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Sample records for sex steroids measured

  1. Sex steroids and bone.

    Manolagas, S C; Kousteni, S; Jilka, R L

    2002-01-01

    The adult skeleton is periodically remodeled by temporary anatomic structures that comprise juxtaposed osteoclast and osteoblast teams and replace old bone with new. Estrogens and androgens slow the rate of bone remodeling and protect against bone loss. Conversely, loss of estrogen leads to increased rate of remodeling and tilts the balance between bone resorption and formation in favor of the former. Studies from our group during the last 10 years have elucidated that estrogens and androgens decrease the number of remodeling cycles by attenuating the birth rate of osteoclasts and osteoblasts from their respective progenitors. These effects result, in part, from the transcriptional regulation of genes responsible for osteoclastogenesis and mesenchymal cell replication and/or differentiation and are exerted through interactions of the ligand-activated receptors with other transcription factors. However, increased remodeling alone cannot explain why loss of sex steroids tilts the balance of resorption and formation in favor of the former. Estrogens and androgens also exert effects on the lifespan of mature bone cells: pro-apoptotic effects on osteoclasts but anti-apoptotic effects on osteoblasts and osteocytes. These latter effects stem from a heretofore unexpected function of the classical "nuclear" sex steroid receptors outside the nucleus and result from activation of a Src/Shc/extracellular signal-regulated kinase signal transduction pathway probably within preassembled scaffolds called caveolae. Strikingly, estrogen receptor (ER) alpha or beta or the androgen receptor can transmit anti-apoptotic signals with similar efficiency, irrespective of whether the ligand is an estrogen or an androgen. More importantly, these nongenotropic, sex-nonspecific actions are mediated by the ligand-binding domain of the receptor and can be functionally dissociated from transcriptional activity with synthetic ligands. Taken together, these lines of evidence strongly suggest that, in sex steroid deficiency, loss of transcriptional effects may be responsible for the increased osteoclastogenesis and osteoblastogenesis and thereby the increased rate of bone remodeling. Loss of nongenotropic anti-apoptotic effects on mature osteoblasts and osteocytes, in combination with an opposite effect on the lifespan of mature osteoclasts, may be responsible for the imbalance between formation and resorption and the progressive loss of bone mass and strength. Elucidation of the dual function of sex steroid receptors has important pathophysiologic and pharmacologic implications. Specifically, synthetic ligands of the ER that can evoke the nongenotropic but not the genotropic signal may be bone anabolic agents, as opposed to natural estrogens or selective estrogen receptor modulators that are antiresorptive agents. The same ligands may also circumvent the side effects associated with conventional hormone replacement therapy. PMID:12017554

  2. Steroid signaling activation and intracellular localization of sex steroid receptors

    Giraldi, Tiziana; Giovannelli, Pia; Di Donato, Marzia; Castoria, Gabriella; Migliaccio, Antimo; AURICCHIO, FERDINANDO

    2010-01-01

    In addition to stimulating gene transcription, sex steroids trigger rapid, non-genomic responses in the extra-nuclear compartment of target cells. These events take place within seconds or minutes after hormone administration and do not require transcriptional activity of sex steroid receptors. Depending on cell systems, activation of extra-nuclear signaling pathways by sex steroids fosters cell cycle progression, prevents apoptosis, leads to epigenetic modifications and increases cell migrat...

  3. Application of Rapid and Simul­taneous Measurement of Sex Steroid Hormones to the Monitoring of Gonadotropin Therapy

    Hayata,Koshi

    1985-06-01

    Full Text Available A high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC method with both electrochemical detection (ECD and ultraviolet spectrometric detection (UVD was developed for the rapid and simultaneous measurement of estradiol (E2, estrone (E1, testosterone (T, 17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP and progesterone (P in serum. These hormones were extracted with diethylether, and chromatographed on an octadecyl silane-silica (ODS column with an eluent of a phosphate buffer solution - acetonitrile mixture (volume ratio 49:51. Estrogens were detected by ECD at +1.0 V vs. Ag/AgCl, and other hormones by UVD at 242 nm. With this method, the simultaneous determination of sex steroid hormones could be performed within approximately two hours with high precision. The hormones of 34 patients (39 menstrual cycles undergoing human menopausal gonadotropin (HMG-human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG therapy were measured. It was concluded that the switch from HMG to HCG should be performed when the E2 level reaches 400 pg/ml for ovulation and 800 pg/ml for pregnancy. The occurrence of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS can be predicted when the P level rises above 30 ng/ml on the 7th day after the switch. Moreover, conception may be indicated when the P level does not increase from the 7th to 14th day after the switch. In this way, this method proved to be useful for the monitoring of HMG-HCG therapy.

  4. Sex steroids and glucose metabolism

    Carolyn A Allan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Testosterone levels are lower in men with metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM and also predict the onset of these adverse metabolic states. Body composition (body mass index, waist circumference is an important mediator of this relationship. Sex hormone binding globulin is also inversely associated with insulin resistance and T2DM but the data regarding estrogen are inconsistent. Clinical models of androgen deficiency including Klinefelter's syndrome and androgen deprivation therapy in the treatment of advanced prostate cancer confirm the association between androgens and glucose status. Experimental manipulation of the insulin/glucose milieu and suppression of endogenous testicular function suggests the relationship between androgens and insulin sensitivity is bidirectional. Androgen therapy in men without diabetes is not able to differentiate the effect on insulin resistance from that on fat mass, in particular visceral adiposity. Similarly, several small clinical studies have examined the efficacy of exogenous testosterone in men with T2DM, however, the role of androgens, independent of body composition, in modifying insulin resistance is uncertain.

  5. The influence of sex steroids on pineal enzymes

    The influence of the gonadal sex steroids namely, estradiol, progesterone and testosterone on the two major enzymes responsible for the synthesis of melatonin in the pineal gland was investigated. These enzymes are Serotonin-N-acetyltransferase (SNAT) and Hydroxyindole-O-methyltransferase (H10MT). Testosterone was found to be the only sex steroid capable of influencing SNAT activity whereas all three of the sex steroids were found to influence H10MT activity in a biphasic dose-dependent manner. The influence of these sex steroids on radiolabelled serotonin metabolism by pineals in organ culture was also investigated. Ovariectomy, castration and the sex steroids were all found to alter the pattern of the radiolabelled serotonin metabolism by these pineal glands in organ culture

  6. Sex differences in sleep: impact of biological sex and sex steroids.

    Mong, Jessica A; Cusmano, Danielle M

    2016-02-19

    Men and women sleep differently. While much is known about the mechanisms that drive sleep, the reason for these sex differences in sleep behaviour is unknown and understudied. Historically, women and female animals are underrepresented in studies of sleep and its disorders. Nevertheless, there is a growing recognition of sex disparities in sleep and rhythm disorders. Women typically report poorer quality and more disrupted sleep across various stages of life. Findings from clinical and basic research studies strongly implicate a role for sex steroids in sleep modulation. Understanding how neuroendocrine mediators and sex differences influence sleep is central to advancing our understanding of sleep-related disorders. The investigation into sex differences and sex steroid modulation of sleep is in its infancy. Identifying the mechanisms underlying sex and gender differences in sleep will provide valuable insights leading to tailored therapeutics that benefit each sex. The goal of this review is to discuss our current understanding of how biological sex and sex steroids influence sleep behaviour from both the clinical and pre-clinical perspective. PMID:26833831

  7. Sex-Steroid Hormone Manipulation Reduces Brain Response to Reward

    Macoveanu, Julian; Henningsson, Susanne; Pinborg, Anja; Jensen, Peter; Knudsen, Gitte M; Frokjaer, Vibe G; Siebner, Hartwig R

    2015-01-01

    Mood disorders are twice as frequent in women than in men. Risk mechanisms for major depression include adverse responses to acute changes in sex-steroid hormone levels, eg, postpartum in women. Such adverse responses may involve an altered processing of rewards. Here, we examine how women......'s vulnerability for mood disorders is linked to sex-steroid dynamics by investigating the effects of a pharmacologically induced fluctuation in ovarian sex steroids on the brain response to monetary rewards. In a double-blinded placebo controlled study, healthy women were randomized to receive either placebo or...... the gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) goserelin, which causes a net decrease in sex-steroid levels. Fifty-eight women performed a gambling task while undergoing functional MRI at baseline, during the mid-follicular phase, and again following the intervention. The gambling task enabled us...

  8. Effects of sex steroids on the Syrian hamster liver

    Karkare, S.; Adamiec-Beyga, E.; Gilloteaux, J.

    1995-01-01

    The primary objective of this research project was to study the role of sex steroids in the pathogenesis of cholelithiasis using the Syrian hamster as a model. In addition to the morphological examination of the gallbladder epithelium, we thought it imperative to observe the changes induced in the biliary tract in response to the sex steroid treatment. This report focuses on the morphological changes induced in the liver. The hamsters were randomly divided into...

  9. Sex-Steroid Hormone Manipulation Reduces Brain Response to Reward.

    Macoveanu, Julian; Henningsson, Susanne; Pinborg, Anja; Jensen, Peter; Knudsen, Gitte M; Frokjaer, Vibe G; Siebner, Hartwig R

    2016-03-01

    Mood disorders are twice as frequent in women than in men. Risk mechanisms for major depression include adverse responses to acute changes in sex-steroid hormone levels, eg, postpartum in women. Such adverse responses may involve an altered processing of rewards. Here, we examine how women's vulnerability for mood disorders is linked to sex-steroid dynamics by investigating the effects of a pharmacologically induced fluctuation in ovarian sex steroids on the brain response to monetary rewards. In a double-blinded placebo controlled study, healthy women were randomized to receive either placebo or the gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) goserelin, which causes a net decrease in sex-steroid levels. Fifty-eight women performed a gambling task while undergoing functional MRI at baseline, during the mid-follicular phase, and again following the intervention. The gambling task enabled us to map regional brain activity related to the magnitude of risk during choice and to monetary reward. The GnRHa intervention caused a net reduction in ovarian sex steroids (estradiol and testosterone) and increased depression symptoms. Compared with placebo, GnRHa reduced amygdala's reactivity to high monetary rewards. There was a positive association between the individual changes in testosterone and changes in bilateral insula response to monetary rewards. Our data provide evidence for the involvement of sex-steroid hormones in reward processing. A blunted amygdala response to rewarding stimuli following a rapid decline in sex-steroid hormones may reflect a reduced engagement in positive experiences. Abnormal reward processing may constitute a neurobiological mechanism by which sex-steroid fluctuations provoke mood disorders in susceptible women. PMID:26245498

  10. The Influence of Sex Steroid Hormones on Gingiva of Women

    Markou, Eleni; Eleana, Boura; Lazaros, Tsalikis; Antonios, Konstantinides

    2009-01-01

    Steroid sex hormones have a significant effect on different organ systems. As far as gingiva are concerned, they can influence the cellular proliferation, differentiation and growth of keratinocytes and fibroblasts. Estrogen is mainly responsible for alterations in blood vessels and progesterone stimulates the production of inflammatory mediators. In addition, some micro-organisms found in the human mouth synthesize enzymes needed for steroid synthesis and catabolism. In women, during puberty, ovulation and pregnancy, there is an increase in the production of sex steroid hormones which results in increased gingival inflammation, characterized by gingival enlargement, increased gingival bleeding and crevicular fluid flow and microbial changes. PMID:19812718

  11. Roles of sex and gonadal steroids in mammalian pheromonal communication.

    Baum, Michael J; Bakker, Julie

    2013-10-01

    A brain circuit (the accessory olfactory system) that originates in the vomeronasal organ (VNO) and includes the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB) plus additional forebrain regions mediates many of the effects of pheromones, typically comprised of a variety of non-volatile and volatile compounds, on aspects of social behavior. A second, parallel circuit (the main olfactory system) that originates in the main olfactory epithelium (MOE) and includes the main olfactory bulb (MOB) has also been shown to detect volatile pheromones from conspecifics. Studies are reviewed that point to specific roles of several different steroids and their water-soluble metabolites as putative pheromones. Other studies are reviewed that establish an adult, 'activational' role of circulating sex hormones along with sex differences in the detection and/or processing of non-steroidal pheromones by these two olfactory circuits. Persisting questions about the role of sex steroids in pheromonal processing are posed for future investigation. PMID:23872334

  12. Sex steroids and growth hormone interactions.

    Fernández-Pérez, Leandro; de Mirecki-Garrido, Mercedes; Guerra, Borja; Díaz, Mario; Díaz-Chico, Juan Carlos

    2016-04-01

    GH and sex hormones are critical regulators of body growth and composition, somatic development, intermediate metabolism, and sexual dimorphism. Deficiencies in GH- or sex hormone-dependent signaling and the influence of sex hormones on GH biology may have a dramatic impact on liver physiology during somatic development and in adulthood. Effects of sex hormones on the liver may be direct, through hepatic receptors, or indirect by modulating endocrine, metabolic, and gender-differentiated functions of GH. Sex hormones can modulate GH actions by acting centrally, regulating pituitary GH secretion, and peripherally, by modulating GH signaling pathways. The endocrine and/or metabolic consequences of long-term exposure to sex hormone-related compounds and their influence on the GH-liver axis are largely unknown. A better understanding of these interactions in physiological and pathological states will contribute to preserve health and to improve clinical management of patients with growth, developmental, and metabolic disorders. PMID:26775014

  13. Multiple Sclerosis in relation to sex steroid exposure

    Kempe, Per

    2014-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a potentially severe chronic inflammatory disease of the central nervous system (CNS) and is usually diagnosed between 20 and 40 years of age. The incidence of MS is two to three times higher among women and the type and course of the disease often differ between the sexes. Sex steroids, especially estrogens, have been shown to influence the immunopathology involved in MS and the mouse model experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE), as well as radiological and ...

  14. Sex Steroid Hormone Receptor Expression Affects Ovarian Cancer Survival

    Jönsson, Jenny-Maria; Skovbjerg Arildsen, Nicolai; Malander, Susanne; Måsbäck, Anna; Hartman, Linda; Nilbert, Mef; Hedenfalk, Ingrid

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Although most ovarian cancers express estrogen (ER), progesterone (PR), and androgen (AR) receptors, they are currently not applied in clinical decision making. We explored the prognostic impact of sex steroid hormone receptor protein and mRNA expression on survival in epithe...

  15. Sex Steroidal Hormones and Respiratory Control

    Behan, Mary; Wenninger, Julie M.

    2008-01-01

    There is a growing public awareness that sex hormones can have an impact on a variety of physiological processes. Yet, despite almost a century of research, we still do not have a clear picture as to the effects of sex hormones on the regulation of breathing. Considerable data has accumulated showing that estrogen, progesterone and testosterone can influence respiratory function in animals and humans. Several disorders of breathing such as obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and sudden infant death...

  16. Yolk steroid hormones and sex determination in reptiles with TSD.

    Elf, P K

    2003-07-01

    In reptiles with temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD), the temperature at which the eggs are incubated determines the sex of the offspring. The molecular switch responsible for determining sex in these species has not yet been elucidated. We have examined the dynamics of yolk steroid hormones during embryonic development in the snapping turtle, Chelydra serpentina, and the alligator, Alligator mississippiensis, and have found that yolk estradiol (E(2)) responds differentially to incubation temperature in both of these reptiles. Based upon recently reported roles for E(2) in modulation of steroidogenic factor 1, a transcription factor known to be significant in the sex differentiation process, we hypothesize that yolk E(2) is a link between temperature and the gene expression pathway responsible for sex determination and differentiation in at least some of these species. Here we review the evidence that supports our hypothesis. PMID:12849957

  17. Influence of sex and oral contraceptive steroids on paracetamol metabolism.

    Miners, J O; Attwood, J.; Birkett, D. J.

    1983-01-01

    Paracetamol metabolism was investigated in eight healthy males, eight healthy females and eight healthy females receiving oral contraceptive steroids (OCS). Paracetamol clearance was 22% greater in males compared to the control female group. This difference was entirely due to increased activity of the glucuronidation pathway in males, there being no sex-related differences in the sulphation or oxidative metabolism of paracetamol. Paracetamol clearance in females using OCS was 49% greater tha...

  18. Sex Steroids Influence Brain-Derived Neurotropic Factor Secretion From Human Airway Smooth Muscle Cells.

    Wang, Sheng-Yu; Freeman, Michelle R; Sathish, Venkatachalem; Thompson, Michael A; Pabelick, Christina M; Prakash, Y S

    2016-07-01

    Brain derived neurotropic factor (BDNF) is emerging as an important player in airway inflammation, remodeling, and hyperreactivity. Separately, there is increasing evidence that sex hormones contribute to pathophysiology in the lung. BDNF and sex steroid signaling are thought to be intricately linked in the brain. There is currently little information on BDNF and sex steroid interactions in the airway but is relevant to understanding growth factor signaling in the context of asthma in men versus women. In this study, we assessed the effect of sex steroids on BDNF expression and secretion in human airway smooth muscle (ASM). Human ASM was treated with estrogen (E2 ) or testosterone (T, 10 nM each) and intracellular BDNF and secreted BDNF measured. E2 and T significantly reduced secretion of BDNF; effects prevented by estrogen and androgen receptor inhibitor, ICI 182,780 (1 μM), and flutamide (10 μM), respectively. Interestingly, no significant changes were observed in intracellular BDNF mRNA or protein expression. High affinity BDNF receptor, TrkB, was not altered by E2 or T. E2 (but not T) significantly increased intracellular cyclic AMP levels. Notably, Epac1 and Epac2 expression were significantly reduced by E2 and T. Furthermore, SNARE complex protein SNAP25 was decreased. Overall, these novel data suggest that physiologically relevant concentrations of E2 or T inhibit BDNF secretion in human ASM, suggesting a potential interaction of sex steroids with BDNF in the airway that is different from brain. The relevance of sex steroid-BDNF interactions may lie in their overall contribution to airway diseases such as asthma. J. Cell. Physiol. 231: 1586-1592, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26566264

  19. Serum-sex steroids, gonadotrophins and sex hormone-binding globulin inprostatic hyperplasia

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) develops in elderly males when serumandrogens are relatively lower than in healthy younger males, but is not wellunderstood whether and how sex steroids are altered in prostatic hyperplasia.It is also uncertain that whether there is any change in sex steroids levelsin males older than 40 years of age. The use of androgens in elderly males isoften discouraged because of the probable worsening effect of androgens onprostatism. This study aimed to determine the relationship between prostatichyperplasia and sex steroid levels and whether there is any significantchange in these hormones after the age of 40 years. We studied healthy malesof >40 years with (n=92) or without (n=93) clinical prostatic hyperplasia.Serum testosterone, estradiol, gonadotrophins and sex hormone-bindingglobulin (SHBG) were compared. The hormones and SHGB were also correlatedwith age. No significant difference was found in any hormone in cases withprostatic hyperplasia as compared with the controls. There was no significantage-related change in any hormone except estradiol where as a negativecorrelation (P<0.003) with age was found. Serum sex steroids and SHGBremained unchanged in symptomatic prostatic hyperplasia and except forestrdoil there was no significant age-related change in serum testosterone,gonadotrophins and SHGB in healthy males after the fourth decade. Morestudies are needed to confirm the age-related decline of estrogens in males.(author)

  20. Assessment of circulating sex steroid levels in prepubertal and pubertal boys and girls by a novel ultrasensitive gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method

    Courant, Frédérique; Aksglæde, Lise; Antignac, Jean-Philippe; Monteau, Fabrice; Sørensen, Kaspar; Andersson, Anna-Maria; Skakkebæk, Niels Erik; Juul, Anders; Bizec, Bruno Le

    2010-01-01

    Estrogens and androgens play key roles for pubertal onset and sexual maturation. Most currently used immunoassays are not sensitive enough to accurately measure the low circulating levels of sex steroids in children without any signs of puberty. However, this does not exclude that sex steroids have...... important biological roles in prepubertal children....

  1. Factors That Contribute to Assay Variation in Quantitative Analysis of Sex Steroid Hormones Using Liquid and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

    Xu, Xia; Veenstra, Timothy D.

    2012-01-01

    The list of physiological events in which sex steroids play a role continues to increase. To decipher the roles that sex steroids play in any condition requires high quality cohorts of samples and assays that provide highly accurate quantitative measures. Liquid and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC-MS and GC-MS) have

  2. Assessment of circulating sex steroid levels in prepubertal and pubertal boys and girls by a novel ultrasensitive gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method

    Courant, Frdrique; Aksglde, Lise; Antignac, Jean-Philippe; Monteau, Fabrice; Srensen, Kaspar; Andersson, Anna-Maria; Skakkebk, Niels Erik; Juul, Anders; Bizec, Bruno Le

    2010-01-01

    Estrogens and androgens play key roles for pubertal onset and sexual maturation. Most currently used immunoassays are not sensitive enough to accurately measure the low circulating levels of sex steroids in children without any signs of puberty. However, this does not exclude that sex steroids ha...

  3. Factors That Contribute to Assay Variation in Quantitative Analysis of Sex Steroid Hormones Using Liquid and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

    Xu, Xia; Veenstra, Timothy D.

    2012-01-01

    The list of physiological events in which sex steroids play a role continues to increase. To decipher the roles that sex steroids play in any condition requires high quality cohorts of samples and assays that provide highly accurate quantitative measures. Liquid and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC-MS and GC-MS) have…

  4. Sex and sex steroids: impact on the kinetics of fatty acids underlying body shape.

    Santosa, Sylvia; Jensen, Michael D

    2014-10-01

    Adult humans have a remarkable sexual dimorphism in body shape. Men tend to store relatively more fat in the upper body whereas women store more fat in the lower body. We do not have a complete understanding of the mechanisms underlying these differences, but we know that people who preferentially store abdominal fat are at greater risk of metabolic disease. It is also known that the changes in sex steroid concentrations during puberty and again with advancing age are accompanied by changes in body fat distribution. The objective of this review is to describe what has been learned regarding the mechanisms underlying changes in regional body fat distribution that occur as a result of changes in sex hormones and to delineate effects of sex steroids in modulating body composition. PMID:25460291

  5. The association of urinary cadmium with sex steroid hormone concentrations in a general population sample of US adult men

    Basaria Shehzad

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies investigating the association of cadmium and sex steroid hormones in men have been inconsistent, but previous studies were relatively small. Methods In a nationally representative sample of 1,262 men participating in the morning examination session of phase I (1998–1991 of the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, creatinine corrected urinary cadmium and serum concentrations of sex steroid hormones were measured following a standardized protocol. Results After adjustment for age and race-ethnicity, higher cadmium levels were associated with higher levels of total testosterone, total estradiol, sex hormone-binding globulin, estimated free testosterone, and estimated free estradiol (each p-trend 0.05. Conclusion Urinary cadmium levels were not associated with sex steroid hormone concentrations in a large nationally representative sample of US men.

  6. Effects of sex steroids on components of the insulin resistance syndrome in transsexual subjects

    Elbers, J.M.H.; Giltay, E.J.; Teerlink, T; Scheffer, P. G.; Asscheman, H.; Seidell, J.C.; Gooren, L.J.G.

    2003-01-01

    objective Sex differences are found in most components of the insulin resistance syndrome and the associated cardiovascular risk profile. These differences are attributed to sex-specific sex steroid profiles, but the effects of sex steroids on the individual components of the insulin resistance syndrome remain incompletely understood. design Prospective, intervention study. subjects In 37 young (age range 16¿36 years), nonobese [body mass index (BMI) < 29], transsexual subjects, effects of et...

  7. Sex-steroid imbalance in females and dry eye.

    Versura, Piera; Giannaccare, Giuseppe; Campos, Emilio C

    2015-02-01

    Dry eye (DE) is a multifactorial disorder of the ocular surface unit that results in eye discomfort, visual disturbance and ocular surface damage. It is one of the most common complaints in daily ophthalmic practice. The risk of DE increases with age in both sexes, while its incidence is higher among females. In addition, the condition of menopause in aging women may also contribute to DE onset or worsening as a consequence of an overall hormonal imbalance. Sex hormones play a key role in ocular surface physiology and they impact differently on ocular surface tissues. Reduced estrogen levels were historically thought to be responsible in age-related DE onset but more recent investigations have reconsidered the role of androgens that are present and exert a protective function on the ocular surface. Hormone levels themselves, withdrawal changes in hormone levels, and the changes in hormone-receptor responsiveness are all important factors but it remains to be fully elucidated how estrogen or androgen insufficiency act alone or together in a combined imbalance or interplay to raise the risk of disease. The purpose of this review is to briefly outline current scientific evidence on the influence of androgens and estrogens, on the Lachrymal and Meibomian glands and on ocular surface epithelia including conjunctival goblet cells during reproductive and menopausal periods. The role of sex steroids is also discussed in relation to the pathogenesis of different forms of DE and Sjogren's syndrome (SS). The impact of systemic hormone therapy (HT) in DE post-menopausal women still appears as a controversial issue, despite the many clinical studies. Finally, the outcomes of topical applications of steroid-based products are summarized, underlying the need for potential (tear) biomarker(s) in the rationale of DE-targeted therapy. PMID:25290221

  8. Sex and Sex Steroids: Impact on the Kinetics of Fatty Acids Underlying Body Shape

    Santosa, Sylvia; Michael D. Jensen

    2014-01-01

    Adult humans have a remarkable sexual dimorphism in body shape. Men tend to store relatively more fat in the upper body whereas women store more fat in the lower body. We do not have a complete understanding of the mechanisms underlying these differences, but we know that people who preferentially store abdominal fat are at greater risk of metabolic disease. It is also known that the changes in sex steroid concentrations during puberty and again with advancing age are accompanied by changes i...

  9. DHEA, important source of sex steroids in men and even more in women.

    Labrie, Fernand

    2010-01-01

    A major achievement from 500 million years of evolution is the establishment of a high secretion rate of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) by the human adrenal glands coupled with the indroduction of menopause which stops secretion of estrogens by the ovary. Cessation of estrogen secretion at menopause eliminates the risks of endometrial hyperplasia and cancer which would result from non-opposed estrogen stimulation during the post-menopausal years. In fact, from the time of menopause, DHEA becomes the exclusive and tissue-specific source of sex steroids for all tissues except the uterus. Intracrinology, a term coined in 1988, describes the local formation, action and inactivation of sex steroids from the inactive sex steroid precursor DHEA. Over the past 25 years most, if not all, the genes encoding the human steroidogenic and steroid-inactivating enzymes have been cloned and sequenced and their enzymatic activity characterized. The problem with DHEA, however, is that its secretion decreases from the age of 30 years and is already decreased, on average, by 60% at time of menopause. In addition, there is a large variability in the circulating levels of DHEA with some post-menopausal women having barely detectable serum concentrations of the steroid while others have normal values. Since there is no feedback mechanism controlling DHEA secretion within 'normal' values, women with low DHEA will remain with such a deficit of sex steroids for their remaining lifetime. Since there is no other significant source of sex steroids after menopause, one can reasonably believe that low DHEA is involved, in association with the aging process, in a series of medical problems classically associated with post-menopause, namely osteoporosis, muscle loss, vaginal atrophy, fat accumulation, hot flashes, skin atrophy, type 2 diabetes, memory loss, cognition loss and possibly Alzheimer's disease. A recent randomized, placebo-controlled study has shown that all the signs and symptoms of vaginal atrophy, a classical problem recognized to be due to the hormone deficiency of menopause, can be rapidly improved or corrected by local administration of DHEA without systemic exposure to estrogens. In addition, the four domains of sexual dysfucntion are improved. For the other problems of menopause, although similar large scale, randomized and placebo-controlled studies usually remain to be performed, the available evidence already strongly suggests that they could be improved, corrected or even prevented by exogenous DHEA. In men, the contribution of adrenal DHEA to the total androgen pool has been measured at 40% in 65-75-year-old men. Such data stress the necessity of blocking both the testicular and adrenal sources of androgens in order to achieve optimal benefits in prostate cancer therapy. On the other hand, the comparable decrease in serum DHEA levels observed in both sexes has less consequence in men who continue to receive a practically constant supply of testicular sex steroids during their whole life. In fact, in men, the appearance of hormone-deficiency symptoms common to women is observed at a later age and with a lower degree of severity. Consequently, DHEA replacement has shown much more easily measurable beneficial effects in women. Most importantly, despite the non-scientific and unfortunate availability of DHEA as a food supplement in the United States, a situation that discourages rigorous clinical trials on the crucial physiological and therapeutic role of DHEA, no serious adverse event related to DHEA has ever been reported in the world literature (thousands of subjects exposed) or in the monitoring of adverse events by the FDA (millions of subjects exposed), thus indicating, as expected from its known physiology, the excellent safety profile of DHEA. With today's knowledge, one can reasonably suggest that DHEA offers the promise of a safe and efficient replacement therapy for the multiple problems related to hormone deficiency after menopause without the risks associated with estrogen-based or any other treatments. PMID:20541662

  10. Augmented transport and metabolism of sex steroids in lymphoid neoplasia in the rat

    Sex steroid hormones have been shown to influence a number of biological properties of lymphoid neoplastic tissue. Receptor occupancy is a function of the pool size of cellular exchangeable hormone therefore it is important to understand the mechanisms regulating hormone transport from the microcirculation and hormone metabolism. In this study, steroid hormone transport and metabolism were investigated in control and neoplastic lymph nodes after transplanting control rats with the WR-6 leukemic line. Steroid hormone transport and metabolism were studied after pulse labeling the nodal tissue in vivo with arterial bolus injections of [3H]testosterone. Residual vascular radioactivity was monitored by simultaneously injecting 113m indium chelated to bovine transferrin. Both testosterone and estradiol were partially available for transport through the capillary barriers of control and neoplastic lymph nodes from the circulating albumin-bound pool. Estradiol was readily available for transport from the circulating sex hormone-binding globulin-bound pool in both control and neoplastic lymph nodes. Testosterone was not available for transport from the sex hormone-binding globulin-bound pool in control lymph nodes, but was readily available for transport in metastatic lymph nodes. Thaw-mount autoradiography and physiological measurements showed that plasma proteins such as albumin or transferrin were confined to the microcirculation compartment. The transport of protein-bound hormones into lymph node represents a mechanism of enhanced steroid hormone dissociation from the binding protein without the plasma protein per se significantly exiting the microcirculation compartment. Metabolic studies showed no measurable metabolism of [3H]testosterone in the control lymph nodes by 60 sec after arterial injection

  11. Impact of Sex and Gonadal Steroids on Neonatal Brain Structure

    Knickmeyer, Rebecca C.; Wang, Jiaping; ZHU, HONGTU; Geng, Xiujuan; Woolson, Sandra; Hamer, Robert M.; Konneker, Thomas; Styner, Martin; Gilmore, John H.

    2013-01-01

    There are numerous reports of sexual dimorphism in brain structure in children and adults, but data on sex differences in infancy are extremely limited. Our primary goal was to identify sex differences in neonatal brain structure. Our secondary goal was to explore whether brain structure was related to androgen exposure or sensitivity. Two hundred and ninety-three neonates (149 males) received high-resolution structural magnetic resonance imaging scans. Sensitivity to androgen was measured us...

  12. Steroids

    ... steroids (say: STARE-oydz), they often mean illegal anabolic steroids. Anabolic steroids are artificially produced hormones that are the same ... these is testosterone (say: tes-TOSS-tuh-rone). Anabolic steroids can be taken in the form of pills, ...

  13. Impact of sex and gonadal steroids on neonatal brain structure.

    Knickmeyer, Rebecca C; Wang, Jiaping; Zhu, Hongtu; Geng, Xiujuan; Woolson, Sandra; Hamer, Robert M; Konneker, Thomas; Styner, Martin; Gilmore, John H

    2014-10-01

    There are numerous reports of sexual dimorphism in brain structure in children and adults, but data on sex differences in infancy are extremely limited. Our primary goal was to identify sex differences in neonatal brain structure. Our secondary goal was to explore whether brain structure was related to androgen exposure or sensitivity. Two hundred and ninety-three neonates (149 males) received high-resolution structural magnetic resonance imaging scans. Sensitivity to androgen was measured using the number of cytosine, adenine, guanine (CAG) triplets in the androgen receptor gene and the ratio of the second to fourth digit, provided a proxy measure of prenatal androgen exposure. There was a significant sex difference in intracranial volume of 5.87%, which was not related to CAG triplets or digit ratios. Tensor-based morphometry identified extensive areas of local sexual dimorphism. Males had larger volumes in medial temporal cortex and rolandic operculum, and females had larger volumes in dorsolateral prefrontal, motor, and visual cortices. Androgen exposure and sensitivity had minor sex-specific effects on local gray matter volume, but did not appear to be the primary determinant of sexual dimorphism at this age. Comparing our study with the existing literature suggests that sex differences in cortical structure vary in a complex and highly dynamic way across the human lifespan. PMID:23689636

  14. Body Image Dissatisfaction and Distortion, Steroid Use, and Sex Differences in College Age Bodybuilders.

    Peters, Mark Anthony; Phelps, LeAddelle

    2001-01-01

    Compares college age bodybuilders by sex and steroid intake on two variables: body image dissatisfaction and body image distortion. Results reveal only a significant effect for gender on body distortion. No steroid-use differences were apparent for either body image dissatisfaction or body image distortion. Analyses indicate that female…

  15. Endogenous sex steroids and risk of cervical carcinoma: results from the EPIC study

    Rinaldi, Sabina; Plummer, Martyn; Biessy, Carine; Castellsague, Xavier; Overvad, Kim; Kjær, Susanne Krüger; Tjonneland, Anne A M; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Chabbert-Buffet, Nathalie; Mesrine, Sylvie; Lukanova, Annekartin; Kaaks, Rudolph; Weikert, Cornelia; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Palli, Domenico; Agnoli, Claudia; Tumino, Rosario; Vineis, Paolo; Panico, Salvatore; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; van Kranen, Henk J; Peeters, Petra H M; Bakken, Kjersti; Lund, Eiliv; Torhild Gram, Inger; Rodriguez, Laudina; Bosch, F Xavier; Sanchez, Maria-Jose; Dorronsoro, Miren; Navarro, Carmen; Barricarte Gurrea, Aurelio; Kjellberg, Lennart Does Not Apply; Dillner, Joakim; Manjer, Jonas; Butt, Salma; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas J; Allen, Naomi E; Travis, Ruth C; Romieu, Isabelle I; Ferrari, Pietro; Riboli, Elio; Franceschi, Silvia

    2011-01-01

    Epidemiologic data and animal models suggest that, despite the predominant role of human papillomavirus infection, sex steroid hormones are also involved in the etiology of invasive cervical carcinoma (ICC)....

  16. Are Bioactive and Free Sex Steroids Associated with Bone Mineral Density and Bone Turnover Markers in Middle Aged Men? - Original Investigation

    Melek Sezgin; Burak Çimen; Handan Çamdeviren Ankaralı; İsmet As; Neslihan Erçetin; Özlem Bölgen Çimen; Günşah Şahin

    2009-01-01

    Aim: To investigate whether bioactive and free sex steroids are associated with bone mineral density (BMD) and bone turnover markers in middle aged men. Material and Methods: One hundred and fifteen out of 165 volunteers aged 35-65 years presenting to our outpatient clinic were included in the study. Serum albumin, total testosterone (T), total estradiol (E2), SHBG, osteocalcin (OC) and C-terminal telopeptide (CTx) levels were measured. Free and bioactive sex steroids, free androgen index ...

  17. Sex Steroids Affect Triglyceride Handling, Glucose-Dependent Insulinotropic Polypeptide, and Insulin Sensitivity

    Lapauw, Bruno; Ouwens, Margriet; ′t Hart, Leen M.; Wuyts, Birgitte; Jens J. Holst; T'Sjoen, Guy; Kaufman, Jean-Marc; Ruige, Johannes B.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate metabolic effects of sex steroids in nonfasting and fasting conditions, independent from changes in body composition. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A randomized clinical trial was performed to create contrasting sex steroid levels in healthy young men: by letrozole (aromatase inhibitor) to lower estradiol (E2) and increase testosterone (group T, n = 10) versus letrozole plus E2 patches to lower T and raise E2 (group E, n = 10). Mixed meals and hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic c...

  18. Sex Steroid Hormone Receptor Expression Affects Ovarian Cancer Survival

    Jenny-Maria Jönsson

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Although most ovarian cancers express estrogen (ER, progesterone (PR, and androgen (AR receptors, they are currently not applied in clinical decision making. We explored the prognostic impact of sex steroid hormone receptor protein and mRNA expression on survival in epithelial ovarian cancer. Methods: Immunohistochemical stainings for ERα, ERβ, PR, and AR were assessed in relation to survival in 118 serous and endometrioid ovarian cancers. Expression of the genes encoding the four receptors was studied in relation to prognosis in the molecular subtypes of ovarian cancer in an independent data set, hypothesizing that the expression levels and prognostic impact may differ between the subtypes. Results: Expression of PR or AR protein was associated with improved 5-year progression-free (P = .001 for both and overall survival (P < .001 for both, log-rank test. ERα and ERβ did not provide prognostic information. Patients whose tumors coexpressed PR and AR had the most favorable prognosis, and this effect was retained in multivariable analyses. Analyses of the corresponding genes using an independent data set revealed differences among the molecular subtypes, but no clear relationship between high coexpression of PGR and AR and prognosis. Conclusions: A favorable outcome was seen for patients whose tumors coexpressed PR and AR. Gene expression data suggested variable effects in the different molecular subtypes. These findings demonstrate a prognostic role for PR and AR in ovarian cancer and support that tumors should be stratified based on molecular as well as histological subtypes in future studies investigating the role of endocrine treatment in ovarian cancer.

  19. No effect of sex steroids on compensatory muscle hypertrophy

    Max, S. R.; Rance, N. E.

    1984-01-01

    The effects of orchiectomy and/or subcutaneously implanted testosterone propionate (TP) on the hypertrophic response of rat plantaris muscles to functional overload (induced by bilateral removal of gastrocnemius and soleus muscles) are investigated experimentally. Muscle wet weight, metabolic substrate oxidation, and cytosolic androgen-receptor binding are measured, and the results are presented in tables. Eight weeks after surgery, the plantaris muscle weight as a percentage of body weight is found to be about twice that in rats without muscle overload, regardless of the sex-hormone status. Overloading causes decreased ability to oxidize glucose and pyruvate, decreased succinate dehydrogenase specific activity, and no change in the ability to oxidize beta-hydroxybutyrate or in androgen-receptor binding. The oxidative response is unaffected by orchiectomy or TP or both. It is argued that the actions of sex hormones and functional overload are not synergistic.

  20. Parasites and steroid hormones: corticosteroid and sex steroid synthesis, their role in the parasite physiology and development

    Romano, Marta C.; Jimnez, Pedro; Miranda-Brito, Carolina; Valdez, Ricardo A.

    2015-01-01

    In many cases parasites display highly complex life cycles that include the penetration and permanence of the larva or adults within host organs, but even in those that only have one host, reciprocal, intricate interactions occur. Evidence indicates that steroid hormones have an influence on the development and course of parasitic infections. The host gender's susceptibility to infection, and the related differences in the immune response are good examples of the host-parasite interplay. However, the capacity of these organisms to synthesize their own steroidogenic hormones still has more questions than answers. It is now well-known that many parasites synthesize ecdysteroids, but limited information is available on sex steroid and corticosteroid synthesis. This review intends to summarize some of the existing information in the field. In most, but not all parasitosis the host's hormonal environment determines the susceptibility, the course, and severity of parasite infections. In most cases the infection disturbs the host environment, and activates immune responses that end up affecting the endocrine system. Furthermore, sex steroids and corticosteroids may also directly modify the parasite reproduction and molting. Available information indicates that parasites synthesize some steroid hormones, such as ecdysteroids and sex steroids, and the presence and activity of related enzymes have been demonstrated. More recently, the synthesis of corticosteroid-like compounds has been shown in Taenia solium cysticerci and tapeworms, and in Taenia crassiceps WFU cysticerci. In-depth knowledge of the parasite's endocrine properties will contribute to understand their reproduction and reciprocal interactions with the host, and may also help designing tools to combat the infection in some clinical situations. PMID:26175665

  1. Interactions of xenobiotics with steroid hormone receptors and the sex-steroid binding protein in spotted seatrout

    Thomas, P.; Ghosh, S.; Pinter, J.; Sperry, T.; Breckenridge-Miller, D. [Univ. of Texas, Port Aransas, TX (United States). Marine Science Inst.; Laidley, C.W. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Environmental Science, Policy and Management

    1995-12-31

    A variety of xenobiotics, such as DDT, methoxychlor and PCB mixtures and Kepone have estrogenic actions and disrupt reproduction in mammals by binding to nuclear estrogen receptors (ER). These xenobiotics were tested for their ability to bind to the hepatic ER of a marine fish, spotted seatrout (Cynoscion nebulosus). Several of the DDT derivatives, Kepone and PCB mixtures also bound to the seatrout ER over a range of 10{sup {minus}5}--10{sup {minus}3}M. Moreover, Kepone was shown to have both estrogenic and antiestrogenic actions in an in vitro liver slice vitellogenesis assay. These estrogenic compounds were also tested for their ability to bind to nuclear and plasma membrane progestogen (20{beta}-S) receptors in ovarian tissues and to the sex-steroid binding protein in seatrout plasma. Kepone, methoxychlor and o,p{prime}-DDT caused concentration dependent displacement of {sup 3}H2O{beta}-S from its plasma membrane receptor and inhibition of 20{beta}-S induced final maturation in an in vitro assay over the range of 10{sup {minus}7}--10{sup {minus}3}M, but did not alter steroid binding to the nuclear progestogen receptor. Significant binding of methoxychlor and the other organochlorines to the sex steroid binding protein was also observed. It is concluded from these studies that a variety of xenobiotics with estrogenic actions can also bind to other steroid receptors and binding proteins to influence other endocrine-mediated processes.

  2. Maternally derived egg yolk steroid hormones and sex determination: Review of a paradox in reptiles

    Rajkumar S Radder

    2007-09-01

    During the past decade, maternally derived steroid hormones in the egg yolk of oviparous vertebrates have been the focus of attention for their possible role in sex determination and hence, information on the consequences of maternal egg yolk steroids on sex determination has accumulated rapidly in reptiles and birds. Until recently, the observations were dominated by the idea that yolk steroids of maternal origin play an important role in sex determination of oviparous vertebrates. However, more recent studies have cast significant doubt on the above conclusion. These studies suggest instead that steroids may be present in the yolk simply as the byproduct of passive uptake during yolk formation or observed correlations might reflect embryonically produced rather than maternally derived steroids. Thus, the objective of the present review is (i) to provide an overview of such paradoxical observations on the role of maternal yolk steroids in sex determination of reptiles, (ii) to identify and provide brief explanations for the observed paradoxical results, and (iii) to provide some future research directions.

  3. [Sex steroids and monoamines in the system of neuroendocrine regulation of amygdala functions].

    Akhmadeev, A V; Kalimullina, L B

    2011-05-01

    The aim of this review is a review of literature data, which characterize participation of monoamines brain systems and sex steroids in regulation (modulation) of the amygdalas' functions. Shown were characteristic noradrenergic, dopaminergic and serotoninergic systems and their representation in amygdala. Effect ofnoradrenaline, dopamine and serotonine on neurons of Amygdala was shown realized from appropriate cell receptors under modulated influence of sex steroids. Combined participation of monoamines and sex steroids occur in regulation of activity in cyclic centre of secretion and releasing of gonadotropins, constituted a base of forming adaptive (sexual, food and aggressive-defensive) behaviour, including stress reaction. The presented data could be used for understanding influence of gender factor on personality characteristics of humans, cognitive abilities and behavioural reactions, and also in application to development of optimal medicinal treatment of psychoneurological diseases. PMID:21874859

  4. Responses of sex steroid hormones to different intensities of exercise in endurance athletes.

    Sato, Koji; Iemitsu, Motoyuki; Katayama, Keisho; Ishida, Koji; Kanao, Yoji; Saito, Mitsuru

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that acute exercise elevates sex steroid hormone concentrations in rodents and that sprint exercise increases circulating testosterone in healthy young men. However, the effect of different exercise intensities on sex steroid hormone responses at different levels of physical fitness is still unclear. In this study, we compared circulating sex steroid hormone responses at different exercise intensities in athletes and non-athletes. Eight male endurance athletes and 11 non-athletes performed two 15 min sessions of submaximal exercise at 40 and 70% peak oxygen uptake (V̇(O2peak)), respectively, and exercised at 90% V̇(O2peak) until exhaustion. Venous blood samples were collected during the last minute of each submaximal exercise session and immediately after exhaustion. Acute exercise at 40, 70 and 90% V̇(O2peak) induced significant increases in serum dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and free testosterone concentrations in non-athletes. On the contrary, only 90% V̇O2 peak exercise led to an increase in serum DHEA and free testosterone concentrations in athletes. Serum 5α-dihydrotestosterone concentrations increased with 90% V̇(O2peak) exercise in both athletes and non-athletes. Additionally, serum estradiol concentrations were significantly increased at moderate and high exercise intensities in both athletes and non-athletes. These results indicate that in endurance athletes, serum sex steroid hormone concentrations, especially serum DHEA and 5α-dihydrotestosterone concentrations, increased only with high-intensity exercise, suggesting that different responses of sex steroid hormone secretion are induced by different exercise intensities in individuals with low and high levels of physical fitness. In athletes, therefore, high-intensity exercise may be required to increase circulating sex steroid hormone concentrations. PMID:26518151

  5. The mechanisms underlying sexual differentiation of behavior and physiology in mammals and birds: relative contributions of sex steroids and sex chromosomes

    FumihikoMaekawa; HirokoOhki-hamazaki

    2014-01-01

    From a classical viewpoint, sex-specific behavior and physiological functions as well as the brain structures of mammals such as rats and mice, have been thought to be influenced by perinatal sex steroids secreted by the gonads. Sex steroids have also been thought to affect the differentiation of the sex-typical behavior of a few members of the avian order Galliformes, including the Japanese quail and chickens, during their development in ovo. However, recent mammalian studies that focused on...

  6. Regulation of antioxidant enzyme activities in male and female rat macrophages by sex steroids

    Azevedo R.B.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Human and animal immune functions present sex dimorphism that seems to be mainly regulated by sex hormones. In the present study, the activities of the antioxidant enzymes total superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px were measured in intraperitoneal resident macrophages from adult male and female rats. In addition to comparing males and females, we also examined the regulation of these enzyme activities in macrophages by sex steroids. GSH-Px activity did not differ between male and female macrophages. However, both total SOD and CAT activities were markedly higher in females than in males (83 and 180%. Removal of the gonads in both males and females (comparison between castrated groups increased the difference in SOD activity from 83 to 138% and reduced the difference in CAT activity from 180 to 86%. Castration and testosterone administration did not significantly modify the activities of the antioxidant enzymes in male macrophages. Ovariectomy did not affect SOD or GSH-Px activity but markedly reduced (48% CAT activity. This latter change was fully reversed by estrogen administration, whereas progesterone had a smaller effect. These results led us to conclude that differences in the SOD and CAT activities may partially explain some of the differences in immune function reported for males and females. Also, estrogen is a potent regulator of CAT in macrophages and therefore this enzyme activity in macrophages may vary considerably during the menstrual cycle.

  7. [Possibilities of testing sex steroid effects in the uropoietic system].

    Voigt, R; Klinger, G; Schneider, H J

    1978-10-01

    Progesterone as the main representative of gestagen-effective sexual steroide does not cause allone a statistically significant dilation of the lumina of the ureters compared with the adequate values of the control urogrammes. The fact that in pregnant rabbits no dilation of the ureters and of the renal pelvis was to be found allows the suspicion that during the pregnancy of the animal species used there are other mechanical conditions than during the human gravidity. PMID:735464

  8. Sex steroids affect triglyceride handling, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide, and insulin sensitivity: a 1-week randomized clinical trial in healthy young men

    Lapauw, Bruno; Ouwens, Margriet; 't Hart, Leen M; Wuyts, Birgitte; Holst, Jens Juul; T'Sjoen, Guy; Kaufman, Jean-Marc; Ruige, Johannes B

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate metabolic effects of sex steroids in nonfasting and fasting conditions, independent from changes in body composition.......To evaluate metabolic effects of sex steroids in nonfasting and fasting conditions, independent from changes in body composition....

  9. Role of Serotonin Transporter Changes in Depressive Responses to Sex-Steroid Hormone Manipulation

    Frokjaer, Vibe Gedsoe; Pinborg, Anja; Holst, Klaus Kähler; Overgaard, Agnete; Henningsson, Susanne; Heede, Maria; Larsen, Elisabeth Clare; Jensen, Peter Steen; Agn, Mikael; Nielsen, Anna Pors; Stenbæk, Dea Siggaard; da Cunha-Bang, Sophie; Lehel, Szabolcs; Siebner, Hartwig Roman; Mikkelsen, Jens Damsgaard; Svarer, Claus; Knudsen, Gitte Moos

    2015-01-01

    = .02) from baseline within the GnRHa group. Depressive symptoms were associated with increases in neocortical SERT binding in the GnRHa group relative to placebo (p = .003). CONCLUSIONS: Our data imply both serotonergic signaling and estradiol in the mechanisms by which sex-steroid hormone fluctuations...

  10. No relationship between circulating levels of sex steroids and mammographic breast density: the Prospect-EPIC cohort

    Verheus, Martijn; Peeters, Petra HM; van Noord, Paulus AH; van der Schouw, Yvonne T.; Grobbee, Diederick E; van Gils, Carla H

    2007-01-01

    Background High breast density is associated with increased breast cancer risk. Epidemiologic studies have shown an increase in breast cancer risk in postmenopausal women with high levels of sex steroids. Hence, sex steroids may increase postmenopausal breast cancer risk via an increase of breast density. The objective of the present study was to study the relation between circulating oestrogens and androgens as well as sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) in relation to breast density. Method...

  11. Gender identification in great sturgeon (Huso huso) using morphology, sex steroids, histology and endoscopy.

    Falahatkar, B; Poursaeid, S

    2014-04-01

    Gender identification of great sturgeon during different life stages was conducted using morphology, sex steroid concentrations, histological and endoscopic techniques. One hundred and forty great sturgeons from two sturgeon farms at ages between 3-16 years were selected for examination. Most of the morphological indices showed no significant sex-related differences except for the ratio of fork length to distance of snout to anterior of dorsal fin (PD). The urogenital opening had no difference in shapes for both sexes. Mean sex steroid concentrations showed no significant difference in levels of testosterone, estradiol and progesterone between males and females in the stage II of maturity. 95.8% of fish were correctly sexed using endoscopy at this stage. Histological investigation indicated the ovaries of 3- to 9-year-old females were at the different stages of pre-vitellogenic, and most males were at the early spermatogenesis for age 3. The result of this study suggests that endoscopy is a reliable tool for sex and stage determination after the age of 3 years. This method is useful in providing a quick discernment of sexes and stages compared with utilizing morphometric and blood indices. Direct observation of gonads can give us important information about the gonadal and maturity stages in sturgeon aquaculture and wild population management, with minimal damage or stress to this endangered species. PMID:23565575

  12. Peripheral vs. central sex steroid hormones in experimental Parkinson’s disease

    SimonMcArthur

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The nigrostriatal dopaminergic (NSDA pathway degenerates in Parkinson’s disease (PD, which occurs with approximately twice the incidence in men than women. Studies of the influence of systemic estrogens in females suggest sex hormones contribute to these differences. In this review we analyse the evidence revealing great complexity in the response of the healthy and injured NSDA system to hormonal influences, and emphasize the importance of centrally generated estrogens. At physiological levels, circulating estrogen (in females or estrogen precursors (testosterone in males, aromatised to estrogen centrally have negligible effects on dopaminergic neurone survival in experimental PD, but can modify striatal dopamine levels via actions on the activity or adaptive responses of surviving cells. However, these effects are sexually dimorphic. In females, estradiol promotes adaptive responses in the partially injured NSDA pathway, preserving striatal dopamine, whereas in males gonadal steroids and exogenous estradiol have a negligible or even suppressive effect, effectively exacerbating dopamine loss. On balance, the different effects of gonadal factors in males and females contribute to sex differences in experimental PD. Fundamental sex differences in brain organization, including the sexually dimorphic networks regulating NSDA activity are likely to underpin these responses. In contrast, estrogen generated locally appears to preserve striatal dopamine in both sexes. The available data therefore highlight the need to understand the biological basis of sex-specific responses of the NSDA system to peripheral hormones, so as to realise the potential for sex-specific, hormone-based therapies in PD. Furthermore, they suggest that targeting central steroid generation could be equally effective in preserving striatal dopamine in both sexes. Clarification of the relative roles of peripheral and central sex steroid hormones is thus an important challenge for future studies.

  13. The mechanisms underlying sexual differentiation of behavior and physiology in mammals and birds: relative contributions of sex steroids and sex chromosomes

    FumihikoMaekawa

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available From a classical viewpoint, sex-specific behavior and physiological functions as well as the brain structures of mammals such as rats and mice, have been thought to be influenced by perinatal sex steroids secreted by the gonads. Sex steroids have also been thought to affect the differentiation of the sex-typical behavior of a few members of the avian order Galliformes, including the Japanese quail and chickens, during their development in ovo. However, recent mammalian studies that focused on the artificial shuffling or knockout of the sex-determining gene, Sry, have revealed that sex chromosomal effects may be associated with particular types of sex-linked differences such as aggression levels, social interaction, and autoimmune diseases, independently of sex steroid-mediated effects. In addition, studies on naturally occurring, rare phenomena such as gynandromorphic birds and experimentally constructed chimeras in which the composition of sex chromosomes in the brain differs from that in the other parts of the body, indicated that sex chromosomes play certain direct roles in the sex-specific differentiation of the gonads and the brain. In this article, we review the relative contributions of sex steroids and sex chromosomes in the determination of brain functions related to sexual behavior and reproductive physiology in mammals and birds.

  14. The sensitivity of the child to sex steroids: possible impact of exogenous estrogens

    Aksglaede, Lise; Juul, Anders; Leffers, Henrik; Skakkebaek, Niels E; Andersson, Anna-Maria

    2006-01-01

    estradiol and may respond with increased growth and/or breast development even at serum levels below the current detection limits; (iii) no threshold has been established, below which no hormonal effects can be seen in children exposed to exogenous steroids or endocrine disruptors; (iv) changes in hormone...... levels during fetal and prepubertal development may have severe effects in adult life and (v) the daily production rates of sex steroids in children estimated by the Food and Drug Administration in 1999 and still used in risk assessments are highly overestimated and should be revised. Because no lower...

  15. Are Bioactive and Free Sex Steroids Associated with Bone Mineral Density and Bone Turnover Markers in Middle Aged Men? - Original Investigation

    Melek Sezgin

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To investigate whether bioactive and free sex steroids are associated with bone mineral density (BMD and bone turnover markers in middle aged men. Material and Methods: One hundred and fifteen out of 165 volunteers aged 35-65 years presenting to our outpatient clinic were included in the study. Serum albumin, total testosterone (T, total estradiol (E2, SHBG, osteocalcin (OC and C-terminal telopeptide (CTx levels were measured. Free and bioactive sex steroids, free androgen index (FAI and free estrogen index (FEI were calculated. BMD in the lumbar spine and the hip was measured in all participants and effects of sex steroids on BMD and bone turnover markers were investigated. Results: The mean age and the mean body mass index (BMI in all participants were 52.4±7.8 years and 26.1±3.4 kg/m2 respectively. There was no significant difference in sex hormone levels and bone turnover markers between the individuals with osteoporosis and osteopenia and the individuals with normal BMD (p>0.05. There was a significant relation between age and FAI (r=-0.23, p=0.01, but there was no significant relation between age and bioactive and free sex steroids, FEI and SHBG. However, there was a positive correlation between BMI and bioactive E2 (r=0.35, p:0001, free E2 (r=0.29, p:0.002 and FEI (r=0.39, p=0.0001. After an adjustment for variables effective on BMD was made; no relation was found between BMD measures from the lumbar spine and the hip and serum bioactive sex steroids, free sex steroids, FAI, FEI and SHBG (p>0.05. However, there was a weak positive relation between serum bioactive T, FEI and OC, CTx levels (p=0.05. Conclusion: We think that bioactive and free sex steroids are not independent variables effective on BMD in the spine and the hip in middle aged men and that further studies are needed to elucidate the pathophysiology of idiopathic male osteoporosis. (From the World of Osteoporosis 2009;15:59-65

  16. Protective actions of sex steroid hormones in Alzheimer’s disease

    Pike, Christian J.; Carroll, Jenna C.; Rosario, Emily R.; Barron, Anna

    2009-01-01

    Risk for Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is associated with age-related loss of sex steroid hormones in both women and men. In postmenopausal women, the precipitous depletion of estrogens and progestogens is hypothesized to increase susceptibility to AD pathogenesis, a concept largely supported by epidemiological evidence but refuted by some clinical findings. Experimental evidence suggests that estrogens have numerous neuroprotective actions relevant to prevention of AD, in particular promotion of ...

  17. Sex steroids stimulate leptin gene expression in Atlantic salmon parr hepatocytes in vitro.

    Trombley, Susanne; Rocha, Ana; Schmitz, Monika

    2015-09-15

    In mammals, leptin plays an important role in puberty and reproduction and leptin is regulated by sex steroids. Elevated leptin levels have been associated with sexual maturation in some teleosts such as Atlantic salmon. In the present study, primary cultures of Atlantic salmon hepatocytes were used to investigate the direct effects of different sex steroids on expression of the two salmon leptin-a genes, lepa1 and lepa2. Testosterone (T) stimulated both lepa1 and lepa2 in a dose dependent manner after four days of incubation. The stimulatory effect of T on leptin expression was not prevented by co-incubation with the aromatase inhibitor fadrozole, indicating a direct androgen effect on transcription. The non-aromatizable androgen 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT), which is the main androgen in fish, was generally slightly less potent than T in stimulating lepa1 and lepa2. The strongest stimulatory response was seen for 17?-estradiol (E2). E2 treatment significantly up-regulated lepa1 and lepa2 gene expression at doses of 10nM and 1nM for each gene, respectively. Lepa1, but not lepa2, was stimulated by T and 11-KT in immature male and immature female parr, while E2 stimulated expression of both genes. The sensitivity to sex steroid stimulation differed in maturing males compared to immature. In maturing males, the androgens and E2 stimulated lepa2 but not lepa1, while in immature males, the androgens and E2 stimulated lepa1, but only E2 stimulated lepa2. The differential response of the two leptin paralogues to the sex steroids suggests differences in regulation of the two leptin genes during maturation. Altogether, these results indicate that leptin expression in Atlantic salmon hepatocytes is directly regulated at the transcriptional level by the main teleost androgens and an estrogen, and that the response might depend on the developmental stage of the fish. PMID:25644210

  18. Does priming with sex steroids improve the diagnosis of normal growth hormone secretion in short children?

    Ashraf Soliman; Ashraf Adel; Aml Sabt; Elkhansa Elbukhari; Hannah Ahmed; Vincenzo De Sanctis

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: There is still controversy for priming with sex steroid before growth hormone (GH) testing. Objective: We studied GH response to stimulation in 92 children >9 years with idiopathic short stature (height standard deviation score [HtSDS]-2). They were divided randomly into two groups. Children in Group 1 (n = 50) were primed with premarin in girls and testosterone in boys and those in Group 2 were not primed (n = 42). All children were tested using standard clonidine test and thei...

  19. Sex steroid hormones in barn swallow (Hirundo rustica) populations at a dioxin contaminated site in northeast Louisiana

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This study compares the gonadal sex steroid hormone levels i.e., estradiol, total estrogen, and testosterone in Louisiana barn swallows Hirundo rustica that were...

  20. The sensitivity of the child to sex steroids: possible impact of exogenous estrogens

    Aksglaede, Lise; Juul, Anders; Leffers, Henrik; Skakkebaek, Niels E; Andersson, Anna-Maria

    2006-01-01

    The current trends of increasing incidences of testis, breast and prostate cancers are poorly understood, although it is assumed that sex hormones play a role. Disrupted sex hormone action is also believed to be involved in the increased occurrence of genital abnormalities among newborn boys and...... estradiol and may respond with increased growth and/or breast development even at serum levels below the current detection limits; (iii) no threshold has been established, below which no hormonal effects can be seen in children exposed to exogenous steroids or endocrine disruptors; (iv) changes in hormone...

  1. Dynamics of yolk steroid hormones during development in a reptile with temperature-dependent sex determination.

    Elf, P K; Lang, J W; Fivizzani, A J

    2002-06-01

    Many oviparous reptiles exhibit temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD); i.e., the temperature at which the egg is incubated determines the sex of the offspring. In TSD reptiles, yolk steroids not only may influence sex determination, but also may mediate hormonal effects on subsequent growth and behavior, as in some avian species. We investigated changes in the levels of estradiol (E(2)) and testosterone (T) during development in yolks of snapping turtle eggs, examined how incubation temperature affects hormone levels, and determined how hormones in turtle eggs are influenced by individual females (=clutch effects). Results indicate significant decreases in both hormones (>50% decline) by the end of the sex-determining period, when two-thirds of the development is complete. The declines in both E(2) and T were significantly affected by incubation temperature, but in different ways. Eggs incubated at female-producing temperatures maintained high levels, those incubated at male-producing temperatures had low E(2) values, and eggs incubated at pivotal temperatures had intermediate levels of E(2). At all three temperatures, T values underwent significant but approximately equal declines, except during the developmental stages just after the sex-determining period, when T levels decreased more at the male-producing temperature than at either of the other two temperatures. Initially, there were significant clutch effects in both hormones, but such differences, attributable to individual females, were maintained only for E(2) later in development. Here we report for the first time that incubation temperature significantly affects the hormonal environment of the developing embryo of a turtle with temperature-dependent sex determination. Based on this and related findings, we propose that yolk sex steroids influence sexual differentiation in these TSD species and play a role in sex determination at pivotal temperatures. PMID:12161199

  2. Chronic Hypoxia Inhibits Sex Steroid Hormone-Mediated Attenuation of Ovine Uterine Arterial Myogenic Tone in Pregnancy

    Chang, Katherine; Xiao, DaLiao; Huang, Xiaohui; Xue, Zhice; Yang, Shumei; Longo, Lawrence D.; Zhang, Lubo

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies in ovine uterine arteries have demonstrated that sex steroid hormones upregulate ERK1/2 expression and downregulate PKC signaling pathway, resulting in the attenuated myogenic tone in pregnancy. The present study tested the hypothesis that chronic hypoxia during gesttation inhibits the sex steroid-mediated adaptation of ERK1/2 and PKC signaling pathways and increases the myogenic tone of uterine arteries. Uterine arteries were isolated from nonpregnant and near-term pregnant ...

  3. Sex steroid levels and response to weight loss interventions among postmenopausal women in the Diabetes Prevention Program

    Kim, Catherine; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth; Randolph, John F; Kong, Shengchun; Nan, Bin; Mather, Kieren J; Golden, Sherita H; .. .

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To examine whether estrogen use potentiates weight loss interventions via sex steroid levels and whether endogenous sex steroid levels predict response to weight loss interventions among women not using estrogen. Design and Methods The Diabetes Prevention Program randomized overweight or obese dysglycemic participants to lifestyle change with the goals of weight reduction of >7% of initial weight and 150 minutes per week of exercise; metformin; or placebo. In this secondary analysi...

