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1

Selective breeding for scrapie resistance in sheep  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available It is well known that the susceptibility of sheep to scrapie is determined by the host’s prion protein gene (PRNP. PRNP polymorphisms at codons 136 (alanine, A/valine, V, 154 (histidine, H/arginine, R and 171 (glutamine, Q/histidine, H/arginine, R are the main determinants of sheep susceptibility/resistance to classical scrapie. There are four major variants of the wild-type ARQ allele: VRQ, AHQ, ARH and ARR. Breeding programs have been developed in the European Union and the USA to increase the frequency of the resistant ARR allele while decreasing the frequency of the susceptible VRQ allele in sheep populations. In Brazil, little PRNP genotyping data are available for sheep, and thus far, no controlled breeding scheme for scrapie has been implemented. This review will focus on important epidemiological aspects of scrapie and the use of genetic resistance as a tool in breeding programs to control the disease.

Cristina Santos Sotomaior

2012-11-01

2

Differentiation among Spanish sheep breeds using microsatellites  

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Full Text Available Abstract Genetic variability at 18 microsatellites was analysed on the basis of individual genotypes in five Spanish breeds of sheep – Churra, Latxa, Castellana, Rasa-Aragonesa and Merino -, with Awassi also being studied as a reference breed. The degree of population subdivision calculated between Spanish breeds from FST diversity indices was around 7% of total variability. A high degree of reliability was obtained for individual-breed assignment from the 18 loci by using different approaches among which the Bayesian method provided to be the most efficient, with an accuracy for nine microsatellites of over 99%. Analysis of the Bayesian assignment criterion illustrated the divergence between any one breed and the others, which was highest for Awassi sheep, while no great differences were evident among the Spanish breeds. Relationships between individuals were analysed from the proportion of shared alleles. The resulting dendrogram showed a remarkable breed structure, with the highest level of clustering among members of the Spanish breeds in Latxa and the lowest in Merino sheep, the latter breed exhibiting a peculiar pattern of clustering, with animals grouped into several closely set nodes. Analysis of individual genotypes provided valuable information for understanding intra- and inter-population genetic differences and allowed for a discussion with previously reported results using populations as taxonomic units.

Primitivo Fermín

2001-09-01

3

Mediterranean breeds of cattle, sheep and goats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Breeds of cattle, sheep and goats in the Mediterranean region are considered. Cattle: original longhorned breeds in Spain, Portugal and southern France; original shorthorned breeds in North Africa, the eastern Mediterranean and Sardinia; Grey Steppe in Balkan lowlands and central and southern Italy; Brown Swiss and its crosses in parts of Spain, northern Italy, north-west Turkey and the Maghreb; Simmental in Yugoslavia and Hungary; Friesian now dominant in western Europe and spreading in North Africa, the Near East and eastern Europe. Sheep: original coarse woolled thin tailed breeds in Algeria, Morocco, parts of Spain, Portugal, Italy and the Balkans; Merino in Spain has produced new breeds in Portugal, southern France, and Italy and is now being used in the Balkans, Turkey and Egypt; fat tailed coarse woolled breeds in Africa and Asia from Tunisia to Turkey. Goats: short eared dairy breeds in Spain and Italy; black, long haired, lop eared, screw horned goats from Turkey to North Africa; Maltese (dairy) goats in several countries. (author). 3 refs, 1 tab

4

Genetic structure of European sheep breeds.  

Science.gov (United States)

Large-scale evaluations of genetic diversity in domestic livestock populations are necessary so that region-specific conservation measures can be implemented. We performed the first such survey in European sheep by analysing 820 individuals from 29 geographically and phenotypically diverse breeds and a closely related wild species at 23 microsatellite loci. In contrast to most other domestic species, we found evidence of widespread heterozygote deficit within breeds, even after removing loci with potentially high frequency of null alleles. This is most likely due to subdivision among flocks (Wahlund effect) and use of a small number of rams for breeding. Levels of heterozygosity were slightly higher in southern than in northern breeds, consistent with declining diversity with distance from the Near Eastern centre of domestication. Our results highlight the importance of isolation in terms of both geography and management in augmenting genetic differentiation through genetic drift, with isolated northern European breeds showing the greatest divergence and hence being obvious targets for conservation. Finally, using a Bayesian cluster analysis, we uncovered evidence of admixture between breeds, which has important implications for breed management. PMID:17700634

Lawson Handley, L-J; Byrne, K; Santucci, F; Townsend, S; Taylor, M; Bruford, M W; Hewitt, G M

2007-12-01

5

PrP genotyping of Austrian sheep breeds.  

Science.gov (United States)

Scrapie, an ovine and caprine transmissible spongiforme encephalopathy, is widely spread among sheep populations in many European countries. As it is known that susceptibility to scrapie is determined genetically, breeding programmes aiming at providing scrapie-resistant flocks have been established. Selection is based on the prion protein (PrP) genotype, which is used to classify animals into risk groups of susceptibility (R1-R5) according to the amino acids encoded by codons at positions 136, 154 and 171, respectively. At position 136 (136V-->136A) alanine and at position 154 (154H-->154R) as well as 171 (171Q-->171R) arginine are the favoured amino acids. Whereas PrP genotyping data are available for many of the European sheep breeds, comparable data for local Austrian sheep breeds are missing. The most known among these are Tyrolean mountain sheep, forest sheep. Tyrolean stone sheep and Carynthian sheep. The genotypes of 112 sheep from these four local breeds were determined. In terms of PrP genetics, Austrian breeds belong to the group of non-valine-breeds, with the exception of the Carynthian sheep, that exhibited a frequency of 136V of 4.2%. The most frequent allele was ARQ with 64.6-71.2% (depending on the breed), followed by ARR (14.8-25.8%). In contrast to the above-mentioned findings, scrapie has never been diagnosed in any of the Austrian sheep breeds. Native Austrian sheep breeds exhibit a very robust constitution, a pronounced adaptation to harsh climates and good reproduction parameters as well as a marked mother instinct. Therefore, these breeds are often used in crossbreeding programmes. Beside the above-mentioned characteristics, our results indicate that the investigated breeds may be effectively used in crossing-out breeding programmes for eliminating valine at position 136 of PrP. PMID:12450189

Sipos, W; Kraus, M; Schmoll, F; Achmann, R; Baumgartner, W

2002-10-01

6

Issues and perspectives in dairy sheep breeding  

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Full Text Available The present review consists of two parts. In the first part, the authors briefly describe the state of the art of breedingprogrammes for Italian dairy sheep; then they report new models for genetic evaluation and consider the problem ofgenotype x environment interaction and the impact of farming systems on the genetic merit of animals. In the secondpart new breeding goals regarding the evolution of milk quality concept and the increasing importance of functional traitsare reported. Regarding milk quality, the authors especially focus on the traits related to cheese-making ability and onthe nutraceutical aspects of milk. Among functional traits, resistance to diseases (mastitis and Scrapie has been highlightedfor its great importance in livestock species. Finally, the perspectives of marker-assisted selection have also beenreported.

Pierlorenzo Secchiari

2010-01-01

7

Basic Characteristics of Some Turkish Indigenous Sheep Breeds  

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Full Text Available Turkey is among the major sheep raising countries of the world, with sheep population over 29.4 million head. Sheep have an important place in the economy of Turkey and in the nutrition of its people. Sheep breeding in Turkey is principally based on indigenous breeds, while studies on crossing and producing new types to increase fleece, meat and milk yield have been carried out. These indigenous breeds are more resistant to disease and parasites while also being able to survive even unfavourable environments and to maintain their productivity. At present, they contribute 27.18 % to the total read meat, 8.15 % to the total milk and 59.11 % to the total leather produced in the country. Sheep breeds in Turkey can be categorized into two main groups: Fat-tailed (White Karaman "Akkaraman", Red Karaman "K z lkaraman or Morkaraman", Daglic, Awassi " vesi" and fine-tailed (K v rc k, Karayaka, Chios "Sakiz", Imroz "Gokceada. For various reasons, it has been observed that indigenous sheep genetic resources in Turkey have been damaged. Some breeds have become extinct, some is under serious threat and some may be also considered as being under threat. The fact that the some conservation projects carried out by the government agencies is already at the stage of implementation may be regarded as a hopeful start.

M. Kaymakc

2001-01-01

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The Breeding Structure of the British Sheep Industry 2003  

exists, with the numerically large hill sector (3.83 million ewes) providing about \\1.24 million ... regular collection of agricultural census data there is no systematic\\, comprehensive and quantitative description of the breeding structure of the \\sheep industry. .... These breeds, are generally managed in self-contained flocks.

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Study on polymorphisms of microsatellites DNA of six Chinese indigenous sheep breeds.  

Science.gov (United States)

The polymorphisms of 17 microsatellites loci of six indigenous sheep breeds, including Mongolian sheep, Ujumuqin sheep, Kazakstan sheep, Aletai sheep and Tibetan sheep, were studied using polypropylene gel electrophoresis in order to investigate their genetic diversity,origin, differentiation and relationships. The results indicated that there was a significant difference in genetic diversity between different loci (P 0.05), but a significant difference in gene diversity and expected heterozygosity (Exp. Het) (P sheep breeds had similar genetic diversity as those from Europe,but with higher inbreeding coefficient. It could be inferred from the cluster of individuals and populations that Chinese indigenous sheep breeds might originate from two ancestors. The cluster of populations showed that Mongolian sheep and Ujumuqin sheep had close relationship and did not differentiate obviously. Mongolian sheep and Tibetan sheep had far relationship and differentiated significantly. Aletai sheep differentiated from Kazakstan sheep but not significantly. Tan sheep,Aletai sheep and Tibetan sheep also had close relationships. The Fst of Chinese indigenous sheep breeds was close to some Spanish sheep breeds,but much smaller than that of other European sheep breeds. More loci and samples should be studied in the future in order to obtain more accurate results. PMID:15651671

Li, Xiang-Long; Gong, Yuan-Fang; Zhang, Jian-Wen; Liu, Zheng-Zhu; Valentini, Allessio

2004-11-01

10

Genetic diversity in Algerian sheep breeds, using microsatellite markers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two breeds - Ouled-Djellal and Hamra (85 animals) - were genotyped for 12 microsatellites using PCR and sequencing. Allele number and frequency were calculated, and 141 different alleles were found for these microsatellites, reflecting high genetic variability within these breeds. This study is being extended to other Algerian breeds to estimate variability and genetic distances between them. In parallel, blood samples from the various breeds are being collected to build up a DNA bank. The results should support establishment of a strategy to promote the use and development of locally adapted sheep resources. (author)

11

Inbreeding in the Danish populations of five Nordic sheep breeds  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In Denmark there are small populations of five Nordic sheep breeds, two of which are Danish in origin. The purpose of this study was to estimate trends in inbreeding for these breeds. All five breeds have been recording pedigrees for decades, so pedigree completeness is adequate. The rate of inbreeding is more than 1% per generation in all breeds, and more than 2% per generation in the Danish breeds, which have no options for importing, if they aim to continue pure breeding. The Danish breeds have not allowed recent animals to contribute heavily, so the rate of coancestry is not too high (?1% per generation). However, they could use more rotation of rams between flocks to reduce the rate of inbreeding Udgivelsesdato: March

SØrensen, Anders Christian; Norberg, Elise

2008-01-01

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Genetic analysis of growth traits in Iranian Makuie sheep breed  

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Full Text Available The Makuie sheep is a fat-tailed sheep breed which can be found in the Azerbaijan province of Iran. In 1986, a Makuie sheep breeding station was established in the city of Maku in order to breed, protect and purify this breed. The genetic parameters for birth weight, weaning weight (3 months, 6-month, 9-month and yearling weight, and average daily gain from birth to weaning traits were estimated based on 25 years of data using DFREML software. Six different models were applied and a likelihood ratio test (LRT was used to select the appropriate model. Bivariate analysis was used to define the genetic correlation between studied traits. Based on the LRT, model II was selected as an appropriate model for all studied traits. Direct heritability estimates of birth, weaning, 6-month, 9-month and yearling weights and average daily gain from birth to weaning were 0.36, 0.41, 0.48, 0.42, 0.36 and 0.37, respectively. Estimates of direct genetic correlation between birth and weaning weights, birth and 6-month weights, birth and 9-month weights, as well as between birth and yearling weights were 0.57, 0.49, 0.46 and 0.32, respectively. The results suggest there is a substantial additive genetic variability for studied traits in the Makuie sheep breed population, and the direct additive effect and maternal permanent environment variance are the main source of phenotypic variance.

Mohammad Farhadian

2012-01-01

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Behavioural differences between three breed groups of hunting dogs confronted with domestic sheep.  

Science.gov (United States)

When running free in open fields, domestic dogs occasionally display predatory behaviour towards domestic sheep. This has not yet been studied scientifically. The aim of the present study was to investigate the inclination to chase sheep in three breed groups of hunting dogs that are most frequently used in areas with grazing sheep. We studied 41 elkhounds, 29 hare hunting dogs and 68 English setters. Behaviours indicative of motivation for chasing or attacking sheep were examined in three different ways. A path test examined functional traits such as hunting ability, contact willingness, reactivity to sudden noise, and response towards a lone sheep. In a sheep confrontation test, loose-leashed dogs were observed in a fenced enclosure with sheep and given electric shocks through an electronic dog collar if within 1-2m from the sheep. A questionnaire to the dog owners supplied information on their dog's previous experience with sheep and behavioural responses to various types of novel stimuli. No significant sex differences were found. The elkhounds showed the highest interest in a lone sheep in the path test, and displayed the highest initial hunting motivation, the highest percentage of dogs starting a sheep attack, the highest attack severity, and were most frequently given el. shocks. The hare hunting dogs were intermediate, while setters showed the lowest values for these variables. Dogs reported as showing low fearfulness more frequently acted as potential sheep chasers in the tests. Dogs up to 3 years of age showed a more pronounced initial hunting motivation and more frequent attacks than older dogs, although there were no age differences in the number of el. shocks given in the test. The latter may be related to the more frequent abruption of attacks among younger dogs. The main factors predicting a high hunting motivation and attack severity were lack of previous opportunity to chase sheep, low fearfulness towards gunshots and unfamiliar people, and general interest in sheep shown when encountering them. Probability of sheep chasing differed between dog breeds and age groups. Previous experience and certain character traits were indicative of a high predatory motivation towards sheep. PMID:11278031

Christiansen, F O.; Bakken, M; Braastad, B O.

2001-04-26

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The lifetime production of Bovec and Improved Bovec sheep breeds  

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Full Text Available Production data of Bovec and Improved (with East-Friesian Bovec sheep born between years 1989 and 2006 were used for the analysis of culling dynamics and lifetime production. Lifetime production was calculated as the sum of production at each lambing (number of born and liveborn lambs and litter birth weight, weaning (number of weaned lambs and litter weaning weight or during each lactation (milk yield, fat (6.5 % and protein (5.8 % corrected milk yield (FPC; Pulina et al., 2005., and fat and protein yield for culled sheep. Animals with any missing records from the first till the last lambing, weaning or lactation were removed from the analysis. Animals that left the system of animal recording alive, due to selling or the cancellation of recording by a breeder were also excluded. Dataset included records for 2254 sheep: 1734 of Bovec and 520 of Improved Bovec breed. Data preparation and statistical analysis were performed with the use of a statistical program R (R Development Core Team, 2007. and additional packages Zelig (Imai et al., 2007; Bailey and Alimadhi, 2007; Imai et al., 2008 and lme4 (Bates and DebRoy, 2004; Bates, 2007. Results have shown that in the period ?1996 Bovec breed had on average 4.4 lactations in their lifetime, which was almost one lactation more than in Improved Bovec breed. In the period after the year 1996 the highest proportion of animals were culled in the first lactation (as expected due to culling dynamics, with slightly higher proportion in Improved Bovec breed than in Bovec breed. Lifetime number of born, liveborn and weaned lambs was higher for about one lamb in Improved Bovec breed. Lifetime lamb weight gain did not differ between breeds, due to the high frequency of early weaning in Improved Bovec breed. During lifetime, Improved Bovec sheep produced around 200 kg (~34 % more milk, around 190 kg (~32 % more FPC milk, around 12 kg (~32 % more milk fat, and around 10 kg (~34 % more milk protein than Bovec breed. However, if the mean metabolic weight of breeds is taken into account the difference in milk production amounts to only ~6 % (~2 % for FPC milk. These results show that Bovec breed has satisfactory milk production, but too low body weight for intensive milk production. On the other hand, low body weight makes this breed suitable for extensive farming in hill and mountain areas. Improved Bovec breed has good results in Slovenian conditions, due to the similarity of environmental conditions with East Friesian’s country of origin.

Gregor Gorjanc

2009-06-01

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North European short-tailed breeds of sheep: a review.  

Science.gov (United States)

The short-tailed sheep, native of an area stretching from Russia to Iceland, are generally considered a primitive type. These robust northern sheep seem to have been spread by Norse vikings to several countries in this area from the late eighth century to the middle of the eleventh century ad. They have several common characteristics in addition to the fluke-shaped and tapered short tail, such as a wide range of colour patterns, dual-coated wool and the ability to thrive under harsh environmental conditions, often in isolated marginal areas. While 34 short-tailed breeds of North European origin can still be identified, it is clear that their population sizes have declined in most cases and several of them are now rare and endangered. Although these breeds have mainly been confined to certain localities, some of them have gained considerable distribution due to their genetic merits, such as prolificacy. Of these, the Finnsheep and the Romanov are best known being exported to several countries in the world where their genetic material has been utilized through crossbreeding with local sheep. This has resulted in the production of some new synthetic breeds. Meat is now generally the main product of the North European short-tailed breeds and their crossbreds, whereas wool, skins and milk are normally regarded as byproducts, yet of considerable economic importance in some cases. Such breeds have clearly a role to play in sustainable grassland-based production systems in the future. PMID:22444647

Dýrmundsson, O R; Ni?nikowski, R

2010-08-01

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Breeding programmes for smallholder sheep farming systems: II. Optimization of cooperative village breeding schemes.  

Science.gov (United States)

A simulation study was conducted to optimize a cooperative village-based sheep breeding scheme for Menz sheep of Ethiopia. Genetic gains and profits were estimated under nine levels of farmers' participation and three scenarios of controlled breeding achieved in the breeding programme, as well as under three cooperative flock sizes, ewe to ram mating ratios and durations of ram use for breeding. Under fully controlled breeding, that is, when there is no gene flow between participating (P) and non-participating (NP) flocks, profits ranged from Birr 36.9 at 90% of participation to Birr 21.3 at 10% of participation. However, genetic progress was not affected adversely. When there was gene flow from the NP to P flocks, profits declined from Birr 28.6 to Birr -3.7 as participation declined from 90 to 10%. Under the two-way gene flow model (i.e. when P and NP flocks are herded mixed in communal grazing areas), NP flocks benefited from the genetic gain achieved in the P flocks, but the benefits declined sharply when participation declined beyond 60%. Our results indicate that a cooperative breeding group can be established with as low as 600 breeding ewes mated at a ratio of 45 ewes to one ram, and the rams being used for breeding for a period of two years. This study showed that farmer cooperation is crucial to effect genetic improvement under smallholder low-input sheep farming systems. PMID:24945868

Gizaw, S; van Arendonk, J A M; Valle-Zárate, A; Haile, A; Rischkowsky, B; Dessie, T; Mwai, A O

2014-10-01

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Amino acid composition of sheep milk from the tsigai breed  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The amino acid composition of total protein in sheep milk obtained from ewes of Tsigai breed during the grazing season (April - July) in 2002 was determined. The variation in the amounts of total protein and the dry fat-free residue in the milk produced during the grazing season exercise impact on its amino acid composition. Generally, sheep milk had higher percentage of monoaminocarbonic acids ranging from 13.1% to 13.4%. The total amount of essential amino acids increases proportionally to ...

Gerchev Gercho; Mihaylova Gyurga; Ouzounov G.

2004-01-01

18

Genetic characterization of Appenninica sheep breed by microsatellites  

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Full Text Available The conservation of genetic variability is one of the main objectives in the field of genetics applied to domestic livestock. A strong input in that direction was made by molecular biology techniques. Among molecular markers nowadays available, microsatellites are particularly appreciated and widely utilized for the study of animal genome. In this study, a genetic characterization of Appenninica sheep breed was carried out with thirty microsatellite markers; the genetic relationships between Appenninica and three Italian merinos-derived breeds were also investigated. The results show a good genetic variability of Appenninica and all the other studied breeds. At the same time, the genetic identity of each breed is confirmed. These molecular data can be utilized to improve the present selection schemes and the plans to preserve the genetic diversity.

Francesca Maria Sarti

2010-01-01

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A PRND polymorphism in Churra do Campo portuguese sheep breed  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Prion-like Doppel gene (PRND) is located downstream from priori protein gene (PRNP). Doppel protein is not related to prion disease but to male fertility. Our previous analysis of PRND coding region in 460 animals from 8 Portuguese sheep breeds, by multiple restriction fragment-single strand conformation polymorphism (MRFSSCP), revealed a synonymous substitution (78G>A). An association was found between identified PRND polymorphism and PRNP genotypes, determined by primer extension and groupe...

Mesquita, P.; Silva, M. F. S.; Carolino, M. C.; Sousa, M. C. O.; Pimenta, J.; Marques, M. R.; Santos, I. C.; Gama, L. T.; Andrade, C. S. C. R.; Fontes, C. M.; Prates, J. A. M.; Horta, A. E. M.; Pereira, R. M.

2010-01-01

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Genetic trends in South African terminal sire sheep breeds  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english Genetic trends were constructed for early growth traits in the Dormer and Ile de France terminal sire sheep breeds. The traits that were considered were birth weight, pre-weaning weight, weaning weight and post-weaning weight. However, pre-weaning weights were only available for the Ile de France br [...] eed and post-weaning weights were only available for the Dormer breed. Regressions of average annual breeding values on birth year indicated significant genetic gains in all early growth traits during the evaluation period. The average predicted direct breeding value of birth weight decreased by 0.055% per annum whereas weaning weight increased by 0.12% per annum and post-weaning weight improved by 0.32% per annum in the Dormer breed. The Ile de France registered an undesirable increase in the predicted direct breeding value of birth weight which amounted to 0.025% per annum. Predicted direct breeding values for pre-weaning weight increased at an annual rate of 0.23% and that of weaning weight by 1.21% per annum. Although adequate genetic variation for substantial genetic progress was available, only modest rates of progress were attained for all the traits in both breeds. The only possible exception was weaning weight in the Ile de France breed, which was improved at > 1% per annum. At least all changes were in the desired direction, barring the direct genetic trend for birth weight in the Ile de France breed. Breeders should be encouraged to record data consistently, as one of the major shortcomings in the data for both breeds were a lack of continuity in the submission of data to the NSIS. More informative analyses ought to be feasible if this requisite is met.

O.T., Zishiri; S.W.P., Cloete; J.J., Olivier; K., Dzama.

 
 
 
 
21

Analysis of Genetic Diversity on 15 Sheep Breeds in Xinjiang of China  

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Full Text Available The genetic variability and genetic relationship of the fifteen sheep breeds were studied. The genotypes of 14 indigenous Chinese sheep breeds and one crossbreed of wild sheep were investigated using 13 microsatellite DNA markers recommended by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO and the International Society of Animal Genetics (ISAG through PCR. The allele frequency, heterozygosity and Genetic Differentiation Index (Fst were computed to estimate the genetic variation of each population. To determine the genetic relationships among the breeds, phylogenetic trees were constructed based on Nei’s genetic distance using the unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic mean and neighbor-joining method. A total of 15 breeds were clustered into three groups. The first group included Altay sheep and Duolang sheep, the second group was very large and complicated, the third group was a Kazark sheep. The thirteen microsatellite loci were effective markers for the analysis of genetic relationship among sheep breeds. In addition, genetic distance among groups is not according with their geographic distribution and groups or breeds with low production performance can easily impacted by breeds with better production performance. As for the results, it may be result from applying on artificial insemination and extension of commercial cross breeding technique in sheep production system recent years in China.

C.W. Tang

2011-01-01

22

Early breeding and pregnancy diagnosis in Syrian awassi sheep yearlings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fifty-nine female yearlings of local Awassi sheep were randomly divided into 2 groups. Animals in group T (treated) were fitted with intravaginal sponges containing 60 mg of medroxyprogesterone acetate for 14 days followed by 400 IU of pregnant mare's serum gonadotrophin (PMSG) at sponge withdrawal, whereas group C (control) received no treatment. Oestrus rate was 92.7% and 11.2% for groups T and C, respectively. Lambing rate was 78% and 5.6% for groups T and C, respectively. Twinning rate was 31.3% in group T compared to zero in group C. Average birth weight for single born lams (4.7 ± 0.6 kg) was significantly (P > 0.05) higher than twin born lams (3.0 ± 0.5 kg) in group T. The average concentration of blood progesterone collected between days 17-19 after mating was 19.30 nmol/1 and the accuracy of early pregnancy diagnosis was 100%. It was concluded that, it is possible to induce synchronized oestrus, and to increase the twinning rate in Syrian Awassi sheep yearlings outside the breeding season, using intravaginal sponges and PMSG. In addition, early pregnancy diagnosis could be successfully determined in female Awassi sheep yearlings between days 17-19 after-mating. (author)

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Genetic diversity and subdivision of 57 European and Middle-Eastern sheep breeds.  

Science.gov (United States)

The population structure and genetic diversity of 57 European and Middle Eastern marginal and cosmopolitan sheep breeds from 15 countries were analysed by typing 31 microsatellite markers. Mean unbiased expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.63 in British Exmoor Horn to 0.77 in Albanian Ruda. South-eastern European and Middle-Eastern sheep breeds were significantly more variable than northwestern and western European breeds. An overall heterozygote deficiency (f) across all loci was observed (P sheep, south-eastern European sheep and north-western/western European sheep. Within the last group, two less-distinct clusters comprised the Merino-type and Alpine breeds respectively. The incomplete demarcations of most clusters probably reflects cross-breeding and/or upgrading. PMID:17257186

Peter, C; Bruford, M; Perez, T; Dalamitra, S; Hewitt, G; Erhardt, G

2007-02-01

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Genetic diversity in nine native Turkish sheep breeds based on microsatellite analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The genetic variability of 204 sheep from nine breeds (Awassi, Çine Çapar?, Karaka?, Karya, Karayaka, Morkaraman, Norduz, Sak?z and Tuj) growing in four different regions (western, northern, eastern and south-eastern Anatolia) was assessed using 18 microsatellite loci. High mean number of alleles, allelic richness and factorial correspondence analysis showed the degree of admixture between native sheep breeds of Turkey. The Karya and Çine Çapar? breeds were observed as the most distinct of the breeds, and possible introgressions were detected in other breeds. It was found that 8.9% of genetic variation resulted from the difference between the populations. The genetic variation in Turkish breeds was not much higher than that of European breeds, which might be a consequence of the recent sharp decrease in sheep numbers. PMID:24814953

Yilmaz, Onur; Cemal, Ibrahim; Karaca, Orhan

2014-08-01

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Assessment of genetic variability among Indian sheep breeds using mitochondrial DNA cytochrome-b region  

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Full Text Available Aim: The present study was conducted to estimate genetic distance, the phylogenetic relationship, and time of divergences using mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA. Materials and Methods: The total 216 unrelated samples were collected from native breeding tract of six Indian sheep breeds. The genomic DNA was isolated and screened for restriction enzyme polymorphisms for cytochrome b (Cyt-b region of mtDNA with seven restriction enzymes. Results: The genetic distance among sheep breeds was ranging between 0.02833 and 0.0946. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that Malpura and Chokla were found closer relationship forming distinct cluster followed by Deccani individual were clustered with Nellore sheep, whereas Nali and Sonadi were distant to each other having separate cluster. Estimated divergence time among Indian sheep breeds were ranging about 1.41-4.73 million years ago (MYA with an average of 3.063±0.27 MYA. It showed that Malpura and Sonadi sheep revealed highest divergence time as 4.73 MYA whereas Malpura and Chokla show the lowest as 1.41 MYA. Conclusion: In conclusion, the restriction fragment length polymorphisms-polymerase chain reaction (RFLP-PCR of the Cyt-b region of mtDNA is suitable and cost effective tool for estimating the genetic variability, phylogenetic relationship, and time of divergence among Indian sheep breeds. These findings will help to formulate proper breeding strategies for conservation and utilization of sheep breeds.

A. D. Sawaimul

2014-10-01

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Genetic diversity and differentiation of 12 eastern Adriatic and western Dinaric native sheep breeds using microsatellites.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nuclear genetic diversity and differentiation of 341 sheep belonging to 12 sheep breeds from Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina were examined. The aim of the study was to provide the understanding of the genetic structure and variability of the analysed pramenka sheep populations, and to give indications for conservation strategies based on the population diversity and structure information. The genetic variation of the sheep populations, examined at the nuclear level using 27 microsatellite loci, revealed considerable levels of genetic diversity, similar to the diversity found in other European indigenous low-production sheep breeds. Population-specific alleles were detected at most loci and in breeds analysed. The observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.643 (in Lika pramenka) to 0.743 (in Vlasic pramenka), and the expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.646 (in Lika pramenka) to 0.756 (in Dalmatian pramenka). Significant inbreeding coefficients were found for half of the populations studied and ranged from 0.040 (Pag island sheep) to 0.091 (Kupres pramenka). Moderate genetic differentiation was found between the studied sheep populations. The total genetic variability observed between different populations was 5.29%, whereas 94.71% of the variation was found within populations. Cres island sheep, Lika pramenka and Istrian sheep were identified as the most distinct populations, which was confirmed by the factorial analysis of correspondence and supported through a bootstrapping adjustment to correct for the difference in the sample sizes. The population structure analysis distinguished 12 clusters for the 12 sheep breeds analysed. However, the cluster differentiation was low for Dalmatian, Vlasic, Stolac and Krk pramenka. This systematic study identified Lika pramenka and Rab island sheep as those with the lowest diversity, whereas Istrian sheep and Pag island sheep had the highest. Conservation actions are proposed for Istrian, Rab and Cres island sheep, Lika and Kupres pramenka because of high estimated coefficients of inbreeding. PMID:24433957

Salamon, D; Gutierrez-Gil, B; Arranz, J J; Barreta, J; Batinic, V; Dzidic, A

2014-02-01

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The impact of sheep breed on the risk of classical scrapie.  

Science.gov (United States)

The risk of classical scrapie in sheep is associated with polymorphisms in the prion protein (PrP) gene. In recent years, large-scale selective breeding programmes for sheep at lower risk of disease have been undertaken across the European Union. We analysed large-scale datasets on scrapie and sheep demography to investigate additional effects of sheep breed on scrapie risk. There was evidence for variation between certain breeds in the scrapie risk of some PrP genotypes, which could be caused by innate breed differences or distinct scrapie strains circulating within them. While the PrP genotypes of cases are generally consistent across breeds, some exceptions provide evidence that scrapie strain may influence affected PrP genotypes to a greater extent than innate breed differences. There was a significant association between the breed-level incidence of scrapie and the frequency of susceptible PrP genotypes in breeds. Our results lend support to selective breeding programmes which aim to reduce the frequency of high-risk PrP genotypes with measures not varying by sheep breed. PMID:19678970

McIntyre, K M; Trewby, H; Gubbins, S; Baylis, M

2010-03-01

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Mitochondrial haplotypes reveal a strong genetic structure for three Indian sheep breeds.  

Science.gov (United States)

This survey represents the first characterization of mitochondrial DNA diversity within three breeds of Indian sheep (two strains of the Deccani breed, as well as the Bannur and Garole breeds) from different geographic regions and with divergent phenotypic characteristics. A 1061-bp fragment of the mitochondrial genome spanning the control region, a portion of the 12S rRNA gene and the complete phenyl tRNA gene, was sequenced from 73 animals and compared with the corresponding published sequence from European and Asian breeds and the European Mouflon (Ovis musimon). Analysis of all 156 sequences revealed 73 haplotypes, 52 of which belonged to the Indian breeds. The three Indian breeds had no haplotypes in common, but one Indian haplotype was shared with European and other Asian breeds. The highest nucleotide and haplotype diversity was observed in the Bannur breed (0.00355 and 0.981 respectively), while the minimum was in the Sangamneri strain of the Deccani breed (0.00167 and 0.882 respectively). All 52 Indian haplotypes belonged to mitochondrial lineage A. Therefore, these Indian sheep are distinct from other Asian and European breeds studied so far. The relationships among the haplotypes showed strong breed structure and almost no introgression among these Indian breeds, consistent with Indian sheep husbandry, which discourages genetic exchange between breeds. These results have implications for the conservation of India's ovine biodiversity and suggest a common origin for the breeds investigated. PMID:17725686

Pardeshi, V C; Kadoo, N Y; Sainani, M N; Meadows, J R S; Kijas, J W; Gupta, V S

2007-10-01

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Electronic identification in Sheep - Your technical guide  

Advice on best practice and options for tagging your animals, and the rules for \\identifying sheep ... It is based on a system of electronic devices (typically ear \\tags or boluses) .... litter weaning weight, carcass weight and grading, ewe \\longevity).

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THE BREED TRACEABILITY OF SHEEP MEAT BY USING MOLECULAR GENETICS METHODS: PRELIMINARY RESULTS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Safety and quality foods of animal origin are extremely important for consumers. The aim of this work was to evaluate the feasibility of a method to track the breed origin of sheep meat all along the production chain using molecular genetics tools. A total of 800 samples evenly distributed among seven Italian sheep breeds have been typed at 19 STR markers, together with 90 samples from both imported sheep animals and local crossbred animals withdrawn at slaughterhouses. A maximum likelihood assignment test was adopted to evaluate STR ability to allocate samples to their true breed of origin. Sarda animals were all correctly allocated, as well as more than 98% of samples from the other breeds. Only slightly worst allocation performances were observed for imported and crossbred animals. Preliminary results seem quite promising, though further analyses will be needed in order to better understand the statistical power of such an assignment test before implementation in the sheep meat production chain.

E. Ciani

2011-04-01

31

Mitochondrial DNA diversity, origin, and phylogenic relationships of three Chinese large-fat-tailed sheep breeds.  

Science.gov (United States)

China is abundant of sheep genetic resources. A total of 55 sequences containing the Ovis aries mtDNA D: -loop of three large-fat-tailed sheep breeds, named Lanzhou, Tong, and Han were retrieved from GenBank to investigate their genetic diversity, origin, and phylogenetic evolution. The results showed that the sheep breeds in our study proved to be extremely diverse, the average haplotype diversity and nucleotide diversity were 0.987?±?0.006 and 0.03956?±?0.00206, respectively. The 55 sequences gave 39 different haplotypes. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that there were three distinct mtDNA haplogroups: A, B, and C, in which haplogroup A was predominant and had experienced population expansion events. Clustering analysis showed that the large-fat-tailed sheep breeds clustered into one group and were closely related to the Mongolian sheep and then European mouflon sheep (Ovis musimon). The results contribute to the knowledge of Chinese sheep breeds and the plan of conservation programs on large-fat-tailed sheep. PMID:21503751

Zhao, Yongju; Zhao, Erhu; Zhang, Nanyang; Duan, Chaowei

2011-10-01

32

Evaluation of Egyptian sheep production systems: II. Breeding objectives for purebred and composite breeds.  

Science.gov (United States)

Objectives for this study were to estimate relative economic weights for performance traits for two native and two composite sheep breeds under two management systems in Egypt. Breeds studied were Rahmani (R), Ossimi (O), 3/4R-1/4Finnish Landrace (RFR), and 3/4O-1/4Finn (OFO); OFO and RFR were composite breeds. Management systems were one mating season per year (1M) and three mating seasons per 2 yr (3M). A dynamic computer model was used to simulate animal performance and enterprise efficiency and profit. Input parameters for the model were obtained from published results and analyses of data collected from experimental flocks of the same genetic stocks in Egypt. Responses for two measures of life-cycle feed conversion and one measure of enterprise profit were evaluated. Life-cycle feed conversion was calculated as kilograms of TDN input per kilogram of empty body weight output (TDN/EBW) and kilograms of TDN input per kilogram of carcass lean output (TDN/CLN). Profit was measured as annual gross margin/ewe (GM/EWE). Traits evaluated were conception rate (CR), lambing rate (LR), mortality rate (MR), mature weight (MW), and milk production (MK). Based on responses to percentage changes in trait means, CR was most important for TDN/EBW, followed by LR and MR. For TDN/CLN, LR, MR, and CR were most important. For GM/EWE, CR was most important, followed by LR, MW, and MR. In the systems studied, there was little response to changes in MK. Based on changes in GM/EWE per genetic standard deviation change, LR was most important, followed by CR, MR, MW, and MK in all systems. Relative economic weights for O and OFO were similar, as were weights for R and RFR. Differences in economic weights between management systems for the same breed were not large enough to justify separate selection lines within breeds. PMID:10709919

Almahdy, H; Tess, M W; El-Tawil, E; Shehata, E; Mansour, H

2000-02-01

33

Genetic distinctiveness of the Herdwick sheep breed and two other locally adapted hill breeds of the UK.  

Science.gov (United States)

There is considerable interest in locally adapted breeds of livestock as reservoirs of genetic diversity that may provide important fitness traits for future use in agriculture. In marginal areas, these animals contribute to food security and extract value from land unsuitable for other systems of farming. In England, close to 50% of the national sheep flock is farmed on grassland designated as disadvantaged areas for agricultural production. Many of these areas are in the uplands, where some native breeds of sheep continue to be commercially farmed only in highly localised geographical regions to which they are adapted. This study focuses on three of these breeds, selected for their adaptation to near identical environments and their geographical concentration in regions close to one another. Our objective has been to use retrotyping, microsatellites and single nucleotide polymorphisms to explore the origins of the breeds and whether, despite their similar adaptations and proximity, they are genetically distinctive. We find the three breeds each have a surprisingly different pattern of retrovirus insertions into their genomes compared with one another and with other UK breeds. Uniquely, there is a high incidence of the R0 retrotype in the Herdwick population, characteristic of a primitive genome found previously in very few breeds worldwide and none in the UK mainland. The Herdwick and Rough Fells carry two rare retroviral insertion events, common only in Texels, suggesting sheep populations in the northern uplands have a historical association with the original pin-tail sheep of Texel Island. Microsatellite data and analyses of SNPs associated with RXFP2 (horn traits) and PRLR (reproductive performance traits) also distinguished the three breeds. Significantly, an SNP linked to TMEM154, a locus controlling susceptibility to infection by Maedi-Visna, indicated that all three native hill breeds have a lower than average risk of infection to the lentivirus. PMID:24489968

Bowles, Dianna; Carson, Amanda; Isaac, Peter

2014-01-01

34

ESSAY ON ESTIMATION OF UNDEMONSTRATIVE SPARE OUTPUTS DISCLOSED BY REPRODUCTION BIOTECHNOLOGIES IN SHEEP BREEDING  

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Full Text Available Among genetic species of farm animals sheep has the highest artificial biodiversity. There are plenty of breeds due to the many kinds of biological production of human interest and to the large areas from plains to mountains and fro Equator to Poles engaged in sheep breeding. Sheep are producing wool (thin, meddle or thick, lambs, mouton (lean or fat, milk, pelts, furs or leather, each of them acting as single selection criterion or as component of selection indexes. Each kind of resulted product has its own commercial value and its way of appreciation it. In many cases the commercial value of sheep breeding is related to the ewes’ fertility. On the other hand ewes have seasonal sexual activity including a longer or shorter period of anoestrus when produce nothing related to their fertility. Biotechnological means as artificial insemination, estrus induction, arouse of ovulation rate, embryo transfer, MOET, embryo cloning, in vitro fertilization, transgenice engineering are able to influence the economic efficiency of sheep breeding. The present essay is configuring modalities of estimating the increase of economic value of sheep products when research programs of developing reproductive biotechnologies in ewes implemented in sheep farming.

Marcel Theodor PARASCHIVESCU

2012-01-01

35

Genetic polymorphism of type 1 intermediate filament wool keratin gene in native Indian sheep breeds.  

Science.gov (United States)

Information is presented on the genetic polymorphism of the Type 1 intermediate filament wool keratin gene in 15 native Indian sheep breeds belonging to different agro-ecological regions of India. The study analyzed random blood samples of the 638 sheep by the PCR-RFLP technique. Restriction digestion analysis of a 480 bp PCR fragment of the first exon region with MspI revealed two allelic variants (M = 0.748 and N = 0.252) and three genotypes (MM = 0.543, MN = 0.410, and NN = 0.047) across the 15 sheep breeds. The allelic frequency differences for both alleles across the Indian breeds, irrespective of their geographic distribution, color pattern, and utility traits, were observed to be statistically insignificant by a chi-square test (P > 0.05). According to the pattern of occurrence of allelic variants (M > N), the Indian breeds exhibited similarity to some of the reported European sheep breeds. The average heterozygosity was 0.420, and none of the breeds deviated from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The predominance of the M over the N allele supported its ancestry in Indian sheep too. PMID:18512146

Arora, R; Bhatia, S; Sehrawat, A; Pandey, A K; Sharma, R; Mishra, B P; Jain, A; Prakash, B

2008-10-01

36

Native breeds demonstrate high contributions to the molecular variation in northern European sheep.  

Science.gov (United States)

Population contribution to genetic diversity can be estimated using neutral variation. However, population expansion or hybridization of diverged ancestries may weaken correlation between neutral and non-neutral variation. Microsatellite variation was studied at 25 loci in 20 native and 12 modern or imported northern European sheep breeds. Breed contributions to total gene diversity, allelic richness and mean allele-sharing distance between individuals were measured. Indications of changes in population size and admixtures of divergent ancestries were investigated and the extent of inbreeding was estimated. The northern European sheep demonstrated signs of reduction in effective population size. Many old, small populations made a substantial positive contribution to total molecular variation, but populations with several divergent major ancestries did not contribute substantially to molecular variation, with the exception of the Norwegian Rygja sheep. However, several diverged major ancestries may cause it to contribute less to non-neutral variation than expected from the microsatellite data. Breed uniqueness and within-breed variability generally had opposite effects on breed contributions to molecular diversity. The degree of inbreeding did not reflect the breed contribution to total gene diversity or allelic richness, but inbred populations increased the mean allele-sharing distance between individuals. Our study indicates breed conservation to be especially important in maintaining allelic variation in northern European sheep and supports the evolutionary importance of peripheral populations. PMID:16262851

Tapio, M; Tapio, I; Grislis, Z; Holm, L-E; Jeppsson, S; Kantanen, J; Miceikiene, I; Olsaker, I; Viinalass, H; Eythorsdottir, E

2005-11-01

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Determination of erythrocyte susceptibility of Chinese sheep (Tan mutton breed) and French sheep (Vendéen breed) to Babesia sp. BQ1 (Lintan) by in vitro culture.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Babesia species "BQ1 (Lintan)" is infective to sheep and goats. The species was isolated from Haemaphysalis qinghaiensis collected in the Gannan Tibet Autonomous Region, China in April 2000. In this study, an in vitro culture system was developed for the propagation of Babesia sp. BQ1 (Lintan). Continuous cultivation and 5.0% parasitemia was obtained in vitro in RPMI 1640 medium with sheep red blood cells (RBC) (7.5%) supplemented with Fetal Bovine Serum (FBS) (20%), Amphotericin B (0.5 microg/ml) and Gentamicin (50 microg/ml) in an incubator at 37 degrees C and 6% CO(2) in 24-well and 6-well plates. Parasitemia could attain 10% in 75 cm(2) flasks with the same culture medium but with 2.5% RBC. A clonal line of Babesia sp. BQ1 (Lintan) was screened using the limiting dilution method and designated G7. Growth of Babesia sp. BQ1 (Lintan) in vitro was measured by microtitre-based spectrophotometric method and from parasitemia counts. The generation time was between 20.57 h (based the A(405) of the culture supernatant) and 26.41 h (based on parasitemia). Three French sheep were successfully infected with the culture and the infectivity of the clonal line G7 was determined. Finally, this in vitro culture system was used to compare the susceptibility (capacity to sustain Babesia sp. growth in vitro) of RBC from French sheep (Vendéen breed) and Chinese sheep (Tan mutton breed) for Babesia sp. BQ1 (Lintan) and B. divergens. The lower susceptibility to B. divergens and Babesia sp. BQ1 (Lintan) of RBC from French sheep, compared to Chinese sheep, is discussed. PMID:20223592

Guan, Guiquan; Moreau, Emmanuelle; Brisseau, Nadine; Luo, Jianxun; Yin, Hong; Chauvin, Alain

2010-05-28

38

Frequencies of PrP genotypes and their implication for breeding against scrapie susceptibility in nine Pakistani sheep breeds.  

Science.gov (United States)

Prion protein (PrP) gene of 308 sheep was genotyped to investigate polymorphisms at scrapie-associated codons 136, 154 and 171 to assess the resistance of nine different Pakistani sheep breeds to natural/typical scrapie. As a result six genotypes were established on the basis of polymorphic codons 154 and 171. The most scrapie-susceptible codon 136 (A/V) was monomorphic (A) in all breeds. Wild-type genotype ARQ/ARQ was detected with maximum prevalence ranging from 63.2% in crossbred Pak-karakul to 100% in native Buchi, Kachi and Thalli breeds. The most frequent of typical scrapie-associated genotypes was ARQ/ARR as indicated by five of nine breeds. The coding region of PrP gene of 49 animals from the total sampled was also sequenced to ascertain additional polymorphisms. Polymorphism was found in 13 animals of the six breeds in codons 101(Q/R), 112(M/T), 146(N/S) and 189(Q/L) and ten genotypes were established on the basis of these polymorphic codons. Only Hissardale possessed five of the ten genotypes. The most frequent genotype was M(112)ARQ/T(112)ARQ detected in Hissardale, Pak-karakul and Awassi, whereas genotypes ARQr(231)/ARQr(231) and ARQR(231)/ARQr(231) (established on the basis of silent polymorphism agg/cgg-R/R) were detected in all breeds. Some animals consisted of three polymorphisms at different PrP codons that are not common in European breeds. An infrequent double heterozygosity (c/c a/g g/t) for codon 171 resulting in a genotype R/H was also detected in three animals each one from Kajli, Hissardale and Pak-karakul. This study concludes that all native sheep breeds are poor in scrapie-resistant PrP genotypes and could contract scrapie if exposed to prions. PMID:18297414

Babar, M E; Farid, A; Benkel, B F; Ahmad, J; Nadeem, A; Imran, M

2009-03-01

39

Transcriptomic analysis of two sheep breeds during lactation, using a new custom microarray platform  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We aim at understanding the genomic influence on milk quality and synthesis by comparing two sheep breeds using sheep-specific microarray technology. From sheep ESTs deposited at NCBI we generated a chip carrying about 22,000 non-redundant features in quadruplicate, achieving very good technical outcomes. Oligos were in situ generated on chip using the Combimatrix equipment. We analysed the mammary transcriptome in individuals of two sheep breeds at two lactation stages, to identify genes controlling milk production and metabolic pathways in which these genes are involved. With |FC|>1.4, and p-value?0.05, 142 and 14 genes resulted differentially expressed in stages 01 and 02, respectively.

Lorraine Pariset

2010-01-01

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A Genome Wide Survey of SNP Variation Reveals the Genetic Structure of Sheep Breeds  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The genetic structure of sheep reflects their domestication and subsequent formation into discrete breeds. Understanding genetic structure is essential for achieving genetic improvement through genome-wide association studies, genomic selection and the dissection of quantitative traits. After identifying the first genome-wide set of SNP for sheep, we report on levels of genetic variability both within and between a diverse sample of ovine populations. Then, using cluster analysis and the part...

Kijas, James W.; Townley, David; Dalrymple, Brian P.; Heaton, Michael P.; Maddox, Jillian F.; Mcgrath, Annette; Wilson, Peter; Ingersoll, Roxann G.; Mcculloch, Russell; Mcwilliam, Sean; Tang, Dave; Mcewan, John; Cockett, Noelle; Oddy, V. Hutton; Nicholas, Frank W.

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Experimental infection of young adult European breed sheep with Rift Valley fever virus field isolates.  

Science.gov (United States)

The increasing interest in Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) and its potential impact on naive animal populations deserve revisiting experimental reproduction of RVFV infection, particularly in those animal breeds for which no data about their susceptibility to RVFV infection have ever been recorded. In this study we show the susceptibility of 9-10 weeks old European sheep (Ripollesa breed) to RVFV infection, showing a mild, subacute form of disease. Four different viral isolates efficiently replicated in vivo after subcutaneous experimental inoculation, and consistent viral loads in blood and virus shedding (variable in length depending on the RVFV isolate used) were detected, showing horizontal transmission to a noninfected, sentinel lamb. RVFV infection caused transient pyrexia in adult lambs and no other clinical symptoms were observed, with the exception of corneal opacity ("blue eye") found in 3 out of 16 subcutaneously inoculated sheep. In conclusion, adult sheep from this European breed are readily infected with RVFV without apparent clinical manifestations. PMID:20854022

Busquets, Nuria; Xavier, F; Martín-Folgar, Raquel; Lorenzo, Gema; Galindo-Cardiel, Iván; del Val, Bernat Pérez; Rivas, Raquel; Iglesias, Javier; Rodríguez, Fernando; Solanes, David; Domingo, Mariano; Brun, Alejandro

2010-10-01

42

Duration of bluetongue viraemia and serological responses in experimentally infected European breeds of sheep and goats.  

Science.gov (United States)

The duration of viraemia and the serological responses were studied in two breeds of sheep and two breeds of goats, experimentally infected with bluetongue (BT) virus serotype 4. Viraemia, detectable by cell culture and embryonated chicken egg inoculation, lasted from the third to sixth day until the 27th-54th day post infection (p.i.). Significant differences between sheep and goats were not recorded. Lesbos sheep and goats together appeared to have significantly longer viraemias (n = 9, mean 41.3 days) than east-Friesian sheep and Saanen goats (n = 10, mean 30.4 days, p = 0.0039). Serological response was studied by competitive ELISA (c-ELISA) and agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) tests. The c-ELISA was more sensitive in detecting BT virus antibodies in all animals than the AGID tests. No significant differences were observed between sheep and goats or between breeds. The epidemiological significance of subclinical infection and the extended BT virus viraemias in Lesbos sheep and goats, in relation to the maintenance of the virus and to overwintering is discussed. PMID:10063533

Koumbati, M; Mangana, O; Nomikou, K; Mellor, P S; Papadopoulos, O

1999-02-12

43

Maedi-visna virus infection in Karayaka and Amasya Herik breed sheep from provinces in northern Turkey.  

Science.gov (United States)

Maedi-visna is an important virus infection of sheep having prolonged incubation period (slow disease) and reflecting two distinct forms clinically and pathologically. In this study, the presence of MVV was investigated serologically in 58 Amasya Herik sheep breed and 525 Karayaka sheep breed. Seropositivity rates in Amasya Herik sheep breed and Karayaka sheep breed were detected as 69.0% and 18.5%, respectively. MVV antibodies were found in 137 of 583 serum samples (23.5%). Positivity rates for the provinces varied and were as follows: Samsun 19.4%, Sinop 15.4%, Ordu 25.8%, Trabzon 26.7%, Rize 36.7%, Amasya 69.0% and Tokat 35.0%, however no antibody response was detected in all of the sheep in Giresun province. PMID:22065306

Albayrak, Harun; Yazici, Zafer; Okur-Gumusova, Semra; Ozan, Emre

2012-06-01

44

Genome-wide analysis of the world's sheep breeds reveals high levels of historic mixture and strong recent selection  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Through their domestication and subsequent selection, sheep have been adapted to thrive in a diverse range of environments. To characterise the genetic consequence of both domestication and selection, we genotyped 49,034 SNP in 2,819 animals from a diverse collection of 74 sheep breeds. We find the majority of sheep populations contain high SNP diversity and have retained an effective population size much higher than most cattle or dog breeds, suggesting domestication occurred from a broad ge...

Kijas, J. W.; Lenstra, J. A.; Hayes, B.; Boitard, S.; Porto Neto, L. R.; San Cristobal, M.; Servin, B.; McCulloch, R; Whan, V.; Gietzen, K.; Paiva, S.; Barendse, W.; Ciani, E.; Raadsma, H.; Mcewan, J.

2012-01-01

45

Breeding with resistant rams leads to rapid control of classical scrapie in affected sheep flocks  

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Full Text Available Abstract Susceptibility to scrapie, a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy in sheep, is modulated by the genetic make-up of the sheep. Scrapie control policies, based on selecting animals of resistant genotype for breeding, have recently been adopted by the Netherlands and other European countries. Here we assess the effectiveness of a breeding programme based on selecting rams of resistant genotype to obtain outbreak control in classical scrapie-affected sheep flocks under field conditions. In six commercially-run flocks following this breeding strategy, we used genotyping to monitor the genotype distribution, and tonsil biopsies and post-mortem analyses to monitor the occurrence of scrapie infection. The farmers were not informed about the monitoring results until the end of the study period of six years. We used a mathematical model of scrapie transmission to analyze the monitoring data and found that where the breeding scheme was consistently applied, outbreak control was obtained after at most four years. Our results also show that classical scrapie control can be obtained before the frequency of non-resistant animals is reduced to zero in the flock. This suggests that control at the national scale can be obtained without a loss of genetic polymorphisms from any of the sheep breeds.

Nodelijk Gonnie

2011-01-01

46

Breeding with resistant rams leads to rapid control of classical scrapie in affected sheep flocks.  

Science.gov (United States)

Susceptibility to scrapie, a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy in sheep, is modulated by the genetic make-up of the sheep. Scrapie control policies, based on selecting animals of resistant genotype for breeding, have recently been adopted by the Netherlands and other European countries. Here we assess the effectiveness of a breeding programme based on selecting rams of resistant genotype to obtain outbreak control in classical scrapie-affected sheep flocks under field conditions. In six commercially-run flocks following this breeding strategy, we used genotyping to monitor the genotype distribution, and tonsil biopsies and post-mortem analyses to monitor the occurrence of scrapie infection. The farmers were not informed about the monitoring results until the end of the study period of six years. We used a mathematical model of scrapie transmission to analyze the monitoring data and found that where the breeding scheme was consistently applied, outbreak control was obtained after at most four years. Our results also show that classical scrapie control can be obtained before the frequency of non-resistant animals is reduced to zero in the flock. This suggests that control at the national scale can be obtained without a loss of genetic polymorphisms from any of the sheep breeds. PMID:21314971

Nodelijk, Gonnie; van Roermund, Herman J W; van Keulen, Lucien J M; Engel, Bas; Vellema, Piet; Hagenaars, Thomas J

2011-01-01

47

Evaluation of three Pakistani sheep breeds for their natural resistance to artificial infection of Haemonchus contortus.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study was carried out to evaluate three Pakistani sheep breeds (Kachhi, Lohi and Thalli) for their natural resistance against artificial infection of Haemonchus contortus. Lambs were weaned at 3 months of age, housed in separate pens and treated with Avermectin to eliminate gastrointestinal nematode infection. Each lamb was infected orally with approximately 10,000 third stage larvae of H. contortus. Selected breeds were compared on the basis of parasitological, haematological, biochemical and histopathological parameters over a period of 9 weeks. Faecal egg counts were measured weekly while packed cell volume, total serum protein, serum albumin and live weight were determined fortnightly. At 9th-week post-infection, 10 animals of each breed were randomly selected and slaughtered for worm, eosinophil and mast cell counts from the abomasum of each animal. Faecal egg counts and worm burden were significantly lower (P<0.05) in Lohi sheep than Kachhi and Thalli breeds. Furthermore, the Lohi breed also exhibited the highest levels of packed cell volume, total serum protein, albumin as well as eosinophils and mast cell counts. Breed x week interaction also remained significant (P<0.05) in most of the parameters for Lohi breed. The results suggested that Lohi breed expressed a significant innate resistance to artificial infection of H. contortus. PMID:19939567

Saddiqi, H A; Iqbal, Z; Khan, M N; Sarwar, M; Muhammad, G; Yaseen, M; Jabbar, A

2010-02-26

48

Within- and across-breed genomic predictions and genomic relationships for Western Pyrenees dairy sheep breeds Latxa, Manech, and Basco-Béarnaise.  

Science.gov (United States)

Genotypes, phenotypes and pedigrees of 6 breeds of dairy sheep (including subdivisions of Latxa, Manech, and Basco-Béarnaise) from the Spain and France Western Pyrenees were used to estimate genetic relationships across breeds (together with genotypes from the Lacaune dairy sheep) and to verify by forward cross-validation single-breed or multiple-breed genetic evaluations. The number of rams genotyped fluctuated between 100 and 1,300 but generally represented the 10 last cohorts of progeny-tested rams within each breed. Genetic relationships were assessed by principal components analysis of the genomic relationship matrices and also by the conservation of linkage disequilibrium patterns at given physical distances in the genome. Genomic and pedigree-based evaluations used daughter yield performances of all rams, although some of them were not genotyped. A pseudo-single step method was used in this case for genomic predictions. Results showed a clear structure in blond and black breeds for Manech and Latxa, reflecting historical exchanges, and isolation of Basco-Béarnaise and Lacaune. Relatedness between any 2 breeds was, however, lower than expected. Single-breed genomic predictions had accuracies comparable with other breeds of dairy sheep or small breeds of dairy cattle. They were more accurate than pedigree predictions for 5 out of 6 breeds, with absolute increases in accuracy ranging from 0.05 to 0.30 points. They were significantly better, as assessed by bootstrapping of candidates, for 2 of the breeds. Predictions using multiple populations only marginally increased the accuracy for a couple of breeds. Pooling populations does not increase the accuracy of genomic evaluations in dairy sheep; however, single-breed genomic predictions are more accurate, even for small breeds, and make the consideration of genomic schemes in dairy sheep interesting. PMID:24630656

Legarra, A; Baloche, G; Barillet, F; Astruc, J M; Soulas, C; Aguerre, X; Arrese, F; Mintegi, L; Lasarte, M; Maeztu, F; Beltrán de Heredia, I; Ugarte, E

2014-05-01

49

Genetic polymorphism of beta-lactoglobulin gene in native Turkish sheep breeds.  

