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Sex Steroids and Breast Cancer: An Overview  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sex steroids, also known as sex hormones are synthesized naturally by the gonads (ovaries or testes). The two main classes of sex steroids, androgens and estrogens, are crucial hormones for the proper development and function of the body; they regulate sexual differentiation, the secondary sex characteristics, and sexual habits. They are also well known to influence many common cancers, especially hormonally driven cancers such as breast and prostate cancer. In this report, we review the association of sex steroids with cancer and the potential use of endocrine manipulation in cancer therapy as well as the limitations and challenges faced in this field.

Zeina Nahleh; Juan E. Arenas; Arafat Tfayli

2013-01-01

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Application of Rapid and Simul­taneous Measurement of Sex Steroid Hormones to the Monitoring of Gonadotropin Therapy  

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Full Text Available A high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method with both electrochemical detection (ECD) and ultraviolet spectrometric detection (UVD) was developed for the rapid and simultaneous measurement of estradiol (E2), estrone (E1), testosterone (T), 17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP) and progesterone (P) in serum. These hormones were extracted with diethylether, and chromatographed on an octadecyl silane-silica (ODS) column with an eluent of a phosphate buffer solution - acetonitrile mixture (volume ratio 49:51). Estrogens were detected by ECD at +1.0 V vs. Ag/AgCl, and other hormones by UVD at 242 nm. With this method, the simultaneous determination of sex steroid hormones could be performed within approximately two hours with high precision. The hormones of 34 patients (39 menstrual cycles) undergoing human menopausal gonadotropin (HMG)-human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) therapy were measured. It was concluded that the switch from HMG to HCG should be performed when the E2 level reaches 400 pg/ml for ovulation and 800 pg/ml for pregnancy. The occurrence of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) can be predicted when the P level rises above 30 ng/ml on the 7th day after the switch. Moreover, conception may be indicated when the P level does not increase from the 7th to 14th day after the switch. In this way, this method proved to be useful for the monitoring of HMG-HCG therapy.

Hayata,Koshi; Hayashi,Nobuyoshi; Sekiba,Kaoru

1985-01-01

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Sex steroids, carcinogenesis, and cancer progression.  

Science.gov (United States)

The relationship between sex steroids and cancer has been studied for more than a century. Using an original intact cell analysis, we investigated sex steroid metabolism in a panel of human cancer cell lines, either hormone responsive or unresponsive, originating from human breast, endometrium, and prostate. We found that highly divergent patterns of steroid metabolism exist and that the catalytic preference (predominantly reductive or oxidative) is strictly associated with the steroid receptor status of cells. We explored intratissue concentrations and profiles of estrogens in a set of human breast tumors as compared to normal mammary tissues, also in relation to their estrogen receptor status. In particular, we showed that, with hydroxyestrogens representing the majority of all tissue estrogens, concentrations of individual metabolites, as well as their ratios, significantly differ when comparing normal tissue with cancer tissues or when they are related to the overall survival of cancer patients. PMID:15650249

Castagnetta, Luigi; Granata, Orazia M; Cocciadiferro, Letizia; Saetta, Annalisa; Polito, Lucia; Bronte, Giuseppe; Rizzo, Sergio; Campisi, Ildegarda; Agostara, Biagio; Carruba, Giuseppe

2004-12-01

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Gender, sex steroid hormones, and Alzheimer's disease.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Age-related loss of sex steroid hormones is a established risk factor for the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD) in women and men. While the relationships between the sex steroid hormones and AD are not fully understood, findings from both human and experimental paradigms indicate that depletion of estrogens in women and androgens in men increases vulnerability of the aging brain to AD pathogenesis. We review evidence of a wide range of beneficial neural actions of sex steroid hormones that may contribute to their hypothesized protective roles against AD. Both estrogens and androgens exert general neuroprotective actions relevant to a several neurodegenerative conditions, some in a sex-specific manner, including protection from neuron death and promotion of select aspects of neural plasticity. In addition, estrogens and androgens regulate key processes implicated in AD pathogenesis, in particular the accumulation of ?-amyloid protein. We discuss evidence of hormone-specific mechanisms related to the regulation of the production and clearance of ?-amyloid as critical protective pathways. Continued elucidation of these pathways promises to yield effective hormone-based strategies to delay development of AD.

Vest RS; Pike CJ

2013-02-01

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Sex steroid hormone pathway genes and health-related measures in women of 4 races/ethnicities: the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We synthesized findings relating health outcomes and genetic variants of the sex steroid hormone pathway in women from the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN) Genetics Study. The SWAN Genetics Study, a component of the longitudinal SWAN study, describes selected genetics characteristics of health-related attributes during the menopausal transition in African American, Caucasian, Chinese, and Japanese women. At baseline, SWAN recruited menstruating women aged 42 to 52 years, who were not using exogenous hormones. Immortalized cell lines were developed and genotyped in 1,538 specimens from 1,757 participants in the genetics study. Genotypes and haplotypes from 6 genes (27 single nucleotide polymorphisms [SNPs]) in the sex steroid hormone pathway were related to circulating hormone concentrations, menstrual cycle profiles, and health-related outcomes, including lipids, diabetes mellitus, depressive symptoms, measures of cognition, bone mineral density (BMD), and vasomotor symptoms. Allele frequencies and distances differed substantially in the 4 race/ethnicity-specific groups evaluated, leading to variable patterns of association with health-related measures. For example, 17HSD genotypes were highly associated with diabetes risk in Caucasian women, whereas its haplotypes were associated with diabetes risk in both African American and Caucasian women. Several SNPs were associated with multiple outcomes. ESR1 rs3798577 was significantly associated with circulating estradiol concentrations, indicators of ovarian aging, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, apolipoprotein A-1, insulin sensitivity, and lumbar spine BMD. CYP1A1 rs2606345 was related to estrogen metabolite concentrations, vasomotor symptoms, and depressive symptoms. Some associations were much more prominent in specific races/ethnicities; Chinese women had statistically significant relations between ESR2 rs1256030 and HDL cholesterol, lumbar spine BMD, hip BMD, and metabolic syndrome. Importantly, women in the SWAN Genetics Study were typical of women in the community-based SWAN sample. This community-based sample of women from the SWAN Genetics Study identified important genetic sex steroid hormone pathway variants in relation to measures of health status. The magnitude and breadth of these relationships should motivate further research to verify and extend the findings.

Sowers MR; Wilson AL; Karvonen-Gutierrez CA; Kardia SR

2006-09-01

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Sex Steroids and Gene Variants in Bipolar Disorder  

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Bipolar disorder is a chronic, cycling disorder affecting circa 2% of the population and whose pathophysiology is still largely unknown. It has been suggested that common treatments used for bipolar disorder have effects on the sex steroids yet sex steroids have also been shown to have widespread...

Johansson, Anette GM

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The influence of sex steroids on pineal enzymes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The influence of the gonadal sex steroids namely, estradiol, progesterone and testosterone on the two major enzymes responsible for the synthesis of melatonin in the pineal gland was investigated. These enzymes are Serotonin-N-acetyltransferase (SNAT) and Hydroxyindole-O-methyltransferase (H10MT). Testosterone was found to be the only sex steroid capable of influencing SNAT activity whereas all three of the sex steroids were found to influence H10MT activity in a biphasic dose-dependent manner. The influence of these sex steroids on radiolabelled serotonin metabolism by pineals in organ culture was also investigated. Ovariectomy, castration and the sex steroids were all found to alter the pattern of the radiolabelled serotonin metabolism by these pineal glands in organ culture

1982-01-01

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Sex steroids and bone mass in older men. Positive associations with serum estrogens and negative associations with androgens.  

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The purpose of this study was to determine whether bone density in older men was associated with serum sex steroids or sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG). Bone density and sex steroids were measured in men over age 65 at 6-mo intervals for an average of 2.1 yr. Bone density was significantly positi...

Slemenda, C W; Longcope, C; Zhou, L; Hui, S L; Peacock, M; Johnston, C C

9

The roles of sex steroid receptor coregulators in cancer  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Sex steroid hormones, estrogen, progesterone and androgen, play pivotal roles in sex differentiation and development, and in reproductive functions and sexual behavior. Studies have shown that sex steroid hormones are the key regulators in the development and progression of endocrine-related cancers, especially the cancers of the reproductive tissues. The actions of estrogen, progesterone and androgen are mediated through their cognate intracellular receptor proteins, the estrogen receptors (ER), the progesterone receptors (PR) and the androgen receptor (AR), respectively. These receptors are members of the nuclear receptor (NR) superfamily, which function as transcription factors that regulate their target gene expression. Proper functioning of these steroid receptors maintains the normal responsiveness of the target tissues to the stimulations of the steroid hormones. This permits the normal development and function of reproductive tissues. It can be inferred that factors influencing the expression or function of steroid receptors will interfere with the normal development and function of the target tissues, and may induce pathological conditions, including cancers. In addition to the direct contact with the basal transcription machinery, nuclear receptors enhance or suppress transcription by recruiting an array of coactivators and corepressors, collectively named coregulators. Therefore, the mutation or aberrant expression of sex steroid receptor coregulators will affect the normal function of the sex steroid receptors and hence may participate in the development and progression of the cancers.

Gao Xiuhua; Loggie Brian W; Nawaz Zafar

2002-01-01

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Non-reproductive effects of sex steroids: their immunoregulatory role.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In this special issue of Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry, the reader will find reviewed some of the hottest topics in the field of the non-reproductive effects of sex steroids. Cabrera-Muñoz et al., show that progesterone participates in the regulation of human brain tumors growth. The contribution of Martocchia suggests that sex steroid receptor modulating drugs provide new therapeutic approaches to autoimmune diseases. The role of sex steroid participation in the differentiation of stem cells to neurones is discussed by I. Velasco. Pérez-Torres and collaborators demonstrate that sex steroids play an important role in the appearance and development of renal diseases and the metabolic syndrome, the new epidemics of our century. Paris and Frye hypthetize that gestational stress, have effects on cognitive performance and/or neuronal integrity in the fetus, and that exposure to variable stress during gestation can perturb cognitive performance, concomitant with dendrite development in hippocampus and diencephalon. Muñoz-Cruz et al. thoroughly review the growing body of evidence that shows reciprocal relationship between sex steroids and the immune system, and conclude that understanding the mechanisms of action of sex steroids on immune cells is important for further progress in the development of novel therapies for chronic diseases associated to immune dysregulation. Besides, the effects of sexual steroids on pancreatic function and diabetes are reviewed by Morimoto et al. Yanes et al. review some of the contradictions raised in the context of the recently proposed critical period hypothesis, which takes into account the frame-time after cessation of ovarian function. Finally, another vey intetresting aspect of the non-reproductive effects of sex-steroids, is the related to some cognition-related aspects, which is reviewed by Picazo et al.

Arroyo IC; Montor JM

2011-01-01

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Genome-wide association studies on serum sex steroid levels.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Even though the levels of circulating sex steroid hormones are to a large extent heritable, their genetic determinants are largely unknown. With the advent of genome-wide association studies (GWASs), much progress has been made and several genetic loci have been identified to be associated with serum levels of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin. The variants identified so far only explain a small amount of the overall heritability, but may help to elucidate the role of sex steroid hormones in common disorders such as hypogonadism, type 2 diabetes and hormone-sensitive cancers. This review provides an overview of the current state of knowledge of the genetic determinants of sex steroid hormones, with a focus on recent GWAS and brief directions for elucidating the remaining heritability.

Vandenput L; Ohlsson C

2013-03-01

12

Roles of sex and gonadal steroids in mammalian pheromonal communication.  

Science.gov (United States)

A brain circuit (the accessory olfactory system) that originates in the vomeronasal organ (VNO) and includes the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB) plus additional forebrain regions mediates many of the effects of pheromones, typically comprised of a variety of non-volatile and volatile compounds, on aspects of social behavior. A second, parallel circuit (the main olfactory system) that originates in the main olfactory epithelium (MOE) and includes the main olfactory bulb (MOB) has also been shown to detect volatile pheromones from conspecifics. Studies are reviewed that point to specific roles of several different steroids and their water-soluble metabolites as putative pheromones. Other studies are reviewed that establish an adult, 'activational' role of circulating sex hormones along with sex differences in the detection and/or processing of non-steroidal pheromones by these two olfactory circuits. Persisting questions about the role of sex steroids in pheromonal processing are posed for future investigation. PMID:23872334

Baum, Michael J; Bakker, Julie

2013-07-18

13

Roles of sex and gonadal steroids in mammalian pheromonal communication.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A brain circuit (the accessory olfactory system) that originates in the vomeronasal organ (VNO) and includes the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB) plus additional forebrain regions mediates many of the effects of pheromones, typically comprised of a variety of non-volatile and volatile compounds, on aspects of social behavior. A second, parallel circuit (the main olfactory system) that originates in the main olfactory epithelium (MOE) and includes the main olfactory bulb (MOB) has also been shown to detect volatile pheromones from conspecifics. Studies are reviewed that point to specific roles of several different steroids and their water-soluble metabolites as putative pheromones. Other studies are reviewed that establish an adult, 'activational' role of circulating sex hormones along with sex differences in the detection and/or processing of non-steroidal pheromones by these two olfactory circuits. Persisting questions about the role of sex steroids in pheromonal processing are posed for future investigation.

Baum MJ; Bakker J

2013-10-01

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Reptilian sex steroid receptors: amplification, sequence and expression analysis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Sex steroid hormones secreted by the gonads play a central role in the reproduction of all vertebrates. In addition to direct effects on gametogenesis, sex steroid hormones are important in sexual development, brain organization, and sexual behavior. The actions of sex steroid hormones are mediated primarily by ligand-dependent transcription factors, or receptors which bind to specific sequences of the DNA and alter the transcription rates of nearby genes. We have used the polymerase chain reaction to amplify cDNA fragments of the estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor and androgen receptor from the unisexual whiptail lizard, Cnemidophorus uniparens. The lizard steroid hormone receptors share a high degree of sequence homology to the steroid hormone receptors of other vertebrates. Ribonuclease protection assays demonstrate that both estrogen receptor mRNA and progesterone receptor mRNA are increased in the oviduct during vitellogenesis and after estrogen treatment. This report demonstrates the utility of the polymerase chain reaction to generate species specific probes for comparative molecular studies and provides the first report of cDNA sequences for reptilian steroid hormone receptors.

Young LJ; Godwin J; Grammer M; Gahr M; Crews D

1995-11-01

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Reptilian sex steroid receptors: amplification, sequence and expression analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sex steroid hormones secreted by the gonads play a central role in the reproduction of all vertebrates. In addition to direct effects on gametogenesis, sex steroid hormones are important in sexual development, brain organization, and sexual behavior. The actions of sex steroid hormones are mediated primarily by ligand-dependent transcription factors, or receptors which bind to specific sequences of the DNA and alter the transcription rates of nearby genes. We have used the polymerase chain reaction to amplify cDNA fragments of the estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor and androgen receptor from the unisexual whiptail lizard, Cnemidophorus uniparens. The lizard steroid hormone receptors share a high degree of sequence homology to the steroid hormone receptors of other vertebrates. Ribonuclease protection assays demonstrate that both estrogen receptor mRNA and progesterone receptor mRNA are increased in the oviduct during vitellogenesis and after estrogen treatment. This report demonstrates the utility of the polymerase chain reaction to generate species specific probes for comparative molecular studies and provides the first report of cDNA sequences for reptilian steroid hormone receptors. PMID:7495707

Young, L J; Godwin, J; Grammer, M; Gahr, M; Crews, D

1995-11-01

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Sex steroids and variants of gender identity.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article summarizes for the practicing endocrinologist the current literature on the psychobiology of the development of gender identity and its variants in individuals with disorders of sex development (DSD) or with non-DSD transgenderism. Gender reassignment remains the treatment of choice for strong and persistent gender dysphoria in both categories, but more research is needed on the short-term and long-term effects of puberty-suppressing medications and cross-sex hormones on brain and behavior. PMID:24011879

Meyer-Bahlburg, Heino F L

2013-09-01

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Sex steroids and variants of gender identity.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This article summarizes for the practicing endocrinologist the current literature on the psychobiology of the development of gender identity and its variants in individuals with disorders of sex development (DSD) or with non-DSD transgenderism. Gender reassignment remains the treatment of choice for strong and persistent gender dysphoria in both categories, but more research is needed on the short-term and long-term effects of puberty-suppressing medications and cross-sex hormones on brain and behavior.

Meyer-Bahlburg HF

2013-09-01

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Steroid receptor expression in the fish inner earvaries with sex, social status, and reproductive state  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Gonadal and stress-related steroid hormones are known to influence auditory function across vertebrates but the cellular and molecular mechanisms responsible for steroid-mediated auditory plasticity at the level of the inner ear remain unknown. The presence of steroid receptors in the ear suggests a direct pathway for hormones to act on the peripheral auditory system, but little is known about which receptors are expressed in the ear or whether their expression levels change with internal physiological state or external social cues. We used qRT-PCR to measure mRNA expression levels of multiple steroid receptor subtypes (estrogen receptors: ER?, ER?a, ER?b; androgen receptors: AR?, AR?; corticosteroid receptors: GR2, GR1a/b, MR) and aromatase in the main hearing organ of the inner ear (saccule) in the highly social African cichlid fish Astatotilapia burtoni, and tested whether these receptor levels were correlated with circulating steroid concentrations. Results We show that multiple steroid receptor subtypes are expressed within the main hearing organ of a single vertebrate species, and that expression levels differ between the sexes. We also show that steroid receptor subtype-specific changes in mRNA expression are associated with reproductive phase in females and social status in males. Sex-steroid receptor mRNA levels were negatively correlated with circulating estradiol and androgens in both males and females, suggesting possible ligand down-regulation of receptors in the inner ear. In contrast, saccular changes in corticosteroid receptor mRNA levels were not related to serum cortisol levels. Circulating steroid levels and receptor subtype mRNA levels were not as tightly correlated in males as compared to females, suggesting different regulatory mechanisms between sexes. Conclusions This is the most comprehensive study of sex-, social-, and reproductive-related steroid receptor mRNA expression in the peripheral auditory system of any single vertebrate. Our data suggest that changes in steroid receptor mRNA expression in the inner ear could be a regulatory mechanism for physiological state-dependent auditory plasticity across vertebrates.

Maruska Karen P; Fernald Russell D

2010-01-01

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Association of serum sex steroid receptor bioactivity and sex steroid hormones with breast cancer risk in postmenopausal women.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Postmenopausal women with elevated serum sex steroids have an increased risk of breast cancer. Most of this risk is believed to be exerted through binding of the sex steroids to their receptors. For the first time, we investigate the association of estrogen receptor (ER) and androgen receptor (AR) serum bioactivity (SB) in addition to hormone levels in samples from women with breast cancer collected before diagnosis. Two hundred postmenopausal women participating in the UK Collaborative Trial of Ovarian Cancer Screening who developed ER-positive breast cancer 0.6-5 years after sample donation were identified and matched to 400 controls. ER and AR bioassays were used to measure ER?, ER?, and AR SB. Androgen and estrogen levels were measured with immunoassays. Subjects were classified according to quintiles of the respective marker among controls and the associations between SB and hormones with breast cancer risk were determined by logistic regression analysis. ER? and ER? SB were significantly higher before diagnosis compared with controls, while estrogens showed no difference. Women had a twofold increased breast cancer risk if ER? SB (odds ratio (OR), 2.114; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.050-4.425; P=0.040) was in the top quintile >2 years before diagnosis or estrone (OR, 2.205; 95% CI, 1.104-4.586; P=0.029) was in the top quintile <2 years before diagnosis. AR showed no significant association with breast cancer while androstenedione (OR, 3.187; 95% CI, 1.738-6.044; P=0.0003) and testosterone (OR, 2.145; 95% CI, 1.256-3.712; P=0.006) were significantly higher compared with controls and showed a strong association with an almost threefold increased breast cancer risk independent of time to diagnosis. This study provides further evidence on the association of androgens and estrogens with breast cancer. In addition, it reports that high ER but not AR SB is associated with increased breast risk >2 years before diagnosis.

Fourkala EO; Zaikin A; Burnell M; Gentry-Maharaj A; Ford J; Gunu R; Soromani C; Hasenbrink G; Jacobs I; Dawnay A; Widschwendter M; Lichtenberg-Fraté H; Menon U

2012-04-01

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Prenatal and postnatal energetic conditions and sex steroids levels across the first year of life.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: Human biologists have documented variability in reproductive maturation, fertility, and cancer risk related to developmental conditions. Yet no previous studies have directly examined the impact of prenatal and postnatal energetic environments on sex steroids in infancy, a critical period for hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis development. Thus, we examined the impact of maternal characteristics, birth size, and feeding practices on fecal sex steroid production in a longitudinal sample of 31 American infants followed from 2 weeks to 12 months of age. METHODS: Maternal characteristics and birth size were collected at study enrollment, infant diet was assessed through weekly 24-h food diaries, and anthropometrics were measured weekly. Fecal estradiol and testosterone levels were assessed weekly using validated microassay RIA techniques. Mixed models were used to test for associations between maternal and birth characteristics, feeding practices, and sex steroids across the first year of life. Formal mediation analysis examined whether the relationship between infant feeding and hormone levels was mediated by infant size. RESULTS: Maternal and birth characteristics had persistent effects on fecal sex steroid levels, with taller maternal height and larger birth size associated with lower estradiol levels in girls and higher testosterone levels in boys. Infant diet was also associated with sex steroid levels independently of infant size. Formula feeding was associated with higher estradiol levels in boys and girls and with higher testosterone in girls. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that markers of early energy availability influence sex hormone levels with potential long-term consequences for reproductive development and function. Am. J. Hum. Biol., 25:643-654, 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Thompson AL; Michelle L

2013-09-01

 
 
 
 
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Assessment of circulating sex steroid levels in prepubertal and pubertal boys and girls by a novel ultrasensitive gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Estrogens and androgens play key roles for pubertal onset and sexual maturation. Most currently used immunoassays are not sensitive enough to accurately measure the low circulating levels of sex steroids in children without any signs of puberty. However, this does not exclude that sex steroids have important biological roles in prepubertal children.

Courant, Frédérique; Aksglæde, Lise

2010-01-01

22

Sex hormone binding globulin and sex steroids among premenopausal women in the diabetes prevention program.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

CONTEXT: It is unknown whether intensive lifestyle modification (ILS) or metformin changes sex steroids among premenopausal women without a history of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). OBJECTIVES: We examined 1-year intervention impact on sex steroids (estradiol, testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone, and androstenedione [A4]) and SHBG and differences by race/ethnicity. PARTICIPANTS: A subgroup of Diabetes Prevention Program participants who were premenopausal, not using estrogen, without a history of PCOS or irregular menses, and who reported non-Hispanic white (NHW), Hispanic, or African-American race/ethnicity (n = 301). INTERVENTIONS: Randomization arms were 1) ILS with the goals of weight reduction of 7% of initial weight and 150 minutes per week of moderate intensity exercise, 2) metformin 850 mg twice a day, or 3) placebo. RESULTS: Neither intervention changed sex steroids compared to placebo. ILS, but not metformin, increased median SHBG by 3.1 nmol/L (~11%) compared to decreases of 1.1 nmol/L in the placebo arm (P < .05). This comparison remained significant after adjustment for changes in covariates including waist circumference. However, associations with glucose were not significant. Median baseline A4 was lower in Hispanics compared to NHWs (5.7 nmol/L vs 6.5 nmol/L, P < .05) and increases in A4 were greater in Hispanics compared to NHWs (3.0 nmol/ vs 1.2 nmol/L, P < .05), and these differences did not differ significantly by intervention arm. No other racial/ethnic differences were significant. CONCLUSIONS: Among premenopausal glucose-intolerant women, no intervention changed sex steroids. ILS increased SHBG, although associations with glucose were not significant. SHBG and sex steroids were similar by race/ethnicity, with the possible exception of lower baseline A4 levels in Hispanics compared to NHWs.

Kim C; Pi-Sunyer X; Barrett-Connor E; Stentz FB; Murphy MB; Kong S; Nan B; Kitabchi AE

2013-07-01

23

Endocrinology of sex steroid hormones and cell dynamics in the periodontium.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Numerous scientific studies assert the existence of hormone-sensitive periodontal tissues. Tissue specificity of hormone localization, identification of hormone receptors and the metabolism of hormones are evidence that periodontal tissues are targets for sex steroid hormones. Although the etiologies of periodontal endocrinopathies are diverse, periodontal pathologies are primarily the consequence of the actions and interactions of sex steroid hormones on specific cells found in the periodontium. This review provides a broad overview of steroid hormone physiology, evidence for the periodontium being a target tissue for sex steroid hormones and theories regarding the roles of sex steroid hormones in periodontal pathogenesis. Using this information, a teleological argument for the actions of steroid hormones in the periodontium is assessed.

Mariotti A; Mawhinney M

2013-02-01

24

Endocrinology of sex steroid hormones and cell dynamics in the periodontium.  

Science.gov (United States)

Numerous scientific studies assert the existence of hormone-sensitive periodontal tissues. Tissue specificity of hormone localization, identification of hormone receptors and the metabolism of hormones are evidence that periodontal tissues are targets for sex steroid hormones. Although the etiologies of periodontal endocrinopathies are diverse, periodontal pathologies are primarily the consequence of the actions and interactions of sex steroid hormones on specific cells found in the periodontium. This review provides a broad overview of steroid hormone physiology, evidence for the periodontium being a target tissue for sex steroid hormones and theories regarding the roles of sex steroid hormones in periodontal pathogenesis. Using this information, a teleological argument for the actions of steroid hormones in the periodontium is assessed. PMID:23240944

Mariotti, Angelo; Mawhinney, Michael

2013-02-01

25

Augmented transport and metabolism of sex steroids in lymphoid neoplasia in the rat  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Sex steroid hormones have been shown to influence a number of biological properties of lymphoid neoplastic tissue. Receptor occupancy is a function of the pool size of cellular exchangeable hormone therefore it is important to understand the mechanisms regulating hormone transport from the microcirculation and hormone metabolism. In this study, steroid hormone transport and metabolism were investigated in control and neoplastic lymph nodes after transplanting control rats with the WR-6 leukemic line. Steroid hormone transport and metabolism were studied after pulse labeling the nodal tissue in vivo with arterial bolus injections of (/sup 3/H)testosterone. Residual vascular radioactivity was monitored by simultaneously injecting 113m indium chelated to bovine transferrin. Both testosterone and estradiol were partially available for transport through the capillary barriers of control and neoplastic lymph nodes from the circulating albumin-bound pool. Estradiol was readily available for transport from the circulating sex hormone-binding globulin-bound pool in both control and neoplastic lymph nodes. Testosterone was not available for transport from the sex hormone-binding globulin-bound pool in control lymph nodes, but was readily available for transport in metastatic lymph nodes. Thaw-mount autoradiography and physiological measurements showed that plasma proteins such as albumin or transferrin were confined to the microcirculation compartment. The transport of protein-bound hormones into lymph node represents a mechanism of enhanced steroid hormone dissociation from the binding protein without the plasma protein per se significantly exiting the microcirculation compartment. Metabolic studies showed no measurable metabolism of (/sup 3/H)testosterone in the control lymph nodes by 60 sec after arterial injection.

Cefalu, W.T.; Pardridge, W.M.

1987-03-01

26

Sex steroids in scleractinian coral, Euphyllia ancora: implication in mass spawning.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objectives of this study were to investigate the presence and annual cycle of sex steroids in scleractinian coral, Euphyllia ancora. The free and conjugated forms of sex steroids in coral and spawning seawater were investigated, and aromatase activity in the coral tissue was identified. Polyps collected from corals and seawater were extracted with diethyl ether, and purified by alumina column and reversed-phase HPLC; testosterone and estradiol-17beta (E2) was measured by a validated RIA. E2 and testosterone in their free and glucuronide forms were consistently detected in coral tissue throughout the year. Peak concentrations of free E2, E2 glucuronide, and testosterone glucuronide were obtained in the coral tissue just prior to spawning. The presence of specific aromatase activity was demonstrated in coral tissue. Free E2 and E2 glucuronide concentrations were higher than androgen (testosterone and testosterone glucuronide) in coral tissue and spawning seawater. Higher concentrations of free E2 than E2 glucuronide were detected in coral tissues throughout the year. In contrast, higher concentrations of E2 glucuronide than free E2 and testosterone glucuronide were found in seawater during mass coral spawning. No steroid sulfate could be detected in the coral tissue and seawater. We suggest that the release of E2 glucuronide may play an important role in coral mass spawning. PMID:12606339

Twan, Wen-Hung; Hwang, Jiang-Shiou; Chang, Ching-Fong

2003-01-22

27

Sex steroids in scleractinian coral, Euphyllia ancora: implication in mass spawning.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The objectives of this study were to investigate the presence and annual cycle of sex steroids in scleractinian coral, Euphyllia ancora. The free and conjugated forms of sex steroids in coral and spawning seawater were investigated, and aromatase activity in the coral tissue was identified. Polyps collected from corals and seawater were extracted with diethyl ether, and purified by alumina column and reversed-phase HPLC; testosterone and estradiol-17beta (E2) was measured by a validated RIA. E2 and testosterone in their free and glucuronide forms were consistently detected in coral tissue throughout the year. Peak concentrations of free E2, E2 glucuronide, and testosterone glucuronide were obtained in the coral tissue just prior to spawning. The presence of specific aromatase activity was demonstrated in coral tissue. Free E2 and E2 glucuronide concentrations were higher than androgen (testosterone and testosterone glucuronide) in coral tissue and spawning seawater. Higher concentrations of free E2 than E2 glucuronide were detected in coral tissues throughout the year. In contrast, higher concentrations of E2 glucuronide than free E2 and testosterone glucuronide were found in seawater during mass coral spawning. No steroid sulfate could be detected in the coral tissue and seawater. We suggest that the release of E2 glucuronide may play an important role in coral mass spawning.

Twan WH; Hwang JS; Chang CF

2003-06-01

28

Body Image Dissatisfaction and Distortion, Steroid Use, and Sex Differences in College Age Bodybuilders.  

Science.gov (United States)

Compares college age bodybuilders by sex and steroid intake on two variables: body image dissatisfaction and body image distortion. Results reveal only a significant effect for gender on body distortion. No steroid-use differences were apparent for either body image dissatisfaction or body image distortion. Analyses indicate that female…

Peters, Mark Anthony; Phelps, LeAddelle

2001-01-01

29

Somatostatin in the rat periventricular nucleus: sex differences and effect of gonadal steroids  

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In the rat, the sexual dimorphism in growth hormone release is driven by sex steroids, and is suggested to result mainly from differences in somatostatin (SOM) release patterns from the median eminence. We studied the effect of gonadal steroids on SOM peptide-containing cells in the periventricular ...

Van Vugt, Harmke H.; Van de Heijning, Bert J. M.; Van der Beek, Eline M.

30

Measurement of steroid concentrations in brain tissue: methodological considerations.  

Science.gov (United States)

It is well recognized that steroids are synthesized de novo in the brain (neurosteroids). In addition, steroids circulating in the blood enter the brain. Steroids play numerous roles in the brain, such as influencing neural development, adult neuroplasticity, behavior, neuroinflammation, and neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease. In order to understand the regulation and functions of steroids in the brain, it is important to directly measure steroid concentrations in brain tissue. In this brief review, we discuss methods for the detection and quantification of steroids in the brain. We concisely present the major advantages and disadvantages of different technical approaches at various experimental stages: euthanasia, tissue collection, steroid extraction, steroid separation, and steroid measurement. We discuss, among other topics, the potential effects of anesthesia and saline perfusion prior to tissue collection; microdissection via Palkovits punch; solid phase extraction; chromatographic separation of steroids; and immunoassays and mass spectrometry for steroid quantification, particularly the use of mass spectrometry for "steroid profiling." Finally, we discuss the interpretation of local steroid concentrations, such as comparing steroid levels in brain tissue with those in the circulation (plasma vs. whole blood samples; total vs. free steroid levels). We also present reference values for a variety of steroids in different brain regions of adult rats. This brief review highlights some of the major methodological considerations at multiple experimental stages and provides a broad framework for designing studies that examine local steroid levels in the brain as well as other steroidogenic tissues, such as thymus, breast, and prostate. PMID:22654806

Taves, Matthew D; Ma, Chunqi; Heimovics, Sarah A; Saldanha, Colin J; Soma, Kiran K

2011-09-26

31

Measurement of steroid concentrations in brain tissue: methodological considerations.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

It is well recognized that steroids are synthesized de novo in the brain (neurosteroids). In addition, steroids circulating in the blood enter the brain. Steroids play numerous roles in the brain, such as influencing neural development, adult neuroplasticity, behavior, neuroinflammation, and neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease. In order to understand the regulation and functions of steroids in the brain, it is important to directly measure steroid concentrations in brain tissue. In this brief review, we discuss methods for the detection and quantification of steroids in the brain. We concisely present the major advantages and disadvantages of different technical approaches at various experimental stages: euthanasia, tissue collection, steroid extraction, steroid separation, and steroid measurement. We discuss, among other topics, the potential effects of anesthesia and saline perfusion prior to tissue collection; microdissection via Palkovits punch; solid phase extraction; chromatographic separation of steroids; and immunoassays and mass spectrometry for steroid quantification, particularly the use of mass spectrometry for "steroid profiling." Finally, we discuss the interpretation of local steroid concentrations, such as comparing steroid levels in brain tissue with those in the circulation (plasma vs. whole blood samples; total vs. free steroid levels). We also present reference values for a variety of steroids in different brain regions of adult rats. This brief review highlights some of the major methodological considerations at multiple experimental stages and provides a broad framework for designing studies that examine local steroid levels in the brain as well as other steroidogenic tissues, such as thymus, breast, and prostate.

Taves MD; Ma C; Heimovics SA; Saldanha CJ; Soma KK

2011-01-01

32

The influence of steroid sex hormones on the cognitive and emotional processing of visual stimuli in humans.  

