WorldWideScience
1

Breeding Practices in Sheep Farming  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The sheep is an important economic livestock species, contributing greatly to the Indian economy, especially in arid, semi arid and mountain areas. The current population in world is 1110.78 millions, around 44.85 millions (1987 sheeps in India (ICAR., 2002. Sheeps are mostly reared for meat and wool. The average annual wool production per sheep is between 3.5 to 5.5 kg of fine quality wool in Australia, New Zealand and U.S.S.R., where as in India except Magra sheep which annually yield more than 2 kg wool having staple length 5.8 cm, the average of rest of the wool produced is less than 1.0 kg per sheep of inferior quality (Banerjee G.C., 1998. Therefore many farmers in southern India adapted sheep rearing for meat production than for wool production. For yielding more production from sheep farming one should have sound knowledge of general information related to the reproduction and different breeding practices. [Vet. World 2009; 2(1.000: 43-44

M.A. Shejal

2009-02-01

2

Differentiation among Spanish sheep breeds using microsatellites  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Genetic variability at 18 microsatellites was analysed on the basis of individual genotypes in five Spanish breeds of sheep – Churra, Latxa, Castellana, Rasa-Aragonesa and Merino -, with Awassi also being studied as a reference breed. The degree of population subdivision calculated between Spanish breeds from FST diversity indices was around 7% of total variability. A high degree of reliability was obtained for individual-breed assignment from the 18 l...

Primitivo Fermín; Bayón Yolanda; Arranz Juan-José

2001-01-01

3

Selective breeding for scrapie resistance in sheep  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available It is well known that the susceptibility of sheep to scrapie is determined by the host’s prion protein gene (PRNP. PRNP polymorphisms at codons 136 (alanine, A/valine, V, 154 (histidine, H/arginine, R and 171 (glutamine, Q/histidine, H/arginine, R are the main determinants of sheep susceptibility/resistance to classical scrapie. There are four major variants of the wild-type ARQ allele: VRQ, AHQ, ARH and ARR. Breeding programs have been developed in the European Union and the USA to increase the frequency of the resistant ARR allele while decreasing the frequency of the susceptible VRQ allele in sheep populations. In Brazil, little PRNP genotyping data are available for sheep, and thus far, no controlled breeding scheme for scrapie has been implemented. This review will focus on important epidemiological aspects of scrapie and the use of genetic resistance as a tool in breeding programs to control the disease.

Cristina Santos Sotomaior

2012-11-01

4

Milk yield of some Croatian sheep breeds  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Among the most important breeds of sheep, used for the milk production in Croatia, are the sheep from Pag, Bra?, Cres, Istrian and Travnik?s sheep, different crossbreeds and, recently, East Friesian sheep. The aim of the research was to determine the genotype effect on lactation period, milk yield and protein and fat content, which are important in cheese making. The longest lactation period (213 days had East Friesian sheep, while the highest total milk production (294 kg and the highest production of milk fat (13.38 kg and proteins (11.88 kg had crossbreeds (Cres sheep x East Friesian x Awassi. However, the highest content of milk fat (8.12 and 7.81% and proteins (6.36 and 6.26% were established in Istrian and Pag sheep milk. The longest milking period (145 days and the shortest suckling period (28 days was found in Pag sheep, while the longest suckling period was found in Istra (78 days and East Friesian (74 days sheep. The least milk in suckling period (17.46 kg or 13.38% was sucked by lambs of Pag sheep, and the most by East Friesian (111.18 kg or 39.39% and Istra sheep lambs (94.3 kg or 42.95%.

Kristijan Pandek

2005-01-01

5

Mediterranean breeds of cattle, sheep and goats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Breeds of cattle, sheep and goats in the Mediterranean region are considered. Cattle: original longhorned breeds in Spain, Portugal and southern France; original shorthorned breeds in North Africa, the eastern Mediterranean and Sardinia; Grey Steppe in Balkan lowlands and central and southern Italy; Brown Swiss and its crosses in parts of Spain, northern Italy, north-west Turkey and the Maghreb; Simmental in Yugoslavia and Hungary; Friesian now dominant in western Europe and spreading in North Africa, the Near East and eastern Europe. Sheep: original coarse woolled thin tailed breeds in Algeria, Morocco, parts of Spain, Portugal, Italy and the Balkans; Merino in Spain has produced new breeds in Portugal, southern France, and Italy and is now being used in the Balkans, Turkey and Egypt; fat tailed coarse woolled breeds in Africa and Asia from Tunisia to Turkey. Goats: short eared dairy breeds in Spain and Italy; black, long haired, lop eared, screw horned goats from Turkey to North Africa; Maltese (dairy) goats in several countries. (author). 3 refs, 1 tab

6

Selective breeding for scrapie resistance in sheep  

OpenAIRE

It is well known that the susceptibility of sheep to scrapie is determined by the host’s prion protein gene (PRNP). PRNP polymorphisms at codons 136 (alanine, A/valine, V), 154 (histidine, H/arginine, R) and 171 (glutamine, Q/histidine, H/arginine, R) are the main determinants of sheep susceptibility/resistance to classical scrapie. There are four major variants of the wild-type ARQ allele: VRQ, AHQ, ARH and ARR. Breeding programs have been developed in the European Union and the USA to inc...

Cristina Santos Sotomaior; Fernanda Trentini Lopes Ribeiro; Rüdiger Daniel Ollhoff

2012-01-01

7

Genomic breed prediction in New Zealand sheep.  

Science.gov (United States)

BackgroundTwo genetic marker-based methods are compared for the use in breed prediction, using a New Zealand sheep resource. The methods were a genomic selection (GS) method, using genomic BLUP, and a regression method (Regp) using the allele frequencies estimated from a subset of purebred animals. Four breed proportions, Romney, Coopworth, Perendale and Texel, were predicted, using Illumina OvineSNP50 genotypes.ResultsBoth methods worked well with correlations of predicted proportions and recorded proportions ranging between 0.91 and 0.97 across methods and prediction breeds, except for the Regp method for Perendales, where the correlation was 0.85. The Regp method gives predictions that appear as a gradient (when viewed as the first few principal components of the genomic relatedness matrix), decreasing away from the breed centre. In contrast the GS method gives predictions dominated by the breeds of the closest relatives in the training set. Some Romneys appear close to the main Perendale group, which is why the Regp method worked less well for predicting Perendale proportion. The GS method works better than the Regp method when the breed groups do not form tight, distinct clusters, but is less robust to breed errors in the training set (for predicting relatives of those animals). Predictions were found to be similar to those obtained using STRUCTURE software, especially those using Regp. The methods appear to overpredict breed proportions in animals that are far removed from the training set. It is suggested that the training set should include animals spanning the range where predictions are made.ConclusionsBreeds can be predicted using either of the two methods investigated. The choice of method will depend on the structure of the breeds in the population. The use of genomic selection methodology for breed prediction appears promising. As applied, it worked well for predicting proportions in animals that were predominantly of the breed types present in the training set, or to put it another way, that were in the range of genetic diversity represented by the training set. Therefore, it would be advisable that the training set covered the breed diversity of where predictions will be made. PMID:25223795

Dodds, Ken G; Auvray, Benoît; Newman, Sheryl-Anne N; McEwan, John C

2014-09-16

8

Polymorphism of ?-lacto globulin gene in Barki sheep breed  

OpenAIRE

?-LG gene polymorphism at the DNA level has been analyzed by PCR-RFLP and reported two genetic variants of the ? -LG gene in Pag native and Leccese sheep breeds. However, no study has been reported in Barki Egyptian local sheep breed regarding ? -LG polymorphism at DNA level. The association of ?- LG polymorphism with milk production and manufacturing properties of the cheese in sheep have been extensively studied. However, the results are conflicting, ...

El-Hanafy A.A.; Sabir J.S.M.; Mutawakil M.H.Z.; Elsoud Abo M.E.; Abdel-Sadek M.A.

2012-01-01

9

Fiber Quality of Iranian Carpet-Wool Sheep Breeds  

OpenAIRE

This experiment was aimed to identify characteristics and comparative merits of Iranian sheep wool breeds. Fiber characteristics of 75 male and 137 female of 1, 2, 3 and 4 yr of age belonging to Afshari, Zandi, Mehrabani, Lori, and Baluchi sheep breeds were studied. Samples of fiber were taken from the left midside of sheep and analyzed using standard objective measurements for staple length (SL), mean fiber diameter (MFD), coefficient of variation of fiber diameter (FDCV), inner coat fiber I...

Ansari-renani, H. R.

2012-01-01

10

THE DIFFERENTIATION OF SHEEP BREED BASED ON THE BODY MEASUREMENTS  

OpenAIRE

This research was carried out to make a difference and to predict genetic distance some sheep that are genetically related to each other based on the body size measurements. Nineteen bodies size of 323 sheeps of five sheep breeds; namely Barbados Black Belly Cross (BC), Garut Local (GL), Garut Composite (GC), Sumatra Composite (SC) and St. Croix Cross (SCC) were measured. Analysis of variance and canonical discriminant analysis, Mahalanobis distance, plotting canonical and dendogram were perf...

Handiwirawan, E.; Noor, R. R.; Sumantri, C.; Subandriyo

2011-01-01

11

Basic Characteristics of Some Turkish Indigenous Sheep Breeds  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Turkey is among the major sheep raising countries of the world, with sheep population over 29.4 million head. Sheep have an important place in the economy of Turkey and in the nutrition of its people. Sheep breeding in Turkey is principally based on indigenous breeds, while studies on crossing and producing new types to increase fleece, meat and milk yield have been carried out. These indigenous breeds are more resistant to disease and parasites while also being able to survive even unfavourable environments and to maintain their productivity. At present, they contribute 27.18 % to the total read meat, 8.15 % to the total milk and 59.11 % to the total leather produced in the country. Sheep breeds in Turkey can be categorized into two main groups: Fat-tailed (White Karaman "Akkaraman", Red Karaman "K z lkaraman or Morkaraman", Daglic, Awassi " vesi" and fine-tailed (K v rc k, Karayaka, Chios "Sakiz", Imroz "Gokceada. For various reasons, it has been observed that indigenous sheep genetic resources in Turkey have been damaged. Some breeds have become extinct, some is under serious threat and some may be also considered as being under threat. The fact that the some conservation projects carried out by the government agencies is already at the stage of implementation may be regarded as a hopeful start.

M. Kaymakc

2001-01-01

12

Implementation of genomic selection in UK beef and sheep breeding  

OpenAIRE

Genomic selection (GS) has been adopted by the dairy cattle breeding industry and the opportunity exists to implement this technology in UK beef and sheep breeding. However, these sectors do not appear so readily predisposed to GS implementation. Following an introduction to GS in Chapter 1, Chapter 2 investigated the structure of the little-studied UK beef breeding sector. This provided estimates of key commercial and pedigree population parameters, for use in modelling genetic gain from GS....

Todd, Darren Lindsay

2013-01-01

13

Genetic diversity in Algerian sheep breeds, using microsatellite markers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two breeds - Ouled-Djellal and Hamra (85 animals) - were genotyped for 12 microsatellites using PCR and sequencing. Allele number and frequency were calculated, and 141 different alleles were found for these microsatellites, reflecting high genetic variability within these breeds. This study is being extended to other Algerian breeds to estimate variability and genetic distances between them. In parallel, blood samples from the various breeds are being collected to build up a DNA bank. The results should support establishment of a strategy to promote the use and development of locally adapted sheep resources. (author)

14

Inbreeding in the Danish populations of five Nordic sheep breeds  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In Denmark there are small populations of five Nordic sheep breeds, two of which are Danish in origin. The purpose of this study was to estimate trends in inbreeding for these breeds. All five breeds have been recording pedigrees for decades, so pedigree completeness is adequate. The rate of inbreeding is more than 1% per generation in all breeds, and more than 2% per generation in the Danish breeds, which have no options for importing, if they aim to continue pure breeding. The Danish breeds have not allowed recent animals to contribute heavily, so the rate of coancestry is not too high (?1% per generation). However, they could use more rotation of rams between flocks to reduce the rate of inbreeding Udgivelsesdato: March

SØrensen, Anders Christian; Norberg, Elise

2008-01-01

15

Genetic analysis of growth traits in Iranian Makuie sheep breed  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Makuie sheep is a fat-tailed sheep breed which can be found in the Azerbaijan province of Iran. In 1986, a Makuie sheep breeding station was established in the city of Maku in order to breed, protect and purify this breed. The genetic parameters for birth weight, weaning weight (3 months, 6-month, 9-month and yearling weight, and average daily gain from birth to weaning traits were estimated based on 25 years of data using DFREML software. Six different models were applied and a likelihood ratio test (LRT was used to select the appropriate model. Bivariate analysis was used to define the genetic correlation between studied traits. Based on the LRT, model II was selected as an appropriate model for all studied traits. Direct heritability estimates of birth, weaning, 6-month, 9-month and yearling weights and average daily gain from birth to weaning were 0.36, 0.41, 0.48, 0.42, 0.36 and 0.37, respectively. Estimates of direct genetic correlation between birth and weaning weights, birth and 6-month weights, birth and 9-month weights, as well as between birth and yearling weights were 0.57, 0.49, 0.46 and 0.32, respectively. The results suggest there is a substantial additive genetic variability for studied traits in the Makuie sheep breed population, and the direct additive effect and maternal permanent environment variance are the main source of phenotypic variance.

Mohammad Farhadian

2012-01-01

16

On farm organic dairy sheep and goat breeding in Germany  

OpenAIRE

In the period from 1992 to 1998 the fat and protein yield of both flocks could be increased. A specific breeding strategy had an important contribution to the increase but the environmental impacts on animal productivity is enormous (e.g. the very wet summer season 1994). A wrong decision in breeding bucks (dairy sheep in 1992-1994) had an negative effect on the productivity.

Rahmann, Gerold

2002-01-01

17

The lifetime production of Bovec and Improved Bovec sheep breeds  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Production data of Bovec and Improved (with East-Friesian Bovec sheep born between years 1989 and 2006 were used for the analysis of culling dynamics and lifetime production. Lifetime production was calculated as the sum of production at each lambing (number of born and liveborn lambs and litter birth weight, weaning (number of weaned lambs and litter weaning weight or during each lactation (milk yield, fat (6.5 % and protein (5.8 % corrected milk yield (FPC; Pulina et al., 2005., and fat and protein yield for culled sheep. Animals with any missing records from the first till the last lambing, weaning or lactation were removed from the analysis. Animals that left the system of animal recording alive, due to selling or the cancellation of recording by a breeder were also excluded. Dataset included records for 2254 sheep: 1734 of Bovec and 520 of Improved Bovec breed. Data preparation and statistical analysis were performed with the use of a statistical program R (R Development Core Team, 2007. and additional packages Zelig (Imai et al., 2007; Bailey and Alimadhi, 2007; Imai et al., 2008 and lme4 (Bates and DebRoy, 2004; Bates, 2007. Results have shown that in the period ?1996 Bovec breed had on average 4.4 lactations in their lifetime, which was almost one lactation more than in Improved Bovec breed. In the period after the year 1996 the highest proportion of animals were culled in the first lactation (as expected due to culling dynamics, with slightly higher proportion in Improved Bovec breed than in Bovec breed. Lifetime number of born, liveborn and weaned lambs was higher for about one lamb in Improved Bovec breed. Lifetime lamb weight gain did not differ between breeds, due to the high frequency of early weaning in Improved Bovec breed. During lifetime, Improved Bovec sheep produced around 200 kg (~34 % more milk, around 190 kg (~32 % more FPC milk, around 12 kg (~32 % more milk fat, and around 10 kg (~34 % more milk protein than Bovec breed. However, if the mean metabolic weight of breeds is taken into account the difference in milk production amounts to only ~6 % (~2 % for FPC milk. These results show that Bovec breed has satisfactory milk production, but too low body weight for intensive milk production. On the other hand, low body weight makes this breed suitable for extensive farming in hill and mountain areas. Improved Bovec breed has good results in Slovenian conditions, due to the similarity of environmental conditions with East Friesian’s country of origin.

Gregor Gorjanc

2009-06-01

18

Amino acid composition of sheep milk from the tsigai breed  

OpenAIRE

The amino acid composition of total protein in sheep milk obtained from ewes of Tsigai breed during the grazing season (April - July) in 2002 was determined. The variation in the amounts of total protein and the dry fat-free residue in the milk produced during the grazing season exercise impact on its amino acid composition. Generally, sheep milk had higher percentage of monoaminocarbonic acids ranging from 13.1% to 13.4%. The total amount of essential amino acids increases proportionally to ...

Gerchev Gercho; Mihaylova Gyurga; Ouzounov G.

2004-01-01

19

Meat quality of South African indigenous goat and sheep breeds  

OpenAIRE

Please read the abstract in the front section of this document © 2000 University of Pretoria. All rights reserved. The copyright in this work vests in the University of Pretoria. No part of this work may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, without the prior written permission of the University of Pretoria. Please cite as follows: Tshabalala P, 2000, Meat quality of South African indigenous goat and sheep breeds, MInstAgr...

Tshabalala, Papiso

2000-01-01

20

Management of Assisted Reproduction in the Palas Merino Sheep Breed  

OpenAIRE

Sheep breeding and exploitation have been and remain an important objective, because this species may use in feeding less valuable forages and the requirements for sheltering and care are less expensive as compared to other species. Assisted reproduction, the decreasing of the interval between birth and fecund mating, the deseasonalisation of heat and births as well as the birth acceleration, might successfully contribute to the obtaining of two births per year, three births in ...

Lavinia Moise; Virgil Moise; Cosmin ?onea

2012-01-01

21

Genetic trends in South African terminal sire sheep breeds  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english Genetic trends were constructed for early growth traits in the Dormer and Ile de France terminal sire sheep breeds. The traits that were considered were birth weight, pre-weaning weight, weaning weight and post-weaning weight. However, pre-weaning weights were only available for the Ile de France br [...] eed and post-weaning weights were only available for the Dormer breed. Regressions of average annual breeding values on birth year indicated significant genetic gains in all early growth traits during the evaluation period. The average predicted direct breeding value of birth weight decreased by 0.055% per annum whereas weaning weight increased by 0.12% per annum and post-weaning weight improved by 0.32% per annum in the Dormer breed. The Ile de France registered an undesirable increase in the predicted direct breeding value of birth weight which amounted to 0.025% per annum. Predicted direct breeding values for pre-weaning weight increased at an annual rate of 0.23% and that of weaning weight by 1.21% per annum. Although adequate genetic variation for substantial genetic progress was available, only modest rates of progress were attained for all the traits in both breeds. The only possible exception was weaning weight in the Ile de France breed, which was improved at > 1% per annum. At least all changes were in the desired direction, barring the direct genetic trend for birth weight in the Ile de France breed. Breeders should be encouraged to record data consistently, as one of the major shortcomings in the data for both breeds were a lack of continuity in the submission of data to the NSIS. More informative analyses ought to be feasible if this requisite is met.

O.T., Zishiri; S.W.P., Cloete; J.J., Olivier; K., Dzama.

22

RESEARCH ON THE SHEEP BREEDING IN ORGANIC FARMING SYSTEM IN ROMANIA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Organic livestock has grown in Romania in recent years, especially after 2000, because animal breeding in organic farming system represent a niche activity for farmers. The purpose of this paper was to make a radiograph at national level as regards the sheep breeding in organic farming system. The share of organic production within total production varies according to the different animal sectors. The statistic data showed that cattle and sheep are the most popular species reared using organic production methods. The highest share is found in the sheep sector due to lower difficulties to convert to organic production. Indeed the productive system of sheep farming in the hill and mountainous areas of Romania is considered to be very close to that of organic sheep farming and this fact, gives a competitive advantage to the Romanian sheep farmers. Organic sheep breeding in Romania is based on native breeds, which are well adapted to their life environment. Most of these organic sheep farms are situated in the hill and mountains areas, places where the prevalent breed is Tsurcana. The sheep livestock farmed organically in 2010 was 58,372 heads and in present 0.70% from the sheep livestock are reared organically. Sheep breeding into organic farming system has a strong growing tendency in our country in the future and this is confirmed by the fact that in 2011 the number of sheep and goats farmed organically reached to 168,593 heads.

Ion R?DUCU??

2012-01-01

23

ESSAY ON ESTIMATION OF UNDEMONSTRATIVE SPARE OUTPUTS DISCLOSED BY REPRODUCTION BIOTECHNOLOGIES IN SHEEP BREEDING  

OpenAIRE

Among genetic species of farm animals sheep has the highest artificial biodiversity. There are plenty of breeds due to the many kinds of biological production of human interest and to the large areas from plains to mountains and fro Equator to Poles engaged in sheep breeding. Sheep are producing wool (thin, meddle or thick), lambs, mouton (lean or fat), milk, pelts, furs or leather, each of them acting as single selection criterion or as component of selection indexes. Each kind of resulted p...

Paraschivescu, Marcel Theodor; S?onea, Alexandru; Bogdan, Alexandru; Paraschivescu, Marcel; Toba?, George Florea

2012-01-01

24

Analysis of Genetic Diversity on 15 Sheep Breeds in Xinjiang of China  

OpenAIRE

The genetic variability and genetic relationship of the fifteen sheep breeds were studied. The genotypes of 14 indigenous Chinese sheep breeds and one crossbreed of wild sheep were investigated using 13 microsatellite DNA markers recommended by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the International Society of Animal Genetics (ISAG) through PCR. The allele frequency, heterozygosity and Genetic Differentiation Index (Fst) were computed to estimate the...

Tang, C. W.; Xing, W. T.; Shi, L.; Fang, Y.; Liu, W. J.; Huang, X. X.; Yu, X; Brown, M. A.

2011-01-01

25

Bovicola ovis and Melophagus ovinus: Spatial distribution on Menz breed Sheep  

OpenAIRE

This study was done from September 2006 to May 2007. A total of 105 Menz breed sheep from Yemenze Gera Midir district in the Amhara National Regional State, Ethiopia. The spatial distribution of sheep keds (Melophagus ovinus) and chewing lice (Bovicola ovis) on Menz breed sheep were examined which were naturally infested. The densities if sheep keds and lice were determined through counting after parting of the fleece/wool at five (5) points on a length of 10 cm areas of six (6) different reg...

Mersha Chanie

2011-01-01

26

A review of research progress of FecB gene in Chinese breeds of sheep.  

Science.gov (United States)

FecB gene is a major gene responsible for high prolificacy firstly identified in Booroola Merino sheep. Subsequently, many other aspects of the FecB including endocrinology, fetal and postnatal growth were studied. A forced PCR-RFLP method was performed to screen some Chinese breeds or strains of sheep to determine if FecB gene is responsible for their high prolificacies. The FecB gene was present in some Chinese prolific breeds of sheep, such as Huyang, Small Tail Han (STH), Cele, Duolang sheep and Chinese Merino prolific strains, but absent in the low prolific sheep breeds such as Mongolia, Chinese Merino, Tan, Xinjiang, Hulunbeier, Inner Mongolia Fine Wool and Northeastern Half-fuzz Sheep. It has been confirmed that FecB gene was associated with high prolificacy in some Chinese breeds or strains of sheep. Moreover, introducing FecB gene to some low prolific breeds of sheep by crossbreeding system can improve the reproductive traits. PMID:19201555

Hua, Guo-Hua; Yang, Li-Guo

2009-11-01

27

THE BREED TRACEABILITY OF SHEEP MEAT BY USING MOLECULAR GENETICS METHODS: PRELIMINARY RESULTS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Safety and quality foods of animal origin are extremely important for consumers. The aim of this work was to evaluate the feasibility of a method to track the breed origin of sheep meat all along the production chain using molecular genetics tools. A total of 800 samples evenly distributed among seven Italian sheep breeds have been typed at 19 STR markers, together with 90 samples from both imported sheep animals and local crossbred animals withdrawn at slaughterhouses. A maximum likelihood assignment test was adopted to evaluate STR ability to allocate samples to their true breed of origin. Sarda animals were all correctly allocated, as well as more than 98% of samples from the other breeds. Only slightly worst allocation performances were observed for imported and crossbred animals. Preliminary results seem quite promising, though further analyses will be needed in order to better understand the statistical power of such an assignment test before implementation in the sheep meat production chain.

E. Ciani

2011-04-01

28

Five Ovine Mitochondrial Lineages Identified From Sheep Breeds of the Near East  

OpenAIRE

Archaeozoological evidence indicates that sheep were first domesticated in the Fertile Crescent. To search for DNA sequence diversity arising from previously undetected domestication events, this survey examined nine breeds of sheep from modern-day Turkey and Israel. A total of 2027 bp of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence from 197 sheep revealed a total of 85 haplotypes and a high level of genetic diversity. Six individuals carried three haplotypes, which clustered separately from the known ...

Meadows, Jennifer R. S.; Cemal, Ibrahim; Karaca, Orhan; Gootwine, Elisha; Kijas, James W.

2007-01-01

29

Effect of breed-type on carcass weight and composition in sheep.  

Science.gov (United States)

The relative rate of increase in the carcass and its tissues with increasing empty body weight (EBW) or carcass weight respectively, was studied in male sheep from the Dorset Horn (29), Hampshire (21) and Sudan Desert sheep (31). The rate at which the carcass, muscle and bone increased in weight was the same in all breeds but the Desert sheep deposited fat at a slower rate than the other 2 breeds. At an equally adjusted EBW the Desert sheep had lighter carcasses than the Dorset Horn or Hampshire sheep. Desert sheep had more bone than the other 2 breeds at an equally adjusted cold carcass weight or muscle plus bone weight. At an equally adjusted total carcass fat weight the Desert sheep had significant (P < 0.01) more intermuscular and internal fat but less subcutaneous fat than the other 2 breeds. Future improvement plans of the Desert sheep may be directed towards reducing bone and increasing muscle content of the carcass. PMID:552668

Gaili, E S

1979-11-01

30

Microsatellite based genetic structure of regional transboundary Istrian sheep breed populations in Croatia and Slovenia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Istrian dairy sheep is a local breed essential for the identity and development of the Northern- Adriatic karstic region through high-quality products, primarily the hard sheep artisanal cheese. Border changes fragmented the initial Istrian dairy sheep population in three genetically isolated sub-populations in Italy (1000 animals, Slovenia (1150 animals and Croatia (2500 animals. Due to the drastic reduction of their population sizes and fragmentation, the populations in Croatia and Slovenia are included in governmentally supported conservation programs. The initial subpopulation in Italy was restored after near extinction with stock from Slovenia, and is used today in meat production. The aim of this study was to provide an initial understanding of the current genetic structure and distribution of the genetic variability that exists in Istrian sheep by analysing individuals sampled in two regional groups of Istrian sheep from Croatia and Slovenia. Cres island sheep and Lika pramenka sheep were used as out-groups for comparison. Genetic differentiation was analysed using factorial correspondence analysis and structure clustering over 26 microsatellite loci for a total of 104 sheep belonging to three breeds from Croatia and Slovenia. Factorial correspondence analysis and clustering-based structure analysis both showed three distinct populations: Lika pramenka sheep, Cres island sheep and Istrian sheep. We did not find a marked genetic divergence of the regional groups of Istrian sheep. Istrian sheep regional group from Slovenia showed lower genetic variability compared to the one from Croatia. Variability and structure information obtained in this study considered alongside with socio-cultural-contexts and economic goals for the Istrian sheep reared in Croatia and Slovenia indicate that the cross-border exchange of genetic material of animals carrying private alleles among populations would maintain these alleles at low frequencies and minimize the inbreeding rate.

Beatriz Gutierrez-Gil

2015-02-01

31

The prevalence of ovine herpesvirus-2 in 4 sheep breeds from different regions in South Africa  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english About 90 % of bovine malignant catarrhal fever (BMCF) PCR-positive cases in South Africa are caused by alcelaphine herpesvirus-1 (AlHV-1) and the other 10 % by ovine herpesvirus-2 (OvHV-2). The prevalence of OvHV-2 in different sheep breeds in South Africa was determined in order to investigate whet [...] her the lower incidence of BMCF caused by OvHV-2 in comparison with AlHV-1 can be ascribed to a low incidence of the virus in sheep. A single-tube hemi-nested PCR was developed, evaluated and applied to detect OvHV-2 DNA. The prevalence of the virus in 4 sheep breeds from various regions in South Africa was shown to be 77 %. No statistically significant difference was found amongst the sheep breeds tested.

C W, Bremer.

32

The effects of selective breeding against scrapie susceptibility on the genetic variability of the Latxa Black-Faced sheep breed  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Breeding sheep populations for scrapie resistance could result in a loss of genetic variability. In this study, the effect on genetic variability of selection for increasing the ARR allele frequency was estimated in the Latxa breed. Two sources of information were used, pedigree and genetic polymorphisms (fifteen microsatellites). The results based on the genealogical information were conditioned by a low pedigree completeness level that revealed the interest of al...

Legarra Andrés; Parada Analia; Alfonso Leopoldo; Ugarte Eva; Arana Ana

2006-01-01

33

Genetic variability of six French meat sheep breeds in relation to their genetic management  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Some demographic parameters, the genetic structure and the evolution of the genetic variability of six French meat sheep breeds were analysed in relation with their management. Four of these breeds are submitted to more or less intense selection: the Berrichon du Cher (BCH), Blanc du Massif Central (BMC), Charollais (CHA) and Limousin (LIM); the other two breeds are under conservation: the Roussin de La Hague (RLH) and Solognot (SOL). Genealogical data of the recorded anima...

Coralie Danchin-Burge; Verrier Étienne; De Hubert Rochambeau; Sophie Moureaux; Laurent Griffon; Marie Huby

2003-01-01

34

Study Regarding Body Weight of Yearlings and Mature Indigenous Sheep Breeds Reared in the Western Part of Romania  

OpenAIRE

Aim of the present study was to determine the body weight in indigenous adult sheep breeds, reared in the western part of Romania. The study was carried out on a number of 3457 adult sheep (rams and breeding ewes), from following breeds: Turcana – 1511 heads; Tigaie – 1573 heads and Transylvanian Merino - 373 heads. Measurements were made in 22 farms from the counties Arad, Bihor, Timis and Caras-Severin. Animals were separated into four group for each breed studied: gimmers...

Dinu Gavojdian; Ioan P?deanu; Sorin Voia; Ioan Bratu

2010-01-01

35

Genome-wide analysis of the world's sheep breeds reveals high levels of historic mixture and strong recent selection  

OpenAIRE

Through their domestication and subsequent selection, sheep have been adapted to thrive in a diverse range of environments. To characterise the genetic consequence of both domestication and selection, we genotyped 49,034 SNP in 2,819 animals from a diverse collection of 74 sheep breeds. We find the majority of sheep populations contain high SNP diversity and have retained an effective population size much higher than most cattle or dog breeds, suggesting domestication occurred from a broad ge...

Kijas, J. W.; Lenstra, J. A.; Hayes, B.; Boitard, S.; Porto Neto, L. R.; San Cristobal, M.; Servin, B.; Mcculloch, R.; Whan, V.; Gietzen, K.; Paiva, S.; Barendse, W.; Ciani, E.; Raadsma, H.; Mcewan, J.

2012-01-01

36

Economic values for traits in breeding objectives for sheep in the tropics: impact of tangible and intangible benefits  

OpenAIRE

In traditional management systems in the tropics, sheep constitute a source of easily convertible capital for financing purposes and insurance, a means of cultural and ceremonial functions, and a source of prestige, meat, manure and skins. In this study, breeding objectives were derived for an indigenous tropical sheep breed under pastoral production. Economic values were calculated for five situations: (i) base accounting for both tangible and intangible roles of sheep; (ii) accounting for m...

Kosgey, I. S.; Arendonk, J. A. M.; Baker, R. L.

2004-01-01

37

Identification of smallholder farmers and pastoralists' preferences for sheep breeding traits: choice model approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

Identification of breeding objective traits pertinent to specific production environments with the involvement of target beneficiaries is crucial to the success of a breed improvement program. A choice experiment was conducted in four locations representing different production systems and agro-ecologies that are habitat to four indigenous sheep breeds (Afar, Bonga, Horro and Menz) of Ethiopia with the objective of identifying farmers'/pastoralists' preferences for sheep breeding traits. Following a synthesis of secondary information and diagnostic surveys, two communities per location consisting of 60 households each having at least four breeding ewes were identified. Producers' priority attributes used in the choice sets were identified through in-depth production system studies conducted from December 2007 to March 2008. On the basis of prior information, four to seven attributes were used to design choice sets with different profiles in order to capture results that mimic real life of the different communities. The attributes and levels chosen for the sheep profile were as follows: body size (large/small), coat color (brown/white/black), tail type (good/bad) for both rams and ewes; horn (polled/horned) and libido (active/poor) for rams; and lambing interval (three lambings in 2 years/two lambings in 2 years time), mothering ability (good mother/bad mother), twinning rate (twin bearer/single bearer) and milk yield (two cups per milking/one cup per milking) for ewes. A fractional factorial design was implemented to construct the alternatives included in the choice sets. The design resulted in a randomized selection of 48 sheep profiles (24 sets) for both sexes, which were grouped into four blocks with six choice sets each. An individual respondent was presented with one of the four blocks to make his/her choices. Results indicate that producers' trait preferences were heterogeneous except for body size in rams and mothering ability in ewes where nearly homogeneous preferences were investigated. In the pastoral production system, attention was given to coat color of both breeding rams and ewes, favoring brown and white colors over black. Ram libido influenced producers' decisions in Bonga, Horro and Menz areas. The influence of milk yield and twinning on respondents' decision making was high in Afar and Horro, respectively. Breeders in all areas attempt to combine production and reproduction traits as well as they can in order to maximize benefits from their sheep. The elicited measurable objective traits were used to design alternative community-based sheep breeding plans for the four indigenous sheep breeds in their production environments that have been implemented since. PMID:22440475

Duguma, G; Mirkena, T; Haile, A; Okeyo, A M; Tibbo, M; Rischkowsky, B; Sölkner, J; Wurzinger, M

2011-12-01

38

Investigation of the genetic diversity among native Turkish sheep breeds using mtDNA polymorphisms.  

Science.gov (United States)

A total of 135 unrelated sheep from nine Turkish native sheep breeds (Dagl?c, Kivircik, Imroz, Chios, Morkaraman, Ivesi, Hemsin, Karayaka and Akkaraman) were investigated to determinate the maternal genetic diversity using a sequence of a 531-bp segment of the mtDNA control region. Analysis of the mtDNA control region sequence revealed 63 haplotypes and 53 polymorphic sites. Haplotype diversity, nucleotide diversity and the average number of nucleotide differences were estimated to be 0.9496 ± 0.011, 0.01407 ± 0.00060 and 7.456, respectively. The sequence analysis also revealed high level of genetic diversity among the native Turkish breeds. These breeds were grouped into three major maternal haplogroups: A, B and C, with one animal belonging from the Akkaraman breed to the rare haplogroup E. Irregular shape of mismatch distribution of haplogroup C could be an indicator that haplogroup C may represent different haplogroups. Contrarily to previous studies carried out on Turkish native breeds, majority of animals grouped in haplogroup A in the present study. This result and the irregular shape of mismatch curve of haplogroup C indicate that genetic structure of Turkish native sheep breeds could be more complicated than it is thought. PMID:23135986

Oner, Yasemin; Calvo, Jorge Hugo; Elmaci, Cengiz

2013-04-01

39

Bovicola ovis and Melophagus ovinus: Spatial distribution on Menz breed Sheep  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study was done from September 2006 to May 2007. A total of 105 Menz breed sheep from Yemenze Gera Midir district in the Amhara National Regional State, Ethiopia. The spatial distribution of sheep keds (Melophagus ovinus and chewing lice (Bovicola ovis on Menz breed sheep were examined which were naturally infested. The densities if sheep keds and lice were determined through counting after parting of the fleece/wool at five (5 points on a length of 10 cm areas of six (6 different regions (neck, shoulder, belly, back, rump and flank on both sides of the body which sum up sixty (60 points of count. The percentage values of Bovicola ovis distribution on the sheep for the inspected regions were 57.5% on shoulder, 53.32% neck, 51% rump, 49.25% flank, 45.36% belly and 45.28 back. For Melophagus ovinus infested sheep, the sites more parasitized were flank, shoulder, rump, neck, belly and back with proportion of 69, 60.12, 51, 42, 33 and 21, respectively in order of importance. The minimum and maximum keds and lice count on a sheep at a time were varied between 0 to 178 and 0 to 1050 respectively. However, most frequently the number of keds and lice were range between 18-30 and 0-100 respectively. Infestation of sheep with sheep keds has statistical significant difference among the different regions examined and no statistical significant difference exist for lice at 95% confidence interval (CI and p value of less than 0.05.

Mersha Chanie

2011-12-01

40

Genetic relationships and admixture among sheep breeds from Northern Spain assessed using microsatellites  

OpenAIRE

Although many research papers have studied diversity and differentiation within livestock species, genetic relationships among neighboring populations remain poorly understood. Here we apply recent methodologies to analyze the polymorphism of 14 microsatellites in 238 unrelated individuals belonging to six sheep breeds from Northern Spain to ascertain their historical relationships and the relative genetic contributions existing between populations. Individual genotype...

A?lvarez, Isabel; Royo, L. J.; Ferna?ndez, Itziar; Gutie?rrez, J. P.; Go?mez, Enrique; Goyache, Fe?lix

2010-01-01

41

Long-term observation of subclinical chronic copper poisoning in two sheep breeds.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fourteen castrated male sheep of two breeds, the Mutton Merino (MMB) and Blackhead Suffolk cross breed (BSC), were exposed to an oral copper (Cu) intake of 3.7 mg/day per kg body weight for 84 days (high Cu group, HCu), and 11 castrated male sheep received a daily oral Cu intake of 0.16 mg/day per kg body weight (controls). Liver Cu concentration was measured in liver biopsies until 2.7 years after Cu overdose. Haematologic parameters, plasma Cu, enzymes and metabolites were analysed and post-mortem examinations were carried out. No haemolytic crises occurred. The highest liver Cu concentrations (133-677 mg/kg wet weight) were measured in HCu sheep around day 110 with significantly higher values in BSC than in MMB. The very slow decreases of liver Cu concentration of HCu sheep after day 215 showed individual half-life periods of 175 +/- 91 days. A progressive Cu retention in the liver of HCu sheep during Cu supplementation indicates strong Cu binding and storage in the liver. High values of glutamate dehydrogenase (20-940 U/l) measured frequently until day 700 and a diminished plasma clearance of bromosulphthalein as well as pathohistological findings of focal liver necrosis confirm the markedly chronic character of Cu poisoning. PMID:11599680

Humann-Ziehank, E; Coenen, M; Ganter, M; Bickhardt, K

2001-09-01

42

Program of assisted reproduction in the segureña sheep breed  

OpenAIRE

The results of the assisted reproduction program by means of the artificial insemination using fresh semen obtained in the ram centre of the National Association of Breeders of the Segureña Sheep (ANCOS) are shown. The index of fertility obtained is slightly higher than 40 percent and the index of prolificacy over 150 percent, standing out that these results do not correspond to a experimental station or intensive herds, in spite of this they have been obtained in hard conditions and clearly...

Puntas, J.; Cabello, A.; Vallecillo, A.; Garci?a, G.; Leo?n Jurado, J. M.; Delgado-bermejo, J. V.; Barba Capote, C. J.

2005-01-01

43

Short communication: study of immune parameters in three Greek dairy sheep breeds during the periparturient period.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of the present study was to evaluate whether immunosuppression occurs in 3 different Greek dairy sheep breeds during the periparturient period. A total of 33 ewes from 3 breeds [i.e., the low-producing Boutsiko breed (n = 11), which is highly adaptable to harsh environments; the high-producing but environmentally fragile Chios breed (n = 11); and an intermediate synthetic breed (50% Boutsiko, 25% Arta, and 25% Chios, n = 11)] were used. Blood samples were collected at 18 and 2 d before parturition and at 15 d after parturition. Total cell-associated and membrane-bound urokinase plasminogen activator (U-PA) activity, free U-PA binding sites on cellular membranes, and superoxide anion (SA) production by activated phagocytes were determined. Results indicated that all immune parameters measured remained constant during the periparturient period for the Boutsiko breed. In contrast, there were reductions in total cell-associated and membrane-bound U-PA activity by both monocytes-macrophages and neutrophils and in SA production by monocytes-macrophages at d 2 before parturition for the Chios breed. In the synthetic breed, there were reductions in total cell-associated and membrane-bound U-PA activity by monocytes-macrophages and in SA production by both monocytes-macrophages and neutrophils at d 15 after parturition. Thus, mild immunosuppression during the periparturient period was observed in the 2 breeds with the highest milk production. PMID:18024748

Theodorou, G; Fragou, S; Chronopoulou, R; Kominakis, A; Rogdakis, E; Politis, I

2007-12-01

44

COMPARATIVE PHYSIOLOGICAL AND MOLECULAR STUDY OF SOME SHEEP BREEDS IN SAUDI ARABIA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Naemi, Heri, Najdi and Sawakni sheep breeds inhabiting Kingdom of Saudi Arabia were studied on both physiological and molecular bases. Native polyacrylamide gel-electrophoreses for two enzymes Malate Dehydrogenase (Mdh and Malic Enzyme (Me recorded 5 isoenzyme loci from which 4 were polymorphic and 1 was monomorphic. Mdh showed three fractions, the first was recorded in Sawakni and Najdi breeds, the second was monomorphic and was recorded in all breeds while the third was recorded in all except Heri. Malic enzyme showed two polymorphic fractions, the first was recorded in Heri and Naemi and the second was recorded in all breeds. Both metabolic enzymes activities were higher in Sawakni than in the native breeds. 607, 227, 498 and 595 bp nucleotides from CO1, ND4, cytb genes and d-loop, respectively, were sequenced with no base substitutions among and/or within breeds except for ND4 gene and d-loop. The molecular tree clustered the three breeds other than Naemi in one group and Naemi was basal. Isoenzymes therefore, discriminate clearly the studied breeds although they are not as accurate as molecular tools indicating their applicability with more efficiency in physiology than in genetics while the d-loop was efficient in discriminating the studied breeds phynotypically.

Mohammad S. AL-Harbi

2013-01-01

45

Growth Rate, Slaughter Traits and Meat Quality of Lambs of Three Alpine Sheep Breeds  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A fattening and slaughter trial was carried out on 36 lambs of Alpagota, Brogna and Foza sheep breeds native of Veneto Region Alps (six male and six female lambs per breed divided in three groups depending on the type of feed used: pasture, hay and concentrate, hay and concentrate supplemented with conjugated linoleic acid. Lambs were slaughtered at 225 days (mean weight: 30 kg. Infra-vitam and post-mortem data were analyzed by using a linear model that included the cross-classified effect of breed, sex, feeding system and age of lambs as linear covariate. The three breeds showed some specificity: Foza lambs, of both sexes, were larger-sized and faster growing, with a lower incidence of gastro-intestinal tract and lower cooking losses of the hind-leg samples compared to the other two middle-sized breeds. Alpagota breed tended to be leaner, with heavier shin and greater cooking losses than Brogna breed.In conclusion the three Alpine breeds of the Veneto Region confirmed to be able to produce lamb carcasses and meat with valuable characteristics that can be exploited through typical products and food preparation in local markets and gastronomy, according to the tradition. The valorisation of these productions can be an important instrument for in situ conservation of these breeds.

Erika Pellattiero

2011-10-01

46

Characterization and conservation of the Malpura sheep breed  

OpenAIRE

Observations were recorded on morphologica1 characteristics, body weights and body measurements of 344 Malpura sheep belonging to nine age groups during a survey conducted in 18 randomly selected villages of three blocks of the Chittorgarh district of Rajasthan. The body weights at birth, 1, 3, 6 and 9 months and adult weight averaged 3.3, 6.7±0.88, 12.9 ± 0.71, 16.4 ± 0.71, 21.0 ± 1.00 and 31.4 kg respectively. Height, body length, chest girth, paunch girth, face length, face width, tail...

Mehta, S. C.; Vij, P. K.; Joshi, B. K.; Sahai, R.; Nivsarkar, A. E.

1995-01-01

47

Determination of Animal Unit Size and Animal Unit Requirement of Fashandy Sheep Breed Grazing on Rangelands (Case Study: Taleghan)  

OpenAIRE

Information on animal requirements for determination of rangeland grazing capacity is essential. Animal requirements depend on its live weight, age, physiological condition and quality of available forage. There are more than 20 sheep breeds with different body sizes grazing in various climatic zone's rangelands of Iran, so animal unit equivalent of each breed should be determined independently. In this research, live weight of animal unit of Fashandy sheep based on average live weight of 3 a...

Arzani, H.; Mosayebi, M.; Nikkhah, A.

2009-01-01

48

Effect of Using Melatonin Implants on Postpartum Reproductive Indices in Tigaia Sheep Breed  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Investigations were carried out in a commercial farm from Turnu, Arad County, on a number of 110 indigenous adultewes from the Tigaia breed. It is estimated by some authors that administration of subcutaneous melatonin implantsduring a period of 30 days, in lactating or dry ewes, would improve the reproductive performances in some sheepbreeds. Subcutaneous melatonin implants (Melovin were inserted to the ewes in doses of 18 mg. Current research,emphasized treated that from indigenous Tigaia breed, can be obtained superior reproduction indexes if the animalsare treated with melatonin implants with 35 days before the mating season, differences from the untreated groupbeing significantly (p<0.001. However, in sheep treated used melatonin implants, the lambing interval were reducedwith 40 to 50%. It seems that use of melatonin implants Melovin type near the beginning of normal breeding season,increases the reproductive performance of adult ewes from the Tigaia breed.

Ioan Padeanu

2012-10-01

49

Phylogenetic Relationships of Three Italian Merino-Derived Sheep Breeds Evaluated through a Complete Mitogenome Analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

In Italy, the crisis of the wool industry triggered the necessity to reconvert the two traditional Merino-derived breeds, Gentile di Puglia and Sopravissana, to meat production, by creating the Merinizzata Italiana. The aim of the present study was to assess the genetic diversity of these three Italian Merino-derived (IMd) breeds by examining the molecular information encoded in the maternally-inherited mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). A parallel molecular investigation was performed on the putative paternal and maternal breeds, the Merino from Spain and the Appenninica from Italy, respectively, as well as on three unrelated dairy breeds (Sarda and Comisana from Italy, and Lacaune from France). Firstly, the mtDNA control region of 291 samples was analyzed. When comparing the overall genetic distances among the eight stocks, the three IMd breeds clustered together close to the Appenninica, thus confirming its parental role. Among the 90 IMd samples, 82 different haplotypes were observed, almost all belonging to haplogroup B, and only one to A. For 23 mtDNAs, including nine IMd, the analysis was then brought to the level of entire mitogenomes. Three distinct sub-haplogroups within B were found to encompass the IMd samples, with one clade (B1a2a1) apparently restricted to those sheep. Thus, despite experiencing a drastic reduction in number (mainly due to changes in breeding practices driven by the economy), the IMd breeds still represent a reservoir of distinctive mitochondrial variants, which could potentially contribute to the development of conservation and management programs of Italian sheep breeds. PMID:24040036

Lancioni, Hovirag; Di Lorenzo, Piera; Ceccobelli, Simone; Perego, Ugo A.; Miglio, Arianna; Landi, Vincenzo; Antognoni, Maria T.; Sarti, Francesca M.

2013-01-01

50

Microsatellite analysis to estimate genetic relationships among five bulgarian sheep breeds  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Herein, genetic relationships among five breeds of Bulgarian sheep were estimated using microsatellite markers. The total number of alleles identified was 226 at the 16 loci examined. D A distance values were used for phylogenetic tree construction with the UPGMA algorithm. The two Tsigai and two Maritza populations were found to be geneticallvery closely related to each other y (0.198, and 0.258 respectively. The Pleven Black Head population was distinct from the other four. These results could be useful for preserving genes in these breeds, thereby ensuring their preservation in Bulgaria.

Szilvia Kusza

2010-01-01

51

Microsatellite analysis to estimate genetic relationships among five bulgarian sheep breeds  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Herein, genetic relationships among five breeds of Bulgarian sheep were estimated using microsatellite markers. The total number of alleles identified was 226 at the 16 loci examined. D A distance values were used for phylogenetic tree construction with the UPGMA algorithm. The two Tsigai and two Ma [...] ritza populations were found to be geneticallvery closely related to each other y (0.198, and 0.258 respectively). The Pleven Black Head population was distinct from the other four. These results could be useful for preserving genes in these breeds, thereby ensuring their preservation in Bulgaria.

Szilvia, Kusza; Doytcho, Dimov; István, Nagy; Zsuzsanna, Bõsze; András, Jávor; Sándor, Kukovics.

52

Growth Rate, Slaughter Traits and Meat Quality of Lambs of Three Alpine Sheep Breeds  

OpenAIRE

A fattening and slaughter trial was carried out on 36 lambs of Alpagota, Brogna and Foza sheep breeds native of Veneto Region Alps (six male and six female lambs per breed) divided in three groups depending on the type of feed used: pasture, hay and concentrate, hay and concentrate supplemented with conjugated linoleic acid. Lambs were slaughtered at 225 days (mean weight: 30 kg). Infra-vitam and post-mortem data were analyzed by using a linear model that included the cross-classified effect ...

Erika Pellattiero; Alessio Cecchinato; Massimo De Marchi; Mauro Penasa; Nicola Tormen; Stefano Schiavon; Martino Cassandro; Giovanni Bittante

2011-01-01

53

Microsatellite analysis to estimate genetic relationships among five bulgarian sheep breeds  

OpenAIRE

Herein, genetic relationships among five breeds of Bulgarian sheep were estimated using microsatellite markers. The total number of alleles identified was 226 at the 16 loci examined. DA distance values were used for phylogenetic tree construction with the UPGMA algorithm. The two Tsigai and two Maritza populations were found to be geneticallvery closely related to each other y (0.198, and 0.258 respectively). The Pleven Black Head population was distinct from the other four. These results co...

Szilvia Kusza; Doytcho Dimov; István Nagy; Zsuzsanna Bõsze; András Jávor; Sándor Kukovics

2010-01-01

54

Returns on investment in sheep and goat breeding in South Africa  

OpenAIRE

The small stock industry in South Africa is of crucial importance as 80% of the agricultural land is unsuitable for intensive agricultural production. The contribution of 19 resource sheep flocks and goat herds towards breeding objective formulation, genetic improvement and parameter estimation was summarized. Substantial genetic gains resulting from selection for a range of economically important traits were demonstrated, lending impetus to the development and extension of the Natio...

Schoeman, S. J.; Cloete, S. W. P.; Olivier, J. J.

2010-01-01

55

Study of genetic diversity in Algerian sheep breeds using microsatellite markers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: In order to realize the preservation and exploitation of domestic animal biodiversity and to define a global strategy for the management of Algerian sheep genetic resources, the goals of our research are the knowledge of the degree of genetic variability, the partition of this variability and the genetic distance among ovine breeds. This information will be obtained by analyzing directly the genome at molecular level. In this study DNA of 85 animals from two breeds, Ouled-Djellal and Hamra, was PCR amplified at the following microsatellite loci: McM42, TGLA53, MAF65, McM527, OarFCB20, INRA49, OarFCB11, OarCP49, CSSM66, MAF36, Oar HH56 and ILST05. Number of alleles and allele frequencies were calculated. The results showed that these breeds presented a polymorphism with these microsatellite markers reflecting a genetic variability among them. However, highest differences in allele frequencies were found at loci: McM527, ILSTS05, OarFCB20, INRA49, MAF36, McM42, MAF65, OarFCB11, OarCP49, CSSM66, while at the other loci the alleles at the highest frequency are the same. This study is being extended to five other Algerian breeds: Taadmit, Barbarine, D'men, Sidaou and Berbere to estimate their variability and genetic distance between them. Now, we are collecting blood from these different breeds to constitute a DNA bank. The results will allow establishment of the strategy to promote the use and development of locally adapted sheep resources. (author)pted sheep resources. (author)

56

Genetic predisposition of some Bulgarian sheep breeds to the scrapie disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study is to investigate the profile of ovine PrP gene by amino acid polymorphism at codons 136, 141, 154, and 171 for determining the genetic predisposition to the Scrapie disease for the tribal sheep and rams, with different numbers and distribution in Bulgaria. Three hundred twenty four animals originating from 41 tribal herds comprising eight breeds were included in the study. DNA was isolated from blood samples specifically amplified by PCR and sequenced. The alignments of codons 136, 141, 154, and 171 were determined. Based on the sequencing, it was established that Bulgarian breeds belong to the second and third risk groups, those with low and moderate risk of Scrapie disease. Establishment of 11 genotypes in Synthetic Population Bulgarian Milk breed reveals it to have the highest risk of the Scrapie disease; moreover, the conducting of the program will be more difficult in comparison with other investigated breeds. Evidence for the internal cross breeding is the presence of the five or six genotypes in the Copper-Red Shoumen, Replian, Karakachan, and Duben Bulgarian native breeds. PMID:21533749

Sirakov, Ivo; Peshev, Raiko; Christova, Lilia

2011-08-01

57

Genetic parameters and factors influencing survival to 24 hrs after birth in Danish meat sheep breeds  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In this study, influential factors and (co)variance components for survival to 24 h after birth were determined and estimated for Texel, Shropshire, and Oxford Down, the most common sheep breeds in Denmark. Data from 1992 to 2006 containing 138,813 survival records were extracted from the sheep recording database at the Danish Agricultural Advisory Service. Estimation of (co)variance components was carried out using univariate animal models, applying logistic link functions. The logistic functions were also used for estimation of fixed effects. Both direct and maternal additive genetic effects, as well as common litter effects, were included in the models. The mean survival to 24 h after birth was 92.5, 91.7, and 88.5% for Texel, Shropshire, and Oxford Down, respectively. There was a curvilinear relationship between survival to 24 h after birth and birth weight, with survival less for light and heavy lambs. Male lambs, as well as lambs from ewes in the first parity or with difficult lambing, had the least survival to 24 h after birth. Survival to 24 h after birth was greater in twin-born Texel and Shropshire lambs compared with singletons and vice versa in Oxford Down. Estimates of direct heritability were in the range from 0.05 to 0.07. Maternal heritability estimates were slightly greater (0.06 and 0.07) than direct heritabilities in Texel and Shropshire and less (0.04) in Oxford Down. The estimated genetic correlations between direct and maternal effects for survival to 24 h after birth were negative, which will make breeding for this trait more difficult. However, on the basis of estimated genetic parameters, it can be concluded that it is possible to improve survival to 24 h after birth in meat sheep breeds by accounting for both direct and maternal genetic effects in breeding programs

Maxa, J; Sharifi, A R

2009-01-01

58

Investigation of FecB Mutation in Four Romanian Sheep Breeds  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Hyperprolific phenotype of Booroola sheep was first discovered in the Australian Merino breed. This phenotype is due to the action of a single autosomal gene that influences the number of ovulations per estrogenic cycle. Recent discoveries have revealed that high prolificacy in Booroola Merino sheep is the result of a mutation (FecB in the bone morphogenetic protein receptor 1B (BMPR-1B gene. This mutation is located in the highly conserved kinase domain of the bone morphogenetic protein receptor IB, and is characterized by precocious differentiation of ovarian follicles, leading to the production of large numbers of ovulatory follicles. Our objective was to develop an easy method to identify the FecB mutation in order to screen sheep populations in terms of prolificacy. We designed primers to amplify a 190 bp fragment from the BMPR-1B gene containing or lacking the mutation. The PCR product was cut with AvaII endonuclease and the restriction products were analysed by agarose gel electrophoresis. Using the PCR-RFLP technique, we established an easy and efficient method that can be used to screen the FecB mutation. Therefore, these new methods increase the panel of molecular tools available for sheep breeders to choose the most prolific genotypes for improving artificial selection.

Sergiu-Emil Georgescu

2011-05-01

59

Some Production Characteristics of Kivircik, Gokceada and Sakiz Breeds of Sheep Conserved as Gene Resources  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study was carried out to investigate the fertility, milk production and body weight of ewes and the survival rates and growth characteristics for K?v?rc?k, Gokceada and Sak?z breeds of sheep kept as gene resources in western part of Turkiye. K?v?rc?k, Gokceada and Sak?z breeds of sheep are included in the project for conservation of indigenious breeds as genetic resources.Lambing rate, litter size, milk yield and live weight for K?v?rc?k, Gökçeada and Sak?z ewes were 79.8 %, 67.6 % and 74.5 %; 1.26, 1.24 and 1.83; 41.8, 51.1 and 58.0 kg; 62.60, 51.39, and 48.52 kg. respectively. The lambs produced by K?v?rc?k, Gokceada and Sak?z ewes had 97 %, 94.7 % and 92.2 % survival rates to weaning; 4.09, 3.52 and 3.93 kg. birth weights; 38.17, 29.25 and 30.82 kg. weaning weights; 43.14, 35.57 and 34.64 kg. sixth month weights; 49.13, 39.70 and 37.39 kg. yearling weights respectively.