  4. Hippocampal synthesis of sex steroids and corticosteroids: essential for modulation of synaptic plasticity

    SuguruKawato

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Sex steroids play essential roles in the modulation of synaptic plasticity and neuroprotection in the hippocampus. Accumulating evidence shows that hippocampal neurons synthesize both estrogen and androgen. Recently, we also revealed the hippocampal synthesis of corticosteroids. The accurate concentrations of these hippocampus-synthesized steroids are determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in combination with novel derivatization. The hippocampal levels of 17β-estradiol (E2, testosterone (T, dihydrotestosterone (DHT and corticosterone (CORT, are 5-15 nM, and these levels are sufficient to modulate synaptic plasticity. Hippocampal E2 modulates memory-related synaptic plasticity not only slowly/genomicaly but also rapidly/nongenomically. Slow actions of E2 occur via classical nuclear receptors (ERα or ERβ, while rapid E2 actions occur via synapse-localized or extranuclear ERα or ERβ. Nanomolar concentrations of E2 changes rapidly the density and morphology of spines in hippocampal neurons. ERα, but not ERβ, drives this enhancement/suppression of spinogenesis in adult animals. Nanomolar concentrations of androgens (T and DHT and CORT also increase in the spine density. Kinase networks are involved downstream of ERα and androgen receptor (AR. Newly developed Spiso-3D mathematical analysis is useful to distinguish these complex effects by sex steroids and kinases. Significant advance has been achieved in investigations of rapid modulation by E2 of the long-term depression or the long-term potentiation.

  5. Annual sex steroid profiles and effects of gender and season on cytochrome P450 mRNA induction in Atlantic tomcod (Microgadus tomcod)

    Williams, P.J.; Courtenay, S.C. [Dept. of Fisheries and Oceans, New Brunswick (Canada); Wilson, C.E. [Memorial Univ. of Newfoundland, St. John`s, Newfoundland (Canada). Ocean Sciences Center

    1998-08-01

    As a preliminary step in a 4-year biomonitoring program, sex steroid levels, gonad weights, and diameter of vitellogenic oocytes were measured in tomcod collected bimonthly from the Miramichi and Kouchibouguac rivers from September 1993 to September 1994. As well as the reproductive indices, hepatic levels of cytochrome P4501A mRNA (CYP1A mRNA) were also measured. The preparatory period for spawning began in September, with maximal steroid levels in November, and spawning took place from late December to January. The CYP1A mRNA levels in female tomcod appeared inversely related to plasma steroids, with the lowest amounts of CYP1A mRNA coinciding with maximal steroids. The CYP1A mRNA levels in male tomcod did not exhibit this relationship. River-river comparisons of female tomcod showed significantly smaller vitellogenic oocytes in the Miramichi, along with lower plasma testosterone, estradiol, and relative gonad weight. Miramichi CYP1A mRNA levels were higher than Kouchibouguac in the fall but lower in the spring sample. The CYP1A mRNA-sex steroid relationship observed in this study will facilitate meaningful interpretation of data collected during the full 4-year study.

  6. Differential Responses of Brain, Gonad and Muscle Steroid Levels to Changes in Social Status and Sex in a Sequential and Bidirectional Hermaphroditic Fish

    Lorenzi, Varenka; Earley, Ryan L.; Grober, Matthew S.

    2012-01-01

    Sex steroids can both modulate and be modulated by behavior, and their actions are mediated by complex interactions among multiple hormone sources and targets. While gonadal steroids delivered via circulation can affect behavior, changes in local brain steroid synthesis also can modulate behavior. The relative steroid load across different tissues and the association of these levels with rates of behavior have not been well studied. The bluebanded goby (Lythrypnus dalli) is a sex changing fis...

  7. Interactions of 16α-[18F]-fluoroestradiol (FES) with sex steroid binding protein (SBP)

    Fluorine-18 16α-Fluoroestradiol ([18F]- FES) is a positron-emitting tracer for the estrogen receptor that is used for positron emission tomography (PET) studies of tumor tissues rich in the estrogen receptor. The role of the sex steroid binding protein (SBP or SHBG) in the transport of the [18F]-FES to the estrogen-receptor-rich tissue in breast cancer patients in vivo was investigated. To determine the extent to which [18F]-FES is bound to SBP in the blood, we performed a series of studies using blood samples obtained from patients undergoing [18F]-FES PET scans. The binding of [18F]-FES to the SBP was measured using a simple protein precipitation assay. The binding of [18F]-FES metabolites to SBP was also measured. These measurements showed that the tracer was distributed between albumin and SBP, and the binding capacity of SBP was sufficient to ensure that the protein was not saturated when the tracer was fully mixed with the plasma; however, local saturation of SBP may occur when [18F]-FES is administered intravenously. Typically about 45% of [18F]-FES in circulating plasma was bound to SBP, but this fraction was dependent on the concentration of SBP in plasma. The transfer of the tracer between the two proteins was rapid, complete in less than 20 s at 0 deg. C, suggesting that the equilibrium was maintained under most circumstances and that local saturation resolved quickly when blood from the injection site entered the central circulation. These data suggest that SBP binding of [18F]-FES is significant and will affect the input function of the tracer for any model that is used for the quantitative evaluation of [18F]-FES uptake in PET studies. Estimates of equilibrium binding in blood samples are sufficient to characterize [18F]-FES binding to SBP in the circulation

  8. Sex steroids do not affect muscle weight, oxidative metabolism or cytosolic androgen reception binding of functionally overloaded rat Plantaris muscles

    Max, S. R.; Rance, N.

    1983-01-01

    The effects of sex steroids on muscle weight and oxidative capacity of rat planaris muscles subjected to functional overload by removal of synergistic muscles were investigated. Ten weeks after bilateral synergist removal, plantaris muscles were significantly hypertrophic compared with unoperated controls. After this period, the ability of the muscles to oxide three substrates of oxidative metabolism was assessed. Experimental procedures are discussed and results are presented herein. Results suggest a lack of beneficial effect of sex hormone status on the process of hypertrophy and on biochemical changes in overloaded muscle. Such findings are not consistent with the idea of synergistic effects of sex steroids and muscle usage.

  9. [Control measures for anabolic androgenic steroid medicines].

    Vzquez-Mourelle, Raquel; Carracedo-Martnez, Eduardo; Ces Gens, Eugenio; Cadrniga Valio, Luis; lvaro Esteban, Pilar; Pose Reino, Jos Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) can cause serious adverse effects when used without a therapeutic purpose. This article aims to show that the AAS are susceptible to being sold on the black market. We also aim to describe how certain limitations on the health inspection services of the Galician health service to pursue these illegal actions prompted a regulatory initiative demanding that additional actions be granted to community pharmacies when dispensing AAS. Four pharmacy inspections detected the diversion of a total of 3118 packages of AAS, which led to the opening of four disciplinary proceedings. In two of these, specialized police forces were called in as there was sufficient evidence of possible diversion to gymnasiums, resulting in a police operation called Operation Fitness. PMID:25778637

  10. Effects of estradiol-17? implantation on ovarian growth, sex steroid levels and vitellogenin proxies in previtellogenic sturgeon Huso huso.

    Akhavan, Sobhan R; Falahatkar, Bahram; Gilani, Mohammad H Tolouei; Lokman, P Mark

    2015-06-01

    Sexual development in female great sturgeon (Huso huso) is arrested at the previtellogenic stage for many years. The present study investigated the effects of different levels of estradiol-17? (E2) on gonadal development, levels of sex steroids and proxies of vitellogenin in 3-year-old cultured previtellogenic great sturgeon. Fish were intraperitoneally implanted every 1.5 months over a 6-month period from January to July with capsules filled with 0, 3, 6 or 12 mg E2/kg body mass as control, low, mid and high experimental groups, respectively. Blood sampling was performed at the start of experimentation and 3 weeks after each implantation for quantification of sex steroid levels and of vitellogenin-associated variables (triacylglycerol, cholesterol, calcium, phosphorus). Gonad biopsy samples were taken at the beginning and the end of the experiment in order to determine the gonad stage and oocyte morphometrical measures were taken to evaluate treatment effects. E2 implants produced a significant elevation in serum concentrations of E2, calcium, triacylglycerol, cholesterol and phosphorus. A rapid significant decrease was observed in serum testosterone levels in a dose-independent manner, so that the highest testosterone concentrations were observed in control fish throughout the experiment. There were no significant differences in oocyte stage or morphometric end points among the treated fish. We conclude that E2 implants do not stimulate ovarian growth, and hence, E2 implants alone are insufficient to reducing the time until onset of sexual maturation in previtellogenic great sturgeon. PMID:25724452

  11. Impact of androgenic/antiandrogenic compounds (AAC) on human sex steroid metabolizing key enzymes

    Various pesticides, industrial pollutants and synthetic compounds, to which human populations are exposed, are known or suspected to interfere with endogenous sex hormone functions. Such interference potentially affect the development and expression of the male and female reproductive system or both. Chemicals in this class are thus referred to as endocrine disruptors (ED). This emphazises on the relevance of screening ED for a wide range of sex hormone-mimicking effects. These compounds are believed to exert influence on hormonal actions predominantly by (i) interfering with endogenous steroids in that they functionally interact with plasma membrane-located receptors as well as with nuclear receptors both for estrogens and androgens or (ii) affecting the levels of sex hormones as a result of their impact on steroid metabolizing key enzymes. Essential sex hormone-related enzymes within the endocrine system of humans are aromatase, 5α-reductase 2 as well as specific sulfotransferases and sulfatases (so-called phase I and phase II enzymes, respectively). Using suitable human tissues and human cancer cell lines (placenta, prostate, liver and JEG-3, lymph node carcinoma of prostate (LnCaP) cells) we investigated the impact of 10 widely used chemicals suspected of acting as ED with androgenic or antiandrogenic activity (so-called AAC) on the activity of these sex hormone metabolizing key enzymes in humans. In addition, the respective effects of six substances were also studied as positive controls due to their well-known specific hormonal agonistic/antagonistic activities. The aim of this report and subsequent investigations is to improve human health risk assessment for AAC and other ED

  12. Regulation of Estrogen Receptor α Expression in the Hypothalamus by Sex Steroids: Implication in the Regulation of Energy Homeostasis

    Xian Liu; Haifei Shi

    2015-01-01

    Sex differences exist in the complex regulation of energy homeostasis that utilizes central and peripheral systems. It is widely accepted that sex steroids, especially estrogens, are important physiological and pathological components in this sex-specific regulation. Estrogens exert their biological functions via estrogen receptors (ERs). ERα, a classic nuclear receptor, contributes to metabolic regulation and sexual behavior more than other ER subtypes. Physiological and molecular studies ha...

  13. Elevated serum IGF-I, but unaltered sex steroid levels, in healthy boys with pubertal gynaecomastia

    Mieritz, Mikkel G; Sorensen, Kaspar; Aksglaede, Lise; Mouritsen, Annette; Hagen, Casper P; Hilsted, Linda; Andersson, Anna-Maria; Juul, Anders

    2014-01-01

    this study, we elucidate the association of adiposity and levels of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), testosterone, oestrogen, IGF-I and IGFBP-3 with the presence of pubertal gynaecomastia in a large cohort of healthy boys. PATIENTS: A...... higher IGF-I levels compared with controls (IGF-I SD-score 0·72 vs -0·037, P < 0·001). This difference was maintained after adjusting for confounders (age and pubertal stage). Sex steroid levels, oestradiol/testosterone ratio or free testosterone were not associated with the presence of gynaecomastia....... Nonfasting blood samples were analysed for FSH, LH, testosterone, SHBG, oestradiol, IGF-I, IGFBP-3 and prolactin. RESULTS: We found that 23% (31/133) of all pubertal boys had gynaecomastia. More specifically, 63% (10/16) of boys in genital stage 4 had gynaecomastia. Boys with gynaecomastia had significantly...

  14. Modelling the binding affinity of steroids to zebrafish sex hormone-binding globulin.

    Saxena, A K; Devillers, J; Pery, A R R; Beaudouin, R; Balaramnavar, V M; Ahmed, S

    2014-01-01

    The circulating endogenous steroids are transported in the bloodstream. These are bound to a highly specific sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) and in lower affinity to proteins such as the corticosteroid-binding protein and albumin in vertebrates, including fish. It is generally believed that the glycoprotein SHBG protects these steroids from rapid metabolic degradation and thus intervenes in its availability at the target tissues. Endocrine disrupters binding to SHBG affect the normal activity of natural steroids. Since xenobiotics are primarily released in the aquatic environment, there is a need to evaluate the binding affinity of xenosteroid mimics on fish SHBG, especially in zebrafish (Danio rerio), a small freshwater fish originating in India and widely employed in ecotoxicology, toxicology, and genetics. In this context, a zebrafish SHBG (zfSHBG) homology model was developed using the human SHBG (hSHBG) receptor structure as template. It was shown that interactions with amino acids Ser-36, Asp-59 and Thr-54 were important for binding affinity. A ligand-based pharmacophore model was also developed for both zfSHBG and hSHBG inhibitors that differentiated binders from non-binders, but also demonstrated structural requirements for zfSHBG and hSHBG ligands. The study provides insights into the mechanism of action of endocrine disruptors in zebrafish as well as providing a useful tool for identifying anthropogenic compounds inhibiting zfSHBG. PMID:24874994

  15. Heat Shock Protein 27 Is Required for Sex Steroid Receptor Trafficking to and Functioning at the Plasma Membrane ?

    Razandi, Mahnaz; Pedram, Ali; Levin, Ellis R

    2010-01-01

    Classical sex steroid receptors (SRs) localize at the plasma membranes (PMs) of cells, initiating signal transduction through kinase cascades that contribute to steroid hormone action. Palmitoylation of the SRs is required for membrane localization and function, but the proteins that facilitate this modification and subsequent receptor trafficking are unknown. Initially using a proteomic approach, we identified that heat shock protein 27 (Hsp27) binds to a motif in estrogen receptor alpha (ER...

  16. [Serotonine and sex steroids in the system of neuroendocrine regulation of amygdala functions].

    2013-01-01

    This review contains modern information about the representation of serotoninergic system in the Amygdala with detailed characteristics of the localization of serotonine fibers and serotonine receptors in nuclear and paleocortical structures. These data indicate the joint participation of serotonine and sex steroids in the regulation of the neuroedocrine function of Amygdala, which have a modulating effect on the secretion and release gonadotropine centers and sexual behavior centers in the hypothalamic area of the brain. The survey also gives information about changes in the exchange of serotonine in the Amygdala's structures in the process of alimentary, maternal, aggressive-defensive and emotional behavior. Systematizes the data on the role of serotonin and sex steroids in the mechanisms involved in the stress response of Amygdala, and its participation in the formation of mood, emotions and the genesis of depression. Presented data on changes in morphometric characteristics of brain structures caused by polymorphic variants of genes of serotoninergic systems and data on the asymmetry of its content. PMID:25508091

  17. Does priming with sex steroids improve the diagnosis of normal growth hormone secretion in short children?

    Ashraf Soliman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There is still controversy for priming with sex steroid before growth hormone (GH testing. Objective: We studied GH response to stimulation in 92 children >9 years with idiopathic short stature (height standard deviation score [HtSDS]-2. They were divided randomly into two groups. Children in Group 1 (n = 50 were primed with premarin in girls and testosterone in boys and those in Group 2 were not primed (n = 42. All children were tested using standard clonidine test and their serum insulin-like growth factor-I concentration (IGF-I. Additionally the growth and GH-IGF-I data of the two groups of children were compared with those for 32 short children (HtSDS 9 years. The peak GH response to clonidine provocation test did not differ before (n = 42 versus after 9 years (n = 32 of age. Conclusions: In this randomized study priming with sex steroids before GH testing did not significantly increase the yield of diagnosing short patients with normal GH secretion. In addition, GH response to provocation did not vary significantly between young (9 years short children.

  18. Male-to-female transsexuals show sex-atypical hypothalamus activation when smelling odorous steroids.

    Berglund, H; Lindström, P; Dhejne-Helmy, C; Savic, I

    2008-08-01

    One working hypothesis behind transsexuality is that the normal sex differentiation of certain hypothalamic networks is altered. We tested this hypothesis by investigating the pattern of cerebral activation in 12 nonhomosexual male-to-female transsexuals (MFTRs) when smelling 4,16-androstadien-3-one (AND) and estra-1,3,5(10),16-tetraen-3-ol (EST). These steroids are reported to activate the hypothalamic networks in a sex-differentiated way. Like in female controls the hypothalamus in MFTRs activated with AND, whereas smelling of EST engaged the amygdala and piriform cortex. Male controls, on the other hand, activated the hypothalamus with EST. However, when restricting the volume of interest to the hypothalamus activation was detected in MFTR also with EST, and explorative conjunctional analysis revealed that MFTR shared a hypothalamic cluster with women when smelling AND, and with men when smelling EST. Because the EST effect was limited, MFTR differed significantly only from male controls, and only for EST-AIR and EST-AND. These data suggest a pattern of activation away from the biological sex, occupying an intermediate position with predominantly female-like features. Because our MFTRs were nonhomosexual, the results are unlikely to be an effect of sexual practice. Instead, the data implicate that transsexuality may be associated with sex-atypical physiological responses in specific hypothalamic circuits, possibly as a consequence of a variant neuronal differentiation. PMID:18056697

  19. Sex steroid profiles and pair-maintenance behavior of captive wild-caught zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata).

    Prior, Nora H; Yap, Kang Nian; Adomat, Hans H; Mainwaring, Mark C; Fokidis, H Bobby; Guns, Emma S; Buchanan, Katherine L; Griffith, Simon C; Soma, Kiran K

    2016-01-01

    Here, we studied the life-long monogamous zebra finch, to examine the relationship between circulating sex steroid profiles and pair-maintenance behavior in pairs of wild-caught zebra finches (paired in the laboratory for >1 month). We used liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry to examine a total of eight androgens and progestins [pregnenolone, progesterone, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), androstenediol, pregnan-3,17-diol-20-one, androsterone, androstanediol, and testosterone]. In the plasma, only pregnenolone, progesterone, DHEA, and testosterone were above the limit of quantification. Sex steroid profiles were similar between males and females, with only circulating progesterone levels significantly different between the sexes (female > male). Circulating pregnenolone levels were high in both sexes, suggesting that pregnenolone might serve as a circulating prohormone for local steroid synthesis in zebra finches. Furthermore, circulating testosterone levels were extremely low in both sexes. Additionally, we found no correlations between circulating steroid levels and pair-maintenance behavior. Taken together, our data raise several interesting questions about the neuroendocrinology of zebra finches. PMID:26610331

  20. Development of a combined method to assess the complex effect of atrazine on sex steroid synthesis in H295R cells.

    Háhn, Judit; Szoboszlay, Sándor; Krifaton, Csilla; Kovács, Krisztina J; Ferenczi, Szilamér; Kriszt, Balázs

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the study was to develop a rapid, cost-effective combined testing method to assess the indirect effect of compounds interfering with sex steroid synthesis and to determine complex effects of atrazine on estrogen and androgen synthesis in vitro on H295R human cell line. Steroidogenic assay was performed on H295R human adrenocortical carcinoma cell line. Instead of standard analytical methods, bioluminescence bioreporter assays (Saccharomyces cerevisiae BLYES and BLYAS) were used to measure estrogenic and androgenic effects of sex steroid hormones released by human cells in response to atrazine. Atrazine resulted in elevated estrogen production presumably due to its well documented inductive effect on aromatase on H295R cell line, detected by BLYES. Interestingly, results of BLYAS test showed concentration-dependent increase of androgen production in H295R cells. That indicates that atrazine can not only increase estrogen level via aromatase induction, but may interfere in androgen synthesis as well. The combined method allows us to assess the androgenic and estrogenic effect of sex steroids produced by human cells in increased or decreased quantity as a result of the different chemicals, without determining specific analytical measurement endpoints, by using the yeast based bioluminescent bioreporter test. PMID:27085065

  1. Anabolic Steroids

    Anabolic steroids are man-made substances related to male sex hormones. Doctors use anabolic steroids to treat some hormone problems in men, delayed ... some diseases. Bodybuilders and athletes often use anabolic steroids to build muscles and improve athletic performance. Using ...

  2. Parasitic castration, growth, and sex steroids in the freshwater bonefish Cyphocharax gilbert (Curimatidae) infested by Riggia paranensis (Cymothoidea)

    Neuza R. W. Lima; Juliana de S. Azevedo; Leonardo G. da Silva; Marilvia Dansa-Petretski

    2007-01-01

    Cyphocharax gilbert shows parasitic castration when infested by the crustacean Riggia paranensis, being unable to reproduce. Fish were sampled in the middle rio Itabapoana, Brazil, to study the prevalence of parasitism, growth, and sex steroid concentrations, considering the body size, sex, and reproductive condition of specimens. Most of the fish analyzed were infested (56.0%). The presence of two lines on the scales was more frequent among infested fish (22.0%) than among fish without paras...

  3. Morphology, sex steroid level and gene expression analysis in gonadal sex reversal of triploid female (XXX) rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    Xu, Gefeng; Huang, Tianqing; Jin, Xian; Cui, Cunhe; Li, Depeng; Sun, Cong; Han, Ying; Mu, Zhenbo

    2016-02-01

    In non-mammalian vertebrates, estrogens and expressions of cyp19a1 and foxl2 play critical roles in maintaining ovary differentiation and development, while dmrt1 and sox9 are male-specific genes in testicular differentiation and are highly conserved. In order to deeply understand the morphological change, sex steroids level and molecular mechanism of triploid female gonadal reversal in rainbow trout, we studied the ovary morphology, tendency of estradiol-17β (E2) and testosterone (T) levels and the relative expressions of dmrt1, cyp19a1, sox9 and foxl2 in juvenile and adult fish. Our results demonstrated that the development of triploid female gonads in rainbow trout went through arrested development, oocytes dedifferentiation, ovary reconstruction and sex reversal finally. During early gonadal development (154-334 days post-fertilization), the expressions of foxl2 and cyp19a1 increased linearly, while expressions of dmrt1 and sox9 were extremely suppressed, and E2 level was higher, while T level was lower. During the mid-to-late period of triploid female gonadal development (574-964 days post-fertilization), the expressions of dmrt1 and sox9 remained high and were very close to the quantity of diploid male genes, and T levels were even reaching diploid male plasma concentrations, while expressions of cyp19a1 and foxl2 were decreased, leading to decrease in E2 level. We realized that the development model of rainbow trout triploid female gonads was extremely rare, and the regulatory mechanism was very special. Genes involved in gonadal development and endogenous estrogens are pivotal factors in fish natural sex reversal. PMID:26373423

  4. Sites of production of sex steroids: secretion of steroids from x-irradiated and polycystic ovaries of rats

    Ovaries of immature rats and PMS-induced pregnant rats were unilaterally x-irradiated. Ten days later, the concentrations of pregnane compounds in the ovarian venous plasma were measured. LH (2 ?g) was injected iv 30 min before bleeding. A comparison of steroid levels in the ovarian venous effluent of rats with and without destruction of selected tissue components by irradiation of the ovaries suggests that the follicles contribute to the secretion of 5?-pregnane-3,20-dione and 3?-hydroxy-5?-pregnan-20-one in the presence of interstitial gland tissue. Because it is known that follicular tissue is involved in the production of estrogens, we studied the interrelationship between the secretion of the two progesterone metabolites and estrogens in follicular polycystic ovaries of androgen-sterilized rats. Normal ovaries of diestrus-2 rats were used as controls for the polycystic ovaries. The injection of LH greatly increased the secretion of 5?-pregnane-3,20-dione and 3?-hydroxy-5?-pregnan-20-one within 1 h in normal ovaries, but the response of polycystic ovaries was low, suggesting low 5?-reductase activity in the cystic ovary. The polycystic ovaries exhibited a marked increase in the secretion of estrogens in response to LH, whereas normal ovaries showed no significant change. These results suggest that low 5?-reductase activity may be causally related to the high level of estrogen secretion in polycystic ovaries of androgen-sterilized rats

  5. Specific estrogen-binding protein of rat liver and sex steroid metabolism

    Model experiments were conducted to study the effect of a highly purified preparation of specific estrogen-binding protein (SEBP) on the intensity of estradiol and testosterone metabolism under the influence of enzymes in liver homogenate from female rats, not containing SEBP. The liver of mature female rats was homogenized in two volumes of 50 mM Tris-HCl buffer, pH 7.5, containing 600 mg% of glucose. The tritium-steroid was preincubated for 15 min at 0-4 C with 0-4 microg of the preparation of SEBP (200 microl). A standard preparation of partially purified SEBP was obtained from liver cystosol of mature male rats; affinity chromatography on estradiolagarose was used. It is shown that SEBP can really take part in regulation of the dynamics of sex steroids in the liver. E1 did not affect the metabolic rate of H 3-E2 by liver homogenate from females, but caused marked acceleration of H 3-E2 metabolism by male liver homogenate

  6. Colonic transit in rats: effect of ovariectomy, sex steroid hormones, and pregnancy

    In vitro studies suggest that the female sex steroid hormones [estrogen (E) and progesterone (P)] can affect the myoelectric and mechanical activity of colonic smooth muscle. The present study was designed to examine the influence of the hormones on colonic transit in vivo. Transit was assessed by quantifying the distribution within the colon of a radiolabeled marker (0.5 μCi Na251CrO4), using the geometric center method of analysis. Studies were performed with adult male rats and the following groups of female rats: nonpregnant, ovariectomized, ovariectomy plus hormone pretreatment, and pregnant (day 18). Hormone-pretreated animals were studied 24 h following the fourth injection. The data can be summarized as follows. 1) Colonic transit was affected by the timing of the estrus cycle. 2) Ovariectomy eliminated the biphasic transit pattern observed in estruscycling females and resulted in a geometric center value comparable with that of the metestrus-diestrus animals. 3) E + P pretreatment of ovariectomized rats resulted in a significant decrease in the geometric center compared with the untreated ovariectomized rats. 4) The geometric center value in pregnant anials and hormone-pretreated animals. 5) Adult male rats had a geometric center value of 4.12 +/- 0.29. The results suggest that a relation exists between colonic transit and the circulating levels of the steroid hormones

  7. Colonic transit in rats: effect of ovariectomy, sex steroid hormones, and pregnancy

    Ryan, J.P.; Bhojwani, A.

    1986-07-01

    In vitro studies suggest that the female sex steroid hormones (estrogen (E) and progesterone (P)) can affect the myoelectric and mechanical activity of colonic smooth muscle. The present study was designed to examine the influence of the hormones on colonic transit in vivo. Transit was assessed by quantifying the distribution within the colon of a radiolabeled marker (0.5 Ci Na2V CrO4), using the geometric center method of analysis. Studies were performed with adult male rats and the following groups of female rats: nonpregnant, ovariectomized, ovariectomy plus hormone pretreatment, and pregnant (day 18). Hormone-pretreated animals were studied 24 h following the fourth injection. The data can be summarized as follows. 1) Colonic transit was affected by the timing of the estrus cycle. 2) Ovariectomy eliminated the biphasic transit pattern observed in estruscycling females and resulted in a geometric center value comparable with that of the metestrus-diestrus animals. 3) E + P pretreatment of ovariectomized rats resulted in a significant decrease in the geometric center compared with the untreated ovariectomized rats. 4) The geometric center value in pregnant anials and hormone-pretreated animals. 5) Adult male rats had a geometric center value of 4.12 +/- 0.29. The results suggest that a relation exists between colonic transit and the circulating levels of the steroid hormones.

  8. Sex Steroid Hormones Matter for Learning and Memory: Estrogenic Regulation of Hippocampal Function Inmale and Female Rodents

    Frick, Karyn M.; Kim, Jaekyoon; Tuscher, Jennifer J.; Fortress, Ashley M.

    2015-01-01

    Ample evidence has demonstrated that sex steroid hormones, such as the potent estrogen 17ß-estradiol (E[subscript 2]), affect hippocampal morphology, plasticity, and memory in male and female rodents. Yet relatively few investigators who work with male subjects consider the effects of these hormones on learning and memory. This review describes…

  9. Seasonal variations in plasma vitellogenin and sex steroids in male and female Eastern Box Turtles, Terrapene carolina carolina.

    Currylow, Andrea F; Tift, Michael S; Meyer, Jennifer L; Crocker, Daniel E; Williams, Rod N

    2013-01-01

    The Eastern Box Turtle (Terrapene carolina carolina) is a widespread species that has recently experienced precipitous declines throughout its range. Although many studies have documented aspects of reproduction in box turtles, reproductive physiology of free-ranging animals is unknown and can be crucial in this species' recovery. Over a two-year period, we measured reproductive parameters, (vitellogenin [Vtg], estradiol-17β [E2], and total testosterone [TT]), in plasma of 116 free-ranging Eastern Box Turtles across their active season. We found similar seasonal variations of Vtg and E2 within females. Mid-season, females showed a sharp peak in E2 that correlates with the putative beginning of the ovarian cycle. Individual females lacking these expected peaks of both Vtg and E2 suggest that some female T. c. carolina may not reproduce annually. Females typically expressed undetectable levels of TT, yet there was a small peak in TT early in the active season. Male Eastern Box Turtles exhibited a dual peak in TT. Elevated TT in males was significantly associated with observed sexual behaviors and smaller home ranges. Body condition had no effect on the concentration of TT or E2 in either sex. This is the first study to (1) document Vtg and sex steroid hormones in free-ranging animals of this genus, and (2) relate those metrics to individuals, the population, the purported annual cycle, and to other chelonian species. PMID:23174697

  10. Steroid sex hormone dynamics during estradiol-17β induced gonadal differentiation in Paralichthys olivaceus (Teleostei)

    Sun, Peng; You, Feng; Liu, Mengxia; Wu, Zhihao; Wen, Aiyun; Li, Jun; Xu, Yongli; Zhang, Peijun

    2010-03-01

    Steroid sex hormones, such as estradiol-17β (E2) and testosterone (T), are important regulators of sex change in fish. In this study, we examined the effects of E2 treatment on the dynamics of E2 and T during gonadal differentiation in the olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus using histology and radioimmunoassay (RIA). Flounder larvae were divided into five groups (G0-G4), and fed with 0 (control), 0.2, 2, 20 and 100 mg E2/kg feed from 35 to 110 day post hatching (dph). Fish growth in the G1 and G2 groups was not significantly different from that of the control group ( P>0.05), while fish in the G3 and G4 groups were less active and showed growth depression and high mortality. The gonads of fish in the G3 and G4 groups were smaller and surrounded by hyperplastic connective tissue. The frequency of females in the G0-G4 groups was 54.5%, 75.0%, 100%, 100% and 93.3%, respectively. The RIA analyses of E2 and T showed that T levels decreased during gonadal differentiation, and increased slightly at the onset of ovarian differentiation, while E2 levels increased gradually and peaked at the onset of ovarian differentiation in the control group. In the E2-treated groups, T levels decreased before the onset of ovarian differentiation. E2 levels were high on the 48 dph, but declined to a lower level on the 54 dph, and then increased gradually during gonadal differentiation. And a sharp increase of E2 levels were observed in all E2-treated groups at the onset of ovarian differentiation. The data suggest that T and E2 play important roles during gonadal differentiation, and an E2 dose of 2 mg/kg feed could induce sex reversal in P. olivaceus.

  11. Seasonal changes in sex and adrenal steroid hormones of gopher tortoises (Gopherus polyphemus).

    Ott, J A; Mendonça, M T; Guyer, C; Michener, W K

    2000-02-01

    We sampled a population of gopher tortoises (Gopherus polyphemus) from May to October 1997 to determine seasonal cycles of steroid hormones (testosterone, T; 17beta-estradiol, E; and progesterone, P) and related them to observations of mating behavior. In males, plasma T levels peaked in July and August and remained elevated through October. This coincides with the reported time of peak mating and spermatogenesis, indicating that males display an associated pattern of reproduction. In females, E levels were high in September and October. Plasma T levels in females were elevated in May, decreased to basal levels in June and July, and rose again in August and September. Elevated E and T levels correspond to the reported time of peak vitellogenic activity, indicating that females also display an associated cycle. Plasma P in females remained basal throughout the active season, suggesting that ovulation occurs in late winter. We also determined levels of corticosterone (B) to assess the influence of capture stress on tortoises and correlated B levels with tortoise activity patterns and sex steroid levels. We found no seasonal variation in levels of B in males or females. Plasma B levels were not correlated with levels of T or E, but were positively correlated with female P levels. Further, we found no relationship between plasma B levels in males and mean distance moved, mean number of burrows used, or mean home range size. However, there was a significant negative correlation between plasma B levels and male body size. In females, there was no relationship between B levels and mean distance moved, but B levels were significantly negatively correlated with the number of burrows females occupied. Lastly, there was no relationship between levels of B and the number of minutes required to obtain blood from an animal. However, B levels increased with the length of time that a tortoise spent in a trap, suggesting that trapped tortoises do exhibit capture stress. PMID:10642451

  12. Regulation of Estrogen Receptor α Expression in the Hypothalamus by Sex Steroids: Implication in the Regulation of Energy Homeostasis

    Liu, Xian; Shi, Haifei

    2015-01-01

    Sex differences exist in the complex regulation of energy homeostasis that utilizes central and peripheral systems. It is widely accepted that sex steroids, especially estrogens, are important physiological and pathological components in this sex-specific regulation. Estrogens exert their biological functions via estrogen receptors (ERs). ERα, a classic nuclear receptor, contributes to metabolic regulation and sexual behavior more than other ER subtypes. Physiological and molecular studies have identified multiple ERα-rich nuclei in the hypothalamus of the central nervous system (CNS) as sites of actions that mediate effects of estrogens. Much of our understanding of ERα regulation has been obtained using transgenic models such as ERα global or nuclei-specific knockout mice. A fundamental question concerning how ERα is regulated in wild-type animals, including humans, in response to alterations in steroid hormone levels, due to experimental manipulation (i.e., castration and hormone replacement) or physiological stages (i.e., puberty, pregnancy, and menopause), lacks consistent answers. This review discusses how different sex hormones affect ERα expression in the hypothalamus. This information will contribute to the knowledge of estrogen action in the CNS, further our understanding of discrepancies in correlation of altered sex hormone levels with metabolic disturbances when comparing both sexes, and improve health issues in postmenopausal women. PMID:26491443

  13. Expression of Sex Steroid Hormone Receptors in Vagal Motor Neurons Innervating the Trachea and Esophagus in Mouse

    Mukudai, Shigeyuki; Ichi Matsuda, Ken; Bando, Hideki; Takanami, Keiko; Nishio, Takeshi; Sugiyama, Yoichiro; Hisa, Yasuo; Kawata, Mitsuhiro

    2016-01-01

    The medullary vagal motor nuclei, the nucleus ambiguus (NA) and dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMV), innervate the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts. We conducted immunohistochemical analysis of expression of the androgen receptor (AR) and estrogen receptor α (ERα), in relation to innervation of the trachea and esophagus via vagal motor nuclei in mice. AR and ERα were expressed in the rostral NA and in part of the DMV. Tracing experiments using cholera toxin B subunit demonstrated that neurons of vagal motor nuclei that innervate the trachea and esophagus express AR and ERα. There was no difference in expression of sex steroid hormone receptors between trachea- and esophagus-innervating neurons. These results suggest that sex steroid hormones may act on vagal motor nuclei via their receptors, thereby regulating functions of the trachea and esophagus. PMID:27006520

  14. Influence of triazine herbicide exposure on guppies (poecilia sphenops aromatase activities, altered sex steroid concentration and vitellogenin induction

    S Vasanth

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Atrazine, a herbicide is one the most toxic and sustaining pollutants in aquatic environment. It is detectable in surface water and in underground sources of drinking water. Many studies indicate that atrazine might be a potent endocrine disrupting xenobiotic. There are limited studies have revealed that the effects of atrazine on sex steroids hormones, vitellogenin and induction of aromatase, gonadosomatic index and hepatosomatic index. In this study, juvenile Poecilia sphenops fish was exposed to three different (0.83, 1.25 and 2.5 ppm concentration of atrazine for 100 d. Changes in plasma and gonadal content and concentrations of sex steroids and vitellogenin protein in poecilia sphenops under laboratory conditions were assessed. The low level of the atrazine show estrogenic effect in males, as determined by a shortage of testosterone induction. Present study suggests that low induction of plasma vitellogenin and aromatase in male fish become suitable biomarkers of exposure to estrogenic chemicals.

  15. The studies of controlled release of sex steroids hormones by radiation induced polymerization of glass forming monomers

    The continuous long-term systemic administration of steroid hormones to rats was attempted by the capsules. Glass capsules containing sex hormone were made by low-temperature radiation-induced polymerization. Testosterone was eluted at a constant speed up to the 120th day in vitro, and could be administered up to the 56th day in vivo. The amount of testosterone released in vitro up to the 120th day was only 10% of the content. (Chiba, N.)

  16. Immunohistochemical sex steroid receptor distribution in endometrium from long-term subdermal levonorgestrel users and during the normal menstrual cycle.

    Critchley, H O; Bailey, D A; Au, C L; Affandi, B; Rogers, P A

    1993-10-01

    The bleeding problems experienced by users of subdermal levonorgestrel implants (Norplant) remain unexplained. The aim of the present study was to investigate the oestrogen (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) distribution in levonorgestrel-treated endometrial biopsies from 31 subjects recruited in Jakarta, Indonesia, and to compare the sex steroid receptor immunostaining with that of endometrium from 58 normally cycling women from Melbourne, Australia. Sex steroid receptor immunoreactivity was additionally compared with days of exposure to subdermal levonorgestrel, serum oestradiol and progesterone levels and days of bleeding during a 90-day reference period. An immunohistochemical technique with an alkaline phosphatase anti-alkaline phosphatase (APAAP) detection system for use in formalin-fixed paraffin wax embedded endometrial tissue was employed. Significantly greater mean immunostaining scores of stromal PR were observed in Norplant compared with control endometrium at all stages across the cycle. No significant correlations were demonstrated between sex steroid receptor immunostaining and days of exposure to subdermal levonorgestrel, serum oestradiol or progesterone concentrations or days of bleeding during a 90-day reference period. Whether the elevated stromal PR immunostaining in Norplant-treated endometrium is a consequence of increased synthesis or reduced turnover of receptor remains unclear. As yet it is undetermined whether increased PR immunoreactivity corresponds to an increase in number of functional PR. PMID:8300819

  17. Designed modulation of sex steroid signaling inhibits telomerase activity and proliferation of human prostate cancer cells

    Verma, Vikas; Sharma, Vikas; Singh, Vishal [Division of Endocrinology, CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow 226 031 (India); Sharma, Siddharth; Bishnoi, Ajay Kumar [Division of Medicinal and Process Chemistry, CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow 226 031 (India); Chandra, Vishal; Maikhuri, J.P.; Dwivedi, Anila [Division of Endocrinology, CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow 226 031 (India); Kumar, Atul [Division of Medicinal and Process Chemistry, CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow 226 031 (India); Gupta, Gopal, E-mail: g_gupta@cdri.res.in [Division of Endocrinology, CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow 226 031 (India)

    2014-10-15

    The predominant estrogen-receptor (ER)-β signaling in normal prostate is countered by increased ER-α signaling in prostate cancer (CaP), which in association with androgen-receptor (AR) signaling results in pathogenesis of the disease. However CaP treatments mostly target AR signaling which is initially effective but eventually leads to androgen resistance, hence simultaneous targeting of ERs has been proposed. A novel series of molecules were designed with multiple sex-steroid receptor modulating capabilities by coalescing the pharmacophores of known anti-CaP molecules that act via modulation of ER(α/β) and/or AR, viz. 3,3′diindolylmethane (DIM), mifepristone, toremifene, tamoxifen and raloxifene. N,N-diethyl-4-((2-(4-methoxyphenyl)-1H-indol-3-yl)methyl) aniline (DIMA) was identified as the most promising structure of this new series. DIMA increased annexin-V labelling, cell-cycle arrest and caspase-3 activity, and decreased expression of AR and prostate specific antigen in LNCaP cells, in vitro. Concurrently, DIMA increased ER-β, p21 and p27 protein levels in LNCaP cells and exhibited ∼ 5 times more selective binding for ER-β than ER-α, in comparison to raloxifene. DIMA exhibited a dose-dependent ER-β agonism and ER-α antagonism in classical gene reporter assay and decreased hTERT (catalytic subunit of telomerase) transcript levels in LNCaP at 3.0 μM (P < 0.05). DIMA also dose-dependently decreased telomerase enzyme activity in prostate cancer cells. It is thus concluded that DIMA acts as a multi-steroid receptor modulator and effectively inhibits proliferation of prostate cancer cells through ER-β mediated telomerase inhibition, by countering actions of ER-α and AR. Its unique molecular design can serve as a lead structure for generation of potent agents against endocrine malignancies like the CaP.

  18. Designed modulation of sex steroid signaling inhibits telomerase activity and proliferation of human prostate cancer cells

    The predominant estrogen-receptor (ER)-β signaling in normal prostate is countered by increased ER-α signaling in prostate cancer (CaP), which in association with androgen-receptor (AR) signaling results in pathogenesis of the disease. However CaP treatments mostly target AR signaling which is initially effective but eventually leads to androgen resistance, hence simultaneous targeting of ERs has been proposed. A novel series of molecules were designed with multiple sex-steroid receptor modulating capabilities by coalescing the pharmacophores of known anti-CaP molecules that act via modulation of ER(α/β) and/or AR, viz. 3,3′diindolylmethane (DIM), mifepristone, toremifene, tamoxifen and raloxifene. N,N-diethyl-4-((2-(4-methoxyphenyl)-1H-indol-3-yl)methyl) aniline (DIMA) was identified as the most promising structure of this new series. DIMA increased annexin-V labelling, cell-cycle arrest and caspase-3 activity, and decreased expression of AR and prostate specific antigen in LNCaP cells, in vitro. Concurrently, DIMA increased ER-β, p21 and p27 protein levels in LNCaP cells and exhibited ∼ 5 times more selective binding for ER-β than ER-α, in comparison to raloxifene. DIMA exhibited a dose-dependent ER-β agonism and ER-α antagonism in classical gene reporter assay and decreased hTERT (catalytic subunit of telomerase) transcript levels in LNCaP at 3.0 μM (P < 0.05). DIMA also dose-dependently decreased telomerase enzyme activity in prostate cancer cells. It is thus concluded that DIMA acts as a multi-steroid receptor modulator and effectively inhibits proliferation of prostate cancer cells through ER-β mediated telomerase inhibition, by countering actions of ER-α and AR. Its unique molecular design can serve as a lead structure for generation of potent agents against endocrine malignancies like the CaP

  19. Circulating gonadotropins and ovarian adiponectin system are modulated by acupuncture independently of sex steroid or ?-adrenergic action in a female hyperandrogenic rat model of polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Maliqueo, Manuel; Benrick, Anna; Alvi, Asif; Johansson, Julia; Sun, Miao; Labrie, Fernand; Ohlsson, Claes; Stener-Victorin, Elisabet

    2015-09-01

    Acupuncture with combined manual and low-frequency electrical stimulation, or electroacupuncture (EA), reduces endocrine and reproductive dysfunction in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), likely by modulating sympathetic nerve activity or sex steroid synthesis. To test this hypothesis, we induced PCOS in rats by prepubertal implantation of continuous-release letrozole pellets (200?g/day) or vehicle. Six weeks later, rats were treated for 5-6 weeks with low-frequency EA 5 days/week, subcutaneous injection of 17?-estradiol (2.0?g) every fourth day, or a ?-adrenergic blocker (propranolol hydrochloride, 0.1?mg/kg) 5 days/week. Letrozole controls were handled without needle insertion or injected with sesame oil every fourth day. Estrous cyclicity, ovarian morphology, sex steroids, gonadotropins, insulin-like growth factor I, bone mineral density, and gene and protein expression in ovarian tissue were measured. Low-frequency EA induced estrous-cycle changes, decreased high levels of circulating luteinizing hormone (LH) and the LH/follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) ratio, decreased high ovarian gene expression of adiponectin receptor 2, and increased expression of adiponectin receptor 2 protein and phosphorylation of ERK1/2. EA also increased cortical bone mineral density. Propranolol decreased ovarian expression of Foxo3, Srd5a1, and Hif1a. Estradiol decreased circulating LH, induced estrous cycle changes, and decreased ovarian expression of Adipor1, Foxo3, and Pik3r1. Further, total bone mineral density was higher in the letrozole-estradiol group. Thus, EA modulates the circulating gonadotropin levels independently of sex steroids or ?-adrenergic action and affects the expression of ovarian adiponectin system. PMID:25963796

  20. Testosterone regulation of sex steroid-related mRNAs and dopamine-related mRNAs in adolescent male rat substantia nigra

    Purves-Tyson Tertia D

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increased risk of schizophrenia in adolescent males indicates that a link between the development of dopamine-related psychopathology and testosterone-driven brain changes may exist. However, contradictions as to whether testosterone increases or decreases dopamine neurotransmission are found and most studies address this in adult animals. Testosterone-dependent actions in neurons are direct via activation of androgen receptors (AR or indirect by conversion to 17β-estradiol and activation of estrogen receptors (ER. How midbrain dopamine neurons respond to sex steroids depends on the presence of sex steroid receptor(s and the level of steroid conversion enzymes (aromatase and 5α-reductase. We investigated whether gonadectomy and sex steroid replacement could influence dopamine levels by changing tyrosine hydroxylase (TH protein and mRNA and/or dopamine breakdown enzyme mRNA levels [catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT and monoamine oxygenase (MAO A and B] in the adolescent male rat substantia nigra. We hypothesized that adolescent testosterone would regulate sex steroid signaling through regulation of ER and AR mRNAs and through modulation of aromatase and 5α-reductase mRNA levels. Results We find ERα and AR in midbrain dopamine neurons in adolescent male rats, indicating that dopamine neurons are poised to respond to circulating sex steroids. We report that androgens (T and DHT increase TH protein and increase COMT, MAOA and MAOB mRNAs in the adolescent male rat substantia nigra. We report that all three sex steroids increase AR mRNA. Differential action on ER pathways, with ERα mRNA down-regulation and ERβ mRNA up-regulation by testosterone was found. 5α reductase-1 mRNA was increased by AR activation, and aromatase mRNA was decreased by gonadectomy. Conclusions We conclude that increased testosterone at adolescence can shift the balance of sex steroid signaling to favor androgenic responses through promoting conversion of T to DHT and increasing AR mRNA. Further, testosterone may increase local dopamine synthesis and metabolism, thereby changing dopamine regulation within the substantia nigra. We show that testosterone action through both AR and ERs modulates synthesis of sex steroid receptor by altering AR and ER mRNA levels in normal adolescent male substantia nigra. Increased sex steroids in the brain at adolescence may alter substantia nigra dopamine pathways, increasing vulnerability for the development of psychopathology.

  1. The relaxant effect of sex steroids in rat myometrium is independent of the gamma-amino butyric acid system.

    Perusqua, M; Villaln, C M

    1996-01-01

    The mechanism of action on the uterine-relaxant effect of sex steroids has been suggested to involve an interaction with gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) receptors. However, other lines of evidence do not seem to support this suggestion. In view of this controversy, this study was designed to investigate the potential relaxant effect of GABA, muscimol (a GABA(A) receptor agonist), testosterone, progesterone and their 5-reduced metabolites in rat uterus at different endocrine stages (pregnant, nonpregnant and estrogenized), with particular emphasis on verifying if the relaxant effect of steroids involves an interaction with GABA(A) receptors. Contractions from uterine rings were recorded by isometric method, the sequential addition of either GABA (at different concentrations) on the spontaneous and KCl-induced contraction or muscimol (also at different concentrations) on the contraction induced by KCl was devoid of any significant effect. In contrast, the sequential addition of progesterone relaxed the tonic KCl-induced contraction in a concentration-dependent manner. This effect of progesterone was mimicked by its 5-reduced metabolites. The 5(beta)-configured isomers were more potent than progesterone and the 5(alpha)-configured ones. Interestingly, the relaxation produced by the above steroids was not blocked by the GABA(A) receptor antagonists, picrotoxin or bicuculline, but was reversed by calcium. Taken together, the above findings suggest that the relaxant action of the sex steroids analyzed in this study is not mediated by an interaction with GABA(A) receptors, instead a blockade of calcium influx appears to be responsible. PMID:8786697

  2. Further investigations of the relation between polymorphisms in sex steroid related genes and autistic-like traits.

    Zettergren, Anna; Karlsson, Sara; Hovey, Daniel; Jonsson, Lina; Melke, Jonas; Anckarsäter, Henrik; Lichtenstein, Paul; Lundström, Sebastian; Westberg, Lars

    2016-06-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are more prevalent in boys than in girls, indicating that high levels of testosterone during early development may be a risk factor. Evidence for this hypothesis comes from studies showing associations between fetal testosterone levels, as well as indirect measures of prenatal androgenization, and ASDs and autistic-like traits (ALTs). In a recent study we reported associations between ALTs and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the genes encoding estrogen receptor 1 (ESR1), steroid-5-alpha-reductase, type 2 (SRD5A2) and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) in a subset (n=1771) from the Child and Adolescent Twin Study in Sweden (CATSS). The aim of the present study was to try to replicate these findings in an additional, larger, sample of individuals from the CATSS (n=10,654), as well as to analyze additional SNPs of functional importance in SHBG and SRD5A2. No associations between the previously associated SNPs in the genes ESR1 and SRD5A2 and ALTs could be seen in the large replication sample. Still, our results show that two non-linked SNPs (rs6259 and rs9901675) at the SHBG gene locus might be of importance for language impairment problems in boys. The results of the present study do not point toward a major role for the investigated SNPs in the genes ESR1 and SRD5A2 in ALTs, but a possible influence of genetic variation in SHBG, especially for language impairment problems in boys, cannot be ruled out. PMID:26930261

  3. In vivo effect of sex steroids on uptake of 3H-leucine by female mouse brain

    In vivo effects of the sex steroids estrogen and progesterone on 3H-leucine uptake by the brain of mature ovariectomized mice were examined. Animals were divided into three groups: group 1, consisting of control animals treated with sesame oil, group 2, animals treated with estrogen, and group 3, animals first treated with estrogen and then with progesterone. Each group was given a single i.p. injection of 3H-leucine 2 hr after the last hormonal treatment, and sacrificed 2 hr later. Intensity of the uptake of radiolabeled leucine was measured by counting the number of reduced silver grains over cells in various brain regions using an autoradiographic technique. Group 1 showed a relatively high uptake in the supraoptic nucleus, paraventricular nucleus (PV) and ventromedial nucleus (VM) when compared with that in the remaining hypothalamic nuclei examined. Group 2 showed a significant enhancement of the uptake in all hypothalamic regions except the preoptic periventricular nucleus (PPV) when compared with that in group 1. Group 3 showed enhancement of the uptake in all hypothalamic nuclei when compared with that in group 1. However, only the PV, PPV, VM and periventricular arcuate nucleus revealed a significantly higher uptake than the respective nuclei in group 2. The remaining nuclei showed no change in uptake. Uptake by cells in the ependymal cells and cerebral cortex remained unchanged after hormonal treatment. The present results suggest that in female mice estrogen and estrogen plus progesterone stimulate protein synthesis in most of the hypothalamic nuclei and that the progesterone effect on protein synthesis is greatly influenced by estrogen-priming. (auth.)

  4. The macrophage low-grade inflammation marker sCD163 is modulated by exogenous sex steroids

    Thomsen, Henrik Holm; Møller, Holger Jon; Trolle, Christian; Groth, Kristian; Jensen, Anne Skakkebæk; Bojesen, Anders; Høst, Christian; Gravholt, Claus Højbjerg

    2013-01-01

    Soluble CD163 (sCD163) is a novel marker linked to states of low grade inflammation such as diabetes, obesity, liver disease and atherosclerosis, all prevalent in subjects with Turner and Klinefelter Syndromes. We aimed to assess the levels of sCD163 and the regulation of sCD163 in regards to...... treatment with sex hormone therapy in males with and without Klinefelter Syndrome and females with and without Turner Syndrome. Males with Klinefelter Syndrome (n=70) and age-matched controls (n=71) participating in a cross-sectional study and 12 healthy males from an experimental hypogonadism study....... Females with Turner Syndrome (n=8) and healthy age- matched controls (n=8) participating in a randomized cross-over trial. The intervention comprised of treatment with sex steroids. Males with Klinefelter Syndrome had higher levels of sCD163 compared with controls (1.75 (0.47-6.90) and 1.36 (0...

  5. Role of sex steroids and their receptors in human preterm infants: Impacts on future treatment strategies for cerebral development.

    Hbner, Stephanie; Reich, Bettina; Heckmann, Matthias

    2015-12-15

    Preterm birth is a major risk factor for cerebral complications, such as hemorrhage or periventricular leukomalacia, which lead to lifelong neurodevelopmental deficits. Hypoxia/ischemia, inflammation, hyperoxia, and prematurity itself contribute to the extent of impaired neurodevelopment. Preterm birth leads to disruption of the placental supply of estrogens and progesterone. Postnatally, the plasma levels of estrogens and progesterone drop 100-fold. Preterm infants are deprived of the placental supply of these hormones for up to sixteen weeks. Thus, supplementation of estradiol and progesterone to mimic intrauterine conditions may potentially improve a premature infant?s extrauterine development and help protect the brain against neurological complications. However, preliminary clinical studies did not find improved outcomes except for a trend towards less cerebral palsy. The decrease in estrogen and progesterone concentrations is accompanied by persistent, high postnatal production of fetal zone steroids, mainly dehydroepiandrosterone, which serve as precursors for maternal estrogen synthesis during pregnancy. This commentary will combine knowledge from endocrinology, pharmacology, and neonatology to explain the discrepancies between promising animal models and clinical findings. Most important targets will be classical and non-classical estrogen receptors, which interact differently-not only with estrogens but also with fetal zone steroids. The fetal zone is unique among humans and higher primates. Therefore, a clearly defined model is required to study the role of sex steroids and their receptors before further clinical studies begin. PMID:26300058

  6. Effects of 17 ?-methyltestosterone on transcriptome, gonadal histology and sex steroid hormones in rare minnow Gobiocypris rarus.

    Gao, Jiancao; Liu, Shaozhen; Zhang, Yingying; Yang, Yanping; Yuan, Cong; Chen, Shu; Wang, Zaizhao

    2015-09-01

    The 17?-methyltestosterone (MT), a synthetic androgen, is known for its interference effects on the endocrine system. Aiming to investigate the transcriptome profiling of gonads induced by MT and to understand the molecular mechanism by which MT causes adverse effects in fish, transcriptome profiling of gonads, gonadal histology and the sex steroid hormones in response to MT were analyzed in Gobiocypris rarus. Eight libraries, 4 from the ovary and 4 from the testis, were constructed and sequenced and then a total number of clean reads per sample ranging from 7.03 to 9.99 million were obtained. In females, a total of 191 transcripts were differentially regulated by MT, consisting of 102 up-regulated transcripts and 89 down-regulated transcripts. In males, 268 differentially expressed genes with 108 up-regulated and 160 down-regulated were detected upon MT exposure. Testosterone serves as the major sex steroid hormone content in G. rarus of both sexes. The concentrations of 17?-estradiol, testosterone and 11-ketotestosterone were significantly increased in females and decreased in males after MT exposure. Interestingly, MT caused a decreased number of vitellogenic oocytes in the ovary and spermatozoa in the testis. After MT exposure, four differentially expressed genes (ndufa4, slc1a3a, caskin-2 and rpt3) were found in G. rarus of both sexes. Overall, we suggest that MT seemed to affect genes involved in pathways related to physiological processes in the gonads of G. rarus. These processes include the electron transfer of Complex IV, endothelial cell activation, axon growth and guidance, and proteasome assembly and glutamate transport metabolic. PMID:26070167

  7. Subchronic effects of cadmium on the gonads, expressions of steroid hormones and sex-related genes in tilapia Oreochromis niloticus.

    Luo, Yongju; Shan, Dan; Zhong, Huan; Zhou, Yi; Chen, Wenzhi; Cao, Jinling; Guo, Zhongbao; Xiao, Jun; He, Fulin; Huang, Yifan; Li, Jian; Huang, Heming; Xu, Pao

    2015-12-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is one of the most toxic heavy metals in aquatic ecosystem which affects fish health and aquaculture. In the present study, we examined the bioaccumulation of Cd in the gonads of tilapia via dissolved and dietary routes. We evaluated the subchronic effects of Cd on the histology of gonads, steroid hormone levels and sex-related gene expressions in tilapia. In addition, we also studied maternal transfer of Cd. Our results indicated that Cd was accumulated significantly in both ovary and testis from both exposure routes. Histopathological analysis showed that Cd induced ovary and testis injuries. Estradiol levels were significantly increased in dissolved Cd exposed female fish. In addition, the Cd exposure displayed different effects on gene expressions in gonads. In females, the estrogen receptor (ERα) was stimulated in dissolved Cd-exposed fish at 70.32 and 143.78 μg/L for 30 days and in fish at 143.78 μg/L for 60 days. Vitellogenin expression was significantly down-regulated in the ovary of dissolved Cd-exposed fish. In testis, GR expression was elevated after 60 days of dissolved Cd and dietary exposure. Furthermore, Cd level was significantly higher in the eggs than that in the fry. Our results demonstrated that both dissolved and dietary Cd exposures affected gonad development by altering steroid hormone levels and sex-related gene expressions in tilapia. PMID:26471182

  8. A study to correlate histopathology, biochemical marker and immunohistochemical expression of sex-steroid receptors in prostatic growth

    Sukla Naskar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Prostate gland is a fibromusculoglandular structure situated at the neck of urinary bladder. So, enlargement or growth of prostate due to nodular hyperplasia (NHP or prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN or adenocarcinoma may give rise to bladder outlet obstruction. Malignant growth i.e., PIN or adenocarcinoma cases are associated with increased blood level of prostate-specific antigen (PSA and increased expression of different sex-steroid receptors because the growth is dependent on the interactions of androgen, progesterone and estrogen. The aim of our study is to correlate the histopathology, PSA levels and expression of different sex-steroid receptors by immunohistochemistry in different prostatic growth lesions. Among the total 50 cases received, inclusive of transurethral resection of prostate (TURP, transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy and radical prostatectomy, 34 cases were diagnosed as NHP, 4 cases as PIN and 12 cases as adenocarcinoma histopathologically. Serum PSA values above 10 ng/ml were seen in 2 cases of PIN and 11 cases of adenocarcinoma and none of NHP. Estrogen receptor (ER ( expressions were negative in all cases. Progesterone receptor (PR expressions were strongly positive in 35% cases of both NHP and adenocarcinoma, whereas androgen receptor (AR expressions were strong among all cases of adenocarcinoma and only in four cases of NHP. By observing these findings it can be suggested that antiandrogen and antiprogesterone therapy simultaneously will do better than antiandrogen alone in treating prostatic growth lesions.

  9. Fertility in Tall Men and Women Treated with High-Dose Sex Steroids during Adolescence and Genetic Determinants of Tall Stature

    Hendriks, Emile

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThis doctoral thesis describes in a large group of constitutional tall men and women the long-term effects of high-dose sex steroid treatment to reduce final height and the genetic determinants of tall stature. In part 1 we evaluated fertility and gonadal function in later life of two independent cohorts of tall women and one cohort of tall men who did or did not receive high-dose sex steroid treatment in adolescence. We found that estrogen treated women experienced more difficult...

  10. The Effects of Female Sex Steroids on Gastric Secretory Responses of Rat Following Traumatic Brain Injury

    Zakieh Keshavarzi

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available AbstractObjective(sGastric ulceration is induced by various forms of stress like surgery, ischemia and trauma. The female sex has more resistance to stress and the gastrointestinal lesions happen fewer than male sex. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of estradiol and progesterone on the gastric acid and pepsin levels following traumatic brain injury (TBI induction.Materials and MethodsDiffuse TBI was induced by Marmarou method in female rats. Rats randomly assigned into 9 groups: intact, OVX (ovarectomized rat, Sham+OVX, TBI (intact rats under TBI, TBI+OVX (ovarectomized rats under TBI and treated OVX rats with vehicle (sesame oil, E2 (estradiol, P4 (progesterone or E2+P4 combination. The acid content and pepsin levels of each gastric washout sample were measured 5 days after the TBI induction.ResultsThere was no significant difference in gastric acid output between groups either after TBI induction or after treatment with E2 or P4 or E2+P4. Gastric pepsin levels were increased in Sham+OVX, TBI (P< 0.001 and TBI+OVX (P< 0.05 compared to intact group. Gastric pepsin levels were significantly lower in E2 and E2+ P4 treated rats than vehicle treated group (P< 0.01. P4 treatment increased gastric pepsin level compared to TBI+OVX group (P< 0.05 and this increment was higher than rats that were treated with the E2 and E2+P4 (P< 0.01.ConclusionThese results suggest that protective effect of estradiol and E2+P4 combination against mucosal damage after TBI, might be mediated by inhibition of pepsin secretion.

  11. Parasitic castration, growth, and sex steroids in the freshwater bonefish Cyphocharax gilbert (Curimatidae infested by Riggia paranensis (Cymothoidea

    Neuza R. W. Lima

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Cyphocharax gilbert shows parasitic castration when infested by the crustacean Riggia paranensis, being unable to reproduce. Fish were sampled in the middle rio Itabapoana, Brazil, to study the prevalence of parasitism, growth, and sex steroid concentrations, considering the body size, sex, and reproductive condition of specimens. Most of the fish analyzed were infested (56.0%. The presence of two lines on the scales was more frequent among infested fish (22.0% than among fish without parasites (12.0% for females and 10.0% for males. The occurrence of three lines on the scales was rare (3.5% among infested and 2.0% among females without parasites. These results suggest that growth of the host is faster than that of non infested fish. The serum concentrations of sex steroids from fish without parasites varied at different gonadal development stages (17 beta-estradiol: 60.0 to 976.7 pg/ml; total testosterone: 220.0 to 3,887.7 pg/ml. All infested fish had lower levels of the two sex steroids and undeveloped gonads. Sex steroids levels in infested females were close to those in females at post-spawning stages. Total testosterone concentrations of infested males were below those of males at early gonadal maturation stage. These results suggest that R. paranensis reduces the reproductive capacity of C. gilbert by affecting the host endocrine system.Cyphocharax gilbert exibe castração parasitária quando está infestado pelo crustáceo Riggia paranensis, estando impossibilitado de reproduzir. Os peixes foram coletados no trecho médio do rio Itabapoana, Brasil, para analisar a prevalência do parasitismo, quantificar crescimento e as concentrações de esteróides sexuais, considerando o tamanho do corpo, o sexo e a condição reprodutiva dos espécimes. A maioria dos peixes analisados estava infestada (56,0%. A presença de duas linhas em escamas foi mais freqüente entre os peixes infestados (22,0% que entre os peixes não infestados (12,0% para as fêmeas e 10,0% para os machos. A presença de três linhas na escama foi rara (3,5% entre os peixes infestados e 2,0% entre as fêmeas não infestadas. Estes resultados sugerem que o crescimento no hospeideiro pode ser mais rapido que no peixes não parasitados. As concentrações de esteróides sexuais no soro dos peixes não infestados variaram entre os diferentes estágios reprodutivos (17 beta-estradiol: 60,0 a 976,7 pg/ml; total testosterona: 220,0 a 3.887,7 pg/ml. Todos os peixes infestados apresentaram baixos níveis dos dois hormônios esteroidais e ausência de desenvolvimento gonadal. Os níveis de esteróides sexuais nas fêmeas infestadas foram próximos aos níveis encontrados nas fêmeas pós-desovadas. A concentração de testosterona encontrada nos machos infestados foi inferior àquela obtida nos machos que estavam iniciando o desenvolvimento gonadal. Estes resultados sugerem que R. paranensis impede a reprodução de C. gilbert, afetando o sistema endócrino do hospedeiro.