Science.gov (United States)

Steroid sex hormones are responsible for some of the differences between men and women. In this article, I review evidence that steroid sex hormones impact on visual processing. Given prominent sex-differences, I focus on three topics for sex hormone effects for which there is most research available: 1. Preference and mate choice, 2. Emotion and recognition, and 3. Cerebral/perceptual asymmetries and visual-spatial abilities. For each topic, researchers have examined sex hormones and visual processing using various methods. I review indirect evidence addressing variation according to: menstrual cycle phase, pregnancy, puberty, and menopause. I further address studies of variation in testosterone and a measure of prenatal testosterone, 2D:4D, on visual processing. The most conclusive evidence, however, comes from experiments. Studies in which hormones are administrated are discussed. Overall, many studies demonstrate that sex steroids are associated with visual processing. However, findings are sometimes inconsistent, differences in methodology make strong comparisons between studies difficult, and we generally know more about activational than organizational effects. PMID:23988462

Little, Anthony C

2013-08-26

33

Effects of sex steroids on spawning in the sea scallop, Placopecten magellanicus  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Sex steroids have long been known to exist in molluscs, but few studies have focused on the roles of these substances in molluscan reproduction. In this study, we demonstrate that injections of estradiol into ripe sea scallops induced spawning in both sexes, testosterone injections induced spawning in males only and progesterone blocked spawning in both sexes. We also show that injections of sex steroids significantly affected subsequent 5-HT-induced spawning. Injection of estradiol promoted 5-HT-induced spawning in both sexes and testosterone potentiated spawning in males only. In addition, progesterone inhibited 5-HT-induced spawning in females while potentiating the spawning in males. These findings are consistent with a hormonal role for steroids in molluscan reproduction and also suggest the possible development of more efficient methods for spawning induction in molluscan aquaculture.

Wang C; Croll RP

2006-06-01

34

Sex, sex steroids, and diabetic cardiomyopathy: making the case for experimental focus.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

More than three decades ago, the Framingham study revealed that cardiovascular risk is elevated for all diabetics and that this jeopardy is substantially accentuated for women in particular. Numerous studies have subsequently documented worsened cardiac outcomes for women. Given that estrogen and insulin exert major regulatory effects through common intracellular signaling pathways prominent in maintenance of cardiomyocyte function, a sex-hormone:diabetic-disease interaction is plausible. Underlying aspects of female cardiovascular pathophysiology that exaggerate cardiovascular diabetic risk may be identified, including increased vulnerability to coronary microvascular disease, age-dependent impairment of insulin-sensitivity, and differential susceptibility to hyperglycemia. Since Framingham, considerable progress has been made in the development of experimental models of diabetic disease states, including a diversity of genetic rodent models. Ample evidence indicates that animal models of both type 1 and 2 diabetes variably recapitulate aspects of diabetic cardiomyopathy including diastolic and systolic dysfunction, and cardiac structural pathology including fibrosis, loss of compliance, and in some instances ventricular hypertrophy. Perplexingly, little of this work has explored the relevance and mechanisms of sexual dimorphism in diabetic cardiomyopathy. Only a small number of experimental studies have addressed this question, yet the prospects for gaining important mechanistic insights from further experimental enquiry are considerable. The case for experimental interrogation of sex differences, and of sex steroid influences in the aetiology of diabetic cardiomyopathy, is particularly compelling-providing incentive for future investigation with ultimate therapeutic potential.

Reichelt ME; Mellor KM; Bell JR; Chandramouli C; Headrick JP; Delbridge LM

2013-09-01

35

Effects of sex steroids on gonadal development and gender determination in the sea scallop, Placopecten magellanicus.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Previous work has demonstrated the presence of various sex steroids in molluscs and suggested their possible functions in the control of reproduction. However, their potential roles in early sexual development have remained unexplored. The results of the present study showed that injections of estradiol, testosterone, progesterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) all accelerated gonadal differentiation and shifted sex ratios toward more males in the sea scallop. Morphological changes were also observed in the females of steroid-injected groups. Estradiol appeared to stimulate oocyte growth while testosterone appeared to induce degeneration of oocytes. No parallel changes were noted in males of steroid-injected groups. Hermaphroditic animals were also found in the progesterone- and DHEA-injected groups. Together, these results support the hypothesis that sex steroids are involved in invertebrate reproduction and may be exploited for gender manipulation in bivalve aquaculture.

Wang C; Croll RP

2004-09-01

36

Seasonal variations and alterations of sex steroid levels during the reproductive cycle of male roach (Rutilus rutilus).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Seasonal variations of plasma steroid concentrations i.e. progesterone (P), 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT) and 17-?-estradiol (E2) were determined immunoenzymatically during a whole reproductive cycle in male roach (Rutilus rutilus) caught in a reference site. Plasma 11-KT concentrations were significantly correlated with gonad growth, expressed as the gonado-somatic index (R² =0.60; p<0.05) and highest concentrations (757 ± 99 pg ml?¹ ) coincided with the final testis maturation in March. E2 and P concentrations peaked once during the reproductive cycle. E2 synthesis was significantly induced during the spawning period while P concentration peaked at the very start of the gametogenesis (June) thus suggesting specific roles of these steroids in the reproductive cycle. Comparison of reference levels were then made with plasma steroid concentrations from male roach sampled in polluted areas in the North of France. A significant decrease of E2 (50-60%) and 11-KT (76-84%) was measured, indicating that endocrine disrupting compounds may have interfered with the normal sex steroid synthesis. Contrary to the E2 and 11-KT sex steroids, plasma P concentration was not significantly affected in fish inhabiting impacted areas.

Geraudie P; Gerbron M; Minier C

2010-01-01

37

Pubertal maturation and sex steroids are related to alcohol use in adolescents.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Adolescents often show risk-taking behavior, including experimentation with alcohol. Previous studies have shown that advanced pubertal maturation is related to increased alcohol use in adolescents, even when controlling for age. Little is known about the underlying mechanisms of this relation between pubertal maturation and alcohol use. The goal of the present study was twofold. In Experiment 1, we investigated whether advanced pubertal maturation is associated with higher levels of alcohol use, when controlling for age. To this end, questionnaires on pubertal development and alcohol use were administered to a large sample of 797 Dutch adolescents (405 boys) aged 11-16 years. In Experiment 2, we explored whether sex steroids contribute to this relation between pubertal maturation and alcohol use by examining the association between salivary sex steroid levels and alcohol use in 168 adolescents (86 boys). It was found that, when controlling for age, advanced pubertal maturation is related to increased alcohol use in adolescent boys and girls. Controlling for age, higher testosterone and estradiol levels correlated with the onset of alcohol use in boys. In addition, higher estradiol levels were associated with a larger quantity of alcohol use in boys. Correlations between sex steroids and alcohol use were not significant in girls. These findings show that advanced pubertal maturation is related to advanced alcohol use, and that higher sex steroid levels could be one of the underlying mechanisms of this relation in boys. Sex steroids might promote alcohol use by stimulating brain regions implicated in reward processing.

de Water E; Braams BR; Crone EA; Peper JS

2013-02-01

38

Interactions of xenobiotics with steroid hormone receptors and the sex-steroid binding protein in spotted seatrout  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A variety of xenobiotics, such as DDT, methoxychlor and PCB mixtures and Kepone have estrogenic actions and disrupt reproduction in mammals by binding to nuclear estrogen receptors (ER). These xenobiotics were tested for their ability to bind to the hepatic ER of a marine fish, spotted seatrout (Cynoscion nebulosus). Several of the DDT derivatives, Kepone and PCB mixtures also bound to the seatrout ER over a range of 10{sup {minus}5}--10{sup {minus}3}M. Moreover, Kepone was shown to have both estrogenic and antiestrogenic actions in an in vitro liver slice vitellogenesis assay. These estrogenic compounds were also tested for their ability to bind to nuclear and plasma membrane progestogen (20{beta}-S) receptors in ovarian tissues and to the sex-steroid binding protein in seatrout plasma. Kepone, methoxychlor and o,p{prime}-DDT caused concentration dependent displacement of {sup 3}H2O{beta}-S from its plasma membrane receptor and inhibition of 20{beta}-S induced final maturation in an in vitro assay over the range of 10{sup {minus}7}--10{sup {minus}3}M, but did not alter steroid binding to the nuclear progestogen receptor. Significant binding of methoxychlor and the other organochlorines to the sex steroid binding protein was also observed. It is concluded from these studies that a variety of xenobiotics with estrogenic actions can also bind to other steroid receptors and binding proteins to influence other endocrine-mediated processes.

Thomas, P.; Ghosh, S.; Pinter, J.; Sperry, T.; Breckenridge-Miller, D. [Univ. of Texas, Port Aransas, TX (United States). Marine Science Inst.; Laidley, C.W. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Environmental Science, Policy and Management

1995-12-31

39

Seasonal Changes in Gonadotropins, Prolactin and Sex Steroid Hormones in Captive Hill Mynah Gracula religiosa  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the present study seasonal changes of gonadotropins, prolactin and sex steroid hormones in captive Hill Mynah were measured from October 1995 to September 1996. During the breeding season, these hormone levels were higher than during the non-breeding one. Plasma levels of FSH in males and females rose in December, prior to the onset of breeding and remained elevated throughout the breeding season except in May. LH, testosterone and estradiol in both sexes were elevated in January, the onset of breeding. The maximum levels of these hormones were coincident with development of the gonads, secondary sex characters, territorial aggression and sexual behavior. Plasma testosterone and estradiol titers in males and females respectively were evidently bimodal with peaks in January and April which corresponded to the norm of two clutches per breeding season of this species. Progesterone levels in females surged in March, April and May which was the period of egg laying and incubation. Circulating prolactin in females was high during the parental phase of the breeding cycle in April and June. In addition, social cues such as sexual partner and external stimuli such as eggs or nestlings influenced the reproductive endocrinology.

Manee Archawaranon

2006-01-01

40

The sensitivity of the child to sex steroids: possible impact of exogenous estrogens  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The current trends of increasing incidences of testis, breast and prostate cancers are poorly understood, although it is assumed that sex hormones play a role. Disrupted sex hormone action is also believed to be involved in the increased occurrence of genital abnormalities among newborn boys and precocious puberty in girls. In this article, recent literature on sex steroid levels and their physiological roles during childhood is reviewed. It is concluded that (i) circulating levels of estradiol in prepubertal children are lower than originally claimed; (ii) children are extremely sensitive to estradiol and may respond with increased growth and/or breast development even at serum levels below the current detection limits; (iii) no threshold has been established, below which no hormonal effects can be seen in children exposed to exogenous steroids or endocrine disruptors; (iv) changes in hormone levels during fetal and prepubertal development may have severe effects in adult life and (v) the daily production rates of sex steroids in children estimated by the Food and Drug Administration in 1999 and still used in risk assessments are highly overestimated and should be revised. Because no lower threshold for estrogenic action has been established, caution should be taken to avoid unnecessary exposure of fetuses and children to exogenous sex steroids and endocrine disruptors, even at very low levels.

Aksglaede, Lise; Juul, Anders

2006-01-01

 
 
 
 
41

Reconstruction of endometrium in vitro via rabbit uterine endometrial cells expanded by sex steroid.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To culture rabbit endometrial cells by using sex steroids to provide adequate seeding cells for endometrium reconstruction and uterine tissue engineering. DESIGN: Prospective experimental study. SETTING: Beijing Institute of Basic Medical Sciences and Tissue Engineering Research Center, Academy of Military Medical Sciences. ANIMAL(S): New Zealand rabbit and Kunming white strain mice. INTERVENTION(S): Rabbits were primed with pregnant mare serum gonadotropin and hCG. Endometrial cells were cultured with E(2) and P(4) of different concentrations. The endometrium was reconstructed by using endometrial cells as seeding cells and collagen-basement membrane matrix as scaffolds. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Assay with 93-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide, immunofluorescence staining, flow cytometric analysis, hematoxylin and eosin and immunohistochemical staining, and developmental rate of embryos. RESULT(S): The expression patterns of estrogen receptor and P receptor of rabbit endometrium were different before and after treatment with pregnant mare serum gonadotropin-hCG. One hundred nanomolar E(2) with 10 nmol/L P(4) facilitated the proliferation of epithelial cells whereas 100 nmol/L P(4) facilitated that of stromal cells. The epithelial cells could be stable if cultured for seven or eight passages. Cells in the epithelial layer of the reconstructed endometrium were cytokeratin positive. Some showed columnar morphology akin to the luminal epithelium in vivo. Reconstructed endometrium could improve the developmental rate and quality of one-cell mice embryos. CONCLUSION(S): Rabbit endometrial cells could be cultured with a long-standing proliferation capability by sex steroids and applied in uterine tissue engineering. Reconstructed endometrium with proliferated endometrial cells was akin to native endometrium in structure and function.

Wang HB; Lü SH; Lin QX; Feng LX; Li DX; Duan CM; Li YL; Wang CY

2010-05-01

42

Interaction of blood sex steroid-binding globulin-steroid complexes with the plasma membranes of cells of the human decidual endometrium  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The plasma membranes of cells of the decidual tissue specifically bind complexes of the sex steroid-binding globulin (SBG) of the blood with estrogens (estradiol, estriol, estrone) and the pharmacological agent danazol but do not interact with SBG-testosterone and SBG-dihydrotestosterone complexes. The selectivity of the interaction of SBG-steroid complexes with the cell membranes of the decidual tissue confirms the hypothesis of an active role of SBG in the action of steroids on this target tissue.

Zhuk, N.I.; Avvakumov, G.V.; Strel' chenok, O.A.

1986-01-10

43

The relationship between serum sex steroid levels and heart rate variability parameters in males and the effect of age.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the relationships between sex steroid levels and heart rate variability (HRV) parameters. STUDY DESIGN: The study included 114 male subjects (mean age 46.6±11.3 years) presenting to our department for cardiologic evaluation. Hormonal analysis included serum levels of luteinizing hormone, prolactin, total testosterone (TT), free testosterone, estradiol (E2), and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S). Parameters of HRV were derived from 24-hour Holter monitoring. The associations between serum sex steroid levels and HRV parameters were investigated in three age groups (20-39 years; 40-59 years; >60 years). RESULTS: All the participants had normal biochemical results. The three age groups were similar in terms of anthropometric measurements. Among sex steroids analyzed, only serum DHEA-S level was significantly different among the groups (p=0.026), showing a decreasing trend with age. In the evaluation of HRV, all parasympathetic activities decreased (for HFn, pNN50, and rMSDD: p=0.001, p=0.000, and p=0.000, respectively), while only LF/HF among sympathetic activities increased (p=0.000) with age. Partial correlation analysis with control of age and waist circumference showed that TT and DHEA-S were positively correlated with HFn (parasympathetic parameter), and were in negative correlation with LF/HF24 hours and global sympathetic index (GSI) (sympathetic parameters). Serum E2 level was negatively correlated with the parasympathetic parameter of rMSSD, and positively correlated with LF/HF24 hours and GSI. Among serum sex steroids, DHEA-S was the most correlated parameter with autonomic functions. CONCLUSION: Our results showed positive correlations between androgens and parasympathetic activity and between estradiol and sympathetic activity in men, independent from anthropometric factors.

Do?ru MT; Ba?ar MM; Yuvanç E; Sim?ek V; Sahin O

2010-10-01

44

Elevated serum IGF-I, but unaltered sex steroid levels, in Healthy Boys with Pubertal Gynaecomastia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: Pubertal gynaecomastia is a very common condition. Although the underlying etiology is poorly understood, it is generally accepted that excess of estrogens and/or deficit of androgens are involved in the pathogenesis. Furthermore, adiposity as well as the GH/IGF-I axis may play a role. In the present study we elucidate the association of adiposity and levels of FSH, LH, SHBG, testosterone, E2, IGF-I, and IGFBP-3 with the presence of pubertal gynaecomastia in a large cohort of healthy boys. PATIENTS: 501 healthy Danish school boys (aged 6.1-19.8 yr) from the COPENHAGEN Puberty Study. MEASUREMENTS: Anthropometry and pubertal stages (PH1-6 and G1-5) were evaluated, and the presence of gynaecomastia was assessed. Body fat percentage was calculated by means of four skin folds and impedance. Non-fasting blood samples were analyzed for FSH, LH, testosterone, SHBG, estradiol, IGF-I, IGFBP-3 and prolactin. RESULTS: We found that 23% (31/133) of all pubertal boys had gynaecomastia. More specifically 63% (10/16) of boys in genital stage 4 had gynaecomastia. Boys with gynaecomastia had significantly higher IGF-I levels compared to controls (IGF-I SD-score 0.72 vs. -0.037, p<0.001). This difference was maintained after adjusting for confounders (age and pubertal stage). Sex steroid levels, estradiol/testosterone-ratio, or free testosterone were not associated with the presence of gynaecomastia with or without adjustment for confounders. CONCLUSIONS: IGF-I levels were elevated in healthy boys with pubertal gynaecomastia compared to boys without gynaecomastia, whereas sex steroid levels did not differ. We speculate that the GH-IGF-I axis may be involved in the pathogenesis of pubertal gynaecomastia. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Mieritz MG; Sorensen K; Aksglaede L; Mouritsen A; Hagen CP; Hilsted L; Anderson AM; Juul A

2013-09-01

45

Synthesis of sex hormone-derived modified steroids possessing antiproliferative activity.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

During recent years intensive research has been focused on the synthesis of structurally modified steroid hormones in order to obtain compounds with beneficial biological activity such as cell-growth inhibition. Experimental results have revealed that some steroidal derivatives possess direct cytostatic effect on cancer cells in a hormone receptor-independent manner. After a brief account on the most important biological function and characteristics of the naturally occurring sex hormones in physiological and pathological conditions, structural modifications of estrane and androstane scaffolds are discussed in detail. The review covers literature publications (from 2002 to 2012) relating to the synthesis and antiproliferative activity of semisynthetic sex hormone-derived molecules containing simple or heterocyclic substituents. The compounds reviewed are divided into three main categories according to their sterane framework and the nature of substitution. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Synthesis of steroids'.

Frank E; Schneider G

2013-03-01

46

Steroid binding sites in liver membranes : interplay between glucocorticoids, sex steroids, and pituitary hormones  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Steroid hormones activate target cells through specific receptors that discriminate among ligands based upon recognition of distinct structural features. For most known steroids, membrane and nuclear receptors co-exist in many target cells. However, while the structure of the nuclear receptors and their function as transcriptional activators of specific target genes is generally well understood, the identity of the membrane receptors remains elusive. Using pharmacological and biochemical approaches, we are beginning to characterize receptors for glucocorticoids and anabolic-androgenic steroids in male rat liver membranes. Male rat liver endoplasmic reticulum contains two steroid binding sites which are functionally related and associated with a 90-134 kDa oligomeric protein: (1) the low-affinity glucocorticoid binding site (LAGS), composed at least in part of two peptides (37 and 53 kDa) that bind glucocorticoids and (2) the stanozolol binding protein (STBP), composed at least in part of three peptides (22, 31, and 55 kDa) that bind the synthetic androgen stanozolol. These steroid binding proteins have many properties different from those of classical nuclear receptors, with the salient differences being a failure to recognize "classical" ligands for nuclear receptors together with marked differences in biochemical properties and physiological regulation. The mechanism of interaction of glucocorticoids with the LAGS can be clearly distinguished from that with STBP. Moreover, STBP shows an extremely narrow pharmacological profile, being selective for ST and its analog, danazol, among more than 100 steroids and non-steroidal compounds that were assayed, including those that are able to displace glucocorticoids from the LAGS. The level of LAGS activity undergoes dramatic variations following changes from the physiological serum levels of thyroid hormones, glucocorticoids, GH, vitamin A, and E2. However, neither thyroid hormones nor GH have a critical role on STBP activity. The STBP is functionally related to LAGS. We have suggested a novel mechanism for STBP whereby membrane-associated glucocorticoid binding activity is targeted by stanozolol (and 16beta-hydroxylated stanozolol): stanozolol modulates glucocorticoid activity in the liver through negative allosteric modulation of the LAGS resulting in an effective increase in classical GR-signaling by increasing glucocorticoid availability to the cytosolic GR.

Fernández-Pérez, L; Flores Morales, Amilcar

2008-01-01

47

Sex steroid levels and response to weight loss interventions among postmenopausal women in the diabetes prevention program.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Objectives To examine whether estrogen use potentiates weight loss interventions via sex steroid levels and whether endogenous sex steroid levels predict response to weight loss interventions among women not using estrogen. Design and Methods The Diabetes Prevention Program randomized overweight or obese dysglycemic participants to lifestyle change with the goals of weight reduction of >7% of initial weight and 150 minutes per week of exercise; metformin; or placebo. In this secondary analysis, we examined sex steroid levels and reductions in weight and waist circumference (WC) among postmenopausal women using (n=324) and not using (n=382) oral estrogen. Results Estrogen users and non-users randomized to lifestyle change and metformin both lost significant amounts of weight compared to placebo. Reductions in weight and WC over 1 year associated with randomization arm were not associated with baseline sex steroid levels among estrogen users or non-users. Conclusions Among estrogen users, baseline sex steroids were not associated with reductions in weight or WC, suggesting that exogenous estrogen does not potentiate weight loss by altering sex steroids. Among non-estrogen users, baseline sex steroids were not associated with reductions in weight or WC.

Kim C; Barrett-Connor E; Randolph JF Jr; Kong S; Nan B; Mather KJ; Golden SH

2013-06-01

48

Sex steroid receptor expression profile in brown adipose tissue. Effects of hormonal status.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent investigations suggest that sex hormones play an important role in the brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenic program by acting on several steps of the lipolytic signal cascade and on the UCP1 transcription control. However, the number of studies focusing on steroid receptor status in brown adipose tissue is negligible. In the present study, we analyze steroid receptor mRNA levels in brown adipose tissue in male and female rats and in pregnant and lactating females, all of them models with a different hormonal background. The direct effect of sex hormones on the expression of their receptors was studied in vitro in primary culture of brown adipocytes. Oestrogen receptor (ERalpha) and androgen receptor (AR) densities were higher in male than in female BAT. PR A+B mRNA expression was downregulated in lactation, suggesting a role of progesterone signalling in thermogenesis impairment at this stage. In vitro studies showed that progesterone decreased PR A+B mRNA and that testosterone downregulated ERalpha mRNA. The results highlighted in this study demonstrate the presence of steroid receptor mRNA in BAT and in brown cell cultured adipocytes, supporting the idea that changes in steroid receptor expression would be important for the understanding of sex hormone effects on BAT physiology. PMID:17982270

Rodriguez-Cuenca, Sergio; Monjo, Marta; Frontera, Marga; Gianotti, Magdalena; Proenza, Ana Maria; Roca, Pilar

2007-01-01

49

Sex steroid hormone-mediated functional regulation of microglia-like BV-2 cells during hypoxia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

17ß-estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P) are neuroprotective hormones in different neurological disorders and in particular under hypoxic conditions in the brain. Both hormones dampen brain-intrinsic immune responses and regulate local glial cell function. Besides astrocytes which are functionally regulated in a manifold and complex manner, especially microglial cells are in the focus of steroid-mediated neuroprotection. In previous studies using a transient brain artery occlusion model, we demonstrated that microglial characteristics are critically modified after the administration of either E2 or P. We here studied the influence of sex steroids on the murine BV-2 microglia cell line under hypoxic conditions. Hypoxia changed the cell morphology from an amoeboid-like phenotype with processes to a rounded shape of secreting cell type. BV-2 cells expressed both estrogen receptor-ß and progesterone receptors under each condition. Oxygen deprivation increased the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthetase (iNOS) and up-regulated selected cytokines and chemokines. Both hormones selectively prevented the induction of pro-inflammatory iNOS, interleukin IL-1ß, and chemokine ligand CCL5, whereas anti-inflammatory IL-10 and protective TREM 2 were up-regulated by sex steroids. Sex hormones abrogated hypoxia-dependent reduction of BV-2 phagocytic activity. We demonstrate that BV-2 microglia cells respond to hypoxia by enhanced pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion and reduced phagocytic activity. This effect is prevented by sex steroids resulting in a switch of BV-2 cells from a pro-inflammatory to a more anti-inflammatory phenotype. Anti-inflammatory effects of gonadal steroids might directly be mediated through hormone-microglia interactions in addition to known effects via astroglial regulation.

Habib P; Dreymüller D; Ludwig A; Beyer C; Dang J

2013-06-01

50

Effects of steroid sex hormones and adriamycin on human bladder cancer cells in culture.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The effects of steroid sex hormones on the established cell lines derived from human urinary bladder cancer, T24, and from human transitional cell cancer of the urinary tract, 253J, were examined using the colony formation method. Of the seven kinds of steroid hormones tested, estradiol-17 beta was intensively cytotoxic for both cells. The cytotoxic effect was depended on the dose and time of treatment. The combined effect of Adriamycin and estradiol-17 beta on T24 cells could be recognized at low concentrations of Adriamycin (less than or equal to 10(-3) micrograms/ml) after exposure for 24 h.

Yoshimoto,Jun; Matsumura,Yosuke; Tanahashi,Toyoko; Ohmori,Hiroyuki; Tokiwa,Takayoshi; Sato,Jiro

1982-01-01

51

Effect of sex steroids on Babesia microti infection in mice.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Sex-based-differences are known to affect susceptibility to protozoan infections, but their effects on parasitemia and clinical symptoms in Babesia infections remain unclear. We examined the sex-based susceptibility of various mouse strains to Babesia microti Munich strain infection. In all strains, male mice exhibited significantly higher peak parasitemia and more severe anemia than female mice. Testosterone and estradiol-17? treatment caused an increase in parasitemia and aggravation of anemia. Orchidectomized male mice receiving testosterone exhibited smaller splenic macrophage populations three days after infection, smaller B cell populations 10 days after infection, and reduced splenic tumor necrosis factor-? and interferon-? mRNA expression than mice that did not receive testosterone. Mice receiving estradiol-17? did not exhibit immunosuppressive effects. Thus, a weakened and delayed innate immunity response may lead to acquired immunity failure. The results suggested that testosterone directly affects T or B cells, leading to delayed acquired immunity, dramatically increased parasitemia, and severe anemia.

Sasaki M; Fujii Y; Iwamoto M; Ikadai H

2013-02-01

52

Skeletal muscle and bone: effect of sex steroids and aging  

Science.gov (United States)

Both estrogen and testosterone are present in males and females. Both hormones contribute to the well being of skeletal muscle and bone in men and women, and there is evidence that the loss of sex hormones is associated with the age-related decline in bone and skeletal muscle mass. Hormonal supplementation of older adults to restore estrogen and testosterone levels to those of young men and women is not without penalty.

PhD Marybeth Brown (University of Missouri-Columbia Dept of Physical Therapy)

2008-02-14

53

Sex steroid hormones modulate responses to social challenge and opportunity in males of the monogamous convict cichlid, Amatitliana nigrofasciata.  

Science.gov (United States)

Steroid hormones play an important role in modulating behavioral responses to various social stimuli. It has been suggested that variation in the hormonal regulation of behavior across species is associated with social organization and/or mating system. In order to further elucidate the interplay of hormones and behavior in social situations, we exposed males of the monogamous convict cichlid Amatitliana nigrofasciata to three social stimuli: gravid female, intruder male, and a nonsocial stimulus. We used a repeated measure design to create behavioral profiles and explore how sex steroid hormones respond to and regulate social behavior. Results show distinct behavioral responses to different social situations, with circulating 11-ketotestosterone increasing in response to social stimuli. Pharmacological manipulations using specific androgen and estrogen receptor agonists and antagonists exposed complex control over digging behavior in the social opportunity context. In the social challenge context, aggressive behaviors decreased in response to blocking the androgen receptor pathway. Our results extend our understanding of sex steroid regulation of behavioral responses to social stimulation. PMID:23651580

Sessa, Anna K; Harris, Rayna M; Hofmann, Hans A

2013-05-04

54

Sex steroid hormones modulate responses to social challenge and opportunity in males of the monogamous convict cichlid, Amatitliana nigrofasciata.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Steroid hormones play an important role in modulating behavioral responses to various social stimuli. It has been suggested that variation in the hormonal regulation of behavior across species is associated with social organization and/or mating system. In order to further elucidate the interplay of hormones and behavior in social situations, we exposed males of the monogamous convict cichlid Amatitliana nigrofasciata to three social stimuli: gravid female, intruder male, and a nonsocial stimulus. We used a repeated measure design to create behavioral profiles and explore how sex steroid hormones respond to and regulate social behavior. Results show distinct behavioral responses to different social situations, with circulating 11-ketotestosterone increasing in response to social stimuli. Pharmacological manipulations using specific androgen and estrogen receptor agonists and antagonists exposed complex control over digging behavior in the social opportunity context. In the social challenge context, aggressive behaviors decreased in response to blocking the androgen receptor pathway. Our results extend our understanding of sex steroid regulation of behavioral responses to social stimulation.

Sessa AK; Harris RM; Hofmann HA

2013-08-01

55

Postmenopausal serum sex steroids and risk of hormone receptor positive and negative breast cancer: a nested case-control study  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Pre-diagnostic endogenous sex steroid hormone levels have well established associations with overall risk of breast cancer. While evidence towards the existence of distinct subtypes of breast cancer accumulates, few studies have investigated the associations of sex steroid hormone levels with risk of hormone receptor (estrogen (ER) and/or progesterone receptor (PR)) defined breast cancer. In a case-control study nested within the EPIC cohort (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition), estradiol, testosterone and sex hormone binding globulin levels were measured in pre-diagnostic serum samples from postmenopausal women not using HRT at blood donation. 554 women who developed invasive breast cancer with information on receptor status were matched with 821 control subjects. Conditional logistic regression models estimated breast cancer risk with hormone concentrations according to hormone receptor status of the tumor. Sex steroid hormones were associated with risks of not only ER+PR+ breast cancer [estradiol OR for highest versus lowest tertile=2.91 (95%CI:1.62-5.23), Ptrend0.002; testosterone OR=2.27 (95%CI:1.35-3.81), Ptrend=0.002] but also of ER-PR- breast cancer [estradiol OR=2.11 (95%CI:1.00-4.46), Ptrend =0.05; testosterone OR= 2.06 (95%CI:0.95-4.46), Ptrend=0.03], with associations appearing somewhat stronger in the receptor positive disease. Serum androgens and estrogens are associated with risks of both hormone receptor negative as well as receptor positive breast tumors. Further research is needed to establish through which molecular pathways, and during which evolutionary stages of development, androgens and estrogens can promote the occurrence of both receptor-positive and -negative clinical breast tumors.

James, Rebecca E.; Lukanova, Annekatrin

2011-01-01

56

Regulation of Kiss1 expression by sex steroids in the amygdala of the rat and mouse.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Kisspeptin (encoded by the Kiss1 gene) is an important regulator of reproduction. In rodents, Kiss1 is expressed in two hypothalamic regions, the arcuate nucleus and anteroventral periventricular/ periventricular continuum, where it is regulated by sex steroids. However, the distribution, regulation, and functional significance of neural kisspeptin outside of the hypothalamus have not been studied and are poorly understood. Here, we report the expression of Kiss1 in the amygdala, predominantly in the medial nucleus of the amygdala (MeA), a region implicated in social and emotional behaviors as well as various aspects of reproduction. In gonadally intact rats and mice, Kiss1-expressing neurons were identified in the MeA of both sexes, with higher Kiss1 expression levels in adult males than females in diestrus. In rats, Kiss1 expression in the MeA changed as a function of the estrous cycle, with highest levels at proestrus. Next, we tested whether Kiss1 in the MeA is regulated by the circulating sex steroid milieu. Kiss1 levels in the MeA were low in gonadectomized mice and rats of both sexes, and treatment with either testosterone or estradiol amplified Kiss1 expression in this region. Testosterone's inductive effect on Kiss1 expression in the MeA likely occurs via estrogen receptor-dependent pathways, not through the androgen receptor, because dihydrotestosterone (a nonaromatizable androgen) did not affect MeA Kiss1 levels. Thus, in rodents, Kiss1 is expressed and regulated by sex steroids in the MeA of both sexes and may play a role in modulating reproduction or brain functions that extend beyond reproduction.

Kim J; Semaan SJ; Clifton DK; Steiner RA; Dhamija S; Kauffman AS

2011-05-01

57

Regulation of Kiss1 expression by sex steroids in the amygdala of the rat and mouse.  

Science.gov (United States)

Kisspeptin (encoded by the Kiss1 gene) is an important regulator of reproduction. In rodents, Kiss1 is expressed in two hypothalamic regions, the arcuate nucleus and anteroventral periventricular/ periventricular continuum, where it is regulated by sex steroids. However, the distribution, regulation, and functional significance of neural kisspeptin outside of the hypothalamus have not been studied and are poorly understood. Here, we report the expression of Kiss1 in the amygdala, predominantly in the medial nucleus of the amygdala (MeA), a region implicated in social and emotional behaviors as well as various aspects of reproduction. In gonadally intact rats and mice, Kiss1-expressing neurons were identified in the MeA of both sexes, with higher Kiss1 expression levels in adult males than females in diestrus. In rats, Kiss1 expression in the MeA changed as a function of the estrous cycle, with highest levels at proestrus. Next, we tested whether Kiss1 in the MeA is regulated by the circulating sex steroid milieu. Kiss1 levels in the MeA were low in gonadectomized mice and rats of both sexes, and treatment with either testosterone or estradiol amplified Kiss1 expression in this region. Testosterone's inductive effect on Kiss1 expression in the MeA likely occurs via estrogen receptor-dependent pathways, not through the androgen receptor, because dihydrotestosterone (a nonaromatizable androgen) did not affect MeA Kiss1 levels. Thus, in rodents, Kiss1 is expressed and regulated by sex steroids in the MeA of both sexes and may play a role in modulating reproduction or brain functions that extend beyond reproduction. PMID:21363930

Kim, Joshua; Semaan, Sheila J; Clifton, Donald K; Steiner, Robert A; Dhamija, Sangeeta; Kauffman, Alexander S

2011-03-01

58

Steroids  

Science.gov (United States)

... cause mood and behavioral effects. In some individuals, steroid use can cause dramatic mood swings, increased feelings of ... enough to lead one to commit suicide. Anabolic steroid use may also cause psychological dependence and addiction. How ...