T. Sezenler

2007-05-01

60

A Preliminary Study of Marker Data Applicability in Gene Introgression Program for Afshari Sheep Breed  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The traits with the greatest financial impact on sheep production are the number of lambs weaned per ewe and growth efficiency. FecB and Callipyge are the most well known major genes concerned with these traits. In order to conduct a Marker Assisted Introgression (MAI program we surveyed the presence of responsible mutations in Afshari sheep breeding flock. Direct tests to detect of FecBB and CLPG alleles were conducted on 74 and 58 DNA samples respectively by PCR-RFLP assay. Also the polymorphism content of the breeding flock was investigated by genotyping of one hundred randomly sampled animals at eighteen microsatellite loci selected on the chromosomes carrying and not carrying introgressed genes. A part from MCMA26 monomorphic pattern, microsatellite loci showed moderate level of polymorphism, as such totally 102 alleles were detected with a mean number of 6 alleles per locus. A full characterization of this set of seventeen polymorphic loci was carried out generating allele frequency distributions that were used to estimate genetic parameters of these loci, including expected heterozygosity, Polymorphism Information Content (PIC, probability of identity (I and discrimination power (D. The average expected heterozygosity was 0.72 (SD = 0.07 and the average PIC was 0.67 (SD = 0.08. Cumulative value of I considering for linked loci were estimated as 3.128E-13. The results of microsatellite analysis indicated that, despite the selective breeding and closed flock system over a number of generations, a relatively high level of heterozygosity still exists in the breeding flock. Besides, the banding patterns resulted from AvaII digestion of FecB and CLPG amplicons approved the absence of the mutations in this flock. These observations demonstrate applicability of marker data and would assist to make decision on starting MAI program for inclusion of FecB and CLPG genes into the Afshari breed.

S. Qanbari

2007-01-01

61

Chemical composition and biological protein value of milk from local Srednostaroplaninska sheep breed  

OpenAIRE

The study was carried out during the grazing period (April-July) with a group of 5 local sheep of the Srednostaroplaninska breed in 3rd lactation. The following system of animal raising was used: grazing on a mountain pasture (April and May), supplementation in April and alpine grazing on high-mountain pastures (June and July). Samples were taken every month during milking period (April-July). Chemical composition of milk and amino acid composition of protein were studied by ion exchange colu...

Gerchev G.; Mihaylova G.; Genkovski D.

2007-01-01

62

Single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) detection in six genes in Portuguese indigenous sheep breed  

OpenAIRE

Evaluation of the genetic diversity for six genes in forty animals of the Portuguese indigenous sheep breed (Ovis aries) ""Churra da Terra Quente"" was done. A non-radioactive method to allow single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) detection was optimised, starting from genomic DNA and PCR amplification of seven fragments: exon 1 of the alpha-lactalbumin gene; exons 10 and 11 of the alpha s1-casein gene; exon 7 of the beta-casein gene; exon 4 of the kappa-casein gene; exons 4 and 5 of ...

Guedes-Pinto H.; Bastos E.; Cravador A.; Azevedo J.

2001-01-01

63

Analysis of the usefulness of ovine SNP50BeadChip (Illumina) for genomic studies in Spanish sheep breeds  

OpenAIRE

During the development of the Sheep HapMap project, ewes from 6 breeds (Awassi, Merino, Poll Dorset, Romney, Scottish Blackface and Texel) were used to obtain the sequence of the ovine genome and look for variability. The Ovine SNP50BeadChip (Illumina) was then genotyped in 71 breeds, four of which were Spanish breeds. In some species (pig and cow) a bias has been described when testing a SNP Chip in different breeds. The aim of this study was to analyse this possible bias due ...

Gutie?rrez Gil, B.; Garci?a Go?mez, E.; Sua?rez Vega, A.; Sa?nchez, J. P.; Kijas, J.; Calvo Lacosta, Jorge Hugo; International Sheep Genomics Consortium (ISGC); Arranz, J. J.

2011-01-01

64

Influence of sheep breed and application site on the efficacy of a flumethrin pour-on formulation against ticks  

OpenAIRE

The objectives of this study were to determine the influence of application site and sheep breed on the efficacy of a flumethrin (1 % m/v) solution for the control of 'bont'-legged (Hyalomma spp.) and red-legged ticks (Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi). This study was conducted from November 1996 to February 1997 on 3 farms in the southwestern Free State Province. Two trials were conducted on Dorper sheep and 2 on Merino sheep. For each specific applicat...

Fourie, L. J.; Kok, D. J.; Peter, R. J.

2012-01-01

65

RFLP Marker Variation of Cytocrome b Gene and Genetic Relationship among Batur, Merino and Local Sheep Breeds  

OpenAIRE

RFLP analysis of mitochondrial DNA cytochrome b gene was conducted to determine the diversity, status and close genetic relationships in a population of Batur sheep with the Merino and local sheep breeds (Garut, Thin Tail and Fat Tail). The research used genomic DNA of 27 samples of Batur, 15 Merino, 17 Garut, 15 Thin Tails and 15 Fat Tails sheep. The PCR process used two types of 25 nucleotides primers. The PCR products were checked by using 2% agarose gel electrophoresis. The PCR DNA fragme...

Prayitno; Hartati, T.; Pratiwi, R.; Wt, Artama

2011-01-01

66

The effects of selective breeding against scrapie susceptibility on the genetic variability of the Latxa Black-Faced sheep breed  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Breeding sheep populations for scrapie resistance could result in a loss of genetic variability. In this study, the effect on genetic variability of selection for increasing the ARR allele frequency was estimated in the Latxa breed. Two sources of information were used, pedigree and genetic polymorphisms (fifteen microsatellites. The results based on the genealogical information were conditioned by a low pedigree completeness level that revealed the interest of also using the information provided by the molecular markers. The overall results suggest that no great negative effect on genetic variability can be expected in the short time in the population analysed by selection of only ARR/ARR males. The estimated average relationship of ARR/ARR males with reproductive females was similar to that of all available males whatever its genotype: 0.010 vs. 0.012 for a genealogical relationship and 0.257 vs. 0.296 for molecular coancestry, respectively. However, selection of only ARR/ARR males implied important losses in founder animals (87 percent and low frequency alleles (30 percent in the ram population. The evaluation of mild selection strategies against scrapie susceptibility based on the use of some ARR heterozygous males was difficult because the genetic relationships estimated among animals differed when pedigree or molecular information was used, and the use of more molecular markers should be evaluated.

Legarra Andrés

2006-09-01

67

Genetic variations in the myostatin gene (MSTN) in New Zealand sheep breeds.  

Science.gov (United States)

Myostatin, which is also known as growth and differentiation factor 8 (GDF8), acts as a negative regulator of skeletal muscle growth. Variation in the myostatin gene (MSTN) has been associated with variation in muscularity in many animals including sheep. Polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformational polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) analysis was used to investigate MSTN in a diverse range of sheep breeds including the New Zealand (NZ) Romney, Coopworth, Corriedale, Dorper, Perendale, Suffolk, Merino, Dorset Down, Poll Dorset, Texel and other NZ cross-bred sheep. A total of 28 nucleotide substitutions were identified from nucleotide c.-1199 in the promoter region to c.*1813 (based on NCBI GenBank accession number DQ530260) and including the well-described substitution c.*1232G>A (MSTN g+6223G>A). Of these 28 substitutions, 3 were located in the promoter region, 3 in the 5'UTR, 11 in intron 1, 5 in intron 2 and 5 in the 3'UTR. One substitution in exon 1 (c.101G>A) potentially results in an amino acid substitution of glutamic acid (Glu) with glycine (Gly) at codon 34. Ten of these substitutions have not been reported previously. The genetic variation revealed in this study suggests this gene is more variable than hitherto reported and provides a foundation for future research into how this variation affects muscle and growth traits. PMID:24081623

Han, J; Forrest, R H; Hickford, J G H

2013-11-01

68

Genetics and breeding of sheep in Brazil / Genética e melhoramento de ovinos no Brasil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Estudos em genética e melhoramento de ovinos no Brasil têm aumentado significativamente nos últimos anos. Estes envolvem pesquisa em caracterização, criação e cruzamento de ovinos utilizando as novas tecnologias disponíveis, incorporando tanto a genética quantitativa clássica e molecular. São aborda [...] das sugestões para melhorias nas técnicas de estatística, nos recursos computacionais, bem como na análise de DNA e nas lacunas no conhecimento atual e possibilidades de possíveis investigações. Há uma necessidade de maior interação entre vários grupos de trabalho no país, bem como as interações com outras disciplinas, como Sistemas de Informação Geográfica, Estatística, Bioinformática, bem como estudos biológicos, como fisiologia e proteômica. Abstract in english Studies in genetics and breeding of sheep in Brazil have increased significantly in recent years. These involve research in characterization, breeding and crossing sheep using new technologies available incorporating both classical quantitative and molecular genetics. Improvements in statistical tec [...] hniques, computational resources as well as analysis of DNA and gaps in present knowledge and opportunities for possible research are pointed out. There is a need for greater interaction between various groups working in the country as well as interactions with other disciplines such as Geographical Information Systems, Statistics, Bioinformatics, as well as biological studies such as physiology and proteomics.

Concepta, McManus; Samuel Rezende, Paiva; Ronyere Olegário de, Araújo.

2010-07-01

69

Experimental infection of three Nigerian breeds of sheep with the Zinga strain of the Rift Valley Fever virus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Experimental infection of three indigenous breeds of sheep in Nigeria, namely the West African Dwarf (WAD), Yankasa and Ouda resulted in fatal disease with the Zinga Rift Valley Fever virus. Infected sheep of the three breeds responded by pyrexia within 24 h of infection, that lasted 6 to 7 days, but peaked between day 2 and 4 post-infection. Viraemia coincided with pyrexia and peaked (10(9) PFU/ml) 3 days p.i. in Yankasa and WAD sheep, but with highest titre (10(7.5) PFU/ml) in Ouda sheep. Zinga Rift Valley Fever virus infection of sheep was characterised by hyperactivity, watery and mucoid nasal discharges, projectiles and bloody diarrhoea, external haemorrhage and clinical manifestations of nervous disorders. Viraemia was followed by low level of antibody development in all the infected sheep. Haemotological changes included a sharp fall in the PCV, Hb concentration and total RBC count during the course of the disease. These changes were most severe in the Yankasa, followed by WAD and Ouda breeds. There were thrombocytopaenia, prolongation of prothrombin and clotting times in all the infected sheep. There was also progressive leucopaenia associated with lymphopaenia. The total protein and albumin levels were depressed, but the globulin level rose from day 5 p.i. The changes in the serum biochemical constituents included sharp and progressive increase in the level of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase. The sodium level decreased gradually while that of potassium was initially stable but later increased until the infected animals died. There was a significant increase in the level of blood urea nitrogen from day 3 p.i. that continued until the infected animals died. Gross and microscopic examinations of the carcasses of the infected sheep showed significant lesions in many organs, including disseminated intravascular coagulation. PMID:8881413

Olaleye, O D; Tomori, O; Fajimi, J L; Schmitz, H

1996-01-01

70

A Genomic Association Analysis of Milk Production Traits in Chios Sheep Breed Using Microsatellite (SSR) and SNP Markers  

OpenAIRE

We have previously reported the possible segregation of major gene(s) for milk yield and fat corrected milk (FCM) in Chios sheep breed. In this study we demonstrate the association of an SNP marker, within the last exon of the Acetyl-CoA acyltransferase 2 (ACAA2) gene, with milk yield and FCM in the same breed. Moreover, we investigate the effect of this SNP marker along with other microsatellite markers. Fifteen microsatellite marker...

Dimitrios Chatziplis

2013-01-01

71

Genetic Structure and Diversity of Four Chilean Sheep Breeds Estructura Genética y Diversidad de Cuatro Razas Ovinas Chilenas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Chilean sheep breeds have a significant founder effect since they descend from very few parents, in some cases population inbreeding has increased and in others there have been significant differentiation processes as compared to their original population. The objective of this study was to estimate the current status of genetic diversity in sheep herds, which comprise the main sheep breeds in Chile, using molecular methods. Animals from four breeding herds were sampled and analyzed. The breeds studied were Corriedale, Suffolk Down, Romney Marsh and Chilota, these are the predominant numerical pure breeds in Chile. From each breed population 40 animals were sampled. Genetic characterization was done using nine microsatellite molecular markers (SSR recommended by FAO-ISAG. Results showed that in the Chilean sheep herds there are low genetic complementarities among breeds and a high risk of losing genetic diversity due to inbreeding in Chilota and Romney Marsh breeds.Las razas ovinas presentes en Chile presentan un importante efecto fundador, al descender de un reducido número de progenitores. En algunos casos se sospecha que ha aumentado el grado de consanguinidad poblacional, mientras que en otros se observan procesos significativos de diferenciación respecto a sus poblaciones de origen. El objetivo del presente estudio fue estimar el estado actual de la diversidad genética de los planteles que gestionan las principales razas utilizadas en la ganadería ovina chilena. Para ello se utilizaron las razas Corriedale, Sufolk Down, Romney Marsh y Chilota, dado que son las predominantes en Chile como poblaciones puras. Se analizaron 40 animales de cada raza, pertenecientes a cuatro planteles de reproductores. Para la caracterización genética de los animales se utilizaron nueve marcadores moleculares de tipo microsatélite (SSR recomendados por FAO-ISAG. Los resultados indican una baja complementariedad genética entre las razas ovinas predominantes en Chile, advirtiéndose además una potencial pérdida de diversidad genética en todas las razas así como un elevado riesgo de incremento en esta pérdida por efecto de la endogamia en las razas Chilota y Romney Marsh.

Rodrigo de la Barra

2010-12-01

72

Genetic variability of six French meat sheep breeds in relation to their genetic management  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Some demographic parameters, the genetic structure and the evolution of the genetic variability of six French meat sheep breeds were analysed in relation with their management. Four of these breeds are submitted to more or less intense selection: the Berrichon du Cher (BCH, Blanc du Massif Central (BMC, Charollais (CHA and Limousin (LIM; the other two breeds are under conservation: the Roussin de La Hague (RLH and Solognot (SOL. Genealogical data of the recorded animals born from 1970 to 2000 and of their known ancestors were used. The most balanced contributions of the different flocks to the sire-daughter path was found in the SOL. In the BCH, a single flock provided 43% of the sire-AI sire path, whereas the contributions of the flocks were more balanced in the BMC and LIM (the only other breeds where AI is used to a substantial amount. The distribution of the expected genetic contribution of the founder animals was found to be unbalanced, especially in the BCH and LIM. The effective numbers of ancestors (founders or not for the ewes born from 1996 to 2000 were equal to 35 (BCH, 144 (BMC, 112 (CHA, 69 (LIM, 40 (RLH and 49 (SOL. Inbreeding was not analysed in the BMC, due to incomplete pedigree information. From 1980 on, the rates of inbreeding, in percentage points per year, were +0.112 (BCH, +0.045 (CHA, +0.036 (LIM, +0.098 (RLH and +0.062 (SOL. The implications of the observed trends on genetic variability are discussed in relation to the genetic management of each breed. The need for a larger selection basis in the BCH, the efficiency of the rules applied in the SOL to preserve the genetic variability and the need for a more collective organisation in the CHA and RLH are outlined.

Coralie Danchin-Burge

2003-11-01

73

Maternal insulin sensitivity in midpregnancy does not determine birth weight after embryo transfer between large and small breed sheep.  

Science.gov (United States)

Embryo transfer of large sheep breed embryos (Suffolk) into small breed ewes (Cheviot) constrains birth size, but the maternal factors influencing fetal growth restriction are unknown. We hypothesized that reciprocal embryo transfer crosses between breeds of divergent size would affect pregnancy-related development of maternal insulin resistance in midgestation, thereby influencing fetal growth. Following superovulation, embryos were surgically collected 6 d postmating and transferred to recipients on the same day. Between- and within-breed transfers were performed. Between 60 and 70 d of pregnancy overnight-fasted ewes underwent hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps for assessment of insulin sensitivity. Maternal insulin sensitivity did not vary with transferred lamb breed. Overall, Cheviot ewes tended to have higher fasting glucose (P = 0.068), fasting insulin (P = 0.052), and steady-state glucose (P = 0.065) concentrations than Suffolk ewes at the stage of pregnancy studied. As expected, transferred between-breed Suffolk lambs were born lighter (P = 0.014), and transferred between-breed Cheviot lambs tended to be heavier at birth (P = 0.056) than respective lambs transferred within breed. Midgestation insulin sensitivity does not appear to be a major factor constraining growth of large breed sheep fetus transferred into smaller breed or a factor in releasing constraint in growth of a small breed fetus within a larger breed ewe. However, as embryo size is already different between transferred groups by 19 d, factors other than maternal gestational insulin resistance may determine fetal growth in this embryo transfer paradigm. PMID:25254312

Oliver, M H; Jaquiery, A L; Kenyon, P R; Pain, S J; Jenkinson, C M; Blair, H T; Derraik, J G B; Bloomfield, F H

2015-01-01

74

Contributions of the hair sheep breed Santa Ines as a maintenance host for Rhipicephalus ( Boophilus ) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae) in Brazil.  

Science.gov (United States)

BackgroundHair sheep breeds are a new, cost-effective option for the diversification of livestock in the Midwest region of Brazil. They are grazed extensively with cattle as well as in isolation in small areas. Hair sheep breeds are vulnerable to infestation by parasites such as the cattle tick, Rhipicephalus microplus, which causes various types of damage and can transmit diseases.MethodsIn this study, Santa Inês hair sheep were naturally infested in an area contaminated by infested cattle and then monitored to determine the ability of these animals to maintain the local tick population in the absence of cattle. After engorged tick females of each generation fell off, the animals were placed in another pasture and were returned only after larvae reappeared in the original pasture.ResultsTick counts were performed every ten days for three generations of sheep, and average infestations per animal of 34, 12 and 4 ticks were observed for each successive generation. These numbers suggest the acquisition of resistance; however, additional studies are needed to ensure resistance is achieved. The average length of the parasitic phase for each generation of ticks was 25 days.ConclusionWe concluded that this hair sheep breed, even if kept separate from cattle, is able to maintain tick populations for at least three generations, although a gradual decrease in the population levels of R. microplus over three generations was observed. We also detected two positive cases of Anaplasma spp. Therefore, it appears that the Santa Inês hair sheep breed contributes to the circulation of this bacterium among other ruminants. PMID:25404176

Garcia, Marcos; Andreotti, Renato; Reis, Fernando; Aguirre, André; Barros, Jacqueline; Matias, Jaqueline; Koller, Wilson

2014-11-18

75

A Genomic Association Analysis of Milk Production Traits in Chios Sheep Breed Using Microsatellite (SSR and SNP Markers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We have previously reported the possible segregation of major gene(s for milk yield and fat corrected milk (FCM in Chios sheep breed. In this study we demonstrate the association of an SNP marker, within the last exon of the Acetyl-CoA acyltransferase 2 (ACAA2 gene, with milk yield and FCM in the same breed. Moreover, we investigate the effect of this SNP marker along with other microsatellite markers. Fifteen microsatellite markers (SSR on 13 chromosomes were genotyped on 198 ewes of the Chios breed. The association analysis revealed significant association (P

Dimitrios Chatziplis

2013-05-01

76

Genetic Polymorphism in GDF9 and FecB Genes in Dalagh Sheep Breed of Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study was conducted to identify polymorphisms in GDF9 and FecB genes in Dalagh sheep breed. About 100 mature ewes from three flocks in Golestan province were genotype for the GDF9 ligand (FecGH and fecB (BMPRIB receptor. Using two pairs of specific primers, DNA fragments with the size of 139 and 190 bp were amplified by using polymerase chain reaction. The PCR products were digested using DdeI and AvaII restriction enzymes for GDF9 and FecB loci, respectively. The results showed no differences in the band patterns of digested products only the wild type alleles were detected and all animals for these two loci were monomorph.

Alireza Khan Ahmadi

2012-01-01

77

Study on genetic variability in MHC-DRB1 second exon in Makuie sheep breed population  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the present study polymorphism of the exon 2 of MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex gene in Makuie sheep breed was studied. Genomic DNA from blood samples of 90 sheep was extracted and a 279 bp MHC exon 2 fragment was amplified using polymerase chain reaction (PCR. PCR products were subjected to enzymatic digestion using RsaI endonuclease. Digested PCR products were electrophoresed on 2% agarose gel. The results showed the existence of 10 alleles: A, B, E, F, I, M, O, P, Q and V for the exon 2 of the MHC gene, with the frequencies of 0.4756, 0.0976, 0.0183, 0.0366, 0.0549, 0.0122, 0.1098, 0.0915, 0.0854 and 0.0183, respectively. Eighteen genotypes: AA, AB, AE, FF, AM, BO, EO, IO, OM, AP, BP, OP, PP, AQ, OQ, PQ, QQ and AV with the frequencies of 0.317, 0.1585, 0.0121, 0.0365, 0.0121, 0.0243, 0.0243, 0.1097, 0.0121, 0.0487, 0.0121, 0.0365, 0.0365, 0.0487, 0.0121, 0.0121, 0.0487 and 0.0365, respectively were identified in the population under study. Effective number of alleles and heterozygosity for the examined region were 3.7231 and 0.7314, respectively. Chi-square test showed that the examined sheep population was not in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in the examined region.

Ashrafi Fereshteh

2014-01-01

78

Evaluation of the efficiency of alternative two-tier nucleus breeding systems designed to improve meat sheep in Kenya.  

Science.gov (United States)

A deterministic approach was used to genetically and economically evaluate the efficiency of five two-tier nucleus breeding systems for meat sheep in Kenya. The nucleus breeding systems differed in terms of whether the system was closed or open, in the type of animals that were involved in the movement of genetic superiority and in the number of selection pathways in each system. These systems were compared under four alternative breeding objectives based on monetary genetic gain and profit per ewe. The first objective simulated a situation where the flock size cannot be increased due to non-feed related constraints (FLOCK). The second specifically assumed that the flock size is restricted due to limited amount of feed resources (FEED). The third and fourth objectives assumed that sheep performed only tangible roles (TR) and both tangible and intangible roles (IR) in the production system respectively. Monetary genetic gains were highest for all objectives in an open nucleus system with a certain proportion of commercial-born ewes being introduced in the nucleus while at the same time utilizing young rams from the nucleus to breed sires and dams for the nucleus and commercial sector (ONyre). Utilizing young rams in a closed nucleus system for the dissemination of superior genes resulted in higher annual monetary genetic gain than utilization of old rams. Profit per ewe was significantly higher for FLOCK and IR in ONyre. In a closed system that allowed for downward movement of dams from the nucleus to the commercial sector to breed sires and dams, profit per ewe was highest for FEED and TR. The success of a nucleus breeding system should also focus on the profitability and logistics of establishing it. The implication of these results on the choice of two-tier nucleus breeding systems for the improvement of meat sheep is discussed. PMID:16882091

Gicheha, M G; Kosgey, I S; Bebe, B O; Kahi, A K

2006-08-01

79

Influence of sheep breed and application site on the efficacy of a flumethrin pour-on formulation against ticks.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objectives of this study were to determine the influence of application site and sheep breed on the efficacy of a flumethrin (1% m/v) solution for the control of 'bont'-legged (Hyalomma spp.) and red-legged ticks (Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi). This study was conducted from November 1996 to February 1997 on 3 farms in the southwestern Free State Province. Two trials were conducted on Dorper sheep and 2 on Merino sheep. For each specific application 30 sheep were selected and allocated to 3 groups of 10 animals each using randomisation through minimisation, with pre-treatment total tick count as only criterion. Groups consisted of an untreated control group, a group treated with 3 ml of a flumethrin (1% m/v) solution applied only to the anogenital region, and a group treated at a dose rate of 1 mf flumethrin (1% m/v)/5 kg host body mass. The total dose volume for animals in the last group was divided into 3 equal parts and applied to the brisket/axillae, groin and anogenital regions respectively. Animals grazed under extensive farming conditions and were infested by ticks that occurred naturally in the environment. Ticks were counted and removed weekly over a 6-week period. In all 4 trials, Rhipicephalus e. evertsi was the dominant tick species, followed, in 3 of the trials, by Hyalomma spp. Efficacy (%) of control against ticks for Dorper sheep, treated only on the anogenital region, was variable, ranging between 29.5 and 97%. In Merino sheep the efficacy values ranged between 23.1 and 90 %. The site-spcific (anogenital region) efficacy of control against ticks infesting Merino sheep was in general 100% or almost 100%. In Dorper sheep the efficacy values were >80 % for 3-5 weeks. The efficacy (%) of control against ticks for sheep treated on the brisket/axillae, groin and anogenital regions was always higher compared to sheep treated only on the anogenital region. In Dorper sheep, efficacy of control was >80 % for up to 4 weeks and in Merino sheep >80 % for 6 weeks. PMID:11811701

Fourie, L J; Kok, D J; Peter, R J

2001-09-01

80

Genetic Structure and Diversity of Four Chilean Sheep Breeds / Estructura Genética y Diversidad de Cuatro Razas Ovinas Chilenas  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish Las razas ovinas presentes en Chile presentan un importante efecto fundador, al descender de un reducido número de progenitores. En algunos casos se sospecha que ha aumentado el grado de consanguinidad poblacional, mientras que en otros se observan procesos significativos de diferenciación respecto [...] a sus poblaciones de origen. El objetivo del presente estudio fue estimar el estado actual de la diversidad genética de los planteles que gestionan las principales razas utilizadas en la ganadería ovina chilena. Para ello se utilizaron las razas Corriedale, Sufolk Down, Romney Marsh y Chilota, dado que son las predominantes en Chile como poblaciones puras. Se analizaron 40 animales de cada raza, pertenecientes a cuatro planteles de reproductores. Para la caracterización genética de los animales se utilizaron nueve marcadores moleculares de tipo microsatélite (SSR) recomendados por FAO-ISAG. Los resultados indican una baja complementariedad genética entre las razas ovinas predominantes en Chile, advirtiéndose además una potencial pérdida de diversidad genética en todas las razas así como un elevado riesgo de incremento en esta pérdida por efecto de la endogamia en las razas Chilota y Romney Marsh. Abstract in english Chilean sheep breeds have a significant founder effect since they descend from very few parents, in some cases population inbreeding has increased and in others there have been significant differentiation processes as compared to their original population. The objective of this study was to estimate [...] the current status of genetic diversity in sheep herds, which comprise the main sheep breeds in Chile, using molecular methods. Animals from four breeding herds were sampled and analyzed. The breeds studied were Corriedale, Suffolk Down, Romney Marsh and Chilota, these are the predominant numerical pure breeds in Chile. From each breed population 40 animals were sampled. Genetic characterization was done using nine microsatellite molecular markers (SSR) recommended by FAO-ISAG. Results showed that in the Chilean sheep herds there are low genetic complementarities among breeds and a high risk of losing genetic diversity due to inbreeding in Chilota and Romney Marsh breeds.

Rodrigo, de la Barra; Héctor, Uribe; Etel, Latorre; Fermín, San Primitivo; Juan, Arranz.

2010-12-01

81

Polymorphic Study of FecXG, FecGH and FecB Mutations in Four Domestic Sheep Breeds in the Lower Yellow River Valley of China  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Genetic mutations with major effects on ovulation rate in sheep were recently identified in two genes of the Transforming Growth Factor (TGF superfamily and a TGF receptor, namely BMP15, GDF9 and BMPRIB. The FecXG, FecGH and FecB were performed to screen four sheep breeds (small tailed Han, Wadi, big tailed Han and Shandi sheep distributed along the lower Yellow river valley of China by forced PCR-RFLP method if these genes are responsible for their high prolificacies. The FecB mutation was found in small tailed Han and Wadi sheep but absent in big tailed Han and Shandi sheep. The 154 small tailed Han sheep included all three genotypes (FecB/FecB, FecB/Fec+ and Fec+/Fec+ at frequencies of 0.54, 0.40 and 0.06, respectively whereas the samples of 30 Wadi sheep were only detected two genotypes, 4 were heterozygous FecB/Fec+ and 26 Fec+/Fec+. The frequency of the FecB allele in small tailed Han and Wadi sheep were 0.74 and 0.07, respectively. Results indicated that the FecB mutation is not fixed in two sheep population. The same FecXG mutation of the BMP-15 gene was only found in small tailed Han ewes as in Belclare and Cambridge ewes, frequencies of genotypes FecXG+, FecX ++ and FecXGG were 0.70, 0.27 and 0.03, respectively. There was no evidence of FecGH in any of the breeds sampled. The discovery of the FecB mutation in small tailed Han sheep and Wadi sheep will facilitate the use of FecB allele in improving the prolificacy of non-prolific sheep breeds of China.

Zhi-Xin Fu

2011-01-01

82

Cholesterol Metabolism in Brain and Skin Fibroblasts from Sarda Breed Sheep With Scrapie-resistant and Scrapie-susceptible Genotypes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Scrapie is a fatal spongiform encephalopathy of sheep, a transmissible form of prion disease caused by neuronal accumulation of the aberrantly conformed prion protein (PrPsc. Currently, no ante-mortem diagnostic tests are available to detect this untreatable disease in the pre-clinical stage, thus making difficult to control its spread. Recent evidence suggests that the production of PrPsc can be modulated by the levels of membrane cholesterol in neuronal cells. Since cholesterol levels in cell membranes are dependent on cholesterol homeostasis in the whole organism, we studied cholesterol metabolism in brain tissues, plasma and skin fibroblasts of Sarda breed sheep with scrapie-resistant (ARR/ARR and scrapie-susceptible (ARQ/ARQ prion protein genotypes, both not infected (ARQ/ARQ- and infected (ARQ/ARQ+ with scrapie. We found that, the levels of cytoplasmic cholesterol esters (CE in brains and skin fibroblasts from sheep with the ARQ/ARQ genotype were consistently higher than those from sheep with the ARR/ARR genotype. Conversely, the levels of free cholesterol (FC were lower in ARQ/ARQ, as compared to ARR/ARR sheep, thus resulting in a sharp reduction of the FC/CE ratio. Moreover, both uninfected and infected ARQ/ARQ sheep showed abnormally low levels of high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C in their plasma, as compared to ARR/ARR sheep. These data other than adding new strength to the notion that altered levels of intracellular cholesterol may indicate the presence of a lipid metabolic state that predisposes to infection with, and accumulation of, PrPsc in the brain, discriminate for the first time between two distinct but related cellular pools of cholesterol, namely membrane FC on one hand and cytoplasmic CE on the other.

Alessandra Pani

2007-01-01

83

Assessment of inbreeding resulting from selection for scrapie resistance: a model for rare sheep breeds.  

Science.gov (United States)

Inbreeding in a small population of Chios sheep undergoing intense selection for the PrP gene was assessed 10?years after the beginning of a scrapie resistance selection programme. Inbreeding in this stock, already under selection for production traits, was analysed by using pedigree records containing 10,492 animals from 1968 to 2008, and also by genotyping 192 individuals with a panel of 15 microsatellites. Genetic markers indicated a loss of heterozygosity (FIS over all loci was 0.059) and allelic diversity (mean effective number of alleles was 3.075±0.275). The annual rate of inbreeding increased significantly after the start of the scrapie resistance programme, ?F=0.005 compared with ?F=0.001 before 1999, and was subjected to several genetic bottlenecks, mainly due to the low initial frequency of resistant animals. However, the mean individual inbreeding coefficient estimated from the pedigree - in this closed stock resembling the case of a rare breed - stood at the level of 4.5 per cent, five generations after the implementation of selection for the PrP gene. The inbreeding coefficient estimated by genetic markers was 4.37 per cent, implying that such a marker panel could be a useful and cost-effective tool for estimating inbreeding in unrecorded populations. PMID:25280776

Brown, C; Orford, M; Tzamaloukas, O; Mavrogenis, A P; Miltiadou, D

2014-12-20

84

Single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP detection in six genes in Portuguese indigenous sheep breed  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Evaluation of the genetic diversity for six genes in forty animals of the Portuguese indigenous sheep breed (Ovis aries ""Churra da Terra Quente"" was done. A non-radioactive method to allow single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP detection was optimised, starting from genomic DNA and PCR amplification of seven fragments: exon 1 of the alpha-lactalbumin gene; exons 10 and 11 of the alpha s1-casein gene; exon 7 of the beta-casein gene; exon 4 of the kappa-casein gene; exons 4 and 5 of the growth hormone gene and exon 6 of the growth hormone receptor gene. Polymorphisms were detected in five of the seven PCR products. Only kappa-casein and growth hormone receptor were monomorphic. Alpha-lactalbumin and alpha s1-casein exons showed three conformational patterns, beta-casein and growth hormone exon 4 showed two electrophoretic patterns and growth hormone exon 5 showed five conformational patterns. These data provide evidence that ""Churra da Terra Quente"" has a high genetic variability, which opens interesting prospects for future selection programs and also for preservation strategies. Also, our data show that PCR-SSCP is an appropriate tool for evaluating genetic variability.

Guedes-Pinto H.

2001-01-01

85

Comparative efficacy of standard AGID, CCIE and competitive ELISA for detecting bluetongue virus antibodies in indigenous breeds of sheep and goats in Rajasthan, India.  

Science.gov (United States)

The sero-prevalence of antibodies against blue tongue virus (BTV) in 408 local breeds of sheep in Rajasthan state in India was investigated using standard agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) test. Maximum seropositivities of 11.3% (13/115), 10.7% (13/121), 7.1% (11/155) and 5.9% (1/17) were recorded in the Chokla, Magra, Nali and Pugal breeds, respectively. Out of 107 goat serum samples, 6 (5.6%) were AGID positive. The performance of the standard AGID, counter current immuno-electrophoresis (CCIE) and the competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA) for the detection of serum antibody against BTV in indigenous breeds of sheep were compared. Out of 178 sheep serum samples tested, 17 (9.5%), 22 (12.3%) and 54 (30.3%) were positive for group-specific bluetongue antibodies by AGID, CCIE and cELISA, respectively. There was appreciable difference in the seroprevalence detected by AGID, CCIE and cELISA in clinically healthy and diseased sheep with regard to relative sensitivities and specificities of the tests with cELISA being highly sensitive and specific followed by CCIE and AGID test. It was concluded that these indigenous breeds of sheep may be a potential reservoir of BTV infection and cELISA should be routinely used for the detection of antibodies against BTV in these local breeds of sheep. PMID:15785128

Shringi, Smriti; Shringi, B N

2005-03-01

86

Genomic prediction of breeding values in the New Zealand sheep industry using a 50K SNP chip.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of genomic prediction is to predict breeding value from genomic data. We describe the development of genomic prediction equations and accuracies for molecular breeding values (MBV) for industry use, focusing on the methodology used to deal with predictions for the New Zealand sheep population structure. This is made up of a mixture of pure and crossbred animals, but principally Romney based. In particular, we used pedigree-based EBV for 8 traits (weaning weight as a direct effect, weaning weight as a maternal effect, live weight at 8 mo, live weight at 12 mo, greasy fleece weight at 12 mo, lamb fleece weight, adult fleece weight, and number of lambs born) and Illumina OvineSNP50 BeadChip genotypes from 13,420 animals to investigate BLUP with different genomic relationship matrices (GRM) based on SNP markers and to investigate varying sets of older animals (training sets) to predict the MBV of younger animals (validation sets). The GRM tested included modifications to account for allele frequency differences between breeds, rescaling so that the mean GRM is equal to the mean of the traditional pedigree numerator relationship matrix A: , and combining of the GRM with A: using a convex combination with a weight estimated by maximizing a conditional restricted likelihood. We found that these modifications were beneficial and recommend using a breed-adjusted GRM combined with A: . Training data sets with Romney, Coopworth, and Perendale animals all together usually predicted better than using just a pure breed training data set for all traits. But predictions for the breed Perendale were more accurate with a Perendale training set for 3 of the 8 traits. We concluded that using a mixed-breed training set for all combinations of traits and breeds was best but advise that increasing the number of Perendale animals genotyped should be a priority to increase the MBV accuracies obtained for that breed. PMID:25149326

Auvray, B; McEwan, J C; Newman, S-A N; Lee, M; Dodds, K G

2014-10-01

87

Analysis of the genetic diversity between Gentile di Puglia, Sopravissana and Sarda sheep breeds using microsatellite markers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Two Italian sheep breeds – Gentile di Puglia and Sopravissana – have undergone a consistent decline in numbers and have been widely substituted by the Sarda breed, which gives higher milk yield. With the aim to provide a basis for con- servation decisions, the genetic variability of the three breeds was investigated in this study. DNA of 60 animals was PCR amplified at the following microsatellite loci: CSSM43, CSSM47, CSSM60, TGLA110, TGLA122, TGLA126, TGLA377, ETH3, ETH10, ETH225, NRAMP1, OARCP20 and SPS115. Allele frequencies, gene diversity and genetic distances were calculat- ed. The highest differences in allele frequencies were found at the following loci: TGLA377, TGLA122, NRAMP1, OARCP20 and ETH3, while at the other loci the most frequent alleles were the same. The average inbreeding rate was 0.156 in the Gentile di Puglia, 0.158 in the Sopravissana and 0.137 in the Sarda. Average gene diversity of the analysed microsatel- lites was 0.59. Genetic distance between Gentile di Puglia and Sopravissana (0.081 indicates moderate differentiation; distances between the Sarda and the endangered breeds – 0.111 from the Gentile di Puglia and 0.107 from the Sopravissana - indicate a medium-high differentiation rate. The disappearance of the two less productive breeds would entail a consistent loss of genetic diversity. The inbreeding values are low enough to allow the implementation of sound conservation programmes.

Gennaro Catillo

2010-01-01

88

Lack of polymorphism in the oocyte derived growth factor (GDF9) gene in the Shal breed of sheep  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english The families of TGF-? proteins are the most important growth factors in the ovary for growth and differentiation of early ovarian follicles. Three related oocyte-derived members of the transforming growth factor-? superfamily, namely GDF9, BMP15 and BMPR-IB have been shown to be essential for follic [...] ular growth and ovulation. The aim of the present study was to detect the incidence of mutation in exon two of GDF9 as a major gene in the Shal sheep breed. Blood samples were collected from 239 sheep and genomic DNA was extracted using the modified salting-out method. The quantity and quality of extracted DNA was examined using spectrophotometery and gel electrophoresis, respectively. A fragment with the size of 139 bp from exon two of GDF9 gene (FecG H) was amplified using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with a pair of specific primers. The amplified PCR products were digested with DdeI restriction enzyme. In the presence of mutations at this locus, the DdeI enzyme cannot recognize the restriction site. However, in the absence of mutations, the enzyme recognizes one restriction site and divides the amplified fragment into two fragments of 31 and 108 bp. In the present study only the wild type alleles were detected and all the samples showed the AA genotype. The analysis of polymorphism for GDF9 (FecG H) loci in Shal sheep indicates that the genetic factor responsible for twinning or multiple lambing rates is not related to reported mutated alleles at the GDF9 major gene in this breed. Therefore, we should attempt to detect other SNP for the GDF9 gene and/or other loci responsible for twining rate in this breed.

M., Ghaffari; A., Nejati-Javaremi; G., Rahimi-Mianji.

89

Genetic variability of the Brazilian hair sheep breeds Variabilidade genética de raças de ovelhas deslanadas do Brasil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objectives of this work were to investigate the genetic structure of the Brazilian hair sheep breeds and to determine the origin of the Santa Inês breed. Molecular similarity was determined using Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA - Polymerase Chain Reaction markers in 238 individuals from five naturalized sheep breeds: Santa Inês (48 animals, Rabo Largo (48, Somali (48, Morada Nova (48 and Bergamasca (46, collected in Goiás, Sergipe, Bahia, and Ceará States as well as in the Federal District. Fifty-four loci were selected from 19 primers, after a pilot test using 140 primers. Qualitative analyses indicate diagnostic markers for all breeds. All breeds were significantly different from each other. Interbreed differences were explained by 14.92% of the total variation. Santa Inês clustered with Bergamasca (97% bootstrap and with Rabo Largo, composing the third member of the group (81% bootstrap while Morada Nova and Somali breeds clustered separately. Each breed should be considered as a separate management and conservation unit, and special care should be taken with Rabo Largo, Morada Nova and Somali breeds, represented by small herds in Brazil.Os objetivos deste trabalho foram identificar a origem racial de ovinos Santa Inês e avaliar a unicidade das populações das principais raças naturalizadas brasileiras de ovinos deslanado. Foi realizado um estudo dos padrões de semelhança molecular a partir de marcadores RAPD-PCR, utilizando-se 238 indivíduos dos Estados de Goiás, Sergipe, Bahia, e Ceará assim como do Distrito Federal, distribuídos entre as raças Santa Inês (48 animais, Bergamácia (46, Rabo Largo (48, Morada Nova (48 e Somali (48. Após triagem com 140 primers, foram selecionados 54 locos a partir de 19 primers e todas as raças apresentaram marcadores específicos. Análises qualitativas mostraram a presença de marcadores diagnóstico-específicos para todas as raças. As diferenças inter-raciais foram significativas e responsáveis por 14,92% da variação total observada. Na análise de agrupamento, a raça Santa Inês ficou próxima à Bergamácia (com 97% de valor bootstrap. A raça Rabo Largo apresentou maior similaridade com este grupo (com 81% bootstrap do que as raças Morada Nova e Somali. Cada raça deve ser considerada como unidade de conservação e manejo, especialmente as raças Rabo Largo, Morada Nova e Somali, as quais apresentam as menores populações no País.

Samuel Rezende Paiva

2005-09-01

90

Genetic variability of the Brazilian hair sheep breeds / Variabilidade genética de raças de ovelhas deslanadas do Brasil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Os objetivos deste trabalho foram identificar a origem racial de ovinos Santa Inês e avaliar a unicidade das populações das principais raças naturalizadas brasileiras de ovinos deslanado. Foi realizado um estudo dos padrões de semelhança molecular a partir de marcadores RAPD-PCR, utilizando-se 238 i [...] ndivíduos dos Estados de Goiás, Sergipe, Bahia, e Ceará assim como do Distrito Federal, distribuídos entre as raças Santa Inês (48 animais), Bergamácia (46), Rabo Largo (48), Morada Nova (48) e Somali (48). Após triagem com 140 primers, foram selecionados 54 locos a partir de 19 primers e todas as raças apresentaram marcadores específicos. Análises qualitativas mostraram a presença de marcadores diagnóstico-específicos para todas as raças. As diferenças inter-raciais foram significativas e responsáveis por 14,92% da variação total observada. Na análise de agrupamento, a raça Santa Inês ficou próxima à Bergamácia (com 97% de valor bootstrap). A raça Rabo Largo apresentou maior similaridade com este grupo (com 81% bootstrap) do que as raças Morada Nova e Somali. Cada raça deve ser considerada como unidade de conservação e manejo, especialmente as raças Rabo Largo, Morada Nova e Somali, as quais apresentam as menores populações no País. Abstract in english The objectives of this work were to investigate the genetic structure of the Brazilian hair sheep breeds and to determine the origin of the Santa Inês breed. Molecular similarity was determined using Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA - Polymerase Chain Reaction markers in 238 individuals from five [...] naturalized sheep breeds: Santa Inês (48 animals), Rabo Largo (48), Somali (48), Morada Nova (48) and Bergamasca (46), collected in Goiás, Sergipe, Bahia, and Ceará States as well as in the Federal District. Fifty-four loci were selected from 19 primers, after a pilot test using 140 primers. Qualitative analyses indicate diagnostic markers for all breeds. All breeds were significantly different from each other. Interbreed differences were explained by 14.92% of the total variation. Santa Inês clustered with Bergamasca (97% bootstrap) and with Rabo Largo, composing the third member of the group (81% bootstrap) while Morada Nova and Somali breeds clustered separately. Each breed should be considered as a separate management and conservation unit, and special care should be taken with Rabo Largo, Morada Nova and Somali breeds, represented by small herds in Brazil.

Samuel Rezende, Paiva; Vanessa Chaves, Silvério; Andréa Alves, Egito; Concepta, McManus; Danielle Assis de, Faria; Arthur da Silva, Mariante; Sílvia Ribeiro, Castro; Maria do Socorro Maués, Albuquerque; Jorge Abdala, Dergam.

2005-09-01

91

Detecting novel SNPs and breed-specific haplotypes at calpastatin gene in Iranian fat- and thin-tailed sheep breeds and their effects on protein structure.  

Science.gov (United States)

Calpastatin has been introduced as a potential candidate gene for growth and meat quality traits. In this study, genetic variability was investigated in the exon 6 and its intron boundaries of ovine CAST gene by PCR-SSCP analysis and DNA sequencing. Also a protein sequence and structural analysis were performed to predict the possible impact of amino acid substitutions on physicochemical properties and structure of the CAST protein. A total of 487 animals belonging to four ancient Iranian sheep breeds with different fat metabolisms, Lori-Bakhtiari and Chall (fat-tailed), Zel-Atabay cross-bred (medium fat-tailed) and Zel (thin-tailed), were analyzed. Eight unique SSCP patterns, representing eight different sequences or haplotypes, CAST-1, CAST-2 and CAST-6 to CAST-11, were identified. Haplotypes CAST-1 and CAST-2 were most common with frequency of 0.365 and 0.295. The novel haplotype CAST-8 had considerable frequency in Iranian sheep breeds (0.129). All the consensus sequences showed 98-99%, 94-98%, 92-93% and 82-83% similarity to the published ovine, caprine, bovine and porcine CAST locus sequences, respectively. Sequence analysis revealed four SNPs in intron 5 (C24T, G62A, G65T and T69-) and three SNPs in exon 6 (c.197A>T, c.282G>T and c.296C>G). All three SNPs in exon 6 were missense mutations which would result in p.Gln 66 Leu, p.Glu 94 Asp and p.Pro 99 Arg substitutions, respectively, in CAST protein. All three amino acid substitutions affected the physicochemical properties of ovine CAST protein including hydrophobicity, amphiphilicity and net charge and subsequently might influence its structure and effect on the activity of Ca2+ channels; hence, they might regulate calpain activity and afterwards meat tenderness and growth rate. The Lori-Bakhtiari population showed the highest heterozygosity in the ovine CAST locus (0.802). Frequency difference of haplotypes CAST-10 and CAST-8 between Lori-Bakhtiari (fat-tailed) and Zel (thin-tailed) breeds was highly significant (Pfat-tailed and thin-tailed sheep breeds. PMID:24401538

Aali, Mohsen; Moradi-Shahrbabak, Mohammad; Moradi-Shahrbabak, Hosein; Sadeghi, Mostafa

2014-03-01

92

Investigation of the Booroola (FecB) and Inverdale (FecX(I)) mutations in 21 prolific breeds and strains of sheep sampled in 13 countries.  

Science.gov (United States)

Twenty-one of the world's prolific sheep breeds and strains were tested for the presence of the FecB mutation of BMPR1B and the FecX(I) mutation of BMP15. The breeds studied were Romanov (2 strains), Finn (2 strains), East Friesian, Teeswater, Blueface Leicester, Hu, Han, D'Man, Chios, Mountain Sheep (three breeds), German Whiteheaded Mutton, Lleyn, Loa, Galician, Barbados Blackbelly (pure and crossbred) and St. Croix. The FecB mutation was found in two breeds, Hu and Han from China, but not in any of the other breeds. The 12 Hu sheep sampled were all homozygous carriers of FecB (FecB(B)/FecB(B)) whereas the sample of 12 Han sheep included all three genotypes (FecB(B)/FecB(B), FecB(B)/FecB+, FecB+/FecB+) at frequencies of 0.33, 0.58 and 0.08, respectively. There was no evidence of FecX(I) in any of the breeds sampled. PMID:15982834

Davis, G H; Balakrishnan, L; Ross, I K; Wilson, T; Galloway, S M; Lumsden, B M; Hanrahan, J P; Mullen, M; Mao, X Z; Wang, G L; Zhao, Z S; Zeng, Y Q; Robinson, J J; Mavrogenis, A P; Papachristoforou, C; Peter, C; Baumung, R; Cardyn, P; Boujenane, I; Cockett, N E; Eythorsdottir, E; Arranz, J J; Notter, D R

2006-03-01

93

Single strand conformation polymorphism analysis in the Sarda breed sheep POU1F1 gene  

OpenAIRE

The ovine POU1F1 gene, localized in chromosome 1, contains 6 exons and 5 introns and in several mammals species its association with different productive traits has been shown. The aim of the study was to study the POU1F1 gene nucleotide sequence to highlight possible polymorphisms and, if present, their relationships with milk productive traits in Sarda sheep breed. The study has been conducted on 140 Sarda lactating ewes, in their third to fifth lactation. A blood sample was collecte...

Mura, Maria Consuelo; Daga, Cinzia; Luridiana, Sebastiano; Paludo, Marta; Vacca, Giuseppe Massimo; Bini, Pier Paolo; Carcangiu, Vincenzo

2011-01-01

94

Detection of Four Novel Polymorphisms in PrP gene of Pakistani sheep (Damani and Hashtnagri) and goats (Kamori and Local Hairy) breeds  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Scrapie is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder of sheep and goats caused by post-translational conformational change in the host-encoded prion protein (PrPC). Susceptibility or resistance to scrapie has been associated with the presence of polymorphisms in the prion protein (PrP) gene. In the present study, we analyzed the PrP gene sequence to determine the frequency of polymorphisms in 56 sheep (28 each from Damani and Hashtnagri breeds) and 56 goats (28 each fro...

Imran Muhammad; Babar Masroor E; Hussain Amjed; Haq Ikram U; Javed Muhammad M

2011-01-01

95

Alterations in follicular maturation associated with within-breed variation in ovulation rate in Chios sheep.  

Science.gov (United States)

Within-breed comparisons may be helpful to identify, in a given genetic background (Chios sheep), ovarian strategies and control mechanisms associated with altered ovulation rate. High and low ewes were identified from two large groups (n = 27 and n = 33 in Exp. 1 and Exp. 2 respectively) of Chios ewes submitted to repeated laparoscopies (24 times in Exp. 1 and six times in Exp. 2). High ovulatory ewes (n = 6 and n = 7 in Exp. 1 and Exp. 2 respectively) had mean ovulation rates of 4.3 (Exp. 1) and 4.2 (Exp. 2) while low ovulatory ewes (n = 6 and n = 7 in Exp. 1 and Exp. 2 respectively) had mean ovulation rates of 2.5 (Exp. 1) and 1.9 (Exp. 2). In Exp. 1, follicular function was compared in these two groups of ewes using follicles obtained at 30 h following luteolysis in the same ewes before and after unilateral ovariectomy (ULO). In Exp. 2, circulating follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) concentrations were measured from the end of the luteal phase up to the preovulatory surge in high and low ewes. Thereafter, to demonstrate a causal link between high FSH and high ovulation rate, pituitary downregulation was achieved by a 17-day gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist treatment and the ovarian response to similar amounts of exogenous gonadotrophins compared between high and low ewes. Numbers of oestrogenic (in vitro oestradiol > 250 pg ml-1 h-1) follicles on the first ovary removed (Exp. 1) were 2.16 +/- 0.5 vs. 1.33 +/- 0.17 in high and low ewes (P = 0.1). Following ULO, these numbers were 3.33 +/- 0.33 and 2.5 +/- 0.18 (P < 0.05 between high and low ewes). There were no significant differences between the first and second ovaries for any of the parameters studied. Follicles from high ovulatory ewes (n = 33) differed from those of low ovulatory ewes (n = 23) by a smaller size (P < 0.01), a reduced number of granulosa cells (P < 0.01) together with decreased oestradiol (P < 0.05) and testosterone (P < 0.01) production in vitro. However, steroid production per cell (oestradiol per granulosa cell, testosterone per thecal cell) was similar in the two groups of sheep. FSH concentrations (Exp. 2) in high ovulatory ewes were significantly higher than those of low ovulatory ewes during the late luteal phase, and the decrease in FSH concentrations was steeper (1.4 ng) during the early follicular phase for high ovulatory ewes than low ovulatory ewes. Chemical hypophysectomy achieved by a 17-day treatment with a GnRH agonist demonstrated that these high FSH concentrations may be important to generate the high ovulation rate of the 'high' ewes as ovulation rate of high and low ewes was similar following chemical hypophysectomy followed by administration of similar amounts of exogenous gonadotropins to both groups of ewes. It is concluded that, despite different genetic control of their high ovulation rate (Chios-polygenic; Booroola-major gene), alterations in follicular function and its control are very similar in high ovulatory Chios and in FecB carriers. PMID:9231262

Avdi, M; Chemineau, P; Driancourt, M A

1997-04-01

96

Variation of the Surface of the Longissimus Dorsi (LD Muscle and the Section of the Leg of Mutton at Young Sheep of Different Breed Structures  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The research was done on carcasses from the slaughter of young male sheep intensively fattened belonging to the local Tsigai race of mountain ecotype and its half-breeds with Suffolk and German blackface (GCCN. The purpose of the research was to determine Logissimus dorsi (LD and leg of moutton area, because these parts provide information on Ist meat quality. Research results have noted that lots of half-breeds achieved higher Longissimus dorsi (LD and leg of moutton area, compared with the pure breed batch. Compared with Tsigai breed, Longissimus dorsi (LD area deterrmined was higher with 10,75% to Suffolk x Tsigai half-breeds, and 0,07% respectively to German Blackface x Tsigai half-breeds. Leg of moutton area was higher with 17,27% to Suffolk x Tsigai halfbreeds, and 2,75% respectively to German Blackface x Tsigai half-breeds. Research carried out special information on Ist meat quality on carcass.

Elena Ili?iu

2010-10-01

97

Influence of breed and feeding on the main quality characteristics of sheep carcass and meat: A review  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english This paper reviews two factors (breed and feed) affecting the carcass and meat quality of sheep. The quality of livestock products has acquired greater importance from the distinct perspectives of the different participants in the agricultural food chain. Consumers, producers and the industry give d [...] ifferent levels of importance to the parameters of meat and carcass quality. Nevertheless, all the participants in the meat production chain must ensure quality to improve their competitiveness. The quality of the carcass and meat can be influenced by different factors such as breed and type of feed. The breed can influence weight, yields, and the conformation of the carcass, among other variables, as well as the pH level and the fatty acid composition of the meat, whereas the feed mainly affects carcass conformation and several physicochemical and organoleptic parameters of meat quality such as proximal composition, the fatty acid profile, tenderness and color. Consequently, the effects of breed and feed type should be considered to obtain a quality product that satisfies consumer demand.

Jorge, Ramírez-Retamal; Rodrigo, Morales.

2014-04-01

98

Association between SREBP-1 gene expression in mammary gland and milk fat yield in Sarda breed sheep?  

Science.gov (United States)

Summary The aim of this study was to examine the expression patterns of SREBP-1 gene in milk somatic cells and its association with milk fat yield during early lactation in Sarda breed sheep. A sample of 20 Sarda ewes, aged between 4 and 5 years, in their third to fourth lactation were chosen. From each ewe 28 days after lambing milk yield was measured, and a 160 ml milk sample for the RNA extraction and to test somatic cells count and lactose, fat and protein contents were collected. From the obtained RNA, total cDNA was synthesized and the quantitative PCR was performed. The fat, proteins and lactose content showed many differences among the animals, but these variations were no correlated with the milk yield. The SREBP-1 gene expression resulted higher in the high milk fat producing ewes. The correlation analysis showed that the SREBP-1 expression level is directly related to the amount of milk fat (g/die) (P concentration of fat in milk. Our data highlight that in sheep SREBP-1 gene is expressed in the mammary gland during early lactation. Moreover, the positive relationship between SREBP-1 gene expression and the milk fat yield suggests that SREBP-1 gene is required for the lipid synthesis in the sheep mammary gland. PMID:25606373

Carcangiu, Vincenzo; Mura, Maria Consuelo; Daga, Cinzia; Luridiana, Sebastiano; Bodano, Sara; Sanna, Giovanni Antonio; Diaz, Maria Luisa; Cosso, Giovanni

2013-01-01

99

The effect of breeding area, stage of lactation and herd on milk yield traits of Pag sheep  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the effect of different breeding areas (south-west and north-east part of the island of Pag on daily milk, fat and protein yield in Pag sheep. The aim of thisstudy was also to determine the shape of lactation curves as well as the herd effect on Pag sheep milk traits. Research was conducted on 32 herds reared in the south-western (23 and north-eastern (9 part of the island of Pag. Data included 21.033 test-day records of 2.332 ewes. Daily milk yield and milk components were recorded using AT4 method for the period from 2004 to 2008. The rearing area had statistically significant effect on the daily milk yield (P<0.001, daily fat and protein yield. Ewes reared on the south-western part of the island had larger average daily production than ewes reared on its north-eastern part. The stage of lactation, described by Ali and Schaeffer lactation curve nested within rearing area, had significant effect (P<0.0001 on all milk traits. The peak of lactation production was achieved around the 20th day of lactation in both areas and was somewhat higher for ewes kept in the south-western compared to the north-eastern part of the island. Flock nested within rearing area had statistically significant effect on all milk traits (P<0.0001. Results obtained in the study showed potential possibilities for breeders to enlarge milk production and consequently economically benefit through improved herd management of Pag sheep.

Zdravko Bara?

2012-03-01

100

Estimation of genetic parameters for body measurements and their association with yearling liveweight in the Makuie sheep breed  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english The main objective of this study was to estimate the genetic parameters for body measurement and yearling live bodyweight traits in the Makuie sheep breed. The data set consisted of 2 144 lambs from 122 sires and 984 dams recorded in 21 years from 1989 to 2009 at the Makuie Sheep Breeding and Raisin [...] g Station (MSBS). The traits that were studied were height at withers, height at rump, body length, heart girth, leg circumference and yearling weight. The analyses were carried out based on an animal model with the restricted maximum likelihood (REML) approach using a derivate-free (DF) algorithm. Six animal models were fitted, differentiated by including or excluding maternal effects, and with and without covariance between maternal and direct genetic effects. Ignoring the maternal effects, the direct heritability was estimated as 0.20, 0.24, 0.10, 0.14, 0.02 and 0.36 for height at wither, height at rump, body length, heart girth, leg circumference and yearling weight, respectively. The estimates were slightly higher when maternal effects, genetic or environmental, were ignored in the analyses. Using bivariate analysis, the estimates for additive genetic correlations ranged from 0.56 to 0.81 among the studied traits. A log-likelihood ratio test (LRT) was used to select the most appropriate univariate model for each trait. Based on LRT, the direct additive genetic and maternal permanent environmental effects were regarded as an important source of variation of the studied traits. The estimates of genetic parameters can be considered a basis for calculating selection indices for body measurements, as well as revealing their association with yearling bodyweight traits.