  12. Vitellogenin, sex steroid levels and gonadal biomarkers in wild Solea solea and Solea senegalensis from NW Mediterranean fishing grounds.

    Solé, M; Mañanós, E; Blázquez, M

    2016-06-01

    Specimens of Solea solea and Solea senegalenesis at different developmental stages were obtained from seven fishing grounds along the NW Mediterranean. Gonad development in males was classified into five stages, from early spermatogenesis to recovery, while four stages were considered in females, from growth to maturation. Vitellogenin (VTG) and sex steroid levels including an estrogen (estradiol, E2), two androgens (testosterone, T and 11-ketotestosterone, 11KT) and a progestin (17,20β-dihydroxy pregn-4-en-3-one, 17,20β-P or maturation inducing steroid, MIS) were analysed in plasma. Their levels were more clearly related to the developmental stage of the gonads than to the sampling site characteristics. In addition, enzyme activities in gonads, such as acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and carboxylesterase (CbE) were gender-dependent and higher in males than in females. Gonadal glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity was enhanced in the most anthropogenic impacted sites. VTG was absent in males and very low or undetectable in immature females, while mature females exhibited high VTG levels, clearly related to the gonado-somatic index. Sex steroid levels (ng/ml) varied in males and females regardless of the species. E2 levels in females ranged from 0.22 to 6.98 while in males ranged from 0.11 to 0.27. T varied from 0.12 to 0.93 in females and from 0.56 to 1.36 in males, while 11KT in females fluctuated from 0.03 to 0.57 and from 0.26 to 6.42 in males. Similarly, MIS in females ranged from 0.75 to 3.71 and from 1.12 to 5.61 in males. The lack of endocrine disturbances was confirmed by histological examination of the gonads. This study informs on basal sex hormone levels and enzyme activities during gonadal maturation of wild Solea spp. that can be useful in the identification and further remediation of possible pollution events. PMID:27088613

  13. Automation of radioimmunoassays for some sex steroids with use of both iodinated and tritiated ligands

    We describe an automated technique for estradiol, progesterone, and testosterone, in which System Olli 3000 pipetting and incubation units are used. After extraction or chromatography, steroids are redissolved in ethanol or buffer, and duplicate aliquots are arranged for radioimmunoassay in 24-tube blocks. Addition of antibodies, tracers (125I or 3H), dextran-coated charcoal for separating free and bound ligands, and removal of a portion of the supernate for counting are all performed by the pipetting instrument. Incubations are at 370C in the incubation unit, or at 40C. After counting, steroid concentrations are computed from punch tape records by a Nova 840 computer. The management of assays in 24-tube units, and accurate simultaneous pipetting has reduced experimental error, and because there is no carryover, many different assays can be performed concurrently or in rapid sequence. Various scintillation media are compared

  14. Waste products of oilsands mine inhibit sex steroids in exposed fish

    Mature fine tailings (MFT) and tailing pond water (TPW) are two of the wastes generated by oil sand mining operations at Syncrude Canada Ltd. in northern Alberta. A study was conducted to determine the impact of these wastes on reproductive steroid production in sexually mature goldfish. MFT is a toxic aqueous suspension consisting of organic acids, bitumen and metals. TPW is a saline solution consisting of both organic and inorganic contaminants. Goldfish were examined for 19 days in 3 of Syncrude's specially designed experimental ponds which were lined with or without MFT and capped with or without TPW. The study showed that plasma levels of testosterone and 17 β-estradiol in male and female fish in ponds with MFT but no TPW and ponds with both MFT and TPW were much lower compared to fish in a control pond with neither MFT nor TPW. The study also involved in vitro testis and ovarian incubations on the fish to determine potential differences in basal steroid production levels and how they react to gonadotropin. Results showed that gonadal tissues of fish from all ponds behaved similarly to the gonadotropin, thereby suggesting that under normal conditions, the oilsands wastes do not affect the ability of gonads to produce steroids. Compared to the control pond, both male and female fish from the pond with both MFT and TPW had significantly lower basal levels of testosterone, suggesting that the steroid inhibition could be caused at a site within the gonad. It was concluded that waste products of oilsands mining disrupt the reproductive endocrine system in goldfish

  15. Waste products of oilsands mine inhibit sex steroids in exposed fish

    Lister, A.; Van Der Kraak, G.J. [Guelph Univ., ON (Canada); Nero, V.; Farwell, A.J.; Dixon, D.G. [Waterloo Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Biology

    2002-07-01

    Mature fine tailings (MFT) and tailing pond water (TPW) are two of the wastes generated by oil sand mining operations at Syncrude Canada Ltd. in northern Alberta. A study was conducted to determine the impact of these wastes on reproductive steroid production in sexually mature goldfish. MFT is a toxic aqueous suspension consisting of organic acids, bitumen and metals. TPW is a saline solution consisting of both organic and inorganic contaminants. Goldfish were examined for 19 days in 3 of Syncrude's specially designed experimental ponds which were lined with or without MFT and capped with or without TPW. The study showed that plasma levels of testosterone and 17 {beta}-estradiol in male and female fish in ponds with MFT but no TPW and ponds with both MFT and TPW were much lower compared to fish in a control pond with neither MFT nor TPW. The study also involved in vitro testis and ovarian incubations on the fish to determine potential differences in basal steroid production levels and how they react to gonadotropin. Results showed that gonadal tissues of fish from all ponds behaved similarly to the gonadotropin, thereby suggesting that under normal conditions, the oilsands wastes do not affect the ability of gonads to produce steroids. Compared to the control pond, both male and female fish from the pond with both MFT and TPW had significantly lower basal levels of testosterone, suggesting that the steroid inhibition could be caused at a site within the gonad. It was concluded that waste products of oilsands mining disrupt the reproductive endocrine system in goldfish.

  16. Influx of testosterone-binding globulin (TeBG) and TeBG-bound sex steroid hormones into rat testis and prostate

    The availability of testosterone and estradiol to Sertoli and prostate cells is dependent upon 1) the permeability properties of the blood-tubular barrier (BTB) of the testis or prostate cell membrane, and 2) sex steroid binding to plasma proteins, such as albumin or testosterone-binding globulin (TeBG). Sex steroid influx into these tissues was studied after in vivo arterial bolus injections of [3H]testosterone or [3H]estradiol in anesthetized rats. Both testosterone and estradiol were readily cleared across the BTB or prostate cell membrane in the absence of plasma proteins and in the presence of human pregnancy serum, in which testosterone or estradiol are 80-95% distributed to TeBG. The extravascular extraction of [3H]TeBG across the BTB or prostate plasma membrane [73 +/- 2% (+/- SE) and 92 +/- 9%, respectively] was significantly greater than extraction of [3H]albumin or other plasma space markers and indicative of a rapid first pass clearance of TeBG by Sertoli or prostate cells. In summary, these studies indicate that 1) testosterone and estradiol are readily cleared by Sertoli and prostate cells; 2) albumin- and TeBG-bound sex steroids represent the major circulating pool of bioavailable hormone for testis or prostate; and 3) the TeBG-sex steroid complex may be nearly completely available for influx through the BTB or prostate plasma membrane

  17. Analytical challenges for measuring steroid responses to stress, neurodegeneration and injury in the central nervous system.

    Schumacher, Michael; Guennoun, Rachida; Mattern, Claudia; Oudinet, Jean-Paul; Labombarda, Florencia; De Nicola, Alejandro F; Liere, Philippe

    2015-11-01

    Levels of steroids in the adult central nervous system (CNS) show marked changes in response to stress, degenerative disorders and injury. However, their analysis in complex matrices such as fatty brain and spinal cord tissues, and even in plasma, requires accurate and precise analytical methods. Radioimmunoassays (RIA) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, even with prepurification steps, do not provide sufficient specificity, and they are at the origin of many inconsistent results in the literature. The analysis of steroids by mass spectrometric methods has become the gold standard for accurate and sensitive steroid analysis. However, these technologies involve multiple purification steps prone to errors, and they only provide accurate reference values when combined with careful sample workup. In addition, the interpretation of changes in CNS steroid levels is not an easy task because of their multiple sources: the endocrine glands and the local synthesis by neural cells. In the CNS, decreased steroid levels may reflect alterations of their biosynthesis, as observed in the case of chronic stress, post-traumatic stress disorders or depressive episodes. In such cases, return to normalization by administering exogenous hormones or by stimulating their endogenous production may have beneficial effects. On the other hand, increases in CNS steroids in response to acute stress, degenerative processes or injury may be part of endogenous protective or rescue programs, contributing to the resistance of neural cells to stress and insults. The aim of this review is to encourage a more critical reading of the literature reporting steroid measures, and to draw attention to the absolute need for well-validated methods. We discuss reported findings concerning changing steroid levels in the nervous system by insisting on methodological issues. An important message is that even recent mass spectrometric methods have their limits, and they only become reliable tools if combined with careful sample preparation. PMID:26301525

  18. Simplified method for measuring sex-hormone binding globulin

    We describe a simple, rapid method for measurement of sex-hormone binding globulin. Serial dilutions of pregnancy serum are prepared in serum from males that has been pre-treated by heating to 60 degrees C for 1 h to destroy endogenous binding globulin, which is then determined by a long-used technique to yield a set of ''standards.'' In the assay itself, a fixed amount of [3H]-labeled and unlabeled dihydrotestosterone is incubated with standard or unknown, and the bound fraction precipitated with saturated ammonium sulfate. A plot of percent of the steroid bound vs standard dilution yields a sigmoid curve, from which the results in unknowns can be read by simple extrapolation. Within-assay CVs for pools of serum from men, women, and women in late pregnancy were 6.56, 9.59, and 8.4%, respectively. Between-assay CVs for the same pools were 8.05, 9.5, and 11.5%, respectively. The correlation between results obtained by this method and those of the older technique was 0.95 for samples from non-pregnant subjects and 0.73 for those from pregnant women. Our procedure is simpler and faster than previous methods and accurately measures the differences in the globulin in sera from men, women, and pregnant women. Forty to 50 samples can be assayed in a working day

  19. Mono-hydroxy methoxychlor alters levels of key sex steroids and steroidogenic enzymes in cultured mouse antral follicles

    Methoxychlor (MXC) is an organochlorine pesticide that reduces fertility in female rodents by decreasing antral follicle numbers and increasing follicular death. MXC is metabolized in the body to mono-hydroxy MXC (mono-OH). Little is known about the effects of mono-OH on the ovary. Thus, this work tested the hypothesis that mono-OH exposure decreases production of 17?-estradiol (E2) by cultured mouse antral follicles. Antral follicles were isolated from CD-1 mice (age 35-39 days) and exposed to dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), or mono-OH (0.1-10 ?g/mL) for 96 h. Media and follicles were collected for analysis of sex steroid levels and mRNA expression, respectively. Mono-OH treatment (10 ?g/mL) decreased E2 (DMSO: 3009.72 744.99 ng/mL; mono-OH 0.1 ?g/mL: 1679.66 461.99 ng/mL; 1 ?g/mL: 1752.72 532.41 ng/mL; 10 ?g/mL: 45.89 33.83 ng/mL), testosterone (DMSO: 15.43 2.86 ng/mL; mono-OH 0.1 ?g/mL: 17.17 4.71 ng/mL; 1 ?g/mL: 13.64 3.53 ng/mL; 10 ?g/mL: 1.29 0.23 ng/mL), androstenedione (DMSO: 1.92 0.34 ng/mL; mono-OH 0.1 ?g/mL: 1.49 0.43 ng/mL; 1 ?g/mL: 0.64 0.31 ng/mL; 10 ?g/mL: 0.12 0.06 ng/mL) and progesterone (DMSO: 24.11 4.21 ng/mL; mono-OH 0.1 ?g/mL: 26.77 4.41 ng/mL; 1 ?g/mL: 20.90 3.75 ng/mL; 10 ?g/mL: 9.44 2.97 ng/mL) levels. Mono-OH did not alter expression of Star, Hsd3b1, Hsd17b1 and Cyp1b1, but it did reduce levels of Cyp11a1, Cyp17a1 and Cyp19a1 mRNA. Collectively, these data suggest that mono-OH significantly decreases levels of key sex steroid hormones and the expression of enzymes required for steroidogenesis.

  20. The moderating impact of lifestyle factors on sex steroids, sexual activities and aging in Asian men

    Goh, Victor HH; Tong, Terry YY

    2011-01-01

    The present study sought to evaluate the relative associations of exercise, sleep and other lifestyle habits with aging, sex hormones, percent body fat (%BF) and sexual activities in men living in the community. A better understanding of this complex interrelationship is important in helping the formulation of modalities for a holistic approach to the management of aging men. The results showed that age is a major determinant for many physiological parameters, including sleep, hormonal and metabolic parameters, some lifestyle factors and sexual activities. Testosterone (T), bioavailable testosterone (BioT) and dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS) concentrations decreased with age, while estradiol (E2), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) and %BF increased with age. In addition, there exist intricate associations among hormonal and lifestyle factors, %BF and age. High-intensity exercise and longer duration of sleep were associated with higher concentrations of T and BioT. T was shown to be associated positively with men who were engaged in masturbation. DHEAS was associated with men wanting more sex and with good morning penile rigidity. Older Singaporean men tended to sleep for shorter duration, but exercised more intensely than younger men. Coital and masturbation frequencies decreased with age, and a significantly greater number of younger men were engaged in masturbation. Relationship between the partners is a key determinant of sexuality in men. It appears that T may have a limited, while dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) have a greater role than previously suggest, as a motivational signal for sexual function in men. Both biological and psychosocial factors interact with each other to influence sexual functions in men. Hence, a biopsychosocial approach may be more appropriate for a more lasting resolution to sexual dysfunctions in men. PMID:21532602

  1. Inhaled Steroids

    ... Medications > Long-Term Control Medications > Inhaled Steroids Inhaled Steroids What are some common inhaled steroids? How are ... more about steroids? What are some common inhaled steroids? Common inhaled steroids include: Asmanex ® (mometasone) Alvesco ® (ciclesonide) ...

  2. Sex steroid receptors and apoptosis-related proteins are differentially expressed in polycystic ovaries of adult dogs.

    Chuffa, Luiz Gustavo de Almeida; Lupi Jnior, Luiz Antonio; da Maia Lima, Alfredo Feio

    2016-02-01

    In Polycystic Ovaries (PCOs), the dynamics of sex hormone receptors and follicle-related apoptotic signaling remain unknown. In this study, we investigated the expression of androgen receptors (AR), estrogen receptors (ER? and ER?), and apoptosis-related molecules (BAX, active caspase-3, Bcl-2 and Survivin) on different follicular stages of PCOs in adult dogs. Clinical evidences of high estradiol and testosterone levels, persistent estrus and vaginal discharge were observed. Inhibin B immunolabeling was increased in primary and 2 to 5-mm follicles, and a marked epithelial hyperplasia was common in the ovarian surface. Ovarian epithelia and primary follicles showed low expression of AR, ER?, and ER?, whereas a moderate immunoexpression of AR was found in theca cells of secondary follicles and cysts. In PCOs, growing follicles displayed ER? expression, and secondary follicles exhibited higher ER? expression. In addition, while few ER?-positive cells were found in the cysts, ER? was moderately expressed in growing follicles and cysts. BAX was upregulated in the ovarian epithelium, primary follicles, and in the wall of follicular cysts. Active caspase-3 was significantly downregulated in the epithelium, primary follicles, and follicular cysts, whereas growing follicles had a strong immunoexpression in the granulosa cells. Bcl-2 and survivin were increased in the epithelium and primary follicles, and only survivin was upregulated in secondary and growing follicles. While Bcl-2 had a diffuse immunexpression in the follicular cysts, survivin was overexpressed by these cells. We concluded that sex steroid receptors and apoptotic proteins are differentially expressed in the follicles of adult dogs with PCOs. PMID:26767421

  3. Effects of steroids and sex reversal on intestinal absorption of L-(/sup 14/C)leucine in vivo, in rainbow trout, Salmo gairdneri

    Habibi, H.R.; Ince, B.W.

    1983-12-01

    The effects of steroids (17 alpha-methyltestosterone (MT), 17 beta-oestradiol (E2)), and of sex reversal (XX male) on intestinal absorption and accumulation of L-(/sup 14/C)leucine (5 mM), were investigated in unanaesthetized rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri), using an in vivo gut perfusion technique. Each steroid was luminally perfused through the gut at a concentration of 50 micrograms/ml perfusate, during five separate perfusions carried out on the same fish at 30-min intervals (perfusion periods 1 to 5), for a total of 120 min at 14 degrees. Experiments were also conducted on masculinized, genetically female trout (XX male) with steroid-free perfusate. MT treatment significantly increased the intestinal absorption of radioleucine during periods 1 and 2, whilst E2 was without effect. Neither MT nor E2 influenced intestinal accumulation (mid- and hindgut) of radioleucine, and accumulation of /sup 14/C-solutes in skeletal muscle. Sex reversal, however, whilst having no effect on leucine absorption, nevertheless significantly increased intestinal accumulation of radioleucine, and accumulation of /sup 14/C-solutes in skeletal muscle. The effects observed in the present study are in agreement with previous work in trout using everted gut sac preparations. It is suggested that the growth-promoting effects of anabolic-androgenic steroids in fish may be partly explained by their action on gastrointestinal function.

  4. Sex steroids are necessary in the second postnatal week for the expression of male alloparental behavior in prairie voles (Microtus ochragaster).

    Kramer, Kristin M; Perry, Adam N; Golbin, Dina; Cushing, Bruce S

    2009-10-01

    Sex steroids play a significant role in organizing male social behavior, which is associated with low levels of pro-social behavior and high levels of aggression. However, the role of steroids in organizing behavior in highly social males is unclear. The authors tested the hypothesis that low levels of sex steroids facilitate the expression of pro-social behavior in male prairie voles (Microtus ochragaster), predicting that inhibition of testosterone and estradiol would reduce spontaneous-alloparental behavior. Treatment with the aromatase inhibitor 1,4,6-androstatriene-3,17-dione (ATD) or the androgen receptor blocker flutamide, days 8-14, significantly reduced the expression of alloparental behavior in 21-day old males. While both treatments reduced alloparental behavior and increased pup-directed aggression, there were differential treatment effects. Flutamide altered initial response, increasing latency to enter the pup cage and the likelihood of retreat from initial contact. ATD-treated males that were alloparental showed increases in sniffing and latencies to lick and huddle. Results indicate that endogenous steroids play a role in the development of male pro-social behavior and the effects of estrogens and androgens differ. PMID:19824762

  5. Effects of steroids and sex reversal on intestinal absorption of L-[14C]leucine in vivo, in rainbow trout, Salmo gairdneri

    The effects of steroids (17 alpha-methyltestosterone (MT), 17 beta-oestradiol (E2)), and of sex reversal (XX male) on intestinal absorption and accumulation of L-[14C]leucine (5 mM), were investigated in unanaesthetized rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri), using an in vivo gut perfusion technique. Each steroid was luminally perfused through the gut at a concentration of 50 micrograms/ml perfusate, during five separate perfusions carried out on the same fish at 30-min intervals (perfusion periods 1 to 5), for a total of 120 min at 14 degrees. Experiments were also conducted on masculinized, genetically female trout (XX male) with steroid-free perfusate. MT treatment significantly increased the intestinal absorption of radioleucine during periods 1 and 2, whilst E2 was without effect. Neither MT nor E2 influenced intestinal accumulation (mid- and hindgut) of radioleucine, and accumulation of 14C-solutes in skeletal muscle. Sex reversal, however, whilst having no effect on leucine absorption, nevertheless significantly increased intestinal accumulation of radioleucine, and accumulation of 14C-solutes in skeletal muscle. The effects observed in the present study are in agreement with previous work in trout using everted gut sac preparations. It is suggested that the growth-promoting effects of anabolic-androgenic steroids in fish may be partly explained by their action on gastrointestinal function

  6. Effects of long-term cortisol treatments on gonadal development, sex steroids levels and ovarian cortisol content in cultured great sturgeon Huso huso.

    Poursaeid, Samaneh; Falahatkar, Bahram; Mojazi Amiri, Bagher; Van Der Kraak, Glen

    2012-09-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of cortisol implantations on gonadal development, sex steroid levels, and ovarian cortisol content in cultured great sturgeon Huso huso. Three groups of 5 fish for each treatment were considered. The experimental groups included: control (capsules containing cocoa butter alone), low cortisol (C(5); 5mg cortisol/kg body mass+cocoa butter) and, high cortisol (C(50); 50mg cortisol/kg body mass+cocoa butter). The capsules containing hormones and cocoa butter were intraperitoneally implanted into 3-year-old female fish at pre-vitellogenic stage (mean initial body mass 6809.7 73 g) every 6 weeks over a 6-month period from January to June. The serum levels of cortisol, glucose, cholesterol and sex steroids (testosterone and 17?-estradiol) were determined at the initial time and three weeks after each implantation. Oocyte histological characteristics (the diameter and area of the oocyte, the diameter and area of the nucleus and the ratio of the nucleus area to the oocyte area) were measured at the end of the experiment and compared to those at the initial time. Ovarian cortisol content was measured at the end of the experiment. The results showed that serum cortisol levels varied in a dose-independent manner, so that the highest cortisol concentrations were observed in C(5)-treated fish throughout the experiment. Serum glucose levels were significantly higher in cortisol-treated groups than those in the control group. The high dose of cortisol elicited a significant constant increase in serum cholesterol concentrations. Fish implanted with the high cortisol dose showed significant declines in serum testosterone and 17?-estradiol concentrations throughout the experiment. No significant differences were found in oocyte histological characteristics among experimental groups. The cortisol implants elicited a dose-dependent increase in ovarian cortisol content. At the end of trial, body-growth indices were the lowest in C(50)-implanted fish, while the low cortisol dose had no effect on growth relative to the controls. These results indicated that chronic stress induced by cortisol implantation in great sturgeon suppressed gonadal steroidogenesis and somatic growth but had no effect on ovarian growth and development. PMID:22643336

  7. Expression analyses of sex steroid-regulated genes in neonatal rat hypothalamus

    Yonehara, Keisuke; Suzuki, Masatoshi; Yamanouchi, Keitaro; Nishihara, Masugi

    2003-01-01

    Estrogen plays an important role in sexual differentiation of the brain in rats during the perinatal period. To elucidate molecular mechanisms underlying sexual differentiation of the brain, in this study we investigated genes differentially expressed between sexes or induced to express by estrogen...... in neonatal rat hypothalamus using DNA microarray analysis in combination with real-time RT-PCR. It was found that the levels of expression of the genes encoding glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 and coronin 1b were higher in male than female hypothalamus on postnatal day (PN) 5 and those of collagen...... type 3 alpha1 and thioredoxin reductase 2 genes in female hypothalamus on PN5 were decreased and increased, respectively, by treatment with estradiol on PN2. Then the developmental changes in the expression of these 4 genes were examined from 1 day before the parturition to PN9, and they all showed...

  8. Effects of sex steroids on bones and muscles: Similarities, parallels, and putative interactions in health and disease.

    Carson, James A; Manolagas, Stavros C

    2015-11-01

    Estrogens and androgens influence the growth and maintenance of bones and muscles and are responsible for their sexual dimorphism. A decline in their circulating levels leads to loss of mass and functional integrity in both tissues. In the article, we highlight the similarities of the molecular and cellular mechanisms of action of sex steroids in the two tissues; the commonality of a critical role of mechanical forces on tissue mass and function; emerging evidence for an interplay between mechanical forces and hormonal and growth factor signals in both bones and muscles; as well as the current state of evidence for or against a cross-talk between muscles and bone. In addition, we review evidence for the parallels in the development of osteoporosis and sarcopenia with advancing age and the potential common mechanisms responsible for the age-dependent involution of these two tissues. Lastly, we discuss the striking difference in the availability of several drug therapies for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis, as compared to none for sarcopenia. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Muscle Bone Interactions". PMID:26453497

  9. Sex steroids level in blood plasma and ovarian follicles of the chimeric chicken.

    Sechman, A; Lakota, P; Wojtysiak, D; Hrabia, A; Mika, M; Lisowski, M; Czekalski, P; Rzasa, J; Kapkowska, E; Bednarczyk, M

    2006-12-01

    The study was performed to determine the hormonal status of mature germline chimeras obtained by blastodermal cell transfer from chicken embryos of a donor breed [Green-legged Partridgelike breed (GP) x Araucana (AR)] to those of a recipient breed [White Leghorn (WL)] being at the same stage of embryonic development. The egg-laying chimeras and WL hens (control) of the same age were used in the experiment. At first, blood samples were taken from each bird at 0.5, 5, 12.5 and 18.5 h following oviposition. Subsequently, the chimeras and the WL hens were decapitated 1-2 h after ovulation. A stroma and the following follicles were isolated from the ovary: white normal (1-4, 4-6 and 6-8 mm), white atretic and yellow preovulatory follicles (F4-F1). Sex hormones, progesterone (P4), testosterone (T) and oestradiol (E2) in blood plasma and ovarian follicles were determined radioimmunologically. The activity of the 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3beta-HSD) in the granulosa and theca layers of the follicles was analysed histochemically. In chimeric chickens, a higher level of T in blood plasma during the ovulatory cycle was noticed. However, in the stroma, white prehierarchical and medium-size preovulatory ovarian follicles the level of T was significantly lower. With respect to E2, its elevated levels were found both in blood and in the ovarian follicles. There were no significant differences in P4 concentrations in blood plasma while in ovarian follicles a higher level was observed only in white 6-8 mm follicles. 3beta-HSD activity in granulosa and theca layers of the ovarian follicles in chimeras was not different from that in the WL hens. In conclusion, the results obtained indicate that germline chimeras exhibit significant alterations in sex hormone levels in the ovary and blood plasma, which in turn may affect their reproductive abilities. PMID:17105570

  10. Sex and Exercise Interact to Alter the Expression of Anabolic Androgenic Steroid-Induced Anxiety-Like Behaviors in the Mouse

    Onakomaiya, Marie M.; Porter, Donna M; Oberlander, Joseph G.; Henderson, Leslie P

    2014-01-01

    Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) are taken by both sexes to enhance athletic performance and body image, nearly always in conjunction with an exercise regime. Although taken to improve physical attributes, chronic AAS use can promote negative behavior, including anxiety. Few studies have directly compared the impact of AAS use in males versus females or assessed the interaction of exercise and AAS. We show that AAS increase anxiety-like behaviors in female but not male mice and that volunta...

  11. Effects of developmental exposure to 2,2 ,4,4 ,5-pentabromodiphenyl ether (PBDE-99) on sex steroids, sexual development, and sexually dimorphic behavior in rats

    Lilienthal, Hellmuth; Hack, Alfons; Roth-Haerer, Astrid; Grande, Simone Wichert; Talsness, Chris E.

    2006-01-01

    Increasing concentrations of polybrominated flame retardants, including polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), in breast milk cause concern about possible developmental effects in nursed babies. Because previous studies in rats have indicated effects on sex steroids and sexually dimorphic behavior after maternal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), our goal in the present study was to determine if developmental exposure to 2,2′,4,4′,5-pentabromodiphenyl ether (PBDE-99) induces simil...

  12. An immunohistochemical analysis of sex-steroid receptors, tumor suppressor gene p53 and Ki-67 in the normal and neoplastic uterine cervix squamous epithelium

    Nikolaou Marinos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Malignant transformation of sex-steroid dependent tissues is associated with the loss of expression of sex steroid receptors as well as of the tumor suppression gene p53. The aim of this study is to evaluate the expression of sex-steroid receptors, p53 and Ki-67 in specimens from pre-malignant and malignant cervical epithelial lesions throughout the menstrual cycle. Material and Methods. Immunohistochemical staining was performed on formalin fixed, paraffin embedded tissue sections of normal squamous cervical epithelium, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and invasive squamous cervical carcinoma, specimens utilizing antibodies against estrogen receptors, progesterone receptors, p53 protein and Ki-67 antigen. Results. In the samples taken from the normal cervical tissue, basal cells were usually estrogen receptor-positive, progesterone receptornegative, p53-negative and Ki-67-negative throughout the menstrual cycle. In contrast, para-basal cells were estrogen receptorpositive and progesterone receptor-negative in the follicular phase, but estrogen receptor-negative and progesterone receptor -positive and Ki-67 positive in the luteal phase. In cervical precancerous and cancer tissue samples (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and squamous cervical carcinoma, the expression of estrogen receptors decreased. 31.15% of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and 11.5% of squamous cervical carcinoma were positive for estrogen receptors. However, the expression of progesterone receptors increased. 29.5% of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and 49.2% of squamous cervical carcinoma were positive for progesterone receptors. Positive staining for p53 was observed in 15 (24.59% cases of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and in 39 (64% of squamous cervical carcinoma. The expression Ki-67 index in squamous cervical carcinoma cases (47.60% was significantly higher than of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia cases (30.2% (p=0.041. Conclusion. The findings of this study suggest that tumor cervical cells evade normal growth control by sex steroid hormones while synchronously abnormal regulatory mechanisms acquire control of the cell cycle.

  13. Effects of female sex steroids on the development of autoimmune thyroiditis in thymectomized and irradiated rats

    Ahmed, S.A.; Young, P.R.; Penhale, W.J. (Murdoch Univ. (Australia). School of Veterinary Studies)

    1983-11-01

    Female PVG/c strain rats are more susceptible to induction of autoimmune thyroiditis initiated by thymectomy and irradiation (Tx-X) than similarly treated males. Pre-pubertal ovariectomy further augmented susceptibility. Administration of oestrogen or progesterone to groups of 4 weeks old ovariectomized Tx-X animals over a period of 15 weeks significantly altered induction of this condition. Oestrogen administered repeatedly at dose levels of 1 ..mu..g and 10 ..mu..g/100 g body weight resulted in partial suppression of thyroiditis with a corresponding change in the incidence of antibodies to thyroglobulin. Oestrogen administered by a single implantation had a suppressive effect on the development of autoimmunity in ovariectomized Tx-X females. Oestrogen given by either of these procedures also reduced the incidence of thyroiditis and autoantibody induction in orchidectomized male Tx-X rats. In contrast, repeated administration of progesterone at a dose of 250 mg and 1,500 ..mu..g/100 g body weight appeared to augment levels of autoimmunity. It is concluded that the differential susceptibility to the induction of autoimmunity by thymectomy and irradiation is the direct consequence of sex hormonal influences. The higher incidence of the disease in the female would appear to be determined by the balance between the activity of oestrogen and progesterone which would further appear to have antagonistic influences in this particular situation.

  14. Decreased glutathione S-transferase expression and activity and altered sex steroids in Lake Apopka brown bullheads (Ameriurus nebulosus)

    Gallagher, E.P.; Gross, T.S.; Sheehy, K.M.

    2001-01-01

    A number of freshwater lakes and reclaimed agricultural sites in Central Florida have been the receiving waters for agrochemical and municipal runoff. One of these sites, Lake Apopka, is also a eutrophic system that has been the focus of several case studies reporting altered reproductive activity linked to bioaccumulation of persistent organochlorine chemicals in aquatic species. The present study was initiated to determine if brown bullheads (Ameriurus nebulosus) from the north marsh of Lake Apopka (Lake Apopka Marsh) exhibit an altered capacity to detoxify environmental chemicals through hepatic glutathione S-transferase (GST)-mediated conjugation as compared with bullheads from a nearby reference site (Lake Woodruff). We also compared plasma sex hormone concentrations (testosterone, 17-?? estradiol, and 11 keto-testosterone) in bullheads from the two sites. Female bullheads from Lake Apopka had 40% lower initial rate GST conjugative activity toward 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB), 50% lower activity towards p-nitrobutyl chloride (NBC), 33% lower activity toward ethacrynic acid (ECA), and 43% lower activity toward ??5-androstene-3,17-dione (??5-ADI), as compared with female bullheads from Lake Woodruff. Enzyme kinetic analyses demonstrated that female bullheads from Lake Apopka had lower GST-catalyzed CDNB clearance than did female Lake Woodruff bullheads. Western blotting studies of bullhead liver cytosolic proteins demonstrated that the reduced GST catalytic activities in female Lake Apopka bullheads were accompanied by lower expression of hepatic GST protein. No site differences were observed with respect to GST activities or GST protein expression in male bullheads. Female Lake Apopka bullheads also had elevated concentrations of plasma androgens (testosterone and 11-ketotestosterone) as compared with females from Lake Woodruff. In contrast, male Lake Apopka bullheads had elevated levels of plasma estrogen but similar levels of androgens as compared with male bullheads from Lake Woodruff. Collectively, our studies indicate the presence of reduced GST protein expression, reduced GST conjugative capacity and altered sex steroid homeostasis in female bullheads from a contaminated field site in Central Florida. The implications of these physiological alterations in terms of pollutant biotransformation and reproduction are discussed. ?? 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. A New Measure of Sex-Role Attitudes.

    King, Lynda A.; And Others

    In a review of instruments measuring gender-related constructs, a number of shortcomings were found in existing scales. A new scale to measure sex-role attitudes was developed and tested by first proposing the construct of sex-role egalitarianism and then initiating the process of construct validation by developing a reliable measure of the…

  16. Relationship between lipoprotein lipase activity and plasma sex steroid level in obese women.

    Iverius, P H; Brunzell, J. D.

    1988-01-01

    In obese women (n = 16) at their weight, fasting adipose tissue lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity, obtained by elution with serum and heparin at 4 degrees and 37 degrees C, was inversely correlated to plasma estradiol levels (r = -0.724; P = 0.002) and (r = -0.641; P = 0.010), respectively. Furthermore, fasting postheparin plasma LPL activity during a heparin infusion, showed an even stronger inverse correlation to plasma estradiol when measured at 60 min (r = -0.815; P less than 0.001). None...

  17. A longitudinal study of growth, sex steroids and IGF-1 in boys with physiological gynaecomastia

    Mieritz, Mikkel G.; Raket, Lars Lau; Hagen, Casper P.; Nielsen, John E.; Talman, Maj-Lis Møller; Petersen, Jørgen Holm; Sommer, Stefan Horst; Main, Katharina Maria; Jørgensen, Niels; Juul, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Context: Physiological gynaecomastia is common and affects a large proportion of otherwise healthy adolescent boys. It is thought to be caused by an imbalance between estrogen and testosterone, though this is rarely evident in analyses of serum. Objective: This study aimed to describe the frequency...... COPENHAGEN Puberty Study”. The boys were examined every six months during an eight year follow-up. Median number of examinations was 10 (2–15). Main outcome measurements: Blood samples and analysed for FSH, LH, testosterone, estradiol, SHBG, inhibin B, AMH, IGF-I and IGFBP-3 by immunoassays. Auxological...... than boys who did not develop gynaecomastia (13.5 vs 13.9 years, p = 0.027), and they had significantly higher serum levels of IGF-I (p = 0.000), estradiol (p = 0.013), free-testosterone (p <0.001) and FSH (p = 0.030) during pubertal transition. However, no differences in serum LH or in the estradiol...

  18. Control of the level of unusual estrogen-binding protein in rat liver by sex steroids and the pituitary

    This paper studies the role of sex steriods and the pituitary in regulation of the unusual estrogen-binding protein (UEBP) level in male rat liver. The concentration of E2-binding sites of UEBP in the liver cytosol was determined by measuring binding of a minimal addition of 2,4,6,7-tritium-E2, with specific radioactivity of 98-100 Ci/mmole. Data on the effect of hypophysectomy on the UEBP level in the liver of different groups of rats are presented. The presence of comparable quantities of E2 and androgens in rats of both sexes is evidence of the existence of a fine mechanism of combined regulation of the UEBP concentration under natural conditions that reflect changes in the absolute E2 or androgen levels or in the ratio between them

  19. Sexual Dimorphism in the Regulation of Estrogen, Progesterone, and Androgen Receptors by Sex Steroids in the Rat Airway Smooth Muscle Cells

    Zarazúa, Abraham; González-Arenas, Aliesha; Ramírez-Vélez, Gabriela; Bazán-Perkins, Blanca; Guerra-Araiza, Christian; Campos-Lara, María G.

    2016-01-01

    The role of sex hormones in lung is known. The three main sex steroid receptors, estrogen, progesterone, and androgen, have not been sufficiently studied in airway smooth muscle cells (ASMC), and the sex hormone regulation on these receptors is unknown. We examined the presence and regulation of sex hormone receptors in female and male rat ASMC by Western blotting and flow cytometry. Gonadectomized rats were treated with 17β-estradiol, progesterone, 17β-estradiol + progesterone, or testosterone. ASMC were enzymatically isolated from tracheas and bronchi. The experiments were performed with double staining flow cytometry (anti-α-actin smooth muscle and antibodies to each hormone receptor). ERα, ERβ, tPR, and AR were detected in females or males. ERα was upregulated by E2 and T and downregulated by P4 in females; in males, ERα was downregulated by P4, E + P, and T. ERβ was downregulated by each treatment in females, and only by E + P and T in males. tPR was downregulated by P4, E + P, and T in females. No hormonal regulation was observed in male receptors. AR was downregulated in males treated with E + P and T. We have shown the occurrence of sex hormone receptors in ASMC and their regulation by the sex hormones in female and male rats.

  20. Effect of GnRHa, pimozide and Ovaprim on ovulation and plasma sex steroid hormones in African catfish Clarias gariepinus.

    Sharaf, S M

    2012-05-01

    Nine groups each of four fish were injected with a single intramuscular dose of the following preparations: Physiological saline (0.9% NaCl) as a control group, 0.5 ml kg(-1) Ovaprim, 20 and 40 ?g kg(-1) BW of GnRHa, 8 and 16 mL kg(-1) pimozide tablets and the following combination of GnRHa with pimozide (GP): 20 ?g + 4 mg, 30 ?g + 8 mg and 40 ?g + 16 mg kg(-1) BW. The primary oocyte diameter (POD) before hormone administration ranged from 943.3 to 1071.0 ?m. The latency periods (LP) were in the range of 9.0 to 12.0 h after injection. The highest ovulation ratio (OR) was observed in groups Ovaprim, GP(30 + 8) and GP(40 + 16). Other treatments were effective for ovulation, the ovulation ratio in Groups G(40) and GP(20 + 4) were significantly higher than G(20) treatment. The ovulation index (OI) was in the range 62 to 77% and showed significant differences among groups. There was no significant difference in fertilization ratio (FR) among Ovaprim, GP(30 + 8) and GP(40 + 16) groups, while there were significant difference between the previous group and G(20) and G(40) groups. Control, P8, P16 showed negative results in all the parameters LP, OED, OR, OI and FR. Levels of sex steroids were analyzed on 6 and 12 h after initiation of treatments. A significant increase in plasma E(2) with GP(30 + 8) injection was observed 6 and 12 h after injection, while there were no significant increase between all the other groups 6 h after injection. Treatments with GP(20 + 4) resulted in a significant increase in plasma T concentration in females compared with control after 6 h. In contrast, plasma T and E(2) concentrations were lower during the combined GP(20 + 4), GP(30 + 8) and GP(40 + 16) after 12 h than after 16 h of injection. The combined treatments (GnRHa + PIM) are better compared with Ovaprim which gave the same results, they have some advantages, such as reliable response and low cost. Ovaprim is more than 3 to 5-fold of the cost of (GnRH + PIM). Therefore, this method could be useful tool for commercial catfish breeders to ensure spawning success. PMID:22365698

  1. Oct-GnRH, the first protostomian gonadotropin-releasing hormone-like peptide and a critical mini-review of the presence of vertebrate sex steroids in molluscs.

    Minakata, Hiroyuki; Tsutsui, Kazuyoshi

    2016-02-01

    In protostome and deuterosome invertebrates, neurosecretory cells play major roles in the endocrine system. The optic glands of cephalopods are indicators of sexual maturation. In mature octopuses, optic glands enlarge and secrete a gonadotropic hormone. A peptide with structural features similar to that of vertebrate gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) was isolated from the octopus, Octopus vulgaris, and was named oct-GnRH. The discovery of oct-GnRH has triggered structural determinations and predictions of other mollusc GnRH-like peptides in biochemical and in silico studies. Interestingly, cephalopods studied so far are characterized by a single molecular form of oct-GnRH with a C-terminal -Pro-Gly-NH2 sequence, which is critical for gonadotropin-releasing activity in vertebrates. Other molluscan GnRH-like peptides lack the C-terminal -Pro-Gly-NH2 sequence but have -X-NH2 or -Pro-Gly although all protostome GnRH-like peptides have yet to be sequenced. In marine molluscs, relationships between GnRH-like peptides and sex steroids have been studied to verify the hypothesis that molluscs have vertebrate-type sex steroid system. However, it is currently questionable whether such sex steroids are present and whether they play endogenous roles in the reproductive system of molluscs. Because molluscs uptake and store steroids from the environment and fishes release sex steroids into the external environment, it is impossible to rule out the contamination of vertebrate sex steroids in molluscs. The function of key enzymes of steroidogenesis within molluscs remains unclear. Thus, evidence to deny the existence of the vertebrate-type sex steroid system in molluscs has been accumulated. The elucidation of substances, which regulate the maturation and maintenance of gonads and other reproductive functions in molluscs will require rigorous and progressive scientific study. PMID:26319132

  2. Measurement of Steroids in Rats after Exposure to an Endocrine Disruptor: Mass Spectrometry and Radioimmunoassay Demonstrate Similar Results

    Commercially available radioimmunoassays (RIAs) are frequently used in toxicological studies to evaluate effects of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) on steroidogenesis in rats. Currently there are limited data comparing steroid concentrations in rats as measured by RIAs to t...

  3. Effect of oral testosterone treatment on serum concentrations of sex steroids gonadotrophins and prolactin in alcoholic cirrhotic men. Copenhagen Study Group for Liver Diseases

    Gluud, C; Bennett, Patrick; Svenstrup, Bo; Micic, S

    1988-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the serum concentrations of sex steroids and pituitary hormones in a randomly selected group of alcoholic cirrhotic men participating in a randomized, placebo-controlled study on the efficacy of oral testosterone treatment on the liver. Before treatment......, patients (n = 25) had median serum concentrations of testosterone, oestradiol, non-protein bound oestradiol, non-sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) bound oestradiol and oestrone sulphate which did not differ significantly from those of healthy controls (n = 16), but the patients had significantly (P less...... than 0.01) higher median serum concentrations of oestrone, luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and prolactin. The patients were randomized to treatment with either oral micronized testosterone (200 mg t.d.s.) or placebo for a median duration of 1 year. In the placebo group (n...

  4. Sex estimation from sternal measurements using multidetector computed tomography.

    Ekizoglu, Oguzhan; Hocaoglu, Elif; Inci, Ercan; Bilgili, Mustafa Gokhan; Solmaz, Dilek; Erdil, Irem; Can, Ismail Ozgur

    2014-12-01

    We aimed to show the utility and reliability of sternal morphometric analysis for sex estimation.Sex estimation is a very important step in forensic identification. Skeletal surveys are main methods for sex estimation studies. Morphometric analysis of sternum may provide high accuracy rated data in sex discrimination. In this study, morphometric analysis of sternum was evaluated in 1 mm chest computed tomography scans for sex estimation. Four hundred forty 3 subjects (202 female, 241 male, mean age: 44 8.1 [distribution: 30-60 year old]) were included the study. Manubrium length (ML), mesosternum length (2L), Sternebra 1 (S1W), and Sternebra 3 (S3W) width were measured and also sternal index (SI) was calculated. Differences between genders were evaluated by student t-test. Predictive factors of sex were determined by discrimination analysis and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Male sternal measurement values are significantly higher than females (P sexes. Stepwise 1 (ML, MSL, S1W, S3W) has the highest accuracy rate in stepwise discrimination analysis with 86.1% in females and 83.8% in males. Our study showed that morphometric computed tomography analysis of sternum might provide important information for sex estimation. PMID:25501090

  5. Influence of mesonephros on foetal and neonatal rabbit gonads. I. Sex-steroid release by the testis in vitro

    Grinsted, Jacob Peter; Byskov, A G; Christensen, I J; Jensenius, Jens Christian

    1982-01-01

    develop the capacity to synthesize a meiosis inducing substance (MIS). A relationship between decrease of testosterone and secretion of MIS is discussed. It is concluded that the steroid producing cells of the testis, the Leydig cells, originate or are heavily influenced by mesonephros during early...

  6. Effects of partial or total fish meal replacement by agricultural by-product diets on gonad maturation, sex steroids and vitellogenin dynamics of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus).

    Nyina-wamwiza, L; Defreyne, P S; Ngendahayo, L; Milla, S; Mandiki, S N M; Kestemont, P

    2012-10-01

    The establishment of the first sexual maturation was characterized in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) in order to study the efficiency of replacement of fish meal (FM) by diets composed of local vegetable ingredients. Four diets were formulated containing decreasing levels of FM (50-0% for diet 1 to diet 4) and increasing proportions of vegetable ingredients (50-100%). Gonadosomatic index (GSI), diameter and percentages of developmental stages of oocytes, plasma sex steroids and vitellogenin dynamics were investigated from February to June using one-year-old fish. Fish were individually tagged, and 12 individuals from each diet were investigated monthly. Replacement of FM with plant ingredients did not affect the GSI neither in males, nor in females. All males were spermiating, and no abnormal gonads were found. In females, GSI and percentages of advanced stages of oocytes decreased during the dry season, indicating seasonal changes in gonad development. Moreover, oocytes were in late exogenous vitellogenesis, but no final maturation stages were observed, whatever the diet. Higher plasma levels of E2 in females and of androgens (T and 11-KT) in both sexes were observed in fish fed diet 4 than in those receiving diet 1 depending on the season. Levels of plasma E2 and ALP (indicator for vitellogenin) in males did not differ among treatments and seasons suggesting no phytoestrogenic activity. The results showed that total replacement of FM by vegetable diets composed of groundnut oilcakes, bean and sunflower meals has no deleterious effect on the onset of sexual maturation in African catfish but, may stimulate the sex steroid production and in turns may potentially exert some positive actions on reproductive success. PMID:22382402

  7. Oral Steroids (Steroid Pills and Syrups)

    ... Disease Medications > Quick-Relief Medications > Oral Steroids Oral Steroids (Steroid Pills and Syrups) How are steroid pills and ... Want to learn more about steroids? How are steroid pills and syrups used? Steroid pills and syrups ...

  8. Application of Double Isotope Derivative Dilution Procedures to Steroid Hormone Measurement

    The measurement of the concentration of specific steroid hormones in human peripheral plasma has required the development of sensitive analytical procedures. Of the various analytical techniques available, procedures based on the principle of double isotope derivative dilution have great specificity and precision at low levels, and can be readily applied to the measurement of androgens, oestrogens, progesterone and adrenocortical hormones. In these procedures a known amount of 14C- or 3H-labelled steroid is added to the sample as an internal recovery indicator to account for losses over the various analytical steps. Mass is determined by formation of a labelled derivative of the hormone following reaction with a radioactive reagent of known specific activity. These reagents are usually either 3H- or 35S-labelled. Separation of the various steroid hormones from each other and from the excess radioactivity arising from derivative formation is carried out by chromatography and by further chemical modification of the labelled derivative. The problems of developing a method suitable for the measurement of aldosterone in human peripheral plasma are described, and a comparison made between two methods, one which uses 14C-aldosterone as internal indicator and 3H-acetic anhydride for derivative formation, and another which uses 3H-aldosterone and 35S-tosan (toluene sulphonic acid anhydride). The subsequent modification of the basic 3H-acetic anhydride procedure to enable simultaneous measurement of cortisol, cortisone, corticosterone, desoxycortisol, desoxycorticosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone and testosterone in a single sample are described. The application of these procedures to the measurement of progesterone and oestrone and oestradiol- 178 are also discussed; in particular, the enzymatic reduction of progesterone to enable acetylation, or the use of 35S-pipsyl chloride (p-iodo benzene sulphonyl chloride) for derivative formation. The advantages and disadvantages of this type of methodology are also discussed with particular reference to specificity, accuracy, precision and suitability for routine analytical use. The sensitivity and precision of double isotope methodology is dependent not only on the specific activity of the labelled reagents but also on the performance of the liquid scintillation counting system. Statistical counting errors and an assessment of the precision and reliability of liquid scintillation counting systems used to count samples containing 3H and 14C are described. (author)

  9. Standardization of androstenedione and estrone radioimmunoassay and profile of sex steroids, gonadotropins and prolactin - in patients with chronic anovulation due to inappropriate feedback (polycystic ovarian syndrome)

    Full text. In order to evaluate the profile of the sex steroids gonadotropin and prolactin in polycystic ovarian syndrome (POS), 24 patients with POS were studied and compared with 20 normal women during the early follicular phase of the menstrual cycle. Radioimmunoassay techniques for androstenedione (A) and estrone (E1) were standardized for the purpose of the study. Androstenedione and estrone were extracted from plasma with ethyl ether. The assays were maintained in equilibrium and the labelled hormone-antibody complex was then separated from the free hormone using dextran charcoal. The sensitivity of the method was 6.8 pg/tube for A and 3.7 pg/tube for E1. Nonspecific binding ws 3.4 for A and 3.3 for E1. The interessay error at the D50 level was 15.6 for A and 8.6 for E1. Patients with POS had significantly higher basal levels of LH, A, T E1 and PRL and similar FSH and DHEA-S levels when compared with normal women. The LH/FSH ratio was significantly elevated and the A/T ratio was significantly decreased. The A/E1 and T/E2 ratios were elevated and the E1/E2 was decreased, although the differences were not statistically significant. A positive correlation between A and E1 was observed in patients with POS. In view of the above data, it was concluded that: the quality control parameters of the radioimmunoassay for A and E1 standardized in the present study are considered satisfactory, and the assay could be used for diagnosis and research; the patients with POS have a different sex steroid and gonadotropin profile when compared normal women during the early follicular phase of the menstrual cycle

  10. Profiles of sex steroids, fecundity and spawning of a migratory characiform fish from the Paraguay-Paraná basin: a comparative study in a three-river system.

    Perini, Violeta da Rocha; Paschoalini, Alessandro Loureiro; Cruz, Cláudia Kelly Fernandes da; Rocha, Rita de Cássia Gimenes Alcântara de; Senhorini, José Augusto; Ribeiro, Dirceu Marzulo; Formagio, Paulo Sérgio; Bazzoli, Nilo; Rizzo, Elizete

    2013-12-01

    This study investigated for the first time the reproductive biology of Prochilodus lineatus in a system of rivers in southeastern Brasil, relating it to the role of tributary rivers in the reproductive success of this important commercial fish in the Upper Paraná River basin, where a cascade of hydroelectric dams were deployed. Specimens were caught bimonthly in three river sites: (S1) Grande River, downstream from the Porto Colômbia dam; (S2) Pardo River; and (S3) Mogi Guaçu River. Sex steroid plasma levels, fecundity, follicular atresia, oocyte diameter and gonadosomatic index (GSI) were compared among sites. In S1, fish exhibited changes in the reproductive parameters: lower GSI, oocyte diameter and fecundity and higher follicular atresia index, when compared to S2 and S3. Frequency of maturing fish was higher in S3 and spawning was only registered in S3. In sites S2 and S3, plasma concentrations of testosterone and 17β-estradiol in females and testosterone in males showed wide variations following gonadal maturation. Fish from S1 showed few significant variations in sex steroid concentrations throughout the gonadal cycle. These results indicate that P. lineatus does not reproduce in Grande River (S1), but probably uses the Pardo River (S2) as a migratory route towards the Mogi Guaçu River (S3) where they complete gonadal maturation and spawning. Our findings contribute for understanding the reproductive biology of P. lineatus and to highlight the importance of tributaries in impounded rivers as a favourable environment for migration and spawning of fish. PMID:23616136

  11. Influence of water temperature on induced reproduction by hypophysation, sex steroids concentrations and final oocyte maturation of the "curimatã-pacu" Prochilodus argenteus (Pisces: Prochilodontidae).

    Arantes, Fábio P; Santos, Hélio B; Rizzo, Elizete; Sato, Yoshimi; Bazzoli, Nilo

    2011-07-01

    Most fishes with commercial importance from the São Francisco basin are migratory and do not complete the reproductive cycle in lentic environments, such as hydroelectric plant reservoirs, hence natural stocks are declining and there is an urgent need to reduce the pressure of fishing on those wild populations. Therefore, studies on reproductive biology and its relationship with endocrine and environmental factors are key to improving the cultivation techniques of Brazilian fish species. This study examined the influence of water temperature on sex steroid concentrations (testosterone, 17β-estradiol and 17α-hydroxyprogesterone), spawning efficiency, fecundity, fertilisation rate, larval abnormality rates and involvement of the cytoskeleton during the final oocyte maturation of Prochilodus argenteus under experimental conditions. The results of our study showed that in captivity, sex steroid plasma concentrations and spawning performance of P. argenteus were clearly different for fish kept in water with different temperature regimes. In lower water temperature (23°C), it was observed that: 33% of females did not ovulate, fecundity was lower and vitellogenic oocytes after the spawning induction procedure exhibited a smaller diameter. Moreover, concentrations of 17β-estradiol and 17α-hydroxyprogesterone were lower and there was a delay in the final oocyte maturation and, consequently, ovulation and spawning. Our experiments showed direct influence of water temperature in the process of induced spawning of P. argenteus. Changes in water temperature also suggest the tubulin involvement in the nuclear dislocation process and the possible action of actin filaments in the release of polar bodies during final oocyte maturation of P. argenteus. PMID:21501616

  12. Measuring perceived stigma in female sex workers in Chennai, India.

    Liu, Su-Hsun; Srikrishnan, A K; Zelaya, Carla E; Solomon, Suniti; Celentano, David D; Sherman, Susan G

    2011-05-01

    Although sex work is highly stigmatized throughout the world, a limited body of research has examined stigma among female sex workers (FSWs). We developed a Sex Worker Stigma (SWS) Index to measure perceived stigma among 150 FSWs in Chennai, India. These women were at a median age of 35 years and reported, on average, having engaged in sex work for nine out of the previous 12 months. The two-factor structure of the index was verified in both exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses with acceptable goodness of fit. The final 10-item index comprises of two domains of perceived stigma from the community and perceived stigma from one's family. Cronbach's α coefficients were 0.87 and 0.88 for each domain, respectively. In regression analysis, we found that income from jobs other than sex work was correlated with decreased levels of perceived stigma from both the community (β = - 0.16; 95% CI: -0.30 and -0.02) and the family (β = - 0.24; 95% CI: -0.40 and -0.07); prior experience of accessing health care system increased perceived stigma from the community while heavier financial responsibility for the family was associated with lower perceived stigma from women's family. With the proposed SWS Index, we have a valid and reliable metric to document and track levels of perceived stigma among FSWs to assess the impact of stigma reduction interventions. PMID:21293991

  13. EFFECTS OF THREE DIFFERENT GONADOTROPIN - RELEASING HORMONE ANALOGUES COMBINED WITH DOPAMINE ANTAGONISTS ON PLASMA SEX STEROID HORMONES, IN ENDANGERED MALE AND FEMALE CASPIAN BROWN TROUT, SALMO TRUTTA CASPIUS

    Seyed Ehsan Mousavi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available To understand the steroidogenic activities in Caspian brown trout, female and male broodstocks were injected with three different GnRHa in combination with two different dopamine antagonists and we examined changes in plasma sex steroid hormones during the experiments. In four separate experiments, female and male received two injections (at 0 day and 4 day in total volume 0.5 and 0.25 ml per kg-1 body weight respectively. Control group received only propylene glycol (Vehicle only. The final concentrations of GnRHa and metoclopramide (MET were 20 µg GnRHa kg-1 body weight (BW and 10 mg kg-1 body weight (BW, respectively. Each injection, received half dose of hormone. Blood samples were taken at 0, 2, 5 and 7 days, and blood plasma was retained for analysis of steroid levels. In female, plasma levels of estradiol-17β (E2 and testosterone (T showed significant decreases in fish treated with GnRHa plus Dopamine antagonist compared to control group. Plasma 17α,20β-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (17,20β-P levels abruptly increased at the 2nd day post-injection in all treated groups, reached peak levels at the 5th day, and the elevated levels slightly decreased by the 7th day. In male, all experimental treatments showed lower blood plasma 11-ketotestosterone (11KT levels relative to control. Treatment in all hormonal groups resulted in significant decrease in blood plasma 17,20βP levels compared to control group except fish treated with mGnRHa in combination with metoclopramide at 2nd post injection. Mean blood plasma T levels displayed a marked increase between 2nd and 5thyad . Changes in plasma T levels showed no significant change at the 7th day post injection.

  14. A test of sex determination from measurements of chest radiographs.

    Torwalt, Carla R M M; Hoppa, Robert D

    2005-07-01

    Sexually dimorphic distinctions within the human thoracic area may include morphological as well as metric differences in the sternum and 4th rib. This research assesses the validity of a set of previously published measurements from chest radiographs and their use in contemporary forensic situations. The chest plates from 130 adult individuals of a known sample undergoing medico-legal post-mortem examination were examined at autopsy. Thoracic radiographs were taken using a Faxitron cabinet X-ray machine at 40 kV using Kodak Diagnostic Film Ready Pack X-Omat TL. Measurements were taken to the nearest millimetre using a sliding calliper. Logistic regression analysis of measurements of the sternum and 4th rib was undertaken to determine sex. Using 4th rib width and sternal area, sex was predicted at an accuracy of 95.8% for males and 90.3% for females. PMID:16078478

  15. Effect of ovarian sex hormones on non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug-induced gastric lesions in female rats

    Sangma, Tultul K.; Seema Jain; Pramod K. Mediratta

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The objective of the following study is to investigate the effect of ovarian sex hormones on gastric ulcer in female rats. Materials and Methods: Female rats were treated daily with estrogen (0.05 and 0.1 mg/kg), progesterone (2.0 and 5.0 mg/kg), combined estrogen (0.05 mg/kg) and progesterone (2.0 mg/kg), ranitidine (30 mg/kg) or vehicle for 7 days. Ulcers were induced with aspirin on 7 th day. Four hours later, animals were sacrificed and stomach were removed for macroscopic ...

  16. Assessment of spermatogenesis and plasma sex steroids in a seasonal breeding teleost: a comparative study in an area of influence of a tributary, downstream from a hydroelectric power dam, Brazil.

    Domingos, Fabricio F T; Thomé, Ralph G; Arantes, Fabio P; Castro, Antonio Carlos S; Sato, Yoshimi; Bazzoli, Nilo; Rizzo, Elizete

    2012-12-01

    River damming and building of hydroelectric power plants interrupt the reproductive migration routes and change the major physicochemical parameters of water quality, with drastic consequences for populations of migratory fishes. The goal of this study was to evaluate proliferation and cell death during spermatogenesis and serum profiles of sex steroids in Prochilodus argenteus, from the São Francisco River, downstream from the Três Marias Dam. A total of 257 adult males were caught quarterly during a reproductive cycle in two sites: the first 34 km of the river after the dam (site 1) and the second 34-54 km after the dam (site 2), after the confluence with a tributary, the Abaeté River. Seasonal changes in the testicular activity associated with morphometric analyses of germ cells as well as proliferation and testicular apoptosis support a more active spermatogenesis in fish from site 2, where higher levels of sex steroids and gonadosomatic index (GSI) were also found. In site 1, fish presented low serum levels of testosterone, 17β-estradiol and 17α-hydroxyprogesterone and a low GSI during gonadal maturation. Spermatogonial proliferation (PCNA) and apoptosis (TUNEL) were more elevated in fish from site 1, but spermatocytes were mainly labelled in fish from site 2. Overall, these data demonstrate changes in testicular activity and plasma sex steroids in a neotropical teleost fish living downstream from a hydroelectric dam, supplying new data on fish reproduction in regulated rivers. Moreover, morphometric analyses associated with sex steroids profiles provide reliable tools to assess fish spermatogenesis under environmental stress conditions. PMID:22688450

  17. Validated LC-MS/MS simultaneous assay of five sex steroid/neurosteroid-related sulfates in human serum.

    Dury, Alain Y; Ke, Yuyong; Gonthier, Renaud; Isabelle, Maxim; Simard, Jean-Nicolas; Labrie, Fernand

    2015-05-01

    Conventionally, the concentration of steroidal sulfates was estimated by indirect or immuno?based assays before the use of liquid-chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). In the present study, a validated LC-MS/MS method is described for the simultaneous quantification of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S), estrone sulfate (E1?S), androsterone sulfate (ADT?S), pregnenolone sulfate (Preg?S) and allopregnanolone sulfate (Allopreg?S). E1?S binding to serum proteins was observed, especially for the high concentration quality control serum samples, leading to -10 to -15% bias using a polymer-based SPE. This protein binding can be efficiently eliminated using a Waters Oasis WAX following the same extraction procedure. Most likely, the E1?S binding elimination on Oasis WAX can be attributed to its different sorbent structure, where the benzeno group of E1-S can interact with the benzene of the backbone of Oasis WAX. With this improvement, the method has been fully validated according to the FDA guidelines. The low quantification limits (LLOQs) are 40ng/mL, 40pg/mL, 5ng/mL, 1.5ng/mL and 0.25ng/mL for DHEA?S, E1-S, ADT?S, Preg?S and Allopreg-S, respectively. A good linearity is obtained with R>0.99 for all compounds within the appropriate calibration range. Accuracies of all levels of QCs are within the range of 10% for DHEA-S, E1?S, ADT?S and Preg?S while for Allopreg?S, the accuracy is within the 15% range. The interday coefficient variance is 5.5-9.5% for the low limits of quantification of all five compounds while values of 1.3-9.9% are found for higher levels of QCs of all five compounds. Recovery of the five compounds in stripped serum is equivalent to that in unstripped serum. The average recovery difference is less than 5% between stripped and unstripped serum for each compound. All results of other test parameters such as matrix, hemolysis and lipemic effects as well as stabilities meet the acceptance criteria of EndoCeutics SOPs and FDA guidelines. PMID:25595042

  18. LC-MS measurment of free steroids in mussels (Mytilus trossulus) from the southern Baltic Sea.

    Hallmann, Anna; Smolarz, Katarzyna; Konieczna, Lucyna; Zabrzańska, Sandra; Belka, Mariusz; Bączek, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify and quantify natural steroid hormones (17β-estradiol E2, estriol E3, estrone E1, testosterone T) and xenoestrogen (17α-ethinylestradiol EE2) in gills and gonads of Mytilus trossulus from the Gulf of Gdańsk, Poland, using the LC-MS technique based on the enzymatic digestion of tissues, SPE extraction, and subsequent LC-MS analysis of the eluates. As a result, spatial differences in several steroid hormone concentrations were detected. While the highest concentrations of testosterone and natural estrogens were documented in mussels collected at the reference station (app. 13 ng g(-1) wet weight for T, 9 ng g(-1)w.w. for E2 and 3.5 ng g(-1)w.w. for E1), decreased levels of natural steroids and increased levels of 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2) were determined in individuals from the sewage treatment plant zone (app. 5 ng g(-1)w.w. for T, 3 ng g(-1)w.w. for E1, 1 ng g(-1)w.w. for E2 and E3, 1 ng g(-1)w.w. for EE2). No statistically significant tissue-related changes in steroids concentrations were found, but a trend towards higher steroids level in gills than in gonad was observed. PMID:26406315

  19. The effects of female sex steroids on the development of autoimmune thyroiditis in thymectomized and irradiated rats

    Female PVG/c strain rats are more susceptible to induction of autoimmune thyroiditis initiated by thymectomy and irradiation (Tx-X) than similarly treated males. Pre-pubertal ovariectomy further augmented susceptibility. Administration of oestrogen or progesterone to groups of 4 weeks old ovariectomized Tx-X animals over a period of 15 weeks significantly altered induction of this condition. Oestrogen administered repeatedly at dose levels of 1 μg and 10 μg/100 g body weight resulted in partial suppression of thyroiditis with a corresponding change in the incidence of antibodies to thyroglobulin. Oestrogen administered by a single implantation had a suppressive effect on the development of autoimmunity in ovariectomized Tx-X females. Oestrogen given by either of these procedures also reduced the incidence of thyroiditis and autoantibody induction in orchidectomized male Tx-X rats. In contrast, repeated administration of progesterone at a dose of 250 mg and 1,500 μg/100 g body weight appeared to augment levels of autoimmunity. It is concluded that the differential susceptibility to the induction of autoimmunity by thymectomy and irradiation is the direct consequence of sex hormonal influences. The higher incidence of the disease in the female would appear to be determined by the balance between the activity of oestrogen and progesterone which would further appear to have antagonistic influences in this particular situation. (UK)

  20. Steroidal Saponins

    Sahu, N. P.; Banerjee, S.; Mondal, N. B.; Mandal, D.