Science.gov (United States)

The genetic polymorphism of the beta-lactoglobulin gene was investigated in three native Turkish sheep breeds. The study was carried out on 108 sheep (29 Kivircik, 38 Gökçeada, and 41 Sakiz) by means of PCR-RFLP methods. Two genetic variants (A and B) and three genotypes (AA, AB, and BB) of beta-lactoglobulin have been identified. The gene frequencies of beta-LG A and B were 0.7759 and 0.2241 in Kivircik, 0.7632 and 0.2368 in Gökçeada, and 0.9756 and 0.0244 in Sakiz breeds, respectively. The populations were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in all samples from the three breeds. PMID:16969686

Elmaci, Cengiz; Oner, Yasemin; Balcioglu, M Soner

2006-10-01

50

Blood protein polymorphism in three sheep breeds from the south of Tunisia  

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Full Text Available Biochemical polymorphism was studied in the native ovine Barbarine (BAR and Queue Fine de l’Ouest (QF breeds as well as in the exotic D’man (DMN breed in the South of Tunisia using a panel of six protein coding loci: Haemoglobin (Hb, Carbonic anhydrase (Ca, Albumin (Al, Transferrin (Tf, X-protein (X-p and Arylesterase A (EsA. Polymorphic loci were detected by means of horizontal starch gel electrophoresis. All tested loci were polymorphic. The Tf locus exhibited the highest number of alleles while the other loci showed two alleles in all sampled breeds. Estimates of expected heterozygosity were almost twice those of observed heterosigositiy in all sheep populations and the high level of heterozygosity was observed in DMN breed. Genetic distances observed between BAR-DMN and between QF-DMN were larger than those found between BAR-QF breeds.

Khaldi Zahrane,

2011-02-01

51

Neosporosis in Sheep and Different Breeds of Goats from Southern Jordan: Prevalence and Risk Factors Analysis  

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Full Text Available A cross sectional study was performed to investigate the epidemiology of Neospora caninum infection in Southern Jordan. A total of 320 sheep and 300 goats from 38 and 24, sheep and goat flocks, respectively, were randomly sampled and assayed for presence of antibodies against N. caninum. A structured pre-tested questionnaire was administered to collect information on flocks' health and management. A multivariable logistic regression model was constructed to investigate risk factors associated with seropositivity to N. caninum. The individual true seroprevalence of N. caninum in sheep and goats was 4.3 and 5.7%, respectively. The sheep and goat flock level true seroprevalence for N. caninum was 45.8 and 48.7%, respectively. The logistic regression model revealed small herd size, having more than one dog and grazing in communal pastures as risk factors for N. caninum seropositivity in both sheep and goats. Damascus breed goats were more likely to be seropositive than goats of other breeds.

Al-Majali A. N.

2008-01-01

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COMPARATIVE PHYSIOLOGICAL AND MOLECULAR STUDY OF SOME SHEEP BREEDS IN SAUDI ARABIA  

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Full Text Available Naemi, Heri, Najdi and Sawakni sheep breeds inhabiting Kingdom of Saudi Arabia were studied on both physiological and molecular bases. Native polyacrylamide gel-electrophoreses for two enzymes Malate Dehydrogenase (Mdh and Malic Enzyme (Me recorded 5 isoenzyme loci from which 4 were polymorphic and 1 was monomorphic. Mdh showed three fractions, the first was recorded in Sawakni and Najdi breeds, the second was monomorphic and was recorded in all breeds while the third was recorded in all except Heri. Malic enzyme showed two polymorphic fractions, the first was recorded in Heri and Naemi and the second was recorded in all breeds. Both metabolic enzymes activities were higher in Sawakni than in the native breeds. 607, 227, 498 and 595 bp nucleotides from CO1, ND4, cytb genes and d-loop, respectively, were sequenced with no base substitutions among and/or within breeds except for ND4 gene and d-loop. The molecular tree clustered the three breeds other than Naemi in one group and Naemi was basal. Isoenzymes therefore, discriminate clearly the studied breeds although they are not as accurate as molecular tools indicating their applicability with more efficiency in physiology than in genetics while the d-loop was efficient in discriminating the studied breeds phynotypically.

Mohammad S. AL-Harbi

2013-01-01

53

A genome wide survey of SNP variation reveals the genetic structure of sheep breeds.  

Science.gov (United States)

The genetic structure of sheep reflects their domestication and subsequent formation into discrete breeds. Understanding genetic structure is essential for achieving genetic improvement through genome-wide association studies, genomic selection and the dissection of quantitative traits. After identifying the first genome-wide set of SNP for sheep, we report on levels of genetic variability both within and between a diverse sample of ovine populations. Then, using cluster analysis and the partitioning of genetic variation, we demonstrate sheep are characterised by weak phylogeographic structure, overlapping genetic similarity and generally low differentiation which is consistent with their short evolutionary history. The degree of population substructure was, however, sufficient to cluster individuals based on geographic origin and known breed history. Specifically, African and Asian populations clustered separately from breeds of European origin sampled from Australia, New Zealand, Europe and North America. Furthermore, we demonstrate the presence of stratification within some, but not all, ovine breeds. The results emphasize that careful documentation of genetic structure will be an essential prerequisite when mapping the genetic basis of complex traits. Furthermore, the identification of a subset of SNP able to assign individuals into broad groupings demonstrates even a small panel of markers may be suitable for applications such as traceability. PMID:19270757

Kijas, James W; Townley, David; Dalrymple, Brian P; Heaton, Michael P; Maddox, Jillian F; McGrath, Annette; Wilson, Peter; Ingersoll, Roxann G; McCulloch, Russell; McWilliam, Sean; Tang, Dave; McEwan, John; Cockett, Noelle; Oddy, V Hutton; Nicholas, Frank W; Raadsma, Herman

2009-01-01

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Growth and reproductive performance of Magra breed of sheep  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The growth and reproductive performance of Magra sheep were studied. The body weights at birth, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months were 2.75±0.03,13.43±0.17, 17.86±0.24, 20.38±0.25 and 24.84 ± 0.37 kg respectively. The effect of year was highly significant. The spring born animals were heavier than those born in the autumn. The weight gain/day from birth to 3 months, 3 to 6 months, 6 to 9 months and 9 to 12 months was observed to be 118.67, 49.22, 28 and 49.56 g respectively. The tupping, lambing on...

Mehta, S. C.; Singh, V. K.; Ayub, M.; Mehrotra, V.

2003-01-01

55

Determination of Animal Unit Size and Animal Unit Requirement of Fashandy Sheep Breed Grazing on Rangelands (Case Study: Taleghan)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Information on animal requirements for determination of rangeland grazing capacity is essential. Animal requirements depend on its live weight, age, physiological condition and quality of available forage. There are more than 20 sheep breeds with different body sizes grazing in various climatic zone's rangelands of Iran, so animal unit equivalent of each breed should be determined independently. In this research, live weight of animal unit of Fashandy sheep based on average live weight of 3 a...

Arzani, H.; Mosayebi, M.; Nikkhah, A.

2009-01-01

56

Genome-wide analysis of Italian sheep diversity reveals a strong geographic pattern and cryptic relationships between breeds.  

Science.gov (United States)

Italy counts several sheep breeds, arisen over centuries as a consequence of ancient and recent genetic and demographic events. To finely reconstruct genetic structure and relationships between Italian sheep, 496 subjects from 19 breeds were typed at 50K single nucleotide polymorphism loci. A subset of foreign breeds from the Sheep HapMap dataset was also included in the analyses. Genetic distances (as visualized either in a network or in a multidimensional scaling analysis of identical by state distances) closely reflected geographic proximity between breeds, with a clear north-south gradient, likely because of high levels of past gene flow and admixture all along the peninsula. Sardinian breeds diverged more from other breeds, a probable consequence of the combined effect of ancient sporadic introgression of feral mouflon and long-lasting genetic isolation from continental sheep populations. The study allowed the detection of previously undocumented episodes of recent introgression (Delle Langhe into the endangered Altamurana breed) as well as signatures of known, or claimed, historical introgression (Merino into Sopravissana and Gentile di Puglia; Bergamasca into Fabrianese, Appenninica and, to a lesser extent, Leccese). Arguments that would question, from a genomic point of view, the current breed classification of Bergamasca and Biellese into two separate breeds are presented. Finally, a role for traditional transhumance practices in shaping the genetic makeup of Alpine sheep breeds is proposed. The study represents the first exhaustive analysis of Italian sheep diversity in an European context, and it bridges the gap in the previous HapMap panel between Western Mediterranean and Swiss breeds. PMID:24303943

Ciani, E; Crepaldi, P; Nicoloso, L; Lasagna, E; Sarti, F M; Moioli, B; Napolitano, F; Carta, A; Usai, G; D'Andrea, M; Marletta, D; Ciampolini, R; Riggio, V; Occidente, M; Matassino, D; Kompan, D; Modesto, P; Macciotta, N; Ajmone-Marsan, P; Pilla, F

2014-04-01

57

Microsatellite analysis to estimate genetic relationships among five bulgarian sheep breeds  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Herein, genetic relationships among five breeds of Bulgarian sheep were estimated using microsatellite markers. The total number of alleles identified was 226 at the 16 loci examined. D A distance values were used for phylogenetic tree construction with the UPGMA algorithm. The two Tsigai and two Ma [...] ritza populations were found to be geneticallvery closely related to each other y (0.198, and 0.258 respectively). The Pleven Black Head population was distinct from the other four. These results could be useful for preserving genes in these breeds, thereby ensuring their preservation in Bulgaria.

Szilvia, Kusza; Doytcho, Dimov; István, Nagy; Zsuzsanna, Bõsze; András, Jávor; Sándor, Kukovics.

58

Research Concerning the Economic Efficiency in Carabasa Sheep Breed Raising in Various Sized Farms  

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Full Text Available The paper aimed to analyze the economic efficiency in two farms dealing with Carabasa Breed raising as follows:Farm1-86 sheep flock, of which 62 ewes, producing in average 146 liters milk/head/year and Farm 2-297 sheepstock, of which 255 ewes, with 140 liters/head milk yield. Economic efficiency was comparatively analyzed basedon: gross product, production cost, variable and fixed cost, gross margin, profit, profit rate, farm economic size. Theboth farms registered profit, but Farm 2, the largest one taking into account the number of sheep, recorded a highereconomic efficiency: 1.5 lambs/ewe, 22.50 kg cottage cheese/ewe, 1.17 Easter lambs/ewe, Euro 148 feedingcost/sheep, Euro 0.30/liter milk cost, Euro 233 income/ewe, Euro 61 profit/ewe, Euro 68 gross margin/ewe and a35.55% profit rate. With Euro 17,274 profit at farm level, Farm 2 was considered a commercial middle sized farm,ESU 7.19 and Farm 1 a very small farm, ESU 1.04. As a conclusion, breeders raising Carabasa Breed, an excellentbiological resource for milk and meat for Romanian sheep farming, have to increase farm size in order to go up theprofitability and competitiveness of their farms.

Agatha Popescu

2012-10-01

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Genetic structure of four Spanish sheep breeds using a SNP-chip  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Modern genomic tools allow genome-wide association studies (GWAS) to find genes underlying economically important traits in animals. In human, these studies have found many associations that cannot be always replicated. One of the reasons for this is the presence of population stratification in groups considered to be homogeneous. The objective of this work was to study the genetic structure of four Spanish sheep breeds (Castellana, Churra, Ojalada and Rasa Aragonesa) included ...

Garci?a Ga?mez, E.; Gitie?rrez Gil, B.; Kijas, J.; Calvo Lacosta, Jorge Hugo; International Sheep Genomics Consortium (ISGC); Arranz, J. J.

2011-01-01

60

Performance and utilization of Northern European short-tailed breeds of sheep and their crosses in North America: a review.  

Science.gov (United States)

The five Northern European short-tailed sheep breeds present in North America are the Finnsheep, Romanov, Icelandic, Shetland and Gotland. The Finnsheep and Romanov were first imported in 1966 and 1986, respectively, for their high reproductive performance. The Shetland, Icelandic and Gotland breeds were first imported in 1980, 1985 and 2005, respectively, for the uniqueness of their physical appearance and their unique fleeces desired by fiber craftspeople. There have been no scientific studies conducted on the performance of the Shetland, Icelandic or Gotland breeds relative to other breeds of sheep in North America. However, the Shetland and Icelandic breeds have become very popular in the United States and ranked 9th and 18th, respectively, among 35 breeds of sheep for number of purebred animals registered in 2008. The performance of the Finnsheep breed in North America relative to domestic breeds has been thoroughly investigated. Compared to several domestic purebreds and crosses, sheep with Finnsheep breeding had a younger age at puberty, greater fertility to autumn mating, greater litter size, greater survival to weaning, similar growth rate, similar subcutaneous fat thickness, smaller loin muscle area and greater percentage of kidney and pelvic fat. Each 1% increase in Finnsheep breeding in ewes was associated with approximately 0.01 more lambs born per ewe lambing. In North American studies, Romanov ewes were superior to Finnsheep ewes for reproductive rate and lamb production per ewe under both autumn and spring mating. Lambs of the two breeds were similar for survival, growth and carcass traits. Romanov and Romanov-cross ewes produced fleeces that were heavily contaminated with medulated and colored fibers and were of very low commercial value. Three composite breeds containing 25% to 49% Finnsheep breeding (Polypay, Rideau Arcott and Outaouais Arcott) were developed in North America and are now more popular than the Finnsheep breed. PMID:22444648

Thomas, D L

2010-08-01

 
 
 
 
61

Study of genetic diversity in Algerian sheep breeds using microsatellite markers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: In order to realize the preservation and exploitation of domestic animal biodiversity and to define a global strategy for the management of Algerian sheep genetic resources, the goals of our research are the knowledge of the degree of genetic variability, the partition of this variability and the genetic distance among ovine breeds. This information will be obtained by analyzing directly the genome at molecular level. In this study DNA of 85 animals from two breeds, Ouled-Djellal and Hamra, was PCR amplified at the following microsatellite loci: McM42, TGLA53, MAF65, McM527, OarFCB20, INRA49, OarFCB11, OarCP49, CSSM66, MAF36, Oar HH56 and ILST05. Number of alleles and allele frequencies were calculated. The results showed that these breeds presented a polymorphism with these microsatellite markers reflecting a genetic variability among them. However, highest differences in allele frequencies were found at loci: McM527, ILSTS05, OarFCB20, INRA49, MAF36, McM42, MAF65, OarFCB11, OarCP49, CSSM66, while at the other loci the alleles at the highest frequency are the same. This study is being extended to five other Algerian breeds: Taadmit, Barbarine, D'men, Sidaou and Berbere to estimate their variability and genetic distance between them. Now, we are collecting blood from these different breeds to constitute a DNA bank. The results will allow establishment of the strategy to promote the use and development of locally adapted sheep resources. (author)pted sheep resources. (author)

62

A study of the influence of breed and strain on the susceptibility of sheep to Haemonchus controtus infection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Breed appears to influence the susceptibility of sheep to Haemonchus contortus infection. Experiments on Masai and Merino sheep indicated that the Masai appear innately capable of reacting more vigorously to throw off H. contortus infection, this reaction being enhanced by previous experience. Following challenge, tangible resistance develops consistently in Masai, compared to a partial resistance, at best, in Merino. Resistance appears to be a short-lived phenomenon in both breeds. A field trial was carried out, to determine the influence of hemoglobin type on the susceptibility of Merino sheep. Sheep of hemoglobin types AA, AB and BB were used. A lower egg production occurred in hemoglobin type AA sheep, contrary to results obtained in the laboratory where ''massive'' experimental infection (250 Haemonchus larvae/kg liveweight) was effected. Tracer techniques involving 51Cr- labelled erythrocytes and 125I-tagged plasma were applied

63

Comparison of Serum Paraoxonase 1 (PON1 Activities Among Different Sheep Breeds in Turkey  

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Full Text Available Paraoxonase 1 (PON1, EC 3.1.8.1 is a calcium dependent mammalian enzyme that is synthesized primarily in the liver and is secreted into the serum where it is associated with High Density Lipoproteins (HDLs and has a protective effect against oxidation of Low Density Lipoproteins (HDLs. Beside antioxidant and antiatherogenic properties, PON1 is also a detoxifier that can hydrolyze toxic organophosphates. Several studies have shown that PON1 can bind reversibly to organophosphate substrates which it hydrolyzes. Therefore, PON1 is the main means of protection of the nervous system against the neurotoxicity of organophosphates entering the circulation. This study was conducted to characterization of serum Paraoxonase 1 (PON1 activity from different sheep breeds namely Karacabey Merino, Kivircik, Tahirova, Akkaraman and Daglic. KM and Vmax values of five different sheep breed were determined by Lineweaver-Burk method. The values of Vmax/KM showed that Kivircik breed has the greatest PON1 activity, on the other hand, Karacabey Merino breed showed the least activity toward paraoxon substrate.

Dudu Demir

2011-01-01

64

Doppel gene polymorphisms in Portuguese sheep breeds: insights on ram fertility.  

Science.gov (United States)

Transgenic knockout of the gene encoding the prion-like protein Doppel leads to male infertility in mice. The precise role of Doppel in male fertility is still unclear, but sperm from Doppel-deficient mice appear to be unable to undergo the normal acrosome reaction necessary to penetrate the zona pellucida of the oocyte. The objective of this study was to characterize Doppel (Prnd) gene polymorphisms in eight Portuguese sheep breeds and to determine a possible relationship between these polymorphisms and ram fertility. Ovine genomic DNA of 364 animals of different breeds (Bordaleira entre Douro e Minho, Churra Badana, Churra Galega Mirandesa, Churra Mondegueira, Merino da Beira Baixa, Merino Branco, Saloia and Serra da Estrela) were analysed by multiple restriction fragment-single-strand conformation polymorphism (MRF-SSCP). This analysis revealed a synonymous substitution G-->A in codon 26 of Prnd gene. Churra Galega Mirandesa and Saloia breeds were more polymorphic (P=0.005 and P=0.04, respectively) than the overall population, while Serra da Estrela and Merino Branco animals were less polymorphic (P=0.007 and P=0.04). No polymorphism was found in Churra Mondegueira breed. Semen from 11 rams of Churra Galega Mirandesa breed (7 homozygous wildtype GG and 4 heterozygous GA) routinely used in the Portuguese Animal Germoplasm Bank was collected and frozen for fertility tests. A classification function was estimated, using data from post-swim-up semen motility and concentration and Day 6 embryo production rate, allowing the identification of the Doppel homozygous GG genotype with 86.7% of accuracy. This preliminary study detected the presence of only one polymorphism in codon 26 of Prnd gene in the Portuguese sheep breeds. In the polymorphic Churra Galega Mirandesa breed, GG genotype could be characterized through a model using three fertility traits, suggesting a relationship with male reproduction. Any future research should investigate not only AA genotype and its influence on ram fertility but also the possible consequences of the European Community selection program to eradicate Scrapie on the Prnd genotypes and indirectly on sheep breed's viability and preservation. PMID:19028030

Pereira, R M; Mesquita, P; Batista, M; Baptista, M C; Barbas, J P; Pimenta, J; Santos, I C; Marques, M R; Vasques, M I; Silva Pereira, M; Santos Silva, F; Oliveira Sousa, M C; Fontes, C M G; Horta, A E M; Prates, J A M; Marques, C C

2009-08-01

65

Phenotypic diversity of Tuscany’s endangered sheep breeds: a canonical discriminant approach  

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Full Text Available The determination of the degree of differentiation of animal populations at breed level is an important issue for conservation purposes. Morphometric divergences can be an indicator of adaptative or selective differences between breeds. In fact, due to the natural and artificial selection that continuously acts on the adaptative traits, the determination of the level of divergence of the quantitative traits across several populations, allows to make inferences on the degree of adaptation to a certain environment or on the productive specialization of a given population. Somatic measures have already been used to estimate the divergence in Italian cattle (Camussi et al., 1985, goat (Cicogna et al., 1995, Herrera et al. 1996 and sheep breeds (Panella et al., 1993...

R. Bozzi

2011-03-01

66

Genetic parameters and factors influencing survival to 24 hrs after birth in Danish meat sheep breeds  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In this study, influential factors and (co)variance components for survival to 24 h after birth were determined and estimated for Texel, Shropshire, and Oxford Down, the most common sheep breeds in Denmark. Data from 1992 to 2006 containing 138,813 survival records were extracted from the sheep recording database at the Danish Agricultural Advisory Service. Estimation of (co)variance components was carried out using univariate animal models, applying logistic link functions. The logistic functions were also used for estimation of fixed effects. Both direct and maternal additive genetic effects, as well as common litter effects, were included in the models. The mean survival to 24 h after birth was 92.5, 91.7, and 88.5% for Texel, Shropshire, and Oxford Down, respectively. There was a curvilinear relationship between survival to 24 h after birth and birth weight, with survival less for light and heavy lambs. Male lambs, as well as lambs from ewes in the first parity or with difficult lambing, had the least survival to 24 h after birth. Survival to 24 h after birth was greater in twin-born Texel and Shropshire lambs compared with singletons and vice versa in Oxford Down. Estimates of direct heritability were in the range from 0.05 to 0.07. Maternal heritability estimates were slightly greater (0.06 and 0.07) than direct heritabilities in Texel and Shropshire and less (0.04) in Oxford Down. The estimated genetic correlations between direct and maternal effects for survival to 24 h after birth were negative, which will make breeding for this trait more difficult. However, on the basis of estimated genetic parameters, it can be concluded that it is possible to improve survival to 24 h after birth in meat sheep breeds by accounting for both direct and maternal genetic effects in breeding programs

Maxa, J; Sharifi, A R

2009-01-01

67

Comparative Study regarding Reproductive Performance in Gyimesi racka and Turcana Sheep Breeds  

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Full Text Available The aim of the current study was to evaluate reproductive performance of native Hungarian Gyimesi racka (GR and Romanian Turcana (TA sheep breeds, belonging to the Central and Eastern European Zackel group. In TA breed the average conception rate was 96.11±0.024%, while in GR it was 93.29±0.064%, the differences between the two genotypes were significant (p?0.001. For the prolificacy trait, TA ewes registered an average of 118.94±0.051%, while GR ewes had an average of 105.78±0.059%, differences between the two breeds were significant (p?0.001. Lamb survival rate from birth to weaning was not affected by the genotype (p?0.05, with TA lambs having survival rates of 97.32±0.019% and the GR lambs 97.70±0.038%. Differences between reproduction performances of the two related breeds could be caused by the management and rearing practices in the two countries. Overall, the conception rates and litter size for the TA and GR breeds are close to the data reported for most low-input European genotypes originating from the mountain breed groups, with excellent survival rates of the progeny and mothering abilities of the ewes.

Csilla Budai

2013-10-01

68

Examination of a region showing linkage map discrepancies across sheep breeds.  

Science.gov (United States)

The availability of accurate linkage maps is an important step for the localization of genetic variants of interest. However, most studies in livestock assume the published map is applicable in their population despite the large differences between the breeds of a species. A region of sheep Chromosome 1 was previously identified as providing evidence for a marker order inconsistent with the published linkage map. In this study the identified region was investigated in more detail. Four microsatellite markers covering the central 5 cM of the inconsistent region and two flanking markers were genotyped in three sheep breeds, a commercial population (Charollais), an experimental population (Scottish Blackface), and a feral population (Soay). With the inclusion of the published linkage map, this provided evidence for three different marker orders across four sheep populations. Evidence for selection in this region was investigated using both a single-point allelic competition model and a multipoint allele-sharing statistic. Only the Charollais population provided evidence for selection, with significant transmission bias observed at marker BM7145. The implications of variation in linkage maps on the design and analysis of fine-mapping studies are discussed. PMID:16596456

McRae, Allan F; Beraldi, Dario

2006-04-01

69

The Effects of Good Breeding Practices on Brucellosis Incidence in Kangal Akkaraman Sheep Flocks  

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Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to compare the incidence of brucellosis in groups of Kangal Akkaraman sheep flocks raised in farm conditions in Sivas province. The first and second groups of the sheep flocks were part of the 8 sub-projects which belong to The Project entitled “Nationwide Genetic Improvement of Small Ruminants in Farm Condition” continued for 7 and 1-3 years, respectively. The third group of the sheep flocks was not part of this nationwide project. The study material consisted of 1491 units of blood serum (n=278, 1166 and 47 for the first, second and third groups, respectively. Brucella antibodies were looked for in blood serum using tube and slide agglutination tests. The incidences of brucellosis were 4% and 7.5% in flocks which were part of the nationwide project continued for 7 and 3 years, respectively and 25.5% for the flocks not part of the nationwide project. The differences between groups were found statistically significant. Even though there was no brucella vaccination programs in the flocks of the nationwide project, practices such as regular controls of the flocks by veterinary technicians, drug/vaccination applications for parasites and some other diseases, removal of rams positive for brucella before breeding season significantly reduced the incidence of brucella. As a result, promoting good breeding practices along with the brucella vaccination program applied by the related Ministry can be very beneficial for the eradication of brucella disease that is a big problem for the country.

Yusuf Ziya O?rak

2014-03-01

70

Mitochondrial DNA and Y-chromosomal diversity in ancient populations of domestic sheep (Ovis aries in Finland: comparison with contemporary sheep breeds  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Several molecular and population genetic studies have focused on the native sheep breeds of Finland. In this work, we investigated their ancestral sheep populations from Iron Age, Medieval and Post-Medieval periods by sequencing a partial mitochondrial DNA D-loop and the 5’-promoter region of the SRY gene. We compared the maternal (mitochondrial DNA haplotypes and paternal (SNP oY1 genetic diversity of ancient sheep in Finland with modern domestic sheep populations in Europe and Asia to study temporal changes in genetic variation and affinities between ancient and modern populations. Results A 523-bp mitochondrial DNA sequence was successfully amplified for 26 of 36 sheep ancient samples i.e. five, seven and 14 samples representative of Iron Age, Medieval and Post-Medieval sheep, respectively. Genetic diversity was analyzed within the cohorts. This ancient dataset was compared with present-day data consisting of 94 animals from 10 contemporary European breeds and with GenBank DNA sequence data to carry out a haplotype sharing analysis. Among the 18 ancient mitochondrial DNA haplotypes identified, 14 were present in the modern breeds. Ancient haplotypes were assigned to the highly divergent ovine haplogroups A and B, haplogroup B being the major lineage within the cohorts. Only two haplotypes were detected in the Iron Age samples, while the genetic diversity of the Medieval and Post-Medieval cohorts was higher. For three of the ancient DNA samples, Y-chromosome SRY gene sequences were amplified indicating that they originated from rams. The SRY gene of these three ancient ram samples contained SNP G-oY1, which is frequent in modern north-European sheep breeds. Conclusions Our study did not reveal any sign of major population replacement of native sheep in Finland since the Iron Age. Variations in the availability of archaeological remains may explain differences in genetic diversity estimates and patterns within the cohorts rather than demographic events that occurred in the past. Our ancient DNA results fit well with the genetic context of domestic sheep as determined by analyses of modern north-European sheep breeds.

Niemi Marianna

2013-01-01

71

Prion-like Doppel gene polymorphisms and scrapie susceptibility in Portuguese sheep breeds.  

Science.gov (United States)

The establishment of an association between prion protein gene (PRNP) polymorphisms and scrapie susceptibility in sheep has enabled the development of breeding programmes to increase scrapie resistance in the European Union. Intense selection for PRNP genotype may lead to correlated selection for genes linked to PRNP. We intended to investigate if any association exists between genetic variation in prion-like protein Doppel gene (PRND) and scrapie susceptibility, determined through PRNP genotyping. Sampling included 460 sheep from eight Portuguese breeds and the PRND gene coding region was analysed by multiple restriction fragment-single strand conformation polymorphism (MRF-SSCP), whereas PRNP genotyping was carried out by primer extension. A synonymous substitution (c.78G>A) was detected in codon 26 of the PRND gene, in all breeds except Churra Mondegueira. Linkage disequilibrium was found between the PRND and PRNP loci (P = 0.000). Specifically, PRND was monomorphic in the 45 animals with the more resistant ARR/ARR PRNP genotype (P = 0.003), whereas a higher frequency of PRND heterozygotes (GA) was associated with ARQ/AHQ (P = 0.029). These results constitute preliminary evidence of an association between a polymorphism in the PRND gene and scrapie susceptibility, and indicate that the possibility of undesirable consequences from widespread selection for PRNP genotype on genetic diversity and reproduction traits needs to be further investigated. PMID:19968641

Mesquita, P; Batista, M; Marques, M R; Santos, I C; Pimenta, J; Silva Pereira, M; Carolino, I; Santos Silva, F; Oliveira Sousa, M C; Gama, L T; Fontes, C M; Horta, A E M; Prates, J A M; Pereira, R M

2010-06-01

72

Genetic variability of the Gentile di Puglia sheep breed based on microsatellite polymorphism.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of the present study was to estimate the genetic variability of the Gentile di Puglia sheep breed by using microsatellite markers, to provide information useful for conservation. The DNA of 82 animals, belonging to 6 different farms, was analyzed at 19 microsatellite loci. The number of alleles, allele frequencies, deviations from Hardy-Weinberg proportions, linkage disequilibrium among loci, genetic similarity, genetic distances, and molecular coancestry-based parameters were calculated. Seventeen out of 19 microsatellites showed heterozygote deficiency in the whole population, although only 4 (OarAE129, ILSTS28, ILSTS5, MAF33) showed significant deviations from Hardy-Weinberg proportions (P<0.01). The genetic similarity (an index of allele sharing among individuals) within the whole population was low (0.318), and the average number of alleles per locus was quite high (9.68). The results obtained highlighted a population presenting both a deficiency of heterozygotes and great genetic variability. These results suggest that stratification of the breed in subpopulations, probably derived from different farm management in each herd, led to a population characterized by great genetic diversity among different herds and by great similarity within each herd. Moreover, in the past, Gentile di Puglia sheep have undergone a strong numeric decline, involving genetic drift effects and considerable consanguinity within the breed. PMID:19098255

d'Angelo, F; Albenzio, M; Sevi, A; Ciampolini, R; Cecchi, F; Ciani, E; Muscio, A

2009-04-01

73

A Preliminary Study of Marker Data Applicability in Gene Introgression Program for Afshari Sheep Breed  

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Full Text Available The traits with the greatest financial impact on sheep production are the number of lambs weaned per ewe and growth efficiency. FecB and Callipyge are the most well known major genes concerned with these traits. In order to conduct a Marker Assisted Introgression (MAI program we surveyed the presence of responsible mutations in Afshari sheep breeding flock. Direct tests to detect of FecBB and CLPG alleles were conducted on 74 and 58 DNA samples respectively by PCR-RFLP assay. Also the polymorphism content of the breeding flock was investigated by genotyping of one hundred randomly sampled animals at eighteen microsatellite loci selected on the chromosomes carrying and not carrying introgressed genes. A part from MCMA26 monomorphic pattern, microsatellite loci showed moderate level of polymorphism, as such totally 102 alleles were detected with a mean number of 6 alleles per locus. A full characterization of this set of seventeen polymorphic loci was carried out generating allele frequency distributions that were used to estimate genetic parameters of these loci, including expected heterozygosity, Polymorphism Information Content (PIC, probability of identity (I and discrimination power (D. The average expected heterozygosity was 0.72 (SD = 0.07 and the average PIC was 0.67 (SD = 0.08. Cumulative value of I considering for linked loci were estimated as 3.128E-13. The results of microsatellite analysis indicated that, despite the selective breeding and closed flock system over a number of generations, a relatively high level of heterozygosity still exists in the breeding flock. Besides, the banding patterns resulted from AvaII digestion of FecB and CLPG amplicons approved the absence of the mutations in this flock. These observations demonstrate applicability of marker data and would assist to make decision on starting MAI program for inclusion of FecB and CLPG genes into the Afshari breed.

S. Qanbari

2007-01-01

74

Merino breeding program improves wool production in the western USA range sheep flocks  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A Merino breeding resource flock was established at Rafter 7 Ranch, Yerington, Nevada through cooperation of the College of Agriculture, Biotechnology and Natural Resources, University of Nevada-Reno (UNR) and The Edwin L Wiegand Trust in 1990. Initially, 500 Rambouillet ewes were purchased from two established breeders in 1990. These ewes were bred naturally or by AI to imported rams from Australia and to rams selected within the flock. Over the 16 years, 16 rams and semen from 41 rams have been imported from Australia. Selection was based on objective wool measurements, subjective assessment, growth rate and reproductive performance traits. The flocks were expanded to 1300 ewes and were bred in 30 single sire-mating groups as of the 2005/2006 breeding seasons. Flock management is in two breeding lines, one as a registered Rafter 7 Pure Merino flock (n = 650) and the other (Merino x Rambouillet) as Rafter 7 Merino Line (n = 650), which are selected for high fleece weight and quality, twinning and growth traits. The spring lambing flock winters on desert rangelands, is grazed on irrigated pasture from shearing through lambing and early weaning. Merino crossbred ewes showed that wool fibre density, clean wool yield, staple length, and grease fleece weight were increased by 41% per unit area of skin, 15%, 2.5 cm and 1.14 kg per head shorn, respectively. The wool clip is classed on pre-shearing mid-side wool sample tests (OFDA 2000 system). Fleece weight and fibre diamet00 system). Fleece weight and fibre diameter and staple length measurements are significantly improved over the years. Wool sales from the Rafter 7 Ranch have increased for volume, value and quality over years. Rafter 7 Ranch wool clip has topped seventh consecutive annual shearing for the highest price of US grown wool. Sheep producers from 18 states, and Mexico and Canada have purchased breeding rams and ewes annually from Rafter 7 ranch over the past 12 years. Objective and subjective measurement qualities are significantly improved in sale rams. Over 1000 breeding rams and 500 replacement ewes were distributed to range flocks in the western states in the last decade, which made a notable improvement for fleece weight, fibre diameter and yield in client's flocks. The dissemination of introduced Merino genetics in the western range sheep flocks will improve wool quality and clip profits, which strengthen a long-term competitive advantage for the US wool and sheep production sectors. (author)

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Parasitism by Oestrus ovis: influence of sheep breed and nematode infections.  

Science.gov (United States)

Previous studies showed that Santa Ines (SI) hair sheep were more resistant to gastrointestinal nematode infections (GIN) than Ile de France (IF) sheep. The present experiment aimed to evaluate if that reported resistance difference against GIN also occurred against Oestrus ovis infestation and also to evaluate the influence of O. ovis infestation on the gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) infections. SI (n=12) and IF (n=12) young male lambs were weaned at 2 months of age and moved to a paddock (0.3 ha) with Brachiaria decumbens grass, where they also received concentrate ration. The animals were kept together during the experimental period (September to early December 2009). Fecal and blood samples were taken from all animals every 2 weeks and body weight and nasal discharge score (oestrosis clinic signs) were recorded on the same occasion. In early December 2009, all lambs were sacrificed and O. ovis larvae and GIN were recovered, counted and identified according to the larval stage. All animals were infested by different larval instars of O. ovis without any statistical difference between breeds (P>0.05). The SI lambs had an average of 24.8 larvae, and the intensity of infection ranged between 14 and 39 larvae, while the IF lambs showed an average of 23.5 larvae with the minimum and maximum from 11 to 36 larvae, respectively. SI lambs presented the lowest nematode fecal egg counts (FECs) and the lowest mean numbers of Haemonchus contortus, Trichostrongylus colubriformis and Strongyloides papillosus, however, there was no significant differences between group means (P>0.05). Inverse relationship between numbers of O. ovis larvae and gastrointestinal nematodes was observed in both breeds. SI sheep showed a significant increase in blood eosinophils and total IgE serum levels and these variables were negatively correlated with nematode FEC. A negative correlation was observed between total IgE serum level and H. contortus burden in both breeds. In conclusion, there was no breed difference regarding O. ovis infestation and in each breed, animals with more nasal bot fly larvae tended to display smaller worm burden. PMID:22105081

Silva, B F; Bassetto, C C; Shaw, R J; Canavessi, A M O; Amarante, A F T

2012-05-25

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The effects of selective breeding against scrapie susceptibility on the genetic variability of the Latxa Black-Faced sheep breed  

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Full Text Available Abstract Breeding sheep populations for scrapie resistance could result in a loss of genetic variability. In this study, the effect on genetic variability of selection for increasing the ARR allele frequency was estimated in the Latxa breed. Two sources of information were used, pedigree and genetic polymorphisms (fifteen microsatellites. The results based on the genealogical information were conditioned by a low pedigree completeness level that revealed the interest of also using the information provided by the molecular markers. The overall results suggest that no great negative effect on genetic variability can be expected in the short time in the population analysed by selection of only ARR/ARR males. The estimated average relationship of ARR/ARR males with reproductive females was similar to that of all available males whatever its genotype: 0.010 vs. 0.012 for a genealogical relationship and 0.257 vs. 0.296 for molecular coancestry, respectively. However, selection of only ARR/ARR males implied important losses in founder animals (87 percent and low frequency alleles (30 percent in the ram population. The evaluation of mild selection strategies against scrapie susceptibility based on the use of some ARR heterozygous males was difficult because the genetic relationships estimated among animals differed when pedigree or molecular information was used, and the use of more molecular markers should be evaluated.

Legarra Andrés

2006-09-01

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Analysis of the usefulness of ovine SNP50BeadChip (Illumina) for genomic studies in Spanish sheep breeds  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

During the development of the Sheep HapMap project, ewes from 6 breeds (Awassi, Merino, Poll Dorset, Romney, Scottish Blackface and Texel) were used to obtain the sequence of the ovine genome and look for variability. The Ovine SNP50BeadChip (Illumina) was then genotyped in 71 breeds, four of which were Spanish breeds. In some species (pig and cow) a bias has been described when testing a SNP Chip in different breeds. The aim of this study was to analyse this possible bias due ...

Gutie?rrez Gil, B.; Garci?a Go?mez, E.; Sua?rez Vega, A.; Sa?nchez, J. P.; Kijas, J.; Calvo Lacosta, Jorge Hugo; International Sheep Genomics Consortium (ISGC); Arranz, J. J.

2011-01-01

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Polymorphism of Booroola FecB Gene in Prolific Individuals from Najdi and Naeimi Sheep Breeds of Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available The present investigation was carried out to examine the presence of Booroola FecB mutation gene in 124 selected prolific ewes from 6 flocks representing two Saudi Arabian local sheep breeds by forced PCR-RFLP method. Genomic DNA was extracted from the blood of 69 Najdi and 55 Naeimi matured ewes with litter size varied from 2.01-2.16 lambs per ewe lambing. Digestion of FecB gene 190 base pair with AvaII restriction enzyme resulted in non carrier 190 bp band wild type in all samples which revealed the absence of this mutation in the tested Najdi and Naeimi sheep breeds.

R.S. Aljumaah

2011-01-01

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Clinicopathological investigation on caseous lymphadenitis in local breed sheep in Algeria.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study was carried out of 4,419 animals raised in an extensive system on local breed sheep of the Tiaret region during 2 years (2010-2011) to determine some clinical and pathological aspects associated to caseous lymphadenitis (CL). Clinical examination revealed a prevalence rate of 5.7 %. CL prevalence rate was significantly higher in females (6 %) than in males (4.8 %). The most affected superficial lymph nodes were mandibular lymph nodes (46.1 %). Gross examination of 1,679 carcasses of sheep at the abattoir revealed the presence of abscesses on 250 carcasses (14.9 %). Out of 105 cases showing lesions of CL, Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis (53.6 %) was isolated as mixed infection with Staphylococcus aureus (43 %) and Escherechia coli (17.9 %). CL prevalence was significantly higher in adult than in young sheep and in female than in male ones. Visceral form of CL was associated to "thin ewe syndrome" responsible for significant economic losses in Algeria. PMID:23604639

Chikhaoui, Mira; Khoudja, Fatima Benchaib

2013-10-01

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Reproductive Performance of Native Romanian Turcana Sheep Breed Reared for Organic Meat Production under Highlands Conditions  

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Full Text Available Aim of the current study was to evaluate the effects of turning from conventional to organic production systems on the reproductive performance of native Romanian Turcana sheep breed reared for lamb-meat production under highlands conditions. Researches were carried out in two farms from highlands of western Romania, one farm was registered for organic production and the other reared sheep under conventional practices. In Turcana breed, average conception rate registered under organic production system was of 97.94%, while in conventional rearing the conception rate was of 94.72%, differences registered between the two system being significantly statistic (p?0.05. Prolificacy was not influenced (p?0.05 by the production system in Turcana ewes, with average values registered of 118.18% under organic production system and of 115.16% under conventional conditions, respectively. It was concluded that shortcomings caused by restrictions required by organic production can be surpassed throughout proper management and rearing conditions.

Maria Sauer

2013-05-01

 
 
 
 
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Scrapie prevalence in sheep of susceptible genotype is declining in a population subject to breeding for resistance  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Susceptibility of sheep to scrapie infection is known to be modulated by the PrP genotype of the animal. In the Netherlands an ambitious scrapie control programme was started in 1998, based on genetic selection of animals for breeding. From 2002 onwards EU regulations required intensive active scrapie surveillance as well as certain control measures in affected flocks. Here we analyze the data on genotype frequencies and scrapie prevalence in the Dutch sheep population obtained from both surveillance and affected flocks, to identify temporal trends. We also estimate the genotype-specific relative risks to become a detected scrapie case. Results We find that the breeding programme has produced a steady increase in the level of genetic scrapie resistance in the Dutch sheep population. We also find that a significant decline in the prevalence of scrapie in tested animals has occurred a number of years after the start of the breeding programme. Most importantly, the estimated scrapie prevalence level per head of susceptible genotype is also declining significantly, indicating that selective breeding causes a population effect. Conclusions The Dutch scrapie control programme has produced a steady rise in genetic resistance levels in recent years. A recent decline in the scrapie prevalence per tested sheep of susceptible prion protein genotype indicates that selective breeding causes the desired population effect.

Engel Bas

2010-05-01

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Genetic variability of six French meat sheep breeds in relation to their genetic management  

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Full Text Available Abstract Some demographic parameters, the genetic structure and the evolution of the genetic variability of six French meat sheep breeds were analysed in relation with their management. Four of these breeds are submitted to more or less intense selection: the Berrichon du Cher (BCH, Blanc du Massif Central (BMC, Charollais (CHA and Limousin (LIM; the other two breeds are under conservation: the Roussin de La Hague (RLH and Solognot (SOL. Genealogical data of the recorded animals born from 1970 to 2000 and of their known ancestors were used. The most balanced contributions of the different flocks to the sire-daughter path was found in the SOL. In the BCH, a single flock provided 43% of the sire-AI sire path, whereas the contributions of the flocks were more balanced in the BMC and LIM (the only other breeds where AI is used to a substantial amount. The distribution of the expected genetic contribution of the founder animals was found to be unbalanced, especially in the BCH and LIM. The effective numbers of ancestors (founders or not for the ewes born from 1996 to 2000 were equal to 35 (BCH, 144 (BMC, 112 (CHA, 69 (LIM, 40 (RLH and 49 (SOL. Inbreeding was not analysed in the BMC, due to incomplete pedigree information. From 1980 on, the rates of inbreeding, in percentage points per year, were +0.112 (BCH, +0.045 (CHA, +0.036 (LIM, +0.098 (RLH and +0.062 (SOL. The implications of the observed trends on genetic variability are discussed in relation to the genetic management of each breed. The need for a larger selection basis in the BCH, the efficiency of the rules applied in the SOL to preserve the genetic variability and the need for a more collective organisation in the CHA and RLH are outlined.

Coralie Danchin-Burge

2003-11-01

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Genetic variability of six French meat sheep breeds in relation to their genetic management.  

Science.gov (United States)

Some demographic parameters, the genetic structure and the evolution of the genetic variability of six French meat sheep breeds were analysed in relation with their management. Four of these breeds are submitted to more or less intense selection: the Berrichon du Cher (BCH), Blanc du Massif Central (BMC), Charollais (CHA) and Limousin (LIM); the other two breeds are under conservation: the Roussin de La Hague (RLH) and Solognot (SOL). Genealogical data of the recorded animals born from 1970 to 2000 and of their known ancestors were used. The most balanced contributions of the different flocks to the sire-daughter path was found in the SOL. In the BCH, a single flock provided 43% of the sire-AI sire path, whereas the contributions of the flocks were more balanced in the BMC and LIM (the only other breeds where AI is used to a substantial amount). The distribution of the expected genetic contribution of the founder animals was found to be unbalanced, especially in the BCH and LIM. The effective numbers of ancestors (founders or not) for the ewes born from 1996 to 2000 were equal to 35 (BCH), 144 (BMC), 112 (CHA), 69 (LIM), 40 (RLH) and 49 (SOL). Inbreeding was not analysed in the BMC, due to incomplete pedigree information. From 1980 on, the rates of inbreeding, in percentage points per year, were +0.112 (BCH), +0.045 (CHA), +0.036 (LIM), +0.098 (RLH) and +0.062 (SOL). The implications of the observed trends on genetic variability are discussed in relation to the genetic management of each breed. The need for a larger selection basis in the BCH, the efficiency of the rules applied in the SOL to preserve the genetic variability and the need for a more collective organisation in the CHA and RLH are outlined. PMID:14604512

Huby, Marie; Griffon, Laurent; Moureaux, Sophie; De Rochambeau, Hubert; Danchin-Burge, Coralie; Verrier, Etienne

2003-01-01

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Effect of breed on performance and carcass characteristics of Mexican hair sheep  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english To determine the effect of breed on growth performance and carcass characteristics in Mexican hair sheep, 48 lambs (average 38.9 ± 1.56 kg body weight, BW) were used in a completely randomized experimental design. The breed types assessed were 16 Pelibuey (PB), 16 Pelibuey x Katahdin (PB-KT) crossbr [...] ed and 16 Pelibuey x Dorper (PB-DP) crossbred lambs. The lambs were fed a maize grain-based diet (88% concentrate and 12% forage) containing 155 g CP and 12.13 MJ ME/kg DM. The growth performance trial lasted 45 days. The average daily gain was significantly higher for the PB breed than for the PB-KT and PB-DP cross-breds. Feed intake in the PB and PB-KT was significantly higher than in the PB-DP. The feed conversion ratio was lower for the PB than for PB-KT and PB-DP lambs. Hot carcass dressing and leg perimeters were significantly lower for the PB than for the PB-DP lambs, and similar to that of the PB-KT lambs. The lowest dorsal fat values were measured in the PB breed, compared with both the PB-KT and PB-DP cross-breds. Mesenteric fat (as % of BW) in the PB was significantly higher than in PB-KT and PB-DP lambs. Empty rumen and small intestine weights (as % of BW) in the PB lambs were significantly higher than in the PB-DP lambs, but their large intestine was significantly smaller than in the other two breeds. It was concluded that the PB lambs have a better growth performance and carcass characteristics than the PB-DM lambs, but similar to that of the PB-KT lambs.

F.G., Ríos; A., Gómez-Vázquez; J.M., Pinos-Rodríguez; J.C., García-López; A., Estrada-Angulo; J., Hernández-Bautista; J.J., Portillo.

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Traditional breeding objectives and practices of goat, sheep and cattle smallholders in The Gambia and implications in relation to the design of breeding interventions.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper describes the traditional breeding objectives and practices of West African Dwarf goat, Djallonke sheep, and N'dama cattle keepers in The Gambia and discusses the implications of these on the design of breeding-related interventions to improve livestock productivity. Data were collected via surveys implemented within three study sites in The Gambia, where traditional mixed crop-livestock smallholder farming predominates. The surveys comprised a participatory rural appraisal conducted in nine communities and a household questionnaire targeting 238 households. Livestock-keeping households were classified as 'poorer' or 'wealthier' based on the number of cattle owned. The most important objectives for keeping all species of livestock for the poorer groups (0 to 10 cattle) was 'savings and insurance', followed by 'income' and 'ceremonial/dowry' for the small ruminants and 'manure' and 'draught' for both cows and bulls. In contrast, for the wealthier group (more than 10 cattle), savings and insurance was the fourth to seventh ranked production objective (depending on species), with the most important production objectives being ceremonial/dowry for goats, income for sheep and manure for cows and bulls. An analysis of breeding practices indicated that breeding animals are selected on criteria which partially align to the breeding objectives, animals are rarely purchased for the purpose of breed improvement, knowledge of the cause and consequence of inbreeding is low and breeding decision makers may not necessarily be the livestock owner, particularly if the livestock owner is a women. Given this, it is suggested that capacity building on breeding-related issues, particularly in relation to the selection of breeding animals and specifically targeted at the different socioeconomic groups of livestock keepers, may be an appropriate, effective and relatively low-cost breeding intervention. PMID:22706889

Ejlertsen, Maria; Poole, Jane; Marshall, Karen

2012-12-01

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A comparative study of clinical manifestations, haematological and serological responses after experimental infection with Anaplasma phagocytophilum in two Norwegian sheep breeds  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been questioned if the old native Norwegian sheep breed, Old Norse Sheep (also called Norwegian Feral Sheep, normally distributed on coastal areas where ticks are abundant, is more protected against tick-borne infections than other Norwegian breeds due to a continuously high selection pressure on pasture. The aim of the present study was to test this hypothesis in an experimental infection study. Methods Five-months-old lambs of two Norwegian sheep breeds, Norwegian White (NW sheep and Old Norse (ON sheep, were experimentally infected with a 16S rRNA genetic variant of Anaplasma phagocytophilum (similar to GenBank accession number M73220. The experiment was repeated for two subsequent years, 2008 and 2009, with the use of 16 lambs of each breed annually. Ten lambs of each breed were inoculated intravenously each year with 0.4 ml A. phagocytophilum-infected blood containing approximately 0.5 × 106 infected neutrophils/ml. Six lambs of each breed were used as uninfected controls. Half of the primary inoculated lambs in each breed were re-challenged with the same infectious dose at nine (2008 and twelve (2009 weeks after the first challenge. The clinical, haematological and serological responses to A. phagocytophilum infection were compared in the two sheep breeds. Results The present study indicates a difference in fever response and infection rate between breeds of Norwegian sheep after experimental infection with A. phagocytophilum. Conclusion Although clinical response seems to be less in ON-lambs compared to NW-lambs, further studies including more animals are needed to evaluate if the ON-breed is more protected against tick-borne infections than other Norwegian breeds.

Sandstedt Karin

2011-02-01

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Genome-Wide Analysis of the World's Sheep Breeds Reveals High Levels of Historic Mixture and Strong Recent Selection  

Science.gov (United States)

Through their domestication and subsequent selection, sheep have been adapted to thrive in a diverse range of environments. To characterise the genetic consequence of both domestication and selection, we genotyped 49,034 SNP in 2,819 animals from a diverse collection of 74 sheep breeds. We find the majority of sheep populations contain high SNP diversity and have retained an effective population size much higher than most cattle or dog breeds, suggesting domestication occurred from a broad genetic base. Extensive haplotype sharing and generally low divergence time between breeds reveal frequent genetic exchange has occurred during the development of modern breeds. A scan of the genome for selection signals revealed 31 regions containing genes for coat pigmentation, skeletal morphology, body size, growth, and reproduction. We demonstrate the strongest selection signal has occurred in response to breeding for the absence of horns. The high density map of genetic variability provides an in-depth view of the genetic history for this important livestock species. PMID:22346734

Kijas, James W.; Lenstra, Johannes A.; Hayes, Ben; Boitard, Simon; Porto Neto, Laercio R.; San Cristobal, Magali; Servin, Bertrand; McCulloch, Russell; Whan, Vicki; Gietzen, Kimberly; Paiva, Samuel; Barendse, William; Ciani, Elena; Raadsma, Herman; McEwan, John; Dalrymple, Brian

2012-01-01

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Genome-wide analysis of the world's sheep breeds reveals high levels of historic mixture and strong recent selection.  

Science.gov (United States)

Through their domestication and subsequent selection, sheep have been adapted to thrive in a diverse range of environments. To characterise the genetic consequence of both domestication and selection, we genotyped 49,034 SNP in 2,819 animals from a diverse collection of 74 sheep breeds. We find the majority of sheep populations contain high SNP diversity and have retained an effective population size much higher than most cattle or dog breeds, suggesting domestication occurred from a broad genetic base. Extensive haplotype sharing and generally low divergence time between breeds reveal frequent genetic exchange has occurred during the development of modern breeds. A scan of the genome for selection signals revealed 31 regions containing genes for coat pigmentation, skeletal morphology, body size, growth, and reproduction. We demonstrate the strongest selection signal has occurred in response to breeding for the absence of horns. The high density map of genetic variability provides an in-depth view of the genetic history for this important livestock species. PMID:22346734

Kijas, James W; Lenstra, Johannes A; Hayes, Ben; Boitard, Simon; Porto Neto, Laercio R; San Cristobal, Magali; Servin, Bertrand; McCulloch, Russell; Whan, Vicki; Gietzen, Kimberly; Paiva, Samuel; Barendse, William; Ciani, Elena; Raadsma, Herman; McEwan, John; Dalrymple, Brian

2012-02-01

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Lambing Ease is Heritable but not Correlated to Litter Size in Danish Meat Sheep Breeds  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The aim of this study was to estimate genetic parameters of lambing ease (LE) and litter size (LS) in four common Danish meat sheep breeds. Data from 1990 to 2006 were analysed. A bivariate animal model was used for estimation of genetic parameters. Lambing ease showed a low heritability, both for direct (1.4% to 9.5%) and maternal (5.9% to 6.9%) genetic effects. Moderate negative direct-maternal genetic correlations (-0.18 to -0.61) was found. Total heritabilities for LE were 3.8% to 9.7%. Litter size showed also a low heritability (6.4% to 9.0%). Low and non-significant correlations between the LE and LS was found, which means that selection to improve one trait should not affect the other trait. Lambing ease should therefore be included in the selection criterion.

SØrensen, Anders Christian; Valasek, P

90

Genetic Polymorphism in GDF9 and FecB Genes in Dalagh Sheep Breed of Iran  

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Full Text Available This study was conducted to identify polymorphisms in GDF9 and FecB genes in Dalagh sheep breed. About 100 mature ewes from three flocks in Golestan province were genotype for the GDF9 ligand (FecGH and fecB (BMPRIB receptor. Using two pairs of specific primers, DNA fragments with the size of 139 and 190 bp were amplified by using polymerase chain reaction. The PCR products were digested using DdeI and AvaII restriction enzymes for GDF9 and FecB loci, respectively. The results showed no differences in the band patterns of digested products only the wild type alleles were detected and all animals for these two loci were monomorph.

Alireza Khan Ahmadi

2012-01-01

91

Mitochondrial sequence reveals high levels of gene flow between breeds of domestic sheep from Asia and Europe.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sequence variation present within the mitochondrial genome was used to investigate genetic diversity within sheep breeds from Asia and Europe. Comparison of 2027 bp of sequence from 121 animals revealed 44 phylogenetically informative nucleotide positions and a single insertion/deletion. A total of 57 haplotypes were observed which formed two distinct clades. Type A haplotypes were found in breeds from Asia (India, Indonesia, Mongolia, and Tibet), while type B haplotypes were observed at the highest frequency in breeds sourced from Europe (nine breeds from Austria, Aland, Finland, Spain, and northwestern Russia). The distribution of haplotypes indicates sheep appear to have the weakest population structure and the highest rate of intercontinental dispersal of any domestic animal reported to date. Only 2.7% of the sequence variation observed was partitioned between continents, which is lower than both goat (approximately 10%) and cattle (approximately 50%). Diagnostic restriction fragment length polymorphism polymerase chain reaction (RFLP-PCR) tests which distinguish type A and B haplotypes were used to test an additional 223 animals from 17 breeds of European and Asian origin. A mixture of the two lineages was found in every breed except Suffolk and the Indian Garole, indicating introgression has played a major part during breed development and subsequent selection. PMID:16135704

Meadows, J R S; Li, K; Kantanen, J; Tapio, M; Sipos, W; Pardeshi, V; Gupta, V; Calvo, J H; Whan, V; Norris, B; Kijas, J W

2005-01-01

92

Study on genetic variability in MHC-DRB1 second exon in Makuie sheep breed population  

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Full Text Available In the present study polymorphism of the exon 2 of MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex gene in Makuie sheep breed was studied. Genomic DNA from blood samples of 90 sheep was extracted and a 279 bp MHC exon 2 fragment was amplified using polymerase chain reaction (PCR. PCR products were subjected to enzymatic digestion using RsaI endonuclease. Digested PCR products were electrophoresed on 2% agarose gel. The results showed the existence of 10 alleles: A, B, E, F, I, M, O, P, Q and V for the exon 2 of the MHC gene, with the frequencies of 0.4756, 0.0976, 0.0183, 0.0366, 0.0549, 0.0122, 0.1098, 0.0915, 0.0854 and 0.0183, respectively. Eighteen genotypes: AA, AB, AE, FF, AM, BO, EO, IO, OM, AP, BP, OP, PP, AQ, OQ, PQ, QQ and AV with the frequencies of 0.317, 0.1585, 0.0121, 0.0365, 0.0121, 0.0243, 0.0243, 0.1097, 0.0121, 0.0487, 0.0121, 0.0365, 0.0365, 0.0487, 0.0121, 0.0121, 0.0487 and 0.0365, respectively were identified in the population under study. Effective number of alleles and heterozygosity for the examined region were 3.7231 and 0.7314, respectively. Chi-square test showed that the examined sheep population was not in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in the examined region.