S, Jafari; A, Hashemi.

2014-02-01

101

Analysis of polymorphism within POU1F1 gene in relation to milk production traits in dairy Sarda sheep breed.  

Science.gov (United States)

The ovine POU1F1 gene is localized on chromosome 1 and it contains five introns and six exons. In different mammalian species some mutations in different exons are associated with different production traits. The aim of our research was to study the POU1F1 gene nucleotide sequence to detect possible polymorphisms and their relationships with milk productive traits in Sarda breed sheep. The study had been conducted on 140 ewes, 4 or 5 years old coming from a farm located in Sardinia. All the animals were multiparous, lactating and in their third to fifth lactation. Individual milk yield had been recorded monthly and for each sample fat, protein, casein, lactose, and somatic cell count values were analysed. A jugular blood sample was collected from each ewe to perform genomic DNA extraction. PCR, SSCP and sequencing analysis were carried out to examine the six exons to highlight possible SNPs. One-way ANOVA was used to analyse association of variants with milk yield and/or its composition. Two novel SNP were found: 121 C>T in the 5'UTR of the fourth intron fragment and 249 G>A in the 3'UTR of the sixth exon fragment. The statistical analysis did not shown association between milk productive traits and the found polymorphisms. However, further investigations about the promoter region or the prophet genes, like the PROP-1, could clarify its exact role in regulating the productive traits in sheep. PMID:22311029

Mura, Maria Consuelo; Daga, Cinzia; Paludo, Marta; Luridiana, Sebastiano; Pazzola, Michele; Bodano, Sara; Dettori, Maria Luisa; Vacca, Giuseppe Massimo; Carcangiu, Vincenzo

2012-06-01

102

Application of microsatellite markers for breeding and genetic conservation of herds of Pantaneiro sheep  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english Background The aim of the present study was to assess the genetic diversity of Pantaneiro sheep, using microsatellite markers, in order to assist maintenance and management plans, enhance mating systems and reduce the inbreeding rate. A total of 127 animals were genotyped at eight microsatellite loc [...] i. They belonged to populations from the Experimental Farm of the Universidade Federal da Grande Dourados (UFGD) (Dourados/MS/Brazil) and Embrapa Pantanal (Corumbá/MS/Brazil). Results The population of Pantaneiro sheep from the UFGD exhibited a high mean number of alleles (11.13) and allelic richness (10.66). The polymorphic information content was highly informative in the locus studied, resulting in a mean value of 0.71. Observed heterozygosity was lower than expected for all molecular markers assessed. The analysis of molecular variance showed a differentiation rate of 5.2% between populations. Conclusions The results of the statistical parameters indicated that populations of Pantaneiro sheep require special attention on herd management, and it's further necessary to implement breeder exchange programs in order to preserve the genetic variability of these populations. Furthermore, the maintenance of those populations in their typical habitats is rather required to allow different responses from the herds to the interactions between genotype and environment.

Bruno do Amaral, Crispim; Leonardo de Oliveira, Seno; Andréa Alves do, Egito; Fernando Miranda de, Vargas Junior; Alexéia Barufatti, Grisolia.

2014-11-01

103

Protective effect of the AT137RQ and ARQK176 PrP alleles against classical scrapie in Sarda breed sheep  

OpenAIRE

The susceptibility of sheep to scrapie is under the control of the host’s prion protein (PrP) gene and is also influenced by the strain of the agent. PrP polymorphisms at codons 136 (A/V), 154 (R/H) and 171 (Q/R/H) are the main determinants of susceptibility/resistance of sheep to classical scrapie. They are combined in four main variants of the wild-type ARQ allele: VRQ, AHQ, ARH and ARR. Breeding programmes have been undertaken on this basis in the European Union and the USA to increase t...

Vaccari, Gabriele; Scavia, Gaia; Sala, Marcello; Cosseddu, Gianmario; Chiappini, Barbara; Conte, Michela; Esposito, Elena; Lorenzetti, Raniero; Perfetti, Gabriella; Marconi, Paola; Scholl, Francesco; Barbaro, Katia; Bella, Antonino; Nonno, Romolo; Agrimi, Umberto

2009-01-01

104

Factors affecting the plasmin-plasminogen system in milk obtained from three Greek dairy sheep breeds with major differences in milk production capacity.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of breed, stage of lactation, and health status of the udder on the plasmin-plasminogen system in ovine milk. A total of 38 ewes were used from 3 breeds [Boutsiko (n = 12), Chios (n = 12), and a synthetic breed (50% Boutsiko, 25% Arta, and 25% Chios, n = 14)] with major differences in their genetic potential with respect to milk yield. Milk samples were collected every 2 wk throughout the lactation period and were analyzed for fat, protein, lactose, and somatic cell count (SCC). In addition, milk plasmin (PL), plasminogen (PG), and plasminogen activator (PA) activities were determined. The Chios breed had the greatest average daily milk yield, the synthetic breed had an intermediate milk yield, and ewes of the Boutsiko breed had the lowest milk yield. Milk samples obtained from the Boutsiko breed had similar PL and PA activities, compared with those obtained from the other 2 breeds. The ratio of PG:PL was less in milk samples from the Boutsiko breed compared with the other 2 breeds, indicative of an increased rate of conversion of PG to PL for this breed. There was no correlation between PL activity and daily milk yield in ewes from all 3 breeds. Activities of PL, PG, and PA were greater in ovine milk with elevated SCC (>300,000/mL) compared with activities in milk with low SCC (<300,000/mL). The ratio of PG:PL was less in the high-SCC group compared with the low-SCC group, which indicates an increased rate of conversion of PG to PL for the high-SCC group. There was a decrease in PG and PA activities as well as in the PG:PL ratio in late lactation milk (mo 5 to 6) when compared with early or mid lactation milk (mo 1 to 4). Thus, the PL-PG system is affected by breed, stage of lactation, and the health status of the udder. No relationship was found between PL activity and daily milk yield in the 3 Greek dairy sheep breeds. Plasmin is not a marker for gradual involution in the Greek sheep breeds studied. PMID:17582110

Theodorou, G; Kominakis, A; Rogdakis, E; Politis, I

2007-07-01

105

SNPs for parentage testing and traceability in globally diverse breeds of sheep  

Science.gov (United States)

DNA-based parentage determination accelerates genetic improvement by increasing pedigree accuracy. However, the utility of any “parentage SNP” varies by breed depending on its minor allele frequency (MAF) and its sequence context. Our aims were to identify parentage SNPs with exceptional qualities...

106

Wool quality in Gentile di Puglia sheep breed as measure of genetic integrity  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Gentile di Pugliais a breed created in the 15th century by crossing Merino Spanish rams and “gentile” ewes reared in some areas of Southern Italy, mainly Apulia and Basilicata. The crisis of the wool industry, the poor quantity of milk, the inadequacy of Gentile di Pugliato be milked by machine and the passage from transhumant to permanent rearing caused a dramatic reduction of this population, which was largely crossed with other breeds and declined from about one million heads in the sixties to 5,000 at the present time. In order to save the ancient typical Gentile di Pugliabreed, the aim of this work was to estimate the “genetic integrity” of the remaining Gentile di Pugliapopulation by means of an analysis of wool quality measured through the diameter of the fibre and the homogeneity of the fleece. Our hypothesis was that the animals originated from outcrosses to other Merino derived breeds specialised for meat would show larger diameters of the fibres and a reduced homogeneity of the fleece. The research was carried out using Herd Book registered animals from 9 farms: 1 from Isernia, 2 from Campobasso and 6 from Foggia province. The statistical analysis on the diameter of the fibre was carried out on a dataset of 38,200 observations (200 records x 191 animals divided in four classes (ultrafine, fine, croisè, ordinary. The high frequencies of ultrafine and fine fibre classes show that the quality of the wool is still good in the population. This consideration can be extended to all the farms involved in the study that could therefore be suitable in the conservation programs for this breed. The homogeneity of the fleece was also good in provid- ing further evidence of the genetic integrity of the population. Other analysis carried out on the quality of the wool in relation to the body size confirmed that the observed Gentile di Pugliais well representative of the ancient breed.

Carlo Renieri

2010-01-01

107

Introducing the Karayaka Sheep Breed with its Traits and Influencing Factors  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study was planned to express the detailed traits of Karayaka sheep reared in Tokat province, also influencing factors on the traits were evaluated. While year effect was significant on 8 weeks weight, scanning weight, fat depth and muscle area, all the evaluated traits including birth weight and muscle depth were significantly affected by season (p<0.05. Dam age was significant on birth weight (p<0.05. Birth weight and 8 week weight were significantly affected by sex and birth type. Sex effect has been appeared on muscle depth while birth type effect has been detected on scanning weight (p<0.05. While the strongest phenotypic correlation coefficient was detected between muscle depth and muscle area, the weakest ones were found between birth weight and scanning traits.

Zafer Ulutas

2008-01-01

108

In vivo degradation of processed dermal sheep collagen evaluated with transmission electron microscopy  

OpenAIRE

The in vivo degradation of hexamethylenediisocyanate-tanned dermal sheep collagen was studied with transmission electron microscopy. Discs of hexamethylenediisocyanate-tanned dermal sheep collagen were subcutaneously implanted in rats. Both an intra- and an extracellular route of degradation could be distinguished. In addition to normal components of a typical foreign body reaction, remarkable phenomena, such as locally deviant neutrophil morphology, infiltration of basophil-like cells, indic...

Wachem, P. B.; Luyn, M. J. A.; Nieuwenhuis, P.; Koerten, H. K.; Olde Damink, L.; Hoopen, H. Ten; Feijen, J.

1991-01-01

109

Impact of strong selection for the PrP major gene on genetic variability of four French sheep breeds (Open Access publication  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Effective selection on the PrP gene has been implemented since October 2001 in all French sheep breeds. After four years, the ARR "resistant" allele frequency increased by about 35% in young males. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of this strong selection on genetic variability. It is focussed on four French sheep breeds and based on the comparison of two groups of 94 animals within each breed: the first group of animals was born before the selection began, and the second, 3–4 years later. Genetic variability was assessed using genealogical and molecular data (29 microsatellite markers. The expected loss of genetic variability on the PrP gene was confirmed. Moreover, among the five markers located in the PrP region, only the three closest ones were affected. The evolution of the number of alleles, heterozygote deficiency within population, expected heterozygosity and the Reynolds distances agreed with the criteria from pedigree and pointed out that neutral genetic variability was not much affected. This trend depended on breed, i.e. on their initial states (population size, PrP frequencies and on the selection strategies for improving scrapie resistance while carrying out selection for production traits.

Pantano Thais

2008-11-01

110

Somatic cell banking - An alternative technology for the conservation of endangered sheep breeds  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Skin samples from ear pinna of 10 male and 10 female sheep were collected and cultured in DMEM+Ham's F12 nutrient medium. Cell viability was 95 to 100% in different cultures. Mean cell proliferation rates were 0.94-0.67 and 1.15-0.56 for males and females in different passages, respectively. Cell proliferation rates were highest in first passage and then showed an age-related decline. Average cell doubling time was 30 h in males and 29.6 h in females. Skin fibroblast cell growth curves were in lag phase for the first 2 days, entered log phase (3rd to 7th days) and plateaued on day 8. Diploid chromosomal counts in proliferating cells up to the 5th passage were normal (2N=54), with no gross chromosomal aberrations recorded. Cells frozen from cycling cells at 80-90% confluency showed superior post-thaw growth compared with cells from overconfluent cultures. DMSO at 10% (v/v) in freezing media was optimal. Controlled-rate freezing at -1 deg. C/min showed better post-thaw cell viability and growth potential. Direct plating of thawed cells without removing DMSO and other contents of the freezing medium gave better post-thaw survival and proliferation rates. (author)

111

Accuracy of pedigree and genomic predictions of carcass and novel meat quality traits in multi-breed sheep data assessed by cross-validation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Genomic predictions can be applied early in life without impacting selection candidates. This is especially useful for meat quality traits in sheep. Carcass and novel meat quality traits were predicted in a multi-breed sheep population that included Merino, Border Leicester, Polled Dorset and White Suffolk sheep and their crosses. Methods Prediction of breeding values by best linear unbiased prediction (BLUP based on pedigree information was compared to prediction based on genomic BLUP (GBLUP and a Bayesian prediction method (BayesR. Cross-validation of predictions across sire families was used to evaluate the accuracy of predictions based on the correlation of predicted and observed values and the regression of observed on predicted values was used to evaluate bias of methods. Accuracies and regression coefficients were calculated using either phenotypes or adjusted phenotypes as observed variables. Results and conclusions Genomic methods increased the accuracy of predicted breeding values to on average 0.2 across traits (range 0.07 to 0.31, compared to an average accuracy of 0.09 for pedigree-based BLUP. However, for some traits with smaller reference population size, there was no increase in accuracy or it was small. No clear differences in accuracy were observed between GBLUP and BayesR. The regression of phenotypes on breeding values was close to 1 for all methods, indicating little bias, except for GBLUP and adjusted phenotypes (regression = 0.78. Accuracies calculated with adjusted (for fixed effects phenotypes were less variable than accuracies based on unadjusted phenotypes, indicating that fixed effects influence the latter. Increasing the reference population size increased accuracy, indicating that adding more records will be beneficial. For the Merino, Polled Dorset and White Suffolk breeds, accuracies were greater than for the Border Leicester breed due to the smaller sample size and limited across-breed prediction. BayesR detected only a few large marker effects but one region on chromosome 6 was associated with large effects for several traits. Cross-validation produced very similar variability of accuracy and regression coefficients for BLUP, GBLUP and BayesR, showing that this variability is not a property of genomic methods alone. Our results show that genomic selection for novel difficult-to-measure traits is a feasible strategy to achieve increased genetic gain.

Daetwyler Hans D

2012-11-01

112

Morphostructural Differentiation and Variability of Merino Sheep Breed Under Sustained Directional Selection / Diferenciación y Variabilidad Morfoestructural de Ovinos de Raza Merino Sometidos a Selección Direccional Sostenida  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish En el presente trabajo se analiza el grado de diferenciación y variabilidad morfoestructural alcanzado por el tipo de animal resultante de una selección direccional sostenida y sus implicancias en la emergencia de un nuevo grupo racial ovino. Se midieron 25 machos y 200 ovejas adultas. Se tomaron 13 [...] medidas corporales, evaluando la diferenciación de la morfología estructural y el dimorfismo sexual. Estas mediciones se compararon con las realizadas en animales de raza Merino Australiano y Marin Magellan Meat Merino. La homogeneidad intrapoblacional se evaluó a través de los coeficientes de variación porcentual de las medias de las medidas corporales. Se concluye que la selección direccional realizada de forma sostenida ha generado una diferenciación del formato morfoestructural al comparar a la población sujeta a selección con las principales raza de tipo Merino existentes en la Patagonia Chilena. La población evaluada evidencia una variabilidad morfoestructural similar, y en muchos casos menor a la encontrada en razas ovinas reconocidas como tales en Chile, con lo cual es posible señalar que se comporta como un grupo animal distinguible con caracteres de raza. Abstract in english In this paper, the degree of differentiation and morphostructural variability reached by the type of animal resulting from sustained directional selection, in addition to its implications for the emergence of a new sheep breed are analyzed. Twenty-five rams and 200 ewes from a sheep flock submitted [...] to directional selection since 1987 were measured. Thirteen body measurements were taken in other to evaluate the structural morphology and sexual dimorphism. These measurements were compared with identical measures taken in Australian Merino and Marin Magellan Meat Merino sheep breeds. The intrapopulation homogeneity was assessed using the coefficients of variation of the average percentage of body measurements. It is concluded that sustained directional selection has generated the differentiation of the morphostructural format of the subject population compared to the main Merino-type breeds in the Chilean Patagonia. The population shows a similar (and in some cases lower) morphostructural variability than those found in recognized sheep breeds in Chile, so it is possible to state that this population behaves like a different animal group, with breed characteristics.

R, de la Barra; E, Latorre; M. E, Martínez; C, Calderón.

1069-10-01

113

Technical note: A simplified PCR-based assay for the characterization of two prolactin variants that affect milk traits in sheep breeds.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the present study, a rapid and cost-effective PCR-based assay was developed for the genetic identification of 2 different variants within intron 2 of the prolactin gene. This polymorphism has previously been associated with milk traits in some ovine breeds and was recently proposed as a potential marker for future breeding schemes in dairy sheep. Until now, 2 alleles (A and B) have been identified by PCR-RFLP that included HaeIII digestion of a 2.5-kb PCR fragment. By partial sequencing of the prolactin gene intron 2, it was found that the B variant results from a 23-bp deletion of the A variant of the prolactin gene and not from an extra HaeIII digestion site, as had been reported. This finding assisted the design of new primers for analysis of prolactin intron 2 variants based on the size of an easily amplified short PCR product, thereby avoiding the need and cost for additional digestions. The method was validated by genotyping 80 animals from 2 breeds and showed 100% sensitivity and specificity compared with the PCR-RFLP assay. The established simplified PCR assay was then successfully used to genotype 356 Chios sheep. PMID:21094774

Orford, M; Tzamaloukas, O; Papachristoforou, C; Miltiadou, D

2010-12-01

114

Quality traits and modeling of coagulation, curd firming, and syneresis of sheep milk of Alpine breeds fed diets supplemented with rumen-protected conjugated fatty acid.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to test the modeling of curd-firming (CF) measures and to compare the sheep milk of 3 Alpine breeds supplemented with or without rumen-protected conjugated linoleic acid (rpCLA). Twenty-four ewes of the Brogna, Foza, and Lamon breeds were allotted to 6 pens (2 pens/breed) and fed a diet composed of corn grain, corn silage, dried sugar beet pulp, soybean meal, wheat bran, wheat straw, and a vitamin-mineral mixture. The rpCLA supplement (12 g/d per ewe plus 4 g/d for each lamb older than 30 d) was mixed into the diet of 1 pen per sheep breed (3 pens/treatment) to provide an average of 0.945 and 0.915 g/d per ewe of the cis-9,trans-11 C18:2 and trans-10,cis-12 C18:2 conjugated linoleic acid isomers, respectively. The trial started at 38 ± 23 d after parturition, and individual morning milk samples were collected on d 16, 23, 37, 44, and 59 of the trial. Milk samples were analyzed for composition, and duplicate samples were assessed for milk coagulation properties (MCP). A total of 180 CF measures for each sample (1 every 15s) were recorded. Model parameters were the rennet coagulation time, the asymptotic potential CF, the CF instant rate constant, the syneresis instant rate constant, the maximum CF achieved within 45 min (CFmax), and the time at achievement of CFmax. The data were analyzed using a hierarchical model that considered the fixed effects of breed, diet, lamb birth, and initial days in milk, which were tested on individual ewe (random) variance; the fixed effect of sampling day, which was tested on the within-ewe sample (random) variance; and the fixed effect of instrument or cuvette position (only for MCP), which was tested on the residual (replicates within samples) variance. The local Alpine sheep breeds displayed similar milk compositions, traditional MCP, and CF modeling parameters. Supplementation with rpCLA triggered changes in milk composition and worsened MCP (e.g., delayed rennet coagulation time, slower CF instant rate constant, and a doubling of syneresis instant rate constant), but did not influence potential CF. Overall, our results indicate that rpCLA supplementation reduced the actual maximum CF (CFmax) but did not modify the interval between rennet addition and CFmax or time to CFmax. PMID:24819130

Bittante, G; Pellattiero, E; Malchiodi, F; Cipolat-Gotet, C; Pazzola, M; Vacca, G M; Schiavon, S; Cecchinato, A

2014-07-01

115

Occurrence of anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies and parasite DNA in raw milk of sheep and goats of local breeds reared in Northeastern Brazil.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of the present study was to detect Toxoplasma gondii DNA in raw milk samples of goats and sheep of local breeds from the semi-arid region of the states of Pernambuco and Paraíba, Northeastern Brazil. Serum and milk samples were collected from 243 animals (186 goats and 57 sheep). The Indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) was used to search for anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies with a cutoff of 64. Subsequently, the raw milk samples were subjected to DNA extraction and PCR to detect DNA of T. gondii. The IFAT results showed a 6.58% (16/243) positivity when all the samples were considered and a positivity of 15.78% (9/57) and 3.76% (7/186) for goats and sheep samples, respectively. The PCR assay detected T. gondii DNA in 2.06% (5/243) of all the samples tested. All the PCR positive samples were from goats. This result shows the importance of adopting measures of flock's sanitary management and avoiding the consumption of raw milk may constitute a potential risk to the health of milk consumers in this region. PMID:25438258

da Silva, José Givanildo; Alves, Bruno Henrique L S; Melo, Renata Pimentel B; Kim, Pomy Cássia P; Neto, Orestes L Souza; Bezerra, Mauro José G; Sá, Silvio G; Mota, Rinaldo A

2015-02-01

116

Zoneamento bioclimático da ovinocultura no Estado do Paraná Bioclimatical zoning of sheep breeding in the State of Parana  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Utilizaram-se 45 fêmeas ovinas adultas (15 Hampshire Down [HD], 15 Texel [TE] e 15 Ile de France [IF], para propor um zoneamento bioclimático da ovinocultura no Estado do Paraná. Mediram-se a temperatura retal (Tr, da epiderme (Te, do interior do velo (Tiv e da superfície do velo (Tsv; a frequência respiratória (Fr; a temperatura do ar (Ta, pressão de vapor (e, velocidade do vento (v e carga térmica radiante (CTR. O Índice de Conforto Térmico utilizado foi ICT= 0,6678Ta + 0,4969e + 0,5444Tg + 0,1038v. A regressão do ICT sobre Tr mostrou efeito quadrático para as três raças. Para ICT=24,3, 27,3 e 20,6, os valores de Tr foram respectivamente: 39,10ºC para a raça HD, 39,05ºC para TE e 39,09ºC para IF, atingindo 40,40; 40,50; e 40,28ºC, respectivamente, para ICT=58. As três raças aumentaram sua Tr a partir de ICT=26, com a TE apresentando menor Tr até o valor ICT=46; neste ponto, as três raças foram semelhantes, tendo a TE apresentado maiores valores. Para ICT igual a 27,6; 29,7; e 27,0, os valores de Fr foram, respectivamente, 89,63; 77,08; e 78,77 resp./min., para as raças HD, TE e IF. A raça TE apresentou menor Fr (77,08 resp./min., para ICT=29,7 e para ICT=48, valores semelhantes aos da IF (181,96 resp./min.; a partir deste índice, passou a ser maior que as demais raças, atingindo valores de 288,66 resp./min. no ICT=56, porém inferior à HD (289,01 resp./min.. Neste índice, a raça IF foi a que apresentou a menor Fr (275,72 resp./min.. Uma extensa faixa ao longo do litoral do Estado, entrando cerca de 200 km para o interior até os limites das cidades de Castro, Telêmaco Borba, Laranjeiras do Sul e Pato Branco, permite a criação das três raças, sem exigir grandes esforços de termorregulação.Forty five adult ewes were used, 15 for each of the three breeds: Hampshire Down (HD, Texel (TE and Ile de France (IF. These animals were measured for rectal temperature (Rt, skin temperature (St, fleece temperature (Ft, temperature of the coat surface (Cst and respiratory rate (Rr, Air temperature (At, air vapour pressure (Avp, wind speed (Ws, globe temperature (Gt and radiant heat load (Rhl were also recorded. The Thermal Comfort Index equation was used: TCI = 0.6678Ta + 0.4969e + 0.5444Tg + 0.1038v. Regression of TCI on Rt showed quadratic effect for the three breeds. For a TCI = 24.3, 27.3 and 20.6, Rt values were: 39.10ºC, for HD, 39.05ºC for TE, and 39.09ºC; for IF sheeps and for TCI=58, these values were respectively 40.40ºC, 40.50ºC and 40.28ºC. All the animals presented increased Rt under theses index, with Texel showed the least Rt for TCI=46, but was the only group with higher Rt values for TCI>48. For TCI=27.6, 29.7 and 27.0, Fr values were respectively: 89.63 resp./min. for HD, 77.08 resp./min. for TE and 78.77 resp./min. for IF. TE presented smaller Rr (77.08 resp./min., for TCI=29.7, and values similar to IF (179.63 resp./min., under TCI=48. After this level TE values were higher than those of the other breeds, reaching 288.66 resp./min. for TCI=56, but inferior that HD (289.01 resp./min.; IF, presented lower Rr (275.72 resp./min.. An extensive strip of land along the Parana State coast, heading inland 200 km up to the borders Castro, Telêmaco Borba, Laranjeiras do Sul and Pato Branco cities, allows the creation of the three breeds.

Orlando Rus Barbosa

2001-04-01

117

Zoneamento bioclimático da ovinocultura no Estado do Paraná / Bioclimatical zoning of sheep breeding in the State of Parana  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Utilizaram-se 45 fêmeas ovinas adultas (15 Hampshire Down [HD], 15 Texel [TE] e 15 Ile de France [IF]), para propor um zoneamento bioclimático da ovinocultura no Estado do Paraná. Mediram-se a temperatura retal (Tr), da epiderme (Te), do interior do velo (Tiv) e da superfície do velo (Tsv); a frequê [...] ncia respiratória (Fr); a temperatura do ar (Ta), pressão de vapor (e), velocidade do vento (v) e carga térmica radiante (CTR). O Índice de Conforto Térmico utilizado foi ICT= 0,6678Ta + 0,4969e + 0,5444Tg + 0,1038v. A regressão do ICT sobre Tr mostrou efeito quadrático para as três raças. Para ICT=24,3, 27,3 e 20,6, os valores de Tr foram respectivamente: 39,10ºC para a raça HD, 39,05ºC para TE e 39,09ºC para IF, atingindo 40,40; 40,50; e 40,28ºC, respectivamente, para ICT=58. As três raças aumentaram sua Tr a partir de ICT=26, com a TE apresentando menor Tr até o valor ICT=46; neste ponto, as três raças foram semelhantes, tendo a TE apresentado maiores valores. Para ICT igual a 27,6; 29,7; e 27,0, os valores de Fr foram, respectivamente, 89,63; 77,08; e 78,77 resp./min., para as raças HD, TE e IF. A raça TE apresentou menor Fr (77,08 resp./min.), para ICT=29,7 e para ICT=48, valores semelhantes aos da IF (181,96 resp./min.); a partir deste índice, passou a ser maior que as demais raças, atingindo valores de 288,66 resp./min. no ICT=56, porém inferior à HD (289,01 resp./min.). Neste índice, a raça IF foi a que apresentou a menor Fr (275,72 resp./min.). Uma extensa faixa ao longo do litoral do Estado, entrando cerca de 200 km para o interior até os limites das cidades de Castro, Telêmaco Borba, Laranjeiras do Sul e Pato Branco, permite a criação das três raças, sem exigir grandes esforços de termorregulação. Abstract in english Forty five adult ewes were used, 15 for each of the three breeds: Hampshire Down (HD), Texel (TE) and Ile de France (IF). These animals were measured for rectal temperature (Rt), skin temperature (St), fleece temperature (Ft), temperature of the coat surface (Cst) and respiratory rate (Rr), Air temp [...] erature (At), air vapour pressure (Avp), wind speed (Ws), globe temperature (Gt) and radiant heat load (Rhl) were also recorded. The Thermal Comfort Index equation was used: TCI = 0.6678Ta + 0.4969e + 0.5444Tg + 0.1038v. Regression of TCI on Rt showed quadratic effect for the three breeds. For a TCI = 24.3, 27.3 and 20.6, Rt values were: 39.10ºC, for HD, 39.05ºC for TE, and 39.09ºC; for IF sheeps and for TCI=58, these values were respectively 40.40ºC, 40.50ºC and 40.28ºC. All the animals presented increased Rt under theses index, with Texel showed the least Rt for TCI=46, but was the only group with higher Rt values for TCI>48. For TCI=27.6, 29.7 and 27.0, Fr values were respectively: 89.63 resp./min. for HD, 77.08 resp./min. for TE and 78.77 resp./min. for IF. TE presented smaller Rr (77.08 resp./min.), for TCI=29.7, and values similar to IF (179.63 resp./min.), under TCI=48. After this level TE values were higher than those of the other breeds, reaching 288.66 resp./min. for TCI=56, but inferior that HD (289.01 resp./min.); IF, presented lower Rr (275.72 resp./min.). An extensive strip of land along the Parana State coast, heading inland 200 km up to the borders Castro, Telêmaco Borba, Laranjeiras do Sul and Pato Branco cities, allows the creation of the three breeds.

Orlando Rus, Barbosa; Francisco de Assis Fonseca de, Macedo; Roland Van de, Groes; José Maurício Franco, Guedes.

2001-04-01

118

Reproductive pattern of local sheep in Egypt with special reference to the effects of breed, season and management  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effect of season on ovulation has been monitored in two local breeds of Egyptian ewes - the Barki (desert type), and the Rahmani (fat tailed Nile valley breed), by sequentially measuring cyclic changes in plasma progesterone concentration throughout a period of one year in the absence of any possible ram effect. The modal length of the ovulatory cycle was 17-18 days for both breeds, with the progesterone concentration peaking around day 11. No effect of season on progesterone concentration was apparent for the Barki breed but in the Rahmani, progesterone values were lower (P < 0.05) during the summer than during the autumn months. While the Barki have a restricted breeding season from June to November, the Rahmani have only a short period of anovulation within April. Thirty-three per cent of the Rahmani breed were identified as having cycled throughout the year. (author). 9 refs, 4 figs

119

Biometric Study of the Reproductive Organs of Three Breeds of Sheep in Nigeria / Estudio Biométrico de los Órganos Reproductivos de Tres Razas de Ovejas en Nigeria  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish Se realizó un estudio comparativo de la biometría testicular en carneros con las tres razas principales de ovejas de Nigeria. Los parámetros biométricos observados fueron la circunferencia escrotal (CE), peso testicular (PT), longitud testicular (LT), peso de la túnica albugínea (PTA), volumen testi [...] cular (VT), densidad testicular (DT), peso del epidídimo (PE), longitud del epidídimo (EL), peso de la cabeza (CA), cuerpo (CU) y cauda (CA), volumen del epidídimo (VE) y densidad del epidídimo (ED). Los resultados mostraron diferencias significativas (p Abstract in english A comparative study of testicular biometry was done in rams using three major breeds of sheep in Nigeria. Biometrical parameters observed were scrotal circumference (SC), testes weight (TW), testes length (TL), tunica albuginea weight (TAW), testes volume (TV), testes density (TD), epididymal weight [...] (EW), epididymal length (EL), caput (CA), corpus (CO), cauda weight (CU), epididymal volume (EV) and epididymal density (ED). The results showed significant differences (p

Abdullahi Ali, Ibrahim; Jibril, Aliyu; Rabi Muhammad, Ashiru; Mustapha, Jamilu.

1597-16-01

120

Seroprevalence of Abortion Causing Agents in Egyptian Sheep and Goat Breeds and Their Effects on the Animal’s Performance  

OpenAIRE

This study was carried out to illustrate seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and Brucella melitensis in local sheep and goat flocks living in Nile Delta regions of Egypt as well as to investigate its effects on animals’ health and performance. In trial 1: 492 serum samples were collected from domestic ewes and does flocks suffering from abortion and stillbirths were used in this survey. In trial (2): 100 serum samples collected from toxoplasma or brucella infected...

Hamada Hamada Dahy Mahboub; Mohamed Atif Helal; Mabrouk Attia Abd Eldaim; Emad Mahmoud Abd El-Razek; Ahmed Mahmoud Elsify

2013-01-01

121

Water requirements and metabolism of Egyptian sheep and goats as affected by breed, season and physiological status  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Water requirements and metabolism and some physiological and blood characteristics were studied in dry non-pregnant Barki and Rahmani ewes and in Baladi goats during spring, summer and winter seasons. The Rahmani sheep showed greater thermal discomfort than the Barki during the summer season. Pregnancy was associated with a significant increase in body weight and a decline in PCV and total serum protein, and these changes were greater in goats than in sheep. They were accompanied by significant increases in TBW and WTR. All these changes were more pronounced during late pregnancy than during mid-pregnancy, although the effect of stage of pregnancy on TBW did not occur in the Barki ewes. The pregnancy induced changes in total protein and WTR were greater in spring, while those in TBW were greater in winter. The above parameters also showed similar changes during lactation (particularly during early lactation), but lactating animals showed a decrease instead of an increase in body weight. Goats showed greater reductions in body weight, PCV and water t1/2 and greater increases in WTR than sheep during the spring season. Withdrawal of drinking water for four days caused a reduction in body weight, blood glucose and plasma T3 and T4, and an increase in PCV, total serum protein and plasma osmolality. Plasma aldosterone increased slightly during dehydration but increased markedly during the rehydration period, particularly in the Rahmani sheen period, particularly in the Rahmani sheep during the summer season. The above parameters changed similarly when the animals were starved for four days (feed but not water was withheld), but total serum protein showed a decrease instead of an increase. Changes during dehydration were more pronounced in summer, while those during starvation were greater in winter. 32 refs, 4 figs, 2 tabs

122

Detection of genes encoding for virulence and adherence factors in Escherichia coli isolated in slaughtered Sarda breed sheep.  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to investigate the pathogenic profile of Escherichia coli hosted in "Sarda" sheep, autochthonous race present in Sardinia, thirty-seven E. coli strains collected from different sources (fleeces, carcass swabs and gut mucosa) of pre-chill slaughtered sheep (ewes and lambs) were serotyped using pheno- and genotypic methods. Furthermore, the presence of genes encoding for virulence factors and mediating for localized mucosal adherence factors was investigated, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) characterization was performed. Twenty-one (56.8%) of the isolates belonged to O91 serogroup and sixteen (43.2%) belonged to nine different serotypes (O5:H11, O8:H14, O26:H2, O38:H26, O116:H9, O116:H11, O132:H34, O149:H?, O161:H-). Of these non-O91 strains, five (13.5%) were able to produce verocytotoxin (VT) and were ascribed to VTEC pathogroup, eleven (29.7%) were attributed to the Enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) pathogroup; the other strains (n.21) cannot be ascribed to a pathogenic group. However, various associated virulence genes were observed in all isolated strains. Macrorestriction analysis highlighted a large heterogeneity of the E. coli strains. The results confirm the role of sheep as reservoir of pathogenic E. coli serotypes potentially able to colonize and to damage the intestinal mucosa. PMID:24309402

Busia, Gianluca; Mureddu, Anna; Mazza, Roberta; Meloni, Domenico; Consolati, Simonetta G; Piras, Francesca; Burgess, Catherine M; Duffy, Geraldine; Mazzette, R

2014-01-10

123

Effects of dietary fat source and breed on the carcass composition, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid and conjugated linoleic acid content of sheep meat and adipose tissue.  

Science.gov (United States)

Seventy-two 8-week-old ram lambs from three breeds, Suffolk, Soay and Friesland, were offered one of four diets based on dried grass and formulated to have a similar fatty acid content (60 g/kg DM) and containing: Megalac (high in 16 : 0, control; Volac Ltd, Royston, Herts., UK), whole linseed (18 : 3n-3), fish oil (20 : 5n-3 and 22 : 6n-3) or whole linseed plus fish oil. The lambs were slaughtered at approximately half of their mature live weight (43, 21 and 43 kg for Suffolk, Soay and Friesland lambs, respectively). Fish oil reduced DM intake and lamb live-weight gain (PLinseed feeding doubled the proportion (x100) of 18 : 3n-3 in the longissimus dorsi from 1.4 to 3.1 and in the subcutaneous adipose tissue from 1.2 to 2.6 (Poil increased the muscle proportion (x100) of 20 : 5n-3 from 0.7 to 2.3 and 22 : 6n-3 from 0.3 to 0.8 (Plinseed. Feeding linseed or fish oil lowered the n-6 : n-3 ratio in sheep meat, but neither diet nor breed had much effect on the polyunsaturated fatty acid: saturated fatty acid ratio. PMID:12493092

Wachira, A M; Sinclair, L A; Wilkinson, R G; Enser, M; Wood, J D; Fisher, A V

2002-12-01

124

Demonstration of charge breeding in a compact room temperature electron beam ion trap  

Science.gov (United States)

For the first time, a small room-temperature electron beam ion trap (EBIT), operated with permanent magnets, was successfully used for charge breeding experiments. The relatively low magnetic field of this EBIT does not contribute to the capture of the ions; single-charged ions are only caught by the space charge potential of the electron beam. An over-barrier injection method was used to fill the EBIT's electrostatic trap with externally produced, single-charged potassium ions. Charge states as high as K19+ were reached after about a 3 s breeding time. The capture and breeding efficiencies up to 0.016(4)% for K17+ have been measured.

Vorobjev, G.; Sokolov, A.; Thorn, A.; Herfurth, F.; Kester, O.; Quint, W.; Stöhlker, Th.; Zschornack, G.

2012-05-01

125

Characterisation of the Melatonin Receptor 1A (MTNR1A) gene in the Rasa Aragonesa sheep breed: association with reproductive seasonality.  

Science.gov (United States)

The ovine Melatonin Receptor 1A (MTNR1A) gene was structurally characterised and association between its variants and the reproductive seasonality was examined in a daughter design comprising three families of Rasa Aragonesa sheep breed. Sequencing of six Rasa Aragonesa ewes with extreme values for seasonality trait revealed 28 polymorphisms: 11 SNPs in the coding region (all in Exon 2), and 17 SNPs in the promoter region MTNR1A. All the substitutions in the coding region were found most likely lacking any phenotypic effect, because they are conservative mutations or were not part of the transmembrane domain. The silent mutations, which had shown association with reproductive seasonality in other breeds, were also found and genotyped in Rasa Aragonesa. The T allele of SNP606/RsaI of MNTR1A gene was associated with a greater percentage of oestrous cyclic ewes in the Rasa Aragonesa breed, indicating that this SNP may be in linkage disequilibrium with a mutation responsible for this trait close to MTNR1A, or in regulatory sequences of the gene. In this sense, several SNPs affecting a binding element for some transcription factors have been identified in the promoter region. The SNPs at 422 and 527 positions could constitute a binding element for some transcription factors (TFs), located in an EF2 and SRY consensus sites in the promoter region, respectively. Haplotype h(5) showed significant differences with the h(2) haplotype (66% compared to 49.2%) on oestrous cyclicity, thus these results are consistent with genotypic associations for each SNP. Haplotype with T, A and T alleles for SNPs 422, 677 (promoter region) and 612 (Exon 2) showed an increase of the percentage of oestrous cyclic ewes. Although some of these mutations have been associated with seasonal reproduction, further studies with a more appropriate animal design as well as functional studies of TF binding activity are needed. PMID:22809454

Martínez-Royo, A; Lahoz, B; Alabart, J L; Folch, J; Calvo, J H

2012-08-01

126

Effects of ambient temperature and soybean meal supplementation on intake and digestion of two sheep breeds differing in mature size  

OpenAIRE

The aim of this study was to compare the intake and digestive physiology of mature ewes of two breeds ? Ile-de-France (mature weight: 75–80 kg) and Churra-da-Terra-Quente (CTQ; mature weight: 45–50 kg) ? and evaluate the effects of ambient temperature and protein supplementation in the comparison. The temperature (25 °C vs. 11 °C) and soybean meal supplementation (150 g/kg of ingested hay on dry matter basis vs. unsupplemented control) were evaluated in 48 adult ewes of two breeds f...

Lourenc?o, A. L.; Cone, J. W.; Fontes, P.; Dias-da-silva, A.

2010-01-01

127

Study of electron optics in an electron beam ion charge breeding source  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Charge state of an ion can precisely be tuned in an Electron Bean Ion-charge Breeding Source (EBIBS) and further the highly pure beam of common or rare species can be extracted for various applications in medical, material, atomic, nuclear and other science and engineering. It has been envisaged that the ion source under study will be highly beneficial for the rare isotope project at our centre. An EBIBS essentially consists of a high perveance electron gun to generate electron beam up to >10A using proper design and a superconducting solenoid of ?1.2m length and ?5T axial magnetic field and a water cooled electron collector and ion extractor chamber. It is very important to study the electron beam optics throughout the source for smooth transmission and compatible design of subsystems. The gun will be using cathode, which will project axially high current beam under magnetic field. A large number of thin combined electric and magnetic lenses have been modelled to study the individual projected electrons as well as whole electron beam throughout the length with and without space charge effect. The electron optical details are presented. (author)

128

Influence of Breed and Genotype on the Onset and Distribution of Infectivity and Disease-associated Prion Protein in Sheep Following Oral Infection with the Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy Agent.  

Science.gov (United States)

The onset and distribution of infectivity and disease-specific prion protein (PrP(d)) accumulation was studied in Romney and Suffolk sheep of the ARQ/ARQ, ARQ/ARR and ARR/ARR prion protein gene (Prnp) genotypes (where A stands for alanine, R for arginine and Q for glutamine at codons 136, 154 and 171 of PrP), following experimental oral infection with cattle-derived bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) agent. Groups of sheep were killed at regular intervals and a wide range of tissues taken for mouse bioassay or immunohistochemistry (IHC), or both. Bioassay results for infectivity were mostly coincident with those of PrP(d) detection by IHC both in terms of tissues and time post infection. Neither PrP(d) nor infectivity was detected in any tissues of BSE-dosed ARQ/ARR or ARR/ARR sheep or of undosed controls. Moreover, four ARQ/ARQ Suffolk sheep, which were methionine (M)/threonine heterozygous at codon 112 of the Prnp gene, did not show any biological or immunohistochemical evidence of infection, while those homozygous for methionine (MARQ/MARQ) did. In MARQ/MARQ sheep of both breeds, initial PrP(d) accumulation was identified in lymphoreticular system (LRS) tissues followed by the central nervous system (CNS) and enteric nervous system (ENS) and finally by the autonomic nervous system and peripheral nervous system and other organs. Detection of infectivity closely mimicked this sequence. No PrP(d) was observed in the ENS prior to its accumulation in the CNS, suggesting that ENS involvement occurred simultaneously to that of, or followed centrifugal spread from, the CNS. The distribution of PrP(d) within the ENS further suggested a progressive spread from the ileal plexus to other ENS segments via neuronal connections of the gut wall. Differences between the two breeds were noted in terms of involvement of LRS and ENS tissues, with Romney sheep showing a more delayed and less consistent PrP(d) accumulation than Suffolk sheep in such tissues. Whether this accounted for the slight delay (?5 months) in the appearance of clinical signs in Romney sheep is debatable since by the last scheduled kill before animals reached clinical end point, both breeds showed widespread accumulation and similar magnitudes of PrP(d) accumulation in the brain. PMID:25435510

McGovern, G; Martin, S; Jeffrey, M; Bellworthy, S J; Spiropoulos, J; Green, R; Lockey, R; Vickery, C M; Thurston, L; Dexter, G; Hawkins, S A C; González, L

2015-01-01

129

Características de crescimento para avaliar o desempenho de ovelhas lanadas em cruzamento absorvente Growth characteristics to evaluate the wool sheep performance at cross-breeding  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Com o objetivo de estudar o desempenho produtivo de cruzas de animais lanados, foram utilizados os dados da escrituração zootécnica do rebanho ovino pertencente à FCAV/Unesp, Jaboticabal, SP. Os dados da escrituração foram oriundos de 312 ovelhas, com 129 da raça Ideal, 44 1/2 Ile de France 1/2 Ideal, 98 3/4 Ile de France 1/4 Ideal e 41 7/8 Ile de France 1/8 Ideal, submetidas ao cruzamento absorvente para a raça Ile de France. As análises das características produtivas peso ao nascer, peso ao desmame, peso aos 180 dias, ganho médio diário e tempo para o animal atingir 32kg de peso corporal foram realizadas no SAS (1996. Não foram observadas diferenças entre os genótipos avaliados para as caracteristicas produtivas peso ao nascer, peso ao desmame, e tempo para o animal atingir 32kg de peso corporal com valores médios de 3,08, 15, 67kg e 270,75 dias, respectivamente. Para as características ganho médio diário e peso aos 180 dias, houve efeito significativo para o genótipo 7/8 Ile de France 1/8 Ideal com volores de 0,214 e 40,53kg respectivamente. O sistema de cruzamento utilizado possibilita às próximas gerações características produtivas satisfatórias para produção de carne, e as fêmeas provenientes desses cruzamentos que forem utilizadas para reposição podem aumentar as características produtivas de seus descendentes.In order to study productive and reproductive performance of crossbred sheep, data from the sheep recording of the ovine cattle from Paulista State University, FCAV/Unesp, Jaboticabal, SP, Brazil were used. The record data came from 312 sheep (129 of Polwarth breed, 44 1/2 Ile de France 1/2 Polwarth, 98 3/4 Ile de France 1/4 Polwarth and 41 7/8 Ile de France 1/8 Polwarth submitted to absorber cross-breeding for Ile de France. Productive characteristic analysis: body weight at birth, body weight at weaning, body weight with 180 days, daily weight gain average and necessary period for animals to get 32kg of body weight were carried out at SAS statistical analysis (1996. No significant alterations were observed among the genotypes for the productive characteristics body weight at birth, body weight at weaning and necessary period for animals to get 32kg of body weight with mean values of 3,08, 15, 67kg and 270,75 days, respectively. For the characteristics daily weight gain average and weight with 180 days, there was significant effect for the genotype 7/8 Ile de France 1/8 Ideal with values of 0,214 and 40,53kg, respectively. The type of cross-breeding used gives the possibility for the next generation to have satisfactory productive characteristics for meat production, as the females of this cross-bred can increase the productive characteristics of their descendents.

Sandra Aidar de Queiroz

2010-09-01

130

Oestrous behaviour and ovarian activity in D'man and Sardi breeds of Moroccan sheep under normal and experimental photoperiods  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effect of photoperiod on sexual activity was investigated in Sardi and D'man ewes. Twenty ewes from each breed were subjected to an experimental photoperiod corresponding to latitude 56 deg. N. Control ewes (12 per breed) were maintained under natural photoperiod (32 deg. N). Behavioural oestrus and ovarian activity were monitored using penis deviated rams and plasma progesterone levels. Preliminary results from this study show that an increase in amplitude of photoperiod variations causes a decrease in the expression of oestrous behaviour in D'man ewes during the period of decreasing daylight. Ovarian activity remained unchanged. Sardi ewes were not markedly affected by change in photoperiod. (author). 13 refs, 3 figs, 1 tab

131

Prospects for advanced electron cyclotron resonance and electron beam ion source charge breeding methods for EURISOL  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

As the most ambitious concept of isotope separation on line (ISOL) facility, EURISOL aims at producing unprecedented intensities of post-accelerated radioactive isotopes. Charge breeding, which transforms the charge state of radioactive beams from 1+ to an n+ charge state prior to post-acceleration, is a key technology which has to overcome the following challenges: high charge states for high energies, efficiency, rapidity and purity. On the roadmap to EURISOL, a dedicated R and D is being undertaken to push forward the frontiers of the present state-of-the-art techniques which use either electron cyclotron resonance or electron beam ion sources. We describe here the guidelines of this R and D.

Delahaye, P.; Jardin, P.; Maunoury, L.; Traykov, E.; Varenne, F. [GANIL, CEA/DSM-CNRS/IN2P3, Bd. Becquerel, BP 55027, 14076 Caen Cedex 05 (France); Galata, A.; Porcellato, A. M.; Prete, G. F. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Viale dell' Universita 2, 35020 Legnaro, Padova (Italy); Angot, J.; Lamy, T.; Sortais, P.; Thuillier, T. [LPSC Grenoble, 53, rue des Martyrs, 38026 Grenoble Cedex (France); Ban, G. [LPC Caen, 6 bd Marechal Juin, 14050 Caen Cedex (France); Celona, L.; Lunney, D. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, via S.Sofia 62, 95125 Catania (Italy); Choinski, J.; Gmaj, P.; Jakubowski, A.; Steckiewicz, O. [Heavy Ion Laboratory, University of Warsaw, ul. Pasteura 5a, 02 093 Warsaw (Poland); Kalvas, T. [Department of Physics, University of Jyvaeskylae, PB 35 (YFL) 40351 Jyvaeskylae (Finland); and others

2012-02-15

132

Tolerância ao calor de duas raças de ovinos deslanados no Distrito Federal / Heat tolerance of two hair sheep breeds in the Federal District, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar efeitos da temperatura ambiental sobre características fisiológicas de ovinos, no Distrito Federal. Foram selecionados dois grupos de 25 fêmeas vazias ou prenhas das raças Morada Nova e Santa Inês com idade variando entre dois e quatro anos. As fêmeas tiveram seus [...] dados coletados seis vezes entre os meses de fevereiro e julho. As medições incluíram o peso vivo ( PV) (kg), a temperatura retal (TR), a freqüência respiratória (FR) e o batimento cardíaco (BC), às 8 e 14h, depois de expostas ao sol por um período de seis horas. Foram utilizados os procedimentos GLM, CORR e PRINCOMP do SAS e, para determinar grupamento e dissimilaridade, utilizou-se o programa GENES. Observaram-se grupos de alta e baixa resistência a ação do efeito calórico. As médias dos grupos às 14 hs foram: TR: 38,8 e 38,7°C; FR: 23,4 e 22,8 bat./min. e BC: 99,9 e 94,0 bat./min. para os animais das raças Morada Nova e Santa Inês, respectivamente. Houve ainda diferenças significativas entre matrizes não paridas e as paridas no período estudado, sendo maiores para não paridas: TR: 38,78 e 38,52°C; BC:23,13 e 22,82 bat./min.; FR: 96,98 e 96,36 bat./min., respectivamente. Os animais expostos ao sol pelo período de seis horas apresentaram resposta significativa ao estresse calórico, expresso pelo aumento da temperatura retal e pelo aumento no ritmo dos batimentos cardíacos e na freqüência respiratória. Os resultados obtidos permitiram estabelecer grupos de animais com maior e menor resistência às variações climáticas, ensejando a possibilidade de utilizar esses dados para seleção de animais em trabalhos de melhoramento. Abstract in english The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of increased environmental temperature on physiological traits of Morada Nova (MN) and Santa Ines (SI) sheep breeds in the Federal District, Brazil. Two groups (25 MN and 25 SI) were selected for study and included both pregnant (EP) and non-pre [...] gnant (EPN) ewes, aged betwen 2 and 4 years. The fifty ewes were recorded, once a month, for six months, at 8 am and 2 pm, and measurements included body weight (W), RT (Rectal Temperature), RR (Respiration rate), and CR (Cardiac Rate) were analyzed using SAS (GLM, CORR, PRINCOMP procedures) and the program GENES. The differences between the two breeds were: RT: 38.8 and 38.7°C; RR: 23.4 and 22.8 (rate/min.); CR: 99.9 and 94.0 (rate/min.), for Morada Nova and Santa Ines breeds, respectively. Difference between non-pregnant and pregnant ewes were: RT: 38.78 and 38.52°C; RR: 23.13 and 22.82 (Rate/min); CR: 96.98 and 96.36 (Rate/min), respectively. Differences between breeds were significant, as were differences between animals within groups. It was therefore possible therefore to identify animals within a breed more or less resitant to the climate conditions. This information may be used in future breeding programs.

Maurício, Quesada; Concepta, McManus; Flávio Augusto D' Araújo, Couto.

1021-10-01

133

Haplotype variation of estrogen receptor-alpha (ER-alpha) gene exon 4 in Turkish sheep breeds.  

Science.gov (United States)

Estrogen receptor a (ERalpha) gene has previously been found to related with sexual development and reproduction. In this study, on the basis of the sequences of human, cattle and caprine estrogen receptor a (ERalpha) genes, available in the GenBank database, sets of PCR primers were designed and used to amplify the ovine ERalpha gene exon 4 region. We identified six single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in the ERalpha exon 4. Some variations determined for exon 4 g.43A > G, p.T43A; g.49C > T, p.L49F; g.178A > T, p.T178S led to changes in the amino acids, but no amino acid changes were determined in g. 18G > C, g.27C > T, g.96G > A. These fragments were deposited in the GenBank database under accession number: JF262030-JF262035. It was noted in particular that White Karaman and Awassi breeds were similar to each other, whereas the Chios breed had a different variation. PMID:23270267

Ozmen, O; Seker, I; Kul, B C; Ertugrul, O

2012-10-01

134

In vivo and in vitro effects of imidacloprid on sheep keds (Melophagus ovinus): a light and electron microscopic study.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of imidacloprid (Advantage) on sheep keds (Melophagus ovinus Linne 1758) were studied in vivo and in vitro by means of direct observation (monitored on video tape) and by light and electron microscopy. It was found that: 1. Imidacloprid acted rapidly on all motile stages of the sheep keds. Within 3-4 min after exposure they became immobile and their legs and the abdomen started tetanic trembling movements for 15-30 min, leading to death. 2. The compound is apparently taken up by the body, since it also acted on those sheep keds that had been exclusively exposed to imidacloprid-contaminated filter papers. 3. The compound is available and active for more than 1 month in the wool of sheep; even rainfall does not reduce its efficacy. Body contact between treated mother sheep and their lambs protects them from infestation with these ectoparasites. 4. The compound initiates an ultimately lethal destruction of the ganglia, nerve chords and related muscle fibers, as can be seen in electron micrographs. PMID:11355684

Mehlhorn, H; D'Haese, J; Mencke, N; Hansen, O

2001-04-01

135

Qualidade da carne de ovinos de diferentes raças de reprodutores terminados sob dois sistemas de produção / Meat quality of sheep of different breeds of breeding terminated under two production systems  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Objetivou-se investigar a influência da dieta na terminação de ovinos de diferentes raças de reprodutores sobre a qualidade física, química e sensorial da carne. Foram avaliados 36 cordeiros, filhos de fêmeas mestiças Santa Inês x Somalis com reprodutores puros de três raças: Santa Inês, Dorper e So [...] malis, distribuídos em dois sistemas de produção, terminação a pasto nativo e cultivado, 12 de cada raças de reprodutores, todos machos, inteiros e distribuídos em dois sistemas de produção. Os animais tiveram acesso a alimentação e água ad libitum, sendo abatidos ao atingirem aproximadamente 180 dias.Determinou-se, no músculo Longissimus dorsi, os teores de umidade, proteína, lipídios, cinzas, textura, perda de peso por cocção, capacidade de retenção de água; colesterol e o perfil de ácidos graxos, bem como a avaliação dos parâmetros sensoriais de sabor, aroma, dureza, suculência e aceitação global. O grupamento Somalis apresentou menores teores de cinzas e lipídeos. Os animais Dorper e Santa Inês obtiveram resultados semelhantes em, PPC (perda de peso por cocção), os ácidos graxos C14:0 (mirístico) e C17:0 (margárico) e aceitação global. O pasto cultivado apresentou melhores resultados para, proteína, lipídeos, PPC (perda de peso por cocção), CRA (capacidade de retenção de água), C16:1 (palmitoleico), C18:1n9c (oleico), C18:1n9t (Elaídico), AGM (ácido graxo monoinsaturado), HH (hipocolesterolêmicos e hipercolesterolêmicos) e aceitação global, e resultados inferiores para, AGP (ácido graxo poli-insaturado), AGP:AGS (ácido graxo poli-insaturado) , AGD (ácido graxo desejáveis). A raça do reprodutor e sistema de produção influenciam as características físicas e químicas da carne de cordeiro. Abstract in english This study aimed to investigate the influence of diet on sheep of different breeds reprodutoresgenótipos on the physical, chemical and sensory dae his flesh termination. Santa Inês and Dorper Somalis, distributed in two production systems, the termination native and cultivated pasture, 12 of each ge [...] nótiporaças breeding, all males: 36 lambs, sons of female crossbred Santa Ines x Somalis with pure breeding three breeds were evaluated , whole and divided into two production systems. The animals had access to food and water ad libitum, and were sent to abatidose dias25 to reach approximately 180 kg live weight. It was determined, the longissimus muscle, the moisture, protein, lipid, ash, texture, weight loss by cooking, water holding capacity; cholesterol and fatty acid profile, as well as evaluating the sensory parameters of flavor, aroma, hardness, juiciness and overall acceptability. The genotype and production system influence the physical and chemical characteristics of lamb. The Somali group had lower levels of ash and lipids. The Dorper and St. Agnes animals yielded similar results, PPC (weight loss by cooking), the fatty acid C14: 0 (myristic) and C17: 0 (margaric) and overall acceptability. The cultivated pasture showed better results for protein, lipid, PPC (weight loss by cooking), WHC (water holding capacity), C16: 1 (palmitoleic), C18: 1n9c (oleic acid), C18: 1n9t (elaidic) AGM (monounsaturated fatty acid), HH (hipocolesterolemics hypercholesterolemic) and overall acceptability, and lower results for AGP (polyunsaturated fatty acid), AGP: AGS (polyunsaturated fatty acid), AGD (desirable fatty acid). AO genotype sire breed and production system influence the physical and chemical characteristics of lamb.

Edmilson Lima de, Menezes Junior; Ana Sancha Malveira, Batista; Aline Vieira, Landim; José Teodorico de, Araújo Filho; Evandro Vasconcelos, Holanda Junior.