    The medicinal activities of plants are generally due to the secondary metabolites (1) which often occur as glycosides of steroids, terpenoids, phenols etc. Saponins are a group of naturally occurring plant glycosides, characterized by their strong foam-forming properties in aqueous solution. The cardiac glycosides also possess this, property but are classified separately because of their specific biological activity. Unlike the cardiac glycosides, saponins generally do not affect the heart. These are classified as steroid or triterpenoid saponins depending on the nature of the aglycone. Steroidal glycosides are naturally occurring sugar conjugates of C27 steroidal compounds. The aglycone of a steroid saponin is usually a spirostanol or a furostanol. The glycone parts of these compounds are mostly oligosaccharides, arranged either in a linear or branched fashion, attached to hydroxyl groups through an acetal linkage (2, 3). Another class of saponins, the basic steroid saponins, contain nitrogen analogues of steroid sapogenins as aglycones.

  1. Hydropyrolysis over a platinum catalyst as a preparative technique for the compound-specific carbon isotope ratio measurement of C27 steroids.

    Meredith, Will; Gomes, Rachel L; Cooper, Mick; Snape, Colin E; Sephton, Mark A

    2010-03-15

    Compound-specific stable carbon isotope analysis by gas chromatography/combustion/isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC/C/IRMS) is an important method for the determination of the (13)C/(12)C ratios of biomolecules such as steroids, for a wide range of applications. However, steroids in their natural form exhibit poor chromatographic resolution, while derivatisation adds carbon thereby corrupting the stable isotopic composition. Hydropyrolysis with a sulphided molybdenum catalyst has been shown to defunctionalise the steroids, while leaving their carbon skeleton intact, allowing for the accurate measurement of carbon isotope ratios. The presence of double bonds in unsaturated steroids such as cholesterol resulted in significant rearrangement of the products, but replacing the original catalyst system with one of platinum results in higher conversions and far greater selectivity. The improved chromatographic performance of the products should allow GC/C/IRMS to be applied to more structurally complex steroid hormones and their metabolites. PMID:20112272

  2. Sex Estimation From Sternal Measurements Using Multidetector Computed Tomography

    Ekizoglu, Oguzhan; Hocaoglu, Elif; Inci, Ercan; Bilgili, Mustafa Gokhan; Solmaz, Dilek; Erdil, Irem; Can, Ismail Ozgur

    2014-01-01

    Abstract We aimed to show the utility and reliability of sternal morphometric analysis for sex estimation. Sex estimation is a very important step in forensic identification. Skeletal surveys are main methods for sex estimation studies. Morphometric analysis of sternum may provide high accuracy rated data in sex discrimination. In this study, morphometric analysis of sternum was evaluated in 1 mm chest computed tomography scans for sex estimation. Four hundred forty 3 subjects (202 female, 24...

  3. Spermatogenesis, epididymis morphology and plasma sex steroid secretion in the male lizard Podarcis sicula exposed to diuron.

    Cardone, Anna; Comitato, Raffaella; Angelini, Francesco

    2008-10-01

    The present study investigates the effects of diuron, a substituted urea-based herbicide, in the male lizard Podarcis sicula utilizing quantitative and qualitative morphological features of the reproductive system and endocrinological analysis. Besides the control group, lizards were divided into three groups ([a-c]) (n=6/group) and placed for 3 weeks in terraria on polluted soil substrate sprayed with 3.75 L/ha of herbicide Toterbane 50F (50% diuron). Each terrarium was supplemented either with drinking water contaminated by herbicide (i.e. 1.08 microg/mL of diuron; group [a]), or with food contaminated by herbicide (i.e. 5.4 mg of diuron; group [b]), or with drinking water and food contaminated as described above (group [c]). None of the animals exposed to the contaminant showed any signs of general toxicity or death during the course of the experiments. Severe testicular effects are evidenced in all herbicide-treated groups, although, such effects are of a greater magnitude in lizards exposed to contaminated water (groups [a] and [c]). The main degenerative changes observed include: (1) a significant decrease in the mean gonadosomatic index of 55% in group [a] (P<0.001), 21% in group [b] (P<0.01) and 34% in group [c] (P<0.001) compared with control group; (2) a significant shrinking (P<0.001) of seminiferous tubule diameter (more than 60% of the control) in groups [a] and [c], and about 18% in group [b] (P<0.01); (3) a significant decrease in the crude numbers of spermatogonia of 92% in group [a] (P<0.001), 27% in group [b] (P<0.01) and 62% in group [c] (P<0.001) compared with control group. A complete loss of meiotic and mature germ cells in groups [a] and [c], and a reduction of primary spermatocytes, secondary spermatocytes and spermatids (more than 27% of the control) and a decrease of spermatozoa (more than 90% of the control) in group [b]; and (4) an hypertrophy of interstitial connective tissue which contains numerous lymphocytes, neutrophils and monocytes. The decrease and/or loss of germ cells seems to be related to an induction of inflammation (necrosis) rather than to apoptotic processes. Indeed, this hypothesis is supported by a TUNEL-assay, which failed to reveal any apoptotic cells either in the seminiferous epithelium or in the interstitial space in the testis of all exposed groups. Also the epididymis appears affected by diuron exposure. In particular, in experimental groups [a] and [c] it is regressed with abundant connective tissue and low epithelial cells without secretory granules, whereas in group [b] it appears partially regressed, with some secretory granules still present. At the same time, an impairment of the plasma sex-hormone levels is observed in treated lizards, as evidenced by RIA analysis. Testosterone values significantly decreased by 43% in group [a] (P<0.001), 34% in group [b] (P<0.01) and 52% in group [c] compared with control group. Instead, 17beta-estradiol plasma content is undetectable in all diuron-exposed lizards. Taken together, the results presented here indicate that diuron exposure resulted in direct male reproductive toxicity and reveal that this lizard is suitable as a laboratory reptile species for toxicological investigations. PMID:18760409

  4. Association of serum sex steroid levels and bone mineral density with CYP17 and CYP19 gene polymorphisms in postmenopausal women in Turkey.

    Yilmaz, M B; Pazarbasi, A; Guzel, A I; Kocaturk-Sel, S; Kasap, H; Kasap, M; Urunsak, I F; Basaran, S; Alptekin, D; Demirhan, O

    2011-01-01

    Many clinical conditions, including osteoporosis, are associated with serum levels of sex steroids. Enzymes that regulate rate-limiting steps of steroidogenic pathways, such as CYP17 and CYP19, are also regarded as significant factors that may cause the development of these conditions. We investigated the association of two common polymorphisms, in the promoter region (T→C substitution) of CYP17 and exon 3 (G→A) of CYP19, with bone mineral density (BMD) in the lumbar spine and femoral neck and serum androgen/estradiol, in a case-control study of 172 postmenopausal women aged 62.3 ± 9.6 years (mean ± SD). The CYP17 TC genotype was significantly overrepresented in patients compared to controls, and TC genotype neck T-score and lumbar T-score values were significantly higher in patients compared to controls. CYP17 TC and TT genotype testosterone and DHEA-SO(4) levels were lower in patients compared to controls. All three genotypes of CYP19 had almost the same distribution among patients. The CYP19 AG genotype, however, was most frequent among controls. CYP19 lumbar BMD levels were close to each other among the different genotypes; however, AA and AG genotypes were significantly lower in patients. Testosterone and DHEA-SO(4) levels in the CYP19 GG genotype were higher compared to those of the other genotypes in patients but not in controls. CYP19 GA individuals had lower E(2) levels and lower BMD in controls and patients. Femoral neck BMD and lumbar T-score were also diminished with GA transition. In conclusion, CYP17 and CYP19 gene polymorphisms were found to be associated with osteoporosis in postmenopausal women in Turkey. PMID:21948762

  5. Steroid osteopathy

    Patients receiving steroids or having disease processes which increase natural steroid production often demonstrate ''the classic x-ray changes'' of avascular necrosis of bone. Bone scintigraphy in these patients most frequently demonstrates an increased radionuclide localization. The literature suggests that the increased activity is related to healing of the avascular process. In a recent study of Legg-Calve-Perthes Disease (LCPD), 37 of the children had multiple studies and increased activity within the epiphysis during revascularization was extremely rare. Not only are the scintigraphic findings in steroid osteopathy dissimilar to that in healing LCPD, but the time interval for healing is much to short for that of a vascular necrosis and no patients demonstrated an avascular phase on bone scintigraphy. Of 15 children with renal transplants on steroid therapy, 9 demonstrated x-ray and clinical findings of osteopathy. In 8 of 9 instances, bone scintigraphy showed increased localization of radionuclide in the affected bone. Improvement or a return to normal occurred in those patients in whom steroids were discontinued. The following is a proposed mechanism for steroid osteopathy. Steroids affect the osteoblastic and osteoclastic activity of bone and weaken its internal structure. Ordinary stress produces microtrabecular fractures. Fractures characteristically stimulate reactive hyperemia and increase bone metabolism. The result is increased bone radiopharmaceutical localization. The importance of recognizing this concept is that steroid osteopathy is preventable by reducing the administered steroid dose. As opposed to avascular necrosis, bone changes are reversible

  6. Steroid osteopathy

    Conway, J.J.; Weiss, S.C.

    1984-01-01

    Patients receiving steroids or having disease processes which increase natural steroid production often demonstrate ''the classic x-ray changes'' of avascular necrosis of bone. Bone scintigraphy in these patients most frequently demonstrates an increased radionuclide localization. The literature suggests that the increased activity is related to healing of the avascular process. In a recent study of Legg-Calve-Perthes Disease (LCPD), 37 of the children had multiple studies and increased activity within the epiphysis during revascularization was extremely rare. Not only are the scintigraphic findings in steroid osteopathy dissimilar to that in healing LCPD, but the time interval for healing is much to short for that of a vascular necrosis and no patients demonstrated an avascular phase on bone scintigraphy. Of 15 children with renal transplants on steroid therapy, 9 demonstrated x-ray and clinical findings of osteopathy. In 8 of 9 instances, bone scintigraphy showed increased localization of radionuclide in the affected bone. Improvement or a return to normal occurred in those patients in whom steroids were discontinued. The following is a proposed mechanism for steroid osteopathy. Steroids affect the osteoblastic and osteoclastic activity of bone and weaken its internal structure. Ordinary stress produces microtrabecular fractures. Fractures characteristically stimulate reactive hyperemia and increase bone metabolism. The result is increased bone radiopharmaceutical localization. The importance of recognizing this concept is that steroid osteopathy is preventable by reducing the administered steroid dose. As opposed to avascular necrosis, bone changes are reversible.

  7. Mutations in exons of the CYP17-II gene affect sex steroid concentration in male Japanese flounder ( Paralichthys olivaceus)

    Ma, Ruiqin; He, Feng; Wen, Haishen; Li, Jifang; Shi, Bao; Shi, Dan; Liu, Miao; Mu, Weijie; Zhang, Yuanqing; Hu, Jian; Han, Weiguo; Zhang, Jianan; Wang, Qingqing; Yuan, Yuren; Liu, Qun

    2012-03-01

    As a specific gene of fish, cytochrome P450c17-II ( CYP17-II) gene plays a key role in the growth, development an reproduction level of fish. In this study, the single-stranded conformational polymorphism (SSCP) technique was used to characterize polymorphisms within the coding region of CYP17-II gene in a population of 75 male Japanese flounder ( Paralichthys olivaceus). Three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified in CYP17-II gene of Japanese flounder. They were c.G594A (p.G188R), c.G939A and c.G1502A (p.G490D). SNP1 (c.G594A), located in exon 4 of CYP17-II gene, was significantly associated with gonadosomatic index (GSI). Individuals with genotype GG of SNP1 had significantly lower GSI ( P gene. The mutation changed the methylation of exon 6. Individuals with genotype AA of SNP2 had significantly lower serum testosterone (T) level and hepatosomatic index (HSI) compared to those with genotype GG. The results suggested that SNP2 could influence the reproductive endocrine of male Japanese flounder. However, the SNP3 (c.G1502A) located in exon 9 did not affect the four measured reproductive traits. This study showed that CYP17-II gene could be a potentially useful candidate gene for the research of genetic breeding and physiological aspects of Japanese flounder.

  8. Oogenesis and plasma levels of sex steroids in cultured females of brown trout (Salmo trutta linnaeus, 1758) in Chile.

    Estay, Francisco; Díaz, Andrés; Pedrazza, Rodrigo; Colihueque, Nelson

    2003-07-01

    Naturalized brown trout populations in Chile are a valuable genetic resource with aquaculture potential. The oogenesis of a three-year-old brown trout cultured population was studied in southern Chile. Gonadosomatic index (GSI), oocyte growth, gonadal microscopic characteristics, and plasma levels of estradiol-17beta (E2), testosterone (T), and 17alpha-hydroxyprogesterone (17alpha-HP) were measured bimonthly for a nine-month period before spawning. The maximum GSI level (22%) was similar to that described for other salmonids, although it was reached in May, more than one month before the population started spawning. Oocyte growth increases strongly from January when diameter reaches more than 1 mm. The vitellogenic period (six-seven months) is consistent with the long vitellogenesis, described for salmonid females maturing at three years old. E2 shows a slow increase from November, reaching its peak value in March (65.2+/-0.7 ng/ml), during maximal vitellogenic activity. T increases as oogenesis progresses, reaching a maximum of 90+/-20 ng/ml during May, and falling considerably during ovulation. Following a typical pattern of progestogens in salmonid oogenesis, 17alpha-HP stays at basal levels during most of oogenesis, but experiences a strong surge (2.0+/-0.4 ng/ml) just before ovulation. PMID:12840840

  9. Adrenal and sex steroid hormone production by a virilizing adrenal adenoma and its diagnosis with computerized tomography.

    Ho Yuen, B; Moon, Y S; Mincey, E K; Li, D

    1983-01-15

    The presence of an androgen-secreting tumor in a 29-year-old woman was confirmed and its location was determined by computerized axial tomographic (CAT) scanning. The hormone production from this virilizing adrenal adenoma was studied in vivo and in vitro. The major secretory products of the tumor (as compared to normal adrenal tissue) were testosterone (24-fold) and 17 beta-estradiol (five-fold). Although the adenoma produced lesser amounts of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), the demonstration of elevated serum testosterone and DHEAS in serial samples was a better marker for an androgen-secreting adrenal tumor than were the urinary 17-ketosteroids, which remained in the upper limit of normal. The hormone production from the tumor depended neither on adrenocorticotropic hormone nor on human chorionic gonadotropin. The conclusions were that: (1) on the basis of serial measurements of serum testosterone and DHEAS, virilizing adrenal adenomas may be suspected when the concentrations of these hormones reach or exceed 200 ng/dl and 6,600 ng/ml, respectively; (2) the high-resolution CAT scanner can accurately localize these tumors; (3) cosmetic and menstrual dysfunction regressed after resection of the tumor; and (4) virilizing adrenal adenomas may produce both androgens and estrogens. PMID:6217751

  10. Sex differences in reported and objectively measured sleep in COPD

    Theorell-Haglw J

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Jenny Theorell-Haglw,1 Inga Sif lafsdttir,13 Brynds Benediktsdttir,2,3 Thrarinn Gslason,2,3 Eva Lindberg,1 Christer Janson1 1Department of Medical Sciences, Respiratory, Allergy and Sleep Research, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; 2Department of Respiratory Medicine and Sleep, Landspitali University Hospital, 3Medical Faculty, University of Iceland, Reykjavk, Iceland Background: The aim was to assess and compare reported sleep disturbances and objectively measured sleep in men and women with COPD compared with controls and also explore sex differences. Methods: A total of 96 patients with COPD and 90 age- and sex-matched controls answered a sleep questionnaire, underwent ambulatory polysomnography, a post-bronchodilatory spirometry, and blood sampling. Results: Of the patients with COPD, 51% reported sleep disturbances as compared with 31% in controls (P=0.008. Sleep disturbances were significantly more prevalent in males with COPD compared with controls, whereas there was no significant difference in females. The use of hypnotics was more common among patients with COPD compared with controls, both in men (15% vs 0%, P=0.009 and women (36% vs 16%, P=0.03. The men with COPD had significantly longer recorded sleep latency than the male control group (23 vs 9.3 minutes, P<0.001, while no corresponding difference was found in women. In men with COPD, those with reported sleep disturbances had lower forced vital capacity, higher C-reactive protein, myeloperoxidase, and higher prevalence of chronic bronchitis. Conclusion: The COPD was associated with impaired sleep in men while the association was less clear in women. This was also confirmed by recorded longer sleep latency in male subjects with COPD compared with controls. Keywords: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, sleep, polysomnography, quality of sleep, sex

  11. Changes in circulating LH, sex steroid hormones, thyroid hormones and corticosterone in relation to breeding and molting in captive humboldt penguins (Spheniscus Humboldti) kept in an outdoor open display.

    Otsuka, R; Aoki, K; Hori, H; Wada, M

    1998-02-01

    Penguins are highly adapted to marine life. Their hydrodynamic efficiency depends on feathers which wear with age and need to be replaced regularly. During molting, penguins can not enter the sea to forage and are forced to fast. Therefore the duration of molting is necessarily brief. To better understand molting in penguins, we collected plasma samples from 16 (8 pairs) Humboldt penguins kept in an open display pen at Tokyo Sea Life Park from May to September, 1994 and estimated circulating concentrations of LH, testosterone, estradiol, thyroxine (T4), triiodothyronine (T3) and corticosterone. Body mass was also measured at each blood sampling. Throughout the year, reproductive activities (egg laying, incubation, hatching and rearing) and molting were observed and recorded. Humboldt penguins maintained reproductive activity from January to December except during molting. Each pair started molting between the end of July and early August; usually males started earlier. The duration of molting was 13.4 +/- 0.8 days for males and 12.9 +/- 0.3 days for females. Body masses were highest just before the start of molting in both sexes. Plasma concentrations of LH were high, (> 2 ng/ml) in May in both sexes, then gradually decreased, to 0.53 +/- 0.38 ng/ml in males and 0.72 +/- 0.11 ng/ml in females by the end of July. Testosterone and estradiol concentrations in plasma decreased and were lowest during molting. On the other hand, plasma concentrations of T4 were low until early July (ca. 20 ng/ml) and then doubled within 10 days; the high levels were maintained for one month and then decreased greatly in males and slightly in females. When the plasma concentrations of T4 started to decrease, plasma concentrations of LH increased. Changes in plasma T3 were not consistent with molting. These results indicate that the decrease of plasma levels of sex steroid hormones and the sharp increase of T4 induced molting, which lasted only for a short period. PMID:9615622

  12. Extracellular and intracellular steroid binding proteins

    Steroid hormone binding proteins can be measured, after the removal of endogenous steroids, as specific complexes with radio-labelled hormones. In this study all the requirements for a quantitative determination of steroid hormone binding proteins are defined. For different methods, agargel electrophoresis, density gradient centrifugation, equilibrium dialysis and polyacrylamide electrophoresis have been evaluated. Agar electrophoresis at low temperature was found to be the simplest and most useful procedure. With this method the dissociation rates of high affinity complexes can be assessed and absolute binding protein concentrations can be determined. The dissociation rates of the oestradiol-oestrogen receptor complex and the R-5020-progestin receptor complex are low (1-2% per h run time.) In contrast, that of complexes between androgen receptor and dihydrotestosterone (17β-hydroxy-5α-androstan-3-one (DHT), progestin receptor and progesterone, corticosteroid binding globulin (CBG) and cortisol or progesterone and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) and DHT were hign (16-27% per h run time). Target tissue extracts (cytosols) contain, besides soluble tissue proteins, large amounts of plasma proteins. The extent of this plasma contamination can be determined by measuring the albumin concentration in cytosols by immunodiffusion. In cytosols of 4 different human target tissues the albumin content varied from 20-30% corresponding to an even higher whole plasma concentration. Steroid binding plasma proteins, such as CBG and SHBG are constituents of this containment. (author)

  13. Validity of a Scale to Measure Teachers' Attitudes towards Sex Education

    de Almeida Reis, Maria Helena; Vilar, Duarte Goncalo Rei

    2006-01-01

    Despite the current legislation requiring sex education as part of the school curriculum in Portugal, great obstacles to its implementation remain. Furthermore, sex education is far from being systematically administered. Thus, the main interest in our project was to validate a scale that measures teachers' attitudes towards sex education. There

  14. Sex steroids and cardiovascular disease

    Bu Beng Yeap

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available As men grow older, testosterone (T levels decline and the significance of this change is debated. The evidence supporting a causal role for lower circulating T, or its metabolites dihydrotestosterone (DHT and estradiol, in the genesis of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease (CVD in men is limited. Observational studies associate low baseline T levels with carotid atherosclerosis, aortic and peripheral vascular disease, and with the incidence of cardiovascular events and mortality. Studies using mass spectrometry suggest that when total T is assayed optimally, calculation of free T might not necessarily improve risk stratification. There is limited evidence to support an association of estradiol with CVD. Interventional studies of T therapy in men with coronary artery disease have shown beneficial effects on exercise-induced myocardial ischemia. However, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trials (RCTs of T therapy in men with the prespecified outcomes of cardiovascular events or deaths are lacking. Meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials of T published up to 2010 found no increase in cardiovascular events, mortality, or prostate cancer with therapy. Recently, in a trial of older men with mobility limitations, men randomized to receive a substantial dose of T reported cardiovascular adverse effects. This phenomenon was not reported from a comparable trial where men received a more conservative dose of T, suggesting a prudent approach should be adopted when considering therapy in frail older men with existing CVD. Adequately powered RCTs of T in middle-aged and older men are needed to clarify whether or not hormonal intervention would reduce the incidence of CVD.

  15. MR measurement of normal corpus callosum: Age and sex differentiation

    Measurement of various portions of the corpus callosum was performed on magnetic resonance(MR) images of 114 subjects with no known or suspected corpus callosal disorders. Midsagittal T1-weighted images used for measurements and mean diameters of various portions in each age and sex group were obtained. Measures of five portions were made: (A) the anterio-posterior length, (B) the diameter of genu position, (C) the diameter of splenium, (D) the diameter of mid-body portion, (E) the diameter of a narrow portion at the body of corpus callosum. The mean diameter in each gender group for A, B, C, D and E were 68.8 mm, 12.1 mm, 12.3 mm, 6,9 mm, 4.1 mm in male and 69.9 mm, 12.0 mm, 12.1 mm, 6.4 mm, 4.1 mm in female, retrospectively. The groups of 0-9 years of both genders showed the minimum mean value in each portion

  16. Multiple monolithic fiber solid-phase microextraction based on a polymeric ionic liquid with high-performance liquid chromatography for the determination of steroid sex hormones in water and urine.

    Liao, Keren; Mei, Meng; Li, Haonan; Huang, Xiaojia; Wu, Cuiqin

    2016-02-01

    The development of a simple and sensitive analytical approach that combines multiple monolithic fiber solid-phase microextraction with liquid desorption followed by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection is proposed for the determination of trace levels of seven steroid sex hormones (estriol, 17?-estradiol, testosterone, ethinylestradiol, estrone, progesterone and mestranol) in water and urine matrices. To extract the target analytes effectively, multiple monolithic fiber solid-phase microextraction based on a polymeric ionic liquid was used to concentrate hormones. Several key extraction parameters including desorption solvent, extraction and desorption time, pH value and ionic strength in sample matrix were investigated in detail. Under the optimal experimental conditions, the limits of detection were found to be in the range of 0.027-0.12 ?g/L. The linear range was 0.10-200 ?g/L for 17?-estradiol, 0.25-200 ?g/L estriol, ethinylestradiol and estrone, and 0.50-200 ?g/L for the other hormones. Satisfactory linearities were achieved for analytes with the correlation coefficients above 0.99. Acceptable method reproducibility was achieved by evaluating the repeatability and intermediate precision with relative standard deviations of both less than 8%. The enrichment factors ranged from 54- to 74-fold. Finally, the proposed method was successfully applied to the analysis of steroid sex hormones in environmental water samples and human urines with spiking recoveries ranged from 75.6 to 116%. PMID:26608868

  17. 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin activates the aryl hydrocarbon receptor and alters sex steroid hormone secretion without affecting growth of mouse antral follicles in vitro

    The persistent environmental contaminant, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is an ovarian toxicant. These studies were designed to characterize the actions of TCDD on steroidogenesis and growth of intact mouse antral follicles in vitro. Specifically, these studies tested the hypothesis that TCDD exposure leads to decreased sex hormone production/secretion by antral follicles as well as decreased growth of antral follicles in vitro. Since TCDD acts through binding to the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), and the AHR has been identified as an important factor in ovarian function, we also conducted experiments to confirm the presence and activation of the AHR in our tissue culture system. To do so, we exposed mouse antral follicles for 96 h to a series of TCDD doses previously shown to have effects on ovarian tissues and cells in culture, which also encompass environmentally relevant and pharmacological exposures (0.1–100 nM), to determine a dose response for TCDD in our culture system for growth, hormone production, and expression of the Ahr and Cyp1b1. The results indicate that TCDD decreases progesterone, androstenedione, testosterone, and estradiol levels in a non-monotonic dose response manner without altering growth of antral follicles. The addition of pregnenolone substrate (10 μM) restores hormone levels to control levels. Additionally, Cyp1b1 levels were increased by 3–4 fold regardless of the dose of TCDD exposure, evidence of AHR activation. Overall, these data indicate that TCDD may act prior to pregnenolone formation and through AHR transcriptional control of Cyp1b1, leading to decreased hormone levels without affecting growth of antral follicles. -- Highlights: ►TCDD disrupts sex steroid hormone levels, but not growth of antral follicles. ►Pregnenolone co-treatment by-passes TCDD-induced steroid hormone disruption. ►TCDD affects steroid hormone levels through an AHR pathway in antral follicles.

  18. 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin activates the aryl hydrocarbon receptor and alters sex steroid hormone secretion without affecting growth of mouse antral follicles in vitro

    Karman, Bethany N., E-mail: bklement@illinois.edu; Basavarajappa, Mallikarjuna S., E-mail: mbshivapur@gmail.com; Craig, Zelieann R., E-mail: zelieann@illinois.edu; Flaws, Jodi A., E-mail: jflaws@illinois.edu

    2012-05-15

    The persistent environmental contaminant, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is an ovarian toxicant. These studies were designed to characterize the actions of TCDD on steroidogenesis and growth of intact mouse antral follicles in vitro. Specifically, these studies tested the hypothesis that TCDD exposure leads to decreased sex hormone production/secretion by antral follicles as well as decreased growth of antral follicles in vitro. Since TCDD acts through binding to the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), and the AHR has been identified as an important factor in ovarian function, we also conducted experiments to confirm the presence and activation of the AHR in our tissue culture system. To do so, we exposed mouse antral follicles for 96 h to a series of TCDD doses previously shown to have effects on ovarian tissues and cells in culture, which also encompass environmentally relevant and pharmacological exposures (0.1–100 nM), to determine a dose response for TCDD in our culture system for growth, hormone production, and expression of the Ahr and Cyp1b1. The results indicate that TCDD decreases progesterone, androstenedione, testosterone, and estradiol levels in a non-monotonic dose response manner without altering growth of antral follicles. The addition of pregnenolone substrate (10 μM) restores hormone levels to control levels. Additionally, Cyp1b1 levels were increased by 3–4 fold regardless of the dose of TCDD exposure, evidence of AHR activation. Overall, these data indicate that TCDD may act prior to pregnenolone formation and through AHR transcriptional control of Cyp1b1, leading to decreased hormone levels without affecting growth of antral follicles. -- Highlights: ►TCDD disrupts sex steroid hormone levels, but not growth of antral follicles. ►Pregnenolone co-treatment by-passes TCDD-induced steroid hormone disruption. ►TCDD affects steroid hormone levels through an AHR pathway in antral follicles.

  19. Conceptualization and measurement of homosexuality in sex surveys: a critical review

    Michaels Stuart; Lhomond Brigitte

    2006-01-01

    This article reviews major national population sex surveys that have asked questions about homosexuality focusing on conceptual and methodological issues, including the definitions of sex, the measured aspects of homosexuality, sampling and interviewing technique, and questionnaire design. Reported rates of major measures of same-sex attraction, behavior, partners, and sexual identity from surveys are also presented and compared. The study of homosexuality in surveys has been shaped by the re...

  20. Steroid radioimmunoassays

    An estrogen radioimmunoassay was used to study the problem of blanks in steroid assays. Negligible binding (1.5 percent) in the non-antibody tubes prevailed throughout the study. The assay was validated using accepted procedures. Both water and solvent blanks had estrogen concentrations of 7-9 pg/tube. However, neither water nor solvent blanks showed a dose-related response, indicating that they were 'real' blanks. Exogenous estradiol, when added to water and solvent in quantities less than the estimated blank, was not quantitatively recovered. However, exogenous estradiol added to the water solvent in quantities greater than the blank estimate was quantitatively recovered. The sensitivity of the reference standard curve was 6-10 pg/tube, approximately the same as the blank estimate. These results indicated that the estimates of water and solvent blanks were measures of the assay sensitivity. In such circumstances, it is suggested that blank estimates should not be subtracted from sample values. If the blank estimates are high, attention should be directed towards improving the sensitivity of the assay

  1. Exposure assessment of prepubertal children to steroid endocrine disrupters 1. Analytical strategy for estrogens measurement in plasma at ultra-trace level

    Courant, Frédérique; Antignac, Jean-Philippe; Maume, Daniel; Monteau, Fabrice; Andersson, Anna-Maria; Skakkebaek, Niels; Andre, François; Le Bizec, Bruno

    measurement technique (gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry or gas chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry). Thus, a new ultra-sensitive approach for steroid trace measurement in biological samples was developed, which was mainly based on a specific derivatisation (pentafluorobenzyl derivative...

  2. Steroids (For Parents)

    ... a number of health problems. Continue How Do Anabolic Steroids Work? Anabolic steroids are drugs that resemble the ... body can be harmful over time. Dangers of Anabolic Steroids Steroids are dangerous for two reasons: they are ...

  3. Anabolic Steroids (For Teens)

    ... Read Web site Citation Site Map Print Anabolic Steroids Street names: Gym Candy, Juice, Roids Home / Drug Facts / Anabolic Steroids What Are Anabolic Steroids? Also known as: Anabolic-androgenic steroids, “roids,” or “ ...

  4. Drug Facts: Anabolic Steroids

    ... Print Home » Publications » DrugFacts » Anabolic Steroids DrugFacts: Anabolic Steroids Email Facebook Twitter Revised March 2016 What are anabolic steroids? Anabolic steroids are synthetic variations of the male ...

  5. Steroids (For Parents)

    ... Caring for Your Child All About Food Allergies Steroids KidsHealth > For Parents > Steroids Print A A A ... your child isn't at risk. What Are Steroids? Drugs commonly referred to as "steroids" are classified ...

  6. Extensive esterification of adrenal C19-delta 5-sex steroids to long-chain fatty acids in the ZR-75-1 human breast cancer cell line

    Estrogen-sensitive human breast cancer cells (ZR-75-1) were incubated with the 3H-labeled adrenal C19-delta 5-steroids dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its fully estrogenic derivative, androst-5-ene-3 beta,17 beta-diol (delta 5-diol) for various time intervals. When fractionated by solvent partition, Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography and silica gel TLC, the labeled cell components were largely present (40-75%) in three highly nonpolar, lipoidal fractions. Mild alkaline hydrolysis of these lipoidal derivatives yielded either free 3H-labeled DHEA or delta 5-diol. The three lipoidal fractions cochromatographed with the synthetic DHEA 3 beta-esters, delta 5-diol 3 beta (or 17 beta)-monoesters and delta 5-diol 3 beta,17 beta-diesters of long-chain fatty acids. DHEA and delta 5-diol were mainly esterified to saturated and mono-unsaturated fatty acids. For delta 5-diol, the preferred site of esterification of the fatty acids is the 3 beta-position while some esterification also takes place at the 17 beta-position. Time course studies show that ZR-75-1 cells accumulate delta 5-diol mostly (greater than 95%) as fatty acid mono- and diesters while DHEA is converted to delta 5-diol essentially as the esterified form. Furthermore, while free C19-delta 5-steroids rapidly diffuse out of the cells after removal of the precursor [3H]delta 5-diol, the fatty acid ester derivatives are progressively hydrolyzed, and DHEA and delta 5-diol thus formed are then sulfurylated prior to their release into the culture medium. The latter process however is rate-limited, since new steady-state levels of free steroids and fatty acid esters are rapidly reached and maintained for extended periods of time after removal of precursor, thus maintaining minimal concentrations of intracellular steroids

  7. Extensive esterification of adrenal C19-delta 5-sex steroids to long-chain fatty acids in the ZR-75-1 human breast cancer cell line

    Poulin, R.; Poirier, D.; Merand, Y.; Theriault, C.; Belanger, A.; Labrie, F.

    1989-06-05

    Estrogen-sensitive human breast cancer cells (ZR-75-1) were incubated with the 3H-labeled adrenal C19-delta 5-steroids dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its fully estrogenic derivative, androst-5-ene-3 beta,17 beta-diol (delta 5-diol) for various time intervals. When fractionated by solvent partition, Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography and silica gel TLC, the labeled cell components were largely present (40-75%) in three highly nonpolar, lipoidal fractions. Mild alkaline hydrolysis of these lipoidal derivatives yielded either free 3H-labeled DHEA or delta 5-diol. The three lipoidal fractions cochromatographed with the synthetic DHEA 3 beta-esters, delta 5-diol 3 beta (or 17 beta)-monoesters and delta 5-diol 3 beta,17 beta-diesters of long-chain fatty acids. DHEA and delta 5-diol were mainly esterified to saturated and mono-unsaturated fatty acids. For delta 5-diol, the preferred site of esterification of the fatty acids is the 3 beta-position while some esterification also takes place at the 17 beta-position. Time course studies show that ZR-75-1 cells accumulate delta 5-diol mostly (greater than 95%) as fatty acid mono- and diesters while DHEA is converted to delta 5-diol essentially as the esterified form. Furthermore, while free C19-delta 5-steroids rapidly diffuse out of the cells after removal of the precursor (3H)delta 5-diol, the fatty acid ester derivatives are progressively hydrolyzed, and DHEA and delta 5-diol thus formed are then sulfurylated prior to their release into the culture medium. The latter process however is rate-limited, since new steady-state levels of free steroids and fatty acid esters are rapidly reached and maintained for extended periods of time after removal of precursor, thus maintaining minimal concentrations of intracellular steroids.

  8. Adolescent Sex Education: A Preventive Mental Health Measure.

    Obstfeld, Lisa S.; Meyers, Andrew W.

    1984-01-01

    This article addresses the issue of adolescent sex education as a means of preventing sexuality-related disorders, including: sexual dysfunction; sexual deviance; physical health problems often contracted from sexual activity; and various psychological and sociological ill effects resulting from unplanned pregnancies. (Author/CJB)

  9. Endocrine assessment of impotence--pitfalls of measuring serum testosterone without sex-hormone-binding globulin.

    Hardy, K J; Seckl, J.R.

    1994-01-01

    The pitfalls of measuring only total serum testosterone are illustrated by a 52 year old man whose hyperprolactinaemia was associated with normal total serum testosterone but a raised sex-hormone-binding globulin, giving a low free testosterone. Prolactin suppression with bromocriptine normalized sex-hormone-binding globulin and free testosterone, and restored potency and energy after 30 years of impotence and tiredness.

  10. Anabolic steroid boosts weight.

    1996-09-01

    A randomized study of nandrolone decanoate (Deca-Durabolin) showed that the anabolic steroid can increase weight in people with HIV infections. The group receiving nandrolone experienced a greater increase both in fat-free mass and body cell mass (although the latter measure did not reach statistical significance) than those on placebo. Deca-Durabolin had little to do with two occurrences of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) in the study group, but until further studies are completed, caution is advised when using this steroid in patients with KS. A new study comparing nandrolone to growth hormone in patients with wasting is slated to begin in the next 3 or 4 months. PMID:11363845

  11. Radioimmunoassay of anabolic steroids

    Alternative antisera against 17 ?-methyltestosterone and 19-nortestosterone were raised and used for radioimmunoassay of anabolic steroids. Tritiated compounds were used as radioligands. The RIA method suitable for doping control is proposed for 17 ?-alkylated anabolic steroids in both plasma and urine, using qoat antiserum against methyltestosterone-3-carboxymethyloxime-BSA. Sensitivity of the method was expressed as least amount of nonradioactive methandienone which, when added to normal urine or plasma, caused statistically significant decrease of measured supernatant radioactivity at 99% level. The amounts from 50 to 500 pg were tested, each in eight parallel determinations. The amounts of 100 pg for plasma and 200 pg for urine met these criteria. The respective coefficients of variation did not depend on the amount of steroid added in this range. They averaged 4.60% for plasma and 4.95% for urine, respectively. (T.I.)

  12. Sexual Fate Reprogramming in the Steroid-Induced Bi-Directional Sex Change in the Protogynous Orange-Spotted Grouper, Epinephelus coioides

    Wu, Guan-Chung; Tey, Wei-Guan; Li, Hau-Wen; Chang, Ching-Fong

    2015-01-01

    Androgen administration has been widely used for masculinization in fish. The mechanism of the sex change in sexual fate regulation is not clear. Oral administration or pellet implantation was applied. We orally applied an aromatase inhibitor (AI, to decrease estrogen levels) and 17α-methyltestosterone (MT, to increase androgen levels) to induce masculinization to clarify the mechanism of the sex change in the protogynous orange-spotted grouper. After 3 mo of AI/MT administration, male charac...

  13. Drug Facts: Anabolic Steroids

    ... Share Print Home Publications DrugFacts Anabolic Steroids DrugFacts: Anabolic Steroids Email Facebook Twitter Revised July 2012 Anabolic steroids ... and/or improve their physical appearance. How Are Anabolic Steroids Abused? Anabolic steroids are usually either taken orally ...

  14. Immunoradiometric measurement of pS2 in breast cancer. Correlation with steroid receptors and plasminogen activators

    Luqmani, Y. [Kuwait Univ. (Kuwait). Faculty of Allied Health Sciences; Kuwait Cancer Control Center (Kuwait); Temmim, L.; Memon, A. [Kuwait Univ. (Kuwait). Faculty of Medicine; Parkar, A.; Ali, M.; Motawy, M.; Baker, H

    1999-07-01

    pS2 was measured by radioimmunometric assay in tumour extracts from 197 breast cancer patients. Values ranged from 0 to 50 ng/mg protein (mean 9.6 and median 3 ng/mg). We found no correlation with age, menopausal status, nodal metastases, disease stage of tumour histology. There was, however, a linear relationship with both ER (p<0.0001) (particularly nuclear ER) and PR (p<0.0001) expression determined by enzyme immunoassay (ELISA), as well as a good correlation when high and low expressors were stratified on the basis of combined ER/PR expression using consensus cut-off points. Only 15% of ER-ve/PR-ve patients were classified as pS2+ve compared with 83% of those who were ER+ve/PR+ve. pS2 was also directly correlated with high expression of tPA and inversely with uPA. Comparison with previous studies showed that the current ELISA method produced consistent results, in contrast to other methods, particularly those based on immunohistochemical detection. The close relationship between pS2 and both steroid receptors suggests that pS2 may be important in terms of defining hormone-responsive patients who are likely to benefit from endocrine therapy. (orig.)

  15. Cultural consensus modeling to measure transactional sex in Swaziland: Scale building and validation.

    Fielding-Miller, Rebecca; Dunkle, Kristin L; Cooper, Hannah L F; Windle, Michael; Hadley, Craig

    2016-01-01

    Transactional sex is associated with increased risk of HIV and gender based violence in southern Africa and around the world. However the typical quantitative operationalization, "the exchange of gifts or money for sex," can be at odds with a wide array of relationship types and motivations described in qualitative explorations. To build on the strengths of both qualitative and quantitative research streams, we used cultural consensus models to identify distinct models of transactional sex in Swaziland. The process allowed us to build and validate emic scales of transactional sex, while identifying key informants for qualitative interviews within each model to contextualize women's experiences and risk perceptions. We used logistic and multinomial logistic regression models to measure associations with condom use and social status outcomes. Fieldwork was conducted between November 2013 and December 2014 in the Hhohho and Manzini regions. We identified three distinct models of transactional sex in Swaziland based on 124 Swazi women's emic valuation of what they hoped to receive in exchange for sex with their partners. In a clinic-based survey (n = 406), consensus model scales were more sensitive to condom use than the etic definition. Model consonance had distinct effects on social status for the three different models. Transactional sex is better measured as an emic spectrum of expectations within a relationship, rather than an etic binary relationship type. Cultural consensus models allowed us to blend qualitative and quantitative approaches to create an emicly valid quantitative scale grounded in qualitative context. PMID:26647365

  16. Sex determination in femurs of modern Egyptians: A comparative study between metric measurements and SRY gene detection

    Iman F. Gaballah

    2014-12-01

    Conclusion: The SRY gene detection method for sex determination is quick and simple, requiring only one PCR reaction. It corroborates the results obtained from anatomical measurements and further confirms the sex of the femur bone in question.

  17. Sex-dependent effects on tasks assessing reinforcement learning and interference inhibition

    Evans, Kelly L.; Hampson, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that the prefrontal cortex (PFC) is influenced by sex steroids and that some cognitive functions dependent on the PFC may be sexually differentiated in humans. Past work has identified a male advantage on certain complex reinforcement learning tasks, but it is unclear which latent task components are important to elicit the sex difference. The objective of the current study was to investigate whether there are sex differences on measures of response inhibition and...

  18. Radioimmunoassay of steroid hormone

    Low acid pepsin treated gamma-globulin was applied to ammonium sulfate salting out method, which was a method to separate bound fraction from free one in radioimmunoassay of steroid hormone, and the effect of the separation and the standard curve were examined. Pepsin treated gamma-globulin was prepared in pH 1.5 to 5.5 and then the pepsin was completely removed. It had an effect to accelerate the precipitation in radioimmunoassay of steroid hormone labelled with 3H. The effect of pepsin treated gamma-globulin to adhere free steroid hormone and to slat out bound one was compared with that of human gamma-globulin. Pepsin treated gamma-globulin, which was water soluble, could easier reach its optimal concentration, and the separation effect was better than human gamma-globulin. The standard curve of it was steeper, particularly in a small dose, and the reproducibility was also better. It could be applied not only to aldosterone and DOC, but also to the steroid hormones, such as progesterone and DHEA, and it seemed suitable for routine measurement method. (Kanao, N.)

  19. Epidural Steroid Injections

    ... Assessment Tools Injection Treatments for Spinal Pain Epidural Steroid Injections Lumbar Zygapophysial (Facet) Joint Injections Surgical Options Nonsurgical Treatments Alternative Medicine Epidural Steroid Injections General Information Why Get an Epidural Steroid ...

  20. SEX DIFFERENCES IN OBJECTIVE MEASURES OF SLEEP IN PTSD AND HEALTHY CONTROL SUBJECTS

    Richards, Anne; Metzler, Thomas J.; Ruoff, Leslie M.; Inslicht, Sabra S.; Rao, Madhu; Talbot, Lisa S; Neylan, Thomas C.

    2013-01-01

    A growing literature shows prominent sex effects for risk for PTSD and associated medical comorbid burden. Prior research indicates that PTSD is associated with reduced slow wave sleep (SWS), which may have implications for overall health, and abnormalities in REM sleep, which have been implicated in specific PTSD symptoms, but most research has been conducted in male subjects. We therefore sought to compare objective measures of sleep in male and female PTSD subjects with age and sex-matched...

  1. Are there sex differences in Fetal Abdominal Subcutaneous Tissue (FAST) measurements?

    Farah, Nadine

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine if Fetal Abdominal Subcutaneous Tissue (FAST) measurements using antenatal ultrasound differ between male and female fetuses. STUDY DESIGN: Women who had an ultrasound examination for fetal growth between 20 and 40 weeks gestation were studied. Women with diabetes mellitus were excluded. The fetal anterior abdominal subcutaneous tissue was measured on the anterior abdominal wall in millimetres anterior to the margins of the ribs, using magnification at the level of the abdominal circumference. The fetal sex was recorded after delivery. RESULTS: A total of 557 fetuses were measured, 290 male and 267 female. The FAST measurements increased with gestational age. The FAST increased at the same rate for both male and female fetuses and at any given week there was no sex difference. CONCLUSIONS: The increased fat composition in females reported after birth was not found in abdominal wall subcutaneous fat measurements using ultrasound during pregnancy. Antenatal centile charts for FAST do not need to be based on sex.

  2. Are Steroids Worth the Risk?

    ... Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Are Steroids Worth the Risk? KidsHealth > For Teens > Are Steroids ... facts. Here's the scoop on steroids. What Are Steroids? Steroids, sometimes referred to as "roids" or "juice" ...

  3. Impulsivity and the Sexes: Measurement and Structural Invariance of the UPPS-P Impulsive Behavior Scale

    Cyders, Melissa A.

    2013-01-01

    Before it is possible to test whether men and women differ in impulsivity, it is necessary to evaluate whether impulsivity measures are invariant across sex. The UPPS-P Impulsive Behavior Scale (negative urgency, lack of premeditation, lack of perseverance, and sensation seeking, with added subscale of positive urgency) is one measure of five

  4. Sex and Self-Control Theory: The Measures and Causal Model May Be Different

    Higgins, George E.; Tewksbury, Richard

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the distribution differences across sexes in key measures of self-control theory and differences in a causal model. Using cross-sectional data from juveniles ("n" = 1,500), the study shows mean-level differences in many of the self-control, risky behavior, and delinquency measures. Structural equation modeling findings support

  5. Sex and Self-Control Theory: The Measures and Causal Model May Be Different

    Higgins, George E.; Tewksbury, Richard

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the distribution differences across sexes in key measures of self-control theory and differences in a causal model. Using cross-sectional data from juveniles ("n" = 1,500), the study shows mean-level differences in many of the self-control, risky behavior, and delinquency measures. Structural equation modeling findings support…

  6. Impulsivity and the Sexes: Measurement and Structural Invariance of the UPPS-P Impulsive Behavior Scale

    Cyders, Melissa A.

    2013-01-01

    Before it is possible to test whether men and women differ in impulsivity, it is necessary to evaluate whether impulsivity measures are invariant across sex. The UPPS-P Impulsive Behavior Scale (negative urgency, lack of premeditation, lack of perseverance, and sensation seeking, with added subscale of positive urgency) is one measure of five…

  7. Vertical transport of steroid alcohols and ketones measured in a sediment trap experiment in the equatorial Atlantic Ocean

    Gagosian, Robert B.; Smith, Steven O.; Nigrelli, Gale E.

    1982-07-01

    The vertical flux and free steroid alcohol (sterol) and ketone composition of particulate material was determined using sediment traps deployed at 389, 988, 3755 and 5068 m at a station in the equatorial North Atlantic, PARFLUX E. Cholest-5-en-3?-ol (cholesterol) was found to be the dominant sterol in all the traps. This compound had a maximum flux at 988 m, accounting for more than 90% of the sterols at this depth. Inputs from mesopelagic Zooplankton populations living in or migrating to depths between the 389 and 988 m traps appear to be responsible for this distribution. The deeper two traps exhibited an increased flux of phytosterols relative to cholesterol, probably due to (a) the incorporation of labile phytoplankton remains in fecal pellets and rapid transport into the deep sea and (b) differential dissolution of heterogeneous large particles. A maximum of 5-22% of the sterols produced in the euphotic zone were present in the 389 m trap. This value drops to less than 1% for the 5068 m trap, 200 m above the sediment surface. In general steroid ketone fluxes gradually decreased with depth. ?4-Stenones were found in greater abundance than their saturated counterparts. Cholest-4-en-3-one was the major steroid ketone detected in all the traps. A five-fold increase with depth in the cholest-4-en-3-one to cholesterol ratio is most likely due to microbial oxidation of sterols to steroid ketones, or higher ?4-stenone inputs relative to sterols from organisms.

  8. An interlaboratory study measuring sex steroids with RIAs and/or ELISAs: Are we comparing apples to oranges?

    Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are exogenous substances released into the environment that can lead to adverse reproductive effects in fish by a number of mechanisms including altering circulating levels of estradiol (E2), testosterone (T) and 11-ketotestosterone (11KT). ...

  9. Adolescent Steroid Use.

    Office of Inspector General (DHHS), Washington, DC.

    The study focused on non-medical steroid use by adolescents according to data obtained from the National Institute on Drug Abuse, professional literature, 30 key informants knowledgeable in steroid issues, and 72 current or former steroid users. The findings indicated: (1) over 250,000 adolescents, primarily males, used or have used steroids, and…

  10. An interlaboratory study on the use of steroid hormones in examining endocrine disruption.

    McMaster, M E; Jardine, J J; Ankley, G T; Benson, W H; Greeley, M S; Gross, T S; Guillette, L J; MacLatchy, D L; Orlando, E F; Van Der Kraak, G J; Munkittrick, K R

    2001-09-01

    In recent years, there has been an increased use of the measurement of sex steroid hormone levels in the blood of animals exposed to chemicals as an indicator of reproductive impairment or an alteration in endocrine function. Although levels of hormones are often compared among animals and laboratories, there has been no study to examine the between-laboratory variability in actual steroid measurements. Therefore, we initiated a study with white sucker collected from a site receiving pulp mill effluent, previously documented as having reduced steroid levels, to address this issue. Samples of plasma and media from in vitro gonadal incubations were delivered to eight outside laboratories with the ability to measure steroid hormones. These laboratories ranged from well-established fish endocrine laboratories to wildlife toxicology laboratories, which have recently implemented the methods to measure steroid hormones. In this study, we have considered both the absolute measure of steroid content between laboratories as well as the ability to discriminate between reference and exposed populations as important criteria when evaluating the utility of these measures. Of the eight outside laboratories conducting the analyses, six detected identical site differences in circulating levels of testosterone and 17beta-estradiol to those documented by our Burlington laboratory (ON, Canada). However, the absolute value of the steroid hormones measured in the plasma varied significantly (plasma testosterone 0.6-23.1 ng/ml, 17beta-estradiol 77.6-1782.7 pg/ml) with coefficients of variation of 70.4% and 60.3% respectively. Similar results were demonstrated for the measurement of steroid hormones in media following in vitro gonadal incubation. Although there was a fair amount of variability in the absolute measure of steroid hormone levels, we would predict a far greater coherence of interlaboratory results through the sharing of reagents and the use of a common methodology between laboratories. These results are very promising, providing evidence for the inclusion of steroid hormones in monitoring endocrine disruption in wildlife species. PMID:11521838

  11. Hormonal Regulation of Testicular Steroid and Cholesterol Homeostasis

    Eacker, Stephen M.; Agrawal, Nalini; Qian, Kun; Dichek, Helén L; Gong, Eun-Yeung; Lee, Keesook; Braun, Robert E.

    2007-01-01

    The male sex steroid, testosterone (T), is synthesized from cholesterol in the testicular Leydig cell under control of the pituitary gonadotropin LH. Unlike most cells that use cholesterol primarily for membrane synthesis, steroidogenic cells have additional requirements for cholesterol, because it is the essential precursor for all steroid hormones. Little is known about how Leydig cells satisfy their specialized cholesterol requirements for steroid synthesis. We show that in mice with a uni...

  12. Ovarian steroid hormones: what's hot in the stem cell pool?

    Cittelly, Diana M; Richer, Jennifer K.; Sartorius, Carol A.

    2010-01-01

    The vital role of ovarian hormones in the development of the normal breast foreshadowed their importance in mammary stem cell regulation. Two recent papers reveal that 17β-estradiol and progesterone control the size and repopulating ability of the mammary stem cell compartment. This likely occurs via paracrine signaling from steroid receptor-positive luminal cells to steroid receptor-negative stem cells. These findings illuminate roles for the female sex steroids in mobilizing the stem cell p...

  13. Abnormal sex chromosome constitution and longitudinal growth

    Aksglaede, Lise; Skakkebaek, Niels E; Juul, Anders

    2008-01-01

    Growth is a highly complex process regulated by the interaction between sex steroids and the GH IGF-axis. However, other factors such as sex chromosome-related genes play independent roles.......Growth is a highly complex process regulated by the interaction between sex steroids and the GH IGF-axis. However, other factors such as sex chromosome-related genes play independent roles....

  14. High-throughput bioaffinity mass spectrometry for screening and identification of designer anabolic steroids in dietary supplements.

    Aqai, Payam; Cevik, Ebru; Gerssen, Arjen; Haasnoot, Willem; Nielen, Michel W F

    2013-03-19

    A generic high-throughput bioaffinity liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (BioMS) approach was developed and applied for the screening and identification of known and unknown recombinant human sex hormone-binding globulin (rhSHBG)-binding designer steroids in dietary supplements. For screening, a semi-automated competitive inhibition binding assay was combined with fast ultrahigh-performance-LC-electrospray ionization-triple-quadrupole-MS (UPLC-QqQ-MS). 17β-Testosterone-D3 was used as the stable isotope label of which the binding to rhSHBG-coated paramagnetic microbeads was inhibited by any other binding (designer) steroid. The assay was performed in a 96-well plate and combined with the fast LC-MS, 96 measurements could be performed within 4 h. The concentration-dependent inhibition of the label by steroids in buffer and dietary supplements was demonstrated. Following an adjusted bioaffinity isolation procedure, suspect extracts were injected into a chip-UPLC(NanoTile)-Q-time-of-flight-MS system for full-scan accurate mass identification. Next to known steroids, 1-testosterone was identified in three of the supplements studied and the designer steroid tetrahydrogestrinone was identified in a spiked supplement. The generic steroid-binding assay can be used for high-throughput screening of androgens, estrogens, and gestagens in dietary supplements to fight doping. When combined with chip-UPLC-MS, it is a powerful tool for early warning of unknown emerging rhSHBG bioactive designer steroids in dietary supplements. PMID:23419079

  15. Differentiation of subspecies and sexes of Beringian Dunlins using morphometric measures

    Gates, H. River; Yezerinac, Stephen; Powell, Abby N.; Tomkovich, Pavel S.; Valchuk, Olga P.; Lanctot, Richard B.

    2013-01-01

    Five subspecies of Dunlins (Calidris alpina) that breed in Beringia are potentially sympatric during the non-breeding season. Studying their ecology during this period requires techniques to distinguish individuals by subspecies. Our objectives were to determine (1) if five morphometric measures (body mass, culmen, head, tarsus, and wing chord) differed between sexes and among subspecies (C. a. actites, arcticola, kistchinski, pacifica, and sakhalina), and (2) if these differences were sufficient to allow for correct classification of individuals using equations derived from discriminant function analyses. We conducted analyses using morphometric data from 10 Dunlin populations breeding in northern Russia and Alaska, USA. Univariate tests revealed significant differences between sexes in most morphometric traits of all subspecies, and discriminant function equations predicted the sex of individuals with an accuracy of 83–100% for each subspecies. We provide equations to determine sex and subspecies of individuals in mixed subspecies groups, including the (1) Western Alaska group of arcticola and pacifica (known to stage together in western Alaska) and (2) East Asia group of arcticola, actites, kistchinski, and sakhalina (known to winter together in East Asia). Equations that predict the sex of individuals in mixed groups had classification accuracies between 75% and 87%, yielding reliable classification equations. We also provide equations that predict the subspecies of individuals with an accuracy of 22–96% for different mixed subspecies groups. When the sex of individuals can be predetermined, the accuracy of these equations is increased substantially. Investigators are cautioned to consider limitations due to age and feather wear when using these equations during the non-breeding season. These equations will allow determination of sexual and subspecies segregation in non-breeding areas, allowing implementation of taxonomic-specific conservation actions.

  16. Comprehensive Analysis of Hormone and Genetic Variation in 36 Genes Related to Steroid Hormone Metabolism in Pre- and Postmenopausal Women from the Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3)

    Beckmann, L.; Husing, A.; Setiawan, V. W.; Amiano, P.; Clavel-Chapelon, F.; Chanock, S. J.; Cox, D. G.; Diver, R.; Dossus, L.; Feigelson, H. S.; Haiman, C.; Hallmans, G.; Hayes, R. B.; Henderson, B. E.; Hoover, R. N.; Hunter, D. J.; Khaw, K.; Kolonel, L. N.; Kraft, P.; Lund, E.; Le Marchand, L.; Peeters, P. H. M.; Riboli, E.; Stram, D.; Thomas, G.; Thun, M. J.; Tumino, R.; Trichopoulos, D.; Vogel, Ulla Birgitte; Willett, W. C.; Yeager, M.; Ziegler, R.; Hankinson, S. E.; Kaaks, R.

    2011-01-01

    existing hormone assays and data on breast cancer incidence, within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) and the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) cohorts; significant findings were reanalyzed in the Multiethnic Cohort (MEC).Setting and Participants: We analyzed data from a......Context: Sex steroids play a central role in breast cancer development.Objective: This study aimed to relate polymorphic variants in 36 candidate genes in the sex steroid pathway to serum concentrations of sex steroid hormones and SHBG.Design: Data on 700 genetic polymorphisms were combined with...... pooled sample of 3852 pre- and postmenopausal Caucasian women from EPIC and NHS and 454 postmenopausal women from MEC.Main Outcome Measures: Outcome measures were SHBG, testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEAS), androstenedione, estrone (E1), and estradiol (E2) as well as breast cancer risk...

  17. N-demethylation of ethylmorphine in pregnant and non-pregnant women and in men: an evaluation of the effects of sex steroids.

    Gerdin, E; Rane, A

    1992-01-01

    1. The effects of oestrogens, testosterone, progesterone and medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) on the rate of N-demethylation of ethylmorphine (EM) to norethylmorphine (NEM) were studied in human adult liver microsomes. 2. N-Demethylase activity was found to be inhibited by progesterone and MPA to a similar extent while oestrogens and testosterone had no or negligible effects. 3. These findings prompted us to measure the N-demethylation of EM in relation to serum progesterone concentration in...

  18. Diagonal tooth measurements in sex assessment: A study on North Indian population

    Adesh S Manchanda

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sexual dimorphism has been of great interest to anthropologists and odontologists. Dental measurements are important in anthropology for the study of sexual dimorphism with most common being the traditional linear odontometric measurements. Apart from these, alternative dental measurements have been developed such as the crown and cervical diagonal diameters and mesiodistal and buccolingual cervical diameters of teeth. Aims and Objective: The primary objective of the following study is to assess the degree of sexual dimorphism in teeth of a North Indian population using the crown diagonal diameters and secondary is to evaluate the applicability of diagonal measurements in sex determination by means of discriminant functional analysis. Materials and Methods: The study sample comprised 200 individuals (100 males and 100 females of an age group ranging from 18 to 57 years, in a North Indian population. The mesiobuccal-distolingual (MBDL and distobuccal-mesiolingual (DBML crown diameters of seven maxillary and seven mandibular teeth on the study models were measured using digital Vernier calipers. Results: The most dimorphic teeth amongst all for crown diagonal diameters are the maxillary central incisors and the least dimorphic are the maxillary second premolars. The mean diagonal crown dimensions in all but one tooth (DBML of maxillary lateral incisor of males exceeded that of females. The difference was statistically significant in MBDL dimensions of maxillary and mandibular central incisor, canine, first and second molar and DBML dimensions of maxillary central incisor and maxillary and mandibular canine, first molar and second molar (P < 0.05. The accuracy of determination of sex by MBDL crown dimension ranges from 55% to 75% in males and 47-84% in females, while by DBML crown dimension ranges from 55% to 80% in males and 65-80% in females with the overall accuracy of sex determination ranging from 51% to 80% respectively. Conclusion: MBDL and DBML crown dimensions are reliable indicators and can be used along with or/and instead of linear measurements in sex determination. In situations in which it is difficult to take correct measurements of linear dimensions of teeth, these alternative odontometric measurements can be used consistently to determine sex.

  19. Age and sex differences in estimated tibia strength: influence of measurement site

    Vanessa D. Sherk; Bemben, Debra A

    2012-01-01

    Variability in peripheral Quantitative Computed Tomography (pQCT) measurement sites and outcome variables limit direct comparisons of results between studies. Further, it is unclear what estimates of bone strength are most indicative of changes due to aging, disease, or interventions. The purpose of this study was to examine age and sex differences in estimates of tibia strength. An additional purpose of this study was to determine which tibia site or sites are most sensitive for detecting ag...

  20. Differential Responses to Steroid Hormones in Fibroblasts From the Vocal Fold, Trachea, and Esophagus

    Mukudai, Shigeyuki; Matsuda, Ken Ichi; Nishio, Takeshi; Sugiyama, Yoichiro; Bando, Hideki; Hirota, Ryuichi; Sakaguchi, Hirofumi; Hisa, Yasuo; Kawata, Mitsuhiro

    2014-01-01

    There is accumulating evidence that fibroblasts are target cells for steroids such as sex hormones and corticoids. The characteristics of fibroblasts vary among tissues and organs. Our aim in this study is to examine differences in responses to steroid hormones among fibroblasts from different cervicothoracic regions. We compared the actions of steroid hormones on cultured fibroblasts from the vocal folds, which are considered to be the primary target of steroid hormones, and the trachea and ...

  1. Steroid profiling and confirmation of the T/E - ratio in doping control

    Hanssen, Kine Østnes

    2010-01-01

    Anabolic-androgenic steroids are naturally occurring or synthetic derivates of male sex hormones. All anabolic-androgenic steroids are prohibited by the World Anti-Doping Agency because of their muscle growth stimulating effect. At the Seibersdorf Doping-Control Laboratory, urine samples from athletes are first screened with a screen testing procedure to obtain an endogenous steroid profile, in order to identify samples suspected of containing endogenous steroids of exogenous origin. Thi...

  2. Hypercholesterolemia in Male Power Lifters Using Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids.

    Cohen, Jonathan C.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Measurement of serum cholesterol concentrations in male power lifters who used anabolic-androgenic steroids for eight weeks, three years, or eight years indicated that mean serum cholesterol levels increased with drug use, but decreased promptly to near pre-steroid levels after steroid use ended. (Author/CB)

  3. Adrenal Steroids Uniquely Influence Sexual Motivation Behavior in Male Rats

    George T. Taylor

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The androgenic adrenal steroids dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA and 4α-androstenedione (4-A have significant biological activity, but it is unclear if the behavioral effects are unique or only reflections of the effects of testosterone (TS. Gonadally intact male Long-Evans rats were assigned to groups to receive supplements of DHEA, 4-A, TS, corticosteroid (CORT, all at 400 µg steroid/kg of body weight, or vehicle only for 5 weeks. All males were tested in a paradigm for sexual motivation that measures time and urinary marks near an inaccessible receptive female. It was found that DHEA and 4-A supplements failed to influence time near the estrous female in the same way TS supplements did, and, indeed, 5 weeks of 4-A administration reduced the time similar to the suppressive effects of CORT after 3 weeks. Further, animals treated with DHEA or 4-A left fewer urinary marks near an estrous female than TS and control groups. These results suggest that DHEA and 4-A are not merely precursors of sex hormones, and provide support for these steroids influencing the brain and behavior in a unique fashion that is dissimilar from the effects of TS on male sexual behavior.

