species by including selection for carbon stable isotope composition, i.e carbon isotope discrimination by plants (?). The approach in breeding for adaptation to drought involved selecting parents and then progeny with a type of grain desired by consumers and optimal time of flowering and cycle length, incorporating resistances to important diseases and pests, and yield-testing advanced lines in many locations throughout the target production zone in experiment station and farm conditions over several years. Can we now make further progress in breeding to improve adaptation to drought by including selection for ?? The approach I recommend is to choose varieties or elite lines as parents that have differences in ? but similar high grain quality and optimal time to flowering, cycle length and harvest index. In many cases, pre-breeding will be needed to develop appropriate elite lines and it may be difficult to develop lines that differ in ? but also have the other necessary traits. Then crosses would be made and progeny would be selected that have the required grain quality, phenology, harvest index, and multiple resistances to pests and diseases. Selected stable lines would be screened for ? values. Fins would be screened for ? values. Finally, selected advanced lines would be subjected to the necessary multilocation tests for yield, grain quality and other agronomic traits in the target production zone. But, should one select for ? values that are lower or higher than those of the best current cultivars? Theory and experimental tests have shown that for C3 species, ? is negatively correlated with intrinsic, integrated water-use efficiency. Water-use efficiency (W) is the ratio of crop biomass production to transpiration. A yield-component analysis might indicate that for water-limited environments one should select for greater W and thus lower ?. However, adaptation requires that W and other quantitative traits, such as time of flowering, cycle length and harvest index, be expressed at optimal intermediate levels because there are interactions among these traits. Thus, whether one should select for a higher or a lower ? depends on whether the best current varieties have a W that is greater than or less than the optimal value that is appropriate for a given target production environment and genetic background. What do genetic selection experiments tell us? My studies with selected cowpea lines having similar times of flowering and cycle lengths showed that grain yield was positively correlated with ? under both well-watered conditions and strongly water-limited conditions where plants were mainly supplied by water stored in the soil. The regression was linear with no indication that an optimum had been reached, suggesting that for both types of environment and this set of germplasm one may need to select for higher ?, that is lower W. In contrast, for some environments with very extreme water limitations, and species with genotypic variation in mesophyll photosynthetic capacity it may be useful to select for higher W. Selection for ? may only be useful for breeding programs that already have advanced conventional methodologies, varieties and elite lines, and sufficient resources to use the technology effectively. (author)
The effects of environment on conception rate and litter size, and of the goat status and age in the preceding season on the time of oestrus appearance were studied. Furthermore, the effect of season of kidding and daily milk production at the occurrence of oestrus on 'days open' was examined. Environmental factors such as temperature, humidity, age of goat or management and feeding could not account for the variation in reproductive behaviour. Ovarian activity monitored for 53 weeks showed that: there was a short period of anoestrus from late March to early July; conventional methods of heat detection are inadequate; there was an irregular heat wave in July which was not followed by repeated cycles; and the regular breeding season for the Damascus goat is in autumn (September to December) and the average length of the cycle is 21 days. The duration of oestrus was studied in parous and non-parous goats following oestrus synchronization with progesterone analogue and PMSG. Overt oestrus appeared 31.1 h (range 24-48 h) after the removal of sponges, and continued for 36-44 h. Its duration was somewhat longer in parous compared to non-parous goats. Serum progesterone levels correlated with oestrus detection by vasectomized males. Milk and blood samples were collected at regular intervals starting three days post-partum to study post-partum anoestrus in Chios sheep. Progesterone assays, carried out using skimmed milk and blood serum, showed that first ovulation occurred apm, showed that first ovulation occurred approximately within 30 days post-partum. Progesterone levels were much higher in serum than in skimmed milk. It is suggested that Chios sheep have ovulations during the suckling period although overt oestrus could not always be detected by vasectomized males. 50 refs, 8 figs, 7 tabs
Jeong, Hyeon-Soo; Kim, Dae-Won; Chun, Se-Yoon; Sung, Samsun; Kim, Hyeon-Jeong; Cho, Seoae; Kim, Heebal; Oh, Sung-Jong
Indigenous (native) breeds of livestock have higher disease resistance and adaptation to the environment due to high genetic diversity. Even though their extinction rate is accelerated due to the increase of commercial breeds, natural disaster, and civil war, there is a lack of well-established databases for the native breeds. Thus, we constructed the native pig and chicken breed database (NPCDB) which integrates available information on the breeds from around the world. It is a nonprofit public database aimed to provide information on the genetic resources of indigenous pig and chicken breeds for their conservation. The NPCDB (http://npcdb.snu.ac.kr/) provides the phenotypic information and population size of each breed as well as its specific habitat. In addition, it provides information on the distribution of genetic resources across the country. The database will contribute to understanding of the breed's characteristics such as disease resistance and adaptation to environmental changes as well as the conservation of indigenous genetic resources. PMID:25178289
This is the first in a series of lessons specifically designed to instruct individuals without any formal training in genetics or statistics about the science of corn breeding. Individuals with formal training in genetics or statistics but without any training in plant breeding also may benefit from these lessons.
Brno : Mendel university of agriculture and forestry, 2009. s. 18-18. [34th Annual meeting of the European society for new methods in agricultural research. 25.08.2009-29.08.2009, Brno] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : Animal breeding * Genomics * Farm animal s Subject RIV: GI - Animal Husbandry ; Breeding
Parker, Heidi G
A rose may be a rose by any other name, but when you call a dog a poodle it becomes a very different animal than if you call it a bulldog. Both the poodle and the bulldog are examples of dog breeds of which there are >400 recognized worldwide. Breed creation has played a significant role in shaping the modern dog from the length of his leg to the cadence of his bark. The selection and line-breeding required to maintain a breed has also reshaped the genome of the dog, resulting in a unique genetic pattern for each breed. The breed-based population structure combined with extensive morphologic variation and shared human environments have made the dog a popular model for mapping both simple and complex traits and diseases. In order to obtain the most benefit from the dog as a genetic system, it is necessary to understand the effect structured breeding has had on the genome of the species. That is best achieved by looking at genomic analyses of the breeds, their histories, and their relationships to each other. PMID:22231497