2014-06-01

136

Biometric Study of the Reproductive Organs of Three Breeds of Sheep in Nigeria Estudio Biométrico de los Órganos Reproductivos de Tres Razas de Ovejas en Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A comparative study of testicular biometry was done in rams using three major breeds of sheep in Nigeria. Biometrical parameters observed were scrotal circumference (SC, testes weight (TW, testes length (TL, tunica albuginea weight (TAW, testes volume (TV, testes density (TD, epididymal weight (EW, epididymal length (EL, caput (CA, corpus (CO, cauda weight (CU, epididymal volume (EV and epididymal density (ED. The results showed significant differences (pSe realizó un estudio comparativo de la biometría testicular en carneros con las tres razas principales de ovejas de Nigeria. Los parámetros biométricos observados fueron la circunferencia escrotal (CE, peso testicular (PT, longitud testicular (LT, peso de la túnica albugínea (PTA, volumen testicular (VT, densidad testicular (DT, peso del epidídimo (PE, longitud del epidídimo (EL, peso de la cabeza (CA, cuerpo (CU y cauda (CA, volumen del epidídimo (VE y densidad del epidídimo (ED. Los resultados mostraron diferencias significativas (p <0,05 entre la raza Uda, Balami y Yankasa para la CE, PT, VT, PE, LE, CA, CU, CA, y VE. La raza Uda tuvo valores significativamente mayores (p <0,05 en la mayoría de los parámetros analizados con las otras dos razas. Se observó una simetría bilateral en el peso de los testículos y el volumen de los testículos para las razas Uda y Balami. Se concluyó que la biometría testicular observada en las razas Uda y Balami son sugerentes de alta cantidad de espermatozoides por unidad de masa de los testículos y el epidídimo, y subsecuentemente una alta fertilidad. La biometría de éstos pueden ser utilizada por los agricultores en la selección de buenos animales para la mejora genética de las crías.

Abdullahi Ali Ibrahim

2012-12-01

137

Estimativas de parâmetros genéticos para características de crescimento em ovinos da raça Somalis Brasileira / Genetic parameters estimates for growth traits in Somalis Brasileira hair sheep breed  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Objetivou-se estimar parâmetros genéticos para características de crescimento em ovinos da raça Somalis Brasileira. Os dados utilizados neste estudo foram provenientes do rebanho da Embrapa Caprinos e Ovinos, localizado na cidade de Sobral - CE. Os dados continham registros de 1.120 animais no arqui [...] vo de pedigree. As características analisadas foram: peso ao nascer (PN), peso ao desmame (PD), ganho de peso do nascimento ao desmame (GND) e peso adulto (PA). As estimativas dos componentes de (co)variâncias e os parâmetros genéticos foram obtidos pelo método da Máxima Verossimilhança Restrita não Derivativa (DFREML), utilizando o programa MTDFREML. Nas análises unicaracterística, as herdabilidades foram de magnitude baixa a moderada. As magnitudes das herdabilidades maternas foram todas superiores às herdabilidades diretas. As herdabilidades das análises multicaracterísticas entre PN, PD e GND superaram as análises unicaracterísticas. As correlações genéticas apresentaram grande variação quanto aos seus valores. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to estimate genetic parameters for growth traits in Somalis Brasileira hair sheep breed. The data used in this study were from the flock of Embrapa Caprinos and Ovinos, located in the city of Sobral - CE, Brazil. Data contained records of 1,120 animals in the pedigree file. [...] The analyzed traits were birth weight (PN), weaning weight (PD), weight gain from birth to weaning (GND) and adult weight (PA). Estimates of (co)variances and genetic parameters were obtained by Derivative Free Restricted Maximum Likelihood Method (DFREML) using the MTDFREML software. The heritabilities were low to moderate in univariate analysis. The maternal heritabilities were higher than direct heritabilities. The heritabilities in multivariate analysis exceeded those in univariate analysis. The values of genetic correlations varied widely.

Ana Fabrícia Braga, Magalhães; Raimundo Nonato Braga, Lobo; Olivardo, Facó.

2013-05-01

138

Improved charge breeding efficiency of light ions with an electron cyclotron resonance ion source  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Californium Rare Isotope Breeder Upgrade is a new radioactive beam facility for the Argonne Tandem Linac Accelerator System (ATLAS). The facility utilizes a 252Cf fission source coupled with an electron cyclotron resonance ion source to provide radioactive beam species for the ATLAS experimental program. The californium fission fragment distribution provides nuclei in the mid-mass range which are difficult to extract from production targets using the isotope separation on line technique and are not well populated by low-energy fission of uranium. To date the charge breeding program has focused on optimizing these mid-mass beams, achieving high charge breeding efficiencies of both gaseous and solid species including 14.7% for the radioactive species 143Ba27+. In an effort to better understand the charge breeding mechanism, we have recently focused on the low-mass species sodium and potassium which up to present have been difficult to charge breed efficiently. Unprecedented charge breeding efficiencies of 10.1% for 23Na7+ and 17.9% for 39K10+ were obtained injecting stable Na+ and K+ beams from a surface ionization source.

139

Improved charge breeding efficiency of light ions with an electron cyclotron resonance ion source  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Californium Rare Isotope Breeder Upgrade is a new radioactive beam facility for the Argonne Tandem Linac Accelerator System (ATLAS). The facility utilizes a {sup 252}Cf fission source coupled with an electron cyclotron resonance ion source to provide radioactive beam species for the ATLAS experimental program. The californium fission fragment distribution provides nuclei in the mid-mass range which are difficult to extract from production targets using the isotope separation on line technique and are not well populated by low-energy fission of uranium. To date the charge breeding program has focused on optimizing these mid-mass beams, achieving high charge breeding efficiencies of both gaseous and solid species including 14.7% for the radioactive species {sup 143}Ba{sup 27+}. In an effort to better understand the charge breeding mechanism, we have recently focused on the low-mass species sodium and potassium which up to present have been difficult to charge breed efficiently. Unprecedented charge breeding efficiencies of 10.1% for {sup 23}Na{sup 7+} and 17.9% for {sup 39}K{sup 10+} were obtained injecting stable Na{sup +} and K{sup +} beams from a surface ionization source.

Vondrasek, R.; Kutsaev, Sergey [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Delahaye, P.; Maunoury, L. [Grand Accelerateur National d' Ions Lourds (GANIL), CEA/DSM-CNRS/IN2P3, Blvd Henri Becquerel, 14076 Caen (France)

2012-11-15

140

9 CFR 151.9 - Recognized breeds and books of record.  

Science.gov (United States)

...of Breeders of British Sheep, H.T.C. Woodfull...Flock Book New Zealand Sheep Breeders' Association...Christchurch, New Zealand. Goats Code Name of breed...Dexter cattle, Karakul sheep, Alpine goat, Nubian...

2010-01-01

141

KARYOLOGY OF KARI SHEEP  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Kari sheep is an important genetic resource of Pakistan endemic to Chitral in North Western Frontier Province of Pakistan. The objective of the present study was to establish karyotype of this breed. Blood samples from five representative specimens of Kari sheep, including one ram and four ewes, were examined for chromosomal spread from metaphase of the lymphocyte culture. Animals for this purpose were brought to Peshawar, as traveling to nearest laboratory with 12 hours was difficult. The homologous chromosomes were arranged in pairs in their descending order and size. Diploid number of chromosomes in Kari sheep were 54 (27 pairs, including 26 autosome pairs and one sex-chromosome pair. The chromosome array in ewes was similar to ram, except for the sex chromosome. Both the homologous sex chromosomes (XX in ewes were large but similar. The results confirm that Kari falls within the category of domestic sheep (Ovis aries.

S. AHMAD AND M. S. KHAN

2007-07-01

142

A comparison of plant form and browsing height selection of four small stock breeds - Preliminary results  

OpenAIRE

A direct observation technique was used to establish the foraging behaviour of Boer goats, Nguni goats, Pedi sheep and Dorper sheep. According to the Chi-square dissimilarity measure, plant-form (grass, forb, woody) differences between the diets of goats and sheep were greater than differences between the goat breeds and sheep breeds. The results from this study confirm that goats and sheep exhibit different foraging strategies. Sheep tend to forage more frequently from the herbaceous layer c...

Plessis, I.; Waal, C.; Webb, E. C.

2004-01-01

143

Seroprevalencia de pestivirus de rumiantes en ovinos reproductores de una empresa de la sierra central del Perú / Seroprevalence of ruminant pestivirus in breeding sheep in the central sierra of Peru  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Peru | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El objetivo del presente estudio fue determinar la frecuencia de los virus de la Diarrea Viral Bovina (VDVB) y de la Enfermedad de la Frontera (VEF) en ovinos reproductores procedentes de una empresa ovejera de la sierra central del país. Se colectaron muestras de sangre de ovinos reproductores hemb [...] ras (n=165) y machos (n=165) aparentemente sanos, con un promedio de edad de cuatro años, y criados en forma extensiva. Los anticuerpos contra VDVB y VEF se detectaron mediante la prueba de neutralización viral. El 2.1 ± 1.5% (7/330) y 28.5 ± 4.9% (94/330) de ovinos reproductores tuvieron anticuerpos contra el VDVB y VEF, respectivamente, con títulos de anticuerpos de 1:2 a 1:16. Se encontró asociación significativa entre el sexo del animal y la presencia de anticuerpos contra el VEF (hembras: 53.3 ± 7.6%; machos: 3.6 ± 2.9%) (p Abstract in english The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of Bovine Viral Diarrhea virus (BVDV) and Border Disease virus (BDV) in breeding sheep from a large cooperative farm in the central highlands of Peru. Blood samples from apparently healthy sheep of 4 years old, both sexes (female = 165; ma [...] le = 165) were collected for antibodies detection against BVDV and BDV using the virus neutralisation test. The 2.1 ± 1.5% (7/330) and 28.5 ± 4.9% (94/330) of breeding sheep had antibodies against BVDV and BDV respectively, with antibodies titers of 1:2 and 1:16. There was significant association between sex and presence of antibodies against BDV (females: 53.3 ± 7.6%; males: 3.6 ± 2.9%) (p

Nathalie, Llancares A; Hermelinda, Rivera G; Mariluz, Arainga R; Néstor, Falcón P.

2012-12-01

144

Implementing electronic identification for performance recording in sheep: II. Cost-benefit analysis in meat and dairy farms.  

Science.gov (United States)

Costs and secondary benefits of implementing electronic identification (e-ID) for performance recording (i.e., lambing, body weight, inventory, and milk yield) in dairy and meat ewes were assessed by using the results from a previous study in which manual (M), semiautomatic (SA), and automatic (AU) data collection systems were compared. Ewes were identified with visual ear tags and electronic rumen boluses. The M system used visual identification, on-paper data recording, and manual data uploading to a computer. The SA system used e-ID with a handheld reader in which performances were typed and automatic uploaded to a computer. The use of a personal digital assistant (PDA) for recording and automatic data uploading, which transformed M in a SA system, was also considered. The AU system was only used for BW recording and consisted of e-ID, automatic data recording in an electronic scale, and uploading to a computer. The cost-benefit study was applied to 2 reference sheep farms of 700 meat ewes, under extensive or intensive production systems, and of 400 dairy ewes, practicing once- or twice-a-day machine milkings. Sensitivity analyses under voluntary and mandatory e-ID scenarios were also included. Benefits of using e-ID for SA or AU performance recording mainly depended on sheep farm purpose, number of test days per year, handheld reader and PDA prices, and flock size. Implementing e-ID for SA and AU performance recording saved approximately 50% of the time required by the M system, and increased the reliability of the data collected. Use of e-ID increased the cost of performance recording in a voluntary e-ID scenario, paying only partially the investment made (15 to 70%). For the mandatory e-ID scenario, in which the cost of e-ID devices was not included, savings paid 100% of the extra costs needed for using e-ID in all farm types and conditions. In both scenarios, the reader price was the most important extra cost (40 to 90%) for implementing e-ID in sheep farms. Calculated extra costs of using the PDA covered more than 100% of the implementation costs in all type of sheep farms, indicating that this device was cost-effective for sheep-performance recording. PMID:25282418

Ait-Saidi, A; Caja, G; Salama, A A K; Milán, M J

2014-12-01

145

A Study of External Fat-Tail Dimensions and Their Relationships With Fat-Tail Weight in Lori-Bakhtiari Breed of Sheep  

OpenAIRE

In this study external fat-tail dimensions (upper, middle and lower width, length, length of gap, depth and upper circumference) and fat-tail weights collected on 724 Lori-Bakhtiari sheep were used to study external fat-tail dimensions and their relationships with fat-tail weights. Sheep were 3 months to 6 years old and slaughtered at the industrial slaughter house of Joneghan in Chaharmohal and Bakhtiari province in 2003. The mean of fat-tail dimensions were estimated as 15.83, 23.85, 24.73,...

Miraei-ashtiani, S. R.; Nejati-javaremi, A.; Moradi-sharbabak, M.; Vatankhah, M.; Vaez-torshizi, R.

2006-01-01

146

Using Scanning Electron Microscopy to Detect the Ultrastructural Variations in Eggshell Quality of Fayoumi and Dandarawi Chicken Breeds  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to evaluate egg quality and ultrastructural measurements of eggshell in two Egyptian local breeds of chicken (Fayoumi and Dandarawi. A total of 162 females representing the two breeds were randomly assigned to the current experiment. They were housed in individual cages placed in an open-sided house under the same environmental, managerial and hygienic conditions. Maturation measurements including body weight and age at sexual maturity were determined. Also, egg production (number and weight was recorded for the first 3 months of production cycle to calculate egg mass. To assess egg quality parameters (internal and external, a total of 90 eggs were randomly collected from each breed at 26 weeks of age. In addition, eggshell samples were prepared to investigate ultrastructural variations using scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The current results revealed that Fayoumi breed had a better performance at sexual maturity compared to Dandarawi one. Inferior egg production parameters during the first 3 months of laying cycle were associated with Dandarawi breed. With respect to internal egg quality, there were no significant differences between Fayoumi and Dandarawi breeds for liquid components as a percentage of egg weight. In addition, Haugh unit and yolk index as indicators to the quality of albumen and yolk, did not exhibit a difference between breeds. Regarding eggshell quality traits, it could be noticed that Fayoumi breed significantly increased specific gravity and eggshell strength compared to Dandarawi one. In terms of ultrastructural measurements of eggshell, SEM inspection revealed that eggshell of Fayoumi breed had a higher effective thickness (palisade layer compared to Dandarawi one. On the other hand, the length of mammillary layer (absolute or relative was significantly lower in eggshells of Fayoumi hens compared to those of Dandarawi counterparts. Type B bodies, which are rounded and located among mammillary caps, were more frequent in eggshell of Dandarawi breed resulting in poor shell quality. However, Fayoumi breed had good rounded caps and early fusion as compared to Dandarawi one. The incidence of mammillary alignment and erosion were more common in eggshell of Dandarawi breed suggesting poor shell strength. In conclusion, Fayoumi breed had genetically not only better egg production and egg quality but also good ultrastructural formation of eggshell compared to Dandarawi breed.

M.M. Fathi

2007-01-01

147

Numerical simulation of ion charge breeding in electron beam ion source.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Electron Beam Ion Source particle-in-cell code (EBIS-PIC) tracks ions in an EBIS electron beam while updating electric potential self-consistently and atomic processes by the Monte Carlo method. Recent improvements to the code are reported in this paper. The ionization module has been improved by using experimental ionization energies and shell effects. The acceptance of injected ions and the emittance of extracted ion beam are calculated by extending EBIS-PIC to the beam line transport region. An EBIS-PIC simulation is performed for a Cs charge-breeding experiment at BNL. The charge state distribution agrees well with experiments, and additional simulation results of radial profiles and velocity space distributions of the trapped ions are presented. PMID:24593605

Zhao, L; Kim, Jin-Soo

2014-02-01

148

Numerical simulation of ion charge breeding in electron beam ion source  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Electron Beam Ion Source particle-in-cell code (EBIS-PIC) tracks ions in an EBIS electron beam while updating electric potential self-consistently and atomic processes by the Monte Carlo method. Recent improvements to the code are reported in this paper. The ionization module has been improved by using experimental ionization energies and shell effects. The acceptance of injected ions and the emittance of extracted ion beam are calculated by extending EBIS-PIC to the beam line transport region. An EBIS-PIC simulation is performed for a Cs charge-breeding experiment at BNL. The charge state distribution agrees well with experiments, and additional simulation results of radial profiles and velocity space distributions of the trapped ions are presented.

Zhao, L., E-mail: zhao@far-tech.com; Kim, Jin-Soo [FAR-TECH, Inc., San Diego, California 92122 (United States)

2014-02-15

149

Jaagsiekte Sheep Retrovirus Biology and Oncogenesis  

OpenAIRE

Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV) is the causative agent of a lung cancer in sheep known as ovine pulmonary adenocarcinoma (OPA). The disease has been identified around the world in several breeds of sheep and goats, and JSRV infection typically has a serious impact on affected flocks. In addition, studies on OPA are an excellent model for human lung carcinogenesis. A unique feature of JSRV is that its envelope (Env) protein functions as an oncogene. The JSRV Env-induced transformation or on...

Andrew Hofacre; Hung Fan

2010-01-01

150

The influence of selected genes on sheep performance traits  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In order to enhance breeding progress, genes that affect the performance of sheep are being identified. In Poland, sheep breeding programs focus mainly on meat performance, therefore, it is important to identify genes that affect it. Moreover, studies on reproductive performance of sheep have been made. Myostatin (GDF8, calpastatin (CAST and calpain have been identified as the candidate genes affecting meat quality. Whereas, BMP15 and GDF9, also called fertility genes (Fec, have been reported to affect reproduction traits. The knowledge of the association between the polymorphic forms of these genes and sheep performance traits may contribute to the determination of genetic markers that could be used in sheep breeding programs. The aim of this study is to gather the latest information about the use of genomic selection in breeding programs and the association between polymorphisms in BMP15, GDF8, GDF9 and CAST genes and sheep performance.

Magdalena KOLENDA

2014-06-01

151

Charge breeding results and future prospects with electron cyclotron resonance ion source and electron beam ion source (invited)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Californium Rare Ion Breeder Upgrade (CARIBU) of the Argonne National Laboratory ATLAS facility will provide low-energy and reaccelerated neutron-rich radioactive beams for the nuclear physics program. A 70 mCi 252Cf source produces fission fragments which are thermalized and collected by a helium gas catcher into a low-energy particle beam with a charge of 1+ or 2+. An electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source functions as a charge breeder in order to raise the ion charge sufficiently for acceleration in the ATLAS linac. The final CARIBU configuration will utilize a 1 Ci 252Cf source to produce radioactive beams with intensities up to 106 ions/s for use in the ATLAS facility. The ECR charge breeder has been tested with stable beam injection and has achieved charge breeding efficiencies of 3.6% for 23Na8+, 15.6% for 84Kr17+, and 13.7% for 85Rb19+ with typical breeding times of 10 ms/charge state. For the first radioactive beams, a charge breeding efficiency of 11.7% has been achieved for 143Cs27+ and 14.7% for 143Ba27+. The project has been commissioned with a radioactive beam of 143Ba27+ accelerated to 6.1 MeV/u. In order to take advantage of its lower residual contamination, an EBIS charge breeder will replace the ECR charge breeder in the next two years. The advantages and disadvantages of the t The advantages and disadvantages of the two techniques are compared taking into account the requirements of the next generation radioactive beam facilities.

152

Effect of strategic shearing on feeding behavior in Ile de France sheep in Bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon cv Vaquero grazing during breeding season  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The experiment evaluated the effects of strategic shearing on feeding behavior in Ile de France ewes in Bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon grazing during breeding season. A total of 20 ewes, female, Ile de France breed, 4 years old, 71.10 kg of body weight, in grazing, in a completely randomized design with two treatments and ten repetitions, in which the treatments were composed by shorn and non-shorn animals. The length of the breeding season was 90 days, where the evaluations occurred in the 86th, 87th and 88th day of the experimental period. The grazing time (6.50 hours, rumination (1.59 hours and idle (3.97 hours have not changed (P> 0.05 by strategic shearing of the animals, as well as the frequency and the time by frequency grazing (18.33 grazing and 21.49 min/grazing, rumination (10.71 ruminations and 8.83 min/rumination and idle (18.83 idles and 12.66 min/idle. In the same way, the number of bits per minute (26.37 bits and the total daily bits (19.116 bits of the animals were not affected. Thus, the strategic shearing in Ile de France ewes in Bermudagrass grazing during the breeding season does not alter animal feeding behavior.

Luís Gabriel Alves Cirne

2014-06-01

153

Distribution of endogenous type B and type D sheep retrovirus sequences in ungulates and other mammals.  

OpenAIRE

The jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV), which appears to be a type B/D retrovirus chimera, has been incriminated as the cause of ovine pulmonary carcinoma. Recent studies suggest that the sequences related to this virus are found in the genomes of normal sheep and goats. To learn whether there are breeds of sheep that lack the endogenous viral sequences and to study their distribution among other groups of mammals, we surveyed several domestic sheep and goat breeds, other ungulates, and vario...

Hecht, S. J.; Stedman, K. E.; Carlson, J. O.; Demartini, J. C.

1996-01-01

154

Parámetros de crecimiento y de la canal de corderos de la raza Ovella Galega sacrificados a 45 días / Growth and carcass parameters of the Ovella Galega sheep breed lambs at the slaughter age of 45 days  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Actualmente la raza Ovella Galega se encuentra en peligro de extinción, por lo que está sometida a un Programa de Conservación y Recuperación donde prima la preservación de la variabilidad genética. En este trabajo se estudió el crecimiento y la canal en corderos de la raza, para profundizar en su c [...] aracterización. Se han utilizado 10 corderos machos de parto simple inscritos en el Libro Genealógico de la raza, criados sólo con leche materna hasta la edad de sacrificio de 45 días. El crecimiento y las GMD son acordes con los resultados publicados en otros estudios sobre la raza, y a pesar de que ésta presenta un pequeño formato, entre los resultados obtenidos cabe destacar su alto rendimiento comercial (59%) así como un adecuado porcentaje en piezas de 1ª y 2ª categoría. Abstract in english The Ovella Galega is a endangered sheep breed and is protected by a Conservation and Recovery Programme, in order to keep the genetic variability. A growth and carcass study was made on Ovella Galega lambs, whose main objetive is its characterization. Ten male lambs from single birth and fed solely [...] on their mother´s milk, all of them registered in the Record of Births of Stud-Book, were slaughtered at 45 days old. The growth and average dayly gain are in accordance to results published in other breed studies. The results show a high commercial yield (59%), apart from appropriate percentages in 1st and 2nd market categories.

M., Fernández; S., Adán; B., Domínguez; C.J., Rivero; J.R., Justo; A., Arias; M.C., García-Fontán; J.M., Lorenzo; J.J., Lama; C., López; D., Rois; J., Feijóo; D., Franco.

2011-09-01

155

Epidemiological implications of the susceptibility to BSE of putatively resistant sheep.  

OpenAIRE

The experimental infection of sheep with bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) by the oral route and the likelihood that sheep were fed BSE-infected meat and bone meal has led to extensive speculation as to whether or not sheep are naturally infected with BSE. In response, the UK government has initiated the National Scrapie Plan (NSP), an ambitious pound 120 million per year project to create a BSE- and scrapie-resistant national sheep flock, by selectively breeding for a genotype of sheep ...

Kao, Rr; Houston, F.; Baylis, M.; Chihota, Cm; Goldmann, W.; Gravenor, Mb; Hunter, N.; Mclean, AR

2003-01-01

156

HERITABILITY AND BREEDING VALUE OF SHEEP FERTILITY ESTIMATED BY MEANS OF THE GIBBS SAMPLING METHOD USING THE LINEAR AND THRESHOLD MODELS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The research was carried out on 4,030 Polish Merino ewes born in the years 1991- 2001, kept in 15 flocks from the Pomorze and Kujawy region. Fertility of ewes in subsequent reproduction seasons was analysed with the use of multiple logistic regression. The research showed that there is a statistical influence of the flock, year of birth, age of dam, flock year interaction of birth on the ewes fertility. In order to estimate the genetic parameters, the Gibbs sampling method was applied, using the univariate animal models, both linear as well as threshold. Estimates of fertility depending on the model equalled 0.067 to 0.104, whereas the estimates of repeatability equalled respectively: 0.076 and 0.139. The obtained genetic parameters were then used to estimate the breeding values of the animals in terms of controlled trait (Best Linear Unbiased Prediction method using linear and threshold models. The obtained animal breeding values rankings in respect of the same trait with the use of linear and threshold models were strongly correlated with each other (rs = 0.972. Negative genetic trends of fertility (0.01-0.08% per year were found.

DARIUSZ Piwczynski

2013-03-01

157

Aspects Regarding the Coprological Pollution Level in Some Sheep Helminthiasis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The investigations on the incidence and intensity of parasitism in some endoparasytes in sheep  performed on 376 animals (260 sheep and 116 young adult sheep Turcana breed, Gil?u area, Cluj County, indicated an increased incidence in trihostrongilidys  of 72.7% in young  sheep and 65.0% in adult sheep. The incidence of monesya had different values ??depending on age group, 45.5% at young sheep and 10.0% in  adult sheep. The data obtained regarding the prevalence of hepatobiliary trematodsys of sheep in the study, indicates similar values ??for the two categories, 27.2% young sheep and 30.0% for adult sheep. Instead the extensivity of  lung strongilatosys showed notable differences between the two groups of animals, 18.1% at young sheep and 35.0% in adult sheep. The cop microscopic pollution degree with trihostrongily eggs in correlation with age group, indicated a dominance of low infestation (50% young sheep and 61.5% adult sheep. In exchange, the data obtained on parasitism intensity with cestode oncospheres expresses a dominance of medium infestation (60.0% in young sheep and the low (10.0% in adult sheep. The intensity level of Hepatobiliary trematodosys parasitism in the young sheep showed a dominance of small and medium infestations (37.5% and in adult sheep are dominant only at low infestations (45.4%. The larvae strongilatosys  parasitism intensity in the lung detected similar values ??in the two age groups (50.0% in young sheep and 17.2% in adult sheep.

Octavian Negrea

2013-10-01

158

Genetic diversity and networks of exchange: a combined approach to assess intra-breed diversity  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Cryopreservation of three endangered Belgian sheep breeds required to characterize their intra-breed genetic diversity. It is assumed that the genetic structure of a livestock breed depends mostly on gene flow due to exchanges between herds. To quantify this relation, molecular data and analyses of the exchanges were combined for three endangered Belgian breeds. Methods For each breed, between 91 and 225 sheep were genotyped with 19 microsate...

Dumasy Jean-François; Daniaux Christel; Donnay Isabelle; Baret Philippe V

2012-01-01

159

Mineral requirements of dairy sheep  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The mineral requirements of dairy sheep under semi-intensive and intensive management systems are reviewed. Basically, mineral requirements obtained with mutton breeds are supplemented with specific information obtained with dairy sheep. The daily requirements of sheep in major elements have been estimated using the factorial method, first to calculate the net requirements during maintenance, growth, reproduction and lactation, and second to assess the efficiency of absorption for converting net requirements into dietary allowance. The requirements in trace elements were estimated from the results of feeding trials. The choice of values for endogenous losses and particularly the precision with which efficiency of absorption can be predicted are the main sources of error in estimates of dietary allowances, especially when efficiency of absorption is low. The net requirements in major elements are given for maintenance, pregnancy and lactation, together with the recommended coefficients of absorption. Dietary requirements in trace elements are expressed as milligram per kilogram dry matter. The requirements in all nutrients and particularly in Ca and P increase during late pregnancy, especially during lactation. The requirements during lactation mainly reflect milk composition, the level of milk yield and lactation length, but also the feed intake level. The factors related to the confinement, feeding and management of dairy breeds, which differ from those of mutton breeds, may affect their mineral requirements. Changes in husbandry practices resulting in increased production may increase the stress on the animal and therefore alter its metabolic equilibrium. Direct supplementation of the diet of dairy sheep is the cheapest and most convenient method of mineral supplementation. The cost is outweighed by the enhanced performance of sheep. Determination of the mineral composition of feedstuffs available for feeding dairy sheep indicates the type and level of mineral supplementation needed. (author)

160

Multivariate analysis of morphostructural characteristics in Nigerian indigenous sheep  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The population variability of three breeds of Nigerian sheep was investigated using multivariate discriminant analyses. The sampled populations comprised mature 331 Yankasa, 296 Uda and 166 Balami sheep kept by traditional farmers in northern Nigerian. A total of ten morphological traits (withers height, rump height, body length, face length, rump length, tail length, chest circumference, head width, shoulder width and rump width were collected on each animal. The body measures of Balami sheep were significantly higher (P<0.05 than the others with the exception of tail length. Uda sheep also had comparative advantage over their Yankasa counterparts in all the morphological traits analysed. The stepwise discriminant analysis revealed that head width chronologically followed by tail length, chest circumference and body length were more discriminating in separating the three populations. The Mahalanobis distance between Yankasa and Balami sheep was highest (4.83 while the least differentiation was observed between Uda and Yankasa sheep (1.79. Nearest neighbour discriminant analysis showed that most Balami sheep (61.45% were classified into their source genetic group. While 41.22% of Uda sheep were misclassified as Yankasa sheep, 35.35% of Yankasa were wrongly assigned as Uda sheep, showing the level of genetic exchange that has taken place between the two breeds overtime. The present information could be complemented with genetic analyses geared towards designing appropriate breeding and selection strategies.

Abdulmojeed Yakubu

2011-04-01

161

Comportamento de ovinos da raça Santa Inês em ambientes com e sem disponibilidade de sombra / Behavior of sheep breed Santa Inês in environments with and without shade availability  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Com o objetivo de observar os efeitos do sombreamento propiciado pela tela de polipropileno sobre o comportamento de ovinos da raça Santa Inês em diferentes épocas do ano, montou-se um experimento em Petrolina, PE, no período de junho a novembro de 2010. Utilizaram-se 40 animais distribuídos em igua [...] l quantidade em dois tratamentos (Sombreado e Não sombreado) com oferta de pastagem (Tiffton 85) irrigada. Foram feitas aferições dos dados meteorológicos em todas as épocas, com a montagem de termômetros de globo negro e psicrômetros nas duas áreas e de uma mini-estação meteorológica na área sombreada. Nessas épocas foram realizados ensaios de comportamento tendo-se feito observações visuais pelo método da varredura instantânea em intervalos de 10 min no período diurno, verificando-se o percentual de animais quanto à alimentação, ruminação e ócio, a partir da metodologia proposta por Johnson & Combs (1991) adaptada para o tempo de 12h. O sombreamento não influenciou no número de animais em referência às atividades avaliadas nos diferentes tratamentos. A procura por sombra foi intensa nos períodos mais quentes do dia para a atividade de ócio. Abstract in english With the goal of observing the effects of shade provided by polypropylene screen on the behaviour of Santa Inês sheep, in different times of year, an experiment was set up in Petrolina, PE, in the period from June to November 2010. Forty animals divided into equal quantity in two treatments (shaded [...] and non-shaded) were used with supply of irrigated pastures (Tiffton 85). Measurements of meteorological data were made at all times, with the assembly of black globe thermometers and psychrometers in the two areas, and a mini-weather station, at the shaded area. Under these conditions a trials was carried out on behavior of animals, being made visual observations by the method of instantaneous scan at intervals of 10 min during the daytime period, checking the percentage of animals under food, rumination and leisure using the methodology proposed by Johnson & Combs (1991), adapted for a period of 12 h. The shading did not influence the number of animals under the activities evaluated in different treatments. The search for shade was intense in the hottest periods of the day for leisure activity.

Fabiano A. de, Oliveira; Sílvia H. N., Turco; Gherman G. L . de, Aaraújo; Carlos A. A., Clemente; Tadeu V., Voltolini; Marlon S., Garrido.

2013-03-01

162

Characteristics of farming with composition of sheep milk and their connectedness in Slovenian dairy sheep  

OpenAIRE

Aim of this paper was to establish general pointers of milk quality and their statistical interaction in Slovenian dairy sheep. We have studied properties of milk yield with bovška and improved bovška breed in the period 2005-2010. Our analysis included 8017 animals, 6588 of these were bovška breed and 1429 enriched bovška breed. As systematic influences were included breed, technology of rearing system, year and successive lactation. Influence of the breed was seen in quantity of milk an...

Zorko, Alberta

2012-01-01

163

Revealing the history of domesticated sheep using retrovirus integrations  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The domestication of livestock represented a crucial step in human history. By using endogenous retroviruses as genetic markers, we found that sheep differentiated on the basis of their "retrotype" and morphological traits dispersed across Eurasia and Africa via separate migratory episodes. Relicts of the first migrations include the Mouflon, as well as breeds previously recognized as "primitive" on the basis of their morphology, such as the Orkney, Soay, and the Nordic short-tailed sheep now confined to the periphery of northwest Europe. A later migratory episode, involving sheep with improved production traits, shaped the great majority of present-day breeds. The ability to differentiate genetically primitive sheep from more modern breeds provides valuable insights into the history of sheep domestication

Chessa, Bernado; Pereira, Filipe

2009-01-01

164

Estimativas de componentes de (covariância e herdabilidade direta e materna de pesos corporais em ovinos da raça Santa Inês Estimates of (co variance components and direct and maternal heritability for growth traits in Santa Inês sheep breed  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estimar os componentes de (covariância e herdabilidade direta e materna de pesos corporais em ovinos da raça Santa Inês. Um total de 3971 registros de pesos de crias da raça Santa Inês, filhas de 114 reprodutores e 758 ovelhas, foi analisado, obtido de rebanhos experimentais do SNPA da Embrapa, no período de 1983 a 1995. Componentes de covariância e parâmetros genéticos resultantes de efeito genético aditivo direto, efeitos genético materno e de ambiente permanente, bem como a covariância entre esses efeitos, para peso ao nascer (PN, aos 112 (P112 e 196 dias de idade (P196, foram estimados pelo método da máxima verossimilhança restrita (REML, usando o aplicativo MTDFREML sob modelo animal. Incluindo ou não efeitos genéticos materno ou de ambiente materno permanente, bem como a covariância genética entre os efeitos direto e materno, cinco diferentes modelos de análises foram usados para determinar o modelo mais apropriado para descrever cada uma das características. Em geral, o modelo mais completo (modelo 4 foi o que apresentou maior valor para logaritmo da função de verossimilhança (log de L para todas características estudadas. Quando efeitos maternos foram excluidos, estimativas de herdabilidade direta foram substancialmente inflacionadas (0,31 a 0,37. Efeitos maternos foram importantes para todas as características, mesmo as medidas após o desmame. Correlações genéticas entre os efeitos direto e materno para PN e P112 foram negativas e de baixa magnitude (-0,31 a - 0,10, porém, para P196, estes valores foram positivos e de alta magnitude (0,67 a 0,98. A exclusão dos efeitos maternos, quando importantes, resultou em superestimativa das herdabilidade.The objective of this work was to estimate the (co variance components and direct and maternal heritability of the body weights of sheep of Santa Inês breed. A total of 3,771 lambs weights records of the Santa Inês hair sheep breed, progenies of 114 sires, and 758 ewes were analyzed, obtained from experimental herds of EMBRAPA - SNPA from 1985 to 1995. The covariance components and genetic parameters from additive genetic effects, maternal and permanent environmental effects, as well as the covariance between those effects for birth weight (BW, weight at 112 (W112 and weight at 196 days of age (W196, were estimated by Restricted Maximum Likelihood (REML using MTDFREML program, under animal model. Including or not the maternal genetic effect or permanent environmental effect, as well as the genetic covariance between the direct and maternal effects, five different animal models were used to determine the most appropriate model for each trait. In general, the most comprehensive model (Model 4 was the one that presented the greatest value for the maximum log likelihood function (log of L for all studied traits. When maternal effects were excluded, estimates of direct heritabilities were substantially inflated (.31 to .37. The maternal effects were important for all traits, even those that were measured after weaning. Genetic correlation between direct and maternal effects for BW and W112 were negative and low (from -.31 to -.10, however, for W196 this value was positive and high (from .67 to .98. The exclusion of the maternal effects, when they are important, resulted in overestimates of heritability.

Wandrick Hauss de Sousa

1999-01-01

165

Genetic components of litter size variability in sheep  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Classical selection for increasing prolificacy in sheep leads to a concomitant increase in its variability, even though the objective of the breeder is to maximise the frequency of an intermediate litter size rather than the frequency of high litter sizes. For instance, in the Lacaune sheep breed raised in semi-intensive conditions, ewes lambing twins represent the economic optimum. Data for this breed, obtained from the national recording scheme, were analysed. Variance co...

Chevalet Claude; Elsen Jean-Michel; Bodin Loys; SanCristobal-Gaudy Magali

2001-01-01

166

Conservation genetics of cattle, sheep, and goats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cattle, sheep and goats were domesticated about 10,000 years ago, spread out of the domestication centers in Europe, Asia, and Africa during the next few thousands years, and gave many populations locally adapted. After a very long period of soft selection, the situation changed dramatically 200 years ago with the emergence of the breed concept. The selection pressure strongly increased, and the reproduction among breeds was seriously reduced, leading to the fragmentation of the initial gene pool. More recently, the selection pressure was increased again via the use of artificial insemination, leading to a few industrial breeds with very high performances, but with low effective population sizes. Beside this performance improvement of industrial breeds, genetic resources are being lost, because of the replacement of traditional breeds by high performance industrial breeds at the worldwide level, and because of the loss of genetic diversity in these industrial breeds. Many breeds are already extinct, and genetic resources in cattle, sheep, and goats are thus highly endangered, particularly in developed countries. The recent development of next generation sequencing technologies opens new avenues for properly characterizing the genetic resources, not only in the very diverse domestic breeds, but also in their wild relatives. Based on sound genetic characterization, urgent conservation measures must be taken to avoid an irremediable loss of farm animal genetic resources, integrating economical, sociological, and political parameters. PMID:21377620

Taberlet, Pierre; Coissac, Eric; Pansu, Johan; Pompanon, François

2011-03-01

167

Morphological and microsatellite DNA diversity of Nigerian indigenous sheep  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Sheep is important in the socio-economic lives of people around the world. It is estimated that more than half of our once common livestock breeds are now endangered. Since genetic characterization of Nigerian sheep is still lacking, we analyzed ten morphological traits on 402 animals and 15 microsatellite DNA markers in 384 animals of the 4 Nigerian sheep breeds to better understand genetic diversity for breeding management and germplasm conservation. Results Morphological traits of Uda and Balami were significantly (P?FST, FIT and FIS statistics across all loci were 0.088, 0.394 and 0.336 respectively. Yankasa and Balami are the most closely related breeds (DA?=?0.184 while WAD and Balami are the farthest apart breeds (DA?=?0.665, which is coincident with distance based on morphological analysis and population structure assessed by STRUCTURE. Conclusions These results suggest that within-breed genetic variation in Nigerian sheep is higher than between-breeds and may be a valuable tool for genetic improvement and conservation. The higher genetic variability in Yankasa suggests the presence of unique ancestral alleles reflecting the presence of certain functional genes which may result in better adaptability in more agro-ecological zones of Nigeria. These genetic characteristics are potentially useful in planning improvement and conservation strategies in Nigerian indigenous sheep.

Agaviezor Brilliant O

2012-11-01

168

Charge Breeding of Radioactive Ions in an Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Source(ECRIS) at ISOLDE  

CERN Multimedia

The development of an efficient charge breeding scheme for the next generation of RIB facilities will have a strong impact on the post-accelerator for several Radioactive Ion Beam (RIB) projects at European large scale facilities. At ISOLDE/CERN there will be the unique possibility to carry out experiments with the two possible charge breeding set-ups with a large variety of radioactive isotopes using identical injection conditions. One charge breeding set-up is the Penning trap/EBIS combination which feeds the REX-ISOLDE linear accelerator and which is in commissioning now. The second charge breeder is a new ECRIS PHOENIX developed at the ISN ion source laboratory at Grenoble. This ECRIS is now under investigation with a 14 GHz amplifier to characterize its performance. The experiments are accompanied by theoretical studies in computer simulations in order to optimize the capture of the ions in the ECRIS plasma. A second identical PHOENIX ECRIS which is under investigation at the Daresbury Laboratory is avai...

Lindroos, M; Wenander, F J C

2002-01-01

169

Modelos linear e não linear em análises genéticas para sobrevivência de crias de ovinos da raça Santa Inês Linear and nonlinear models in genetic analyses of lamb survival in the Santa Inês hair sheep breed  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Registros de sobrevivência do nascimento ao desmame de 3846 crias de ovinos da raça Santa Inês foram analisados por modelos de reprodutor linear e não linear (modelo de limiar, para estimar componentes de variância e herdabilidade. Os modelos usados para sobrevivência, analisada como característica da cria, incluíram os efeitos fixos de sexo, da combinação tipo de nascimento-criação da cria e da idade da ovelha ao parto, efeito da covariável peso da cria ao nascer e efeitos aleatórios de reprodutor, da classe rebanho-ano-estação e do resíduo. Componentes de variância para o modelo linear foram estimados pelo método da máxima verossimilhança restrita (REML e para o modelo não linear por uma aproximação da máxima verossimilhança marginal (MML, pelo programa CMMAT2. O coeficiente de herdabilidade (h² estimado pelo modelo de limiar foi de 0,29, e pelo modelo linear, 0,14. A correlação de ordem de Spearman entre as capacidades de transmissão dos reprodutores, com base nos dois modelos foi de 0,96. As estimativas de h² obtidas indicam a possibilidade de se obter, por seleção, ganho genético para sobrevivência.Records of 3,846 lambs survival from birth to weaning of Santa Inês hair sheep breed, were analyzed by linear and non linear sire models (threshold model to estimate variance components and heritability (h². The models that were used to analyze survival, considered in this study as a lamb trait, included the fixed effects of sex of the lamb, combination of type of birth-rearing of lamb, and age of ewe, birth weight of lamb as covariate, and random effects of sire, herd-year-season and residual. Variance components were obtained using restricted maximum likelihood (REML, in linear model and marginal maximum likelihood in threshold model through CMMAT2 program. Estimate of heritability (h² obtained by threshold model was 0.29 and by linear model was 0.14. Rank correlation of Spearman, between sire solutions based on the two models was 0.96. The obtained estimates in this study indicate that it is possible to acquire genetic gain to survival by selection.

W.H. Sousa

1999-06-01

170

Estimação de parâmetros genéticos de ovinos da raça Santa Inês utilizando modelos uni e bicaracterística / Estimation of genetic parameters Santa Inês Sheep breed using single and two - traits models  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Objetivou-se nesse trabalho, estimar os parâmetros genéticos para características de crescimento em ovinos da raça Santa Inês através do Método da Máxima Verossimilhança Restrita (REML). Os componentes de (co)variâncias e os parâmetros genéticos foram estimados pelo Software MTDFREML (Multiple Trait [...] Derivative-Free Restricted Maximum Likelihood). As características avaliadas em modelos uni e bicaracterística foram: peso ao nascimento (PN) e peso ao desmame (P90). Além dos efeitos fixos de sexo, grupo contemporâneo e tipo de parto, foram utilizados os seguintes efeitos aleatórios: efeito genético aditivo direto, efeito genético aditivo materno e efeito residual. As estimativas de herdabilidade aditiva direta para PN foram 0,20 e 0,21, para os modelos uni e bicaracterística, respectivamente. As estimativas de herdabilidade aditiva direta para P90 foram 0,04 e 0,07, para os modelos uni e bicaracterística, respectivamente. A correlação genética entre PN e P90 foi de 0,11, indicando que ambas as características devem ser trabalhadas simultaneamente. Abstract in english The objective of this study is to estimate genetic parameters for growth traits in sheep Santa Ines breed by Restricted Maximum Likelihood (REML). The (co)variance components and genetic parameters were estimated by MTDFREML Software (Multiple Trait Derivative-Free Restricted Maximum Likelihood). Th [...] e characteristics evaluated in single and two-trait models were: birth weight (BW) and weaning weight (WW). In addition to the fixed effects of sex, contemporary group and parity type, we used the following random effects: direct genetic effect, maternal additive genetic and residual effects. The direct additive heritability estimates for BW were 0.20 and 0.21 for single and two-trait models, respectively. Heritability estimates for direct additive WW were 0.04 and 0.07 for single and two-trait models, respectively. The genetic correlation between BW and WW was 0.11, indicating that both traits should be worked on simultaneously.

Geane Conceição, Carvalho; Leandro Teixeira, Barbosa; Tatiana Maia de, Oliveira; Fernanda Érica Pereira, Fonseca; Evandro Neves, Muniz; Hymerson Costa, Azevedo.

2014-01-01

171

Lines of Evidence–Incremental Markings in Molar Enamel of Soay Sheep as Revealed by a Fluorochrome Labeling and Backscattered Electron Imaging Study  

Science.gov (United States)

We studied the structural characteristics and periodicities of regular incremental markings in sheep enamel using fluorochrome injections for vital labeling of forming enamel and backscattered electron imaging in the scanning electron microscope. Microscopic analysis of mandibular first molars revealed the presence of incremental markings with a daily periodicity (laminations) that indicated successive positions of the forming front of interprismatic enamel. In addition to the laminations, incremental markings with a sub-daily periodicity were discernible both in interprismatic enamel and in enamel prisms. Five sub-daily increments were present between two consecutive laminations. Backscattered electron imaging revealed that each sub-daily growth increment consisted of a broader and more highly mineralized band and a narrower and less mineralized band (line). The sub-daily markings in the prisms of sheep enamel morphologically resembled the (daily) prisms cross striations seen in primate enamel. Incremental markings with a supra-daily periodicity were not observed in sheep enamel. Based on the periodicity of the incremental markings, maximum mean daily apposition rates of 17.0 µm in buccal enamel and of 13.4 µm in lingual enamel were recorded. Enamel extension rates were also high, with maximum means of 180 µm/day and 217 µm/day in upper crown areas of buccal and lingual enamel, respectively. Values in more cervical crown portions were markedly lower. Our results are in accordance with previous findings in other ungulate species. Using the incremental markings present in primate enamel as a reference could result in a misinterpretation of the incremental markings in ungulate enamel. Thus, the sub-daily growth increments in the prisms of ungulate enamel might be mistaken as prism cross striations with a daily periodicity, and the laminations misidentified as striae of Retzius with a supra-daily periodicity. This would lead to a considerable overestimation of crown formation times in ungulate teeth. PMID:24040293

Kierdorf, Horst; Kierdorf, Uwe; Frölich, Kai; Witzel, Carsten

2013-01-01

172

IDENTIFICATION OF SOME PARAMPHISTOMES INFECTING SHEEP IN MAIDUGURI, NIGERIA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The prevalence of paramphislome infection in sheep slaughtered at Maiduguri abattoir, Nigeria was studied. Of the 100 slaughtered sheep examined, 28.0% were infected, with an overall worm burden of 203. Of 39 males, 23.1% were infested with a worn burden of 63, while of the 61 females examined, 31.1% were infested with a worm burden of 140. Also of the 91 adult sheep, 28.6% were infested with a worm burden of 189, while out of the 9 young sheep, 22.2% were infested, with a worm burden of 14. Among breeds, 50 Balami were examined with 32.0% infested, and a worm burden of 112, while of the 49 and 1 Udda and Yankassa sheep examined 24.5% and 0.0% were infested, respectively. However, the differences in the prevalence of paramphistomes between sexes, age groups and breeds of sheep were non significant. Identification of the parampluistomes of sheep based on their size and predilection site showed Paramhistome cervi to inhabit the rumen with a mean size of 8.5 x 3.5 mm, while Gastrothylax cruminefer inhabited also the rumen but of the size 13 x 5 mm. The distribution of paramphistome species based on the sex, age and breed of sheep examined showed that more females were infested with P. cervi (52.6% than the males (33.3%, while more males were infested with G. crumenifer (66.7% than the females (47.4%.

A. A. Biu and A. Oluwafunmilayo

2004-10-01

173

Application of Selection Mapping to Identify Genomic Regions Associated with Dairy Production in Sheep  

OpenAIRE

In Europe, especially in Mediterranean areas, the sheep has been traditionally exploited as a dual purpose species, with income from both meat and milk. Modernization of husbandry methods and the establishment of breeding schemes focused on milk production have led to the development of “dairy breeds.” This study investigated selective sweeps specifically related to dairy production in sheep by searching for regions commonly identified in different European dairy breeds. With this aim, ge...

Gutie?rrez-gil, Beatriz; Arranz, Juan Jose; Pong-wong, Ricardo; Garci?a-ga?mez, Elsa; Kijas, James; Wiener, Pamela

2014-01-01

174

Multivariate characterization on morphological traits in Burkina Faso sheep  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A total of 6440 female sheep from Burkina Faso were scored for seven body measurements and four qualitative morphological traits. Sampling included the three main environmental areas and sheep breeds of Burkina Faso: the Sahel area (Burkina-Sahel sheep), the Sudan- Sahel area (Mossi sheep) and the Sudan area (Djallonke sheep). Canonical analyses showed that differences in body measurements between the Sudan and the Sudan-Sahel sheep were small even though most body traits showed higher average values in the Burkina-Sahel sheep: the shortest Mahalanobis distance was found between the Sudan and the Sudan-Sahel populations (1.54), whilst that between the Sudan and the Sahelian populations was the largest (7.88). Discriminant analysis showed that most Sudan (Djallonke) individuals (60.85%) were classified as Sudan-Sahel (Mossi) individuals whilst most Burkina-Sahel individuals were classified into their environmental area of sampling (89.5%). Correspondence analyses indicated that the Burkina-Sahel sheep population clustered together with dropping ears, black and brown colour patterns and presence of wattles, the Sudan sheep were closely associated with long hair and vertical and curled ears and that the Sudan-Sahel sheep did not have clear associations with qualitative phenotypic traits. At the morphological level, the Sudan-Sahel (Mossi) sheep population can be considered a geographical subpopulation belonging to the Djallonke breed, showing some particularities, namelyreed, showing some particularities, namely larger body size, due to the particular environmental condition of the area in which it is managed and a continuous gene flow from Sahelian sheep, The information reported in this study will be the basis for the establishment of further characterization, conservation and selection strategies for Burkina Faso sheep. (author)

175

Identification of Morphometry and Carcass Composition of Local Sheep at Different Growth Rate  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sheep fattening farms have been recently growing rapidly to produce better quality of sheep meat and fullfill consumer’s demand. Sheep fattening and breeding farms should be developed proportionally to obtain sustainable sheep flock in the market. Twelve male lambs (less than one year old were selected based on their average daily gain (ADG, consisting into two groups: 6 fast growing (FG and 6 slow growing (SG sheep. Some morphometric parameters in body and head parts of sheep and their carcass production and composition were measured and compared between the groups. The results show that chest circumference, body height, body length, head length and muzzle, top and bottom neck circumferences of FG sheep were significantly higher than in SG sheep (P0.05. It is concluded that selection of fast growing sheep can be recommended by using some morphometric parameters. The selection would not also negatively affect the weight and percentage of carcass composition.

M. Yamin

2012-04-01

176

Eradication of scrapie with selective breeding: are we nearly there?  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Following EU decision 2003/100/EC Member States have recently implemented sheep breeding programmes to reduce the prevalence of sheep with TSE susceptible prion genotypes. The present paper investigates the progress of the breeding programme in the Netherlands. The PrP genotype frequencies were monitored through time using two sets of random samples: one set covers the years 2005 to 2008 and is taken from national surveillance programme; the other is taken...

Davidse Aart; Bossers Alex; Hagenaars Thomas J; Windig Jack J; Melchior Marielle B; van Zijderveld Fred G

2010-01-01

177

Mutation breeding  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Twenty years have passed since the establishment of gamma field as a major facility for irradiation in a radiation breeding field, and the duration of the accumulated irradiation was 100,000 hours as of 1980. New 50 varieties or more were grown by mutation breeding. This book deals with the outcome of mutation breeding for 20 years in view of seed breeding and methods for inducing mutation and breeding of vegetatively propagated plants and tree crops. (Namekawa, K.)

178

No mutations of FecB and FecGH in Iranian Lory sheep  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Booroola fecundity gene (FecB and growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9 gene belong to the transforming growth factor ? (TGF-? superfamily. The mutations of these genes have additive effects on the prolificacy in sheep. The aim of the present study was to determine the possible mutations of FecB and FecGH genes in Lory sheep breed of the Lorestan province, Iran. Sixty blood samples were collected and DNA was extracted from whole fresh blood. For detection of FecB and FecGH mutations, the PCR products were incubated with AvaII and DdeI restricted enzymes. Based on the results we did not find the FecB and FecGH mutations in this sheep breed population, so these mutations cannot the cause of the high prolificacy of Lory sheep breed and more study are needed to determine the genetic or environmental causes of high prolificacy of this sheep breed.

Zaynab Shafieiyan

2014-12-01

179

Textural properties of selected Slovak cow and sheep products measured by texturometer  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available 96 Normal 0 false false false CS JA X-NONE 96 Normal 0 false false false CS JA X-NONE Sensorial assessment of selected brands of Slovak cow and sheep products, produced on farm with self-production of cow and sheep milk, was realized. The farm is situated in the North of east Slovakia. Breeding of dairy cows and sheep was realized under conditions applying animal welfare, where feedstuff was provided from self-production. By means of texture analyzer (Texture Analyser TA.XT Plus, textural properties (hardness, springiness, cohensivness and chewiness of sheep feta cheese, smoked sheep cheese, unsmoked cow cheese strings, smoked cow cheese sticks, pickled sheep feta cheese and spicy pickled sheep feta cheese, were assessed. Texture analyzer is used for texture measurement and assessment of physical properties of products, as well as for material testing by means of pressure and pull tests. Textural properties were assessed, when strength, distance and time were recorded and projected by means of fully integrated Texture Exponent� 32-bit software. The measurement was realized by test, when analyzer arm with selected sensor moved down, penetrated and compressed food product and moved to default position thereafter. Statistically significant differences (p were detected at hardness by means of statistical results evaluation obtained from texturometer measurement of cow and sheep products samples. Sheep feta cheese was compared to smoked sheep cheese, unsmoked cow cheese strings, smoked cow cheese sticks, pickled sheep feta cheese and spicy pickled sheep feta cheese. Statistically significant differences (p were confirmed, when we compared smoked sheep cheese to spicy pickled sheep feta cheese, when we compared unsmoked cow cheese strings to pickled sheep feta cheese and spicy pickled sheep feta cheese and by comparison of smoked cow cheese sticks to pickled sheep feta cheese and spicy pickled sheep feta cheese. Statistically significant differences (p were confirmed at springiness, when we compared sheep feta cheese to unsmoked cow cheese strings, smoked cow cheese sticks, pickled sheep feta cheese and spicy pickled sheep feta cheese and by comparison of smoked sheep cheese to unsmoked cow cheese strings, smoked cow cheese sticks, pickled sheep feta cheese and spicy pickled sheep feta cheese. Statistically significant differences (p were confirmed at cohensivness, when we compared sheep feta cheese to smoked sheep cheese, when we compared smoked sheep cheese to smoked cow cheese sticks and pickled sheep feta cheese, by comparison of smoked sheep cheese to spicy pickled sheep feta cheese and by comparison of unsmoked cow cheese strings to smoked cow cheese sticks. Differences at chewiness were statistically significant (p , when we compared sheep feta cheese to smoked sheep cheese, unsmoked cow cheese strings, smoked cow cheese sticks, pickled sheep feta cheese and spicy pickled sheep feta cheese, when we compared smoked sheep cheese to spicy pickled sheep feta cheese, by comparison of unsmoked cow cheese strings to pickled sheep feta cheese and spicy pickled sheep feta cheese and by comparison of smoked cow cheese sticks to pickled sheep feta cheese and spicy pickled sheep feta cheese. Based on obtained analysis results were confirmed, that selected brands of cow and sheep products are characterized by different textural properties. These properties make assessed brands of Slovak cow and sheep product specific, which needs to make provision at quality assessment.

Mária Angelovičová, ml.

2013-11-01

180

Association between AA-NAT gene polymorphism and reproductive performance in sheep  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english Arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AA-NAT) is critical enzyme in Melatonin (MLT) biosynthesis for MLT regulating the animal seasonal breeding. In this study, DNA sequencing methods were applied to detect the polymorphisms of the AA-NAT gene in 179 Chinese sheep belonging to two non-seasonal reprodu [...] ction breeds and two seasonal reproduction breeds. One mutation at exon 3 (NM_001009461:c.486A > G) was ?rstly described at the sheep AA-NAT locus. Hence, we described the SmaI PCR-RFLP method for detecting EX3 486A > G mutation, frequencies of the AA-NAT-G allele varied from 0.871 to 0.908 in two non-seasonal reproduction breeds and 0.517 to 0.578 in two seasonal reproduction breeds. The associations of SmaI polymorphism with estrus traits was analyzed in non-seasonal reproduction breeds sheep and seasonal reproduction breeds sheep, the signi?cant statistical results were found between them, the GG genotype frequencies was higher in non-seasonal reproduction breeds (p G mutation could facilitate association analysis and serve as a genetic marker for Chinese sheep breeding and genetics.

Bai, Ding-ping; Yu, Cheng-jiang; Chen, Yu-lin.

2012-03-15

181

Selection on MHC-linked microsatellite loci in sheep populations.  