  4. Conceptualization and measurement of homosexuality in sex surveys: a critical review

    Michaels Stuart

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews major national population sex surveys that have asked questions about homosexuality focusing on conceptual and methodological issues, including the definitions of sex, the measured aspects of homosexuality, sampling and interviewing technique, and questionnaire design. Reported rates of major measures of same-sex attraction, behavior, partners, and sexual identity from surveys are also presented and compared. The study of homosexuality in surveys has been shaped by the research traditions and questions ranging from sexology to the epidemiology of HIV/AIDS. Sexual behavior has been a central topic at least since Kinsey. Issues of sexual attraction and/or orientation and sexual identity have emerged more recently. Differences in the treatment of men and women in the design and analysis of surveys as well as in the reported rates in different surveys, in different countries and time periods are also presented and discussed. We point out the importance of the consideration of both methodological and social change issues in assessing such differences.

  5. Conceptualization and measurement of homosexuality in sex surveys: a critical review

    Stuart Michaels

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews major national population sex surveys that have asked questions about homosexuality focusing on conceptual and methodological issues, including the definitions of sex, the measured aspects of homosexuality, sampling and interviewing technique, and questionnaire design. Reported rates of major measures of same-sex attraction, behavior, partners, and sexual identity from surveys are also presented and compared. The study of homosexuality in surveys has been shaped by the research traditions and questions ranging from sexology to the epidemiology of HIV/AIDS. Sexual behavior has been a central topic at least since Kinsey. Issues of sexual attraction and/or orientation and sexual identity have emerged more recently. Differences in the treatment of men and women in the design and analysis of surveys as well as in the reported rates in different surveys, in different countries and time periods are also presented and discussed. We point out the importance of the consideration of both methodological and social change issues in assessing such differences.

  6. Recent advances in steroid radioimmunoassay

    The advances since 1974 in the techniques of measuring steroid molecules by radioimmunoassay are reviewed in this paper. They are considered under the following headings: preparation and use of antisera; preparation and use of tracers; preparation of biological samples before assay; dispensing of the reagents in the assay; separation of free and bound radioactivity; counting and data processing; quality control and standardization. (orig.)

  7. Clinical significance of combined measurement of serum sex hormones in secondary amenorrhea

    Objective: To study the clinical significance of changes of levels of serum sex hormones in the diagnosis of the types of secondary amenorrhea. Methods: Serum sex hormones levels were measured with chemiluminescence in 100 patients with secondary amenorrhea and 42 controls. The serum hormones determined were: estradiol (E2)-, progesterone (PROG), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)-, luteinizing hormone (LH), prolactin (PRL), testosterone (TSTO). Results: Patients with secondary amenorrhea had significantly higher levels of serum FSH, LH and PRL ( P2 (P<0.05) than those in the controls. Serum levels of PROG and TSTO were about the same in the patients and controls. Conclusion: Determination of serum hormones levels with chemiluminescence is clinically useful for diagnosis of the types of secondary amenorrhea. (authors)

  8. Sex Steroids and Stem Cell Function

    Ray, Rinki; Novotny, Nathan M; Crisostomo, Paul R.; Lahm, Tim; Abarbanell, Aaron; Meldrum, Daniel R.

    2008-01-01

    Gender dimorphisms exist in the pathogenesis of a variety of cardiovascular, cardiopulmonary, neurodegenerative, and endocrine disorders. Estrogens exert immense influence on myocardial remodeling following ischemic insult, partially through paracrine growth hormone production by bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and endothelial progenitor cells. Estrogens also facilitate the mobilization of endothelial progenitor cells to the ischemic myocardium and enhance neovascularization at the ...

  9. WormGender – Open-Source Software for Automatic Caenorhabditis elegans Sex Ratio Measurement

    Aleman-Meza, Boanerges; Liu, Zheng; Zhong, Weiwei

    2015-01-01

    Fast and quantitative analysis of animal phenotypes is one of the major challenges of current biology. Here we report the WormGender open-source software, which is designed for accurate quantification of sex ratio in Caenorhabditis elegans. The software functions include, i) automatic recognition and counting of adult hermaphrodites and males, ii) a manual inspection feature that enables manual correction of errors, and iii) flexibility to use new training images to optimize the software for different imaging conditions. We evaluated the performance of our software by comparing manual and automated assessment of sex ratio. Our data showed that the WormGender software provided overall accurate sex ratio measurements. We further demonstrated the usage of WormGender by quantifying the high incidence of male (him) phenotype in 27 mutant strains. Mutants of nine genes (brc-1, C30G12.6, cep-1, coh-3, him-3, him-5, him-8, skr-1, unc-86) showed significant him phenotype. The WormGender is written in Java and can be installed and run on both Windows and Mac platforms. The source code is freely available together with a user manual and sample data at http://www.QuantWorm.org/. The source code and sample data are also available at http://dx.doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.1541248. PMID:26421844

  10. WormGender - Open-Source Software for Automatic Caenorhabditis elegans Sex Ratio Measurement.

    Labocha, Marta K; Jung, Sang-Kyu; Aleman-Meza, Boanerges; Liu, Zheng; Zhong, Weiwei

    2015-01-01

    Fast and quantitative analysis of animal phenotypes is one of the major challenges of current biology. Here we report the WormGender open-source software, which is designed for accurate quantification of sex ratio in Caenorhabditis elegans. The software functions include, i) automatic recognition and counting of adult hermaphrodites and males, ii) a manual inspection feature that enables manual correction of errors, and iii) flexibility to use new training images to optimize the software for different imaging conditions. We evaluated the performance of our software by comparing manual and automated assessment of sex ratio. Our data showed that the WormGender software provided overall accurate sex ratio measurements. We further demonstrated the usage of WormGender by quantifying the high incidence of male (him) phenotype in 27 mutant strains. Mutants of nine genes (brc-1, C30G12.6, cep-1, coh-3, him-3, him-5, him-8, skr-1, unc-86) showed significant him phenotype. The WormGender is written in Java and can be installed and run on both Windows and Mac platforms. The source code is freely available together with a user manual and sample data at http://www.QuantWorm.org/. The source code and sample data are also available at http://dx.doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.1541248. PMID:26421844

  11. Age- and sex-related changes in bone mass measured by neutron activation

    Cohn, S.H.; Aloia, J.F.; Vaswani, A.N.; Zanzi, I.; Vartsky, D.; Ellis, K.J.

    1981-01-01

    Total-body calcium (TBCa) measurements have been employed in two basic types of studies. In the first type, serial measurements made on an individual patient are used to trace the time variation in body calcium. In the second type of study, the absolute total body calcium of an individual is determined and compared to a standard or predicted value in order to determine the deficit or excess of calcium. Generally, the standards are derived from data obtained from normal populations and grouped by the parameters of age and sex (mean value denoted TBCa/sub m/). In the study reported in this paper, the clinical usefulness of predicted calcium (TBCa/sub p/) is evaluated. The predicted value (TBCa/sub p/) for an individual is obtained with an algorithm utilizing values of sex and age, height and lean body mass (as derived from /sup 40/K measurement). The latter two components characterize skeletal size and body habitus, respectively. For the study, 133 white women and 71 white men ranging in age from 20 to 80 years were selected from a larger population. Individuals with evidence of metabolic calcium disorders or osteoporosis were excluded. Additionally, the women and men selected were first judged to have total body potassium levels in the normal range. For each age decade, the variance of TBCa values of these individuals, when expressed in terms of TBCa/sub p/, was significantly less than when expressed in terms of TBCa/sub m/. Thus, erroneous conclusions based on Ca deficit in osteoporosis could be drawn for individuals whose height and body size differ markedly from the average, as the variation of their TBCa values often exceeds the variation in the age and sex cohort. Data on a group of osteoporotic women were compared with the normal skeletal baseline values both in terms of the TBCa and the TBCa/sub p/ values.

  12. Age- and sex-related changes in bone mass measured by neutron activation

    Total-body calcium (TBCa) measurements have been employed in two basic types of studies. In the first type, serial measurements made on an individual patient are used to trace the time variation in body calcium. In the second type of study, the absolute total body calcium of an individual is determined and compared to a standard or predicted value in order to determine the deficit or excess of calcium. Generally, the standards are derived from data obtained from normal populations and grouped by the parameters of age and sex (mean value denoted TBCa/sub m/). In the study reported in this paper, the clinical usefulness of predicted calcium (TBCa/sub p/) is evaluated. The predicted value (TBCa/sub p/) for an individual is obtained with an algorithm utilizing values of sex and age, height and lean body mass (as derived from 40K measurement). The latter two components characterize skeletal size and body habitus, respectively. For the study, 133 white women and 71 white men ranging in age from 20 to 80 years were selected from a larger population. Individuals with evidence of metabolic calcium disorders or osteoporosis were excluded. Additionally, the women and men selected were first judged to have total body potassium levels in the normal range. For each age decade, the variance of TBCa values of these individuals, when expressed in terms of TBCa/sub p/, was significantly less than when expressed in terms of TBCa/sub m/. Thus, erroneous conclusions based on Ca deficit in osteoporosis could be drawn for individuals whose height and body size differ markedly from the average, as the variation of their TBCa values often exceeds the variation in the age and sex cohort. Data on a group of osteoporotic women were compared with the normal skeletal baseline values both in terms of the TBCa and the TBCa/sub p/ values

  13. The alteration of the urinary steroid profile under the stress

    A Gronowska

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In the second part of twentieth century anabolic-androgenic steroids were introduced into doping practice and received continuously increasing significance. In order to prove the usage of doping substances, the determination of steroid profile in the urine came into practice. Several factors may be responsible for alterations in the normal steroid profile for example age, sex and diet. The aim of this study was to find out, whether the psychological stress may cause modifications in the steroid profile and T/Et ratio. The effect of physical activity was also considered. The steroid profile was determined in the group of 34 students being in non-stress conditions and under stress immediately before an important university exam. The intensity of stress was rated by self-reported questionnaire. The GC/MS method was applied to determine the steroid profile in the urine samples. The results of the experiment have shown that psychological stress may cause significant changes in the steroid profile, especially in females. Physical activity, independently of stress significantly modified the steroid profile. In summary, observed changes in steroid profile suggest, that major fluctuations of T/Et and A/E ratios under the influence of stressogenic factors and physical activity are unlikely.

  14. Modulation of appetite by gonadal steroid hormones

    Asarian, Lori; Geary, Nori

    2006-01-01

    Several sex differences in eating, their control by gonadal steroid hormones and their peripheral and central mediating mechanisms are reviewed. Adult female rats and mice as well as women eat less during the peri-ovulatory phase of the ovarian cycle (estrus in rats and mice) than other phases, an effect under the control of cyclic changes in estradiol secretion. Women also appear to eat more sweets during the luteal phase of the cycle than other phases, possibly due to simultaneous increases...

  15. Steroids in neuroinfection

    Ronaldo Abraham

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The consequences of inflammatory response are primarily responsible for morbimortality in bacterial meningitis. Early use of steroids in these cases can reduce mortality and hearing loss and improve functional outcome without causing significant side effects. The formal recommendation towards pneumoccocal meningitis is being extended to other forms of Bacterial Meningitis. The same thought can be applied to tuberculous meningitis. In neurocysticercosis and neuroschistosomiasis steroids are more useful than parasiticides in most cases. Despite the evidence favoring the use of steroids in herpes simplex encephalitis, it is not sufficient to definitely support such indication. Among the opportunistic infections that affect AIDS patients, neurotoxoplasmosis and progressive multifocal leukoencephalopaty are those most often considered for the use of steroids; steroids are safe to use, but no definite benefit could be demonstrated in both conditions.

  16. Sexual dimorphism in finger ridge breadth measurements: a tool for sex estimation from fingerprints.

    Mundorff, Amy Z; Bartelink, Eric J; Murad, Turhon A

    2014-07-01

    Previous research has demonstrated significant sexual dimorphism in friction ridge skin characteristics. This study uses a novel method for measuring sexual dimorphism in finger ridge breadths to evaluate its utility as a sex estimation method from an unknown fingerprint. Beginning and ending in a valley, the width of ten parallel ridges with no obstructions or minutia was measured in a sample of 250 males and females (N = 500). The results demonstrate statistically significant differences in ridge breadth between males and females (p accuracy for each digit varying from 83.2% to 89.3%. Classification accuracy for the pooled finger samples was 83.9% for the right hand and 86.2% for the left hand, which is applicable for cases where the digit number cannot be determined. Weight, stature, and to a lesser degree body mass index also significantly correlate with ridge breadth and account for the degree of overlap between males and females. PMID:24673752

  17. Histologia mamária após uso de esteróides sexuais - estudo em ratas Breast histologic changes in female rats treated with sex steroids

    José Tadeu Vicelli

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar as alterações histológicas em mamas de ratas submetidas à terapêutica com estrogênio, progestogênio e tibolona. MÉTODOS: Estudo experimental com 40 ratas, sendo 20 sem prole (grupo A e 20 com prole (grupo B. Todas as ratas foram castradas e, após quatro semanas, alocadas aleatoriamente em subgrupos: A1, A2, A3, A4, A5 e B1, B2, B3, B4, B5. Os esteróides foram administrados da seguinte forma: A1 e B1 - benzoato de estradiol; A2 e B2 - acetato de medroxiprogesterona; A3 e B3 - benzoato de estradiol e acetato de medroxiprogesterona; A4 e B4 - tibolona; A5 e B5 - placebo. Após dez semanas de tratamento, os animais foram sacrificados e suas glândulas mamárias submetidas à análise histológica. Os parâmetros avaliados foram: proliferação epitelial, atividade secretora e atipias epiteliais nas unidades de ductos ou alvéolos terminais. A associação entre os achados histológicos e os esquemas terapêuticos foi avaliada por meio do odds ratio e intervalo de confiança de 95%. RESULTADOS: Alterações histológicas foram observadas em 29 ratas: hiperplasia moderada (52,5%, hiperplasia alvéolo-nodular (42,5%, atipia sem proliferação (35%, hiperplasia leve (32,5%, atividade secretora (20% e hiperplasia severa (5%. Em ratas sem prole observou-se 1,3 mais chance, em relação ao grupo controle, de apresentar hiperplasia alvéolo-nodular no grupo que recebeu estrogênio, hiperplasia moderada no grupo tratado com progestogênio, e hiperplasia alvéolo-nodular e atipia sem proliferação epitelial com a associação entre estrogênio e progestogênio. CONCLUSÃO: Hiperplasia moderada e atipia epitelial associaram-se à terapia combinada de estrogênio e progestogênio, e o antecedente de prole reduziu a ocorrência destas alterações e de hiperplasia alvéolo-nodular.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association of histologic changes in the breasts of female rats undergoing therapy with sex steroids. METHODS: An experimental study was conducted of 40 castrated female non-pubertal rats, 20 had given birth (Group B and 20 had no offspring (Group A. After four weeks, these rats were randomly allocated to subgroups: A1, A2, A3, A4, A5 and B1, B2, B3, B4, B5. Steroids were given to subgroups as follows: A1 and B1 - estradiol benzoate; A2 and B2 - medroxyprogesterone acetate; A3 and B3 - estradiol benzoate and medroxyprogesterone acetate; A4 and B4 - tibolone; A5 and B5 - placebo. After 10 weeks of treatment, animals were sacrificed and their mammary glands were analyzed. Histologic parameters evaluated were: epithelial cell proliferation, epithelial cells with secretory activity; and cell atypia in terminal duct units and buds or terminal alveoli. The association between microscopic analysis and diverse therapeutic regimens were analyzed by calculating the odds ratio and its respective 95% confidence interval. RESULTS: Histologic changes were observed in 29 rats: moderate hyperplasia (52.5%, hyperplastic alveolar nodule (42.5%, epithelial atypia (35%, mild hyperplasia (32.5%, secretory activity (20% and severe hyperplasia (5%. In rats with no offspring when compared to the control, 1.3 times more hyperplastic alveolar nodules were found in the group treated with estradiol, the same was true for moderate hyperplasia in the rats that received medroxyprogesterone acetate, hyperplastic alveolar nodules and epithelial atypia in the group treated with estradiol plus medroxyprogesterone acetate. In the rats with offspring 1.3 times more secretory activity was found with estradiol. CONCLUSION: Epithelial hyperplasia and epithelial atypia with no proliferation are strongly associated to combined therapy with estradiol plus medroxyprogesterone acetate, mainly in the rats without offspring.

  18. An exploration of psychopathy in self-report measures among juvenile sex offenders.

    Morrell, Laura M; Burton, David L

    2014-05-01

    Researchers have indicated that adult psychopathy often originates in childhood or adolescence. It has also been established that psychopathic traits are linked to disruptive behavior, criminality, and violence. As knowledge about psychopathy and its manifestations in juvenile sex offender populations remains limited, several instruments have been developed in an effort to measure the construct. In this study, we assessed how the relationship of diverse scales of psychopathy related to characteristics of sexual aggression, and determined which scales were most correlated to sexual and nonsexual delinquency. We utilized four measures of juvenile psychopathy: the Modified Childhood Psychopathy Scale (mCPS; Lynam, 1997), the Antisocial Process Screening Device (APSD; Frick & Hare, 2001; Frick, O'Brien, Wootton, & McBurnett, 1994), the Millon Adolescent Clinical Inventory (MACI; Millon & Davis, 1993; using two derived psychopathy scales), and the Inventory of Callous and Unemotional (ICU) Traits (Frick, 2003), in a sample of 191 incarcerated adolescent sex offenders located in juvenile detention facilities across a Midwestern state. We found that of the four instruments and seven subscales, only the APSD Narcissism and Impulsivity Scale was significantly correlated to a characteristic of sexual crime (i.e., number of victims, level of crime severity). No subscales were found to predict sexual crime at a significant level. However, several scales were correlated to the total delinquency score as measured by the Self-Reported Delinquency Measure. In a series of multiple regressions, the MACI Factor 2 and ICU total score were determined as the best fit to total nonsexual delinquency. Implications are offered. PMID:23525176

  19. When Public Protection becomes Punishment? – The UK Use of Civil Measures to Contain Sex Offender

    Terry Thomas

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available The last ten years has witnessed an increased use of the civil law in the UK to contain and incapacitate the sex offender. These measures have been introduced to improve community safety and public protection, as the criminal law seeks to punish and condemn. This paper explores the contention that the civil and criminal law are in danger of becoming confused and the line between the two becoming blurred. At worst the civil law is in danger of becoming a form of criminal punishment in its own right and those charged with implementing it, in danger of getting their roles confused. What starts out as a civil regulatory or administrative arrangement for public safety becomes increasingly obstructive, has ‘gate-ways’ to criminal proceedings and is implemented in a punitive fashion.

  20. Steroids in teleost fishes: A functional point of view.

    Tokarz, Janina; Mller, Gabriele; Hrab? de Angelis, Martin; Adamski, Jerzy

    2015-11-01

    Steroid hormones are involved in the regulation of a variety of processes like embryonic development, sex differentiation, metabolism, immune responses, circadian rhythms, stress response, and reproduction in vertebrates. Teleost fishes and humans show a remarkable conservation in many developmental and physiological aspects, including the endocrine system in general and the steroid hormone related processes in particular. This review provides an overview of the current knowledge about steroid hormone biosynthesis and the steroid hormone receptors in teleost fishes and compares the findings to the human system. The impact of the duplicated genome in teleost fishes on steroid hormone biosynthesis and perception is addressed. Additionally, important processes in fish physiology regulated by steroid hormones, which are most dissimilar to humans, are described. We also give a short overview on the influence of anthropogenic endocrine disrupting compounds on steroid hormone signaling and the resulting adverse physiological effects for teleost fishes. By this approach, we show that the steroidogenesis, hormone receptors, and function of the steroid hormones are reasonably well understood when summarizing the available data of all teleost species analyzed to date. However, on the level of a single species or a certain fish-specific aspect of physiology, further research is needed. PMID:26102270

  1. Motor function measure scale, steroid therapy and patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy / Medida de funo motora, corticoterapia e pacientes com distrofia muscular de Duchenne

    Elaine C. da, Silva; Darlene L., Machado; Maria B. D., Resende; Renata F., Silva; Edmar, Zanoteli; Umbertina C., Reed.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a evoluo da funo motora de pacientes com distrofia muscular de Duchenne (DMD) em corticoterapia (predinisolona e deflazacort), por meio da escala Medida da Funo Motora (MFM), que avalia trs dimenses de funes motoras (D1, D2, D3). MTODOS: Trinta e trs pacientes com DMD ( [...] 22 deambulantes, seis cadeirantes e cinco que perderam a capacidade de andar ao longo do estudo) foram avaliados pela escala MFM em seis momentos durante 18 meses. RESULTADOS: Todas as funes motoras mantiveram-se estveis durante 14 meses, exceto D1 para os pacientes que perderam a marcha. Nos pacientes deambulantes, a D2 (funo motora axial e proximal) apresentou melhora durante seis meses. Melhora em D3 (funo motora distal) tambm foi observada durante o seguimento. A D1 (postura em p e transferncias) e o escore total foram importantes para predizer a perda de marcha. CONCLUSES: O uso da MFM nos pacientes com DMD confirma os benefcios do tratamento com corticoides na diminuio da velocidade de progresso da doena. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To assess the evolution of motor function in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) treated with steroids (prednisolone or deflazacort) through the Motor Function Measure (MFM), which evaluates three dimensions of motor performance (D1, D2, D3). METHODS: Thirty-three patients wit [...] h DMD (22 ambulant, 6 non-ambulant and 5 who lost the capacity to walk during the period of the study) were assessed using the MFM scale six times over a period of 18 months. RESULTS: All the motor functions remained stable for 14 months in all patients, except D1 for those who lost their walking ability. In ambulant patients, D2 (axial and proximal motor capacities) motor functions improved during six months; an improvement in D3 (distal motor capacity) was noted during the total follow-up. D1 (standing posture and transfers) and total score were useful to predict the loss of the ability to walk. CONCLUSIONS: The use of the MFM in DMD patients confirms the benefits of the steroid treatment for slowing the progression of the disease.

  2. Fine-needle aspiration cytology of ovarian steroid cell tumor: A rare case report

    Nidhi Agrawal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Steroid cell tumors (SCTs of the ovary are a rare subgroup of sex cord tumors that account for less than 0.1% of all ovarian tumors. These tumors can produce steroids, especially testosterone, which produces symptoms such as hirsutism, amenorrhea/oligomenorrhea, and male patterned voice. For evaluation of the androgen excess, testosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S are the first laboratory tests to be measured. Abdominal ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI are useful radiologic imaging techniques. Although SCTs are generally benign, the risk of malignant transformation is always present. Surgical excision of tumor is the most important and hallmark treatment. The present case signifies the early preoperative diagnosis of a virilizing SCT, based on cytological features and its careful correlation with clinicopathological and radiological findings.

  3. Measuring Effectiveness in School Sex Education--Methodological Dilemmas in Researching an Intervention Involving Young Mothers

    Kidger, Judi

    2006-01-01

    Defining and therefore evaluating the effectiveness of school sex education is problematic because of its location at the site of struggle between competing discourses. Those discourses--summarised here as "moralistic," "harm reductionist" and "empowering"--each emphasise a different conceptualisation of sex education's intended outcomes. The…

  4. Steroid hormone influence on melanomagenesis.

    Mitkov, Mario; Joseph, Richard; Copland, John

    2015-12-01

    Disparities in the prognosis and incidence of melanoma between male and female patients have led clinicians to explore the influence of steroid hormones on the development and progression of this malignancy. A better understanding of the disparities of melanoma behavior between sexes and ages could lead to improved prevention and treatment options. There are multiple themes in the literature that unify the physiologic functions of estrogen and androgen receptors; herein we discuss and map their pathways. Overall, it is important to understand that the differences in melanoma behavior between the sexes are multifactorial and likely involve interactions between the immune system, endocrine system, and environment, namely UV-radiation. Melanoma deserves a spot among hormone-sensitive tumors, and if tamoxifen is re-introduced for future therapy, tissue ratios of estrogen receptors should be obtained beforehand to assess their therapeutic predictive value. Because androgens, estrogens, and their receptors are involved in signaling of commonly mutated melanoma pathways, potential synergistic properties of the recently developed molecular kinase inhibitors that target those pathways may exist. PMID:26415591

  5. Standardization of androstenedione and estrone radioimmunoassay and profile of sex steroids, gonadotropins and prolactin - in patients with chronic anovulation due to inappropriate feedback (polycystic ovarian syndrome); Padronizacao do radioimunoensaio da androstenediona e da estrona e o perfil dos esteroides sexuais, gonadotrofinas e prolactina em pacientes com anovulacao cronica por retrocontrole improprio (sindrome dos ovarios policisticos)

    Vilanova, Maria do Socorro Veras

    1992-12-01

    Full text. In order to evaluate the profile of the sex steroids gonadotropin and prolactin in polycystic ovarian syndrome (POS), 24 patients with POS were studied and compared with 20 normal women during the early follicular phase of the menstrual cycle. Radioimmunoassay techniques for androstenedione (A) and estrone (E{sub 1}) were standardized for the purpose of the study. Androstenedione and estrone were extracted from plasma with ethyl ether. The assays were maintained in equilibrium and the labelled hormone-antibody complex was then separated from the free hormone using dextran charcoal. The sensitivity of the method was 6.8 pg/tube for A and 3.7 pg/tube for E{sub 1}. Nonspecific binding ws 3.4 for A and 3.3 for E{sub 1}. The interessay error at the D50 level was 15.6 for A and 8.6 for E{sub 1}. Patients with POS had significantly higher basal levels of LH, A, T E{sub 1} and PRL and similar FSH and DHEA-S levels when compared with normal women. The LH/FSH ratio was significantly elevated and the A/T ratio was significantly decreased. The A/E{sub 1} and T/E{sub 2} ratios were elevated and the E{sub 1}/E{sub 2} was decreased, although the differences were not statistically significant. A positive correlation between A and E{sub 1} was observed in patients with POS. In view of the above data, it was concluded that: the quality control parameters of the radioimmunoassay for A and E{sub 1} standardized in the present study are considered satisfactory, and the assay could be used for diagnosis and research; the patients with POS have a different sex steroid and gonadotropin profile when compared normal women during the early follicular phase of the menstrual cycle

  6. Virtual characters designed for forensic assessment and rehabilitation of sex offenders: standardized and made-to-measure

    Benoît Dassylva

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents two studies pertaining to the use of virtual characters applied in clinical forensic rehabilitation of sex offenders. The first study is about the validation of the perceived age of virtual characters designed to simulate primary and secondary sexual character of typical adult and child individuals. The second study puts to use these virtual characters in comparing a group of sex offenders and a group of non deviant individuals on their sexual arousal responses as recorded in virtual immersion. Finally, two clinical vignettes illustrating the use of made-to-measure virtual characters to more closely fit sexual preferences are presented in Discussion.

  7. Sex differences on a measure of conformity in automated teller machine lines.

    Reysen, Stephen; Reysen, Matthew B

    2004-10-01

    Sex differences in conformity were examined as participants approached two ATMs, one of which was occupied by three confederates and the other immediately available. The number of men and women in the line in front of one of the ATMs was manipulated (3 men or 3 women), and an unobtrusive observer recorded the sex of each participant. The results indicated that women were more likely than men to wait in line to use the ATM regardless of the makeup of the line. Thus, the present study provides evidence in favor of the idea that sex differences in conformity are evident on a common task performed in a natural setting. PMID:15587205

  8. Effect of Age and Sex on Jumping Mechanography and Other Measures of Muscle Mass and Function

    Siglinsky, Ellen; Krueger, Diane; Ward, Rachel E.; Caserotti, Paolo; Strotmeyer, Elsa S.; Harris, Tamara B.; Binkley, Neil; Buehring, Bjoern

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Sarcopenia increases falls and fracture risk. Sarcopenia clinical trials require robust quantitative tools to evaluate muscle function; jumping mechanography (JM) is likely one such tool. However, US data comparing JM with traditional tests across the lifespan is limited. This study evaluated the effect of age and sex on JM compared with traditional function tests and lean mass. Methods US adults (213 women/119 men; mean age 65.4 years, range 27–96) performed functional tests including JM, Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) and grip strength (GS). Appendicular lean mass (ALM) was measured using DXA. Results Men had higher relative jump power [mean (SD) 28.5 (10.52) vs. 21.9 (7.11) W/kg], GS [35.5 (9.84) vs. 22.7 (6.98) kg] and ALM/ht2 [.25 (1.35) vs. 6.99 (1.38) kg/m2] (all psarcopenia as it could potentially detect change in muscle function more precisely than existing tools. PMID:26636275

  9. Treatment impact of an integrated sex offender program as measured by J-SOAP-II.

    Rehfuss, Mark C; Underwood, Lee A; Enright, Morgan; Hill, Savannah; Marshall, Rod; Tipton, Paula; West, Laura; Warren, Kellie

    2013-04-01

    Despite the increase in juvenile sex offending in society and the significant growth in the number of treatment programs, relatively few studies have examined the effectiveness of these programs. This study examined the effectiveness of an integrated sex offender program on a sample of 309 adjudicated male sex offenders in a juvenile correctional facility using the dynamic scale score of the Juvenile Sex Offender Assessment Protocol II (J-SOAP-II). The youth participated in one of the three treatment groups characterized by length of treatment and risk of recidivism: low risk (0 to 9 months), moderate risk (9 to 23 months), and high risk (23 to 56 months). A significant decrease in the dynamic scale scores of the J-SOAP-II was found only for the moderate treatment group (9 to 23 months). PMID:23475853

  10. Quantitative measure of sexual selection with respect to the operational sex ratio: a comparison of selection indices

    Mills, Suzanne C.; Grapputo, Alessandro; Koskela, Esa; Mappes, Tapio

    2006-01-01

    Despite numerous indices proposed to predict the evolution of mating systems, a unified measure of sexual selection has remained elusive. Three previous studies have compared indices of sexual selection under laboratory conditions. Here, we use a genetic study to compare the most widely used measures of sexual selection in natural populations. We explored the mating and reproductive successes of male and female bank voles, Clethrionomys glareolus, across manipulated operational sex ratios (OS...

  11. Assigning sex and reproductive stage to adult Lake Sturgeon using ultrasonography and common morphological measurements

    Chiotti, Justin A.; Boase, James C.; Hondorp, Darryl W.; Briggs, Andrew S.

    2016-01-01

    Sex determination of fish species is difficult to assess when sexual dimorphism and gametes are not apparent. For threatened and endangered fish species, noninvasive techniques are needed when determining sex to minimize stress and the potential for mortality. We evaluated the use of a portable ultrasound unit to determine sex of Lake Sturgeon Acipenser fulvescens in the field. Ultrasound images were collected from 9 yellow-egg (F2, F3), 32 black-egg (F4, F5), and 107 fully developed male (M2) Lake Sturgeon. Two readers accurately assigned sex to 88–96% of fish, but accuracy varied in relation to maturity stage. Black-egg females and fully developed males were correctly identified for 89–100% of the fish sampled, while these two readers identified yellow-egg females only 33% and 67% of the time. Time spent collecting images ranged between 2 and 3 min once the user was comfortable with operating procedures. Discriminant analysis revealed the total length : girth ratio was a strong predictor of sex and maturity, correctly classifying 81% of black-egg females and 97% of the fully developed males. However, yellow-egg females were incorrectly classified on all occasions. This study shows the utility of using ultrasonography and a total length : girth ratio for sex determination of Lake Sturgeon in later reproductive stages around the spawning season.

  12. Mind Over Matter: Anabolic Steroids

    ... Citation Site Map Print Mind Over Matter: Anabolic Steroids Home / Teachers / NIDA Teaching Guide / Mind Over Matter ... build muscle faster. The Brain's Response to Anabolic Steroids Hi, my name's Sara Bellum. Welcome to my ...

  13. Constraints of recreational sport participation: measurement invariance and latent mean differences across sex and physical activity status.

    Liu, Jing Dong; Chung, Pak Kwong; Chen, Wing Ping

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of the current study was to (a) examine the measurement invariance of the Constraint Scale of Sport Participation across sex and physical activity status among the undergraduate students (N = 630) in Hong Kong and (b) compare the latent mean differences across groups. Measurement invariance of the Constraint Scale of Sport Participation across sex of and physical activity status of the participants was examined first. With receiving support on the measurement invariance across groups, latent mean differences of the scores across groups were examined. Multi-group confirmatory factor analysis revealed that the configural, metric, scalar, and structural invariance of the scale was supported across groups. The results of latent mean differences suggested that the women reported significantly higher constraints on time, partner, psychology, knowledge, and interest than the men. The physically inactive participants reported significantly higher scores on all constraints except for accessibility than the physically active participants. PMID:25310228

  14. Sex differences in the hypothalamic control of prolactin secretion

    Full text: Sex differences in the brain may arise from the organisational effects of exposure to sex steroids during development, or from the exposure to a differential hormonal milieu in the adult. There is a marked sex difference in the neuroendocrine mechanism that regulates prolactin secretion. Levels of prolactin in the blood are higher in females than in males. Similarly, basal activity of tuberoinfundibular dopamine (TIDA) neurons, which are involved in the tonic suppression of prolactin secretion, are two fold higher in females than in males. Prolactin is known to stimulate the activity of TIDA neurons, thereby regulating its own secretion by short-loop feedback. Hence, it is thought that elevated TIDA neuronal activity in females is induced by increased prolactin in the blood. We have recently demonstrated that prolactin stimulation of TIDA neurons requires the transcription factor, STAT5b. We have now investigated prolactin secretion in male and female STAT5b-deficient mice, to test the hypothesis that sex differences in TIDA neuronal activity are dependent on stimulation by prolactin acting through STAT5b. Prolactin levels in blood were measured by radioimmunoassay, and TIDA activity was assessed by measuring concentrations of the dopamine metabolite DOPAC in the median eminence by HPLC, and by measuring tyrosine hydroxylase mRNA in the arcuate nucleus by real-time RT-PCR. The data demonstrate marked gender differences in the activity of TIDA neurons. While TIDA activity in STAT5b-deficient mice was reduced compared to wild type, the sex difference persisted. Since STAT5b is required for the actions of prolactin on these neurons, we can conclude that the sexual dimorphism in brain function is independent of gender differences in blood levels of prolactin. It seems likely that differential exposure to gonadal steroid hormones, either during development or in adulthood, might underlie the sex difference in TIDA neuronal activity. Copyright (2001) Australasian Society of Clinical and Experimental Pharmacologists and Toxicologists

  15. Azido analogs of neuroactive steroids

    Černý, Ivan; Vidrna, Lukáš; Pouzar, Vladimír; Borovská, Jiřina; Vyklický, Vojtěch; Chodounská, Hana; Vyklický ml., Ladislav

    Chicago : -, 2011. P2.28-P2.28. [Congress on Steroid Research. 27.03.2011-29.03.2011, Chicago] R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) NS10365 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506; CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : neuroactive steroids * NMDA receptor * steroid azide Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry

  16. Variation in lower leg growth with alternate day steroid treatment.

    Wales, J. K.; Milner, R. D.

    1988-01-01

    Daily growth of the lower leg in a child receiving alternate day oral steroids for Crohn's disease was measured by knemometry. Growth occurred on days free of treatment. This may represent a direct observation of the growth sparing effect of alternate day steroid medication.

  17. Steroids. A Resource Guide.

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of School Health Education and Services.

    This guide provides information on steroid use as well as prevention and intervention strategies. It is intended to serve as a supplement to drug abuse education and prevention programs in elementary and secondary schools and as the basis for local curriculum development and instructional activities. The following topics are covered: (1) history…

  18. HPLC of Steroids

    Dinan, L.; Harmatha, Juraj; Lafont, R.

    Boca Raton : CRC Press, 2010, s. 679-708 ISBN 9781420092608. - (Chromatographic Science Series. 102) Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : HPLC * sterols * ecdysteroids * steroidal saponins Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry http://www.crcpress.com/product/isbn/9781420092608

  19. Ovarian steroid sulphate functions as priming pheromone in male Barilius bendelisis (Ham.)

    J P Bhatt; M S Sajwan

    2001-06-01

    The study reveals that pre-ovulatory females of the fish Barilius bendelisis (Ham.) release sex steroids and their conjugates into the water and that a steroid sulphate of these compounds functions as a potent sex pheromone which stimulates milt production in conspecific males prior to spawning. Since males exposed to the purified sub-fraction III of the steroid sulphate fraction have increased milt volume and more spermatozoa with greater motility, the function of this priming pheromone appears to be to enhance male spawning success. High turbulence and faster water currents render the hillstream ecosystem extremely challenging for chemical communication. Therefore, ovulatory female fish secrete highly water soluble steroid sulphates for rapid pheromonal action in males. Inhibited milt volume in olfactory tract lesioned (OTL) males exposed to the steroid sulphate fraction and 17,20-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one supports the concept that the pheromonally induced priming effect in male fish is mediated through olfactory pathways.

  20. Anabolic Steroids...What's the Hype?...

    Landry, Gregory L.; Wagner, Lauris L.

    This pamphlet uses a question-and-answer format to examine the use and abuse of anabolic steroids. It begins by explaining that all steroids are not anabolic steroids and that anabolic steroids are those used specifically to build muscles quickly. Medical uses of anabolic steroids are reviewed; how people get steroids, how they take them, and

  1. Anabolic Steroids...What's the Hype?...

    Landry, Gregory L.; Wagner, Lauris L.

    This pamphlet uses a question-and-answer format to examine the use and abuse of anabolic steroids. It begins by explaining that all steroids are not anabolic steroids and that anabolic steroids are those used specifically to build muscles quickly. Medical uses of anabolic steroids are reviewed; how people get steroids, how they take them, and…

  2. Age and Sex Differences in Controlled Force Exertion Measured by a Computing Bar Chart Target-Pursuit System

    Nagasawa, Yoshinori; Demura, Shinichi

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the age and sex differences in controlled force exertion measured by the bar chart display in 207 males (age 42.1 [plus or minus] 19.8 years) and 249 females (age 41.7 [plus or minus] 19.1 years) aged 15 to 86 years. The subjects matched their submaximal grip strength to changing demand values, which appeared as a

  3. Age and Sex Differences in Controlled Force Exertion Measured by a Computing Bar Chart Target-Pursuit System

    Nagasawa, Yoshinori; Demura, Shinichi

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the age and sex differences in controlled force exertion measured by the bar chart display in 207 males (age 42.1 [plus or minus] 19.8 years) and 249 females (age 41.7 [plus or minus] 19.1 years) aged 15 to 86 years. The subjects matched their submaximal grip strength to changing demand values, which appeared as a…

  4. Indianness, Sex, and Grade Differences on Behavior and Personality Measures Among Oglala Sioux Adolescents

    Cress, Joseph N.; O'Donnell, James P.

    1974-01-01

    This study assesses Indianness (mixed or full-blood), sex, and grade differences among Oglala Sioux high school students, using the Coopersmith Behavior Rating Forms and the Quay-Peterson Behavior Problem Checklist. Results indicate that mixed-bloods had higher achievement and greater popularity than full-bloods. Fewer problems and higher…

  5. Sexing monomorphic western mountain greenbuls on Mount Cameroon using morphometric measurements

    Djomo Nana, E.; Munclinger, P.; Ferenc, M.; Sedláček, O.; Albrecht, Tomáš; Hořák, D.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 2 (2014), s. 247-252. ISSN 1562-7020 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP505/11/1617 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : morphology * Andropadus tephrolaemus * sex ratio * discriminant function analysis * tropical Africa Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.612, year: 2014

  6. GnRH and steroids in cancer.

    Florio, Salvatore; Pagnini, Ugo; Crispino, Antonio; Pacilio, Carmen; Crispino, Luca; Giordano, Antonio

    2002-06-01

    Gonadotropin-releasing-hormone (GnRH) analogues are synthetic compounds derived from decapeptide neurohormones (LHRH; LH/FSH-RH). They have a key role in hormone dependent cancer, particularly breast and prostate cancer. GnRH analogues produce an efficient inhibition of gonadotropins and sex steroid hormones. Their use in cancer therapy result in a, pharmacological castration (i.e. ovariectomy and orchiectomy), providing an androgen and estrogen ablation. GnRH exert an inhibitory action on the growth of hormone-dependent human and canine mammary tumor. Mammary tumors can produce growth factor that potentially could modulate their own proliferation in an autocrine fashion (i.e. TGF-alpha and TGF-beta or with a paracrine mechanism (i.e. EGF, IGF, FGF). The expression of EGF receptors is related in mammary tissues to the action of oestrogen and progesteron and to the presence of functional receptors for oestrogen (ER) and progesteron (PR). The present review elucidate the role of GnRH receptors in cancer and their connection with steroid hormones. Besides we showed the link between GnRH and signal transductions pathways: Estrogen-receptors, GnRH-receptors, EGF-receptors signal transduction pathways. A very tight link exists between steroid hormones and GnRH analogues both on central pituitary gonadal axis and on tumor receptors peripherically. This last mechanism could be explained either locally activating GnRH receptors or locally interacting with EGF receptor-Intracellular NitricOxide system. PMID:12045004

  7. Androgen - secreting steroid cell tumor of the ovary

    Paras Ratilal Udhreja

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Steroid cell tumors (SCTs, not otherwise specified of the ovary are rare subgroup of sex cord tumors, which account for less than 0.1% of all ovarian tumors and also that will present at any age. The majority of these tumors produce steroids with testosterone being the most common. A case of a 28-year-old woman who presented with symptoms of virilization is reported. Although SCTs are generally benign, there is a risk for malignant transformation. Surgery is the most important and hallmark treatment.

  8. Steroid hormone measurements from different types of assays in relation to body mass index and breast cancer risk in postmenopausal women: Reanalysis of eighteen prospective studies.

    Key, T J; Appleby, P N; Reeves, G K; Travis, R C; Brinton, L A; Helzlsouer, K J; Dorgan, J F; Gapstur, S M; Gaudet, M M; Kaaks, R; Riboli, E; Rinaldi, S; Manjer, J; Hallmans, G; Giles, G G; Le Marchand, L; Kolonel, L N; Henderson, B E; Tworoger, S S; Hankinson, S E; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, A; Koenig, K; Krogh, V; Sieri, S; Muti, P; Ziegler, R G; Schairer, C; Fuhrman, B J; Barrett-Connor, E; Laughlin, G A; Grant, E J; Cologne, J; Ohishi, W; Hida, A; Cauley, J A; Fourkala, E O; Menon, U; Rohan, T E; Strickler, H D; Gunter, M J

    2015-07-01

    Epidemiological studies have examined breast cancer risk in relation to sex hormone concentrations measured by different methods: "extraction" immunoassays (with prior purification by organic solvent extraction, with or without column chromatography), "direct" immunoassays (no prior extraction or column chromatography), and more recently with mass spectrometry-based assays. We describe the associations of estradiol, estrone and testosterone with both body mass index and breast cancer risk in postmenopausal women according to assay method, using data from a collaborative pooled analysis of 18 prospective studies. In general, hormone concentrations were highest in studies that used direct assays and lowest in studies that used mass spectrometry-based assays. Estradiol and estrone were strongly positively associated with body mass index, regardless of the assay method; testosterone was positively associated with body mass index for direct assays, but less clearly for extraction assays, and there were few data for mass spectrometry assays. The correlations of estradiol with body mass index, estrone and testosterone were lower for direct assays than for extraction and mass spectrometry assays, suggesting that the estimates from the direct assays were less precise. For breast cancer risk, all three hormones were strongly positively associated with risk regardless of assay method (except for testosterone by mass spectrometry where there were few data), with no statistically significant differences in the trends, but differences may emerge as new data accumulate. Future epidemiological and clinical research studies should continue to use the most accurate assays that are feasible within the design characteristics of each study. PMID:25304359

  9. Radioimmunoassay of synthetic steroids

    The sensitivity of a radioimmunoassay depends on the intrinsic association constant of the interaction between ligand and antibody. Its specificity depends on the position of the chain which forms the link with the antigen. Thus, an antibody specific of estradiol has been obtained by coupling estradiol to albumin via a chain at position 7. For synthetic steroids the structure of which is sufficiency different from that of natural hormones, the requirements for a sensitive assay method not involving chromatography are simply maximum affinity and positioning of the couple at a site which does not undergo metabolic attack. These criteria were used to develop assays for R 2858 and R 2453 which obviate the need to administer radioactive product in clinical pharmacology. Cross-reaction with structural analogs may be used to assay competitors. Thus, R 2323 antibody, highly specific for endogenous steroids, may be used to assay other trienes such as R 1697 (trenbolone) and R 2010 (norgestrienone)

  10. Does the mechanism of sex determination constrain the potential for sex manipulation? A test in geckos with contrasting sex-determining systems

    Kratochvíl, Lukáš; Kubička, Lukáš; Landová, Eva

    2008-03-01

    The concentration of yolk steroids was suggested to influence offspring gender in oviparous animals subject to both temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD) and genotypic sex determination (GSD). However, the proposed mechanisms of steroid effects are thought to differ between TSD and GSD: a direct effect of oestrogens on gonad feminisation in TSD species vs a differential induction of male-producing or female-producing gametes in GSD species. Geckos offer an ideal opportunity for testing these suggested mechanisms. Closely related gecko species differ in their modes of sex determination. They lay clutches of two synchronously formed eggs; both eggs share equal steroid levels. If identical hormonal composition and environment during vitellogenesis, gravidity and incubation determine the sex of the progeny, siblings should share the same gender in both TSD and GSD geckos. We found strong support for this prediction in a TSD gecko species. Among clutches that were incubated at the temperature that produced both sexes, there were no clutches with siblings of the opposite sex. On the other hand, about half of the clutches yielded siblings of the opposite sex in four GSD species. These results suggest that sex-determining systems constrain the ability of the female to produce single-sex siblings and, hence, it seems that the GSD mechanism constrains the opportunities for sex ratio manipulation in geckos via yolk steroid manipulation.

  11. Sex ratios of births, mortality, and air pollution: can measuring the sex ratios of births help to identify health hazards from air pollution in industrial environments?

    Williams, F.L.; Ogston, S A; Lloyd, O L

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To compare the sex ratios of births and mortality in 12 Scottish localities with residential exposure to pollution from a variety of industrial sources with those in 12 nearby and comparable localities without such exposure. METHODS--24 localities were defined by postcode sectors. SMRs for lung cancer and for all causes of death and sex ratios of births were calculated for each locality for the years 1979-83. Log linear regression was used to assess the relation between exposure, ...

  12. Sex Hormone-Binding Globulin in Children and Adolescents

    Aydın, Banu; Winters, Stephen J.

    2016-01-01

    Sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) is a circulating glycoprotein that transports testosterone and other steroids in the blood. Interest in SHBG has escalated in recent years because of its inverse association with obesity and insulin resistance, and because many studies have linked lower circulating levels of SHBG to metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, polycystic ovary syndrome, and early puberty. The purpose of this review is to summarize molecular, clinical, endocrine, and epidemiological findings to illustrate how measurement of plasma SHBG may be useful in clinical medicine in children. PMID:26761949

  13. Examining the effects of age, sex, and body mass index on normative median motor nerve excitability measurements.

    McHugh, John C

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to build a large reference database of excitability measures in normal subjects and to examine the effects of age, sex, and BMI. METHODS: One hundred and five healthy subjects had median motor nerve excitability testing performed at the wrist using the automated threshold-tracking program, QTRAC. Statistical linear regression was used to explore relationships between nerve excitability and the independent variables. RESULTS: The main effect of age is a reduced superexcitability. Lesser effects are flattening of the normalized stimulus response curve and reduction in threshold change following strong hyperpolarizing currents. Females have lower thresholds than males and small but significant differences in voltage-gated potassium channel (KCNQ) mediated properties (late subexcitability, accommodation half time, and threshold undershoot following depolarizing electrotonus), as well as a small increase in superexcitability. BMI has no influence on nerve excitability data and does not explain sex-related differences in threshold. CONCLUSIONS: Age and sex have few and small effects on excitability parameters. SIGNIFICANCE: The expression of nodal KCNQ channels appears to be greater in females. Age-related increases in subexcitability may be attributable to changes in the muscle fibre and not the nerve.

  14. Nonprescription Steroids on the Internet

    McDonald, Christen L.; Marlowe, Douglas B; Patapis, Nicholas S.; Festinger, David S; Forman, Robert F.

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated the degree to which anabolic-androgenic steroids are proffered for sale over the Internet and how they are characterized on popular websites. Searches for specific steroid product labels (e.g., Dianabol) between March and June, 2006 revealed that approximately half of the websites advocated their “safe” use, and roughly one-third offered to sell them without prescriptions. The websites frequently presented misinformation about steroids and minimized their dangers. Less th...

  15. About Steroids (Inhaled and Oral Corticosteroids)

    ... Medications > Long-Term Control Medications > About Steroids About Steroids (Inhaled and Oral Corticosteroids) What are corticosteroids (‘steroids’) ... considerations when your dosage changes? What are corticosteroids (‘steroids’)? Corticosteroids (steroids) are medicines that are used to ...

  16. Role of Steroids in COPD

    Vishnu Sharma

    2002-01-01

    There has been a lot of debate regarding the role of steroids in the management of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. Now with a better understanding of the pathophysiology of COPD, the role of steroids in the management of COPD has become clearer.

  17. Roles of Steroids in Nematodes

    The inability of nematodes to biosynthesize steroids de novo and the resulting dependence of parasitic nematodes upon their hosts have enhanced the importance of elucidating the metabolism of sterols and the hormonal and other functions of steroids in nematodes. Biochemical research has revealed th...

  18. Physicochemical and biological properties of new steroid metal complexes

    The aim of this investigation was to prepare stable steroid metal chelates by chemical conversion of the natural steroid hormones testerone, 5α-dihydrotestosterone (5α-DHT) and estradiol and to characterize these by means of their spectroscopic and other physico-chemical properties. In addition, various measuring techniques for the qualitative and quantitative study of complex stabilities and hydrolytic properties were employed. The distribution of some tritiated steroid metal complexes in the tissues of rats was tested using whole animal autoradiography, mainly with a view to identifying whether selective concentration occurs in certain organs. (orig.)

  19. ANABOLIC ANDROGENIC STEROIDS AND DEPENDENCE

    IHSAN SARI

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Anabolic androgenic steroids are used for sportive, cosmetic, therapeutic and occupational reasons and there are many side effects reported (George, 2005; Nieminen et al., 1996; O'Sullivan et al., 2000. Prevalence of anabolic steroids use also indicates the importance of this topic. Moreover, it is now known that use of anabolic steroids could lead to dependence which could be psychological or/and physiological (Copeland et al., 2000. It isimportant to know about all aspects of anabolic steroids including dependence. Therefore, this study has attempted to give an insight into use of anabolic steroids and dependence. The discussion will focus on prevalence, reasons, and side effects of use and physiological and psychological dependence

  20. Steroid cell tumor not otherwise specified of bilateral ovaries: A rare cause of post menopausal virilization

    Samanthi M. A. Cooray

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Steroid cell tumors of the ovaries are rare sex-hormone secreting tumors which are usually benign and unilateral. One previous study has estimated the tumors to be bilateral in 6% of patients. We report a case of post menopausal virilization where tumor histology revealed steroid cell tumor not otherwise specified with benign charactsristics. The presence of tumor in bilateral ovaries made this case unique.

  1. Regulation of antioxidant enzyme activities in female rat brain by ovarian steroids

    Pajović, Snežana B.; Saičić, Zorica S.

    2008-01-01

    The sex steroids produce their effects by acting on numerous target tissues and organs, such as the reproductive organs, bone tissue and cartilage, peripheral blood vessels as well as the central nervous system (CNS). In our studies we have monitored the change of enzyme activity of the antioxidant (AO) system in the brain of female rats depending on the ovarian steroids. We have chosen it as a new parameter that might represent an important indicator of the changes within the CNS, bearing in...

  2. Sex differences in attentional processes in adult rats as measured by performance on the 5-choice serial reaction time task.

    Bayless, Daniel W; Darling, Jeff S; Stout, Willy J; Daniel, Jill M

    2012-11-01

    The goal of the current study was to explore sex differences in attentional processes in adult rats using a test of attention shown to be dependent upon the prefrontal cortex. Male and female adult Long-Evans rats were trained on the 5-choice serial reaction time task. This task requires rats to identify the location of a brief light stimulus among five possible locations. Performance was assessed under baseline conditions and under behavioral challenge conditions during which task difficulty was increased. Behavioral challenge conditions included shortening the stimulus duration, shortening the time before the onset of the stimulus, lengthening the time before the onset of the stimulus, and presenting a distracting noise. Analyses across baseline and all challenge conditions revealed that vigilance or sustained attention was more disrupted in female rats than it was in male rats, as measured by percent correct and number of omissions. Analyses also revealed that inhibitory control was more disrupted in male rats than it was in female rats, as measured by number of premature responses. These differences were most prominent when the onset of the stimulus was unpredictably lengthened. There were no differences in reward collection latency or correct response latency indicating no differences in motivation or sensory processes between the sexes. These results indicate that under challenging conditions adult female rats are more prone to make errors of vigilance than are adult male rats, and adult male rats are more prone to make errors of inhibitory control than are adult female rats. PMID:22835820

  3. Measurements of vertebral shape by r[iographic morphometry: sex differences and relationships with vertebral level and lumbar lordosis

    Objective. To examine sex-related and vertebral-level-specific differences in vertebral shape and to investigate the relationships between the lumbar lordosis angle and vertebral morphology. Design and patients. Lateral thoracic and lumbar spine r[iographs were obtained with a standardized protocol in 142 healthy men and 198 healthy women over 50 years old. Anterior (Ha), central (Hc) and posterior (Hp) heights of each vertebra from T4 to L4 were measured using a digitizing technique, and the Ha/Hp and Hc/Hp ratios were calculated. The lumbar lordosis angle was measured on the lateral lumbar spine r[iographs. Results. Ha/Hp and Hc/Hp ratios were smaller in men than women by 1.8% and 0.7%, respectively, and these ratios varied with vertebral level. Significant correlations were found between vertebral shape and the lumbar lordosis angle. Conclusions. These results demonstrate that vertebral shape varies significantly with sex, vertebral level and lumbar lordosis angle. Awareness of these relationships may help prevent misdiagnosis in clinical vertebral morphometry. (orig.)

  4. A simple method for measuring sex-hormone binding protein (SHBP) - typical values in men and women and in pregnant women

    Assuming that the binding forces between steroid hormones and their binding proteins are similar to those between antigens and their antibodies, the authors describe how to determine SHBP activity by a dilution method analogous to that used for titration of antisera in radioimmunoassay. The method consists of the following stages: (1) plasma dilution; (2) incubation of the dilution with 20,000dis/min of 1,2-3H-testosterone; (3) separation of the fraction of tracer bound to the SHBP by precipitation with ammonium sulphate; (4) centrifugation and measurement of the supernatant; and (5) plotting of the results on a graph where the axis of ordinates represents the quotient given by bound steroid over free steroid (U/L) and the abscissa represents the plasma dilutions. The values are expressed as the 50% bound titre. An advantage of the method is the higher sensitivity of the dilution curves in the steepest part where the 50% bound is encountered; it is thus not necessary to use the saturation part of the curves where sensitivity is lost owing to the steeper slope. A further advantage of the method is that there is no need for costly processes such as dialysis. The SHBP values obtained for healthy subjects were as follows: 1/5 for men, 1/93 for women, and 1/360 in pregnant women. These physiological values showed no overlapping. (author)

  5. Steroids and endocrine disruptors--History, recent state of art and open questions.

    Hampl, Richard; Kubátová, Jana; Stárka, Luboslav

    2016-01-01

    This introductory chapter provides an overview of the levels and sites at which endocrine disruptors (EDs) affect steroid actions. In contrast to the special issue of Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology published three years ago and devoted to EDs as such, this paper focuses on steroids. We tried to point to more recent findings and opened questions. EDs interfere with steroid biosynthesis and metabolism either as inhibitors of relevant enzymes, or at the level of their expression. Particular attention was paid to enzymes metabolizing steroid hormones to biologically active products in target cells, such as aromatase, 5α-reductase and 3β-, 11β- and 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases. An important target for EDs is also steroid acute regulatory protein (StAR), responsible for steroid precursor trafficking to mitochondria. EDs influence receptor-mediated steroid actions at both genomic and non-genomic levels. The remarkable differences in response to various steroid-receptor ligands led to a more detailed investigation of events following steroid/disruptor binding to the receptors and to the mapping of the signaling cascades and nuclear factors involved. A virtual screening of a large array of EDs with steroid receptors, known as in silico methods (≡computer simulation), is another promising approach for studying quantitative structure activity relationships and docking. New data may be expected on the effect of EDs on steroid hormone binding to selective plasma transport proteins, namely transcortin and sex hormone-binding globulin. Little information is available so far on the effects of EDs on the major hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal/gonadal axes, of which the kisspeptin/GPR54 system is of particular importance. Kisspeptins act as stimulators for hormone-induced gonadotropin secretion and their expression is regulated by sex steroids via a feed-back mechanism. Kisspeptin is now believed to be one of the key factors triggering puberty in mammals, and various EDs affect its expression and function. Finally, advances in analytics of EDs, especially those persisting in the environment, in various body fluids (plasma, urine, seminal fluid, and follicular fluid) are mentioned. Surprisingly, relatively scarce information is available on the simultaneous determination of EDs and steroids in the same biological material. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Endocrine disruptors & steroids'. PMID:24816231

  6. Measuring the effects of aging and sex on regional brain stiffness with MR elastography in healthy older adults.

    Arani, Arvin; Murphy, Matthew C; Glaser, Kevin J; Manduca, Armando; Lake, David S; Kruse, Scott A; Jack, Clifford R; Ehman, Richard L; Huston, John

    2015-05-01

    Changes in tissue composition and cellular architecture have been associated with neurological disease, and these in turn can affect biomechanical properties. Natural biological factors such as aging and an individual's sex also affect underlying tissue biomechanics in different brain regions. Understanding the normal changes is necessary before determining the efficacy of stiffness imaging for neurological disease diagnosis and therapy monitoring. The objective of this study was to evaluate global and regional changes in brain stiffness as a function of age and sex, using improved MRE acquisition and processing that have been shown to provide median stiffness values that are typically reproducible to within 1% in global measurements and within 2% for regional measurements. Furthermore, this is the first study to report the effects of age and sex over the entire cerebrum volume and over the full frontal, occipital, parietal, temporal, deep gray matter/white matter (insula, deep gray nuclei and white matter tracts), and cerebellum volumes. In 45 volunteers, we observed a significant linear correlation between age and brain stiffness in the cerebrum (Psensory-motor regions (P=.32) of the brain, and a weak linear trend was observed in the deep gray matter/white matter (P=.075). A multiple linear regression model predicted an annual decline of 0.011 ± 0.002 kPa in cerebrum stiffness with a theoretical median age value (76 years old) of 2.56 ± 0.08 kPa. Sexual dimorphism was observed in the temporal (P=.03) and occipital (P=.001) lobes of the brain, but no significant difference was observed in any of the other brain regions (P>.20 for all other regions). The model predicted female occipital and temporal lobes to be 0.23 kPa and 0.09 kPa stiffer than males of the same age, respectively. This study confirms that as the brain ages, there is softening; however, the changes are dependent on region. In addition, stiffness effects due to sex exist in the occipital and temporal lobes. PMID:25698157

  7. Safe sex

    Safe sex means taking steps before and during sex that can prevent you from getting an infection, or from ... the skin around the genital area. Before having sex: Get to know your partner and discuss your ...

  8. Sex hormone influence on human infants' sound characteristics: melody in spontaneous crying

    Wermke, Kathleen; Hain, Johannes; Oehler, Klaus; Wermke, Peter; Hesse, Volker

    2014-01-01

    The specific impact of sex hormones on brain development and acoustic communication is known from animal models. Sex steroid hormones secreted during early development play an essential role in hemispheric organization and the functional lateralization of the brain, e.g. language. In animals, these hormones are well-known regulators of vocal motor behaviour. Here, the association between melody properties of infants' sounds and serum concentrations of sex steroids was investigated. Spontaneou...

  9. The HIV Care Cascade Measured Over Time and by Age, Sex, and Race in a Large National Integrated Care System.

    Horberg, Michael Alan; Hurley, Leo Bartemeier; Klein, Daniel Benjamin; Towner, William James; Kadlecik, Peter; Antoniskis, Diana; Mogyoros, Miguel; Brachman, Philip Sigmund; Remmers, Carol Louise; Gambatese, Rebecca Claire; Blank, Jackie; Ellis, Courtney Georgiana; Silverberg, Michael Jonah

    2015-11-01

    HIV care cascades can evaluate programmatic success over time. However, methodologies for estimating cascade stages vary, and few have evaluated differences by demographic subgroups. We examined cascade performance over time and by age, sex, and race/ethnicity in Kaiser Permanente, providing HIV care in eight US states and Washington, DC. We created cascades for HIV+ members' age ?13 for 2010-2012. We measured "linkage" (a visit/CD4 within 90 days of being diagnosed for new patients; ?1 medical visit/year if established); "retention" (?2 medical visits ?60 days apart); filled ART (filled ?3 months of combination ART); and viral suppression (HIV RNA sex, age, and race/ethnicity. We found men had statistically (p?ART, and viral suppression for 2010 and 2011 but not for 2012. Women had significantly greater retention for all years. Annually, older age was associated (p?ART, and viral suppression but not linkage. Latinos had greater (p?ART and viral suppression was increased (p?ART prescribing. PMID:26505968

  10. The role of steroids in follicular growth

    Drummond Ann E

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The steroidogenic pathway within the ovary gives rise to progestins, androgens and oestrogens, all of which act via specific nuclear receptors to regulate reproductive function and maintain fertility. The role of progestins in follicular growth and development is limited, its action confined largely to ovulation, although direct effects on granulosa cell function have been reported. Consistent with these findings, progesterone receptor knockout mice are infertile because they cannot ovulate. Androgens have been shown to promote early follicular growth, but also to impede follicular development by stimulating atresia and apoptosis. The inability of androgens to transduce a signal in mice lacking androgen receptors culminates in reduced fertility. Oestrogens are known to exert effects on granulosa cell growth and differentiation in association with gonadotrophins. Studies with oestrogen receptor knockouts and oestrogen depleted mice have shown us that oestrogen is essential for folliculogenesis beyond the antral stage and is necessary to maintain the female phenotype of ovarian somatic cells. In summary, the action of steroids within the ovary is based on the developmental status of the follicle. In the absence of any single sex steroid, ovarian function and subsequently fertility, are compromised.

  11. Serum steroid concentrations remain within normal postmenopausal values in women receiving daily 6.5mg intravaginal prasterone for 12weeks.