59

Sex steroid levels and AD-like pathology in 3xTgAD mice.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Decreases in testosterone and 17?-oestradiol (E(2)) are associated with an increased risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD), which has been attributed to an increase in ?-amyloid and tau pathological lesions. Although recent studies have used transgenic animal models to test the effects of sex steroid manipulations on AD-like pathology, almost none have systematically characterised the associations between AD lesions and sex steroid levels in the blood or brain in any mutant model. The present study evaluated age-related changes in testosterone and E(2) concentrations, as well as androgen receptor (AR) and oestrogen receptor (ER) ? and ? expression, in brain regions displaying AD pathology in intact male and female 3xTgAD and nontransgenic (ntg) mice. We report for the first time that circulating and brain testosterone levels significantly increase in male 3xTgAD mice with age, but without changes in AR-immunoreactive (IR) cell number in the hippocampal CA1 or medial amygdala. The age-related increase in hippocampal testosterone levels correlated positively with increases in the conformational tau isoform, Alz50. These data suggest that the over-expression of human tau up-regulate the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in these mice. Although circulating and brain E(2) levels remained stable with age in both male and female 3xTgAD and ntg mice, ER-IR cell number in the hippocampus and medial amygdala decreased with age in female transgenic mice. Furthermore, E(2) levels were significantly higher in the hippocampus than in serum, suggesting local production of E(2). Although triple transgenic mice mimic AD-like pathology, they do not fully replicate changes in human sex steroid levels, and may not be the best model for studying the effects of sex steroids on AD lesions.

Overk CR; Perez SE; Ma C; Taves MD; Soma KK; Mufson EJ

2013-02-01

60

Association of sex steroids, gonadotrophins, and their trajectories with clinical cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality in elderly men from the Framingham Heart Study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Emerging data from longitudinal studies suggest that low sex steroid concentrations in men are associated with increased cardiovascular risk and mortality. The impact of longitudinal trajectory patterns from serial sex steroid and gonadotrophin measurements on the observed associations is unknown to date. METHODS: We prospectively evaluated 254 elderly men (mean age, 75·5 years) of the Framingham Heart Study with up to four serial measurements of serum total testosterone (TT), dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH) and total estradiol (EST); and constructed age- and multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazard regression models relating baseline hormone concentrations and their mean, slope and variation over time (modelled as continuous and categorized into quartiles) to the incidence of clinical cardiovascular disease (CVD) and all-cause mortality at 5- and 10-year follow-up. RESULTS: We observed no association between baseline concentrations of sex steroids, gonadotrophins and their trajectories with incident clinical CVD over 5- and 10-year follow-up. Although higher baseline TT concentrations were associated with lower mortality risk at 5 years (hazard ratio per quartile increment, 0·74; 95% confidence interval, 0·56-0·98), correction for multiple statistical testing (P < 0·005) rendered this association statistically nonsignificant. Repeat analyses at the 10-year follow-up time point also demonstrated no significant association between sex steroids, gonadotrophins or their trajectories and mortality. CONCLUSION: Investigating longitudinal trajectory patterns of serial sex steroid and gonadotrophin measurements, the present study found no consistent associations with incident clinical CVD and all-cause mortality risk in elderly men from the community.

Haring R; Teng Z; Xanthakis V; Coviello A; Sullivan L; Bhasin S; Murabito JM; Wallaschofski H; Vasan RS

2013-04-01

 
 
 
 
61

Endogenous sex steroids and risk of cervical carcinoma: results from the EPIC study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Epidemiologic data and animal models suggest that, despite the predominant role of human papillomavirus infection, sex steroid hormones are also involved in the etiology of invasive cervical carcinoma (ICC). METHODS: Ninety-nine ICC cases, 121 cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 (CIN3) cases and 2 control women matched with each case for center, age, menopausal status and blood collection-related variables, were identified in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. Circulating levels of testosterone (T) and estradiol (E(2)); dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS); progesterone (premenopausal women); and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) were measured using immunoassays. Levels of free (f) T and E(2) were calculated from absolute concentrations of T, E(2), and SHBG. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were computed using regularized conditional logistic regression. RESULTS: Among premenopausal women, associations with ICC were observed for fT (OR for highest vs. lowest tertile = 5.16, 95% CI, 1.50-20.1). SHBG level was associated with a significant downward trend in ICC risk. T, E(2), fE(2), and DHEAS showed nonsignificant positive association with ICC. Progesterone was uninfluential. Among postmenopausal women, associations with ICC were found for T (OR = 3.14; 95% CI, 1.21-9.37), whereas E(2) and fT showed nonsignificant positive association. SHBG level was unrelated to ICC risk in postmenopausal women. No associations between any hormone and CIN3 were detected in either pre- or postmenopausal women. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest for the first time that T and possibly E(2) may be involved in the etiology of ICC. IMPACT: The responsiveness of cervical tumors to hormone modulators is worth exploring.

Rinaldi S; Plummer M; Biessy C; Castellsagué X; Overvad K; Krüger Kjær S; Tjønneland A; Clavel-Chapelon F; Chabbert-Buffet N; Mesrine S; Lukanova A; Kaaks R; Weikert C; Boeing H; Trichopoulou A; Lagiou P; Trichopoulos D; Palli D; Agnoli C; Tumino R; Vineis P; Panico S; Bueno-de-Mesquita B; van Kranen HJ; Peeters PH; Bakken K; Lund E; Gram IT; Rodríguez L; Bosch FX; Sánchez MJ; Dorronsoro M; Navarro C; Gurrea AB; Kjellberg L; Dillner J; Manjer J; Butt S; Khaw KT; Wareham N; Allen NE; Travis R; Romieu I; Ferrari P; Riboli E; Franceschi S

2011-12-01

62

[Sex steroid profiles and ovarian activities of the female panda Yan Yan in the Berlin Zoo  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The nine years old giant panda YAN YAN was received in April 1995 on loan for 5 years to the Berlin Zoo. Urine samples were collected daily or every second day from April 1995 to June 1996 in order to follow up sex hormone secretions and ovarian activities. Conjugated steroids were hydrolysed, extracted and measured with two enzyme immuno assays (EIA) being specific for either total oestrogenes or pregnandiol. The evaluation of the hormone secretion pattern yielded the following results: There is a significant synchronous cross correlation between estrogen and progestin metabolites secretion indicating its simultaneous synthesis. In addition, we found a regular increase and decrease of both hormones with a 13 days interval. This secretory pattern indicates repeating development and atresia of follicle cohorts with a cycle length of about 13 days. Only a single period of slightly elevated oestrogen synthesis was monitored in Feb. 96 without any signs of oestrus. Obviously the stimulation of ovarian function was insufficient for complete ovulation and corpus luteum formation.

Meyer HH; Rohleder M; Streich WJ; Göltenboth R; Ochs A

1997-04-01

63

Sources of variation in HPG axis reactivity and individually consistent elevation of sex steroids in a female songbird.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Understanding sources of individual differences in steroid hormone production has important implications for the evolution of reproductive and social behaviors. In females in particular, little is known about the mechanistic sources of these individual differences, despite established linkages between sex steroids and a variety of fitness-related traits. Using captive female dark-eyed juncos (Junco hyemalis) from two subspecies, we asked how variation in different components of the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis related to variation in testosterone production among females, and we compared females to males in multiple components of the HPG axis. We demonstrated consistent individual differences in testosterone elevation in response to challenges with luteinizing hormone (LH) and gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH). These hormone challenges led to more LH production but less testosterone production in females than males, and the sexes differed in some but not all measures of sensitivity to hormones along the HPG axis. Similar to findings in males, variation in testosterone production among females was not related to variation in LH production, gonadal LH-receptor mRNA abundance, or hypothalamic abundance of androgen receptor mRNA or aromatase mRNA. Rather, the primary source of individual variation in circulating steroids appears to the gonad, a conclusion further supported by positive correlations between testosterone and estradiol production. Unlike males, females did not differ by subspecies in any of the endocrine parameters that we assessed, suggesting some degree of independent evolution between the two sexes. Our results highlight the sources of physiological variation that may underlie the evolution of hormone-mediated phenotypes in females.

Rosvall KA; Bergeon Burns CM; Hahn TP; Ketterson ED

2013-09-01

64

Comparing sex steroid levels during the annual cycles of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) diploid female (XX) and triploid female (XXX) genotypic sex.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In this study, the annual cycle of the gonadal steroids testosterone (T), 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT), 17?-estradiol (E2) and 17?, 20?-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (DHP) was determined using radioimmunoassay and then compared for two populations of rainbow trout, XX diploid females (n = 40) and XXX triploid females (n = 15). In females, E2 and DHP levels were found to be significantly related to body weight (r = 0.22513; p < 0.0001 and r = 0.15831; p > 0.001, respectively). In this group, E2 concentrations peaked in November (25.05 ng/ml), while maximum DHP levels, only measurable from October to April, were attained in February (64.14 ng/ml). No significant differences in hormone ranges related to egg output ability were observed. Finally, sex steroid concentrations were low in the triploid female XXX fish compared to the female XX population. Nevertheless, maximum T (33.85 ng/ml) and 11-KT (32.35 ng/ml) levels were recorded in January, for XXX. The levels for these two hormones are relatively high and are also significantly associated (r = 0.8430; p < 0.0001). Diploid females showed significantly higher levels of E2 than triploids over the 12-month study period. The female triploid fish produced the lowest steroid hormone levels, such that these would be the most suitable for human consumption.

Espinosa E; Josa A; Gil L; Malo C; Mitjana O

2013-02-01

65

Annual sex steroid profiles and effects of gender and season on cytochrome P450 mRNA induction in Atlantic tomcod (Microgadus tomcod)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

As a preliminary step in a 4-year biomonitoring program, sex steroid levels, gonad weights, and diameter of vitellogenic oocytes were measured in tomcod collected bimonthly from the Miramichi and Kouchibouguac rivers from September 1993 to September 1994. As well as the reproductive indices, hepatic levels of cytochrome P4501A mRNA (CYP1A mRNA) were also measured. The preparatory period for spawning began in September, with maximal steroid levels in November, and spawning took place from late December to January. The CYP1A mRNA levels in female tomcod appeared inversely related to plasma steroids, with the lowest amounts of CYP1A mRNA coinciding with maximal steroids. The CYP1A mRNA levels in male tomcod did not exhibit this relationship. River-river comparisons of female tomcod showed significantly smaller vitellogenic oocytes in the Miramichi, along with lower plasma testosterone, estradiol, and relative gonad weight. Miramichi CYP1A mRNA levels were higher than Kouchibouguac in the fall but lower in the spring sample. The CYP1A mRNA-sex steroid relationship observed in this study will facilitate meaningful interpretation of data collected during the full 4-year study.

Williams, P.J.; Courtenay, S.C. [Dept. of Fisheries and Oceans, New Brunswick (Canada); Wilson, C.E. [Memorial Univ. of Newfoundland, St. John`s, Newfoundland (Canada). Ocean Sciences Center

1998-08-01

66

Sex and season influence gonadal steroid biosynthetic pathways, end-product production and steroid conjugation in blotched blue-tongued lizards (Tiliqua nigrolutea).  

Science.gov (United States)

We examined differences in gonadal steroid production and biosynthetic pathway activity with changing reproductive condition and between sexes in the scincid lizard, Tiliqua nigrolutea. We observed clear seasonal and sexual variation in the production of androgens and steroid conjugates, but detected no 17beta-estradiol or 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone produced by the gonads. An alternative steroid, more polar than estradiol, was detected: an investigation of this steroid is reported separately [Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. 129 (2002) 114]. There were seasonal and sex-related differences in steroid biosynthetic pathway activity. The Delta5 pathway metabolite, dehydroepiandrosterone, was detected only in males, and only from incubations using regressed testicular tissue. There was also a seasonal difference between the sexes in rates of progesterone accumulation, although the absence of corresponding elevated plasma concentrations suggests that the role of progesterone switches from a directly acting hormone to a precursor for others during the reproductive cycle in females. These results suggest that within the traditional view that vertebrate biosynthetic pathway activity and end-products are phylogenetically conserved, there is likely to be considerably species- and/or genus-specific variation. PMID:14511983

Edwards, Ashley; Jones, Susan M; Davies, Noel W

2003-11-01

67

Sex and season influence gonadal steroid biosynthetic pathways, end-product production and steroid conjugation in blotched blue-tongued lizards (Tiliqua nigrolutea).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We examined differences in gonadal steroid production and biosynthetic pathway activity with changing reproductive condition and between sexes in the scincid lizard, Tiliqua nigrolutea. We observed clear seasonal and sexual variation in the production of androgens and steroid conjugates, but detected no 17beta-estradiol or 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone produced by the gonads. An alternative steroid, more polar than estradiol, was detected: an investigation of this steroid is reported separately [Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. 129 (2002) 114]. There were seasonal and sex-related differences in steroid biosynthetic pathway activity. The Delta5 pathway metabolite, dehydroepiandrosterone, was detected only in males, and only from incubations using regressed testicular tissue. There was also a seasonal difference between the sexes in rates of progesterone accumulation, although the absence of corresponding elevated plasma concentrations suggests that the role of progesterone switches from a directly acting hormone to a precursor for others during the reproductive cycle in females. These results suggest that within the traditional view that vertebrate biosynthetic pathway activity and end-products are phylogenetically conserved, there is likely to be considerably species- and/or genus-specific variation.

Edwards A; Jones SM; Davies NW

2003-11-01

68

Interaction of serum sex steroid-binding globulin with cell membranes of human decidual tissue  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The interaction of the sex steroid-binding globulin (SBG) of human blood with plasma membranes of cells from human decidual tissue - the target tissue of estradiol - was studied. It was shown that SBG in complex with estradiol is capable of interacting specifically with these membranes. The dissociation (K/sub dis/) of this interaction is equal to (3.5 +/- 2.0) 10/sup -12/ M. The interaction of the SBG-estradiol complex with the membranes is characterized by high selectivity: such blood serum globulins as albumin, orosomucoid, transferrin, transcortin, and thyroxine-binding globulin do not compete with SBG for its binding sites on the membranes. The SBG-testosterone complex and SBG without steroid are also incapable of interacting with the membranes.

Avvakumov, G.V.; Survilo, L.I.; Strel' chenok, O.A.

1986-01-20

69

Correlation between steroid sex hormones, egg laying capacity and cercarial shedding in Biomphalaria alexandrina snails after treatment with Haplophyllum tuberculatum.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Schistosomiasis is considered the second most pre-valiant worldwide parasitic disease ranked next to malaria. It has significant economic and public health consequences in many developing countries. Several ways have been practiced in order to bring the disease under an adequate control through the breakage of the life cycle of the parasite. Snail control could be regarded as a rapid and efficient of reducing or eliminating transmission and remains among the methods of choice for schistosomiasis control. The aim of this work is to evaluate the role of Haplophyllum tuberculatum (family Rutaceae) as a plant molluscicide. The mortality rate of Biomphalaria alexandrina snails were monitored after treatment with three extracts of the plant aerial parts; petroleum ether, chloroform and ethanol. Chloroform extract that recorded the most potent effect was further evaluated through measuring the toxicity pattern against B. alexandrina snails, egg laying capacity, cercarial shedding, phenol oxidase enzyme and the levels of steroid sex hormones. Histopathological examination of hepatopancreas and ovotestis of treated snails were also done for result confirmation. Treatment of snails by chloroform extract recorded reduction in egg laying capacity, decrease in cercarial shedding, diminution in phenol oxidase enzyme, disturbance in steroid sex hormones and sever alternation of the histopathological picture of snails tissue. In conclusion, H. tuberculatum recorded molluscicidal potency against B. alexandrina snails. Further studies are needed for its environmental applications.

Rizk MZ; Metwally NS; Hamed MA; Mohamed AM

2012-10-01

70

Impact of androgenic/antiandrogenic compounds (AAC) on human sex steroid metabolizing key enzymes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Various pesticides, industrial pollutants and synthetic compounds, to which human populations are exposed, are known or suspected to interfere with endogenous sex hormone functions. Such interference potentially affect the development and expression of the male and female reproductive system or both. Chemicals in this class are thus referred to as endocrine disruptors (ED). This emphazises on the relevance of screening ED for a wide range of sex hormone-mimicking effects. These compounds are believed to exert influence on hormonal actions predominantly by (i) interfering with endogenous steroids in that they functionally interact with plasma membrane-located receptors as well as with nuclear receptors both for estrogens and androgens or (ii) affecting the levels of sex hormones as a result of their impact on steroid metabolizing key enzymes. Essential sex hormone-related enzymes within the endocrine system of humans are aromatase, 5?-reductase 2 as well as specific sulfotransferases and sulfatases (so-called phase I and phase II enzymes, respectively). Using suitable human tissues and human cancer cell lines (placenta, prostate, liver and JEG-3, lymph node carcinoma of prostate (LnCaP) cells) we investigated the impact of 10 widely used chemicals suspected of acting as ED with androgenic or antiandrogenic activity (so-called AAC) on the activity of these sex hormone metabolizing key enzymes in humans. In addition, the respective effects of six substances were also studied as positive controls due to their well-known specific hormonal agonistic/antagonistic activities. The aim of this report and subsequent investigations is to improve human health risk assessment for AAC and other ED

2004-12-01

71

Assessment of circulating sex steroid levels in prepubertal and pubertal boys and girls by a novel ultrasensitive gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

CONTEXT: Estrogens and androgens play key roles for pubertal onset and sexual maturation. Most currently used immunoassays are not sensitive enough to accurately measure the low circulating levels of sex steroids in children without any signs of puberty. However, this does not exclude that sex steroids have important biological roles in prepubertal children. OBJECTIVES: To accurately determine levels of sex steroid hormones and their metabolites in serum of healthy children before any physical signs of puberty and to evaluate possible sex differences. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Total (unconjugated plus conjugated) serum levels of 17beta-testosterone, 17alpha-testosterone, 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone, 5beta-dihydrotestosterone, androsterone, etiocholanolone, estradiol, and estrone measured by an ultrasensitive method based on gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in samples from 81 healthy schoolchildren (42 boys) without any signs of puberty. For comparison, 48 pubertal children were studied. RESULTS: 17beta-Estradiol levels in prepubertal boys were undetectable or extremely low (median < 3.7 pmol/liter), whereas levels in prepubertal girls were significantly higher (median 9.6 pmol/liter, P < 0.001). Among the older prepubertal children (>8 yr), girls had significantly higher androsterone (4.07 vs. 1.45 nmol/liter, P < 0.05), etiocholanolone (5.45 vs. 1.95 nmol/liter, P < 0.0001), 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone (0.11 vs. <0.10 nmol/liter, P < 0.01), and 17beta-testosterone concentrations (0.69 vs. 0.47 nmol/liter, P < 0.05) compared with similarly aged prepubertal boys. CONCLUSION: Using an accurate and sensitive method, we found significantly higher levels of estrogens as well as androgen metabolites in prepubertal girls compared with age-matched boys. The higher prepubertal sex steroid levels in girls may contribute to their earlier onset of puberty including pubic hair development.

Courant F; Aksglaede L; Antignac JP; Monteau F; Sorensen K; Andersson AM; Skakkebaek NE; Juul A; Bizec BL

2010-01-01

72

Sex steroid hormones during the ovarian cycle of an all-female, parthenogenetic lizard and their correlation with pseudosexual behavior.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cnemidophorus uniparens is a unisexual lizard that reproduces by parthenogenesis. Individuals of this species display male-like and female-like copulatory behaviors during different phases of the ovarian cycle suggesting that these pseudocopulatory behaviors are hormonally activated. To learn more about both the endocrinology of parthenogenesis and the possible hormonal activation of male-like copulatory behavior in female individuals, we (1) characterized changes in plasma levels of the sex steroid hormones progesterone, 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone, testosterone, and 17 beta-estradiol during the ovarian cycle in both free-living and captive individuals, and (2) measured sex steroid hormones in plasma collected from captive individuals immediately after they expressed male-like or female-like copulatory behavior. In general, the pattern of secretion of ovarian hormones in C. uniparens appears to be similar to that of other oviparous vertebrates with similar reproductive cycles. Estradiol is elevated only during the preovulatory phase, whereas progesterone increases slightly during vitellogenesis and then increases dramatically following ovulation. Circulating levels of androgen are very low and are generally below the sensitivity of our radioimmunoassay at all stages of the ovarian cycle. The hormonal correlates of female-like copulatory behavior suggest that, as in other vertebrates, female receptivity is activated by a synergism of estradiol and progesterone. There is no evidence that the hormonal cycle has been altered to produce elevated levels of androgens during the phase of the cycle when male-like behavior is expressed. Rather it seems more likely that the central nervous system has evolved a novel response to a typical pattern of ovarian steroid hormone secretion. At present, the best hormonal correlate of male-like behavior is that changes in plasma levels of progesterone closely parallel changes in probability of expressing male-like behavior. PMID:4065527

Moore, M C; Whittier, J M; Crews, D

1985-11-01

73

Sex steroid hormones during the ovarian cycle of an all-female, parthenogenetic lizard and their correlation with pseudosexual behavior.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Cnemidophorus uniparens is a unisexual lizard that reproduces by parthenogenesis. Individuals of this species display male-like and female-like copulatory behaviors during different phases of the ovarian cycle suggesting that these pseudocopulatory behaviors are hormonally activated. To learn more about both the endocrinology of parthenogenesis and the possible hormonal activation of male-like copulatory behavior in female individuals, we (1) characterized changes in plasma levels of the sex steroid hormones progesterone, 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone, testosterone, and 17 beta-estradiol during the ovarian cycle in both free-living and captive individuals, and (2) measured sex steroid hormones in plasma collected from captive individuals immediately after they expressed male-like or female-like copulatory behavior. In general, the pattern of secretion of ovarian hormones in C. uniparens appears to be similar to that of other oviparous vertebrates with similar reproductive cycles. Estradiol is elevated only during the preovulatory phase, whereas progesterone increases slightly during vitellogenesis and then increases dramatically following ovulation. Circulating levels of androgen are very low and are generally below the sensitivity of our radioimmunoassay at all stages of the ovarian cycle. The hormonal correlates of female-like copulatory behavior suggest that, as in other vertebrates, female receptivity is activated by a synergism of estradiol and progesterone. There is no evidence that the hormonal cycle has been altered to produce elevated levels of androgens during the phase of the cycle when male-like behavior is expressed. Rather it seems more likely that the central nervous system has evolved a novel response to a typical pattern of ovarian steroid hormone secretion. At present, the best hormonal correlate of male-like behavior is that changes in plasma levels of progesterone closely parallel changes in probability of expressing male-like behavior.

Moore MC; Whittier JM; Crews D

1985-11-01

74

Prenatal versus postnatal sex steroid hormone effects on autistic traits in children at 18 to 24 months of age  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies of prenatal exposure to sex steroid hormones predict autistic traits in children at 18 to 24 and at 96 months of age. However, it is not known whether postnatal exposure to these hormones has a similar effect. This study compares prenatal and postnatal sex steroid hormone levels in relation to autistic traits in 18 to 24-month-old children. Fetal testosterone (fT) and fetal estradiol (fE) levels were measured in amniotic fluid from pregnant women (n = 35) following routine second-trimester amniocentesis. Saliva samples were collected from these children when they reached three to four months of age and were analyzed for postnatal testosterone (pT) levels. Mothers were asked to complete the Quantitative Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (Q-CHAT), a measure of autistic traits in children 18 to 24 months old. Finding fT (but not pT) levels were positively associated with scores on the Q-CHAT. fE and pT levels showed no sex differences and no relationships with fT levels. fT levels were the only variable that predicted Q-CHAT scores. Conclusions These preliminary findings are consistent with the hypothesis that prenatal (but not postnatal) androgen exposure, coinciding with the critical period for sexual differentiation of the brain, is associated with the development of autistic traits in 18 to 24 month old toddlers. However, it is recognized that further work with a larger sample population is needed before the effects of postnatal androgen exposure on autistic traits can be ruled out. These results are also in line with the fetal androgen theory of autism, which suggests that prenatal, organizational effects of androgen hormones influence the development of autistic traits in later life.

Auyeung Bonnie; Ahluwalia Jag; Thomson Lynn; Taylor Kevin; Hackett Gerald; O’Donnell Kieran J; Baron-Cohen Simon

2012-01-01

75

Associations between visceral adipose tissue, inflammation and sex steroid concentrations in men.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

CONTEXT: In men, obesity and the metabolic syndrome are accompanied by decreased testosterone levels, but little is known about the associations between visceral adipose tissue (VAT), VAT-related inflammation and sex steroids. OBJECTIVE: To examine the relative impact of VAT, abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and interleukin 6 (IL-6), a marker of VAT-induced inflammation, on testosterone (T) and 17?-oestradiol (E2) levels in dysmetabolic men. METHODS: We study the NUMEVOX cohort of 229 men, aged 27-77 years, who all had at least one metabolic syndrome criterion (on average three). IL-6, C-reactive protein, Homeostasis Model Assessment of (HOMA) insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR), liver enzymes, E2, LH, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), T, waist circumference and body mass index (BMI) were measured; bioavailable testosterone (BT) was calculated from T and SHBG; MRI-assessed VAT and SAT were analysed in 109 of these men. RESULTS: Visceral adipose tissue was strongly correlated with E2 (Spearman r = 0.38, P < 0.001) and with BT/E2 ratio (r = -0.42, P < 0.001), while SAT was not correlated with either. IL-6 was correlated with E2 (r = 0.19, P = 0.007), BT (r = -0.19, P = 0.006) and BT/E2 ratio (r = -0.30 P < 0.001). In multivariate linear analysis, the relation between VAT and E2 was independent of age, BMI (P = 0.008), leptin (P < 0.001), T and SHBG. Log(IL-6) was significantly inversely related with log(BT) (P = 0.032) independently of age, VAT, leptin and HOMA-IR. CONCLUSIONS: 17?-oestradiol levels were positively associated with VAT, but not with SAT, while T and BT were negatively and independently associated with IL-6. The significant inverse association between IL-6 and T suggests an important role of low-grade visceral fat inflammation in the central hypogonadism associated with the metabolic syndrome.

Gautier A; Bonnet F; Dubois S; Massart C; Grosheny C; Bachelot A; Aubé C; Balkau B; Ducluzeau PH

2013-03-01

76

Association between endogenous sex steroid hormones and inflammatory biomarkers in US men.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Sex steroid hormones and inflammatory biomarkers are both associated with the development and progression of chronic diseases, but their interrelationship is relatively uncharacterized. We examined the association of sex hormones and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) with biomarkers of inflammation, C-reactive protein (CRP) and white blood cell (WBC) count. The study included data from 809 adult men in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2004. Geometric means and 95% confidence intervals were estimated separately for CRP and WBC concentrations by sex steroid hormones and SHBG using weighted linear regression models. Higher concentrations of total (slope per one quintile in concentration, -0.18; p-trend, 0.001) and calculated free (slope, -0.13; p-trend, 0.03) testosterone were statistically significantly associated with lower concentrations of CRP, but not with WBC count. Men in the bottom quintile of total testosterone (?3.3 ng/mL), who might be considered to have clinically low testosterone, were more likely to have elevated CRP (?3 mg/L) compared with men in the top four quintiles (OR, 1.61; 95% CI, 1.00-2.61). Total and calculated free estradiol (E2) were positively associated with both CRP (Total E2: slope, 0.14; p-trend, <0.001; Free E2: slope, 0.15; p-trend, <0.001) and WBC (Total E2: slope, 0.02; p-trend, 0.08; Free E2: slope, 0.02; p-trend, 0.02) concentrations. SHBG concentrations were inversely associated with WBC count (slope, -0.03; p-trend, 0.04), but not with CRP. These cross-sectional findings are consistent with the hypothesis that higher androgen and lower oestrogen concentrations may have an anti-inflammatory effect in men.

Tsilidis KK; Rohrmann S; McGlynn KA; Nyante SJ; Lopez DS; Bradwin G; Feinleib M; Joshu CE; Kanarek N; Nelson WG; Selvin E; Platz EA

2013-11-01

77

Fast method for the resolution and determination of sex steroids in urine.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The main aim of the study was to develop a simple, fast, sensitive and inexpensive method for the separation and quantification of various steroid hormones in urine. Ultra high performance liquid chromatography was used to analyze estrone, estriol, 17-?-estradiol, 17-?-estradiol, progesterone, pregnenolone, and testosterone. Three columns were chosen for the present study: two octadecyl columns and one octyl column. The best results of separation were obtained for the octadecyl columns. Complete separation of all sex steroids was impossible when methanol was used during the chromatographic studies. The most interesting and valuable result was obtained with regard to the complete separation of isomers. All seven steroids were successfully separated in 10min, next the time of single analysis was reduced to 5.5min with gradient elution. Linearity was evaluated over a range of concentrations of 0.08-12.11ngml(-1). The correlation coefficient ranged from 0.9987 to 0.9998. The LOD values were between 0.02 and 0.33ngml(-1) and LOQ ranged between 0.10 and 1.10ngml(-1). The developed method is suitable for routine analysis of these compounds in urine.

Studzi?ska S; Buszewski B

2013-05-01

78

Fast method for the resolution and determination of sex steroids in urine.  

Science.gov (United States)

The main aim of the study was to develop a simple, fast, sensitive and inexpensive method for the separation and quantification of various steroid hormones in urine. Ultra high performance liquid chromatography was used to analyze estrone, estriol, 17-?-estradiol, 17-?-estradiol, progesterone, pregnenolone, and testosterone. Three columns were chosen for the present study: two octadecyl columns and one octyl column. The best results of separation were obtained for the octadecyl columns. Complete separation of all sex steroids was impossible when methanol was used during the chromatographic studies. The most interesting and valuable result was obtained with regard to the complete separation of isomers. All seven steroids were successfully separated in 10min, next the time of single analysis was reduced to 5.5min with gradient elution. Linearity was evaluated over a range of concentrations of 0.08-12.11ngml(-1). The correlation coefficient ranged from 0.9987 to 0.9998. The LOD values were between 0.02 and 0.33ngml(-1) and LOQ ranged between 0.10 and 1.10ngml(-1). The developed method is suitable for routine analysis of these compounds in urine. PMID:23352635

Studzi?ska, S; Buszewski, B

2013-01-09

79

Sex steroid hormones, hormonal contraception, and the immunobiology of human immunodeficiency virus-1 infection.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Worldwide, an increasing number of women use oral or injectable hormonal contraceptives. However, inadequate information is available to aid women and health care professionals in weighing the potential risks of hormonal contraceptive use in individuals living with HIV-1 or at high risk of infection. Numerous epidemiological studies and challenge studies in a rhesus macaque model suggest that progesterone-based contraceptives increase the risk of HIV-1 infection in humans and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection in macaques, accelerate disease progression, and increase viral shedding in the genital tract. However, because several other studies in humans have not observed any effect of exogenously administered progesterone on HIV-1 acquisition and disease progression, the issue continues to be a topic of intense research and ongoing discussion. In contrast to progesterone, systemic or intravaginal treatment with estrogen efficiently protects female rhesus macaques against the transmission of SIV, likely by enhancing the natural protective properties of the lower genital tract mucosal tissue. Although the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the effect of sex steroid hormones on HIV-1 and SIV acquisition and disease progression are not well understood, progesterone and estrogen are known to regulate a number of immune mechanisms that may exert an effect on retroviral infection. This review summarizes current knowledge of the effects of various types of sex steroid hormones on immune processes involved in the biology of HIV-1 infection.

Hel Z; Stringer E; Mestecky J

2010-02-01

80

Organizational and activational effects of sex steroids on kisspeptin neuron development.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Kisspeptin, encoded by the Kiss1 gene, is a neuropeptide required for puberty and adult reproductive function. Understanding the regulation and development of the kisspeptin system provides valuable knowledge about the physiology of puberty and adult fertility, and may provide insights into human pubertal or reproductive disorders. Recent studies, particularly in rodent models, have assessed how kisspeptin neurons develop and how hormonal and non-hormonal factors regulate this developmental process. Exposure to sex steroids (testosterone and estradiol) during critical periods of development can induce organizational (permanent) effects on kisspeptin neuron development, with respect to both sexually dimorphic and non-sexually dimorphic aspects of kisspeptin biology. In addition, sex steroids can also impart activational (temporary) effects on kisspeptin neurons and Kiss1 gene expression at various times during neonatal and peripubertal development, as they do in adulthood. Here, we discuss the current knowledge--and in some cases, lack thereof--of the influence of hormones and other factors on kisspeptin neuronal development.

Poling MC; Kauffman AS

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Engineered multilayer ovarian tissue that secretes sex steroids and peptide hormones in response to gonadotropins.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Although hormone replacement therapy is an option for the loss of ovarian function, hormone delivery through pharmacological means results in various clinical complications. The present study was designed to deliver sex steroids by a functional construct fabricated using encapsulation techniques. Theca and granulosa cells isolated from ovaries of 21-day old rats were encapsulated in multilayer alginate microcapsules to recapitulate the native follicular structure. Cells encapsulated in two other schemes were used as controls to assess the importance of the multilayer structure. The endocrine functions of the encapsulated cells were assessed in vitro for a period of 30 days. Encapsulated cells showed sustained viability during long-term in vitro culture with those encapsulated in multilayer capsules secreting significantly higher and sustained concentrations of 17 ?-estradiol (E(2)) than the two other encapsulation schemes (p < 0.05, n = 6) in response to follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH). In addition, cells in the multilayer microcapsules also secreted activin and inhibin in vitro. In contrast, when granulosa and theca cells were cultured in 2D culture, progesterone (P(4)) secretion increased while E(2) secretion decreased over a 30-day period. In summary, we have designed a multilayer engineered ovarian tissue that secretes sex steroids and peptide hormones and responds to gonadotropins, thus demonstrating the ability to recapitulate native ovarian structure ex vivo.

Sittadjody S; Saul JM; Joo S; Yoo JJ; Atala A; Opara EC

2013-03-01

82

Sex differences and steroid modulation of cardiac iron in a mouse model of iron overload.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Iron cardiomyopathy is the leading cause of death in transfusional iron overload, and men have twice the mortality of women. Because the prevalence of cardiac iron overload increases rapidly during the second decade of life, we postulated that there are steroid-dependent sex differences in cardiac iron uptake. To test this hypothesis, we manipulated sex steroids in mice with constitutive iron absorption (homozygous hemojuvelin knockout); this model mimics the myocyte iron deposition observed in humans. At 4 weeks of age, female mice were ovariectomized (OVX) and male mice were castrated (OrchX). Female mice received an estrogen implant (OVX + E) or a cholesterol control (OVX), whereas male mice received an implant containing testosterone (OrchX + T), dihydrotestosterone (OrchX + DHT), estrogen (OrchX + E), or cholesterol (OrchX). All animals received a high-iron diet for 8 weeks. OrchX, OVX, and OVX + E mice all had similar cardiac iron loads. However, OrchX + E males had a significant increase in cardiac iron concentration compared with OrchX mice (P < 0.01), whereas the OrchX + T and OrchX + DHT groups only trended higher (P < 0.06 and P < 0.15, respectively). Hormone treatments did not impact liver iron concentration in either sex. When data were pooled across hormone therapies, liver iron concentration was 25% greater in males than females (P < 0.01). In summary, we found that estrogen increased cardiac iron loading in male mice, but not in females. Male mice loaded 25% more hepatic iron than female mice regardless of the hormone treatment.