Science.gov (United States)

Microsatellites within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) region have received increasing attention as proxy measures of the level of polymorphism at the Mhc genes themselves. We assessed the diversity of microsatellite loci within or in close proximity of the Mhc genes in several breeds of domestic sheep (Ovis aries) and the wild Mouflon (Ovis orientalis musimon). This was compared to variation at other microsatellite loci scattered throughout the sheep genome. Significantly higher number of alleles were observed at the MHC microsatellites. The sheep breeds studied fell into high- and low-diversity group. This grouping is not related to the agricultural use of the breeds, whether for milk, meat or wool. It is, however, correlated with the geographic origins of the breeds. Southern breeds are genetically more diverse than northern breeds. The observed heterozygosity was in most cases lower than Hardy-Weinberg expectations. The potential impact of selective breeding by man on this is discussed. Neutrality tests indicated that for most of the breeds, the distribution of alleles at the MHC-linked microsatellites are more even than would be expected if the genes were neutral and sampled from populations under drift-mutation equilibrium. Hitchhiking due to tight linkage with alleles at the MHC loci that are under balancing selection is proposed as a possible explanation for this pattern. PMID:17519962

Santucci, F; Ibrahim, K M; Bruzzone, A; Hewit, G M

2007-09-01

182

Allelic polymorphism in the second exon of Ovar-DRB1 in fat-tailed sheep.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ovar-DRB1 is one of the most important response genes in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II region of sheep. Gene polymorphism in the second exon of Ovar-DRB1 in three different Iranian fat-tailed sheep breeds (Lori-Bakhtiari, Shaul and Zandi) was analyzed by either restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP) or direct sequencing. A total of 92 Lori-Bakhtiari, 40 Shaul, and 47 Zandi sheep were examined. PCR-RFLP identified 17 genotypes in Lori-Bakhtiari sheep, 12 in Shaul sheep and 11 in Zandi sheep. Collectively, 24 different genotypes could be found for Iranian fat-tailed sheep. Using direct sequencing, seven new sequences in exon 2 of the Ovar-DRB1 gene were identified. Generalized linear modeling with a multinomial error structure showed that the sheep populations had significantly different allele frequencies. PMID:21945136

Nikbakht, Gholamreza; Rezaii, Hossein; Stear, Michel J; Talebi, Mohammad Ali; Mahmoudzadeh, Homayoun

2012-06-01

183

Quantitative trait loci for internal nematode resistance in sheep: a review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Internal nematode resistance in sheep has a large impact on the economy of sheep industries. Selection for nematode resistance in sheep breeding schemes would help to reduce the direct and indirect cost of parasitism to these industries. However, this is not widely practiced because of the difficulty of measuring parasite resistance or correlated indirect selection criteria. The identification of genes or linked markers that have a significant association with the variance of indicator traits of internal nematode resistance in sheep would facilitate the inclusion of nematode resistance in sheep breeding operations. This review summarises findings reported in the literature of quantitative trait loci for internal nematode resistance in sheep. Issues relating to the analytical and phenotypic complexity of nematode resistance are discussed in the context of the findings of quantitative trait loci for nematode resistance published to date.

Dominik Sonja

2005-12-01

184

Studies on irradiation breeding by electron beam in flowers and plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Electron beam was used to irradiate different flowers and plants. The results showed that the suitable doses were 30-50 Gy for the young plant from cultured tissue of chrysanthemum, 60-80 Gy for gladiolus and 15-60 Gy for lily. In these dose range, the posterity had higher variation and wider mutation range, and mutation characters were stable. The mutation rates were 18.2%-30.8% for chrysanthemum, 8.7%-30.8% for gladiolus and more than 35% for lily. The blossom were 60, 21, 10 days earlier than the check for chrysanthemum, gladiolus and lily respectively. But the mutation rate of color varied greatly with different varieties

185

Sheep Collisions: the Good, the Bad, and the TBI  

CERN Document Server

The title page of Chapter 9 in Fundamentals of Physics (Halliday, Resnick, and Walker, 8th Edition, p. 201) shows a dramatic photograph of two Big Horn sheep butting heads and promises to explain how sheep survive such violent clashes without serious injury. However, the answer presented in sample problem 9-4 (p. 213) errs in presuming an interaction time of 0.27 s which results in an unrealistically long stopping distance of 0.62 m. Furthermore, the assertion that the horns provide necessary cushioning of the blow is inconsistent with the absence of concussions in domestic breeds of hornless sheep. Results from traumatic brain injury (TBI) research allow acceleration tolerance of sheep to be estimated as 450 g facilitating an analysis of sheep collisions that is more consistent with available observations (stopping distance less than 1 cm, impact time of roughly 2 ms).

Courtney, Michael

2007-01-01

186

Quantitative trait loci for internal nematode resistance in sheep: a review  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Internal nematode resistance in sheep has a large impact on the economy of sheep industries. Selection for nematode resistance in sheep breeding schemes would help to reduce the direct and indirect cost of parasitism to these industries. However, this is not widely practiced because of the difficulty of measuring parasite resistance or correlated indirect selection criteria. The identification of genes or linked markers that have a significant association with the variance ...

Dominik Sonja

2005-01-01

187

Pathological Changes of Abomasum in Naturally Infected Makoyee Sheep with Teladorsagia circumcincta  

OpenAIRE

The present study was carried out in order to investigate the lesions in the abomasum of Makoyee breed sheep caused by Teladorsagia spp. Infected sheep which were examined during spring and summer 2000, subjected to detail necropsy with special reference to abomasal lesions. Six out of 20 sheep were infected with T. circumcincta. Abomasal changes were recorded and tissue samples were collected from abomasum for histopathology. The results were indicated different pathological ch...

Amir Abbas Farshid; Soraya Naem; Ramin Banaie Alipour

2006-01-01

188

Recommendations for the use of microsatellite markers for parental reconstruction in rural sheep and goat populations  

OpenAIRE

Proper knowledge about individual origin and pedigree is a major point for animal breeding and genetic livestock improvement. Mainly for goat, but also for sheep, breeding in Sicily information on these points is limited, and sometimes even misleading. Sheep and goat milk production is, in many regions and especially on Sicily, a rural enterprise, where males and females graze together and pedigree of offspring can be largely unknown. Genetic improvement in this situation is challenging. Mode...

Egbert Frank Knol; Maria Siwek

2010-01-01

189

Genotyping and surveillance for scrapie in Finnish sheep  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The progression of scrapie is known to be influenced by the amino acid polymorphisms of the host prion protein (PrP gene. There is no breeding programme for TSE resistance in sheep in Finland, but a scrapie control programme has been in place since 1995. In this study we have analysed PrP genotypes of total of 928 purebred and crossbred sheep together with the data of scrapie survey carried out in Finland during 2002–2008 in order to gain knowledge of the genotype distribution and scrapie prevalence in Finnish sheep. Results The ARQ/ARQ genotype was the most common genotype in all breeds studied. ARR allele frequency was less than 12% in purebred Finnish sheep and in most genotypes heterozygous for ARR, the second allele was ARQ. The VRQ allele was not detected in the Grey race sheep of Kainuu or in the Aland sheep, and it was present in less than 6% of the Finnish Landrace sheep. Leucine was the most prominent amino acid found in codon 141. In addition, one novel prion dimorphisms of Q220L was detected. During the scrapie survey of over 15 000 sheep in 2002–2008, no classical scrapie cases and only five atypical scrapie cases were detected. Conclusions The results indicate that the Finnish sheep populations have genetically little resistance to classical scrapie, but no classical scrapie was detected during an extensive survey in 2002–2008. However, five atypical scrapie cases emerged; thus, the disease is present in the Finnish sheep population at a low level.

Hautaniemi Maria

2012-07-01

190

Long-term biocompatibility and osseointegration of electron beam melted, free-form-fabricated solid and porous titanium alloy: experimental studies in sheep.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the long-term osseointegration and biocompatibility of electron beam melted (EBM) free-form-fabricated (FFF titanium grade 5 (Ti6Al4V) implants. Porous and solid machined cylindrical and disk-shaped implants were prepared by EBM and implanted bilaterally in the femur and subcutaneously in the dorsum of the sheep. After 26 weeks, the implants and surrounding tissue were retrieved. The tissue response was examined qualitatively and quantitatively using histology and light microscopic (LM) morphometry. Selected bone implants specimens were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), and micro-computed tomography (mCT). The results showed that both porous and solid implants were osseointegrated and high bone-implant contact was observed throughout the porous implant. In the soft tissue, the porous implants showed thinner fibrous encapsulation while no signs of intolerance were observed for either implant type. Taken together, the present experimental results show that FFF Ti6Al4V with and without porous structures demonstrate excellent long-term soft tissue biocompatibility and a high degree of osseointegration. The present findings extend earlier, short-term experimental observations in bone and suggest that EBM, FFF Ti6Al4V implants possess valuable properties in bone and soft tissue applications. PMID:22207608

Palmquist, A; Snis, A; Emanuelsson, L; Browne, M; Thomsen, P

2013-05-01

191

Biodiversity and traditional sheep grazing in the south Banat region  

OpenAIRE

In this paper the capacity for reintroduction of traditional sheep breeds as key resources for biodiversity conservation systems in HNV farming system of the South Banat region was analyzed. Taking the vulnerability of the ecosystem into consideration when creating the optimal grazing system based on traditional rearing breeds, can contribute to the protection of biodiversity in the South Banat region. The representatives of Fabaceae, Poaceae, Lamiaceae, Ro...

Grdovi? Svetlana; Savi? Mila; Z?, Bec?kei; Dimitrijevi? B.

2012-01-01

192

Production and economic characteristics of sheep production on the island of Pag  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of the research was to learn from a survey about the production and economic characteristics of sheep production as well as economic position and developmental orientation of sheep breeders on the island of Pag. Data on production and economic characteristics of sheep production on the island of Pag were collected from a survey and processed through relevant descriptive statistics methods. The respondents have on average 47 breeding sheep, 2 rams and 9 sheep intended for flock renewal rate (not older than one year; which means an average flock has 58 sheep. The average total income from sheep production in 2009 was 72,460.10 HRK. The average total production costs in 2009 were 13,260.10 HRK, including the costs of fodder and veterinary services. All farms achieved positive financial results of 59,199.90 HRK in average. As many as three quarters of respondents indicated profitability of sheep production as the main motivation to engage in sheep production; very few indicated that heritage and inability to do other jobs were the main motivation. Important limiting factors for future development of sheep breeding on the island of Pag in most farms are lack of potential heirs and high average age of farm holders. Regarding the effects of joining the European Union, half the breeders intend to improve their production and harmonise it with the EU requirements and standards; one quarter of them intend to keep the existing production capacity; and another quarter intend to quit with production.

Marina Krvavica

2012-03-01

193

Eradication of scrapie with selective breeding: are we nearly there?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Following EU decision 2003/100/EC Member States have recently implemented sheep breeding programmes to reduce the prevalence of sheep with TSE susceptible prion genotypes. The present paper investigates the progress of the breeding programme in the Netherlands. The PrP genotype frequencies were monitored through time using two sets of random samples: one set covers the years 2005 to 2008 and is taken from national surveillance programme; the other is taken from 168 random sheep farms in 2007. The data reveal that although the level of compliance to the breeding programme has been high, the frequency of susceptible genotypes varies substantially between farms. The 168 sheep farms are a subset of 689 farms participating in a postal survey inquiring about management and breeding strategies. This survey aimed to identify how much these strategies varied between farms, in order to inform assessment of the expected future progress towards eradication of classical scrapie. Results On the one hand, we found that compliance to the national breeding program has been high, and the frequency of resistant genotypes is expected to increase further in the next few years. On the other hand, we observed a large variation in prevalence of the scrapie resistant PrP genotype ARR between farms, implicating a large variation of genetic resistance between farms. Substantial between-flock differences in management and breeding strategies were found in the postal survey, suggesting considerable variation in risk of scrapie transmission between farms. Conclusions Our results show that although there has been a good progress in the breeding for scrapie resistance and the average farm-level scrapie susceptibility in the Netherlands has been significantly reduced, still a considerable proportion of farms contain high frequencies of susceptible genotypes in their sheep population. Since 2007 the breeding for genetic resistance is voluntarily again, and participation to selective breeding can decrease as a result of this. This, together with the patterns of direct and indirect contact between sheep farms, might present a challenge of the aim of scrapie eradication. Communication to sheep owners of the effect of the breeding programme thus far, and of the prospects for classical scrapie eradication in The Netherlands might be essential for obtaining useful levels of participation to the voluntary continuation of the breeding programme.

Davidse Aart

2010-05-01

194

Relationship Between Gestation Length and Birth Weight in Nigerian Sheep and Their Crosses  

OpenAIRE

Effect of genotype and birth weight on gestation length was evaluated using Nigerian breeds of sheep and their crosses. The study was carried out at the Sheep Project Unit of Small Ruminant Research Programme (SRRP) of National Animal Production Research Institute (NAPRI), Ahmadu Bello University, Shika-Zaria. The sheep breeds used were Balami, Uda and Yankasa. Heat (estrus) detection was carried out twice daily; in the morning (07:00-08:00 hours); and in the evening (16:00-17:00 hours) using...

Ao, Iyiola-tunji; Gn, Akpa; Bi, Nwagu; Ia, Adeyinka; Cu, Osuhor; Tt, Lawal; Oa, Ojo

2010-01-01

195

A melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) gene polymorphism is useful for authentication of Massese sheep dairy products.  

Science.gov (United States)

Massese is an Italian sheep breed, with black or grey coat colour, mainly reared in the Tuscany and Emilia Romagna regions. Recently, the emerging interests in this breed have resulted in the production of Pecorino cheese obtained with only Massese milk. In order to be profitable, this marketing link between Massese breed and its products should be defended against fraudsters who could include milk of other sheep breeds or cow milk in Massese labelled productions. To identify the genetic factors affecting coat colour in sheep, we have recently analysed the melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) gene and identified several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). In this work, as a first step to set up a DNA based protocol for authentication of Massese dairy products, we further investigated the presence and distribution of one of these SNPs (c.-31G>A) in 143 Massese sheep and in another 13 sheep breeds (for a total of 351 animals). The Massese breed was fixed for allele c.-31A, whereas in all other breeds allele c.-31 G was the most frequent or with frequency of 0·50. At the same nucleotide position the cattle MC1R gene carries the G nucleotide. Using these data we developed a method to detect adulterating milk (from other sheep breeds or from cow) in Massese dairy products based on the analysis of the c.-31G>A SNP. We first tested the sensitivity of the protocol and then applied it to analyse DNA extracted from ricotta and Pecorino cheese obtained with only Massese milk or obtained with unrestricted sheep and cattle milk. To our knowledge, this system represents the first one that can be used for breed authentication of a sheep production and that, at the same time, can reveal frauds derived from the admixture of milk of an unreported species. PMID:21214968

Fontanesi, Luca; Beretti, Francesca; Dall'Olio, Stefania; Portolano, Baldassare; Matassino, Donato; Russo, Vincenzo

2011-02-01

196

A Tool for Sheep Product Quality: Custom Microarrays from Public Databases  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Milk and dairy products are an essential food and an economic resource in many countries. Milk component synthesis and secretion by the mammary gland involve expression of a large number of genes whose nutritional regulation remains poorly defined. The purpose of this study was to gain an understanding of the genomic influence on milk quality and synthesis by comparing two sheep breeds with different milking attitude (Sarda and Gentile di Puglia using sheep-specific microarray technology. From sheep ESTs deposited at NCBI, we have generated the first annotated microarray developed for sheep with a coverage of most of the genome.

Lorraine Pariset

2009-12-01

197

The callipyge mutation and other genes that affect muscle hypertrophy in sheep  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Genetic strategies to improve the profitability of sheep operations have generally focused on traits for reproduction. However, natural mutations exist in sheep that affect muscle growth and development, and the exploitation of these mutations in breeding strategies has the potential to significantly improve lamb-meat quality. The best-documented mutation for muscle development in sheep is callipyge (CLPG, which causes a postnatal muscle hypertrophy that is localized to the pelvic limbs and loin. Enhanced skeletal muscle growth is also observed in animals with the Carwell (or rib-eye muscling mutation, and a double-muscling phenotype has been documented for animals of the Texel sheep breed. However, the actual mutations responsible for these muscular hypertrophy phenotypes in sheep have yet to be identified, and further characterization of the genetic basis for these phenotypes will provide insight into the biological control of muscle growth and body composition.

Cockett Noelle E

2005-12-01

198

Pilot study for feeding preferences and grazing behavior in two breeds of sheep on a secondary succession of the Chiloé Archipelago / Estudio piloto para preferencias y comportamiento en pastoreo en dos razas ovinas sobre una sucesión secundaria del Archipiélago de Chiloé  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish M.A. Gallardo, R. Pulido, R. de la Barra y M.E. Martínez. 2014. Estudio piloto para preferencias y comportamiento en pastoreo en dos razas ovinas sobre una sucesión secundaria del Archipiélago de Chiloé. Cien. Inv. Agr. 41(2):249-254. Un estudio piloto fue realizado para determinar el patrón de pref [...] erencias y comportamiento en pastoreo de la raza ovina Chilota en el Archipiélago de Chiloé. Primero, ocho ovejas Chilota y ocho Suffolk Down fueron enfrentadas a diferente número de especies vegetales (no consideradas como suplemento), ofrecidas sólo por 10 min post-ayuno y post-pastoreo de un calafatal, una sucesión secundaria dominada por arbustos. El experimento fue repetido cuatro veces en un lapso de 22 d, considerando además un período pre-experimental de un mes. Posteriormente, seis Chilota y seis Suffolk (aleatoriamente seleccionadas desde los mismos grupos) fueron ubicadas para pastorear un calafatal dividido en tres potreros de 10 x 10 m para poder rotar los animales. Las observaciones fueron realizadas por 1 minuto, a intervalos de 1-hora por 11 horas diarias, durante 10 d consecutivos, registrando diferentes comportamientos, tales como: pastoreo, ramoneo, descanso, rumia, interacción y acicalamiento. Considerando la ingesta de materia seca de cada una de las tres especies presentes en todos los desafíos (B. chilensis, G. mucronata y D. winteri), los resultados mostraron que D. winteri fue la más consumida y B. chilensis, la menos consumida. El comportamiento en pastoreo mostró que el pastoreo fue la principal actividad registrada para ambas razas (especialmente en Suffolk Down) durante la mañana y la tarde, mientras descanso y rumia fueron las principales actividades durante las horas de mayor calor. En resumen, ambas razas mostraron similar patrón de preferencias, aunque diferente comportamiento en pastoreo en una sucesión secundaria de Chiloé. Abstract in english M.A. Gallardo, R. de la Barra, and M.E. Martínez. 2014. Pilot study for feeding preferences and grazing behavior in two breeds of sheep on a secondary succession of the Chiloé Archipelago. Cien. Inv. Agr. 41(2):249-254. A pilot study was undertaken to determine the pattern of feeding preferences and [...] grazing behavior of the Chilota breed of sheep in the Chiloé Archipelago. First, eight Chilota and eight Suffolk Down ewes were faced with different numbers of plant species (offered only for 10 min), after fasting and after grazing a calafatal, a secondary succession dominated by shrubs. The experiment was repeated four times within a period of 22 d and included a 1-month pre-experimental period. Second, six Chilota and six Suffolk Down ewes, randomly selected from the same groups, were placed to graze on a calafatal divided into three 10-by-10 m paddocks to facilitate rotation of the animals. Observations were performed for 1 minute at 1-hour intervals for 11 hours a day, over 10 consecutive days, recording the following behaviors: grazing, browsing, resting, ruminating, and grooming. Regarding the dry matter intake of each of the three plant species present in all trials (B. chilensis, G. mucronata and D. winteri), results showed D. winteri was the most consumed and B. chilensis the least. The grazing behavior showed grazing was the main activity recorded for both breeds (especially for Suffolk Down) during the morning and evening, while resting and ruminating were the main activities recorded during the warmest hours. In summary, the breeds showed similar preferences but different grazing behavior pattern on a secondary succession of the Chiloé Archipelago.

María A, Gallardo; Rubén, Pulido; Rodrigo, de la Barra; María E, Martínez.

199

Estudo anatomorfológico, radiográfico e tomográfico de Schistosomus reflexus em ovino da raça Dorper: relato de caso / Anatomorphological, radiographic and tomographic studies of Schistosomus reflexus in Dorper breed sheep: case report  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O Schistosomus reflexus (SR) é uma anomalia congênita fatal e rara, primariamente observada em ruminantes, a qual apresenta feto com dorsoflexão da coluna vertebral, exposição das vísceras abdominais e torácicas e escoliose. Foi realizada uma cesariana de ovelha da raça Dorper, em propriedade da reg [...] ião de Botucatu-SP. Pelas características gerais e achados de necropsia, tratava-se de um caso de SR. A radiografia revelou acentuado desvio ventrodorsal do segmento da coluna vertebral toracolombar e deformidades das costelas. Na tomografia computadorizada, observou-se presença da integridade dos ossos e órgãos, exceto ausência de uma vértebra lombar. Não havia dados na literatura de diagnóstico por imagem de SR em ovinos, portanto procedeu-se, de forma inédita, a exames radiográfico e tomográfico do feto. Abstract in english Schistosomus reflexus (SR) is a rare and fatal congenital anomaly, primarily observed in ruminants, presenting fetus with dorsiflexion of the vertebral column, exposure of thoracic and visceral organs, and scoliosis. A caesarian was performed on a Dorper sheep on a farm in Botucatu-SP and according [...] to the general characteristics and findings observed in the necropsy of the fetus it was an SR case. The radiography indicated a marked ventro-dorsal deviation of the thoracolumbar column segment and deformity of the ribs. On the computed tomography the integrity of the bones and organs were detected, except for the absence of a lumbar vertebra. No data were available in the literature for SR diagnosis in sheep by image, so radiographic and tomographic exams of the fetus were done.

D.O.L., Ferreira; B.P., Santarosa; C.D., Monteiro-Toma; A.F., Belotta; S.B., Chiacchio; V.M.V., Machado; R.C., Gonçalves; N.C., Prestes.

1096-11-01

200

Conformación corporal de las razas ovinas Pelibuey, Dorper y Kathadin en el estado de Veracruz, México / Body conformation of sheep breeds Pelibuey, Dorper and Kathadin in the state of Veracruz, Mexico  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El objetivo del presente trabajo fue realizar inferencia sobre la conformación corporal de ovejas Pelibuey, Dorper y Kathadin utilizando variables zoométricas. Se describieron las medidas zoométricas de cada unas de las razas, determinándose las diferencias raciales acorde a éstas y se infirió el pe [...] so vivo (PV) mediante modelos de regresión en función de las variables corporales. La muestra fue de 276 hembras (34,5 %; 87 Pelibuey, 92 Dorper y 97 Kathadin) en 9 granjas (800 ovinos) del estado de Veracruz. Las medidas zoométricas analizadas fueron: altura a la grupa (AP); altura a la cruz (AC); longitud del tronco (LT); perímetro toráxico (PT); circunferencia de la caña (CC); anchura de la cabeza (C); perfil fronto nasal (arco) (PFN); longitud de la oreja (LO); longitud de la grupa (LG); ancho de la grupa (AG); PV y edad (E). El efecto de la raza fue determinante tanto en el PV como en la conformación corporal; encontrandose que la variación entre razas es significativa (P Abstract in english The objective of this study was to estimate body conformation on Pelibuey, Dorper and Kathadin sheeps using zoometric variables. Measures of each one of the races and racial differences was determined according to them, live weight was predicted by regression models based on physical variables. Samp [...] le was conformed 276 females (34,5%; 87 Pelibuey, 92 Dorper and 97 Kathadin) on nine farms (800 sheeps) of the State of Veracruz. Zoometric measures analyzed were: height at rump (H), height at withers (HW), body length (TL), thoracic perimeter (TP), circumference of the rod (CC), head width (C), fronto profile nose (bow) (NFP), ear length (LO), rump length (LG) and rump width (AG) in addition to body weight (BW) and age (E). The effect of race was decisive both in weight and in body conformation, we found that the variation between races is significant (P

Julio, Vilaboa Arroniz; Riccardo, Bozzi; Pablo, Díaz Rivera; Letizia, Bazzi.

2010-09-01

201

Characterization of sheep populations of Kenya using microsatellite markers: implications for conservation and management of indigenous sheep populations  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english Indigenous sheep of Kenya are very important to resource-poor farmers and pastoralists. They have over time adapted to the harsh environmental conditions of the arid and semi-arid lands where they are faced with challenges of persistent droughts, diseases, conflicts and poor nutrition, yet show resi [...] stance to gastrointestinal nematodes. In recent years, these indigenous sheep populations have been crossbred indiscriminately to exotic breeds particularly the Dorper. A study was undertaken to determine the level of genetic diversity and relatedness between the various sheep populations and breeds of Kenya. This paper reports results on the genetic diversity and admixture observed using microsatellite DNA markers.

A.W.T., Muigai; A.M., Okeyo; A.K., Kwallah; D., Mburu; O., Hanotte.

202

The Hematological Indexes Values in Sheep Correlated with Season  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available From 40 healthy sheep breeding in good conditions of hygiene and feeding belonging to particular herds from the West side of the country were been taken blood samples in most important seasons of the year: in spring, before pasturage period and in autumn, after pasturage period. Sheep were been periodically preventive treated against parasites and were clinically healthy. Were been followed haematological parameters like haemogram (number of erithrocytes, haemoglobin, haematocrit, erithrocytic indexes, leucogram (number of leucocytes, leucocytic formula and those blood biochemicals indexes (total seric proteins, proteic fractions, glucose, uric acid, GPT, creatinin, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium. The obtain values in spring season were smaller in comparison with those from autumn as a result of less favourable conditions in winter, when sheep can't have the same benefits like in warm season, with high quality fresh food and life conditions. This fact is emphasized in these sheep obtained productions.

Daniela Mo?

2011-10-01

203

Sources of variation and genetic profile of spontaneous, out-of-season ovulatory activity in the Chios sheep  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Organising the breeding plan of a seasonally breeding species, such as sheep, presents a challenge to farmers and the industry as a whole, since both economical and biological considerations need to be carefully balanced. Understanding the breeding activity of individual animals becomes a prerequisite for a successful breeding program. This study set out to investigate the sources of variation and the genetic profile of the spontaneous, out-of-season ovulatory activity of e...

Kouttos Athanasios; Banos Georgios; Avdi Melpomeni; Bodin Loys; Chemineau Philippe

2003-01-01

204

Schmallenberg virus experimental infection of sheep  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Since late 2011, a novel orthobunyavirus, named Schmallenberg virus (SBV), has been implicated in many cases of severely malformed bovine and ovine offspring in Europe. In adult cattle, SBV is known to cause a mild transient disease; clinical signs include short febrile episodes, decreased milk production and diarrhoea for a few days. However, the knowledge about clinical signs and pathogenesis in adult sheep is limited.In the present study, adult sheep of European domestic breeds were inoculated with SBV either as cell culture grown virus or as virus with no history of passage in cell cultures. Various experimental set-ups were used. Sampling included blood collection at different time points during the experimental period and selected organ material at autopsy.Data from this study showed, that the RNAemic period in sheep was as short as reported for cattle; viral genome was detectable for about 3–5 days by real-time RT-PCR. In total, 13 out of 30 inoculated sheep became RNAemic, with the highest viral load in animals inoculated with virus from low cell culture passaged or the animal passaged material. Contact animals remained negative throughout the study. One RNAemic sheep showed diarrhoea for several days, but fever was not recorded in any of the animals. Antibodies were first detectable 10–14 days post inoculation. Viral RNA was detectable in spleen and lymph nodes up to day 44 post inoculation.In conclusion, as described for cattle, SBV-infection in adult sheep predominantly results in subclinical infection, transient RNAemia and a specific antibody response. Maintenance of viral RNA in the lymphoreticular system is observed for an extended period.

Wernike, Kerstin; Hoffmann, Bernd

2013-01-01

205

Parenteral Administration of l-Arginine Enhances Fetal Survival and Growth in Sheep Carrying Multiple Fetuses123  

OpenAIRE

The frequency of multiple fetuses has increased in human pregnancies due to assisted reproductive technologies. This translates into a greater proportion of premature and low-birth weight infants in the United States and worldwide. In addition, improvements in sheep breeding have resulted in new breeds with increased litter size but reduced fetal survival and birth weight. Currently, there are no treatments for preventing fetal growth restriction in humans or sheep (an established model for s...

Lassala, Arantzatzu; Bazer, Fuller W.; Cudd, Timothy A.; Datta, Sujay; Keisler, Duane H.; Satterfield, M. Carey; Spencer, Thomas E.; Wu, Guoyao

2011-01-01

206

Genome-Wide Association Studies Identify Two Novel BMP15 Mutations Responsible for an Atypical Hyperprolificacy Phenotype in Sheep  

OpenAIRE

Some sheep breeds are naturally prolific, and they are very informative for the studies of reproductive genetics and physiology. Major genes increasing litter size (LS) and ovulation rate (OR) were suspected in the French Grivette and the Polish Olkuska sheep populations, respectively. To identify genetic variants responsible for the highly prolific phenotype in these two breeds, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) followed by complementary genetic and functional analyses were performed. H...

Demars, Julie; Fabre, Ste?phane; Sarry, Julien; Rossetti, Raffaella; Gilbert, He?le?ne; Persani, Luca; Tosser-klopp, Gwenola; Mulsant, Philippe; Nowak, Zuzanna; Drobik, Wioleta; Martyniuk, Elzbieta; Bodin, Loys

2013-01-01

207

Dog Breeds  

Science.gov (United States)

Recently, designer mutts like the Labradoodle -- a cross between a Labarador retriever and a poodle -- have become popular. A listener wanted to know if some kinds of dogs are just too different to make puppies. This Science Update explores the cross breeding of species.

2004-07-05

208

Genome edited sheep and cattle.  

Science.gov (United States)

Genome editing tools enable efficient and accurate genome manipulation. An enhanced ability to modify the genomes of livestock species could be utilized to improve disease resistance, productivity or breeding capability as well as the generation of new biomedical models. To date, with respect to the direct injection of genome editor mRNA into livestock zygotes, this technology has been limited to the generation of pigs with edited genomes. To capture the far-reaching applications of gene-editing, from disease modelling to agricultural improvement, the technology must be easily applied to a number of species using a variety of approaches. In this study, we demonstrate zygote injection of TALEN mRNA can also produce gene-edited cattle and sheep. In both species we have targeted the myostatin (MSTN) gene. In addition, we report a critical innovation for application of gene-editing to the cattle industry whereby gene-edited calves can be produced with specified genetics by ovum pickup, in vitro fertilization and zygote microinjection (OPU-IVF-ZM). This provides a practical alternative to somatic cell nuclear transfer for gene knockout or introgression of desirable alleles into a target breed/genetic line. PMID:25204701

Proudfoot, Chris; Carlson, Daniel F; Huddart, Rachel; Long, Charles R; Pryor, Jane H; King, Tim J; Lillico, Simon G; Mileham, Alan J; McLaren, David G; Whitelaw, C Bruce A; Fahrenkrug, Scott C

2015-02-01

209

Pruritus is a common feature in sheep infected with the BSE agent  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The variability in the clinical or pathological presentation of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs in sheep, such as scrapie and bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE, has been attributed to prion protein genotype, strain, breed, clinical duration, dose, route and type of inoculum and the age at infection. The study aimed to describe the clinical signs in sheep infected with the BSE agent throughout its clinical course to determine whether the clinical signs were as variable as described for classical scrapie in sheep. The clinical signs were compared to BSE-negative sheep to assess if disease-specific clinical markers exist. Results Forty-seven (34% of 139 sheep, which comprised 123 challenged sheep and 16 undosed controls, were positive for BSE. Affected sheep belonged to five different breeds and three different genotypes (ARQ/ARQ, VRQ/VRQ and AHQ/AHQ. None of the controls or BSE exposed sheep with ARR alleles were positive. Pruritus was present in 41 (87% BSE positive sheep; the remaining six were judged to be pre-clinically infected. Testing of the response to scratching along the dorsum of a sheep proved to be a good indicator of clinical disease with a test sensitivity of 85% and specificity of 98% and usually coincided with weight loss. Clinical signs that were displayed significantly earlier in BSE positive cases compared to negative cases were behavioural changes, pruritic behaviour, a positive scratch test, alopecia, skin lesions, teeth grinding, tremor, ataxia, loss of weight and loss of body condition. The frequency and severity of each specific clinical sign usually increased with the progression of disease over a period of 16–20 weeks. Conclusion Our results suggest that BSE in sheep presents with relatively uniform clinical signs, with pruritus of increased severity and abnormalities in behaviour or movement as the disease progressed. Based on the studied sheep, these clinical features appear to be independent of breed, affected genotype, dose, route of inoculation and whether BSE was passed into sheep from cattle or from other sheep, suggesting that the clinical phenotype of BSE is influenced by the TSE strain more than by other factors. The clinical phenotype of BSE in the genotypes and breed studied was indistinguishable from that described for classical scrapie cases.

Jeffrey Martin

2008-04-01

210

EARLY USAGE OF SHEEP AND GOAT YOUTH FOR THE REPRODUCTION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Female lambs and kids at the age of 9-10 months were used for early reproduction and it was noticed that the medium values of the weight of the lambs calved by female sheep and the kids calved by female kids are close to the medium values of the weight of the lambs and kids calved by adult sheep and goats. The main index of reproduction accomplished by the youth female situated at he level of the values characteristic to the sheep and goats breeds or populations belonging to Carpatina breed, registering lower values. By the early usage of sheep and goats male youth the following were noticed: Palas Merino male lambs, capable for reproduction 80%; the male lambs from Palas prolific population, capable for reproduction 88,8; out of the he-goats lots of Carpatina breed, at the age of 7-10 months, 83.33% the males manifested a normal sexual behaviour; the males which did not have sexual reflexes at the age of 7-10 months and at the age of 19-22 months they were not capable for reproduction, and the ones that had the seminal material of low quality continued to be so.

CARMEN ANA PIVODA

2013-12-01

211

Multivariate genetic analysis on body weight traits in Ghezel sheep  

OpenAIRE

The present study was carried out to estimate the genetic and phenotypic parameters for growth traits in Ghezel sheep,using pedigree information and body weight records which collected from 2000 to 2009 at Ghezel Sheep Breeding Station.Traits of interest were birth weight (BW, n=2,073), weaning weight (WW, n=1,663) and six-month old weight (6MW, n=1,315).The environmental factors were studied using GLM procedure in SAS software. (Co) variance components estimated basedon multivariate animal m...

Hasan Baneh; Mohammad Rokouei; Farhad Ghafouri-Kesbi; Ayoob Veysi; Shahram Niknafs

2013-01-01

212

Prevalence of paratuberculosis infection in sheep  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Paratuberculosis is an incurable chronic disease of ruminants, which is manifested with clinical signs of diarrhea and progressive weight loss. Causative agent is Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, and the disiase occurs in cattle, sheep and goats. The outspread of paratuberculosis is huge in the whole world, especially in the countries where animal breeding is a developed branch of economy. Animals get infected with food and water contaminated with feces of infected animals. The infection spreads within infected pastures and also when trading animals with latent infection. Clinical manifestation of the disease can firstly be noticed in young categories of sheep, which is different than in cattle. Primary clinical symptom is chronic weight loss. It is rather hard to determine the level of prevalence of the disease, in a certain region, because the diagnostic procedure is complex and not always reliable enough. Detection of antibodies with ELISA test is considered a method of choice for diagnostic of paratuberculosis, because of fast gaining of the results and relatively low price of the test. By applying the ELISA test, we have analysed 2000 sheep blood samples. Positive results for paratuberculosis were found in 66 ( 3,30% animals in total. In sheep samples from southern Backa region, positive findings were gained from 42 (3,89% samples, and in Srem region, positive finding were found in samples from 24 sheep (2,60%. Control programs are based on the removal of all infected animals, application of general preventive measures and vaccination. Application of vaccination aims for elimination of clinical form of the disease. An effective treatment has not been determined so far.

Vidi? Branka

2014-01-01

213

Wool Fiber Quality of Naeini Sheep  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate fiber quality characteristics of Naeini sheep. An experiment was carried out on six flocks from different regions of Isfahan province. Two hundred and twenty seven Naeini sheep (191 ewes and 36 rams were sampled from a 100 cm2 surface on the mid-side. Fleeces shorn in 1999 within two sampling seasons (June and December were sent to the laboratory of Animal Sciences at Isfahan University of Technology in order to study some wool quality traits including: fiber diameter mean, variability in fiber diameter, percent of true, modulated and heterotype fibers, accumulation of scales in 100 ?m fiber lengths and diameter mean of modulated and heterotype fibers on Naeini sheep. Fiber diameter mean, within sample variability of fiber diameter and diameter mean of heterotype and modulated fibers were estimated 28.51, 11.19, 46.67 and 65.78 ?m, respectively. The percentages of true, modulated and heterotype fibers were 89.53, 5.93 and 4.38, respectively and the average number of scales was 6.2 per 100 ?m length of fiber. Herd and season had significant effects on all of the studied measures. Herd effects may be due to genetic, environment and pasture (nutritional differences between herds. Also, the results of this study showed that there would be finer wool type at June than December shearing times for Naeini sheep. Age had a significant effect on % of heterotype fibers only and sex effect was only significant on the scales accumulation. On average, Naeini rams had finer fibers than ewes, which indicate higher selection intensities on rams. The results of this study revealed that Naeini sheep has great qualifications for carpet industry. However, further breeding programs are needed to meet textile industries qualifications.

G. Dashab

2006-01-01

214

Empadre controlado, distribución de partos y prolificidad en ovejas de pelo en el trópico seco de Guerrero, México (Controlled breeding, prolificacy and delivery distribution in hair sheep in the dry tropic of Guerrero, México  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available ResumenEl objetivo del presente estudio retrospectivo fue conocer la duración de los días de empadre con monta (DECM, la presentación de los partos con empadre continuo y controlado y el índice de prolificidad, por medio de los registros de un empadre continúo de junio 2002 a marzo 2003 y 11 períodos de empadres controlados de septiembre 2003 a diciembre del 2009 y sus respectivos períodos de nacimientos, en una unidad productiva de Cd.SummaryThe objective of this retrospective study was to know the lasting of mating with the days of riding (DMWR, continuous presentation of mating, presentation of continuous mating births, controlled and the rate of prolificacy, through information from the records in a continuous breeding season in June 2002 to March 2003 and 11 controlled mating periods in September 2003 to December 2009 and their periods of birth, in a production unit in Ciudad Altamirano, Guerrero, Mexico, composed of 45 multiparous ewes, 15 lambs and a stallion pubescent.

Mireles Martínez, Esteban Julián

2011-11-01

215

MORE ABOUT ON LOCAL DIFFERENTIATION OF ALBANIAN LOCAL SHEEP POPULATIONS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The estimation of archaism index was used to study the local differentiation of seven Albanian local sheep populations. The estimation of archaism index was carried out using the morph-metric data of several features: whither height, tail length, ears length, horns and wattles presence, coat color, frontal-nasal profile. The cluster analyses was carried out using the Euclidian’s distances between populations in the plan of two first principal components. The cluster analyzes showed the existence of four distinguish sheep groups: first group -Ruda, Bardhoke, Baca, second group – Shkodrane, third group - Lara of Polisi, Syska of Mati, and fourth group -Recka. Based on the geographic distances between the regions where are bred the animals of these local sheep breeds and their geographic isolation can be concluded that the presence of local differentiation of Albanian local sheep populations is caused by the isolation in distance. These results show that in currant sheep population of Albania it is possible to find direct descendants of animals that have populated the Balkan regions in the form of three migratory successive waves. Currant results could be consider as preliminary one because of limited number of features included in the study and the complicity of this topic. They can serve as a bases for in-depth studies on local differentiation hypotheses of Albanian local sheep population.

Lumturi PAPA

2012-01-01

216

Isolation of Bartonella sp. from Sheep Blood  

OpenAIRE

A Bartonella sp. was isolated from sheep blood. Bacterial identification was conducted by using electron microscopy and DNA sequencing of the 16S rRNA, citrate synthase, riboflavin synthase, and RNAase P genes. To our knowledge, this is the first report of ovine Bartonella infection.

Bemis, David A.; Kania, Stephen A.

2007-01-01

217

Prion protein coding gene (PRNP) variability in sheep from Turkey and Iran.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study was designed to analyze variation of ovine prion protein in sheep breeds in Iran and Turkey. A competitive approach was used to analyze the open reading frame (ORF) of the ovine PRNP gene using a total of 186 samples from five indigenous sheep breeds. The ARQ allele was found to be the predominant allele in five breeds. The ARR allele was not observed in homozygous combination among the 11 genotypes found in the study. In addition, six other polymorphisms were indicated. These findings have great significance for estimating genetic variability in the PRNP gene with regard to Iranian and Turkish sheep. Since no information on the susceptibility of some genotypes identified in this study has been reported, no grouping was made on the basis of susceptibility. PMID:21952878

Frootan, Fateme; Nikbakht, Gholamreza; Ozgentürk, Nehir Ozdemir; Un, Cemal

2012-04-01

218

Study for identification FecXI and FecXH mutations in Tunisian Barbarine sheep  

OpenAIRE

A total of 334 ewes recorded with twining births from the Tunisian fat tail Barbarine sheep were genotyped in the objective to identify the FecXI and FecXH mutations. The genotyping was carried out by forced restriction fragment length polymorphism PCR (RFLP-PCR). None of mutations was detected in Barbarine sheep. Results showed that all analyzed ewes were homozygous non carriers. These results suggest that fecundity of this breed is not...

Jemmali Borni,; Bedhiaf Sonia; Naouer, Djemali M.

2011-01-01

219

Pruritus is a common feature in sheep infected with the BSE agent  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background The variability in the clinical or pathological presentation of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) in sheep, such as scrapie and bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), has been attributed to prion protein genotype, strain, breed, clinical duration, dose, route and type of inoculum and the age at infection. The study aimed to describe the clinical signs in sheep infected with the BSE agent throughout its clinical course to determine whether t...

Jeffrey Martin; Hill Peter; Dexter Glenda; Davis Andrew; Tortosa Raul; Vidal-Diez Alberto; Bone Gemma; Konold Timm; Simmons Marion M; Chaplin Melanie J; Bellworthy Susan J; Berthelin-Baker Christine

2008-01-01

220

The Effect of Long-term Freezing on Renneting Properties of Sarda Sheep Milk  

OpenAIRE

Cold storage is a well-known strategy to limit concerns about seasonality for sheep dairy productions. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of long-term freezing on milk renneting properties from the Sarda sheep, an autochthonous breed from Italy. Two-hundred milk samples from 50 pluriparous Sarda ewes were collected at monthly intervals throughout the lactation from April to July. Each sample of fresh milk was analysed for composition and subsamples were obtained and frozen fo...

Michele Pazzola; Maria Luisa Dettori; Gianpiera Piras; Emanuela Pira; Fabio Manca; Ornella Puggioni; Antonia Noce; Giuseppe Massimo Vacca

2013-01-01

221

Y chromosome haplotype diversity of domestic sheep (Ovis aries) in northern Eurasia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Variation in two SNPs and one microsatellite on the Y chromosome was analyzed in a total of 663 rams representing 59 breeds from a large geographic range in northern Eurasia. SNPA-oY1 showed the highest allele frequency (91.55%) across the breeds, whereas SNPG-oY1 was present in only 56 samples. Combined genotypes established seven haplotypes (H4, H5, H6, H7, H8, H12 and H19). H6 dominated in northern Eurasia, and H8 showed the second-highest frequency. H4, which had been earlier reported to be absent in European breeds, was detected in one European breed (Swiniarka), whereas H7, which had been previously identified to be unique to European breeds, was present in two Chinese breeds (Ninglang Black and Large-tailed Han), one Buryatian (Transbaikal Finewool) and two Russian breeds (North Caucasus Mutton-Wool and Kuibyshev). H12, which had been detected only in Turkish breeds, was also found in Chinese breeds in this work. An overall low level of haplotype diversity (median h = 0.1288) was observed across the breeds with relatively higher median values in breeds from the regions neighboring the Near Eastern domestication center of sheep. H6 is the dominant haplotype in northwestern and eastern China, in which the haplotype distribution could be explained by the historical translocations of the H4 and H8 Y chromosomes to China via the Mongol invasions followed by expansions to northwestern and eastern China. Our findings extend previous results of sheep Y chromosomal genetic variability and indicate probably recent paternal gene flows between sheep breeds from distinct major geographic regions. PMID:25204383

Zhang, Min; Peng, Wei-Feng; Yang, Guang-Li; Lv, Feng-Hua; Liu, Ming-Jun; Li, Wen-Rong; Liu, Yong-Gang; Li, Jin-Quan; Wang, Feng; Shen, Zhi-Qiang; Zhao, Sheng-Guo; Hehua, Eer; Marzanov, Nurbiy; Murawski, Maziek; Kantanen, Juha; Li, Meng-Hua

2014-12-01

222

Dairy Sheep Nutrition  

OpenAIRE

This book, edited by the colleague Giuseppe Pulina, is the result of the project "Further development of a diet formulation model for sheep and goat", supported by the Ministry of Agricultural and Forestry Policies, in Italy.

Rosanna Scipioni

2010-01-01

223

Analysis on the origin and phylogenetic status of Tong sheep using 12 blood protein and nonprotein markers.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study is based on the Tong sheep obtained by the random sampling method of typical colonies in the central area of Baishui County in Shaanxi Province, China. An investigation was undertaken to clarify the gene constitution of blood protein and nonprotein types of Tong sheep. Twelve genetic markers were examined by starch-gel electrophoresis and cellulose acetate electrophoresis. Polymorphism in Tong sheep was found at the following 10 loci, transferrin (Tf), alkaline phosphatase (Alp), leucine aminopeptidase (Lap), arylesterase (Ary-Es), hemoglobin-beta (Hb-beta), X-protein (X-p), carbonic anhydrase (CA), catalase (Cat), malate dehydrogenase (MDH), and lysine (Ly), whereas, albumin (Al) and postalbumin (Po) loci were monomorphic. Genetic approach degree method and phylogenetic relationship clustering method were used to judge the origin and phylogenetic status of Tong sheep. Results from both methods maintained that Tong sheep belonged to the "Mongolia group", and Mongolia sheep was the origin of Tong sheep. This was also supported by the history of Tong sheep breeding. Compared to the phylogenetic relationship clustering method, the genetic approach degree method was more reliable for the extraction from East and South of Central Asia, and was more effective in reflecting the breeding course of Tong sheep. PMID:18155622

Sun, Wei; Chang, Hong; Yang, Zhangping; Geng, Rongqing; Tsunoda, Kenji; Ren, Zhanjun; Chen, Hongyu; Hussein, Musa H

2007-12-01

224

The utility of chromosome microdissection in clinical cytogenetics: a new reciprocal translocation in sheep.  

Science.gov (United States)

Local sheep breeders and scientists in Italy cooperate and conduct research on the genetic improvement of autochthonous genetic types (AGTs) by various approaches, including a cytogenetic breeding selection since 2011. The Laticauda sheep (Ovis aries, 2n = 54) breed is one of the AGTs reared in the Campania region (southern Italy). Performing cytogenetic analyses, we have detected and described a novel reciprocal translocation in a Laticauda sheep identified as 54,XX t(18;23)(q14;q26). Our data support recurring appeals that suggest the regular performance of cytogenetic analyses for monitoring genetic health of livestock species. In total, 5 cases of reciprocal translocations in sheep are known, including the new case. None of them has any phenotypic effect on the living offspring. However, affected animals are characterized by sterility or have a low fertility which can have an effect on breeding success and on economical balance. Presence and kind of the described novel chromosomal aberration were detected by performing CBA-banding and FISH mapping with telomeric probes. RBA-banding allowed the karyotyping of sheep chromosomes and the identification of aberrant chromosomes and regions involved in the new reciprocal translocation. Whole chromosome painting (WCP) probes received from equivalent chromosomes in cattle and the derivative sheep chromosome 18 confirmed the cytogenetic data. This way, our study underlined both the importance of WCP probes by chromosome microdissection and a new way to use WCP probes directly generated from derivative chromosomes. PMID:24733039

Iannuzzi, Alessandra; Perucatti, Angela; Genualdo, Viviana; Pauciullo, Alfredo; Incarnato, Domenico; Musilova, Petra; Rubes, Jiri; Iannuzzi, Clara

2014-01-01

225

Chronic copper poisoning in sheep from Northern Paraná, Brazil: case report /
Intoxicação crônica por cobre em ovinos no norte do Paraná, Brasil: relato de caso
 

OpenAIRE

Chronic copper poisoning (CCP) in sheep is a severe disease that occurs worldwide. This paper describes the pathological lesions of CCP that occurred in a flock of sheep from Northern Paraná, Southern Brazil. Seven, cross-breed Merino sheep, out of a flock of 14 were affected. Most of these animals demonstrated muscular tremors, nervous symptoms, difficult breathing, and died within 24-48 after the onset of clinical signs. Gross lesions were characterized by generalized icterus, hemoglobinur...

Ana Paula Frederico Rodrigues Loureiro Bracarense; Tizianne Larissa Duim Ribeiro Nakagawa; Antônio Carlos Faria dos Reis; Selwyn Arlington Headley

2008-01-01

226

Study for identification FecXI and FecXH mutations in Tunisian Barbarine sheep  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A total of 334 ewes recorded with twining births from the Tunisian fat tail Barbarine sheep were genotyped in the objective to identify the FecXI and FecXH mutations. The genotyping was carried out by forced restriction fragment length polymorphism PCR (RFLP-PCR. None of mutations was detected in Barbarine sheep. Results showed that all analyzed ewes were homozygous non carriers. These results suggest that fecundity of this breed is not linked to the same mutations. Therefore, it is necessary to seek for other mutations or fecundity genes in order to develop marker assistance selection techniques and study the prolific mechanism of the Barbarine breed.

Jemmali Borni,

2011-02-01

227

Influence of Nutrition in Milk Production of Sheep and Lambs in Weight  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The sheeps breeding is an old and traditional activity in Romania country. Depending on the number of sheeps and goats, Romania ranks in the fourth among E.U. countries. The research was conducted on three groups of sheeps, from same breed. All groups sheeps were feeding with the same amount of food, but the ratio structure was different, in the following scheme conformities: group I - has been used a fibrous ratio; group II – has been used a juicy ratio; group III – has been used a concentrate ratio. Also, in all the groups was recorded the milk production and the weight of lambs in the first month of the life. Based on research conducted, the fallowing conclusions were drawn: The highest milk production was produced by sheeps in group I and group II; The weight of lambs in the first month of life was also influenced by the mother sheeps ratio structure; The largest increase growth was made of lambs coming from a group III, and the smallest increase was made of lambs coming a group II. As a general conclusion, the best results are obtained when the mother sheeps are fed with concentrate ratio type and fibrous ratio type.

Ion Ro?u

2011-05-01

228

Factors affecting birth weight in sheep: maternal environment  

OpenAIRE

Knowledge of factors affecting variation in birth weight is especially important given the relationship of birth weight to neonatal and adult health. The present study utilises two large contemporary datasets in sheep of differing breeds to explore factors that influence weight at term. For dataset one (Study 1; n = 154 Blue-faced Leicester×Swaledale (Mule) and 87 Welsh Mountain ewes, 315 separate cases of birth weight), lamb birth weight as the outcome measure was related to maternal charac...

Gardner, D. S.; Buttery, P. J.; Daniel, Z.; Symonds, M. E.

2007-01-01

229

Recommendations for the use of microsatellite markers for parental reconstruction in rural sheep and goat populations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Proper knowledge about individual origin and pedigree is a major point for animal breeding and genetic livestock improvement. Mainly for goat, but also for sheep, breeding in Sicily information on these points is limited, and sometimes even misleading. Sheep and goat milk production is, in many regions and especially on Sicily, a rural enterprise, where males and females graze together and pedigree of offspring can be largely unknown. Genetic improvement in this situation is challenging. Modern DNA techniques can help to identify the parentage (PI, parental identification. In this paper we discuss (1 our set of microsatellites markers in relation to the ECONOGENE set, (2 accuracy of microsatellite genotyping for a goat and a sheep breed, (3 the principle of verification and identification as tested on one goat breeding farm, and (4 direct use of the technique in a running sheep or goat breeding program. For a practical application we suggest the use of around 20 quality microsatellite markers, and the use of primiparous milk analysis.

Egbert Frank Knol

2010-09-01

230

[Imported coenurosis in sheep].  

Science.gov (United States)

Thirteen sheep from a milk producing farm in the Canton of Grisons that presented chronic coenurosis were examined and subjected to treatment trials at the veterinary hospital in Zurich. Symptoms were first observed around two months after the import of two dogs from Italy (Abruzza) of which one was infected with Taenia multiceps and Echinococcus granulosus. The most frequently observed clinical symptoms of the sheep were reduced general condition, circling, reduced menace reflex, apathy, unsteady gait and head tilt. Analyses of cerebrospinal fluid revealed an increased leucocyte count in 3 sheep and eosinophilia in 4 sheep. In 4 animals that underwent computertomography, one or more hypodense, definable lesions were found in the brain. In 2 sheep surgical treatment and in 10 animals medical treatment with either Praziquantel (n=8) or Oxfendazol (n=2) was attempted. Only one animal treated with Praziquantel needed not to be euthanized. At necropsy, one or two coenurus cysts could be found either in a side ventricle (n=2), in the cerebellum (n=3) or in the cerebrum (n=7). The locations corresponded with the clinical findings. Despite Praziquantel or Oxfendazol treatment, living protoscoleces could be found in the parasite cysts. PMID:17024978

Schweizer, G; Grünenfelder, F; Sydler, T; Rademacher, N; Braun, U; Deplazes, P

2006-09-01

231

Prion protein gene (PrP) polymorphisms in healthy sheep in Turkey.  

Science.gov (United States)

Scrapie, a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) or prion disease, is a fatal, neurodegenerative disease in sheep and goats. This disease has been known in Europe for more than 250 years. Susceptibility to scrapie is associated with polymorphisms in the sheep prion protein gene (PrP) gene. In sheep, polymorphism in the PrP gene has been identified at a number of codons, and polymorphisms at codons 136, 154 and 171 have reported linkage with susceptibility to scrapie. Polymorphisms at the PrP locus were studied in 413 animals representing three native sheep breeds (Imroz, Chios and K?v?rc?k) in Turkey. Genomic DNA was obtained from blood, and genotypes were screened using PCR and direct DNA sequencing. We report 17 genotypes derived from seven different alleles. The most frequent genotype in the K?v?rc?k sheep is ARQ/ARQ, whereas the ARR/ARQ genotype is predominant in the Chios and Imroz breeds. In general, the ARQ haplotype was the predominant haplotype. ARQ haplotype was also predominant in the K?v?rc?k and Chios sheep breeds, whereas the Imroz sheep predominantly had the ARR haplotype. The susceptibility-associated VRQ haplotype was found in 2.38%, 0.35% and 0.81% of the Imroz, K?v?rc?k and Chios sheep, respectively. Moreover, seven additional polymorphisms have been detected at codons G127S, G127V, H143R, G145S, Y172D, N174Y and Q189L. Among these polymorphisms, the N174Y allele is a novel polymorphism, and the G145S allele is a novel allele for a known polymorphic locus. PMID:22440412

Oner, Y; Yesilbag, K; Tuncel, E; Elmaci, C

2011-09-01

232

Implications of Genotype by Environment Interactions in Dairy Sheep Welfare  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Small ruminants are the most extensively farmed livestock species in Europe, as a result being extremely exposed to natural hazards which leads to strong interactions between genotype and environment. Aim of the current review was to outline and discuss the main welfare issues and economic implications with regards to the genotype by environment interactions in dairy sheep. Researches concerning the additive genetic effect on milk yield, shown that this accounts only for 10%, while the milk production is 90% influenced by environmental factors, highlighting the major role that management and nutrition play in the dairy production of sheep. Nowadays, dairy sheep breeds (e.g. Eastern Friesian and Lacaune, are being introduced and reared in various countries under an extremely wide range of rearing conditions, without adequate knowledge on their acclimatization to the new specific conditions. It was concluded that a welfare assessment protocol for dairy sheep does not exist up today, moreover, there is a serious lack of data concerning the genetic and environmental factors affecting the welfare status of dairy sheep at farm level under different production systems.

Dinu Gavojdian

2014-05-01

233

Genetic and phenotypic parameters of body weight in West African Dwarf goat and Djallonké sheep  

OpenAIRE

The International Trypanotolerance Centre's small ruminant breeding programme was initiated in 1995. The aim was to increase the efficiency of meat production and the trypanotolerance of the animals (sheep and goat). To achieve that goal, selection was based on estimated breeding values for daily weight gain from 4 to 12 months of age measured on trypanotolerance challenge. The purpose of this study was to estimate genetic parameters for growth traits and to evaluate genetic trends in West Af...

Bosso, N. A.; Cisse?, M. F.; Waaij, E. H.; Fall, A.; Arendonk, J. A. M.

2007-01-01

234

Trypanosoma (megatrypanum) melophagium in the sheep ked, Melophagus ovinus. A scanning electron microscope (SEM) study of the parasites and the insect gut wall surfaces.  

Science.gov (United States)

A description of the different stages of Trypanosoma (M.) melophagium in different regions of the gut of the sheep ked (Melophagus ovinus) as observed by the SEM is presented. The extensive pile carpet or palisade colonization of the midgut and pylorus is described. The method of attachment and the relationship of the parasites to the microvilli in the midgut and the cuticle of the pylorus and ileum observed by other methods are confirmed. The micro-structure of the surfaces themselves in the regions of the gut to which parasites attach are described. The use of the technique for the study of other similar systems is discussed. PMID:32751

Molyneux, D H; Selkirk, M; Lavin, D

1978-12-01

235

Expanding Possibilities for Intervention against Small Ruminant Lentiviruses through Genetic Marker-Assisted Selective Breeding  

OpenAIRE

Small ruminant lentiviruses include members that infect sheep (ovine lentivirus [OvLV]; also known as ovine progressive pneumonia virus/maedi-visna virus) and goats (caprine arthritis encephalitis virus [CAEV]). Breed differences in seroprevalence and proviral concentration of OvLV had suggested a strong genetic component in susceptibility to infection by OvLV in sheep. A genetic marker test for susceptibility to OvLV has been developed recently based on the TMEM154 gene with validation data ...