    Martel, Céline; Labrie, Fernand; Archer, David F; Ke, Yuyong; Gonthier, Renaud; Simard, Jean-Nicolas; Lavoie, Lyne; Vaillancourt, Mario; Montesino, Marlene; Balser, John; Moyneur, Érick

    2016-05-01

    This study integrates all data obtained in women aged 40-80years enrolled with moderate to severe symptoms of vulvovaginal atrophy (VVA) who received daily intravaginal administration of 0.50% (6.5mg) dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA; prasterone) for 12weeks (n=723; ITT-S population) as compared with placebo (n=266; ITT-S population). To this end, serum steroid levels (DHEA, DHEA-sulfate (DHEA-S), androst-5-ene-3β, 17β-diol (5-diol), testosterone, dihydrotestosterone (DHT), androstenedione (4-dione), estrone (E1), estradiol (E2), estrone sulfate (E1-S), androsterone glucuronide (ADT-G), and androstane-3α, 17β-diol 17-glucuronide (3α-diol-17G)) were measured at Day 1 and Week 12 by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) following validation performed according to the FDA guidelines [1-6]. In agreement with the mechanisms of intracrinology where DHEA is exclusively transformed intracellularly into active sex steroids which act and are inactivated locally before being released as glucuronided or sulfated metabolites for elimination by the kidneys and liver, all sex steroids remained well within normal postmenopausal values following administration of intravaginal DHEA. Serum estradiol, the most relevant sex steroid, was measured after 12weeks of treatment at 3.36pg/ml (cITT-S population) or 19% below the normal postmenopausal value of 4.17pg/ml. On the other hand, serum E1-S, the best recognized marker of global estrogenic activity, shows an average value of 209pg/ml at 12 weeks compared to 220pg/ml in normal postmenopausal women. Moreover, serum ADT-G, the main metabolite of androgens, also remains well within normal postmenopausal values. The present data shows that a low daily intravaginal dose (6.5mg) of DHEA (prasterone) which is efficacious on the symptoms and signs of VVA, permits to achieve the desired local efficacy without systemic exposure, in agreement with the stringent mechanisms of menopause established after 500 million years of evolution where each cell in each tissue is the master of its sex steroid exposure. PMID:26972555

  12. Topical steroid-damaged skin

    Anil Abraham

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Topical steroids, commonly used for a wide range of skin disorders, are associated with side effects both systemic and cutaneous. This article aims at bringing awareness among practitioners, about the cutaneous side effects of easily available, over the counter, topical steroids. This makes it important for us as dermatologists to weigh the usefulness of topical steroids versus their side effects, and to make an informed decision regarding their use in each individual based on other factors such as age, site involved and type of skin disorder.

  13. Steroids in Athletics: One University's Experience.

    Lopez, Mike

    1990-01-01

    Presents an account of one university's experience in conducting an investigation into possible steroid use by student athletes and the development of a program to deal with the problem. Discusses why athletes use steroids and how steroids are taken. Concludes it is likely many steroid-related deaths of athletes go undetected. (Author/ABL)

  14. Sex differences in subjective and objective measures of pain, functional impairment, and health-related quality of life in patients with lumbar degenerative disc disease.

    Gautschi, Oliver P; Corniola, Marco V; Smoll, Nicolas R; Joswig, Holger; Schaller, Karl; Hildebrandt, Gerhard; Stienen, Martin N

    2016-05-01

    Sex differences in pain perception are known to exist; however, the exact pathomechanism remains unclear. This work aims to elucidate sex differences in subjective and objective measures of pain, functional impairment, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in patients with lumbar degenerative disc disease. In a prospective 2-center study, back and leg pain (visual analogue scale [VAS]), functional disability (Oswestry Disability Index and Roland-Morris Disability Index), and HRQoL (EuroQol-5D and Short Form [SF12]) were collected for consecutive patients undergoing lumbar spine surgery. Objective functional impairment (OFI) was estimated using age-adjusted and sex-adjusted cutoff values for the timed-up-and-go (TUG) test. A healthy cohort of n = 110 subjects served as the control group. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to test the association between sex and pain, subjective and OFIs, and HRQoL. The study comprised n = 305 patients (41.6% females). Female patients had more VAS back pain (P = 0.002) and leg pain (P = 0.014). They were more likely to report higher functional impairment in terms of Oswestry Disability Index (P = 0.005). Similarly, HRQoL measured with the EuroQol-5D index (P = 0.012) and SF12 physical composite score (P = 0.005) was lower in female patients. Female patients reported higher VAS back and leg pain, functional impairment, and reduced HRQoL than male patients. However, there were no sex differences with respect to the presence and degree of OFI measured by the TUG test using age-adjusted and sex-adjusted cutoff values. As such, the TUG may be a good test to overcome sex bias for the clinical assessment of patients with degenerative disc disease. PMID:26761383

  15. Factor structures of measures of cognitive distortions, emotional congruence, and victim empathy based on data from Irish child sex offenders

    Waldron, Brian; O'Reilly, Gary; Randall, Patrick; Dooley, Barbara A.; CARR, ALAN; et al.

    2006-01-01

    This study evaluated the factor structures of three instruments from the Sexual Offender Assessment Pack. The Children and Sex Cognitive Distortions Scale, the Children and Sex Emotional Congruence Scale, and the Child Victim Empathy Distortions Scale were administered to 203 sex offenders in Ireland. Confirmatory factor analyses did not support the proposed single factor structure for each of the three scales. Exploratory factor analyses suggested more complex factor structures. The Children...

  16. Combinatorial effects of genistein and sex-steroids on the level of cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR), adenylate cyclase (AC) and cAMP in the cervix of ovariectomised rats.

    Salleh, Naguib; Ismail, Nurain; Muniandy, Sekaran; Korla, Praveen Kumar; Giribabu, Nelli

    2015-12-01

    The combinatorial effects of genistein and estrogen (E) or estrogen plus progesterone (E+P) on CFTR, AC and cAMP levels in cervix were investigated. Ovariectomised adult female rats received 50 or 100mg/kg/day genistein with E or E followed by E+P [E+(E+P)] for seven consecutive days. Cervixes were harvested and analyzed for CFTR mRNA levels by Real-time PCR. Distribution of AC and CFTR proteins in endocervix were observed by immunohistochemistry. Levels of cAMP were measured by enzyme-immunoassay. Molecular docking predicted interaction between genistein and AC. Our results indicate that levels of CFTR, AC and cAMP in cervix of rats receiving genistein plus E were higher than E-only treatment (p<0.05) while genistein plus [E+(E+P)] were higher than E+(E+P)-only treatment (p<0.05). In conclusions, increased levels of CFTR, AC and cAMP in cervix of E and E+(E+P)-treated rats by genistein could affect the cervical secretory function which could influence the female reproductive processes. PMID:26529183

  17. Psychological, social, and spiritual effects of contraceptive steroid hormones.

    Klaus, Hanna; Cortés, Manuel E

    2015-08-01

    Governments and society have accepted and enthusiastically promoted contraception, especially contraceptive steroid hormones, as the means of assuring optimal timing and number of births, an undoubted health benefit, but they seldom advert to their limitations and side effects. This article reviews the literature on the psychological, social, and spiritual impact of contraceptive steroid use. While the widespread use of contraceptive steroid hormones has expanded life style and career choices for many women, their impact on the women's well-being, emotions, social relationships, and spirituality is seldom mentioned by advocates, and negative effects are often downplayed. When mentioned at all, depression and hypoactive sexual desire are usually treated symptomatically rather than discontinuing their most frequent pharmacological cause, the contraceptive. The rising incidence of premarital sex and cohabitation and decreased marriage rates parallel the use of contraceptive steroids as does decreased church attendance and/or reduced acceptance of Church teaching among Catholics. Lay summary: While there is wide, societal acceptance of hormonal contraceptives to space births, their physical side effects are often downplayed and their impact on emotions and life styles are largely unexamined. Coincidental to the use of "the pill" there has been an increase in depression, low sexual desire, "hook-ups," cohabitation, delay of marriage and childbearing, and among Catholics, decreased church attendance and reduced religious practice. Fertility is not a disease. Birth spacing can be achieved by natural means, and the many undesirable effects of contraception avoided. PMID:26912936

  18. BILATERAL STEROID INDUCED GLAUCOMA IN VERNAL KERATOCONJUNCTIVITIS

    Bangal Surekha V, Bankar Mahima S, Bhandari Akshay J, Kalkote Prasad R

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Vernal Keratoconjunctivits (VKC is a bilateral recurrent allergic interstitial conjunctival inflammation with a periodic seasonal incidence and of self limiting nature, mainly affecting the younger population. Patients of VKC on steroid therapy are at higher risk of developing steroid induced glaucoma. Raised intraocular pressure due to steroids typically occurs within few weeks of starting steroid therapy and comes back to normal on immediate stoppage of steroids. A case of steroid induced glaucoma in a 30 years old female with vernal keratoconjunctivitis. She was on topical steroids for 3-4 years. She was incompliant with the instructions to stop steroids. She eventually developed steroid induced glaucoma and glaucomatous optic neuropathy with tunnel vision.

  19. Interactions of gonadal steroids with brain dopamine and gonadotropin-releasing hormone in the control of gonadotropin-II secretion in the goldfish.

    Trudeau, V L; Sloley, B D; Wong, A O; Peter, R E

    1993-01-01

    In goldfish it is known that intraperitoneal implantation with testosterone (T) or estradiol (E2) potentiates the serum gonadotropin-II (GtH-II) response to gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) without affecting basal GtH-II levels. Since the release of GtH-II in goldfish is under a tonic dopaminergic inhibitory tone, the possibility of sex steroids modulating brain and pituitary dopamine was examined in vivo and in vitro. Implantation of females with either T or E2 (100 micrograms/g in solid silastic pellets) also potentiated the increase in serum GtH-II in response to the dopamine antagonist, domperidone (10 micrograms/g). High-performance liquid chromatography measurements showed that steroid implantation had no effect on dopamine content in the telencephalon including preoptic area, hypothalamus, and pituitary. However, the present study demonstrates that T or E2 can increase pituitary dopamine turnover rates following tyrosine hydroxylase inhibition with alpha-methyl-p-tyrosine (240 micrograms/g). In vitro perifusion of pars distalis fragments from E2- or T-treated fish also showed a potentiation of salmon GnRH (sGnRH)-induced GtH-II release compared to controls. However, exposure to pituitary fragments from control and steroid-treated fish to increasing doses of the dopamine agonist LY 171555 did not demonstrate a significant difference in the sensitivity of the gonadotrophs to dopamine. Testosterone-induced alterations in DA turnover are dissociable from the positive action of T on pituitary responsiveness, since the potentiating effect of T implantation was not affected by severe depletion of brain and pituitary DA levels by alpha-methyl-p-tyrosine pretreatment. These data demonstrate that in gonad-intact goldfish, sex steroids enhance pituitary responsiveness to GnRH but basal serum GtH-II levels are maintained by a concomitant increase in DA turnover in the pituitary. PMID:8094059

  20. Steroidal Saponins in Oat Bran.

    Yang, Junli; Wang, Pei; Wu, Wenbin; Zhao, Yantao; Idehen, Emmanuel; Sang, Shengmin

    2016-02-24

    Saponins are one type of widespread defense compound in the plant kingdom and have been exploited for the production of lead compounds with diverse pharmacological properties in drug discovery. Oats contain two unique steroidal saponins, avenacoside A, 1, and avenacoside B, 2. However, the chemical composition, the levels of these saponins in commercial oat products, and their health effects are still largely unknown. In this study, we directly purified 5 steroidal saponins (1-5) from a methanol extract of oat bran, characterized their structures by analyzing their MS and NMR spectra, and also tentatively identified 11 steroidal saponins (6-16) on the basis of their tandem mass spectra (MS(n), n = 2-3). Among the five purified saponins, 5 is a new compound and 4 is purified from oats for the first time. Using HPLC-MS techniques, a complete profile of oat steroidal saponins was determined, and the contents of the two primary steroidal saponins, 1 and 2, were quantitated in 15 different commercial oat products. The total levels of these two saponins vary from 49.6 to 443.0 mg/kg, and oat bran or oatmeal has higher levels of these two saponins than cold oat cereal. Furthermore, our results on the inhibitory effects of 1 and 2 against the growth of human colon cancer cells HCT-116 and HT-29 showed that both had weak activity, with 2 being more active than 1. PMID:26852819

  1. Sex chromosome complement affects social interactions in mice

    McPhie-Lalmansingh, Anika A.; Tejada, Lucia D.; Weaver, Jessica L.; Rissman, Emilie F

    2008-01-01

    Sex differences in behavior can be attributed to differences in steroid hormones. Sex chromosome complement can also influence behavior, independent of gonadal differentiation. The mice used for this work combined a spontaneous mutation of the Sry gene with a transgene for Sry that is incorporated into an autosome thus disassociating gonad differentiation from sex chromosome complement. The resulting genotypes are XX and XY− females (ovary-bearing) along with XXSry and XY−Sry males (testes-be...

  2. Assessment of Borderline Personality Features in Population Samples: Is the Personality Assessment Inventory-Borderline Features Scale Measurement Invariant across Sex and Age?

    De Moor, Marleen H. M.; Distel, Marijn A.; Trull, Timothy J.; Boomsma, Dorret I.

    2009-01-01

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is more often diagnosed in women than in men, and symptoms tend to decline with age. Using a large community sample, the authors investigated whether sex and age differences in four main features of BPD, measured with the "Personality Assessment Inventory-Borderline Features" scale (PAI-BOR; Morey, 1991), are

  3. Assessment of Borderline Personality Features in Population Samples: Is the Personality Assessment Inventory-Borderline Features Scale Measurement Invariant across Sex and Age?

    De Moor, Marleen H. M.; Distel, Marijn A.; Trull, Timothy J.; Boomsma, Dorret I.

    2009-01-01

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is more often diagnosed in women than in men, and symptoms tend to decline with age. Using a large community sample, the authors investigated whether sex and age differences in four main features of BPD, measured with the "Personality Assessment Inventory-Borderline Features" scale (PAI-BOR; Morey, 1991), are…

  4. Prenatal sex determination by radioimmunoassay of testosterone with and without chromatography of the amniotic fluid

    Amniotic fluid testosterone measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA) without chromatography (immunoreactive testosterone) seems not to be a definitive test for prenatal sex determination in all cases. In this study testosterone (T) levels measured by RIA with chromatography of the amniotic fluid samples were compared with immunoreactive testosterone (iT) values, to determine the predictive accuracy of the two methods. In 111 amniotic fluid samples between 15 and 19 weeks of gestation iT and T were measured parallelly. There are significant differences between iT- and T-means of both sexes (p < 0.001). 95%-confidence limits of iT-values of the male and female fetuses are largely overlapping. In contrast, the overlap of 95%-confidence limits of the T-values is only minor. The measurement of testosterone with chromatography of the amniotic fluid samples shows for prenatal sex determination in over 90% accuracy. This result is due to the elimination of sex-specific differences in crossreacting steroids within the amniotic fluid of both sexes. (orig)

  5. Age and sex differences in cerebral glucose consumption measured by pet using [18-F] fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)

    Resting cerebral glucose metabolic rates (CMRglc) were measured in 23 subjects by PET using FDG. Subjects were divided into several groups (mean age +- S.D.) 5 young males (YM) (27 +- 6); 6 young females (YF)(33 +9); 5 elderly males (EM)(73 +- 5); 7 elderly females (EF)(69 +- 7). Additionally, from these groups 4 YM, 3YF, 5EM and 4EF were studied again within 6 weeks under identical conditions. CMRglc in the YF group again was significantly hider than YM (p 0.05). No obvious relationships of CMRglc to the phase of the menstrual cycle was found in this small group. There was a trend (p=0.06) toward a higher CMRglc in YF than EF. These results support the findings of higher CBF in YF versus YM. The differences between the results of Kuhl et al (J. Cereb. and a reduction of CMRglc with age was found in a mixed group of males and females (58and female), and where no age effect was found the males, are also resolved by these findings. The authors suggest that the apparent age effect, in females in this study, is principally a hormonal one

  6. Conceptualization and measurement of homosexuality in sex surveys: a critical review Modos de conceitualizar e medir homossexualidade em pesquisas sobre sexualidade: uma revisão crítica

    Stuart Michaels; Brigitte Lhomond

    2006-01-01

    This article reviews major national population sex surveys that have asked questions about homosexuality focusing on conceptual and methodological issues, including the definitions of sex, the measured aspects of homosexuality, sampling and interviewing technique, and questionnaire design. Reported rates of major measures of same-sex attraction, behavior, partners, and sexual identity from surveys are also presented and compared. The study of homosexuality in surveys has been shaped by the re...

  7. Effect of the Steroidal Saponins of Fructus tribuli on Growth of Three Lactobacillus acidophilus

    He Chen; Tao Qin; Qi Ma; Zhe Ji; Guowei Shu

    2014-01-01

    Effect of the steroidal saponins of Fructus tribuli on Growth of Lactobacillus acidophilus LA04, LA05 and LA06 was studied by measuring optical density at 600 nm (OD600) and pH using MRS media as the control. The addition of steroidal saponins (w/v) was 0.05, 0.10, 0.15, 0.20 and 0.25%, respectively. Results were as follows: addition of steroidal saponins of Fructus tribuli could promote the growth of Lactobacillus acidophilus A04, LA05 and LA06 and the optimum concentration of steroidal sapo...

  8. Hydropyrolysis of steroids: a preparative step for compound-specific carbon isotope ratio analysis.

    Sephton, Mark A; Meredith, Will; Sun, Cheng-Gong; Snape, Colin E

    2005-01-01

    Compound-specific stable carbon isotope analysis by gas chromatography/combustion/isotope ratio mass spectrometry is an important method for the detection of steroid abuse in athletes. However, steroids in their natural form exhibit poor chromatographic resolution, while derivatization adds carbon thereby corrupting the starting stable isotopic composition. Hydropyrolysis is a new approach, which defunctionalizes steroids but leaves their carbon skeleton intact. The process improves chromatography, allowing the faithful measurement of carbon isotope ratios and enabling a more effective apportionment for the source of steroids and their metabolites. PMID:16228967

  9. Steroids for Treating Cancer (For Parents)

    ... and the health risks they incur from abusing anabolic steroids drugs that were originally intended for people with ... that he or she will not be taking anabolic steroids, but rather corticosteroids . Corticosteroids are made from a ...

  10. Hypochlorite Oxidation of Select Androgenic Steroids

    Steroid hormones are vital for regulation of various biological functions including sexual development. Elevated concentrations of natural and synthetic androgenic steroids have been shown to adversely affect normal development in indigenous aqueous species. Androgens and their s...

  11. Determination of steroids in manure and soil

    Hansen, Martin; Björklund, Bengt Erland; Halling-Sørensen, Bent

    A genuine analytical method to determine native steroids (pregnenolone, progesterone, dehydroepiandrosterone, androstenedione, testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, estrone, 17b-estradiol, and 17a-estradiol) and one anthropogenic steroid (ethynylestradiol) in environmental solid samples is presented...

  12. Teens and Steroids: A Dangerous Combo

    ... Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Teens and Steroids: A Dangerous Combo Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it ... to know how dangerous it is to use steroids in hopes of being better athletes or more ...

  13. Same sex, no sex, and unaware sex in neurotoxicology.

    Weiss, Bernard

    2011-10-01

    Males and females of virtually all species differ in how they respond to their environment. Because such differences exist in almost all biological realms, including disease patterns and therapeutic outcomes, they have evoked calls by various bodies to incorporate their assessment in research. Neurobehavioral indices pose special questions because, unlike outwardly visible markers, they are described by complex functional outcomes or subtle alterations in brain structure. These divergent responses arise because they are inscribed in the genome itself and then by endocrine mechanisms that govern sexual differentiation of the brain during development and operate throughout life. Other organ systems that exhibit sex differences include the liver, an important consideration for neurotoxicology because it may process many toxic chemicals differentially in males and females. Despite the scope and pervasiveness of sex differences, however, they are disregarded by much of neurotoxicology research. Males predominate in behavioral experiments, few such experiments study both sexes, some investigators fail to even describe the sex of their subjects, and in vitro studies tend to wholly ignore sex, even for model systems aimed at neurological disorders that display marked sex differences. The public is acutely aware of sex differences in behavior, as attested by its appetite for books on the topic. It closely follows debates about the proportion of women in professions that feature science and mathematics. Neurotoxicology, especially in the domain of laboratory research, will be hindered in its ability to translate its findings into human health measures if it assigns sex differences to a minor role. It must also be sensitive to how such debates are framed. Often, the differences evoking the most discussion are subtle in scope. They do not lend themselves to the typical analyses conducted by experimenters; that is, reliance on mean differences and null hypothesis testing. PMID:20875453

  14. Steroidal glycoalkaloids in Solanum chacoense.

    Mweetwa, Alice M; Hunter, Danielle; Poe, Rebecca; Harich, Kim C; Ginzberg, Idit; Veilleux, Richard E; Tokuhisa, James G

    2012-03-01

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), a domesticated species that is the fourth most important world agricultural commodity, requires significant management to minimize the effects of herbivore and pathogen damage on crop yield. A wild relative, Solanum chacoense Bitt., has been of interest to plant breeders because it produces an abundance of novel steroidal glycoalkaloid compounds, leptines and leptinines, which are particularly effective deterrents of herbivory by the Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say). Biochemical approaches were used in this study to investigate the formation and accumulation of SGAs in S. chacoense. SGA contents were determined in various organs at different stages of organ maturity during a time course of plant development. Leptines and leptinines were the main contributors to the increased levels in SGA concentration measured in the aerial versus the subterranean organs of S. chacoense accession 8380-1. Leptines were not detected in aboveground stolons until the stage where shoots had formed mature chlorophyllous leaves. To gain insights into SGA biosynthesis, the abundance of SGAs and steady-state transcripts of genes coding for enzymes of the central terpene and SGA-specific pathways in various plant organs at anthesis were compared. For two genes of primary terpene metabolism, transcript and SGA abundances were correlated, although with some discrepancies. For genes associated with SGA biosynthesis, transcripts were not detected in some tissues containing SGAs; however these transcripts were detected in the progenitor tissues, indicating the possibility that under our standard growth conditions, SGA biosynthesis is largely limited to highly proliferative tissues such as shoot, root and floral meristems. PMID:22217745

  15. Do routinely measured risk factors for obesity explain the sex gap in its prevalence? Observations from Saudi Arabia

    Garawi, F; Ploubidis, GB; DeVries, K.; Al-Hamdan, N.; Uauy, R.

    2015-01-01

    Background The prevalence of adult obesity is higher in women than men in most countries. However, the pathways that link female sex with excess obesity are still not fully understood. We examine whether socioeconomic and behavioural factors may mediate the association between sex and obesity in the Saudi Arabian setting where there is female excess in obesity. Methods We performed a mediation analysis using a cross-sectional, national household survey from Saudi Arabia with 4758 participants...

  16. Parent-reported measures of child health and wellbeing in same-sex parent families: a cross-sectional survey

    Crouch, Simon R; Waters, Elizabeth; McNair, Ruth; Power, Jennifer; Davis, Elise

    2014-01-01

    Background It has been suggested that children with same-sex attracted parents score well in psychosocial aspects of their health, however questions remain about the impact of stigma on these children. Research to date has focused on lesbian parents and has been limited by small sample sizes. This study aims to describe the physical, mental and social wellbeing of Australian children with same-sex attracted parents, and the impact that stigma has on them. Methods A cross-sectional survey, the...

  17. Sex Disparities in Diabetes Process of Care Measures and Self-Care in High-Risk Patients

    Yu, Margaret K.; Courtney Rees Lyles; Luis A. Bent-Shaw; Young, Bessie A

    2013-01-01

    Patients with chronic diabetic complications experience high morbidity and mortality. Sex disparities in modifiable factors such as processes of care or self-care activities have not been explored in detail, particularly in these high-risk patients. Sex differences in processes of care and self-care activities were assessed in a cross-sectional analysis of the Pathways Study, an observational cohort of primary care diabetic patients from a managed care organization (N = 4,839). Compared to me...

  18. A method to determine integrated steroid levels in wildlife claws.

    Matas, Devorah; Keren-Rotem, Tammy; Koren, Lee

    2016-05-01

    Glucocorticoids act throughout life to regulate numerous physiological and behavioral processes. Their levels are therefore highly labile, reacting to varying conditions and stressors. Hence, measuring glucocorticoids (and other steroids) in wildlife is challenging, and devising methods that are unaffected by the stress of capture and handling should be explored. Here we use the tip of free-ranging chameleons' claws that were cut to allow individual identification, and report a steroids extraction and quantification method. Claw steroids present an integrated level representing the period of claw growth. We found that we could measure corticosterone in small amounts of chameleon claw matrix using commercial EIA kits. Using this method, we learned that in wild male chameleons, claw corticosterone levels were associated with body size. We suggest that claw-testing can potentially provide an ideal matrix for wildlife biomonitoring. PMID:26993343

  19. Local Control of Steroid Hormone Biosynthesis

    Hofland, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    textabstractSteroids are essential for vertebrate physiology during pre- and postnatal life. Whereas the skeleton structure of cyclopenta[α]phenanthrene rings is common to all steroid molecules, differences occur in methyl- of ethylgroups attached to the four rings or the oxidation state of the carbon atoms in the rings (Figure 1).1 Endogenous production of steroids is realized in steroidogenic tissues. From these tissues, steroid molecules can be secreted into the circulation to act in an en...

  20. MEDICAL ISSUES ASSOCIATED WITH ANABOLIC STEROID USE: ARE THEY EXAGGERATED?

    Jay R. Hoffman

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available For the past 50 years anabolic steroids have been at the forefront of the controversy surrounding performance enhancing drugs. For almost half of this time no attempt was made by sports governing bodies to control its use, and only recently have all of the major sports governing bodies in North America agreed to ban from competition and punish athletes who test positive for anabolic steroids. These punitive measures were developed with the primary concern for promotion of fair play and eliminating potential health risks associated with androgenic-anabolic steroids. Yet, controversy exists whether these testing programs deter anabolic steroid use. Although the scope of this paper does not focus on the effectiveness of testing, or the issue of fair play, it is of interest to understand why many athletes underestimate the health risks associated from these drugs. What creates further curiosity is the seemingly well-publicized health hazards that the medical community has depicted concerning anabolic steroidabuse. Is there something that the athletes know, or are they simply naïve regarding the dangers? The focus of this review is to provide a brief history of anabolic steroid use in North America, the prevalence of its use in both athletic and recreational populations and its efficacy. Primary discussion will focus on health issues associated with anabolic steroid use with an examination of the contrasting views held between the medical community and the athletes that are using these ergogenic drugs. Existing data suggest that in certain circumstances the medical risk associated with anabolic steroid use may have been somewhat exaggerated, possibly to dissuade use in athletes

  1. Electroimmunoassay of sex hormone binding globulin. Enhanced sensitivity by autoradiography using A-ring 125I-17-?-oestradiol

    Four different 125I-iodinated steroids were tested for their binding to human sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) using an electrophoretic technique. 17-?-oestradiol iodinated in its A-ring bound with high affinity to SHBG. This radioactive steroid was used to increase the sensitivity of the electroimmunoassay of SHBG by adding the steroid to the samples before electroimmunoassay. The radioactive steroid incorporated into the immunoprecipitates could be observed by autoradiography. The sensitivity of the assay, which employed a rabbit antiserum against purified human SHBG and was standardized with pure SHBG, was about 0.2 mg/1. The coefficient of variation within and between assays was 2.4% and 2.6% respectively, for values within the normal range. The mean SHBG concentration in healthy regularly menstruating women was 3.50 +- 0.74 (SD) mg/1 when measured in plasma, and 3.78 +- 0.80 mg/1 when measured in serum. The corresponding mean concentrations in healthy men were 2.26 +- 0.45 and 2.44 +- 0.49 mg/1. The modified electroimmunoassay described is a simple modification, which increases the sensitivity sufficiently to permit reliable quantification of SHBG over the entire range of concentration which could be relevant in clinical practice. (author)

  2. Steroids for Treating Cancer (For Parents)

    ... Caring for Your Child All About Food Allergies Steroids for Treating Cancer KidsHealth > For Parents > Steroids for Treating Cancer Print A A A Text ... tratamiento del cáncer When you hear the word "steroid" you may immediately think of muscle-bound body ...

  3. Adolescents and Steroids: A User Perspective.

    Office of Inspector General (DHHS), Washington, DC.

    Anabolic-androgenic steroids ("steroids") are synthetic derivatives of the natural male hormone testosterone. They were first used non-medically by elite athletes seeking to improve performance. More recently, however, steroid use has filtered down to high school and junior high school levels. The purpose of this study was to describe adolescent…

  4. Mind Over Matter: Anabolic Steroids

    ... NIDA's Easy-to-Read Web site Citation Site Map Print Mind Over Matter: Anabolic Steroids Home / Educators / NIDA Teaching ... Up: Real News About Drugs and Your Body Mind Over Matter Series Teacher's Guide Anabolic ... Policy Site Map Contact Us Site last updated February 11, 2016 ...

  5. Organocatalytic Asymmetric Formation of Steroids

    Halskov, Kim Soholm; Donslund, Bjarke S.; Barfüsser, Sebastian; Jorgensen, Karl Anker

    2014-01-01

    A novel and simple one-step approach for the construction of optically active steroids in a highly stereoselective manner by using organocatalysis is presented. The reaction of (di)enals with cyclic dienophiles in the presence of a TMS-protected prolinol catalyst leads to the construction of impo...

  6. How Steroids Steer T Cells

    Claude Libert

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent papers from Mahata etal. and Bereshchenko etal. reveal how steroids steer immune responses by tipping T helper (Th subset balances and activities. Pregnenolone produced by Th2 cells mediates immunosuppressive responses, and glucocorticoids stimulate regulatory Tcell development via the induction of GILZ expression.

  7. Synthesis of deuterated neuroactive steroids

    Kapras, Vojtěch; Slavíčková, Alena; Chodounská, Hana; Valeš, Karel

    Bergen, 2010. [International Conference on Organic Synthesis /18./. 01.08.2010-06.08.2010, Bergen] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA203/08/1498; GA MZd(CZ) NS10528 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506; CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : neuroactive steroids * NMDA receptor * deuterium labeling * pharmacokinetics Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry

  8. Sundhedspolitik på steroider

    Christiansen, Ask Vest

    Danmark er det land i verden der har valgt den måske mest drastiske metode til bekæmpelse af brug af anabole androgene steroider (AAS) i fitness- og styrketræningsmiljøerne. Ikke pga. oplysningskampagnerne, samarbejdet med SKAT eller at AAS er ulovlige. Der hvor Danmark skiller sig ud er ved brugen...

  9. Structure and Nomenclature of Steroids

    Kasal, Alexander

    Heidelberg : Springer, 2010 - (Malkin, H.; Gower, D.), s. 1-25 ISBN 978-1-4020-9774-4 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : steroids * conformation and configuration * Fischer projection * R/S system Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry www.springer.com/chemistry/analytical chemistry/book/978-1-4020-9774-4 - 62k

  10. Steroids linked with amide bond

    Černý, Ivan; Buděšínský, Miloš; Drašar, P.; Pouzar, Vladimír

    Dublin : University Cillege Dublin, 2007. s. 115. [European Symposium on Organic Chemistry /15./. 08.07.2007-13.07.2007, Dublin] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06077 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : bis- steroids * etienic acid * cholesteryl amine Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry

  11. Specific DNA-binding proteins and DNA sequences involved in steroid hormone regulation of gene expression

    Steroid hormones circulate in the blood and are taken by target cells via complexes with intracellular binding proteins termed receptors, that are hormone and tissue specific. Each receptor binds it specific steroid with very high affinity, having an equilibrium dissociation constant (K/sub d/) in the range of 10-9 to 10-10 M. Once bound by their specific steroid hormones, the steroid receptors undergo a conformational change which allows them to bind with high affinity to sites on chromatin, termed nuclear acceptor sites. There are estimated 5,000 to 10,000 of these sites expressed with an equal number not expressed (''masked'') in intact chromatin. The result of the binding to nuclear acceptor sites is an alteration of gene transcription or, in some cases, gene expression as measured by the changing levels of specific RNAs and proteins in that target tissue. Each steroid regulates specific effects on the RNA and protein profiles. The chronology of the above mechanism of action after injection of radiolabelled steroid as is follows: Steroid-receptor complex formation (1 minute), nuclear acceptor sites (2 minutes), effects on RNA synthesis (10 to 30 minutes), and finally the changing protein profiles via changes in protein synthesis and protein turnover (1 to 6 hours). Thus steroid receptors represent one of the first identified intracellular gene regulation proteins. The receptor molecules themselves are regulated by the presence or absence of the steroid molecule

  12. A New Measure of the Perceived Influence of Sexually Explicit Online Media on the Sexual Behaviors of Men Who Have Sex With Men.

    Nelson, Kimberly M; Pantalone, David W; Gamarel, Kristi E; Simoni, Jane M

    2016-01-01

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) frequently consume sexually explicit online media (SEOM), yet little is known about its influence on their sexual behaviors. We describe a sequence of four studies to develop and psychometrically validate a measure of the perceived influence of sexually explicit online media (PI-SEOM) on the sexual behaviors of MSM. Study 1 involved qualitative interviews (N = 28) and a quantitative survey (N = 100) to develop a preliminary measure. Using an Internet sample of MSM (N = 1,170), we assessed its factor structure and reliability in Studies 2 and 3 as well as convergent validity and associations with HIV-related sexual risk in Study 4. Based on findings the measure was divided into two subscales: influences on (1) self and (2) other MSM. Factor analyses confirmed a two-factor model for each subscale, measuring perceived influences on (a) general sexual scripts and (b) condomless sex scripts. Survey results indicated that the more men perceived SEOM influencing their own condomless sex scripts, the more likely they were to report engaging in sexual risk behaviors. The developed measure holds promise for assessing the influence of SEOM on the sexual behaviors of MSM and may prove useful for HIV-prevention research. PMID:26479019

  13. Endocrine Correlates of Musth in Free-Ranging Asian Elephants (Elephas maximus) Determined by Non-Invasive Faecal Steroid Hormone Metabolite Measurements

    Ghosal, Sukumar; Ganswindt, Andre; Seshagiri, Polani B.; Sukumar, Raman

    2013-01-01

    The occurrence of musth, a period of elevated levels of androgens and heightened sexual activity, has been well documented for the male Asian elephant (Elephas maximus). However, the relationship between androgen-dependent musth and adrenocortical function in this species is unclear. The current study is the first assessment of testicular and adrenocortical function in free-ranging male Asian elephants by measuring levels of testosterone (androgen) and cortisol (glucocorticoid - a physiologic...

  14. Steroid derivatives and their use in radioimmunoassays

    Radioimmunoassay techniques have been used to determine the concentration in body fluids of various endogenous and exogenous steroids. In the development of radioimmunoassays for the various steroids, the preparation of an antigen labelled with iodine-125 is of primary concern. The chemical structure of steroids is such that it is generally not possible to radioiodinate them directly. It is necessary to utilize as a precursor of the radiolabeled antigen a derivative of the steroid to be assayed which can be readily iodinatd. The process by which steroids are chosen and structurally modified is given

  15. Environment and sex determination in farmed fish.

    Baroiller, J F; D'Cotta, H

    2001-12-01

    A plasticity of gonadal sex differentiation was reported in the 1930s following exogenous steroid treatments in fish, but demonstration that environmental factors (temperature, pH, density and social interactions) could influence the sex ratio in gonochoristic species has been relatively recent. In fish, as in reptiles and amphibians displaying environmental sex determination, the main environmental factor influencing sex seems to be temperature (TSD=Temperature Sex Determination). In most thermosensitive species (some Atherinids, Poecilids, Cichlids: tilapias, goldfish, a Siluriform, a flatfishellipsis) male to female ratio increases with temperature and/or ovarian differentiation is induced by low temperatures. Conversely, in some rare species (Dicentrarchus labrax, Ictalurus punctatus), high temperatures may produce female-biased sex ratios and/or low temperatures promote male-biased sex ratios. In the hirame Paralichthys olivaceus, both high and low temperatures induce monosex male populations while intermediate temperatures yield a 1:1 sex ratio (U-shape curve). Fish show particularities in their TSD patterns since mono-sex populations are generally not produced at extreme temperatures, suggesting the existence of strong temperature/genotype interactions. In reptiles, amphibians and fish displaying TSD, temperature treatments must be applied at a critical sensitive period, relatively similar to the hormone sensitive period. In gonochoristic fish, steroid hormones with estrogens in females and 11-oxygenated androgens in males, are probably key physiological steps in the regulation of gonadal sex differentiation. Cytochrome P450-aromatase, enzyme catalysing conversion of androgens to estrogens, seems to be a critical enzyme for ovarian differentiation. Molecular mechanisms of thermosensitivity have been addressed in two species tilapia Oreochromis niloticus and the hirame, where aromatase gene expression is down-regulated by masculinizing temperature treatments. Furthermore, in tilapia the gene expression of 11 beta-hydroxylase (a key enzyme involved in the synthesis of 11-oxygenated androgens) does not appear to be affected by temperature treatments. PMID:11738628

  16. Steroid radioimmunoassay: contribution of standards to blank values, ch. 4

    The sensitivity of the radioimmunoassay of steroids is considerably reduced by high blank values which may be derived in part from co-chromatographed standards. Blank levels approach the detection limit of the radioimmunoassay of aldosterone, testosterone and androstenedione when 10,000 dpm (30-35 pg) labelled steroids are used as reference standard. When 20 μg aldosterone, testosterone, or androstenedione is used as standard, blank levels of up to 12,800 pg were measured in the radioimmunoassay. Application of the standards on a separate strip does not improve the results. From the experiments it appeared that contamination took place by transport by the solvent

  17. Multiple steroid radioimmunoassays and automation: versatile techniques for reproductive endocrinology

    The combination of the efficient steroid separating properties of a lipophilic Sephadex derivative Lipidex-5000sup(TM), with the use of antibodies with carefully selected specificity allows the quantitative determination of pregnenolone, progesterone, 17α-hydroxyprogesterone, androstenedione, testosterone, 5α-dihydrotestosterone, 5α-androstanedione, androsterone and 5α-androstane-3α, 17β-diol from 1-2 ml samples of blood serum, amniotic fluid or 300-600 mg pieces of prostatic tissue. The adaptation of the pipetting unit and incubator of a discrete clinical chemical analyzer, System Olli 3000, for the automation of the radioimmunoassays has resulted in a greatly increased through-put and decreased experimental error of the procedure. In studies on reproductive endocrinology, the methodology developed has allowed the detection of a sex difference in androgen composition of the amniotic fluid early in pregnancy. Further, it is very likely that the decline in steroid production by the testis seen during the first year of life and then in senescence is affected by basically different mechanisms. There are also important differences in the steroid content of normal, hyperplastic and carcinomatous prostate. (orig.)

  18. Psychological Predictors of Anabolic Steroid Use: An Exploratory Study.

    Schwerin, Michael J.; Corcoran, Kevin J.; LaFleur, Bonnie J.; Fisher, Leslee; Patterson, David; Olrich, Tracy

    1997-01-01

    Examined social physique anxiety, upper body esteem, social anxiety, and body dissatisfaction as possible predictors of anabolic steroid (AS) use. Results based on 185 AS-using bodybuilders and various control groups indicated that the upper body strength subscale of two measures, along with age, were significant predictors of AS use. (RJM)

  19. Influence of Music on Steroid Hormones and the Relationship between Receptor Polymorphism and Musical Ability: a Pilot Study

    HajimeFukui

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies have shown that music confers plasticity to the brain. In a preliminary pilot study, we examined the effect of music listening on steroid hormones and the relationship between steroid hormone receptor polymorphisms and musical ability. Twenty-one subjects (10 males and 11 females were recruited and divided into musically talented and control groups. The subjects selected (1 music they preferred (chill-inducing music and (2 music they did not like. Before and after the experiments, saliva was collected to measure the levels of steroid hormones such as testosterone, estradiol, and cortisol. DNA was also isolated from the saliva samples to determine the androgen receptor and arginine vasopressin receptor 1A genotypes. Advanced Measures of Music Audiation (AMMA was used to determine the musical ability of the subjects. With both types of music, the cortisol levels decreased significantly in both sexes. The testosterone (T levels declined in males when they listened to both types of music. In females, the T levels increased in those listening to chill-inducing music but declined when they listened to music they disliked. However, these differences were not significant. The 17-beta estradiol levels increased in males with both types of music, whereas the levels increased with chill-inducing music but declined with disliked music in females. The AMMA scores were higher for the short repeat length-type AR than for the long repeat length-type. Comparisons of AR polymorphisms and T levels before the experiments showed that the T levels were within the low range in the short repeat length-type group and there was a positive relationship with the repeat length, although it was not significant. This is the first study conducted in humans to analyze the relationships between the AR gene, T levels, and musical ability.

  20. Sex Stereotyping.

    Rivas, Richard G.

    This article uses findings from several previous studies to define the kinds of sex stereotyping present in our society. The author considers sex roles as dealt with in children's literature, public schools, advertising, and vocational counseling. He describes, in particular, the situation at an unnamed state university, and cites the woman's

  1. Condom Use at Last Sex as a Proxy for Other Measures of Condom Use: Is It Good Enough?

    Younge, Sinead N.; Salazar, Laura F.; Crosby, Richard F.; DiClemente, Ralph J.; Wingood, Gina M.; Rose, Eve

    2008-01-01

    Condom use at last sex is a widely used indicator in sexual behavior research; however, there is little empirical research validating this indicator. This study examined whether a single-event recall period (the last time coitus occurred) was consistent with longer recall periods (14 days and 60 days) for a sample of African American adolescent

  2. Stability of Attitudes toward Abortion and Sex Roles: A Two-Factor Measurement Model at Two Points in Time.

    Alsup, Ruth; Gillespie, David F.

    1997-01-01

    Data from the General Social Survey for 1977 (n=1,303) and 1991 (n=430) are used to examine the stability of attitudes toward abortion and women's roles. Findings support the hypothesis that public attitudes toward discretionary abortion and nontraditional sex roles are discrete but correlated sets of attitudes that remained stable from 1977 to…

  3. Radioimmunoassay for steroid hormones, 3

    A specific, sensitive and reliable radioimmunoassay for plasma dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) has been developed. Anti-DHEA serum was obtained by immunizing rabbits with a DHEA-3-hemisuccinate-BSA conjugate. A useful range in the standard curve was from 10 pg to 500 pg. DHEA was separated from cross-reacting steroids by microcolumn chromatography. The coefficients of variation for within-assay and between-assay are 6.3% and 7.7%, respectively. (auth.)

  4. Neuroactive steroids and rat CNS

    Birzniece, Vita

    2004-01-01

    Several studies suggest profound effects on mood and cognition by neuroactive steroids. Estrogen alone or in combination with antidepressant drugs affecting the serotonin system has been used to treat mood disorders. On the other hand, progesterone is related to negative effects on mood and memory. A major part of the progesterone effects on the brain can be mediated by its metabolite allopregnanolone, which is also de novo synthesized in the brain, and affects the GABAA receptors. It would b...

  5. Anabolic steroids and Norwegian weightlifters.

    Solberg, S.

    1982-01-01

    The mean bodyweight, in kilograms, and mean weightlifting result, in points, for the ten best weightlifters at the annual Norwegian championships 1962-82 have been studied. During the 21 years, the mean bodyweight for these ten increased by 18 kg, probably due to the effect of androgens. The weightlifting results improved rapidly from 1968 onwards, probably reflecting an increasingly widespread use of anabolic steroids by Norwegian weightlifters. In 1977 doping tests were introduced, and from...

  6. Steroidal saponins from Agave Attenuata

    The polar fraction of the extract of Agave Attenuata Solm (family Agavaceae) afforded two steroidal saponins identified on the basis of spectral data as (25S)-sarsasapogenin-3-b-Dglyconside and (25S)-3-b, 22-a, 26-trihydroxy-16, 22-oxycoprostane-3-26 diglyconside. The glyconsidic moiety in the first compound is a disaccharide consists of glucose and galactose while in the second compound, the glyconsidic moieties are glucose and arabinose. (author)

  7. Neuroactive steroids with perfluorobenzoyl group

    Černý, Ivan; Buděšínský, Miloš; Pouzar, Vladimír; Vyklický, Vojtěch; Krausová, Barbora; Vyklický ml., Ladislav

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 77, č. 12 (2012), s. 1233-1241. ISSN 0039-128X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP303/12/1464; GA TA ČR TE01020028; GA ČR(CZ) GBP304/12/G069 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 ; RVO:67985823 Keywords : neuroactive steroids * synthesis * perfluorobenzoates * NMDA receptor Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry; ED - Physiology (FGU-C) Impact factor: 2.803, year: 2012

  8. Steroid use in acute liver failure

    Karkhanis, Jamuna; Verna, Elizabeth C; Chang, Matthew S; Stravitz, R Todd; Schilsky, Michael; Lee, William M; Brown, Robert S; Schiødt, Frank Vinholt

    2014-01-01

    , survival without transplant). In all, 361 ALF patients were studied, 66 with autoimmune (25 steroids, 41 no steroids), 164 with indeterminate (21 steroids, 143 no steroids), and 131 with drug-induced (16 steroids, 115 no steroids) ALF. Steroid use was not associated with improved overall survival (61......% versus 66%, P = 0.41), nor with improved survival in any diagnosis category. Steroid use was associated with diminished survival in certain subgroups of patients, including those with the highest quartile of the Model for Endstage Liver Disease (MELD) (>40, survival 30% versus 57%, P = 0.03). In...... multivariate analysis controlling for steroid use and diagnosis, age (odds ratio [OR] 1.37 per decade), coma grade (OR 2.02 grade 2, 2.65 grade 3, 5.29 grade 4), MELD (OR 1.07), and pH < 7.4 (OR 3.09) were significantly associated with mortality. Although steroid use was associated with a marginal benefit in...

  9. Sex-dependent effects on tasks assessing reinforcement learning and interference inhibition.

    Evans, Kelly L; Hampson, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that the prefrontal cortex (PFC) is influenced by sex steroids and that some cognitive functions dependent on the PFC may be sexually differentiated in humans. Past work has identified a male advantage on certain complex reinforcement learning tasks, but it is unclear which latent task components are important to elicit the sex difference. The objective of the current study was to investigate whether there are sex differences on measures of response inhibition and valenced feedback processing, elements that are shared by previously studied reinforcement learning tasks. Healthy young adults (90 males, 86 females) matched in general intelligence completed the Probabilistic Selection Task (PST), a Simon task, and the Stop-Signal task. On the PST, females were more accurate than males in learning from positive (but not negative) feedback. On the Simon task, males were faster than females, especially in the face of incongruent stimuli. No sex difference was observed in Stop-Signal reaction time. The current findings provide preliminary support for a sex difference in the processing of valenced feedback and in interference inhibition. PMID:26257691

  10. Differentiation of endogenous and exogenous steroids by gas chromatography-combustion-mass spectrometry isotope ratio

    Urinary steroids profiles are used to control the misuse of endogenous steroids such as testosterone and dihydrotestosterone. The testosterone/epistestosterone ratio, measured by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry, is used to control testosterone administration. When T/E ratio is higher than 4, consumption of testosterone or its precursors is suspected. Recent researches have demonstrated the effectiveness of Carbon Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry to detect and confirm endogenous steroids administration. The ratio of the two stable carbon isotopes 13C and 12C allows the differentiation of natural and synthetic steroids because synthetic steroids have lower 13C abundance. In fact, the carbon isotope ratios can be used to determine endogenous steroids administration even when testosterone/epistestosterone ratio is at its normal value. In the current work, some of the most important aspects related to differentiation of endogenous and exogenous steroids by means of Gas Chromatography-Combustion-Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry are discussed. Also, this article provides a review about the purification and sample preparation previous to the analysis, and diet effects on carbon isotope ratio of endogenous anabolics steroids is presented too

  11. Synthesis of steroidal dimers: Selective amine catalysed steroidal dimerization

    Shamsuzzaman; Mohd Gulfam Aalam; Tabassum Siddiqui

    2011-07-01

    Some new dimeric steroids namely cholest-5-en-3-spiro-[6',5'-oxa]-5'-cholest-3'-one (2), cholest-5-en-7-spiro-[4',5'-oxa]-5'-cholest-7'-one (4a) and 3-substitutedcholest-5-en-7-spiro-[4',5'-oxa]-3'-substituted-5'-cholestan-7'-ones (4b, c) are synthesized starting from cholest-5-en-3-one (1), cholest-5-en-7-one (3a) and 3-substituted-cholest-5-en-7-ones (3b, c) respectively by using DMAP and xylene. All the synthesized compounds were characterized by using IR, MS and 1H, 13C NMR spectral and elemental analysis.

  12. Inequalities in multiple health outcomes by education, sex, and race in 93 US counties: Why we should measure them all

    Asada, Yukiko; Whipp, Alyce; Kindig, David; Billard, Beverly; Rudolph, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Regular reporting of health inequalities is essential to monitoring progress of efforts to reduce health inequalities. While reporting of population health became increasingly common, reporting of a subpopulation group breakdown of each indicator of the health of the population is rarely a standard practice. This study reports education-, sex-, and race-related inequalities in four health outcomes in each of the selected 93 counties in the United States in a systematic and compar...

  13. Feasibility of desorption atmospheric pressure photoionization and desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry to monitor urinary steroid metabolites during pregnancy.

    Vaikkinen, Anu; Rejšek, Jan; Vrkoslav, Vladimír; Kauppila, Tiina J; Cvačka, Josef; Kostiainen, Risto

    2015-06-23

    Steroids have important roles in the progress of pregnancy, and their study in maternal urine is a non-invasive method to monitor the steroid metabolome and its possible abnormalities. However, the current screening techniques of choice, namely immunoassays and gas and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, do not offer means for the rapid and non-targeted multi-analyte studies of large sample sets. In this study, we explore the feasibility of two ambient mass spectrometry methods in steroid fingerprinting. Urine samples from pregnant women were screened by desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) and desorption atmospheric pressure photoionization (DAPPI) Orbitrap high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS). The urine samples were processed by solid phase extraction for the DESI measurements and by enzymatic hydrolysis and liquid-liquid-extraction for DAPPI. Consequently, steroid glucuronides and sulfates were detected by negative ion mode DESI-HRMS, and free steroids by positive ion mode DAPPI-HRMS. In DESI, signals of eleven steroid metabolite ions were found to increase as the pregnancy proceeded, and in DAPPI ten steroid ions showed at least an order of magnitude increase during pregnancy. In DESI, the increase was seen for ions corresponding to C18 and C21 steroid glucuronides, while DAPPI detected increased excretion of C19 and C21 steroids. Thus both techniques show promise for the steroid marker screening in pregnancy. PMID:26092341

  14. Antifungal Activity of C-27 Steroidal Saponins

    Yang, Chong-Ren; Zhang, Ying; Jacob, Melissa R; Khan, Shabana I.; Zhang, Ying-jun; Li, Xing-Cong

    2006-01-01

    As part of our search for new antifungal agents from natural resources, 22 C-27 steroidal saponins and 6 steroidal sapogenins isolated from several monocotyledonous plants were tested for their antifungal activity against the opportunistic pathogens Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida krusei, Cryptococcus neoformans, and Aspergillus fumigatus. The results showed that the antifungal activity of the steroidal saponins was associated with their aglycone moieties and the number and struct...

  15. Azoospermi hos to bodybuildere efter anaboliske steroider

    Srensen, M B; Ingerslev, Hans Jakob

    1995-01-01

    During investigations for infertility azoospermia was diagnosed in two men who were concomitantly using anabolic steroids for body-building. Following cessation of anabolic steroid use the semen quality was normalized. Suppression of spermatogenesis during treatment with testosterone and...... derivatives hereof is wellknown. Usage of anabolic steroids should be remembered as a cause of oligo- and azoospermia and asked about in cases of sperm counts approaching or at zero....

  16. A review of steroids from Sarcophyton species.

    Zubair, Muhammad Sulaiman; Al-Footy, Khalid O; Ayyad, Seif-Eldin N; Al-Lihaibi, Sultan S; Alarif, Walied M

    2016-04-01

    This review reports the structural diversity of steroids from Sarcophyton species based on literature from the beginning of marine steroid research until now. There are 65 compounds studied from eight species. Most of them are polyhydroxy-type steroids of C-27-C-31 carbon skeleton. Their biological activities are highly diverse ranging from cytotoxic, antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic to antiosteoporosis properties. PMID:26299957

  17. Sex Stereotyping.

    Western European Education, 1982

    1982-01-01

    Presents the Norwegian Ministry of Education's recommendations to the Council of Europe for reforming European education to prevent sex discrimination against women at the elementary and secondary levels. (AM)

  18. A chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry method for the simultaneous profiling of ten endogenous steroids, including progesterone, adrenal precursors, androgens and estrogens, using low serum volume.

    Caron, Patrick; Turcotte, Vronique; Guillemette, Chantal

    2015-12-01

    Measurement of a large set of sex steroids in clinical epidemiology and laboratory research with reliable methods providing low quantification limits and using a limited volume of blood sample represents a significant challenge. We report a new validated gas chromatography selected reaction monitoring - tandem mass spectrometry assay (GC-MS/MS) for the simultaneous quantification of ten endogenous steroids including progesterone (PROG), dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), androstenediol (5-diol), androstenedione (4-dione), testosterone (T), dihydrotestosterone (DHT), androsterone (ADT), 5alpha-androstan-3beta-17beta-diol (3?-diol), estrone (E1) and estradiol (E2). After addition of stable isotope internal standards, the approach involved the combination of liquid-liquid extraction, derivatization and solid-phase extraction for injection into the GC system and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM). The method presents high reproducibility for all analytical parameters in 250?l serum samples. The lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) were of 100pg/ml for DHEA, 50pg/ml for PROG, 5-diol, 4-dione and ADT, 30pg/ml for T, 10pg/ml for 3?-diol and DHT, 5pg/ml for E1, and 1pg/ml for E2. The applicability of the validated method to determine the concentrations of these 10 steroids was successfully tested on serum from men (n=15), premenopausal (n=10) and postmenopausal women (n=20), and is currently used for larger cancer-related epidemiology studies. One of the most considerable advantages over existing methods is the simultaneous determination of ten steroids in a limited volume of serum that will help conserve important clinical samples from existing biobanks. PMID:26254607

  19. Why Sex?

    Nielsen, Rasmus

    2006-01-01

    It is assumed that most organisms have sex because the resulting genetic recombination allows Darwinian selection to work better. It is now shown that in water fleas, recombination does lead to fewer deleterious mutations.......It is assumed that most organisms have sex because the resulting genetic recombination allows Darwinian selection to work better. It is now shown that in water fleas, recombination does lead to fewer deleterious mutations....

  20. Endothelial function in male body builders taking anabolic androgenic steroids

    H Hashemi

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adverse cardiovascular events have been reported in body builders taking anabolic steroids. Adverse effects of AAS on endothelial function can initiate atherosclerosis. This study evaluates endothelial function in body builders using AAS, compared with non-steroids using athletes as controls. Methods: We recruited 30 nonsmoking male body builders taking AAS, 14 in build up phase, 8 in work out phase, and 8 in post steroid phase, and 30 nonsmoking male athletes who denied ever using steroids. Serum lipids and fasting plasma glucose were measured to exclude dyslipidemia and diabetes. Brachial artery diameter was measured by ultrasound at rest, after cuff inflation, and after sublingual glyceriltrinitrate (GTN to determine flow mediated dilation (FMD, nitro mediated dilation (NMD and ratio of FMD to NMD (index of endothelial function. Result: Use of AAS was associated with higher body mass index (BMI and low density lipoprotein–cholesterol (LDL-C. Mean ratio of flow mediated dilatation after cuff deflation to post GTN dilatation of brachial artery (index of endothelial function in body builders taking AAS was significantly lower than control group (0.96(0.05 versus 1(0.08; p=0.03. After adjusting BMI, age and weight, no significant difference was seen in index of endothelial function between two groups (p=0 .21. Conclusion: Our study indicates that taking AAS in body builders doesn’t have direct effect on endothelial function. Future study with bigger sample size and measurement of AAS metabolites is recommended. Key words: endothelium, lipids, anabolic steroids, body builders

  1. Altered Serum Lipoprotein Profiles in Male and Female Power Lifters Ingesting Anabolic Steroids.

    Cohen, Jonathan C.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Serum lipoprotein profiles were measured in nine male and three female weightlifters who were taking anabolic steroids. The profiles suggest that steriod users may face an increased risk of coronary artery disease. (Author/MT)

  2. Steroid profiling in doping analysis

    Kerkhof, Danil Henri van de

    2001-01-01

    Profiling androgens in urine samples is used in doping analysis for the detection of abused steroids of endogenous origin. These profiling techniques were originally developed for the analysis of testosterone, mostly by means of the ratio of testosterone to epitestosterone (T/E ratio). A study was performed on the influence of alcohol consumption on the T/E ratio. The applied dose increased the ratio of both males and females and it showed that, under the studied conditions, the risk of a pos...

  3. Azido analogs of neuroactive steroids

    Vidrna, Lukáš; Černý, Ivan; Pouzar, Vladimír; Borovská, Jiřina; Vyklický, Vojtěch; Vyklický ml., Ladislav; Chodounská, Hana

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 76, 10/11 (2011), s. 1043-1050. ISSN 0039-128X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06077; GA MŠk(CZ) LC554; GA ČR(CZ) GA203/08/1498; GA ČR(CZ) GA309/07/0271 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506; CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : neuroactive steroids * synthesis * azides * NMDA receptor Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.829, year: 2011

  4. Rats with steroid-induced polycystic ovaries develop hypertension and increased sympathetic nervous system activity

    Ploj Karolina

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is a complex endocrine and metabolic disorder associated with ovulatory dysfunction, abdominal obesity, hyperandrogenism, hypertension, and insulin resistance. Methods Our objectives in this study were (1 to estimate sympathetic-adrenal medullary (SAM activity by measuring mean systolic blood pressure (MSAP in rats with estradiol valerate (EV-induced PCO; (2 to estimate alpha1a and alpha2a adrenoceptor expression in a brain area thought to mediate central effects on MSAP regulation and in the adrenal medulla; (3 to assess hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis regulation by measuring adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH and corticosterone (CORT levels in response to novel-environment stress; and (4 to measure abdominal obesity, sex steroids, and insulin sensitivity. Results The PCO rats had significantly higher MSAP than controls, higher levels of alpha1a adrenoceptor mRNA in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN, and lower levels of alpha2a adrenoceptor mRNA in the PVN and adrenal medulla. After exposure to stress, PCO rats had higher ACTH and CORT levels. Plasma testosterone concentrations were lower in PCO rats, and no differences in insulin sensitivity or in the weight of intraabdominal fat depots were found. Conclusion Thus, rats with EV-induced PCO develop hypertension and increased sympathetic and HPA-axis activity without reduced insulin sensitivity, obesity, or hyperandrogenism. These findings may have implications for mechanisms underlying hypertension in PCOS.

  5. Steroids

    ... and some types of cancer These risks affect girls: increased facial hair growth deeper voice, like a man's shrinking of the breasts period changes Specific risks for boys include: shrinkage of the ...

  6. Sex_hormone-binding_globulin - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia [Gene Wiki

    Full Text Available PBBgeneid=6462 Sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) or sex steroid-binding globulin (SSBG) is a g ... reduce SHBG, whereas insulin does not. As an example an ti-psoriatic drugs that inhibit TNF-alpha cause an ... enarche due to lower levels of SHBG. Anorexia or a lean ... physique in women leads to higher SHBG levels, whi ...

  7. Environmental hormones and their impacts on sex differentiation in fathead minnows

    Runoff from lands fertilized with animal manure from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) is a source of hormones to surface water. To test the hypothesis that juvenile fathead minnows exposed to sex steroids singly and in a “typical” CAFO mixture while undergoing sex...

  8. Body water, extracellular water, body potassium, and exchangeable sodium in body builders using anabolic steroids

    Nine competitive male body builders aged 21 to 34 who were determined to take anabolic steroids were studied before and 6 to 10 weeks after a training cycle which included steroid administration. A control group of nine subjects matched in age and duration of competitive career, but using only natural training methods were studied on a single occasion while in training. Total body potassium (TBK) by 40K, total body water (TBW) by 3H2O dilution, extracellular water (ECW) by 35SO4 dilution and zero time extrapolation, and exchangeable sodium by 24Na dilution were measured before and after training. Intracellular water (ICW) was calculated from TBW - ECW. Initially steroid users had a greater skeletal muscle mass than control subjects, and obtained a further weight gain on steroids, all in skeletal muscle, based on parallel increases in TBK and ICW. Other body composition measurements did not change significantly. A single steroid user became ill taking steroids, decreased potassium by 5%, and increased extracellular water, changes which may represent the effects of hepatic dysfunction which occurred while on anabolic steroids

  9. EFEKTIVITAS DAN EFEK TOKSIK EKSTRAK STEROID TERIPANG DAN 17α METILTESTOSTERON PADA MANIPULASI KELAMIN UDANG GALAH

    Apri Arisandi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Testosteron selain dapat dimanfaatkan sebagai obat, juga dimanfaatkan untuk sex reversal pada udang galah (Macrobrachium rosenbergii de Man.  Hormon yang umum dipakai untuk sex reversal jantan adalah 17α metiltestosteron, merupakan hormon sintetis.  Bioassay pada ayam, diketahui bahwa hormon sintetis memberikan efek samping toksik pada hati, limpa dan bursa fabricius.  Agar tidak memberikan efek toksik, salah satu cara dengan menggunakan sumber hormon testosteron alami dari teripang.  Pemberian hormon menggunakan metode dipping, lima perlakuan dan tiga ulangan.  Dosis ekstrak steroid teripang 1, 2 dan 3mg/l, serta 17α metiltestosteron 2mg/l dapat menghasilkan populasi jantan lebih tinggi dari kontrol negatif (tanpa hormon, yaitu 44,15%, 49,65%, 49,72% dan 50,45%.   Kata kunci: ekstrak steroid teripang, 17α metiltestosteron, udang galah

  10. Use of radioimmunoassay procedures for the determination of sex hormones in animal tissues

    Hoffmann, B. (Institut fuer Veterinaermedizin des Bundesgesundheitsamtes (Robert von Ostertag-Institut), Berlin (Germany, F.R.))

    1983-07-01

    Radioimmunoassay methods for the determination of sex steroids and other compounds with sex hormone-like activities in various edible animal tissues and endocrine glands have been developed. Reliability of these methods, allowing quantification in a range of 10/sup -11/ M, has been adequately demonstrated. When applied to monitoring residues of anabolic sex hormones in edible tissues of veal calves, physiological baseline levels of some endogenous ''anabolic'' steroids (like testosterone, oestrogens) were established; in the case of xenobiotics residues at the scheduled time of slaughter could be quantified (trenbolone) and a regulatory method to implement the ban of diethylstilbestrol was introduced.