Ashrafi Fereshteh

2014-01-01

93

Relationship between beta lactoglobulin and subclinical mastitis in Valle del Belice sheep breed  

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Full Text Available The objective of the following research was to determine the effect of LGB genotypes on subclinical mastitis in Valle del Belice dairy sheep. Ewes were classified as affected or not by subclinical mastitis within a lactation based on i a positive culture in one of the test-days and ii more than 750,000 somatic cells. Generalized linear mixed models were fitted to assess the significance of LGB genotypes on MTB and MTC. The LGB genotypes significantly affected MTB (p=0.0387, and showed a tendency on MTC (p=0.1104. Least square means showed that in the analysis for MTB, individuals with genotypes BB and AB had a higher frequency of subclinical mastitis. Moreover, the least square differences showed that the incidence was significantly higher in BB ewes than in AA ewes (p<0.001, and a tendency of a higher incidence among AB ewes than in AA ewes (p=0.0630. In conclusion, the results of this work show that LGB genotype BB seems to be less favourable in terms of mastitis resistance in Valle del Belice sheep breed.

D.O. Maizon

2010-04-01

94

Influence of sheep breed and application site on the efficacy of a flumethrin pour-on formulation against ticks  

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Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to determine the influence of application site and sheep breed on the efficacy of a flumethrin (1 % m/v solution for the control of 'bont'-legged (Hyalomma spp. and red-legged ticks (Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi. This study was conducted from November 1996 to February 1997 on 3 farms in the southwestern Free State Province. Two trials were conducted on Dorper sheep and 2 on Merino sheep. For each specific application 30 sheep were selected and allocated to 3 groups of 10 animals each using randomisation through minimisation, with pre-treatment total tick count as only criterion. Groups consisted of an untreated control group, a group treated with 3 m of a flumethrin (1 % m/v solution applied only to the anogenital region, and a group treated at a dose rate of 1 m flumethrin (1% m/v/5 kg host body mass. The total dose volume for animals in the last group was divided into 3 equal parts and applied to the brisket/axillae, groin and anogenital regions respectively. Animals grazed under extensive farming conditions and were infested by ticks that occurred naturally in the environment. Ticks were counted and removed weekly over a 6-week period. In all 4 trials, Rhipicephalus e. evertsi was the dominant tick species, followed, in 3 of the trials, by Hyalomma spp. Efficacy (% of control against ticks for Dorper sheep, treated only on the anogenital region, was variable, ranging between 29.5 and 97 %. In Merino sheep the efficacy values ranged between 23.1 and 90 %. The site-spcific (anogenital region efficacy of control against ticks infesting Merino sheep was in general 100 % or almost 100 %. In Dorper sheep the efficacy values were >80 % for 3-5 weeks. The efficacy (% of control against ticks for sheep treated on the brisket/axillae, groin and anogenital regions was always higher compared to sheep treated only on the anogenital region. In Dorper sheep, efficacy of control was >80 % for up to 4 weeks and in Merino sheep >80 % for 6 weeks.

L.J. Fourie

2012-07-01

95

Diagnostic and control functions of the radioisotope methods for the reproduction management of cattle and sheep breeding  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The following applications of radioimmunoassay were studied: 1) for early diagnosis of pregnance in caws and sheep by determination of progesterone (PG) in milk and blood plasma via veterinary radioimmunological test STERON - RM125; 2) for diagnosis and treatment of ovarian disturbances in cows by RIA of luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and PG in blood plasma; 3) for control of the biological efficiency of sheep estrus synchronisation with MAP (vaginal tampons) and Estrophan (PgF2?); 4) for control of the reproductive condition of rams and effect of Tribestan in treatment of different forms of impotention by RIA of testosterone in blood. It was established that the use of RIA objectified the process of decision-making in regulation of the reproduction deviations in ruminating farm animals by veterinary means. Conclusions are drawn and suppositions are made for introduction of the radioisotope methods in the reproduction control of cattle and sheep breeding in practice. 4 tabs.; 15 refs

96

Associations between lamb survival and prion protein genotype: analysis of data for ten sheep breeds in Great Britain  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Selective breeding programmes, based on prion protein (PrP genotype, have been introduced throughout the European Union to reduce the risk of sheep transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs. These programmes could have negative consequences on other important traits, such as fitness and production traits, if the PrP gene has pleiotropic effects or is in linkage disequilibrium with genes affecting these traits. This paper presents the results of an investigation into associations between lamb survival and PrP genotype in ten mainstream sheep breeds in Great Britain (GB. In addition, the reasons for lamb deaths were examined in order to identify any associations between these and PrP genotype. Results Survival times from birth to weaning were analysed for over 38000 lambs (2427 dead and 36096 live lambs from 128 flocks using Cox proportional hazard models for each breed, including additive animal genetic effects. No significant associations between PrP genotype and lamb survival were identified, except in the Charollais breed for which there was a higher risk of mortality in lambs of the ARR/VRQ genotype compared with those of the ARR/ARR genotype. Significant effects of birth weight, litter size, sex, age of dam and year of birth on survival were also identified. For all breeds the reasons for death changed significantly with age; however, no significant associations between reason for death and PrP genotype were found for any of the breeds. Conclusion This study found no evidence to suggest that a selective breeding programme based on PrP genotype will have a detrimental effect on lamb survival. The only significant effect of PrP genotype identified was likely to be of little consequence because an increased risk of mortality was associated with a genotype that is selected against in current breeding strategies.

Bishop Stephen C

2009-01-01

97

Breeding programmes for TSE resistance in British sheep. I. Assessing the impact on prion protein (PrP) genotype frequencies.  

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From April 2005, member states of the European Union were required to implement a compulsory breeding programme for resistance to transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) in sheep as part of measures to eradicate TSEs from national flocks. In this paper, we assessed the impact of four different breeding strategies on prion protein (PrP) genotype frequencies using a mathematical model which describes in detail gene flow in the British sheep flock. These strategies ranged from the minimum requirements laid down in by EU legislation to compulsory implementation of the current National Scrapie Plan for Great Britain (NSP) ram genotyping scheme. All four strategies were predicted to substantially reduce the frequency of the VRQ allele, which is associated with the highest risk of scrapie, although schemes with more stringent requirements produced a larger reduction. However, there were marked differences in the impact of the strategies on the frequency of other PrP alleles. In particular, restrictions beyond those required by EU legislation were necessary to change the frequency of other PrP alleles substantially. Consequently, a breeding programme which aims to reduce the risk to human health by reducing the frequency of the ARQ allele (associated with the highest risk of BSE in sheep) must place restrictions on ARQ-bearing animals. Similarly, a programme which seeks to increase the frequency of the ARR allele (associated with the lowest risk of TSE) must favour ARR-bearing animals. PMID:16169614

Roden, J A; Nieuwhof, G J; Bishop, S C; Jones, D A; Haresign, W; Gubbins, S

2006-01-16

98

Cholesterol Metabolism in Brain and Skin Fibroblasts from Sarda Breed Sheep With Scrapie-resistant and Scrapie-susceptible Genotypes  

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Full Text Available Scrapie is a fatal spongiform encephalopathy of sheep, a transmissible form of prion disease caused by neuronal accumulation of the aberrantly conformed prion protein (PrPsc. Currently, no ante-mortem diagnostic tests are available to detect this untreatable disease in the pre-clinical stage, thus making difficult to control its spread. Recent evidence suggests that the production of PrPsc can be modulated by the levels of membrane cholesterol in neuronal cells. Since cholesterol levels in cell membranes are dependent on cholesterol homeostasis in the whole organism, we studied cholesterol metabolism in brain tissues, plasma and skin fibroblasts of Sarda breed sheep with scrapie-resistant (ARR/ARR and scrapie-susceptible (ARQ/ARQ prion protein genotypes, both not infected (ARQ/ARQ- and infected (ARQ/ARQ+ with scrapie. We found that, the levels of cytoplasmic cholesterol esters (CE in brains and skin fibroblasts from sheep with the ARQ/ARQ genotype were consistently higher than those from sheep with the ARR/ARR genotype. Conversely, the levels of free cholesterol (FC were lower in ARQ/ARQ, as compared to ARR/ARR sheep, thus resulting in a sharp reduction of the FC/CE ratio. Moreover, both uninfected and infected ARQ/ARQ sheep showed abnormally low levels of high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C in their plasma, as compared to ARR/ARR sheep. These data other than adding new strength to the notion that altered levels of intracellular cholesterol may indicate the presence of a lipid metabolic state that predisposes to infection with, and accumulation of, PrPsc in the brain, discriminate for the first time between two distinct but related cellular pools of cholesterol, namely membrane FC on one hand and cytoplasmic CE on the other.

Alessandra Pani

2007-01-01

99

Polymorphic Study of FecXG, FecGH and FecB Mutations in Four Domestic Sheep Breeds in the Lower Yellow River Valley of China  

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Full Text Available Genetic mutations with major effects on ovulation rate in sheep were recently identified in two genes of the Transforming Growth Factor (TGF superfamily and a TGF receptor, namely BMP15, GDF9 and BMPRIB. The FecXG, FecGH and FecB were performed to screen four sheep breeds (small tailed Han, Wadi, big tailed Han and Shandi sheep distributed along the lower Yellow river valley of China by forced PCR-RFLP method if these genes are responsible for their high prolificacies. The FecB mutation was found in small tailed Han and Wadi sheep but absent in big tailed Han and Shandi sheep. The 154 small tailed Han sheep included all three genotypes (FecB/FecB, FecB/Fec+ and Fec+/Fec+ at frequencies of 0.54, 0.40 and 0.06, respectively whereas the samples of 30 Wadi sheep were only detected two genotypes, 4 were heterozygous FecB/Fec+ and 26 Fec+/Fec+. The frequency of the FecB allele in small tailed Han and Wadi sheep were 0.74 and 0.07, respectively. Results indicated that the FecB mutation is not fixed in two sheep population. The same FecXG mutation of the BMP-15 gene was only found in small tailed Han ewes as in Belclare and Cambridge ewes, frequencies of genotypes FecXG+, FecX ++ and FecXGG were 0.70, 0.27 and 0.03, respectively. There was no evidence of FecGH in any of the breeds sampled. The discovery of the FecB mutation in small tailed Han sheep and Wadi sheep will facilitate the use of FecB allele in improving the prolificacy of non-prolific sheep breeds of China.

Zhi-Xin Fu

2011-01-01

100

A study on gastrointestinal tract characteristics of ram lambs at the same weights from six Turkish sheep breeds  

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Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english A study was conducted, first, to compare the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), reticulo-rumens and intestinal capacities (relative to body weight) of ram lambs from six Turkish sheep breeds: Turkish Merino (TM, Anatolia Merino), Akkaraman (AK), K?v?rc?k (KV), Awassi (AW), Karayaka (KY) and Morkaraman (M [...] K), and second, to examine the influence of sheep breed on the pH of the digesta in the various segments (rumen, jejunum and caecum) of the GIT. Six ram lambs from each breed were slaughtered at 40.2 ± 0.80 kg liveweight. Lambs from the AK breed had a heavier GIT weight than the AW, KY or MK breeds. The weight of the full stomach was higher in AK lambs compared with the other lambs, except for KV lambs, while the relative weight of the empty stomachs was heavier in MK ram lambs than in TM, AW and KY lambs. The AK lambs had the highest relative empty intestinal weight. The relative weight of empty intestines was heavier in KV lambs than in KY lambs. The pH of the rumen content was higher in TM and AK lambs compared with KY and MK lambs, while the pH of the caecum content of KV lambs was higher than those of KY and MK lambs. In conclusion, significant differences were found among the six breeds in terms of some variables that were studied, although a higher proportional GIT weight in the fat-tail breeds such as the MK, AK and AW was not reflected in all components or in the pH of the GIT content.

A, Y& #305; ld& #305; r& #305; m; Z, Uluta& #351; ; N, Ocak; E, & #350; irin; Y, Aksoy.

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Evaluation of connectedness in the registered population of the Sardinian dairy sheep breed  

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Full Text Available Connectedness across flocks of the registered population of the Sardinian dairy sheep breed was evaluated. Used criteria were: number of sires used in the same contemporary group; number of direct links and the average within and between contemporary group relationship coefficients. Dataset including yearlings’ first lactation records of 1990 and 2008 were compared to evaluate the effect of coupling artificial insemination with controlled natural mating on connectedness. An increase of number of sires and direct links were registered between 1990 and 2008. These results confirm that the across years prolonged use of well planned moderate rates of artificial insemination had a strong effect on the overall statistical connectedness across flocks so permitting more accurate estimations of the management and genetic effects. As a whole, the decreasing of the average relationship within flock coupled to a marked enhance of the average relationship between contemporary groups, indicates that the genetic connectedness of the Sardinian registered population presents a clearly increasing trend. This fact assures that current genetic evaluations are reliable across flocks.

Sara Casu

2010-01-01

102

Single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP detection in six genes in Portuguese indigenous sheep breed  

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Full Text Available Evaluation of the genetic diversity for six genes in forty animals of the Portuguese indigenous sheep breed (Ovis aries ""Churra da Terra Quente"" was done. A non-radioactive method to allow single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP detection was optimised, starting from genomic DNA and PCR amplification of seven fragments: exon 1 of the alpha-lactalbumin gene; exons 10 and 11 of the alpha s1-casein gene; exon 7 of the beta-casein gene; exon 4 of the kappa-casein gene; exons 4 and 5 of the growth hormone gene and exon 6 of the growth hormone receptor gene. Polymorphisms were detected in five of the seven PCR products. Only kappa-casein and growth hormone receptor were monomorphic. Alpha-lactalbumin and alpha s1-casein exons showed three conformational patterns, beta-casein and growth hormone exon 4 showed two electrophoretic patterns and growth hormone exon 5 showed five conformational patterns. These data provide evidence that ""Churra da Terra Quente"" has a high genetic variability, which opens interesting prospects for future selection programs and also for preservation strategies. Also, our data show that PCR-SSCP is an appropriate tool for evaluating genetic variability.

Guedes-Pinto H.

2001-01-01

103

Breeding programmes for TSE resistance in British sheep. II. Assessing the impact on the prevalence and incidence of scrapie.  

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By establishing a breeding programme for transmissible spongiform encephalopathie (TSE) resistance, there are plans to eradicate sheep TSEs from member states of the European Union (EU). In this paper, we used a simple age- and genotype-structured model to assess the impact of four breeding strategies on the prevalence and incidence of scrapie in the British sheep flock. The strategies ranged from the minimum EU requirements to compulsory implementation of the current National Scrapie Plan for Great Britain (NSP). All four strategies were predicted to reduce the prevalence and incidence of disease, though there was likely to be a delay of several years between the implementation of a breeding programme and the reduction in incidence. There were differences in the efficacy of the strategies, with the most stringent resulting in the greatest reduction in prevalence and incidence. However, the magnitude of the differences was not great, largely because all four strategies eliminated the VRQ allele, which is associated with a markedly higher risk of disease than any of the other alleles. Sensitivity analyses indicated that the model results were robust to selection bias when estimating the risk of infection; and that the efficacy of a breeding programme was unlikely to be compromised, unless the risk of infection is substantially underestimated by data on clinical disease. PMID:16169613

Gubbins, S; Roden, J A

2006-01-16

104

Genomic prediction of breeding values in the New Zealand sheep industry using a 50K SNP chip.  

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The aim of genomic prediction is to predict breeding value from genomic data. We describe the development of genomic prediction equations and accuracies for molecular breeding values (MBV) for industry use, focusing on the methodology used to deal with predictions for the New Zealand sheep population structure. This is made up of a mixture of pure and crossbred animals, but principally Romney based. In particular, we used pedigree-based EBV for 8 traits (weaning weight as a direct effect, weaning weight as a maternal effect, live weight at 8 mo, live weight at 12 mo, greasy fleece weight at 12 mo, lamb fleece weight, adult fleece weight, and number of lambs born) and Illumina OvineSNP50 BeadChip genotypes from 13,420 animals to investigate BLUP with different genomic relationship matrices (GRM) based on SNP markers and to investigate varying sets of older animals (training sets) to predict the MBV of younger animals (validation sets). The GRM tested included modifications to account for allele frequency differences between breeds, rescaling so that the mean GRM is equal to the mean of the traditional pedigree numerator relationship matrix A: , and combining of the GRM with A: using a convex combination with a weight estimated by maximizing a conditional restricted likelihood. We found that these modifications were beneficial and recommend using a breed-adjusted GRM combined with A: . Training data sets with Romney, Coopworth, and Perendale animals all together usually predicted better than using just a pure breed training data set for all traits. But predictions for the breed Perendale were more accurate with a Perendale training set for 3 of the 8 traits. We concluded that using a mixed-breed training set for all combinations of traits and breeds was best but advise that increasing the number of Perendale animals genotyped should be a priority to increase the MBV accuracies obtained for that breed. PMID:25149326

Auvray, B; McEwan, J C; Newman, S-A N; Lee, M; Dodds, K G

2014-10-01

105

Detecting novel SNPs and breed-specific haplotypes at calpastatin gene in Iranian fat- and thin-tailed sheep breeds and their effects on protein structure.  

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Calpastatin has been introduced as a potential candidate gene for growth and meat quality traits. In this study, genetic variability was investigated in the exon 6 and its intron boundaries of ovine CAST gene by PCR-SSCP analysis and DNA sequencing. Also a protein sequence and structural analysis were performed to predict the possible impact of amino acid substitutions on physicochemical properties and structure of the CAST protein. A total of 487 animals belonging to four ancient Iranian sheep breeds with different fat metabolisms, Lori-Bakhtiari and Chall (fat-tailed), Zel-Atabay cross-bred (medium fat-tailed) and Zel (thin-tailed), were analyzed. Eight unique SSCP patterns, representing eight different sequences or haplotypes, CAST-1, CAST-2 and CAST-6 to CAST-11, were identified. Haplotypes CAST-1 and CAST-2 were most common with frequency of 0.365 and 0.295. The novel haplotype CAST-8 had considerable frequency in Iranian sheep breeds (0.129). All the consensus sequences showed 98-99%, 94-98%, 92-93% and 82-83% similarity to the published ovine, caprine, bovine and porcine CAST locus sequences, respectively. Sequence analysis revealed four SNPs in intron 5 (C24T, G62A, G65T and T69-) and three SNPs in exon 6 (c.197A>T, c.282G>T and c.296C>G). All three SNPs in exon 6 were missense mutations which would result in p.Gln 66 Leu, p.Glu 94 Asp and p.Pro 99 Arg substitutions, respectively, in CAST protein. All three amino acid substitutions affected the physicochemical properties of ovine CAST protein including hydrophobicity, amphiphilicity and net charge and subsequently might influence its structure and effect on the activity of Ca2+ channels; hence, they might regulate calpain activity and afterwards meat tenderness and growth rate. The Lori-Bakhtiari population showed the highest heterozygosity in the ovine CAST locus (0.802). Frequency difference of haplotypes CAST-10 and CAST-8 between Lori-Bakhtiari (fat-tailed) and Zel (thin-tailed) breeds was highly significant (P<0.001), indicating that these two haplotypes might be breed-specific haplotypes that distinguish between fat-tailed and thin-tailed sheep breeds. PMID:24401538

Aali, Mohsen; Moradi-Shahrbabak, Mohammad; Moradi-Shahrbabak, Hosein; Sadeghi, Mostafa

2014-03-01

106

RFLP Marker Variation of Cytocrome b Gene and Genetic Relationship among Batur, Merino and Local Sheep Breeds  

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Full Text Available RFLP analysis of mitochondrial DNA cytochrome b gene was conducted to determine the diversity, status and close genetic relationships in a population of Batur sheep with the Merino and local sheep breeds (Garut, Thin Tail and Fat Tail. The research used genomic DNA of 27 samples of Batur, 15 Merino, 17 Garut, 15 Thin Tails and 15 Fat Tails sheep. The PCR process used two types of 25 nucleotides primers. The PCR products were checked by using 2% agarose gel electrophoresis. The PCR DNA fragment was digested by using Hae III at 37 oC and incubated for 10 hours. Similarities and differences of cytochrome b gene RFLP bands between individual samples of one and across populations, genetic distance, and close genetic relationship, were identified. The PCR process of the cytochrome b gene metochondrial DNA of the 45 samples of sheep yielded 359 bp band types. The digestion (cutting of the PCR products of mitochondrial DNA cytochrome b gene by using Hae III resulted in RFLP band profiles of 128 up to 231 bp polymorphisms of cytochrome b gene. Although the Hae III restriction enzyme recognized only one restriction site, however, between samples of Batur, Merino, Garut, Thin Tail, and Fat Tails, there were monomorphism and polymorphism Hae III loci.Key Words: RFLP, cytochrome b gene, genetic markers, genetic similarity, Batur shee

Prayitno

2011-09-01

107

Utilization of frozen-thawed epididymal ram semen to preserve genetic diversity in Scrapie susceptible sheep breeds.  

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The European Union has introduced transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) resistance breeding programmes for several sheep breeds to cope with the genetic susceptibility to Scrapie infections. Due to the different allele frequencies among breeds, strong selection for ARR alleles is associated with a loss of genetic diversity in small populations and in larger populations with unfavourable ARR allele frequencies. To ensure maintenance of genetic diversity, an adhoc cryopreservation programme was initiated employing epididymal sperm from 109 rams representing 16 different breeds within one breeding season. Epididymal semen was chosen for this adhoc programme because time consuming training of rams for ejaculated semen collection via an artificial vagina was not possible. Prior to freezing, average sperm motility was 79.7% and acrosome integrity was 93.7%. After freezing, these levels were decreased to 60.5 and 72.8%, respectively. An insemination trial using frozen-thawed epididymal semen resulted in a lambing rate of 87.5%. Results show that this semen preservation method is robust and efficient and associated with high fertility. It may also be useful for other animal species. PMID:16905182

Ehling, C; Rath, D; Struckmann, C; Frenzel, A; Schindler, L; Niemann, H

2006-12-01

108

Lack of polymorphism in the oocyte derived growth factor (GDF9) gene in the Shal breed of sheep  

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Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english The families of TGF-? proteins are the most important growth factors in the ovary for growth and differentiation of early ovarian follicles. Three related oocyte-derived members of the transforming growth factor-? superfamily, namely GDF9, BMP15 and BMPR-IB have been shown to be essential for follic [...] ular growth and ovulation. The aim of the present study was to detect the incidence of mutation in exon two of GDF9 as a major gene in the Shal sheep breed. Blood samples were collected from 239 sheep and genomic DNA was extracted using the modified salting-out method. The quantity and quality of extracted DNA was examined using spectrophotometery and gel electrophoresis, respectively. A fragment with the size of 139 bp from exon two of GDF9 gene (FecG H) was amplified using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with a pair of specific primers. The amplified PCR products were digested with DdeI restriction enzyme. In the presence of mutations at this locus, the DdeI enzyme cannot recognize the restriction site. However, in the absence of mutations, the enzyme recognizes one restriction site and divides the amplified fragment into two fragments of 31 and 108 bp. In the present study only the wild type alleles were detected and all the samples showed the AA genotype. The analysis of polymorphism for GDF9 (FecG H) loci in Shal sheep indicates that the genetic factor responsible for twinning or multiple lambing rates is not related to reported mutated alleles at the GDF9 major gene in this breed. Therefore, we should attempt to detect other SNP for the GDF9 gene and/or other loci responsible for twining rate in this breed.

M., Ghaffari; A., Nejati-Javaremi; G., Rahimi-Mianji.

109

Protective effect of the AT137RQ and ARQK176 PrP allele against classical scrapie in Sarda breed sheep.  

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The susceptibility of sheep to scrapie is under the control of the host's prion protein (PrP gene and is also influenced by the strain of the agent. PrP polymorphisms at codons 136 (A/V), 15 (R/H) and 171 (Q/R/H) are the main determinants of susceptibility/resistance of sheep to classical scrapie. They are combined in four main variants of the wild-type ARQ allele: VRQ, AHQ, ARH and ARR. Breeding programmes have been undertaken on this basis in the European Union and th USA to increase the frequency of the resistant ARR allele in sheep populations. Herein, we report th results of a multi-flock study showing the protective effect of polymorphisms other than those a codons 136, 154 and 171 in Sarda breed sheep. All ARQ/ARQ affected sheep (n = 154) and 37 negative ARQ/ARQ controls from four scrapie outbreaks were submitted to sequencing of the Pr gene. The distribution of variations other than those at the standard three codons, between scrapie cases and negative controls, was statistically different in all flocks. In particular, the AT(137)RQ an ARQK(176) alleles showed a clear protective effect. This is the first study demonstrating a protective influence of alleles other than ARR under field conditions. If further investigations in other sheep breeds and with other scrapie sources confirm these findings, the availability of various protective alleles in breeding programmes of sheep for scrapie resistance could be useful in breeds with a low frequency of the ARR allele and would allow maintaining a wider variability of the PrP gene. PMID:19171116

Vaccari, Gabriele; Scavia, Gaia; Sala, Marcello; Cosseddu, Gianmario; Chiappini, Barbara; Conte, Michela; Esposito, Elena; Lorenzetti, Raniero; Perfetti, Gabriella; Marconi, Paola; Scholl, Francesco; Barbaro, Katia; Bella, Antonino; Nonno, Romolo; Agrimi, Umberto

2009-01-01

110

Variation of the Surface of the Longissimus Dorsi (LD Muscle and the Section of the Leg of Mutton at Young Sheep of Different Breed Structures  

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Full Text Available The research was done on carcasses from the slaughter of young male sheep intensively fattened belonging to the local Tsigai race of mountain ecotype and its half-breeds with Suffolk and German blackface (GCCN. The purpose of the research was to determine Logissimus dorsi (LD and leg of moutton area, because these parts provide information on Ist meat quality. Research results have noted that lots of half-breeds achieved higher Longissimus dorsi (LD and leg of moutton area, compared with the pure breed batch. Compared with Tsigai breed, Longissimus dorsi (LD area deterrmined was higher with 10,75% to Suffolk x Tsigai half-breeds, and 0,07% respectively to German Blackface x Tsigai half-breeds. Leg of moutton area was higher with 17,27% to Suffolk x Tsigai halfbreeds, and 2,75% respectively to German Blackface x Tsigai half-breeds. Research carried out special information on Ist meat quality on carcass.

Elena Ili?iu

2010-10-01

111

Influence of breed and feeding on the main quality characteristics of sheep carcass and meat: A review  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english This paper reviews two factors (breed and feed) affecting the carcass and meat quality of sheep. The quality of livestock products has acquired greater importance from the distinct perspectives of the different participants in the agricultural food chain. Consumers, producers and the industry give d [...] ifferent levels of importance to the parameters of meat and carcass quality. Nevertheless, all the participants in the meat production chain must ensure quality to improve their competitiveness. The quality of the carcass and meat can be influenced by different factors such as breed and type of feed. The breed can influence weight, yields, and the conformation of the carcass, among other variables, as well as the pH level and the fatty acid composition of the meat, whereas the feed mainly affects carcass conformation and several physicochemical and organoleptic parameters of meat quality such as proximal composition, the fatty acid profile, tenderness and color. Consequently, the effects of breed and feed type should be considered to obtain a quality product that satisfies consumer demand.

Jorge, Ramírez-Retamal; Rodrigo, Morales.

2014-04-01

112

Influence of breed and feeding on the main quality characteristics of sheep carcass and meat: A review  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english This paper reviews two factors (breed and feed) affecting the carcass and meat quality of sheep. The quality of livestock products has acquired greater importance from the distinct perspectives of the different participants in the agricultural food chain. Consumers, producers and the industry give d [...] ifferent levels of importance to the parameters of meat and carcass quality. Nevertheless, all the participants in the meat production chain must ensure quality to improve their competitiveness. The quality of the carcass and meat can be influenced by different factors such as breed and type of feed. The breed can influence weight, yields, and the conformation of the carcass, among other variables, as well as the pH level and the fatty acid composition of the meat, whereas the feed mainly affects carcass conformation and several physicochemical and organoleptic parameters of meat quality such as proximal composition, the fatty acid profile, tenderness and color. Consequently, the effects of breed and feed type should be considered to obtain a quality product that satisfies consumer demand.

Jorge, Ramírez-Retamal; Rodrigo, Morales.

113

Estimation of Genetic Parameters and Environmental Factors on Early Growth Traits for Lori Breed Sheep Using Single Trait Animal Model  

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Full Text Available The effects of different environmental factors and estimation of genetic parameters on early growth traits for Lori breed sheep including birth weight, weaning weight and body weight at 6 months of age using 19960 records from 35 herds of Lorestan Jahad Agriculture Organization were studied in the cities of Aleshtar, Khorramabad and Poldokhtar from 1995 to 2003. The effect of herd, sex of lambs, dam age and birth year on all traits and birth type had significant effect only on weaning weight. Different single trait animal models estimated the components of direct additive genetic variance, maternal genetic variance and maternal permanent environment variance through restricted maximum likelihood using environmental factors as a fixe effect and different random effects. The results showed that direct additive genetic effect had additionally significant effect on all traits moreover maternal additive genetic and maternal permanent environment effects. Results also revealed that the maternal permanent environment variance for all traits is higher than maternal genetic variance. Also the direct heritability for all traits was higher than maternal heritability. Estimation of the direct heritability from the birth to 6 months of age showed a reducing trend that could arise from high dependence of birth and weaning weight on maternal environment conditions as compared with the age conditions afterward. The genetic assessment of growth traits in Lori breed sheep without inclusion of maternal effect in animal model causes decreased selection accuracy and incorrect genetic assessment of the lambs.

A. Lavvaf

2008-01-01

114

Performance and Adaptability of the Dorper Sheep Breed under Hungarian and Romanian Rearing Conditions  

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Full Text Available Dorper (DO is a meat-specialized hair composite breed, intensively selected for growth rates, carcass quality, unselective grazing. The aim of the current comparative study was to evaluate the adaptability and performance of DO breed under Hungarian and Romanian rearing conditions. DO breed was introduced into Hungary to Debrecen University in 2008. Under Hungarian rearing conditions the DO breed maintained its non-seasonal reproduction and reproductive precocity, with maiden ewes being put to ram starting the age of 9 months. Lamb crops of 2 weaned per year are common under proper management and feeding conditions. In Romania DO breed was introduced starting 2007, with the heard-book and genetic improvement plan of the breed being established in 2009. Under Romanian farming conditions the DO rams are usually used as terminal sires which are crossed with indigenous Turcana and Tsigai breeds, being preferred by the farmers to sire the crossbreds because of the high growth rates and non-selective grazing of the crossbreds. Fertility of DO ewes and survival rates of the DO sired lambs until weaning were not affected when compared to native Turcana breed. It was concluded that DO breed has adapted and performs extremely well under both Hungarian and Romanian rearing conditions.

Csilla Budai

2013-05-01

115

Problems with readings of electronic tagged sheep in dairy flocks  

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Full Text Available Reliable traceability system in animal production is a crucial part for protection of animal and human health. Small ruminants are usually ear’ tagged but this tagging system especially in extensive production systems is not reliable. The use of Radio Frequency Indentifying Devices (RFID, or electronic identification is more suitable. Ruminal boluses (Rumitag 20 gr, hdx are first chosen for ruminant tagging because they are easy and early applicable, easy to read and fraud resistant but they encounter some problems, mainly reading failure. In our trial we investigated reading failure on one sheep dairy farm. Six hundred and eight sheep have been milked during the trial and read for four times during milking. In all four readings we had quite high reading failure in comparison to other author findings. Probable cause for this very high failure could be the use of hand held readers in crowded environment which caused lot of double reading. This means that reading protocol should be improved. Unfortunately we did not have fixed reader so we could not compare readings.

Antun Kosteli?

2010-01-01

116

Somatic cell banking - An alternative technology for conservation of endangered sheep breeds  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Each cell of an animal's body contains full genetic code for the whole animal and nuclear transfer provides a way of converting cells to whole animal. Cells from endangered breeds collected by biopsy or from scrapings of soft skin or ear tissue or from hair follicle can be grown and multiplied in a laboratory and this would then be stored frozen indefinitely at 196 deg. C in liquid nitrogen. Mammary gland cells from sheep, mouse cumulus granulosa cells, bovine mural granulosa cells and fibroblast cells have all generated viable clones. The currently available methods of conservation, deep freezing of sperms (haploid genome) and storage of a large number of embryos are too expensive. In comparison, adult skin fibroblast cells are easy to obtain, hardy in culture and freezing, a good source of donor DNA without the limitations of age, sex and physiological state. Progenies were successfully obtained from nuclear transfer of serum-starved fibroblast cells from cattle, sheep and goat. Several other cell types successfully used for cloning are limited to female donors (cumulus and mammary epithelial, mural granulosa and oviductal cells) and are more difficult for long-term culture. Live progenies using skin fibroblasts have been produced in cattle. Sample collection and development of primary cultures: Samples were collected by biopsy of skin from ear pinna and transported in a complete medium (DMEM + HamsF12 with 10% FBS and penicillin and streptomycin) at 4 deS and penicillin and streptomycin) at 4 deg. C. Tissue samples were processed by removing hair form both sides, cut into small pieces and seeded in petridish containing fibroblast culture medium (DMEM + HamsF12, 10% FBS, penicillin and streptomycin and L-glutamine). The primary skin fibroblast cells started emerging out of tissues within 4-6 days and were allowed to grow up to 12-15 days till nearly 80% confluency was attained. Purification and sub-culturing of skin fibroblast cells: In isolated cases, there were contaminations of epithelial cells but these were removed mechanically as well as enzymatically to get pure fibroblasts. Sub-culturing or 'splitting cells' was done periodically removing growth media, washing the plate, dissociating the cells and diluting cell suspension in fresh media. Standard growth curve: Whenever, a new batch of culture media supplement was introduced, it was checked for its efficacy for growth of cells in culture and compared with standard growth curve. Goat skin fibroblasts remained in lag phase for initial two days when they settled on the solid surface of culture vessel and then came to log phase when maximum growth took place spanning from the third to the seventh day. As the confluencey level increased and media supplement was depleted, cells stopped dividing and a plateau was attained from the eighth day onwards and then showed decline due to contact inhibition. Cell proliferation index: Under standard culture conditions, skin fibroblast cells divide once in 24 hours but it is rarely achieved in normal culturing. The population doubling time and cell proliferation rate per day were checked at regular interval for quality assessment. For this, ELISA based MTT assay, incorporation of 5-bromo-de-oxyuridine method, and flow cytometer methods were used. Evaluation of cells for ploidy level: During long-term culturing the cells are likely to develop one or other type of chromosomal abnormalities. It must be ensured that the cells in different passages be checked for normal ploidy so that viable clones can be developed from them. Cultures showing increased frequency of aneuploidy or polyploidy must be terminated from further passaging. DNA from cultured somatic cells can be isolated using available DNA isolation kits and checked for its quality on 2% agarose. Cryo-freezing of cells: Cells are best frozen as cell suspension. Healthy culture were always employed to provide the stock to freeze cells. The cells were frozen at controlled freezing rate. The cells were kept at -80 deg. C as well as at -196 deg. C in Liquid nitrogen. C

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Relationship of abomasal histology and parasite-specific immunoglobulin A with the resistance to Haemonchus contortus infection in three breeds of sheep.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study was carried out to evaluate the relationship of abomasal inflammatory cells and parasite-specific immunoglobulin A (IgA) in mucus, with the resistance to Haemonchus contortus infection in three breeds of sheep naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes. The breeds were the native Santa Ines sheep, and the European Suffolk and Ile de France breeds. Mast cells, eosinophils and globule leucocytes were enumerated in abomasal mucosa. Eosinophils within the sub-mucosa also were counted separately. Histamine concentration was estimated in abomasal tissue samples. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was carried out in mucus samples to determine the level of IgA anti-H. contortus third and fifth instar. There were no significant differences among group means of these variables (P>0.05). The correlation coefficients between fecal egg counts (FEC)xmast cells (r=-0.490; Psheep. In the Ile de France group, the correlation coefficients between globule leucocytesxFEC (r=-0.879; Psheep, correlation coefficients between IgA anti-L3xworm burden and IgA anti-L3xFEC were negative. In general, inflammatory cells and IgA-parasite-specific in abomasum were inversely associated with H. contortus worm burden and FEC indicating that they may impair parasite development or fecundity in the three breeds of sheep. However, similar mean values of inflammatory cells and IgA were found in the resistant (Santa Ines) and in the susceptible (Suffolk and Ile de France) breeds of sheep. The enumeration of cells by histological assessment does not provide information on their functional activity, which may be different among breeds. Thus, the effect of breed on the functional activity of these and other inflammatory cells is an important area for further study. PMID:15725538

Amarante, A F T; Bricarello, P A; Huntley, J F; Mazzolin, L P; Gomes, J C

2005-03-10

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Some of the Structural and Technical Features of Sheep Breeding in the Gapn Region of Turkey (I. Land Asset, Population, Education, Workforce, Production System, Shelters, Downland and Pasture  

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Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine some of the structural and technical features of sheep breeding in the Southeastern Anatolia Project (GAP region of Turkey. To reach this aim a survey was carry out in the 251 farms located in 52 villages of 14 districts of 4 provinces including Gaziantep, Sanliurfa, Adiyaman and Diyarbakir provinces in GAP region which were selected by simple random sampling method. As the basis for sheep farming in the GAP region built (84.9% and upland (15.1% system has been identified in this study. The results showed that the average of sheep farming was 43.9 years in provinces of this study conducted. In addition, the average of sheep was determined as 105.4 heads and 88% of them were Avassi and 30% of them were White Anatolian, respectively.

Gursel Dellal

2011-01-01

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Importance of birthcoat for lamb survival and growth in the Romane sheep breed extensively managed on rangelands.  

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The Romane sheep breed proved to be adapted to harsh conditions with high prolificacy and lamb survival in outdoor farming, even under bad climate conditions. This breed shows large variability in its fleece type at birth and it has been suggested that lamb survival could be related to birthcoat type. The aim of the present study was to: i) characterize the coat of the lamb at birth and quantify lamb survival in relation to the birthcoat type and its protective properties concerning heat loss in the Romane breed raised under permanent exposure outdoors from birth, and ii) estimate genetic parameters of birthcoat type in relation to lamb survival and live body weight. A total of 7,880 lambs from 104 sires and 1,664 dams were used in a 14-yr experiment. The pedigree file included 9,625 individuals over 15 generations. Birthcoat type, coat surface temperature, coat depth, lamb survival, and growth were measured from birth to weaning. Weather data (temperature, wind speed, relative humidity, and precipitation) were recorded daily during lambing time. Two types of coats were observed at birth: hairy coat (62.9% of lambs) with a long coat depth (average 23.3 mm) or woolly 1 (37.1% of lambs) with a short coat depth (average 8.3 mm). Birthcoat type was an important factor affecting lamb survival and growth from birth in the Romane breed. Total mortality rate was significantly less in hairy-bearing coat lambs than in short-woolly coat ones: 7.0% vs. 9.6%, 11.6 % vs. 14.8%, and 15.7 % vs. 20.1 % at 2, 10, and 50 d, respectively, and the relative risks of death increased by 37%, 67%, and 46 % at 2, 10, and 50 d of age, respectively, in short-woolly lambs. At birth, a significant lower coat surface temperature, indicating less heat loss, was observed in long-hairy coat lambs compared with others (21.1°C vs. 26.1°C). Heavier body weights and better growth performances up to the age of 50 d were observed in long-hairy-bearing coat lambs. Lamb survival was positively correlated to weather conditions at lambing time in short-woolly lambs, whereas no relation was observed in hairy-coat lambs. Heritability estimate of birthcoat type (hairy or woolly) is high (0.88). Genetic correlations between birthcoat type, lamb survival, and live body weight at birth were positive and moderate, suggesting that it would be beneficial to take birthcoat into account as an adaptive trait in any genetic strategies for sheep production in harsh conditions on rangelands. PMID:24366070

Allain, D; Foulquié, D; Autran, P; Francois, D; Bouix, J

2014-01-01

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The effect of breeding area, stage of lactation and herd on milk yield traits of Pag sheep  

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Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the effect of different breeding areas (south-west and north-east part of the island of Pag on daily milk, fat and protein yield in Pag sheep. The aim of thisstudy was also to determine the shape of lactation curves as well as the herd effect on Pag sheep milk traits. Research was conducted on 32 herds reared in the south-western (23 and north-eastern (9 part of the island of Pag. Data included 21.033 test-day records of 2.332 ewes. Daily milk yield and milk components were recorded using AT4 method for the period from 2004 to 2008. The rearing area had statistically significant effect on the daily milk yield (P<0.001, daily fat and protein yield. Ewes reared on the south-western part of the island had larger average daily production than ewes reared on its north-eastern part. The stage of lactation, described by Ali and Schaeffer lactation curve nested within rearing area, had significant effect (P<0.0001 on all milk traits. The peak of lactation production was achieved around the 20th day of lactation in both areas and was somewhat higher for ewes kept in the south-western compared to the north-eastern part of the island. Flock nested within rearing area had statistically significant effect on all milk traits (P<0.0001. Results obtained in the study showed potential possibilities for breeders to enlarge milk production and consequently economically benefit through improved herd management of Pag sheep.

Zdravko Bara?

2012-03-01

 
 
 
 
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Estimation of genetic parameters for body measurements and their association with yearling liveweight in the Makuie sheep breed  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english The main objective of this study was to estimate the genetic parameters for body measurement and yearling live bodyweight traits in the Makuie sheep breed. The data set consisted of 2 144 lambs from 122 sires and 984 dams recorded in 21 years from 1989 to 2009 at the Makuie Sheep Breeding and Raisin [...] g Station (MSBS). The traits that were studied were height at withers, height at rump, body length, heart girth, leg circumference and yearling weight. The analyses were carried out based on an animal model with the restricted maximum likelihood (REML) approach using a derivate-free (DF) algorithm. Six animal models were fitted, differentiated by including or excluding maternal effects, and with and without covariance between maternal and direct genetic effects. Ignoring the maternal effects, the direct heritability was estimated as 0.20, 0.24, 0.10, 0.14, 0.02 and 0.36 for height at wither, height at rump, body length, heart girth, leg circumference and yearling weight, respectively. The estimates were slightly higher when maternal effects, genetic or environmental, were ignored in the analyses. Using bivariate analysis, the estimates for additive genetic correlations ranged from 0.56 to 0.81 among the studied traits. A log-likelihood ratio test (LRT) was used to select the most appropriate univariate model for each trait. Based on LRT, the direct additive genetic and maternal permanent environmental effects were regarded as an important source of variation of the studied traits. The estimates of genetic parameters can be considered a basis for calculating selection indices for body measurements, as well as revealing their association with yearling bodyweight traits.

S, Jafari; A, Hashemi.

2014-02-01

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Protective effect of the AT137RQ and ARQK176 PrP alleles against classical scrapie in Sarda breed sheep  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The susceptibility of sheep to scrapie is under the control of the host's prion protein (PrP) gene and is also influenced by the strain of the agent. PrP polymorphisms at codons 136 (A/V), 154 (R/H) and 171 (Q/R/H) are the main determinants of susceptibility/resistance of sheep to classical scrapie. They are combined in four main variants of the wild-type ARQ allele: VRQ, AHQ, ARH and ARR. Breeding programmes have been undertaken on this basis in the European Union and the USA to increase the...

Vaccari, Gabriele; Scavia, Gaia; Sala, Marcello; Cosseddu, Gianmario; Chiappini, Barbara; Conte, Michela; Esposito, Elena; Lorenzetti, Raniero; Perfetti, Gabriella; Marconi, Paola; Scholl, Francesco; Barbaro, Katia; Bella, Antonino; Nonno, Romolo; Agrimi, Umberto

2009-01-01

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Determination of Animal Unit Size and Animal Unit Requirement of Fashandy Sheep Breed Grazing on Rangelands (Case Study: Taleghan  

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Full Text Available Information on animal requirements for determination of rangeland grazing capacity is essential. Animal requirements depend on its live weight, age, physiological condition and quality of available forage. There are more than 20 sheep breeds with different body sizes grazing in various climatic zone's rangelands of Iran, so animal unit equivalent of each breed should be determined independently. In this research, live weight of animal unit of Fashandy sheep based on average live weight of 3 and 4 year old ewes was determined. Three herds with more than 100 Fashandy ewes among existing herds in Taleghan region were selected. In each herd, 15 three year old ewes, 15 four year old ewes, 5 three year old rams, and 5 four year old rams were selected. They were weighed three times including at the time of beginning of grazing in highlands, end of grazing season in highlands, and once in winter. In each herd, also 5 three month old lambs in the beginning of grazing season and 5 six month old lambs at the end of grazing season were weighed. The amount of daily forage requirement according to live weight and energy requirement of animal unit equivalent for maintenance condition was calculated using NRC (1985 tables and MAFF (1984 formula. It was multiplied by 1.5 because of mountainous condition of rangelands and distances from watering points and villages. The SAS statistical software was used for data analyses according to factorial experiment in the form of completely random design. According to the results, the live weight of animal unit of Fashandy breed was 60.7 Kg. The average live weight of 3 and 4 year old rams were 80.3 and 85.3 kg, respectively. Live weights of 3 and 6 month old lambs were 21.4 and 37.8 kg, respectively. Therefore, animal unit equivalents for rams, 3 and 6 month old lambs were 1.36, 0.35 and 0.62 respectively. According to NRC tables, daily metabolisable energy requirement was 13.8 Mj, and based on MAFF formula it was 11.8 Mj (including that multiplied by 1.5.

H Arzani

2009-01-01

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Recombinant small ruminant lentivirus subtype B1 in goats and sheep of imported breeds in Mexico.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nucleotide sequences of small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLVs) were determined in sheep and goats, including progeny of imported animals, on a farm in Mexico. On the basis of gag-pol, pol, env and LTR sequences, SRLVs were assigned to the B1 subgroup, which comprises caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV)-like prototype sequences mainly from goats. In comparison with CAEV-like env sequences of American and French origin, two putative recombination events were identified within the V3-V4 and V4-V5 regions of the env gene of a full length SRLV sequence (FESC-752) derived from a goat on the farm. PMID:20932787

Ramírez, H; Glaria, I; de Andrés, X; Martínez, H A; Hernández, M M; Reina, R; Iráizoz, E; Crespo, H; Berriatua, E; Vázquez, J; Amorena, B; de Andrés, D

2011-10-01

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Genetic polymorphism at the milk protein genes (CSN1S1, CSN2, and CSN3 in the Czech Sumava and Walachian sheep breeds  

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Full Text Available The aim of this work was to determine allele and genotype frequencies at the casein loci, alphaS1-casein (CSN1S1, beta-casein (CSN2 and kappa-casein (CSN3 in two endangered Czech sheep breeds. The study was carried out on 265 sheep (133 Sumava, 132 Walachian by means of PCR-RFLP and Light Cycler Analysis. These breeds are kept mainly for their good combined efficiency (milk, meat, wool. In particular, the genetic variant C at the CSN1S1 locus occurred with high frequency in both breeds Sumava (0.981 and Walachian (0.992. Variants A and D were either “absent” in Walachian (A=0.008, D=0, or present with a very low frequency in Sumava (A=0.008, D=0.011. Molecular analysis of the CSN2 locus showed that the genetic variant A were predominant, had higher frequency (Sumava, 0.778; Walachian, 0.829 than did variant G (Sumava, 0.222; Walachian, 0.171 in both sheep populations. The CSN3 locus was found to be monomorphic, with no polymorphism typed in either population. According to Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, both breeds were in genetic equilibrium at the loci CSN1S1 and CSN2 (P<0.05. The information on the aggregate genotype variability in both breeds could be exploited in the future using specific breeding programs aimed at preserving biodiversity or select animals for the production of both unusual and typical milk products in the Czech Republic.

Zuzana Sztankóová

2012-01-01

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The study of intensive fattening of youth sheep from different breeds in Romania  

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Full Text Available Young rams of Merino of Cluj (M, Tsigai and Turcana breed (n=15 were submitted to an100 days intensive fattening, in order to obtain superior quality carcasses. The fattening unrolledduring two consecutive years, and included three successive phases: accommodation (15 days – 16%CP, growing-fattening (65 days – 15% CP, respectively finishing (20 days – 13% CP. At the end offattening period, the appreciation of carcasses and meat quality has been done (n=5, using subjectiveand objective methods: the carcass estimation using EUROP system, the analysis of slaughter yield,muscular fiber diameter and chemical composition of meat. The Merino of Cluj breed presentedsuperior fattening qualities and a higher score to subjective and objective appreciation.

Cristian Coroian

2009-10-01

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Infectious pathogens potentially transmitted by semen of the black variety of the Manchega sheep breed: Health constraints for conservation purposes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Conservation of genetic resources from endangered breeds may be conducted through germinal banks. Preservation of healthy samples is paramount to avoid preserving pathogens shed with germinal products. The black variety of Manchega sheep (BMS), and endangered breed endemic to south-central Spain, is the subject of a conservation program; a germinal bank has been recently established. However, several pathogens circulating in BMS flocks may be shed with semen and threaten BMS preservation. Therefore, we investigated the sanitary status of BMS flocks and semen samples from 4 of the 17 flocks in which this variety is bred worldwide. A serological screening for Maedi-Visna virus, bluetongue virus, Pestivirus spp., Brucella spp., Coxiella burnetii, Chlamydophila spp., Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis, Anaplasma spp., Mycoplasma agalactiae, Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum was performed to assess for pathogens potentially shed by semen. Semen samples from 11 of the 35 BMS rams and 4 samples from coexisting rams of the white variety (WMS) were analyzed by PCR to detect Maedi-Visna virus, C. burnetii, Anaplasma marginale, Anaplasma phagocytophilum and T. gondii. Maedi-Visna virus RNA was detected in 3 semen samples (2 BMS and 1 WMS) while C. burnetii DNA was detected in 3 samples from WMS rams. Pathogens that can be transmitted by semen were present in BMS flocks, and Maedi-Visna virus and C. burnetii showed the highest potential for transmission by artificial insemination. Our results point to the need of testing semen samples kept for conservation purposes of BMS before using them for artificial insemination. PMID:25066603

Ruiz-Fons, Francisco; González-Barrio, David; Aguilar-Ríos, Fernando; Soler, Ana J; Garde, José Julián; Gortázar, Christian; Fernández-Santos, María Del Rocío

2014-10-01

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Udder Morphological Traits and Milk Yield of Chilota and Suffolk Down Sheep Breeds Morfología Mamaria y Producción Lechera de las Razas Ovinas Chilota y Suffolk Down  

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Full Text Available Morphological traits of the whole udder (circumference, width, height, and length, teats (angle, length and width, udder cistern (teat opening and cistern height, and milk yield were measured over one lactation in a total of 18 ewes (nine Chilota and nine Suffolk Down sheep belonging to the same experimental flock (Centro Experimental INIA Butalcura, Chiloé, Chile. Analysis of variance showed significant effects for breed, sheep within breed, and stage of lactation. Chilota ewes evidenced greater udder circumference (433 mm, udder length (86 mm, teat opening (96º, and milk yield (947 mL d-1 than Suffolk Down ewes (410 mm, 77 mm, 93º, and 559 mL d-1, respectively. Udder circumference, udder width, udder length, cistern height and teat size significantly decreased throughout lactation. Repeatabilities of all traits were between 0.17 and 0.60; the highest repeatability was for udder circumference. This trait is easy to measure and had a discriminatory value for breed differentiation. In conclusion, Chilota sheep had a dairy aptitude greater than Suffolk Down sheep and similar to Spanish and Mediterranean dairy sheep breeds at beginning of their breeding programs.Los caracteres morfológicos de la ubre (perímetro, anchura, longitud y altura, de los pezones (ángulo de inclinación, longitud y anchura, de las cisternas mamarias (apertura de los pezones y altura de la cisterna y la producción lechera fueron medidos a lo largo de una lactación en un total de 18 ovejas del mismo rebaño (Centro Experimental INIA Butalcura, Chiloé, Chile, nueve de raza Chilota y nueve de raza Suffolk Down. El análisis de varianza mostró efectos significativos de la raza, la oveja dentro de la raza y del estado de lactación sobre las variables estudiadas. La raza Chilota evidenció un mayor perímetro de la ubre (433 mm, longitud de la ubre (86 mm, abertura de los pezones (96º, y producción lechera (947 mL d-1 que la Suffolk Down ( 410 mm, 77 mm, 93º, y 559 mL d-1, respectivamente. El perímetro, longitud y anchura de la ubre, junto con la altura de las cisternas y el tamaño de los pezones disminuyeron significativamente a medida que avanzó la lactación. Las repetibilidades de todos los caracteres estudiados oscilaron entre 0.17 y 0.60. La mayor repetibilidad se encontró en el perímetro de la ubre; este carácter es fácil de medir y posee poder discriminante para la diferenciación racial. Se concluye que la raza Chilota posee una aptitud lechera superior a la Suffolk Down y similar a la de las razas españolas y mediterráneas al inicio de sus programas de selección lechera.

María E Martínez

2011-03-01

129

Impact of strong selection for the PrP major gene on genetic variability of four French sheep breeds (Open Access publication  

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Full Text Available Abstract Effective selection on the PrP gene has been implemented since October 2001 in all French sheep breeds. After four years, the ARR "resistant" allele frequency increased by about 35% in young males. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of this strong selection on genetic variability. It is focussed on four French sheep breeds and based on the comparison of two groups of 94 animals within each breed: the first group of animals was born before the selection began, and the second, 3–4 years later. Genetic variability was assessed using genealogical and molecular data (29 microsatellite markers. The expected loss of genetic variability on the PrP gene was confirmed. Moreover, among the five markers located in the PrP region, only the three closest ones were affected. The evolution of the number of alleles, heterozygote deficiency within population, expected heterozygosity and the Reynolds distances agreed with the criteria from pedigree and pointed out that neutral genetic variability was not much affected. This trend depended on breed, i.e. on their initial states (population size, PrP frequencies and on the selection strategies for improving scrapie resistance while carrying out selection for production traits.

Pantano Thais

2008-11-01

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Impact of strong selection for the PrP major gene on genetic variability of four French sheep breeds(Open Access publication).  

Science.gov (United States)

Effective selection on the PrP gene has been implemented since October 2001 in all French sheep breeds. After four years, the ARR "resistant" allele frequency increased by about 35% in young males. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of this strong selection on genetic variability. It is focussed on four French sheep breeds and based on the comparison of two groups of 94 animals within each breed: the first group of animals was born before the selection began, and the second, 3-4 years later. Genetic variability was assessed using genealogical and molecular data (29 microsatellite markers). The expected loss of genetic variability on the PrP gene was confirmed. Moreover, among the five markers located in the PrP region, only the three closest ones were affected. The evolution of the number of alleles, heterozygote deficiency within population, expected heterozygosity and the Reynolds distances agreed with the criteria from pedigree and pointed out that neutral genetic variability was not much affected. This trend depended on breed, i.e. on their initial states (population size, PrP frequencies) and on the selection strategies for improving scrapie resistance while carrying out selection for production traits. PMID:18990357

Palhiere, Isabelle; Brochard, Mickaeël; Moazami-Goudarzi, Katayoun; Laloeë, Denis; Amigues, Yves; Bed'hom, Bertrand; Neuts, Etienne; Leymarie, Cyril; Pantano, Thais; Cribiu, Edmond Paul; Bibé, Bernard; Verrier, Etienne

2008-01-01

131

Comparison of external udder measurements of the sheep breeds Improved Valachian, Tsigai, Lacaune and their crosses  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english Morphological udder traits have recently become of greater interest from farmers to researchers. In dairy ewes, the udder is very important due to its physiological and conformational characteristics. External udder traits were measured in ewes (Ovis aries L.) of nine genotypes (355 ewes) created of [...] the basis of Improved Valachian (IV), Tsigai (T), and Lacaune (LC) breeds (six traits; 1185 data for each trait) during the milking period 2002-2008. Udder measurements were assessed for: udder length (UL), udder width (UW), rear udder depth (RUD), cistern depth (CDE), teat length (TL), and teat angle (TA). Data were processed by restricted maximum likelihood (REML) methodology using a MIXED procedure from the SAS statistical package. All studied parameters were influenced by the genotype (P

Pavol, Makovický; Melinda, Nagy; Peter, Makovický.