Brewer C; Otto-Duessel M; Wood RI; Wood JC

2013-09-01

83

Colonic transit in rats: effect of ovariectomy, sex steroid hormones, and pregnancy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] In vitro studies suggest that the female sex steroid hormones [estrogen (E) and progesterone (P)] can affect the myoelectric and mechanical activity of colonic smooth muscle. The present study was designed to examine the influence of the hormones on colonic transit in vivo. Transit was assessed by quantifying the distribution within the colon of a radiolabeled marker (0.5 ?Ci Na251CrO4), using the geometric center method of analysis. Studies were performed with adult male rats and the following groups of female rats: nonpregnant, ovariectomized, ovariectomy plus hormone pretreatment, and pregnant (day 18). Hormone-pretreated animals were studied 24 h following the fourth injection. The data can be summarized as follows. 1) Colonic transit was affected by the timing of the estrus cycle. 2) Ovariectomy eliminated the biphasic transit pattern observed in estruscycling females and resulted in a geometric center value comparable with that of the metestrus-diestrus animals. 3) E + P pretreatment of ovariectomized rats resulted in a significant decrease in the geometric center compared with the untreated ovariectomized rats. 4) The geometric center value in pregnant anials and hormone-pretreated animals. 5) Adult male rats had a geometric center value of 4.12 +/- 0.29. The results suggest that a relation exists between colonic transit and the circulating levels of the steroid hormones

1986-01-01

84

Impact of ovarian sex steroids on ovulation and ovulatory gene induction in aromatase-null mice.  

Science.gov (United States)

Female mice deficient in the aromatase gene [aromatase knockout (ArKO)] fail to ovulate owing to an inability to produce estrogens. Here, we demonstrated that sequential administration of adequate amounts of 17?-estradiol (E2), pregnant mare serum gonadotropin, and human chorionic gonadotropin could induce ovulation in immature ArKO mice; nevertheless, significantly fewer oocytes were released into the oviducts in ArKO mice than in wild-type mice. Analysis of ovarian steroids by liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry identified a trace amount of E2 in the untreated immature ArKO ovary. The analysis further detected significant increases and decreases in progesterone and testosterone contents, respectively, in addition to an increase of E2 in the ovulation-induced ArKO ovaries compared with the levels in untreated ArKO ovaries. Gene expression analysis demonstrated marked elevation in the mRNA levels of members of the epidermal growth factor family and extracellular matrix-related proteins at 4 h after human chorionic gonadotropin injection in the ovaries of ArKO mice treated for ovulation, as observed in the ovulation-induced wild-type ovaries. Collectively, these findings suggest the vital contribution of the intraovarian milieu of sex steroids to ovulatory regulation in vivo. PMID:22147013

Toda, Katsumi; Hayashi, Yoshihiro; Ono, Masafumi; Saibara, Toshiji

2011-12-06

85

Impact of ovarian sex steroids on ovulation and ovulatory gene induction in aromatase-null mice.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Female mice deficient in the aromatase gene [aromatase knockout (ArKO)] fail to ovulate owing to an inability to produce estrogens. Here, we demonstrated that sequential administration of adequate amounts of 17?-estradiol (E2), pregnant mare serum gonadotropin, and human chorionic gonadotropin could induce ovulation in immature ArKO mice; nevertheless, significantly fewer oocytes were released into the oviducts in ArKO mice than in wild-type mice. Analysis of ovarian steroids by liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry identified a trace amount of E2 in the untreated immature ArKO ovary. The analysis further detected significant increases and decreases in progesterone and testosterone contents, respectively, in addition to an increase of E2 in the ovulation-induced ArKO ovaries compared with the levels in untreated ArKO ovaries. Gene expression analysis demonstrated marked elevation in the mRNA levels of members of the epidermal growth factor family and extracellular matrix-related proteins at 4 h after human chorionic gonadotropin injection in the ovaries of ArKO mice treated for ovulation, as observed in the ovulation-induced wild-type ovaries. Collectively, these findings suggest the vital contribution of the intraovarian milieu of sex steroids to ovulatory regulation in vivo.

Toda K; Hayashi Y; Ono M; Saibara T

2012-01-01

86

Sperm production and quality in brill Scophthalmus rhombus L.: relation to circulating sex steroid levels.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The aims of the present study were to characterize sperm quality and to quantify seasonal changes in sexual hormone (testosterone [T], 11-ketotestosterone [11-KT] and 17,20?-dihydroxypregn-4-en-3-one [17,20?-P]) levels in male brill (Scophthalmus rhombus) plasma, as well as to test a more intensive sampling strategy to establish relationships between sex steroid levels and sperm production parameters. Sperm concentration ranged from 0.5 to 3.1 × 10(9) spermatozoa mL(-1), and changes in sperm quality parameters depending on sampling date were observed. Plasma sexual steroid levels remained high and changed in parallel during the spawning season and afterwards decreased to very low levels in summer. The analysis of annual changes of 11-KT and T ratios suggests that 11-KT can be the main circulating androgen for stimulating spermatogenesis in S. rhombus and that T could be involved in the beginning of spermatogenesis through the positive feedback on brain-pituitary-gonad axis. Finally, daily 11-KT and T levels showed similar patterns of variation in males sampled, whereas 17,20?-P amounts showed somewhat opposite trends. These differences could be related with the different role of androgens and progestin during the spermatogenesis.

Hachero-Cruzado I; Forniés A; Herrera M; Mancera JM; Martínez-Rodríguez G

2013-04-01

87

Lipids and addiction: how sex steroids, prostaglandins, and cannabinoids interact with drugs of abuse.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Lipidomics aims to identify and characterize all endogenous species of lipids and understand their roles in cellular signaling and, ultimately, the functioning of the organism. We are on the cusp of fully understanding the functions of many of the lipid signaling systems that have been identified for decades (e.g., steroids, prostaglandins), whereas our understanding of newer lipid signaling systems (e.g., endocannabinoids, N-acyl amides) still lags considerably behind. With an emphasis on their roles in the neurophysiology of addiction, we will examine three classes of lipids--sex steroids, prostaglandins, and cannabinoids--and how they work synergistically in the neurocircuitry of motivation. We will first give a brief overview of the biosynthesis for each class of lipid and its receptors, and then summarize what is known about the collective roles of the lipids in cocaine and alcohol abuse. This approach provides a novel view of lipid signaling as a class of molecules and their synergistic roles in addiction.

Leishman E; Kokesh KJ; Bradshaw HB

2013-04-01

88

Sperm production and quality in brill Scophthalmus rhombus L.: relation to circulating sex steroid levels.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aims of the present study were to characterize sperm quality and to quantify seasonal changes in sexual hormone (testosterone [T], 11-ketotestosterone [11-KT] and 17,20?-dihydroxypregn-4-en-3-one [17,20?-P]) levels in male brill (Scophthalmus rhombus) plasma, as well as to test a more intensive sampling strategy to establish relationships between sex steroid levels and sperm production parameters. Sperm concentration ranged from 0.5 to 3.1 × 10(9) spermatozoa mL(-1), and changes in sperm quality parameters depending on sampling date were observed. Plasma sexual steroid levels remained high and changed in parallel during the spawning season and afterwards decreased to very low levels in summer. The analysis of annual changes of 11-KT and T ratios suggests that 11-KT can be the main circulating androgen for stimulating spermatogenesis in S. rhombus and that T could be involved in the beginning of spermatogenesis through the positive feedback on brain-pituitary-gonad axis. Finally, daily 11-KT and T levels showed similar patterns of variation in males sampled, whereas 17,20?-P amounts showed somewhat opposite trends. These differences could be related with the different role of androgens and progestin during the spermatogenesis. PMID:22806610

Hachero-Cruzado, Ismael; Forniés, Asunción; Herrera, Marcelino; Mancera, Juan Miguel; Martínez-Rodríguez, Gonzalo

2012-07-18

89

Brain levels of sex steroid hormones in men and women during normal aging and in Alzheimer's disease.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We examined the relationships between normal aging, Alzheimer's disease (AD), and brain levels of sex steroid hormones in men and women. In postmortem brain tissue from neuropathologically normal, postmenopausal women, we found no age-related changes in brain levels of either androgens or estrogens. In comparing women with and without AD at different ages, brain levels of estrogens and androgens were lower in AD cases aged 80 years and older but not significantly different in the 60-79 year age range. In male brains, we observed that normal aging was associated with significant decreases in androgens but not estrogens. Further, in men aged 60-79 years, brain levels of testosterone but not estrogens were lower in cases with mild neuropathological changes as well as those with advanced AD neuropathology. In male cases over age 80, brain levels hormones did not significantly vary by neuropathological status. To begin investigating the relationships between hormone levels and indices of AD neuropathology, we measured brain levels of soluble ?-amyloid (A?). In male cases with mild neuropathological changes, we found an inverse relationship between brain levels of testosterone and soluble A?. Collectively, these findings demonstrate sex-specific relationships between normal, age-related depletion of androgens and estrogens in men and women, which may be relevant to development of AD.

Rosario ER; Chang L; Head EH; Stanczyk FZ; Pike CJ

2011-04-01

90

Expression of heat shock proteins HSP70 and HSP90 in endometrial carcinomas. Correlation with clinicopathology, sex steroid receptor status, and p53 protein expression.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: It has been suggested that heat shock proteins HSP70 and HSP90 are involved in the functional modulation of sex steroid receptors and are expressed in normal endometrium. However, little is known about the expression of HSP70 and HSP90 in endometrial carcinomas. METHODS: The immunohistochemical reactivity of monoclonal antibodies against HSP70 and HSP90 was examined in 42 endometrial carcinomas, and the presence or absence of correlation with the clinicopathologic features, sex steroid receptor status, and p53 protein expression was analyzed. RESULTS: Expression of HSP70 was found in 52% of endometrial carcinomas and was correlated with nonendometrioid histology (P < 0.05), a poorly differentiated state (P < 0.01), p53 protein expression (P < 0.01), and absence of sex steroid receptors (P < 0.001) in the tumor. By contrast, strong expression of HSP90 was observed in 29% of endometrial carcinomas, and occurred more frequently in well-differentiated carcinomas that were positive for sex steroid receptors. CONCLUSIONS: Both HSP70 and HSP90 are significantly correlated with the histology and the sex steroid receptor status of endometrial carcinomas. Expression of HSP70 may be associated with a loss of sex steroid receptors in either nonendometrioid or poorly differentiated carcinoma of the endometrium, which frequently exhibits p53 protein expression. Conversely, strong expression of HSP90 may indicate high levels of sex steroid receptors in the tumor cells.

Nanbu K; Konishi I; Komatsu T; Mandai M; Yamamoto S; Kuroda H; Koshiyama M; Mori T

1996-01-01

91

Steroid sex hormone dynamics during estradiol-17? induced gonadal differentiation in Paralichthys olivaceus (Teleostei)  

Science.gov (United States)

Steroid sex hormones, such as estradiol-17? (E2) and testosterone (T), are important regulators of sex change in fish. In this study, we examined the effects of E2 treatment on the dynamics of E2 and T during gonadal differentiation in the olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus using histology and radioimmunoassay (RIA). Flounder larvae were divided into five groups (G0-G4), and fed with 0 (control), 0.2, 2, 20 and 100 mg E2/kg feed from 35 to 110 day post hatching (dph). Fish growth in the G1 and G2 groups was not significantly different from that of the control group ( P>0.05), while fish in the G3 and G4 groups were less active and showed growth depression and high mortality. The gonads of fish in the G3 and G4 groups were smaller and surrounded by hyperplastic connective tissue. The frequency of females in the G0-G4 groups was 54.5%, 75.0%, 100%, 100% and 93.3%, respectively. The RIA analyses of E2 and T showed that T levels decreased during gonadal differentiation, and increased slightly at the onset of ovarian differentiation, while E2 levels increased gradually and peaked at the onset of ovarian differentiation in the control group. In the E2-treated groups, T levels decreased before the onset of ovarian differentiation. E2 levels were high on the 48 dph, but declined to a lower level on the 54 dph, and then increased gradually during gonadal differentiation. And a sharp increase of E2 levels were observed in all E2-treated groups at the onset of ovarian differentiation. The data suggest that T and E2 play important roles during gonadal differentiation, and an E2 dose of 2 mg/kg feed could induce sex reversal in P. olivaceus.

Sun, Peng; You, Feng; Liu, Mengxia; Wu, Zhihao; Wen, Aiyun; Li, Jun; Xu, Yongli; Zhang, Peijun

2010-03-01

92

Anatomical distribution of sex steroid hormone receptors in the brain of female medaka.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Estrogen and androgen play crucial roles in coordinating reproductive functions through estrogen receptors (ERs) and androgen receptors (ARs), respectively. These receptors are considered important for regulation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. Despite their biological importance, the distribution of sex steroid receptors has not been fully analyzed anatomically in the teleost brain. The teleosts have many characteristic features, which allow unique approaches toward an understanding of the regulatory mechanisms of reproductive functions. Medaka serves as a good model system for studying the mechanisms by which steroid receptor-mediated systems are regulated, because (1) their breeding conditions can be easily manipulated; (2) we can take advantage of the genome database; and 3) molecular genetic tools, such as transgenic techniques, are applicable. We analyzed the distribution of ER?, ER?1, ER?2, AR?, and AR? mRNA by in situ hybridization in the brain of female medaka. We found that all subtypes of ERs and ARs were expressed in the following nuclei: the dorsal part of the ventral telencephalic area (Vd), supracommissural part of the ventral telencephalic area (Vs), postcommissural part of the ventral telencephalic area (Vp), preoptic area (POA), and nucleus ventralis tuberis (NVT). These regions are known to be involved in the regulation of sexual behavior (Vd, Vs, Vp, POA) or the HPG axis (NVT). These ER- and/or AR-expressing neurons may regulate sexual behavior or the HPG axis according to their axonal projections. Future analysis should be targeted to the neurons described in the present study to extend our understanding of the central regulatory mechanisms of reproduction.

Zempo B; Kanda S; Okubo K; Akazome Y; Oka Y

2013-06-01

93

Anatomical distribution of sex steroid hormone receptors in the brain of female medaka.  

Science.gov (United States)

Estrogen and androgen play crucial roles in coordinating reproductive functions through estrogen receptors (ERs) and androgen receptors (ARs), respectively. These receptors are considered important for regulation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. Despite their biological importance, the distribution of sex steroid receptors has not been fully analyzed anatomically in the teleost brain. The teleosts have many characteristic features, which allow unique approaches toward an understanding of the regulatory mechanisms of reproductive functions. Medaka serves as a good model system for studying the mechanisms by which steroid receptor-mediated systems are regulated, because (1) their breeding conditions can be easily manipulated; (2) we can take advantage of the genome database; and 3) molecular genetic tools, such as transgenic techniques, are applicable. We analyzed the distribution of ER?, ER?1, ER?2, AR?, and AR? mRNA by in situ hybridization in the brain of female medaka. We found that all subtypes of ERs and ARs were expressed in the following nuclei: the dorsal part of the ventral telencephalic area (Vd), supracommissural part of the ventral telencephalic area (Vs), postcommissural part of the ventral telencephalic area (Vp), preoptic area (POA), and nucleus ventralis tuberis (NVT). These regions are known to be involved in the regulation of sexual behavior (Vd, Vs, Vp, POA) or the HPG axis (NVT). These ER- and/or AR-expressing neurons may regulate sexual behavior or the HPG axis according to their axonal projections. Future analysis should be targeted to the neurons described in the present study to extend our understanding of the central regulatory mechanisms of reproduction. PMID:23124931

Zempo, Buntaro; Kanda, Shinji; Okubo, Kataaki; Akazome, Yasuhisa; Oka, Yoshitaka

2013-06-01

94

Immunolocalization of progesterone receptors in the canine ovary and their relation to sex steroid hormone concentrations.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The aim of the present study was to describe the normal cellular distribution of progesterone receptors in the canine ovary at different stages of the oestrous cycle. Samples of both ovaries were obtained from 75 healthy adult bitches of various breeds and ages, including five pregnant bitches and three bitches that had just delivered. The presence of progesterone receptors was visualized by immunohistochemistry on paraffin wax sections using a monoclonal antibody. Nuclear staining for progesterone receptors was observed in the surface epithelium, cortical tubules, rete ovarii, follicle cells, thecal cells, luteal cells, granulosa cell cords and ovarian stroma. The staining intensity for progesterone receptors in the follicle cells increased with the stage of follicle development, indicating an intrafollicular role of progesterone in the mechanism of ovulation and luteinization. The stronger staining intensities for progesterone receptors in thecal cells compared with follicle cells may be explained by the fact that thecal cells mediate some effects of steroid hormones on the follicle cells in secondary and tertiary follicles. Little correlation was found between the expression of progesterone receptors in follicle cells and oestradiol, progesterone or testosterone concentrations. This finding indicates a different regulating mechanism for progesterone receptors in canine ovarian follicles compared with other tissues of the genital tract. During pregnancy all groups of ovarian cells had lower staining intensity scores than during the oestrous cycle, although the sex steroid hormone concentrations in pregnant bitches were similar to those in non-pregnant bitches during the luteal phase of the oestrous cycle. The lower expression of progesterone receptors during pregnancy may be due to higher tissue concentrations of progesterone that are not reflected in the serum because of haemodilution and increased metabolism and clearance during pregnancy.

Vermeirsch H; Simoens P; Coryn M; Van den Broeck W

2001-07-01

95

Roles of Sex Steroids in the Crowings with Sexual and Non-Sexual Motivations in Female Japanese Quail, Coturnix Japonica  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available To examine the sex differences in the crowing behavior of the Japanese quail, we investigated the effects of sex steroids on calling behaviors using female birds, and the data were compared with those obtained in our previous study in male birds which was performed using the same experimental procedures as those in the present study. We injected the female quails daily from 11 to 41 days after hatching with testosterone propionate (TP), 5?-dihydrotestosterone (DHT; a non-aromatizable androgen), estradiol benzoate (EB) or vehicle, and examined their calling behaviors in both sexual and non-sexual contexts. In a non-sexual context of the birds being isolated in a recording chamber, androgens, either TP or DHT, induced crowing in place of distress calling while EB simply inhibited distress calling. These effects of sex steroids on the calling behaviors were almost identical to those in the male quails. In a sexual context of the birds being left undisturbed in their home cages, crowing was induced by chronic treatment with TP, but not either DHT or EB, suggesting that both estrogenic and androgenic actions are required to induce the sexually motivated crowing. Although these results were basically the same as those in the male quails, the crowing in the female quails occurred much less frequently compared to that of the male quails. These data suggest that in the Japanese quail, crowing behavior, when it is restricted to sexually motivated one, is quantitatively different between male and female in the responsiveness to sex steroids.

Atsuhiko Chiba; Masaya Fujiwara

2013-01-01

96

Patterns of peripheral steroid metabolism vary with sex, season, and tissue type in blotched blue-tongued lizards (Tiliqua nigrolutea).  

Science.gov (United States)

We examined sexual and seasonal variation in the ability of reproductively relevant tissues (liver, skin, adrenal gland, cloaca, kidney, renal sexual segment, epididymis, oviduct, muscle, testis, and ovary) to metabolise a primary steroid [testosterone (T) or estradiol (E2)] in the scincid lizard, Tiliqua nigrolutea. We observed considerable variation between sexes and across seasons in the patterns of conjugation and derivatisation of the primary steroids by these tissues. All tissues demonstrated the ability to conjugate the relevant primary steroid. Other general trends included increased conjugation by all tissues of gestating females, reduced metabolism of E2 by female tissues during late vitellogenesis, and reduced metabolism of T by males during early spermatogenesis. 5alpha-Dihydrotestosterone was the most commonly detected derivative in males, and production varied with season and tissue type. We suggest that seasonal variation in the ability of reproductively relevant tissues may be important in the physiological regulation of reproduction in this species. PMID:15596067

Edwards, Ashley; Jones, Susan M; Davies, Noel W

2005-01-01

97

Patterns of peripheral steroid metabolism vary with sex, season, and tissue type in blotched blue-tongued lizards (Tiliqua nigrolutea).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We examined sexual and seasonal variation in the ability of reproductively relevant tissues (liver, skin, adrenal gland, cloaca, kidney, renal sexual segment, epididymis, oviduct, muscle, testis, and ovary) to metabolise a primary steroid [testosterone (T) or estradiol (E2)] in the scincid lizard, Tiliqua nigrolutea. We observed considerable variation between sexes and across seasons in the patterns of conjugation and derivatisation of the primary steroids by these tissues. All tissues demonstrated the ability to conjugate the relevant primary steroid. Other general trends included increased conjugation by all tissues of gestating females, reduced metabolism of E2 by female tissues during late vitellogenesis, and reduced metabolism of T by males during early spermatogenesis. 5alpha-Dihydrotestosterone was the most commonly detected derivative in males, and production varied with season and tissue type. We suggest that seasonal variation in the ability of reproductively relevant tissues may be important in the physiological regulation of reproduction in this species.

Edwards A; Jones SM; Davies NW

2005-01-01

98

Effect of sex steroids on soleus muscle response in hypocalcemic medium (in vitro).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: Postoperative hypocalcemia is a frequently encountered complication of thyroid surgery. Since hypocalcemic symptoms are closely associated with sex, the aim of this study is to investigate the effects of sex steroids on muscle tissue under hypocalcemic conditions. METHODS: Six groups consisting of control male (M), control female (F), gonadectomized male (M-), gonadectomized female (F-), estradiol-applied gonadectomized male (MX), and testosterone-applied gonadectomized female (FX) rats were used. Contraction recordings were obtained from soleus muscle flaps. Maximal tension (PT), frequency required for 50% of PT (F50), contraction velocity at F50 (V50), and changes in contraction values (d[PT], d[F50], d[V50]) between normocalcemic and hypocalcemic conditions were calculated. RESULTS: d[PT], d[F50], and d[V50] were significantly higher in M- and MX groups compared with control M group. Whereas d[PT], d[F50], and d[V50] parameters of the F- group were significantly higher than control F group, d[F50] and d[PT] of the FX group showed no significant change and d[V50] for the FX group was significantly lower. A comparison of control groups showed that d[PT], d[F50], and d[V50] of the F group were significantly higher than those of the M group. CONCLUSION: Whereas absence of both testosterone and estradiol caused an increase in hypocalcemia-induced changes in contraction parameters of rat skeletal muscle, presence or application of testosterone clearly stabilized contraction parameters.

Kökçam SS; Tekin S; Kartal A; Ayaz M; Sahin M; Acar F; Cakir M; Küçükba?riaçik Y

2013-03-01

99

Effect of sex steroids on soleus muscle response in hypocalcemic medium (in vitro).  

Science.gov (United States)

PURPOSE: Postoperative hypocalcemia is a frequently encountered complication of thyroid surgery. Since hypocalcemic symptoms are closely associated with sex, the aim of this study is to investigate the effects of sex steroids on muscle tissue under hypocalcemic conditions. METHODS: Six groups consisting of control male (M), control female (F), gonadectomized male (M-), gonadectomized female (F-), estradiol-applied gonadectomized male (MX), and testosterone-applied gonadectomized female (FX) rats were used. Contraction recordings were obtained from soleus muscle flaps. Maximal tension (PT), frequency required for 50% of PT (F50), contraction velocity at F50 (V50), and changes in contraction values (d[PT], d[F50], d[V50]) between normocalcemic and hypocalcemic conditions were calculated. RESULTS: d[PT], d[F50], and d[V50] were significantly higher in M- and MX groups compared with control M group. Whereas d[PT], d[F50], and d[V50] parameters of the F- group were significantly higher than control F group, d[F50] and d[PT] of the FX group showed no significant change and d[V50] for the FX group was significantly lower. A comparison of control groups showed that d[PT], d[F50], and d[V50] of the F group were significantly higher than those of the M group. CONCLUSION: Whereas absence of both testosterone and estradiol caused an increase in hypocalcemia-induced changes in contraction parameters of rat skeletal muscle, presence or application of testosterone clearly stabilized contraction parameters. PMID:23510550

Kökçam, S Said; Tekin, Sakir; Kartal, Adil; Ayaz, Murat; Sahin, Mustafa; Acar, Fahreddin; Cakir, Murat; Küçükba?riaçik, Yusuf

2013-03-13

100

The studies of controlled release of sex steroids hormones by radiation induced polymerization of glass forming monomers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The continuous long-term systemic administration of steroid hormones to rats was attempted by the capsules. Glass capsules containing sex hormone were made by low-temperature radiation-induced polymerization. Testosterone was eluted at a constant speed up to the 120th day in vitro, and could be administered up to the 56th day in vivo. The amount of testosterone released in vitro up to the 120th day was only 10% of the content. (Chiba, N.)

1981-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Sex steroid levels in XY males and sex-reversed XX males, of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), during the reproductive cycle.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In this study, the annual cycle of the gonadal steroids testosterone (T), 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT), 17?-oestradiol (E2) and 17?, 20?-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (DHP) was determined using radioimmunoassay and then compared, for XY males (n=35) and sex-reversed XX males (n=27) rainbow trout, to establish possible endocrinology differences. Both in XY males and sex-reversed XX males, significant correlation was shown between body weight and T (r=0.5046 and 0.34078, respectively; p<0.0001) or KT (r=0.52494 and 0.43545, respectively; p<0.0001) concentrations. Plasma androgen levels in XY and sex-reversed XX males were similar and showed an intense seasonal variation. The highest levels for T and 11-KT were detected from December to April with a peak in January (51.67 ± 5.11 and 61.95 ± 4.25 ng/ml, for XY males and 57.1 ± 5.82 and 59.27 ± 4.84 ng/ml, respectively, for XX males). In addition, there was a positive correlation (p<0.0001) between T and 11-KT levels for XY males (r=0.7533) and sex-reversed XX males (r=0.6019). Concentrations of DHP in XY males also showed seasonal variation with a peak in February (25.18 ± 12.99 ng/ml). However, DHP levels in sex-reversed XX males were undetectable (<0.1 ng/ml) over the year. Levels of E2 were undetectable through the year in both groups of trout. In conclusion, the androgenic and oestrogenic profiles of sex-reversed XX males were similar to those observed in XY males. The only difference in the annual gonadal steroid cycle between XY and sex-reversed XX males was in the DHP profile.

Espinosa E; Josa A; Gil L; González N

2011-02-01

102

Urinary steroid profiling in the diagnosis of congenital adrenal hyperplasia and disorders of sex development: experience of a urinary steroid referral centre in Hong Kong.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Deficiency in any one of the steroidogenic enzymes may result in congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) and disorders of sex development (DSD). Urinary steroid profiling (USP) can quantify metabolites of all relevant steroids simultaneously in a single analysis and has established clinical applications in the investigation and diagnosis in these disorders. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective review was performed on all the samples sent to the Chemical Pathology Laboratory, Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Hong Kong, for the investigation of suspected disorders in steroid metabolism by USP between 2003 and 2011. RESULTS: 432 patients had urine samples sent to our laboratory for USP for the investigation of CAH and DSD in the review period. USP showed diagnostic pattern of 21-hydroxylase deficiency (n=21), 5?-reductase 2 deficiency (n=12), 17?-hydroxylase deficiency (n=3), isolated 17,20-lyase deficiency (n=1), 11?-hydroxylase deficiency (n=1) and P450 oxidoreductase deficiency (n=1). CONCLUSIONS: 21-hydroxylase deficiency is the most common form of CAH while 5?-reductase 2 deficiency is the most common cause of 46,XY DSD in our population. USP is a useful tool in the investigation and diagnosis of CAH and DSD due to different steroidogenesis defects and should be included as a first-line endocrine investigation in this group of patients.

Chan AO; Shek CC

2013-03-01

103

Organization of Cytochrome P450 Enzymes Involved in Sex Steroid Synthesis  

Science.gov (United States)

Mounting evidence underscores the importance of protein-protein interactions in the functional regulation of drug-metabolizing P450s, but few studies have been conducted in membrane environments, and none have examined P450s catalyzing sex steroid synthesis. Here we report specific protein-protein interactions for full-length, human, wild type steroidogenic cytochrome P450 (P450, CYP) enzymes: 17?-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase (P450c17, CYP17) and aromatase (P450arom, CYP19), as well as their electron donor NADPH-cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (CPR). Fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)3 in live cells, coupled with quartz crystal microbalance (QCM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM) studies on phosphatidyl choline ± cholesterol (mammalian) biomimetic membranes were used to investigate steroidogenic P450 interactions. The FRET results in living cells demonstrated that both P450c17 and P450arom homodimerize but do not heterodimerize, although they each heterodimerize with CPR. The lack of heteroassociation between P450c17 and P450arom was confirmed by QCM, wherein neither enzyme bound a membrane saturated with the other. In contrast, the CPR bound readily to either P450c17- or P450arom-saturated surfaces. Interestingly, N-terminally modified P450arom was stably incorporated and gave similar results to the wild type, although saturation was achieved with much less protein, suggesting that the putative transmembrane domain is not required for membrane association but for orientation. In fact, all of the proteins were remarkably stable in the membrane, such that high resolution AFM images were obtained, further supporting the formation of P450c17, P450arom, and CPR homodimers and oligomers in lipid bilayers. This unique combination of in vivo and in vitro studies has provided strong evidence for homodimerization and perhaps some higher order interactions for both P450c17 and P450arom.

Praporski, Slavica; Ng, Su May; Nguyen, Ann D.; Corbin, C. Jo; Mechler, Adam; Zheng, Jie; Conley, Alan J.; Martin, Lisandra L.

2009-01-01

104

Regulation of antioxidant enzyme activities in male and female rat macrophages by sex steroids  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Human and animal immune functions present sex dimorphism that seems to be mainly regulated by sex hormones. In the present study, the activities of the antioxidant enzymes total superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) were measured in intraperitoneal resident macrophages from adult male and female rats. In addition to comparing males and females, we also examined the regulation of these enzyme activities in macrophages by sex steroi (more) ds. GSH-Px activity did not differ between male and female macrophages. However, both total SOD and CAT activities were markedly higher in females than in males (83 and 180%). Removal of the gonads in both males and females (comparison between castrated groups) increased the difference in SOD activity from 83 to 138% and reduced the difference in CAT activity from 180 to 86%. Castration and testosterone administration did not significantly modify the activities of the antioxidant enzymes in male macrophages. Ovariectomy did not affect SOD or GSH-Px activity but markedly reduced (48%) CAT activity. This latter change was fully reversed by estrogen administration, whereas progesterone had a smaller effect. These results led us to conclude that differences in the SOD and CAT activities may partially explain some of the differences in immune function reported for males and females. Also, estrogen is a potent regulator of CAT in macrophages and therefore this enzyme activity in macrophages may vary considerably during the menstrual cycle.

Azevedo, R.B.; Lacava, Z.G.M.; Miyasaka, C.K.; Chaves, S.B.; Curi, R.

2001-05-01

105

Testosterone regulation of sex steroid-related mRNAs and dopamine-related mRNAs in adolescent male rat substantia nigra  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Increased risk of schizophrenia in adolescent males indicates that a link between the development of dopamine-related psychopathology and testosterone-driven brain changes may exist. However, contradictions as to whether testosterone increases or decreases dopamine neurotransmission are found and most studies address this in adult animals. Testosterone-dependent actions in neurons are direct via activation of androgen receptors (AR) or indirect by conversion to 17?-estradiol and activation of estrogen receptors (ER). How midbrain dopamine neurons respond to sex steroids depends on the presence of sex steroid receptor(s) and the level of steroid conversion enzymes (aromatase and 5?-reductase). We investigated whether gonadectomy and sex steroid replacement could influence dopamine levels by changing tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) protein and mRNA and/or dopamine breakdown enzyme mRNA levels [catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT) and monoamine oxygenase (MAO) A and B] in the adolescent male rat substantia nigra. We hypothesized that adolescent testosterone would regulate sex steroid signaling through regulation of ER and AR mRNAs and through modulation of aromatase and 5?-reductase mRNA levels. Results We find ER? and AR in midbrain dopamine neurons in adolescent male rats, indicating that dopamine neurons are poised to respond to circulating sex steroids. We report that androgens (T and DHT) increase TH protein and increase COMT, MAOA and MAOB mRNAs in the adolescent male rat substantia nigra. We report that all three sex steroids increase AR mRNA. Differential action on ER pathways, with ER? mRNA down-regulation and ER? mRNA up-regulation by testosterone was found. 5? reductase-1 mRNA was increased by AR activation, and aromatase mRNA was decreased by gonadectomy. Conclusions We conclude that increased testosterone at adolescence can shift the balance of sex steroid signaling to favor androgenic responses through promoting conversion of T to DHT and increasing AR mRNA. Further, testosterone may increase local dopamine synthesis and metabolism, thereby changing dopamine regulation within the substantia nigra. We show that testosterone action through both AR and ERs modulates synthesis of sex steroid receptor by altering AR and ER mRNA levels in normal adolescent male substantia nigra. Increased sex steroids in the brain at adolescence may alter substantia nigra dopamine pathways, increasing vulnerability for the development of psychopathology.

Purves-Tyson Tertia D; Handelsman David J; Double Kay L; Owens Samantha J; Bustamante Sonia; Weickert Cynthia

2012-01-01

106

Plasma sex steroid hormonal profile and gonad histology during the annual reproductive cycle of river catfish Hemibagrus nemurus (Valenciennes, 1840) in captivity.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Plasma sex steroid hormonal profile and gonad histology were correlated to study the annual reproductive cycle of Hemibagrus nemurus. Hormones were measured by Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay. Gonad tissues were observed by using light microscopy. The highest testosterone (T) value for male was observed in November and that of female was in October. 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT) and 17?-estradiol (E2) levels were highest in June and November, respectively. Hormonal profiles of T, 11-KT and E2 showed several peaks which indicated a non-seasonal pattern. There were significant differences (p < 0.05) in the monthly levels of T, 11-KT and E2. Gonadosomatic index of H. nemurus ranged from 1.14 ± 0.02 % to 7.06 ± 1.40 %, and high gonadosomatic indices were recorded in May, August and November. Gonad histology revealed that spermatozoa were always present in the testes which implied continuous spermatogenesis and asynchronous ovarian development pattern was observed in the ovaries. The annual reproductive cycle of H. nemurus did not show a seasonal pattern and this indicate that H. nemurus is a non-seasonal breeder with several spawning cycles and can be referred to as indeterminate batch spawner. The major significances of this study are annual sex steroid hormonal profile and asynchronous ovarian development of H. nemurus. This information will contribute to our knowledge of reproductive biology of H. nemurus.