  11. Use of radioimmunoassay procedures for the determination of sex hormones in animal tissues

    Radioimmunoassay methods for the determination of sex steroids and other compounds with sex hormone-like activities in various edible animal tissues and endocrine glands have been developed. Reliability of these methods, allowing quantification in a range of 10-11 M, has been adequately demonstrated. When applied to monitoring residues of anabolic sex hormones in edible tissues of veal calves, physiological baseline levels of some endogenous ''anabolic'' steroids (like testosterone, oestrogens) were established; in the case of xenobiotics residues at the scheduled time of slaughter could be quantified (trenbolone) and a regulatory method to implement the ban of diethylstilbestrol was introduced. (author)

  12. Use of AUDIT, and measures of drinking frequency and patterns to detect associations between alcohol and sexual behaviour in male sex workers in Kenya

    Temmerman Marleen

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous research has linked alcohol use with an increased number of sexual partners, inconsistent condom use and a raised incidence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs. However, alcohol measures have been poorly standardised, with many ill-suited to eliciting, with adequate precision, the relationship between alcohol use and sexual risk behaviour. This study investigates which alcohol indicator - single-item measures of frequency and patterns of drinking ( > = 6 drinks on 1 occasion, or the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT - can detect associations between alcohol use and unsafe sexual behaviour among male sex workers. Methods A cross-sectional survey in 2008 recruited male sex workers who sell sex to men from 65 venues in Mombasa district, Kenya, similar to a 2006 survey. Information was collected on socio-demographics, substance use, sexual behaviour, violence and STI symptoms. Multivariate models examined associations between the three measures of alcohol use and condom use, sexual violence, and penile or anal discharge. Results The 442 participants reported a median 2 clients/week (IQR = 1-3, with half using condoms consistently in the last 30 days. Of the approximately 70% of men who drink alcohol, half (50.5% drink two or more times a week. Binge drinking was common (38.9%. As defined by AUDIT, 35% of participants who drink had hazardous drinking, 15% harmful drinking and 21% alcohol dependence. Compared with abstinence, alcohol dependence was associated with inconsistent condom use (AOR = 2.5, 95%CI = 1.3-4.6, penile or anal discharge (AOR = 1.9, 95%CI = 1.0-3.8, and two-fold higher odds of sexual violence (AOR = 2.0, 95%CI = 0.9-4.9. Frequent drinking was associated with inconsistent condom use (AOR = 1.8, 95%CI = 1.1-3.0 and partner number, while binge drinking was only linked with inconsistent condom use (AOR = 1.6, 95%CI = 1.0-2.5. Conclusions Male sex workers have high levels of hazardous and harmful drinking, and require alcohol-reduction interventions. Compared with indicators of drinking frequency or pattern, the AUDIT measure has stronger associations with inconsistent condom use, STI symptoms and sexual violence. Increased use of the AUDIT tool in future studies may assist in delineating with greater precision the explanatory mechanisms which link alcohol use, drinking contexts, sexual behaviours and HIV transmission.

  13. Intramesenteric Steroid Application for Steroid Refractory Gastrointestinal Graft versus Host Disease

    Aynur Ugur Bilgin

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Currently, Steroid refractory severe gastrointestinal (GI GVHD is one of the important complications in patients undergoing allogeneic transplantation and there has been no standard therapeutical approach of disease yet. We report here the results related to the application of intramesenteric steroid in two cases with steroid refractory GI GvHD. In both cases, the frequency and volume of diarrhea were completely resolved soon after intramesenteric methylprednisolone (MP injection. In conclusion, intra-arterial steroid injection might be an alternative approach especially steroid refractory GI GvHD.

  14. Measurements of the frontal and prefrontal lobe volumes by three dimensional magnetic resonance imaging scan. III. Analysis of sex differences with advanced age

    To determine whether there is sex difference in the growth of the frontal and prefrontal lobes, we quantitatively measured the volume of these lobes by three dimensional (3-D) MRI in healthy 12 males (5 months to 39 years) and six females (1 year 11 months to 27 years). The left and right lobes were studied separately. The 3-D MRI data were acquired by the fast spoiled gradient recalled (SPGR) sequence using a 1.5 T MR imager. The frontal and prefrontal lobe volumes were measured by the volume measurement function of the Workstation. In males, the left to right ratio (L/R ratio) of the frontal and prefrontal lobes increased with age. On the contrary, in females, L/R ratio of the frontal and prefrontal lobes showed no significant change with advancing age. These results highlighted sex-specific maturational changes of the frontal and prefrontal lobes and suggested that quantitative data on the frontal and prefrontal lobe are important in interpreting brain abnormalities in children with developmental disorders. (author)

  15. Steroid-induced benign intracranial hypertension

    Vyas, C. K.; Bhatnagar, V.; Talwar, K K; B.K. Sharma

    1981-01-01

    A 41-year-old man whose systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) had been successfully treated for 15 months with a daily maintenance dose of 5 mg prednisolone, developed benign intracranial hypertension (BIH) when the steroid was increased to 60 mg daily for recrudescence of SLE symptoms. The BIH remitted when the steroid was discontinued.

  16. Anabolic-androgenic steroids: in cell culture.

    Kochakian, C D; Welder, A A

    1993-06-01

    Testosterone and related steroids at physiological concentrations positively stimulate in cell culture a number of reactions in a variety of tissues from different species of animals. Cells maintained in cell culture provide a means to study toxic effects in target organs and also the mechanism of action of these steroids. PMID:8331026

  17. Steroids: To Test or to Educate?

    LaFee, Scott

    2006-01-01

    In February 2005, The Dallas Morning News published a multipart series on steroid use among high school students in Texas. The paper's four-month investigation was wide-ranging, but shined a particular spotlight upon alleged abuses in the 13,700-student Grapevine-Colleyville Independent School District, north of Dallas. Use of steroids and other…

  18. Steroids Update, Part 1 and Part 2.

    Miller, Calvin; Duda, Marty

    1986-01-01

    Part 1 of this two-part article describes the views of a physician who believes that athletes who want to take steroids are best protected by receiving a prescription and monitoring. Part 2 discusses the more general view of physicians that steroids should not be prescribed but perhaps should be monitored. (MT)

  19. Osteonecrosis following alcohol, cocaine, and steroid use.

    Ziraldo, Laura

    2012-02-01

    Alcohol, steroids and cocaine have all been shown to be independent risk factors for osteonecrosis when taken in excess. Here we present a case of a young girl who developed debilitating osteonecrosis secondary to low doses of alcohol, steroids and cocaine. We feel it is important to highlight to those caring for such patients of the potential devastating complication of these three agents.

  20. Separation of radioactive androgenic steroids and precursors with high pressure liquid chromatography

    An HPLC system was developed for separation, identification and specific quantification of androgenic steroid hormones by using tritiated steroids as standard compounds. Detection is based on radioactivity, thus all steroids can be measured with the same method (β-liquid scintillation), and the recovery of samples can simply be controlled on the radiochromatogram. The specific activity of standards is so high that it is sufficient to put only a small amount onto the column, therefore the appearance of high baseline or any artifact is not expected in the further analytical application of the system. (author) 6 refs.; 3 figs.; 1 tab

  1. Into the world of steroids: A biochemical “keep in touch” in plants and animals

    Speranza, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Evolution of steroids such as sex hormones and ecdysteroids occurred independently in the animal and plant kingdoms. Plants use phytoecdysteroids (PEs) to control defense interactions with some predators; furthermore, PEs can exert beneficial influence on many aspects of mammalian metabolism. Endocrine disrupting compounds such as the estrogen agonist bisphenol A (BPA) are widespread in the environment, posing a potential hormonal risk to animals and plants. Adverse BPA effects on reproductiv...

  2. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and benign oesophageal stricture.

    Heller, S R; Fellows, I. W.; Ogilvie, A L; Atkinson, M

    1982-01-01

    Drug histories were obtained from 76 patients at the time of initial Eder-Puestow dilatation for benign oesophageal stricture. Six patients had consumed drugs known to cause oesophageal ulceration (emepronium bromide and potassium preparations). Of the remaining 70 patients, 22 had regularly taken a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug before the onset of dysphagia compared with 10 patients in a control group matched for age and sex; this difference was significant (p less than 0.02). Non-ste...

  3. Benign stricture of the oesophagus: role of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.

    Wilkins, W. E.; Ridley, M. G.; A.L. Pozniak

    1984-01-01

    The medication history of patients presenting with benign oesophageal stricture is compared with an age and sex matched control population selected from the community. Fifty five out of 151 consecutive admissions to a dysphagia clinic were found to have benign oesophageal stricture. Twenty six out of 53 (49%) had been prescribed non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in the year preceding their clinic appointment. Ten patients (19%) had been prescribed other drugs implicated in oesophageal dis...

  4. Pregnancy-related steroids are potential negative regulators of B lymphopoiesis.

    Medina, K L; Kincade, P W

    1994-01-01

    B lymphopoiesis is selectively suppressed in normal pregnant mice, suggesting that fluctuations in systemic hormone levels might influence local events within bone marrow. This has now been tested by sustained experimental elevation of sex steroids by hormone-containing pellet implants. We found that while numbers of total nucleated cells declined after treatment with estrone, beta-estradiol, or estriol, there was preferential suppression of B-lymphocyte lineage precursors. Progesterone pelle...

  5. The Role of Steroid Hormones in the Modulation of Neuroinflammation by Dietary Interventions

    Vasconcelos, Andrea Rodrigues; Cabral-Costa, João Victor; Mazucanti, Caio Henrique; Scavone, Cristoforo; Kawamoto, Elisa Mitiko

    2016-01-01

    Steroid hormones, such as sex hormones and glucocorticoids, have been demonstrated to play a role in different cellular processes in the central nervous system, ranging from neurodevelopment to neurodegeneration. Environmental factors, such as calorie intake or fasting frequency, may also impact on such processes, indicating the importance of external factors in the development and preservation of a healthy brain. The hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis and glucocorticoid activity play a role...

  6. l-Kynurenine, an amino acid identified as a sex pheromone in the urine of ovulated female masu salmon

    Yambe, Hidenobu; Kitamura, Shoji; Kamio, Michiya; Yamada, Miho; Matsunaga, Shigeki; Fusetani, Nobuhiro; Yamazaki, Fumio

    2006-01-01

    Many animals employ sex pheromones to find mating partners during their reproductive seasons. However, most sex pheromones of vertebrates remain to be identified. Over the past 20 years, steroids and prostaglandins have been identified as sex pheromones in several fishes. These pheromones are broadly termed hormonal pheromones because they or their precursors act as hormones in these fishes. Hitherto, no other type of sex pheromone has been unambiguously identified in teleost fish. Here we ...

  7. The Role of Steroid Hormones in the Modulation of Neuroinflammation by Dietary Interventions.

    Vasconcelos, Andrea Rodrigues; Cabral-Costa, Joo Victor; Mazucanti, Caio Henrique; Scavone, Cristoforo; Kawamoto, Elisa Mitiko

    2016-01-01

    Steroid hormones, such as sex hormones and glucocorticoids, have been demonstrated to play a role in different cellular processes in the central nervous system, ranging from neurodevelopment to neurodegeneration. Environmental factors, such as calorie intake or fasting frequency, may also impact on such processes, indicating the importance of external factors in the development and preservation of a healthy brain. The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and glucocorticoid activity play a role in neurodegenerative processes, including in disorders such as in Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. Sex hormones have also been shown to modulate cognitive functioning. Inflammation is a common feature in neurodegenerative disorders, and sex hormones/glucocorticoids can act to regulate inflammatory processes. Intermittent fasting can protect the brain against cognitive decline that is induced by an inflammatory stimulus. On the other hand, obesity increases susceptibility to inflammation, while metabolic syndromes, such as diabetes, are associated with neurodegeneration. Consequently, given that gonadal and/or adrenal steroids may significantly impact the pathophysiology of neurodegeneration, via their effect on inflammatory processes, this review focuses on how environmental factors, such as calorie intake and intermittent fasting, acting through their modulation of steroid hormones, impact on inflammation that contributes to cognitive and neurodegenerative processes. PMID:26869995

  8. The Role of Steroid Hormones in the Modulation of Neuroinflammation by Dietary Interventions

    Vasconcelos, Andrea Rodrigues; Cabral-Costa, João Victor; Mazucanti, Caio Henrique; Scavone, Cristoforo; Kawamoto, Elisa Mitiko

    2016-01-01

    Steroid hormones, such as sex hormones and glucocorticoids, have been demonstrated to play a role in different cellular processes in the central nervous system, ranging from neurodevelopment to neurodegeneration. Environmental factors, such as calorie intake or fasting frequency, may also impact on such processes, indicating the importance of external factors in the development and preservation of a healthy brain. The hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis and glucocorticoid activity play a role in neurodegenerative processes, including in disorders such as in Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases. Sex hormones have also been shown to modulate cognitive functioning. Inflammation is a common feature in neurodegenerative disorders, and sex hormones/glucocorticoids can act to regulate inflammatory processes. Intermittent fasting can protect the brain against cognitive decline that is induced by an inflammatory stimulus. On the other hand, obesity increases susceptibility to inflammation, while metabolic syndromes, such as diabetes, are associated with neurodegeneration. Consequently, given that gonadal and/or adrenal steroids may significantly impact the pathophysiology of neurodegeneration, via their effect on inflammatory processes, this review focuses on how environmental factors, such as calorie intake and intermittent fasting, acting through their modulation of steroid hormones, impact on inflammation that contributes to cognitive and neurodegenerative processes. PMID:26869995

  9. Sex offenders and sex crime recidivism: investigating the role of sentence length and time served.

    Budd, Kristen; Desmond, Scott A

    2014-12-01

    The relationship between criminal justice sanctions and sex crime recidivism remains largely unexplored. Therefore, using a sample of 8,461 previously incarcerated male sex offenders from 13 states in the United States, we focus on the sentence meted out for the sex crime conviction and the amount of time sex offenders served as a result of their conviction. Sex offenders were grouped into four categories: rapists, sexual assaulters, child molesters, and all sex offenders combined. Recidivism was operationalized as rearrest and reconviction. Findings suggest how recidivism is operationalized matters. When recidivism is measured as rearrest for another sex offense, sentence length and time served are unrelated to sex crime recidivism. On the other hand, when recidivism is operationalized as reconviction for another sex offense, sentence length is positively related to recidivism for rapists, sexual assaulters, child molesters, and all sex offenders combined, while time served is negatively related to recidivism for child molesters and all sex offenders combined. PMID:24114424

  10. Paclitaxel and Carboplatin or Bleomycin Sulfate, Etoposide Phosphate, and Cisplatin in Treating Patients With Advanced or Recurrent Sex Cord-Ovarian Stromal Tumors

    2016-03-16

    Ovarian Granulosa Cell Tumor; Ovarian Gynandroblastoma; Ovarian Sertoli-Leydig Cell Tumor; Ovarian Sex Cord Tumor With Annular Tubules; Ovarian Sex Cord-Stromal Tumor; Ovarian Sex Cord-Stromal Tumor of Mixed or Unclassified Cell Types; Ovarian Steroid Cell Tumor

  11. Fecal steroids and colorectal cancer.

    Owen, R W; Dodo, M; Thompson, M H; Hill, M J

    1987-01-01

    The fecal steroid profiles of healthy subjects were compared with those of colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. The multicomponent profiles did not differ qualitatively in that CRC patients, like control subjects, had similar fecal steroids. The major bile acids detected in fecal extracts were lithocholic acid (LCA) and deoxycholic acid (DCA). The major sterol of animal origin was cholesterol and its bacterial metabolite coprostanol, whereas the major plant sterols were beta-sitosterol, stigmasterol, campesterol, and their corresponding bacterial metabolites. CRC patients excreted higher amounts of total major bile acids (LCA and DCA) than did the control group, but this difference was not significant. However, the LCA-to-DCA ratio was much higher in the CRC group [(1.43, p less than 0.01) compared with the control group (0.72)]. The control group excreted significantly higher amounts of total neutral sterols (p less than 0.001), sterols of animal origin (p less than 0.001), and plant sterols (p less than 0.001) compared with the CRC group; the plant sterols represented a much lower proportion of excreted total neutral sterols in the CRC group (p greater than 0.001) compared with the control group. We propose the following hypotheses. The LCA-to-DCA ratio may be an important discriminant market for CRC susceptibility. The fecal LCA-to-DCA ratio may depend on the differential hepatic synthesis of their respective precursors chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) and cholic acid. Hepatic synthesis of CDCA may be increased by more efficient conservation of dietary cholesterol because it has been shown that cholesterol of exogenous origin is the main precursor of this bile acid.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3562296

  12. Neonatal thyroid function: prematurity, prenatal steroids, and respiratory distress syndrome.

    Franklin, R C; Purdie, G L; O'Grady, C M

    1986-01-01

    Indices of thyroid function were measured in 97 preterm infants at birth and at 5, 10, and 15 days of age. Triiodothyronine uptake, free thyroxine index, thyroxine, free thyroxine, triiodothyronine, reverse triiodothyronine, and thyroxine binding globulin values at birth correlated with gestational age, whereas thyroid stimulating hormone values did not. Treatment with steroids prenatally had no apparent effect on thyroid function at birth or postnatally. Infants developing respiratory distre...

  13. Prevalence and Perceptions Toward Anabolicandrogenic Steroid Use Amongst University Students

    Kargarfard M.; Lam E.; Shaw B.; Shaw I.; Shariat A.; Nayyeri Fereshteh

    2015-01-01

    Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AASs) are highly sought-after in order to achieve muscle growth and better physical attributes. The study was conducted to measure the prevalence and attitudes towards the use of AASs among university students. 1008 male students from Isfahan University, Iran, between the ages of 18 and 25 years (23.3 ± 1.2 years) completed a questionnaire that investigated participation in bodybuilding, level of sport competition, participation in sports and recreational activit...

  14. Risk of sex-specific cancers in opposite-sex and same-sex twins in Denmark and Sweden

    Ahrenfeldt, Linda Juel; Skytthe, Axel; Möller, Sören; Czene, Kamila; Adami, Hans-Olov; Mucci, Lorelei A; Kaprio, Jaakko; Petersen, Inge; Christensen, Kaare; Lindahl-Jacobsen, Rune

    2015-01-01

    prenatal testosterone - does not increase the risk of sex-specific cancers in OS females. Furthermore, the study supports that twinning per se is not a risk factor of cancer. IMPACT: Findings are reassuring as they fail to provide evidence for the hypothesis that endocrine or other difference in the in......BACKGROUND: Increasing evidence shows that some cancers originate in utero. It is hypothesized that elevated exposure to some steroid hormones might increase cancer risk, and that hormone transfer between twin fetuses could result in different prenatal exposure to testosterone. METHODS: This large......-scale prospective twin study compared opposite-sex (OS) and same-sex (SS) twins to test the impact of intrauterine exposures on cancer risk. Based on the Danish and Swedish twin and cancer registries, we calculated incidence rate ratios for OS and SS twins while standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) with 95...

  15. Effects of Treadmill Exercise on Muscle Fibers in Mice with Steroid Myopathy

    Okita, Minoru; Yoshimura, Toshiro; Nakano, Jiro; Watabe, Miwako; Nagai, Tomoko; Kato, Katsutomo; Eguchi, Katsumi

    2001-01-01

    We studied the effect of treadmill exercise on muscle fibers in mice with experimental steroid myopathy. Frozen sections of the extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and soleus (SOL) muscles were stained with hematoxylin-eosin, and the muscle fiber diameters measured. In the EDL, muscle fiber diameters in the steroid groups decreased significantly compared with those in the control groups; moreover, muscle fiber diameters in the exercise groups increased significantly compared with those in the non...

  16. Intrauterine sexual differentiation: biosyntesis and action of sexual steroid hormones

    Amilton Cesar dos Santos

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this review was to describe sexual differentiation events in mammals, relating them to biosynthesis of sexual steroid hormones and their mechanisms of action. Cholesterol is the precursor of sexual steroid hormone biosynthesis via action of several enzymes converting these hormones. Progestagens hormones serve as substrate for the production of androgens, which in turn serve as substrate for estrogen hormones. These hormones are responsible for sexual differentiation and reproductive cycles of mammals. Sexual differentiation process comprises determining the sexual chromosomes XX or XY + SRY and other genes linked to them, differentiation of gonads in testis or ovary, differentiation of internal and external male or female genital organs from undifferentiated anatomical structures present in the embryo, which is dependent on the presence or absence of testes and the production of anti-Mllerian hormone and testosterone; and secondary sexual differentiation, which is the response of various tissues to hormones produced by the gonads, interacting with genes linked to sexual chromosomes to increase or decrease the differences in sexual phenotype. However, some differences between the sexes and some anomalies of sexual differentiation are not explained only by these sexual hormonal effects, but also by the effect of genes encoded in sexual chromosomes.

  17. Steroid use in Acute Liver Failure

    Karkhanis, Jamuna; Verna, Elizabeth C.; Chang, Matthew S.; Stravitz, R. Todd; Schilsky, Michael; Lee, William M; Brown, Robert S

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims Drug-induced and indeterminate Acute Liver Failure (ALF) might be due to an autoimmune-like hepatitis that is responsive to corticosteroid therapy. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether corticosteroids improve survival in fulminant autoimmune hepatitis, drug-induced or indeterminate ALF, and whether this benefit varies according to the severity of illness. Methods We conducted a retrospective analysis of autoimmune, indeterminate and drug-induced ALF patients in the Acute Liver Failure Study Group from 1998-2007. The primary endpoints were overall and spontaneous survival (SS, survival without transplant). Results 361 ALF patients were studied, 66 with autoimmune (25 steroids, 41 no steroids), 164 with indeterminate (21 steroids, 143 no steroids), and 131 with drug-induced (16 steroids, 115 no steroids) ALF. Steroid use was not associated with improved overall survival (61% vs. 66%, p=0.41), nor with improved survival in any diagnosis category. Steroid use was associated with diminished survival in certain subgroups of patients, including those with the highest quartile of MELD (MELD > 40, survival 30% vs. 57%, p=0.03). In multivariable analysis controlling for steroid use and diagnosis, age (OR 1.37 per decade), coma grade (OR 2.02 grade 2, 2.65 grade 3, 5.29 grade 4), MELD (OR 1.07) and pHsteroid use was associated with a marginal benefit in SS overall (35% v. 23%, p=0.047), this benefit did not persistent in multivariable analysis; mechanical ventilation (OR 0.24), MELD (OR 0.93), and ALT (1.02) were the only significant predictors of SS. Conclusions Corticosteroids did not improve overall survival or SS in drug-induced, indeterminate or autoimmune ALF and were associated with lower survival in patients with the highest MELD scores. PMID:23929808

  18. Sex during Pregnancy

    ... Caring for Your Child All About Food Allergies Sex During Pregnancy KidsHealth > For Parents > Sex During Pregnancy ... satisfying and safe sexual relationship during pregnancy. Is Sex During Pregnancy Safe? Sex is considered safe during ...

  19. 21 CFR 1308.34 - Exempt anabolic steroid products.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exempt anabolic steroid products. 1308.34 Section... SUBSTANCES Exempt Anabolic Steroid Products 1308.34 Exempt anabolic steroid products. The list of compounds, mixtures, or preparations that contain an anabolic steroid that have been exempted by the...

  20. Morphine Inhibited the Rat Neural Stem Cell Proliferation Rate by Increasing Neuro Steroid Genesis.

    Feizy, Navid; Nourazarian, Alireza; Rahbarghazi, Reza; Nozad Charoudeh, Hojjatollah; Abdyazdani, Nima; Montazersaheb, Soheila; Narimani, Mohamadreza

    2016-06-01

    Up to present, a large number of reports unveiled exacerbating effects of both long- and short-term administration of morphine, as a potent analgesic agent, on opium-addicted individuals and a plethora of cell kinetics, although contradictory effect of morphine on different cells have been introduced until yet. To address the potent modulatory effect of morphine on neural multipotent precursors with emphasis on endogenous sex-related neurosteroids biosynthesis, we primed the rat neural stem cells isolated from embryonic rat telencephalon to various concentrations of morphine including 10, 20, 50 and 100 µM alone or in combination with naloxone (100 µM) over period of 72 h. Flow cytometric Ki-67 expression and Annexin-V/PI based necrosis and apoptosis of exposed cells were evaluated. The total content of dihydrotestosterone and estradiol in cell supernatant was measured by ELISA. According on obtained data, both concentration- and time-dependent decrement of cell viability were orchestrated thorough down-regulation of ki-67 and simultaneous up-regulation of Annexin-V. On the other hand, the addition of naloxone (100 µM), as Mu opiate receptor antagonist, could blunt the morphine-induced adverse effects. It also well established that time-course exposure of rat neural stem cells with morphine potently could accelerate the endogenous dihydrotestosterone and estradiol biosynthesis. Interestingly, naloxone could consequently attenuate the enhanced neurosteroidogenesis time-dependently. It seems that our results discover a biochemical linkage between an accelerated synthesis of sex-related steroids and rat neural stem cells viability. PMID:26830291

  1. Developmental reprogramming of reproductive and metabolic dysfunction in sheep: native steroids vs. environmental steroid receptor modulators

    Padmanabhan, Vasantha; Sarma, Hiren N.; Savabieasfahani, Mozhgan; Steckler, Teresa L.; Veiga-Lopez, Almudena

    2010-01-01

    The inappropriate programming of developing organ systems by exposure to excess native or environmental steroids, particularly the contamination of our environment and our food sources with synthetic endocrine disrupting chemicals that can interact with steroid receptors, is a major concern. Studies with native steroids have found that in utero exposure of sheep to excess testosterone, an estrogen precursor, results in low birth weight offspring and leads to an array of adult reproductive / m...

  2. Intramesenteric Steroid Treatment for Steroid- Refractory Gastrointestinal Graft Versus Host Disease

    Aynur Ugur Bilgin; Pervin Topcuoglu; Tanzer Sancak; Nahide Konuk; Mutlu Arat

    2012-01-01

    Currently, steroid-refractory severe gastrointestinal (GI) graft versus host disease (GVHD) is among the most important complications of allogeneic transplantation, and as yet there is no standard approach to its treatment. Herein we report two cases with steroid-refractory GI GVHD that received intramesenteric steroid treatment. In both cases the frequency and volume of diarrhea resolved completely following intramesenteric methylprednisolone (MP) injection. In conclusion, intra-arterial ste...

  3. Metabolic effects of contraceptive steroids.

    Sitruk-Ware, Regine; Nath, Anita

    2011-06-01

    Estrogen and progestins have been used by millions of women as effective combined contraceptives. The safety of hormonal contraceptives has been documented by years of follow-up and serious adverse events that may be related to their use are rare in the young population exposed to these agents. The balance between the benefits and the risks of contraceptive steroids is generally positive in particular when comparing to the risks of pregnancy and especially in women with risk factors. The metabolic changes induced by the synthetic steroids used in contraception, such as lipoprotein changes, insulin response to glucose, and coagulation factors have been considered as potential markers of cardiovascular and venous risk. Observations of these effects have led to modifications of the composition of hormonal contraceptive in order to minimize these changes and hence potentially decrease the risks. The synthetic estrogen Ethinyl-Estradiol (EE) exerts a stronger effect that natural estradiol (E2) on hepatic metabolism including estrogen-dependent markers such as liver proteins. This stronger hepatic impact of EE has been related to its 17α-ethinyl group which prevents the inactivation of the molecule and results in a more pronounced hepatic effect of EE as compared to estradiol. Due to its strong activity, administering EE via a non-oral route does not prevent its impact on liver proteins. In order to circumvent the metabolic changes induced by EE, newer products using more natural compounds such as estradiol (E2) and estradiol valerate (E2V) have been introduced. The synthetic progestins used for contraception are structurally related either to testosterone (T) (estranes and gonanes) or to progesterone (pregnanes and 19-norpregnanes). Several new progestins have been designed to bind more specifically to the progesterone receptor and to minimize side-effects related to androgenic, estrogenic or glucocorticoid receptor interactions. Dienogest (DNG), and drospirenone (DRSP) and the 19-norpregnanes including Nestorone® (NES), nomegestrol acetate (NOMAc) and trimegestone (TMG) have been combined with estrogen either EE or E2 or estradiol valerate (E2V). Risks and benefits of the newer progestins used in contraception depend upon the type of molecular structure, the type and dose of estrogen associated in a combination and the route of administration. The lower metabolic impact of estradiol-based combinations may result in an improved safety profile, but large surveillance studies are warranted to confirm this plausible hypothesis. So far, the contraindications and warnings for use of current COCs also apply to the estradiol-based COCs. PMID:21538049

  4. Advances in immunoassay of anabolic steroids

    A specific RIA for the main nortestosterone metabolites, norandrosterone and noretiocholanolone and a rapid, automatizable modification of testosterone RIA in urine are described. Additionally, an enzymeimmunoassay (EIA) variant for detection of 17?-methyltestosterone and related steroids is suggested. (Auth.)

  5. [Steroid use in free time bodybuilders].

    Michels-Lucht, Felicitas; Schirmer, Jan; Klauer, Thomas; Freyberger, Harald; Lucht, Michael

    2011-12-01

    A sample of 74 male bodybuilders was analyzed for relationships between steroid abuse (abuse n=31; no abuse n=43) and self-esteem (Multidimensionale Selbstwertskala MSWS), body-image (Body-Image Questionnaire FK-ASA) as well as teasing (Physical Appearance Related Teasing Scale PARTS). In a logistic regression analysis age (p=0.001), low values for body expression (p=0.036) and high self-esteem (p=0.024) predicted steroid intake; training frequency or teasing experiences showed no effect. Contrary to earlier findings high and not low self-esteem was associated with steroid abuse. Because of the overlap between constructs narcissism and self-esteem further studies should disentangle the role of narcissism and self-esteem for steroid abuse in bodybuilders. PMID:22161857

  6. Steroids/Nutritional Supplements/Antibiotics

    ... showed some promise in preserving muscle strength. Anabolic steroids have attracted much attention from body builders and athletes who wish to "bulk up" their muscle mass, and the numerous harmful side effects of their use (including liver and kidney damage, ...

  7. Identification of sex hormone-binding globulin in the human hypothalamus

    Herbert, Zsófia; Göthe, Susanne; Caldwell, Jack D.; Bernstein, Hans-Gert; Melle, Christian; Eggeling, Ferdinand von; Lewis, John; Jirikowski, Gustav F.

    2005-01-01

    Gonadal steroids are known to influence hypothalamic functions through both genomic and non-genomic pathways. Sex hormone-binding globulin ( SHBG) may act by a non-genomic mechanism independent of classical steroid receptors. Here we describe the immunocytochemical mapping of SHBG-containing neurons and nerve fibers in the human hypothalamus and infundibulum. Mass spectrometry and Western blot analysis were also used to characterize the biochemical characteristics of SHBG in the hypothalamus ...

  8. Inhaled steroid/tobacco smoke particle interactions: a new light on steroid resistance

    Nicolini Gabriele

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inhaled steroid resistance is an obstacle to asthma control in asthmatic smokers. The reasons of this phenomenon are not yet entirely understood. Interaction of drug particles with environmental tobacco smoke (ETS could change the aerodynamic profile of the drug through the particle coagulation phenomenon. Aim of the present study was to examine whether steroid particles interact with smoke when delivered in the presence of ETS. Methods Beclomethasone-hydrofluoralkane (BDP-HFA pMDI particle profile was studied after a single actuation delivered in ambient air or in the presence of ETS in an experimental chamber using a light scattering Optical Particle Counter capable of measuring the concentrations of particle sized 0.31.0, 1.12.0, 2.13.0, 3.14.0, 4.15.0, and > 5.1 ?m in diameter with a sampling time of one second. The number of drug particles delivered after a single actuation was measured as the difference between total particle number after drug delivery and background particle number. Two groups of experiments were carried out at different ambient background particle concentrations. Two-tail Student's t-test was used for statistical analysis. Results When delivered in ambient air, over 90% of BDP-HFA particles were found in the 0.31.0 ?m size class, while particles sized 1.12.0 ?m and 2.13.0 represented less than 6.6% and 2.8% of total particles, respectively. However, when delivered in the presence of ETS, drug particle profile was modified, with an impressive decrease of 0.31.0 ?m particles, the most represented particles resulting those sized 1.12.0 ?m (over 66.6% of total particles, and 2.13.0 ?m particles accounting up to 31% of total particles. Conclusion Our data suggest that particle interaction between inhaled BDP-HFA pMDI and ETS takes place in the first few seconds after drug delivery, with a decrease in smaller particles and a concurrent increase of larger particles. The resulting changes in aerosol particle profile might modify regional drug deposition with potential detriment to drug efficacy, and represent a new element of steroid resistance in smokers. Although the present study does not provide any functional or clinical assessment, it might be useful to advise smokers and non smokers with obstructive lung disease such as asthma or COPD, to avoid to act inhaled drugs in the presence of ETS in order to obtain the best therapeutic effect.

  9. Sex Role Identity and Adjustment during Adolescence.

    Massad, Christopher M.

    1981-01-01

    Examined the relationship between sex role identity and two measures of adjustment--self-acceptance and peer acceptance--among adolescents. Sex differences were discovered regarding factors positively associated with self-acceptance. Findings suggest that a model of sex role differentiation during adolescence must recognize differential pressures…

  10. Steroid-induced Kager's fat pad atrophy

    We report a rare case of Kager's fat pad atrophy and fibrosis in a 60-year-old woman 1 year after a steroid injection for Achilles tendinopathy. There are few published reports of steroid-induced atrophy affecting deeper layers of fat tissue. To our knowledge, this case report is the first to illustrate its features using magnetic resonance imaging. A review of the scientific literature is also presented. (orig.)

  11. Mitochondrial benzodiazepine receptors regulate steroid biosynthesis.

    Mukhin, A G; V. Papadopoulos; Costa, E; Krueger, K E

    1989-01-01

    Recent observations on the steroid synthetic capability within the brain open the possibility that benzodiazepines may influence steroid synthesis in nervous tissue through interactions with peripheral-type benzodiazepine recognition sites, which are highly expressed in steroidogenic cells and associated with the outer mitochondrial membrane. To examine this possibility nine molecules that exhibit a greater than 10,000-fold difference in their affinities for peripheral-type benzodiazepine bin...

  12. Steroidal saponins from Dioscorea preussii.

    Tabopda, Turibio Kuiate; Mitaine-Offer, Anne-Claire; Tanaka, Chiaki; Miyamoto, Tomofumi; Mirjolet, Jean-François; Duchamp, Olivier; Ngadjui, Bonaventure Tchaleu; Lacaille-Dubois, Marie-Aleth

    2014-09-01

    Three new steroidal saponins, named diospreussinosides A-C (1-3), along with two known ones (4, 5) were isolated from rhizomes of Dioscorea preussii. Their structures were elucidated mainly by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic analysis and mass spectrometry as (25S)-17α,25-dihydroxyspirost-5-en-3β-yl-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→4)-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→4)-β-D-glucopyranoside (1), (25S)-17α,25-dihydroxyspirost-5-en-3β-yl-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→4)-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→4)-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)]-β-D-glucopyranoside (2), and (24S,25R)-17α,24,25-trihydroxyspirost-5-en-3β-yl-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→4)-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→4)-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)]-β-D-glucopyranoside (3). The spirostane-type skeleton of compound 3 possessing an unusual dihydroxylation pattern on the F-ring is reported for the first time. Cytotoxicity of compounds 2-5 was evaluated against two human colon carcinoma cell lines (HT-29 and HCT 116). PMID:24928475

  13. Influence on the alternative steroid profile, part I

    Van Renterghem, Pieter; Deventer, Koen; Van Eenoo, Peter

    2013-01-01

    To date, knowledge of steroid profiling has gone beyond a mere T/E ratio evaluation. It was shown that incorporation of minor metabolites could contribute to the sensitivity and specificity steroid profiling methods. On the other hand, the evaluation of such steroid profiles is not straightforward to correctly judge alterations. In this respect, a steroidomic model was presented that was trained to recognise normal and abnormal steroid profiles. However, we must realise that steroid profiles ...

  14. Mitochondrial benzodiazepine receptors regulate steroid biosynthesis

    Recent observations on the steroid synthetic capability within the brain open the possibility that benzodiazepines may influence steroid synthesis in nervous tissue through interactions with peripheral-type benzodiazepine recognition sites, which are highly expressed in steroidogenic cells and associated with the outer mitochondrial membrane. To examine this possibility nine molecules that exhibit a greater than 10,000-fold difference in their affinities for peripheral-type benzodiazepine binding sites were tested for their effects on a well-established steroidogenic model system, the Y-1 mouse adrenal tumor cell line. 4'-Chlorodiazepam, PK 11195, and PK 14067 stimulated steroid production by 2-fold in Y-1 cells, whereas diazepam, flunitrazepam, zolpidem, and PK 14068 displayed a lower (1.2- to 1.5-fold) maximal stimulation. In contrast, clonazepam and flumazenil did not stimulate steroid synthesis. The potencies of these compounds to inhibit 3H-labeled PK 11195 binding to peripheral-type benzodiazepine recognition sites correlated with their potencies to stimulate steroid production. Similar findings were observed in bovine and rat adrenocortical cell preparations. These results suggest that ligands of the peripheral-type benzodiazepine recognition site acting on this mitochondrial receptor can enhance steroid production. This action may contribute specificity to the pharmacological profile of drugs preferentially acting on the benzodiazepine recognition site associated with the outer membrane of certain mitochondrial populations

  15. Mitochondrial benzodiazepine receptors regulate steroid biosynthesis

    Mukhin, A.G.; Papadopoulos, V.; Costa, E.; Krueger, K.E. (Georgetown Univ. School of Medicine, Washington, DC (USA))

    1989-12-01

    Recent observations on the steroid synthetic capability within the brain open the possibility that benzodiazepines may influence steroid synthesis in nervous tissue through interactions with peripheral-type benzodiazepine recognition sites, which are highly expressed in steroidogenic cells and associated with the outer mitochondrial membrane. To examine this possibility nine molecules that exhibit a greater than 10,000-fold difference in their affinities for peripheral-type benzodiazepine binding sites were tested for their effects on a well-established steroidogenic model system, the Y-1 mouse adrenal tumor cell line. 4{prime}-Chlorodiazepam, PK 11195, and PK 14067 stimulated steroid production by 2-fold in Y-1 cells, whereas diazepam, flunitrazepam, zolpidem, and PK 14068 displayed a lower (1.2- to 1.5-fold) maximal stimulation. In contrast, clonazepam and flumazenil did not stimulate steroid synthesis. The potencies of these compounds to inhibit {sup 3}H-labeled PK 11195 binding to peripheral-type benzodiazepine recognition sites correlated with their potencies to stimulate steroid production. Similar findings were observed in bovine and rat adrenocortical cell preparations. These results suggest that ligands of the peripheral-type benzodiazepine recognition site acting on this mitochondrial receptor can enhance steroid production. This action may contribute specificity to the pharmacological profile of drugs preferentially acting on the benzodiazepine recognition site associated with the outer membrane of certain mitochondrial populations.

  16. Distribution and bioaccumulation of steroidal and phenolic endocrine disrupting chemicals in wild fish species from Dianchi Lake, China

    The distribution and bioaccumulation of steroidal and phenolic endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) were studied in various tissues of wild fish species from Dianchi Lake, China. In muscle tissue, 4-tert-octylphenol, 4-cumylphenol, 4-nonlyphenol and bisphenol A were detected in fish from each sampling site, with maximal concentrations of 4.6, 4.4, 18.9 and 83.5 ng/g dry weight (dw), respectively. Steroids (estrone, 17β-estradiol 17α-ethynylestradiol and estriol) were found at lower levels (<11.3 ng/g dw) and less frequently in muscle samples. The highest concentrations of steroids and phenols were found in liver, followed by those in gill and the lowest concentration was found in muscle. The field bioconcentration factors (BCFs) of phenols were calculated in fish species ranged from 18 to 97. Moreover, the measured tissue concentrations were utilized in order to estimate water concentration of steroids (4.4-18.0 ng/L). These results showed that steroidal and phenolic EDCs were likely ubiquitous contaminants in wild fish. - Highlights: → We assess the occurrence of EDCs in wild fish from Dianchi Lake, China. → We investigate the distribution of steroidal and phenolic EDCs in fish tissues. → We estimate the bioaccumulation of wild fish to steroidal and phenolic EDCs. → Steroidal and phenolic EDCs are likely ubiquitous contaminants in wild fish. - Contaminants of endocrine disrupting chemicals in wild fish.

  17. Prostate volume change after radioactive seed implantation: Possible benefit of improved dose volume histogram with perioperative steroid

    Purpose: To evaluate the changes in prostate volume associated with radioactive seed implantation and identify factors that influence prostate swelling. Methods and Materials: Between June 1997 and August 1999, 161 patients implanted for prostate carcinoma at the University of California, San Francisco, had prostate volume measurements taken at 4 time points (preplan, preimplant, postimplant, postimplant dosimetry). Patient records were reviewed for treatment with perioperative steroids, hormone therapy (nHT), and external beam radiotherapy (EBRT). One and 2-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) methods were used to test differences in mean effects among patient subsets. Results: A mean 20% volume increase was noted immediately postimplant overall (p < 0.0001), and even with EBRT and/or HT. Steroids were associated with a mean volume decrease of 19.9%, by 3-4 weeks post-procedure (p < 0.0001). Without steroids, only a 3.8% mean change was seen (p = ns). Steroid use resulted in a significant increase in mean dose-volume histogram (DVH) (p = 0.001); however, this benefit was only observed among patients who did not receive steroid. A consistently high DVH occurred with steroid use. Conclusion: A significant decrease in prostate volume and improved DVH are associated with steroid use. The diminished benefit of steroid use and higher mean DVH achieved in later years suggests the existence of a significant 'learning curve' for brachytherapy procedures.

  18. Distribution and bioaccumulation of steroidal and phenolic endocrine disrupting chemicals in wild fish species from Dianchi Lake, China

    Liu Jingliang; Wang Renmin; Huang Bin; Lin Chan; Wang Yu [Faculty of Environmental Science and Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming, Yunnan 650093 (China); Pan Xuejun, E-mail: xjpan@kmust.edu.cn [Faculty of Environmental Science and Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming, Yunnan 650093 (China)

    2011-10-15

    The distribution and bioaccumulation of steroidal and phenolic endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) were studied in various tissues of wild fish species from Dianchi Lake, China. In muscle tissue, 4-tert-octylphenol, 4-cumylphenol, 4-nonlyphenol and bisphenol A were detected in fish from each sampling site, with maximal concentrations of 4.6, 4.4, 18.9 and 83.5 ng/g dry weight (dw), respectively. Steroids (estrone, 17{beta}-estradiol 17{alpha}-ethynylestradiol and estriol) were found at lower levels (<11.3 ng/g dw) and less frequently in muscle samples. The highest concentrations of steroids and phenols were found in liver, followed by those in gill and the lowest concentration was found in muscle. The field bioconcentration factors (BCFs) of phenols were calculated in fish species ranged from 18 to 97. Moreover, the measured tissue concentrations were utilized in order to estimate water concentration of steroids (4.4-18.0 ng/L). These results showed that steroidal and phenolic EDCs were likely ubiquitous contaminants in wild fish. - Highlights: > We assess the occurrence of EDCs in wild fish from Dianchi Lake, China. > We investigate the distribution of steroidal and phenolic EDCs in fish tissues. > We estimate the bioaccumulation of wild fish to steroidal and phenolic EDCs. > Steroidal and phenolic EDCs are likely ubiquitous contaminants in wild fish. - Contaminants of endocrine disrupting chemicals in wild fish.

  19. Genotype-Specific Steroid Profiles Associated With Aldosterone-Producing Adenomas.

    Williams, Tracy Ann; Peitzsch, Mirko; Dietz, Anna S; Dekkers, Tanja; Bidlingmaier, Martin; Riester, Anna; Treitl, Marcus; Rhayem, Yara; Beuschlein, Felix; Lenders, Jacques W M; Deinum, Jaap; Eisenhofer, Graeme; Reincke, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Primary aldosteronism comprises 2 main subtypes: unilateral aldosterone-producing adenoma (APA) and bilateral adrenal hyperplasia. Somatic KCNJ5 mutations are found in APA at a prevalence of around 40% that drive and sustain aldosterone excess. Somatic APA mutations have been described in other genes (CACNA1D, ATP1A1, and ATP2B3) albeit at a lower frequency. Our objective was to identify genotype-specific steroid profiles in adrenal venous (AV) and peripheral venous (PV) plasma in patients with APAs. We measured the concentrations of 15 steroids in AV and PV plasma samples by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry from 79 patients with confirmed unilateral primary aldosteronism. AV sampling lateralization ratios of steroids normalized either to cortisol or to DHEA+androstenedione were also calculated. The hybrid steroid 18-oxocortisol exhibited 18- and 16-fold higher concentrations in lateralized AV and PV plasma, respectively, from APA with KCNJ5 mutations compared with all other APA combined together (PAPA genotype in AV and PV plasma. Notably, a 7-steroid fingerprint in PV plasma correctly classified 92% of the APA according to genotype. Prospective studies are necessary to translate these findings into clinical practice and determine if steroid fingerprinting could be of value to select patients with primary aldosteronism who are particularly suitable candidates for adrenal venous sampling because of a high probability of having an APA. PMID:26573708

  20. In vitro binding of steroid hormones by natural and purified fibers

    The in vitro binding of estrone, estradiol-17β, estriol, testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, and estrone-3-glucuronide by wheat, oat and corn brans, oat hulls, cellulose, lignin, and cholestyramine resin was measured. Steroid binding was carried out by mixing 50 mg of binding substance with varying substrate quantities (0.037 μCi; 0.50-2.51 pmol/incubation) of 3H-estrone, 3H-estradiol-17β, 3H-estriol, 3H-estrone-3-glucuronide, 4H-testosterone, and 370C for 1 hr with shaking. Following centrifugation of the reaction mixture, a 1 ml aliquot was analyzed for radioactivity. The extent of steroid sequestration was characteristic and reproducible for each hormone. Cholestyramine bound an average of 90% of all the steroids tested, whereas cellulose bound the least (12%). Of the other substances tested, lignin bound 87%; wheat and oat grans, 45% each; corn bran, 44%; and oat hulls, 32% of the unconjugated hormones. The conjugated steroid was less likely to bind than the unconjugated steroids. Lignin appeared to be an important component in the interaction with steroid hormones. The results support the hydrophobic of nature of adsorption and suggest that the components of the fiber in diet should be considered separately when evaluating in vivo metabolic effects. Implications include the possible modification of hormone-dependent cancer risk through dietary intervention

  1. Intracrine steroid production and mammalian target of rapamycin pathways in pulmonary lymphangioleiomyomatosis.

    Adachi, Koko; Miki, Yasuhiro; Saito, Ryoko; Hata, Shuko; Yamauchi, Masanori; Mikami, Yoshiki; Okada, Yoshinori; Seyama, Kuniaki; Kondo, Takashi; Sasano, Hironobu

    2015-11-01

    Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a rare, potentially fatal disease primarily affecting young women. Estrogens enhance cell proliferation and progression of the tumor. Clinical trials using molecularly targeted agents such as endocrine manipulation and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors are in progress, but the status of these molecules, including aromatase and mTOR, has not been explored in LAM tissue. We first examined immunoreactivity for sex steroid receptors (estrogen receptor [ER] ?, ER?, progesterone receptor, androgen receptor), sex steroid-synthesizing enzymes (aromatase, steroid sulfatase, 17?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1, 5?-reductases), apoptotic suppression factor (Bcl-2), and factors involved in the mTOR signaling pathway in 30 pulmonary LAM tissues. Immunoreactivity for ER?, ER?, progesterone receptor, aromatase, and Bcl-2 was significantly more abundant in epithelioid cells, whereas the status of androgen receptor, 5?-reductases, and phospho-mTOR signaling was not different in epithelioid and spindle-shaped LAM cells. We further examined the correlation among H scores of these markers using hierarchical clustering analysis. The results indicated that LAM tumors can be further classified into "aromatase" and "mTOR" groups on the basis of the patterns of immunoreactivity, and the 2 types could benefit from different modes of therapy. PMID:26298231

  2. Wet- and dry-season steroid hormone profiles and stress reactivity of an insular dwarf snake, the Hog Island boa (Boa constrictor imperator).

    Holding, Matthew L; Frazier, Julius A; Dorr, Scott W; Pollock, Nicholas B; Muelleman, P J; Branske, Amber; Henningsen, Sloane N; Eikenaar, Cas; Escallón, Camilo; Montgomery, Chad E; Moore, Ignacio T; Taylor, Emily N

    2014-01-01

    Field endocrine studies providing new comparisons for inference into the evolutionary and ecological factors shaping organismal physiology are important, often yielding novel physiological insights. Here, we explored factors associated with the sex steroid hormone concentrations and adrenocortical response to capture stress in Hog Island boas (Boa constrictor imperator) in the Cayos Cochinos archipelago of Honduras to generate comparative field hormone data from a tropical reptile and test the island tameness hypothesis. Baseline concentrations of testosterone, corticosterone, estradiol, and progesterone were measured during the wet and dry seasons, and an acute stressor of 1 h in a cloth bag was used to assess the stress response. Plasma steroid concentrations in these snakes were generally low in comparison to other taxa. Higher testosterone concentrations in males and higher estradiol and corticosterone concentrations in females were observed during the wet season compared to the dry season, which may be indicative of mating activities and vitellogenesis during this period. Snakes displayed a 15-fold increase in corticosterone concentrations in response to capture stress, a rise that was not impacted by whether a snake had been captured during previous years. The adrenocortical stress response was greater in males and positively related to body temperature. We suggest that this system merits future inquiries into the physiology and behavior of B. c. imperator, particularly as a model for studying insular impacts on diverse life history characters. PMID:24769701

  3. Sex-specific biatrial volumetric measurements obtained with use of multidetector computed tomography in subjects with and without coronary artery disease.

    Budoff, Matthew J; Pagali, Sandeep R; Hamirani, Yasmin S; Chen, Andy; Cheu, Gordon; Gao, Yanlin; Li, Dong; Mao, SongShou

    2014-06-01

    Atrial volumetric measurement has proven clinical implications. Advances in cardiac imaging, notably the precision enabled by multidetector computed tomography (MDCT), herald the need for new criteria of what constitutes normal volumetric measurements. With use of 64-slice MDCT, we compared the atrial volumes in healthy individuals with those in individuals with coronary artery disease. By means of manual segmentation, we measured biatrial volume in 686 participants who underwent retrospective electrocardiographic-gated MDCT angiographic evaluation. The study population included a control group of 203 persons with no cardiac abnormalities, and a study group of 483 patients with obstructive coronary artery disease. All variables were compared between men and women and between the groups. We found a significant difference in left atrial end-systolic and end-diastolic volumes between men and women in the control group (P <0.05); however, right atrial volumes were similar. In comparison with the entire control group, the coronary artery disease group had significantly higher left atrial volume, significantly lower right atrial stroke volume, and significantly lower biatrial ejection fraction, except for left atrial ejection fraction in men. Right atrial volume and left atrial stroke volume were not significantly different. The results imply that a sex-specific reference value is necessary for left atrial volumetric evaluation, and that left atrial volume and biatrial ejection fraction (excluding left atrial ejection fraction in men) might be useful during diagnosis and prognosis in patients who have coronary artery disease. PMID:24955043

  4. Use of an Anatomical Scalar to Control for Sex-Based Size Differences in Measures of Hyoid Excursion during Swallowing

    Molfenter, Sonja M.; Steele, Catriona M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Traditional methods for measuring hyoid excursion from dynamic videofluoroscopy recordings involve calculating changes in position in absolute units (mm). This method shows a high degree of variability across studies but agreement that greater hyoid excursion occurs inmen than in women. Given that men are typically taller than women, the…

  5. Use of an Anatomical Scalar to Control for Sex-Based Size Differences in Measures of Hyoid Excursion during Swallowing

    Molfenter, Sonja M.; Steele, Catriona M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Traditional methods for measuring hyoid excursion from dynamic videofluoroscopy recordings involve calculating changes in position in absolute units (mm). This method shows a high degree of variability across studies but agreement that greater hyoid excursion occurs inmen than in women. Given that men are typically taller than women, the

  6. Objectively measured physical activity of USA adults by sex, age, and racial/ethnic groups: a cross-sectional study

    Hawkins Marquis S; Storti Kristi L; Richardson Caroline R; King Wendy C; Strath Scott J; Holleman Robert G; Kriska Andrea M

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Accelerometers were incorporated in the 20032004 National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (NHANES) study cycle for objective assessment of physical activity. This is the first time that objective physical activity data are available on a nationally representative sample of U.S. residents. The use of accelerometers allows researchers to measure total physical activity, including light intensity and unstructured activities, which may be a better predictor of healt...

  7. Review of Androgenic Anabolic Steroid Use

    T. Borges; G. Eisele; C. Byrd

    2001-07-31

    An area that has been overlooked within personnel security evaluations is employee use of androgenic-anabolic steroids (AAS). Current drug testing within the federal government does not include testing for anabolic steroids, and the difficulties to implement such testing protocols-not to mention the cost involved-make AAS testing highly improbable. The basis of this report is to bring to the forefront the damage that anabolic steroids can cause from both a physical and a psychological standpoint. Most individuals who use AASs do so to increase their muscle mass because they wish to gain some type of competitive edge during athletic competition or they wish to enhance their physical features for self-satisfaction and self-esteem (i.e., body building). Security officers are one group of men who often take high doses of anabolic steroids, according to the Second Report of the Senate Standing Committee (1990). The negative psychological characteristics for AAS use is extensive and includes prominent hostility, aggressiveness, irritability, euphoria, grandiose beliefs, hyperactivity, reckless behavior, increased sexual appetite, unpredictability, poor impulse control, mood fluctuations, and insomnia. The drug may invoke a sense of power and invincibility (Leckman and Scahill, 1990). Depressive symptoms, such as anhedonia, fatigue, impaired concentration, decreased libido, and even suicidality (Pope and Katz, 1992) have been noted with steroid withdrawal. It appears that long-term users of AAS experience similar characteristics as other substance abusers (i.e., craving, dependence, and withdrawal symptoms).

  8. The associations among the dopamine D2 receptor Taq1, emotional intelligence, creative potential measured by divergent thinking, and motivational state and these associations' sex differences.

    Takeuchi, Hikaru; Tomita, Hiroaki; Taki, Yasuyuki; Kikuchi, Yoshie; Ono, Chiaki; Yu, Zhiqian; Sekiguchi, Atsushi; Nouchi, Rui; Kotozaki, Yuka; Nakagawa, Seishu; Miyauchi, Carlos M; Iizuka, Kunio; Yokoyama, Ryoichi; Shinada, Takamitsu; Yamamoto, Yuki; Hanawa, Sugiko; Araki, Tsuyoshi; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Kunitoki, Keiko; Sassa, Yuko; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2015-01-01

    Previous neuroscientific studies have shown that the dopaminergic system plays an important role in creative potential measured by divergent thinking (CPMDT), emotional control, and motivational state. However, although associations between two of these four components have been previously established (e.g., the association between CPMDT and emotional control, the association between CPMDT and motivational state, etc.), the interactions between these four remain unknown. The purpose of this study was to reveal these interactions using path analyses. The Taq1A polymorphism of the dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) gene was used for this purpose. For measuring emotional intelligence (EI), we used the Japanese version of the Emotional Intelligence Scale. CPMDT was measured using the S-A creativity test. Motivational state was measured using the Vigor subscale of the Japanese version of the Profile of Mood Scale (POMS). Data from 766 healthy, right-handed individuals (426 men and 340 women; 20.7 ± 1.9 years of age) were used in this study. There were significant and robust positive relationships among measures of CPMDT, EI, and motivational state across sex. In addition, the polymorphism of the DRD2 gene was significantly associated with EI, specifically in females. Path analysis in females indicates that the model in which (a) the DRD2 polymorphism primarily facilitates EI, (b) EI in turn facilitates CPMDT and leads to a better motivational state, and (c) a better motivational state also directly facilitates CPMDT explains the data in the most accurate manner. This study suggested a comprehensive picture of the cascade of the associations among dopamine, EI, motivational state, and CPMDT at least in females. PMID:26217259

  9. Sex hormones and ischemic stroke

    Holmegard, Haya N; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Jensen, Gorm B; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne; Benn, Marianne

    2016-01-01

    CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Whether endogenous sex hormones are associated with ischemic stroke(IS) is unclear. We tested the hypothesis that extreme concentrations of endogenous sex hormones are associated with risk of IS in the general population. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Adult men(n=4......,615) and women(n=4,724) with measurements of endogenous sex hormones during the 1981-83 examination of the Copenhagen City Heart Study, Denmark, were followed for up to 29 years for incident IS, with no loss to follow-up. Mediation analyses assessed whether risk of IS was mediated through potential...

  10. The Role of Sex Differences in the Referral Process as Measured by the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-Revised and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised.

    Smith, Teresa C.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Explored sex differences on the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-Revised (PPVT-R) and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R) in a sample of 432 Arkansas school children, ages 6 to 16, referred for special education assessment. Analysis of variance indicated significant sex differences among WISC-R Full Scale, Verbal, and…

  11. Local mechanisms in sex specific morphogenesis.

    Drews, U

    2000-01-01

    Sex determination in mammals occurs on three levels. Segregation of sex chromosomes determines the chromosomal sex. Sry on the Y chromosome induces formation of a testis which in turn regulates via AMH and testosterone the development of the genital tract and the external phenotype. Recently a number of new factors have been described, which affect sexual development but have not yet found a place in the above canonical scheme of sex determination. For the purpose of this review, the factors are aligned according to their quality as transcription factors, steroid hormones, or growth factors. In this web of regulatory factors, the classical sex determining factors have evolved as master mechanisms while others function as slaves, or were totally suppressed. In this context, androgens acquired a dominant role in mammalian development. Androgens determine the morphogenesis of the genital tract. The effects of androgens are mediated by local cellular interactions. In the cranial section of the Wolffian duct the androgen receptor appears in the epithelium and mediates maintenance of the duct via an epithelial factor. In the caudal section of the duct the androgen receptor is expressed in the embryonic mesenchyme. Vesicular glands are induced via a morphogenetically active mesenchymal condensation, while the epithelial buds are primarily AR androgen receptor negative. The dominant role of androgens and formation of a vagina evolved together at the transition to eutherian mammals. Under this aspect, the role of androgens in the development of the vagina is analyzed. PMID:11173834

  12. Spatial distribution of human neocortical neurons and glial cells according to sex and age measured by the saucer method

    Stark, Anette Kirstine; Petersen, A O; Gardi, Jonathan Eyal; Gundersen, Hans Jørgen Gottlieb; Pakkenberg, Bente

    2007-01-01

    proportion of a suitable size to have a reasonable relationship between workload and the information obtained. In this paper the method is used on vertical sections to investigate the spatial distribution of astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, microglial cells, endothelial cells and secondary neurons around......A new stereological probe, the saucer, was used for estimating three-dimensional (3D) spatial distributions of particles around particles. The advantages of the saucer include that the measurements and the results are in 3D and the size and design of the probe enables the investigator to sample a...... primary neurons in the human neocortex (divided into frontal-, temporal-, parietal- and occipital cortex) of young and old subjects free of neurological or psychological disease to test if age and gender has any influence on the cell distribution in human neocortex. Plots of the spatial distribution of...

  13. Pathological changes in anabolic androgenic steroid users.

    Lusetti, Monia; Licata, Manuela; Silingardi, Enrico; Reggiani Bonetti, Luca; Palmiere, Cristian

    2015-07-01

    Several classes of recreational and prescription drugs have additional effects on the heart and vasculature, which may significantly contribute to morbidity and mortality in chronic users. The study presented herein focuses on pathological changes involving the heart possibly due to anabolic androgenic steroid use. The role these hormones may play in their occurrence of sudden cardiac death is also investigated. 98 medico-legal cases including 6 anabolic androgenic steroid users were retrospectively reviewed. Autopsies, histology, immunohistochemistry, biochemistry and toxicology were performed in all cases. Pathological changes consisted of various degrees of interstitial and perivascular fibrosis as well as fibroadipous metaplasia and perineural fibrosis within the myocardium of the left ventricle. Within the limits of the small number of investigated cases, our results appear to confirm former observations on this topic and suggest anabolic androgenic steroid's potential causative role in the pathogenesis of sudden cardiac deaths in chronic users. PMID:26048507

  14. Iatrogenic Cushing's syndrome due to topical steroid

    Nihal Hatipoğlu

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Iatrogenic Cushing's syndrome due to the use of steroid medication is extremely common because of the widespread use of these medicines in the treatment of many diseases. Systemic absorption of topical glucocorticoids may result in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis dysfunction in children. In this study, two cases with Cushing stigmata were presented. They had been administered topical corticosteroid treatment because of diaper dermatitis. We suggest that physicians should be alert to the signs of Cushing's syndrome in patients on topical steroid therapy. In addition, these findings show that the use of topical steroids, especially during infancy, should be limited to a short period and less potent agents should be preferred.

  15. Zebrafish sex determination and differentiation: Involvement of FTZ-F1 genes

    Olsson Per-Erik

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Sex determination is the process deciding the sex of a developing embryo. This is usually determined genetically; however it is a delicate process, which in many cases can be influenced by environmental factors. The mechanisms controlling zebrafish sex determination and differentiation are not known. To date no sex linked genes have been identified in zebrafish and no sex chromosomes have been identified. However, a number of genes, as presented here, have been linked to the process of sex determination or differentiation in zebrafish. The zebrafish FTZ-F1 genes are of central interest as they are involved in regulating interrenal development and thereby steroid biosynthesis, as well as that they show expression patterns congruent with reproductive tissue differentiation and function. Zebrafish can be sex reversed by exposure to estrogens, suggesting that the estrogen levels are crucial during sex differentiation. The Cyp19 gene product aromatase converts testosterone into 17 beta-estradiol, and when inhibited leads to male to female sex reversal. FTZ-F1 genes are strongly linked to steroid biosynthesis and the regulatory region of Cyp19 contains binding sites for FTZ-F1 genes, further linking FTZ-F1 to this process. The role of FTZ-F1 and other candidates for zebrafish sex determination and differentiation is in focus of this review.

  16. Phenotypic differences between the sexes in the sexually plastic mangrove rivulus fish (Kryptolebias marmoratus).

    Garcia, Mark J; Ferro, Jack M; Mattox, Tyler; Kopelic, Sydney; Marson, Kristine; Jones, Ryan; Svendsen, Jon C; Earley, Ryan L

    2016-04-01

    To maximize reproductive success, many animal species have evolved functional sex change. Theory predicts that transitions between sexes should occur when the fitness payoff of the current sex is exceeded by the fitness payoff of the opposite sex. We examined phenotypic differences between the sexes in a sex-changing vertebrate, the mangrove rivulus fish (Kryptolebias marmoratus), to elucidate potential factors that might drive the 'decision' to switch sex. Rivulus populations consist of self-fertilizing hermaphrodites and males. Hermaphrodites transition into males under certain environmental conditions, affording us the opportunity to generate 40 hermaphrodite-male pairs where, within a pair, individuals possessed identical genotypes despite being different sexes. We quantified steroid hormone levels, behavior (aggression and risk taking), metabolism and morphology (organ masses). We found that hermaphrodites were more aggressive and risk averse, and had higher maximum metabolic rates and larger gonadosomatic indices. Males had higher steroid hormone levels and showed correlations among hormones that hermaphrodites lacked. Males also had greater total mass and somatic body mass and possessed considerable fat stores. Our findings suggest that there are major differences between the sexes in energy allocation, with hermaphrodites exhibiting elevated maximum metabolic rates, and showing evidence of favoring investments in reproductive tissues over somatic growth. Our study serves as the foundation for future research investigating how environmental challenges affect both physiology and reproductive investment and, ultimately, how these changes dictate the transition between sexes. PMID:27030777

  17. Candida albicans keratitis modified by steroid application

    Kaoru Araki-Sasaki

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Kaoru Araki-Sasaki1, Hiroko Sonoyama1, Tsutomu Kawasaki1, Nariyasu Kazama1, Hidenao Ideta1, Yoshitsugu Inoue21Ideta Eye Hospital, Kumamoto City, Kumamoto, Japan; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Tottori University, Koyama-Minami, Tottori, Japan Abstract: The paper reports on Candida albicans ocular infection modified by steroid eye drops. A 74-year-old male complained of conjunctival injection and pain in his right eye three months after pterygium and cataract surgery. After treatment with antibiotics and steroid eye drops for three days, he was referred to our hospital. Clear localized corneal endothelial plaque with injection of ciliary body was observed. No erosion of the corneal epithelium, or infiltration of stromal edema was observed, suggesting that the pathological organism derived from the intracameral region. Because ocular infection was suspected, steroid eye drops were stopped, which led immediately to typical infectious keratitis in the pathological region, with epithelial erosion, fluffy abscess, stromal infiltration, and edema. For diagnostic purposes, the plaque was surgically removed with forceps and the anterior chamber was irrigated with antibiotics. The smear and culture examination from the plaque revealed C. albicans surrounded by neutrophils. However, aqueous fluid and fibrous tissue after gonio procedure contained no mycotic organisms. Topical fluconazole, micafungin, and pimaricin with oral itraconazole (150 mg/day were effective. Special attention is needed when prescribing steroid eye drops to treat corneal disease especially postoperatively. Diagnosing infectious keratitis is sometimes difficult because of modification by some factors, such as postoperative conditions, scarring, and drug-induced masking. Here, we report on mycotic keratitis modified by postoperative steroid administration. Keywords: Candida albicans, cataract surgery, steroid, mycotic keratitis

  18. Safer Sex Guidelines

    ... Safe activities have no risk for spreading HIV. Abstinence (never having sex) is totally safe. Sex with just one partner ... LINE HIV infection can occur during sexual activity. Sex is safe only if there is no HIV, no blood or ...