132

Comparison of external udder measurements of the sheep breeds Improved Valachian, Tsigai, Lacaune and their crosses  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english Morphological udder traits have recently become of greater interest from farmers to researchers. In dairy ewes, the udder is very important due to its physiological and conformational characteristics. External udder traits were measured in ewes (Ovis aries L.) of nine genotypes (355 ewes) created of [...] the basis of Improved Valachian (IV), Tsigai (T), and Lacaune (LC) breeds (six traits; 1185 data for each trait) during the milking period 2002-2008. Udder measurements were assessed for: udder length (UL), udder width (UW), rear udder depth (RUD), cistern depth (CDE), teat length (TL), and teat angle (TA). Data were processed by restricted maximum likelihood (REML) methodology using a MIXED procedure from the SAS statistical package. All studied parameters were influenced by the genotype (P

Pavol, Makovický; Melinda, Nagy; Peter, Makovický.

2013-12-01

133

Genomic scan of selective sweeps in thin and fat tail sheep breeds for identifying of candidate regions associated with fat deposition  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Identification of genomic regions that have been targets of selection for phenotypic traits is one of the most important and challenging areas of research in animal genetics. However, currently there are relatively few genomic regions identified that have been subject to positive selection. In this study, a genome-wide scan using ~50,000 Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs was performed in an attempt to identify genomic regions associated with fat deposition in fat-tail breeds. This trait and its modification are very important in those countries grazing these breeds. Results Two independent experiments using either Iranian or Ovine HapMap genotyping data contrasted thin and fat tail breeds. Population differentiation using FST in Iranian thin and fat tail breeds revealed seven genomic regions. Almost all of these regions overlapped with QTLs that had previously been identified as affecting fat and carcass yield traits in beef and dairy cattle. Study of selection sweep signatures using FST in thin and fat tail breeds sampled from the Ovine HapMap project confirmed three of these regions located on Chromosomes 5, 7 and X. We found increased homozygosity in these regions in favour of fat tail breeds on chromosome 5 and X and in favour of thin tail breeds on chromosome 7. Conclusions In this study, we were able to identify three novel regions associated with fat deposition in thin and fat tail sheep breeds. Two of these were associated with an increase of homozygosity in the fat tail breeds which would be consistent with selection for mutations affecting fat tail size several thousand years after domestication.

Moradi Mohammad Hossein

2012-02-01

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Accuracy of pedigree and genomic predictions of carcass and novel meat quality traits in multi-breed sheep data assessed by cross-validation  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Genomic predictions can be applied early in life without impacting selection candidates. This is especially useful for meat quality traits in sheep. Carcass and novel meat quality traits were predicted in a multi-breed sheep population that included Merino, Border Leicester, Polled Dorset and White Suffolk sheep and their crosses. Methods Prediction of breeding values by best linear unbiased prediction (BLUP based on pedigree information was compared to prediction based on genomic BLUP (GBLUP and a Bayesian prediction method (BayesR. Cross-validation of predictions across sire families was used to evaluate the accuracy of predictions based on the correlation of predicted and observed values and the regression of observed on predicted values was used to evaluate bias of methods. Accuracies and regression coefficients were calculated using either phenotypes or adjusted phenotypes as observed variables. Results and conclusions Genomic methods increased the accuracy of predicted breeding values to on average 0.2 across traits (range 0.07 to 0.31, compared to an average accuracy of 0.09 for pedigree-based BLUP. However, for some traits with smaller reference population size, there was no increase in accuracy or it was small. No clear differences in accuracy were observed between GBLUP and BayesR. The regression of phenotypes on breeding values was close to 1 for all methods, indicating little bias, except for GBLUP and adjusted phenotypes (regression = 0.78. Accuracies calculated with adjusted (for fixed effects phenotypes were less variable than accuracies based on unadjusted phenotypes, indicating that fixed effects influence the latter. Increasing the reference population size increased accuracy, indicating that adding more records will be beneficial. For the Merino, Polled Dorset and White Suffolk breeds, accuracies were greater than for the Border Leicester breed due to the smaller sample size and limited across-breed prediction. BayesR detected only a few large marker effects but one region on chromosome 6 was associated with large effects for several traits. Cross-validation produced very similar variability of accuracy and regression coefficients for BLUP, GBLUP and BayesR, showing that this variability is not a property of genomic methods alone. Our results show that genomic selection for novel difficult-to-measure traits is a feasible strategy to achieve increased genetic gain.

Daetwyler Hans D

2012-11-01

135

PCR-SSCP Variation of IGF1 and PIT1 Genes and Their Association with Estimated Breeding Values of Growth Traits in Makooei Sheep.  

Science.gov (United States)

Molecular biology techniques genetic improvement by facilitating identification, mapping and analysis of polymorphism of genes by encoding proteins that act on metabolic pathways involved in economically interesting traits. This use of genetic markers can aid identification of those animals with the highest breeding values in sheep. On the basis of sheep genome mapping, information was examined on the ovine IGF1 and PIT1 genes as a possible genetic marker for growth traits in sheep. The current study was designed to estimate the frequencies of putative IGF-1 and PIT-1 genes SNPs and investigate associations with calculated EBVs of growth traits in Makooei sheep. PCR-SSCP analysis of the exon1 of IGF-I gene and include a part of intron2, exon3 and a part of intron3 and PIT-1 gene revealed the following banding patterns; three (AA, AG, GG) and four AA (p1), AB (p2), CC (p3), CD (p4), banding patterns respectively. Results from this study demonstrated higher performance of AA animals in BW and GBW, and AG animal in WW and W6 that may be related to the role of IGF-1 at the pre-puberty and puberty stages. Also higher performance of p3 animals in W9, YW and GSN, and p1 animal in GNY may be related to the PIT-1 role in post-puberty. PMID:24383003

Negahdary, Masoud; Hajihosseinlo, Abbas; Ajdary, Marziyeh

2013-01-01

136

Parâmetros populacionais da raça ovina Santa Inês no Brasil / Population parameters of the sheep breed Santa Inês in Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a estrutura populacional de ovinos da raça Santa Inês criados no Brasil. Foram utilizados dados de pedigree de 13.216 animais, pertencentes a 53 rebanhos de oito estados brasileiros, nascidos no período de 1976 a 2010. O programa Endog foi utilizado para análise [...] do pedigree e estimação dos parâmetros populacionais. Do total de animais estudados, 80,86% apresentaram pedigree na primeira ascendência, 73,78% na segunda e 67,75% na terceira. O número máximo de gerações conhecidas foi de 19, e a média de gerações equivalentes foi de 4,67. A média do intervalo de gerações foi de 3,22±1,77 anos. O tamanho efetivo da população apresentou média de 172,5 animais. O número de animais fundadores foi 829, mas o número efetivo de fundadores foi apenas 50. Os 17 principais ancestrais explicaram 50% da variabilidade genética total. O coeficiente médio de relação foi de 3,87% e o de endogamia, de 6,92%. Apesar do satisfatório coeficiente médio de endogamia nas últimas gerações, este coeficiente requer monitoramento por sua proximidade do limite recomendável. O fluxo de genes entre os rebanhos é o principal fator para o aumento do tamanho efetivo e a manutenção da variabilidade genética da raça Santa Inês. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to evaluate the population structure of the sheep breed Santa Inês raised in Brazil. Pedigree data from 13,216 animals, belonging to 53 herds from eight Brazilian states, born between 1976 and 2010, were used. The program Endog was used for pedigree analysis and estima [...] tion of population parameters. From the total number of animals studied, 80.86% had a pedigree in the first ascendancy, 73.78% in the second, and 67.75% in the third. The maximum number of known generations was 19, and the average of equivalent generations was 4.67. The average generation interval was 3.22±1.77 years. The mean effective population size was of 172.5 animals. The number of founder animals was 829, but the effective number of founders was only 50. The 17 main ancestors accounted for 50% of the total genetic variability. The average relatedness coefficient was of 3.87% and the average inbreeding coefficient, of 6.92%. Despite the satisfactory average inbreeding coefficient in recent generations, this coefficient requires monitoring because of its proximity to the recommended limit. Gene flow among herds is the main factor for the increase of effective size and the maintenance of genetic variability in the breed Santa Inês.

Milton Rezende, Teixeira Neto; Jurandir Ferreira da, Cruz; Paulo Luiz Souza, Carneiro; Carlos Henrique Mendes, Malhado; Helder Henrique Neves, Faria.

1589-15-01

137

Cost evaluation of the use of conventional and electronic identification and registration systems for the national sheep and goat populations in Spain.  

Science.gov (United States)

A cost model was developed to compare different implementation strategies of the new European Commission regulation for sheep and goat identification and registration (EC 21/2004) in Spain. Strategies were as follows: 1) conventional identification (CID) by two ear tags; 2) electronic identification (EID) by one bolus and one ear tag; and 3) mixed CID and EID strategy (MID), consisting of CID for fattening stock and EID for breeding stock. Complete and simplified implementations of the regulation were considered as options. Total costs per animal identified for all strategies and options varied according to the implementation option, ranging from Euros 2.48 and 4.64. The EID was the most expensive strategy (Euros 4.47 to 4.64) for all implementation options. Cost of CID and MID strategies ranged from Euros 2.63 to 2.98 and from Euros 2.48 to 3.03, respectively. The model was submitted to a sensitivity analysis without considering extra benefits of sheep and goat identification. Critical values for which the cost of MID equaled CID depended on strategy and option, and ranged from 7.5 to 11.5% for ear tag losses and from Euros 1.80 to 3.30 for bolus price. In conclusion, the use of a mixed strategy combining conventional ear tags (animals intended for slaughter) and electronic boluses (breeding stock) seems to be an affordable strategy that fulfills the European Commission regulation requirements for the identification of sheep and goats in Spain. Price reductions for devices and equipment would make the full electronic identification strategy less expensive in the future. PMID:15827266

Saa, C; Milán, M J; Caja, G; Ghirardi, J J

2005-05-01

138

Relationship between Copper and Zinc Content in the Soil and Plants and their Consequent Content in Blood and Excrements of Cattle and Sheep under Various Forms of Breeding  

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Full Text Available The aim of the study was to explain the relationship between copper and zinc content in the soil and plants and their consequent content in blood and excrements of cattle and sheep while various forms of breeding. Apart from the Cu and Zn concentration in the soil samples we were investigating also the concentrations of the elements Ca, Mg, P, Na, K, Mn and Mo. In excrements and feeding rations the concentration of copper and zinc were investigated. Beef cows and heifers (143 without the market milk production, dairy cows and heifers (182 with the market milk production and sheep (191 were included in the project. Altogether 325 blood (excrement samples were collected and examined. The relations between haematological indicators and copper and zinc metabolism appear more often in animals (cows, heifers, sheep with nonconventional way of farming and it is impacted by many the impact of an antagonistic influence of elements than in dairy animals. The results also show the necessity of the controlling of the supplementation with the mineral elements accumulation in the soil samples, plants and organism.

Miloslav Šoch

2013-05-01

139

Avaliação ultrasonográfica da qualidade de carcaça de ovinos Santa Inês / Ultrassonography evaluation of sheep carcass quality of Santa Inês breed  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A ultrassonografia pode ser uma importante ferramenta para a avaliação da composição da carcaça por ser uma técnica não invasiva que permite quantificar diferentes tecidos em animais vivos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estimar as correlações entre medidas tomadas in vivo, por meio do ultrassom e do [...] adipômetro, e na carcaça de ovinos da raça Santa Inês. Utilizaram-se 81 machos, entre 8 e 18 meses de idade, com peso médio de 31 kg. As medidas in vivo obtidas por ultrassonografia foram medida diagonal longitudinal, área de olho de lombo longitudinal, medida diagonal transversal e área de olho de lombo transversal. Determinou-se o peso de carcaça quente, rendimento da carcaça, gordura de cobertura da carcaça, comprimento de carcaça, área de olho de lombo da carcaça e peso dos cortes comerciais: pernil, lombo, paleta, costela e pescoço. As análises de variância, componentes principais, regressão polinomial e correlação foram realizadas utilizando-se programa estatístico SAS®. Não houve diferença entre animais castrados e inteiros para qualidade e componentes de carcaça, indicando, portanto, que a castração não proporciona uma carcaça de melhor qualidade. Os animais com os pesos de pernil, paleta e costela maiores apresentam menores peso de pele, altura de cernelha e peso dos órgãos abdominais, caracterizando um biotipo de animal que seria mais desejável a ser selecionado. Peso vivo, comprimento corporal e área de olho de lombo por ultrassom (in vivo) podem ser usados para predizer a área do olho de lombo da carcaça, peso do pernil, comprimento da carcaça, peso da carcaça quente e da meia carcaça. No entanto, o peso do lombo, pescoço, costela, rendimento de carcaça e peso dos órgãos abdominais não podem ser preditos por estas medidas in vivo. As medidas realizadas com adipômetro não apresentaram correlações significativas com medidas da carcaça, o que indica que não são eficientes para esta predição e, portanto, não devem ser utilizadas. Abstract in english Ultrassonography is an important option to evaluate carcass composition and quality, as it is a non-invasive technique which quantifies different tissues in live animals. The objective of this study was to estimate the correlation between measurements taken in vivo, using ultrasound and skinfold thi [...] ckness, in sheep carcasses from Santa Inês breed. Eighty-one males, aging 8 to 18 months, and weighting on average 31 kg live weight were used. The measures taken in vivo by ultrassonography were longitudinal diagonal length, longitudinal rib eye area, transversal diagonal length, transversal rib eye area. Hot carcass weight, carcass yield, carcass fat thickness, carcass length, carcass rib eye area and commercial retail cut weight (leg, loin, shoulder, ribs and neck) were determined. The analyses of variance, main components, polynomial regression and correlation were carried out using SAS® statistical program. There was no difference between castrated and intact animals for carcass quality and components, indicating that castration does not provide better carcass quality. Animals with higher leg, shoulder and rib weights had lower skin weight, wither height and weight of abdominal organs, indicating a more desirable body type for selection. Body weight, body length and rib eye area by ultrasound (in vivo) can predict the rib eye area, leg weight, carcass length, hot and half carcass weight. However, loin, neck and rib weights, carcass yield and weight of abdominal organs cannot be predicted by these in vivo measurements. The measurements taken with skinfold showed no significant correlations with carcass measures, which indicates that they are not efficient for prediction of carcass components and therefore should not be used.

Concepta, McManus; Tiago do Prado, Paim; Helder, Louvandini; Bruno Stéfano Lima, Dallago; Laila Talarico, Dias; Rodrigo Almeida, Teixeira.

2013-03-01

140

Effect of pre-slaughter conditions on physico-chemical characteristics of mutton from three sheep breeds slaughtered at a smallholder rural abattoir  

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Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english The effects of pre-slaughter conditions and breed on physico-chemical characteristics of mutton were determined. The study was conducted at Adelaide Municipal abattoir in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. Records were taken from 84 sheep from the South African Mutton Merino, Blackhead Persian [...] and Dorper breeds as identified on arrival at the abattoir. The South African Mutton Merino (SAMM) had the highest values for meat pH at 24 hours (pH24) (5.9 ± 0.64), lightness; L* (34.2 ± 0.97), yellowness; b* (12.2 ± 0.50) and Warner-Braztler shear force WBSF (26.8 ± 1.51). Linear relationships were also observed between pre-slaughter variables and physico-chemical characteristics of mutton. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) showed a large variation being contributed by meat pH24 and L*. It was therefore concluded that, transport time and lairage duration negatively affected the quality of mutton. Furthermore, breed affected the physico-chemical characteristics of meat.

A.Y., Chulayo; V., Muchenje.

 
 
 
 
141

Biometric Study of the Reproductive Organs of Three Breeds of Sheep in Nigeria / Estudio Biométrico de los Órganos Reproductivos de Tres Razas de Ovejas en Nigeria  

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Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish Se realizó un estudio comparativo de la biometría testicular en carneros con las tres razas principales de ovejas de Nigeria. Los parámetros biométricos observados fueron la circunferencia escrotal (CE), peso testicular (PT), longitud testicular (LT), peso de la túnica albugínea (PTA), volumen testi [...] cular (VT), densidad testicular (DT), peso del epidídimo (PE), longitud del epidídimo (EL), peso de la cabeza (CA), cuerpo (CU) y cauda (CA), volumen del epidídimo (VE) y densidad del epidídimo (ED). Los resultados mostraron diferencias significativas (p Abstract in english A comparative study of testicular biometry was done in rams using three major breeds of sheep in Nigeria. Biometrical parameters observed were scrotal circumference (SC), testes weight (TW), testes length (TL), tunica albuginea weight (TAW), testes volume (TV), testes density (TD), epididymal weight [...] (EW), epididymal length (EL), caput (CA), corpus (CO), cauda weight (CU), epididymal volume (EV) and epididymal density (ED). The results showed significant differences (p

Abdullahi Ali, Ibrahim; Jibril, Aliyu; Rabi Muhammad, Ashiru; Mustapha, Jamilu.

142

Biometric Study of the Reproductive Organs of Three Breeds of Sheep in Nigeria / Estudio Biométrico de los Órganos Reproductivos de Tres Razas de Ovejas en Nigeria  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish Se realizó un estudio comparativo de la biometría testicular en carneros con las tres razas principales de ovejas de Nigeria. Los parámetros biométricos observados fueron la circunferencia escrotal (CE), peso testicular (PT), longitud testicular (LT), peso de la túnica albugínea (PTA), volumen testi [...] cular (VT), densidad testicular (DT), peso del epidídimo (PE), longitud del epidídimo (EL), peso de la cabeza (CA), cuerpo (CU) y cauda (CA), volumen del epidídimo (VE) y densidad del epidídimo (ED). Los resultados mostraron diferencias significativas (p Abstract in english A comparative study of testicular biometry was done in rams using three major breeds of sheep in Nigeria. Biometrical parameters observed were scrotal circumference (SC), testes weight (TW), testes length (TL), tunica albuginea weight (TAW), testes volume (TV), testes density (TD), epididymal weight [...] (EW), epididymal length (EL), caput (CA), corpus (CO), cauda weight (CU), epididymal volume (EV) and epididymal density (ED). The results showed significant differences (p

Abdullahi Ali, Ibrahim; Jibril, Aliyu; Rabi Muhammad, Ashiru; Mustapha, Jamilu.

1597-16-01

143

Evaluación biológica de dos sistemas de apareamiento en ovinos de raza Columbia en producción intensiva / Biological evaluation of two breeding systems of intensive production in the Columbia breed sheep  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se evaluó la eficacia biológica de dos sistemas de apareamiento en ovinos del altiplano central de México. Un total de 300 ovejas adultas y 60 de reemplazo de la raza Columbia se distribuyeron al azar en dos grupos de 150 adultas y 30 jóvenes (edad promedio al primer parto de 18 meses). En el primer [...] grupo (sistema intensivo) se realizaron empadres de 36 días, con monta natural cada ocho meses (marzo, noviembre y julio), mientras que en el segundo grupo (sistema anual) se llevó a cabo un empadre de 45 días, iniciando en noviembre de cada año. En todos los casos, quince días antes del empadre se introdujeron machos marcadores, que en la fecha de inicio del empadre se sustituían por sementales en proporción de un macho por cada 20 hembras. Mensualmente se evaluó la condición física de todas las hembras. Los animales pastorearon de ocho a nueve horas diarias en praderas de alfalfa (Medicago sativa) y pastos orchard (Dactylis glomerata) y rye grass (Lolium perenne) irrigadas por aspersión. Solamente las ovejas del sistema intensivo recibieron complemento durante la lactancia y el reempadre. En los dos sistemas se lograron apareamientos en todas las épocas, la fertilidad en los tres empadres del sistema intensivo fue de 83.9%, mientras que el promedio de los dos empadres anuales fue de 88.3% (P 0.05); la tasa de destete, 0.89 vs 1.09 (P Abstract in english The biological efficiency of two breeding systems for sheep in the Mexican high plateau was evaluated. A total of 300 adult and 60 replacement sheep of the Columbia breed were randomly distributed into two groups of 150 adults and 30 young ones (mean age to first birth of 18 months). Mates of 36 day [...] s with natural mount every eight months (March, November and July) were done in the first group (intensive system). In the second group (annual system), a 45-day mating was done starting on November every year. Marker males were introduced 15 days before mating in all cases, which were replaced on the first day of mating for stallions at a one male for every 20 female ratios. The physical condition of all females was evaluated every month. The animals grazed 8 to 9 hours in grasslands of alfalfa (Medicago sativa) and Orchard (Dactylis glomerata) and Rye (Lolium perenne) grasses irrigated by aspersion. Only the sheep in the intensive system received supplement during lactation and re-mating. Breeding was achieved in both systems in all seasons. The mean fertility of the three breeding of the intensive system was 83.9%; while the mean fertility of the two annual breeding was 88.3% (P

José, de Lucas Tron; Luis Alberto, Zarco Quintero; Everardo, González Padilla; Jorge, Tórtora Pérez; Carlos, Vásquez Peláez.

144

Evaluación biológica de dos sistemas de apareamiento en ovinos de raza Columbia en producción intensiva / Biological evaluation of two breeding systems of intensive production in the Columbia breed sheep  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se evaluó la eficacia biológica de dos sistemas de apareamiento en ovinos del altiplano central de México. Un total de 300 ovejas adultas y 60 de reemplazo de la raza Columbia se distribuyeron al azar en dos grupos de 150 adultas y 30 jóvenes (edad promedio al primer parto de 18 meses). En el primer [...] grupo (sistema intensivo) se realizaron empadres de 36 días, con monta natural cada ocho meses (marzo, noviembre y julio), mientras que en el segundo grupo (sistema anual) se llevó a cabo un empadre de 45 días, iniciando en noviembre de cada año. En todos los casos, quince días antes del empadre se introdujeron machos marcadores, que en la fecha de inicio del empadre se sustituían por sementales en proporción de un macho por cada 20 hembras. Mensualmente se evaluó la condición física de todas las hembras. Los animales pastorearon de ocho a nueve horas diarias en praderas de alfalfa (Medicago sativa) y pastos orchard (Dactylis glomerata) y rye grass (Lolium perenne) irrigadas por aspersión. Solamente las ovejas del sistema intensivo recibieron complemento durante la lactancia y el reempadre. En los dos sistemas se lograron apareamientos en todas las épocas, la fertilidad en los tres empadres del sistema intensivo fue de 83.9%, mientras que el promedio de los dos empadres anuales fue de 88.3% (P 0.05); la tasa de destete, 0.89 vs 1.09 (P Abstract in english The biological efficiency of two breeding systems for sheep in the Mexican high plateau was evaluated. A total of 300 adult and 60 replacement sheep of the Columbia breed were randomly distributed into two groups of 150 adults and 30 young ones (mean age to first birth of 18 months). Mates of 36 day [...] s with natural mount every eight months (March, November and July) were done in the first group (intensive system). In the second group (annual system), a 45-day mating was done starting on November every year. Marker males were introduced 15 days before mating in all cases, which were replaced on the first day of mating for stallions at a one male for every 20 female ratios. The physical condition of all females was evaluated every month. The animals grazed 8 to 9 hours in grasslands of alfalfa (Medicago sativa) and Orchard (Dactylis glomerata) and Rye (Lolium perenne) grasses irrigated by aspersion. Only the sheep in the intensive system received supplement during lactation and re-mating. Breeding was achieved in both systems in all seasons. The mean fertility of the three breeding of the intensive system was 83.9%; while the mean fertility of the two annual breeding was 88.3% (P

José, de Lucas Tron; Luis Alberto, Zarco Quintero; Everardo, González Padilla; Jorge, Tórtora Pérez; Carlos, Vásquez Peláez.

2009-06-01

145

Seroprevalence of Abortion Causing Agents in Egyptian Sheep and Goat Breeds and Their Effects on the Animal’s Performance  

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Full Text Available This study was carried out to illustrate seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and Brucella melitensis in local sheep and goat flocks living in Nile Delta regions of Egypt as well as to investigate its effects on animals’ health and performance. In trial 1: 492 serum samples were collected from domestic ewes and does flocks suffering from abortion and stillbirths were used in this survey. In trial (2: 100 serum samples collected from toxoplasma or brucella infected or non infected sheep and goats were used to study the effects of toxoplasmosis and brucellosis on animals, health. This study revealed that 142 (28.86% sera contained antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii and 89 (18.09% were positive for Brucella melitensis. The incidences of toxoplasmosis and brucellosis were 31.01% and 12.26% in sheep, respectively and 17.11% and 36.84% in goats, respectively. Higher seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii was recorded in sheep with high flock size. Farmers using set stocking management had lower seroprevalence toxoplasmosis and brucellosis. Toxoplasmosis and brucellosis lowered serum albumin level and liver enzymes activities while, increased serum levels of globulin, urea, triglyceride and cholesterol in ewes. Serum levels of total protein, albumin and urea and the activity of serum aspartate amino transferase were decreased, however serum level of C reactive protein was increased in infected does. These results indicated that toxoplasmosis is widely spread than brucellosis in small ruminants living in the provinces of Nile Delta. Both toxoplasmosis and brucellosis inversely affected animals’ health. Management practices had a role in spread of these agents.

Hamada Hamada Dahy Mahboub

2013-08-01

146

Detection of genes encoding for virulence and adherence factors in Escherichia coli isolated in slaughtered Sarda breed sheep.  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to investigate the pathogenic profile of Escherichia coli hosted in "Sarda" sheep, autochthonous race present in Sardinia, thirty-seven E. coli strains collected from different sources (fleeces, carcass swabs and gut mucosa) of pre-chill slaughtered sheep (ewes and lambs) were serotyped using pheno- and genotypic methods. Furthermore, the presence of genes encoding for virulence factors and mediating for localized mucosal adherence factors was investigated, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) characterization was performed. Twenty-one (56.8%) of the isolates belonged to O91 serogroup and sixteen (43.2%) belonged to nine different serotypes (O5:H11, O8:H14, O26:H2, O38:H26, O116:H9, O116:H11, O132:H34, O149:H?, O161:H-). Of these non-O91 strains, five (13.5%) were able to produce verocytotoxin (VT) and were ascribed to VTEC pathogroup, eleven (29.7%) were attributed to the Enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) pathogroup; the other strains (n.21) cannot be ascribed to a pathogenic group. However, various associated virulence genes were observed in all isolated strains. Macrorestriction analysis highlighted a large heterogeneity of the E. coli strains. The results confirm the role of sheep as reservoir of pathogenic E. coli serotypes potentially able to colonize and to damage the intestinal mucosa. PMID:24309402

Busia, Gianluca; Mureddu, Anna; Mazza, Roberta; Meloni, Domenico; Consolati, Simonetta G; Piras, Francesca; Burgess, Catherine M; Duffy, Geraldine; Mazzette, R

2014-01-10

147

Actividades emprendidas para recuperar y preservar la raza ovina Churra Tensina / Undertaken activities to recover and preserve the Churra Tensina sheep breed  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En el caso de la raza Churra Tensina, en peligro de extinción y originaria del Pirineo Oscense, se realizó una prospección de individuos y una caracterización del sistema productivo a través de encuestas a ganaderos, definiéndose explotaciones de mediano tamaño que tienen su continuidad garantizada. [...] Se estudió la morfología racial a partir de medidas zoométricas y caracteres fanerópticos de los animales inscritos en la Asociación (ATURA), lo que permitió clasificar la raza como mediolínea, dolicocéfala y eumétrica. Se estudiaron los parámetros productivos y reproductivos, así como la calidad de canal y carne de los tipos de cordero lechal, ternasco y pastenco, confirmando su viabilidad comercial. La caracterización genética mostró una raza homogénea, con niveles altos de variabilidad genética y bajos de consanguinidad. Finalmente, se han creado bancos de semen y embriones, estando representados los distintos genotipos de resistencia a Scrapie. La evolución positiva del censo en los últimos 10 años, añadida a la viabilidad de sus productos comerciales, garantiza la preservación de la Churra Tensina y de determinados sistemas ganaderos ligados a la tierra. Abstract in english This work aims to present the research activities in the Churra Tensina sheep breed, raised on the mountain area of Huesca Pyrenees. The population structure was prospected and the farming system was characterized through surveys to farmers. The animal morphology was studied through zoometric measur [...] ements and phaneroptic characters assessment of the individuals belonging to the breeders' Association (ATURA), showing a mediolineous, dolicocephalous and eumetric breed. The productive and reproductive parameters were analysed, and the commercial value of the suckling, light and heavy lamb categories was confirmed. The genetic studies showed that Churra Tensina is an homogeneous breed, with high genetic variability and low inbreeding. This breed was self-genetic differentiated, and has no crossbreeding with other Churro group populations. Finally, semen and embryos banks were established, being the different Scrapie resistance genotypes represented. The increasing census evolution in the past 10 years and the observed commercial viability assure the long term maintenance of this breed in their original location.

A., Sanz; J.H., Calvo; J.I., Martí.; J.L., Alabart; M., Joy; G., Ripoll; J., Álvarez-Rodríguez.

2011-09-01

148

Charge breeding with room-temperature electron-beam ion sources  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The conversion of low charged ions, which can be produced from a broad spectrum of elements up to exotic, radioactive species, to highly charged ions is called charge breeding, which is an important experimental technique for, e.g., efficient post-acceleration or high-precision nuclear and atomic physics experiments. This work demonstrates the feasibility of charge breeding with compact, room-temperature operated electron beam ion sources of the Dresden EBIS/T type. The sources Dresden EBIT and EBIS-A were characterized as charge breeders by simulations of ion capture as well as ion injection and re-extraction experiments. Properties which are critical for charge breeding, such as electron beam density, ionization factor, acceptance, as well as injection and breeding efficiency, were investigated. Further on, in case of the EBIS-A, emittance studies of the injected as well as re-extracted beam were carried out. In addition to the measurements concentrating on charge breeding itself, this experimental technique was used to measure electron impaction ionization cross sections of gold ions from Au38+ up to Au46+ at an electron energy of 11.5 keV. Comparing the measured values to semi - empirical as well as theoretical calculations, it was found that for the ionization of the 4d and 4p electrons of gold ions in this energy region not only direct electron impact ionization but also excitation - autoionization processes have to be considered in order to achieve a good agreement of theory and experiment.

149

Prospects for advanced electron cyclotron resonance and electron beam ion source charge breeding methods for EURISOL.  

Science.gov (United States)

As the most ambitious concept of isotope separation on line (ISOL) facility, EURISOL aims at producing unprecedented intensities of post-accelerated radioactive isotopes. Charge breeding, which transforms the charge state of radioactive beams from 1+ to an n+ charge state prior to post-acceleration, is a key technology which has to overcome the following challenges: high charge states for high energies, efficiency, rapidity and purity. On the roadmap to EURISOL, a dedicated R&D is being undertaken to push forward the frontiers of the present state-of-the-art techniques which use either electron cyclotron resonance or electron beam ion sources. We describe here the guidelines of this R&D. PMID:22380247

Delahaye, P; Galata, A; Angot, J; Ban, G; Celona, L; Choinski, J; Gmaj, P; Jakubowski, A; Jardin, P; Kalvas, T; Koivisto, H; Kolhinen, V; Lamy, T; Lunney, D; Maunoury, L; Porcellato, A M; Prete, G F; Steckiewicz, O; Sortais, P; Thuillier, T; Tarvainen, O; Traykov, E; Varenne, F; Wenander, F

2012-02-01

150

Prospects for advanced electron cyclotron resonance and electron beam ion source charge breeding methods for EURISOL  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

As the most ambitious concept of isotope separation on line (ISOL) facility, EURISOL aims at producing unprecedented intensities of post-accelerated radioactive isotopes. Charge breeding, which transforms the charge state of radioactive beams from 1+ to an n+ charge state prior to post-acceleration, is a key technology which has to overcome the following challenges: high charge states for high energies, efficiency, rapidity and purity. On the roadmap to EURISOL, a dedicated R and D is being undertaken to push forward the frontiers of the present state-of-the-art techniques which use either electron cyclotron resonance or electron beam ion sources. We describe here the guidelines of this R and D.

Delahaye, P.; Jardin, P.; Maunoury, L.; Traykov, E.; Varenne, F. [GANIL, CEA/DSM-CNRS/IN2P3, Bd. Becquerel, BP 55027, 14076 Caen Cedex 05 (France); Galata, A.; Porcellato, A. M.; Prete, G. F. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Viale dell' Universita 2, 35020 Legnaro, Padova (Italy); Angot, J.; Lamy, T.; Sortais, P.; Thuillier, T. [LPSC Grenoble, 53, rue des Martyrs, 38026 Grenoble Cedex (France); Ban, G. [LPC Caen, 6 bd Marechal Juin, 14050 Caen Cedex (France); Celona, L.; Lunney, D. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, via S.Sofia 62, 95125 Catania (Italy); Choinski, J.; Gmaj, P.; Jakubowski, A.; Steckiewicz, O. [Heavy Ion Laboratory, University of Warsaw, ul. Pasteura 5a, 02 093 Warsaw (Poland); Kalvas, T. [Department of Physics, University of Jyvaeskylae, PB 35 (YFL) 40351 Jyvaeskylae (Finland); and others

2012-02-15

151

Oestrous behaviour and ovarian activity in D'man and Sardi breeds of Moroccan sheep under normal and experimental photoperiods  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effect of photoperiod on sexual activity was investigated in Sardi and D'man ewes. Twenty ewes from each breed were subjected to an experimental photoperiod corresponding to latitude 56 deg. N. Control ewes (12 per breed) were maintained under natural photoperiod (32 deg. N). Behavioural oestrus and ovarian activity were monitored using penis deviated rams and plasma progesterone levels. Preliminary results from this study show that an increase in amplitude of photoperiod variations causes a decrease in the expression of oestrous behaviour in D'man ewes during the period of decreasing daylight. Ovarian activity remained unchanged. Sardi ewes were not markedly affected by change in photoperiod. (author). 13 refs, 3 figs, 1 tab

152

Tolerância ao calor de duas raças de ovinos deslanados no Distrito Federal / Heat tolerance of two hair sheep breeds in the Federal District, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar efeitos da temperatura ambiental sobre características fisiológicas de ovinos, no Distrito Federal. Foram selecionados dois grupos de 25 fêmeas vazias ou prenhas das raças Morada Nova e Santa Inês com idade variando entre dois e quatro anos. As fêmeas tiveram seus [...] dados coletados seis vezes entre os meses de fevereiro e julho. As medições incluíram o peso vivo ( PV) (kg), a temperatura retal (TR), a freqüência respiratória (FR) e o batimento cardíaco (BC), às 8 e 14h, depois de expostas ao sol por um período de seis horas. Foram utilizados os procedimentos GLM, CORR e PRINCOMP do SAS e, para determinar grupamento e dissimilaridade, utilizou-se o programa GENES. Observaram-se grupos de alta e baixa resistência a ação do efeito calórico. As médias dos grupos às 14 hs foram: TR: 38,8 e 38,7°C; FR: 23,4 e 22,8 bat./min. e BC: 99,9 e 94,0 bat./min. para os animais das raças Morada Nova e Santa Inês, respectivamente. Houve ainda diferenças significativas entre matrizes não paridas e as paridas no período estudado, sendo maiores para não paridas: TR: 38,78 e 38,52°C; BC:23,13 e 22,82 bat./min.; FR: 96,98 e 96,36 bat./min., respectivamente. Os animais expostos ao sol pelo período de seis horas apresentaram resposta significativa ao estresse calórico, expresso pelo aumento da temperatura retal e pelo aumento no ritmo dos batimentos cardíacos e na freqüência respiratória. Os resultados obtidos permitiram estabelecer grupos de animais com maior e menor resistência às variações climáticas, ensejando a possibilidade de utilizar esses dados para seleção de animais em trabalhos de melhoramento. Abstract in english The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of increased environmental temperature on physiological traits of Morada Nova (MN) and Santa Ines (SI) sheep breeds in the Federal District, Brazil. Two groups (25 MN and 25 SI) were selected for study and included both pregnant (EP) and non-pre [...] gnant (EPN) ewes, aged betwen 2 and 4 years. The fifty ewes were recorded, once a month, for six months, at 8 am and 2 pm, and measurements included body weight (W), RT (Rectal Temperature), RR (Respiration rate), and CR (Cardiac Rate) were analyzed using SAS (GLM, CORR, PRINCOMP procedures) and the program GENES. The differences between the two breeds were: RT: 38.8 and 38.7°C; RR: 23.4 and 22.8 (rate/min.); CR: 99.9 and 94.0 (rate/min.), for Morada Nova and Santa Ines breeds, respectively. Difference between non-pregnant and pregnant ewes were: RT: 38.78 and 38.52°C; RR: 23.13 and 22.82 (Rate/min); CR: 96.98 and 96.36 (Rate/min), respectively. Differences between breeds were significant, as were differences between animals within groups. It was therefore possible therefore to identify animals within a breed more or less resitant to the climate conditions. This information may be used in future breeding programs.

Maurício, Quesada; Concepta, McManus; Flávio Augusto D' Araújo, Couto.

153

Ecuaciones predictoras de la composición tisular de la canal en dos razas ovinas canarias / Predicting equations for tisular composition in carcass of two Canary sheep breeds  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se estudiaron dos razas ovinas locales: la Canaria y la Canaria de Pelo. Los animales se criaron en sistema intensivo. Se consideraron dos pesos vivos de sacrificio (15,30 ± 0,67 y 24,23 ± 0,69 kg) y dos sexos. Se determinaron las correlaciones entre los porcentajes de los tejidos de la canal y los [...] de las piezas obtenidas de la media canal izquierda. Se obtuvieron ecuaciones para predecir la composición tisular de la canal, a partir de las piezas con mejores coeficientes de regresión. El costillar fue la pieza que mejor predijo el músculo y la grasa. La pierna fue mejor predictora para el hueso. Abstract in english Two local sheep breeds were studied: the Canarian and the Canarian Haired. Animals were intensively reared. Two slaughter weights were considered (15 and 24 kg live weight). Correlations among carcass tissue percentage and tissue percentage in the seven joints in the left halfcarcass were obtained. [...] Equations were obtained to predict carcass tissue composition using most correlated joints. Ribs was the best predictor joint of muscle and fat. Leg was the best predictor of bone.

A., Camacho; V., Pérez; J., Mata; L.A., Bermejo.

154

Urea concentration in sheep’s milk  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Determining urea concentration in milk is a useful indicator for controlling supply of proteins to organisms, as well as the relationship of energy and protein in the food, thus it is finding more and more ways of practical use. The concentration of urea in milk, along with the feeding process, is influenced by a number of other factors such as: breed, stage and sequence of lactation, body mass, daily production and chemical structure of milk, number of somatic cells, season, milking.The goal of the research was to establish the influence of the breed (Island of Krk, East Frisian, lactation stage (beginning, middle and the end and the herd (3 to the concentration of urea in milk during lactation.For each breed there has been established daily quantity of milk, protein share and the concentration of urea in milk.Statistical analysis of data was conducted by using General Linear Models procedure, SAS program system (1999.The breed of sheep considerably (P<0.001 influenced daily quantity of milk, protein share and the concentration of urea in the milk.East Frisian sheep produced on average almost double the daily quantities of milk (1070 mL compared to the Krk sheep (588 mL.Protein share and the urea concentration in Krk sheep milk were higher (5.99 % and 35.97 mg/100 mL then in the milk of East Frisian sheep (5.12 % and 33.31 mg/100 mL.For both breeds the significant influence of lactation stage to the daily milk quantity has been established (0.001, that is also for the urea concentration in the milk of Krk sheep (0.001, as well as protein share in the milk of East Frisian sheep (0.001.Herd influence significantly affected daily milk quantities (0.001 and concentration of urea in the milk (0.05.The defining of the urea concentration in sheep milk should be occasionally carried out in the Republic of Croatia to establish the standard physiological values typical for the particular sheep breed.

Jasmina Havranek

2009-03-01

155

Breed differences in mucosal and systemic antibody response to nematode infection in sheep: an important role for IgE?  

Science.gov (United States)

This study compared the immunological and biochemical responses of co-grazed Suffolk and Texel lambs to a natural gastrointestinal nematode infection. Variables analysed included serum pepsinogen, total protein, albumin, haematological variables and nematode-specific serum immunoglobulin activity, at 11, 14 and 17 weeks of age. At 17 weeks, randomly selected lambs were necropsied to determine worm burdens, nematode-specific mucosal abomasal and intestinal immunoglobulin activity. Nematode burden, faecal egg count and pepsinogen concentrations were significantly higher in Suffolks relative to Texels, at all 3 time-points investigated. Suffolks displayed significantly higher erythrocyte, total leukocyte, lymphocyte and neutrophil counts, mean cell volume and packed cell volume, than Texels (P<0.01). However, breed differences in eosinophil counts were not significant. While serum nematode-specific antibody activity levels were significantly higher (P<0.001) in Texels for all isotypes measured, antibody activity levels at a mucosal level were equivalent in both breeds. Correlation analysis of mucosal antibody levels and nematode variables highlighted a more consistent pattern of events in Texels, with more mucosal antibodies negatively correlated with FEC and worm burden, in comparison to Suffolks. In particular, an important role for mucosal IgE is proposed. In Texels, a significant and negative correlation was identified between IgE and faecal egg counts and worm burden (FEC: -0.48, P<0.005). This was not observed in Suffolks. The evidence suggests that susceptibility in Suffolks may be mediated through poor IgE affinity/avidity and/or through deficiencies in related mechanisms such as mast cell production, recruitment or activation. PMID:17903317

Sayers, G; Good, B; Hanrahan, J P; O'Donovan, J; Mulcahy, G; Sweeney, T

2008-01-01

156

Qualidade da carne de ovinos de diferentes raças de reprodutores terminados sob dois sistemas de produção / Meat quality of sheep of different breeds of breeding terminated under two production systems  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Objetivou-se investigar a influência da dieta na terminação de ovinos de diferentes raças de reprodutores sobre a qualidade física, química e sensorial da carne. Foram avaliados 36 cordeiros, filhos de fêmeas mestiças Santa Inês x Somalis com reprodutores puros de três raças: Santa Inês, Dorper e So [...] malis, distribuídos em dois sistemas de produção, terminação a pasto nativo e cultivado, 12 de cada raças de reprodutores, todos machos, inteiros e distribuídos em dois sistemas de produção. Os animais tiveram acesso a alimentação e água ad libitum, sendo abatidos ao atingirem aproximadamente 180 dias.Determinou-se, no músculo Longissimus dorsi, os teores de umidade, proteína, lipídios, cinzas, textura, perda de peso por cocção, capacidade de retenção de água; colesterol e o perfil de ácidos graxos, bem como a avaliação dos parâmetros sensoriais de sabor, aroma, dureza, suculência e aceitação global. O grupamento Somalis apresentou menores teores de cinzas e lipídeos. Os animais Dorper e Santa Inês obtiveram resultados semelhantes em, PPC (perda de peso por cocção), os ácidos graxos C14:0 (mirístico) e C17:0 (margárico) e aceitação global. O pasto cultivado apresentou melhores resultados para, proteína, lipídeos, PPC (perda de peso por cocção), CRA (capacidade de retenção de água), C16:1 (palmitoleico), C18:1n9c (oleico), C18:1n9t (Elaídico), AGM (ácido graxo monoinsaturado), HH (hipocolesterolêmicos e hipercolesterolêmicos) e aceitação global, e resultados inferiores para, AGP (ácido graxo poli-insaturado), AGP:AGS (ácido graxo poli-insaturado) , AGD (ácido graxo desejáveis). A raça do reprodutor e sistema de produção influenciam as características físicas e químicas da carne de cordeiro. Abstract in english This study aimed to investigate the influence of diet on sheep of different breeds reprodutoresgenótipos on the physical, chemical and sensory dae his flesh termination. Santa Inês and Dorper Somalis, distributed in two production systems, the termination native and cultivated pasture, 12 of each ge [...] nótiporaças breeding, all males: 36 lambs, sons of female crossbred Santa Ines x Somalis with pure breeding three breeds were evaluated , whole and divided into two production systems. The animals had access to food and water ad libitum, and were sent to abatidose dias25 to reach approximately 180 kg live weight. It was determined, the longissimus muscle, the moisture, protein, lipid, ash, texture, weight loss by cooking, water holding capacity; cholesterol and fatty acid profile, as well as evaluating the sensory parameters of flavor, aroma, hardness, juiciness and overall acceptability. The genotype and production system influence the physical and chemical characteristics of lamb. The Somali group had lower levels of ash and lipids. The Dorper and St. Agnes animals yielded similar results, PPC (weight loss by cooking), the fatty acid C14: 0 (myristic) and C17: 0 (margaric) and overall acceptability. The cultivated pasture showed better results for protein, lipid, PPC (weight loss by cooking), WHC (water holding capacity), C16: 1 (palmitoleic), C18: 1n9c (oleic acid), C18: 1n9t (elaidic) AGM (monounsaturated fatty acid), HH (hipocolesterolemics hypercholesterolemic) and overall acceptability, and lower results for AGP (polyunsaturated fatty acid), AGP: AGS (polyunsaturated fatty acid), AGD (desirable fatty acid). AO genotype sire breed and production system influence the physical and chemical characteristics of lamb.

Edmilson Lima de, Menezes Junior; Ana Sancha Malveira, Batista; Aline Vieira, Landim; José Teodorico de, Araújo Filho; Evandro Vasconcelos, Holanda Junior.

2014-06-01

157

Electronic measurement of tritium breeding in a fusion blanket assembly  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The tritium production rate (TPR) distribution in a fusion blanket assembly previously determined from measurements of tritium beta activity was remeasured using an independent electronic method. The results agreed within the experimental errors and confirmed the previously reported discrepancies with predictions based on three-dimensional Monte Carlo calculations and multigroup cross sections. The experimental agreement reduced the possibility that results based on the conventional chemical separation of the tritium produce could be subject to a common systematic error and confirmed the validity of the electronic method for TPR measurement

158

Status of charge breeding with electron cyclotron resonance ion sources (invited)  

CERN Document Server

Due to the production methods of exotic nuclei, an efficient acceleration of radioactive ion beams needs charge breeding of weakly charged ions. The upgrade of existing isotope separator on-line facilities (TRIUMF-isotope separation and acceleration, CERN-isotope separation on-line detector, etc.) or the development of projects for the acceleration of radioactive ion beams (GANIL-SPIRAL2, MAFF, EURISOL, etc.) requires charge breeders with high efficiency, fast charge breeding time, low background levels, and high intensity acceptance either in continuous or in pulsed mode. The optimization of these parameters is a challenge for the electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) community and is useful to get a better understanding of plasma physics in ECR ion sources (ECRISs). The ECR charge breeding technique has been developed for more than ten years at LPSC (former ISN) Grenoble, typical 1+rightward arrown+ efficiencies are in the 3%-10% range depending on the nature of the incoming beam (metallic, alkaline, and gaseo...

Lamy, T; Sortais, P; Thuillier, T; 10.1063/1.2149300

2006-01-01

159

Improved charge breeding efficiency of light ions with an electron cyclotron resonance ion source.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Californium Rare Isotope Breeder Upgrade is a new radioactive beam facility for the Argonne Tandem Linac Accelerator System (ATLAS). The facility utilizes a (252)Cf fission source coupled with an electron cyclotron resonance ion source to provide radioactive beam species for the ATLAS experimental program. The californium fission fragment distribution provides nuclei in the mid-mass range which are difficult to extract from production targets using the isotope separation on line technique and are not well populated by low-energy fission of uranium. To date the charge breeding program has focused on optimizing these mid-mass beams, achieving high charge breeding efficiencies of both gaseous and solid species including 14.7% for the radioactive species (143)Ba(27+). In an effort to better understand the charge breeding mechanism, we have recently focused on the low-mass species sodium and potassium which up to present have been difficult to charge breed efficiently. Unprecedented charge breeding efficiencies of 10.1% for (23)Na(7+) and 17.9% for (39)K(10+) were obtained injecting stable Na(+) and K(+) beams from a surface ionization source. PMID:23206054

Vondrasek, R; Delahaye, P; Kutsaev, Sergey; Maunoury, L

2012-11-01

160

Estimativas de parâmetros genéticos para características de crescimento em ovinos da raça Somalis Brasileira / Genetic parameters estimates for growth traits in Somalis Brasileira hair sheep breed  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Objetivou-se estimar parâmetros genéticos para características de crescimento em ovinos da raça Somalis Brasileira. Os dados utilizados neste estudo foram provenientes do rebanho da Embrapa Caprinos e Ovinos, localizado na cidade de Sobral - CE. Os dados continham registros de 1.120 animais no arqui [...] vo de pedigree. As características analisadas foram: peso ao nascer (PN), peso ao desmame (PD), ganho de peso do nascimento ao desmame (GND) e peso adulto (PA). As estimativas dos componentes de (co)variâncias e os parâmetros genéticos foram obtidos pelo método da Máxima Verossimilhança Restrita não Derivativa (DFREML), utilizando o programa MTDFREML. Nas análises unicaracterística, as herdabilidades foram de magnitude baixa a moderada. As magnitudes das herdabilidades maternas foram todas superiores às herdabilidades diretas. As herdabilidades das análises multicaracterísticas entre PN, PD e GND superaram as análises unicaracterísticas. As correlações genéticas apresentaram grande variação quanto aos seus valores. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to estimate genetic parameters for growth traits in Somalis Brasileira hair sheep breed. The data used in this study were from the flock of Embrapa Caprinos and Ovinos, located in the city of Sobral - CE, Brazil. Data contained records of 1,120 animals in the pedigree file. [...] The analyzed traits were birth weight (PN), weaning weight (PD), weight gain from birth to weaning (GND) and adult weight (PA). Estimates of (co)variances and genetic parameters were obtained by Derivative Free Restricted Maximum Likelihood Method (DFREML) using the MTDFREML software. The heritabilities were low to moderate in univariate analysis. The maternal heritabilities were higher than direct heritabilities. The heritabilities in multivariate analysis exceeded those in univariate analysis. The values of genetic correlations varied widely.

Ana Fabrícia Braga, Magalhães; Raimundo Nonato Braga, Lobo; Olivardo, Facó.

2013-05-01

 
 
 
 
161

Wall-loss distribution of charge breeding ions in an electron cyclotron resonance ion source  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We investigated the ion-loss distribution on the sidewall of an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma chamber using the 18-GHz ECR charge breeder at the Tokai Radioactive Ion Accelerator Complex (TRIAC). Similarities and differences between the ion-loss distributions (longitudinal and azimuthal) of different ion species (i.e., radioactive {sup 111}In{sup 1+} and {sup 140}Xe{sup 1+} ions that are typical volatile and nonvolatile elements) was qualitatively discussed to understand the element dependence of the charge breeding efficiency. Especially, the similarities represent universal ion loss characteristics in an ECR charge breeder, which are different from the loss patterns of electrons on the ECRIS wall.

Jeong, S. C.; Oyaizu, M.; Imai, N.; Hirayama, Y.; Ishiyama, H.; Miyatake, H.; Niki, K.; Okada, M.; Watanabe, Y. X. [Institute for Particle and Nuclear Physics (IPNS), High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Oho 1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Otokawa, Y.; Osa, A.; Ichikawa, S. [Institute of Atomic Energy Science, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Shiragata Shirakane 2-4, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan)

2012-02-15

162

Wall-loss distribution of charge breeding ions in an electron cyclotron resonance ion source  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We investigated the ion-loss distribution on the sidewall of an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma chamber using the 18-GHz ECR charge breeder at the Tokai Radioactive Ion Accelerator Complex (TRIAC). Similarities and differences between the ion-loss distributions (longitudinal and azimuthal) of different ion species (i.e., radioactive 111In1+ and 140Xe1+ ions that are typical volatile and nonvolatile elements) was qualitatively discussed to understand the element dependence of the charge breeding efficiency. Especially, the similarities represent universal ion loss characteristics in an ECR charge breeder, which are different from the loss patterns of electrons on the ECRIS wall.

163

Wall-loss distribution of charge breeding ions in an electron cyclotron resonance ion source.  

Science.gov (United States)

We investigated the ion-loss distribution on the sidewall of an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma chamber using the 18-GHz ECR charge breeder at the Tokai Radioactive Ion Accelerator Complex (TRIAC). Similarities and differences between the ion-loss distributions (longitudinal and azimuthal) of different ion species (i.e., radioactive (111)In(1+) and (140)Xe(1+) ions that are typical volatile and nonvolatile elements) was qualitatively discussed to understand the element dependence of the charge breeding efficiency. Especially, the similarities represent universal ion loss characteristics in an ECR charge breeder, which are different from the loss patterns of electrons on the ECRIS wall. PMID:22380251

Jeong, S C; Oyaizu, M; Imai, N; Hirayama, Y; Ishiyama, H; Miyatake, H; Niki, K; Okada, M; Watanabe, Y X; Otokawa, Y; Osa, A; Ichikawa, S

2012-02-01

164

Wall-loss distribution of charge breeding ions in an electron cyclotron resonance ion sourcea)  

Science.gov (United States)

We investigated the ion-loss distribution on the sidewall of an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma chamber using the 18-GHz ECR charge breeder at the Tokai Radioactive Ion Accelerator Complex (TRIAC). Similarities and differences between the ion-loss distributions (longitudinal and azimuthal) of different ion species (i.e., radioactive 111In1+ and 140Xe1+ ions that are typical volatile and nonvolatile elements) was qualitatively discussed to understand the element dependence of the charge breeding efficiency. Especially, the similarities represent universal ion loss characteristics in an ECR charge breeder, which are different from the loss patterns of electrons on the ECRIS wall.

Jeong, S. C.; Oyaizu, M.; Imai, N.; Hirayama, Y.; Ishiyama, H.; Miyatake, H.; Niki, K.; Okada, M.; Watanabe, Y. X.; Otokawa, Y.; Osa, A.; Ichikawa, S.

2012-02-01

165

Seroprevalencia de pestivirus de rumiantes en ovinos reproductores de una empresa de la sierra central del Perú / Seroprevalence of ruminant pestivirus in breeding sheep in the central sierra of Peru  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Peru | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El objetivo del presente estudio fue determinar la frecuencia de los virus de la Diarrea Viral Bovina (VDVB) y de la Enfermedad de la Frontera (VEF) en ovinos reproductores procedentes de una empresa ovejera de la sierra central del país. Se colectaron muestras de sangre de ovinos reproductores hemb [...] ras (n=165) y machos (n=165) aparentemente sanos, con un promedio de edad de cuatro años, y criados en forma extensiva. Los anticuerpos contra VDVB y VEF se detectaron mediante la prueba de neutralización viral. El 2.1 ± 1.5% (7/330) y 28.5 ± 4.9% (94/330) de ovinos reproductores tuvieron anticuerpos contra el VDVB y VEF, respectivamente, con títulos de anticuerpos de 1:2 a 1:16. Se encontró asociación significativa entre el sexo del animal y la presencia de anticuerpos contra el VEF (hembras: 53.3 ± 7.6%; machos: 3.6 ± 2.9%) (p Abstract in english The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of Bovine Viral Diarrhea virus (BVDV) and Border Disease virus (BDV) in breeding sheep from a large cooperative farm in the central highlands of Peru. Blood samples from apparently healthy sheep of 4 years old, both sexes (female = 165; ma [...] le = 165) were collected for antibodies detection against BVDV and BDV using the virus neutralisation test. The 2.1 ± 1.5% (7/330) and 28.5 ± 4.9% (94/330) of breeding sheep had antibodies against BVDV and BDV respectively, with antibodies titers of 1:2 and 1:16. There was significant association between sex and presence of antibodies against BDV (females: 53.3 ± 7.6%; males: 3.6 ± 2.9%) (p

Nathalie, Llancares A; Hermelinda, Rivera G; Mariluz, Arainga R; Néstor, Falcón P.

166

Both gas chromatography and an electronic nose reflect chemical polymorphism of juniper shrubs browsed or avoided by sheep.  

Science.gov (United States)

Chemical polymorphism may contribute to variation in browsing damage by mammalian herbivores. Earlier, we demonstrated that essential oil concentration in juniper, Juniperus communis, was negatively associated with herbivore browsing. The aim of the present study was to characterize the volatile chemical composition of browsed and non-browsed J. communis. By using either gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID) or an electronic nose device, we could separate sheep-browsed or non-browsed juniper shrubs by their essential oil pattern and complex odor matrix. The main components of the essential oil from J. communis were monoterpenes. We distinguished three chemotypes, dominated either by ?-pinene, sabinene, or ?-3-carene. Shrubs belonging to the ?-pinene- or sabinene-dominated groups were browsed, whereas all individuals with the ?-3-carene chemotype were unused by the local herbivores. The electronic nose also separated the browsed and non-browsed shrubs indicating that their odor matrix could guide sheep browsing. Responses of sheep could integrate the post-ingestive effects of plant secondary metabolites with sensory experience that stems from odor-phytotoxin interactions. Chemotype diversity could increase the survival rate in the present population of J. communis as certain shrubs could benefit from relatively better chemical protection against the herbivores. PMID:21626295

Markó, Gábor; Novák, Ildikó; Bernáth, Jeno; Altbäcker, Vilmos

2011-07-01

167

Numerical simulation of ion charge breeding in electron beam ion source.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Electron Beam Ion Source particle-in-cell code (EBIS-PIC) tracks ions in an EBIS electron beam while updating electric potential self-consistently and atomic processes by the Monte Carlo method. Recent improvements to the code are reported in this paper. The ionization module has been improved by using experimental ionization energies and shell effects. The acceptance of injected ions and the emittance of extracted ion beam are calculated by extending EBIS-PIC to the beam line transport region. An EBIS-PIC simulation is performed for a Cs charge-breeding experiment at BNL. The charge state distribution agrees well with experiments, and additional simulation results of radial profiles and velocity space distributions of the trapped ions are presented. PMID:24593605

Zhao, L; Kim, Jin-Soo

2014-02-01

168

Numerical simulation of ion charge breeding in electron beam ion source  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Electron Beam Ion Source particle-in-cell code (EBIS-PIC) tracks ions in an EBIS electron beam while updating electric potential self-consistently and atomic processes by the Monte Carlo method. Recent improvements to the code are reported in this paper. The ionization module has been improved by using experimental ionization energies and shell effects. The acceptance of injected ions and the emittance of extracted ion beam are calculated by extending EBIS-PIC to the beam line transport region. An EBIS-PIC simulation is performed for a Cs charge-breeding experiment at BNL. The charge state distribution agrees well with experiments, and additional simulation results of radial profiles and velocity space distributions of the trapped ions are presented.