Knowles, Donald P.; White, Stephen N.

2013-01-01

236

Adaptation of indigenous sheep, goats and camels in harsh grazing conditions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Microbial breakdown of cellulose is a rather slow process. Therefore the retention time of digesta and the volume of the fermentation chamber are factors limiting the quantity of fibrous diets that can be digested. Indigenous ruminants can generally adapt to harsh grazing conditions better than conventional breeds. Unexpectedly high rumen volumes were reported in a number of indigenous ruminants. In studies reported in this paper, Heidschnucken, an indigenous breed of sheep in the heather region of Northern Germany, were able to increase their rumen volume from 14% to 22% of body weight during adaptation to a low quality fibrous diet. Heidschnucken did not lose significant body weight, whereas Blackface sheep lost 20% and failed to adapt the rumen volume. Rumen volume of indigenous sheep and goats in Northern Kenya was 20% of body weight while grazing in the thornbush savannah during the dry season, compared with 9-12% while kept indoors on a hay-concentrate diet. Mean retention time of particles in the total gastrointestinal tract of goats and sheep in Kenya was 38 h and 46 h respectively. In the experiment with Heidschnucken, these sheep increased the retention time of particles to 71 h on a straw diet, while Blackface sheep retained particles 58 h. Dietary preference and feed intake have been studied in indigenous sheep and goats in Kenya at seasonal pasture conditions in the thornbush savannah. Goats have a higher preference to dicotyledon species (92-97%) than shce to dicotyledon species (92-97%) than sheep, who are less selective grazers. The feeding behaviour of indigenous sheep and goats was complementary rather than competitive. Feeding observations indicate that this is also the case when cattle (grazers) and camels (browsers) are included in such a comparison. (author)

237

Partial Results Regarding Exploitation Characteristics, Morpho-Productive Traits for Saanen Breed Goats in South of the Country  

OpenAIRE

Over about 92% from national goat livestock come from local unameliorated breeds, namely Carpathian breed whichis traditionally exploited in a mixed way next to sheep in a proportion of over 65% from the breed total.Expectations towards a qualitative and quantitative production led to pretty important imports for specialized breedslike the Saanen one, from communitary states, during the last 10 years.This study presents the results of someresearch started since the last semestre of the previo...

Iulian Vlad; Marius Maftei; Mirela Stanciu; Gheorghe S?voiu; Andi Fi?a

2012-01-01

238

First charge breeding of a rare-isotope beam with the electron-beam ion trap of the ReA post-accelerator at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory.  

Science.gov (United States)

An electron-beam ion trap (EBIT) charge breeder is being brought into operation at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory at Michigan State University. The EBIT is part of the ReA post-accelerator for reacceleration of rare isotopes, which are thermalized in a gas "stopping" cell after being produced at high energy by projectile fragmentation. The ReA EBIT has a distinctive design; it is characterized by a high-current electron gun and a two-field superconducting magnet to optimize the capture and charge-breeding efficiency of continuously injected singly charged ion beams. Following a brief overview of the reaccelerator system and the ReA EBIT, this paper presents the latest commissioning results, particularly, charge breeding and reacceleration of the highly charged rare isotopes, (76)Ga(24 +, 25 +). PMID:24593600

Lapierre, A; Schwarz, S; Baumann, T M; Cooper, K; Kittimanapun, K; Rodriguez, A J; Sumithrarachchi, C; Williams, S J; Wittmer, W; Leitner, D; Bollen, G

2014-02-01

239

Seasonal changes in water metabolism of Sudan desert sheep and goats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Seasonal changes that occur in body weight, body temperature, total body water and water turnover were investigated in grazing sheep and goats at different times of the year to understand how different breeds adapt to the environmental conditions in Sudan. (author)

240

Combining biotechnologies and GIScience to contribute to sheep and goat genetic resource conservation  

OpenAIRE

Geographic Information Science methods and tools are likely to help to extract useful and so far unknown information from large spatially explicit genetic datasets to understand the distribution of diversity among and within sheep and goat breeds. Considering the vast quantity of data collected within the Econogene project, exploratory data analysis methods were chosen as mean of investigation.

Joost, Ste?phane; Consortium, Econogene

2005-01-01

241

Newsletter of the LowInputBreeds project. Issue 7. EU project LowInputBreeds - Development of integrated livestock breeding and management strategies to improve animal health, product quality and performance in European organic and ‘low input’ milk, meat and egg production  

OpenAIRE

With this newsletter we are informing you about progress in subprojects of LowInputBreeds. Our thematic article in this issue, from Alexandros Stefanakis and Nikolaos Voutzourakis, explains breeding values for selective traits of Skafiano sheep. We would particularly like to draw your attention to the third Symposium of the LowInputBreeds project, which will take place in Nantes, France, from the 26th to the 30th of August 2013. LowInputBreeds will manage a session ”Breeding and Manag...

LowInputBreeds Consortium,

2012-01-01

242

A Comparative study on the haemoglobin polymorphism of domestic sheep of the islands of Chios, Cyprus and Sardinia  

OpenAIRE

Different alleles at the two linked ?-globin loci are present in sheep: I?113Leu and II?113Leu, I?8Ala,113Leu, I?15Asp,113Leu, and II?113His. Triplicated ?-gene haplotypes are also common. Six different ?-globins (A, B, E, G, H, and I) contribute to the Hb polymorphism. A comparative study on the biochemical polymorphism of ?- and ?-globins in pure sheep breeds of the Medite...

Hadjisterkotis, Eleftherios; Manca, Laura; Naitana, Salvatore; Masala, Bruno Lucio

1995-01-01

243

Ulcerative balanitis and vulvitis of Dorper sheep in South Africa : a study on its aetiology and clinical features  

OpenAIRE

Ovine ulcerative balanitis and vulvitis in sheep of the Dorper breed has been observed in South Africa since 1979. Its aetiology has not been conclusively resolved, and there is some discrepancy in descriptions of its clinical features. In order to identify the pathogenic microorganism / s that contribute to the occurrence of the disease, the microflora in the genital tracts of both clinically healthy and affected sheep were isolated and compared. Bacteriological examination of materials from...

Gummow, B.; Vuuren, M.; Gouws, J.; Kidanemariam, A.

2012-01-01

244

Genomic variation and population structure detected by single nucleotide polymorphism arrays in Corriedale, Merino and Creole sheep  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The aim of this study was to investigate the genetic diversity within and among three breeds of sheep: Corriedale, Merino and Creole. Sheep from the three breeds (Merino n = 110, Corriedale n = 108 and Creole n = 10) were genotyped using the Illumina Ovine SNP50 beadchip®. Genetic diversity was eval [...] uated by comparing the minor allele frequency (MAF) among breeds. Population structure and genetic differentiation were assessed using STRUCTURE software, principal component analysis (PCA) and fixation index (F ST). Fixed markers (MAF = 0) that were different among breeds were identified as specific breed markers. Using a subset of 18,181 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), PCA and STUCTURE analysis were able to explain population stratification within breeds. Merino and Corriedale divergent lines showed high levels of polymorphism (89.4% and 86% of polymorphic SNPs, respectively) and moderate genetic differentiation (F ST = 0.08) between them. In contrast, Creole had only 69% polymorphic SNPs and showed greater genetic differentiation from the other two breeds (F ST = 0.17 for both breeds). Hence, a subset of molecular markers present in the OvineSNP50 is informative enough for breed assignment and population structure analysis of commercial and Creole breeds.

Andrés N, Grasso; Virginia, Goldberg; Elly A, Navajas; Wanda, Iriarte; Diego, Gimeno; Ignacio, Aguilar; Juan F, Medrano; Gonzalo, Rincón; Gabriel, Ciappesoni.

2014-06-01

245

Factors of welfare reduction in dairy sheep and goats  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Scientific research on factors causing the reduction of well-being in sheep and goats is rather recent, as are studies of strategies to minimize the adverse effects of environmental challenges and improper management practices on flock welfare. Sheep and goats, considered very rustic animals, are reared prevalently under extensive production systems and are widespread mainly in marginal areas. For these reasons, only few studies on the welfare of these species have been carried out in the past. More recently, the scenario has changed, due to a gradual diffusion of intensive and semi-intensive production systems, especially in dairy sheep and goat breeds, to the growing concern of consumers about the life conditions of farmed animals, and to the issuing of a number of rules and laws on the safety of animal products and well-being of farmed livestock. As a consequence, several research groups have turned their attention to the welfare of sheep and goats. Nevertheless, information on this topic is still scarce. This paper reviews major critical points regarding the endangerment of welfare in farmed sheep and goats. Climatic extremes and seasonal fluctuations in herbage amount and quality are discussed as important causes of the reduction of well-being in extensive production systems, which can impair production efficiency of grazing animals and dramatically affect the welfare and health status of sheep and goats. Space allowance and structures of sheep and goat houses are described as the main potential sources of discomfort for housed flocks, together with inadequate control of micro-environment, and inappropriate milking procedures and human-animal interactions. Recent studies on the impact of high ambient temperature, different ventilation regimes, high stocking densities, reduced airspace and poor litter management on behaviour, immune and endocrine response, and on performance of sheep and goats are discussed. The effects of inadequate milking procedures and improper milking technical parameters on welfare and udder health of sheep and goats are also discussed. Finally, some practices aimed at minimizing emotional and nutritional stresses of lambs and kids after early separation from the mother, before the transition to artificial rearing, and at weaning time are described.

Antonio Pazzona

2010-01-01

246

A one shot blood phenotype can identify sheep that resist Haemonchus contortus challenge.  

Science.gov (United States)

Gastrointestinal nematodes remain a major limitation to the productivity of livestock systems. Selective breeding to produce populations that have an enhanced ability to resist infection is a viable and ongoing option to reduce this impact. The development of new phenotypes that facilitate this process is therefore of great interest. For this reason we explored relationships between haematological parameters and the ability of sheep to resist nematode infection. A multivariate analytical approach was used to define algorithms based on the blood parameters that can be used to rank the ability of sheep to resist nematode infection in a single blood sample and can be applied independent of infection status. The algorithms were shown to classify susceptible sheep with a 100% accuracy and resistant sheep with 80% accuracy. Further development of this platform approach may be an important advance for small ruminant production systems worldwide and might also be applied to other diseases of livestock or even environmental stressors such as heat. PMID:25200384

Andronicos, Nicholas M; Henshall, John M; Le Jambre, Leo F; Hunt, Peter W; Ingham, Aaron B

2014-10-15

247

INCREASING FOOD CHAIN SECURITY FOR SCRAPIE BY MARKER ASSISTED SELECTION IN SHEEP POPULATIONS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Romania, by its genetic found made up of over 7.4 millions sheep and 1.8 millionsyoung sheep exported in EU countries, represents an important mark in bothEuropean and World sheep breeding sector, in last years marked by many ESSTcenters. The apparition of this disease and its high risk of danger for reared effectiveconstraint EEC countries to interfere by law regulations concerning scrapie controland stopping disease spreading. In our country, controls identified the presence ofscrapie in livestock. The international reference laboratories post mortem certifiedthe presence of disease. Immunohistochemical detection of PrPSc is a standarddiagnostic method for sheep scrapie. By immunohistochemistry (IHC, PrPSc isdetected in lymphoid tissues during preclinical and clinical disease. Aftergenotypization at PrnP locus, the marker assisted selection is compulsory, and flocksinclude only genotypes with high disease resistance.

VIORICA CO?IER

2013-12-01

248

Prevalence of Neospora caninum antibodies in sheep and goats in Pakistan.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of the present study was to obtain seroepidemiological information on the Neospora caninum infection status of sheep and goats in different areas of Punjab Province and Azad Kashmir (Pakistan). A cross-sectional study, with the use of a competitive ELISA, showed an overall 27.7% (35 of 128) (95% confidence interval [CI] ± 7.7%) and 8.6% (13 of 142) (95% CI ± 4.6%) seroprevalence of N. caninum antibodies in sheep and goats, respectively. The difference in seroprevalence between sheep and goat populations was statistically significant (P < 0.05). The highest prevalence (37.4% ± 13.2%) was recorded in the tailless breed of sheep. PMID:21854220

Nasir, A; Ashraf, M; Khan, M S; Javeed, A; Yaqub, T; Avais, M; Reichel, M P

2012-02-01

249

[Correlation analysis between polymorphism of the 59383635th locus on X chromosome and fat-tail trait in sheep].  

Science.gov (United States)

Fat tail or fat rump is one of essential traits for surviving in harsh environments, and the mechanism of fat deposition and its inheritable characters in sheep are still unclear. Therefore, the 59383635th locus on X chromosome in our unpublished chip data was chosen as candidate SNP, PCR-SSCP method was used to detect genotypes in five sheep breeds which have extreme differences in tail types (Altay, Small Tail Han Sheep, Hu, Chinese Merino and Suffolk), and the mathematical model was employed to analyze the correlation between the polymorphism and the trait of fat tail or fat rump. The results in this study showed that the high frequency of allele T exists in Altay flock, and the frequency of allele C appears to be particularly high in the thin tail sheep breeds. The result of mathematical model showed that the ratio of T/C increased exponentially with the increase of phenotype score. These results suggest that there is a big difference in the SNP distribution between fat tail (rump) and thin tail sheep populations, and the SNP can be used as an ideal molecular marker in high-fat or low-fat sheep breeding. However, the biological function of the SNP remains to be further studied. PMID:24459894

Gan, Shang-Quan; Zhang, Wei; Shen, Min; Li, Huan; Yang, Jing-Quan; Liang, Yao-Wei; Gao, Lei; Liu, Shou-Ren; Wang, Xin-Hua

2013-10-01

250

Sero-biochemical Studies in Sheep Fed with Bt Cotton Plants  

Science.gov (United States)

An experimental study was conducted to evaluate the toxicological effects, if any, due to feeding of Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) cotton plants to sheep. A total of 32 sheep of one year of age belonging to Deccani breed were randomly divided into four groups, consisting of eight sheep in each group. Group 1 was maintained on basal diet (concentrate feed at the rate of 300 g + green fodder at the rate of 3 kg/sheep/day), group 2 on non-Bt cotton plant at the rate of 1.5 kg + green fodder at the rate of 1.5 kg + concentrate feed at the rate of 300 g/sheep/day, group 3 on Bt cotton plants (50%) at the rate of 1.5 kg + green fodder at the rate of 1.5 + concentrate feed at the rate of 300 g/sheep/day, and group 4 on Bt cotton plants ad libitum + concentrate feed at the rate of 300 g/sheep/day. All the groups of sheep were maintained for three months and various hemato-biochemical parameters were studied at monthly intervals. The activity of aspartate transaminase, gamma glutamyltransferase, and creatine kinase in sera samples, and the concentration of blood urea nitrogen and creatinine did not differ significantly among different groups at different time intervals. The histological examination of liver and kidney did not reveal any significant changes in Bt and non-Bt cotton-fed groups. In conclusion, the results of the present investigation enunciated that feeding of genetically modified (Bt) cotton plants to sheep was without detrimental effects in the biological system of sheep. PMID:21170255

Anilkumar, B.; Reddy, A. Gopala; Kalakumar, B.; Rani, M. Usha; Anjaneyulu, Y.; Raghunandan, T.; Reddy, Y. Ramana; Jyothi, K.; Gopi, K. S.

2010-01-01

251

Veterinary and medical aspects of abortion in Danish sheep  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The Danish sheep population totals around 144,000 animals, but little is known of the causes and prevalance of diseases. This study focuses on the causes of abortion in Danish sheep. During one breeding season, aborted foetuses and stillbirths with signs of intrauterine death or malformation were submitted for laboratory examination from a population of 3,758 breeding ewes. Samples from 24 incidents of abortion and 21 ewes delivering malformed lambs or lambs with ante partum decomposition were submitted. A specific aetiology was established in 66.7% and 14.3% of the cases, respectively. Bacterial pathogens were the most prevalent cause of abortion. Several of the abortifacients were zoonotic microorganisms, for example Listeria monocytogenes, Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus, Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and Toxoplasma gondii. The identified microorganisms probably represent the most common causes of abortion in Danish sheep but occurrence in Denmark of other pathogens such as Coxiella burnetii and Chlamydophila abortus cannot be excluded. Due to the high prevalence of zoonotic microorganisms, precautions must be taken in handling abortions or assisting lambing, especially for pregnant women.

Agerholm, JØrgen S.; Aalbæk, Bent

2006-01-01

252

Marker-assisted selection in sheep and goats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sheep and goats are often kept in low input production systems, often at subsistence levels. In such systems, the uptake of effective commercial breeding programmes is limited, let alone the uptake of more advanced technologies such as those needed for marker-assisted selection (MAS). However, effective breeding programmes exist in a number of countries, the largest ones in Australia and New Zealand aiming for genetic improvement of meat and wool characteristics as well as disease resistance and fecundity. Advances have been made in sheep gene mapping with the marker map consisting of more than 1 200 microsatellites, and a virtual genome sequence together with a very dense single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) map are expected within a year. Significant research efforts into quantitative trait loci (QTL) are under way and a number of commercial sheep gene tests have already become available, mainly for single gene effects but some for muscularity and disease resistance. Gene mapping in goats is much less advanced with mainly some activity in dairy goats. Integration of genotypic information into commercial genetic evaluation and optimal selection strategies is a challenge that deserves more development. (author)

253

Morphological characterization of Pelibuey sheep in Colima, México.  

Science.gov (United States)

A study was conducted with the objective to characterize the morphology of Pelibuey sheep in the state of Colima, Mexico. A total of 386 sheep were scored for 12 body measurements in addition to live weight and five racial and eight functional indices were calculated. The influence of sex on the body measurements and indices was analyzed, and morphological harmony was determined through Pearson correlation. The sexual dimorphism was 1.21, with males being 67 % heavier than females. Females and males had a high and moderate degree of harmony in their morphological model, respectively. Pelibuey sheep were dolichocephalous, tended to be medium- to large-sized according to the thoracic index, with a convex curve rump; they were a homogeneous breed, well adapted to environmental and production conditions of the state of Colima, Mexico, and show an undefined zootechnical aptitude and therefore a great potential to be oriented towards meat or milk production through genetic selection or terminal crossbreeding systems using specialized breeds. PMID:23114577

Arredondo-Ruiz, Victalina; Macedo-Barragán, Rafael; Molina-Cárdenas, Jaime; Magaña-Álvarez, Julio; Prado-Rebolledo, Omar; García-Márquez, Luis J; Herrera-Corredor, Alejandra; Lee-Rangel, Héctor

2013-04-01

254

Current Condition and directions of Livestock Breeding in the Central Anatolia Region  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Central Anatolia Region is one of the seven geographical regions which are 151 thousand square meters of surface area and it is about 21.0% of Turkey's land area. The population rate of cattle breeds in the Central Anatolia Region is 20.4% exotic cattle breeds, 19.1% crossbred, 11.6% native cattle breeds and total 18.1% in Turkey. The Central Anatolia Region cattle population is consists of 43.9% of exotic breed, 43.5% crossbred and 12.6% the native cattle breeds. The population of exotic cattle breeds (69.5% in Nigde province is the first place and followed by Eskisehir provinces rate of 65.6% in the Central Anatolia Region. The rate of crossbred cattle population is the highest rate (65.0% province of Sivas and followed by Çank?r? province (62.8%. Ankara and Yozgat province has the highest rate of native cattle breed 28.3% and 25.5%, respectively. The total populations of cattle breeds in Konya and K?r?kkale provinces were found maximum 518.291 cattle and minimum 45.426 cattle, respectively, in the Central Anatolia Region. The population rate of exotic and crossbred cattle breeds has increased 67.0% and 11.8%, respectively, while population rate of native cattle breeds has decreased 30.3% from 2007 to 2011 in the Central Anatolia Region. The 20.1% of sheep, 8.2% of goat and 18.3% rates of total livestock population in Turkey are in the Central Anatolia Region. The population rate of sheep and goat of the Central Anatolia Region is 20.1% and 9.5%, sheep and goat respectively and 18.3% total in Turkey. The 70.9% for Angora goats, 8.2% hair of goats, and 17.7% indigenous of sheep breeds and 66.0% crossbreed to national Sheep and Goat population has risen in the Central Anatolia Region. All of these results are evaluated, Central Anatolia Region, Turkey, the contribution of animal products grown by population of cattle and small ruminants is important and can be considered a center of attraction for investment in animal breeding

Ayhan Ceyhan

2013-12-01

255

Salmonella in Sheep in Iceland  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In 1995 several outbreaks of food poisoning in humans occurred in Iceland, that were traced to salmonella contamination of singed sheep heads. This prompted us to study the prevalence of salmonella infection in sheep and to trace where and how infection might have occurred. Faecal, intestinal contents and tonsillar samples were collected in the spring and autumn from sheep on 50 farms in the southwestern part of the country, where salmonellosis had been detected and from 5 farms in the northwestern part of the country. All faecal samples from the southwest were negative, whereas samples from 3 farms obtained in the autumn in the northwest were positive. Tonsillae taken in the autumn were positive in sheep from 3 farms in the southwest and 2 in the northwest. Our results show that salmonella infection is rare in Icelandic sheep but healthy carriers may harbour the bacteria in tonsillae. Salmonella was not detected in drainage from slaughterhouses nor in singed sheep heads.

Gunnarsson E

2002-03-01

256

TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO THE SHEEP AND GOAT MILK WITHIN ECHOLOGIC CONDITIONS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The introduction of HACCP system within sheep exploitations represents a unitary control manner, scientifically proved, which enforces the discipline and correctness, allows an objective evaluation of sheep and goat meat and milk quality. When determining the main components of sheep and goat milk from the animals that grazed on the pasture fertilized with stable manure, within ecologic conditions, the following results were obtained: at sheep there was a fat percent of 6.22% and 6.11%, protein 5.32% and 5.52%, and dry substance 14.25% and 14.21%, normal values for sheep milk; at goats the fat percent was that of 6.22% and 6.11%, protein 5.32% and 5.52%, and dry substance 14.25% and 14.21%, normal values for goat milk. The milk samples taken from the sheep belonging to Palas Merino breed and from Carpatina breed were also analysed with regard to the toxic residues and it has been stated that the values obtained fit within the normal norms admitted by the food domain’ standards, being in compliance with the safety and protection of the consumers. The elimination of chemical fertilizers, pesticides and herbicides has led to the non-noticing of their presence within the sheep and goat products. By the regulation of ecologic products’ quality, in relation with the consumers’ and environment’s protection, a balance was created between the producers’ interests and obligations, those of the merchants and also those of the consumers. On the basis of results obtained through the microbiological examination of milk and meat samples taken from the sheep it has been stated that the microbial flora identified is formed by representatives of Staphylococcus–72.72% Streptococcus ? hemolitic – 9.09% and Fungi filamentous – 18.18%. The microbial flora is non pathogen for man.

CAMELIA ZOIA ZAMFIR

2013-12-01

257

Salmonella in Sheep in Iceland  

OpenAIRE

In 1995 several outbreaks of food poisoning in humans occurred in Iceland, that were traced to salmonella contamination of singed sheep heads. This prompted us to study the prevalence of salmonella infection in sheep and to trace where and how infection might have occurred. Faecal, intestinal contents and tonsillar samples were collected in the spring and autumn from sheep on 50 farms in the southwestern part of the country, where salmonellosis had been detected and from 5 farms in th...

Gunnarsson E; Hjartardóttir S; Sigvaldadóttir J

2002-01-01

258

Genetic Variation at Karayaka Sheep Herds Based on Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Markers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Turkish Karayaka sheep breed that is one of the important native breed at Black Sea Region in Turkey was genotyped for 13 RAPD primers. Genotypes of 100 were collected from five different herds (BA, BF, LA, LD and KP herds localized in the Samsun territory. The genetic similarity was obtained on the dendrograms individuals and herd. Within herds, individuals showed a similarity index between 0.857 to 0.420. The similarity index between populations ranged from 0.520 to 0.710. The binary results also were utilised by principal component analysis for comparison of herds and individuals. The genetic relationship of animals shows a difference among herds in terms of number of RAPD bands. These results show that some herds are effected possibly from other sheep breeds or reared purely such as KP.

Ahmet Okumus

2007-01-01

259

Bayesian inference of variance components for litter size in Rasa Aragonesa sheep.  

Science.gov (United States)

Variance components were estimated for litter size in Rasa Aragonesa sheep, a meat breed from northern Spain, to determine whether selective breeding for litter size is a reasonable strategy to improve reproductive performance. We assumed an animal mixed effect threshold model with a binary response variable. Marginal estimates of the genetic parameters were obtained in the underlying scale using Bayesian inference, implemented via the Gibbs sampling procedure and a data augmentation approach. Posterior marginal means of heritability and repeatability were .077 and .141, respectively. Moreover, the 95% highest marginal posterior density region of heritability ranged from .051 to .101. Therefore, we conclude that litter size is a trait that could be selected for in breeding programs. The effect of the loss of pedigree information, a common feature of sheep production, on the estimation of the genetic parameters was also studied using simulation. The results indicate that the lack of pedigree information has little effect on our estimates of heritability. PMID:9464880

Altarriba, J; Varona, L; García-Cortés, L A; Moreno, C

1998-01-01

260

Molecular Characterization of Black Bengal and Jamuna Pari Goat Breeds By RAPD Markers  

OpenAIRE

This experiment was conducted in the Genetics, Breeding and Reproductive Biotechnology Laboratory under Goat and Sheep Production Research Division, Bangladesh Livestock Research Institute (BLRI), Saver, Dhaka, Bangladesh. DNA was extracted from 14 goat breeds and the extracted DNA was observed by gel electrophoresis. Eight goat specific primers were synthesized by ASM-800 DNA synthesizer and screened in the study and all these primers were capable of priming polymorphic amplification p...

Rahman, M. A.; Rahman, S. M. M.; Jalil, M. A.; Sarder Nasir Uddin; Rahman, M. M.

2006-01-01

261

Seroprevalence of bluetongue in sheep and goats in Egypt  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Aim: The study was undertaken to understand the epidemiological status of bluetongue infection in Egypt. Materials and Methods: Serum samples were collected from clinically healthy as well as suspected sheep and goats. Samples were collected during the vector breeding season from September to November 2010, from 14 Egyptian governorates which represent different geographical regions of Egypt, and were tested by Agar Gel Immuno-precipitation Test (AGPT. Results: Out of total 1293 animal serum samples (sheep-1028 and goats-265, 17.5% of sheep and 14.7% of goats serum samples were found positive. The overall prevalence of anti-BT antibodies in different governorates was 16.9%. The highest prevalence of bluetongue group specific antibodies was detected in Beni-Suef, Giza, and Al Sharqia governorates (13.2%. The results indicate that there is a necessity to run further studies to identify the negative governorates. In addition, there is a lack in information regarding the BTV serotypes in Egypt. Conclusion: This study reflected high seroprevalence of bluetongue infection in sheep than goats. The results indicated that further studies are needed to identify the vectors from different agro-climatic zones, in addition, the BTV serotypes that are circulating in Egypt.

M. A. Mahmoud

2014-04-01

262

Expanding Possibilities for Intervention against Small Ruminant Lentiviruses through Genetic Marker-Assisted Selective Breeding  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Small ruminant lentiviruses include members that infect sheep (ovine lentivirus [OvLV]; also known as ovine progressive pneumonia virus/maedi-visna virus and goats (caprine arthritis encephalitis virus [CAEV]. Breed differences in seroprevalence and proviral concentration of OvLV had suggested a strong genetic component in susceptibility to infection by OvLV in sheep. A genetic marker test for susceptibility to OvLV has been developed recently based on the TMEM154 gene with validation data from over 2,800 sheep representing nine cohorts. While no single genotype has been shown to have complete resistance to OvLV, consistent association in thousands of sheep from multiple breeds and management conditions highlight a new strategy for intervention by selective breeding. This genetic marker-assisted selection (MAS has the potential to be a useful addition to existing viral control measures. Further, the discovery of multiple additional genomic regions associated with susceptibility to or control of OvLV suggests that additional genetic marker tests may be developed to extend the reach of MAS in the future. This review will cover the strengths and limitations of existing data from host genetics as an intervention and outline additional questions for future genetic research in sheep, goats, small ruminant lentiviruses, and their host-pathogen interactions.

Donald P. Knowles

2013-06-01

263

Molecular Marke rs in Conservation of the Breeds  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Many native breeds are facing the problem of extinction. Therefore, urgently, genetic diversity ofbreeds must be studied and the results must be employed to find out the conservation priority of the breeds .Microsatellites and mtDNA sequences are the two types of genetic markers that have been found useful andhave been employed widely in the studies revealing the genetic diversity of closely related populations.Studies based on these markers, in parallel to Archeological findings , indicated that the native Turkish cattle,goat and sheep breeds are close to one of the centers of domestication. Therefore, it is highly likely that thesebreeds are harboring potential genetic information to be utilized in the future. Hence, they must have highpriority in conservation on the global scale. Again, genetic studies indicated that, morphological characters ofthe breeds may give incomplete/wrong informat ion about the evolutionary history of the breeds.Furthermore, genetic studies indicated that, before the prioritizat ion of the breeds in conservation, first thegroup of breeds having the same evolutionary history must be determined. For this, breeds must be examinedwith respect to several types of genetic markers, differing in their modes of inheritance. Recently, todetermine the conservation priorities of the breeds, new methods, using various criteria, such as: geneticdistinctness, genetic diversity level, adaptation to special environmental conditions, risk of ext inction of thebreed, are being developed. Yet, they are not fully developed.Lastly, it is well known that breeds loose genetic informat ion as they go from one generation to thenext. Simulation studies, give insights about how to minimize this inevitable genetic loss by using molecularmarkers. However, at the current stage of technology, employment of the emerging rules are very expensive.

C. C. Berkman

2005-01-01

264

Suitability of blood protein polymorphisms in assessing genetic diversity in indigenous sheep in Kenya  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Knowledge of genetic diversity is important as it forms the basis for designing breeding programmes and making rational decisions on sustainable utilization of animal genetic resources. This study was designed to assess the efficiency of blood protein polymorphism as a rapid tool for assessing genetic diversity, using seven blood proteins (transferrin, albumin, haemoglobin, esterase A, esterase C, carbonic anhydrase and X-protein) and 457 indigenous fat-tailed (351) and fat-rumped (106) hair sheep in Kenya from 7 populations, with 40 Merino as controls. Transferrin was analysed using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and starch gel electrophoresis was used to analyse the other six loci. Of the seven loci analysed, two - carbonic anhydrase and X-protein - could not be interpreted. The five interpretable markers, however, showed low levels of polymorphism in allele numbers and heterozygosity. Multilocus mean FST values of 0.083 indicated a moderate genetic differentiation between the populations analysed. The Dm and Da genetic distance estimates showed the indigenous sheep populations in Kenya to be closely related genetically, with the dendrogram failing to resolve indigenous sheep into fat-tailed sheep and fat-rumped hair sheep. Due to its costs and modest equipment demands, blood protein polymorphism can be used as a rapid tool to assess genetic diversity and prioritize breeds to be analysed by microsatellite DNA markers. (author)markers. (author)

265

Nutrition as factor of improvement of production of sheep milk on the territory of Stara Planina mountain  

OpenAIRE

Investigation was carried out on the territory of Stara Planina mountain, Pirot mnucipality, in villages: Dojkinci, Brlog, Jelovica, Visocka Rzana and Rsovci, from 700-1200 m above sea level, on farms with greater number of sheep (over 100 heads) which in regard to the breeds structure were mainly Pirot pramenka breed, and insignificant number of heads were crosses of Pirot Pramenka and Wurttemberg. Research included analysis of pasture from the aspect of floristic and chemical composition. I...

Ruži?-Musli? Dragana; Petrovi? M.M.; Petrovi? M.P.; Neši? Z.; Marinkov G.; Vorkapi? M.

2006-01-01

266

Phenotypic and Genetic Changes of Ewe’s Economic Traits in the Lori-Bakhtiari Sheep Stud  

OpenAIRE

In this study 5025 records from the Lori-Bakhtiari sheep stud were used to predict phenotypic, genetic and environmental change in ewe traits from 1989 to 2004. Best linear unbiased prediction (BLUP) of breeding values were estimated by Drivative Free Restricted Maximum Likelihood (DFREML) procedure using single and multi-trait animal model. Phenotypic, genetic and environmental trends were calculated by regressing of the average phenotypic values, predicted breeding values and environmental ...

Edris, M. A.; Talebi, M. A.; Vatankhah, M.

2007-01-01

267

Scrapie resistance in ARQ sheep  

Science.gov (United States)

Susceptibility of sheep to classical scrapie is strongly influenced by genetic variation in the ovine prion gene (PRNP), especially at amino acid residues 136, 154 and 171. Sheep with the A136R154R171 haplotype are considered resistant, while those homozygous for A136R154Q171 are susceptible. How...

268

MORPHO-PRODUCTION AND REPRODUCTION TRAITS OF THE COLOUR VARIETIES BELONGING TO THE BOTO?ANI KARAKUL BREED  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available To achieve this experiment, the biological material was represented by theBoto?ani Karakul sheep, ewes and rams of different age categories and of differentcolour varieties (black, greyish, brown, grey, pink and white. The animalsproceeded both from the elite farm of the R.D.S.S. Pop?u?i and from theproduction and private farms from the breeding area of this breed. The Karakulbreed is specialized for the lamb pelt production. The classical colours are blackand greyish. The genetic base of creation of new colour varieties was representedby black and greyish sheep which constitute a continue source of numerical andqualitative increase of these varieties applying adequate reproduction andselection technologies. The main morpho-production traits of sheep werementioned, as follows: the qualitative features of lamb pelts, the body growth, thebody conformation and constitution, reproduction aptitudes, milk production,framing in the specific parameters of the Boto?ani Karakul breed.

ELENA FECIORU

2013-12-01

269

Charge Breeding of Radioactive Ions  

CERN Document Server

Charge breeding is a technique to increase the charge state of ions, in many cases radioactive ions. The singly charged radioactive ions, produced in an isotope separator on-line facility, and extracted with a low kinetic energy of some tens of keV, are injected into a charge breeder, where the charge state is increased to Q. The transformed ions are either directed towards a dedicated experiment requiring highly charged ions, or post-accelerated to higher beam energies. In this paper the physics processes involved in the production of highly charged ions will be introduced, and the injection and extraction beam parameters of the charge breeder defined. A description of the three main charge-breeding methods is given, namely: electron stripping in gas jet or foil; external ion injection into an electron-beam ion source/trap (EBIS/T); and external ion injection into an electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS). In addition, some preparatory devices for charge breeding and practical beam delivery aspects ...

Wenander, F J C

2013-01-01

270

Ectoparasites of sheep in three agro-ecological zones in central Oromia, Ethiopia.  

Science.gov (United States)

A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence and risk factors for ectoparasites infestation in sheep in three agro-ecological zones in central Oromia, Ethiopia, from October 2009 to April 2010. The study revealed that 637 (48.1%) of the 1325 sheep examined were infested with one or more ectoparasites. The ectoparasites identified were Bovicola ovis (27.2%), Melophagus ovinus (16.4%), Ctenocephalides sp. (2.3%), Linognathus africanus (1.2%), Linognathus ovillus (0.3%), Sarcoptes sp. (1.2%), Amblyomma variegatum (4.4%), Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi (1.9%), Rhipicephalus pravus (1.9%), Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) decoloratus (1.1%), Rhipicephalus sanguineus (0.9%), Rhipicephalus praetextatus (1.1%) and Hyalomma truncatum (1.6%). Statistically significant difference was observed in prevalence of B. ovis amongst study agroecological zones: highland 36.6%, midland 20.9% and lowland 14.0%. Significantly higher prevalence was recorded in highland agroecological zone. A significantly (OR = 0.041, p  0.05) was never recorded in the prevalence of all the identified species of ectoparasites between male and female sheep hosts. However, a significantly (p = 0.006) higher prevalence of B. ovis was recorded between young and adult sheep. The risk of B. ovis infestation was 1.45 times higher in young than the adult sheep. Furthermore, a significantly (p < 0.001) higher prevalence of M. ovinus, B. ovis and Sarcoptes sp. was found between sheep with poor and a good body condition. The ever increasing threat of ectoparasites on overall sheep productivity and tanning industry in Ethiopia warrants urgent control intervention. Further studies on the role of ectoparasites in transmission of diseases to sheep, zoonotic importance, comparative prevalence and load, and the importance of sheep as alternative hosts in different agroecological zones, breeds and management systems in Ethiopia are recommended so as to design applicable control programme in the country. PMID:23327319

Kumsa, Bersissa; Beyecha, Kebede; Geloye, Mesula

2012-01-01

271

Ectoparasites of sheep in three agro-ecological zones in central Oromia, Ethiopia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence and risk factors for ectoparasites infestation in sheep in three agro-ecological zones in central Oromia, Ethiopia, from October 2009 to April 2010. The study revealed that 637 (48.1% of the 1325 sheep examined were infested with one or more ectoparasites. The ectoparasites identified were Bovicola ovis (27.2%, Melophagus ovinus (16.4%, Ctenocephalides sp. (2.3%, Linognathus africanus (1.2%, Linognathus ovillus (0.3%, Sarcoptes sp. (1.2%, Amblyomma variegatum (4.4%, Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi (1.9%, Rhipicephalus pravus (1.9%, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus decoloratus (1.1%, Rhipicephalus sanguineus (0.9%, Rhipicephalus praetextatus (1.1% and Hyalomma truncatum (1.6%. Statistically significant difference was observed in prevalence of B. ovis amongst study agroecological zones: highland 36.6%, midland 20.9% and lowland 14.0%. Significantly higher prevalence was recorded in highland agroecological zone. A significantly (OR = 0.041, p 0.05 was never recorded in the prevalence of all the identified species of ectoparasites between male and female sheep hosts. However, a significantly (p = 0.006 higher prevalence of B. ovis was recorded between young and adult sheep. The risk of B. ovis infestation was 1.45 times higher in young than the adult sheep. Furthermore, a significantly (p < 0.001 higher prevalence of M. ovinus, B. ovis and Sarcoptes sp. was found between sheep with poor and a good body condition. The ever increasing threat of ectoparasites on overall sheep productivity and tanning industry in Ethiopia warrants urgent control intervention. Further studies on the role of ectoparasites in transmission of diseases to sheep, zoonotic importance, comparative prevalence and load, and the importance of sheep as alternative hosts in different agroecological zones, breeds and management systems in Ethiopia are recommended so as to design applicable control programme in the country.

Bersissa Kumsa

2012-10-01

272

molecular and biochemical markers for early pregnancy detection in sheep  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

the present study was conducted as in the experimental sheep farm of the nuclear research center, egyptian atomic energy authority in association with the institute of graduate studies and research. university of alexandria. this study aims to accurately and economically detect early pregnancy using techniques of biotechnology .consequently, the suggested method may replace techniques used nowadays for pregnancy detection since these techniques have disadvantages (e.g. long time before accurately determining pregnancy in rectal abdominal palpation and high cost and hazards of using serum progesterone radio immunoassay (RIA). the farmer may benefit from such detection economically by increasing his farm breeding cycle efficiency , reducing the breeding expenses . and isolating fertile ewes as early as possible. therefore reducing abortion incidences. stillbirths or production of weak lambs. this study was performed in two separate experiments. the first experiment: twenty four mixed breed sheep from the experimental sheep of the nuclear research center . egyptian atomic energy authority were used in this study. blood samples were taken at days 5.7.10.16.21.and 25 days after mating and a native- page were applied on the serum of these samples in correlation with serum progesterone RIA test. in addition . white blood cells were isolated from blood samples to obtain purified total RNA for RT-PCR. gel images were analyzed using totallab v.i.II(nonlinear dynamic, Newcastle allab v.i.II(nonlinear dynamic, Newcastle upontyne. UK) computer software.the second experiment:nine pregnant and two non-pregnant ewes used in this experiment. blood sample were taken 0.25.30.35.40.45.and 50 days after mating and SDS-page were applied on the serum of theses samples. Native-page were applied for serum samples and stained for glycoproteins. gel images were analyzed using totallab v/1.11 (nonlinear dynamic. Newcastle upontyne. UK) computer software

273

Effect of breed and age on sexual behaviour of rams.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this study was to highlight the problems that arise during the reproduction between thin-tailed rams and fat-tailed ewes. At the same time, particular emphasis laid on the influence of sheep breed, sheep age, time after ram introduction and day of the ewe estrus cycle on ram and ewe sexual behaviour. Rams were subjected to sexual performance tests by being individually exposed to 12 ewes for 3 h daily, 19 consecutive days. The 16 rams of the experiment were separated according to their age (9 and 21 months old) and breed (Chios and Karagouniki), and the 96 ewes of Chios fat-tailed breed, were divided by age (9 and 21 months old). The main characteristics of courtship behaviour, like sniffing, nudging, flehmen response and following were recorded and studied in detail. Mature Chios rams, which were the only one with previous experience of Chios ewes, exhibited higher rates of sexual interest per ewe than the other rams (P Chios fat-tailed ewes in comparison with Chios rams (P < 0.05). Moreover, as the time after ram introduction passed, the frequency and duration of sexual behaviour components decreased (P < 0.001). Finally, the effect of the day of the experiment was only significant in the case of sniffing, which increased during the first 2 days and then declined and stabilized (P < 0.01). As it was demonstrated, ram age and ram breed played a fundamental role in the exhibition of sexual interest elements. PMID:16226306

Simitzis, Panagiotis E; Deligeorgis, Stelios G; Bizelis, Joseph A

2006-05-01

274

Pharmaceutical control of reproduction in sheep and goats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Small ruminant species such as sheep and goats are short-day breeders, which is a crucial factor affecting the offer of lambs and kids throughout the year. An appropriate management of reproduction allows ewes and does to breed in the spring to increase the supply of product to the marketplace on a year-round basis. Pharmaceutical control of reproduction is possible, usually through administration of hormones or analogues related to the natural estrous cycle, such as progesterone, prostaglandins, and/or melatonin. PMID:21215891

Abecia, José A; Forcada, Fernando; González-Bulnes, Antonio

2011-03-01

275

Abscess disease, caseous lymphadenitis, and pulmonary adenomatosis in imported sheep  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The occurrence of abscess disease, caseous lymphadenitis, and pulmonary adenomatosis in sheep in Denmark is reported for the first time. Subcutaneous abscesses were observed in imported 4- to 5-month-old lambs of the Lacaune breed 10 days after arrival in Denmark. Abscesses were mostly located in the head, neck and shoulder regions close to the regional lymph nodes. Bacteriological examinations revealed growth of Staphylococcus aureus ssp. anaerobius in all animals with subcutaneously located abscesses containing a viscous white-yellow odourless mass. In addition, Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis was isolated from abscesses in one animal and lesions consistent with pulmonary adenomatosis were found in four animals.

MØller, Kristian; Agerholm, J.S.

2000-01-01

276

ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING WEANING WEIGHT IN LOHI SHEEP  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Data on 3984 lambing records of 1285 Lohi ewes kept at the Livestock Production Research Institute, Bahadurnagar, Okara for he period 1960-90 were analyzed by using Harvey’s Mixed Model Least Squares and Maximum Likelihood Computer Program. The purpose was to estimate the magnitude of various environmental sources of variation influencing weaning weight in this breed of sheep. The least squares mean for 120-day adjusted weaning weight was 23.09 ? 0.13 kg. The trait was significantly (P<0.01 influenced by the year and season of birth, type of birth and the sex of the lamb born.

M.E. Babar, Z. Ahmad, A. Nadeem and M. Yaqoob

2003-12-01

277

Description and typology of intensive Chios dairy sheep farms in Greece.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim was to assess the intensified dairy sheep farming systems of the Chios breed in Greece, establishing a typology that may properly describe and characterize them. The study included the total of the 66 farms of the Chios sheep breeders' cooperative Macedonia. Data were collected using a structured direct questionnaire for in-depth interviews, including questions properly selected to obtain a general description of farm characteristics and overall management practices. A multivariate statistical analysis was used on the data to obtain the most appropriate typology. Initially, principal component analysis was used to produce uncorrelated variables (principal components), which would be used for the consecutive cluster analysis. The number of clusters was decided using hierarchical cluster analysis, whereas, the farms were allocated in 4 clusters using k-means cluster analysis. The identified clusters were described and afterward compared using one-way ANOVA or a chi-squared test. The main differences were evident on land availability and use, facility and equipment availability and type, expansion rates, and application of preventive flock health programs. In general, cluster 1 included newly established, intensive, well-equipped, specialized farms and cluster 2 included well-established farms with balanced sheep and feed/crop production. In cluster 3 were assigned small flock farms focusing more on arable crops than on sheep farming with a tendency to evolve toward cluster 2, whereas cluster 4 included farms representing a rather conservative form of Chios sheep breeding with low/intermediate inputs and choosing not to focus on feed/crop production. In the studied set of farms, 4 different farmer attitudes were evident: 1) farming disrupts sheep breeding; feed should be purchased and economies of scale will decrease costs (mainly cluster 1), 2) only exercise/pasture land is necessary; at least part of the feed (pasture) must be home-grown to decrease costs (clusters 1 and 4), 3) providing pasture to sheep is essential; on-farm feed production decreases costs (mainly cluster 3), and 4) large-scale farming (feed production and cash crops) does not disrupt sheep breeding; all feed must be produced on-farm to decrease costs (mainly cluster 3). Conducting a profitability analysis among different clusters, exploring and discovering the most beneficial levels of intensified management and capital investment should now be considered. PMID:22612943

Gelasakis, A I; Valergakis, G E; Arsenos, G; Banos, G

2012-06-01

278

No mutations of FecB and FecGH in Iranian Lory sheep  

OpenAIRE

The Booroola fecundity gene (FecB) and growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9) gene belong to the transforming growth factor ? (TGF-?) superfamily. The mutations of these genes have additive effects on the prolificacy in sheep. The aim of the present study was to determine the possible mutations of FecB and FecGH genes in Lory sheep breed of the Lorestan province, Iran. Sixty blood samples were collected and DNA was extracted from whole fresh blood. For detection of FecB and FecGH mutations,...

Zaynab Shafieiyan; Ghodratollah Mohammadi; Abbas Jolodarzadeh; Sara Amiri

2014-01-01

279

[Analysis of the genetic structure of Tuvinian short-fat-tailed sheep populations with the use of the ISSR-PCR method].  

Science.gov (United States)

The genetic structure of populations of the Tuvinian short-fat-tailed sheep was studied with the use of the ISSR-PCR (Inter Simple Sequence Repeats) method in 18 farms of Tyva. Data on the spectrum of ISSR fragments of DNA were obtained using the (AG)9C primer. Analysis of intermicrosatellite polymorphism permitted us to determine genomic characteristics of the populations, their genealogical relations, and the parameters of genetic diversity within the populations and the breed as a whole. Three genetic notions were considered on the basis of the results of this analysis: gene pool profile, gene pool standard, and breed-specific pattern. The data obtained can be used to carry out population genetic monitoring, to develop a breeding strategy, and to conserve in situ the Tuvinian sheep breed and breeds of other domesticated species. PMID:21434419

Stolpovski?, Iu A; Kol, N V; Evsiukov, A N; Ruzina, M N; Shimiit, L V; Sulimova, G E

2010-12-01

280

Aromatase gene and its effects on growth, reproductive and maternal ability traits in a multibreed sheep population from Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We determined the polymorphism C242T of the aromatase gene (Cyp19 and its allelic frequency, as well as the effect of the variants on productive and reproductive traits in 71 purebred Santa Inês sheep, 13 purebred Brazilian Somali sheep, nine purebred Poll Dorset sheep, and 18 crossbred 1/2 Dorper sheep. The animals were genotyped using the PCR-RFLP technique. The influence of the animal's genotype on its performance or on the performance of its lambs was analyzed by the least square method. Another factor assessed was the importance of the animal's genotype in analysis models for quantitative breeding value estimates, and whether there were differences among the averages of breeding values of animals with different genotypes for this gene. In the sample studied, no AA individuals were observed; the AB and BB frequencies were 0.64 and 0.36, respectively. All Brazilian Somali sheep were of genotype BB. All 1/2 Dorper BB animals presented a lower age at first lambing, and the Santa Inês BB ewes presented a lower lambing interval. In these same genetic groups, AB ewes presented higher litter weight at weaning. This is evidence that BB ewes have a better reproductive performance phenotype, whereas AB ewes present a better maternal ability phenotype. However, in general, animals with genotype AB presented better average breeding values than those with genotype BB.

Ana Maria Bezerra Oliveira Lôbo

2009-01-01

281

Aromatase gene and its effects on growth, reproductive and maternal ability traits in a multibreed sheep population from Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english We determined the polymorphism C242T of the aromatase gene (Cyp19) and its allelic frequency, as well as the effect of the variants on productive and reproductive traits in 71 purebred Santa Inês sheep, 13 purebred Brazilian Somali sheep, nine purebred Poll Dorset sheep, and 18 crossbred 1/2 Dorper [...] sheep. The animals were genotyped using the PCR-RFLP technique. The influence of the animal's genotype on its performance or on the performance of its lambs was analyzed by the least square method. Another factor assessed was the importance of the animal's genotype in analysis models for quantitative breeding value estimates, and whether there were differences among the averages of breeding values of animals with different genotypes for this gene. In the sample studied, no AA individuals were observed; the AB and BB frequencies were 0.64 and 0.36, respectively. All Brazilian Somali sheep were of genotype BB. All 1/2 Dorper BB animals presented a lower age at first lambing, and the Santa Inês BB ewes presented a lower lambing interval. In these same genetic groups, AB ewes presented higher litter weight at weaning. This is evidence that BB ewes have a better reproductive performance phenotype, whereas AB ewes present a better maternal ability phenotype. However, in general, animals with genotype AB presented better average breeding values than those with genotype BB.

Ana Maria Bezerra Oliveira, Lôbo; Raimundo Nonato Braga, Lôbo; Samuel Rezende, Paiva.

282

Evolution of plant breeding  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Plant breeding is considered one of the longest ongoing activities undertaken by humans, who select plantsmore productive and useful to themselves and the animals for at least 10,000 years ago. The evolution of civilizationsparalleled the success of plant breeding, although this has not been recognized by the public. The reason may be lack ofunderstanding of what plant breeding encompasses. The concept of plant breeding evolved, depending on the time it wasformulated, but without losing the essence of being art and science of manipulating plants for man. This review discusses theevolution of the concepts and the methods of plant breeding, here divided arbitrarily into selection based on phenotypes,breeding values and genotypes. No matter how big the pool of genetic information in recent years, the phenotype will continuesto be important in the present and future.

Arnel R. Hallauer

2011-01-01

283

Plant Breeding Techniques  

OpenAIRE

Seeds form the basis for agricultural production, but most organic growers know little about how their seedstocks have been produced. Within the organic movement the discussion on the compatibility of plant breeding techniques has been accelerated by the public discussion on genetic engineering. This decision-making is important to develop a framework for organic plant breeding and facilitate investment by breeding companies. This dossier explains all standard techniques used in modern plant ...

Wyss, E.; Lammerts Bueren, E. T.; Hulscher, M.; Haring, M.

2001-01-01

284

Influence of Fasciola Hepatica on Serum Biochemical Parameters and Vascular and Biliary System of Sheep Liver  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the functional capacity of the liver based on the activity of specific enzymes and bilirubin in serum and also to investigate the influence of mechanical and toxic effects of Fasciola hepatica on the structures of the blood vessels and biliary tract in the sheep liver.Methods: Blood samples and liver of 63 indigenous sheep of Pramenka breed, slaughtered in the period from March to December 2009 were used. Based on parasitological findings in the liver, all animals were divided into two groups: control (n=34 and infected group (n=29. For investigation and description of pathological changes in sheep liver, naturally infected with F. hepatica, corrosion cast technique was used.Results: Biochemical analysis of tested parameters showed a significant elevation (P?0.05 of serum gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT, total bilirubin (TBIL and direct bilirubin (DBIL in infected sheep group comparing with the control group. No significant differences were observed for activity of aspartate aminotranferase (AST between groups. Vascular and biliary systems of the liver were found to be affected.Conclusion: Results of biochemical analysis are consistent with pathological findings and measuring of tested parameters could be used in early diagnosis of sheep fasciolosis and to test the effectiveness of anthelmintic therapy. Corrosion cast technique is very useful for investigation of pathological changes and neoangiogenesis of vascular and biliary system in sheep liver, caused by mechanical and toxic effects of F. hepatica.

A Hodži?

2013-03-01

285

ANTIPARASITICAL PROTECTION IN SHEEP FARMS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Through our researches were carried out at ICDCOC- Palas, Constantza, we proposed ourselves to establish the poly-parasitism structure on sheep, as well as elaborating efficientical methods for anti-parasitical prophylaxis and fighting in sheep populations and pasture sourfaces, in order to ensuring anti-parasitical protection in sheep exploitations The copro-parasitological examinations was carried ovoscopicaly (flotation - by Willis and Mc. Master methods; sediment – by polyvalent method and larvoscopicaly – by Baermann method. The parasitological examination of coprological smears which were harvested on sheep showed the presence of polyparasitism phenomenon with protozoans (coccidiae: Eimeria spp. and helmints (cestodae: Moniesia expansa; gastro-intestinal nemathodes: Trichostrongylus spp., Nematodirus spp., Strongyloides papillosus and pulmonary nemathodes: Mu?ellerius capillaris, Protostrongylus rufescens, Dictyocaulus filaria. Also, we proposed ourselves to study the paresites and their intermediary stages on pastures which were exploited with sheep, comparatively with mowed pastures. In the ansamble of research activities a special place is occupied by testing differents methods, in order to prevention and fighting of parasitical infestations on sheep and pasture in sheep farms.

DOINA ARDELEANU

2013-12-01

286

Costs and reliability of livestock traceability systems for the Dutch sheep and goat sectors  

OpenAIRE

The costs and reliability of two electronic identification and registration (I&R) systems for sheep and goats were estimated and compared to the current I&R system in the Dutch sheep and goat sectors. In the current system (farm individual registration or FIR), animals are identified with ear tags with an individual animal number, unique farm number and registered on-farm. In the central individual registration (CIR) system animals are identified with electronic ear tags and registered indivi...

Velthuis, A. G. J.; Hogeveen, H.; Mourits, M. C. M.; Dolman, M. A.; Wichen, H.; Gaaff, A.

2009-01-01

287

Contribution to reviewing potentials of natural resources of the Sjenica-Pešter plateau for organizing organic sheep production  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper presents results of investigating possibilities for organizing and developing organic production in sheep farming, in the territory of the Sjenica-Pešter plateau. The results of investigations on yield, floristic and chemical composition, as well as harmful matter, demonstrate that conditions exist for the development of organic production, in particular of organic lamb meet. On the grounds of its known characteristics, the Sjenica-Pešter Pramenka breed presents the most suitable breed for organizing organic sheep production. Organic sheep production can largely contribute to rural development and the advancement of this region. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TP 31085: Organizovanje održive proizvodnje organskog uzgoja jagnjadi kao podrška ruralnom razvoju

Savi? Mila

2013-01-01

288

Tritium breeding in fusion reactors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Key technological problems that influence tritium breeding in fusion blankets are reviewed. The breeding potential of candidate materials is evaluated and compared to the tritium breeding requirements. The sensitivity of tritium breeding to design and nuclear data parameters is reviewed. A framework for an integrated approach to improve tritium breeding prediction is discussed with emphasis on nuclear data requirements

289

Changes in hypothalamus in continuously irradiated sheep  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Neurosecretion, PAS-positive mucopolysaccharides and the Nissl substance were studied in the neurons of the rostral, medial and caudal hypothalamus of continuously irradiated ewes. The study was performed on 21 ewes of the Slovak Merino breed of a live weight of 34 kg. The animals were in the period of physiological anoestrus and their age was two to three years. The first group of six ewes was the control. The second group included 15 sheep irradiated with a total dose of 6.7 Gy (700 R) for seven days. Co60 was used as the source of irradiation. The animals of this group were killed seven days following treatment. The ewes in the third group were left for the study of mortality. The brains were perfused with 2% buffered paraformaldehyde immediately after the bleeding of the sheep; then the brains were removed from the skulls and fixed in buffered picroformol. Paraffin slices were stained with haematoxylin-eosine, aldehyde-fuchsine and alcian blue for neurosecretion, by the PAS reaction for mucopolysaccharides and with cresyl violet for the Nissl substance. It was found that irradiation of the whole body inhibited the activity of neurosecretory cells in the rostral and medial hypothalamus, thus reducing neurosecretion. These regions also showed a reduced activity of the PAS reaction used for the demonstration of mucopolysaccharides. The observed changes also included damage of the endothelium of blood vessels with the occurrence of erythrocyte extravasates he occurrence of erythrocyte extravasates and with haemorrhages. In this way, the trophism of neurosecretory cells was affected, which is ascribed to the decrease in the amount of neurosecretory material. In the caudal hypothalamus, neurosecretion and PAS-positivity were slightly stimulated by irradiation. The Nissl substance disappeared as a result of irradiation. (author)

290

CGIAR Integrated Breeding Platform  

Science.gov (United States)

The Integrated Breeding Platform is a development being led by the Generation Challenge Programme (GCP), a part of the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR) which has a mission to bring scientists from different horizons and with different skills to work together, bridging the gap between upstream and applied research, so that biotechnology could have greater impact on plant breeding efficiency in developing countries.The Integrated Breeding Platform functions as a one-stop-shop to provide information, tools, services and training.  Furthermore IBP hopes to provide developing countries with access to modern breeding technologies, breeding materials, and related information to facilitate their adoption of molecular breeding approaches and improve their plant breeding efficiency.This site provides educational and training opportunities to help people be able to better utilize the tools at the Integrated Breeding Platform, as well as to provide an online community area for webinars and discussion forums. In order to access the self-paced courses found at the left, you will need to click on the "Join Now" button found in the upper right corner of this page.  Right now the courses are under development and not ready for participants.  While you wait, you can view any materials found under the "lessons" or "animations/video" buttons.