Adebiyi FA; Siraj SS; Harmin SA; Christianus A

2013-06-01

107

Gonadal restructuring and correlative steroid hormone profiles during natural sex change in protogynous honeycomb grouper (Epinephelus merra).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The honeycomb grouper shows protogynous hermaphroditism. The endocrine mechanisms involved in gonadal restructuring throughout protogynous sex change are largely unknown. In the present study, we investigated changes in the gonadal structures and levels of serum sex steroid hormones during female to male sex change in the honeycomb grouper. On the basis of histological changes, entire process of sex change was assigned into four developmental phases: female, early transition (ET), late transition (LT), and male phase. At the female phase, the oocytes of several developmental stages were observed including gonial germ cells in the periphery of ovigerous lamellae. At the beginning of ET phase, perinucleolar and previtellogenic oocytes began degenerating, followed by proliferation of spermatogonia toward the center of lamella. The LT phase was characterized by further degeneration of oocytes and rapid proliferation of spermatogenic germ cells throughout the gonad. At the male phase, no ovarian cells were observed and testis had germ cells undergoing active spermatogenesis. Serum levels of estradiol-17beta (E2) were high in females in the breeding season, but low in the non-breeding female, transitional and male phase, and those of 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT) and testosterone (T) were low in females and gradually increased in the transitional and male phase. The present results suggest that low serum E2 levels and degeneration of oocytes accompanied by concomitant increase in the 11-KT levels and proliferation of spermatogenic germ cells are probably the events mediating protogynous sex change in the honeycomb grouper.

Bhandari RK; Komuro H; Nakamura S; Higa M; Nakamura M

2003-11-01

108

Gonadal restructuring and correlative steroid hormone profiles during natural sex change in protogynous honeycomb grouper (Epinephelus merra).  

Science.gov (United States)

The honeycomb grouper shows protogynous hermaphroditism. The endocrine mechanisms involved in gonadal restructuring throughout protogynous sex change are largely unknown. In the present study, we investigated changes in the gonadal structures and levels of serum sex steroid hormones during female to male sex change in the honeycomb grouper. On the basis of histological changes, entire process of sex change was assigned into four developmental phases: female, early transition (ET), late transition (LT), and male phase. At the female phase, the oocytes of several developmental stages were observed including gonial germ cells in the periphery of ovigerous lamellae. At the beginning of ET phase, perinucleolar and previtellogenic oocytes began degenerating, followed by proliferation of spermatogonia toward the center of lamella. The LT phase was characterized by further degeneration of oocytes and rapid proliferation of spermatogenic germ cells throughout the gonad. At the male phase, no ovarian cells were observed and testis had germ cells undergoing active spermatogenesis. Serum levels of estradiol-17beta (E2) were high in females in the breeding season, but low in the non-breeding female, transitional and male phase, and those of 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT) and testosterone (T) were low in females and gradually increased in the transitional and male phase. The present results suggest that low serum E2 levels and degeneration of oocytes accompanied by concomitant increase in the 11-KT levels and proliferation of spermatogenic germ cells are probably the events mediating protogynous sex change in the honeycomb grouper. PMID:14624040

Bhandari, Ramji Kumar; Komuro, Hiroki; Nakamura, Shigeo; Higa, Mikihiko; Nakamura, Masaru

2003-11-01

109

Simplified method for measuring sex-hormone binding globulin  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] We describe a simple, rapid method for measurement of sex-hormone binding globulin. Serial dilutions of pregnancy serum are prepared in serum from males that has been pre-treated by heating to 60 degrees C for 1 h to destroy endogenous binding globulin, which is then determined by a long-used technique to yield a set of ''standards.'' In the assay itself, a fixed amount of [3H]-labeled and unlabeled dihydrotestosterone is incubated with standard or unknown, and the bound fraction precipitated with saturated ammonium sulfate. A plot of percent of the steroid bound vs standard dilution yields a sigmoid curve, from which the results in unknowns can be read by simple extrapolation. Within-assay CVs for pools of serum from men, women, and women in late pregnancy were 6.56, 9.59, and 8.4%, respectively. Between-assay CVs for the same pools were 8.05, 9.5, and 11.5%, respectively. The correlation between results obtained by this method and those of the older technique was 0.95 for samples from non-pregnant subjects and 0.73 for those from pregnant women. Our procedure is simpler and faster than previous methods and accurately measures the differences in the globulin in sera from men, women, and pregnant women. Forty to 50 samples can be assayed in a working day

1981-01-01

110

In vivo effect of sex steroids on uptake of 3H-leucine by female mouse brain  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] In vivo effects of the sex steroids estrogen and progesterone on 3H-leucine uptake by the brain of mature ovariectomized mice were examined. Animals were divided into three groups: group 1, consisting of control animals treated with sesame oil, group 2, animals treated with estrogen, and group 3, animals first treated with estrogen and then with progesterone. Each group was given a single i.p. injection of 3H-leucine 2 hr after the last hormonal treatment, and sacrificed 2 hr later. Intensity of the uptake of radiolabeled leucine was measured by counting the number of reduced silver grains over cells in various brain regions using an autoradiographic technique. Group 1 showed a relatively high uptake in the supraoptic nucleus, paraventricular nucleus (PV) and ventromedial nucleus (VM) when compared with that in the remaining hypothalamic nuclei examined. Group 2 showed a significant enhancement of the uptake in all hypothalamic regions except the preoptic periventricular nucleus (PPV) when compared with that in group 1. Group 3 showed enhancement of the uptake in all hypothalamic nuclei when compared with that in group 1. However, only the PV, PPV, VM and periventricular arcuate nucleus revealed a significantly higher uptake than the respective nuclei in group 2. The remaining nuclei showed no change in uptake. Uptake by cells in the ependymal cells and cerebral cortex remained unchanged after hormonal treatment. The present results suggest that in female mice estrogen and estrogen plus progesterone stimulate protein synthesis in most of the hypothalamic nuclei and that the progesterone effect on protein synthesis is greatly influenced by estrogen-priming. (auth.)

1978-01-01

111

Leptin-mediated modulation of steroidogenic gene expression in hypoxic zebrafish embryos: implications for the disruption of sex steroids.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Hypoxia can impair reproduction of fishes through the disruption of sex steroids. Here, using zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos, we investigated (i) whether hypoxia can directly affect steroidogenesis independent of pituitary regulation via modulation of steroidogenic gene expression, and (ii) the role of leptin in hypoxia-induced disruption of steroidogenesis. Exposure of fertilized zebrafish embryos to hypoxia (1.0 mg O(2) L(-1)) from 0-72 h postfertilization (hpf), a developmental window when steroidogenesis is unregulated by pituitary influence, resulted in the up-regulation of cyp11a, cyp17, and 3?-hsd and the down-regulation of cyp19a. Similar gene expression patterns were observed for embryos exposed to 10 mM cobalt chloride (CoCl(2), a chemical inducer of hypoxia-inducible factor 1, HIF-1), suggesting a regulatory role of HIF-1 in steroidogenesis. Testosterone (T) and estradiol (E2) concentrations in hypoxic embryos were greater and lesser, respectively, relative to the normoxic control, thus leading to an increased T/E2 ratio. Expression of the leptin-a gene (zlep-a) was up-regulated upon both hypoxia and CoCl(2) treatments. Functional assays suggested that under hypoxia, elevated zlep-a expression might activate cyp11a and 3?-hsd and inhibit cyp19a. Overall, this study indicates that hypoxia, possibly via HIF-1-induced leptin expression, modulates sex steroid synthesis by acting directly on steroidogenic gene expression.

Yu RM; Chu DL; Tan TF; Li VW; Chan AK; Giesy JP; Cheng SH; Wu RS; Kong RY

2012-08-01

112

The effect of glucocorticoids on sex steroid synthesis in cultured Taenia crassiceps Wake Forest University (WFU) cysticerci.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We have shown previously that cultured Taenia crassiceps Wake Forest University (WFU) and Taenia solium cysticerci, as well as the adult worms, synthesize sex steroid hormones from [3H]steroid precursors and that androgens and oestrogens influence the in vitro development of the parasites. Glucocorticoids (GCs) are used to control the inflammation caused by T. solium cysticerci in the brain. These steroids stimulate oestrogen synthesis in several tissues. Since there is no information on the effect of GC on the endocrine function of cysticerci, we investigated the effect of natural and synthetic GCs on the synthesis of oestrogens in cultured T. crassiceps WFU cysticerci. The cysticerci were obtained from the peritoneal cavity of infected female BALB/c mice; the cysts were washed extensively and pre-cultured in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium (DMEM) plus antibiotics for 5 days. The parasites were further cultured with different doses of corticosterone, dexamethasone or the vehicle for 5 days. [3H]Dehydroepiandrosterone (3H-DHEA) was added to the media and the cysticerci were further incubated for 6 or 24 h. Media were then removed and the steroids ether-extracted. Aliquots of the media were seeded on silica gel plates and developed in solvent systems. Parasites incubated in the presence of 3H-DHEA synthesized [3H]androstenediol, [3H]testosterone and [3H]17?-oestradiol ([3H]17?-E2). The addition of 100 nm or higher corticosterone doses to the media increased [3H]17?-E2 synthesis fourfold after 24 h. Dexamethasone also increased [3H]17?-E2 synthesis. The experiments presented here show for the first time that corticosterone and the synthetic GC dexamethasone modulate the synthesis of oestrogens by cysticerci.

Hinojosa L; Valdez RA; Salvador V; Rodríguez AG; Willms K; Romano MC

2012-12-01

113

The effect of glucocorticoids on sex steroid synthesis in cultured Taenia crassiceps Wake Forest University (WFU) cysticerci.  

Science.gov (United States)

We have shown previously that cultured Taenia crassiceps Wake Forest University (WFU) and Taenia solium cysticerci, as well as the adult worms, synthesize sex steroid hormones from [3H]steroid precursors and that androgens and oestrogens influence the in vitro development of the parasites. Glucocorticoids (GCs) are used to control the inflammation caused by T. solium cysticerci in the brain. These steroids stimulate oestrogen synthesis in several tissues. Since there is no information on the effect of GC on the endocrine function of cysticerci, we investigated the effect of natural and synthetic GCs on the synthesis of oestrogens in cultured T. crassiceps WFU cysticerci. The cysticerci were obtained from the peritoneal cavity of infected female BALB/c mice; the cysts were washed extensively and pre-cultured in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium (DMEM) plus antibiotics for 5 days. The parasites were further cultured with different doses of corticosterone, dexamethasone or the vehicle for 5 days. [3H]Dehydroepiandrosterone (3H-DHEA) was added to the media and the cysticerci were further incubated for 6 or 24 h. Media were then removed and the steroids ether-extracted. Aliquots of the media were seeded on silica gel plates and developed in solvent systems. Parasites incubated in the presence of 3H-DHEA synthesized [3H]androstenediol, [3H]testosterone and [3H]17?-oestradiol ([3H]17?-E2). The addition of 100 nm or higher corticosterone doses to the media increased [3H]17?-E2 synthesis fourfold after 24 h. Dexamethasone also increased [3H]17?-E2 synthesis. The experiments presented here show for the first time that corticosterone and the synthetic GC dexamethasone modulate the synthesis of oestrogens by cysticerci. PMID:22152276

Hinojosa, L; Valdez, R A; Salvador, V; Rodríguez, A G; Willms, K; Romano, M C

2011-12-12

114

Sex dependent influence of a functional polymorphism in steroid 5-?-reductase type 2 (SRD5A2) on post-traumatic stress symptoms.  

Science.gov (United States)

A non-synonymous, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the gene coding for steroid 5-?-reductase type 2 (SRD5A2) is associated with reduced conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone (DHT). Because SRD5A2 participates in the regulation of testosterone and cortisol metabolism, hormones shown to be dysregulated in patients with PTSD, we examined whether the V89L variant (rs523349) influences risk for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Study participants (N = 1,443) were traumatized African-American patients of low socioeconomic status with high rates of lifetime trauma exposure recruited from the primary care clinics of a large, urban hospital. PTSD symptoms were measured with the post-traumatic stress symptom scale (PSS). Subjects were genotyped for the V89L variant (rs523349) of SRD5A2. We initially found a significant sex-dependent effect of genotype in male but not female subjects on symptoms. Associations with PTSD symptoms were confirmed using a separate internal replication sample with identical methods of data analysis, followed by pooled analysis of the combined samples (N = 1,443, sex × genotype interaction P < 0.002; males: n = 536, P < 0.001). These data support the hypothesis that functional variation within SRD5A2 influences, in a sex-specific way, the severity of post-traumatic stress symptoms and risk for diagnosis of PTSD. PMID:23505265

Gillespie, Charles F; Almli, Lynn M; Smith, Alicia K; Bradley, Bekh; Kerley, Kimberly; Crain, Daniel F; Mercer, Kristina B; Weiss, Tamara; Phifer, Justine; Tang, Yilang; Cubells, Joseph F; Binder, Elisabeth B; Conneely, Karen N; Ressler, Kerry J

2013-03-15

115

Sex dependent influence of a functional polymorphism in steroid 5-?-reductase type 2 (SRD5A2) on post-traumatic stress symptoms.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A non-synonymous, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the gene coding for steroid 5-?-reductase type 2 (SRD5A2) is associated with reduced conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone (DHT). Because SRD5A2 participates in the regulation of testosterone and cortisol metabolism, hormones shown to be dysregulated in patients with PTSD, we examined whether the V89L variant (rs523349) influences risk for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Study participants (N = 1,443) were traumatized African-American patients of low socioeconomic status with high rates of lifetime trauma exposure recruited from the primary care clinics of a large, urban hospital. PTSD symptoms were measured with the post-traumatic stress symptom scale (PSS). Subjects were genotyped for the V89L variant (rs523349) of SRD5A2. We initially found a significant sex-dependent effect of genotype in male but not female subjects on symptoms. Associations with PTSD symptoms were confirmed using a separate internal replication sample with identical methods of data analysis, followed by pooled analysis of the combined samples (N = 1,443, sex × genotype interaction P < 0.002; males: n = 536, P < 0.001). These data support the hypothesis that functional variation within SRD5A2 influences, in a sex-specific way, the severity of post-traumatic stress symptoms and risk for diagnosis of PTSD.

Gillespie CF; Almli LM; Smith AK; Bradley B; Kerley K; Crain DF; Mercer KB; Weiss T; Phifer J; Tang Y; Cubells JF; Binder EB; Conneely KN; Ressler KJ

2013-04-01

116

The Effects of Female Sex Steroids on Gastric Secretory Responses of Rat Following Traumatic Brain Injury  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available AbstractObjective(s)Gastric ulceration is induced by various forms of stress like surgery, ischemia and trauma. The female sex has more resistance to stress and the gastrointestinal lesions happen fewer than male sex. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of estradiol and progesterone on the gastric acid and pepsin levels following traumatic brain injury (TBI) induction.Materials and MethodsDiffuse TBI was induced by Marmarou method in female rats. Rats randomly assigned into 9 groups: intact, OVX (ovarectomized rat), Sham+OVX, TBI (intact rats under TBI), TBI+OVX (ovarectomized rats under TBI) and treated OVX rats with vehicle (sesame oil), E2 (estradiol), P4 (progesterone) or E2+P4 combination. The acid content and pepsin levels of each gastric washout sample were measured 5 days after the TBI induction.ResultsThere was no significant difference in gastric acid output between groups either after TBI induction or after treatment with E2 or P4 or E2+P4. Gastric pepsin levels were increased in Sham+OVX, TBI (P< 0.001) and TBI+OVX (P< 0.05) compared to intact group. Gastric pepsin levels were significantly lower in E2 and E2+ P4 treated rats than vehicle treated group (P< 0.01). P4 treatment increased gastric pepsin level compared to TBI+OVX group (P< 0.05) and this increment was higher than rats that were treated with the E2 and E2+P4 (P< 0.01).ConclusionThese results suggest that protective effect of estradiol and E2+P4 combination against mucosal damage after TBI, might be mediated by inhibition of pepsin secretion.

Zakieh Keshavarzi; Mohammad Khaksari Hadad; Mohammad Javad Zahedi; Abbas Bahrami

2011-01-01

117

Semicomprehensive analysis of the postnatal age-related changes in the mRNA expression of sex steroidogenic enzymes and sex steroid receptors in the male rat hippocampus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although sex steroids play a crucial role in the postnatal brain development, the age-related changes in the hippocampal steroidogenesis remain largely unknown. We performed comprehensive investigations for the mRNA expressions of 26 sex steroidogenic enzymes/proteins and three sex steroid receptors in the male rat hippocampus, at the ages of postnatal day (PD) 1, PD4, PD7, PD10, PD14, 4 wk, and 12 wk (adult), by RT-PCR/Southern blotting analysis. The relative expression levels of these enzymes/receptors at PD1 were Srd5a1 > Star > Ar ? Hsd17b4 ? Hsd17b1 ? Hsd17b7 ? Esr1 ? Srd5a2 > Hsd17b3 > Esr2 > Cyp11a1 > Cyp17a1 > Cyp19a1 ? Hsd17b2 > 3?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase I. The mRNA levels of essential enzymes for progesterone/testosterone/estradiol metabolisms (Cyp17a1, Hsd17b7, and Cyp19a1) were approximately constant between PD1 and PD14 and then declined toward the adult levels. Cyp11a1 increased during PD4-PD14 and then considerably decreased toward the adult level (?8% of PD1). Hsd17b1, Hsd17b2, and 3?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase I mRNA decreased approximately monotonously. Hsd17b3 increased to approximately 200% of PD1 during PD4-PD14 and was maintained at this high level. The 5?-reductase mRNA was maintained constant (Srd5a1) or decreased monotonically (Srd5a2) toward the adult level. The Esr1 level peaked at PD4 and decreased toward the adult level, whereas Ar greatly increased during PD1-PD14 and was maintained at this high level. The Star and Hsd17b4 levels were maintained constant from neonate to adult. These results suggest that the hippocampal sex steroidogenic properties are substantially altered during the postnatal development processes, which might contribute to brain sexual maturation. PMID:21047951

Kimoto, Tetsuya; Ishii, Hirotaka; Higo, Shimpei; Hojo, Yasushi; Kawato, Suguru

2010-11-03

118

Semicomprehensive analysis of the postnatal age-related changes in the mRNA expression of sex steroidogenic enzymes and sex steroid receptors in the male rat hippocampus.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Although sex steroids play a crucial role in the postnatal brain development, the age-related changes in the hippocampal steroidogenesis remain largely unknown. We performed comprehensive investigations for the mRNA expressions of 26 sex steroidogenic enzymes/proteins and three sex steroid receptors in the male rat hippocampus, at the ages of postnatal day (PD) 1, PD4, PD7, PD10, PD14, 4 wk, and 12 wk (adult), by RT-PCR/Southern blotting analysis. The relative expression levels of these enzymes/receptors at PD1 were Srd5a1 > Star > Ar ? Hsd17b4 ? Hsd17b1 ? Hsd17b7 ? Esr1 ? Srd5a2 > Hsd17b3 > Esr2 > Cyp11a1 > Cyp17a1 > Cyp19a1 ? Hsd17b2 > 3?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase I. The mRNA levels of essential enzymes for progesterone/testosterone/estradiol metabolisms (Cyp17a1, Hsd17b7, and Cyp19a1) were approximately constant between PD1 and PD14 and then declined toward the adult levels. Cyp11a1 increased during PD4-PD14 and then considerably decreased toward the adult level (?8% of PD1). Hsd17b1, Hsd17b2, and 3?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase I mRNA decreased approximately monotonously. Hsd17b3 increased to approximately 200% of PD1 during PD4-PD14 and was maintained at this high level. The 5?-reductase mRNA was maintained constant (Srd5a1) or decreased monotonically (Srd5a2) toward the adult level. The Esr1 level peaked at PD4 and decreased toward the adult level, whereas Ar greatly increased during PD1-PD14 and was maintained at this high level. The Star and Hsd17b4 levels were maintained constant from neonate to adult. These results suggest that the hippocampal sex steroidogenic properties are substantially altered during the postnatal development processes, which might contribute to brain sexual maturation.

Kimoto T; Ishii H; Higo S; Hojo Y; Kawato S

2010-12-01

119

Parasitic castration, growth, and sex steroids in the freshwater bonefish Cyphocharax gilbert (Curimatidae) infested by Riggia paranensis (Cymothoidea)  

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Full Text Available Cyphocharax gilbert shows parasitic castration when infested by the crustacean Riggia paranensis, being unable to reproduce. Fish were sampled in the middle rio Itabapoana, Brazil, to study the prevalence of parasitism, growth, and sex steroid concentrations, considering the body size, sex, and reproductive condition of specimens. Most of the fish analyzed were infested (56.0%). The presence of two lines on the scales was more frequent among infested fish (22.0%) than among fish without parasites (12.0% for females and 10.0% for males). The occurrence of three lines on the scales was rare (3.5% among infested and 2.0% among females without parasites). These results suggest that growth of the host is faster than that of non infested fish. The serum concentrations of sex steroids from fish without parasites varied at different gonadal development stages (17 beta-estradiol: 60.0 to 976.7 pg/ml; total testosterone: 220.0 to 3,887.7 pg/ml). All infested fish had lower levels of the two sex steroids and undeveloped gonads. Sex steroids levels in infested females were close to those in females at post-spawning stages. Total testosterone concentrations of infested males were below those of males at early gonadal maturation stage. These results suggest that R. paranensis reduces the reproductive capacity of C. gilbert by affecting the host endocrine system.Cyphocharax gilbert exibe castração parasitária quando está infestado pelo crustáceo Riggia paranensis, estando impossibilitado de reproduzir. Os peixes foram coletados no trecho médio do rio Itabapoana, Brasil, para analisar a prevalência do parasitismo, quantificar crescimento e as concentrações de esteróides sexuais, considerando o tamanho do corpo, o sexo e a condição reprodutiva dos espécimes. A maioria dos peixes analisados estava infestada (56,0%). A presença de duas linhas em escamas foi mais freqüente entre os peixes infestados (22,0%) que entre os peixes não infestados (12,0% para as fêmeas e 10,0% para os machos). A presença de três linhas na escama foi rara (3,5% entre os peixes infestados e 2,0% entre as fêmeas não infestadas). Estes resultados sugerem que o crescimento no hospeideiro pode ser mais rapido que no peixes não parasitados. As concentrações de esteróides sexuais no soro dos peixes não infestados variaram entre os diferentes estágios reprodutivos (17 beta-estradiol: 60,0 a 976,7 pg/ml; total testosterona: 220,0 a 3.887,7 pg/ml). Todos os peixes infestados apresentaram baixos níveis dos dois hormônios esteroidais e ausência de desenvolvimento gonadal. Os níveis de esteróides sexuais nas fêmeas infestadas foram próximos aos níveis encontrados nas fêmeas pós-desovadas. A concentração de testosterona encontrada nos machos infestados foi inferior àquela obtida nos machos que estavam iniciando o desenvolvimento gonadal. Estes resultados sugerem que R. paranensis impede a reprodução de C. gilbert, afetando o sistema endócrino do hospedeiro.

Neuza R. W. Lima; Juliana de S. Azevedo; Leonardo G. da Silva; Marilvia Dansa-Petretski

2007-01-01

120

Characterizing variation in sex steroid hormone pathway genes in women of 4 races/ethnicities: the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This report characterizes genotypes and haplotypes in 6 genes (27 single nucleotide polymorphisms [SNPs]) from the Sex Steroid Hormone Genetics Protocol developed though the DNA Repository of the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN) Genetics Study. The SWAN Genetics Study is a component of a longitudinal study describing health-related attributes of the menopausal transition in African American, Caucasian, Chinese, Hispanic, and Japanese women. At baseline, SWAN recruited menstruating women, aged 42 to 52 years, who were not using exogenous hormones. During the sixth and seventh years of the study, buccal cells in a mouthwash slurry and whole blood were collected for a DNA repository. Immortalized cell lines were created and genotyped in 1,538 specimens from 1,757 women who participated in the SWAN Genetics Study. DNA from those cells was genotyped for genes in the sex steroid hormone pathway. SNPs were evaluated for genotype and allele frequencies (and differences) according to race/ethnicity and haplotyped in anticipation of studying their associations with health-related measures. We demonstrated that allele frequencies differed significantly by race/ethnicity. There was substantial linkage disequilibrium among many of the SNPs and only a few SNPs showed significant Hardy-Weinberg disequilibrium within race/ethnicity. Finally, there are a number of haplotype patterns that vary according to race/ethnicity, including a "yin-yang" pattern for 17HSD among Caucasian, Chinese, and Japanese women, but not among African American women. Repository specimens developed in anticipation of genomic or metabolomics studies can extend the contribution of the parent study by developing hybrid strategies that support both SNP association studies as well as coarse and fine mapping to evaluate possible genomic locations of causal variants.

Kardia SR; Chu J; Sowers MR

2006-09-01

 
 
 
 
121

Influence of mesonephros on foetal and neonatal rabbit gonads. I. Sex-steroid release by the testis in vitro  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The experiments were performed to study the influence of mesonephros on gonadal sex hormone release. Foetal and neonatal rabbit testes were cultured for 5 days, with and without their mesonephric tissue. The culture media were harvested every day and analyzed by RIA for the content of testosterone, progesterone and oestradiol. The development of the tissues were evaluated microscopically after culturing. The results show that between day 20 pc and day 1 pp the mesonephric tissue lowered the amounts of testosterone in co-cultures with testis. This effect disappears when the mesonephric derived cells develop the capacity to synthesize a meiosis inducing substance (MIS). A relationship between decrease of testosterone and secretion of MIS is discussed. It is concluded that the steroid producing cells of the testis, the Leydig cells, originate or are heavily influenced by mesonephros during early testicular organogenesis.

Grinsted, Jacob Peter; Byskov, A G

1982-01-01

122

Influx of testosterone-binding globulin (TeBG) and TeBG-bound sex steroid hormones into rat testis and prostate  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The availability of testosterone and estradiol to Sertoli and prostate cells is dependent upon 1) the permeability properties of the blood-tubular barrier (BTB) of the testis or prostate cell membrane, and 2) sex steroid binding to plasma proteins, such as albumin or testosterone-binding globulin (TeBG). Sex steroid influx into these tissues was studied after in vivo arterial bolus injections of (/sup 3/H)testosterone or (/sup 3/H)estradiol in anesthetized rats. Both testosterone and estradiol were readily cleared across the BTB or prostate cell membrane in the absence of plasma proteins and in the presence of human pregnancy serum, in which testosterone or estradiol are 80-95% distributed to TeBG. The extravascular extraction of (/sup 3/H)TeBG across the BTB or prostate plasma membrane (73 +/- 2% (+/- SE) and 92 +/- 9%, respectively) was significantly greater than extraction of (/sup 3/H)albumin or other plasma space markers and indicative of a rapid first pass clearance of TeBG by Sertoli or prostate cells. In summary, these studies indicate that 1) testosterone and estradiol are readily cleared by Sertoli and prostate cells; 2) albumin- and TeBG-bound sex steroids represent the major circulating pool of bioavailable hormone for testis or prostate; and 3) the TeBG-sex steroid complex may be nearly completely available for influx through the BTB or prostate plasma membrane.

Sakiyama, R.; Pardridge, W.M.; Musto, N.A.

1988-07-01

123

Immunohistochemical analysis of p53 protein over-expression in endometrial carcinomas: inverse correlation with sex steroid receptor status.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Mutations of the tumour suppressor p53 gene have been reported in a variety of human malignant tumours, and are frequently associated with over-expression of p53 protein. To examine the significance of p53 gene alteration in endometrial carcinomas, we studied the immunohistochemical reactivity with a monoclonal antibody against p53 (PAb 1801) in 30 endometrial carcinomas as well as in 64 normal endometria. The presence or absence of correlation of p53 over-expression with the clinicopathological features and with the immunohistochemical expression of sex steroid receptors (oestrogen receptors; ER, progesterone receptors; PR) was also analysed. Expression of p53 was found in none of 64 normal endometria, but was identified in 5 of the 30 (16.7%) endometrial carcinomas. All 5 of the p53-positive tumours developed in women more than 3 years post-menopause, whereas the carcinomas in 5 pre-menopausal women and 3 women less than 3 years post-menopause were p53-negative. None of the 5 p53-positive carcinomas was associated with adjacent endometrial hyperplasia. Two of the 5 p53-positive tumours showed non-endometrioid histology: serous papillary and clear cell carcinomas. In contrast, 6 carcinomas accompanied by adjacent hyperplasia were p53-negative. In addition, ER and/or PR expression was found in none of the 5 p53-positive tumours, but was present in 21 of the 25 p53-negative tumours (p < 0.01). These clinicopathological features of p53-positive carcinomas and the inverse correlation of p53 immunoreactivity with sex steroid receptor status suggest that p53 over-expression is frequent in a specific category of endometrial carcinoma, presumably oestrogen-unrelated tumours.

Koshiyama M; Konishi I; Wang DP; Mandai M; Komatsu T; Yamamoto S; Nanbu K; Naito MF; Mori T

1993-01-01

124

Sexual activity and plasma levels of sex steroids in the aspic viper Vipera aspis L. (Reptilia, Viperidae).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Reproductive behavior and associated sexual activity was studied in individual male and female Vipera aspis over a 3-year period in western France in an attempt to correlate mating behavior with blood levels of gonadal sex steroids. Males had higher average levels of both testosterone (T) and 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) than females. Levels of progesterone (P) did not differ significantly between the two sexes but estradiol-17 beta (E2) concentrations were significantly higher in females during the season of mating. Spring mating behavior and copulation in males was associated with significantly increased levels of T and DHT, compared with postmating males; and a similar, but not significant trend, was evident with autumnal mating. The only statistically significant hormonal difference detected in males showing no sexual activity in autumn, was an elevated level of E2 at 0.52 +/- 0.20 ng/ml compared with 0.09 +/- 0.03 ng/ml in spring-breeding males (P = 0.05). Estrus in females is associated with increased levels of all four steroids but significant only for E2 and DHT. Levels of P were significantly reduced in females displaying seasonal anestrous in the spring immediately following reproduction. Females not displaying estrus in either spring or autumn had significantly lower plasma DHT and E2. Although mating behavior in males is associated statistically with elevated levels of T and DHT, a tight correlation is not obvious at the individual level, suggesting that increased concentrations of androgens are a necessary, but not sufficient, condition for mating. The data from V. aspis suggest that, as in a number of other reptilian species, high circulating levels of androgens function to "condition" or "organize" sexual behavior in males which may be displayed at some later time, well after actual levels have fallen, thus engendering the impression that reproductive behavior may be temporally dissociated from essential hormonal stimuli.

Saint Girons H; Bradshaw SD; Bradshaw FJ

1993-09-01

125

Sexual activity and plasma levels of sex steroids in the aspic viper Vipera aspis L. (Reptilia, Viperidae).  

Science.gov (United States)

Reproductive behavior and associated sexual activity was studied in individual male and female Vipera aspis over a 3-year period in western France in an attempt to correlate mating behavior with blood levels of gonadal sex steroids. Males had higher average levels of both testosterone (T) and 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) than females. Levels of progesterone (P) did not differ significantly between the two sexes but estradiol-17 beta (E2) concentrations were significantly higher in females during the season of mating. Spring mating behavior and copulation in males was associated with significantly increased levels of T and DHT, compared with postmating males; and a similar, but not significant trend, was evident with autumnal mating. The only statistically significant hormonal difference detected in males showing no sexual activity in autumn, was an elevated level of E2 at 0.52 +/- 0.20 ng/ml compared with 0.09 +/- 0.03 ng/ml in spring-breeding males (P = 0.05). Estrus in females is associated with increased levels of all four steroids but significant only for E2 and DHT. Levels of P were significantly reduced in females displaying seasonal anestrous in the spring immediately following reproduction. Females not displaying estrus in either spring or autumn had significantly lower plasma DHT and E2. Although mating behavior in males is associated statistically with elevated levels of T and DHT, a tight correlation is not obvious at the individual level, suggesting that increased concentrations of androgens are a necessary, but not sufficient, condition for mating. The data from V. aspis suggest that, as in a number of other reptilian species, high circulating levels of androgens function to "condition" or "organize" sexual behavior in males which may be displayed at some later time, well after actual levels have fallen, thus engendering the impression that reproductive behavior may be temporally dissociated from essential hormonal stimuli. PMID:8224772

Saint Girons, H; Bradshaw, S D; Bradshaw, F J

1993-09-01

126

Effects of dopamine 2 receptor antagonist on sex steroid levels, oocyte maturation and spawning performances in Waigieu seaperch (Psammoperca waigiensis).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present study has investigated the effects of domperidone (DOM), a dopamine 2 receptor antagonist, on plasma steroid hormone levels and reproductive performances of a female tropical marine finfish, Waigieu seaperch (Psammoperca waigiensis), with potential for cultivation in Vietnam. We showed that oral treatment of DOM during early stage of the reproductive cycle had no significant effects on the maturation and reproductive performances of the female fish, while plasma steroid hormone (testosterone (T), 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT), 17?-estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P)) levels were modulated based on month, DOM dose and the individual hormones measured. Overall, these findings suggest that DOM may not be needed for the induction of maturation and spawning of this species under aquaculture conditions. The data in the present study are significant in highlighting practical efforts for reducing drug use, production costs and for a sustainable aquaculture in a developing country such as Vietnam.

Pham HQ; Arukwe A

2013-04-01

127

The macrophage low-grade inflammation marker sCD163 is modulated by exogenous sex steroids  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Soluble CD163 (sCD163) is a novel marker linked to states of low grade inflammation such as diabetes, obesity, liver disease and atherosclerosis, all prevalent in subjects with Turner and Klinefelter Syndromes. We aimed to assess the levels of sCD163 and the regulation of sCD163 in regards to treatment with sex hormone therapy in males with and without Klinefelter Syndrome and females with and without Turner Syndrome. Males with Klinefelter Syndrome (n=70) and age-matched controls (n=71) participating in a cross-sectional study and 12 healthy males from an experimental hypogonadism study. Females with Turner Syndrome (n=8) and healthy age- matched controls (n=8) participating in a randomized cross-over trial. The intervention comprised of treatment with sex steroids. Males with Klinefelter Syndrome had higher levels of sCD163 compared with controls (1.75 (0.47-6.90) and 1.36 (0.77-3.11) respectively, p

Thomsen, Henrik Holm; MØller, Holger Jon

2013-01-01

128

Steroid signaling system responds differently to temperature and hormone manipulation in the red-eared slider turtle (Trachemys scripta elegans), a reptile with temperature-dependent sex determination.  