  19. Sex during Pregnancy

    ... Kids Deal With Bullies Pregnant? What to Expect Sex During Pregnancy KidsHealth > Parents > Pregnancy & Newborn Center > Your ... satisfying and safe sexual relationship during pregnancy. Is Sex During Pregnancy Safe? Sex is considered safe during ...

  20. Sex-linked dominant

    Inheritance - sex-linked dominant; Genetics - sex-linked dominant; X-linked dominant; Y-linked dominant ... type of chromosome that is affected (autosomal or sex chromosome). It also depends on whether the trait ...

  1. Vertebral fractures in steroid dependent asthma and involutional osteoporosis: a comparative study.

    Luengo, M; Picado, C; Del Rio, L; Guañabens, N; Montserrat, J M; Setoain, J

    1991-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Reduced bone mass predisposes patients to the development of vertebral fractures. Measurement of bone mass by non-invasive methods is used to detect patients with involutional osteoporosis at risk from fractures. These methods have not been assessed in patients with steroid dependent osteoporosis. The objective of this study was to assess the value of a predictive fracture threshold value of bone density in patients with steroid dependent asthma. METHODS: Three groups of patients were studied. Group 1 (67 patients) had steroid dependent asthma (mean daily dose of prednisone 11.7 mg) and no vertebral fractures, group 2 (32 patients) had steroid dependent asthma (mean daily dose of prednisone 12 mg) and vertebral fractures, and group 3 (55 patients) were not taking steroids but had involutional osteoporosis and a recent non-traumatic vertebral fracture. Bone mineral density was measured by dual photon absorptiometry and vertebral fractures by radiography of the lumbar spine. A fracture threshold was determined in the two groups with fractures as the 90th percentile of the mean bone mineral density measured in the lumbar spine. RESULTS: Bone mineral density was significantly higher in the steroid dependent group with fractures (group 2) than in group 3 patients, who had involutional osteoporosis and fractures (0.946 (0.18) g/cm2 v 0.830 (0.16) g/cm2). The fracture threshold value was therefore higher for patients with steroid related vertebral fractures (group 2, 1.173 g/cm2) than for those with involutional osteoporosis (group 3, 0.979 g/cm2). Vertebral fractures were more likely to occur in steroid dependent asthmatic patients with bone density above the fracture threshold value (obtained from subjects with involutional osteoporosis) than in subjects in group 3 (34% v 9%). CONCLUSION: Vertebral fractures occur in patients treated with steroids in the presence of higher bone mineral density than is the case with patients with involutional osteoporosis. The findings suggests that the assessment of the efficacy of preventive treatment requires measurement of bone mineral density and radiology. PMID:1771602

  2. Using Anabolic Androgenic Steroids in Sport

    Sefa Lk

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available It is known that sportsmen especially youngers who engaged in athletism, weight lifting and body building sport have beenusing Anabolic Androgenic Steroid (AAS intensively for purpose of doping during world sport history. Used dopingsubstances to increase sport performance differ from sport branches. In some sport branches, it is used to diminish neuralstress while in other sport branches it is used to increase force, endurance and resistance against exhaustion. Today amongsportsmen using ergogenic substances to increase rivalry and physical performance for purpose of doping are increased. Inthis study using anabolic androgenic steroids in sports will be assessed.

  3. Steroid metabolism in the mouse placenta

    The purpose of the study described in this thesis was to investigate the capacity for steroid synthesis of the mouse placenta - especially the production of progesterone, androgens and estrogens - and to determine, if possible, the relation of steroid synthesis to special cell types. In an introductory chapter the androgen production in the mouse placenta is surveyed by means of a histochemical and bioindicator study of different stages of development of the placenta. The metabolism of [3H]-dehydroepiandrosterone and [3H]-progesterone by mouse placental tissue in vitro is studied. The metabolism of [3H]-progesterone by the mouse fetal adrenal in vitro is also studied

  4. Sex hormone exposure during pregnancy and malformations.

    Briggs, M H; Briggs, M

    1979-01-01

    This general review of the effects of exposure to sex hormones during pregnancy and subsequent fetal malformation presents summaries of animal studies, develops the data indicating virilization and feminization in humans, documents chromosome abnormalities, and presents data on the connection of steroid exposure in utero and somatic malformations. Fetal exposure can occur 3 different ways, through hormonal pregnancy test, via obstetrical use of hormones, or because of continued maternal use of oral contraceptives after conception. In the latter case, an ongoing prospective study indicates that accidental ingestion of oral contraceptives after conception is not harmful to the fetus if taken during early pregnancy. Tables present summaries of numerous large surveys and retrospective studies linking particular sex hormones (exogenous) to particular fetal malformations including neural tube defects and other constellations of developmental problems. The question of exogenous hormone effects on the personality of infants who were exposed in utero is addressed. PMID:400321

  5. Low dose intravenous immunoglobulins and steroids in toxic epidermal necrolysis: A prospective comparative open-labelled study of 36 cases

    Soumya Jagadeesan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN is a severe adverse drug reaction associated with high mortality. Though different modalities of treatment are advocated, there is no consensus regarding specific therapy. Corticosteroids have shown conflicting results and for high dose intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIG, cost is a limiting factor. Aim: To find out the effectiveness of combination therapy with low-dose IVIG and steroids versus steroids alone in our TEN patients. Methods: After obtaining Ethical Committee approval, 36 consecutive TEN patients (2008-2012 were alternately allocated to 2 groups - Group A was given combination of low-dose IVIG (0.2-0.5 g/kg and rapidly tapering course of steroids (intravenous dexamethasone 0.1- 0.3 mg/kg/day tapered in 1-2 weeks while Group B was given same dose of steroids alone. Outcome parameters assessed were time taken for arrest of disease progression, time taken for re-epithelization, duration of hospital stay and mortality rates. Results: Both groups had 18 patients. Baseline characteristics like age, sex ratio, SCORTEN, body surface area involvement and treatment interval were comparable. Time for arrest of disease progression and for re-epithelization was significantly lowered in Group A (P = 0.0001, P = 0.0009 respectively. Though duration of hospital stay and deaths were less in Group A, difference was not statistically significant. SCORTEN based standardized mortality ratio (SMR analysis revealed that combination therapy reduced the probability of dying by 82% (SMR = 0.18 ± 0.36 and steroids by 37% (SMR = 0.63 ± 0.71. Difference in SMR was statistically significant (P = 0.00001. No significant side effects due to either modality were found in any of the patients. Conclusion: Combination therapy with low-dose IVIG and steroids is more effective in terms of reduced mortality and faster disease resolution when compared to steroids alone in TEN.

  6. Side-effects of topical steroids: A long overdue revisit

    Arijit Coondoo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of topical steroids (TS of varying potency have rendered the therapy of inflammatory cutaneous disorders more effective and less time-consuming. However the usefulness of these has become a double edged sword with constantly rising instances of abuse and misuse leading to serious local, systemic and psychological side effects. These side effects occur more with TS of higher potency and on particular areas of the body like face and genitalia.The article reviews the side effects of TS with special mention about peadiatric age group, also includes the measures for preventing the side effects.

  7. Effects of centrifugation on gonadal and adrenocortical steroids in rats

    Kakihana, R.; Butte, J. C.

    1980-01-01

    Many endocrine systems are sensitive to external changes in the environment. Both the pituitary adrenal and pituitary gonadal systems are affected by stress including centrifugation stress. The effect of centrifugation on the pituitary gonadal and pituitary adrenocortical systems was examined by measuring the gonadal and adrenal steroids in the plasma and brain following different duration and intensity of centrifugation stress in rats. Two studies were completed and the results are presented. The second study was carried out to describe the developmental changes of brain, plasma and testicular testosterone and dihydrotestosterone in Sprague Dawley rats so that the effect of centrifugation stress on the pituitary gonadal syatem could be better evaluated in future studies.

  8. Dimensiones del msculo masetero medido mediante ultrasonido, segn sexo Masseter muscle dimensions measured by ultrasound per sex

    Ral Frugone A

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCCIN: para establecer las dimensiones en profundidad, ancho y largo del msculo masetero segn sexo, se realiz un estudio analtico no experimental entre pacientes seleccionados que acudieron al servicio de ecografa del Hospital Base de Linares, Chile entre los meses de julio y septiembre del ao 2005. MTODOS: la muestra qued determinada por 180 msculos maseteros, 90 de ellos pertenecientes a individuos de sexo femenino y 90 pertenecientes a individuos de sexo masculino. Se realizaron las mediciones de cada una de las dimensiones del msculo masetero utilizando para ello un examen imaginolgico ecogrfico. La muestra se someti al anlisis estadstico ANOVA. RESULTADOS: los individuos de sexo masculino presentan msculos maseteros con profundidades promedio de 10,8 1,6 mm y los individuos de sexo femenino profundidades promedio de 8,1 1,4 mm. CONCLUSIONES: de acuerdo con lo encontrado, se concluye que en individuos de sexo masculino con una profundidad del msculo masetero mayor a 12,4 mm y en individuos de sexo femenino con una profundidad del msculo masetero mayor a 9,5 mm se podran considerar el diagnstico de hipertrofia maseterina.INTRODUCTION: in order to establish the dimensions in depth, width and length of the masseter muscle according to gender, a non analytical experimental observational study was performed on selected patients who attended the echography service at the Base Hospital of Linares-Chile between July and September 2005. METHODS: the sample consisted of 180 masseter muscles, 90 from female individuals and 90 from male individuals. Measurements of each masseter muscle were performed utilizing an echographic exam. ANOVA test statistical analysis was performed. RESULTS: the masseter muscle depth on male individuals has an averaged 10.8 1.6 mm and on female individuals an average depth of 8.1 1.4 mm. CONCLUSIONS: according to the findings, we concluded that in male individuals with a depth of the masseter muscle higher to 12.4 mm and in female individuals with a depth of masseter higher to 9.5 mm could be considered a diagnosis of masseteric hypertrophy.

  9. Steroid allergy in patients with inflammatory bowel disease.

    Malik, M

    2007-11-01

    Background: Contact allergy to a steroid enema leading to worsening of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has recently been reported. This study was designed to look for evidence of steroid allergy in patients with IBD.

  10. Steroids Might Help More Than Just Very Premature Babies

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_157086.html Steroids Might Help More Than Just Very Premature Babies: ... 2016 THURSDAY, Feb. 4, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Giving steroids to pregnant women at risk for late preterm ...

  11. Bell's Palsy: Treatment with Steroids and Antiviral Drugs

    ... PATIENTS and their FAMILIES BELL’S PALSY: TREATMENT WITH STEROIDS AND ANTIVIRAL DRUGS This information sheet is provided to help you understand the role of steroids and antiviral drugs for treating Bell’s palsy. Neurologists ...

  12. Anabolic-androgenic steroids for alcoholic liver disease

    Rambaldi, Andrea; Iaquinto, Gaetano; Gluud, Christian

    2002-01-01

    The objectives were to assess the beneficial and harmful effects of anabolic-androgenic steroids for alcoholic liver disease.......The objectives were to assess the beneficial and harmful effects of anabolic-androgenic steroids for alcoholic liver disease....

  13. Nucleus Paragigantocellularis Afferents in Male and Female Rats: Organization, Gonadal Steroid Sensitivity, and Activation During Sexual Behavior

    Normandin, Joseph J.; Murphy, Anne Z

    2008-01-01

    The central regulation of genital reflexes is poorly understood. The brainstem nucleus paragigantocellularis (nPGi) of rats is a well-established source of tonic inhibition of genital reflexes. However the organization, gonadal steroid sensitivity, and activity of nPGi afferents during sex have not been fully characterized in male and female rats. To delineate the anatomical and physiological organization of nPGi afferents, the retrograde tracer Fluorogold (FG) was injected into the nPGi of s...

  14. Age and sex dimorphism of the ratio between body measurements to live weights in Red Sokoto, Sahel and West African Dwarf goats

    A. J. Shoyombo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out in Borno, Sokoto and Ogun States. These states were selected because those locations are having close to pure breeds of the goats. Animals used for this study were sampled in the abattoir of Borno, Sokoto and Ogun States when brought for slaughtering either by the owner or by the slaughter man. 900 goats comprising of three hundred Sahel goats from Borno State, three hundred Red Sokoto goats from Sokoto State and three hundred West African Dwarf goats from Ogun State were used for the study made up of fifty males and fifty females distributed in the following age groups <1, 1-2 and 2-3 years. These were evaluated for morphometric characteristics. The pairs of permanent incisors in the dentition of the goat were used to determine age. The following metric characters were measured on each animal: body weight (BW, age, horn length (HL, ear length (EL, shoulder width (SW, neck circumference (NC, body length (BL, withers height (WH, heart girth (HG, pouch girth (PG and tail Length (TL along with body weight. Obtained measures were compared to body weight as ratio of measures to body weight and resulting ratio was subjected to analysis of variance using age and sex as classification variables with the SAS software. It was observed that PG had the highest ratio of 4.82, 3.68 and 3.58 respectively for the three breeds of goat. HL showed the least ratio of 0.50, 0.53 and 0.36 for Red Sokoto, Sahel and WAD goats. It follows that higher ratio indicates higher contribution of a given morphometric part to liveweight relative to that of other parts, so that selection could be made on the basis of this ratio. In conclusion, PG in this study consistently indicate high ratio and should be recommended for further studies as a selection factor in breeding and production of goats.

  15. A REVIEW OF NATURAL STEROIDS AND THEIR APPLICATIONS

    Anas Rasheed* and Mohd. Qasim

    2013-01-01

    Natural steroids, the simple mention of the word brings up topics like cheating, unfair advantages. The first misconception is that all steroids are used for muscle building. This is not at all the case, steroids are natural substances with many different effects in the human body, which begin over several days, as even birth control pills are a form of steroids. “Natural Steroids”, are the organic compounds which are not chemically altered, that mimics hormones, and obviously the hormone it ...

  16. Vocational Steroid Use: Reconsidering the Effectiveness of a Prohibition Approach

    Fogel, Curtis A.

    2012-01-01

    The vast majority of literature on the topic of anabolic steroid use pertains to use by athletes and/or bodybuilders. Recent evidence suggests that performance-enhancing drugs, and anabolic steroids in particular, are used widely outside the realm of sport. In this paper, the term “vocational steroid use” is further developed and explored, referring to any form of steroid use for the purposes of enhanced performance in the workplace; a type of use uncharacteristic of most illicit substances. ...

  17. CONSERVATIVE THERAPY VERSUS EPIDURAL STEROID INFILTRATION IN MANAGEMENT OF CHRONIC LOW BACK ACHE

    Vivian Roshan D

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sciatica due to lumbar intervertebral disc herniation is one of the most common causes of radicular pain in an adult working population. This study aims at studying the effectiveness of conservative management of lumbar disc herniation as an alternative to surgical measures. METHODS: A prospective study of 100 patients with lumbar disc herniations who were treated conservatively were followed up at intervals of 1 month, 6 months and 1 year. Patients planned for conservative treatment were treated with pharmacological therapy, rest and physiotherapy. Those planned for epidural steroid injections were administered a single dose of steroid one level higher than the lesion in the epidural space. The collected data was analyzed by Chi square. RESULTS: Our results showed that in both genders, epidural steroid infiltration yielded better results than conservative treatment. Occupation had no discernible effect on the magnitude of disc herniation. People with sedentary lifestyle recovered better with epidural steroid infiltration as compared to the heavy physical labor group. Irrespective of disc bulge, protrusion or extrusion, the epidural steroid injection group showed significant improvement in symptoms as compared to conservative treatment. Smokers tended to show delay in the recovery as compared with the non-smoker group. The amount of disc herniation is not directly proportional to the outcome of treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Epidural steroid infiltration showed significant improvement in symptoms of lumbar intervertebral disc herniation thereby avoiding disc surgery. Conservative management for atleast 4 to 6 weeks can be recommended followed by epidural steroid in those patients without improvement. Cessation of smoking should be an integral part of the treatment.

  18. The Incidence of Anabolic Steroid Use among Competitive Bodybuilders.

    Tricker, Ray; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Investigated incidence of anabolic steroid use among 380 competitive male and female bodybuilders in Kansas and Missouri. Results indicated more than half (54 percent) of the male bodybuilders were using steroids on a regular basis compared to 10 percent of the female competitors. Found main reason for use of steroids was desire to win. (Author/TE)

  19. Spontaneous rupture of the anterior cruciate ligament after anabolic steroids.

    Freeman, B J; Rooker, G. D.

    1995-01-01

    Anabolic steroids remain popular among body builders and power athletes despite numerous warning about their side effects. A case of spontaneous rupture of the anterior cruciate ligament is reported in a bodybuilder taking steroids. While there are many published reports of tendon rupture associated with steroid intake, the authors could find no report relating to ligament disruption.

  20. Steroids and Other Ergogenic Aids: A Resource Guide.

    Virginia State Dept. of Education, Richmond.

    Steroids have become one of society's "short cuts" to athletic prowess and success. This guide includes information and teaching materials for educators and others who work with youth on how to teach that steroids are drugs, that drugs can harm and kill, and that a "no-use" policy applies to steroids as well as to alcohol and other drugs. It is…

  1. Sex determination using anthropometric measurements from multi-slice computed tomography of the 12th thoracic and the first lumbar vertebrae among adult Egyptians

    Fatma M.M. Badr El Dine

    2015-09-01

    Conclusion: Finally, it was concluded that the 12th thoracic vertebra is more accurate for sex determination than the first lumbar vertebra in the Egyptian population, which means that bone dimensions are population specific.

  2. Preventing Anabolic Steroid Use: Guidelines and Activities.

    Nutter, June; Rauhe, Betty

    1997-01-01

    Information about anabolic steroids should be included in the school health curriculum as early as possible. The paper presents suggestions for planning education programs and offers a variety of activities and strategies appropriate for many age groups, including case studies, story completion, posters, demonstrations, projects, creative writing,

  3. Epidural steroid injection for lumbosacral radiculopathy

    Sung, Mi Sook [The Catholic University of Korea, Pucheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-06-15

    Low back pain combined with radicular pain remains as one of the most challenging musculoskeletal problems for its therapeutic management. This malady results from nerve root impingement and/or inflammation that causes neurologic symptoms in the distribution of the affected nerve root(s) Conservative treatment, percutaneous spine interventions and surgery have all been used as treatment; and the particular treatment that's chosen depends on the severity of the clinical and neurologic presentation. In 1930, Evans reported that sciatica could treated by epidural injection. The use of epidural corticosteroid injections for the treatment of axial and radicular back pain was first reported in 1953. Epidural steroid injections are currently used by many medical professionals for the treatment of lumbosacral radiculopathy. Performing 'blind' epidural steroid injection lacks target specificity that often results in incorrect delivery of medication to the lesion. Imaging-guided steroid injections are now becoming more popular despite the controversy regarding their efficacy. Many reports, including a few randomized controlled trials, have documented the clinical utility of epidural steroid injections.

  4. Genetics of steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome

    Joshi, S; Andersen, R; Jespersen, Bente; Rittig, Søren

    2013-01-01

    Identification of genes, associated mutations and genotype-phenotype correlations in steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS) is being translated to clinical practice through genetic testing. This review provides an update on the genes and mutations associated with SRNS along with a suggested...

  5. Epidural steroid injection for lumbosacral radiculopathy

    Low back pain combined with radicular pain remains as one of the most challenging musculoskeletal problems for its therapeutic management. This malady results from nerve root impingement and/or inflammation that causes neurologic symptoms in the distribution of the affected nerve root(s) Conservative treatment, percutaneous spine interventions and surgery have all been used as treatment; and the particular treatment that's chosen depends on the severity of the clinical and neurologic presentation. In 1930, Evans reported that sciatica could treated by epidural injection. The use of epidural corticosteroid injections for the treatment of axial and radicular back pain was first reported in 1953. Epidural steroid injections are currently used by many medical professionals for the treatment of lumbosacral radiculopathy. Performing 'blind' epidural steroid injection lacks target specificity that often results in incorrect delivery of medication to the lesion. Imaging-guided steroid injections are now becoming more popular despite the controversy regarding their efficacy. Many reports, including a few randomized controlled trials, have documented the clinical utility of epidural steroid injections

  6. Steroids for intubated croup masking airway haemangioma.

    Kiff, K M; Mok, Q; Dunne, J; Tasker, R. C.

    1996-01-01

    Recently, the beneficial role of steroids for acute laryngotracheobronchitis has been more clearly defined for both intubated and unintubated patients. However, corticosteroids also improve the clinical signs of airway haemangiomata. Two patients are described who illustrate how this can be a source of diagnostic confusion.

  7. Sox and Drugs: Baseball, Steroids and Physics

    Tobin, Roger

    2008-03-01

    The sports world is in an uproar over performance-enhancing drugs. In the United States steroids in baseball have received the most attention, in part because the purported effects are much more dramatic than in any other sport. From 1995-2003 a few players hit home runs at rates 20-50% higher than the best sluggers of the preceding century. Could steroids really increase home-run performance that much? I will describe a model that combines estimates of the physiological effects of steroids, known baseball physics, and reasonable models of batting effectiveness for highly skilled hitters. A 10% increase in muscle mass, which can reasonably be expected from steroid use, increases the speed of a batted ball by 3%. Because home runs are relatively rare events on the tail of a batter's range distribution, even this modest change in ball speed can increase the proportion of batted balls that result in home runs by 30 -- 70%, enough to account for the record-shattering performances of the recent past. I will also describe some of the attention -- both welcome and not -- that comes to the unsuspecting physicist who wades into such emotionally troubled waters.

  8. TLC of sterols, steroids, and related triterpenoids

    Dinan, L.; Harmatha, Juraj; Lafont, R.

    Vol. 17. New York : CRC Press, 2008 - (Waksmundzka-Hajnos, M. - Sherma, J. - Kowalska, T.), s. 576-603 ISBN 978-1-4200-4677-9. - (Chromatographic Science Series. 99) Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : TLC * sterols * steroids * ecdysteroids Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry

  9. Leverpatologi associeret med anaboliske-androgene steroider

    Søe, Katrine; Søe, Martin Jensen; Gluud, C N

    1994-01-01

    This review regards the liver damaging side-effects of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS). It seems that AAS can cause development of peliosis hepatis, subcellular changes of hepatocytes, hepatocellular hyperplasia and hepatocellular adenomas. On the other hand, it has not been convincingly proved...

  10. Steroidal ribbons for supramolecular and medicinal chemistry

    Černý, Ivan; Pouzar, Vladimír; Drašar, P.

    Tafila : Tafila Technical University, 2007 - (Ibril, I.). IL21 [Petra International Chemistry Conference and Transmediteranean Colloquium on Heterocyclic Chemistry. 25.06.2007-28.06.2007, Tafila] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : steroids * oligomers * amides Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry

  11. Sex ratio evolution under probabilistic sex determination.

    Paixo, Tiago; Phadke, Sujal S; Azevedo, Ricardo B R; Zufall, Rebecca A

    2011-07-01

    Sex allocation theory has been remarkably successful at explaining the prevalence of even sex ratios in natural populations and at identifying specific conditions that can result in biased sex ratios. Much of this theory focuses on parental sex determination (SD) strategies. Here, we consider instead the evolutionary causes and consequences of mixed offspring SD strategies, in which the genotype of an individual determines not its sex, but the probability of developing one of multiple sexes. We find that alleles specifying mixed offspring SD strategies can generally outcompete alleles that specify pure strategies, but generate constraints that may prevent a population from reaching an even sex ratio. We use our model to analyze sex ratios in natural populations of Tetrahymena thermophila, a ciliate with seven sexes determined by mixed SD alleles. We show that probabilistic SD is sufficient to account for the occurrence of skewed sex ratios in natural populations of T. thermophila, provided that their effective population sizes are small. Our results highlight the importance of genetic drift in sex ratio evolution and suggest that mixed offspring SD strategies should be more common than currently thought. PMID:21729059

  12. The role of sulfonated steroids and parmaceutical compouds in steroid hormone biosynthesis

    Neunzig, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Steroid hormones display many regulatory functions in mammalian organisms and thus are indispensable for normal development and reproduction. They are synthesized in steroidogenic tissues, like the adrenal gland and the gonads, in a cascade of reactions, where six different steroidogenic cytochromes P450 (CYPs) participate. Investigations of compounds influencing the activity of these CYPs are of great importance, as an altered function of the enzymes might lead to an imbalance of steroid ho...

  13. Steroid-antivirals treatment versus steroids alone for the treatment of Bell’s palsy: a meta-analysis

    Dong, Yabing; Zhu, Yong; Ma, Chuan; Zhao, Huaqiang

    2015-01-01

    Background: To illustrate whether the steroid-antivirals treatment could acquire a better recovery in patients with Bell’s palsy than the steroids alone treatment. Materials and methods: We conducted an exhaustive search over Pub med/Medline, Ovid, Elsevier search engines and the Cochrane library thereby collecting the randomized controlled trials in the treatment of patients with Bell’s palsy with steroid-antivirals and steroids. The qualities of relevant articles were assessed by GRADE, whi...

  14. Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry in Studies of Steroid Hormones and Steroid Glucuronide Conjugates in Brain and Urine

    JÀntti, Sirkku

    2013-01-01

    Steroids are endogenous compounds, which are present in the body tissues and fluids in free and conjugated forms, e.g. as steroid glucuronide conjugates. First goal of the study was to develop methodologies for the synthesis of steroid glucuronides. An enzyme-assisted synthesis was carried out to produce glucuronide-conjugated steroids at milligram levels. Hepatic microsomal preparations of bovine, porcine, and Arochlor-induced rats were compared with respect to specificity and efficiency of ...

  15. Neuroactive steroids and peripheral myelin proteins.

    Magnaghi, V; Cavarretta, I; Galbiati, M; Martini, L; Melcangi, R C

    2001-11-01

    The present review summarizes observations obtained in our laboratories which underline the importance of neuroactive steroids (i.e., progesterone (PROG), dihydroprogesterone (5alpha-DH PROG), tetrahydroprogesterone (3alpha, 5alpha-TH PROG), testosterone (T), dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and 5alpha-androstan-3alpha,17beta-diol (3alpha-diol)) in the control of the gene expression of myelin proteins (i.e. glycoprotein Po (Po) and the peripheral myelin protein 22 (PMP22)) in the peripheral nervous system. Utilizing different in vivo (aged and adult male rats) and in vitro (Schwann cell cultures) experimental models, we have observed that neuroactive steroids are able to stimulate the mRNA levels of Po and PMP22. The effects of these neuroactive steroids, which are able to interact with classical (progesterone receptor, PR, and androgen receptor, AR) and non-classical (GABA(A) receptor) steroid receptors is further supported by our demonstration in sciatic nerve and/or Schwann cells of the presence of these receptors. On the basis of the observations obtained in the Schwann cells cultures, we suggest that the stimulatory effect of neuroactive steroids on Po is acting through PR, while that on PMP22 needs the GABA(A) receptor. The present findings might be of importance for the utilization of specific receptor ligands as new therapeutical approaches for the rebuilding of the peripheral myelin, particularly in those situations in which the synthesis of Po and PMP22 is altered (i.e. demyelinating diseases like Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 1A and type 1B, hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies and the Djrine-Sottas syndrome, aging, and after peripheral injury). PMID:11744100

  16. Sex Differences in Brain Aromatase Activity: Genomic and Non-Genomic Controls

    Balthazart, Jacques; Charlier, Thierry D.; Cornil, Charlotte A.; Dickens, Molly J.; Harada, Nobuhiro; Konkle, Anne T. M.; Voigt, Cornelia; Ball, Gregory F.

    2011-01-01

    Aromatization of testosterone into estradiol in the preoptic area plays a critical role in the activation of male copulation in quail and in many other vertebrate species. Aromatase expression in quail and in other birds is higher than in rodents and other mammals, which has facilitated the study of the controls and functions of this enzyme. Over relatively long time periods (days to months), brain aromatase activity (AA), and transcription are markedly (four- to sixfold) increased by genomic actions of sex steroids. Initial work indicated that the preoptic AA is higher in males than in females and it was hypothesized that this differential production of estrogen could be a critical factor responsible for the lack of behavioral activation in females. Subsequent studies revealed, however, that this enzymatic sex difference might contribute but is not sufficient to explain the sex difference in behavior. Studies of AA, immunoreactivity, and mRNA concentrations revealed that sex differences observed when measuring enzymatic activity are not necessarily observed when one measures mRNA concentrations. Discrepancies potentially reflect post-translational controls of the enzymatic activity. AA in quail brain homogenates is rapidly inhibited by phosphorylation processes. Similar rapid inhibitions occur in hypothalamic explants maintained in vitro and exposed to agents affecting intracellular calcium concentrations or to glutamate agonists. Rapid changes in AA have also been observed in vivo following sexual interactions or exposure to short-term restraint stress and these rapid changes in estrogen production modulate expression of male sexual behaviors. These data suggest that brain estrogens display most if not all characteristics of neuromodulators if not neurotransmitters. Many questions remain however concerning the mechanisms controlling these rapid changes in estrogen production and their behavioral significance. PMID:22645508

  17. Fluorochemicals used in food packaging inhibit male sex hormone synthesis

    Polyfluoroalkyl phosphate surfactants (PAPS) are widely used in food contact materials (FCMs) of paper and board and have recently been detected in 57% of investigated materials. Human exposure occurs as PAPS have been measured in blood; however knowledge is lacking on the toxicology of PAPS. The aim of this study was to elucidate the effects of six fluorochemicals on sex hormone synthesis and androgen receptor (AR) activation in vitro. Four PAPS and two metabolites, perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and 8:2 fluorotelomer alcohol (8:2 FTOH) were tested. Hormone profiles, including eight steroid hormones, generally showed that 8:2 diPAPS, 8:2 monoPAPS and 8:2 FTOH led to decreases in androgens (testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone, and androstenedione) in the H295R steroidogenesis assay. Decreases were observed for progesterone and 17-OH-progesterone as well. These observations indicated that a step prior to progestagen and androgen synthesis had been affected. Gene expression analysis of StAR, Bzrp, CYP11A, CYP17, CYP21 and CYP19 mRNA showed a decrease in Bzrp mRNA levels for 8:2 monoPAPS and 8:2 FTOH indicating interference with cholesterol transport to the inner mitochondria. Cortisol, estrone and 17β-estradiol levels were in several cases increased with exposure. In accordance with these data CYP19 gene expression increased with 8:2 diPAPS, 8:2 monoPAPS and 8:2 FTOH exposures indicating that this is a contributing factor to the decreased androgen and the increased estrogen levels. Overall, these results demonstrate that fluorochemicals present in food packaging materials and their metabolites can affect steroidogenesis through decreased Bzrp and increased CYP19 gene expression leading to lower androgen and higher estrogen levels. -- Highlights: ► Fluorochemicals found in 57% of paper and board food packaging were tested. ► Collectively six fluorochemicals were tested for antiandrogenic potential in vitro. ► Three out of six tested fluorochemicals inhibited synthesis of male sex hormones. ► Generally, levels of estrogens and cortisol stayed unaffected or increased. ► The effect on steroid synthesis was specific on gene expression of Bzrp and CYP19.

  18. Fluorochemicals used in food packaging inhibit male sex hormone synthesis

    Rosenmai, A.K., E-mail: akjro@food.dtu.dk [Division of Toxicology and Risk Assessment, National Food Institute, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2860 Søborg (Denmark); Nielsen, F.K. [Section of Toxicology, Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Pedersen, M. [Division of Food Chemistry, National Food Institute, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2860 Søborg (Denmark); Hadrup, N. [Division of Toxicology and Risk Assessment, National Food Institute, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2860 Søborg (Denmark); Trier, X. [Division of Food Chemistry, National Food Institute, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2860 Søborg (Denmark); Christensen, J.H. [Department of Basic Sciences and Environment, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Copenhagen, DK-1871 Frederiksberg C. (Denmark); Vinggaard, A.M. [Division of Toxicology and Risk Assessment, National Food Institute, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2860 Søborg (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    Polyfluoroalkyl phosphate surfactants (PAPS) are widely used in food contact materials (FCMs) of paper and board and have recently been detected in 57% of investigated materials. Human exposure occurs as PAPS have been measured in blood; however knowledge is lacking on the toxicology of PAPS. The aim of this study was to elucidate the effects of six fluorochemicals on sex hormone synthesis and androgen receptor (AR) activation in vitro. Four PAPS and two metabolites, perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and 8:2 fluorotelomer alcohol (8:2 FTOH) were tested. Hormone profiles, including eight steroid hormones, generally showed that 8:2 diPAPS, 8:2 monoPAPS and 8:2 FTOH led to decreases in androgens (testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone, and androstenedione) in the H295R steroidogenesis assay. Decreases were observed for progesterone and 17-OH-progesterone as well. These observations indicated that a step prior to progestagen and androgen synthesis had been affected. Gene expression analysis of StAR, Bzrp, CYP11A, CYP17, CYP21 and CYP19 mRNA showed a decrease in Bzrp mRNA levels for 8:2 monoPAPS and 8:2 FTOH indicating interference with cholesterol transport to the inner mitochondria. Cortisol, estrone and 17β-estradiol levels were in several cases increased with exposure. In accordance with these data CYP19 gene expression increased with 8:2 diPAPS, 8:2 monoPAPS and 8:2 FTOH exposures indicating that this is a contributing factor to the decreased androgen and the increased estrogen levels. Overall, these results demonstrate that fluorochemicals present in food packaging materials and their metabolites can affect steroidogenesis through decreased Bzrp and increased CYP19 gene expression leading to lower androgen and higher estrogen levels. -- Highlights: ► Fluorochemicals found in 57% of paper and board food packaging were tested. ► Collectively six fluorochemicals were tested for antiandrogenic potential in vitro. ► Three out of six tested fluorochemicals inhibited synthesis of male sex hormones. ► Generally, levels of estrogens and cortisol stayed unaffected or increased. ► The effect on steroid synthesis was specific on gene expression of Bzrp and CYP19.

  19. The Riddle of Sex.

    Sagan, Dorion; Margulis, Lynn

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the work of evolutionary biologists in determining how sexual reproduction arose. Topics explored include the nature of sex, bacterial sex, meiotic sex, and asexual reproduction. A diagram (which can be used as a duplicating master) illustrating types of bacterial sex is included. (DH)

  20. Sex determination strategies in 2012: towards a common regulatory model?

    Angelopoulou Roxani

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Sex determination is a complicated process involving large-scale modifications in gene expression affecting virtually every tissue in the body. Although the evolutionary origin of sex remains controversial, there is little doubt that it has developed as a process of optimizing metabolic control, as well as developmental and reproductive functions within a given setting of limited resources and environmental pressure. Evidence from various model organisms supports the view that sex determination may occur as a result of direct environmental induction or genetic regulation. The first process has been well documented in reptiles and fish, while the second is the classic case for avian species and mammals. Both of the latter have developed a variety of sex-specific/sex-related genes, which ultimately form a complete chromosome pair (sex chromosomes/gonosomes. Interestingly, combinations of environmental and genetic mechanisms have been described among different classes of animals, thus rendering the possibility of a unidirectional continuous evolutionary process from the one type of mechanism to the other unlikely. On the other hand, common elements appear throughout the animal kingdom, with regard to a conserved key genes and b a central role of sex steroid control as a prerequisite for ultimately normal sex differentiation. Studies in invertebrates also indicate a role of epigenetic chromatin modification, particularly with regard to alternative splicing options. This review summarizes current evidence from research in this hot field and signifies the need for further study of both normal hormonal regulators of sexual phenotype and patterns of environmental disruption.

  1. Sex Control in Fish: Approaches, Challenges and Opportunities for Aquaculture

    Alyssa M. Budd

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available At present, aquaculture is the fastest growing sector of animal food production and holds great potential as a sustainable solution for world food security. The ability to control sex is one of the most important factors for the commercialisation and efficient propagation of fish species, due to influences on reproduction, growth and product quality. Accordingly, there is a large body of research that targets sexual development in commercially important species in an attempt to understand and control fish sex and reproductive function. In this review, we provide an introduction to sex determination and differentiation in fish, including the genetic, epigenetic and environmental factors that can influence fish sex ratios. We also summarise the major approaches used to control sex in fish and discuss their application in commercially important species. Specifically, we discuss the use of exogenous steroid hormones, chromosome ploidy, environmental manipulations, sex-linked genetic markers, selection for altered sex ratios, and transgenics and comment on the challenges associated with controlling sex in a commercial environment.

  2. Sex hormones adjust "sex-specific" reactive and diurnal cortisol profiles.

    Juster, Robert-Paul; Raymond, Catherine; Desrochers, Alexandra Bisson; Bourdon, Olivier; Durand, Nadia; Wan, Nathalie; Pruessner, Jens C; Lupien, Sonia J

    2016-01-01

    Sex differences in stress hormone functions are presumed to depend on sex hormones. And yet, surprisingly few psychoneuroendocrine studies actually assess within-sex variations of testosterone, estradiol, and progesterone when investigating sex-specific activities of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. In this methodological study of 204 healthy adults (60 men), we assessed whether cortisol profiles would differ between the sexes when unadjusted or adjusted for basal sex hormones among both sexes. Reactive cortisol was sampled using 6 saliva samples measured every 10-min as part of the Trier Social Stress Test that generally activates cortisol among men more than women. Diurnal cortisol was sampled over two days at (1) awakening, (2) 30-min thereafter, (3) 1400h, (4) 1600h, and (5) bedtime. Sex hormones were collected at baseline before the psychosocial stressor and on two occasions during diurnal cortisol assessment. Repeated-measures analysis of covariance controlled for key covariates in analyses unadjusted or adjusted for sex hormones. Results revealed that men had higher reactive cortisol than women in unadjusted analysis, but this sex difference was attenuated when adjusting for sex hormones. While diurnal cortisol showed no sex differences in unadjusted models, adjusting for sex hormones revealed that women have higher morning cortisol. Correlations using area under the curve formulae revealed intriguing sex-specific associations with progesterone in men and testosterone in women that we propose have implications for social and affective neuroscience. In summary, our results reveal that adjusting for sex hormones alters "sex-specific" reactive and diurnal cortisol profiles. PMID:26539966

  3. Sex differences in angiotensin II- induced hypertension

    B. Xue

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Sex differences in the development of hypertension and cardiovascular disease have been described in humans and in animal models. In this paper we will review some of our studies which have as their emphasis the examination of the role of sex differences and sex steroids in modulating the central actions of angiotensin II (ANG II via interactions with free radicals and nitric oxide, generating pathways within brain circumventricular organs and in central sympathomodulatory systems. Our studies indicate that low-dose infusions of ANG II result in hypertension in wild-type male mice but not in intact wild-type females. Furthermore, we have demonstrated that ANG II-induced hypertension in males is blocked by central infusions of the androgen receptor antagonist, flutamide, and by central infusions of the superoxide dismutase mimetic, tempol. We have also found that, in comparison to females, males show greater levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species in circumventricular organ neurons following long-term ANG II infusions. In female mice, ovariectomy, central blockade of estrogen receptors or total knockout of estrogen a receptors augments the pressor effects of ANG II. Finally, in females but not in males, central blockade of nitric oxide synthase increases the pressor effects of ANG II. Taken together, these results suggest that sex differences and estrogen and testosterone play important roles in the development of ANG II-induced hypertension.

  4. Steroid hormone secretion in inflammatory breast cancer cell lines.

    Illera, Juan Carlos; Caceres, Sara; Peña, Laura; de Andres, Paloma J; Monsalve, Beatriz; Illera, Maria J; Woodward, Wendy A; Reuben, James M; Silvan, Gema

    2015-12-01

    Inflammatory breast carcinoma (IBC) is a special type of breast cancer with a poor survival rate. Though several IBC cell lines have been established, recently a first IMC cell line was established. The aims of this study were: (1) to validate a highly sensitive, reliable, accurate and direct amplified enzyme immunoassay (EIA) to measure several cell-secreted steroid hormones: progesterone (P4), androstenedione (A4), testosterone (T), 17β-estradiol (E2) and estrone sulfate (SO4E1) in the culture medium. (2) To assess whether hormone production profile by IPC-366 cells validates the IMC model for human IBC. We validated a non-competitive amplified EIA for inflammatory breast cancer cell lines based on the results of accuracy, precision, sensitivity and parallelism. The low detection limits of the technique were: P4=13.2 pg/well, A4=2.3 pg/well, T=11.4 pg/well, E2=1.9 pg/well and SO4E1=4.5 pg/well. Intra- and inter-assay coefficient of variation percentages were 90%. In all hormones studied SUM149 have higher levels (1.4 times, but not significant) than IPC-366, and the correlation index between SUM149 and IPC-366 concentrations were >97%. We can coclude that cells of both cell lines, IPC-366 and SUM149, are capable to produce steroid hormone in culture media. The presented EIA methodology is very valuable for the detection of steroid production in culture media and could be used in hormone regulation studies and therapeutic agents in cell lines of inflammatory and non-inflammatory mammary carcinoma or other cancer cell lines in preclinical studies. PMID:26495931

  5. Sexing in guinea fowls (Numida meleagris).

    Abdul-Rahman, Iddriss I; Awumbila, Bawa; Jeffcoate, Ian A; Robinson, Jane E; Obese, Frederick Y

    2015-02-01

    Despite the potentials and contributions of guinea fowls to economic and social life in Ghana, accurate sex identification in these birds is still a major problem. Three hundred and sixty guinea fowls (180 birds per sex) were used in determining a more accurate and farmer friendly sexing technique. The sexing methods explored were vent, biometric, and molecular techniques. Vent sexing was accomplished by measuring phalli in 28 and 32-week-old birds, while biometric sexing involved the measurement of morphometric traits and data analyzed using discriminant function analysis. Molecular sexing was carried out by DNA extraction and subsequent PCR using the 2550F/2718R primer set. Females had a wider (PPhallus size in the 2 sexes were distinguishable from 8 weeks of age, with males having longer and thicker (P<0.05) phalli than their female counterparts. Combining the 2 variables in a discriminate function, males and females could be distinguished with 98.3% accuracy. While the molecular method remains the most accurate sexing technique, the biometric method emerged as the most farmer friendly approach to sexing guinea fowls. PMID:25595479

  6. Sex Education for Patients

    Zitner, David

    1985-01-01

    Sex education evokes a wide variety of responses in the community and from teachers. Consequently, physicians have a responsibility to present sex education material in a factual, objective way. Many people are misinformed about sexual behavior. Physicians can help patients and the community by being aware of appropriate sex education for each age group. A curriculum for sex education, and opportunities to provide sex information for patients of different ages and stages in the lifecycle, are...

  7. Sex Ratio at Birth in India, Its Relation to Birth Order, Sex of Previous Children and Use of Indigenous Medicine

    Manchanda, Samiksha; Saikia, Bedangshu; Gupta, Neeraj; Chowdhary, Sona; Puliyel, Jacob M

    2011-01-01

    Objective Sex-ratio at birth in families with previous girls is worse than those with a boy. Our aim was to prospectively study in a large maternal and child unit sex-ratio against previous birth sex and use of traditional medicines for sex selection. Main Outcome Measures Sex-ratio among mothers in families with a previous girl and in those with a previous boy, prevalence of indigenous medicine use and sex-ratio in those using medicines for sex selection. Results Overall there were 806 girls...

  8. In vitro metabolism of androstenedione and identification of endogenous steroids in Helix aspersa

    In vitro metabolism of androstenedione in gonads of juvenile and adult Helix aspersa has been investigated. The conversion of [3H]androstenedione into testosterone, 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone, androsterone, and estriol was demonstrated. In juvenile animals testosterone (59.8%) is the major metabolite whereas in adult animals androsterone (18.8%) is. The following endogenous steroids have been identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in adult gonads: androsterone, dehydroepiandrosterone, androstenedione, 3 alpha-androstanediol, estrone, estradiol-17 beta, and estriol. The levels of testosterone, 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone, androstenedione, and progesterone have been measured by RIAs in gonads and hemolymph. Their levels vary with the physiological stage: the gonadal and circulating levels of testosterone decrease with the sexual maturation whereas the 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone increases. These differences observed in metabolism and in level of steroids between the juvenile and the adult snails allow us to suppose that these steroids have a biological role

  9. Vocational Steroid Use: Reconsidering the Effectiveness of a Prohibition Approach

    Curtis A. Fogel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The vast majority of literature on the topic of anabolic steroid use pertains to use by athletes and/or bodybuilders. Recent evidence suggests that performance-enhancing drugs, and anabolic steroids in particular, are used widely outside the realm of sport. In this paper, the term “vocational steroid use” is further developed and explored, referring to any form of steroid use for the purposes of enhanced performance in the workplace; a type of use uncharacteristic of most illicit substances. Vocational steroid users do not use steroids because of addictions or for recreation; they do so to increase their workplace abilities and productivity. Seven forms of documented vocational steroid use are described including use by: athletes, bodybuilders, police, actors, strength coaches, firefighters, and soldiers. While little research has examined the idea of vocational steroid use, even less attention has been given to issues related to examining the effectiveness of steroid prohibition strategies. This paper concludes with a discussion on the dangers of continued prohibition strategies on steroids, particularly in light of vocational steroid use. This study utilized an unobtrusive methodological approach. The unobtrusive data in this study involved media file collection, indexing, and analysis derived from online archives of newspapers throughout Canada and the United States.

  10. Sex differences in hypothalamic astrocyte response to estradiol stimulation

    Kuo John

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reproductive functions controlled by the hypothalamus are highly sexually differentiated. One of the most dramatic differences involves estrogen positive feedback, which leads to ovulation. A crucial feature of this positive feedback is the ability of estradiol to facilitate progesterone synthesis in female hypothalamic astrocytes. Conversely, estradiol fails to elevate hypothalamic progesterone levels in male rodents, which lack the estrogen positive feedback-induced luteinizing hormone (LH surge. To determine whether hypothalamic astrocytes are sexually differentiated, we examined the cellular responses of female and male astrocytes to estradiol stimulation. Methods Primary adult hypothalamic astrocyte cultures were established from wild type rats and mice, estrogen receptor-? knockout (ERKO mice, and four core genotype (FCG mice, with the sex determining region of the Y chromosome (Sry deleted and inserted into an autosome. Astrocytes were analyzed for Sry expression with reverse transcription PCR. Responses to estradiol stimulation were tested by measuring free cytoplasmic calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i with fluo-4 AM, and progesterone synthesis with column chromatography and radioimmunoassay. Membrane estrogen receptor-? (mER? levels were examined using surface biotinylation and western blotting. Results Estradiol stimulated both [Ca2+]i release and progesterone synthesis in hypothalamic astrocytes from adult female mice. Male astrocytes had a significantly elevated [Ca2+]i response but it was significantly lower than in females, and progesterone synthesis was not enhanced. Surface biotinylation demonstrated mER? in both female and male astrocytes, but only in female astrocytes did estradiol treatment increase insertion of the receptor into the membrane, a necessary step for maximal [Ca2+]i release. Regardless of the chromosomal sex, estradiol facilitated progesterone synthesis in astrocytes from mice with ovaries (XX and XY-, but not in mice with testes (XY-Sry and XXSry. Conclusions Astrocytes are sexually differentiated, and in adulthood reflect the actions of sex steroids during development. The response of hypothalamic astrocytes to estradiol stimulation was determined by the presence or absence of ovaries, regardless of chromosomal sex. The trafficking of mER? in female, but not male, astrocytes further suggests that cell signaling mechanisms are sexually differentiated.

  11. Effects of androgenic-anabolic steroids in athletes.

    Hartgens, Fred; Kuipers, Harm

    2004-01-01

    Androgenic-anabolic steroids (AAS) are synthetic derivatives of the male hormone testosterone. They can exert strong effects on the human body that may be beneficial for athletic performance. A review of the literature revealed that most laboratory studies did not investigate the actual doses of AAS currently abused in the field. Therefore, those studies may not reflect the actual (adverse) effects of steroids. The available scientific literature describes that short-term administration of these drugs by athletes can increase strength and bodyweight. Strength gains of about 5-20% of the initial strength and increments of 2-5 kg bodyweight, that may be attributed to an increase of the lean body mass, have been observed. A reduction of fat mass does not seem to occur. Although AAS administration may affect erythropoiesis and blood haemoglobin concentrations, no effect on endurance performance was observed. Little data about the effects of AAS on metabolic responses during exercise training and recovery are available and, therefore, do not allow firm conclusions. The main untoward effects of short- and long-term AAS abuse that male athletes most often self-report are an increase in sexual drive, the occurrence of acne vulgaris, increased body hair and increment of aggressive behaviour. AAS administration will disturb the regular endogenous production of testosterone and gonadotrophins that may persist for months after drug withdrawal. Cardiovascular risk factors may undergo deleterious alterations, including elevation of blood pressure and depression of serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-, HDL2- and HDL3-cholesterol levels. In echocardiographic studies in male athletes, AAS did not seem to affect cardiac structure and function, although in animal studies these drugs have been observed to exert hazardous effects on heart structure and function. In studies of athletes, AAS were not found to damage the liver. Psyche and behaviour seem to be strongly affected by AAS. Generally, AAS seem to induce increments of aggression and hostility. Mood disturbances (e.g. depression, [hypo-]mania, psychotic features) are likely to be dose and drug dependent. AAS dependence or withdrawal effects (such as depression) seem to occur only in a small number of AAS users. Dissatisfaction with the body and low self-esteem may lead to the so-called 'reverse anorexia syndrome' that predisposes to the start of AAS use. Many other adverse effects have been associated with AAS misuse, including disturbance of endocrine and immune function, alterations of sebaceous system and skin, changes of haemostatic system and urogenital tract. One has to keep in mind that the scientific data may underestimate the actual untoward effects because of the relatively low doses administered in those studies, since they do not approximate doses used by illicit steroid users. The mechanism of action of AAS may differ between compounds because of variations in the steroid molecule and affinity to androgen receptors. Several pathways of action have been recognised. The enzyme 5-alpha-reductase seems to play an important role by converting AAS into dihydrotestosterone (androstanolone) that acts in the cell nucleus of target organs, such as male accessory glands, skin and prostate. Other mechanisms comprises mediation by the enzyme aromatase that converts AAS in female sex hormones (estradiol and estrone), antagonistic action to estrogens and a competitive antagonism to the glucocorticoid receptors. Furthermore, AAS stimulate erythropoietin synthesis and red cell production as well as bone formation but counteract bone breakdown. The effects on the cardiovascular system are proposed to be mediated by the occurrence of AAS-induced atherosclerosis (due to unfavourable influence on serum lipids and lipoproteins), thrombosis, vasospasm or direct injury to vessel walls, or may be ascribed to a combination of the different mechanisms. AAS-induced increment of muscle tissue can be attributed to hypertrophy and the formation of new muscle fibres, in which key roles are played by satellite cell number and ultrastructure, androgen receptors and myonuclei. PMID:15248788

  12. EVALUATION OF STEROID HORMONES AND THEIR RECEPTORS IN DEVELOPMENT AND PROGRESSION OF RENAL CELL CARCINOMA

    Nigel Bennett

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Steroid hormones and their receptors have important roles in normal kidney biology, and alterations in their expression and function help explain the differences in development of kidney diseases, such as nephrotic syndrome and chronic kidney disease. The distinct gender difference in incidence of renal cell carcinoma (RCC, with males having almost twice the incidence as females globally, also suggests a role for sex hormones or their receptors in RCC development and progression. There was a peak in interest in evaluating the roles of androgen and estrogen receptors in RCC pathogenesis in the late 20th century, with some positive outcomes for RCC therapy that targeted estrogen receptors, especially for metastatic disease. Since that time, however, there have been few studies that look at use of steroid hormone modulators for RCC, especially in the light of new therapies such as the tyrosine kinase inhibitors and new immune therapies, which are having some success for treatment of metastatic RCC. This review summarises past and current literature and attempts to stimulate renewed interest in research into the steroid hormones and their receptors, which might be used to effect, for example, in combination with the other newer targeted therapies for RCC.

  13. Effects of steroid hormone on estrogen sulfotransferase and on steroid sulfatase expression in endometriosis tissue and stromal cells.

    Piccinato, Carla A; Neme, Rosa M; Torres, Natália; Sanches, Lívia Renta; Derogis, Priscilla Bento Mattos Cruz; Brudniewski, Heloísa F; Rosa E Silva, Júlio C; Ferriani, Rui A

    2016-04-01

    Endometriosis is an estrogen-dependent disease that afflicts about 10% of women in their reproductive age, causing severe pain and infertility. The potential roles of female steroid hormones in modulating key estrogen-metabolizing enzymes, steroid sulfatase (STS) and estrogen sulfotransferase (SULT1E1), were investigated. The expression of STS and SULT1E1 mRNA in biopsy samples (n=78) of superficial and deep endometriotic lesions, eutopic endometrium of women with endometriosis and endometrium from control patients were compared according to the menstrual cycle phase. Increased STS gene expression was detected in superficial and deep-infiltrating lesions and a reduced SULT1E1 expression was also observed in the eutopic endometrium relative to the superficial lesions. Additionally, a significantly positive correlation was detected between STS and SULT1E1 mRNA expression levels in biopsy specimens collected from the endometriosis patients, and not in control individuals. The actions of female steroid hormones on SULT1E1 and STS expression were evidenced in endometriosis, revealed by increased expression levels in the luteal phase of the cycle. There was an increased STS expression in primary eutopic and ectopic endometrial stromal cells treated with estradiol and progesterone (representative of the luteal phase, n=3). Although an increased STS mRNA expression was observed in hormone-induced endometrial stromal cells in vitro, no difference could be detected between the hormone treatment groups in estradiol formation from estradiol sulfate measured by LC-MS-MS. Interestingly, a greater expression of STS was observed in stromal cells from eutopic endometrium with an agreement in estradiol formation originated from estradiol sulfate. The differential regulation of STS and SULT1E1 could provide insights for novel studies of the therapeutic use of STS inhibitors. PMID:26723541

  14. Molecular parameters of maturation in the Toarcian shales, Paris Basin, France - III. Changes in aromatic steroid hydrocarbons

    Mackenzie, A. S.; Hoffmann, C. F.; Maxwell, J. R.

    1981-08-01

    Three series of monoaromatic steroid hydrocarbons ( basepeak = m/ z 239, 253 and 267) and four series of triaromatic steroid hydrocarbons ( basepeak = m/ z 217, 231, 245 and 259) have been recognised by computerised gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in a variety of samples of Lower Toarcian shales from the Paris Basin. An increase in the extent of aromatisation of the monoaromatic steroid hydrocarbons in the m/ z 253 series (measured by the abundance of monoaromatic components relative to triaromatic components in the m/ z 231 series) is observed with increasing maturity. Variations between reported maximum burial depth and extent of aromatisation are explicable partly in terms of new maximum burial depth information for some of the shales. The extent of carbon-carbon bond cracking in the side chains of the aromatic steroid hydrocarbons has only begun to be significant in certain of the deepest samples.

  15. Methods for determination of fingernail steroids by LC/MS/MS and differences in their contents between right and left hands.

    Higashi, Tatsuya; Yamagata, Kenichiro; Kato, Yuina; Ogawa, Yu; Takano, Kaori; Nakaaze, Yutaro; Iriyama, Takashi; Min, Jun Zhe; Ogawa, Shoujiro

    2016-05-01

    Fingernail clipping is expected to be a specimen for steroid testing, because it has several advantages over blood; i.e., noninvasive collection, ease of storage, portability and handling, and possibility for an assessment of the steroid status over a relatively long and retrospective time window. In this study, we examined whether there is a difference in the nail contents between the right and left hands for five steroids [glycochenodeoxycholic acid (GCDCA), taurochenodeoxycholic acid (TCDCA), dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), testosterone (TST) and cortisol (CRT)] using newly developed liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry methods. The nail contents between the hands were significantly different for GCDCA, TCDCA and DHEAS, whereas those of TST and CRT only slightly differed. These results might be due to the difference in the binding affinity of each steroid for the nail keratin. The relatively hydrophilic steroids, GCDCA, TCDCA and DHEAS, may be lost from nails in daily life due to their low affinity for keratin, which would produce differences in the nail contents between the hands. Thus, the fingernail GCDCA, TCDCA and DHEAS contents may be influenced by factors other than the disease; the nail analysis is inefficient in the diagnosis of the disease associated with these steroids. On the other hand, the nail analysis looks promising for evaluation of the status of TST and CRT, which are lipophilic and inferred to be tightly bound to the keratin. In fact, the nail TST content showed a significant sex difference, just like its serum/plasma concentration. PMID:26898540

  16. Steroids from the Soft Coral Sinularia crassa

    Kuei-Ju Chou

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available One new sterol, crassarosterol A (1, and four new steroidal glycosides, crassarosterosides AD (25 were isolated from the Formosan soft coral Sinularia crassa. The absolute configuration of 1 was determined using the Moshers method. The absolute configurations for the sugar moieties of 25 were determined by HPLC analysis on the o-tolylthiocarbamates derived from the liberated sugar after acid hydrolysis. Compounds 2 and 4 could significantly inhibit the expression of pro-inflammatory iNOS protein at 10 M. In contrast, 13 were found to stimulate the expression of COX-2 protein at this concentration. Steroids 1 and 4 also showed cytotoxicity toward the selected human liver cancer cells.

  17. Steroid hormone sulphation in lead workers.

    Apostoli, P; Romeo, L; Peroni, E; Ferioli, A; Ferrari, S; Pasini, F; Aprili, F

    1989-01-01

    The metabolism of steroid hormones has been investigated in 10 workers exposed to lead and in 10 non-exposed subjects to determine whether lead interferes with the first or second phase reactions of steroid hormone biotransformation, or both. In the exposed workers blood lead concentrations (PbB) ranged from 45 to 69 micrograms/100 ml; in the controls PbB was less than 25 micrograms/100 ml. No statistical differences were found for the total amount of the urinary hormone metabolites, but a drop of about 50% was observed for the sulphated portion. It is suggested that lead interferes with the mechanisms of sulphoconjugation through an effect on the cytosol enzymes sulphotransferase and sulphokinase. PMID:2930732

  18. Members of opposite sex mutually regulate gonadal recrudescence in the lizard Calotes versicolor (Agamidae)

    B A Shanbhag; R S Radder; S K Saidapur

    2002-09-01

    Adult males and females of the seasonally breeding lizard Calotes versicolor were subjected to various social situations under semi-natural conditions to explain the role of socio-sexual factors in gonadal recrudescence. They were grouped as: (i) males and females, (ii) males and females separated by a wire mesh, (iii) same sex groups of males or females, (iv) castrated males with intact females and (v) ovariectomized (OvX) females with intact males from postbreeding to breeding phase. Specimens collected from the wild during breeding season served as the control group. Plasma sex steroid levels (testosterone in male and 17-estradiol in female), spermatogenetic activity and vitellogenesis were the criteria to judge gonadal recrudescence. In intact males and females that were kept together, gonadal recrudescence and plasma sex steroids levels were comparable to those in wild-caught individuals. Gonadal recrudescence was at its least in all male and all female groups, and plasma sex steroids were at basal levels. Association with OvX females initiated testicular recrudescence but spermatogenetic activity progressed only up to the spermatid stage while males separated from females by wire mesh showed spermatogenetic activity for a shorter period. Females grouped with castrated males and those separated from males by wire mesh produced vitellogenic follicles. However, the total number and diameter of vitellogenic follicles, and plasma estradiol levels were lower than in the females grouped with intact males. The findings indicate that association with members of the opposite sex with progressively rising titers of sex steroids is crucial in both initiating and sustaining gonadal recrudescence in the lizard. Thus, members of the opposite sex mutually regulate gonadal recrudescence in the C. versicolor.

  19. Male Sex is Associated with a Reduced Alveolar Epithelial Sodium Transport

    Kaltofen, Till; Haase, Melanie; Thome, Ulrich H.; Laube, Mandy

    2015-01-01

    Respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) is the most frequent pulmonary complication in preterm infants. RDS incidence differs between genders, which has been called the male disadvantage. Besides maturation of the surfactant system, Na+ transport driven alveolar fluid clearance is crucial for the prevention of RDS. Na+ transport is mediated by the epithelial Na+ channel (ENaC) and the Na,K-ATPase, therefore potential differences in their expression or activity possibly contribute to the gender imbalance observed in RDS. Fetal distal lung epithelial (FDLE) cells of rat fetuses were separated by sex and analyzed regarding expression and activity of the Na+ transporters. Ussing chamber experiments showed a higher baseline short-circuit current (ISC) and amiloride-sensitive ?ISC in FDLE cells of female origin. In addition, maximal amiloride-sensitive ?ISC and maximal ouabain-sensitive ?ISC of female cells were higher when measured in the presence of a permeabilized basolateral or apical membrane, respectively. The number of FDLE cells per fetus recoverable during cell isolation was also significantly higher in females. In addition, lung wet-to-dry weight ratio was lower in fetal and newborn female pups. Female derived FDLE cells had higher mRNA levels of the ENaC- and Na,K-ATPase subunits. Furthermore, estrogen (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) mRNA levels were higher in female cells, which might render female cells more responsive, while concentrations of placenta-derived sex steroids do not differ between both genders during fetal life. Inhibition of ER-? abolished the sex differences in Na+ transport and female cells were more responsive to estradiol stimulation. In conclusion, a higher alveolar Na+ transport, possibly attributable to a higher expression of hormone receptors in female FDLE cells, provides an explanation for the well known sex-related difference in RDS occurrence and outcome. PMID:26291531

  20. Possible side effects of topical steroids.

    Morman, M R

    1981-02-01

    When used properly in controlled situations, topical corticosteroids provide dramatic relief in distressing disorders such as eczema, psoriasis and seborrheic dermatitis. The fluorinated preparations are associated with a variety of side effects, including acne, striae, premature aging of the skin, hypertrichosis, perioral dermatitis, glaucoma and even adrenal suppression. Except for the severe, acute dermatoses, a nonfluorinated steroid is the better choice because of the relative lack of side effects and lower cost. PMID:6450525