Zhao, L., E-mail: zhao@far-tech.com; Kim, Jin-Soo [FAR-TECH, Inc., San Diego, California 92122 (United States)

2014-02-15

169

Numerical simulation of ion charge breeding in electron beam ion sourcea)  

Science.gov (United States)

The Electron Beam Ion Source particle-in-cell code (EBIS-PIC) tracks ions in an EBIS electron beam while updating electric potential self-consistently and atomic processes by the Monte Carlo method. Recent improvements to the code are reported in this paper. The ionization module has been improved by using experimental ionization energies and shell effects. The acceptance of injected ions and the emittance of extracted ion beam are calculated by extending EBIS-PIC to the beam line transport region. An EBIS-PIC simulation is performed for a Cs charge-breeding experiment at BNL. The charge state distribution agrees well with experiments, and additional simulation results of radial profiles and velocity space distributions of the trapped ions are presented.

Zhao, L.; Kim, Jin-Soo

2014-02-01

170

Comparison of four European endangered red sheep based on fleece characteristics  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Patterns of wool variations found in modern sheep breeds may shed some light on the history of circum-Mediterranean migrations, which at present are still largely unknown. In this study, the characteristics of wool from five different local European breeds were investigated. Wool samples were taken from the following sheep breeds: Aranese, Roussillon Red, Castillonnais, Levant Red and Majorcan Red. Specimens were collected from 88 animals in different herds for each breed. The following sheep...

Pare?s Casanova, Pere-miquel; Perezgrovas Garza, Rau?l; Jordana I Vidal, Jordi

2011-01-01

171

Charge breeding results and future prospects with electron cyclotron resonance ion source and electron beam ion source (invited).  

Science.gov (United States)

The Californium Rare Ion Breeder Upgrade (CARIBU) of the Argonne National Laboratory ATLAS facility will provide low-energy and reaccelerated neutron-rich radioactive beams for the nuclear physics program. A 70 mCi (252)Cf source produces fission fragments which are thermalized and collected by a helium gas catcher into a low-energy particle beam with a charge of 1+ or 2+. An electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source functions as a charge breeder in order to raise the ion charge sufficiently for acceleration in the ATLAS linac. The final CARIBU configuration will utilize a 1 Ci (252)Cf source to produce radioactive beams with intensities up to 10(6) ions?s for use in the ATLAS facility. The ECR charge breeder has been tested with stable beam injection and has achieved charge breeding efficiencies of 3.6% for (23)Na(8+), 15.6% for (84)Kr(17+), and 13.7% for (85)Rb(19+) with typical breeding times of 10 ms?charge state. For the first radioactive beams, a charge breeding efficiency of 11.7% has been achieved for (143)Cs(27+) and 14.7% for (143)Ba(27+). The project has been commissioned with a radioactive beam of (143)Ba(27+) accelerated to 6.1 MeV?u. In order to take advantage of its lower residual contamination, an EBIS charge breeder will replace the ECR charge breeder in the next two years. The advantages and disadvantages of the two techniques are compared taking into account the requirements of the next generation radioactive beam facilities. PMID:22380254

Vondrasek, R; Levand, A; Pardo, R; Savard, G; Scott, R

2012-02-01

172

Geographical Isolation of Commercially Farmed Native Sheep ...  

Arising from the Foot and Mouth disease (FMD) epidemic in 2001, there was an \\increased .... 90. Sixteen native sheep breeds were selected to represent regions \\of the .... sufficient stand-alone information for understanding the likely extent of ...

173

A Study of External Fat-Tail Dimensions and Their Relationships With Fat-Tail Weight in Lori-Bakhtiari Breed of Sheep  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study external fat-tail dimensions (upper, middle and lower width, length, length of gap, depth and upper circumference and fat-tail weights collected on 724 Lori-Bakhtiari sheep were used to study external fat-tail dimensions and their relationships with fat-tail weights. Sheep were 3 months to 6 years old and slaughtered at the industrial slaughter house of Joneghan in Chaharmohal and Bakhtiari province in 2003. The mean of fat-tail dimensions were estimated as 15.83, 23.85, 24.73, 26.52, 14.96, 14.12 and 52.59 cm for upper width, middle width, lower width, length, length of gap, depth and upper circumference, respectively. Fat-tail weight varied from 0.10 to 20.60 with overall mean of 2.71 kg. Fat-tail percentage varied from 1.18 to 37.18 with overall mean of 11.87 percent. The effects of fixed factors of age, sex and body condition of sheep on all of traits were highly significant (p

S. R. Miraei-Ashtiani

2006-10-01

174

Effect of somatic cell counts on ewes' milk protein profile and cheese-making properties in different sheep breeds reared in Spain.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bulk tank ewe's milks from Assaf, Castellana and Churra breeds categorized within three different Somatic Cell Count (SCC) groups (LSCC: beta-caseins decreased as SCC increased; no statistically significant differences were observed for the sum of alpha-caseins, and the values of kappa-casein were higher in the HSCC milk. However, the soluble proteins other than alpha-lactalbumin and beta-lactoglobulin increased with SCC. Regarding the effect of breed, the Assaf breed had the lowest contents of kappa-CN, alpha s1-I-CN, alpha s1-II-CN 1-CN, alpha s1-III-CN, beta1-CN and beta2-CN. The protein profile was significantly correlated with curd textural properties. alpha s1-I-CN was the most influential variant because it was positively correlated with a large number of textural parameters. Cheese yield was positively correlated with all casein variants except alpha s1-III-CN, showing that the milk from local breeds were more suitable for cheese-making due to their higher contents of all the casein variants. Regarding curd texture properties LSCC milk curds showed more cohesiveness, associated with its lower content of alpha s1-III-CN and Castellana milk curds showed the highest values for firmness owing to their higher content of alpha s1-I-CN. PMID:19281633

Revilla, Isabel; Rodríguez-Nogales, José M; Vivar-Quintana, Ana M

2009-05-01

175

Behavioural changes and aversive conditioning in hunting dogs by the second-year confrontation with domestic sheep.  

Science.gov (United States)

Domesticated dogs occasionally exhibit predatory behaviour towards domestic sheep when running loose in pasture. Both young and old dogs of either sex may chase sheep. Electronic dog collars applying electric shocks are utilised as one method of training dogs to refrain from attacking sheep. This device is used for a number of other training purposes which have raised concern for the welfare of the dogs being trained. This study aims at testing long-term learning effects of previous sheep tests on sheep chasing in hunting dog breeds (Norwegian elkhounds (grey), English setters, and hare hunting dogs), in particular with use of electronic dog collars, in addition to uncovering potential secondary negative effects on dogs' behaviour and mental stability. The dogs (N=114) were subjected to three tests for two subsequent years, the second year being reported here. Dogs were tested for reactions to different stimuli, including a sheep, in a path test. In a sheep confrontation test, dogs were fenced in with a sheep group and given el. shocks when approaching 1-2m from sheep. A questionnaire to the dog owners reported differences in dogs' behaviour between the years.Dogs showed weaker or delayed behavioural responses in both tests in the second year. No dogs showed interest in or attacked a lone sheep in the path test in the second year, while almost two thirds of them did so the first year. In the sheep confrontation test, the dogs exhibited comparatively hesitant initial hunting motivation the second year, being more evident in dogs which received el. shocks the first year. No dogs chased or attacked sheep as their first response in this test, while half of them did so the first year. The proportion of dogs attacking sheep during the entire test was reduced to almost one fourth. The number of el. shocks administered reduced by the second year, and only one of the dogs that received el. shocks the first year received el. shocks the second year. The owners reported no negative effect on the dogs' behaviour during the year ensuing el. shock treatment. Eighteen of the 24 dogs reported by owners to exhibit behavioural changes lost their previous interest in sheep.The second-year tests indicate that aversive conditioning with the use of electronic dog collar may be an efficient method for reducing the probability of a dog chasing or attacking grazing sheep. No adverse effects were observed with our test procedure. PMID:11278032

Christiansen, F O.; Bakken, M; Braastad, B O.

2001-04-26

176

Selection signatures in worldwide sheep populations.  

Science.gov (United States)

The diversity of populations in domestic species offers great opportunities to study genome response to selection. The recently published Sheep HapMap dataset is a great example of characterization of the world wide genetic diversity in sheep. In this study, we re-analyzed the Sheep HapMap dataset to identify selection signatures in worldwide sheep populations. Compared to previous analyses, we made use of statistical methods that (i) take account of the hierarchical structure of sheep populations, (ii) make use of linkage disequilibrium information and (iii) focus specifically on either recent or older selection signatures. We show that this allows pinpointing several new selection signatures in the sheep genome and distinguishing those related to modern breeding objectives and to earlier post-domestication constraints. The newly identified regions, together with the ones previously identified, reveal the extensive genome response to selection on morphology, color and adaptation to new environments. PMID:25126940

Fariello, Maria-Ines; Servin, Bertrand; Tosser-Klopp, Gwenola; Rupp, Rachel; Moreno, Carole; San Cristobal, Magali; Boitard, Simon

2014-01-01

177

Selection Signatures in Worldwide Sheep Populations  

Science.gov (United States)

The diversity of populations in domestic species offers great opportunities to study genome response to selection. The recently published Sheep HapMap dataset is a great example of characterization of the world wide genetic diversity in sheep. In this study, we re-analyzed the Sheep HapMap dataset to identify selection signatures in worldwide sheep populations. Compared to previous analyses, we made use of statistical methods that (i) take account of the hierarchical structure of sheep populations, (ii) make use of linkage disequilibrium information and (iii) focus specifically on either recent or older selection signatures. We show that this allows pinpointing several new selection signatures in the sheep genome and distinguishing those related to modern breeding objectives and to earlier post-domestication constraints. The newly identified regions, together with the ones previously identified, reveal the extensive genome response to selection on morphology, color and adaptation to new environments. PMID:25126940

Fariello, Maria-Ines; Servin, Bertrand; Tosser-Klopp, Gwenola; Rupp, Rachel; Moreno, Carole; Cristobal, Magali San; Boitard, Simon

2014-01-01

178

Social facilitation of predatory, sheep-chasing behaviour in Norwegian Elkhounds, grey.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sheep grazing on unfenced mountain pasture may be attacked by loose dogs, which may chase and kill sheep and separate lambs from their mothers. We have earlier shown that testing dogs individually towards sheep with an electronic dog collar may effectively reduce the chasing propensity 1 year later. The aim of this study was to investigate whether and how a non-chasing and a chasing companion dog influence sheep chasing in test dogs (20 Norwegian Elkhounds, grey), and whether this varies with sex or age. The test dogs' predatory behaviour towards sheep was examined by observation of the dogs in a fenced enclosure with sheep in 5min tests together with, first, a non-chasing (Hamilton stoever, a hound breed) and 2-3 days later a chasing (Border collie) companion dog. Physical contact with sheep was prevented. Initially, the test dogs exhibited a higher chasing motivation towards sheep in tests with a chasing, as compared with a non-chasing, companion (Pdogs attacked sheep when accompanied by the non-chaser. All dogs attacked sheep when the chasing companion was present (P=0.008), although in only 8 of 20 cases the companion dog chased simultaneously with the test dog. In the chasing-companion tests, the attack latency was shorter (Pdogs generally started with observing or showing interest in sheep, followed by attacks, which increased in severity. No sex differences were observed. In non-chasing companion tests, dogs aged up to 2.5 years exhibited a weaker initial hunting motivation than older dogs (P=0.025), but during the entire test were more inclined to attack (P=0.019). Taken together, our findings indicate that a companion dog showing intentions of predatory behaviour stimulates predatory chase in another dog, while a non-chasing companion has a limited influence on this. In tests certifying dogs for their refrainment of chasing sheep, well trained Border collies approaching sheep on command might be used to reveal the full predatory potential of the dog being tested. PMID:11278030

Christiansen, F O.; Bakken, M; Braastad, B O.

2001-04-26

179

Epidemiological implications of the susceptibility to BSE of putatively resistant sheep.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The experimental infection of sheep with bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) by the oral route and the likelihood that sheep were fed BSE-infected meat and bone meal has led to extensive speculation as to whether or not sheep are naturally infected with BSE. In response, the UK government has initiated the National Scrapie Plan (NSP), an ambitious pound 120 million per year project to create a BSE- and scrapie-resistant national sheep flock, by selectively breeding for a genotype of sheep ...

Kao, Rr; Houston, F.; Baylis, M.; Chihota, Cm; Goldmann, W.; Gravenor, Mb; Hunter, N.; Mclean, Ar

2003-01-01

180

Aspects Regarding the Coprological Pollution Level in Some Sheep Helminthiasis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The investigations on the incidence and intensity of parasitism in some endoparasytes in sheep  performed on 376 animals (260 sheep and 116 young adult sheep Turcana breed, Gil?u area, Cluj County, indicated an increased incidence in trihostrongilidys  of 72.7% in young  sheep and 65.0% in adult sheep. The incidence of monesya had different values ??depending on age group, 45.5% at young sheep and 10.0% in  adult sheep. The data obtained regarding the prevalence of hepatobiliary trematodsys of sheep in the study, indicates similar values ??for the two categories, 27.2% young sheep and 30.0% for adult sheep. Instead the extensivity of  lung strongilatosys showed notable differences between the two groups of animals, 18.1% at young sheep and 35.0% in adult sheep. The cop microscopic pollution degree with trihostrongily eggs in correlation with age group, indicated a dominance of low infestation (50% young sheep and 61.5% adult sheep. In exchange, the data obtained on parasitism intensity with cestode oncospheres expresses a dominance of medium infestation (60.0% in young sheep and the low (10.0% in adult sheep. The intensity level of Hepatobiliary trematodosys parasitism in the young sheep showed a dominance of small and medium infestations (37.5% and in adult sheep are dominant only at low infestations (45.4%. The larvae strongilatosys  parasitism intensity in the lung detected similar values ??in the two age groups (50.0% in young sheep and 17.2% in adult sheep.

Octavian Negrea

2013-10-01

 
 
 
 
181

Mineral requirements of dairy sheep  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The mineral requirements of dairy sheep under semi-intensive and intensive management systems are reviewed. Basically, mineral requirements obtained with mutton breeds are supplemented with specific information obtained with dairy sheep. The daily requirements of sheep in major elements have been estimated using the factorial method, first to calculate the net requirements during maintenance, growth, reproduction and lactation, and second to assess the efficiency of absorption for converting net requirements into dietary allowance. The requirements in trace elements were estimated from the results of feeding trials. The choice of values for endogenous losses and particularly the precision with which efficiency of absorption can be predicted are the main sources of error in estimates of dietary allowances, especially when efficiency of absorption is low. The net requirements in major elements are given for maintenance, pregnancy and lactation, together with the recommended coefficients of absorption. Dietary requirements in trace elements are expressed as milligram per kilogram dry matter. The requirements in all nutrients and particularly in Ca and P increase during late pregnancy, especially during lactation. The requirements during lactation mainly reflect milk composition, the level of milk yield and lactation length, but also the feed intake level. The factors related to the confinement, feeding and management of dairy breeds, which differ from those of mutton breeds, may affect their mineral requirements. Changes in husbandry practices resulting in increased production may increase the stress on the animal and therefore alter its metabolic equilibrium. Direct supplementation of the diet of dairy sheep is the cheapest and most convenient method of mineral supplementation. The cost is outweighed by the enhanced performance of sheep. Determination of the mineral composition of feedstuffs available for feeding dairy sheep indicates the type and level of mineral supplementation needed. (author)

182

Integrated control of gastrointestinal nematodes in lambs using a bioactive feed x breed approach  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Forages rich in condensed tannins have repeatedly shown potential to reduce gastrointestinal nematode infection in sheep. Similarly, several breeds of sheep have shown a relative resistance to gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN). We hypothesised that additive or even synergic effects may arise from the combination of a relatively resistant breed and a diet rich in condensed tannins. In study I, 160 lambs of the native Red Engadine Sheep (RES) and 113 lambs of the Swiss White Alpine sheep (SWA) w...

Werne, Steffen; Isensee, Anne; Maurer, Veronika; Erika, Perler; Drewek, Anna; Heckendorn, Felix

2013-01-01

183

THE USE OF MICROSATELLITE MARKERS TO STUDY GENETIC DIVERSITY IN INDONESIAN SHEEP  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to study genetic diversity in Indonesian sheep population using microsatellite markers. A total of 18 microsatellite loci have been used for genotyping Indonesian sheep. Total sheep blood 200 samples were extracted from garut sheep of fighting and meat types, purbalingga sheep, batur sheep and jember sheep populations by using a salting out method. Microsatellite loci data were analyzed using POPGENE 3.2 software. Based on this study obtained 180 alleles from 17 microsatellite loci, while average number of alleles was 6.10 alleles (6 to 18 alleles from five Indonesian sheep populations (garut sheep of fighting type, garut sheep of meat type, purbalingga sheep, batur sheep and jember sheep population. The average of observed heterozygosity (Ho and expected heterozygosity (He values were 0.5749 and 0.6896, respectively, while the genetic differentiation for inbreeding among population (FIS, within population (FIT and average genetic differentiation (FST were 0.1006, 0.1647 and 0.0712, respectively. Genetic distance and genetic tree showed that Indonesian sheep population was distinct from garut sheep of fighting and meat types, purbalingga sheep, batur sheep and jember sheep population. Based on this results were needed a strategy for conservation and breeding programs in each Indonesian sheep population.

Jakaria

2012-03-01

184

Comportamento de ovinos da raça Santa Inês em ambientes com e sem disponibilidade de sombra Behavior of sheep breed Santa Inês in environments with and without shade availability  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Com o objetivo de observar os efeitos do sombreamento propiciado pela tela de polipropileno sobre o comportamento de ovinos da raça Santa Inês em diferentes épocas do ano, montou-se um experimento em Petrolina, PE, no período de junho a novembro de 2010. Utilizaram-se 40 animais distribuídos em igual quantidade em dois tratamentos (Sombreado e Não sombreado com oferta de pastagem (Tiffton 85 irrigada. Foram feitas aferições dos dados meteorológicos em todas as épocas, com a montagem de termômetros de globo negro e psicrômetros nas duas áreas e de uma mini-estação meteorológica na área sombreada. Nessas épocas foram realizados ensaios de comportamento tendo-se feito observações visuais pelo método da varredura instantânea em intervalos de 10 min no período diurno, verificando-se o percentual de animais quanto à alimentação, ruminação e ócio, a partir da metodologia proposta por Johnson & Combs (1991 adaptada para o tempo de 12h. O sombreamento não influenciou no número de animais em referência às atividades avaliadas nos diferentes tratamentos. A procura por sombra foi intensa nos períodos mais quentes do dia para a atividade de ócio.With the goal of observing the effects of shade provided by polypropylene screen on the behaviour of Santa Inês sheep, in different times of year, an experiment was set up in Petrolina, PE, in the period from June to November 2010. Forty animals divided into equal quantity in two treatments (shaded and non-shaded were used with supply of irrigated pastures (Tiffton 85. Measurements of meteorological data were made at all times, with the assembly of black globe thermometers and psychrometers in the two areas, and a mini-weather station, at the shaded area. Under these conditions a trials was carried out on behavior of animals, being made visual observations by the method of instantaneous scan at intervals of 10 min during the daytime period, checking the percentage of animals under food, rumination and leisure using the methodology proposed by Johnson & Combs (1991, adapted for a period of 12 h. The shading did not influence the number of animals under the activities evaluated in different treatments. The search for shade was intense in the hottest periods of the day for leisure activity.

Fabiano A. de Oliveira

2013-03-01

185

Comportamento de ovinos da raça Santa Inês em ambientes com e sem disponibilidade de sombra / Behavior of sheep breed Santa Inês in environments with and without shade availability  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Com o objetivo de observar os efeitos do sombreamento propiciado pela tela de polipropileno sobre o comportamento de ovinos da raça Santa Inês em diferentes épocas do ano, montou-se um experimento em Petrolina, PE, no período de junho a novembro de 2010. Utilizaram-se 40 animais distribuídos em igua [...] l quantidade em dois tratamentos (Sombreado e Não sombreado) com oferta de pastagem (Tiffton 85) irrigada. Foram feitas aferições dos dados meteorológicos em todas as épocas, com a montagem de termômetros de globo negro e psicrômetros nas duas áreas e de uma mini-estação meteorológica na área sombreada. Nessas épocas foram realizados ensaios de comportamento tendo-se feito observações visuais pelo método da varredura instantânea em intervalos de 10 min no período diurno, verificando-se o percentual de animais quanto à alimentação, ruminação e ócio, a partir da metodologia proposta por Johnson & Combs (1991) adaptada para o tempo de 12h. O sombreamento não influenciou no número de animais em referência às atividades avaliadas nos diferentes tratamentos. A procura por sombra foi intensa nos períodos mais quentes do dia para a atividade de ócio. Abstract in english With the goal of observing the effects of shade provided by polypropylene screen on the behaviour of Santa Inês sheep, in different times of year, an experiment was set up in Petrolina, PE, in the period from June to November 2010. Forty animals divided into equal quantity in two treatments (shaded [...] and non-shaded) were used with supply of irrigated pastures (Tiffton 85). Measurements of meteorological data were made at all times, with the assembly of black globe thermometers and psychrometers in the two areas, and a mini-weather station, at the shaded area. Under these conditions a trials was carried out on behavior of animals, being made visual observations by the method of instantaneous scan at intervals of 10 min during the daytime period, checking the percentage of animals under food, rumination and leisure using the methodology proposed by Johnson & Combs (1991), adapted for a period of 12 h. The shading did not influence the number of animals under the activities evaluated in different treatments. The search for shade was intense in the hottest periods of the day for leisure activity.

Fabiano A. de, Oliveira; Sílvia H. N., Turco; Gherman G. L . de, Aaraújo; Carlos A. A., Clemente; Tadeu V., Voltolini; Marlon S., Garrido.

186

Parámetros genéticos de pesos al nacer y al destete en ovinos de raza criolla de Chiapas / Genetic parameters for birth and weaning weights in the local Chiapas sheep breed from Mexico  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Heredabilidades para pesos al nacer (PN) y destete (PD) en ovinos de la raza Chiapas se estimaron a partir de los registros de corderos nacidos entre 1991 y 2006. El pedigrí incluyó 53 carneros, 523 ovejas y 1,326 corderos. Se compararon seis modelos utilizando el Criterio de Información Akaike (Aka [...] ike Information Criterion, AIC). El modelo 1 incluyó los efectos genéticos directos aditivos. El modelo 2 igual al modelo 1 más los efectos permanentes del medio ambiente. Los modelos 3 y 4 fueron como el modelo 1 más los efectos maternos con cov(directa, maternal) (?am) igual a 0 para el modelo 3, mientras que para el modelo 4, ?am ? 0. Los modelos 5 y 6 corresponden a los modelos 3 y 4 adicionados con efectos ambientales permanentes. Los efectos de año, tipo y número de parto y sexo fueron incluidos en todos los modelos. La edad al destete fue agregada como covariable en la estimación de peso al destete. Los análisis mostraron al modelo 6 como el más adecuado para ambos caracteres, siendo el más completo y el criterio de comparación fue el menor. Los valores obtenidos de heredabilidad directos y maternos, así como los correspondientes a efectos maternos ambientales permanentes fueron 0.15 ± 0.09, 0.24 ± 0.09, 0.11 ± 0.08 para PN y 0.14 ± 0.09, 0.09 ± 0.08, 0.08 ± 0.06 para PD, respectivamente, siendo las correlaciones fenotípica 0.34±0.03 y genética 0.81±0.18. Estos son los primeros valores obtenidos de parámetros genéticos para PN y PD en la raza Chiapas. Abstract in english Variance components and heritabilities for birth (BW) and weaning weights (WW) were estimated in the local Chiapas sheep breed using data from animals born between 1991 and 2006. The pedigree contained 53 rams, 523 ewes, and 1,326 lambs. Six models were compared to estimate heritabilities of BW and [...] WW using the difference (?i) between the ith model and the best model from the Akaike information criterion (AIC). Model 1 contained additive genetic effects. Model 2 was as Model 1 plus permanent maternal environmental effects. Models 3 and 4 were as Model 1 plus maternal effects with cov(direct, maternal) equal to zero 0 for Model 3 and equal to ?am for Model 4. Models 5 and 6 were as Models 3 and 4 plus permanent environmental effects. Fixed effects of year, type and number of birth and sex were included in all models for both traits. Age at weaning was added as covariate for WW models. Model 6 was preferred for both traits because it accounted for direct and maternal effects and their correlation as well as maternal permanent environmental effects and the criteria for comparison were the smallest. Direct and maternal heritability as well as the permanent maternal environment estimates were 0.15±0.09, 0.24±0.09, 0.11±0.08 for BW and 0.14± 0.09, 0.09 ±0.08, 0.08±0.06 for WW, respectively, and the phenotypic (0.34±0.03) and genetic (0.81±0.18) correlation from model 6. These are the first estimates of genetic parameters for BW and WW in the Chiapas sheep breed.

Reyes, López-Ordaz; Iván, Olivera-Vega; José M., Berruecos Villalobos; Marisela, Peralta-Lailson; Raúl, Ulloa-Arvizu; Carlos G., Vásquez Peláez.

187

Parámetros genéticos de pesos al nacer y al destete en ovinos de raza criolla de Chiapas / Genetic parameters for birth and weaning weights in the local Chiapas sheep breed from Mexico  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Heredabilidades para pesos al nacer (PN) y destete (PD) en ovinos de la raza Chiapas se estimaron a partir de los registros de corderos nacidos entre 1991 y 2006. El pedigrí incluyó 53 carneros, 523 ovejas y 1,326 corderos. Se compararon seis modelos utilizando el Criterio de Información Akaike (Aka [...] ike Information Criterion, AIC). El modelo 1 incluyó los efectos genéticos directos aditivos. El modelo 2 igual al modelo 1 más los efectos permanentes del medio ambiente. Los modelos 3 y 4 fueron como el modelo 1 más los efectos maternos con cov(directa, maternal) (?am) igual a 0 para el modelo 3, mientras que para el modelo 4, ?am ? 0. Los modelos 5 y 6 corresponden a los modelos 3 y 4 adicionados con efectos ambientales permanentes. Los efectos de año, tipo y número de parto y sexo fueron incluidos en todos los modelos. La edad al destete fue agregada como covariable en la estimación de peso al destete. Los análisis mostraron al modelo 6 como el más adecuado para ambos caracteres, siendo el más completo y el criterio de comparación fue el menor. Los valores obtenidos de heredabilidad directos y maternos, así como los correspondientes a efectos maternos ambientales permanentes fueron 0.15 ± 0.09, 0.24 ± 0.09, 0.11 ± 0.08 para PN y 0.14 ± 0.09, 0.09 ± 0.08, 0.08 ± 0.06 para PD, respectivamente, siendo las correlaciones fenotípica 0.34±0.03 y genética 0.81±0.18. Estos son los primeros valores obtenidos de parámetros genéticos para PN y PD en la raza Chiapas. Abstract in english Variance components and heritabilities for birth (BW) and weaning weights (WW) were estimated in the local Chiapas sheep breed using data from animals born between 1991 and 2006. The pedigree contained 53 rams, 523 ewes, and 1,326 lambs. Six models were compared to estimate heritabilities of BW and [...] WW using the difference (?i) between the ith model and the best model from the Akaike information criterion (AIC). Model 1 contained additive genetic effects. Model 2 was as Model 1 plus permanent maternal environmental effects. Models 3 and 4 were as Model 1 plus maternal effects with cov(direct, maternal) equal to zero 0 for Model 3 and equal to ?am for Model 4. Models 5 and 6 were as Models 3 and 4 plus permanent environmental effects. Fixed effects of year, type and number of birth and sex were included in all models for both traits. Age at weaning was added as covariate for WW models. Model 6 was preferred for both traits because it accounted for direct and maternal effects and their correlation as well as maternal permanent environmental effects and the criteria for comparison were the smallest. Direct and maternal heritability as well as the permanent maternal environment estimates were 0.15±0.09, 0.24±0.09, 0.11±0.08 for BW and 0.14± 0.09, 0.09 ±0.08, 0.08±0.06 for WW, respectively, and the phenotypic (0.34±0.03) and genetic (0.81±0.18) correlation from model 6. These are the first estimates of genetic parameters for BW and WW in the Chiapas sheep breed.

Reyes, López-Ordaz; Iván, Olivera-Vega; José M., Berruecos Villalobos; Marisela, Peralta-Lailson; Raúl, Ulloa-Arvizu; Carlos G., Vásquez Peláez.

2012-03-01

188

Revealing the history of domesticated sheep using retrovirus integrations  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The domestication of livestock represented a crucial step in human history. By using endogenous retroviruses as genetic markers, we found that sheep differentiated on the basis of their "retrotype" and morphological traits dispersed across Eurasia and Africa via separate migratory episodes. Relicts of the first migrations include the Mouflon, as well as breeds previously recognized as "primitive" on the basis of their morphology, such as the Orkney, Soay, and the Nordic short-tailed sheep now confined to the periphery of northwest Europe. A later migratory episode, involving sheep with improved production traits, shaped the great majority of present-day breeds. The ability to differentiate genetically primitive sheep from more modern breeds provides valuable insights into the history of sheep domestication

Chessa, Bernado; Pereira, Filipe

2009-01-01

189

Revealing the history of sheep domestication using retrovirus integrations.  

Science.gov (United States)

The domestication of livestock represented a crucial step in human history. By using endogenous retroviruses as genetic markers, we found that sheep differentiated on the basis of their "retrotype" and morphological traits dispersed across Eurasia and Africa via separate migratory episodes. Relicts of the first migrations include the Mouflon, as well as breeds previously recognized as "primitive" on the basis of their morphology, such as the Orkney, Soay, and the Nordic short-tailed sheep now confined to the periphery of northwest Europe. A later migratory episode, involving sheep with improved production traits, shaped the great majority of present-day breeds. The ability to differentiate genetically primitive sheep from more modern breeds provides valuable insights into the history of sheep domestication. PMID:19390051

Chessa, Bernardo; Pereira, Filipe; Arnaud, Frederick; Amorim, Antonio; Goyache, Félix; Mainland, Ingrid; Kao, Rowland R; Pemberton, Josephine M; Beraldi, Dario; Stear, Michael J; Alberti, Alberto; Pittau, Marco; Iannuzzi, Leopoldo; Banabazi, Mohammad H; Kazwala, Rudovick R; Zhang, Ya-Ping; Arranz, Juan J; Ali, Bahy A; Wang, Zhiliang; Uzun, Metehan; Dione, Michel M; Olsaker, Ingrid; Holm, Lars-Erik; Saarma, Urmas; Ahmad, Sohail; Marzanov, Nurbiy; Eythorsdottir, Emma; Holland, Martin J; Ajmone-Marsan, Paolo; Bruford, Michael W; Kantanen, Juha; Spencer, Thomas E; Palmarini, Massimo

2009-04-24

190

Charge Breeding of Radioactive Ions in an Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Source(ECRIS) at ISOLDE  

CERN Multimedia

The development of an efficient charge breeding scheme for the next generation of RIB facilities will have a strong impact on the post-accelerator for several Radioactive Ion Beam (RIB) projects at European large scale facilities. At ISOLDE/CERN there will be the unique possibility to carry out experiments with the two possible charge breeding set-ups with a large variety of radioactive isotopes using identical injection conditions. One charge breeding set-up is the Penning trap/EBIS combination which feeds the REX-ISOLDE linear accelerator and which is in commissioning now. The second charge breeder is a new ECRIS PHOENIX developed at the ISN ion source laboratory at Grenoble. This ECRIS is now under investigation with a 14 GHz amplifier to characterize its performance. The experiments are accompanied by theoretical studies in computer simulations in order to optimize the capture of the ions in the ECRIS plasma. A second identical PHOENIX ECRIS which is under investigation at the Daresbury Laboratory is avai...

Villari, A; Warner, D; Barton, C J; Lindroos, M; Wenander, F J C

2002-01-01

191

Estimação de parâmetros genéticos de ovinos da raça Santa Inês utilizando modelos uni e bicaracterística / Estimation of genetic parameters Santa Inês Sheep breed using single and two - traits models  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Objetivou-se nesse trabalho, estimar os parâmetros genéticos para características de crescimento em ovinos da raça Santa Inês através do Método da Máxima Verossimilhança Restrita (REML). Os componentes de (co)variâncias e os parâmetros genéticos foram estimados pelo Software MTDFREML (Multiple Trait [...] Derivative-Free Restricted Maximum Likelihood). As características avaliadas em modelos uni e bicaracterística foram: peso ao nascimento (PN) e peso ao desmame (P90). Além dos efeitos fixos de sexo, grupo contemporâneo e tipo de parto, foram utilizados os seguintes efeitos aleatórios: efeito genético aditivo direto, efeito genético aditivo materno e efeito residual. As estimativas de herdabilidade aditiva direta para PN foram 0,20 e 0,21, para os modelos uni e bicaracterística, respectivamente. As estimativas de herdabilidade aditiva direta para P90 foram 0,04 e 0,07, para os modelos uni e bicaracterística, respectivamente. A correlação genética entre PN e P90 foi de 0,11, indicando que ambas as características devem ser trabalhadas simultaneamente. Abstract in english The objective of this study is to estimate genetic parameters for growth traits in sheep Santa Ines breed by Restricted Maximum Likelihood (REML). The (co)variance components and genetic parameters were estimated by MTDFREML Software (Multiple Trait Derivative-Free Restricted Maximum Likelihood). Th [...] e characteristics evaluated in single and two-trait models were: birth weight (BW) and weaning weight (WW). In addition to the fixed effects of sex, contemporary group and parity type, we used the following random effects: direct genetic effect, maternal additive genetic and residual effects. The direct additive heritability estimates for BW were 0.20 and 0.21 for single and two-trait models, respectively. Heritability estimates for direct additive WW were 0.04 and 0.07 for single and two-trait models, respectively. The genetic correlation between BW and WW was 0.11, indicating that both traits should be worked on simultaneously.

Geane Conceição, Carvalho; Leandro Teixeira, Barbosa; Tatiana Maia de, Oliveira; Fernanda Érica Pereira, Fonseca; Evandro Neves, Muniz; Hymerson Costa, Azevedo.

2014-01-01

192

Acquired resistance of merino sheep against Fasciola gigantica.  

Science.gov (United States)

Merino sheep acquired resistance against Fasciola gigantica, which is contrary to previous observations of infections with F. hepatica in that breed. The acquired resistance was manifest against young adult parasites. St. Croix sheep had previously been shown to have more resistance than European sheep against F. hepatica after primary infection; however, in F. gigantica infections in the present study there was no difference between the resistance levels of the breeds. Antigenic analysis of the host:parasite relationships could lead to identification of protective antigens suitable for use as vaccines. PMID:8897512

Roberts, J A; Widjayanti, S; Estuningsih, E

1996-01-01

193

Haematological values of Nigerian goats and sheep.  

Science.gov (United States)

Haematological parameters were determined in healthy Nigerian breeds of goats and sheep. Most values in the Nigerian goats were similar to those reported for temperate breeds of goats although the haemoglobin concentrations and the MCHC were lower. The haematocrit, haemoglobin concentrations and red cell counts of the West African Dwarf sheep were lower while the MCV were higher than those reported for sheep in the temperate climate. RBC values decreased with age in both Nigerian goats and sheep. Although sex pregnancy appeared to have little or no influence on the erythrocytic values, pregnant ewes had higher haematocrit and haemoglobin values. The low erythrocytic values were attributed to a low but constant parasitic burden which affected the flocks studied. Total leucocyte counts were considerably higher in the Nigerian goats and sheep than those reported for temperate breeds of animals. Young goats had higher total leucocyte counts while pregnant goats had reduced leucocyte counts. The leucocytic values were not affected by age and sex. Pregnant ewes also had higher leucocyte counts than non-pregnant ewes and rams. PMID:968949

Oduye, O O

1976-08-01

194

Mitochondrial DNA diversity and the origin of Chinese indigenous sheep.  

Science.gov (United States)

Large-scale mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) D-loop sequences data from previous studies were investigated to obtain genetic information which contributes to a better understanding of the genetic diversity and history of modern sheep. In this study, we analyzed mtDNA D-loop sequences of 963 individuals from 16 Chinese indigenous breeds that distributed seven geographic regions. Phylogenetic analysis showed that all three previously defined haplogroups A, B, and C were found in all breeds among different regions except in Southwest China mountainous region, which had only the A and B haplogroups. The weak phylogeographic structure was observed among Chinese indigenous sheep breeds distribution regions and this could be attributable to long-term strong gene flow among regions induced by the human migration, commercial trade, and extensive transport of sheep. The estimation of demographic parameters from mismatch analyses showed that haplogroups A and B had at least one demographic expansion of indigenous sheep in China. PMID:23709123

Zhao, Erhu; Yu, Qian; Zhang, Nanyang; Kong, Deying; Zhao, Yongju

2013-11-01

195

Multivariate characterization on morphological traits in Burkina Faso sheep  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A total of 6440 female sheep from Burkina Faso were scored for seven body measurements and four qualitative morphological traits. Sampling included the three main environmental areas and sheep breeds of Burkina Faso: the Sahel area (Burkina-Sahel sheep), the Sudan- Sahel area (Mossi sheep) and the Sudan area (Djallonke sheep). Canonical analyses showed that differences in body measurements between the Sudan and the Sudan-Sahel sheep were small even though most body traits showed higher average values in the Burkina-Sahel sheep: the shortest Mahalanobis distance was found between the Sudan and the Sudan-Sahel populations (1.54), whilst that between the Sudan and the Sahelian populations was the largest (7.88). Discriminant analysis showed that most Sudan (Djallonke) individuals (60.85%) were classified as Sudan-Sahel (Mossi) individuals whilst most Burkina-Sahel individuals were classified into their environmental area of sampling (89.5%). Correspondence analyses indicated that the Burkina-Sahel sheep population clustered together with dropping ears, black and brown colour patterns and presence of wattles, the Sudan sheep were closely associated with long hair and vertical and curled ears and that the Sudan-Sahel sheep did not have clear associations with qualitative phenotypic traits. At the morphological level, the Sudan-Sahel (Mossi) sheep population can be considered a geographical subpopulation belonging to the Djallonke breed, showing some particularities, namelyreed, showing some particularities, namely larger body size, due to the particular environmental condition of the area in which it is managed and a continuous gene flow from Sahelian sheep, The information reported in this study will be the basis for the establishment of further characterization, conservation and selection strategies for Burkina Faso sheep. (author)

196

No mutations of FecB and FecGH in Iranian Lory sheep  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Booroola fecundity gene (FecB and growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9 gene belong to the transforming growth factor ? (TGF-? superfamily. The mutations of these genes have additive effects on the prolificacy in sheep. The aim of the present study was to determine the possible mutations of FecB and FecGH genes in Lory sheep breed of the Lorestan province, Iran. Sixty blood samples were collected and DNA was extracted from whole fresh blood. For detection of FecB and FecGH mutations, the PCR products were incubated with AvaII and DdeI restricted enzymes. Based on the results we did not find the FecB and FecGH mutations in this sheep breed population, so these mutations cannot the cause of the high prolificacy of Lory sheep breed and more study are needed to determine the genetic or environmental causes of high prolificacy of this sheep breed.

Zaynab Shafieiyan

2014-12-01

197

Determinants of sheep prices in the highlands of northeastern Ethiopia: implication for sheep value chain development.  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to assess and identify the determinants of sheep price and price variation across time, a time series data were collected from four selected markets in North Shewa, Northeastern Ethiopia on weekly market day basis for a period of 2 years. Data on animal characteristics and purpose of buying were collected on a weekly basis from randomly selected 15-25 animals, and a total of 7,976 transactions were recorded. A general linear model technique was used to identify factors influencing sheep price, and the results showed that sheep price (liveweight sheep price per kilogram taken as a dependent variable) is affected by animal characteristics such as weight, sex, age, condition, season, and color. Most of the markets' purpose for which the animal was purchased did not affect significantly the price per kilogram. This may be due to the similarity of the markets in terms of buyer's purpose. The results suggest that there will be benefit from coordinated fattening, breeding, and marketing programs to take the highest advantage from the preferred animals' characteristics and selected festival markets. Finally, the study recommends for a coordinated action to enhance the benefit generated for all participant actors in the sheep value chain through raising sheep productivity, improving the capacity of sheep producers and agribusiness entrepreneurs to access and use latest knowledge and technologies; and strengthening linkages among actors in the sheep value chain. PMID:21465103

Kassa, Beneberu Teferra; Haile, Anteneh Girma; Essa, John Abdu

2011-12-01

198

Herders' Perceptions on Ruminant Livestock Breeds and Breeding Management in Southwestern Niger  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study documents indigenous knowledge of breeds of cattle, sheep and goats in southwestern Niger, and includes both pastoralists and agropastoralists. Our study included sheep and goats in view of the increasing importance of small ruminants in livestock production systems in the Sahel since the drought of the 1970s and 1980s. This study was carried out under the Desert Margins Program (DMP) project on arresting land degradation and the conservation of biodiversity in desert margins of su...

Augustine, A. A.; Kango, M.; Hiernaux, P.; Udo, H. M. J.; Tabo, R.

2007-01-01

199

Textural properties of selected Slovak cow and sheep products measured by texturometer  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available 96 Normal 0 false false false CS JA X-NONE 96 Normal 0 false false false CS JA X-NONE Sensorial assessment of selected brands of Slovak cow and sheep products, produced on farm with self-production of cow and sheep milk, was realized. The farm is situated in the North of east Slovakia. Breeding of dairy cows and sheep was realized under conditions applying animal welfare, where feedstuff was provided from self-production. By means of texture analyzer (Texture Analyser TA.XT Plus, textural properties (hardness, springiness, cohensivness and chewiness of sheep feta cheese, smoked sheep cheese, unsmoked cow cheese strings, smoked cow cheese sticks, pickled sheep feta cheese and spicy pickled sheep feta cheese, were assessed. Texture analyzer is used for texture measurement and assessment of physical properties of products, as well as for material testing by means of pressure and pull tests. Textural properties were assessed, when strength, distance and time were recorded and projected by means of fully integrated Texture Exponent� 32-bit software. The measurement was realized by test, when analyzer arm with selected sensor moved down, penetrated and compressed food product and moved to default position thereafter. Statistically significant differences (p were detected at hardness by means of statistical results evaluation obtained from texturometer measurement of cow and sheep products samples. Sheep feta cheese was compared to smoked sheep cheese, unsmoked cow cheese strings, smoked cow cheese sticks, pickled sheep feta cheese and spicy pickled sheep feta cheese. Statistically significant differences (p were confirmed, when we compared smoked sheep cheese to spicy pickled sheep feta cheese, when we compared unsmoked cow cheese strings to pickled sheep feta cheese and spicy pickled sheep feta cheese and by comparison of smoked cow cheese sticks to pickled sheep feta cheese and spicy pickled sheep feta cheese. Statistically significant differences (p were confirmed at springiness, when we compared sheep feta cheese to unsmoked cow cheese strings, smoked cow cheese sticks, pickled sheep feta cheese and spicy pickled sheep feta cheese and by comparison of smoked sheep cheese to unsmoked cow cheese strings, smoked cow cheese sticks, pickled sheep feta cheese and spicy pickled sheep feta cheese. Statistically significant differences (p were confirmed at cohensivness, when we compared sheep feta cheese to smoked sheep cheese, when we compared smoked sheep cheese to smoked cow cheese sticks and pickled sheep feta cheese, by comparison of smoked sheep cheese to spicy pickled sheep feta cheese and by comparison of unsmoked cow cheese strings to smoked cow cheese sticks. Differences at chewiness were statistically significant (p , when we compared sheep feta cheese to smoked sheep cheese, unsmoked cow cheese strings, smoked cow cheese sticks, pickled sheep feta cheese and spicy pickled sheep feta cheese, when we compared smoked sheep cheese to spicy pickled sheep feta cheese, by comparison of unsmoked cow cheese strings to pickled sheep feta cheese and spicy pickled sheep feta cheese and by comparison of smoked cow cheese sticks to pickled sheep feta cheese and spicy pickled sheep feta cheese. Based on obtained analysis results were confirmed, that selected brands of cow and sheep products are characterized by different textural properties. These properties make assessed brands of Slovak cow and sheep product specific, which needs to make provision at quality assessment.

Mária Angelovičová, ml.

2013-11-01

200

Association between AA-NAT gene polymorphism and reproductive performance in sheep  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english Arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AA-NAT) is critical enzyme in Melatonin (MLT) biosynthesis for MLT regulating the animal seasonal breeding. In this study, DNA sequencing methods were applied to detect the polymorphisms of the AA-NAT gene in 179 Chinese sheep belonging to two non-seasonal reprodu [...] ction breeds and two seasonal reproduction breeds. One mutation at exon 3 (NM_001009461:c.486A > G) was ?rstly described at the sheep AA-NAT locus. Hence, we described the SmaI PCR-RFLP method for detecting EX3 486A > G mutation, frequencies of the AA-NAT-G allele varied from 0.871 to 0.908 in two non-seasonal reproduction breeds and 0.517 to 0.578 in two seasonal reproduction breeds. The associations of SmaI polymorphism with estrus traits was analyzed in non-seasonal reproduction breeds sheep and seasonal reproduction breeds sheep, the signi?cant statistical results were found between them, the GG genotype frequencies was higher in non-seasonal reproduction breeds (p G mutation could facilitate association analysis and serve as a genetic marker for Chinese sheep breeding and genetics.

Bai, Ding-ping; Yu, Cheng-jiang; Chen, Yu-lin.

2012-03-15

 
 
 
 
201

Application of selection mapping to identify genomic regions associated with dairy production in sheep.  

Science.gov (United States)

In Europe, especially in Mediterranean areas, the sheep has been traditionally exploited as a dual purpose species, with income from both meat and milk. Modernization of husbandry methods and the establishment of breeding schemes focused on milk production have led to the development of "dairy breeds." This study investigated selective sweeps specifically related to dairy production in sheep by searching for regions commonly identified in different European dairy breeds. With this aim, genotypes from 44,545 SNP markers covering the sheep autosomes were analysed in both European dairy and non-dairy sheep breeds using two approaches: (i) identification of genomic regions showing extreme genetic differentiation between each dairy breed and a closely related non-dairy breed, and (ii) identification of regions with reduced variation (heterozygosity) in the dairy breeds using two methods. Regions detected in at least two breeds (breed pairs) by the two approaches (genetic differentiation and at least one of the heterozygosity-based analyses) were labeled as core candidate convergence regions and further investigated for candidate genes. Following this approach six regions were detected. For some of them, strong candidate genes have been proposed (e.g. ABCG2, SPP1), whereas some other genes designated as candidates based on their association with sheep and cattle dairy traits (e.g. LALBA, DGAT1A) were not associated with a detectable sweep signal. Few of the identified regions were coincident with QTL previously reported in sheep, although many of them corresponded to orthologous regions in cattle where QTL for dairy traits have been identified. Due to the limited number of QTL studies reported in sheep compared with cattle, the results illustrate the potential value of selection mapping to identify genomic regions associated with dairy traits in sheep. PMID:24788864

Gutiérrez-Gil, Beatriz; Arranz, Juan Jose; Pong-Wong, Ricardo; García-Gámez, Elsa; Kijas, James; Wiener, Pamela

2014-01-01

202

Apolipoprotein C polymorphism in sheep: allele frequencies and association with plasma lipid and lipoprotein levels.  

Science.gov (United States)

The genetic polymorphism of apolipoprotein C in normal plasma of four European sheep breeds (Suffolk, Corriedale, Cheviot, and Finn) was first detected using one-dimensional polyacrylamide gel isoelectric focusing (pH 2.5-5.0) followed by immunoblotting with antihuman apolipoprotein CII antibody. Six phenotypes (1-1, 2-1, 2-2, 3-1, 3-2, and 3-3) were identified in the 4.3-4.8 pH range, consisting of the combination of three isoform groups. On the basis of family and population data, these phenotypes were controlled autosomally by three codominant alleles, designated APOC*1, APOC*2, and APOC*3, the first being the most common allele. The frequency distributions of these alleles were similar between the Suffolk and Corriedale sheep, and between the Cheviot and Finn sheep. The former breeds had a significantly lower APOC*2 frequency than the latter breeds (P sheep (P sheep. PMID:11989785

Tsunoda, Kenji; Hamato, Shohei; Kurosawa, Shoei; Shirato, Ayako; Kurosawa, Yaetsu; Fujimaki, Koichiro; Muto, Masahiro; Sato, Keizo

2002-02-01

203

Genetic Variation among Baluchi Sheep Population Using Microsatellite Markers  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In order to identify polymorphic microsatellite markers and evaluae genetic variation within Baluchi sheep population, nineteen microsatellite loci were studied. Whole Blood samples were collected from 156 sheep at north eastern animal breeding station of Iran (Abbasabad-Mashhad). DNA was extracted by salting-out procedure with some modifications. Polymerase chain reactions were successfully done except for UNC5C locus. PCR products were electrophoresed on 8% denaturing polyacrylamide gels st...

Daneshyar, P.; Afraz, F.; Negati Javaremi, A.; Esmail Khanian, S.; Ghanbari, S.

2007-01-01

204

TSE detected in a Belgian ARR-homozygous sheep via active surveillance.  

Science.gov (United States)

It is commonly accepted that scrapie-resistance and -susceptibility in sheep are genetically controlled. Consequently, the selection of sheep with scrapie-resistant genotypes is currently one of the most important objectives of the sheep breeding associations. However, during the last two years, new data have become available on transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) cases in TSE-resistant sheep in several European Union member states. The present paper describes the first Belgian natural "atypical" TSE case in a sheep with a scrapie-resistant genotype (ARR/ARR) detected via active surveillance. No other infections or diseases were detected in the source flock. The continued finding of new "atypical" TSE cases in sheep with scrapie-resistant genotypes undermines the purpose and efficacy of the breeding programs. PMID:16169265

De Bosschere, Hendrik; Roels, Stefan; Dechamps, Pierre; Vanopdenbosch, Emmanuel

2007-03-01

205

Quantitative trait loci for internal nematode resistance in sheep: a review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Internal nematode resistance in sheep has a large impact on the economy of sheep industries. Selection for nematode resistance in sheep breeding schemes would help to reduce the direct and indirect cost of parasitism to these industries. However, this is not widely practiced because of the difficulty of measuring parasite resistance or correlated indirect selection criteria. The identification of genes or linked markers that have a significant association with the variance of indicator traits of internal nematode resistance in sheep would facilitate the inclusion of nematode resistance in sheep breeding operations. This review summarises findings reported in the literature of quantitative trait loci for internal nematode resistance in sheep. Issues relating to the analytical and phenotypic complexity of nematode resistance are discussed in the context of the findings of quantitative trait loci for nematode resistance published to date.

Dominik Sonja

2005-12-01

206

Origin, genetic diversity, and population structure of Chinese domestic sheep.  

Science.gov (United States)

To characterize the origin, genetic diversity, and phylogeographic structure of Chinese domestic sheep, we here analyzed a 531-bp fragment of mtDNA control region of 449 Chinese autochthonous sheep from 19 breeds/populations from 13 geographic regions, together with previously reported 44 sequences from Chinese indigenous sheep. Phylogenetic analysis showed that all three previously defined lineages A, B, and C were found in all sampled Chinese sheep populations, except for the absence of lineage C in four populations. Network profiles revealed that the lineages B and C displayed a star-like phylogeny with the founder haplotype in the centre, and that two star-like subclades with two founder haplotypes were identified in lineage A. The pattern of genetic variation in lineage A, together with the divergence time between the two central founder haplotypes suggested that two independent domestication events have occurred in sheep lineage A. Considerable mitochondrial diversity was observed in Chinese sheep. Weak structuring was observed either among Chinese indigenous sheep populations or between Asian and European sheep and this can be attributable to long-term strong gene flow induced by historical human movements. The high levels of intra-population diversity in Chinese sheep and the weak phylogeographic structuring indicated three geographically independent domestication events have occurred and the domestication place was not only confined to the Near East, but also occurred in other regions. PMID:16704910

Chen, Shan-Yuan; Duan, Zi-Yuan; Sha, Tao; Xiangyu, Jinggong; Wu, Shi-Fang; Zhang, Ya-Ping

2006-07-19

207

26 CFR 1.1231-2 - Livestock held for draft, breeding, dairy, or sporting purposes.  

Science.gov (United States)

...taxpayer for draft, breeding, dairy, or sporting purposes, and...taxpayer for draft, breeding, or dairy purposes, and held by him for...horses, mules, donkeys, sheep, goats, fur-bearing animals...taxpayer for draft, breeding, dairy, or sporting purposes...

2010-04-01

208

Using Scanning Electron Microscopy to Detect the Ultrastructural Variations in Eggshell Quality of Fayoumi and Dandarawi Chicken Breeds  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

An experiment was conducted to evaluate egg quality and ultrastructural measurements of eggshell in two Egyptian local breeds of chicken (Fayoumi and Dandarawi). A total of 162 females representing the two breeds were randomly assigned to the current experiment. They were housed in individual cages placed in an open-sided house under the same environmental, managerial and hygienic conditions. Maturation measurements including body weight and age at sexual maturity were determined. Also,...

Fathi, M. M.; Zein El-dein, A.; El-safty, S. A.; Radwan, Lamiaa M.

2007-01-01

209

Mapping quantitative trait loci for milk production and genetic polymorphisms of milk proteins in dairy sheep  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract In this paper, we present recent advances in the molecular dissection of complex traits in dairy sheep and discuss their possible impact on breeding schemes. In the first step, we review the literature data on genetic polymorphisms and the effects of sheep ?s1-casein and ?-lactoglobulin loci. It is concluded that the results are rather inconsistent and cannot be used in dairy sheep selection. In a second step, we describe the strategy implemen...

Barillet Francis; Arranz Juan-José; Carta Antonello

2005-01-01

210

Comparison of the Fleece Characteristics of Karakas and Norduz Sheep (Local Ewes in Turkey)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Data were collected from 10 Karakas and 10 Norduz sheep in Animal Science Breeding Farm, Yuzuncu Yil University, Turkey. Fleece characteristics in the sheep were investigated as greasy fleece weight (kg), clean fiber percentage (%), elasticity (%), breaking strength (g), fiber length (cm) and fiber diameter ( m).The sheep produced 1.836?0.102 kg for average greasy fleece weight. Greasy fleece weight, clean fiber percentage, elasticity, breaking straight, fiber length were observed 1.72?0.14 k...

Serhat Arslan; Selcuk Seckin Tuncer; Kadir Karakus

2005-01-01

211

INCREASING FOOD CHAIN SECURITY FOR SCRAPIE BY MARKER ASSISTED SELECTION IN SHEEP POPULATIONS  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Romania, by its genetic found made up of over 7.4 millions sheep and 1.8 millionsyoung sheep exported in EU countries, represents an important mark in bothEuropean and World sheep breeding sector, in last years marked by many ESSTcenters. The apparition of this disease and its high risk of danger for reared effectiveconstraint EEC countries to interfere by law regulations concerning scrapie controland stopping disease spreading. In our country, controls identified the presence ofscrapie in li...

CO?IER VIORICA; Coroian, C.; Da?ra?ban, S.; Voia, S.

2007-01-01

212

RESEARCH REGARDING NATIVE DOMESTICATED ENDANGERED ANIMAL BREEDS  

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Full Text Available The research done in this paper was made in Transylvania and Banat. The autochthon domestic endangered animal breeds were inventoried, zonal maps on where to encounter these breeds being drawn. The list of these species contains: the gray cattle, the Mocanitza (the mountain breed sheep, the Transylvanian Pinzgau, the black Pinzgau, the Transylvanian bull, the Nonius horse, the Western mountain hores breed, the Mangalitza breed, the Bazna breed, the black of Strei, the Transylvanian Merino, the curly haired sheep of Banat, the white goat of Banat, the hound of Ardeal region. In the last 20 years, in these species there was a significant drop in numbers and, in some cases, even in quality. If urgent measures to preserve these species will not be taken, there is a possibility that in the next 10 years, some of them will disappear. The protection plans for these breeds are, in the majority of the cases, just simple projects that no one is applying. Since 2007, in the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine there is a Data Base to monitor the native domestic animals from the western area of Romania. The data from this data base are used by farmers, pickers and specialists from the food industry.

M. MATIU?I

2013-12-01

213

Characterization of single nucleotide polymorphisms in sheep and their variation as evidence of selection.  