Science.gov (United States)

Many reptiles, including the red-eared slider turtle (Trachemys scripta elegans), exhibit temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD). Temperature determines gonadal sex during the middle of embryogenesis, or the temperature-sensitive period (TSP), when gonadal sex is labile to both temperature and hormones--particularly estrogen. The biological actions of steroid hormones are mediated by their receptors as defined here as the classic transcriptional regulation of target genes. To elucidate estrogen action during sex determination, we examined estrogen receptor alpha (Esr1, hereafter referred to as ERalpha), estrogen receptor beta (Esr2, hereafter referred to as ERbeta), and androgen receptor (Ar, hereafter referred to as AR) expression in slider turtle gonads before, during and after the TSP, as well as following sex reversal via temperature or steroid hormone manipulation. ERalpha and AR levels spike at the female-producing temperature while ovarian sex is determined, but none of the receptors exhibited sexually dimorphic localization within the gonad prior to morphological differentiation. All three receptors respond differentially to sex-reversing treatments. When shifted to female-producing temperatures, embryos maintain ERalpha and AR expression while ERbeta is reduced. When shifted to male-producing temperatures, medullary expression of all three receptors is reduced. Feminization via estradiol (E(2)) treatment at a male-producing temperature profoundly changed the expression patterns for all three receptors. ERalpha and ERbeta redirected to the cortex in E(2)-created ovaries, while AR medullary expression was transiently reduced. Although warmer incubation temperature and estrogen result in the same endpoint (ovarian development), our results indicate different steroid signaling patterns between temperature- and estrogen-induced feminization. PMID:18391529

Ramsey, M; Crews, D

2007-01-01

129

Changes in the content of sex steroid hormone receptors in the growing and regressing ovaries of Gallus domesticus during development.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sex steroids participate in the regulation of reproduction in female chickens. In this work, we determined the content of androgen receptor (AR), intracellular progesterone receptor isoforms (PR-A and PR-B), membrane progesterone receptor ? (mPR?) and estrogen receptor ? (ER-?) in the left growing and right regressing ovaries of Gallus domesticus from 13-day-old chicken embryos to 1-month-old chickens by western blot analysis. A marked difference in the morphological characteristics of the left and the right ovaries during development was observed. Results show a higher content of AR in the left ovary than in the right one in all ages. In the left ovary, the highest content of AR was observed on day 13 of embryonic development, and diminished with age. In the right ovary, AR was expressed from day 13 of embryonic development to 1-day-old, and became undetectable at 1-week and 1-month-old. In the left ovary, PR isoforms were not detected on day 13 of embryonic development, but they presented a marked expression after hatching. In the right ovary, the highest expression of both PR isoforms was found on 1-day-old, and significantly decreased with age. PR-B was the predominant isoform on 1-day and 1-month old in the left ovary, whereas PR-A was the predominant one on day 13 of embryonic development in the right ovary. Interestingly, mPR? was detected at 1-week and 1-month-old in the left ovary meanwhile in the right ovary, it was detected from day 13 of embryonic development to 1-day-old. ER-? was only detected in the left ovary from day 13 to 1-week-old, while in 1-month-old chickens, it was expressed in both ovaries. In the left ovary, ER-? content was lower from 1-day to 1-month-old as compared with day 13 of embryonic development. Our results demonstrate a differential expression of sex steroid hormone receptors between the left growing and the right regressing ovary, and throughout chickens' age; and this is the first report about mPR expression in birds. PMID:23660445

González-Morán, María Genoveva; González-Arenas, Aliesha; Germán-Castelán, Liliana; Camacho-Arroyo, Ignacio

2013-05-06

130

Mono-hydroxy methoxychlor alters levels of key sex steroids and steroidogenic enzymes in cultured mouse antral follicles  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Methoxychlor (MXC) is an organochlorine pesticide that reduces fertility in female rodents by decreasing antral follicle numbers and increasing follicular death. MXC is metabolized in the body to mono-hydroxy MXC (mono-OH). Little is known about the effects of mono-OH on the ovary. Thus, this work tested the hypothesis that mono-OH exposure decreases production of 17?-estradiol (E2) by cultured mouse antral follicles. Antral follicles were isolated from CD-1 mice (age 35-39 days) and exposed to dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), or mono-OH (0.1-10 ?g/mL) for 96 h. Media and follicles were collected for analysis of sex steroid levels and mRNA expression, respectively. Mono-OH treatment (10 ?g/mL) decreased E2 (DMSO: 3009.72 ± 744.99 ng/mL; mono-OH 0.1 ?g/mL: 1679.66 ± 461.99 ng/mL; 1 ?g/mL: 1752.72 ± 532.41 ng/mL; 10 ?g/mL: 45.89 ± 33.83 ng/mL), testosterone (DMSO: 15.43 ± 2.86 ng/mL; mono-OH 0.1 ?g/mL: 17.17 ± 4.71 ng/mL; 1 ?g/mL: 13.64 ± 3.53 ng/mL; 10 ?g/mL: 1.29 ± 0.23 ng/mL), androstenedione (DMSO: 1.92 ± 0.34 ng/mL; mono-OH 0.1 ?g/mL: 1.49 ± 0.43 ng/mL; 1 ?g/mL: 0.64 ± 0.31 ng/mL; 10 ?g/mL: 0.12 ± 0.06 ng/mL) and progesterone (DMSO: 24.11 ± 4.21 ng/mL; mono-OH 0.1 ?g/mL: 26.77 ± 4.41 ng/mL; 1 ?g/mL: 20.90 ± 3.75 ng/mL; 10 ?g/mL: 9.44 ± 2.97 ng/mL) levels. Mono-OH did not alter expression of Star, Hsd3b1, Hsd17b1 and Cyp1b1, but it did reduce levels of Cyp11a1, Cyp17a1 and Cyp19a1 mRNA. Collectively, these data suggest that mono-OH significantly decreases levels of key sex steroid hormones and the expression of enzymes required for steroidogenesis.

2010-12-01

131

Changes in the content of sex steroid hormone receptors in the growing and regressing ovaries of Gallus domesticus during development.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Sex steroids participate in the regulation of reproduction in female chickens. In this work, we determined the content of androgen receptor (AR), intracellular progesterone receptor isoforms (PR-A and PR-B), membrane progesterone receptor ? (mPR?) and estrogen receptor ? (ER-?) in the left growing and right regressing ovaries of Gallus domesticus from 13-day-old chicken embryos to 1-month-old chickens by western blot analysis. A marked difference in the morphological characteristics of the left and the right ovaries during development was observed. Results show a higher content of AR in the left ovary than in the right one in all ages. In the left ovary, the highest content of AR was observed on day 13 of embryonic development, and diminished with age. In the right ovary, AR was expressed from day 13 of embryonic development to 1-day-old, and became undetectable at 1-week and 1-month-old. In the left ovary, PR isoforms were not detected on day 13 of embryonic development, but they presented a marked expression after hatching. In the right ovary, the highest expression of both PR isoforms was found on 1-day-old, and significantly decreased with age. PR-B was the predominant isoform on 1-day and 1-month old in the left ovary, whereas PR-A was the predominant one on day 13 of embryonic development in the right ovary. Interestingly, mPR? was detected at 1-week and 1-month-old in the left ovary meanwhile in the right ovary, it was detected from day 13 of embryonic development to 1-day-old. ER-? was only detected in the left ovary from day 13 to 1-week-old, while in 1-month-old chickens, it was expressed in both ovaries. In the left ovary, ER-? content was lower from 1-day to 1-month-old as compared with day 13 of embryonic development. Our results demonstrate a differential expression of sex steroid hormone receptors between the left growing and the right regressing ovary, and throughout chickens' age; and this is the first report about mPR expression in birds.

González-Morán MG; González-Arenas A; Germán-Castelán L; Camacho-Arroyo I

2013-08-01

132

The effects of sex steroid treatments on sexual differentiation in a unisexual lizard, Cnemidophorus uniparens (Teiidae).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Cnemidophorus uniparens is a parthenogenetic unisexual species of lizard in which each individual develops as a female, making it a unique animal model for the study of sexual differentiation. In one study, administration of exogenous testosterone before and/or after hatching influenced the development of the gonads, the accessory reproductive ducts, the renal sex segment of the mesonephric kidney, and the femoral glands, a secondary sex character. Testosterone treatment also affected the cross-sectional area of the gonad and the proportions of cortical and medullary tissues present in the developing gonad. The oviducts and femoral glands of testosterone-treated individuals were hypertrophied; the collecting tubules of the kidney of these animals contained granules, an androgen-dependent, sexually dimorphic character in squamate reptiles. In another study, testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, or estradiol were administered to C. uniparens embryos. No treatment effects on gonadal development were detected on the day of hatching. However, estradiol, but not testosterone and dihydrotestosterone, stimulated development of the oviducts. Taken together these studies suggest that androgen aromatization may play a role in sexual differentiation in lizards.

Billy AJ; Crews D

1986-02-01

133

The effects of sex steroid treatments on sexual differentiation in a unisexual lizard, Cnemidophorus uniparens (Teiidae).  

Science.gov (United States)

Cnemidophorus uniparens is a parthenogenetic unisexual species of lizard in which each individual develops as a female, making it a unique animal model for the study of sexual differentiation. In one study, administration of exogenous testosterone before and/or after hatching influenced the development of the gonads, the accessory reproductive ducts, the renal sex segment of the mesonephric kidney, and the femoral glands, a secondary sex character. Testosterone treatment also affected the cross-sectional area of the gonad and the proportions of cortical and medullary tissues present in the developing gonad. The oviducts and femoral glands of testosterone-treated individuals were hypertrophied; the collecting tubules of the kidney of these animals contained granules, an androgen-dependent, sexually dimorphic character in squamate reptiles. In another study, testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, or estradiol were administered to C. uniparens embryos. No treatment effects on gonadal development were detected on the day of hatching. However, estradiol, but not testosterone and dihydrotestosterone, stimulated development of the oviducts. Taken together these studies suggest that androgen aromatization may play a role in sexual differentiation in lizards. PMID:3959084

Billy, A J; Crews, D

1986-02-01

134

The impact of common genetic variations in genes of the sex hormone metabolic pathways on steroid hormone levels and prostate cancer aggressiveness.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Our previous work suggested that there was no significant association between plasma steroid hormone levels and prostate cancer tumor grade at diagnosis. In this study, we systematically tested the hypothesis that inherited variations in the androgen and estrogen metabolic pathways may be associated with plasma levels of steroid hormones, or prostate cancer aggressiveness at diagnosis. Plasma hormone levels including total testosterone, total estradiol, and sex hormone-binding globulin were measured in a cohort of 508 patients identified with localized prostate cancer. D'Amico risk classification at diagnosis was also determined. A total of 143 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from 30 genes that are involved in androgen and estrogen metabolism were selected for analysis. The global association of genotypes with plasma hormone levels and prostate cancer aggressiveness (D'Amico risk classification) was statistically analyzed. Q values were estimated to account for multiple testing. We observed significant associations between plasma testosterone level and SNPs in HSD17B2 (rs1424151), HSD17B3 (rs9409407), and HSD17B1 (rs12602084), with P values of 0.002, 0.006, and 0.006, respectively. We also observed borderline significant associations between prostate aggressiveness at diagnosis and SNPs in AKR1C1 (rs11252845; P = 0.005), UGT2B15 (rs2045100; P = 0.007), and HSD17B12 (rs7932905; P = 0.008). No individual SNP was associated with both clinical variables. Genetic variants of genes in hormone metabolic pathways may influence plasma androgen levels or prostate cancer aggressiveness. However, it seems that the inherited variations affecting plasma hormone levels differ from those affecting disease aggressiveness.

Sun T; Oh WK; Jacobus S; Regan M; Pomerantz M; Freedman ML; Lee GS; Kantoff PW

2011-12-01

135

The impact of common genetic variations in genes of the sex hormone metabolic pathways on steroid hormone levels and prostate cancer aggressiveness.  

Science.gov (United States)

Our previous work suggested that there was no significant association between plasma steroid hormone levels and prostate cancer tumor grade at diagnosis. In this study, we systematically tested the hypothesis that inherited variations in the androgen and estrogen metabolic pathways may be associated with plasma levels of steroid hormones, or prostate cancer aggressiveness at diagnosis. Plasma hormone levels including total testosterone, total estradiol, and sex hormone-binding globulin were measured in a cohort of 508 patients identified with localized prostate cancer. D'Amico risk classification at diagnosis was also determined. A total of 143 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from 30 genes that are involved in androgen and estrogen metabolism were selected for analysis. The global association of genotypes with plasma hormone levels and prostate cancer aggressiveness (D'Amico risk classification) was statistically analyzed. Q values were estimated to account for multiple testing. We observed significant associations between plasma testosterone level and SNPs in HSD17B2 (rs1424151), HSD17B3 (rs9409407), and HSD17B1 (rs12602084), with P values of 0.002, 0.006, and 0.006, respectively. We also observed borderline significant associations between prostate aggressiveness at diagnosis and SNPs in AKR1C1 (rs11252845; P = 0.005), UGT2B15 (rs2045100; P = 0.007), and HSD17B12 (rs7932905; P = 0.008). No individual SNP was associated with both clinical variables. Genetic variants of genes in hormone metabolic pathways may influence plasma androgen levels or prostate cancer aggressiveness. However, it seems that the inherited variations affecting plasma hormone levels differ from those affecting disease aggressiveness. PMID:21900597

Sun, Tong; Oh, William K; Jacobus, Susanna; Regan, Meredith; Pomerantz, Mark; Freedman, Matthew L; Lee, Gwo-Shu Mary; Kantoff, Philip W

2011-09-07

136

Effects of steroids and sex reversal on intestinal absorption of L-(/sup 14/C)leucine in vivo, in rainbow trout, Salmo gairdneri  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The effects of steroids (17 alpha-methyltestosterone (MT), 17 beta-oestradiol (E2)), and of sex reversal (XX male) on intestinal absorption and accumulation of L-(/sup 14/C)leucine (5 mM), were investigated in unanaesthetized rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri), using an in vivo gut perfusion technique. Each steroid was luminally perfused through the gut at a concentration of 50 micrograms/ml perfusate, during five separate perfusions carried out on the same fish at 30-min intervals (perfusion periods 1 to 5), for a total of 120 min at 14 degrees. Experiments were also conducted on masculinized, genetically female trout (XX male) with steroid-free perfusate. MT treatment significantly increased the intestinal absorption of radioleucine during periods 1 and 2, whilst E2 was without effect. Neither MT nor E2 influenced intestinal accumulation (mid- and hindgut) of radioleucine, and accumulation of /sup 14/C-solutes in skeletal muscle. Sex reversal, however, whilst having no effect on leucine absorption, nevertheless significantly increased intestinal accumulation of radioleucine, and accumulation of /sup 14/C-solutes in skeletal muscle. The effects observed in the present study are in agreement with previous work in trout using everted gut sac preparations. It is suggested that the growth-promoting effects of anabolic-androgenic steroids in fish may be partly explained by their action on gastrointestinal function.

Habibi, H.R.; Ince, B.W.

1983-12-01

137

Effects of steroids and sex reversal on intestinal absorption of L-[14C]leucine in vivo, in rainbow trout, Salmo gairdneri  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The effects of steroids (17 alpha-methyltestosterone (MT), 17 beta-oestradiol (E2)), and of sex reversal (XX male) on intestinal absorption and accumulation of L-[14C]leucine (5 mM), were investigated in unanaesthetized rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri), using an in vivo gut perfusion technique. Each steroid was luminally perfused through the gut at a concentration of 50 micrograms/ml perfusate, during five separate perfusions carried out on the same fish at 30-min intervals (perfusion periods 1 to 5), for a total of 120 min at 14 degrees. Experiments were also conducted on masculinized, genetically female trout (XX male) with steroid-free perfusate. MT treatment significantly increased the intestinal absorption of radioleucine during periods 1 and 2, whilst E2 was without effect. Neither MT nor E2 influenced intestinal accumulation (mid- and hindgut) of radioleucine, and accumulation of 14C-solutes in skeletal muscle. Sex reversal, however, whilst having no effect on leucine absorption, nevertheless significantly increased intestinal accumulation of radioleucine, and accumulation of 14C-solutes in skeletal muscle. The effects observed in the present study are in agreement with previous work in trout using everted gut sac preparations. It is suggested that the growth-promoting effects of anabolic-androgenic steroids in fish may be partly explained by their action on gastrointestinal function

1983-01-01

138

Sex steroids effects on the molting process of the helminth human parasite Trichinella spiralis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We evaluated the in vitro effects of estradiol, progesterone, and testosterone on the molting process, which is the initial and crucial step in the development of the muscular larvae (ML or L1) to adult worm. Testosterone had no significative effect on the molting rate of the parasite, however, progesterone decreased the molting rate about a 50% in a concentration- and time-independent pattern, while estradiol had a slight effect (10%). The gene expression of caveolin-1, a specific gene used as a marker of parasite development, showed that progesterone and estradiol downregulated its expression, while protein expression was unaffected. By using flow citometry, a possible protein that is recognized by a commercial antiprogesterone receptor antibody was detected. These findings may have strong implications in the host-parasite coevolution, in the sex-associated susceptibility to this infection and could point out to possibilities to use antihormones to inhibit parasite development.

Hernández-Bello R; Ramirez-Nieto R; Muñiz-Hernández S; Nava-Castro K; Pavón L; Sánchez-Acosta AG; Morales-Montor J

2011-01-01

139

Sex steroids effects on the molting process of the helminth human parasite Trichinella spiralis.  

Science.gov (United States)

We evaluated the in vitro effects of estradiol, progesterone, and testosterone on the molting process, which is the initial and crucial step in the development of the muscular larvae (ML or L1) to adult worm. Testosterone had no significative effect on the molting rate of the parasite, however, progesterone decreased the molting rate about a 50% in a concentration- and time-independent pattern, while estradiol had a slight effect (10%). The gene expression of caveolin-1, a specific gene used as a marker of parasite development, showed that progesterone and estradiol downregulated its expression, while protein expression was unaffected. By using flow citometry, a possible protein that is recognized by a commercial antiprogesterone receptor antibody was detected. These findings may have strong implications in the host-parasite coevolution, in the sex-associated susceptibility to this infection and could point out to possibilities to use antihormones to inhibit parasite development. PMID:22162638

Hernández-Bello, Romel; Ramirez-Nieto, Ricardo; Muñiz-Hernández, Saé; Nava-Castro, Karen; Pavón, Lenin; Sánchez-Acosta, Ana Gabriela; Morales-Montor, Jorge

2011-11-03

140

Comparison of oogenesis and sex steroid profiles between twice and once annually spawning of rainbow trout females (Oncorhynchus mykiss).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study compares the gonadosomatic index (GSI), oocyte growth (OG), gonadal histology, and plasma level concentrations of sex hormones (estradiol-17? (E2) and vitellogenin (V)) of twice-spawning (T-SP) and once-spawning (O-SP) females of rainbow trout throughout the additional and the normal reproductive cycle, respectively. In T-SP, the GSI values rapidly increase from May to November, in contrast to O-SP, which showed low and constant GSI values (1.19 to 14.5 and 1.19 to 0.63, resp.). T-SP exhibited a marked increase of OG in the same period, reaching a maximum diameter of 4,900 ± 141.42??m, in contrast to O-SP, which presented a slow OG. The gonadal histology of T-SP agreed with the general pattern of ovogenesis observed for O-SP (vitellogenesis, ovulation, and recrudescence); however, this process was nonsynchronous between the two breeder groups. Plasma steroid levels showed significant variation during oogenesis, which agreed with the GSI, OG, and gonadal histology patterns. The level of E2 increased to a maximum value of 26.2?ng/mL and 36.0?ng/mL in O-SP and T-SP, respectively, one or two months before the spawning event where vitellogenesis was fully active. The V concentrations followed a pattern similar to those of E2.

Estay F; Colihueque N; Araneda C

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Sex-related differences in metabolism of 14C-acetate in response to steroid hormones by isolated rat hepatocytes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] No differences were found in the basal rate of lipid synthesis from 14C-acetate in hepatocytes isolated from mature male and virgin female rats. Lipid biosynthesis was stimulated 22-43% in the female 60 min after the addition of gonadal steroids. This rapid response suggests that subtle differences exist in the enzyme profile controlling the pathways of lipid metabolism in male and female rats. This difference may have been determined genetically or acquired after a period of sex-dependent hormonal stimulation beginning with puberty. (orig.)[de] Grundsaetzlich wurden im Hinblick auf die Lipidsynthese aus 14C-Acetat keine Unterschiede zwischen isolierten Leberzellen von geschlechtsreifen maennlichen und noch nicht geschlechtsreifen weiblichen Ratten festgestellt. Die Lipid-Biosynthese steigerte sich bei den weiblichen Ratten innerhalb von 60 Minuten nach der Administration von Gonadensteroiden um 22-43%. Diese rasche Reaktion laesst vermuten, dass zwischen maennlichen und weiblichen Ratten minimale Unterschiede im Enzymprofil bestehen, das die Wege des Enzymstoffwechsels kontrolliert. Dieser Unterschied ist entweder genetisch festgelegt, oder er wird nach einer Periode geschlechtsabhaengiger hormoneller Stimulation erworben, die mit der beginnenden Geschlechtsreife einsetzt. (orig./AK)

1975-01-01

142

Steroid hormone signaling is involved in the age-dependent behavioral response to sex pheromone in the adult male moth Agrotis ipsilon.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In most animals, including insects, male reproduction depends on the detection and processing of female-produced sex pheromones. In the male moth, Agrotis ipsilon, both behavioral response and neuronal sensitivity in the primary olfactory center, the antennal lobe (AL), to female sex pheromone are age- and hormone-dependent. In many animal species, steroids are known to act at the brain level to modulate the responsiveness to sexually relevant chemical cues. We aimed to address the hypothesis that the steroidal system and in particular 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E), the main insect steroid hormone, might also be involved in this olfactory plasticity. Therefore, we first cloned the nuclear ecdysteroid receptor EcR (AipsEcR) and its partner Ultraspiracle (AipsUSP) of A. ipsilon, the expression of which increased concomitantly with age in ALs. Injection of 20E into young sexually immature males led to an increase in both responsiveness to sex pheromone and amount of AipsEcR and AipsUSP in their ALs. Conversely, the behavioral response decreased in older, sexually mature males after injection of cucurbitacin B (CurB), an antagonist of the 20E/EcR/USP complex. Also, the amount of AipsEcR and AipsUSP significantly declined after treatment with CurB. These results suggest that 20E is involved in the expression of sexual behavior via the EcR/USP signaling pathway, probably acting on central pheromone processing in A. ipsilon.

Duportets L; Maria A; Vitecek S; Gadenne C; Debernard S

2013-06-01

143

Effects of female sex steroids on the development of autoimmune thyroiditis in thymectomized and irradiated rats  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Female PVG/c strain rats are more susceptible to induction of autoimmune thyroiditis initiated by thymectomy and irradiation (Tx-X) than similarly treated males. Pre-pubertal ovariectomy further augmented susceptibility. Administration of oestrogen or progesterone to groups of 4 weeks old ovariectomized Tx-X animals over a period of 15 weeks significantly altered induction of this condition. Oestrogen administered repeatedly at dose levels of 1 ..mu..g and 10 ..mu..g/100 g body weight resulted in partial suppression of thyroiditis with a corresponding change in the incidence of antibodies to thyroglobulin. Oestrogen administered by a single implantation had a suppressive effect on the development of autoimmunity in ovariectomized Tx-X females. Oestrogen given by either of these procedures also reduced the incidence of thyroiditis and autoantibody induction in orchidectomized male Tx-X rats. In contrast, repeated administration of progesterone at a dose of 250 mg and 1,500 ..mu..g/100 g body weight appeared to augment levels of autoimmunity. It is concluded that the differential susceptibility to the induction of autoimmunity by thymectomy and irradiation is the direct consequence of sex hormonal influences. The higher incidence of the disease in the female would appear to be determined by the balance between the activity of oestrogen and progesterone which would further appear to have antagonistic influences in this particular situation.

Ahmed, S.A.; Young, P.R.; Penhale, W.J. (Murdoch Univ. (Australia). School of Veterinary Studies)

1983-11-01

144

Sex steroid hormones regulate the expression of growth-associated protein 43, microtubule-associated protein 2, synapsin 1 and actin in the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus is well known for its involvement in the regulation of the female reproductive behavior. The dendritic trees of neurons in its ventrolateral division (VMNvl), the dendritic spines, and the dendritic and spine synapses undergo alterations along the estrous cycle. Because these changes are conspicuous, we thought of interest to examine the influence of sex steroids in the levels of the structural proteins of axons and dendrites. The VMNvl of female rats at all phases of the estrous cycle was labeled for growth-associated protein-43, microtubule-associated protein 2, synapsin 1 and actin. The intensity of the labeling was measured using a modified Brightness-Area-Product method that is sensitive to variations the size of the VMN. The brightness per unit area of these proteins did not undergo significant variations over the estrous cycle, except synapsin 1 that was significantly reduced in diestrus relative to the remaining phases of the ovarian cycle. Conversely, the Brightness-Area-Product of all labeled proteins changed along the estrous cycle and was greater at proestrus than at all other phases. Our results show the presence of estrous cycle-related oscillations in the levels of the structural proteins that are involved in dendritic and synaptic plasticity.

Sá SI; Madeira MD

2012-03-01

145

Sex steroid hormones are not altered in great saphenous veins after varicose vein treatment in male patients.  

Science.gov (United States)

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to assess differences in blood samples (sex steroid hormone levels and blood counts) before and after surgical treatment of incompetent great saphenous veins (GSV) in males. METHODS: Antecubital vein and GSV blood samples were taken from 11 men with varicose veins and GSV reflux before and after treatment. Six patients were treated with high ligation, stripping and phlebectomy. Five patients were treated with endoluminal radiofrequency ablation and phlebectomy. After a four-year follow-up period (FU) cubital vein and GSV blood samples were taken again. RESULTS: In men with varicose veins, significantly higher (P < 0.05) serum testosterone (median 25.18 nmol/L, range 8.82-225.1) and oestradiol (median 179 pmol/L, range 79-941) levels were found in the saphenous vein samples before and after the FU (testosterone 18.8 nmol/L, range 7.96-83.1, oestradiol 171 pmol/L range 125-304) compared with the cubital vein samples before therapy (testosterone 15.72 nmol/L, range 8.36-23.29; oestradiol 84 pmol/L, range 41-147) and after the FU (testosterone 14.5 nmol/L, range 6.10-22.2, oestradiol 117 pmol/L, range 95-165). After the FU, one patient demonstrated recurrent varicose veins with groin neovascularization. Another presented with axial reflux of the anterior accessory saphenous vein. Further differences in blood counts and serum androstenedione levels between the upper and lower extremities were not detected. CONCLUSION: The differences between testosterone and oestradiol levels in the leg veins compared with the cubital veins persist after treating men with refluxing saphenous veins. These results suggest that local hormone regulation may be different between leg and arm veins in men with varicose veins. PMID:23508002

Kendler, M; Kratzsch, J; Wetzig, T; Simon, J C

2013-03-18

146

Sex steroid hormones are not altered in great saphenous veins after varicose vein treatment in male patients.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to assess differences in blood samples (sex steroid hormone levels and blood counts) before and after surgical treatment of incompetent great saphenous veins (GSV) in males. METHODS: Antecubital vein and GSV blood samples were taken from 11 men with varicose veins and GSV reflux before and after treatment. Six patients were treated with high ligation, stripping and phlebectomy. Five patients were treated with endoluminal radiofrequency ablation and phlebectomy. After a four-year follow-up period (FU) cubital vein and GSV blood samples were taken again. RESULTS: In men with varicose veins, significantly higher (P < 0.05) serum testosterone (median 25.18 nmol/L, range 8.82-225.1) and oestradiol (median 179 pmol/L, range 79-941) levels were found in the saphenous vein samples before and after the FU (testosterone 18.8 nmol/L, range 7.96-83.1, oestradiol 171 pmol/L range 125-304) compared with the cubital vein samples before therapy (testosterone 15.72 nmol/L, range 8.36-23.29; oestradiol 84 pmol/L, range 41-147) and after the FU (testosterone 14.5 nmol/L, range 6.10-22.2, oestradiol 117 pmol/L, range 95-165). After the FU, one patient demonstrated recurrent varicose veins with groin neovascularization. Another presented with axial reflux of the anterior accessory saphenous vein. Further differences in blood counts and serum androstenedione levels between the upper and lower extremities were not detected. CONCLUSION: The differences between testosterone and oestradiol levels in the leg veins compared with the cubital veins persist after treating men with refluxing saphenous veins. These results suggest that local hormone regulation may be different between leg and arm veins in men with varicose veins.

Kendler M; Kratzsch J; Wetzig T; Simon JC

2013-03-01

147

Cytotoxicity, cellular localisation and biomolecular interaction of non-covalent metallo-intercalators with appended sex hormone steroid vectors.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A range of terpyridine platinum(II) metallo-intercalators with bioactive steroids attached has been created with the aim of localizing cytotoxic drugs. Complexes where the steroid does not interfere with access to the terpyridine are shown to retain potent cytotoxicity and show certain selectivity t...

148

Role of hypoestrogenism or sex steroid antagonism in adhesion formation after myometrial surgery in primates.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To determine the contribution of estrogen in the development of pelvic adhesions during myometrial surgery. DESIGN: A randomized, prospective study in the nonhuman primate. SETTING: A primate colony, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Eastern Virginia Medical School. INTERVENTIONS: All primates were assigned prospectively to one of three treatment groups: [1] GnRH analogue (GnRH-a), [2] mifepristone, or [3] vehicle control. After 3 months of treatment, a standard uterine fundal hysterotomy, for full thickness endometrial biopsy, was performed at the time of exploratory laparotomy, with subsequent scoring of utero-omental adhesions to the hysterotomy site at a future staging procedure based upon adhesion area, vascularity, and tenacity. Serum was drawn on the day of surgery for E2 determination. Endometrial height, from the surface interface between the endometrium and myometrium, was used as a bioassay of estrogen activity. RESULTS: The hypoestrogenic (GnRH-a) group and the mifepristone group had significantly fewer utero-omental adhesions compared with the normally cycling control monkeys as measured by a lower adhesion score. Similarly, the endometrial thickness was significantly reduced in the GnRH-a and mifepristone groups (one-third) compared with the cycling controls, demonstrating the effects of either hypoestrogenism or noncompetitive estrogen antagonism. Serum E2 on the day of surgery was predictive of the postoperative adhesion score by both a regression analysis and analysis of covariance. CONCLUSIONS: The actions of E2 seem to have a dramatic effect on the formation of pelvic adhesions after myometrial surgery.

Grow DR; Coddington CC; Hsiu JG; Mikich Y; Hodgen GD

1996-07-01

149

Variation in temporal measures of swallowing: sex and volume effects.  

Science.gov (United States)

Temporal measures of healthy swallowing appear to be variably sensitive to bolus and participant factors based on a recent meta-analysis of studies in the deglutition literature. In this carefully controlled study of healthy young volunteers, balanced for sex and height, we sought to understand the influence of bolus volume and participant sex on the three durations and three intervals most frequently reported in the deglutition literature. Three boluses per target volume (5, 10, and 20 ml) were repeated for each participant (n = 20, 10 male) using a spontaneous swallow paradigm in lateral view videofluoroscopy. None of the temporal durations or intervals was found to be correlated with participant height above an a priori cutoff point of r ? 0.3. Further, none of the temporal durations or intervals varied significantly by participant sex. Bolus volume significantly impacted upper esophageal sphincter (UES) opening duration, laryngeal closure duration, the laryngeal closure-to-UES opening interval, and the pharyngeal transit time interval, but not hyoid movement duration or the stage transition duration interval. When participants are sampled in such a manner as to represent the range of height reported to be typical for both sexes in the population, sex does not significantly influence temporal measures of swallowing. PMID:23271165

Molfenter, Sonja Melanie; Steele, Catriona M

2012-12-28

150

Melatonin and ethanol intake exert opposite effects on circulating estradiol and progesterone and differentially regulate sex steroid receptors in the ovaries, oviducts, and uteri of adult rats.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Chronic ethanol intake is associated with sex hormone disturbances, and it is well known that melatonin plays a key role in regulating several reproductive processes. We report the effects of ethanol intake and melatonin treatment (at doses of 100 ?g/100 g BW/day) on sex hormones and steroid receptors in the ovaries, oviducts and uteri of ethanol-preferring rats. After 150 days of treatment, animals were euthanized, and tissue samples were harvested to evaluate androgen, estrogen, progesterone and melatonin receptor subunits (AR, ER-? and ER-?, PRA, PRB and MT1R, respectively). Melatonin decreased estradiol (E2) and increased progesterone (P4) and 6-sulfatoxymelatonin (6-STM), while an ethanol-melatonin combination reduced both P4 and E2. Ovarian AR was not influenced by either treatment, and oviduct AR was reduced after ethanol-melatonin combination. Oviduct ER-?, ER-? and uterine ER-? were down-regulated by either ethanol or melatonin. Conversely, ovarian PRA and PRB were positively regulated by ethanol and ethanol-melatonin combination, whereas PRA was down-regulated in the uterus and oviduct after ethanol consumption. MT1R was increased in ovaries and uteri of melatonin-treated rats. Ethanol and melatonin exert opposite effects on E2 and P4, and they differentially regulate the expression of sex steroid receptors in female reproductive tissues.