291

[Detection and analysis of polymorphisms of 59571364 and 59912586 loci on X chromosome in fat-tail and thin-tail sheep flocks].  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to analyze the correlation of tail fat deposition and two SNP loci on Ovis arise chromosome X and provide a theoretical basis for using molecular assisted selection technology in further low-fat sheep breeding, the breeds with extreme differences in tail types (Altay, Small Tail Han Sheep, Hu, Chinese Merino and Suffolk) were used to detect the polymorphisms of two SNP loci on X chromosome and the haplotypes with PCR-RFLP method. The results showed that the TT genotype at 59571364 locus and GG genotype at 59912586 locus were preponderant genotypes in thin-tailed Chinese Merino and Suffolk sheep flocks, while the percentage of the two genotypes in fat-tailed (fat-rmup) Altay and Hu flocks is less than 2%. Haplotype analysis showed that CA haplotype is the main haplotype, the percentage of CA is up to 55%, and the percentage of CA and TA haplotypes together was 88.33% in Altay sheep flock. These results suggest that there are great differences in the SNP distribution of the 59571364 and 59912586 loci among different tail-typed sheep flocks, which can be used as molecular markers in high or low fat sheep breeding. PMID:24645348

Zhang, Wei; Shen, Min; Li, Huan; Gao, Lei; Liang, Yao-Wei; Yang, Jing-Quan; Liu, Shou-Ren; Wang, Xin-Hua; Gan, Shang-Quan

2013-12-01

292

Buffaloes breeding in Brasil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Differently from what one could formerly imagine, that buffalo breeding activity would be solely directed to fill the so called cattle breeding gaps determined by inadequate environmental conditions for ordinary cattle breeding, it has been actually seen that in those areas where breeders could successfully organize industrial-agricultural chains, either on meat or milk and its related products production, there has been an expressive expansion .Buffalo breeding has shown to be an important alternative not only in farms of higher technological level as also , and mainly, on small farms where it has become a key factor for increasing the average income, besides keeping labor force in country areas. This article intends to point out and examine some aspects of buffalo breeding and its potentialities in Brazil.

O. Bernardes

2010-02-01

293

Plant Breeding Coordinating Committee  

Science.gov (United States)

To view additional success stories click on the link in the left menu Please click here to report your plant breeding success stories.  Click on TCAP logo to see the Economic impact of USDA-NIFA small grains CAPsThe Plant Breeding Coordinating Committee (SCC 080) is the USDA-sponsored advisory group of representatives from land grant universities.  The Plant Breeding Coordinating Committee represents national plant breeding with a focus on education in the broader sense, including providing information to the public and administrators, and encouraging the development of formal educational opportunities, continuing education, and lifelong learning. Mission: To provide a forum for leadership on issues and opportunities of strategic importance to national core competency in plant breeding research and education Membership: The PBCC members will consist of the representatives of the SCC-080 committee and others by request. 

294

Sheep fertility during induction and estrus synchronisation in the anoestrus season depending of the body weight of tested eves  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this research was to determine if there are differences in sexual reaction of the grown sheep II de frans breed depending on the body weight of treated eves during induction and synchronization of estrus with fluorogestonacetate (FGA + PMSG in anoestrus season. Total number of 262 eves was treated and they were divided in to three groups. The first group consisted of the sheep whose body weight was from 40 to 50kg, the second group of the sheep whose weight was from 50-60kg and the third group of the sheep whose weight was above 60kg. Each group received sponges of FGA. After removal of the sponges all sheep received intramuscular injection of 500 i.u of PMSG. The "Sugonal" prepared by Veterinary institute Subotica was used. After two days the insemination was conducted. The results show that from first group 43.78% sheep lambed, from second group 46.66% and from third group 59.32%. Average sheep fertility after treatments was for the first group 113.28%, 118.37% for the second group and 137.14% for the third group. The ratio of singles, twins and triplets was for the first group 72:28:0 %, for the second group 70.69:24.14:5.17%, and for the third group 47.92:45.83:6.25%. Determined differences between number of lambed sheep and treated sheep, fertility and number of twins, as well as between investigated groups were statistically significant (P<0,05. Conclusion is that sheep of body weight above 60kg have had significantly better reaction to the treatment.

Meki? Civijan

2014-01-01

295

Technical indicators of economic performance in dairy sheep farming.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, the level of technical efficiency of 58 sheep farms rearing the Chios breed in Greece was measured through the application of the stochastic frontier analysis method. A Translog stochastic frontier production function was estimated using farm accounting data of Chios sheep farms and the impact of various socio-demographic and biophysical factors on the estimated efficiency of the farms was evaluated. The farms were classified into efficiency groups on the basis of the estimated level of efficiency and a technical and economic descriptive analysis was applied in order to illustrate an indicative picture of their structure and productivity. The results of the stochastic frontier model indicate that there are substantial production inefficiencies among the Chios sheep farms and that these farms could increase their production through the improvement of technical efficiency, whereas the results of the inefficiency effects model reveal that the farm-specific explanatory factors can partly explain the observed efficiency differentials. The measurement of technical inefficiency and the detection of its determinants can be used to form the basis of policy recommendations that could contribute to the development of the sector. PMID:24156392

Theodoridis, A; Ragkos, A; Roustemis, D; Arsenos, G; Abas, Z; Sinapis, E

2014-01-01

296

An explicit immunogenetic model of gastrointestinal nematode infection in sheep.  

Science.gov (United States)

Gastrointestinal nematodes are a global cause of disease and death in humans, wildlife and livestock. Livestock infection has historically been controlled with anthelmintic drugs, but the development of resistance means that alternative controls are needed. The most promising alternatives are vaccination, nutritional supplementation and selective breeding, all of which act by enhancing the immune response. Currently, control planning is hampered by reliance on the faecal egg count (FEC), which suffers from low accuracy and a nonlinear and indirect relationship with infection intensity and host immune responses. We address this gap by using extensive parasitological, immunological and genetic data on the sheep-Teladorsagia circumcincta interaction to create an immunologically explicit model of infection dynamics in a sheep flock that links host genetic variation with variation in the two key immune responses to predict the observed parasitological measures. Using our model, we show that the immune responses are highly heritable and by comparing selective breeding based on low FECs versus high plasma IgA responses, we show that the immune markers are a much improved measure of host resistance. In summary, we have created a model of host-parasite infections that explicitly captures the development of the adaptive immune response and show that by integrating genetic, immunological and parasitological understanding we can identify new immune-based markers for diagnosis and control. PMID:25121649

Prada Jiménez de Cisneros, Joaquín; Stear, Michael J; Mair, Colette; Singleton, Darran; Stefan, Thorsten; Stear, Abigail; Marion, Glenn; Matthews, Louise

2014-10-01

297

Feed Efficiency, Growth Rates, Carcass Evaluation, Cholesterol Level and Sensory Evaluation of Lambs of Various Hair and Wool Sheep and Their Crosses  

OpenAIRE

Feed efficiency, growth rates, carcass evaluation, cholesterol level and sensory evaluation were compared in six lambs from each of the following breeding groups: St. Croix (hair sheep), St. Croix×wool sheep, Callipyge wool×St. Croix, Dorper (hair sheep)×St. Croix, Dorper×wool, Callipyge wool×wool, and wool×wool. Feeding efficiency varied from 5.20 to 6.87, with the highest efficiency in St. Croix lambs. Standardized daily live weight gain ranged from 0.34 to 0.55 kg, with the highest r...

Bunch, Tom D.; Evans, R. C.; Wang, S.; Brennand, C. P.; Whittier, D. R.; Taylor, B. J.

2004-01-01

298

Sensitivity of reproductive potential to environmental factors in sheep and goats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ovulation rate, embryo survival, postnatal mortality, interval from parturition to conception, age at first parturition, number of parturitions before culling, and age at culling collectively declineate the ability of a breed to cope with the local environment and management which are often harsh and suboptimal. In tropical and subtropical countries, the reproductive performance of goat and sheep is low and far from their maximum potential. Identification of the main limiting factors and determination of the breed's sensitivity to these factors are essential preliminary steps before choosing the method(s) to improve reproductive performance in such countries. (author)

299

Newsletter of the LowInputBreeds project. Issue 4. EU project LowInputBreeds - Development of integrated livestock breeding and management strategies to improve animal health, product quality and performance in European organic and ‘low input’ milk, meat and egg production  

OpenAIRE

The fourth newsletter of the LowInputBreeds project reports on the successful first project symposium which took place in March in Wageningen, the Netherlands, focussing on ethical issues in animal breeding. Furthermore the newsletter contains an article on small ruminant production systems in Crete, and the traits required in order to improve production efficiency and product quality in traditional low-input dairy sheep production systems. And like every newsletter, we report progress in the...

LowInputBreeds Consortium,

2011-01-01

300

Adaptations to climate-mediated selective pressures in sheep.  

Science.gov (United States)

Following domestication, sheep (Ovis aries) have become essential farmed animals across the world through adaptation to a diverse range of environments and varied production systems. Climate-mediated selective pressure has shaped phenotypic variation and has left genetic "footprints" in the genome of breeds raised in different agroecological zones. Unlike numerous studies that have searched for evidence of selection using only population genetics data, here, we conducted an integrated coanalysis of environmental data with single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) variation. By examining 49,034 SNPs from 32 old, autochthonous sheep breeds that are adapted to a spectrum of different regional climates, we identified 230 SNPs with evidence for selection that is likely due to climate-mediated pressure. Among them, 189 (82%) showed significant correlation (P ? 0.05) between allele frequency and climatic variables in a larger set of native populations from a worldwide range of geographic areas and climates. Gene ontology analysis of genes colocated with significant SNPs identified 17 candidates related to GTPase regulator and peptide receptor activities in the biological processes of energy metabolism and endocrine and autoimmune regulation. We also observed high linkage disequilibrium and significant extended haplotype homozygosity for the core haplotype TBC1D12-CH1 of TBC1D12. The global frequency distribution of the core haplotype and allele OAR22_18929579-A showed an apparent geographic pattern and significant (P ? 0.05) correlations with climatic variation. Our results imply that adaptations to local climates have shaped the spatial distribution of some variants that are candidates to underpin adaptive variation in sheep. PMID:25249477

Lv, Feng-Hua; Agha, Saif; Kantanen, Juha; Colli, Licia; Stucki, Sylvie; Kijas, James W; Joost, Stéphane; Li, Meng-Hua; Ajmone Marsan, Paolo

2014-12-01

301

The evidence of associations between prion protein genotype and production, reproduction, and health traits in sheep  

OpenAIRE

The EU Commission issued a regulation in 2003, which requires all member states to implement a breeding programme for resistance to transmissible spongiform encephalopathies in sheep by selecting for specific alleles of the prion protein (PrP) gene. A key concern with regard to this regulation was that the intensive selection programmes, designed to increase resistance to scrapie, may have a negative impact on a range of other economically important production, reproduction, and disease trait...

Sweeney, Torres; Hanrahan, John

2008-01-01

302

Evaluation of the biological activation of plasmin plasminogen system in sheep and goat milk  

OpenAIRE

Milk composition and quality are affected by several factors of which stage of lactation and mammary gland health status represent the main ones. These two factors become more effective in small dairy ruminants, for which stage of lactation is synchronized as result of the seasonal breeding cycle. As a consequence in dairy sheep and goats milk quality and cheese making properties tend to decline. Most of these effects on milk quality are also associated with an increase in the somatic cell co...

Baldi, A.; Cheli, F.; Pinotti, L.; Pecorini, C.; Fusi, E.; Rebucci, R.

2005-01-01

303

The influence of somatic cell count on sheep milk composition and cheese-making properties  

OpenAIRE

Somatic cell count (SCC) is an important tool for monitoring intramammary infections in dairy cows. However, systematic generalization of this decision rule is not easy in small ruminants. Determination of SCC in sheep milk is important for the processors of milk (indicator of quality), for breeders (mastitis indicator) and could be useful for selection as well. SCC value can be affected by some non-infective factors such as breed, stage of lactation, parity, type of lambing, type of milking,...

Todaro, M.; Scatassa, M. L.; Giaccone, P.

2010-01-01

304

Biometrical multivariate study of the Zambian indigenous Fat-tailed sheep.  

OpenAIRE

Body weight and twelve body measurements taken on fifteen ewes and five rams of the Zambian indigenous Fat-tailed were analysed. The sheep were extensively managed in the Southern and driest part of Zambia. The aim of the study was to achieve a preliminary assessment of type and function of the breed based on zoometrical indices produced from combinations of different morphometric values obtained from the field. The body measurements used were body length, cannon perimeter, chest depth, head ...

Pare?s Casanova, Pere-miquel; Mwaanga, Edwell S.; Caballero, Marta; Sabate?, J.; Valenzuela, Si?lvia

2013-01-01

305

Development and testing of a revised dynamic model of radiocaesium transfer to sheep tissues  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The model of radiocaesium transfer to sheep presented by Galer et al. [1] provides reliable predictions only for sheep of a similar body weight to those used in the development of the model (approximately 30 kg). To extend the applicability of the model, it was necessary to re-parameterise it in terms of activity concentrations in tissues rather than total activities within them (although for gut compartments the use of activity has been retained). The rate coefficients for the new model have been estimated by fitting the model to the data used by Galer et al. [1] which was derived from a single ''calibration'' experiment. The new model was found to account for 94% of the observed variation in the data (n = 42), a result similar to that obtained by Galer et al. [1]. The model has also been tested against data not used in its development but obtained from four separate experiments undertaken by three different laboratories. Good agreement between the predictions of the new model and observations was found for most circumstances and for several breeds of sheep with different body weights. It is concluded that the new model provides a useful dynamic description of radiocaesium transfers to the tissues of sheep of different breeds and under different contamination scenarios. (orig.)

306

Transcriptome profile analysis of adipose tissues from fat and short-tailed sheep.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent studies in domestic animals have used RNA-seq to explore the transcriptome of different tissues in a limited number of individuals. In the present study, de novo transcriptome sequencing was used to compare sheep adipose tissue transcriptome profiles between a fat-tailed breed (Kazak sheep; KS) and a short-tailed (Tibetan sheep; TS). The RNA-seq data from these two groups revealed that 646 genes were differentially expressed between the KS and TS groups, including 280 up-regulated and 366 down-regulated genes. We identified genes relevant to fat metabolism in adipose tissues, including two top genes with the largest fold change (NELL1 and FMO3). Pathway analysis revealed that the differentially expressed genes between the KS and TS breeds belong to fatty acid metabolism relevant pathways (e.g. fat digestion and absorption, glycine, serine, and threonine metabolism) and cell junction-related pathways (e.g. cell adhesion molecules) which contribute to fat deposition. This work highlighted potential genes and gene networks that affect fat deposition and meat quality in sheep. PMID:25088569

Wang, Xiaolong; Zhou, Guangxian; Xu, Xiaochun; Geng, Rongqing; Zhou, Jiping; Yang, Yuxin; Yang, Zhaoxia; Chen, Yulin

2014-10-10

307

Sources of variation and genetic profile of spontaneous, out-of-season ovulatory activity in the Chios sheep  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Organising the breeding plan of a seasonally breeding species, such as sheep, presents a challenge to farmers and the industry as a whole, since both economical and biological considerations need to be carefully balanced. Understanding the breeding activity of individual animals becomes a prerequisite for a successful breeding program. This study set out to investigate the sources of variation and the genetic profile of the spontaneous, out-of-season ovulatory activity of ewes of the Chios dairy sheep breed in Greece. The definition of the trait was based on blood progesterone levels, measured before exposing the ewes to rams, which marks the onset of the usual breeding season. Data were 707 records, taken over two consecutive years, of 435 ewes kept at the Agricultural Research Station of Chalkidiki in northern Greece. When all available pedigree was included, the total number of animals involved was 1068. On average, 29% of all ewes exhibited spontaneous, out-of-season ovulatory activity, with no substantial variation between the years. Significant sources of systematic variation were the ewe age and live weight, and the month of previous lambing. Older, heavier ewes, that had lambed early the previous autumn, exhibited more frequent activity. Heritability estimates were 0.216 (± 0.084 with a linear and 0.291 with a threshold model. The latter better accounts for the categorical nature of the trait. The linear model repeatability was 0.230 (± 0.095. The results obtained in this study support the notion that spontaneous out-of-season ovulatory activity can be considered in the development of a breeding plan for the Chios sheep breed.

Kouttos Athanasios

2003-01-01

308

Mutation breeding in Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The achievements made in mutation breeding in Japan over the past 40 years are outlined from the viewpoint of practical breeding. Fifty-four varieties of 23 crops were obtained by direct use of induced mutants. These include 12 cereal mutant varieties, five food legumes, nine industrial crops, seven vegetables and 18 ornamentals. Ten varieties were obtained by national breeding institutes, 14 by prefectural stations and 30 by universities or private firms. The varieties produced by the national breeding programme were registered and released with Norin numbers. In most cases, ionizing radiation was used. Forty additional mutant varieties were developed through cross-breeding using induced mutants as the gene sources. Of the 33 rice varieties in this category, 21, including six national varieties, resulted from crosses involving Reimei, a semi-dwarf mutant variety. Another semi-dwarf mutant parent was used to breed two more national varieties. Three early heading mutants were also integrated into cross-breeding programmes and produced three national and two prefectural varieties. A large grain mutant produced three varieties for sake brewing. A new recessive resistant mutant allele to the soil borne virus (BaYMV) was induced in barley. One variety was bred using this mutant as a parent. Another promising disease resistant clone was induced by chronic irradiation in a gamma field in the leading Japanese pear variety Nijisseiki, which is susceptible to black spot diseasewhich is susceptible to black spot disease caused by Alternaria alternata (Fr.) Keissler. This mutant clone maintained all the superior qualities of the original variety. The significant role of the Institute of Radiation Breeding as a core in mutation breeding is mentioned briefly. (author). 10 refs, 2 figs, 6 tabs

309

PCR-RFLP of BMPR-IB gene in North African Barbarine sheep  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study reports the statue of the Booroola fecundity gene (FecB mutation in Barbarine sheep breed. A total of 334 ewes recorded with twining births from the Tunisian fat tail Barbarine sheep were genotyped in the objective to identify the FecB mutation. The FecB genotyping was carried out by forced restriction fragment length polymorphism PCR technique. Forced PCR of the FecB gene was amplified using a specific primer designed to introduce a point mutation in the resulting PCR products with FecB non carriers sheep containing an AvaII restriction site, whereas products from non carriers lacked this site. Digestion of an amplified 140 base pair FecB gene with AvaII restriction enzyme resulted in a non-carrier 140 bp band (wild type in all studied animals which revealed absence of the AvaII restriction site in this breed. Considering the records of twinning in this breed, it can be concluded that the genetics factor controlling twinning is not related to this mutation, which has been reported Booroola as a major gene previously.

Jemmali Borni,

2011-04-01

310

Sarcocystis arieticanis (Apicomplexa: Sarcocystidae) infecting the heart muscles of the domestic sheep, Ovis aries (Artiodactyla: Bovidae), from K. S. A. on the basis of light and electron microscopic data.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the present study, the heteroxenous life cycle of Sarcocystis species from three strains of the slaughtered sheep at Al-Azizia and Al-Saada abattoirs in Riyadh city, K.S.A., was studied. Muscle samples of the oesophagus, diaphragm, tongue, skeletal and heart muscles were examined. Varied natural infection rates in the muscles of the examined sheep strains were recorded as 83% in Niemy, 81.5% in Najdy and 90% in Sawakny sheep. Muscles of the diaphragm showed the highest infection level above all organs except Najdy sheep in which oesophagus has the highest rate. Also, the heart was the lowest infected organ (40% Niemy, 44% Najdy and 53% Sawakny). Microscopic sarcocysts of Sarcocystis arieticanis are easily identified in sections through the heart muscles of the domestic sheep Ovis aries (Artiodactyla: Bovidae). Cysts measured 38.5-64.4 ?m (averaged 42.66 ?m) in width and 62.4-173.6 ?m (averaged 82.14 ?m) in length. The validity of this species was confirmed by means of ultrastructural characteristics of the primary cyst wall (0.1-0.27 ?m thick) which revealed the presence of irregularly shaped crowded and hairy-like projections underlined by a thin layer of ground substance. This layer consisted mainly of fine, dense homogenous granules enclosing the developing metrocytes and merozoites that usually contain nearly all the structures of the apical complex and fill the interior cavity of the cyst. Several septa derived from the ground substance divided the cyst into compartments. The merozoites were banana-shaped and measured 12-16 ?m in length with centrally or posteriorly located nuclei. Experimental infection of carnivores by feeding heavily infected sheep muscles revealed that the dog, Canis familiaris, is the only final host of the present Sarcocystis species. Gamogony, sporogonic stages and characteristics of sporulated oocysts were also investigated. PMID:25112213

Al Quraishy, Saleh; Morsy, Kareem; Bashtar, Abdel-Rahman; Ghaffar, Fathy Abdel; Mehlhorn, Heinz

2014-10-01

311

Haemophilus somnus (Histophilus somni) in bighorn sheep  

OpenAIRE

Respiratory disease and poor lamb recruitment have been identified as limiting factors for bighorn-sheep populations. Haemophilus somnus (recently reclassified as Histophilus somni) is associated with respiratory disease in American bison, domestic sheep, and cattle. It is also harbored in their reproductive tracts and has been associated with reproductive failure in domestic sheep and cattle. Therefore, reproductive tract and lung samples from bighorn sheep were evaluated for the presence of...

Ward, Alton C. S.; Weiser, Glen C.; Anderson, Bruce C.; Cummings, Patrick J.; Arnold, Karen F.; Corbeil, Lynette B.

2006-01-01

312

Implementation in breeding programmes  

OpenAIRE

Genetic improvement is easy when selecting for one heritable and well-recorded trait at a time. Many industrialised national dairy herds have overall breeding indices that incorporate a range of traits balanced by their known or estimated economic value. Future breeding goals will contain more non-production traits and, in the context of this paper, traits associated with human health and cow robustness. The definition of Robustness and the traits used to predict it are currently fluid; howev...

Coffey, M. P.; Mcparland, S.; Bastin, Catherine; Wall, E.; Berry, D.; Veerkamp, R. P.

2013-01-01

313

Clinicopathological studies of gastrointestinal tract disorders in sheep with parasitic infection  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Aim: This study was envisaged to elucidate the parasitological aspects of gastrointestinal tract (GIT disorders of sheep. Materials and Methods: Fecal, blood and serum samples collected from 31 sheep/lambs of Sheep Breeding Farm, Lala Lajpat Rai University of Veterinary & Animal Sciences, Hisar. Results: Of 25 cases, strongyle eggs (12 cases, 48% were a major infection, followed by Strongyloides spp. (8 cases, 32% and Moniezia spp. (5 case, 20%. In one case, massive infection of strongyle particularly Haemonchus contortus and Moniezia spp. was observed. All these animals were found negative for hemoprotozoan parasites in blood smear examination. Hematological studies revealed that significantly decreased values of hemoglobin (Hb, packed cell volume (PCV and total erythrocytic count (TEC. Absolute leukocytic count revealed significant leukocytosis due to neutrophilia, lymphocytosis, monocytosis and eosinophilia. Serum biochemical profiles of diarrheic sheep/lambs in present study were significant decrease in values of total protein, serum globulin, glucose where as significant increase in the albumin: Globulin ratio, aspartate aminotransaminase (AST, alanine aminotransaminase (ALT, alkaline phosphatise (ALKP and bilirubin. Conclusions: From the present study, it is reasonable to conclude that major parasitic infection of sheep/lamb observed was strongyle, followed by Strongyloides spp. and Moniezia spp. Hemato-biochemical studies revealed significant leukocytosis and increase in AST, ALT, ALKP and bilirubin.

Sarvan Kumar

2015-01-01

314

Jute breeding in Bangladesh  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The evolution, domestication, variability and adaptation of fibre jutes in Bangladesh are described. Domestication of fibre jutes, in evolutionary terms, is recent and the spectrum of variability within them is narrow. Yield improvement by breeding has been minimal and the reasons for this are suggested. Recent germplasm collecting expeditions to the eastern hill tracts of Bangladesh have revealed wide-spectrum diversity among the vegetable jutes grown there. Variability among the vegetable types can be utilized to improve the fibre types and to this end various hybridization schemes have now been initiated by the Bangladesh Jute Research Institute. The initial breeding priority is yield per se but ideotype characteristics have been delineated. The objectives of the breeding programme are likely to become more specific as the agronomic worth of these characteristics becomes more clearly defined. The rationale for mutation breeding in jute has been the narrow-spectrum diversity within the fibre types; the wide-spectrum diversity among the hill tract vegetable jutes should, however, be exploited in imaginative hybridization programmes before resorting to large-scale mutation breeding programmes. Mutation breeding may, however, be a valuable tool for inducing changes in fibre quality characteristics when technologists identify new uses for jute and specify their requirements. At present, however, quality is assessed subjectively. (author) (author)

315

Sheep Production Occupations. Skills and Competencies.  

Science.gov (United States)

This report summarizes the findings of a national study to determine what skills and competencies are needed by beginning employees on sheep ranches and farms, lamb feedlots, and in the sheep shearing industry. The research procedure, which involved determining from the sheep industry the competencies needed by beginning employees in the thirteen…

Sabol, Joe

316

Prevalence of mange among West African Dwarf sheep and goats and associated haematological and biochemical parameters.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study was carried out to assess the prevalence of mange in sheep and goats in five local government areas (LGAs) of Ogun State in South Western Nigeria. A total of 4,973 sheep and 7,902 goats of West African Dwarf breeds were sampled of which only 4 (0.08%) of sheep and 42 (0.53%) of goats were confirmed positive for mange infestation. In all the LGAs sampled, Odeda LGA had the highest concentration of sheep (39%) and goats (51%) while Abeokuta South had the least percentage of sheep (1%) and goats (1%). All the mange-infested cases in sheep were recorded in just one LGA (Ewekoro) which constituted 0.24% of the population within the location. For goats, three out of five LGAs namely: Obafemi Owode, Ewekoro and Abeokuta North had prevalence of 1.46%, 0.53% and 0.72% respectively. There was no significant (P > 0.05) difference between non-infested and infested animals in terms of packed cell volume (31.79 ± 0.87% vs. 31.41 ± 1.13%), haemoglobin (10.51 ± 0.21 g/100 ml vs. 10.28 ± 0.37 g/100 ml) and red blood cells (8.71 ± 0.29 × 10(12)/l vs. 9.40 ± 0.37 × 10(12)/l). The infested group however showed significantly (P blood cells count (7.60 ± 0.22 × 10(9)/l) than the non-infested animals (6.81 ± 0.17 × 10(9)/l). Neutrophil, eosinophil, basophil and monocyte as well as chloride were not significantly affected by the health status of the animals. There existed significant (P Goats were particularly more susceptible to mange infestation than sheep. More concerted effort is needed to control mange in order to avoid spread since it is a contagious disease. PMID:22246540

Ogundiyi, Alex I; Bemji, Martha Nchang; Adebambo, Olufunmilayo A; Dipeolu, Morenike A; Onagbesan, Okanlawon M; James, Ikechwuku J; Osinowo, Olusegun A

2012-08-01

317

Microsatellite-based genetic diversity and population structure of domestic sheep in northern Eurasia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Identification of global livestock diversity hotspots and their importance in diversity maintenance is essential for making global conservation efforts. We screened 52 sheep breeds from the Eurasian subcontinent with 20 microsatellite markers. By estimating and weighting differently within- and between-breed genetic variation our aims were to identify genetic diversity hotspots and prioritize the importance of each breed for conservation, respectively. In addition we estimated how important within-species diversity hotspots are in livestock conservation. Results Bayesian clustering analysis revealed three genetic clusters, termed Nordic, Composite and Fat-tailed. Southern breeds from close to the region of sheep domestication were more variable, but less genetically differentiated compared with more northern populations. Decreasing weight for within-breed diversity component led to very high representation of genetic clusters or regions containing more diverged breeds, but did not increase phenotypic diversity among the high ranked breeds. Sampling populations throughout 14 regional groups was suggested for maximized total genetic diversity. Conclusions During initial steps of establishing a livestock conservation program populations from the diversity hot-spot area are the most important ones, but for the full design our results suggested that approximately equal population presentation across environments should be considered. Even in this case, higher per population emphasis in areas of high diversity is appropriate. The analysis was based on neutral data, but we have no reason to think the general trend is limited to this type of data. However, a comprehensive valuation of populations should balance production systems, phenotypic traits and available genetic information, and include consideration of probability of success.

Tapio Miika

2010-08-01

318

Relationship Between Gestation Length and Birth Weight in Nigerian Sheep and Their Crosses  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Effect of genotype and birth weight on gestation length was evaluated using Nigerian breeds of sheep and their crosses. The study was carried out at the Sheep Project Unit of Small Ruminant Research Programme (SRRP of National Animal Production Research Institute (NAPRI, Ahmadu Bello University, Shika-Zaria. The sheep breeds used were Balami, Uda and Yankasa. Heat (estrus detection was carried out twice daily; in the morning (07:00-08:00 hours; and in the evening (16:00-17:00 hours using apron fitted rams to pick does on heat. A total of 56 lambs were used for this study. The data obtained were subjected to analysis of variance using General Linear Model and Correlation Procedure of SAS. All the genotypes had similar gestation length with values between 150.3±0.61 days and 153.3±0.60 days, except for Balami pure breed (BAL X BAL lambs that recorded a shorter gestation length (137.1±0.81 days. There was a wide variation in the birth weight of lambs with the crosses between Balami rams and Yankasa ewes recording a distinct birth weight of 3.5±0.08 kg while the crosses obtained using Yankasa rams on Uda and Balami ewes gave the lowest birth weights (1.7±0.19 and 1.4±0.18, respectively. Sex and litter type have no significant effect (P>0.05 on gestation length. Birth weight was however affected by sex of lambs and their litter type. Litter type was negatively correlated with birth weight (-0.372. Gestation length had a low and non-significant relationship with birth weight; litter type and lamb genotype. Lamb genotype does not have a significant relationship with litter type. Genetic improvement of Nigeria sheep breed is possible if the resources of within and between breed is exploited. Selection for a reduction in gestation length may indirectly increase prolificacy. (Animal Production 12(3: 135-138 (2010Key Words : gestation length, birth weight, Nigerian Sheep

AO Iyiola-Tunji

2010-09-01

319

Economic values for resistance to gastrointestinal helminths in meat sheep in Kenya.  

Science.gov (United States)

Economic values for resistance to gastrointestinal (GI) helminths in meat sheep were estimated based on previously published genetic and phenotypic parameters in a selection index objectively optimizing gains on yearling weight (YW). A two-trait index of YW and faecal egg count (FEC) were considered when accounting only for tangible roles of sheep production using individual records for index calculation (scheme 1) or including individual, sire, dam and male paternal half-sib information (scheme 2). Schemes 3 and 4 were similar to schemes 1 and 2, respectively, but accounted for both tangible and intangible roles of sheep production. Economic values within each scheme were estimated for five breeding objectives as follows: (i) index response in YW equals response from single trait selection, (ii) index response in YW is maximum, (iii) the level of FEC was held constant, (iv) A predetermined response of -0.22 (x1000) eggs per gram was assumed and (v) Monetary value of response in FEC is minimum. All estimated economic values were negative, and were Kenya Shillings (KSh) -34.90 (US dollar -0.50), 0.00, -92.20 (US dollar -1.32), -153.31 (US dollar -2.19) and -47.90 (US dollar -0.68), respectively, for options 1-5 in scheme 1. In all schemes the breeding options ranked 4, 3, 5 and 1 in descending order; however, options 1 and 5 exchanged positions in schemes 2 and 4. Economic values were responsive to changes in heritability of FEC and genetic correlation between the two traits. The magnitude of the economic values reflects the importance of including resistance to GI helminths in the breeding objectives for meat sheep in different production systems. PMID:16130467

Gicheha, M G; Kosgey, I S; Bebe, B O; Kahi, A K

2005-06-01

320

THE EFFECTS OF VEGETABLE LECITHIN ON SOME SANGUINE BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS AT LACTATING SHEEP AND GOATS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available From a complex experiment of establishing the effects of lecithin supplemented in the diet of small ruminants, in this paper we present the influence of lecithin on some sanguine biochemical parameters at lactating sheep and goat. The researches were made on a experimental group formed by 5 sheep from ?urcana breed and 5 goats from Crapatina breed, which were fed in the first experimental period with a base ratio (Br formed by 1.5 kg of hill hay and 0.2 kg concentrate forage mixture, in the second experimental period the Br was supplemented with 100 g lecithin/day/animal. At the end of each experimental period were taken blood samples to establish some biochemical parameters from sanguine serum. The supplementation of base ration with 100 g lecithin/day/animal at lactating sheep and goats did not produced significant changes to values of total proteins (TS, albumin, creatinine, urea and total bilirubins (TB from sanguine serum. Contrary to expectation the cholesterol and triglycerides were higher than normal both in sheep (from 82 mg/dl to 83 mg/dl for cholesterol and from 23 mg/dl to 45 mg/dl for triglycerides but specially in goats (from 59 mg/dl to 68 mg/dl for cholesterol and from 24 mg/dl to 55 mg/dl for triglycerides. Were registered significant increment of activity of alkaline phosphatase and in ? – GT and a decrease of plasmatic activity of pancreatic ?-amylase both in sheep and goats.

D. DRINCEANU

2013-12-01

321

Preliminary Bluetongue Transmissions with the Sheep Ked Melophagus Ovinus (L.)*  

Science.gov (United States)

Five experiments indicated that the sheep ked MELOPHAGUS OVINUS (L.), can transmit bluetongue virus (BTV) in sheep. It was not determined whether these were mechanical or biological transmissions, although the results suggested mechanical transmission. Sheep keds were manually transferred from a BTV-host sheep to 18 susceptible test sheep. Of these, 10 were positive (5 with mild reactions), 6 questionable, and 2 negative for BTV. Three of the mildly reacting sheep and 3 of the questionable sheep had highly intensified reactions on challenge inoculation. Five of the positive sheep were immune on challenge inoculation. Blood from 2 positive reactors was subpassaged into susceptible sheep, which reacted with typical disease signs. PMID:4221988

Luedke, A. J.; Jochim, M. M.; Bowne, J. G.

1965-01-01

322

Preliminary bluetongue Transmission with the sheep ked Melophagus ovinus (L.).  

Science.gov (United States)

Five experiments indicated that the sheep ked MELOPHAGUS OVINUS (L.), can transmit bluetongue virus (BTV) in sheep. It was not determined whether these were mechanical or biological transmissions, although the results suggested mechanical transmission. Sheep keds were manually transferred from a BTV-host sheep to 18 susceptible test sheep. Of these, 10 were positive (5 with mild reactions), 6 questionable, and 2 negative for BTV. Three of the mildly reacting sheep and 3 of the questionable sheep had highly intensified reactions on challenge inoculation. Five of the positive sheep were immune on challenge inoculation. Blood from 2 positive reactors was subpassaged into susceptible sheep, which reacted with typical disease signs. PMID:4221988

Luedke, A J; Jochim, M M; Bowne, J G

1965-09-01

323

The characteristic of control day milk and its properties in ewes from different breeds in Bulgaria  

OpenAIRE

The aim was the investigation the milk and its composition for control day in local sheep breeds. The experiment was carried out with 19 Karakachan ewes and 21 West Balkan Mountain ewes from the flock of IAS-Kostinbrod and 15 Local Sofia ewes from a private flock from village Klisura. The study is a part of Bulgarian-Greece project for research of F1- crosses of Chios breed. The experimental ewes were mothers of F1 Chiosc crosses. The milk for day was recorded on first control during milking ...

Raicheva E.; Ivanova ?.; Kipriotis E.; Kistanova E.

2007-01-01

324

Linkage disequilibrium and inbreeding estimation in Spanish Churra sheep  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Genomic technologies, such as high-throughput genotyping based on SNP arrays, have great potential to decipher the genetic architecture of complex traits and provide background information concerning genome structure in domestic animals, including the extent of linkage disequilibrium (LD and haplotype blocks. The objective of this study was to estimate LD, the population evolution (past effective population size and the level of inbreeding in Spanish Churra sheep. Results A total of 43,784 SNPs distributed in the ovine autosomal genome was analyzed in 1,681 Churra ewes. LD was assessed by measuring r2 between all pairs of loci. For SNPs up to 10?kb apart, the average r2 was 0.329; for SNPs separated by 200–500?kb the average r2 was 0.061. When SNPs are separated by more than 50 Mbp, the average r2 is the same as between non-syntenic SNP pairs (0.003. The effective population size has decreased through time, faster from 1,000 to 100?years ago and slower since the selection scheme started (15–25 generations ago. In the last generation, four years ago, the effective population size was estimated to be 128 animals. Inbreeding coefficients, although differed depending on the estimation approaches, were generally low and showed the same trend, which indicates that since 2003, inbreeding has been slightly increasing in the studied resource population. Conclusions The extent of LD in Churra sheep persists over much more limited distances than reported in dairy cattle and seems to be similar to other ovine populations. Churra sheep show a wide genetic base, with a long-term viable effective population size that has been slightly decreasing since selection scheme began in 1986. The genomic dataset analyzed provided useful information for identifying low-level inbreeding in the sample, whereas based on the parameters reported here, a higher marker density than that analyzed here will be needed to successfully conduct accurate mapping of genes underlying production traits and genomic selection prediction in this sheep breed. Although the Ovine Assembly development is still in a draft stage and future refinements will provide a more accurate physical map that will improve LD estimations, this work is a first step towards the understanding of the genetic architecture in sheep.

García-Gámez Elsa

2012-06-01

325

Efeitos genéticos aditivos e não-aditivos em características de crescimento, reprodutivas e habilidade materna em ovinos das raças Santa Inês, Somalis Brasileira, Dorper e Poll Dorset / Additive and non-additive genetic effects on growth, reproductive and maternal traits in sheep of Santa Inês, Brazilian Somali, Dorper and Poll Dorset breeds  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Efeitos genético aditivo, de dominância e de recombinação em cruzamentos entre as raças Santa Inês (SI), Somalis Brasileira (So), Dorper (Do) e Poll Dorset (Po) foram estimados para as características de crescimento, reprodutivas e de habilidade materna. Os dados foram obtidos da Gaasa e Alimentos L [...] TDA, uma empresa que participa do Programa de Melhoramento Genético de Caprinos e Ovinos (GENECOC) da Embrapa Caprinos. Inicialmente, 3.573 registros foram analisados por meio do procedimento MIXED do pacote estatístico SAS (1999). As análises foram realizadas considerando os efeitos da diferença genética aditiva entre as raças, de dominância e de recombinação. O peso ao nascer foi influenciado pelos efeitos genéticos aditivos, enquanto o peso ao desmame e o ganho de peso pré-desmame foram influenciados por efeitos genéticos não-aditivos. A estimativa de herdabilidade direta para o peso ao nascer foi moderada, o que indica a existência de variabilidade genética passível de ser explorada por meio da seleção individual. Do mesmo modo, as estimativas de herdabilidade das características idade ao primeiro parto e peso total das crias ao nascer indicaram a existência de variabilidade genética para obter ganhos genéticos por meio da seleção. Os genes das raças Poll Dorset e Dorper tiveram papel importante para melhor desempenho ponderal, portanto, essas raças podem ser indicadas como paternas no cruzamento terminal. A utilização de matrizes F1 Santa Inês x Somalis Brasileira em cruzamentos com reprodutores Poll Dorset pode levar a maior eficiência reprodutiva. Abstract in english Additive genetic, dominance and recombination effects in breedings among Santa Inês (SI), Brazilian Somali (So), Dorper (Do) and Poll Dorset (Po) breeds were estimated for growth, reproductive and maternal hability traits. Data were obtained from Gaasa e Alimentos LTDA, a company that participates o [...] n the Programa de Melhoramento Genético de Caprinos e Ovinos (GENECOC) coordinated by Embrapa Caprinos. Initially, 3,573 records were analyzed using the MIXED procedure of the statistical package SAS (1999). The analyses were carried out considering the effects of additive genetic difference among breeds, dominance and recombination effects. Birth weight was mainly influenced by additive genetic effects, while weaning weight and pre-weaning weight gain were influenced by non-additive genetic effects. Direct heritability estimates for birth weight was moderate indicating that there is genetic variability believable to be exploited by individual selection. In the same way, heritability estimates for the traits age at first lambing and litter total weight at birth indicated the existence of genetic variability to obtain genetic gains through selection. Genes of the Poll Dorset and Dorper breeds had an important role for a better growth performance, therefore, these breeds can be indicated as sires in the terminal breeds. The use of F1 Santa Inês x Brazilian Somali females on crossbreeding with Poll Dorset rams can lead to a better reproductive efficiency.

Adriano Caminha, Barbosa Neto; Sônia Maria Pinheiro de, Oliveira; Olivardo, Facó; Raimundo Nonato Braga, Lôbo.

1943-19-01

326

Efeitos genéticos aditivos e não-aditivos em características de crescimento, reprodutivas e habilidade materna em ovinos das raças Santa Inês, Somalis Brasileira, Dorper e Poll Dorset Additive and non-additive genetic effects on growth, reproductive and maternal traits in sheep of Santa In??s, Brazilian Somali, Dorper and Poll Dorset breeds  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Efeitos genético aditivo, de dominância e de recombinação em cruzamentos entre as raças Santa Inês (SI, Somalis Brasileira (So, Dorper (Do e Poll Dorset (Po foram estimados para as características de crescimento, reprodutivas e de habilidade materna. Os dados foram obtidos da Gaasa e Alimentos LTDA, uma empresa que participa do Programa de Melhoramento Genético de Caprinos e Ovinos (GENECOC da Embrapa Caprinos. Inicialmente, 3.573 registros foram analisados por meio do procedimento MIXED do pacote estatístico SAS (1999. As análises foram realizadas considerando os efeitos da diferença genética aditiva entre as raças, de dominância e de recombinação. O peso ao nascer foi influenciado pelos efeitos genéticos aditivos, enquanto o peso ao desmame e o ganho de peso pré-desmame foram influenciados por efeitos genéticos não-aditivos. A estimativa de herdabilidade direta para o peso ao nascer foi moderada, o que indica a existência de variabilidade genética passível de ser explorada por meio da seleção individual. Do mesmo modo, as estimativas de herdabilidade das características idade ao primeiro parto e peso total das crias ao nascer indicaram a existência de variabilidade genética para obter ganhos genéticos por meio da seleção. Os genes das raças Poll Dorset e Dorper tiveram papel importante para melhor desempenho ponderal, portanto, essas raças podem ser indicadas como paternas no cruzamento terminal. A utilização de matrizes F1 Santa Inês x Somalis Brasileira em cruzamentos com reprodutores Poll Dorset pode levar a maior eficiência reprodutiva.Additive genetic, dominance and recombination effects in breedings among Santa Inês (SI, Brazilian Somali (So, Dorper (Do and Poll Dorset (Po breeds were estimated for growth, reproductive and maternal hability traits. Data were obtained from Gaasa e Alimentos LTDA, a company that participates on the Programa de Melhoramento Genético de Caprinos e Ovinos (GENECOC coordinated by Embrapa Caprinos. Initially, 3,573 records were analyzed using the MIXED procedure of the statistical package SAS (1999. The analyses were carried out considering the effects of additive genetic difference among breeds, dominance and recombination effects. Birth weight was mainly influenced by additive genetic effects, while weaning weight and pre-weaning weight gain were influenced by non-additive genetic effects. Direct heritability estimates for birth weight was moderate indicating that there is genetic variability believable to be exploited by individual selection. In the same way, heritability estimates for the traits age at first lambing and litter total weight at birth indicated the existence of genetic variability to obtain genetic gains through selection. Genes of the Poll Dorset and Dorper breeds had an important role for a better growth performance, therefore, these breeds can be indicated as sires in the terminal breeds. The use of F1 Santa Inês x Brazilian Somali females on crossbreeding with Poll Dorset rams can lead to a better reproductive efficiency.

Adriano Caminha Barbosa Neto

2010-09-01

327

Presence of SNPs in GDF9 mRNA of Iranian Afshari Sheep  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Multiple births occur frequently in some Iranian sheep breeds, while infertilityscarcely occurs. Mutation detection in major fecundity genes has been explored in most of Iraniansheep flocks over the last decade. However, previously reported single nucleotide polymorphisms(SNPs for bone morphogenetic protein receptor-(BMPR-1B and growth differentiation factor GDF9( known to affect fertility have not been detected. This study was conducted to assess whetherany significant mutations in GDF9 were extracted from slaughtered ewe ovaries of Iranian Afsharisheep breed.Materials and Methods: Ovaries defined as poor, fair, and excellent quality based on externalvisual appearance of follicles were used for histology and RNA extraction processes. High qualityRNAs underwent reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR from GDF9 mRNA,and the products sequenced.Results: No streak ovaries, which are considered indicators of infertility due to homozygocity forsome mutations in GDF9 and BMP15, were found. Sequencing results from GDF9 cDNA showedthat G2 (C471T, G3 (G477A, and G4 (G721A mutations were observed from 1, 4, and 1 out of12 ewes, respectively. Though all 3 mutations were previously reported, this is the first report ontheir presence in Iranian breeds. The first and second mutations do not alter the amino acids, whileG4 is a non-conservative mutation leading to E241K in the prohormone.Conclusion: As the G4 mutation was observed only in ovaries defined superficially as top quality,it could be considered as one of reasons for higher ovulation rate in some sheep. Furthermore sincemultiple mutations were observed in some cases, it might be possible that combinations of minormutations in GDF9 and BMP15 interact to affect fecundity in some Iranian sheep breeds.

Talat Saiedi

2012-01-01

328

Plant Breeding Activity  

Science.gov (United States)

This interactive activity goes through the basic process used in a traditional breeding program. Crossing, genetic variation, selection and elements of DNA technology are discussed within this activity. The material is aimed towards high school or introductory life science undergraduate students.

329

Wheat Breeding Activity  

Science.gov (United States)

This interactive activity goes through the basic process used in a wheat breeding program. Crossing, genetic variation, selection and elements of DNA technology are discussed within this activity. The material is aimed towards high school or introductory life science undergraduate students.

330

Hop Cultivars and Breeding  

Science.gov (United States)

Pest management decision making in hops varies among cultivars. Historically, the primary objective of hop breeding programs has been to increase the yield or characteristics associated with either bittering (high alpha-acids) or aroma (unique volatile oil profiles) cultivars. Other factors consid...

331

A comparison of some physical traits of Iraqi sheep wool  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study included analyzing data recorded of wool produced bales from Awassi, Karadi and Arabi sheep distributed in Mosul region, north and south of Iraq respectively for two years 2011 and 2012. Randomized samples were taken from these bales for dipped wool before shearing and raw wool (not dipped to study percentage of clean wool (CW, vegetable matter (VM and fiber diameter (FD. The results revealed a highly significant effects (P? 0.01 for the breeds and status of wool on these three traits, a significant effect (P? 0.05 for productive year only on (FD, and a highly significant effects (P? 0.01 for wool status on both (CW and (VM. No significant effects were noticed for the interactions between the three studied factors on the traits except for the interaction of productive year × wool status which affected significantly (P? 0.05 on (CW and (FD.

S.F. Al-Dabbagh

2014-06-01

332

Milk composition and feeding in the Italian dairy sheep  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Milk production represents a relevant quota of the energy consumption of the dairy ewe. Studies on relationships among  level of production, milk composition and metabolic aspects are the first fundamental step in the development of a feed-  ing system aimed at satisfying nutritive requirements of the animals. This paper reviews the knowledge about the milk  composition of main Italian dairy sheep breeds, the relationship among secretion kinetics of milk and protein and pro-  ductive level of animals, the algorithms used for estimating fat (6.5% and protein (5.8% corrected milk yield, the  evolution over time of milk production during lactation and the relationships between feeding and milk composition. 

Anna Nudda

2010-01-01

333

ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING BIRTH WEIGHT IN LOHI SHEEP  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Data on 3984 lambing records of 1285 Lohi ewes kept at the Livestock Production Reserch Institute, Bahadurnagar, Okara for the period 1960-90 were analyzed by using Harvey’s Mixed Model Least Squares and Maximum Likelihood Computer Programme. The purpose was to estimate the magnitude of various environmental sources of variation influencing birth weight in this breed of sheep. The least squares mean for birth weight was 3.59 ? 0.02 kg. The trait was significantly (P< 0.01 influenced by the year and season of birth, type of birth and the sex of the lamb born. The age of the dam also had significant effect on birth weight of the lamb; the younger ewes produced lighter (3.48 ? 0.02 kg lambs than older ewes (3.67 ? 0.03 kg.

M.E. Babar, Z. Ahmad, A. Nadeem and M. Yaqoob

2004-01-01

334

USE OF ULTRASONOGRAPHY FOR PREGNANCY DIAGNOSIS IN BALKHI SHEEP  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present study was conducted to determine the earliest stage of gestation at which pregnancy could be detected through transabdominal ultrasonography, to describe development characteristics of pregnancy from day 26 to day 60 of gestation, and to assess the accuracy of flock pregnancy diagnosis on day 75 after ram introduction in “Balkhi sheep” of Pakistan. A real time B-mode ultrasound scanner equipped with a 3.5 MHz probe was used for this purpose. A 100% accuracy of the pregnancy diagnosis was achieved at day 42 of gestation. Placentomes and leg buds were visible in 100% cases between 45 and 50 days of gestation, and vertebral column was apparent in 100% ewes between 51 and 55 days of gestation. Accuracy of flock pregnancy diagnosis was assessed by once only ultrasono- graphy at 75th day after introduction of ram in 71 ewes over two breeding seasons. Flock pregnancy test performed at this day was 97% accurate.

M. ANWAR, A. RIAZ, N. ULLAH AND M. RAFIQ

2008-07-01

335

Genetic correlations between growth and reproductive traits in Zandi sheep.  

Science.gov (United States)

For the first time, the current study reports the genetic and phenotypic correlations between growth and reproductive traits in Zandi sheep. The data were comprised of 4,309 records of lamb growth traits from 1,378 dams and 273 sires plus 2,588 records of reproductive traits from 577 ewes. These data were extracted from available performance records at Khojir Breeding Station of Zandi sheep in Tehran, Iran, from 1993 to 2008. Correlations were estimated from two animal models in a bivariate analysis using restricted maximum likelihood procedure between lamb growth traits [birth weight (BW), weaning weight at 3 months of age (WW), as well as six-month weight (6 MW)] and ewe reproductive traits [litter size at birth (LSB), litter size at weaning (LSW), total litter weight at birth (TLWB), and total litter weight at weaning (TLWW)]. The genetic correlations between BW and reproductive traits varied from low to high ranges from 0.10 for BW-LSB to 0.86 for BW-TLWB. WW was moderately (0.37) to highly (0.96) correlated with all the reproductive traits. Moreover, the genetic correlations were observed between 6 MW and reproductive traits, varied from 0.19 to 0.95. Relationships between growth and reproductive traits ranged from 0.01 for BW-LSW to 0.28 for BW-TLWB in phenotypic effects. Results indicated that selection to improve WW would have high effect on genetic response in TLWW, and also, these results could be effective for all of the reproductive traits in Zandi sheep. PMID:24705699

Mohammadi, Kourosh; Beigi Nassiri, Mohammad Taghi; Rahmatnejad, Enayat; Abdollahi-Arpanahi, Rostam; Hossaini, Seyed Mohammad Reza; Hagh Nadar, Saman

2014-06-01

336

Fast breeding nuclear reactor installation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The patent describes a closed-cycle cooling system for a fast-breeding nuclear reactor. The cooling flow is divided into two parts; one for the reactor core and one for the breeding section. A special feature of this system is that the outlet flow from the breeding section is mixed with the inlet for the reactor core

337

Power of Microsatellite Markers for Analysis of Genetic Variation and Parentage Verification in Sheep  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We report the genetic analysis of 100 individuals of an elite breeding flock of Afshari sheep with a selected set of eighteen microsatellite markers. A full characterization of this set of eighteen loci was carried out generating allele frequency distributions that were used to estimate the genetic information content of these loci, including genetic variability, inbreeding, individual and parent verification parameters. Disregarding MCMA26 monomorphic pattern, microsatellite loci showed moderate level of polymorphism, as such totally 102 alleles were detected with a mean number of 6 alleles per locus. The average expected heterozygosity was 0.72 (SD = 0.07 and the average Polymorphism Information Content (PIC was 0.67 (SD = 0.08. Total value of inbreeding based on marker data was estimated as -0.02 so it indicates that inbreeding occurred less than would be expected at random. The overall probability of identity considering all twelve independent loci combined was 3.148E-13 meaning lower than 1 in 31 trillions. The results of this study indicate, despite the selective breeding and closed flock system over a number of generations, a relatively high level of heterozygosity still exists in the representative sheep flock. The high degree of multiallelism and the clear and simple codominant Mendelian inheritance of the set of microsatellites used provide a powerful system for the unique identification of Afshari sheep individuals for fingerprinting purposes and parentage testing.

S. Qanbari

2007-01-01

338

Coenurus cerebralis infection in Ethiopian highland sheep: incidence and observations on pathogenesis and clinical signs.  

Science.gov (United States)

An investigation was carried out at Debre Berhan, Ethiopia, between 1996 and 1997, into the epidemiology of coenurosis in Menz and Horro breeds of sheep. A total of 37 heads from clinically sick and 183 heads from apparently healthy sheep were examined post mortem for the presence of the cystic larvae of Taenia multiceps, of which 37 and 5 heads, respectively, contained 1 to 8 coenurus cysts (diameter 0.8 to 6.5 cm). The bladder worms were located in the cerebral hemisphere in 96% of the cases (43% and 57% for left and right, respectively), 4% being in the cerebellum. Prediction of cyst locations based on the direction of circling and head deviation had a 62% success rate. A retrospective study generated from the health record book at the ILRI Debre Berhan Station in 1992-1996 (199 Horro and 174 Menz) revealed that the incidence of coenurosis ranged from 2.3% to 4.5%. There was no significant breed difference in the incidence. The age of the affected sheep ranged from 4 to 96 months, with a mean of 19.3 months, and 72% of the cases were within the range of 6 to 24 months. In a complementary survey on necropsied stray dogs, 8 out of 17 were positive for Taenia spp. Both studies confirm the endemicity of coenurosis at the ILRI Debre Berhan Research Station. Appropriate strategies for the control of coenurosis are suggested. PMID:10399813

Achenef, M; Markos, T; Feseha, G; Hibret, A; Tembely, S

1999-02-01

339

75 FR 43031 - National Sheep Industry Improvement Center  

Science.gov (United States)

...the production and marketing of sheep or goat products in the United States...capital and resources within the sheep or goat industries; (3) Provide assistance...the production and marketing of sheep, goats, and their products in the...

2010-07-23

340

75 FR 75867 - National Sheep Industry Improvement Center  

Science.gov (United States)

...enhance production and marketing of sheep or goat products in the United States...capital and resources within the sheep or goat industries; (3) Provide assistance to meet the needs of the sheep or goat industry for infrastructure...

2010-12-07

341

9 CFR 93.435 - Sheep and goats.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Canada, or New Zealand, provided that such goats have not had any contact with sheep during... (4) Wethers; (5) Sheep or goats imported for immediate slaughter; and (6) Wild sheep or goats imported for exhibition purposes to...

2010-01-01

342

Heat tolerance in Brazilian sheep: physiological and blood parameters.  

Science.gov (United States)

Thirty Santa Ines adult, non-lactating, non-pregnant ewes, ten with a brown coat, ten black coated and ten white coated, as well as ten Bergamasca and ten of mixed breed were used to evaluate the effect of climate on physiological and blood parameters in sheep. Two sample collections were taken (6 AM: and 2 PM: ) on six days. Sweating rate (SR), heart (HR) and breathing rates (BR), complete hemogram, rectal (RT) and skin temperatures (ST) were measured. Variance analyses were carried out using SAS(R). In general, there were significant differences between animals due to skin type, time and day of collection. White coated animals showed lower HR, BR and RT, with afternoon parameters higher than morning. Correlations between HR, BR, RT, SR and ST were medium and positive. Correlations between physiological and blood traits were in general negative and medium. Packed Cell Volume (PCV), total plasma proteins, red blood cell count and hemoglobin concentration had high positive correlations between each other. The first two autovectors explained 49% of variation between traits. White coated Santa Ines animals were shown to be better adapted to climatic conditions in Central Brazil and wool sheep more affected by heat. PMID:19052907

McManus, Concepta; Paludo, Giane Regina; Louvandini, Helder; Gugel, Rosilene; Sasaki, Luiz Cláudio Bastos; Paiva, Samuel Rezende

2009-01-01

343

An Abattoir Study on Hepatic Tumors of Sheep  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to assess the incidence and age distribution of hepatic tumors of sheep as well as study of their histopathologic characteristics. For this purpose, 3000 slaughtered sheep, consisting of 284 rams with approximate age of 7 to 20 months and 2716 ewes with approximate age of 3 to 7 years, were inspected during a routine postmortem examination. This study was conducted at Tabriz abattoir in the East Azerbaijan province of Iran, in a course of 8 months from March to November 2006. In this survey, two livers were encountered tumoral. Representative sections of the tumors were stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Gross and microscopic features of these tumors supported diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma and cholangiocellular carcinoma for a seven-years-old crossbreed ewe and a five-years-old native breed ewe respectively. In this survey, 0.074% of slaughtered ewes had hepatic neoplasia. That is, the prevalence of hepatocellular carcinoma and cholangiocellular carcinoma in aged ewes was equally 0.037% in this study.