Science.gov (United States)

The discovery of SNPs was performed using animals from eight European sheep breeds. Eleven SNPs were further characterized using about 1,700 sheep belonging to 57 breeds. A method for the identification of loci that were likely subject to selection was applied; three of the 11 SNPs lying outside the 95% confidence region of the conditional joint distribution of F(ST) and mean heterozygosity were identified as outliers. PMID:16734696

Pariset, L; Cappuccio, I; Joost, S; D'Andrea, M; Marletta, D; Ajmone Marsan, P; Valentini, A

2006-06-01

214

Genetic signatures of a Mediterranean influence in Iberian Peninsula sheep husbandry.  

Science.gov (United States)

Highly adaptable and versatile populations of domestic sheep, the result of millennia of intense husbandry, are found in almost every corner of the world. Here we describe a genetic survey of sheep from the western fringe of its European distribution. We studied the mitochondrial DNA control region sequences from 161 individuals belonging to 7 Portuguese sheep breeds. Our study revealed a high level of genetic diversity, with an average breed haplotype diversity of 0.983, substantially above that observed in central European breeds, as well as the presence of maternal lineages until now only found in the Middle East and Asia. A broad north-south pattern describes the most important trend in the Portuguese sheep population with a southern population clearly distinct from most other breeds. A recurrent influx of new genetic diversity, probably via the Mediterranean Sea, may explain these patterns and appears to corroborate the importance of this maritime route in the history of both mankind and livestock. Zooarchaeological studies of sheep bones from southern Portugal indicate a marked size increase during the Moslem period that may reflect an improvement of this animal--perhaps part of the well known "Arab agricultural revolution" in Andalusia. This could have been a time when the gene pool of Iberian sheep was substantially enriched and may help to explain the history of modern sheep breeds in this peninsula. PMID:16672283

Pereira, Filipe; Davis, Simon J M; Pereira, Luísa; McEvoy, Brian; Bradley, Daniel G; Amorim, António

2006-07-01

215

Long-term biocompatibility and osseointegration of electron beam melted, free-form-fabricated solid and porous titanium alloy: experimental studies in sheep.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the long-term osseointegration and biocompatibility of electron beam melted (EBM) free-form-fabricated (FFF titanium grade 5 (Ti6Al4V) implants. Porous and solid machined cylindrical and disk-shaped implants were prepared by EBM and implanted bilaterally in the femur and subcutaneously in the dorsum of the sheep. After 26 weeks, the implants and surrounding tissue were retrieved. The tissue response was examined qualitatively and quantitatively using histology and light microscopic (LM) morphometry. Selected bone implants specimens were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), and micro-computed tomography (mCT). The results showed that both porous and solid implants were osseointegrated and high bone-implant contact was observed throughout the porous implant. In the soft tissue, the porous implants showed thinner fibrous encapsulation while no signs of intolerance were observed for either implant type. Taken together, the present experimental results show that FFF Ti6Al4V with and without porous structures demonstrate excellent long-term soft tissue biocompatibility and a high degree of osseointegration. The present findings extend earlier, short-term experimental observations in bone and suggest that EBM, FFF Ti6Al4V implants possess valuable properties in bone and soft tissue applications. PMID:22207608

Palmquist, A; Snis, A; Emanuelsson, L; Browne, M; Thomsen, P

2013-05-01

216

Genetic aspects of sheep parasitic diseases.  

Science.gov (United States)

There is evidence of genetically determined host resistance mechanisms for most of the sheep parasites evaluated. The mechanisms vary; from no or reduced establishment, early expulsion, to suppression of parasites resulting in reduced size and fecundity. There is a need to integrate breeding for parasite resistance with the genetic improvement of production traits in farm animals, aiming for optimum solutions for potentially conflicting responses. Sustainable parasite control must be based on Integrated Parasite Management utilising an interdisciplinary approach. PMID:22525587

Karlsson, L J E; Greeff, J C

2012-09-30

217

Heartwater in sheep and goats: a review  

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Heartwater (cowdriosis) is an important, often fatal , tick-borne disease of domestic and wild ruminants in sub-Saharan Africa and some Indian Ocean and Caribbean islands. The causal agent, Cowdria ruminantium (Cowdry 1925), is a rickettsia closely related to members of the genus Ehrlichia, and is probably a part of a complex of genomic species. Imported breeds of sheep and goats (especially Angoras) are highly susceptible, but indigenous populations of endemic areas may be resist...

Yunker, Conrad E.

1996-01-01

218

Efeitos da oferta de forragem, do método de pastejo, dos dias de avaliação e da raça no comportamento e temperamento de ovinos / Effect of forage supply, methods of grazing, evaluation days and breed on the behavior and the temperament of sheep  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Objetivou-se estudar comportamento e o temperamento de ovinos de três raças (Suffolk, Texel, Ile de France) submetidas a dois métodos de pastejo (contínuo e rotacionado), com duas ofertas de forragem (10 e 20 kg de MS de pastagem de azevém/100 kg de peso vivo/dia) durante quatro avaliações, entre ag [...] osto e novembro de 2006. Utilizou-se o delineamento completamente casualizado em parcelas subsubdivididas, de modo que os métodos de pastejo e as ofertas de forragem constituíram as parcelas, as raças as subparcelas e os dias de avaliação as subsubparcelas. Foram utilizadas 48 fêmeas ovinas com peso médio inicial de 27,59 kg e idade entre 15 e 25 meses. Na avaliação do temperamento, efetuaram-se medidas comportamentais pelo teste de arena, tipo de marcha e tempo de fuga e atributos fisiológicos, como temperatura corporal e frequências cardiorrespiratórias. No método contínuo com baixa oferta de forragem, observou-se maior número de micções. Conforme as avaliações ocorreram, houve aumento da movimentação, das tentativas de fuga, mas menor número de vocalizações durante o isolamento. A raça Ile de France apresentou maior número de tentativas de fuga e de dejeções durante o isolamento. No pastejo rotacionado com alta oferta de forragem, o ganho de peso foi menor. A movimentação no isolamento e na presença do observador foi negativamente relacionada ao ganho de peso. As variáveis descritoras do temperamento apresentaram baixa repetibilidade. O temperamento dos ovinos foi modificado principalmente pelo dia de avaliação e pela raça, ao contrário do sistema de pastejo e da oferta de pasto, embora esses fatores tenham apresentado interação com os dias de avaliação e a raça do animal. Abstract in english This work aimed to study the temperament and the behavior of three sheep breeds (Suffolk, Texel, Ile de France) submitted to two grazing methods (continuous and rotational) with two forage supplies (10 and 20 kg of Italian ryegrass DM/100 kg body weight/day) during four evaluations from August to No [...] vember 2006. A random block design was used with split-plots, so the grazing methods and forage supplies were the plots, breeds were the sub-plots, and days of evaluation were the sub-sub-plots. It was used 48 ewe lambs with 27.59 kg of initial weight at 15 to 25 months of age. For evaluation of temperament, behavioral measures were taken by the arena test, and qualitative and quantitative flight time test, and physiological attributes such as body temperature and cardiorespiratory rates. For continuous method with low forage supply, it was observed a higher number of urination events. As evaluations were carried out, physical activity and flight events increased, but number of vocalization decreased during social isolation. Ile de France breed showed higher number of flight attempts and excretion events during social isolation. In the rotational grazing method with high forage supply, weight gain was lower. Physical activity during social isolation and at the observer presence was negatively related to weight gain. Variables used to describe the temperament showed low consistency. The temperament of sheep is mainly affected by evaluation day and breed, unlike grazing method and forage supply, although these factors show interaction with evaluation days and breed.

José Manuel Díaz, Gómez; Vivian, Fischer; César Henrique Espírito Candal, Poli; Paulo César de Faccio, Carvalho; Eliezer José, Pegoraro; Stefani, Macari.

219

Efeitos da oferta de forragem, do método de pastejo, dos dias de avaliação e da raça no comportamento e temperamento de ovinos / Effect of forage supply, methods of grazing, evaluation days and breed on the behavior and the temperament of sheep  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Objetivou-se estudar comportamento e o temperamento de ovinos de três raças (Suffolk, Texel, Ile de France) submetidas a dois métodos de pastejo (contínuo e rotacionado), com duas ofertas de forragem (10 e 20 kg de MS de pastagem de azevém/100 kg de peso vivo/dia) durante quatro avaliações, entre ag [...] osto e novembro de 2006. Utilizou-se o delineamento completamente casualizado em parcelas subsubdivididas, de modo que os métodos de pastejo e as ofertas de forragem constituíram as parcelas, as raças as subparcelas e os dias de avaliação as subsubparcelas. Foram utilizadas 48 fêmeas ovinas com peso médio inicial de 27,59 kg e idade entre 15 e 25 meses. Na avaliação do temperamento, efetuaram-se medidas comportamentais pelo teste de arena, tipo de marcha e tempo de fuga e atributos fisiológicos, como temperatura corporal e frequências cardiorrespiratórias. No método contínuo com baixa oferta de forragem, observou-se maior número de micções. Conforme as avaliações ocorreram, houve aumento da movimentação, das tentativas de fuga, mas menor número de vocalizações durante o isolamento. A raça Ile de France apresentou maior número de tentativas de fuga e de dejeções durante o isolamento. No pastejo rotacionado com alta oferta de forragem, o ganho de peso foi menor. A movimentação no isolamento e na presença do observador foi negativamente relacionada ao ganho de peso. As variáveis descritoras do temperamento apresentaram baixa repetibilidade. O temperamento dos ovinos foi modificado principalmente pelo dia de avaliação e pela raça, ao contrário do sistema de pastejo e da oferta de pasto, embora esses fatores tenham apresentado interação com os dias de avaliação e a raça do animal. Abstract in english This work aimed to study the temperament and the behavior of three sheep breeds (Suffolk, Texel, Ile de France) submitted to two grazing methods (continuous and rotational) with two forage supplies (10 and 20 kg of Italian ryegrass DM/100 kg body weight/day) during four evaluations from August to No [...] vember 2006. A random block design was used with split-plots, so the grazing methods and forage supplies were the plots, breeds were the sub-plots, and days of evaluation were the sub-sub-plots. It was used 48 ewe lambs with 27.59 kg of initial weight at 15 to 25 months of age. For evaluation of temperament, behavioral measures were taken by the arena test, and qualitative and quantitative flight time test, and physiological attributes such as body temperature and cardiorespiratory rates. For continuous method with low forage supply, it was observed a higher number of urination events. As evaluations were carried out, physical activity and flight events increased, but number of vocalization decreased during social isolation. Ile de France breed showed higher number of flight attempts and excretion events during social isolation. In the rotational grazing method with high forage supply, weight gain was lower. Physical activity during social isolation and at the observer presence was negatively related to weight gain. Variables used to describe the temperament showed low consistency. The temperament of sheep is mainly affected by evaluation day and breed, unlike grazing method and forage supply, although these factors show interaction with evaluation days and breed.

José Manuel Díaz, Gómez; Vivian, Fischer; César Henrique Espírito Candal, Poli; Paulo César de Faccio, Carvalho; Eliezer José, Pegoraro; Stefani, Macari.

1840-18-01

220

Production and economic characteristics of sheep production on the island of Pag  

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Full Text Available The aim of the research was to learn from a survey about the production and economic characteristics of sheep production as well as economic position and developmental orientation of sheep breeders on the island of Pag. Data on production and economic characteristics of sheep production on the island of Pag were collected from a survey and processed through relevant descriptive statistics methods. The respondents have on average 47 breeding sheep, 2 rams and 9 sheep intended for flock renewal rate (not older than one year; which means an average flock has 58 sheep. The average total income from sheep production in 2009 was 72,460.10 HRK. The average total production costs in 2009 were 13,260.10 HRK, including the costs of fodder and veterinary services. All farms achieved positive financial results of 59,199.90 HRK in average. As many as three quarters of respondents indicated profitability of sheep production as the main motivation to engage in sheep production; very few indicated that heritage and inability to do other jobs were the main motivation. Important limiting factors for future development of sheep breeding on the island of Pag in most farms are lack of potential heirs and high average age of farm holders. Regarding the effects of joining the European Union, half the breeders intend to improve their production and harmonise it with the EU requirements and standards; one quarter of them intend to keep the existing production capacity; and another quarter intend to quit with production.

Marina Krvavica

2012-03-01

 
 
 
 
221

Eradication of scrapie with selective breeding: are we nearly there?  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Following EU decision 2003/100/EC Member States have recently implemented sheep breeding programmes to reduce the prevalence of sheep with TSE susceptible prion genotypes. The present paper investigates the progress of the breeding programme in the Netherlands. The PrP genotype frequencies were monitored through time using two sets of random samples: one set covers the years 2005 to 2008 and is taken from national surveillance programme; the other is taken from 168 random sheep farms in 2007. The data reveal that although the level of compliance to the breeding programme has been high, the frequency of susceptible genotypes varies substantially between farms. The 168 sheep farms are a subset of 689 farms participating in a postal survey inquiring about management and breeding strategies. This survey aimed to identify how much these strategies varied between farms, in order to inform assessment of the expected future progress towards eradication of classical scrapie. Results On the one hand, we found that compliance to the national breeding program has been high, and the frequency of resistant genotypes is expected to increase further in the next few years. On the other hand, we observed a large variation in prevalence of the scrapie resistant PrP genotype ARR between farms, implicating a large variation of genetic resistance between farms. Substantial between-flock differences in management and breeding strategies were found in the postal survey, suggesting considerable variation in risk of scrapie transmission between farms. Conclusions Our results show that although there has been a good progress in the breeding for scrapie resistance and the average farm-level scrapie susceptibility in the Netherlands has been significantly reduced, still a considerable proportion of farms contain high frequencies of susceptible genotypes in their sheep population. Since 2007 the breeding for genetic resistance is voluntarily again, and participation to selective breeding can decrease as a result of this. This, together with the patterns of direct and indirect contact between sheep farms, might present a challenge of the aim of scrapie eradication. Communication to sheep owners of the effect of the breeding programme thus far, and of the prospects for classical scrapie eradication in The Netherlands might be essential for obtaining useful levels of participation to the voluntary continuation of the breeding programme.

Davidse Aart

2010-05-01

222

Seroprevalence of Cystic Echinococcosis in Chinese Merino and Duolang Sheep in Xinjiang, China  

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Full Text Available The purpose of this present study was to investigate the seroprevalence of cystic echinococcosis (CE in Chinese merino sheep and Duolang sheep in Xinjiang, northwestern China. A total of 1219 serum samples of sheep (including 868 Chinese merino sheep from 6 farms in Ili, Tacheng and Shihezi as well as 351 Duolang sheep from 4 farms in Kashgar were detected by ELISA assay. The chi-square test was used to analyze the data and the area differences for CE prevalence were compared. Results showed that the overall seropositive percentage for CE was 31.1% in Chinese merino sheep, and sheep from Ili area (of which 48.8% were seropositive were significantly more likely to be seropositive than either sheep from Shihezi area (6.9% (P<0.01 or ones from Tacheng area (12.7% (P<0.01. In addition, seroprevalence for CE in Duolang sheep varied from 3.3% (farm No.45 to 30.7% (farm No.50A, with the average percentage of 21.7%, which was lower than that of Chinese merino sheep (31.1%, and statistically significant difference was observed between the two breeds in seroprevalence of CE (P<0.05. In conclusion, in Xinjiang, CE prevails differently in different areas in Chinese merino sheep and Duolang sheep. And also, serologically, Chinese merino sheep was more susceptible to CE than Duolang sheep. Comprehensive measures are needed to strengthen further prevention and control of disease in two breeds in Xinjiang.

Wenqiao Hui§, Xinli Du§, Bin Jia*, Xianxia Liu, Muyesaer, Junde Ma and Shijun Ma

2012-06-01

223

Conformación corporal de las razas ovinas Pelibuey, Dorper y Kathadin en el estado de Veracruz, México / Body conformation of sheep breeds Pelibuey, Dorper and Kathadin in the state of Veracruz, Mexico  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El objetivo del presente trabajo fue realizar inferencia sobre la conformación corporal de ovejas Pelibuey, Dorper y Kathadin utilizando variables zoométricas. Se describieron las medidas zoométricas de cada unas de las razas, determinándose las diferencias raciales acorde a éstas y se infirió el pe [...] so vivo (PV) mediante modelos de regresión en función de las variables corporales. La muestra fue de 276 hembras (34,5 %; 87 Pelibuey, 92 Dorper y 97 Kathadin) en 9 granjas (800 ovinos) del estado de Veracruz. Las medidas zoométricas analizadas fueron: altura a la grupa (AP); altura a la cruz (AC); longitud del tronco (LT); perímetro toráxico (PT); circunferencia de la caña (CC); anchura de la cabeza (C); perfil fronto nasal (arco) (PFN); longitud de la oreja (LO); longitud de la grupa (LG); ancho de la grupa (AG); PV y edad (E). El efecto de la raza fue determinante tanto en el PV como en la conformación corporal; encontrandose que la variación entre razas es significativa (P Abstract in english The objective of this study was to estimate body conformation on Pelibuey, Dorper and Kathadin sheeps using zoometric variables. Measures of each one of the races and racial differences was determined according to them, live weight was predicted by regression models based on physical variables. Samp [...] le was conformed 276 females (34,5%; 87 Pelibuey, 92 Dorper and 97 Kathadin) on nine farms (800 sheeps) of the State of Veracruz. Zoometric measures analyzed were: height at rump (H), height at withers (HW), body length (TL), thoracic perimeter (TP), circumference of the rod (CC), head width (C), fronto profile nose (bow) (NFP), ear length (LO), rump length (LG) and rump width (AG) in addition to body weight (BW) and age (E). The effect of race was decisive both in weight and in body conformation, we found that the variation between races is significant (P

Julio, Vilaboa Arroniz; Riccardo, Bozzi; Pablo, Díaz Rivera; Letizia, Bazzi.

224

Estudo anatomorfológico, radiográfico e tomográfico de Schistosomus reflexus em ovino da raça Dorper: relato de caso / Anatomorphological, radiographic and tomographic studies of Schistosomus reflexus in Dorper breed sheep: case report  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O Schistosomus reflexus (SR) é uma anomalia congênita fatal e rara, primariamente observada em ruminantes, a qual apresenta feto com dorsoflexão da coluna vertebral, exposição das vísceras abdominais e torácicas e escoliose. Foi realizada uma cesariana de ovelha da raça Dorper, em propriedade da reg [...] ião de Botucatu-SP. Pelas características gerais e achados de necropsia, tratava-se de um caso de SR. A radiografia revelou acentuado desvio ventrodorsal do segmento da coluna vertebral toracolombar e deformidades das costelas. Na tomografia computadorizada, observou-se presença da integridade dos ossos e órgãos, exceto ausência de uma vértebra lombar. Não havia dados na literatura de diagnóstico por imagem de SR em ovinos, portanto procedeu-se, de forma inédita, a exames radiográfico e tomográfico do feto. Abstract in english Schistosomus reflexus (SR) is a rare and fatal congenital anomaly, primarily observed in ruminants, presenting fetus with dorsiflexion of the vertebral column, exposure of thoracic and visceral organs, and scoliosis. A caesarian was performed on a Dorper sheep on a farm in Botucatu-SP and according [...] to the general characteristics and findings observed in the necropsy of the fetus it was an SR case. The radiography indicated a marked ventro-dorsal deviation of the thoracolumbar column segment and deformity of the ribs. On the computed tomography the integrity of the bones and organs were detected, except for the absence of a lumbar vertebra. No data were available in the literature for SR diagnosis in sheep by image, so radiographic and tomographic exams of the fetus were done.

D.O.L., Ferreira; B.P., Santarosa; C.D., Monteiro-Toma; A.F., Belotta; S.B., Chiacchio; V.M.V., Machado; R.C., Gonçalves; N.C., Prestes.

1096-11-01

225

Conformación corporal de las razas ovinas Pelibuey, Dorper y Kathadin en el estado de Veracruz, México / Body conformation of sheep breeds Pelibuey, Dorper and Kathadin in the state of Veracruz, Mexico  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El objetivo del presente trabajo fue realizar inferencia sobre la conformación corporal de ovejas Pelibuey, Dorper y Kathadin utilizando variables zoométricas. Se describieron las medidas zoométricas de cada unas de las razas, determinándose las diferencias raciales acorde a éstas y se infirió el pe [...] so vivo (PV) mediante modelos de regresión en función de las variables corporales. La muestra fue de 276 hembras (34,5 %; 87 Pelibuey, 92 Dorper y 97 Kathadin) en 9 granjas (800 ovinos) del estado de Veracruz. Las medidas zoométricas analizadas fueron: altura a la grupa (AP); altura a la cruz (AC); longitud del tronco (LT); perímetro toráxico (PT); circunferencia de la caña (CC); anchura de la cabeza (C); perfil fronto nasal (arco) (PFN); longitud de la oreja (LO); longitud de la grupa (LG); ancho de la grupa (AG); PV y edad (E). El efecto de la raza fue determinante tanto en el PV como en la conformación corporal; encontrandose que la variación entre razas es significativa (P Abstract in english The objective of this study was to estimate body conformation on Pelibuey, Dorper and Kathadin sheeps using zoometric variables. Measures of each one of the races and racial differences was determined according to them, live weight was predicted by regression models based on physical variables. Samp [...] le was conformed 276 females (34,5%; 87 Pelibuey, 92 Dorper and 97 Kathadin) on nine farms (800 sheeps) of the State of Veracruz. Zoometric measures analyzed were: height at rump (H), height at withers (HW), body length (TL), thoracic perimeter (TP), circumference of the rod (CC), head width (C), fronto profile nose (bow) (NFP), ear length (LO), rump length (LG) and rump width (AG) in addition to body weight (BW) and age (E). The effect of race was decisive both in weight and in body conformation, we found that the variation between races is significant (P

Julio, Vilaboa Arroniz; Riccardo, Bozzi; Pablo, Díaz Rivera; Letizia, Bazzi.

2010-09-01

226

Estudo anatomorfológico, radiográfico e tomográfico de Schistosomus reflexus em ovino da raça Dorper: relato de caso / Anatomorphological, radiographic and tomographic studies of Schistosomus reflexus in Dorper breed sheep: case report  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O Schistosomus reflexus (SR) é uma anomalia congênita fatal e rara, primariamente observada em ruminantes, a qual apresenta feto com dorsoflexão da coluna vertebral, exposição das vísceras abdominais e torácicas e escoliose. Foi realizada uma cesariana de ovelha da raça Dorper, em propriedade da reg [...] ião de Botucatu-SP. Pelas características gerais e achados de necropsia, tratava-se de um caso de SR. A radiografia revelou acentuado desvio ventrodorsal do segmento da coluna vertebral toracolombar e deformidades das costelas. Na tomografia computadorizada, observou-se presença da integridade dos ossos e órgãos, exceto ausência de uma vértebra lombar. Não havia dados na literatura de diagnóstico por imagem de SR em ovinos, portanto procedeu-se, de forma inédita, a exames radiográfico e tomográfico do feto. Abstract in english Schistosomus reflexus (SR) is a rare and fatal congenital anomaly, primarily observed in ruminants, presenting fetus with dorsiflexion of the vertebral column, exposure of thoracic and visceral organs, and scoliosis. A caesarian was performed on a Dorper sheep on a farm in Botucatu-SP and according [...] to the general characteristics and findings observed in the necropsy of the fetus it was an SR case. The radiography indicated a marked ventro-dorsal deviation of the thoracolumbar column segment and deformity of the ribs. On the computed tomography the integrity of the bones and organs were detected, except for the absence of a lumbar vertebra. No data were available in the literature for SR diagnosis in sheep by image, so radiographic and tomographic exams of the fetus were done.

D.O.L., Ferreira; B.P., Santarosa; C.D., Monteiro-Toma; A.F., Belotta; S.B., Chiacchio; V.M.V., Machado; R.C., Gonçalves; N.C., Prestes.

227

Sero-biochemical Studies in Sheep Fed with Bt Cotton Plants  

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An experimental study was conducted to evaluate the toxicological effects, if any, due to feeding of Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) cotton plants to sheep. A total of 32 sheep of one year of age belonging to Deccani breed were randomly divided into four groups, consisting of eight sheep in each group. Group 1 was maintained on basal diet (concentrate feed at the rate of 300 g + green fodder at the rate of 3 kg/sheep/day), group 2 on non-Bt cotton plant at the rate of 1.5 kg + green fodder at the...

Anilkumar, B.; Reddy, A. Gopala; Kalakumar, B.; Rani, M. Usha; Anjaneyulu, Y.; Raghunandan, T.; Reddy, Y. Ramana; Jyothi, K.; Gopi, K. S.

2010-01-01

228

Pilot study for feeding preferences and grazing behavior in two breeds of sheep on a secondary succession of the Chiloé Archipelago / Estudio piloto para preferencias y comportamiento en pastoreo en dos razas ovinas sobre una sucesión secundaria del Archipiélago de Chiloé  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish M.A. Gallardo, R. Pulido, R. de la Barra y M.E. Martínez. 2014. Estudio piloto para preferencias y comportamiento en pastoreo en dos razas ovinas sobre una sucesión secundaria del Archipiélago de Chiloé. Cien. Inv. Agr. 41(2):249-254. Un estudio piloto fue realizado para determinar el patrón de pref [...] erencias y comportamiento en pastoreo de la raza ovina Chilota en el Archipiélago de Chiloé. Primero, ocho ovejas Chilota y ocho Suffolk Down fueron enfrentadas a diferente número de especies vegetales (no consideradas como suplemento), ofrecidas sólo por 10 min post-ayuno y post-pastoreo de un calafatal, una sucesión secundaria dominada por arbustos. El experimento fue repetido cuatro veces en un lapso de 22 d, considerando además un período pre-experimental de un mes. Posteriormente, seis Chilota y seis Suffolk (aleatoriamente seleccionadas desde los mismos grupos) fueron ubicadas para pastorear un calafatal dividido en tres potreros de 10 x 10 m para poder rotar los animales. Las observaciones fueron realizadas por 1 minuto, a intervalos de 1-hora por 11 horas diarias, durante 10 d consecutivos, registrando diferentes comportamientos, tales como: pastoreo, ramoneo, descanso, rumia, interacción y acicalamiento. Considerando la ingesta de materia seca de cada una de las tres especies presentes en todos los desafíos (B. chilensis, G. mucronata y D. winteri), los resultados mostraron que D. winteri fue la más consumida y B. chilensis, la menos consumida. El comportamiento en pastoreo mostró que el pastoreo fue la principal actividad registrada para ambas razas (especialmente en Suffolk Down) durante la mañana y la tarde, mientras descanso y rumia fueron las principales actividades durante las horas de mayor calor. En resumen, ambas razas mostraron similar patrón de preferencias, aunque diferente comportamiento en pastoreo en una sucesión secundaria de Chiloé. Abstract in english M.A. Gallardo, R. de la Barra, and M.E. Martínez. 2014. Pilot study for feeding preferences and grazing behavior in two breeds of sheep on a secondary succession of the Chiloé Archipelago. Cien. Inv. Agr. 41(2):249-254. A pilot study was undertaken to determine the pattern of feeding preferences and [...] grazing behavior of the Chilota breed of sheep in the Chiloé Archipelago. First, eight Chilota and eight Suffolk Down ewes were faced with different numbers of plant species (offered only for 10 min), after fasting and after grazing a calafatal, a secondary succession dominated by shrubs. The experiment was repeated four times within a period of 22 d and included a 1-month pre-experimental period. Second, six Chilota and six Suffolk Down ewes, randomly selected from the same groups, were placed to graze on a calafatal divided into three 10-by-10 m paddocks to facilitate rotation of the animals. Observations were performed for 1 minute at 1-hour intervals for 11 hours a day, over 10 consecutive days, recording the following behaviors: grazing, browsing, resting, ruminating, and grooming. Regarding the dry matter intake of each of the three plant species present in all trials (B. chilensis, G. mucronata and D. winteri), results showed D. winteri was the most consumed and B. chilensis the least. The grazing behavior showed grazing was the main activity recorded for both breeds (especially for Suffolk Down) during the morning and evening, while resting and ruminating were the main activities recorded during the warmest hours. In summary, the breeds showed similar preferences but different grazing behavior pattern on a secondary succession of the Chiloé Archipelago.

María A, Gallardo; Rubén, Pulido; Rodrigo, de la Barra; María E, Martínez.

229

The callipyge mutation and other genes that affect muscle hypertrophy in sheep  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Genetic strategies to improve the profitability of sheep operations have generally focused on traits for reproduction. However, natural mutations exist in sheep that affect muscle growth and development, and the exploitation of these mutations in breeding strategies has the potential to significantly improve lamb-meat quality. The best-documented mutation for muscle development in sheep is callipyge (CLPG, which causes a postnatal muscle hypertrophy that is localized to the pelvic limbs and loin. Enhanced skeletal muscle growth is also observed in animals with the Carwell (or rib-eye muscling mutation, and a double-muscling phenotype has been documented for animals of the Texel sheep breed. However, the actual mutations responsible for these muscular hypertrophy phenotypes in sheep have yet to be identified, and further characterization of the genetic basis for these phenotypes will provide insight into the biological control of muscle growth and body composition.

Cockett Noelle E

2005-12-01

230

Phenotypic Correlations among Fleece Traits in Norduz and Karakas Sheep  

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Full Text Available In this research, it was aimed to determine the phenotypic correlations among some physical traits of Norduz and Karakas sheep. Animal material was consisted from 2-6 years of age of breeding flocks of 50 Norduz and 50 Karakas ewes. Traits measured were greasy fleece weight, fiber diameter, clean fleece percentage, staple length, single fiber actual length, single fiber natural length, breaking strength, elasticity and the number of crimp in 2.54 cm. There was a positive correlation between clean fleece percentage and fiber diameter, it was insignificant for both genotypes. The estimated phenotypic correlations between staple length and greasy fleece weight was 0.403 (p<0.01 and 0.445 (p<0.01 in Norduz and Karakas sheep, respectively. It was understood that traits like fiber diameter, length, fleece weight and the number of crimp should be evaluated together in breeding studies on fleece yield in Norduz and Karakas sheep.

Mehmet Bingol

2011-01-01

231

[Prospects and limits of animal breeding from the physiological aspects].  

Science.gov (United States)

Livestock breeding is characterized by substantial increases in performance in recent years. However, pathophysiological changes have to be considered when increased production levels will exceed maximal physiological capacities. Gastrointestinal adaptation processes of ruminants kept under aride grazing conditions are discussed in comparison with european sheep breeds. The high stress susceptibility in pigs which is genetically determined is taken as a further example to explain the onset of diseases on the basis of pathophysiological mechanisms being induced by breeding techniques. From this the necessity for a close cooperation between animal breeding and physiology has to be concluded. PMID:8720792

Breves, G; Winckler, C

1996-02-01

232

Globally dispersed Y chromosomal haplotypes in wild and domestic sheep.  

Science.gov (United States)

To date, investigations of genetic diversity and the origins of domestication in sheep have utilised autosomal microsatellites and variation in the mitochondrial genome. We present the first analysis of both domestic and wild sheep using genetic markers residing on the ovine Y chromosome. Analysis of a single nucleotide polymorphism (oY1) in the SRY promoter region revealed that allele A-oY1 was present in all wild bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis), two subspecies of thinhorn sheep (Ovis dalli), European Mouflon (Ovis musimon) and the Barbary (Ammontragis lervia). A-oY1 also had the highest frequency (71.4%) within 458 domestic sheep drawn from 65 breeds sampled from Africa, Asia, Australia, the Caribbean, Europe, the Middle East and Central Asia. Sequence analysis of a second locus, microsatellite SRYM18, revealed a compound repeat array displaying fixed differences, which identified bighorn and thinhorn sheep as distinct from the European Mouflon and domestic animals. Combined genotypic data identified 11 male-specific haplotypes that represented at least two separate lineages. Investigation of the geographical distribution of each haplotype revealed that one (H6) was both very common and widespread in the global sample of domestic breeds. The remaining haplotypes each displayed more restricted and informative distributions. For example, H5 was likely founded following the domestication of European breeds and was used to trace the recent transportation of animals to both the Caribbean and Australia. A high rate of Y chromosomal dispersal appears to have taken place during the development of domestic sheep as only 12.9% of the total observed variation was partitioned between major geographical regions. PMID:16978172

Meadows, J R S; Hanotte, O; Drögemüller, C; Calvo, J; Godfrey, R; Coltman, D; Maddox, J F; Marzanov, N; Kantanen, J; Kijas, J W

2006-10-01

233

Schmallenberg virus experimental infection of sheep.  

Science.gov (United States)

Since late 2011, a novel orthobunyavirus, named Schmallenberg virus (SBV), has been implicated in many cases of severely malformed bovine and ovine offspring in Europe. In adult cattle, SBV is known to cause a mild transient disease; clinical signs include short febrile episodes, decreased milk production and diarrhoea for a few days. However, the knowledge about clinical signs and pathogenesis in adult sheep is limited. In the present study, adult sheep of European domestic breeds were inoculated with SBV either as cell culture grown virus or as virus with no history of passage in cell cultures. Various experimental set-ups were used. Sampling included blood collection at different time points during the experimental period and selected organ material at autopsy. Data from this study showed, that the RNAemic period in sheep was as short as reported for cattle; viral genome was detectable for about 3-5 days by real-time RT-PCR. In total, 13 out of 30 inoculated sheep became RNAemic, with the highest viral load in animals inoculated with virus from low cell culture passaged or the animal passaged material. Contact animals remained negative throughout the study. One RNAemic sheep showed diarrhoea for several days, but fever was not recorded in any of the animals. Antibodies were first detectable 10-14 days post inoculation. Viral RNA was detectable in spleen and lymph nodes up to day 44 post inoculation. In conclusion, as described for cattle, SBV-infection in adult sheep predominantly results in subclinical infection, transient RNAemia and a specific antibody response. Maintenance of viral RNA in the lymphoreticular system is observed for an extended period. PMID:23972950

Wernike, Kerstin; Hoffmann, Bernd; Bréard, Emmanuel; Bøtner, Anette; Ponsart, Claire; Zientara, Stéphan; Lohse, Louise; Pozzi, Nathalie; Viarouge, Cyril; Sarradin, Pierre; Leroux-Barc, Céline; Riou, Mickael; Laloy, Eve; Breithaupt, Angele; Beer, Martin

2013-10-25

234

[Variations in the concentrations of the immunoglobulins IgG1, IgG2, IgM and IgA in sheep. 2. Changes in the blood of lambs of different breeds and crossbreeds during the course of the rearing period].  

Science.gov (United States)

The sera of 188 lambs from seven breed groups were analyzed for the concentrations of IgG1, IgG2, IgM and IgA by radial immunodiffusion using monospecific antibodies. From each lamb, 14 blood samples were drawn before and 5 samples after weaning. The following results were obtained: 1. Immunoglobulins could not be detected in sera drawn before the first intake of colostrum. 2. In normally suckling lambs, the peak concentrations of maternal immunoglobulins are attained at 0-18 hrs after birth. They can be assessed in a single blood sample drawn between 18 and 24 hrs. 3. The half-life times of maternal immunoglobulin in lamb sera are 11 days for IgG1, 7 days for IgG2, 6 days for IgM and 18 hours for IgA. 4. The absolute peak heights relate to the amounts of colostrum ingested before 12-18 hrs after birth. 5. The decline of maternal immunoglobulins in lamb sera over-laps with the onset of lamb immunoglobulin synthesis. Renewed rises of concentrations are observed for IgG2 after week 2, for IgM after week 3 and for IgG1 after week 7. The concentrations of IgA remain at the low levels characteristic for the serum of grown sheep. 6. The role of immunoglobulin synthesis in suckling lambs is only briefly and to a small extent reduced after weaning. PMID:2818555

Klobasa, F; Werhahn, E

1989-10-01

235

Epidemiology of sheep pox.  

Science.gov (United States)

An outbreak of sheep pox in a flock of 2,191 purebred indigenous sheep and their crosses with exotic European sheep had a course of 18 weeks. The peak incidence and mortality occurred 5 weeks after the onset of the epidemic. The morbidity was highest in the purebred and crossbred lambs and crossbred hoggets. The mortality rate and case fatality rate were highest in the crossbred hoggets. PMID:6297133

Belwal, L M; Nivsarkar, A E; Mathur, P B; Singh, R N

1982-11-01

236

Dog Breeds  

Science.gov (United States)

Recently, designer mutts like the Labradoodle -- a cross between a Labarador retriever and a poodle -- have become popular. A listener wanted to know if some kinds of dogs are just too different to make puppies. This Science Update explores the cross breeding of species.

;

2004-07-05

237

Simulated Breeding  

Science.gov (United States)

This chapter describes a basic framework of simulated breeding, a type of interactive evolutionary computing to breed artifacts, whose origin is Blind Watchmaker by Dawkins. These methods make it easy for humans to design a complex object adapted to his/her subjective criteria, just similarly to agricultural products we have been developing over thousands of years. Starting from randomly initialized genome, the solution candidates are improved through several generations with artificial selection. The graphical user interface helps the process of breeding with techniques of multifield user interface and partial breeding. The former improves the diversity of individuals that prevents being trapped at local optimum. The latter makes it possible for the user to fix features he/she already satisfied. These methods were examined through artistic applications by the author: SBART for graphics art and SBEAT for music. Combining with a direct genome editor and exportation to another graphical or musical tool on the computer, they can be powerful tools for artistic creation. These systems may contribute to the creation of a type of new culture.

Unemi, Tatsuo

238

Pruritus is a common feature in sheep infected with the BSE agent  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The variability in the clinical or pathological presentation of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs in sheep, such as scrapie and bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE, has been attributed to prion protein genotype, strain, breed, clinical duration, dose, route and type of inoculum and the age at infection. The study aimed to describe the clinical signs in sheep infected with the BSE agent throughout its clinical course to determine whether the clinical signs were as variable as described for classical scrapie in sheep. The clinical signs were compared to BSE-negative sheep to assess if disease-specific clinical markers exist. Results Forty-seven (34% of 139 sheep, which comprised 123 challenged sheep and 16 undosed controls, were positive for BSE. Affected sheep belonged to five different breeds and three different genotypes (ARQ/ARQ, VRQ/VRQ and AHQ/AHQ. None of the controls or BSE exposed sheep with ARR alleles were positive. Pruritus was present in 41 (87% BSE positive sheep; the remaining six were judged to be pre-clinically infected. Testing of the response to scratching along the dorsum of a sheep proved to be a good indicator of clinical disease with a test sensitivity of 85% and specificity of 98% and usually coincided with weight loss. Clinical signs that were displayed significantly earlier in BSE positive cases compared to negative cases were behavioural changes, pruritic behaviour, a positive scratch test, alopecia, skin lesions, teeth grinding, tremor, ataxia, loss of weight and loss of body condition. The frequency and severity of each specific clinical sign usually increased with the progression of disease over a period of 16–20 weeks. Conclusion Our results suggest that BSE in sheep presents with relatively uniform clinical signs, with pruritus of increased severity and abnormalities in behaviour or movement as the disease progressed. Based on the studied sheep, these clinical features appear to be independent of breed, affected genotype, dose, route of inoculation and whether BSE was passed into sheep from cattle or from other sheep, suggesting that the clinical phenotype of BSE is influenced by the TSE strain more than by other factors. The clinical phenotype of BSE in the genotypes and breed studied was indistinguishable from that described for classical scrapie cases.

Jeffrey Martin

2008-04-01

239

Invited review: Current state of genetic improvement in dairy sheep.  

Science.gov (United States)

Dairy sheep have been farmed traditionally in the Mediterranean basin in southern Europe, central Europe, eastern Europe, and in Near East countries. Currently, dairy sheep farming systems vary from extensive to intensive according to the economic relevance of the production chain and the specific environment and breed. Modern breeding programs were conceived in the 1960s. The most efficient selection scheme for local dairy sheep breeds is based on pyramidal management of the population with the breeders of nucleus flocks at the top, where pedigree and official milk recording, artificial insemination, controlled natural mating, and breeding value estimation are carried out to generate genetic progress. The genetic progress is then transferred to the commercial flocks through artificial insemination or natural-mating rams. Increasing milk yield is still the most profitable breeding objective for several breeds. Almost all milk is used for cheese production and, consequently, milk content traits are very important. Moreover, other traits are gaining interest for selection: machine milking ability and udder morphology, resistance to diseases (mastitis, internal parasites, scrapie), and traits related to the nutritional value of milk (fatty acid composition). Current breeding programs based on the traditional quantitative approach have achieved appreciable genetic gains for milk yield. In many cases, further selection goals such as milk composition, udder morphology, somatic cell count, and scrapie resistance have been implemented. However, the possibility of including other traits of selective interest is limited by high recording costs. Also, the organizational effort needed to apply the traditional quantitative approach limits the diffusion of current selection programs outside the European Mediterranean area. In this context, the application of selection schemes assisted by molecular information, to improve either traditional dairy traits or traits costly to record, seems to be attractive in dairy sheep. At the moment, the most effective strategy seems to be the strengthening of research projects aimed at finding causal mutations along the genes affecting traits of economic importance. However, genome-wide selection seems to be unfeasible in most dairy sheep breeds. PMID:19923587

Carta, A; Casu, Sara; Salaris, S

2009-12-01

240

Primer extension assay for prion protein genotype determination in sheep.  

Science.gov (United States)

Scrapie is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) which affects sheep and goats. TSEs are characterised by the conversion of the cellular prion protein (PrP(C)) into the pathological form PrP(Sc). The occurrence of scrapie in sheep is influenced by polymorphisms in the PrP gene; in particular, three codons (136, 154 and 171) are important in conditioning the susceptibility/resistance of sheep to the disease, with the Val/Val(136) Arg/Arg(154) Gln/Gln(171) genotype being the most susceptible and the Ala/Ala(136) Arg/Arg(154) Arg/Arg(171), the most resistant one. The latter genotype seems to confer, in sheep, resistance to the oral infection with bovine spongiform encephalopathy, as well. The selection of genetically resistant sheep populations represents the basis of the recent strategies against ovine TSE in the European Union (EU). Herein, we describe a rapid and simple method, based on the primer extension technique, for PrP genotype determination at codons 136, 154 and 171. Intra-laboratory validation of the method showed accuracy levels comparable to those of sequencing analysis. Such method could be used for both the application of the EU policies requiring PrP genotype analysis in all ovine TSE cases, and the large-scale genotyping claimed by the implementation of breeding programmes for genetic resistance to TSE in sheep. PMID:15036367

Vaccari, G; Conte, M; Morelli, L; Di Guardo, G; Petraroli, R; Agrimi, U

2004-02-01

 
 
 
 
241

MORE ABOUT ON LOCAL DIFFERENTIATION OF ALBANIAN LOCAL SHEEP POPULATIONS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The estimation of archaism index was used to study the local differentiation of seven Albanian local sheep populations. The estimation of archaism index was carried out using the morph-metric data of several features: whither height, tail length, ears length, horns and wattles presence, coat color, frontal-nasal profile. The cluster analyses was carried out using the Euclidian’s distances between populations in the plan of two first principal components. The cluster analyzes showed the existence of four distinguish sheep groups: first group -Ruda, Bardhoke, Baca, second group – Shkodrane, third group - Lara of Polisi, Syska of Mati, and fourth group -Recka. Based on the geographic distances between the regions where are bred the animals of these local sheep breeds and their geographic isolation can be concluded that the presence of local differentiation of Albanian local sheep populations is caused by the isolation in distance. These results show that in currant sheep population of Albania it is possible to find direct descendants of animals that have populated the Balkan regions in the form of three migratory successive waves. Currant results could be consider as preliminary one because of limited number of features included in the study and the complicity of this topic. They can serve as a bases for in-depth studies on local differentiation hypotheses of Albanian local sheep population.

Lumturi PAPA

2012-01-01

242

Efeito dos níveis de concentrado sobre as características de carcaça de ovinos Morada Nova em confinamento / Effect of concentrate levels on carcass characteristics of the Morada Nova breed sheep in feedlot  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Avaliaram-se as características de carcaça e os rendimentos dos cortes medidos in vivo e na carcaça de ovinos Morada Nova terminados em confinamento com dietas contendo diversos níveis de concentrado. Utilizaram-se 32 cordeiros castrados, Morada Nova, com 8,11 ± 1,15 meses de idade e peso inicial de [...] 19,67 ± 2,97 kg, em delineamento de blocos casualizados, cada um com oito repetições. Os animais foram abatidos com 30,0 kg e alimentados com quatro níveis de concentrado (20, 40, 60 ou 80%). Houve efeito linear crescente do nível de concentrado da dieta sobre o peso do corpo vazio e peso e o rendimento da carcaça fria e efeito linear decrescente sobre o conteúdo do trato digestório e o número de dias em confinamento. Os níveis de concentrado tiveram efeito linear crescente sobre o peso e rendimento de pescoço e efeito linear decrescente sobre os rendimentos da paleta e perna, ao passo que o peso do costilhar foi influenciado de forma quadrática pelos tratamentos. Nas medidas in vivo, apenas o perímetro da perna sofreu efeito decrescente. Nas medidas na carcaça, houve efeito linear crescente sobre a largura do tórax e a compacidade, que aumentaram com o nível de concentrado na dieta, enquanto a largura da garupa teve efeito quadrático. O uso de concentrado na dieta eleva os pesos e os rendimentos de carcaça fria, mas não aumenta os pesos e rendimentos dos cortes da carcaça de cordeiros Morada Nova. Abstract in english The in vivo carcass characteristics and the cut yields measured in the carcass of Morada Nova sheep finished in feedlot system fed increasing levels of dietary concentrate were evaluated. Thirty-two castrated Morada Nova lambs with 8.11 ± 1.15 months of age and 19.67 ± 2.97 kg of initial body weight [...] were used in this trial. The experimet was analyzed as a completely randomized block design with eight replicates per treatment. Animals were slaughtered at 30.0 kg BW and fed diets with four concentrate levels: 20, 40, 60 or 80%. Linear increasing effect of dietary concentrate on empty body weight and cold carcass weight and yield and linear decreasing effect on digestive tract content and feedlot period were observed. The neck weight and yield linearly increased and the percentage of shoulder and leg linearly decreased with the concentrate levels, while the rib weight showed quadratic effect. In the in vivo measurements, only leg perimeter presented significant effect. There was a linear increasing effect for thoracic width and carcass compactness, while the hind width showed quadratic effect. The use of concentrate in the diet increased the weight and yields of cold carcass; however this maximization did not increase the weights and yields of commercial cuts from Morada Nova lambs.

Geovergue Rodrigues de, Medeiros; Francisco Fernando Ramos de, Carvalho; Ângela Maria Vieira, Batista; Wilson Moreira, Dutra Júnior; Gladston Rafael de Arruda, Santos; Dulciene Karla Bezerra de, Andrade.

243

The influence of radiation on reproduction of sheep  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Qualitative and quantitative histological changes in the sexual apparatus of slovak merino ewes were studies in the anoestrous period after irradiation (2.5 Gy) and hormonal stimulation. Estrus synchronization of the sheep has been carried out by application of 20 mg chlorosuperlutine in impregnated vaginal Ageline sponges. The sheep were hormone stimulated by application of 1500 IU of Serum gonadotrophin. The animals were killed approximately 120 h after the application of the hormone. Samples from the sexual apparatus were processed by the common histological methods for examination under a light microscope and for examination under a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Despite higher number of ovulations in irradiated and hormonally stimulated sheep, the examination of viability of irradiated oocytes showed absence of pregnancy in all 20 sheep after mating. This indicated that the dose of 2.5 Gy was not harmless to the reproductive system of sheep. (authors)

244

Pruritus is a common feature in sheep infected with the BSE agent  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background The variability in the clinical or pathological presentation of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) in sheep, such as scrapie and bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), has been attributed to prion protein genotype, strain, breed, clinical duration, dose, route and type of inoculum and the age at infection. The study aimed to describe the clinical signs in sheep infected with the BSE agent throughout its clinical course to determine whether t...

Jeffrey Martin; Hill Peter; Dexter Glenda; Davis Andrew; Tortosa Raul; Vidal-Diez Alberto; Bone Gemma; Konold Timm; Simmons Marion M; Chaplin Melanie J; Bellworthy Susan J; Berthelin-Baker Christine

2008-01-01

245

Genetic parameters for resistance to the Salmonella abortusovis vaccinal strain Rv6 in sheep  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

An experimental population (1216 lambs from 30 sires) of the Inra401 sheep was created in an Inra flock to allow QTL detection for susceptibility to Salmonella infection, wool and carcass traits. The Inra401 is a sheep composite line developed from two breeds: Berrichon du Cher and Romanov. At 113 days of age on average, the lambs were inoculated intravenously with $10^{8}$ Salmonella abortusovis Rv6 (vaccinal strain). They were slaughtered 10 days after the inoculation. Several traits were m...

Moreno, Carole; Lantier, Fre?de?ric; Berthon, Patricia; Gautier-bouchardon, Anne; Boivin, Roger; Lantier, Isabelle; Brunel, Jean-claude; Weisbecker, Jean-louis; Franc?ois, Dominique; Bouix, Jacques; Elsen, Jean-michel

2003-01-01

246

Dairy Sheep Nutrition  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This book, edited by the colleague Giuseppe Pulina, is the result of the project "Further development of a diet formulation model for sheep and goat", supported by the Ministry of Agricultural and Forestry Policies, in Italy.

Rosanna Scipioni

2010-01-01

247

Coxiella burnetii seroprevalence and risk factors on commercial sheep farms in The Netherlands.  

Science.gov (United States)

Coxiella burnetii seroprevalence was assessed on Dutch dairy and non-dairy sheep farms using ELISA. Risk factors for seropositivity on non-dairy sheep farms were identified at farm and sheep level by univariate and multivariate multilevel analyses. Based on 953 dairy and 5671 non-dairy serum samples, sheep seroprevalences were 18.7 per cent and 2.0 per cent, respectively, and 78.6 per cent and 30.5 per cent at farm level. Significant risk factors for non-dairy sheep farms were farm location in the south of the country, sheep kept on marginal grounds, one or several supply addresses for ewes during 2007-2009 and wearing farm boots and/or outfit by professional visitors. On sheep level, risk factors included among others farm location in the south of the country, lamb breeding as main farm purpose, goat density within 10?km farm radius, use of windbreak curtain or windshields, and presence of ?6 stillborn lambs in 2009. Farm location in the south of the country and goat density suggests that infected goats have played a role in the transmission to non-dairy sheep. Other risk factors suggest introduction of the bacterium through sheep supply and professional visitors. Biosecurity measures should be strengthened, including avoiding infection during handling of stillborn lambs and birth products in the lambing period. PMID:24789854

Schimmer, B; de Lange, M M A; Hautvast, J L A; Vellema, P; van Duynhoven, Y T H P

2014-07-01

248

Infectious abortion in sheep  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The abortions in sheep are important at various aspects, i.e. economical, animal healthcare or zoonotic. Abortions in sheep may occur sporadically or as enzootic outbreaks. The causative agent of the abortion is investigated if more than 2% of abortions in pregnant animals are registered within the herd. The amount of suspect material to be delivered for examination ranges from 12% to 21% of all registered abortions. Our research was carried out at the territory of AP of Vojvodina. Over a thr...

Vidi? B.; Savi?-Jev?eni? S.; Z?, Grgic?; Bugarski D.; Maljkovi? M.

2007-01-01

249

Determining the value of Vlashko-Vitoroga Zackel sheep for the conservation process  

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Full Text Available Autochthonous Pramenka (Zackel sheep has been recognized as an important element of regional agro-biodiversity, relevant to the tradition that encompasses the cultural heritage of Serbia. The recognition that locally adapted animal breeds gained genetic resistance and adaptability through evolution; modern sustainable farming practices are far more attuned to the need for preserving and utilizing Zackel sheep types. The risk factors leading to rapid and severe decline in Vlashko-Vitoroga Zackel sheep population have been described in the paper. The objective of the study was to obtain the data necessary for development of conservation and sustainable use strategies of Vlashko-Vitoroga Zackel sheep. Determination of the conservation value upon characteristics of the breed was performed, in aim to identify priorities in accordance with the criteria of Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO. The positive and negative characteristics of the Vlashko-Vitoroga Zackel sheep, opportunities for utilization, as well as ambiental challenges that affect the breed were analyzed in the paper. The importance of this breed for maintenance of cultural tradition, landscape preservation and longterm rural development by in-situ conservation through utilization is also discussed in the paper. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR31085

Savi? Mila

2013-01-01

250

Potential benefits of genomic selection on genetic gain of small ruminant breeding programs.  

Science.gov (United States)

In conventional small ruminant breeding programs, only pedigree and phenotype records are used to make selection decisions but prospects of including genomic information are now under consideration. The objective of this study was to assess the potential benefits of genomic selection on the genetic gain in French sheep and goat breeding designs of today. Traditional and genomic scenarios were modeled with deterministic methods for 3 breeding programs. The models included decisional variables related to male selection candidates, progeny testing capacity, and economic weights that were optimized to maximize annual genetic gain (AGG) of i) a meat sheep breeding program that improved a meat trait of heritability (h(2)) = 0.30 and a maternal trait of h(2) = 0.09 and ii) dairy sheep and goat breeding programs that improved a milk trait of h(2) = 0.30. Values of ±0.20 of genetic correlation between meat and maternal traits were considered to study their effects on AGG. The Bulmer effect was accounted for and the results presented here are the averages of AGG after 10 generations of selection. Results showed that current traditional breeding programs provide an AGG of 0.095 genetic standard deviation (?a) for meat and 0.061 ?a for maternal trait in meat breed and 0.147 ?a and 0.120 ?a in sheep and goat dairy breeds, respectively. By optimizing decisional variables, the AGG with traditional selection methods increased to 0.139 ?a for meat and 0.096 ?a for maternal traits in meat breeding programs and to 0.174 ?a and 0.183 ?a in dairy sheep and goat breeding programs, respectively. With a medium-sized reference population (nref) of 2,000 individuals, the best genomic scenarios gave an AGG that was 17.9% greater than with traditional selection methods with optimized values of decisional variables for combined meat and maternal traits in meat sheep, 51.7% in dairy sheep, and 26.2% in dairy goats. The superiority of genomic schemes increased with the size of the reference population and genomic selection gave the best results when nref > 1,000 individuals for dairy breeds and nref > 2,000 individuals for meat breed. Genetic correlation between meat and maternal traits had a large impact on the genetic gain of both traits. Changes in AGG due to correlation were greatest for low heritable maternal traits. As a general rule, AGG was increased both by optimizing selection designs and including genomic information. PMID:23736059

Shumbusho, F; Raoul, J; Astruc, J M; Palhiere, I; Elsen, J M

2013-08-01

251

Influence of genotype on the quality of sheep leather  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of crossings between sheep breeds on the intrinsic quality of leather. It was used the skins of 36 lambs (18 females and 18 males), resulting from crosses between ewes of a native breed from the Brazilian state of Mato Grosso do Sul and rams [...] of the same native breed as well as the Texel and Santa Inês genetic groups. The animals were raised in confinement until slaughter weight, from 28 to 32 kg. After slaughter, samples were taken from the skins for histological analysis. The skins were tanned with chromium, retanned and greased. It was taken from the leather samples for electromicrographs and for tests for tensile and tear strength (intrinsic quality). Morphological aspects from the skin as well as from the leather help to understand the results found and they evidence that breeds or crossings among breeds interfere in the intrinsic quality of leather and skin of sheep.

Manuel Antônio Chagas, Jacinto; Fernando Miranda de, Vargas Junior; Charles Ferreira, Martins; Guilherme dos Santos, Pinto; Fernando Alvarenga, Reis; Alexandra Rocha de, Oliveira.

252

Phenotypic Correlations among Fleece Traits in Norduz and Karakas Sheep  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this research, it was aimed to determine the phenotypic correlations among some physical traits of Norduz and Karakas sheep. Animal material was consisted from 2-6 years of age of breeding flocks of 50 Norduz and 50 Karakas ewes. Traits measured were greasy fleece weight, fiber diameter, clean fleece percentage, staple length, single fiber actual length, single fiber natural length, breaking strength, elasticity and the number of crimp in 2.54 cm. There was a positive correlation between c...

Mehmet Bingol; Ayhan Yilmaz; Seckin Tuncer; Ferda Karakus; Askin Kor; Firat Cengiz

2011-01-01

253

Recommendations for the use of microsatellite markers for parental reconstruction in rural sheep and goat populations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Proper knowledge about individual origin and pedigree is a major point for animal breeding and genetic livestock improvement. Mainly for goat, but also for sheep, breeding in Sicily information on these points is limited, and sometimes even misleading. Sheep and goat milk production is, in many regions and especially on Sicily, a rural enterprise, where males and females graze together and pedigree of offspring can be largely unknown. Genetic improvement in this situation is challenging. Modern DNA techniques can help to identify the parentage (PI, parental identification. In this paper we discuss (1 our set of microsatellites markers in relation to the ECONOGENE set, (2 accuracy of microsatellite genotyping for a goat and a sheep breed, (3 the principle of verification and identification as tested on one goat breeding farm, and (4 direct use of the technique in a running sheep or goat breeding program. For a practical application we suggest the use of around 20 quality microsatellite markers, and the use of primiparous milk analysis.