Chuffa LG; Seiva FR; Fávaro WJ; Amorim JP; Teixeira GR; Mendes LO; Fioruci-Fontanelli BA; Pinheiro PF; Martinez M; Martinez FE

2013-08-01

151

Melatonin and ethanol intake exert opposite effects on circulating estradiol and progesterone and differentially regulate sex steroid receptors in the ovaries, oviducts, and uteri of adult rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Chronic ethanol intake is associated with sex hormone disturbances, and it is well known that melatonin plays a key role in regulating several reproductive processes. We report the effects of ethanol intake and melatonin treatment (at doses of 100 ?g/100 g BW/day) on sex hormones and steroid receptors in the ovaries, oviducts and uteri of ethanol-preferring rats. After 150 days of treatment, animals were euthanized, and tissue samples were harvested to evaluate androgen, estrogen, progesterone and melatonin receptor subunits (AR, ER-? and ER-?, PRA, PRB and MT1R, respectively). Melatonin decreased estradiol (E2) and increased progesterone (P4) and 6-sulfatoxymelatonin (6-STM), while an ethanol-melatonin combination reduced both P4 and E2. Ovarian AR was not influenced by either treatment, and oviduct AR was reduced after ethanol-melatonin combination. Oviduct ER-?, ER-? and uterine ER-? were down-regulated by either ethanol or melatonin. Conversely, ovarian PRA and PRB were positively regulated by ethanol and ethanol-melatonin combination, whereas PRA was down-regulated in the uterus and oviduct after ethanol consumption. MT1R was increased in ovaries and uteri of melatonin-treated rats. Ethanol and melatonin exert opposite effects on E2 and P4, and they differentially regulate the expression of sex steroid receptors in female reproductive tissues. PMID:23591044

Chuffa, Luiz Gustavo A; Seiva, Fábio R F; Fávaro, Wagner José; Amorim, João Paulo A; Teixeira, Giovana R; Mendes, Leonardo O; Fioruci-Fontanelli, Beatriz A; Pinheiro, Patricia Fernanda F; Martinez, Marcelo; Martinez, Francisco Eduardo

2013-04-13

152

The effects of cyclic AMP, sex steroids and global hypomethylation on the expression of genes controlling the activity of the renin-angiotensin system in placental cell lines.  

Science.gov (United States)

The placental renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is involved in placentation. We have shown that prorenin mRNA (REN) is expressed in a first trimester trophoblast cell line (HTR-8/SVneo) but not in a choriocarcinoma cell line (BeWo). We attempted to stimulate RAS expression in these cells by cAMP, 5'-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (AZA; an inhibitor of methylation), cAMP and AZA combined, and the sex steroids medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) and estradiol-17? (E(2)) with and without cAMP. RAS mRNAs were measured by qPCR and prorenin concentration in supernatants measured by an ELISA. In HTR-8/SVneo cells, all treatments increased REN expression compared to controls and cAMP + AZA combined was more effective than either treatment alone. Prorenin levels in supernatants were similarly upregulated. In HTR-8/SVneo cells, angiotensinogen (AGT) mRNA expression was increased by MPA + E(2) either with or without cAMP. AGT expression was also significantly increased by AZA. BeWo cells did not express REN or prorenin and it was not inducible with any treatment. AGT expression was significantly increased with AZA, the combination of cAMP + AZA, and MPA + E(2) + cAMP treatments. Since cAMP, AZA, cAMP and AZA combined, or MPA and E(2) with and without cAMP in HTR-8/SVneo cells, a cell line most similar in its RAS expression to the in vivo placenta, these factors may affect placental RAS activity. Surprisingly, these treatments also induced AGT expression in BeWo cells. Whether they are involved in regulating AGT in choriocarcinomas in vivo remains to be determined. PMID:23352190

Wang, Y; Pringle, K G; Lumbers, E R

2013-01-22

153

Histologia mamária após uso de esteróides sexuais - estudo em ratas Breast histologic changes in female rats treated with sex steroids  

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Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar as alterações histológicas em mamas de ratas submetidas à terapêutica com estrogênio, progestogênio e tibolona. MÉTODOS: Estudo experimental com 40 ratas, sendo 20 sem prole (grupo A) e 20 com prole (grupo B). Todas as ratas foram castradas e, após quatro semanas, alocadas aleatoriamente em subgrupos: A1, A2, A3, A4, A5 e B1, B2, B3, B4, B5. Os esteróides foram administrados da seguinte forma: A1 e B1 - benzoato de estradiol; A2 e B2 - acetato de medroxiprogesterona; A3 e B3 - benzoato de estradiol e acetato de medroxiprogesterona; A4 e B4 - tibolona; A5 e B5 - placebo. Após dez semanas de tratamento, os animais foram sacrificados e suas glândulas mamárias submetidas à análise histológica. Os parâmetros avaliados foram: proliferação epitelial, atividade secretora e atipias epiteliais nas unidades de ductos ou alvéolos terminais. A associação entre os achados histológicos e os esquemas terapêuticos foi avaliada por meio do odds ratio e intervalo de confiança de 95%. RESULTADOS: Alterações histológicas foram observadas em 29 ratas: hiperplasia moderada (52,5%), hiperplasia alvéolo-nodular (42,5%), atipia sem proliferação (35%), hiperplasia leve (32,5%), atividade secretora (20%) e hiperplasia severa (5%). Em ratas sem prole observou-se 1,3 mais chance, em relação ao grupo controle, de apresentar hiperplasia alvéolo-nodular no grupo que recebeu estrogênio, hiperplasia moderada no grupo tratado com progestogênio, e hiperplasia alvéolo-nodular e atipia sem proliferação epitelial com a associação entre estrogênio e progestogênio. CONCLUSÃO: Hiperplasia moderada e atipia epitelial associaram-se à terapia combinada de estrogênio e progestogênio, e o antecedente de prole reduziu a ocorrência destas alterações e de hiperplasia alvéolo-nodular.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association of histologic changes in the breasts of female rats undergoing therapy with sex steroids. METHODS: An experimental study was conducted of 40 castrated female non-pubertal rats, 20 had given birth (Group B) and 20 had no offspring (Group A). After four weeks, these rats were randomly allocated to subgroups: A1, A2, A3, A4, A5 and B1, B2, B3, B4, B5. Steroids were given to subgroups as follows: A1 and B1 - estradiol benzoate; A2 and B2 - medroxyprogesterone acetate; A3 and B3 - estradiol benzoate and medroxyprogesterone acetate; A4 and B4 - tibolone; A5 and B5 - placebo. After 10 weeks of treatment, animals were sacrificed and their mammary glands were analyzed. Histologic parameters evaluated were: epithelial cell proliferation, epithelial cells with secretory activity; and cell atypia in terminal duct units and buds or terminal alveoli. The association between microscopic analysis and diverse therapeutic regimens were analyzed by calculating the odds ratio and its respective 95% confidence interval. RESULTS: Histologic changes were observed in 29 rats: moderate hyperplasia (52.5%), hyperplastic alveolar nodule (42.5%), epithelial atypia (35%), mild hyperplasia (32.5%), secretory activity (20%) and severe hyperplasia (5%). In rats with no offspring when compared to the control, 1.3 times more hyperplastic alveolar nodules were found in the group treated with estradiol, the same was true for moderate hyperplasia in the rats that received medroxyprogesterone acetate, hyperplastic alveolar nodules and epithelial atypia in the group treated with estradiol plus medroxyprogesterone acetate. In the rats with offspring 1.3 times more secretory activity was found with estradiol. CONCLUSION: Epithelial hyperplasia and epithelial atypia with no proliferation are strongly associated to combined therapy with estradiol plus medroxyprogesterone acetate, mainly in the rats without offspring.

José Tadeu Vicelli; Maria Salete Costa Gurgel; Marcelo Alvarenga

2006-01-01

154

Histologia mamária após uso de esteróides sexuais - estudo em ratas/ Breast histologic changes in female rats treated with sex steroids  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Avaliar as alterações histológicas em mamas de ratas submetidas à terapêutica com estrogênio, progestogênio e tibolona. MÉTODOS: Estudo experimental com 40 ratas, sendo 20 sem prole (grupo A) e 20 com prole (grupo B). Todas as ratas foram castradas e, após quatro semanas, alocadas aleatoriamente em subgrupos: A1, A2, A3, A4, A5 e B1, B2, B3, B4, B5. Os esteróides foram administrados da seguinte forma: A1 e B1 - benzoato de estradiol; A2 e B2 - acetato (more) de medroxiprogesterona; A3 e B3 - benzoato de estradiol e acetato de medroxiprogesterona; A4 e B4 - tibolona; A5 e B5 - placebo. Após dez semanas de tratamento, os animais foram sacrificados e suas glândulas mamárias submetidas à análise histológica. Os parâmetros avaliados foram: proliferação epitelial, atividade secretora e atipias epiteliais nas unidades de ductos ou alvéolos terminais. A associação entre os achados histológicos e os esquemas terapêuticos foi avaliada por meio do odds ratio e intervalo de confiança de 95%. RESULTADOS: Alterações histológicas foram observadas em 29 ratas: hiperplasia moderada (52,5%), hiperplasia alvéolo-nodular (42,5%), atipia sem proliferação (35%), hiperplasia leve (32,5%), atividade secretora (20%) e hiperplasia severa (5%). Em ratas sem prole observou-se 1,3 mais chance, em relação ao grupo controle, de apresentar hiperplasia alvéolo-nodular no grupo que recebeu estrogênio, hiperplasia moderada no grupo tratado com progestogênio, e hiperplasia alvéolo-nodular e atipia sem proliferação epitelial com a associação entre estrogênio e progestogênio. CONCLUSÃO: Hiperplasia moderada e atipia epitelial associaram-se à terapia combinada de estrogênio e progestogênio, e o antecedente de prole reduziu a ocorrência destas alterações e de hiperplasia alvéolo-nodular. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association of histologic changes in the breasts of female rats undergoing therapy with sex steroids. METHODS: An experimental study was conducted of 40 castrated female non-pubertal rats, 20 had given birth (Group B) and 20 had no offspring (Group A). After four weeks, these rats were randomly allocated to subgroups: A1, A2, A3, A4, A5 and B1, B2, B3, B4, B5. Steroids were given to subgroups as follows: A1 and B1 - estradiol benzoate; A2 and B2 (more) - medroxyprogesterone acetate; A3 and B3 - estradiol benzoate and medroxyprogesterone acetate; A4 and B4 - tibolone; A5 and B5 - placebo. After 10 weeks of treatment, animals were sacrificed and their mammary glands were analyzed. Histologic parameters evaluated were: epithelial cell proliferation, epithelial cells with secretory activity; and cell atypia in terminal duct units and buds or terminal alveoli. The association between microscopic analysis and diverse therapeutic regimens were analyzed by calculating the odds ratio and its respective 95% confidence interval. RESULTS: Histologic changes were observed in 29 rats: moderate hyperplasia (52.5%), hyperplastic alveolar nodule (42.5%), epithelial atypia (35%), mild hyperplasia (32.5%), secretory activity (20%) and severe hyperplasia (5%). In rats with no offspring when compared to the control, 1.3 times more hyperplastic alveolar nodules were found in the group treated with estradiol, the same was true for moderate hyperplasia in the rats that received medroxyprogesterone acetate, hyperplastic alveolar nodules and epithelial atypia in the group treated with estradiol plus medroxyprogesterone acetate. In the rats with offspring 1.3 times more secretory activity was found with estradiol. CONCLUSION: Epithelial hyperplasia and epithelial atypia with no proliferation are strongly associated to combined therapy with estradiol plus medroxyprogesterone acetate, mainly in the rats without offspring.

Vicelli, José Tadeu; Gurgel, Maria Salete Costa; Alvarenga, Marcelo

2006-10-01

155

Melatonin reduces LH, 17 beta-estradiol and induces differential regulation of sex steroid receptors in reproductive tissues during rat ovulation  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Melatonin is associated with direct or indirect actions upon female reproductive function. However, its effects on sex hormones and steroid receptors during ovulation are not clearly defined. This study aimed to verify whether exposure to long-term melatonin is able to cause reproductive hormonal disturbances as well as their role on sex steroid receptors in the rat ovary, oviduct and uterus during ovulation. Methods Twenty-four adult Wistar rats, 60 days old (+/- 250 g) were randomly divided into two groups. Control group (Co): received 0.9% NaCl 0.3 mL + 95% ethanol 0.04 mL as vehicle; Melatonin-treated group (MEL): received vehicle + melatonin [100 ?g/100 g BW/day] both intraperitoneally during 60 days. All animals were euthanized by decapitation during the morning estrus at 4 a.m. Results Melatonin significantly reduced the plasma levels of LH and 17 beta-estradiol, while urinary 6-sulfatoximelatonin (STM) was increased at the morning estrus. In addition, melatonin promoted differential regulation of the estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), androgen receptor (AR) and melatonin receptor (MTR) along the reproductive tissues. In ovary, melatonin induced a down-regulation of ER-alpha and PRB levels. Conversely, it was observed that PRA and MT1R were up-regulated. In oviduct, AR and ER-alpha levels were down-regulated, in contrast to high expression of both PRA and PRB. Finally, the ER-beta and PRB levels were down-regulated in uterus tissue and only MT1R was up-regulated. Conclusions We suggest that melatonin partially suppress the hypothalamus-pituitary-ovarian axis, in addition, it induces differential regulation of sex steroid receptors in the ovary, oviduct and uterus during ovulation.

A Chuffa Luiz Gustavo; Seiva Fábio RF; Fávaro Wagner; Teixeira Giovana R; Amorim João PA; Mendes Leonardo O; Fioruci Beatriz A; Pinheiro Patrícia Fernanda F; Fernandes Ana Angélica H; Franci Janete AA; Delella Flávia K; Martinez Marcelo; Martinez Francisco E

2011-01-01

156

Effect of GnRHa, pimozide and Ovaprim on ovulation and plasma sex steroid hormones in African catfish Clarias gariepinus.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Nine groups each of four fish were injected with a single intramuscular dose of the following preparations: Physiological saline (0.9% NaCl) as a control group, 0.5 ml kg(-1) Ovaprim, 20 and 40 ?g kg(-1) BW of GnRHa, 8 and 16 mL kg(-1) pimozide tablets and the following combination of GnRHa with pimozide (GP): 20 ?g + 4 mg, 30 ?g + 8 mg and 40 ?g + 16 mg kg(-1) BW. The primary oocyte diameter (POD) before hormone administration ranged from 943.3 to 1071.0 ?m. The latency periods (LP) were in the range of 9.0 to 12.0 h after injection. The highest ovulation ratio (OR) was observed in groups Ovaprim, GP(30 + 8) and GP(40 + 16). Other treatments were effective for ovulation, the ovulation ratio in Groups G(40) and GP(20 + 4) were significantly higher than G(20) treatment. The ovulation index (OI) was in the range 62 to 77% and showed significant differences among groups. There was no significant difference in fertilization ratio (FR) among Ovaprim, GP(30 + 8) and GP(40 + 16) groups, while there were significant difference between the previous group and G(20) and G(40) groups. Control, P8, P16 showed negative results in all the parameters LP, OED, OR, OI and FR. Levels of sex steroids were analyzed on 6 and 12 h after initiation of treatments. A significant increase in plasma E(2) with GP(30 + 8) injection was observed 6 and 12 h after injection, while there were no significant increase between all the other groups 6 h after injection. Treatments with GP(20 + 4) resulted in a significant increase in plasma T concentration in females compared with control after 6 h. In contrast, plasma T and E(2) concentrations were lower during the combined GP(20 + 4), GP(30 + 8) and GP(40 + 16) after 12 h than after 16 h of injection. The combined treatments (GnRHa + PIM) are better compared with Ovaprim which gave the same results, they have some advantages, such as reliable response and low cost. Ovaprim is more than 3 to 5-fold of the cost of (GnRH + PIM). Therefore, this method could be useful tool for commercial catfish breeders to ensure spawning success.

Sharaf SM

2012-05-01

157

Effect of GnRHa, pimozide and Ovaprim on ovulation and plasma sex steroid hormones in African catfish Clarias gariepinus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nine groups each of four fish were injected with a single intramuscular dose of the following preparations: Physiological saline (0.9% NaCl) as a control group, 0.5 ml kg(-1) Ovaprim, 20 and 40 ?g kg(-1) BW of GnRHa, 8 and 16 mL kg(-1) pimozide tablets and the following combination of GnRHa with pimozide (GP): 20 ?g + 4 mg, 30 ?g + 8 mg and 40 ?g + 16 mg kg(-1) BW. The primary oocyte diameter (POD) before hormone administration ranged from 943.3 to 1071.0 ?m. The latency periods (LP) were in the range of 9.0 to 12.0 h after injection. The highest ovulation ratio (OR) was observed in groups Ovaprim, GP(30 + 8) and GP(40 + 16). Other treatments were effective for ovulation, the ovulation ratio in Groups G(40) and GP(20 + 4) were significantly higher than G(20) treatment. The ovulation index (OI) was in the range 62 to 77% and showed significant differences among groups. There was no significant difference in fertilization ratio (FR) among Ovaprim, GP(30 + 8) and GP(40 + 16) groups, while there were significant difference between the previous group and G(20) and G(40) groups. Control, P8, P16 showed negative results in all the parameters LP, OED, OR, OI and FR. Levels of sex steroids were analyzed on 6 and 12 h after initiation of treatments. A significant increase in plasma E(2) with GP(30 + 8) injection was observed 6 and 12 h after injection, while there were no significant increase between all the other groups 6 h after injection. Treatments with GP(20 + 4) resulted in a significant increase in plasma T concentration in females compared with control after 6 h. In contrast, plasma T and E(2) concentrations were lower during the combined GP(20 + 4), GP(30 + 8) and GP(40 + 16) after 12 h than after 16 h of injection. The combined treatments (GnRHa + PIM) are better compared with Ovaprim which gave the same results, they have some advantages, such as reliable response and low cost. Ovaprim is more than 3 to 5-fold of the cost of (GnRH + PIM). Therefore, this method could be useful tool for commercial catfish breeders to ensure spawning success. PMID:22365698

Sharaf, S M

2012-02-25

158

Sex assessment using measurements of the first lumbar vertebra.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Sex determination is a vital part of the medico-legal system but can be difficult in cases where the integrity of the body has been compromised. The purpose of this study was to develop a technique for sex assessment from measurements of the first lumber vertebrate. Twenty-nine linear measurements and five ratios were collected from 113 Chinese adult males and 97 Chinese adult females using digital three-dimensional anthropometry methods. By using discriminant analysis, we found that 23 linear measurements and two ratios identified sexual dimorphism (P<0.01), with predictive accuracy ranging from 57.1% to 86.6%. Using a stepwise method of discriminant function analysis, we found three dimensions predicted sex with 88.6% accuracy: (a) upper end-plate width (EPWu), (b) left pedicle height (PHl), and (c) middle end-plate depth (EPDm). This study shows that a single first lumber vertebra can be used for this purpose, and that the discriminant equation will help forensic determination of sex in the Chinese population.

Zheng WX; Cheng FB; Cheng KL; Tian Y; Lai Y; Zhang WS; Zheng YJ; Li YQ

2012-06-01

159

Involvement of pituitary gonadotropins, gonadal steroids and breeding season in sex change of protogynous dusky grouper, Epinephelus marginatus (Teleostei: Serranidae), induced by a non-steroidal aromatase inhibitor.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Two experiments were performed using the aromatase inhibitor (AI) letrozole (100 mg/kg) to promote sex change, from female-to-male, in protogynous dusky grouper. One experiment was performed during the breeding season (spring) and the other at the end of the breeding season (summer). During the spring, AI promoted sex change after 9 weeks and the sperm produced was able to fertilize grouper oocytes. During the summer, the sex change was incomplete; intersex individuals were present and sperm was not released by any of the animals. Sex changed gonads had a lamellar architecture; cysts of spermatocytes and spermatozoa in the lumen of the germinal compartment. In the spring, after 4 weeks, 11ketotestosterone (11KT) levels were higher in the AI than in control fish, and after 9 weeks, coincident with semen release, testosterone levels increased in the AI group, while 11KT returned to the initial levels. Estradiol (E2) levels remained unchanged during the experimental period. Instead of decreasing throughout the period, as in control group, 17 ?-OH progesterone levels did not change in the AI-treated fish, resulting in higher values after 9 weeks when compared with control fish. fsh? and lh? gene expression in the AI animals were lower compared with control fish after 9 weeks. The use of AI was effective to obtain functional males during the breeding season. The increase in androgens, modulated by gonadotropins, triggered the sex change, enabling the development of male germ cells, whereas a decrease in E2 levels was not required to change sex in dusky grouper.

Garcia CE; Araújo BC; Mello PH; Narcizo AD; Rodrigues-Filho JA; Medrado AT; Zampieri RA; Floeter-Winter LM; Moreira RG

2013-06-01

160

Involvement of pituitary gonadotropins, gonadal steroids and breeding season in sex change of protogynous dusky grouper, Epinephelus marginatus (Teleostei: Serranidae), induced by a non-steroidal aromatase inhibitor.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two experiments were performed using the aromatase inhibitor (AI) letrozole (100mg/kg) to promote sex change, from female-to-male, in protogynous dusky grouper. One experiment was performed during the breeding season (spring) and the other at the end of the breeding season (summer). During the spring, AI promoted sex change after 9weeks and the sperm produced was able to fertilize grouper oocytes. During the summer, the sex change was incomplete; intersex individuals were present and sperm was not released by any of the animals. Sex changed gonads had a lamellar architecture; cysts of spermatocytes and spermatozoa in the lumen of the germinal compartment. In the spring, after 4weeks, 11ketotestosterone (11KT) levels were higher in the AI than in control fish, and after 9weeks, coincident with semen release, testosterone levels increased in the AI group, while 11KT returned to the initial levels. Estradiol (E2) levels remained unchanged during the experimental period. Instead of decreasing throughout the period, as in control group, 17 ?-OH progesterone levels did not change in the AI-treated fish, resulting in higher values after 9weeks when compared with control fish. fsh? and lh? gene expression in the AI animals were lower compared with control fish after 9weeks. The use of AI was effective to obtain functional males during the breeding season. The increase in androgens, modulated by gonadotropins, triggered the sex change, enabling the development of male germ cells, whereas a decrease in E2 levels was not required to change sex in dusky grouper. PMID:23792264

Garcia, Carlos Eduardo de O; Araújo, Bruno C; Mello, Paulo H; Narcizo, Amanda de M; Rodrigues-Filho, Jandyr A; Medrado, Andreone T; Zampieri, Ricardo A; Floeter-Winter, Lucile M; Moreira, Renata Guimarães

2013-06-19

 
 
 
 
161

beta 2- and alpha 2-adrenergic receptors and receptor coupling to adenylate cyclase in human mononuclear leukocytes and platelets in relation to physiological variations of sex steroids.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In view of evidence, largely in animals, indicating effects of sex steroids on adrenergic receptors, we measured mononuclear leukocyte (MNL) beta 2-adrenergic receptors and adenylate cyclase sensitivity to stimulation by isoproterenol as well as platelet alpha 2-adrenergic receptors and sensitivity of sodium fluoride-stimulated adenylate cyclase to inhibition by epinephrine in 3 groups of normal humans with physiologically disparate levels of testosterone, estradiol, and progesterone (10 normal men and 10 normal women, the latter sampled in both the follicular and luteal phases of their menstrual cycles). Differences in testosterone, estradiol, and progesterone were as expected; testosterone levels were 10-fold higher in men, and progesterone levels were 20-fold higher in luteal phase women. T4, cortisol , and norepinephrine levels did not differ. Basal plasma epinephrine concentrations were slightly but significantly higher in luteal phase women [34 +/- 5 (+/-SE) pg/ml] than in follicular phase women (16 +/- 3 pg/ml; P less than 0.01) or men (20 +/- 3 pg/ml; P less than 0.05). There were no significant differences among these 3 groups in the densities or affinities of MNL beta 2-adrenergic or platelet alpha 2-adrenergic receptors or in the corresponding MNL and platelet adenylate cyclase sensitivities. Thus, there is not a generalized effect of physiological variations of testosterone, estradiol, and progesterone on adrenergic receptors or adenylate cyclase. To the extent that the adrenergic receptors and adenylate cyclase activities of circulating cells reflect those of extravascular catecholamine target cells, these data provide no support for a role of physiological variations of testosterone, estradiol, or progesterone in the regulation of catecholamine action in humans.

Rosen SG; Berk MA; Popp DA; Serusclat P; Smith EB; Shah SD; Ginsberg AM; Clutter WE; Cryer PE

1984-06-01

162

Factors affecting exhaled nitric oxide measurements: the effect of sex  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Exhaled nitric oxide (FENO) measurements are used as a surrogate marker for eosinophilic airway inflammation. However, many constitutional and environmental factors affect FENO, making it difficult to devise reference values. Our aim was to evaluate the relative importance of factors affecting FENO in a well characterised adult population. Methods Data were obtained from 895 members of the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study at age 32. The effects of sex, height, weight, lung function indices, smoking, atopy, asthma and rhinitis on FENO were explored by unadjusted and adjusted linear regression analyses. Results The effect of sex on FENO was both statistically and clinically significant, with FENO levels approximately 25% less in females. Overall, current smoking reduced FENO up to 50%, but this effect occurred predominantly in those who smoked on the day of the FENO measurement. Atopy increased FENO by 60%. The sex-related differences in FENO remained significant (p ENO. Conclusion Even after adjustment, FENO values are significantly different in males and females. The derivation of reference values and the interpretation of FENO in the clinical setting should be stratified by sex. Other common factors such as current smoking and atopy also require to be taken into account.

Taylor D Robin; Mandhane Piush; Greene Justina M; Hancox Robert J; Filsell Sue; McLachlan Christene R; Williamson Avis J; Cowan Jan O; Smith Andrew D; Sears Malcolm R

2007-01-01

163

Building a better hormone therapy? How understanding the rapid effects of sex steroid hormones could lead to new therapeutics for age-related memory decline.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A wealth of data collected in recent decades has demonstrated that ovarian sex-steroid hormones, particularly 17?-estradiol (E2), are important trophic factors that regulate the function of cognitive regions of the brain such as the hippocampus. The loss of hormone cycling at menopause is associated with cognitive decline and dementia in women, and the onset of memory decline in animal models. However, hormone therapy is not currently recommended to prevent or treat cognitive decline, in part because of its detrimental side effects. In this article, it is proposed that investigations of the rapid effects of E2 on hippocampal function be used to further the design of new drugs that mimic the beneficial effects of E2 on memory without the side effects of current therapies. A conceptual model is presented for elucidating the molecular and biochemical mechanisms through which sex-steroid hormones modulate memory, and a specific hypothesis is proposed to account for the rapid memory-enhancing effects of E2. Empirical support for this hypothesis is discussed as a means of stimulating the consideration of new directions for the development of hormone-based therapies to preserve memory function in menopausal women.

Frick KM

2012-02-01

164

Influence of water temperature on induced reproduction by hypophysation, sex steroids concentrations and final oocyte maturation of the "curimata-pacu" Prochilodus argenteus (Pisces: Prochilodontidae).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Most fishes with commercial importance from the São Francisco basin are migratory and do not complete the reproductive cycle in lentic environments, such as hydroelectric plant reservoirs, hence natural stocks are declining and there is an urgent need to reduce the pressure of fishing on those wild populations. Therefore, studies on reproductive biology and its relationship with endocrine and environmental factors are key to improving the cultivation techniques of Brazilian fish species. This study examined the influence of water temperature on sex steroid concentrations (testosterone, 17?-estradiol and 17?-hydroxyprogesterone), spawning efficiency, fecundity, fertilisation rate, larval abnormality rates and involvement of the cytoskeleton during the final oocyte maturation of Prochilodus argenteus under experimental conditions. The results of our study showed that in captivity, sex steroid plasma concentrations and spawning performance of P. argenteus were clearly different for fish kept in water with different temperature regimes. In lower water temperature (23°C), it was observed that: 33% of females did not ovulate, fecundity was lower and vitellogenic oocytes after the spawning induction procedure exhibited a smaller diameter. Moreover, concentrations of 17?-estradiol and 17?-hydroxyprogesterone were lower and there was a delay in the final oocyte maturation and, consequently, ovulation and spawning. Our experiments showed direct influence of water temperature in the process of induced spawning of P. argenteus. Changes in water temperature also suggest the tubulin involvement in the nuclear dislocation process and the possible action of actin filaments in the release of polar bodies during final oocyte maturation of P. argenteus.

Arantes FP; Santos HB; Rizzo E; Sato Y; Bazzoli N

2011-07-01

165

Influence of water temperature on induced reproduction by hypophysation, sex steroids concentrations and final oocyte maturation of the "curimatã-pacu" Prochilodus argenteus (Pisces: Prochilodontidae).  

Science.gov (United States)

Most fishes with commercial importance from the São Francisco basin are migratory and do not complete the reproductive cycle in lentic environments, such as hydroelectric plant reservoirs, hence natural stocks are declining and there is an urgent need to reduce the pressure of fishing on those wild populations. Therefore, studies on reproductive biology and its relationship with endocrine and environmental factors are key to improving the cultivation techniques of Brazilian fish species. This study examined the influence of water temperature on sex steroid concentrations (testosterone, 17?-estradiol and 17?-hydroxyprogesterone), spawning efficiency, fecundity, fertilisation rate, larval abnormality rates and involvement of the cytoskeleton during the final oocyte maturation of Prochilodus argenteus under experimental conditions. The results of our study showed that in captivity, sex steroid plasma concentrations and spawning performance of P. argenteus were clearly different for fish kept in water with different temperature regimes. In lower water temperature (23°C), it was observed that: 33% of females did not ovulate, fecundity was lower and vitellogenic oocytes after the spawning induction procedure exhibited a smaller diameter. Moreover, concentrations of 17?-estradiol and 17?-hydroxyprogesterone were lower and there was a delay in the final oocyte maturation and, consequently, ovulation and spawning. Our experiments showed direct influence of water temperature in the process of induced spawning of P. argenteus. Changes in water temperature also suggest the tubulin involvement in the nuclear dislocation process and the possible action of actin filaments in the release of polar bodies during final oocyte maturation of P. argenteus. PMID:21501616

Arantes, Fábio P; Santos, Hélio B; Rizzo, Elizete; Sato, Yoshimi; Bazzoli, Nilo

2011-04-08

166

Profiles of sex steroids, fecundity and spawning of a migratory characiform fish from the Paraguay-Parana basin: a comparative study in a three-river system.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study investigated for the first time the reproductive biology of Prochilodus lineatus in a system of rivers in southeastern Brasil, relating it to the role of tributary rivers in the reproductive success of this important commercial fish in the Upper Paraná River basin, where a cascade of hydroelectric dams were deployed. Specimens were caught bimonthly in three river sites: (S1) Grande River, downstream from the Porto Colômbia dam; (S2) Pardo River; and (S3) Mogi Guaçu River. Sex steroid plasma levels, fecundity, follicular atresia, oocyte diameter and gonadosomatic index (GSI) were compared among sites. In S1, fish exhibited changes in the reproductive parameters: lower GSI, oocyte diameter and fecundity and higher follicular atresia index, when compared to S2 and S3. Frequency of maturing fish was higher in S3 and spawning was only registered in S3. In sites S2 and S3, plasma concentrations of testosterone and 17?-estradiol in females and testosterone in males showed wide variations following gonadal maturation. Fish from S1 showed few significant variations in sex steroid concentrations throughout the gonadal cycle. These results indicate that P. lineatus does not reproduce in Grande River (S1), but probably uses the Pardo River (S2) as a migratory route towards the Mogi Guaçu River (S3) where they complete gonadal maturation and spawning. Our findings contribute for understanding the reproductive biology of P. lineatus and to highlight the importance of tributaries in impounded rivers as a favourable environment for migration and spawning of fish.

Perini VD; Paschoalini AL; Cruz CK; Rocha RD; Senhorini JA; Ribeiro DM; Formagio PS; Bazzoli N; Rizzo E

2013-04-01

167

Effects of partial or total fish meal replacement by agricultural by-product diets on gonad maturation, sex steroids and vitellogenin dynamics of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The establishment of the first sexual maturation was characterized in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) in order to study the efficiency of replacement of fish meal (FM) by diets composed of local vegetable ingredients. Four diets were formulated containing decreasing levels of FM (50-0% for diet 1 to diet 4) and increasing proportions of vegetable ingredients (50-100%). Gonadosomatic index (GSI), diameter and percentages of developmental stages of oocytes, plasma sex steroids and vitellogenin dynamics were investigated from February to June using one-year-old fish. Fish were individually tagged, and 12 individuals from each diet were investigated monthly. Replacement of FM with plant ingredients did not affect the GSI neither in males, nor in females. All males were spermiating, and no abnormal gonads were found. In females, GSI and percentages of advanced stages of oocytes decreased during the dry season, indicating seasonal changes in gonad development. Moreover, oocytes were in late exogenous vitellogenesis, but no final maturation stages were observed, whatever the diet. Higher plasma levels of E2 in females and of androgens (T and 11-KT) in both sexes were observed in fish fed diet 4 than in those receiving diet 1 depending on the season. Levels of plasma E2 and ALP (indicator for vitellogenin) in males did not differ among treatments and seasons suggesting no phytoestrogenic activity. The results showed that total replacement of FM by vegetable diets composed of groundnut oilcakes, bean and sunflower meals has no deleterious effect on the onset of sexual maturation in African catfish but, may stimulate the sex steroid production and in turns may potentially exert some positive actions on reproductive success.

Nyina-wamwiza L; Defreyne PS; Ngendahayo L; Milla S; Mandiki SN; Kestemont P

2012-10-01

168

Divergent regulation of angiopoietin-1, angiopoietin-2, and vascular endothelial growth factor by hypoxia and female sex steroids in human endometrial stromal cells.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether hypoxia or the female sex steroids exert direct effects on angiopoietin-1 (ANGPT1), ANGPT2, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in human endometrial stromal cells (ESCs) to clarify the regulatory function of these local angiogenic factors in the endometrium. STUDY DESIGN: Human endometrial tissues were obtained from 18 patients aged 34-47 years undergoing hysterectomy for benign reasons. ESCs were cultured under hypoxic condition or treated with 17?-estradiol (E) and/or medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA). The mRNA levels and production of ANGPT1, ANGPT2, and VEGF were assessed by real-time RT-PCR and ELISA, respectively. Analysis of hypoxia-inducible factor 1? (HIF-1?) and estrogen receptor ? (ER?) protein levels were evaluated by Western blot analysis. RESULT(S): Hypoxia reduced the mRNA expression and protein production of ANGPT-1 in ESCs, whereas those of ANGPT2 were unaffected, resulting in an increase of the ANGPT2/ANGPT1 ratio. Hypoxia induced mRNA expression and protein production of VEGF. E simultaneously induced VEGF production and suppressed ANGPT1 production, resulting in an increase of the ANGPT2/ANGPT1 ratio. MPA or E+MPA reduced ANGPT2 production and sustained the levels of ANGPT1, resulting in a decrease of the ANGPT2/ANGPT1 ratio. With regard to the interaction of E and hypoxia, E did not affect the regulation of angiogenic factors, HIF-1?, and ER? under hypoxic conditions. CONCLUSIONS: Hypoxia and female sex hormones independently regulate the ANGPT2/ANGPT1 ratio and VEGF expression in human ESCs. These results may indicate a potential mechanism for hypoxia or female sex steroids influencing angiogenesis in the human endometrium.