D. Mohajeri

2008-01-01

344

Cytogenetical anchoring of sheep linkage map and syntenic groups using a sheep BAC library  

OpenAIRE

In order to simultaneously integrate linkage and syntenic groups to the ovine chromosomal map, a sheep bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library was screened with previously assigned microsatellites using a sheep-hamster hybrid panel and genetic linkage. Thirty-three BACs were obtained, fluorescently labelled and hybridised on sheep-goat hybrid metaphases ($2{\\rm n} = 57$). This study allowed us, (i), to anchor all linkage groups on sheep chromosomes, (ii), to give information on the prob...

Cribiu Edmond-Paul; Saïdi-Mehtar Nadhira; Vaiman Daniel; Oustry-Vaiman Anne; Tabet-Aoul Kamila; Lantier Frédéric

2000-01-01

345

Sheep is Sheep and Goat is Goat : Evaluation of Osteological Method With the Support of Archaeogenetics  

OpenAIRE

The difficullty to distinguish between sheep and goats is a well-known problem in archaeology and osteology. Distinguishing sheep and goats in archaeological animal remains takes time and time is often limited for osteologists. Because of this difficulty osteologists and archaeozoologists often use the term sheep/goat or ”ovicaprids” in their analytical reports. But even if the term sheep/goat comprise both species, this is often not the case when archaeologists and osteologists interpret...

Theorell, Hannes

2013-01-01

346

Sheep Behaviours During a Total Solar Eclipse  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, the effects of a total solar eclipse, which was occurred in Elaz?? on August 11 1999, on sheep behaviours, were observed. For this purpose, 150 sheeps open shelter have been observed for six hour, from 11:00 am to 5:00 pm. All behaviours of sheep that were different than usual were recorded during observation. Sheeps started to show different behaviours including standing up, smelling the weather and watching around 30 minutes before solar eclipse. Total solar eclipse was occurred between 2:37 and 2:39 pm. During total solar eclipse, it was observed that they become very quiet did not move, turned their faces to the sun. During solar eclipse, sheep behaviour was obseved different than normal sunset darkness. Sheep might behave similar during earthquake disaster with solar eclipse.

Orhan ?zbey

2004-01-01

347

Meat quality of goat and sheep sausages  

OpenAIRE

The main objective of this work was to contribute to the characterization of a new product, based on goat and sheep meat with a strategy, which gives value-added to meat from culled goats and sheep, which have a very low commercial price. Carcasses from animals weighing more than the body weight allowed by PDO label specifications were used to produce fresh sausages. Sheep and goats sausages were produced in a traditional industry, in Northeast Portugal. The following character...

Teixeira, A.; Pereira, Etelvina; Rodrigues, Sandra

2012-01-01

348

Production and milk quality of Pag sheep  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available eep milk production and processing in last ten years show significant increase in Croatia. Market has recognized the product quality of sheep milk, so today even more number of cheese producers is interested for obtaining the protected geographical indication of products. Because of specific climate conditions on island Pag, as well as specific herbal cover, numerous aromatic plant varieties, milk, i.e. cheese, has specific taste and smell which consumers recognize, search and appreciate. Because of milk production increase and achieving better quality, production regularly controls and chemical composition analyzes and hygiene quality of sheep milk are conducted. In that propose during 2003 and 2004 years, research was carried out, which had for aim to explore milk quality of Pag sheep and to determine influence of paragenetic factors (year - climate on production, chemical composition (milk fat and proteins content and hygiene milk quality (number of somatic cells count, in two herds (A and B. Climate characteristics in 2003 and 2004 were different, regarding precipitations quantity and vegetation. Milking capacity control was carried out according to AT method. Chemical composition analyzes and hygiene quality of milk was carried out with infrared spectrometry and fluoro-opto-electronic method. During milking period in 2004, on island Pag, there were considerably more precipitations and due to the fact, vegetation was exuberant, which influenced on bigger total milk production in lactation (P<0.01 regarding to 2003. Average milk fat content (% in milk was in 2003 on family farm A, higher regarding on family farm B (P<0.01. However, because of higher quantities of produced milk on family farm B, total yield of milk fat (9.43 kg was higher (P<0.01 regarding to family farm A (7,93 kg. During 2004, differences in milk fat yield were very small and were not significant. Average daily milk quantity was from 689 mL (year 2003 to 940 mL (year 2004 on family farm A, apropos from 840 mL (year 2003 to 850 mL (year 2004 on family farm B. Between individual production features and individual milk quality parameters, significant correlations coefficients were determined. Based on results, it can be concluded that influence of paragenetic factors on individual production features and milk quality was significant.

Zoran Vukašinovi?

2008-02-01

349

Managing Genetic Variation to Conserve Genetic Diversity in Goats and Sheep  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Domestic goat and sheep populations maintained for many generations with small numbers of male and female parents, or declining in total numbers, not only endure accumulated genetic drift but also a steady rise in inbreeding, which can be directly attributed to dispersive forces of evolutionary significance that influence gene frequency. Increasing effective population size shows theoretical promise in lessening the impact on erosion of biodiversity from genetic drift. For example, doubling the effective numbers of parents which increases effective population size reduces rate of inbreeding by nearly one-half in many of the scenarios in the present study. Similarly, equalizing the number of male and female parents can decrease the variance among progeny of each parent, which in turn increases effective population size. The recurring erosion of domestic goat and sheep diversity has contributed to decreased fecundity, reduced fitness and poor adaptability, all known to influence efficiency of production. The potential loss in performance of livestock and poultry following many generations of accumulated genetic drift, which often goes unnoticed, can be predicted for specific populations from precise estimates of their mean value, additive genetic variance and heritability along with their effective number of male and female parents. For example, when the effective population size decreases from 200 to 40, the potential reduction in mean performance for economically important traits of goat and sheep populations following 20 generations of accumulated genetic drift will nearly double. In contrast, increasing effective population size from 200 to 600 will have the potential reduction in mean performance. The accumulation of favourable mutations could imply an effective population size of 100 or more, which is equal to a rise in rate of inbreeding of 0.5% or less, may be acceptable in sustaining genetic response to artificial selection in commercial breeding populations. The application of quantitative genetic principles related to inbreeding and genetic drift make it possible to safeguard against erosion of genetic diversity in endangered breeds, populations and landraces while lessening the impact from potential loss in their performance. Conservation of domestic animal diversity can be achieved by managing the erosion of genetic variation based on breeding strategies which promote the mating of sires to all dams, in either ‘random bred’ or ‘balanced pedigreed’ breeding structure for populations of endangered domestic goats and sheep. Obviously, the in-situ and ex-situ conservation of live animals, along with cryogenic preservation of their gametes, stem cells, somatic cells, blood and gonads will be complementary to conservation breeding.

J. N. B. Shrestha

2010-01-01

350

Sheep Behaviours During a Total Solar Eclipse  

OpenAIRE

In this study, the effects of a total solar eclipse, which was occurred in Elaz?? on August 11 1999, on sheep behaviours, were observed. For this purpose, 150 sheeps open shelter have been observed for six hour, from 11:00 am to 5:00 pm. All behaviours of sheep that were different than usual were recorded during observation. Sheeps started to show different behaviours including standing up, smelling the weather and watching around 30 minutes before solar eclipse. Total solar eclipse was occur...

Orhan ?zbey

2004-01-01

351

Updates on morphobiology, epidemiology and molecular characterization of coenurosis in sheep.  

Science.gov (United States)

Taenia multiceps (Leske, 1780) is a taeniid cestode that in its adult stage lives in the small intestine of dogs and other canids. The metacestode, previously known as Coenurus cerebralis, is usually found in the nervous system including brain and spinal cord in sheep and other ruminants. The presence of cysts typically leads to neurological symptoms that in the majority of cases result in the death of the animal from starvation after some weeks. Coenurosis could cause high losses in sheep farms because the disease affects young animals that the farmers grow up each year as replacements of the older individuals. Coenurosis is also a zoonosis with more than 100 human cases described in literature, of which the last in Italy and almost 5 reported in Sardinia. In the last years, the popularity of coenurosis has increased in sheep breedings because of the necessity to operate a differential diagnosis from another neurological disease, scrapie, particularly in atypical cases of coenurosis that could occur also in adult (2-3 years of age) sheep. PMID:16881398

Scala, A; Varcasia, A

2006-06-01

352

Pleural Mesothelioma in a Sheep  

OpenAIRE

The lung from a 4 years old sheep with history of respiratory distress due to presence of cauliflower-like masses on its surface was referred to Department of Pathobiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Shahrekord. After gross examination, for histopathological examination of these masses, tissue samples were taken, processed in routine way and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Microscopically, proliferation of visceral pleural mesothelial cells produced papillary projection...

Karimi, I.; Nourani, H.; Mahzounieh, M.

2006-01-01

353

Feeding cassava foliage to sheep  

OpenAIRE

The potential of cassava foliage (Manihot esculenta Crantz) as a protein-rich feed in sheep production in Vietnam was examined by studying cassava foliage yield, hydrogen cyanide (HCN) content, toxicity and performance of lambs fed the foliage as a supplement. Cassava foliage fed ad libitum as a protein supplement to a basal diet of urea-treated rice straw gave similar lamb live weight gain (LWG) as diets supplemented with commercial concentrate or protein-rich foliage of stylosanthes (S...

Hue, Khuc Thi

2012-01-01

354

Estimation of genetic parameters and genetic trends for weight and body measurements at birth in sheep populations in Thailand  

OpenAIRE

The main objective of this study was to estimate the genetic parameters and genetic trends for birth weight (BW),heart girth (HG), and body length (BL) at birth of sheep populations in Thailand. Data were collected during 1998 to 2011 fromfour livestock research and testing stations. Fixed effect testing showed that sex, herd, contemporary group and breed groupgreatly influenced on the investigated traits (P<0.05). The log likelihood ratio test showed that all traits significantly affectedby ...

China Supakorn; Winai Pralomkarn; Suwit Anothaisinthawee

2013-01-01

355

Proteogenomics of selective susceptibility to endotoxin using circulating acute phase biomarkers and bioassay development in sheep: a review  

OpenAIRE

Scientists have injected endotoxin into animals to investigate and understand various pathologies and novel therapies for several decades. Recent observations have shown that there is selective susceptibility to Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) endotoxin in sheep, despite having similar breed characteristics. The reason behind this difference is unknown, and has prompted studies aiming to explain the variation by proteogenomic characterisation of circulating acute phase biomarkers. I...

Chemonges, Saul; Tung, John-paul; Fraser, John F.

2014-01-01

356

Occupational allergy in an entomological research centre. I. Clinical aspects of reactions to the sheep blowfly Lucilia cuprina.  

OpenAIRE

Twenty eight per cent (15) of 53 workers engaged in a sheep blowfly breeding programme designed to control genetically the pest Lucilia cuprina experienced allergic manifestations resulting from contact with this insect. The most common symptoms were rhinitis, affected eyes, rashes, and lower respiratory symptoms, usually, but not always, immediate in type. A personal history of non-insect related asthma, allergic rhinitis, or eczema, or a combination of these was more common in the fly aller...

Kaufman, G. L.; Gandevia, B. H.; Bellas, T. E.; Tovey, E. R.; Baldo, B. A.

1989-01-01

357

The sheep blowfly genetic control program in Australia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The blowfly Lucilia cuprina is the most important myiasis pet of sheep in Australia. Other species are associated with sheep myiasis, but L. cuprina is probably responsible for initiating more than 90% of infestations. Annual costs of production losses, prevention and treatment have been estimated at $149 millions in 1985. Prevention and treatment encompass both insecticidal applications to sheep and non-chemical management practices. In the absence of effective preventive measures, the sheep industry would be non-viable over much of Australia. Insecticide usage against L. cuprina has been marked by the appearance of widespread resistance to cyclodienes in 1956, the organophosphates in 1965, and carbamates in 1966. Resistance has not yet been reported against the triazine compounds introduced for blowfly control in 1981. The most effective non-chemical control measures are surgical (removal of skin from the breech in certain breeds of sheep, and tail-docking). They protect sheep by reducing favourable oviposition sites (dung and urine-stained wool). The spectre of insecticide resistance and the early success of the sterile insect technique (SIT) against screwworm fly in the U.S.A., led this Division to consider SIT and other autocidal methods in the 1960s. The L. cuprina genetics research program was established in 1966 and subsequently expanded in 1971. More recently, lobbying by animal welfare groups against surgical blowfly control practices, as well as increasing consumer awareness of insecticide residues in animal products, have accelerated the search for alternatives to chemical control. When SIT was first considered for L. cuprina control in 1960, little was known about the population dynamics of L. cuprina. There were insufficient ecological data to evaluate the prospects of alternative strategies such as suppression or containment. The number of flies which would have to be released in a SIT program was unknown, as were the costs. Assuming that the cost of SIT against L. cuprina in Australia would be similar to that reported for screwworm in Florida, the costs of a SIT campaign were estimated to be several times the potential annual benefits. The discover of meiotic drive (MD) in Drosophila rekindled interest in autocidal control and triggered establishment of the L. cuprina genetics research program in 1966. Subsequent research failed to detect MD systems suitable for genetic control, but by 1970 it was recognised that strains carrying chromosome rearrangements might be more cost-effective than SIT. This led in 1971 to expansion of the genetics and strain development program, and establishment of an ecological research program (quantification of population dynamics). Both programs have been enormously successful. Not only have they enabled the development and successful field testing of a genetic method of suppressing sheep blowfly populations, but they have increased our knowledge of this pest to the stage where a simulation model of genetic control (GENCON), which incorporates both genetic and ecological data, is a valuable tool in strain design, selection of control strategies, and evaluation of field trial data. Comparison using computer simulations, of SIT with female-killing (FK) systems based on sex-linked translocations, suggests that with a suppression and containment strategy, the latter would provide greater benefits for less cost than SIT. Moreover, our projections indicate that large-scale genetic control would be less costly and more effective than the current system based on insecticides and other pest control practices

358

Ulcerative balanitis and vulvitis of Dorper sheep in South Africa : a study on its aetiology and clinical features  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ovine ulcerative balanitis and vulvitis in sheep of the Dorper breed has been observed in South Africa since 1979. Its aetiology has not been conclusively resolved, and there is some discrepancy in descriptions of its clinical features. In order to identify the pathogenic microorganism / s that contribute to the occurrence of the disease, the microflora in the genital tracts of both clinically healthy and affected sheep were isolated and compared. Bacteriological examination of materials from affected and unaffected sheep resulted in the isolation of Arcanobacterium pyogenes from 44.2 % and 17.2 % of them respectively. This difference is statistically significant (P < 0.01. Seventy-four per cent of the isolates originated from severe clinical cases. Mycoplasmas were isolated from 49.3 % of 116 clinically normal sheep and 78.2%of 104 affected sheep. There were significant differences in their rates of isolation in clinical groups (P < 0.05. Of all the mycoplasma isolates, Mycoplasma mycoides mycoides large colony variant (MmmLC was isolated from 61.5 % of clinically diseased sheep while 6.0 % of the isolates were from apparently healthy animals (P < 0.05. The study threw light on the prevalence of mycoplasmas in the genital tract of apparently healthy sheep and, at the same time the identity of the mycoplasma pathogen associated with ulcerative balanitis and vulvitis was revealed. The findings of this investigation therefore confirmed the involvement of mycoplasma, particularly that of MmmLC large colony, in the disease in Dorper sheep in South Africa, and it was concluded that this microorganism is an important pathogen of balanitis and vulvitis in them. The study furthermore demonstrated a probable synergism between A. pyogenes and MmmLC. Finding these 2 organisms together occurred 53.4 times more frequently in the affected sheep than in the unaffected, which emphasises the probable multifactorial nature of the disease. The association between age and the presence of clinical signs was statistically significant. It was found that young sheep were more likely to have lesions than adult sheep. Clinical observations showed that the typical ulceration appears to be confined to the glans penis and lips of the vulva; no ulceration was observed on the shaft of the penis and prepuce or vaginal vestibule. In uncomplicated cases inflammation of the prepuce and vaginal vestibule is not a regular feature of the disease. Therefore the names ulcerative balanitis and vulvitis most accurately describe the nature of the disease in South Africa.

B. Gummow

2012-06-01

359

Garlic breeding system innovations  

OpenAIRE

This review outlines innovative methods for garlic breeding improvement and discusses the techniques used to increase variation like mutagenesis and in vitro techniques, as well as the current developments in florogenesis, sexual hybridization, genetic transformation and mass propagation. Sexual sterility of garlic reduces its potential for improvement of desired traits. Restoring fertility in this crop, which has been vegetatively propagated for millenia, provides new genetic possibilities f...

Zheng, S. J.; Kamenetsky, R.; Fe?re?ol, L.; Barandiaran, X.; Rabinowitch, H. D.; Chovelon, V.; Kik, C.

2007-01-01

360

Biotechnology in soybean breeding  

OpenAIRE

Biotechnology can be defined broadly as a set of tools that allows scientists to genetically characterize or improve living organisms. Several emerging technologies, such as molecular characterization and genetic transformation, are already being used extensively for the purpose of plant improvement. Other emerging sciences, including genomics and proteomics, are also starting to impact plant improvement. Tools provided by biotechnology will not replace classical breeding methods, but rather ...

Sudari? Aleksandra; Vratari? Marija; Mladenovi?-Drini? Snežana; Matosa Maja

2010-01-01

361

Mutation breeding in peas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The pea as an ancient crop plant still today has wide uses and is an import source of food protein. It is also an important object for genetic studies and as such has been widely used in mutation induction experiments. However, in comparison with cereals this ancient crop plant (like several other grain legumes) has gained relatively little from advances in breeding. The review focuses on the prospects of genetic improvement of pea by induced mutations, discusses principles and gives methodological information. (author)

362

Genetic Variability and Population Structure in Beta-lactoglobulin, Calpastain and Calpain Loci in Iranian Kurdi Sheep  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract: The genotypes for Beta-Lactoglobulin (BLG and calpastatin (CAST were determined by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR and restriction enzyme digestion and genotyped for calpain (CAPN by PCR-SSCP method in an Iranian breed sheep, Kurdi. Blood samples were collected from 100 pure bred Kurdi sheep from Kurdi breeding station located in Shirvan, Mashhad. The extraction of genomic DNA was based on Guanidin Thiocyanate-Silica gel method. After PCR reaction, amplicons were digested with restriction enzymes MspI and RsaI for beta-lactoglobulin and calpastatin genes, respectively. The beta-lactoglobulin locus had 3 genotypes with frequencies of 0.24, 0.54 and 0.22 for AA, AB and BB, respectively; calpastatin genotypes had 2 genotypes with frequencies of 0.76 and 0.24 for MM and MN genotypes, respectively. Calpain genotypes were analyzed with SSCP method, which had 2 genotypes with frequencies of 0.92 and 0.08 for AA and AB, respectively. Heterozygosity value for beta-lactoglobulin locus was 49% and for calpastatin and calpain loci was very low (24 and 8%, respectively. ?2 test confirmed the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium for three loci in this population. These data provide evidence that Iranian’s Kurdi sheep breed have a variability, which opens interesting prospects for future selection programs, especially marker-assistant selection between different genotypes of different locus and milk and cheese characteristics, gain and meat traits and also for preservation strategies.

Mohammad Reza Nassiry

2007-01-01

363

The efficacy of the product Albendazole 10% of gastrointestinal nematode parasitism in sheep tested  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Trichostrongylids are helminths of ruminants, located gastro intestinally. The disease generated by them is clinically manifested mainly by: diarrhea, weight loss, anemia and cachexia. They are produced by parasites belonging to the family Trichostrongylidae with genres: Ostertagia, Haemonchus, Trichostrongylus, Cooperia and Nematodirus. The study was accomplished in 2013 in Hidiseul de Sus village, Bihor County, and aimed to test the effectiveness of the Albendazole 10% in the natural infestations with gastrointestinal nematodes in sheep. Sheep studied consisted of 60 individuals from Turcana breed. Feces were examined by flotation method and to know the infestation level McMaster method was used, calculating the EPG value on day 0 of treatment, day 7 and day 14 post treatments. Anthelmintic efficacy (E% of the used product was of 97.03% after the FECRT formula. For a more meaningful expression it was used also Presidente and Borgsteede relations, where the result of efficiency for the tested product was 98% for both formulas.

Florin Stefan Hora

2014-12-01

364

The evolution of intermittent breeding.  

Science.gov (United States)

A central issue in life history theory is how organisms trade off current and future reproduction. A variety of organisms exhibit intermittent breeding, meaning sexually mature adults will skip breeding opportunities between reproduction attempts. It's thought that intermittent breeding occurs when reproduction incurs an extra cost in terms of survival, energy, or recovery time. We have developed a matrix population model for intermittent breeding, and use adaptive dynamics to determine under what conditions individuals should breed at every opportunity, and under what conditions they should skip some breeding opportunities (and if so, how many). We also examine the effect of environmental stochasticity on breeding behavior. We find that the evolutionarily stable strategy (ESS) for breeding behavior depends on an individual's expected growth and mortality, and that the conditions for skipped breeding depend on the type of reproductive cost incurred (survival, energy, recovery time). In constant environments there is always a pure ESS, however environmental stochasticity and deterministic population fluctuations can both select for a mixed ESS. Finally, we compare our model results to patterns of intermittent breeding in species from a range of taxonomic groups. PMID:23076830

Shaw, Allison K; Levin, Simon A

2013-03-01

365

Experimental infection of sheep and goats with a recent isolate of peste des petits ruminants virus from Kurdistan.  

Science.gov (United States)

Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is a contagious viral disease of sheep and goats common in Africa and Asia. Its high morbidity and mortality has a devastating impact on agriculture in developing countries. As an example, an Asian lineage IV strain of PPRV was responsible for mass fatalities among wild goats in Kurdistan in 2010/2011. In separate experiments, three sheep and three goats of German domestic breeds were subcutaneously inoculated with the Kurdish virus isolate; three uninfected sheep and goats were housed together with the inoculated animals. All inoculated animals, all in-contact goats and two in-contact sheep developed high fever (up to 41.7 °C), depression, severe diarrhea, ocular and nasal discharge as well as ulcerative stomatitis and pharyngitis. Infected animals seroconverted within a few days of the first detection of viral genome. Clinical signs were more pronounced in goats; four out of six goats had to be euthanized. Necropsy revealed characteristic lesions in the alimentary tract. Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) RNA was detected in blood as well as nasal, oral and fecal swabs and tissues. The 2011 Kurdish strain of PPRV is highly virulent in European goats and spreads easily to in-contact animals, while disease severity and contagiosity in sheep are slightly lower. PPRV strains like the tested recent isolate can have a high impact on small ruminants in the European Union, and therefore, both early detection methods and intervention strategies have to be improved and updated regularly. PMID:24908276

Wernike, Kerstin; Eschbaumer, Michael; Breithaupt, Angele; Maltzan, Julia; Wiesner, Henning; Beer, Martin; Hoffmann, Bernd

2014-08-01

366

SCREENING OF BREEDING BULLS OF DIFFERENT BREEDS THROUGH KARYOTYPING  

OpenAIRE

A study of chromosomal analysis for 200 breeding bulls of different breeds of cattle (Jersey, Holstein Friesian, Sahiwal and Cross-bred) and Nili-Ravi buffalo, maintained at Semen Production Unit, Qadirabad and Livestock Experiment Station, Bhunikey (Pattoki) was carried out. Micromethod was adopted for leukocyte culture and chromosomes were trapped at metaphase stage. The diploid number of chromosomes in all breeds of cattle was found to be 60 (58 autosomes and 2 sex chromosomes: XY), while ...

I Ahmad, K. Javed And A. Sattar

2004-01-01

367

Reverse breeding: a novel breeding approach based on engineered meiosis  

OpenAIRE

Reverse breeding (RB) is a novel plant breeding technique designed to directly produce parental lines for any heterozygous plant, one of the most sought after goals in plant breeding. RB generates perfectly complementing homozygous parental lines through engineered meiosis. The method is based on reducing genetic recombination in the selected heterozygote by eliminating meiotic crossing over. Male or female spores obtained from such plants contain combinations of non-recombinant parental chro...

Dirks, R.; Dun, K. P. M.; Snoo, B.; Berg, M.; Lelivelt, C. L. C.; Voermans, W.; Woudenberg, L.; Wit, J. P. C.; Reinink, K.; Schut, J. W.; Jong, J. H. S. G. M.; Wijnker, T. G.

2009-01-01

368

Effect of urea-treated sorghum stover supplemented with local protein sources on the performance of sheep  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Feeding trials were carried out on-farm to examine the effect of supplementing urea treated sorghum stover (UTSS) with sesame cake (SC) or fishmeal (FM) on the body weight of sheep. Twenty-one male sheep were divided into three groups of seven sheep in each treatment. All the sheep used in this experiment were from the same breed (Gerej), with the same age and initial body weight from the same area. The experiment was conducted in Gash Barka, western lowlands of Eritrea. All the animals were fed on UTSS for an adaptation period of 15 d. The control diet consisted of UTSS fed ad libitum. The second and third treatments consisted of UTSS fed ad libitum supplemented daily with 80 g/head of SC and 60 g/head of FM, respectively. The experimental period lasted for 90 d. Feed intakes and body weights were recorded regularly. The dry matter intake (DMI) in sheep was significantly different (P < 0.05) between the control and SC supplemented groups, but not between the other treatments. It was highest for the SC supplemented group at 847 g/head/day followed by the FM supplemented group and the control at 826 and 821 g/head/day, respectively. Sheep supplemented with SC had the highest significant (P < 0.05) body weight gain (BWG) (134 g/head/day) followed by the group supplemented with FM (115 g/head/day). The BWG for the control was 66 g/head/day. Feed conversion was best on SC (6.92) followed by FM (7.70) supplementation. The lowest cost of feed per kg of BWG (16.91e lowest cost of feed per kg of BWG (16.91 Nfa) was attained by supplementing with SC. It can be concluded that feeding UTSS alone or supplementing with small amounts of sesame cake or fishmeal can increase the live weight of sheep at a reasonable cost. (author)

369

Costs Associated with Equine Breeding in Kentucky  

Science.gov (United States)

There were approximately 9 million horses in the United States having a 102 billion impact on the U.S. economy (AHC, 2005). Over 1 million of those horses were involved in the breeding sector. In Kentucky, nearly 18% of the horse population have been involved in breeding. Managing an equine enterprise can be difficult, particularly given that many who undertake such endeavors do not have a background or education in business management. Kentucky Cooperative Extension has produced interactive spreadsheets to help horse owners better understand the costs associated with owning horses or managing certain equine businesses, including boarding and training operations. However, there has been little support for breeders. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to provide owners with a list of services offered for breeding and the costs associated with those services. Survey questions were created from a list of topics pertinent to equine breeding and from that list of questions, an electronic survey was created. The survey was sent via Qualtrics Survey Software to collect information on stallion and mare management costs as well as expenses related to owning and breeding. Question topics included veterinary and housing costs, management and advertising expenses, and membership fees. A total of 78 farms were selected from the 2013 breeder's listings for the Kentucky Quarter Horse Association (n = 39) and the Kentucky Thoroughbred Farm Managers' Club (n = 26), and other breed association contacts (n = 13). These farms were selected from the lists by outside individuals who were not related to the project. Participants were asked to answer all questions relevant to the farm. After the initial survey distribution, follow-up e-mails and phone calls were conducted in order to answer any questions participants might have had about the survey. Survey response rate was 32.1% (25 of 78 surveys returned). Farms in Kentucky had an average of two farm-owned and two outside stallions standing at stud. Artificial insemination was offered by 48% of the breeders. Of those that offered artificial insemination, only 2 farms provided frozen semen. Also of interest, 2 farms offered embryo transfer services. Farms spent approximately 13,536/year on advertising and 7,864/year on health care management of the stallions. The majority of farms that bred outside mares (13 of 25) bred fewer than 50 mares per year (n = 10). Outside mares were considered to be those that were transported to the farm for breeding. Some of those remained on the farm for mare care while others returned home after confirmed with foal. Approximately 70% of the farms gave discounts to individuals who bred multiple mares to the same stallion or farm. Over 85% of the farms surveyed provided mare care including breeding and foaling, though the number of days mares received care varied significantly. The average cost for mare care was 18.29 per day. All but one respondent provided a live foal guarantee. Breeding horses in Kentucky has been very important facet of the equine industry. However, many people who consider breeding a horse have little understanding of the costs associated with the process. The data provided by this study will be used to create a spreadsheet to assist people interested in breeding to better understand the financial considerations of this type of enterprise.

Walker, Cassandra L.

370

The evidence of associations between prion protein genotype and production, reproduction, and health traits in sheep.  

Science.gov (United States)

The EU Commission issued a regulation in 2003, which requires all member states to implement a breeding programme for resistance to transmissible spongiform encephalopathies in sheep by selecting for specific alleles of the prion protein (PrP) gene. A key concern with regard to this regulation was that the intensive selection programmes, designed to increase resistance to scrapie, may have a negative impact on a range of other economically important production, reproduction, and disease traits in sheep. Such problems could arise for a number of reasons. Firstly, a number of breeds have a low frequency of the resistant PrP allele. Secondly, there may be a negative association between the resistant allele and animal performance. Thirdly, selection for scrapie resistance may reduce the rate of improvement towards current breeding goals. The evidence concerning the relationship between PrP genotype and reproduction, production, and disease traits is the subject of this review. We conclude that there is no evidence for a negative association between PrP genotype and reproduction traits (e.g. litter size), lamb performance traits (e.g. growth rate, conformation, carcass composition) or milk production. There is, however, a distinct paucity of information on the relationship between the PrP gene and disease traits. In this context it is noted that there are a number of genes located on chromosome 13, in close proximity to the PrP gene, that are involved in intracellular cell signalling, apoptosis, phagocytosis, and immune function. Thus further direct studies of key disease traits associated with sheep production systems are warranted. PMID:18284907

Sweeney, Torres; Hanrahan, John P

2008-01-01

371

Paratuberculose em caprinos e ovinos no Estado da Paraíba Paratuberculosis in goats and sheep in the state of Paraiba  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mediante o teste de ELISA foi determinada a presença de anticorpos para Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (map em amostras de soro de 734 caprinos e 392 ovinos, sem sinais clìnicos aparentes, provenientes de 14 Municipios do semiárido Paraibano. Em caprinos, a frequência média de anticorpos de 44,86± 22,91% e em ovinos foi de 52,96±31,49. Das 46 propriedades estudadas, 44 (95,65% apresentaram pelo menos um animal soropositivo. Nos 14 municípios avaliados houve presença de animais sorologicamente positivos, variando de 20% a 70%. Em caprinos sem raça definida e mestiços a frequência (48,56% foi significativamente inferior (PAntibodies to paratuberculosis were determined by ELISA in serum samples of 734 goats and 392 sheep, without clinical signs, from 14 municipalities of the semiarid region of Paraíba state, Brazil. In goats, average frequency of antibodies was 44.86±22.91% and in sheep was 52.96±31.49%. All municipalities had affected animals with a frequency varying from 20% to 70%. In goats of unknown breed and crossbreds the prevalence (48.56% was significantly lower (P=0.0270 than in pure breed goats (57.24%. In sheep with body scores of 1 to 3, the frequency (59.39% was significantly higher (P=0.0034 than in sheep with body score from 3 to 5 (42.42%. No significant differences were observed in goats and sheep of different ages, in goats with different body score, and in sheep of different breeds. In the microbiologic examination, after 16 weeks of incubation in HEYM medium with mycobactin J, colonies similar to those of do Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuber culosis were observed in cultures of 9 (6.58% out of 180 fecal samples, being one from goats and 8 from sheep. In the Ziehl Nieelsen the bacteria had morphologic and staining characteristics similar to M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. These results suggest that paratuberculosis is endemic with high prevalence in the semiarid region of Paraíba. It is necessary to develop research on the epidemiology and control measures of the disease in the conditions of this region. Also the risk for human beings should be determined, mainly in relation with milking goats.

João M.A Medeiros

2012-02-01

372

Paratuberculose em caprinos e ovinos no Estado da Paraíba / Paratuberculosis in goats and sheep in the state of Paraiba  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Mediante o teste de ELISA foi determinada a presença de anticorpos para Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (map) em amostras de soro de 734 caprinos e 392 ovinos, sem sinais clìnicos aparentes, provenientes de 14 Municipios do semiárido Paraibano. Em caprinos, a frequência média de anticorp [...] os de 44,86± 22,91% e em ovinos foi de 52,96±31,49. Das 46 propriedades estudadas, 44 (95,65%) apresentaram pelo menos um animal soropositivo. Nos 14 municípios avaliados houve presença de animais sorologicamente positivos, variando de 20% a 70%. Em caprinos sem raça definida e mestiços a frequência (48,56%) foi significativamente inferior (P Abstract in english Antibodies to paratuberculosis were determined by ELISA in serum samples of 734 goats and 392 sheep, without clinical signs, from 14 municipalities of the semiarid region of Paraíba state, Brazil. In goats, average frequency of antibodies was 44.86±22.91% and in sheep was 52.96±31.49%. All municipal [...] ities had affected animals with a frequency varying from 20% to 70%. In goats of unknown breed and crossbreds the prevalence (48.56%) was significantly lower (P=0.0270) than in pure breed goats (57.24%). In sheep with body scores of 1 to 3, the frequency (59.39%) was significantly higher (P=0.0034) than in sheep with body score from 3 to 5 (42.42%). No significant differences were observed in goats and sheep of different ages, in goats with different body score, and in sheep of different breeds. In the microbiologic examination, after 16 weeks of incubation in HEYM medium with mycobactin J, colonies similar to those of do Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuber culosis were observed in cultures of 9 (6.58%) out of 180 fecal samples, being one from goats and 8 from sheep. In the Ziehl Nieelsen the bacteria had morphologic and staining characteristics similar to M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. These results suggest that paratuberculosis is endemic with high prevalence in the semiarid region of Paraíba. It is necessary to develop research on the epidemiology and control measures of the disease in the conditions of this region. Also the risk for human beings should be determined, mainly in relation with milking goats.

João M.A, Medeiros; Felício, Garino Junior; Arthur P, Almeida; Erasmo A, Lucena; Franklin, Riet-Correa.

2012-02-01

373

Breeding tropical forages  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Brazil has the largest commercial beef cattle herd and is the main beef exporter in the world. Cultivated pastures arethe basis for the Brazilian beef production, and occupy an area of 101.4 million hectares. However, very few forage cultivars arecommercially available, and the majority of these are of apomictic reproduction, thus genetically homogeneous. Tropical foragebreeding is at its infancy, but much investment and efforts have been applied in the last three decades and some new cultivars havebeen released. In this paper, origin of different species, modes of reproduction, breeding programs and targets are discussed andthe resulting new cultivars released are presented.

L Jank

2011-01-01

374

Ivermectin pharmacokinetics in lactating sheep  

OpenAIRE

Ivermectin (IVM) concentrations in plasma and milk were studied in six Istrian Pramenka dairy sheep after a single subcutaneous dose of 0.2 mg/kg b.w. of IVM in the early lactation period to describe IVM disposition in milk and to evaluate the transfer of IVM residues via milk to suckling lambs. Large inter-animal in concentration variability of IVM in both matrices was observed. The highest overall concentration was found in the same animal: 21.7 ¿g/l of H2B1a in plasma on the second day an...

Cerkvenik, V.; Grabnar, V.; Skubic, V.; Doganoc, D. Z.; Beek, W. M. J.; Keukens, H. J.; Kosorok, M. D.; Pogacnik, M.

2002-01-01

375

Hematological and biochemical blood parameters in ewes and lambs assaf sheep  

OpenAIRE

[EN] In order to evaluate and characterize the main hematological (hematocrit and hemoglobin) and biochemical (pH, glucose, Na, K, Cl, PCO2, HCO3, BE, BUN, TCO2 y ANGAP) blood parameters of Assaf sheep breed, 36 ewes (at the second month of milking) and 30 lambs (one year old) were bled from the jugular vein and the obtained blood analyzed. A single standard mix of food was used to ad libitum feeding in the case of the ewes and ad libitum or restricted feeding in the case of th...

Rodri?guez, L. A.; Manteco?n, A?ngel R.; Lavi?n, Paz; Asensio, C.; Marti?n-diana, A. B.; Olmedo, S.; Khedim, M. Ben; Delgado, D.; Pe?rez, A. R.; Bartolome?, D.

2011-01-01

376

Prevalence and risk factors of caseous lymphadenitis in sheep and goats of Batna area (Algeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An epidemiologic investigation of caseous lymphadenitis of the small ruminants (23 herds was carried out in the Batna area (Algeria. The disease prevalence at the sheep and the goat was 8.9 and 1.6% respectively. This disease was more frequent in the adults. Clinically, the disease did not affect the animal’s general state. The internal disease form was not observed in 38 carcasses. The risk factors in the appearance of the disease were: bad hygiene, the precarious shelters and the breeding of several species in the same farm.

Mohamed Nabil Alloui,

2011-03-01

377

Effects Of Multinutrient Blocks And Polyethylene Glycol 4000 Supplies On Intake And Digestion By Sheep Fed Acacia Cyanophylla Lindl. Foliage-Based Diets  

OpenAIRE

The effect of multinutrient block supply and polyethylene glycol 4000 (PEG) on intake, digestion and rumen fermentation was studied in sheep fed with air-dried Acacia cyanophylla foliage (acacia)-based diet. In Experiment I, six Noire de Thibar breed sheep (BW 46 kg) were used in double 3 3 Latin square design. All diets included about 360 g of dry matter (DM) of oat±vetch hay and acacia ad libitum. Diet D0 was without a block supplement. Diet D1 included a urea± molasses±mineral bl...

Moujahed, Nizar; Kayouli, Chedly; Thewis, Andre?; Beckers, Yves; Rezgui, S.

2000-01-01

378

Plant Breeding Graduate Student Community  

Science.gov (United States)

Growing the FutureWith the loss of plant breeding positions in the public sector, there has been a loss of the infrastructure that supports plant breeding training, including a reduction in professors with plant breeding expertise, a critical mass of students often too low to provide a stimulating learning environment, and the inability to offer courses with sufficient audience. Although studies support the positive impact of a strong community on learning, currently, students are often trained in isolation.  The PBTN has been established to mitigate isolation barriers that currently limit plant breeding education at most institutions and in most plant breeding work places around the world.  PBTN supports online course sharing (See list of courses).  The PBTN online graduate student community  is a place for students around the world to make contact with other plant breeding students, providing an opportunity  to exchange ideas, develop interpersonal skills (such as communication and collaboration) and build a plant breeding student community.If you have questions about the community, graduate work in plant breeding, or career oportunities, please contact us. Jamie ShermanDirector-TCAP graduate community and PBTNjsherman@montana.edu Mary BrakkeDirector-TCAP undergraduate communitybrakk001@umn.edu Deana Namuth-CovertDirector-Plant Breeding Training Network (PBTN)dcovert2@unl.edu  This community is funded by the Triticeae CAP project. 

379

Molecular Characterization of Black Bengal and Jamuna Pari Goat Breeds By RAPD Markers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This experiment was conducted in the Genetics, Breeding and Reproductive Biotechnology Laboratory under Goat and Sheep Production Research Division, Bangladesh Livestock Research Institute (BLRI, Saver, Dhaka, Bangladesh. DNA was extracted from 14 goat breeds and the extracted DNA was observed by gel electrophoresis. Eight goat specific primers were synthesized by ASM-800 DNA synthesizer and screened in the study and all these primers were capable of priming polymorphic amplification pattern in both the breeds. Random amplification of polymorphic DNA â?? Polymerase Chain Reaction (RAPD-PCR analysis was carried out using DNA samples of 14 black bengal goat and Jamuna pari goat breeds. Only unambiguous, reproducible and scorable polymorphic fragments were taken into consideration for analysis. Data were analyzed by using a computer programe POPGENE (Version 1.31. Highest level of Nei's[1] gene diversity value (0.4898 was observed in BMS 1494 locus and the mean genetic diversity was obtained 0.3724 among the 14 goat breeds. The highest number of polymorphism obserbed in primer BM1818.The pair-wise genetic distance value ranged from 0.2500 to 1.000. Dendrogram based on Nei's[1] genetic distance using Unweighted Pair Group Method of Arithmetic Means (UPGMA indicated segregation of the 14 goat breeds. Within Jamuna pari goat genetic similarity is low as well as black Bengal goat.

M. A. Rahman

2006-01-01

380

Effects of the morphine-lidocaine-ketamine combination on cardiopulmonary function and isoflurane sparing in sheep  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aims of this study were to evaluate the isoflurane sparing and clinical effects of a constant rate infusion of morphine – lidocaine – ketamine (MLK in healthy sheep undergoing experimental gastrointestinal surgery. Twelve adult female sheep (Texel breed were used, weighing 36.5 ± 8.1 kg. The sheep were anesthetized for the implantation of duodenal cannulas. The sheep were premedicated with 0.3 mg kg-1 intramuscular (IM morphine and 20 ?g kg-1 intravenous (IV detomidine. After premedication, anesthesia was induced using 5 mg kg-1 ketamine and 0.5 mg kg-1 diazepam IV and maintained using isoflurane in 100% oxygen. After the induction of anesthesia, the animals were allocated into two groups (each n=6; the GMLK (MLK group – 10 mg morphine, 150 mg lidocaine, 30 mg de ketamine were added in 500 mL saline received a 10 mL kg-1h-1 MLK infusion during the maintenance of anesthesia, and GCON (control group received 10 mL kg-1h-1 of 0.9% sodium chloride. The animals were mechanically ventilated. Cardiopulmonary variables and end-tidal isoflurane concentration (FE´Iso were measured at baseline (immediately before the surgery and 15, 30 and 45 minutes after initiation of surgery. In GMLK, there was a decrease in the FE´Iso at 15, 30 and 45 minutes, a reduction of up to 75.6% during the surgery. The HR was lower in GMLK compared with GCON at 30 minutes, and the MAP was at during baseline in GCON compared with GMLK. The standing time was less in GMLK than in GCON. The use of intravenous MLK was demonstrated to offer great efficiency as part of a balanced anesthesia protocol in sheep, with a 75.6% reduction in the need for isoflurane, providing stability of the cardiovascular parameters and blood gases with a shortened recovery period.

Suzane Lilian Beier

2014-10-01

381

Analysis of genetic diversity and differentiation of sheep populations in Jordan  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english Background Genetic diversity of sheep in Jordan was investigated using microsatellite markers (MS). Six ovine and bovine MS located on chromosomes 2 and 6 of sheep genome were genotyped on 294 individual from ten geographical regions. Results The number of alleles per locus (A), the expected heteroz [...] ygosity (He) and observed heterozygosity (Ho) were measured. Overall A, He and Ho were 12.67, 0.820 and 0.684, respectively. On the other hand, genetic distances undoubtedly revealed the expected degree of differentiation among the studied populations. The finding showed closeness of three populations from south (Maan, Showbak and Tafeilah) to each other. Populations from the middle regions of Jordan (Karak, Madaba, Amman, AzZarqa and Mafraq) were found to be in one cluster. Only two populations of the middle region were an exception: AlSalt and Dead Sea. Finally, sheep populations from Irbid were located in separated cluster. It was clear that the studied predefined populations were subdivided from four populations and would be most probably accounted as ancestral populations. These results indicate that number of population is less than the predefined population as ten based on geographical sampling areas. Conclusions The possible inference might be that geographical location, genetic migration, similar selection forces, and common ancestor account for population admixture and subdivision of Awassi sheep breed in Jordan. Finally, the present study sheds new light on the molecular and population genetics of Awassi sheep from different regions of Jordan and to utilize the possible findings for future management of genetic conservation under conditions of climate changes and crossbreeding policy.

Raed Mahmoud, Al-Atiyat; Naser M, Salameh; Mohammad J, Tabbaa.

2014-07-01

382

Nucleotide sequencing and DNA polymorphism studies of BMP 15 gene in Corriedale and local Kashmir valley sheep (Ovis aries).  

Science.gov (United States)

The families of TGF-? proteins are the most important growth factors in the ovary for growth and differentiation of early ovarian follicles. Three related oocyte-derived members of the transforming growth factor-? superfamily, namely GDF9, BMP15 and BMPR-IB have been shown to be essential for follicular growth and ovulation. The objective of the present study was to detect the incidence of mutation in intronic portion of BMP 15 gene in Corriedale and local Kashmir valley sheep breeds. Blood samples were collected from 85 ewes and genomic DNA was extracted using the modified phenol chloroform method. The quantity and quality of extracted DNA was examined using spectrophotometry and gel electrophoresis, respectively. A fragment with the size of 356 bp was amplified using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with a pair of specific primers. The amplified PCR products were digested with Mph11031 restriction enzyme. In the presence of mutation at this locus, the Mph11031 enzyme cannot recognize the restriction site. However, here in the absence of mutations, the enzyme recognizes one restriction site and divides the amplified fragment into two fragments of 152 and 204 bp. The 356 bp fragment was also analyzed for polymorphism by SSCP technique. The results indicated two different banding patterns AA and AB for this fragment. Later on two different allelic forms A and B were confirmed by nucleotide sequencing. The 356 bp nucleotide sequence was subjected to alignment analysis and it was observed that sequence similarity of this fragment with that of other sheep and Jining grey goat was more than 97.8%. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that both designated A and B alleles as well as published sequence of sheep form a common cluster indicating their evolutionary closeness. The origin of Jining grey goat was located some distance away from the sheep. The overall frequencies of AA and AB genotypes were 0.79 and 0.21. The breed wise frequencies were 0.78 and 0.22 in Corriedale sheep and the frequencies in Kashmir valley sheep were 0.80 and 0.20 for AA and AB genotypes, respectively. The overall allelic frequencies of A and B alleles were 0.89 and 0.11 whereas allelic frequencies Corriedale sheep was 0.89 and 0.11 and that of Kashmir valley sheep were 0.90 and 0.10. PMID:22425967

Shabir, M; Ganai, T A S

2012-05-10

383

The yield and composition of milk in Sarda, Awassi, and Merino sheep milked unilaterally at different frequencies.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sarda (n = 8), Awassi (n = 8), and Merino (n = 8) ewes were subjected unilaterally to once-daily milking (ODM) or twice daily milking (TDM) to test the hypothesis that the two breeds highly selected for milk production (Sarda and Awassi) would not respond as much to a change in the frequency of milking as the Merino, a wool sheep that has not been selected for dairy production. Milk composition and somatic cell count (SCC) were also assessed to determine if the changes in milking frequency affected milk quality. Milk yield was 24% and 18% lower in ODM udder halves than TDM udder halves in Sarda and Awassi breeds, respectively. The yield loss due to ODM was similar to that observed in Merino ewes (23%) and did not support our hypothesis. Fat content did not differ significantly in any breeds between ODM and TDM udder halves. Protein content was higher in the milk of ODM than TDM udder halves in Sarda and Merino ewes. The SCC was influenced by milking treatment only in the Sarda ewes, with high values observed in the milk of ODM udder halves. The same trend was observed in the Awassi and Merino breeds, but the differences were not significant. The effects on milk yield, composition, and SCC caused by ODM were completely reversed when TDM was resumed. This suggests that in sheep flocks the milk yield losses due to short-time suppression of one daily milking, for example, on festive days, are low and temporary. PMID:12487455

Nudda, A; Bencini, R; Mijatovic, S; Pulina, G

2002-11-01

384

Radiation mutation breeding  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to develop an advanced technical knowledge for the selection of better mutants, some of the crops were irradiated and the mutation rate, the survival rate and the method for selction of a mutant were studied. Furthermore, this study aimed to obtain basic data applicable to the development of genetic resources by evaluation and analysis the specific character for selection of the superior mutant and its plant breeding. 1. selection of the mutant with a superior resistance against environment in the principal crops 1) New varieties of mutant rices such as Wonpyeongbyeo, Wongwangbyeo, Winmibyeo, and heogseon chalbeyeo (sticky forma) were registered in the national variety list and made an application to crop variety protection right. They are under review now. 2) We also keep on studying on the number of a grain of 8 lines of excellent mutant rice for the purpose of improvement of breeding . 3) We selected 3 lines which have a resistance to pod and stem blight in large soybean, 31 lines with small grain size and higher yield, 112 lines of soybean of cooking, 7 lines of low lipoxygenase content, and 12 lines with decreased phytic acid content by 20 % compared to the previous level. 2. Selection of advanced Mugunwha (Rose of Sharon) mutant 1) Bagseul, a new variety of mutant, was developed and 30 plantlets of it are being proliferated. 2) Fifty-three lines of a mutant having a various morphologies were selected

385

Biotechnology in soybean breeding  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Biotechnology can be defined broadly as a set of tools that allows scientists to genetically characterize or improve living organisms. Several emerging technologies, such as molecular characterization and genetic transformation, are already being used extensively for the purpose of plant improvement. Other emerging sciences, including genomics and proteomics, are also starting to impact plant improvement. Tools provided by biotechnology will not replace classical breeding methods, but rather will help provide new discoveries and contribute to improved nutritional value and yield enhancement through greater resistance to disease, herbicides and abiotic factors. In soybeans, biotechnology has and will continue to play a valuable role in public and private soybean breeding programs. Based on the availability and combination of conventional and molecular technologies, a substantial increase in the rate of genetic gain for economically important soybean traits can be predicted in the next decade. In this paper, a short review of technologies for molecular markers analysis in soybean is given as well as achievements in the area of genetic transformation in soybean.

Sudari? Aleksandra

2010-01-01

386

21 CFR 133.184 - Roquefort cheese, sheep's milk blue-mold, and blue-mold cheese from sheep's milk.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-04-01 false Roquefort cheese, sheep's milk blue-mold, and blue-mold cheese from sheep's milk. 133.184 Section 133...133.184 Roquefort cheese, sheep's milk blue-mold, and blue-mold cheese from sheep's milk....

2010-04-01

387

Total anthelmintic failure to control nematode parasites of small ruminants on government breeding farms in Sabah, East Malaysia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Government-owned small-ruminant breeding farms in Malaysia provide the source of sheep and goats to smallholder farmers in the country. In the eastern Malaysian state of Sabah, high-level stock losses have been recorded on these farms for several years, frequently accompanied by clinical signs indicating pathogenic levels of infections with the nematode parasite Haemonchus contortus. This suggests that their dependence on chemotherapy to control parasite infections had failed. Accordingly, tests for anthelmintic efficacy using the faecal egg count reduction test (FECRT) on the range of drugs used to control nematode parasites were carried out on the five government small-ruminant breeding farms in Sabah. These tests showed a total failure of the benzimidazole, imidothiazole, macrocyclic lactone and salicylanilide groups of anthelmintics to control H. contortus infections of sheep and goats on all farms. Drastic changes in animal management need to be made in an attempt to deal with this situation, for which suggestions are made. PMID:15509022

Chandrawathani, P; Yusoff, N; Wan, L C; Ham, A; Waller, P J

2004-08-01

388

Charge breeding simulations for radioactive ion beam production  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The charge breeding technique is used for radioactive ion beam (RIB) production in order of optimizing the re-acceleration of the radioactive element ions produced by a primary beam in a thick target. Charge breeding is achieved by means of a device capable of increasing the ion charge state from 1+ to a desired value n+. In order to get high intensity RIB, experiments with charge breeding of very high efficiency could be required. To reach this goal, the charge breeding simulation could help to optimize the high charge state production efficiency by finding more proper parameters for the radioactive 1+ ions. In this paper a device based on an electron beam ion source (EBIS) is considered. In order to study that problem, a code already developed for studying the ion selective containment in an EBIS with RF quadrupoles, BRICTEST, has been modified to simulate the ion charge state breeding rate for different 1+ ion injection conditions. Particularly, the charge breeding simulations for an EBIS with a hollow electron beam have been studied.

Variale, V. [INFN-Bari, Via Orabona, 4, Bari (Italy); Raino, A. C.; Clauser, T. [Physics Department of Bari University and INFN- Bari, Via Orabona, 4, Bari (Italy)

2012-02-15

389

Charge breeding simulations for radioactive ion beam productiona)  

Science.gov (United States)

The charge breeding technique is used for radioactive ion beam (RIB) production in order of optimizing the re-acceleration of the radioactive element ions produced by a primary beam in a thick target. Charge breeding is achieved by means of a device capable of increasing the ion charge state from 1+ to a desired value n+. In order to get high intensity RIB, experiments with charge breeding of very high efficiency could be required. To reach this goal, the charge breeding simulation could help to optimize the high charge state production efficiency by finding more proper parameters for the radioactive 1+ ions. In this paper a device based on an electron beam ion source (EBIS) is considered. In order to study that problem, a code already developed for studying the ion selective containment in an EBIS with RF quadrupoles, BRICTEST, has been modified to simulate the ion charge state breeding rate for different 1+ ion injection conditions. Particularly, the charge breeding simulations for an EBIS with a hollow electron beam have been studied.

Variale, V.; Rainò, A. C.; Clauser, T.

2012-02-01

390

Charge breeding simulations for radioactive ion beam production  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The charge breeding technique is used for radioactive ion beam (RIB) production in order of optimizing the re-acceleration of the radioactive element ions produced by a primary beam in a thick target. Charge breeding is achieved by means of a device capable of increasing the ion charge state from 1+ to a desired value n+. In order to get high intensity RIB, experiments with charge breeding of very high efficiency could be required. To reach this goal, the charge breeding simulation could help to optimize the high charge state production efficiency by finding more proper parameters for the radioactive 1+ ions. In this paper a device based on an electron beam ion source (EBIS) is considered. In order to study that problem, a code already developed for studying the ion selective containment in an EBIS with RF quadrupoles, BRICTEST, has been modified to simulate the ion charge state breeding rate for different 1+ ion injection conditions. Particularly, the charge breeding simulations for an EBIS with a hollow electron beam have been studied.

391

Comparing measures of breeding inequality and opportunity for selection with sexual selection on a quantitative character in bighorn rams.  

Science.gov (United States)

The reliability and consistency of the many measures proposed to quantify sexual selection have been questioned for decades. Realized selection on quantitative characters measured by the selection differential i was approximated by metrics based on variance in breeding success, using either the opportunity for sexual selection Is or indices of inequality. There is no consensus about which metric best approximates realized selection on sexual characters. Recently, the opportunity for selection on character mean OSM was proposed to quantify the maximum potential selection on characters. Using 21 years of data on bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis), we investigated the correlations between seven indices of inequality, Is , OSM and i on horn length of males. Bighorn sheep are ideal for this comparison because they are highly polygynous and sexually dimorphic, ram horn length is under strong sexual selection, and we have detailed knowledge of individual breeding success. Different metrics provided conflicting information, potentially leading to spurious conclusions about selection patterns. I? , an index of breeding inequality, and, to a lesser extent, Is showed the highest correlation with i on horn length, suggesting that these indices document breeding inequality in a selection context. OSM on horn length was strongly correlated with i, Is and indices of inequality. By integrating information on both realized sexual selection and breeding inequality, OSM appeared to be the best proxy of sexual selection and may be best suited to explore its ecological bases. PMID:25418082

Martin, A M; Festa-Bianchet, M; Coltman, D W; Pelletier, F

2015-01-01

392

Seroprevalence of Toxoplasmosis in Sheep in Southern Punjab, Pakistan  

OpenAIRE

The present study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in sheep in Southern Punjab, Pakistan. Blood samples were collected from 518 sheep of nine localities of three districts (Dera Ghazi Khan, Multan and Khanewal). The samples were tested by using latex agglutination test (LAT) and commercial ELISA method. The overall prevalence of T. gondii infection in sheep was 19.88%. In male sheep, the prevalence was higher (30.15%) than in female sheep (18.46%), the differen...

Lashari And Zahida Tasawar, Mushtaq H.

2010-01-01

393

Sheep-to-human transmission of Orf virus during Eid al-Adha religious practices, France.  

Science.gov (United States)

Five persons in France were infected with Orf virus after skin wounds were exposed to infected sheep tissues during Eid al-Adha, the Muslim Feast of Sacrifice. Infections were confirmed by electron microscopy, PCR, and sequence analysis. Prevention and control of this underdiagnosed disease can be achieved by educating physicians, slaughterhouse workers, and persons participating in Eid al-Adha. PMID:23260031

Nougairede, Antoine; Fossati, Christelle; Salez, Nicolas; Cohen-Bacrie, Stephan; Ninove, Laetitia; Michel, Fabrice; Aboukais, Samer; Buttner, Mathias; Zandotti, Christine; de Lamballerie, Xavier; Charrel, Remi N

2013-01-01

394

Rumen protozoa in South African sheep with a summary of the worldwide distribution of sheep protozoa  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Protozoa species were identified in rumen contents of four domestic sheep (Ovis aries from South Africa. All animals were fed a forage diet which consisted of 50% lucerne and 50% teff hay. Ten new host records were identified, bringing the total number of species and forms observed in sheep in South Africa to 30. The occurrence and geographic distribution of ciliate protozoa in both domestic and wild sheep from around the world are summarised. It was found that 15 genera and 131 species occur in domestic sheep globally.

How to cite this article: Booyse, D. & Dehority, B.A., 2011, ‘Rumen protozoa in South African sheep with a summary of the worldwide distribution of sheep protozoa’, Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research 78(1, Art. #307, 7 pages. doi:10.4102/ojvr.v78i1.307

Dirk Booyse

2011-02-01