Egbert Frank Knol

2010-09-01

254

Charge Breeding Techniques  

CERN Document Server

The numerous newly built and forthcoming post-accelerators for radioactive ions, produced with the isotope separator on-line (ISOL) technique, all have a need for an efficient method to accelerate the precious primary ions. By increasing the ion charge-to-mass ratio directly after the radioactive ion production stage, a short and compact linear accelerator can be employed. Not only the efficiency, but also the rapidity of such a charge-to-mass increasing process, called charge breeding, is a crucial factor for the often short-lived radioisotopes. The traditional foil or gas stripping technique was challenged some five to ten years ago by novel schemes for charge breeding. The transformation from 1+ to n+ charged ions takes place inside an Electron Beam Ion Source/Trap (EBIS/T) or Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Source/Trap (ECRIS/T) by electron-ion collisions. These charge breeders are located in the low-energy part of the machine before the accelerating structures. Because of the capability of these devices...

Wenander, F

2004-01-01

255

Imported coenurosis in sheep  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Thirteen sheep from a milk producing farm in the Canton of Grisons that presented chronic coenurosis were examined and subjected to treatment trials at the veterinary hospital in Zurich. Symptoms were first observed around two months after the import of two dogs from Italy (Abruzza) of which one was infected with Taenia multiceps and Echinococcus granulosus. The most frequently observed clinical symptoms of the sheep were reduced general condition, circling, reduced menace reflex, apathy, unsteady gait and head tilt. Analyses of cerebrospinal fluid revealed an increased leucocyte count in 3 sheep and eosinophilia in 4 sheep. In 4 animals that underwent computertomography, one or more hypodense, definable lesions were found in the brain. In 2 sheep surgical treatment and in 10 animals medical treatment with either Praziquantel (n=8) or Oxfendazol (n=2) was attempted. Only one animal treated with Praziquantel needed not to be euthanized. At necropsy, one or two coenurus cysts could be found either in a side ventricle (n=2), in the cerebellum (n=3) or in the cerebrum (n=7). The locations corresponded with the clinical findings. Despite Praziquantel or Oxfendazol treatment, living protoscoleces could be found in the parasite cysts

256

Impact of maedi-visna in intensively managed dairy sheep.  

Science.gov (United States)

Maedi-visna (MV) is a slow lentiviral disease of sheep that has a significant economic impact in many sheep-producing regions although there remains a paucity of data relating to actual production losses resulting from this disease. The objective of this study was to evaluate direct losses, through death or culling, from two dairy sheep flocks with high seroprevalences of infection over a 2 year period. Maedi-visna was found, either alone or in combination with other diseases, to be the most common disease diagnosed in these sheep, and the major cause of direct animal losses in the two flocks. Moderate to severe lesions associated with MV were found in 52% and 80% of the sheep, respectively, affecting the lungs, brain and/or mammary glands. Despite the similarity of the two flocks under study in terms of breed, number of animals, geographical proximity, and inter-change of rams, a striking difference was observed regarding the clinical presentation of the disease: in one flock the respiratory form was dominant while in the other 70% of animals died or were culled because of neurological signs. PMID:23643869

Benavides, Julio; Fuertes, Miguel; García-Pariente, Carlos; Otaola, Javier; Delgado, Laetitia; Giraldez, Javier; García Marín, Juan Francisco; Carmen Ferreras, M; Pérez, Valentín

2013-09-01

257

Implications of Genotype by Environment Interactions in Dairy Sheep Welfare  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Small ruminants are the most extensively farmed livestock species in Europe, as a result being extremely exposed to natural hazards which leads to strong interactions between genotype and environment. Aim of the current review was to outline and discuss the main welfare issues and economic implications with regards to the genotype by environment interactions in dairy sheep. Researches concerning the additive genetic effect on milk yield, shown that this accounts only for 10%, while the milk production is 90% influenced by environmental factors, highlighting the major role that management and nutrition play in the dairy production of sheep. Nowadays, dairy sheep breeds (e.g. Eastern Friesian and Lacaune, are being introduced and reared in various countries under an extremely wide range of rearing conditions, without adequate knowledge on their acclimatization to the new specific conditions. It was concluded that a welfare assessment protocol for dairy sheep does not exist up today, moreover, there is a serious lack of data concerning the genetic and environmental factors affecting the welfare status of dairy sheep at farm level under different production systems.

Dinu Gavojdian

2014-05-01

258

Virological and pathological findings in Bluetongue virus serotype 8 infected sheep.  

Science.gov (United States)

Twenty-seven sheep of the four most common Swiss breeds and the English breed Poll Dorset were experimentally infected with a northern European field strain of bluetongue virus serotype 8 (BTV-8). Animals of all breeds developed clinical signs, viremia and pathological lesions, demonstrating that BTV-8 is fully capable of replicating and inducing bluetongue disease (BT) in the investigated sheep. Necropsy performed between 10 and 16 days post-infectionem (d.p.i.) revealed BT-typical hemorrhages, effusions, edema, erosions and activation of lymphatic tissues. Hemorrhages on the base of the Arteria pulmonalis and the left Musculus papillaris subauricularis were frequently present. Histology confirmed the macroscopical findings. Using a score system, clinical manifestation and pathology were found to be significantly related. Furthermore, clinical signs and fever were shown to be indicative for the concurrent presence of high amounts of viral ribonucleic acid (RNA) in blood. Spleen, lung, lymph nodes and tonsils from all animals were analyzed regarding viral RNA loads and infectivity using real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (rRT-PCR) and virus isolation in cell culture, respectively. The highest amount of viral RNA was detected in spleen and lung and rRT-PCR revealed to be a more sensitive method for virus detection compared to virus isolation. A long-term follow-up was performed with three sheep showing that BTV-8 viral RNA in blood was present up to 133 d.p.i. and in certain tissues even on 151 d.p.i. No significant breed-related differences were observed concerning clinicopathological picture and viremia, and the Swiss sheep were as susceptible to BTV-8 infection as Poll Dorset sheep, demonstrating a remarkably high virulence of BTV-8 for indigenous sheep breeds. PMID:20153937

Worwa, Gabriella; Hilbe, Monika; Chaignat, Valérie; Hofmann, Martin A; Griot, Christian; Ehrensperger, Felix; Doherr, Marcus G; Thür, Barbara

2010-08-26

259

May sheep safely graze  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper concerns the effects of fallout from the Chernobyl reactor accident on the environment in Britain. A description is given of the distribution and movement of fallout in Britain, as well as the type of contamination. The regions that received the highest deposits from Chernobyl were large areas in the uplands used mainly for sheep farming, and grazing in these areas led to high levels of radioactivity in sheep. Monitoring studies of caesium levels in sheep grazing on contaminated pastures are described, as well as studies of the movement of caesium in the soil to plants. Finally Chernobyl fallout in food in different European countries, and ways of ridding contaminated animals of their radioactive caesium, are both discussed. (UK)

260

Mutation in BMPR-IB gene is associated with litter size in Iranian Kalehkoohi sheep.  

Science.gov (United States)

The single nucleotide polymorphism of BMPR-IB gene (bone morphogenetic protein receptor type IB) was analyzed using PCR-RFLP in Iranian native Kalehkoohi sheep. BMPR-IB which affects the fecundity of Booroola Merino sheep was studied as a candidate gene associated with the prolificacy of Kalehkoohi sheep. Improving the reproductive traits in sheep could be one of the key factors in increasing farm profitability. Major genes for litter size trait provide opportunities for large and rapid increases in the efficiency of sheep production. The same FecB (Booroola) mutation occurred in the BMPR-IB gene in Kalehkoohi sheep as found in Booroola Merino. Allele frequency for B and + was 0.35 and 0.65 respectively. The BB, B+ and ++ genotypes have been identified with the 0.13, 0.446 and 0.424, respectively. The Kalehkoohi sheep with genotypes BB and B+ had 0.52 and 0.35 lambs, more than the homozygous wild-type, respectively (P<0.01). No significant difference was observed between B+ and BB in litter size. Also the effect of parity and flock weren't significant in this study. Results of the present study support the concept that BMPR-IB significantly affected litter size and was associated with litter size in Kalehkoohi sheep and thus it could be used for Marker-assisted selection programmers for the genetic improvement of reproductive characteristics in this breed. PMID:24793585

Mahdavi, Morteza; Nanekarani, Shahram; Hosseini, Seyed Davood

2014-06-30

 
 
 
 
261

First charge breeding of a rare-isotope beam with the electron-beam ion trap of the ReA post-accelerator at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratorya)  

Science.gov (United States)

An electron-beam ion trap (EBIT) charge breeder is being brought into operation at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory at Michigan State University. The EBIT is part of the ReA post-accelerator for reacceleration of rare isotopes, which are thermalized in a gas "stopping" cell after being produced at high energy by projectile fragmentation. The ReA EBIT has a distinctive design; it is characterized by a high-current electron gun and a two-field superconducting magnet to optimize the capture and charge-breeding efficiency of continuously injected singly charged ion beams. Following a brief overview of the reaccelerator system and the ReA EBIT, this paper presents the latest commissioning results, particularly, charge breeding and reacceleration of the highly charged rare isotopes, 76Ga24 +, 25 +.

Lapierre, A.; Schwarz, S.; Baumann, T. M.; Cooper, K.; Kittimanapun, K.; Rodriguez, A. J.; Sumithrarachchi, C.; Williams, S. J.; Wittmer, W.; Leitner, D.; Bollen, G.

2014-02-01

262

First charge breeding of a rare-isotope beam with the electron-beam ion trap of the ReA post-accelerator at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory.  

Science.gov (United States)

An electron-beam ion trap (EBIT) charge breeder is being brought into operation at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory at Michigan State University. The EBIT is part of the ReA post-accelerator for reacceleration of rare isotopes, which are thermalized in a gas "stopping" cell after being produced at high energy by projectile fragmentation. The ReA EBIT has a distinctive design; it is characterized by a high-current electron gun and a two-field superconducting magnet to optimize the capture and charge-breeding efficiency of continuously injected singly charged ion beams. Following a brief overview of the reaccelerator system and the ReA EBIT, this paper presents the latest commissioning results, particularly, charge breeding and reacceleration of the highly charged rare isotopes, (76)Ga(24 +, 25 +). PMID:24593600

Lapierre, A; Schwarz, S; Baumann, T M; Cooper, K; Kittimanapun, K; Rodriguez, A J; Sumithrarachchi, C; Williams, S J; Wittmer, W; Leitner, D; Bollen, G

2014-02-01

263

Adaptation of indigenous sheep, goats and camels in harsh grazing conditions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Microbial breakdown of cellulose is a rather slow process. Therefore the retention time of digesta and the volume of the fermentation chamber are factors limiting the quantity of fibrous diets that can be digested. Indigenous ruminants can generally adapt to harsh grazing conditions better than conventional breeds. Unexpectedly high rumen volumes were reported in a number of indigenous ruminants. In studies reported in this paper, Heidschnucken, an indigenous breed of sheep in the heather region of Northern Germany, were able to increase their rumen volume from 14% to 22% of body weight during adaptation to a low quality fibrous diet. Heidschnucken did not lose significant body weight, whereas Blackface sheep lost 20% and failed to adapt the rumen volume. Rumen volume of indigenous sheep and goats in Northern Kenya was 20% of body weight while grazing in the thornbush savannah during the dry season, compared with 9-12% while kept indoors on a hay-concentrate diet. Mean retention time of particles in the total gastrointestinal tract of goats and sheep in Kenya was 38 h and 46 h respectively. In the experiment with Heidschnucken, these sheep increased the retention time of particles to 71 h on a straw diet, while Blackface sheep retained particles 58 h. Dietary preference and feed intake have been studied in indigenous sheep and goats in Kenya at seasonal pasture conditions in the thornbush savannah. Goats have a higher preference to dicotyledon species (92-97%) than shce to dicotyledon species (92-97%) than sheep, who are less selective grazers. The feeding behaviour of indigenous sheep and goats was complementary rather than competitive. Feeding observations indicate that this is also the case when cattle (grazers) and camels (browsers) are included in such a comparison. (author)

264

Prevalence of bovine and avian tuberculosis in sheep and goat population of Bangladesh  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An attempt was undertaken to investigate the occurrence of bovine and avian tuberculosis in sheep and goat population in Bangladesh. A total of 273 sheep and 155 goats were screened for bovine and avian tuberculosis by caudal fold tuberculin (CFT and comparative cervical tuberculin (CCT tests. The percentage of responders to CFT test in sheep and goat were 9.15% and 1.29% respectively. The overall percentage of reactors to CCT test in sheep and goats were 1.46% and 1.29% respectively. In CCT test the reactors were 0.36%, 1.29% for bovine tuberculosis, 1.09%, 1.29% for avian tuberculosis and 0.00%, 1.29% for mixed type for the sheep and goats respectively. In sheep of 3-4 years of age the reactors were 2.39 times higher than sheep below 3 years of age. In goats of 4.1-6 years of age the reactors were 2.40 times higher than goats below 3 years of age. The present prevalent study showed significant (PP>0.05 association in sheep. In sheep the percentages of reactors were 1.24 times higher in male (1.72% than female (1.39%. Jamunapari (2.85% breed of goat had 3.5 times higher percentage of reactors as compared to Black Bengal breed (0.83%. The study indicates that bovine and avian tuberculosis may cause dangerous effects on human health as well as livestock of Bangladesh so its prevention and eradication steps must be taken without any delay.

Md. Mashiur Rahman

2013-01-01

265

Prion protein polymorphisms and estimation of risk of scrapie in East Asian sheep.  

Science.gov (United States)

Allele and genotype frequency distributions of prion protein (PrP) polymorphisms at three codons, 136, 154, and 171, in East Asian sheep were determined by PCR-RFLP analysis using 553 animals from nine local breeds of the northern group and four local breeds of the southern group. Based on the genotype distribution, the risk score for scrapie was estimated. Among the local breeds, ARQ appeared predominantly (0.7701-1), followed by ARH and ARR. From such a biased allele distribution, it was difficult to ascertain the prevalent genetic relationships. A marked difference in allele frequencies between the northern and southern groups was seen (P sheep had ARQ at the highest frequency (0.8834); in European sheep it was 0.5317. According to an assessment of scrapie risk in the PrP genotype classes, the predominant ARQ/ARQ in East Asian sheep corresponded to the risk score of R4. This finding suggests that East Asian sheep have a high level of genetic susceptibility to scrapie. PMID:19731007

Tsunoda, Kenji; Namikawa, Takao; Sato, Keizo; Hasnath, M A; Nyunt, Maung Maung; Rajbandary, Heramba B; Loc, Chau Ba; Zanchiv, Ts; Chang, Hong; Sun, Wei; Dorji, Tasi

2010-02-01

266

Expression sequence tag and QTL/MAS of goat/sheep in China.  

Science.gov (United States)

Goats/sheep are important in the animal agriculture of China. Distribution of these animals in China is closely related to the economic performance and ecological conditions in the specific regions. Comparative genome study is popular in China although the sheep and goat genome information are not well sequenced. Expression Sequence Tags (EST) are well developed in skin and ovary organ. Transgenic productions are focused on goat milk chiefly. Microsatellite DNA and mtDNA polymorphism were used to analyze the genetic structure mainly and some of them were used to detect the Quantitative Trait Loci(QTL) of goat and sheep. Only the candidate gene markers are used as Marker Assisted Selection (MAS) and integrated into Best Linear Unbiased Prediction (BLUP) selection strategy in goat and sheep nucleus breeding flock according to different breeds. Although some studies have proposed direct selection on the individual gene loci responsible for the genetic variation in some traits, there are 20 goat/sheep gene patents in the past decade. Some patents on gene with extremely broad claims will shadow over the commercialization of these gene and fill the blank of the gene patents in goat/sheep fields. PMID:19601923

JinQuan, Li; WenGuang, Zhang

2009-01-01

267

Seasonal changes in water metabolism of Sudan desert sheep and goats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Seasonal changes that occur in body weight, body temperature, total body water and water turnover were investigated in grazing sheep and goats at different times of the year to understand how different breeds adapt to the environmental conditions in Sudan. (author)

268

Newsletter of the LowInputBreeds project. Issue 7. EU project LowInputBreeds - Development of integrated livestock breeding and management strategies to improve animal health, product quality and performance in European organic and ‘low input’ milk, meat and egg production  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

With this newsletter we are informing you about progress in subprojects of LowInputBreeds. Our thematic article in this issue, from Alexandros Stefanakis and Nikolaos Voutzourakis, explains breeding values for selective traits of Skafiano sheep. We would particularly like to draw your attention to the third Symposium of the LowInputBreeds project, which will take place in Nantes, France, from the 26th to the 30th of August 2013. LowInputBreeds will manage a session ”Breeding and Manag...

LowInputBreeds Consortium,

2012-01-01

269

Genomic variation and population structure detected by single nucleotide polymorphism arrays in Corriedale, Merino and Creole sheep  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The aim of this study was to investigate the genetic diversity within and among three breeds of sheep: Corriedale, Merino and Creole. Sheep from the three breeds (Merino n = 110, Corriedale n = 108 and Creole n = 10) were genotyped using the Illumina Ovine SNP50 beadchip®. Genetic diversity was eval [...] uated by comparing the minor allele frequency (MAF) among breeds. Population structure and genetic differentiation were assessed using STRUCTURE software, principal component analysis (PCA) and fixation index (F ST). Fixed markers (MAF = 0) that were different among breeds were identified as specific breed markers. Using a subset of 18,181 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), PCA and STUCTURE analysis were able to explain population stratification within breeds. Merino and Corriedale divergent lines showed high levels of polymorphism (89.4% and 86% of polymorphic SNPs, respectively) and moderate genetic differentiation (F ST = 0.08) between them. In contrast, Creole had only 69% polymorphic SNPs and showed greater genetic differentiation from the other two breeds (F ST = 0.17 for both breeds). Hence, a subset of molecular markers present in the OvineSNP50 is informative enough for breed assignment and population structure analysis of commercial and Creole breeds.

Andrés N, Grasso; Virginia, Goldberg; Elly A, Navajas; Wanda, Iriarte; Diego, Gimeno; Ignacio, Aguilar; Juan F, Medrano; Gonzalo, Rincón; Gabriel, Ciappesoni.

270

Genomic variation and population structure detected by single nucleotide polymorphism arrays in Corriedale, Merino and Creole sheep  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The aim of this study was to investigate the genetic diversity within and among three breeds of sheep: Corriedale, Merino and Creole. Sheep from the three breeds (Merino n = 110, Corriedale n = 108 and Creole n = 10) were genotyped using the Illumina Ovine SNP50 beadchip®. Genetic diversity was eval [...] uated by comparing the minor allele frequency (MAF) among breeds. Population structure and genetic differentiation were assessed using STRUCTURE software, principal component analysis (PCA) and fixation index (F ST). Fixed markers (MAF = 0) that were different among breeds were identified as specific breed markers. Using a subset of 18,181 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), PCA and STUCTURE analysis were able to explain population stratification within breeds. Merino and Corriedale divergent lines showed high levels of polymorphism (89.4% and 86% of polymorphic SNPs, respectively) and moderate genetic differentiation (F ST = 0.08) between them. In contrast, Creole had only 69% polymorphic SNPs and showed greater genetic differentiation from the other two breeds (F ST = 0.17 for both breeds). Hence, a subset of molecular markers present in the OvineSNP50 is informative enough for breed assignment and population structure analysis of commercial and Creole breeds.

Andrés N, Grasso; Virginia, Goldberg; Elly A, Navajas; Wanda, Iriarte; Diego, Gimeno; Ignacio, Aguilar; Juan F, Medrano; Gonzalo, Rincón; Gabriel, Ciappesoni.

2014-06-01

271

Analysis of mitochondrial DNA indicates that domestic sheep are derived from two different ancestral maternal sources: no evidence for contributions from urial and argali sheep.  

Science.gov (United States)

To investigate the origins and phylogenetic relationships of domestic sheep, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) from 243 sheep of five European, one African, and four Asian breeds and several mouflon (Ovis musimon), urial (O. vignei bochariensis), and argali (O. ammon nigrimontana, O. a. collium) were assayed for restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP). Twenty haplotypes were identified which occurred in three major phlogenetic groups: urial/argali, mouflon/domestic, and domestic sheep. From the branches that contain mouflon and domestic sheep, two major domestic sheep lineages are apparent. One lineage, termed European lineage, contains the majority of haplotypes detected among European domestic sheep. These mtDNAs resemble mouflon haplotypes. The other lineage, termed Asian lineage, consists of haplotypes found in central Asian and some European domestic sheep. The mean sequence difference between these two lineages (0.72%) is of similar magnitude as that between two argali subspecies. To accurately estimate sequence differences between the European and Asian mtDNA types, the mitochondrial control region of one animal from each lineage and of one mouflon and urial were completely sequenced. Sequence comparisons show that Asian and European domestic sheep lineages differ by 4.43%. The mouflon sequences diverges from the Asian type by 4.52%, but by only 1.36% from the European type. Our data supports the hypothesis that some modern domestic sheep and European mouflon derive from a common ancestor and provide evidence of an additional wild ancestor, other than the urial and argali groups, which has yet to be identified. PMID:9542158

Hiendleder, S; Mainz, K; Plante, Y; Lewalski, H

1998-01-01

272

Candidate gene approach for parasite resistance in sheep--variation in immune pathway genes and association with fecal egg count.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sheep chromosome 3 (Oar3) has the largest number of QTLs reported to be significantly associated with resistance to gastro-intestinal nematodes. This study aimed to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within candidate genes located in sheep chromosome 3 as well as genes involved in major immune pathways. A total of 41 SNPs were identified across 38 candidate genes in a panel of unrelated sheep and genotyped in 713 animals belonging to 22 breeds across Asia, Europe and South America. The variations and evolution of immune pathway genes were assessed in sheep populations across these macro-environmental regions that significantly differ in the diversity and load of pathogens. The mean minor allele frequency (MAF) did not vary between Asian and European sheep reflecting the absence of ascertainment bias. Phylogenetic analysis revealed two major clusters with most of South Asian, South East Asian and South West Asian breeds clustering together while European and South American sheep breeds clustered together distinctly. Analysis of molecular variance revealed strong phylogeographic structure at loci located in immune pathway genes, unlike microsatellite and genome wide SNP markers. To understand the influence of natural selection processes, SNP loci located in chromosome 3 were utilized to reconstruct haplotypes, the diversity of which showed significant deviations from selective neutrality. Reduced Median network of reconstructed haplotypes showed balancing selection in force at these loci. Preliminary association of SNP genotypes with phenotypes recorded 42 days post challenge revealed significant differences (Psheep populations. PMID:24533078

Periasamy, Kathiravan; Pichler, Rudolf; Poli, Mario; Cristel, Silvina; Cetrá, Bibiana; Medus, Daniel; Basar, Muladno; A K, Thiruvenkadan; Ramasamy, Saravanan; Ellahi, Masroor Babbar; Mohammed, Faruque; Teneva, Atanaska; Shamsuddin, Mohammed; Podesta, Mario Garcia; Diallo, Adama

2014-01-01

273

Salmonella in Sheep in Iceland  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In 1995 several outbreaks of food poisoning in humans occurred in Iceland, that were traced to salmonella contamination of singed sheep heads. This prompted us to study the prevalence of salmonella infection in sheep and to trace where and how infection might have occurred. Faecal, intestinal contents and tonsillar samples were collected in the spring and autumn from sheep on 50 farms in the southwestern part of the country, where salmonellosis had been detected and from 5 farms in the northwestern part of the country. All faecal samples from the southwest were negative, whereas samples from 3 farms obtained in the autumn in the northwest were positive. Tonsillae taken in the autumn were positive in sheep from 3 farms in the southwest and 2 in the northwest. Our results show that salmonella infection is rare in Icelandic sheep but healthy carriers may harbour the bacteria in tonsillae. Salmonella was not detected in drainage from slaughterhouses nor in singed sheep heads.

Gunnarsson E

2002-03-01

274

Marker-assisted selection in sheep and goats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sheep and goats are often kept in low input production systems, often at subsistence levels. In such systems, the uptake of effective commercial breeding programmes is limited, let alone the uptake of more advanced technologies such as those needed for marker-assisted selection (MAS). However, effective breeding programmes exist in a number of countries, the largest ones in Australia and New Zealand aiming for genetic improvement of meat and wool characteristics as well as disease resistance and fecundity. Advances have been made in sheep gene mapping with the marker map consisting of more than 1 200 microsatellites, and a virtual genome sequence together with a very dense single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) map are expected within a year. Significant research efforts into quantitative trait loci (QTL) are under way and a number of commercial sheep gene tests have already become available, mainly for single gene effects but some for muscularity and disease resistance. Gene mapping in goats is much less advanced with mainly some activity in dairy goats. Integration of genotypic information into commercial genetic evaluation and optimal selection strategies is a challenge that deserves more development. (author)

275

Current Condition and directions of Livestock Breeding in the Central Anatolia Region  

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Full Text Available The Central Anatolia Region is one of the seven geographical regions which are 151 thousand square meters of surface area and it is about 21.0% of Turkey's land area. The population rate of cattle breeds in the Central Anatolia Region is 20.4% exotic cattle breeds, 19.1% crossbred, 11.6% native cattle breeds and total 18.1% in Turkey. The Central Anatolia Region cattle population is consists of 43.9% of exotic breed, 43.5% crossbred and 12.6% the native cattle breeds. The population of exotic cattle breeds (69.5% in Nigde province is the first place and followed by Eskisehir provinces rate of 65.6% in the Central Anatolia Region. The rate of crossbred cattle population is the highest rate (65.0% province of Sivas and followed by Çank?r? province (62.8%. Ankara and Yozgat province has the highest rate of native cattle breed 28.3% and 25.5%, respectively. The total populations of cattle breeds in Konya and K?r?kkale provinces were found maximum 518.291 cattle and minimum 45.426 cattle, respectively, in the Central Anatolia Region. The population rate of exotic and crossbred cattle breeds has increased 67.0% and 11.8%, respectively, while population rate of native cattle breeds has decreased 30.3% from 2007 to 2011 in the Central Anatolia Region. The 20.1% of sheep, 8.2% of goat and 18.3% rates of total livestock population in Turkey are in the Central Anatolia Region. The population rate of sheep and goat of the Central Anatolia Region is 20.1% and 9.5%, sheep and goat respectively and 18.3% total in Turkey. The 70.9% for Angora goats, 8.2% hair of goats, and 17.7% indigenous of sheep breeds and 66.0% crossbreed to national Sheep and Goat population has risen in the Central Anatolia Region. All of these results are evaluated, Central Anatolia Region, Turkey, the contribution of animal products grown by population of cattle and small ruminants is important and can be considered a center of attraction for investment in animal breeding

Ayhan Ceyhan

2013-12-01

276

Cattle Breed Identification  

Science.gov (United States)

How many of you all grew up on a cattle farm? This is a diagram that we will use to tell some advantages and disadvantages about beef cattle as we study different beef breeds. Diagram Advantages and Disadvantages of beef cattle breeds The first website that we will look at for the identification of beef cattle breeds is The Beef Site. Choose three breeds and look for some advantages ...

Harbour, Mr.

2012-04-04

277

TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO THE SHEEP AND GOAT MILK WITHIN ECHOLOGIC CONDITIONS  

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Full Text Available The introduction of HACCP system within sheep exploitations represents a unitary control manner, scientifically proved, which enforces the discipline and correctness, allows an objective evaluation of sheep and goat meat and milk quality. When determining the main components of sheep and goat milk from the animals that grazed on the pasture fertilized with stable manure, within ecologic conditions, the following results were obtained: at sheep there was a fat percent of 6.22% and 6.11%, protein 5.32% and 5.52%, and dry substance 14.25% and 14.21%, normal values for sheep milk; at goats the fat percent was that of 6.22% and 6.11%, protein 5.32% and 5.52%, and dry substance 14.25% and 14.21%, normal values for goat milk. The milk samples taken from the sheep belonging to Palas Merino breed and from Carpatina breed were also analysed with regard to the toxic residues and it has been stated that the values obtained fit within the normal norms admitted by the food domain’ standards, being in compliance with the safety and protection of the consumers. The elimination of chemical fertilizers, pesticides and herbicides has led to the non-noticing of their presence within the sheep and goat products. By the regulation of ecologic products’ quality, in relation with the consumers’ and environment’s protection, a balance was created between the producers’ interests and obligations, those of the merchants and also those of the consumers. On the basis of results obtained through the microbiological examination of milk and meat samples taken from the sheep it has been stated that the microbial flora identified is formed by representatives of Staphylococcus–72.72% Streptococcus ? hemolitic – 9.09% and Fungi filamentous – 18.18%. The microbial flora is non pathogen for man.

CAMELIA ZOIA ZAMFIR

2013-12-01

278

Tolerance of therapeutic doses of abamectin and doramectin in Istrian Pramenka sheep.  

Science.gov (United States)

Avermectin endectocides are very effective and safe veterinary drugs, when used at recommended doses. Adverse reactions are described in some species and breeds of animals. In this study, the effects of therapeutic doses of abamectin and doramectin on some haematological and biochemical parameters in Istrian Pramenka sheep are discussed. In the pilot trial, we compared selected haematological and blood biochemical parameters of an experimental sheep flock (40 sheep) with the reference values. Then, two groups of 12 sheep (and their suckling lambs) were chosen from the experimental sheep flock. Each group was subdivided into a control (six animals) and treated (six sheep and their six suckling lambs) groups. We compared haematological and biochemical parameters between control and treated group before subcutaneous administration of abamectin or doramectin (0.2 mg/kg b.w.) and on days 15 and 42 after treatment. In addition, animals were observed for neurological signs. We detected some significant differences (P haematological and biochemical parameters between control and treated animals, but none of them appeared to be of clinical importance. No neurological symptoms were observed. Therefore, abamectin and doramectin might be well tolerated in Istrian Pramenka sheep. PMID:16300662

Kuzner, J; Kolar, L; Nemec, M; Borko, C; Marc, I; Pogacnik, M; Erzen, N K; Flajs, V C

2005-12-01

279

Sheep Brain Dissection  

Science.gov (United States)

A sheep brain is used to teach about memory and where it takes place because its brain structure and functions are similar to the human brain. Students will be exposed briefly to the fact that electrochemical connections made between brain cells help us remember the thoughts, skills, experiences, and knowledge that make each of us unique. Through dissections, students will learn about the cortex, brain cells, and where the three main subdivisions of memory (working, long-term, and skill memory) take place.

Science NetLinks (The museum of science, art and human perception at the Palace of Fine Arts;)

2004-04-30

280

Seroprevalence of bluetongue in sheep and goats in Egypt  

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Full Text Available Aim: The study was undertaken to understand the epidemiological status of bluetongue infection in Egypt. Materials and Methods: Serum samples were collected from clinically healthy as well as suspected sheep and goats. Samples were collected during the vector breeding season from September to November 2010, from 14 Egyptian governorates which represent different geographical regions of Egypt, and were tested by Agar Gel Immuno-precipitation Test (AGPT. Results: Out of total 1293 animal serum samples (sheep-1028 and goats-265, 17.5% of sheep and 14.7% of goats serum samples were found positive. The overall prevalence of anti-BT antibodies in different governorates was 16.9%. The highest prevalence of bluetongue group specific antibodies was detected in Beni-Suef, Giza, and Al Sharqia governorates (13.2%. The results indicate that there is a necessity to run further studies to identify the negative governorates. In addition, there is a lack in information regarding the BTV serotypes in Egypt. Conclusion: This study reflected high seroprevalence of bluetongue infection in sheep than goats. The results indicated that further studies are needed to identify the vectors from different agro-climatic zones, in addition, the BTV serotypes that are circulating in Egypt.

M. A. Mahmoud

2014-04-01

 
 
 
 
281

Hair-type sheep generate an accelerated and longer-lived humoral immune response to Haemonchus contortus infection.  

Science.gov (United States)

Antibody levels produced in response to gastro-intestinal nematode (GIN) parasite infection are typically higher in GIN-resistant breeds than susceptible breeds. Consequently, GIN-resistant ewes should generate greater parasite-specific antibody in colostrum and milk, potentially providing greater passive immunity to young lambs. To test this hypothesis, we monitored immunoglobulin levels in wool and hair-type sheep infected with Haemonchus contortus for 35 days following the end of a 45-day autumn breeding season and subsequently for 6 weeks around the time of parturition. Ten, first-parity ewes of each type were infected with 12,000 H. contortus L3 larvae following the end of breeding. In response to infection, hair ewes generated greater serum IgA (Pcolostrum and milk of either breed. These data further demonstrate that hair-type sheep can rapidly reduce fecal egg output and generate greater humoral immunity as evidenced by higher levels of circulating antigen-specific antibody, but there is no evidence to suggest GIN-resistant sheep preferentially mobilize antigen-specific IgA to colostrum or milk. Thus, no clear difference exists between types of sheep in ability to deliver parasite-specific IgA to their offspring. PMID:23414615

Bowdridge, Scott; MacKinnon, Kathryn; McCann, Joshua C; Zajac, Anne M; Notter, David R

2013-09-01

282

Genetic Variation among Baluchi Sheep Population Using Microsatellite Markers  

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Full Text Available In order to identify polymorphic microsatellite markers and evaluae genetic variation within Baluchi sheep population, nineteen microsatellite loci were studied. Whole Blood samples were collected from 156 sheep at north eastern animal breeding station of Iran (Abbasabad-Mashhad. DNA was extracted by salting-out procedure with some modifications. Polymerase chain reactions were successfully done except for UNC5C locus. PCR products were electrophoresed on 8% denaturing polyacrylamide gels stained according to rapid silver staining procedure. The genotype and allelic frequencies were calculated by direct counting and used for estimating of different polymorphism and genetic variation criteria. This population wasn't at Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium except for OarAE101 locus (P

P. Daneshyar

2007-10-01

283

Effect of breed on mineral composition of meat from light lambs  

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Full Text Available The proximate composition and mineral content of light lambs muscle (derived from Istrian and Dalmatian Pramenka breeds were studied. The M. Longissimus dorsi (MLD samples of 30 carcasses were analysed and the effects of breed and sex were studied. Although lambs of investigated breeds were similar for slaughter age (2.5 months, Dalmatian Pramenka had significantly higher carcass weights (CW; P<0.05. Breed had a significant influence on moisture and fat contents, whilst mineral composition (with the exception of selenium was scarcely affected by breed and sex. Fat and moisture contents were significantly correlated with cold CW. The magnesium, calcium, manganese and selenium contents were significantly correlated (r=0.50, -0.46, 0.44, 0.54; P<0.05 respectively with CW. This study contributes to characterization of lamb carcasses from Istrian Sheep and Dalmatian Pramenka breeds and provides new data on the composition of the MLD of light lambs.

Zdravko Bara?

2010-01-01

284

Inter-relationship Between Body Measurements and Prices of Sheep in An Open Market in Kano State  

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Full Text Available This study attempted to determine the inter-relationship between market price and body measurements among different breeds of sheep in open markets of six Local Government Areas of Kano State (Municipal, Taruauni, Gmale, Nassarawa, Fagge and Dala of Kano city. Body measurements and prices of sheep used for this study were obtained from Unguwa Uku, Dorayi, Kara, Bachirawa, yankaba, Mariri and Kabara livestock markets in Kano. The Sudanese price was the highest (N 30,000±0.0, followed by Uda, Balami and Yankasa with the least cost being N 10, 614±3,137. Similarly the Sudanese breed recorded highest body weight, back length, lion girth and height at wither compared to all other breeds, while Balami had a higher chest girth (78.77±6.0 cm, followed by Uda and Yankasa, which recorded the least. The extra large animals weighed 58.75± 1.25 kg, which was more than the body weight of the large, medium and small sheep which weighed 42.48±0.34kg, 34.93±0.21 and 27.92±0.26, respectively. The price of these animals also follow the same pattern as the extra large cost more than all the other weight classes. The prices were N 25,750±8,500, N 15,524±2,263, N 11,284±2792 and N 8,324±1,584 for extra large, large, medium and the small sheep, respectively. Price of sheep was positive and highly correlated to weight of the sheep (0.826. Price was also positive and moderately correlated to back length (0.579, chest girth (0.538, height at wither (0.535 and leg length (0.464 at 1% level of significance. Leg length was highly and positively correlated with height at wither (0.717. Height at whither together with back length are important additional variables to chest girth to obtain up to 38% prediction of price of rams. The price of any sheep breed is subjected to the weight and the price of sheep in an open market can best be predicted from a combination of leg length and loin girth. (Animal Production 13 (1:64-68 (2011Key Words: price of sheep, sheep breeds and open markets

AO Iyiola-Tunji

2011-01-01

285

Molecular Marke rs in Conservation of the Breeds  

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Full Text Available Many native breeds are facing the problem of extinction. Therefore, urgently, genetic diversity ofbreeds must be studied and the results must be employed to find out the conservation priority of the breeds .Microsatellites and mtDNA sequences are the two types of genetic markers that have been found useful andhave been employed widely in the studies revealing the genetic diversity of closely related populations.Studies based on these markers, in parallel to Archeological findings , indicated that the native Turkish cattle,goat and sheep breeds are close to one of the centers of domestication. Therefore, it is highly likely that thesebreeds are harboring potential genetic information to be utilized in the future. Hence, they must have highpriority in conservation on the global scale. Again, genetic studies indicated that, morphological characters ofthe breeds may give incomplete/wrong informat ion about the evolutionary history of the breeds.Furthermore, genetic studies indicated that, before the prioritizat ion of the breeds in conservation, first thegroup of breeds having the same evolutionary history must be determined. For this, breeds must be examinedwith respect to several types of genetic markers, differing in their modes of inheritance. Recently, todetermine the conservation priorities of the breeds, new methods, using various criteria, such as: geneticdistinctness, genetic diversity level, adaptation to special environmental conditions, risk of ext inction of thebreed, are being developed. Yet, they are not fully developed.Lastly, it is well known that breeds loose genetic informat ion as they go from one generation to thenext. Simulation studies, give insights about how to minimize this inevitable genetic loss by using molecularmarkers. However, at the current stage of technology, employment of the emerging rules are very expensive.

C. C. Berkman

2005-01-01

286

Alpine vegetation type affects composition of nutritionally important C18 fatty acids in tissues of lambs from different breeds  

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A total of 110 lambs of the breeds Engadine Sheep and Valaisian Black Nose Sheep were fattened on one lowland and three different alpine pasture types. The experiment was conducted in two consecutive years and lasted for 9 weeks of grazing in each year. Immediately afterwards, the lambs were slaughtered. Perirenal adipose tissue and the Longissimus dorsi muscle were analysed for fatty acid composition. The lambs on the lowland pasture had the lowest proportions of linoleic and ?-linolenic...

Willems, H.; Kreuzer, M.; Leiber, F.

2013-01-01

287

Suitability of blood protein polymorphisms in assessing genetic diversity in indigenous sheep in Kenya  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Knowledge of genetic diversity is important as it forms the basis for designing breeding programmes and making rational decisions on sustainable utilization of animal genetic resources. This study was designed to assess the efficiency of blood protein polymorphism as a rapid tool for assessing genetic diversity, using seven blood proteins (transferrin, albumin, haemoglobin, esterase A, esterase C, carbonic anhydrase and X-protein) and 457 indigenous fat-tailed (351) and fat-rumped (106) hair sheep in Kenya from 7 populations, with 40 Merino as controls. Transferrin was analysed using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and starch gel electrophoresis was used to analyse the other six loci. Of the seven loci analysed, two - carbonic anhydrase and X-protein - could not be interpreted. The five interpretable markers, however, showed low levels of polymorphism in allele numbers and heterozygosity. Multilocus mean FST values of 0.083 indicated a moderate genetic differentiation between the populations analysed. The Dm and Da genetic distance estimates showed the indigenous sheep populations in Kenya to be closely related genetically, with the dendrogram failing to resolve indigenous sheep into fat-tailed sheep and fat-rumped hair sheep. Due to its costs and modest equipment demands, blood protein polymorphism can be used as a rapid tool to assess genetic diversity and prioritize breeds to be analysed by microsatellite DNA markers. (author)

288

MORPHO-PRODUCTION AND REPRODUCTION TRAITS OF THE COLOUR VARIETIES BELONGING TO THE BOTO?ANI KARAKUL BREED  

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Full Text Available To achieve this experiment, the biological material was represented by theBoto?ani Karakul sheep, ewes and rams of different age categories and of differentcolour varieties (black, greyish, brown, grey, pink and white. The animalsproceeded both from the elite farm of the R.D.S.S. Pop?u?i and from theproduction and private farms from the breeding area of this breed. The Karakulbreed is specialized for the lamb pelt production. The classical colours are blackand greyish. The genetic base of creation of new colour varieties was representedby black and greyish sheep which constitute a continue source of numerical andqualitative increase of these varieties applying adequate reproduction andselection technologies. The main morpho-production traits of sheep werementioned, as follows: the qualitative features of lamb pelts, the body growth, thebody conformation and constitution, reproduction aptitudes, milk production,framing in the specific parameters of the Boto?ani Karakul breed.

ELENA FECIORU

2013-12-01

289

Prolonged incubation time in sheep with prion protein containing lysine at position 171.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sheep scrapie susceptibility or resistance is a function of genotype, with polymorphisms at codon 171 in the sheep prion gene playing a major role. Glutamine (Q) at codon 171 contributes to scrapie susceptibility, while arginine (R) is associated with resistance. In some breeds, lysine (K) occurs at codon 171, but its effect on scrapie resistance has not been determined. Charge and structural similarities between K and R suggest that they may contribute to prion disease susceptibility in a similar way, but studies have not been performed to confirm this. The purpose of the current study was to compare susceptibility and incubation times of AA(136)RR(154)QQ(171) (where the letter denotes the amino acid and the number the position) with AA(136)RR(154)QK(171) sheep after inoculation with scrapie. Barbado AA(136)RR(154)QQ(171) and AA(136)RR(154)QK(171) sheep were inoculated with scrapie intracerebrally to assess their susceptibility to scrapie. After inoculation, sheep were observed daily for clinical signs and were euthanized and necropsied after clinical signs were unequivocal. Tissues were collected at necropsy for immunohistochemistry and Western blot analyses. The QQ(171) sheep had clinical signs approximately 12 months after inoculation, whereas QK(171) animals had an average incubation time of 30 months to onset of clinical signs. The distribution of abnormal prion protein was similar in QQ(171) and QK(171) sheep. Results of the study indicate that sheep with a single K allele at codon 171 are susceptible to scrapie but with a prolonged incubation time. Work is currently underway to examine relative scrapie susceptibility or resistance of KK(171) sheep. PMID:22529124

Greenlee, Justin J; Zhang, Xia; Nicholson, Eric M; Kunkle, Robert A; Hamir, Amir N

2012-05-01

290

Ectoparasites of sheep in three agro-ecological zones in central Oromia, Ethiopia  

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Full Text Available A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence and risk factors for ectoparasites infestation in sheep in three agro-ecological zones in central Oromia, Ethiopia, from October 2009 to April 2010. The study revealed that 637 (48.1% of the 1325 sheep examined were infested with one or more ectoparasites. The ectoparasites identified were Bovicola ovis (27.2%, Melophagus ovinus (16.4%, Ctenocephalides sp. (2.3%, Linognathus africanus (1.2%, Linognathus ovillus (0.3%, Sarcoptes sp. (1.2%, Amblyomma variegatum (4.4%, Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi (1.9%, Rhipicephalus pravus (1.9%, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus decoloratus (1.1%, Rhipicephalus sanguineus (0.9%, Rhipicephalus praetextatus (1.1% and Hyalomma truncatum (1.6%. Statistically significant difference was observed in prevalence of B. ovis amongst study agroecological zones: highland 36.6%, midland 20.9% and lowland 14.0%. Significantly higher prevalence was recorded in highland agroecological zone. A significantly (OR = 0.041, p 0.05 was never recorded in the prevalence of all the identified species of ectoparasites between male and female sheep hosts. However, a significantly (p = 0.006 higher prevalence of B. ovis was recorded between young and adult sheep. The risk of B. ovis infestation was 1.45 times higher in young than the adult sheep. Furthermore, a significantly (p < 0.001 higher prevalence of M. ovinus, B. ovis and Sarcoptes sp. was found between sheep with poor and a good body condition. The ever increasing threat of ectoparasites on overall sheep productivity and tanning industry in Ethiopia warrants urgent control intervention. Further studies on the role of ectoparasites in transmission of diseases to sheep, zoonotic importance, comparative prevalence and load, and the importance of sheep as alternative hosts in different agroecological zones, breeds and management systems in Ethiopia are recommended so as to design applicable control programme in the country.

Bersissa Kumsa

2012-10-01

291

Wound myiasis of sheep in Hungary.  

Science.gov (United States)

In Hungary, 4388 sheep in six flocks were surveyed in June-August of 1992-1995 to gather basic data on wound myiasis, its incidence, the predominant fly species involved and the clinical manifestations of infestation. The pathogenesis and economic significance of wound myiasis, as well as the interrelation of breed and sex with infestation levels, were evaluated. Active wound myiasis was recorded in all flocks, in 17.6% (774/4388) of the inspected sheep. The incidence varied among flocks and inspections from 4.7% to 38.9%, but it was significantly greater in imported breeds (28.8%, 651/2257) than in indigenous breeds (5.8%, 123/2131). Lesions of wound myiasis were located more frequently on the external genital organs (in 87%, 673/774 of all cases) than on other body regions. Overall, significantly more males (74.3%, 61/82) than females (16.5%, 713/4306) were infested. With the exception of five cases (0.06% of the total), when larvae of Lucilia sericata (Diptera: Calliphoridae) were also found, Wohlfahrtia magnifica (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) was the only species identified in wounds in this study. Despite the fact that larvae of L. sericata were so rarely encountered in wounds, adults of L. sericata were much the more common of the two species observed around wounds, even those infested by W. magnifica. The vast majority of animals inspected had only one myiasis wound. Clinical signs depended on the body part affected. The most severe infestations, in terms of extent of wounds and numbers of visible larvae, were usually those of the vulva and prepuce. Wound consisted of from one up to six foci, each completely filled by larvae of W. magnifica. These foci were either isolated from each other or they merged into a large lesion. Larvae in any focus tended to be at the same stage of development, but, were wounds were very severe, a range of developmental stages was observed together, indicating that frequent restrikes of wounds occurred. The most common signs were restlessness, anxiety and reluctance to graze. The animals were obviously depressed when they suffered from severe infestations causing lameness or blindness. Some of the most severely affected animals displayed obvious loss of condition. However, overall, there was no significant difference between the mean bodyweights of a sample of infested (59.2 kg) and uninfested (60.9 kg) animals. PMID:9187038

Farkas, R; Hall, M J; Kelemen, F

1997-04-01

292

molecular and biochemical markers for early pregnancy detection in sheep  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

the present study was conducted as in the experimental sheep farm of the nuclear research center, egyptian atomic energy authority in association with the institute of graduate studies and research. university of alexandria. this study aims to accurately and economically detect early pregnancy using techniques of biotechnology .consequently, the suggested method may replace techniques used nowadays for pregnancy detection since these techniques have disadvantages (e.g. long time before accurately determining pregnancy in rectal abdominal palpation and high cost and hazards of using serum progesterone radio immunoassay (RIA). the farmer may benefit from such detection economically by increasing his farm breeding cycle efficiency , reducing the breeding expenses . and isolating fertile ewes as early as possible. therefore reducing abortion incidences. stillbirths or production of weak lambs. this study was performed in two separate experiments. the first experiment: twenty four mixed breed sheep from the experimental sheep of the nuclear research center . egyptian atomic energy authority were used in this study. blood samples were taken at days 5.7.10.16.21.and 25 days after mating and a native- page were applied on the serum of these samples in correlation with serum progesterone RIA test. in addition . white blood cells were isolated from blood samples to obtain purified total RNA for RT-PCR. gel images were analyzed using totallab v.i.II(nonlinear dynamic, Newcastle upontyne. UK) computer software.the second experiment:nine pregnant and two non-pregnant ewes used in this experiment. blood sample were taken 0.25.30.35.40.45.and 50 days after mating and SDS-page were applied on the serum of theses samples. Native-page were applied for serum samples and stained for glycoproteins. gel images were analyzed using totallab v/1.11 (nonlinear dynamic. Newcastle upontyne. UK) computer software

293

Abomasal emptying defect in Suffolk sheep.  

Science.gov (United States)

Twelve Suffolk sheep were examined because of an abomasal emptying problem. Anorexia and weight loss were evident in 11 of the sheep. Ventral abdominal distention was observed in 5 sheep. Laboratory analyses failed to show the hypochloremic, hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis commonly found in cattle with a similar problem. Rumen chloride concentrations in 3 sheep indicated reflux of abomasal contents into the rumen. PMID:6511624

Rings, D M; Welker, F H; Hull, B L; Kersting, K W; Hoffsis, G F

1984-12-15

294

EVOLUTION OF THE MAIN BLOOD INDICES IN TSIGAI FATTENING SHEEP  

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Full Text Available Research was performed on Tsigai, Merino of Cluj, and Corriedale breeds. The main blood constants: glicemy, cholesterol, total proteins, albumins, globulins, gamma globulin, creatinine, urea and iron, were determined in order to establish the feeding metabolism. Types of hemoglobin in young studied sheep also were determined, using electrophoresis on paper. The analyses of hemoglobin type performed on experimental groups show that in Tsigai prevails B hemoglobin type. Both B and AB hemoglobin types were identified in Corriedale and Merino of Cluj, prevailing B type. The main biochemical parameter frames in the normal physiological limit, emphasizing the diet balance in all nourishing principles.

V MIRE?AN

2004-04-01

295

Gene expression of regulatory enzymes involved in the intermediate metabolism of sheep subjected to feed restriction.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of feed restriction on gene expression of regulatory enzymes of intermediary metabolism was studied in two sheep breeds (Australian Merino and Dorper) subjected to two nutritional treatments: feed restriction (85% of daily maintenance requirements) and control (ad libitum feeding), during 42 days. The experimental animals (ram lambs) were divided into four groups, n = 5 (Australian Merino control (MC), Australian Merino Restriction (MR), Dorper control (DC) and Dorper Restriction (DR)). After the trial, animals were sacrificed and samples were taken from liver tissue to quantify glucose levels and gene expression of relevant intermediary metabolism enzymes (phosphofructokinase (PFK), pyruvate kinase (PK), phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase, glucose-6-phosphatase, glycogen synthase (GS), fatty acid synthase (FAS), glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) and carbamoyl phosphate synthase (CPS)) through real-time PCR. During the experimental period, the MR animals lost 12.6% in BW compared with 5.3% lost by the Dorper lambs. MC and DC rams gained, respectively, 8.8% and 14% during the same period. Within the Dorper breed, restricted feed animals revealed a significant decrease over controls in the transcription of PFK (1.95-fold) and PK (2.26-fold), both glycolytic enzymes. The gluconeogenesis showed no change in the feed restricted animals of both breeds. DR feed group presented a significant decrease over the homologous Merino sheep group on GS. In both experimental breeds, FAS mRNA expression was decreased in restricted feed groups. GDH expression was decreased only in the DR animals (1.84-fold) indicating a reduced catabolism of amino acids in these animals. Finally, CPS was significantly (P < 0.05) higher in the Dorper sheep, indicating a facilitated urea synthesis in this breed. These results indicate a better adaptation of metabolic intermediate regulatory enzymes and hepatic glucose production of Dorper sheep to feed restriction concurring with the BW results in the experimental groups. PMID:23031388

van Harten, S; Brito, R; Almeida, A M; Scanlon, T; Kilminster, T; Milton, J; Greeff, J; Oldham, C; Cardoso, L A

2013-03-01

296

Influence of Fasciola Hepatica on Serum Biochemical Parameters and Vascular and Biliary System of Sheep Liver  

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Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the functional capacity of the liver based on the activity of specific enzymes and bilirubin in serum and also to investigate the influence of mechanical and toxic effects of Fasciola hepatica on the structures of the blood vessels and biliary tract in the sheep liver.Methods: Blood samples and liver of 63 indigenous sheep of Pramenka breed, slaughtered in the period from March to December 2009 were used. Based on parasitological findings in the liver, all animals were divided into two groups: control (n=34 and infected group (n=29. For investigation and description of pathological changes in sheep liver, naturally infected with F. hepatica, corrosion cast technique was used.Results: Biochemical analysis of tested parameters showed a significant elevation (P?0.05 of serum gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT, total bilirubin (TBIL and direct bilirubin (DBIL in infected sheep group comparing with the control group. No significant differences were observed for activity of aspartate aminotranferase (AST between groups. Vascular and biliary systems of the liver were found to be affected.Conclusion: Results of biochemical analysis are consistent with pathological findings and measuring of tested parameters could be used in early diagnosis of sheep fasciolosis and to test the effectiveness of anthelmintic therapy. Corrosion cast technique is very useful for investigation of pathological changes and neoangiogenesis of vascular and biliary system in sheep liver, caused by mechanical and toxic effects of F. hepatica.

A Hodži?

2013-03-01

297

Amino acid polymorphisms of PrP gene in Mongolian sheep.  

Science.gov (United States)

To characterize amino acid polymorphisms in sheep prion protein (PrP), we analyzed the PrP genes from 271 sheep of 4 breeds (Khalkh, Yeroo, Orkhon and Khangai) raised in central Mongolia (Tuv, Uvurkhangai and Selenge prefectures). A total of 16 genotypes and 8 allelic variants of the PrP gene at codons 112, 136, 154 and 171 were found. At codon 171, 1.8% of the sheep had arginine/arginine (R/R) (resistant to scrapie) and 66.8% had glutamine/glutamine (Q/Q) (susceptible to scrapie). Several Yeroo and Orkhon sheep raised in Selenge prefecture had valine at codon 136 (136V) (highly susceptible to scrapie). Several Yeroo, Orkhon and Khangai sheep raised in Selenge prefecture had histidine at codon 154 (154H). Novel polymorphisms of valine (V) and serine (S) at codon 127, lysine (K) at codon 171, and leucine (L) and arginine (R) at codon 189 were also found in Khalkh, Yeroo and Orkhon sheep. It is not known whether these novel polymorphisms affect scrapie susceptibility. PMID:12576708

Gombojav, Altangerel; Ishiguro, Naotaka; Horiuchi, Motohiro; Serjmyadag, Dorj; Byambaa, Badarch; Shinagawa, Morikazu

2003-01-01

298

Polymorphism of BMP2 Gene Associated with Growth Traits in Guizhou Semi-Fine Wool Sheep  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2 (BMP2 plays a crucial role in bone growth. The objective of this study was to investigate variations in sheep BMP2 gene and their associations with growth traits in 320 Guizhou Semi-Fine Wool sheep. Five fragments of BMP-2 gene were investigated only exon2 region of BMP-2 gene showed polymorphism after PCR-SSCP and DNA sequencing methods. There was one G>A (g. 273 G>A mutation located in nucleotide position of GenBank Accession No. EU854586 which constructed three genotypes (LL, LW and WW. The frequencies of allele L and genotype LL were dominant in Guizhou Semi-Fine Wool sheep. The PIC (Polymorphism Information Content values of the Guizhou Semi-Fine Wool sheep were 0.3261 belong to median polymorphism. Associations between growth traits and BMP2 gene polymorphism were investigated and significant statistical association results were found in body height, body length and chest circumference (pBMP2 gene is a candidate gene that influences growth traits in Guizhou Semi-Fine Wool sheep. Further investigations are required for detecting the polymorphism of this gene in a broad variety of sheep breeds and populations.

Xiao Yun Shen

2012-01-01

299

multivariate measure of lactation persistency for dairy sheep  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The persistency of lactation, i.e. the ability of animals to maintain a rconstant level of production after the lactation peak, represents an interesting trait for animal breeding strategies, allowing for the increase of profitability of animal husbandry via the reduction of production costs. Dairy cattle with flatter curves show a higher reproductive efficiency, a better metabolic status and have their nutritional requirements more constantly spread throughout lactation, allowing for the use of cheaper feeds (Dekkers et al., 1998; Solkner and Fucks, 1987. Also in dairy sheep the persistency could represent an interesting trait for breeding purposes. A main problem for the introduction of this trait in an aggregate genotype is represented by the difficulty in finding an objective measure: several measurements of lactation persistency have been proposed but none of them is widely accepted (Gengler, 1996..........

A. Cappio-Borlino

2011-03-01

300

Tritium breeding in fusion reactors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Key technological problems that influence tritium breeding in fusion blankets are reviewed. The breeding potential of candidate materials is evaluated and compared to the tritium breeding requirements. The sensitivity of tritium breeding to design and nuclear data parameters is reviewed. A framework for an integrated approach to improve tritium breeding prediction is discussed with emphasis on nuclear data requirements

 
 
 
 
301

Tritium breeding materials  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Tritium breeding materials are essential to the operation of D-T fusion facilities. Both of the present options - solid ceramic breeding materials and liquid metal materials are reviewed with emphasis not only on their attractive features but also on critical materials issues which must be resolved.

Hollenberg, G.W.; Johnson, C.E.; Abdou, M.

1984-03-01

302

Tritium breeding materials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Tritium breeding materials are essential to the operation of D-T fusion facilities. Both of the present options - solid ceramic breeding materials and liquid metal materials are reviewed with emphasis not only on their attractive features but also on critical materials issues which must be resolved

303

Prevalence and Etiology of Abscess Disease of Sheep and Goats at Qassim Region, Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abscess disease (caseous lymphadenitis and Morel disease is a worldwide contagious bacterial disease of sheep and goats and is adversely affecting the development of the sheep industry in Saudi Arabia. Fifteen sheep and 12 goat farms at Qassim region, central Saudi Arabia, were surveyed during September and October 2008 for the determination of the prevalence and the etiology of abscess disease. One hundred and twenty pus samples were collected from affected external lymph nodes of clinically-ill sheep and goats and from infected internal lymph nodes and organs condemned during meat inspection in the slaughterhouses, for the isolation and identification of pathogenic bacteria causing sheep abscess disease. The prevalence of abscess disease varied between 5%– 44.1% in sheep farms, being highest in the Najdi breed, and between 2.2 % – 6.5 % in goat farms. Males of both sheep and goats had the highest rate of infection compared to females (p <0.01. Bacterial isolates were obtained from 97 out of the 120 collected pus samples (80.83%. The remaining 23 samples were sterile. Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis and Staphylococcus aureus subsp. anaerobius accounted for about 54% of isolates, with almost equal frequencies (p =0.5. Other pyogenic bacteria such as S. aureus, Streptococci, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Actinomyces pyogenes were also isolated from infected abscesses. They represented about 46% of the isolated etiological agents of sheep abscesses. This explains why available vaccines (bactrins against caseous lymphadenitis (CLA are poorly protective against abscess disease in Saudi Arabia. [Vet. World 2011; 4(11.000: 495-499

Khaled Bani Al-Harbi

304

Candidate Gene Approach for Parasite Resistance in Sheep – Variation in Immune Pathway Genes and Association with Fecal Egg Count  

Science.gov (United States)

Sheep chromosome 3 (Oar3) has the largest number of QTLs reported to be significantly associated with resistance to gastro-intestinal nematodes. This study aimed to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within candidate genes located in sheep chromosome 3 as well as genes involved in major immune pathways. A total of 41 SNPs were identified across 38 candidate genes in a panel of unrelated sheep and genotyped in 713 animals belonging to 22 breeds across Asia, Europe and South America. The variations and evolution of immune pathway genes were assessed in sheep populations across these macro-environmental regions that significantly differ in the diversity and load of pathogens. The mean minor allele frequency (MAF) did not vary between Asian and European sheep reflecting the absence of ascertainment bias. Phylogenetic analysis revealed two major clusters with most of South Asian, South East Asian and South West Asian breeds clustering together while European and South American sheep breeds clustered together distinctly. Analysis of molecular variance revealed strong phylogeographic structure at loci located in immune pathway genes, unlike microsatellite and genome wide SNP markers. To understand the influence of natural selection processes, SNP loci located in chromosome 3 were utilized to reconstruct haplotypes, the diversity of which showed significant deviations from selective neutrality. Reduced Median network of reconstructed haplotypes showed balancing selection in force at these loci. Preliminary association of SNP genotypes with phenotypes recorded 42 days post challenge revealed significant differences (P<0.05) in fecal egg count, body weight change and packed cell volume at two, four and six SNP loci respectively. In conclusion, the present study reports strong phylogeographic structure and balancing selection operating at SNP loci located within immune pathway genes. Further, SNP loci identified in the study were found to have potential for future large scale association studies in naturally exposed sheep populations. PMID:24533078

Periasamy, Kathiravan; Pichler, Rudolf; Poli, Mario; Cristel, Silvina; Cetrá, Bibiana; Medus, Daniel; Basar, Muladno; A. K., Thiruvenkadan; Ramasamy, Saravanan; Ellahi, Masroor Babbar; Mohammed, Faruque; Teneva, Atanaska; Shamsuddin, Mohammed; Podesta, Mario Garcia; Diallo, Adama

2014-01-01

305

New animal breeding techniques and their application.  

Science.gov (United States)

The new biotechnologies of gene transfer, in-vitro production, cloning and sexing of embryos have been developed and are being refined with efficiencies suitable for use in animal agriculture. Efficient in-vitro systems for maturing oocytes and capacitating spermatozoa, for fertilizing and developing the embryos have resulted in commercial in-vitro production of embryos. Cloning of embryos by nuclear transfer has been accomplished for sheep, cattle, pigs and rabbits with nuclear material supplied by embryos as late as the 120-cell stage in sheep. Embryos have been recloned but much research is needed to increase the efficiency of this procedure. Research is needed to develop the use of cultured cells in embryo cloning so that the number of clones may be increased to thousands or millions. Embryos of most species can be sexed in a non-damaging way with male specific antibodies and a more efficient method, amplified DNA hybridization, is beginning to be tested commercially. Transgenic embryos or offspring have been produced for mice, rats, rabbits, chickens, fish, sheep, pigs and cattle. Genes can be targeted for expression in specific tissues but more efficient methods and a better understanding of the genes to be transferred as well as control by man of the time and tissue of specific gene expression are needed. Before many transgenic animals of value can be made, we must know which genes to introduce. Presently there is a poor understanding of the genes influencing animal growth, efficiency of growth, environmental adaptation, meat, milk or egg composition or animal disease resistance. Their identification will come from badly needed efforts to map the genome of domestic animals. These and other new technologies promise to change livestock breeding drastically in the next decade. PMID:2213713

First, N L

1990-01-01

306

Technical indicators of economic performance in dairy sheep farming.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, the level of technical efficiency of 58 sheep farms rearing the Chios breed in Greece was measured through the application of the stochastic frontier analysis method. A Translog stochastic frontier production function was estimated using farm accounting data of Chios sheep farms and the impact of various socio-demographic and biophysical factors on the estimated efficiency of the farms was evaluated. The farms were classified into efficiency groups on the basis of the estimated level of efficiency and a technical and economic descriptive analysis was applied in order to illustrate an indicative picture of their structure and productivity. The results of the stochastic frontier model indicate that there are substantial production inefficiencies among the Chios sheep farms and that these farms could increase their production through the improvement of technical efficiency, whereas the results of the inefficiency effects model reveal that the farm-specific explanatory factors can partly explain the observed efficiency differentials. The measurement of technical inefficiency and the detection of its determinants can be used to form the basis of policy recommendations that could contribute to the development of the sector. PMID:24156392

Theodoridis, A; Ragkos, A; Roustemis, D; Arsenos, G; Abas, Z; Sinapis, E

2014-01-01

307

Sheep mitochondrial DNA variation in European, Caucasian, and Central Asian areas.  

Science.gov (United States)

Three distinct mitochondrial maternal lineages (haplotype Groups A, B, and C) have been found in the domestic sheep. Group B has been observed primarily in European domestic sheep. The European mouflon carries this haplotype group. This could suggest that European mouflon was independently domesticated in Europe, although archaeological evidence supports sheep domestication in the central part of the Fertile Crescent. To investigate this question, we sequenced a highly variable segment of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in 406 unrelated animals from 48 breeds or local varieties. They originated from a wide area spanning northern Europe and the Balkans to the Altay Mountains in south Siberia. The sample included a representative cross-section of sheep breeds from areas close to the postulated Near Eastern domestication center and breeds from more distant northern areas. Four (A, B, C, and D) highly diverged sheep lineages were observed in Caucasus, 3 (A, B and C) in Central Asia, and 2 (A and B) in the eastern fringe of Europe, which included the area north and west of the Black Sea and the Ural Mountains. Only one example of Group D was detected. The other haplotype groups demonstrated signs of population expansion. Sequence variation within the lineages implied Group A to have expanded first. This group was the most frequent type only in Caucasian and Central Asian breeds. Expansion of Group C appeared most recently. The expansion of Group B involving Caucasian sheep took place at nearly the same time as the expansion of Group A. Group B expansion for the eastern European area started approximately 3,000 years after the earliest inferred expansion. An independent European domestication of sheep is unlikely. The distribution of Group A variation as well as other results are compatible with the Near East being the domestication site. Groups C and D may have been introgressed later into a domestic stock, but larger samples are needed to infer their geographical origin. The results suggest that some mitochondrial lineages arrived in northern Europe from the Near East across Russia. PMID:16782761

Tapio, Miika; Marzanov, Nurbiy; Ozerov, Mikhail; Cinkulov, Mirjana; Gonzarenko, Galina; Kiselyova, Tatyana; Murawski, Maciej; Viinalass, Haldja; Kantanen, Juha

2006-09-01

308

Classic scrapie in sheep with the ARR/ARR prion genotype in Germany and France.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the past, natural scrapie and bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) infections have essentially not been diagnosed in sheep homozygous for the A136R154R171 haplotype of the prion protein. This genotype was therefore assumed to confer resistance to BSE and classic scrapie under natural exposure conditions. Hence, to exclude prions from the human food chain, massive breeding efforts have been undertaken in the European Union to amplify this gene. We report the identification of 2 natural scrapie cases in ARR/ARR sheep that have biochemical and transmission characteristics similar to cases of classic scrapie, although the abnormally folded prion protein (PrP(Sc)) was associated with a lower proteinase-K resistance. PrP(Sc) was clearly distinct from BSE prions passaged in sheep and from atypical scrapie prions. These findings strongly support the idea that scrapie prions are a mosaic of agents, which harbor different biologic properties, rather than a unique entity. PMID:17953092

Groschup, Martin H; Lacroux, Caroline; Buschmann, Anne; Lühken, Gesine; Mathey, Jacinthe; Eiden, Martin; Lugan, Séverine; Hoffmann, Christine; Espinosa, Juan Carlos; Baron, Thierry; Torres, Juan Maria; Erhardt, Georg; Andreoletti, Olivier

2007-08-01

309

Mapping quantitative trait loci for milk production and genetic polymorphisms of milk proteins in dairy sheep.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, we present recent advances in the molecular dissection of complex traits in dairy sheep and discuss their possible impact on breeding schemes. In the first step, we review the literature data on genetic polymorphisms and the effects of sheep alphas1-casein and beta-lactoglobulin loci. It is concluded that the results are rather inconsistent and cannot be used in dairy sheep selection. In a second step, we describe the strategy implemented in France, Italy and Spain taking advantage of the genetic maps for QTL detection. These studies were part of a European project, called "genesheepsafety", which investigated both milk production and functional traits. Preliminary QTL results are presented for production traits. PMID:15601591

Barillet, Francis; Arranz, Juan-José; Carta, Antonello

2005-01-01

310

Mapping quantitative trait loci for milk production and genetic polymorphisms of milk proteins in dairy sheep  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract In this paper, we present recent advances in the molecular dissection of complex traits in dairy sheep and discuss their possible impact on breeding schemes. In the first step, we review the literature data on genetic polymorphisms and the effects of sheep ?s1-casein and ?-lactoglobulin loci. It is concluded that the results are rather inconsistent and cannot be used in dairy sheep selection. In a second step, we describe the strategy implemented in France, Italy and Spain taking advantage of the genetic maps for QTL detection. These studies were part of a European project, called "genesheepsafety", which investigated both milk production and functional traits. Preliminary QTL results are presented for production traits.

Barillet Francis

2005-12-01

311

ANALYSIS OF POLYMORPHISM OF CAST GENE AND CLPG GENE IN SHEEP BY PCR-RFLP METHOD  

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Full Text Available The work was oriented to identification of calpastatin gene polymorphism and callipyge gene polymorphism and analysis of genotype structure in population of sheep kept in Slovakia. The material involved 96 sheep of breeds tsigai, improved valachian, east friesian, lacaune and crossbreds lacaune and tsigai . Genomic DNA was isolated by salting out method and used in order to estimate calpastatin and callipyge genotypes by means of PCR-RFLP method. The PCR products were digested with MspI restriction enzyme for calpastatin gene and FaqI restriction enzyme for callipyge gene. In the total population of sheep was detected homozygous genotype MM – 0.87, heterozygous genotype MN – 0.13 for calpastatin gene. Homozygous genotype NN has not been observed. For the callipyge gene was detected homozygous genotype AA – 1.00 only. The heterozygous genotype AG and homozygous genotype GG was not detected.

M. GÁBOR

2013-07-01

312

An explicit immunogenetic model of gastrointestinal nematode infection in sheep.  

Science.gov (United States)

Gastrointestinal nematodes are a global cause of disease and death in humans, wildlife and livestock. Livestock infection has historically been controlled with anthelmintic drugs, but the development of resistance means that alternative controls are needed. The most promising alternatives are vaccination, nutritional supplementation and selective breeding, all of which act by enhancing the immune response. Currently, control planning is hampered by reliance on the faecal egg count (FEC), which suffers from low accuracy and a nonlinear and indirect relationship with infection intensity and host immune responses. We address this gap by using extensive parasitological, immunological and genetic data on the sheep-Teladorsagia circumcincta interaction to create an immunologically explicit model of infection dynamics in a sheep flock that links host genetic variation with variation in the two key immune responses to predict the observed parasitological measures. Using our model, we show that the immune responses are highly heritable and by comparing selective breeding based on low FECs versus high plasma IgA responses, we show that the immune markers are a much improved measure of host resistance. In summary, we have created a model of host-parasite infections that explicitly captures the development of the adaptive immune response and show that by integrating genetic, immunological and parasitological understanding we can identify new immune-based markers for diagnosis and control. PMID:25121649

Prada Jiménez de Cisneros, Joaquín; Stear, Michael J; Mair, Colette; Singleton, Darran; Stefan, Thorsten; Stear, Abigail; Marion, Glenn; Matthews, Louise

2014-10-01

313

Genetic diversity and networks of exchange: a combined approach to assess intra-breed diversity  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Cryopreservation of three endangered Belgian sheep breeds required to characterize their intra-breed genetic diversity. It is assumed that the genetic structure of a livestock breed depends mostly on gene flow due to exchanges between herds. To quantify this relation, molecular data and analyses of the exchanges were combined for three endangered Belgian breeds. Methods For each breed, between 91 and 225 sheep were genotyped with 19 microsatellites. Genetic differentiations between breeds and among herds within a breed were evaluated and the genetic structure of the breeds was described using Bayesian clustering (Structure. Exchanges of animals between 20, 46 and 95 herds according to breed were identified via semi-directed interviews and were analyzed using the concepts of the network theory to calculate average degrees and shortest path lengths between herds. Correlation between the Reynolds’ genetic distances and the shortest path lengths between each pair of herds was assessed by a Mantel test approach. Results Genetic differentiation between breeds was high (0.16. Overall Fst values among herds were high in each breed (0.17, 0.11 and 0.10. Use of the Bayesian approach made it possible to identify genetic groups of herds within a breed. Significant correlations between the shortest path lengths and the Reynolds’ genetic distances were found in each breed (0.87, 0.33 and 0.41, which demonstrate the influence of exchanges between herds on the genetic diversity. Correlation differences between breeds could be explained by differences in the average degree of the animal exchange networks, which is a measure of the number of exchanges per herd. The two breeds with the highest average degree showed the lowest correlation. Information from the exchange networks was used to assign individuals to the genetic groups when molecular information was incomplete or missing to identify donors for a cryobank. Conclusions A fine-scale picture of the population genetic structure at the herd level was obtained for the three breeds. Network analysis made it possible to highlight the influence of exchanges on genetic structure and to complete or replace molecular information in establishing a conservation program.

Dumasy Jean-François

2012-05-01

314

Mutation breeding in Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The achievements made in mutation breeding in Japan over the past 40 years are outlined from the viewpoint of practical breeding. Fifty-four varieties of 23 crops were obtained by direct use of induced mutants. These include 12 cereal mutant varieties, five food legumes, nine industrial crops, seven vegetables and 18 ornamentals. Ten varieties were obtained by national breeding institutes, 14 by prefectural stations and 30 by universities or private firms. The varieties produced by the national breeding programme were registered and released with Norin numbers. In most cases, ionizing radiation was used. Forty additional mutant varieties were developed through cross-breeding using induced mutants as the gene sources. Of the 33 rice varieties in this category, 21, including six national varieties, resulted from crosses involving Reimei, a semi-dwarf mutant variety. Another semi-dwarf mutant parent was used to breed two more national varieties. Three early heading mutants were also integrated into cross-breeding programmes and produced three national and two prefectural varieties. A large grain mutant produced three varieties for sake brewing. A new recessive resistant mutant allele to the soil borne virus (BaYMV) was induced in barley. One variety was bred using this mutant as a parent. Another promising disease resistant clone was induced by chronic irradiation in a gamma field in the leading Japanese pear variety Nijisseiki, which is susceptible to black spot disease caused by Alternaria alternata (Fr.) Keissler. This mutant clone maintained all the superior qualities of the original variety. The significant role of the Institute of Radiation Breeding as a core in mutation breeding is mentioned briefly. (author). 10 refs, 2 figs, 6 tabs

315

Newsletter of the LowInputBreeds project. Issue 3. EU project LowInputBreeds - Development of integrated livestock breeding and management strategies to improve animal health, product quality and performance in European organic and ‘low input’ milk, meat and egg production  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

With this third newsletter of the EU-funded project LowInputBreeds we intend to inform our readers about recent project activities and results in cattle, sheep, pig and laying hen production systems as well as in economic and multi-criteria impact assessment. Furthermore researchers from the LowInputBreeds project have compiled two brief articles. The first article describes the use of genome-wide selection strategies for improving functional traits in cattle, the second article describes ...

LowInputBreeds Consortium,

2010-01-01

316

Newsletter of the LowInputBreeds project. Issue 4. EU project LowInputBreeds - Development of integrated livestock breeding and management strategies to improve animal health, product quality and performance in European organic and ‘low input’ milk, meat and egg production  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The fourth newsletter of the LowInputBreeds project reports on the successful first project symposium which took place in March in Wageningen, the Netherlands, focussing on ethical issues in animal breeding. Furthermore the newsletter contains an article on small ruminant production systems in Crete, and the traits required in order to improve production efficiency and product quality in traditional low-input dairy sheep production systems. And like every newsletter, we report progress in the...

LowInputBreeds Consortium,

2011-01-01

317

Sarcocystis arieticanis (Apicomplexa: Sarcocystidae) infecting the heart muscles of the domestic sheep, Ovis aries (Artiodactyla: Bovidae), from K. S. A. on the basis of light and electron microscopic data.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the present study, the heteroxenous life cycle of Sarcocystis species from three strains of the slaughtered sheep at Al-Azizia and Al-Saada abattoirs in Riyadh city, K.S.A., was studied. Muscle samples of the oesophagus, diaphragm, tongue, skeletal and heart muscles were examined. Varied natural infection rates in the muscles of the examined sheep strains were recorded as 83 % in Niemy, 81.5 % in Najdy and 90 % in Sawakny sheep. Muscles of the diaphragm showed the highest infection level above all organs except Najdy sheep in which oesophagus has the highest rate. Also, the heart was the lowest infected organ (40 % Niemy, 44 % Najdy and 53 % Sawakny). Microscopic sarcocysts of Sarcocystis arieticanis are easily identified in sections through the heart muscles of the domestic sheep Ovis aries (Artiodactyla: Bovidae). Cysts measured 38.5-64.4 ?m (averaged 42.66 ?m) in width and 62.4-173.6 ?m (averaged 82.14 ?m) in length. The validity of this species was confirmed by means of ultrastructural characteristics of the primary cyst wall (0.1-0.27 ?m thick) which revealed the presence of irregularly shaped crowded and hairy-like projections underlined by a thin layer of ground substance. This layer consisted mainly of fine, dense homogenous granules enclosing the developing metrocytes and merozoites that usually contain nearly all the structures of the apical complex and fill the interior cavity of the cyst. Several septa derived from the ground substance divided the cyst into compartments. The merozoites were banana-shaped and measured 12-16 ?m in length with centrally or posteriorly located nuclei. Experimental infection of carnivores by feeding heavily infected sheep muscles revealed that the dog, Canis familiaris, is the only final host of the present Sarcocystis species. Gamogony, sporogonic stages and characteristics of sporulated oocysts were also investigated. PMID:25112213

Al Quraishy, Saleh; Morsy, Kareem; Bashtar, Abdel-Rahman; Ghaffar, Fathy Abdel; Mehlhorn, Heinz

2014-10-01

318

Genetic polymorphism of the beta-lactoglobulin gene in native sheep from India.  

Science.gov (United States)

The genetic polymorphism of the beta-lactoglobulin (beta-LG) gene was determined in 638 animals belonging to 15 native Indian sheep breeds reared in different agroecological regions for various production traits. Variants of beta-LG were found using PCR-RFLP of genomic DNA. Rsa1 restriction enzyme digestion of a 120-bp PCR fragment of exon 2 of beta-LG revealed two genetic variants, A (0.37) and B (0.63), and the three genotypes AA (0.175), AB (0.389), and BB (0.436). The differences in allelic frequency were not significant across the breeds, irrespective of their geographic origin and utility (chi(2) test, P > 0.05). The pattern of occurrence of allelic variants revealed that the B allele was more frequent in the majority of the Indian breeds than in breeds reported from countries of Southwest Asia, Eastern and Central Europe, and the Mediterranean. A higher level of heterozygosity (0.422) was discerned, despite the declining status of several of the Indian breeds. These findings revealed that Indian sheep are predominantly of the beta-LG B type. PMID:20052531

Arora, R; Bhatia, S; Mishra, B P; Sharma, R; Pandey, A K; Prakash, B; Jain, A

2010-04-01

319

Adaptations to climate-mediated selective pressures in sheep.  

Science.gov (United States)

Following domestication, sheep (Ovis aries) have become essential farmed animals across the world through adaptation to a diverse range of environments and varied production systems. Climate-mediated selective pressure has shaped phenotypic variation and has left genetic "footprints" in the genome of breeds raised in different agroecological zones. Unlike numerous studies that have searched for evidence of selection using only population genetics data, here, we conducted an integrated coanalysis of environmental data with single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) variation. By examining 49,034 SNPs from 32 old, autochthonous sheep breeds that are adapted to a spectrum of different regional climates, we identified 230 SNPs with evidence for selection that is likely due to climate-mediated pressure. Among them, 189 (82%) showed significant correlation (P ? 0.05) between allele frequency and climatic variables in a larger set of native populations from a worldwide range of geographic areas and climates. Gene ontology analysis of genes colocated with significant SNPs identified 17 candidates related to GTPase regulator and peptide receptor activities in the biological processes of energy metabolism and endocrine and autoimmune regulation. We also observed high linkage disequilibrium and significant extended haplotype homozygosity for the core haplotype TBC1D12-CH1 of TBC1D12. The global frequency distribution of the core haplotype and allele OAR22_18929579-A showed an apparent geographic pattern and significant (P ? 0.05) correlations with climatic variation. Our results imply that adaptations to local climates have shaped the spatial distribution of some variants that are candidates to underpin adaptive variation in sheep. PMID:25249477

Lv, Feng-Hua; Agha, Saif; Kantanen, Juha; Colli, Licia; Stucki, Sylvie; Kijas, James W; Joost, Stéphane; Li, Meng-Hua; Ajmone Marsan, Paolo

2014-12-01

320

Development and testing of a revised dynamic model of radiocaesium transfer to sheep tissues  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The model of radiocaesium transfer to sheep presented by Galer et al. [1] provides reliable predictions only for sheep of a similar body weight to those used in the development of the model (approximately 30 kg). To extend the applicability of the model, it was necessary to re-parameterise it in terms of activity concentrations in tissues rather than total activities within them (although for gut compartments the use of activity has been retained). The rate coefficients for the new model have been estimated by fitting the model to the data used by Galer et al. [1] which was derived from a single ''calibration'' experiment. The new model was found to account for 94% of the observed variation in the data (n = 42), a result similar to that obtained by Galer et al. [1]. The model has also been tested against data not used in its development but obtained from four separate experiments undertaken by three different laboratories. Good agreement between the predictions of the new model and observations was found for most circumstances and for several breeds of sheep with different body weights. It is concluded that the new model provides a useful dynamic description of radiocaesium transfers to the tissues of sheep of different breeds and under different contamination scenarios. (orig.)

 
 
 
 
321

The Relationship Between Plasma Leptin and FSH Concentrations with Ovulation Rate in Iranian Native Sheep  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between plasma leptin and FSH concentration in Iranian sheep. Forty female Mehraban and Sanjabi sheep were used. All ewes were cyclic and synchronized with cloprestenol. The ewes were divided into two breed groups: Mehraban breed (n = 20 and Sanjabi breed (n = 20, feeding at maintenance level. On the first and second days of estrus cycle, blood samples were collected from the jugular vein. Ovulation number was determined by endoscopy 7 days after the second injection. Mean Plasma leptin concentrations on second day (4.74±0.15 and 4.68±0.10 ng mL-1 were significantly higher than those on first day (2.64±0.11 and 2.56±0.04 ng mL-1 for Mehraban and Sanjabi sheep, respectively (p<0.01. Mean plasma FSH concentrations on second day (2.75±0.17 and 2.74±015 ng mL-1 were also significantly greater than those on first day (1.19±0.05 and 1.19±0.04 ng mL-1 for Mehraban and Sanjabi ewes, respectively (p<0.01. In the present study, positive relationship has been shown between plasma Leptin and FSH concentrations (p<0.01 in Mehraban and Sanjabi sheep. Ovulation rate had a significant difference between Mehraban (1.20±0.33 and Sanjabi (1.07±0.1 ewes. Significant differences were not observed between concentrations of FSH and leptin with ovulation rate in both breeds (p?0.01.

A. Towhidi

2007-01-01

322

Effect of breed and feeding on the carcass characteristics of the Chilote breed lamb  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english The Chilote sheep has been developed in an isolated environment, based on grazing lands with low nutritive value belonging to small-scale producers, because of which there is little information about the use of this breed for meat production. The objective of this work was to determine the effects o [...] n lamb carcasses of two breeds with different productive purposes and fed on pastures with different nutritional quality. Three groups of lambs were used. The first and second groups were composed of 13 and 11 Chilote lambs respectively, and the third composed of six Suffolk Down lambs. Lambs remained with their mothers, the first group on naturalized pasture and the rest on rangeland. Animals were slaughtered at 90 d of age. Live weight, carcass weight and yield, and several zoometric parameters were determined, as well as the weight of commercial cuts and the muscle, bone and fat ratios. Hide and hoof weights were also measured. For the effect of breed, Chilote lamb is narrower (P

Jorge, Ramírez-Retamal; Rodrigo, Morales; M. Eugenia, Martínez; Rodrigo, de la Barra.

323

Sources of variation and genetic profile of spontaneous, out-of-season ovulatory activity in the Chios sheep  

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Full Text Available Abstract Organising the breeding plan of a seasonally breeding species, such as sheep, presents a challenge to farmers and the industry as a whole, since both economical and biological considerations need to be carefully balanced. Understanding the breeding activity of individual animals becomes a prerequisite for a successful breeding program. This study set out to investigate the sources of variation and the genetic profile of the spontaneous, out-of-season ovulatory activity of ewes of the Chios dairy sheep breed in Greece. The definition of the trait was based on blood progesterone levels, measured before exposing the ewes to rams, which marks the onset of the usual breeding season. Data were 707 records, taken over two consecutive years, of 435 ewes kept at the Agricultural Research Station of Chalkidiki in northern Greece. When all available pedigree was included, the total number of animals involved was 1068. On average, 29% of all ewes exhibited spontaneous, out-of-season ovulatory activity, with no substantial variation between the years. Significant sources of systematic variation were the ewe age and live weight, and the month of previous lambing. Older, heavier ewes, that had lambed early the previous autumn, exhibited more frequent activity. Heritability estimates were 0.216 (± 0.084 with a linear and 0.291 with a threshold model. The latter better accounts for the categorical nature of the trait. The linear model repeatability was 0.230 (± 0.095. The results obtained in this study support the notion that spontaneous out-of-season ovulatory activity can be considered in the development of a breeding plan for the Chios sheep breed.

Kouttos Athanasios

2003-01-01

324

breeding birds paw leaflet  

...breeding birds Who is PAW NI? The Partnership for Action against...Crime in Northern Ireland (PAW NI) is comprised of various organisations...in wildlife law enforcement. PAW NI members are from both non...

325

Mutation breeding manual  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Atomic Energy Commission of Japan with the cooperation from the Japan Atomic Industrial Forum, Inc. (JAIF) held the first international conference for nuclear cooperation in Asia in 1990 to enhance cooperation in the nuclear field with neighboring Asian countries and as a result, a consensus was to implement regional nuclear cooperation in the field of radioisotopes and radiation utilization for agriculture among other areas, and plant mutation breeding was approved as a common field of cooperation; and due to vast information generated by the group in the succeeding roundtable discussions of each workshop, it was held as a consensus that a database of plant mutation breeding - FNCA be established; a mutant stock repository be set up, and that a bench-top mutation breeding manual be published as a guide for the aspiring radiation mutation breeding novice

326

Phyto-biotherapy to control gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep  

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Full Text Available The parasitic resistance and the tendency of recent years to shift to organic systems has resulted in several alternative animal management as the selection of resistant breeds, integration with other animal species, phytotherapy, nematophagous fungi, nematodes vaccines, among others. Looking for an alternative control of nematode parasites of sheep, this paper aimed to analyze the effect of administration of inactivated larvae of Haemonchus and fresh garlic on the level infection with gastrointestinal nematodes in naturally infected sheep. Therefore, 32 animals were monitored for 144 days after phyto-biotherapy treatments in relation to reduction of parasite eggs (egg reduction rate - FECR, these treatments under the genres of helminths and hematological changes. It was observed significant increase in the EPGs of G1 (control group and G4 (fresh garlic. At the end of the experiment observed lower EPG in G3 (inactivated larvae + fresh garlic compared to G1, but no difference between the EPG of the other groups. As for FECR, there was an average reduction of 44% in egg count in G2 (inactivated larvae and G3 and an increase of 44% in G4. The effectiveness of the treatments under the genus Haemonchus ranged from 0 to 77%, the latter being rate observed in G3 in day 67, just 7 days after the significant increase of lymphocytes. It was concluded from this study that fresh garlic administered at 2.5 mg / kg concentration failed to reduce the parasite burden of sheep, but which, when associated with administration of inactivated larvae of Haemonchus may had contributed to immune stimulant and reduction of eggs eliminated in the faeces of sheep treated with inactivated larvae, though not enough to be considered an effective treatment, the study highlights the importance and use of vaccines to control this parasite.

Luciane Holsback

2014-02-01

327

Comparative digestibility of low-quality grass hay by two breeds of cattle differing in mature live weight.  

Science.gov (United States)

The digestive capacity of the Portuguese native breed of Barrosão cattle and the Holstein-Friesian breed was measured when fed meadow hay (72-74 g CP and 641-671 g NDF/kg dry matter), offered either alone or supplemented with soya bean meal (150 g/kg dry matter), at maintenance level. Four mature cows of each breed were used. Average initial live weight (LW) was 457 and 635 kg for the Barrosão and the Holstein-Friesian cows respectively. The organic matter digestibility (OMD) of the meadow hay was higher in Holstein-Friesian than in Barrosão cows (p NDFD digestibility of the total diet (p 0.05). The results obtained in this study suggest a higher ability to digest fibre in the large dairy breed than in the small native breed. This suggestion is also supported by previous findings with sheep breeds largely differing in mature live weight. PMID:23746083

Lourenço, A L; Dias-da-Silva, A; Santos, A S; Rodrigues, M A M; Cone, J W; Ferreira, L M M

2014-06-01

328

Genetic parameters for resistance to trichostrongylid infection in dairy sheep.  

Science.gov (United States)

In sheep, the traditional chemical control of gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) parasites with anthelmintics has led to the widespread development of anthelmintic resistance. The selection of sheep with enhanced resistance to GIN parasites has been suggested as an alternative strategy to develop sustainable control of parasite infections. Most of the estimations of the genetic parameters for sheep resistance to GIN parasites have been obtained from young animals belonging to meat- and/or wool-specialised breeds. We present here the estimated genetic parameters for four parasite resistance traits studied in a commercial population of adult Spanish Churra dairy ewes. These involved two faecal egg counts (FECs) (LFEC0 and LFEC1) and two serum indicator traits, the anti-Teladorsagia circumcincta fourth stage larvae IgA (IgA) and the pepsinogen (Peps) levels. In addition, this study has allowed us to identify the environmental factors influencing parasite resistance in naturally infected Spanish Churra sheep and to quantify the genetic component of this complex phenotype. The heritabilities estimated for the two FECs analysed (0.12 for LFEC0 and 0.09 for LFEC1) were lower than those obtained for the examined serum indicators (0.19 for IgA and 0.21 for Peps). The genetic correlations between the traits ranged from 0.43 (Peps-IgA) to 0.82 (LFEC0-LFEC1) and were higher than their phenotypic counterparts, which ranged between 0.07 and 0.10. The heritabilities estimated for the studied traits were lower than previously reported in lambs. This may be due to the differences in the immune mechanisms controlling the infection in young (antibody reactions) and adult (hypersensitivity reactions) animals/sheep. In summary, this study demonstrates the presence of heritable variation in parasite resistance indicator traits in the Churra population studied, which suggests that genetic improvement is feasible for this complex trait in this population. However, further studies in which the experimental variables are controlled as much as possible are needed to identify the best trait that could be measured routinely in adult sheep as an indicator of parasite resistance. PMID:22444037

Gutiérrez-Gil, B; Pérez, J; de la Fuente, L F; Meana, A; Martínez-Valladares, M; San Primitivo, F; Rojo-Vázquez, F A; Arranz, J J

2010-04-01

329

PCR-RFLP of BMPR-IB gene in North African Barbarine sheep  

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Full Text Available This study reports the statue of the Booroola fecundity gene (FecB mutation in Barbarine sheep breed. A total of 334 ewes recorded with twining births from the Tunisian fat tail Barbarine sheep were genotyped in the objective to identify the FecB mutation. The FecB genotyping was carried out by forced restriction fragment length polymorphism PCR technique. Forced PCR of the FecB gene was amplified using a specific primer designed to introduce a point mutation in the resulting PCR products with FecB non carriers sheep containing an AvaII restriction site, whereas products from non carriers lacked this site. Digestion of an amplified 140 base pair FecB gene with AvaII restriction enzyme resulted in a non-carrier 140 bp band (wild type in all studied animals which revealed absence of the AvaII restriction site in this breed. Considering the records of twinning in this breed, it can be concluded that the genetics factor controlling twinning is not related to this mutation, which has been reported Booroola as a major gene previously.

Jemmali Borni,

2011-04-01

330

Bayesian estimates of genetic changes for body weight traits of Moghani sheep using Gibbs sampling.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of the present study was to estimate genetic changes of body weight at different ages in Moghani sheep. Traits included were birth weight (BW, n?=?4,208), 3-month weight (3MW, n?=?4,175), 6-month weight (6MW, n?=?3,138), 9-month weight (9MW, n?=?2,244), and yearling weight (YW, n?=?1,342). Data and pedigree information used in this study were collected at the Breeding Station of Moghani sheep during 1989-2005. The analysis was carried out for five traits, using the MTGSAM program. Breeding values of individual animals were obtained from a multivariate animal model analysis and genetic trends were obtained by regressing the means of predicted breeding values on year of birth for each trait. Direct genetic trends were positive and significant (P?6MW, 9MW, and YW and were 1.63, 69.20, 79.38, 66.83, and 110.22 g/year, respectively. Also, maternal genetic trends for BW, 3MW, 6MW, 9MW, and YW were positive and significant (P?sheep seems feasible in selection programs. PMID:21789547

Ghavi Hossein-Zadeh, Navid

2012-03-01

331

In vitro amplification of ovine prions from scrapie-infected sheep from Great Britain reveals distinct patterns of propagation  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA is a method that facilitates the detection of prions from many sources of transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE. Sheep scrapie represents a unique diversity of prion disease agents in a range of susceptible PRNP genotypes. In this study PMCA was assessed on a range of Great Britain (GB sheep scrapie isolates to determine the applicability to veterinary diagnosis of ovine TSE. Results PrPSc amplification by protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA was assessed as a diagnostic tool for field cases of scrapie. The technique was initially applied to thirty-seven isolates of scrapie from diverse geographical locations around GB, and involved sheep of various breeds and PRNP genotypes. All samples were amplified in either VRQ and/or ARQ PrPC substrate. For PrPSc from sheep with at least one VRQ allele, all samples amplified efficiently in VRQ PrPC but only PrPSc from ARH/VRQ sheep amplified in both substrates. PrPSc from ARQ/ARQ sheep displayed two amplification patterns, one that amplified in both substrates and one that only amplified in ARQ PrPC. These amplification patterns were consistent for a further 14/15 flock/farm mates of these sheep. Furthermore experimental scrapie strains SSBP1, Dawson, CH1641 and MRI were analysed. SSBP1 and Dawson (from VRQ/VRQ sheep amplified in VRQ but not ARQ substrate. MRI scrapie (from ARQ/ARQ sheep nor CH1641 did not amplify in ARQ or VRQ substrate; these strains required an enhanced PMCA method incorporating polyadenylic acid (poly(A to achieve amplification. Conclusions PrPsc from 52 classical scrapie GB field isolates amplified in VRQ or ARQ or both substrates and supports the use of PMCA as a rapid assay for the detection of a wide range of ovine classical scrapie infections involving multiple PRNP genotypes and scrapie strains.

Thorne Leigh

2012-11-01

332

Simulation of charge breeding of rubidium using Monte Carlo charge breeding code and generalized ECRIS model.  

Science.gov (United States)

A Monte Carlo charge breeding code (MCBC) is being developed by FAR-TECH, Inc. to model the capture and charge breeding of 1+ ion beam in an electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) device. The ECRIS plasma is simulated using the generalized ECRIS model which has two choices of boundary settings, free boundary condition and Bohm condition. The charge state distribution of the extracted beam ions is calculated by solving the steady state ion continuity equations where the profiles of the captured ions are used as source terms. MCBC simulations of the charge breeding of Rb+ showed good agreement with recent charge breeding experiments at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). MCBC correctly predicted the peak of highly charged ion state outputs under free boundary condition and similar charge state distribution width but a lower peak charge state under the Bohm condition. The comparisons between the simulation results and ANL experimental measurements are presented and discussed. PMID:20192325

Zhao, L; Cluggish, B; Kim, J S; Pardo, R; Vondrasek, R

2010-02-01

333

Wool traits of three sympatric sheep populations in Chiapas Region, México.  

Science.gov (United States)

A total of 344 pure animals, representing seven American and South European breeds (White Chiapas Blanca, Brown Chiapas Café, Black Chiapas Negra, Churra Badana, Churra da Terra Quente, Chilean Latxa, and Spanish Merino), were randomly sampled and wool evaluated for isoalcohol scouring yield, length, and proportion for each type of fiber (long-thick, short-thin, and kemp), average of fiber diameter, and F30 (percentage of fibers with a diameter of >30 ?m). The objective of this study was to characterize these breeds according to their wool traits. A low percentage of the phenotypic variability in the analyzed animals was due to differences among breeds, and that the largest part of that variability is due to differences within breeds. The obtained topology in the principal coordinates analysis showed the grouping of the three Chiapas breeds clearly separated, but the similarity with their original breed was only evident for Brown Chiapas Café. The three Chiapas sheep breeds must be regarded as clearly sympatric populations. PMID:22773118

Parés-Casanova, Pere M; Perezgrovas, Raúl

2012-12-01

334

Measurements of charge state breeding efficiency at BNL test EBIS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

or 5.3 ms for two different electron beam currents - 1 and 1.5 A. In these experiments we have achieved 70% injection/extraction efficiency and breeding efficiency into the most abundant charge state ?17%.

335

Ovine progressive pneumonia provirus levels are unaffected by the prion 171R allele in an Idaho sheep flock  

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Selective breeding of sheep for arginine (R) at prion gene (PRNP) codon 171 confers resistance to classical scrapie. However, other effects of 171R selection are uncertain. Ovine progressive pneumonia/Maedi-Visna virus (OPPV) may infect up to 66% of a flock thus any affect of 171R selection on OPPV susceptibility or disease progression could have major impact on the sheep industry. Hypotheses that the PRNP 171R allele is 1) associated with the presence of OPPV provirus and 2) associated with ...

Harrington, Robert D.; Herrmann-hoesing, Lynn M.; White, Stephen N.; O Rourke, Katherine I.; Knowles, Donald P.

2009-01-01

336

Possibilities to breed for resistance to nematode parasite infections in small ruminants in tropical production systems.  

Science.gov (United States)

Gastrointestinal nematode parasitism is the most important disease affecting livestock production systems in developing countries, particularly small ruminant production systems. Of particular importance are infections with the strongyle Haemonchus contortus. Integrated disease control strategies are required, including improved management, nutrition and wise use of anthelmintic chemicals. Increasingly, selection of sheep or goats for improved nematode resistance is viewed as a valuable option to complement other control measures. Breeding for resistance is possible because of the existence of extensive genetic variation in resistance, both within and between breeds of sheep and goats. Such breeding schemes are most likely to be based on choice of appropriate breeds adapted to the local environmental conditions, followed by phenotypic selection for resistance. Goal and selection objective traits are likely to include performance (e.g. growth rate) under conditions of parasite challenge, faecal egg count (FEC) and measures of anaemia. With current technologies, genetic markers are likely to be too expensive and logistically difficult to incorporate into breeding schemes in tropical or developing countries. Genotype by environment interactions may be expected, particularly when comparing animals in environments that differ in the extent of parasite challenge or differ in the quality of available nutrition. However, there is no reason to expect antagonistic genetic relationships between performance and resistance, and selection indices should be readily constructed that improve both performance and resistance. If FEC is decreased, then pasture contamination should also decrease, leading to additional benefits for all sheep grazing the same pasture. Finally, breeding for nematode resistance should lead to lasting and sustained improvements in resistance or tolerance. There is no empirical evidence to suggest that nematodes will evolve rapidly in response to resistant hosts, and mathematical models based on genetic and biological principles also suggest that resistance should be sustainable. PMID:22558922

Bishop, S C

2012-05-01

337

Genetic diversity and relationships among Italian Merino derived breeds assessed by microsatellites  

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Full Text Available The conservation of genetic variability is one of the main objectives in the field of genetics applied to domestic livestock. Among molecular markers, microsatellites are particularly appreciated and widely utilized for the study of animal genome. In this study a genetic characterization of three Italian Merino derived sheep breeds was carried out by 30 microsatellites markers; the genetic relationships between these breeds and the Spanish ancestors were also investigated. All the microsatellites examined resulted polymorphic and a total of 375 alleles were detected. FIS values of the three Italian Merinos demonstrate a low level of inbreeding. The results show a good genetic variability of all the studied breeds; at the same time, the genetic identity of each breed is confirmed. These molecular data can be utilized to improve the present selection schemes and the plans to preserve genetic diversity.

Francesca Maria Sarti

2010-01-01

338

Electronic identification in Sheep - Your technical guide  

... leaflet contains further information and useful contacts for more advice. .... \\Downloads by cable or wirelessly through Bluetooth technology. • Can create \\simple ... These in effect are mini computers, designed to allow you to store \\individual ...

339

Mineral requirements of dairy sheep  

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Full Text Available This paper reviews the major (Calcium, Phosphorus, Potassium, Sodium, Chlorine, Sulphur, Magnesium and the trace  elements (Iron, Copper, Cobalt, Iodine, Manganese, Zync, Molybdenum, Selenium that play an essential role in animal  metabolism. For each one the authors indicate not only the function, but also the more recent advances in terms of  daily requirements for dairy sheep

Giuseppina Camboni

2010-01-01

340

THE EFFECTS OF VEGETABLE LECITHIN ON SOME SANGUINE BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS AT LACTATING SHEEP AND GOATS  

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Full Text Available From a complex experiment of establishing the effects of lecithin supplemented in the diet of small ruminants, in this paper we present the influence of lecithin on some sanguine biochemical parameters at lactating sheep and goat. The researches were made on a experimental group formed by 5 sheep from ?urcana breed and 5 goats from Crapatina breed, which were fed in the first experimental period with a base ratio (Br formed by 1.5 kg of hill hay and 0.2 kg concentrate forage mixture, in the second experimental period the Br was supplemented with 100 g lecithin/day/animal. At the end of each experimental period were taken blood samples to establish some biochemical parameters from sanguine serum. The supplementation of base ration with 100 g lecithin/day/animal at lactating sheep and goats did not produced significant changes to values of total proteins (TS, albumin, creatinine, urea and total bilirubins (TB from sanguine serum. Contrary to expectation the cholesterol and triglycerides were higher than normal both in sheep (from 82 mg/dl to 83 mg/dl for cholesterol and from 23 mg/dl to 45 mg/dl for triglycerides but specially in goats (from 59 mg/dl to 68 mg/dl for cholesterol and from 24 mg/dl to 55 mg/dl for triglycerides. Were registered significant increment of activity of alkaline phosphatase and in ? – GT and a decrease of plasmatic activity of pancreatic ?-amylase both in sheep and goats.

D. DRINCEANU

2013-12-01

 
 
 
 
341

Prevalence of gastro-intestinal parasitic infections in Sheep of Kashmir valley of India  

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Full Text Available Background: Geologically the J&K state (2, 22, 800 sq. kms is both complex and varied. Climatic conditions of the state ranges from sub-tropical (Jammu, temperate (Kashmir to cold artic (Ladakh zones and belongs to the great Himalayan mountain range, which exerts significant influence on its agro-climatic conditions. Gastrointestinal parasitism is a major problem in sheep production worldwide, these parasites cause diarrhea, anaemia, reduced weight gain and increased production costs. Materials and Methods: Five hundred fecal samples of sheep (Ovis aries were taken from two farms. All fecal samples were examined to determine the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites. Direct microscopic examination, Centrifugation floatation and Sedimentation techniques were used to examine fecal samples. Results: Overall prevalence rate was 62.9%. most commonly encountered parasites were Strongyle spp., Strongyloides spp., Eimeria spp., Nematodirus spp., and Monezia spp. was 24.61, 15.5, 9.8, 9.0 and 3.3%, respectively. The highest prevalence of G.I parasites was recorded during monsoon season (March - May followed by summer season (June ? August whereas the lowest prevalence was recorded during winter season. Analysis of the data on the basis of sex revealed a significant difference (P<0.05 in the overall incidence of gastrointestinal parasites between male (75.6% and female (44.8% sheep. The maximum infection was observed in younger age groups compared to adults (P<0.05. The prevalence of different species of endoparasites also varied in sheep of different body weight groups (P<0.05. The highest infection was observed in Kashmir Marino breed than corriedale breed. Conclusion: The data obtained in this study suggest that the age, sex, body weight and breed are important factors which influence the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites. [Vet World 2012; 5(11.000: 667-671

Showkat Ahmad Bhat

342

Embryonic duplications in sheep.  

Science.gov (United States)

Twenty-seven embryonic duplications were examined during a 3-year investigation into the causes of perinatal lamb mortality. Twenty of the 27 were anomalous twins with 19 being conjoined (diplopagus 9 and heteropagus 10). The various duplications were: haloacardius acephalus 1, diprosopus 2, dicephalus 2, dipypus 3, diprosopus dipygus 1, syncephalus dipygus 1, pygopagus parasiticus 1, heteropagus dipygus 3, melodidymus 6, polyury 4, penile duplication 2, and bilateral otognathia 1. Four lambs were living and the time of death of the others was: parturient 8, and post-parturient 15. Average dry weight of the lambs was 3.35 kg (range 1.59 to 5.45 kg). Breed distribution was: Merino 77.8%, Crossbred 14.8%, Dorset Horn 3.7%, and Corriedale 3.7%. The caudal region was involved in 10 of the conjoined twins (52.6%), anterior region in 7 (36.9%), and both anterior and caudal regions in 2 (10.5%). Associated defects were present in 70.4% of the 27 lambs, the most common being atresia ani. PMID:1172431

Dennis, S M

1975-02-01

343

Efeitos genéticos aditivos e não-aditivos em características de crescimento, reprodutivas e habilidade materna em ovinos das raças Santa Inês, Somalis Brasileira, Dorper e Poll Dorset / Additive and non-additive genetic effects on growth, reproductive and maternal traits in sheep of Santa Inês, Brazilian Somali, Dorper and Poll Dorset breeds  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Efeitos genético aditivo, de dominância e de recombinação em cruzamentos entre as raças Santa Inês (SI), Somalis Brasileira (So), Dorper (Do) e Poll Dorset (Po) foram estimados para as características de crescimento, reprodutivas e de habilidade materna. Os dados foram obtidos da Gaasa e Alimentos L [...] TDA, uma empresa que participa do Programa de Melhoramento Genético de Caprinos e Ovinos (GENECOC) da Embrapa Caprinos. Inicialmente, 3.573 registros foram analisados por meio do procedimento MIXED do pacote estatístico SAS (1999). As análises foram realizadas considerando os efeitos da diferença genética aditiva entre as raças, de dominância e de recombinação. O peso ao nascer foi influenciado pelos efeitos genéticos aditivos, enquanto o peso ao desmame e o ganho de peso pré-desmame foram influenciados por efeitos genéticos não-aditivos. A estimativa de herdabilidade direta para o peso ao nascer foi moderada, o que indica a existência de variabilidade genética passível de ser explorada por meio da seleção individual. Do mesmo modo, as estimativas de herdabilidade das características idade ao primeiro parto e peso total das crias ao nascer indicaram a existência de variabilidade genética para obter ganhos genéticos por meio da seleção. Os genes das raças Poll Dorset e Dorper tiveram papel importante para melhor desempenho ponderal, portanto, essas raças podem ser indicadas como paternas no cruzamento terminal. A utilização de matrizes F1 Santa Inês x Somalis Brasileira em cruzamentos com reprodutores Poll Dorset pode levar a maior eficiência reprodutiva. Abstract in english Additive genetic, dominance and recombination effects in breedings among Santa Inês (SI), Brazilian Somali (So), Dorper (Do) and Poll Dorset (Po) breeds were estimated for growth, reproductive and maternal hability traits. Data were obtained from Gaasa e Alimentos LTDA, a company that participates o [...] n the Programa de Melhoramento Genético de Caprinos e Ovinos (GENECOC) coordinated by Embrapa Caprinos. Initially, 3,573 records were analyzed using the MIXED procedure of the statistical package SAS (1999). The analyses were carried out considering the effects of additive genetic difference among breeds, dominance and recombination effects. Birth weight was mainly influenced by additive genetic effects, while weaning weight and pre-weaning weight gain were influenced by non-additive genetic effects. Direct heritability estimates for birth weight was moderate indicating that there is genetic variability believable to be exploited by individual selection. In the same way, heritability estimates for the traits age at first lambing and litter total weight at birth indicated the existence of genetic variability to obtain genetic gains through selection. Genes of the Poll Dorset and Dorper breeds had an important role for a better growth performance, therefore, these breeds can be indicated as sires in the terminal breeds. The use of F1 Santa Inês x Brazilian Somali females on crossbreeding with Poll Dorset rams can lead to a better reproductive efficiency.

Adriano Caminha, Barbosa Neto; Sônia Maria Pinheiro de, Oliveira; Olivardo, Facó; Raimundo Nonato Braga, Lôbo.

344

Efeitos genéticos aditivos e não-aditivos em características de crescimento, reprodutivas e habilidade materna em ovinos das raças Santa Inês, Somalis Brasileira, Dorper e Poll Dorset Additive and non-additive genetic effects on growth, reproductive and maternal traits in sheep of Santa In??s, Brazilian Somali, Dorper and Poll Dorset breeds  

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Full Text Available Efeitos genético aditivo, de dominância e de recombinação em cruzamentos entre as raças Santa Inês (SI, Somalis Brasileira (So, Dorper (Do e Poll Dorset (Po foram estimados para as características de crescimento, reprodutivas e de habilidade materna. Os dados foram obtidos da Gaasa e Alimentos LTDA, uma empresa que participa do Programa de Melhoramento Genético de Caprinos e Ovinos (GENECOC da Embrapa Caprinos. Inicialmente, 3.573 registros foram analisados por meio do procedimento MIXED do pacote estatístico SAS (1999. As análises foram realizadas considerando os efeitos da diferença genética aditiva entre as raças, de dominância e de recombinação. O peso ao nascer foi influenciado pelos efeitos genéticos aditivos, enquanto o peso ao desmame e o ganho de peso pré-desmame foram influenciados por efeitos genéticos não-aditivos. A estimativa de herdabilidade direta para o peso ao nascer foi moderada, o que indica a existência de variabilidade genética passível de ser explorada por meio da seleção individual. Do mesmo modo, as estimativas de herdabilidade das características idade ao primeiro parto e peso total das crias ao nascer indicaram a existência de variabilidade genética para obter ganhos genéticos por meio da seleção. Os genes das raças Poll Dorset e Dorper tiveram papel importante para melhor desempenho ponderal, portanto, essas raças podem ser indicadas como paternas no cruzamento terminal. A utilização de matrizes F1 Santa Inês x Somalis Brasileira em cruzamentos com reprodutores Poll Dorset pode levar a maior eficiência reprodutiva.Additive genetic, dominance and recombination effects in breedings among Santa Inês (SI, Brazilian Somali (So, Dorper (Do and Poll Dorset (Po breeds were estimated for growth, reproductive and maternal hability traits. Data were obtained from Gaasa e Alimentos LTDA, a company that participates on the Programa de Melhoramento Genético de Caprinos e Ovinos (GENECOC coordinated by Embrapa Caprinos. Initially, 3,573 records were analyzed using the MIXED procedure of the statistical package SAS (1999. The analyses were carried out considering the effects of additive genetic difference among breeds, dominance and recombination effects. Birth weight was mainly influenced by additive genetic effects, while weaning weight and pre-weaning weight gain were influenced by non-additive genetic effects. Direct heritability estimates for birth weight was moderate indicating that there is genetic variability believable to be exploited by individual selection. In the same way, heritability estimates for the traits age at first lambing and litter total weight at birth indicated the existence of genetic variability to obtain genetic gains through selection. Genes of the Poll Dorset and Dorper breeds had an important role for a better growth performance, therefore, these breeds can be indicated as sires in the terminal breeds. The use of F1 Santa Inês x Brazilian Somali females on crossbreeding with Poll Dorset rams can lead to a better reproductive efficiency.

Adriano Caminha Barbosa Neto

2010-09-01

345

Linkage disequilibrium and inbreeding estimation in Spanish Churra sheep  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Genomic technologies, such as high-throughput genotyping based on SNP arrays, have great potential to decipher the genetic architecture of complex traits and provide background information concerning genome structure in domestic animals, including the extent of linkage disequilibrium (LD and haplotype blocks. The objective of this study was to estimate LD, the population evolution (past effective population size and the level of inbreeding in Spanish Churra sheep. Results A total of 43,784 SNPs distributed in the ovine autosomal genome was analyzed in 1,681 Churra ewes. LD was assessed by measuring r2 between all pairs of loci. For SNPs up to 10?kb apart, the average r2 was 0.329; for SNPs separated by 200–500?kb the average r2 was 0.061. When SNPs are separated by more than 50 Mbp, the average r2 is the same as between non-syntenic SNP pairs (0.003. The effective population size has decreased through time, faster from 1,000 to 100?years ago and slower since the selection scheme started (15–25 generations ago. In the last generation, four years ago, the effective population size was estimated to be 128 animals. Inbreeding coefficients, although differed depending on the estimation approaches, were generally low and showed the same trend, which indicates that since 2003, inbreeding has been slightly increasing in the studied resource population. Conclusions The extent of LD in Churra sheep persists over much more limited distances than reported in dairy cattle and seems to be similar to other ovine populations. Churra sheep show a wide genetic base, with a long-term viable effective population size that has been slightly decreasing since selection scheme began in 1986. The genomic dataset analyzed provided useful information for identifying low-level inbreeding in the sample, whereas based on the parameters reported here, a higher marker density than that analyzed here will be needed to successfully conduct accurate mapping of genes underlying production traits and genomic selection prediction in this sheep breed. Although the Ovine Assembly development is still in a draft stage and future refinements will provide a more accurate physical map that will improve LD estimations, this work is a first step towards the understanding of the genetic architecture in sheep.

García-Gámez Elsa

2012-06-01

346

Scrapie resistance alleles are not associated with lower prolificity in Rasa Aragonesa sheep.  

Science.gov (United States)

Scrapie is a prion disease characterised by the accumulation of the pathological associated form of cellular prion protein (PrP(SC)) in the central nervous system. Susceptibility to scrapie is associated with polymorphism in the ovine prion protein (PrP) gene. The European Union has implemented scrapie control programs, relying on selective breeding for scrapie resistance; the use of ARR-carrier and the exclusion of VRQ-carrier were recommended. In this study, 4323 individuals from Rasa Aragonesa Sheep breed were genotyped for the PrP gene and the individual estimated breeding values (EBV) for prolificity were calculated. Most represented PrP alleles do not work against prolificity. Only a significant association between VRQ/VRQ genotype and a lower EBV was observed (p = 0.027, eta2 = 0.002). Therefore, avoiding reproduction of VRQ/VRQ individuals would not cause negative effect regarding prolificity. PMID:16310815

Ponz, R; Tejedor, M T; Monteagudo, L V; Arruga, M V

2006-08-01

347

Estimation of Genetic Trend for Body Weights at Post-Weaning in Zandi Sheep  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Data from body weights at post-weaning were used to genetic trend for Zandi sheep reared in Khojir breeding station of Tehran-Iran over a 16 years period (1993-2008 using animal model for lambs, rams and ewes. Genetic trends were estimated for 6 Months Weight (6MW, 9 Months Weight (9MW and Yearling Weight (YW traits. For