Tsuzuki T; Okada H; Cho H; Shimoi K; Miyashiro H; Yasuda K; Kanzaki H

2013-05-01

169

Effects of Non-Steroidal Aromatase Inhibitor Letrozole on Sex Inversion and Spermatogenesis in Yellow Catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The effects of letrozole (LZ), a potent nonsteroidal aromatase inhibitor (AI), on growth performance, sex inversion, and sex changes were investigated in yellow catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco), which display sexual dimorphic growth. Growth performance was promoted significantly in the low-dose LZ treatment, compared with the control. Four LZ treatments produced dose-dependent male proportions that were significantly higher than that of the control. Histological examination of testes treated by LZ displayed a large amount of spermatozoa and enlarged lobule lumens, indicating that LZ treatments can potentially stimulate spermatogenesis. Changes of sex proportions 45 days after the end of the LZ treatments prove that the female germ cells possess a certain degree of bipotentiality. These results suggest that aromatase activity plays a vital role in sex differentiation, as in other teleosts, with inhibition of aromatase activity by AI bringing about sex inversion.

Shen ZG; Fan QX; Yang W; Zhang YL; Hu PP; Xie CX

2013-09-01

170

Development, sex steroid regulation, and phenotypic characterization of RFamide-related peptide (Rfrp) gene expression and RFamide receptors in the mouse hypothalamus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Arginine-phenylalanine-amide (RFamide)-related peptide 3 (RFRP-3, encoded by the Rfrp gene) is the mammalian ortholog of gonadotropin-inhibiting hormone and can inhibit GnRH neuronal activity and LH release. However, the development and regulation of the RFRP-3 system in both sexes is poorly understood. Using in situ hybridization, we examined changes in Rfrp-expressing neurons in mice of both sexes during development and under different adulthood hormonal milieus. We found no sex differences in Rfrp expression or cell number in adult mice. Interestingly, we identified two interspersed subpopulations of Rfrp cells (high Rfrp-expressing, HE; low Rfrp-expressing, LE), which have unique developmental and steroidal regulation characteristics. The number of LE cells robustly decreases during postnatal development, whereas HE cell number increases significantly before puberty. Using Bax knockout mice, we determined that the dramatic developmental decrease in LE Rfrp cells is not due primarily to BAX-dependent apoptosis. In adults, we found that estradiol and testosterone moderately repress Rfrp expression in both HE and LE cells, whereas the nonaromatizable androgen dihydrotestosterone has no effect. Using double-label in situ hybridization, we determined that approximately 25% of Rfrp neurons coexpress estrogen receptor-? in each sex, whereas Rfrp cells do not readily express androgen receptor in either sex, regardless of hormonal milieu. Lastly, when we looked at RFRP-3 receptors, we detected some coexpression of Gpr147 but no coexpression of Gpr74 in GnRH neurons of both intact and gonadectomized males and females. Thus, RFRP-3 may exert its effects on reproduction either directly, via Gpr147 in a subset of GnRH neurons, and/or indirectly, via upstream regulators of GnRH. PMID:22355072

Poling, Matthew C; Kim, Joshua; Dhamija, Sangeeta; Kauffman, Alexander S

2012-02-21

171

Development, sex steroid regulation, and phenotypic characterization of RFamide-related peptide (Rfrp) gene expression and RFamide receptors in the mouse hypothalamus.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Arginine-phenylalanine-amide (RFamide)-related peptide 3 (RFRP-3, encoded by the Rfrp gene) is the mammalian ortholog of gonadotropin-inhibiting hormone and can inhibit GnRH neuronal activity and LH release. However, the development and regulation of the RFRP-3 system in both sexes is poorly understood. Using in situ hybridization, we examined changes in Rfrp-expressing neurons in mice of both sexes during development and under different adulthood hormonal milieus. We found no sex differences in Rfrp expression or cell number in adult mice. Interestingly, we identified two interspersed subpopulations of Rfrp cells (high Rfrp-expressing, HE; low Rfrp-expressing, LE), which have unique developmental and steroidal regulation characteristics. The number of LE cells robustly decreases during postnatal development, whereas HE cell number increases significantly before puberty. Using Bax knockout mice, we determined that the dramatic developmental decrease in LE Rfrp cells is not due primarily to BAX-dependent apoptosis. In adults, we found that estradiol and testosterone moderately repress Rfrp expression in both HE and LE cells, whereas the nonaromatizable androgen dihydrotestosterone has no effect. Using double-label in situ hybridization, we determined that approximately 25% of Rfrp neurons coexpress estrogen receptor-? in each sex, whereas Rfrp cells do not readily express androgen receptor in either sex, regardless of hormonal milieu. Lastly, when we looked at RFRP-3 receptors, we detected some coexpression of Gpr147 but no coexpression of Gpr74 in GnRH neurons of both intact and gonadectomized males and females. Thus, RFRP-3 may exert its effects on reproduction either directly, via Gpr147 in a subset of GnRH neurons, and/or indirectly, via upstream regulators of GnRH.

Poling MC; Kim J; Dhamija S; Kauffman AS

2012-04-01

172

Genes related to sex steroids, neural growth, and social-emotional behavior are associated with autistic traits, empathy, and Asperger syndrome.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Genetic studies of autism spectrum conditions (ASC) have mostly focused on the "low functioning" severe clinical subgroup, treating it as a rare disorder. However, ASC is now thought to be relatively common ( approximately 1%), and representing one end of a quasi-normal distribution of autistic traits in the general population. Here we report a study of common genetic variation in candidate genes associated with autistic traits and Asperger syndrome (AS). We tested single nucleotide polymorphisms in 68 candidate genes in three functional groups (sex steroid synthesis/transport, neural connectivity, and social-emotional responsivity) in two experiments. These were (a) an association study of relevant behavioral traits (the Empathy Quotient (EQ), the Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ)) in a population sample (n=349); and (b) a case-control association study on a sample of people with AS, a "high-functioning" subgroup of ASC (n=174). 27 genes showed a nominally significant association with autistic traits and/or ASC diagnosis. Of these, 19 genes showed nominally significant association with AQ/EQ. In the sex steroid group, this included ESR2 and CYP11B1. In the neural connectivity group, this included HOXA1, NTRK1, and NLGN4X. In the socio-responsivity behavior group, this included MAOB, AVPR1B, and WFS1. Fourteen genes showed nominally significant association with AS. In the sex steroid group, this included CYP17A1 and CYP19A1. In the socio-emotional behavior group, this included OXT. Six genes were nominally associated in both experiments, providing a partial replication. Eleven genes survived family wise error rate (FWER) correction using permutations across both experiments, which is greater than would be expected by chance. CYP11B1 and NTRK1 emerged as significantly associated genes in both experiments, after FWER correction (P<0.05). This is the first candidate-gene association study of AS and of autistic traits. The most promising candidate genes require independent replication and fine mapping.

Chakrabarti B; Dudbridge F; Kent L; Wheelwright S; Hill-Cawthorne G; Allison C; Banerjee-Basu S; Baron-Cohen S

2009-06-01

173

Genes related to sex steroids, neural growth, and social-emotional behavior are associated with autistic traits, empathy, and Asperger syndrome.  

Science.gov (United States)

Genetic studies of autism spectrum conditions (ASC) have mostly focused on the "low functioning" severe clinical subgroup, treating it as a rare disorder. However, ASC is now thought to be relatively common ( approximately 1%), and representing one end of a quasi-normal distribution of autistic traits in the general population. Here we report a study of common genetic variation in candidate genes associated with autistic traits and Asperger syndrome (AS). We tested single nucleotide polymorphisms in 68 candidate genes in three functional groups (sex steroid synthesis/transport, neural connectivity, and social-emotional responsivity) in two experiments. These were (a) an association study of relevant behavioral traits (the Empathy Quotient (EQ), the Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ)) in a population sample (n=349); and (b) a case-control association study on a sample of people with AS, a "high-functioning" subgroup of ASC (n=174). 27 genes showed a nominally significant association with autistic traits and/or ASC diagnosis. Of these, 19 genes showed nominally significant association with AQ/EQ. In the sex steroid group, this included ESR2 and CYP11B1. In the neural connectivity group, this included HOXA1, NTRK1, and NLGN4X. In the socio-responsivity behavior group, this included MAOB, AVPR1B, and WFS1. Fourteen genes showed nominally significant association with AS. In the sex steroid group, this included CYP17A1 and CYP19A1. In the socio-emotional behavior group, this included OXT. Six genes were nominally associated in both experiments, providing a partial replication. Eleven genes survived family wise error rate (FWER) correction using permutations across both experiments, which is greater than would be expected by chance. CYP11B1 and NTRK1 emerged as significantly associated genes in both experiments, after FWER correction (P<0.05). This is the first candidate-gene association study of AS and of autistic traits. The most promising candidate genes require independent replication and fine mapping. PMID:19598235

Chakrabarti, B; Dudbridge, F; Kent, L; Wheelwright, S; Hill-Cawthorne, G; Allison, C; Banerjee-Basu, S; Baron-Cohen, S

2009-06-01

174

Effects of n-3HUFA Content in Broodstock Diets on Reproductive Perfor maryce and Seasonal Changes of Plasma Sex Steroids Levels in Plectorhynchus cinctus  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In order to study the effects of n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids(n-3 HUFA) content in broodstock diets on the reproductive performance and seasonal changes of plasma sex steroids levels?five groups of Plectorhynchus cinctus female broodstocks were respectively fed a natural diet composed of trash fish(D5) and four artificial formulated diets containing 0. 16%(D1)?1 .27%(D2)?2. 36%(D3) and 3.47%(D4) of n-3 HUFA?during the whole reproductive cy-cle .Their fecundity?egg and larval quality were evaluated?and the levels of plasma sex steroids were monthly monitore d .It was found that the eggs production/ kg of female?fertilization rate of eggs?larval survival and length at mouthopening stage of both D2 and D3 group were equivalent to those of D5 group;however?those of D1 and D4 group were significantly lower than D5 group.Dietary n-3 HUFA content showed no obvious influence on the seasonal change pattern of plasma 17-estradiol(E_(2) and testosterone(T).However?the plasma E_(2) and T levels in gonad developmental and ma ture seasons of Dl and D4 group were significantly lower than those of D5 group.Dietary n-3 HUFA content also displayed some influence on Ez and T production by in vitro ovarian follicles .Little basic E_(2 )production was observed by varian follicles of D4 group .Human chorionic gonadotropin(HCG?100 l U/ mL) stimulated Ez and T production by ovarian follicles of D2-D5 group;however?ovarian follicles of Dl group had no response to HCG .The results suggest that the optimum n-3 HUFA requirements in broodstock diet of P. cinctus range between 1.27%and 2.36%?deficient or high dietary n-3 HUFA content may have negative effect on reproductive performance of broodstocks;n-3 HUFA may affeet the reproductive performance by influencing the production of sex steroids.

Li Yuanyou; Chen Weizhou; Sun Zewei; Chen Hehui; Wu Kegang

2004-01-01

175

Sequential steroid hormone receptor measurements in primary breast cancer with and without intervening primary chemotherapy.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this analysis was to determine the accuracy of steroid receptor measurement in large core needle biopsies compared with surgically removed specimens and the influence of preoperative chemotherapy on hormone receptor status. We consecutively performed 722 large core needle biopsies in palpable lesions of the breast. The diagnosis of breast cancer was confirmed upon biopsy in 450 patients; 236 women underwent immediate surgery, and 214 patients received preoperative chemotherapy. We assessed estrogen (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) in biopsy tissue and surgically removed specimens and calculated accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, the weighted kappa value and Spearman's rank correlation. The modulation of steroid receptor status in preoperatively treated patients was tested by Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel statistics. The accuracy of ER evaluation in the biopsy material of patients without intervening chemotherapy was 91%, sensitivity and specificity were 94% and 80% respectively. Accuracy, sensitivity and specificity were 86% in patients treated preoperatively. In terms of PR assessment, we obtained slightly inferior results: accuracy, sensitivity and specificity were 80%, 73% and 85% respectively in patients without preoperative treatment, and 79%, 48% and 92% respectively in patients undergoing preoperative therapy. Following preoperative chemotherapy, patients showed a significant increase in ER-negative (P=0.02) and PR-negative (P=0.0005) measurements. We have concluded from our results that ER and PR receptor measurement in core needle biopsy is a reliable basis in clinical practice for selecting patients for neoadjuvant endocrine treatment. Preoperative cytotoxic chemotherapy induced a significant extent of variation in the steroid receptor expression of breast cancer cells. PMID:12653672

Taucher, S; Rudas, M; Gnant, M; Thomanek, K; Dubsky, P; Roka, S; Bachleitner, T; Kandioler, D; Wenzel, C; Steger, G; Mittlböck, M; Jakesz, R

2003-03-01

176

The effect of sex steroid hormones on brain edema and intracranial pressure after experimental traumatic brain injury in rats  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: We investigated the role of sex hormones on changes in brain edema intracranialpressure (ICP), cerebral perfusion pressure (CCP) after trauma brain injury (TBI) in ovarectomizedfemale (OVX) rats.Material and Methods: In this study female rats are divided into five groups. Control group(Intact) sham group and other groups include: vehicle, estrogen group (1mg/kg) and progesteronegroup (8 mg/kg) which on all groups TBI was induced by Marmarou method. 30 minutes after TBI,drugs were injected i.p. ICP was measured in spinal cord using a standard procedure. CPP wascalculated by the mean arterial pressure (MAP) - ICP. Neurologic scores were measured by motor,eye and respiratory reflexResults: The results showed after TBI, water content was significantly lower in estrogen andprogesterone groups (P<0.001) compared with vehicle group. Analysis showed a stable ICP up to 24hours. The ICP in estrogen and progesterone groups was significantly decreased at 4 and 24 hours ascompared to vehicle group (P<0.001in both cases). The CPP at 24 hours after TBI, significantlyincreased in estrogen and progesterone groups compared with vehicle (P<0.001). Also after TBI,neurologic scores was significantly higher in estrogen and progesterone groups as compared withvehicle (at 1hours P<0.05, and at 24hours P<0.001 for estrogen), (at 1hours P<0.01 for progesterone).Conclusion: Our findings indicated an improvement of ICP, CPP and neurologic scores producedby pharmacologic doses of estrogen and progesterone after TBI in OVX rat. These effects may becontribute to neuroprotective effects of these hormones.

Nader Shahrokhi; Mohammad Khaksari; Zahra Soltani; Nozar Nekhai; Mahdi Mahmodi; Ali Nemati

2008-01-01

177

Flow cytometric measurement of DNA level and steroid hormone receptor assay in breast cancer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

DNA level measured by flow cytometry and estrogen and progesteron receptors assayed in tissue samples obtained from 85 malignant and 16 benign lesions of the breast. All the benign tumors revealed 2c DNA content and most of them were receptor-negative, while 74.1% of breast carcinomas displayed aneuploidy. Three patients (3.5%) had two lines of aneuploid cells. Many aneuploid tumors were receptor-negative. Preoperative radiation treatmet (14-20 Gy) did not significantly influence the level of steroid hormone receptors in tumors. Estrogen receptor level was higher in menopausal patients than in premenopausal ones.

1989-01-01

178

Assessment of spermatogenesis and plasma sex steroids in a seasonal breeding teleost: a comparative study in an area of influence of a tributary, downstream from a hydroelectric power dam, Brazil.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

River damming and building of hydroelectric power plants interrupt the reproductive migration routes and change the major physicochemical parameters of water quality, with drastic consequences for populations of migratory fishes. The goal of this study was to evaluate proliferation and cell death during spermatogenesis and serum profiles of sex steroids in Prochilodus argenteus, from the São Francisco River, downstream from the Três Marias Dam. A total of 257 adult males were caught quarterly during a reproductive cycle in two sites: the first 34 km of the river after the dam (site 1) and the second 34-54 km after the dam (site 2), after the confluence with a tributary, the Abaeté River. Seasonal changes in the testicular activity associated with morphometric analyses of germ cells as well as proliferation and testicular apoptosis support a more active spermatogenesis in fish from site 2, where higher levels of sex steroids and gonadosomatic index (GSI) were also found. In site 1, fish presented low serum levels of testosterone, 17?-estradiol and 17?-hydroxyprogesterone and a low GSI during gonadal maturation. Spermatogonial proliferation (PCNA) and apoptosis (TUNEL) were more elevated in fish from site 1, but spermatocytes were mainly labelled in fish from site 2. Overall, these data demonstrate changes in testicular activity and plasma sex steroids in a neotropical teleost fish living downstream from a hydroelectric dam, supplying new data on fish reproduction in regulated rivers. Moreover, morphometric analyses associated with sex steroids profiles provide reliable tools to assess fish spermatogenesis under environmental stress conditions.

Domingos FF; Thomé RG; Arantes FP; Castro AC; Sato Y; Bazzoli N; Rizzo E

2012-12-01

179

Assessment of spermatogenesis and plasma sex steroids in a seasonal breeding teleost: a comparative study in an area of influence of a tributary, downstream from a hydroelectric power dam, Brazil.  

Science.gov (United States)

River damming and building of hydroelectric power plants interrupt the reproductive migration routes and change the major physicochemical parameters of water quality, with drastic consequences for populations of migratory fishes. The goal of this study was to evaluate proliferation and cell death during spermatogenesis and serum profiles of sex steroids in Prochilodus argenteus, from the São Francisco River, downstream from the Três Marias Dam. A total of 257 adult males were caught quarterly during a reproductive cycle in two sites: the first 34 km of the river after the dam (site 1) and the second 34-54 km after the dam (site 2), after the confluence with a tributary, the Abaeté River. Seasonal changes in the testicular activity associated with morphometric analyses of germ cells as well as proliferation and testicular apoptosis support a more active spermatogenesis in fish from site 2, where higher levels of sex steroids and gonadosomatic index (GSI) were also found. In site 1, fish presented low serum levels of testosterone, 17?-estradiol and 17?-hydroxyprogesterone and a low GSI during gonadal maturation. Spermatogonial proliferation (PCNA) and apoptosis (TUNEL) were more elevated in fish from site 1, but spermatocytes were mainly labelled in fish from site 2. Overall, these data demonstrate changes in testicular activity and plasma sex steroids in a neotropical teleost fish living downstream from a hydroelectric dam, supplying new data on fish reproduction in regulated rivers. Moreover, morphometric analyses associated with sex steroids profiles provide reliable tools to assess fish spermatogenesis under environmental stress conditions. PMID:22688450

Domingos, Fabricio F T; Thomé, Ralph G; Arantes, Fabio P; Castro, Antonio Carlos S; Sato, Yoshimi; Bazzoli, Nilo; Rizzo, Elizete

2012-06-12

180

Profiles of sex steroids, fecundity and spawning of a migratory characiform fish from the Paraguay-Paraná basin: a comparative study in a three-river system.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated for the first time the reproductive biology of Prochilodus lineatus in a system of rivers in southeastern Brasil, relating it to the role of tributary rivers in the reproductive success of this important commercial fish in the Upper Paraná River basin, where a cascade of hydroelectric dams were deployed. Specimens were caught bimonthly in three river sites: (S1) Grande River, downstream from the Porto Colômbia dam; (S2) Pardo River; and (S3) Mogi Guaçu River. Sex steroid plasma levels, fecundity, follicular atresia, oocyte diameter and gonadosomatic index (GSI) were compared among sites. In S1, fish exhibited changes in the reproductive parameters: lower GSI, oocyte diameter and fecundity and higher follicular atresia index, when compared to S2 and S3. Frequency of maturing fish was higher in S3 and spawning was only registered in S3. In sites S2 and S3, plasma concentrations of testosterone and 17?-estradiol in females and testosterone in males showed wide variations following gonadal maturation. Fish from S1 showed few significant variations in sex steroid concentrations throughout the gonadal cycle. These results indicate that P. lineatus does not reproduce in Grande River (S1), but probably uses the Pardo River (S2) as a migratory route towards the Mogi Guaçu River (S3) where they complete gonadal maturation and spawning. Our findings contribute for understanding the reproductive biology of P. lineatus and to highlight the importance of tributaries in impounded rivers as a favourable environment for migration and spawning of fish. PMID:23616136

Perini, Violeta da Rocha; Paschoalini, Alessandro Loureiro; Cruz, Cláudia Kelly Fernandes da; Rocha, Rita de Cássia Gimenes Alcântara de; Senhorini, José Augusto; Ribeiro, Dirceu Marzulo; Formagio, Paulo Sérgio; Bazzoli, Nilo; Rizzo, Elizete

2013-04-25

 
 
 
 
181

Standardization of androstenedione and estrone radioimmunoassay and profile of sex steroids, gonadotropins and prolactin - in patients with chronic anovulation due to inappropriate feedback (polycystic ovarian syndrome)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Full text. In order to evaluate the profile of the sex steroids gonadotropin and prolactin in polycystic ovarian syndrome (POS), 24 patients with POS were studied and compared with 20 normal women during the early follicular phase of the menstrual cycle. Radioimmunoassay techniques for androstenedione (A) and estrone (E1) were standardized for the purpose of the study. Androstenedione and estrone were extracted from plasma with ethyl ether. The assays were maintained in equilibrium and the labelled hormone-antibody complex was then separated from the free hormone using dextran charcoal. The sensitivity of the method was 6.8 pg/tube for A and 3.7 pg/tube for E1. Nonspecific binding ws 3.4 for A and 3.3 for E1. The interessay error at the D50 level was 15.6 for A and 8.6 for E1. Patients with POS had significantly higher basal levels of LH, A, T E1 and PRL and similar FSH and DHEA-S levels when compared with normal women. The LH/FSH ratio was significantly elevated and the A/T ratio was significantly decreased. The A/E1 and T/E2 ratios were elevated and the E1/E2 was decreased, although the differences were not statistically significant. A positive correlation between A and E1 was observed in patients with POS. In view of the above data, it was concluded that: the quality control parameters of the radioimmunoassay for A and E1 standardized in the present study are considered satisfactory, and the assay could be used for diagnosis and research; the patients with POS have a different sex steroid and gonadotropin profile when compared normal women during the early follicular phase of the menstrual cycle

1992-01-01

182

Nitrite-induced alterations in sex steroids and thyroid hormones of Labeo rohita juveniles: effects of dietary vitamin E and L-tryptophan.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An experiment was conducted to study the effect of sub-lethal nitrite exposure on sex steroids (testosterone and estradiol), cortisol and thyroid hormones (T3 and T4) of Labeo rohita juveniles. Fishes previously fed with normal or elevated levels of vitamin E (VE) and tryptophan for 60 days were exposed to sub-lethal nitrite for another 45 days with same feeding regime. There were nine treatment groups, viz. VE0TRP0-N, VE0TRP0+N, VE100TRP0-N, VE100TRP0+N, VE100TRP0.75+N, VE100TRP1.5+N, VE150TRP0+N, VE300TRP0+N and VE200TRP1+N. Except the groups VE0TRP0-N and VE100TRP0-N, all other groups were exposed to nitrite. At the end of the 45 days of nitrite exposure, serum samples were assayed for sex steroids, cortisol and thyroid hormones. The serum T3 and T4 levels decreased to the extent of 84.5 and 94.06 %, respectively, upon nitrite exposure. Dietary supplementation with additional amounts of VE and tryptophan appears to reduce the decline of the production of T4. The serum testosterone and estradiol decreased 97.31 and 92.86 %, respectively, upon nitrite exposure. Supplementation with additional amounts of VE was found to reverse nitrite-induced inhibition of testosterone and estradiol production. Serum cortisol increased upon nitrite exposure and unexposed (VE100-N) group showed lower levels, which were comparable to groups fed with elevated levels of VE. The overall results of the present study revealed that environmental nitrites have a negative impact on steroidogenesis, which can be overcome by dietary supplementation of elevated amounts of VE (minimum of 150 mg VE Kg diet(-1)) and to a lesser extent by tryptophan (only at the level of 1.5 % of the diet).

Ciji A; Sahu NP; Pal AK; Akhtar MS

2013-10-01

183

Nitrite-induced alterations in sex steroids and thyroid hormones of Labeo rohita juveniles: effects of dietary vitamin E and L-tryptophan.  

Science.gov (United States)

An experiment was conducted to study the effect of sub-lethal nitrite exposure on sex steroids (testosterone and estradiol), cortisol and thyroid hormones (T3 and T4) of Labeo rohita juveniles. Fishes previously fed with normal or elevated levels of vitamin E (VE) and tryptophan for 60 days were exposed to sub-lethal nitrite for another 45 days with same feeding regime. There were nine treatment groups, viz. VE0TRP0-N, VE0TRP0+N, VE100TRP0-N, VE100TRP0+N, VE100TRP0.75+N, VE100TRP1.5+N, VE150TRP0+N, VE300TRP0+N and VE200TRP1+N. Except the groups VE0TRP0-N and VE100TRP0-N, all other groups were exposed to nitrite. At the end of the 45 days of nitrite exposure, serum samples were assayed for sex steroids, cortisol and thyroid hormones. The serum T3 and T4 levels decreased to the extent of 84.5 and 94.06 %, respectively, upon nitrite exposure. Dietary supplementation with additional amounts of VE and tryptophan appears to reduce the decline of the production of T4. The serum testosterone and estradiol decreased 97.31 and 92.86 %, respectively, upon nitrite exposure. Supplementation with additional amounts of VE was found to reverse nitrite-induced inhibition of testosterone and estradiol production. Serum cortisol increased upon nitrite exposure and unexposed (VE100-N) group showed lower levels, which were comparable to groups fed with elevated levels of VE. The overall results of the present study revealed that environmental nitrites have a negative impact on steroidogenesis, which can be overcome by dietary supplementation of elevated amounts of VE (minimum of 150 mg VE Kg diet(-1)) and to a lesser extent by tryptophan (only at the level of 1.5 % of the diet). PMID:23504103

Ciji, A; Sahu, N P; Pal, A K; Akhtar, M S

2013-03-17

184

The effects of sex steroids on thyroid C cells and trabecular bone structure in the rat model of male osteoporosis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Androgen deficiency is one of the major factors leading to the development of osteoporosis in men. Since calcitonin (CT) is a potent antiresorptive agent, in the present study we investigated the effects of androgen deficiency and subsequent testosterone and estradiol treatment on CT-producing thyroid C cells, skeletal and hormonal changes in middle-aged orchidectomized (Orx) rats. Fifteen-month-old male Wistar rats were either Orx or sham-operated (SO). One group of Orx rats received 5 mg kg(-1) b.w. testosterone propionate (TP) subcutaneously, while another group was injected with 0.06 mg kg(-1) b.w. estradiol dipropionate (EDP) once a day for 3 weeks. A peroxidase-antiperoxidase method was applied for localization of CT in the C cells. The studies included ultrastructural microscopic observation of these cells. The metaphyseal region of the proximal tibia was measured histomorphometrically using an imagej public domain image processing program. TP or EDP treatment significantly increased C cell volume (Vc), volume densities (Vv) and serum CT concentration compared with the Orx animals. Administration of both TP and EDP significantly enhanced cancellous bone area (B.Ar), trabecular thickness (Tb.Th) and trabecular number (Tb.N) and reduced trabecular separation (Tb.Sp). Serum osteocalcin (OC) and urinary Ca concentrations were significantly lower after these treatments in comparison with Orx rats. These data suggest that testosterone and estradiol treatment in Orx middle-aged rats affect calcitonin-producing thyroid C cells, which may contribute to the bone protective effects of sex hormones in the rat model of male osteoporosis.

Filipovi? B; Soši?-Jurjevi? B; Ajdžanovi? V; Panteli? J; Nestorovi? N; Miloševi? V; Sekuli? M

2013-03-01

185

The effects of sex steroids on thyroid C cells and trabecular bone structure in the rat model of male osteoporosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Androgen deficiency is one of the major factors leading to the development of osteoporosis in men. Since calcitonin (CT) is a potent antiresorptive agent, in the present study we investigated the effects of androgen deficiency and subsequent testosterone and estradiol treatment on CT-producing thyroid C cells, skeletal and hormonal changes in middle-aged orchidectomized (Orx) rats. Fifteen-month-old male Wistar rats were either Orx or sham-operated (SO). One group of Orx rats received 5 mg kg(-1) b.w. testosterone propionate (TP) subcutaneously, while another group was injected with 0.06 mg kg(-1) b.w. estradiol dipropionate (EDP) once a day for 3 weeks. A peroxidase-antiperoxidase method was applied for localization of CT in the C cells. The studies included ultrastructural microscopic observation of these cells. The metaphyseal region of the proximal tibia was measured histomorphometrically using an imagej public domain image processing program. TP or EDP treatment significantly increased C cell volume (Vc), volume densities (Vv) and serum CT concentration compared with the Orx animals. Administration of both TP and EDP significantly enhanced cancellous bone area (B.Ar), trabecular thickness (Tb.Th) and trabecular number (Tb.N) and reduced trabecular separation (Tb.Sp). Serum osteocalcin (OC) and urinary Ca concentrations were significantly lower after these treatments in comparison with Orx rats. These data suggest that testosterone and estradiol treatment in Orx middle-aged rats affect calcitonin-producing thyroid C cells, which may contribute to the bone protective effects of sex hormones in the rat model of male osteoporosis. PMID:23171170

Filipovi?, Branko; Soši?-Jurjevi?, Branka; Ajdžanovi?, Vladimir; Panteli?, Jasmina; Nestorovi?, Nataša; Miloševi?, Verica; Sekuli?, Milka

2012-11-21

186

The interactions of age, sex, body mass index, genetics, and steroid weight-based doses on tacrolimus dosing requirement after adult kidney transplantation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different clinical covariates on tacrolimus dose requirements in adult kidney transplant patients with a specific focus on drug interactions. PATIENTS: Tacrolimus dosing requirement, normalized by drug levels and expressed as the concentration/dose (C/D) ratio as a surrogate index of tacrolimus bioavailability, was employed to identify four categories of tacrolimus dosing requirement, namely, very high, high, small, and very-small, in very fast, fast, slow, and very slow metabolizers, respectively. Steroid weight-based doses were analyzed instead of fixed doses, and genetic analysis of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A5*1/*3 and multi-drug resistance 1 (MDR1) C3435T and C1236T polymorphisms were performed RESULTS: Multivariate analysis on 450 adult transplant patients identified six risk factors for being slow metabolizers and therefore requiring small tacrolimus doses: male sex (OR 1.615, p = 0.020); age >60 years (OR 2.456, p = 0.0005); body mass index ? 25 (OR 1.546, p = 0.046), hepatitis C virus positivity (OR 2.800, p = 0.0004); low steroid dose <0.06 mg/kg (OR 3.101, p < 0.0001). Patients with a small tacrolimus requirement were at increased risk for multiple infections (OR 1.533, p = 0.0008) and higher systolic blood pressure (OR 1.385, p = 0.022) and showed a significant association with the CYP3A5*3/*3 genotype adjusted by MDR1 polymorphisms C3435T and C1236T (OR 8.104, p = 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate the importance of the interaction among genetic and clinical factors in conditioning tacrolimus disposition, with corticosteroid weight-based dose being the only modifiable risk factor for tacrolimus requirement. As the tacrolimus dosing requirement increases with increasing tacrolimus clearance through concomitant steroid use, undesirable changes in tacrolimus levels may occur when steroid doses are tapered, predominantly in slow metabolizers. This often neglected drug interaction has to be monitored to optimize tacrolimus exposure in kidney transplant patients.

Stratta P; Quaglia M; Cena T; Antoniotti R; Fenoglio R; Menegotto A; Ferrante D; Genazzani A; Terrazzino S; Magnani C

2012-05-01

187

Involvement of Gonadal Steroids and Gamma Interferon in Sex Differences in Response to Blood-Stage Malaria Infection†  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

To examine the hormonal and immunological mechanisms that mediate sex differences in susceptibility to malaria infection, intact and gonadectomized (gdx) C57BL/6 mice were inoculated with Plasmodium chabaudi AS-infected erythrocytes, and the responses to infection were monitored. In addition to redu...

Cernetich, Amy; Garver, Lindsey S.; Jedlicka, Anne E.; Klein, Pamela W.; Kumar, Nirbhay; Scott, Alan L.; Klein, Sabra L.

188

Motor function measure scale, steroid therapy and patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To assess the evolution of motor function in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) treated with steroids (prednisolone or deflazacort) through the Motor Function Measure (MFM), which evaluates three dimensions of motor performance (D1, D2, D3). METHODS: Thirty-three patients with DMD (22 ambulant, 6 non-ambulant and 5 who lost the capacity to walk during the period of the study) were assessed using the MFM scale six times over a period of 18 months. RESULTS: All the motor functions remained stable for 14 months in all patients, except D1 for those who lost their walking ability. In ambulant patients, D2 (axial and proximal motor capacities) motor functions improved during six months; an improvement in D3 (distal motor capacity) was noted during the total follow-up. D1 (standing posture and transfers) and total score were useful to predict the loss of the ability to walk. CONCLUSIONS: The use of the MFM in DMD patients confirms the benefits of the steroid treatment for slowing the progression of the disease.

Silva EC; Machado DL; Resende MB; Silva RF; Zanoteli E; Reed UC

2012-03-01

189

Sex-dependent alterations in BDNF-TrkB signaling in the hippocampus of reelin heterozygous mice: a role for sex steroid hormones.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Neurodevelopmental psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia may be caused by a combination of gene × environment, gene × gene, and/or gene × sex interactions. Reduced expression of both Reelin and Brain-Derived Neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been associated with schizophrenia in human post-mortem studies. However, it remains unclear how Reelin and BDNF interact (gene × gene) and whether this is sex-specific (gene × sex). This study investigated BDNF-TrkB signaling in the hippocampus of male and female Reelin heterozygous (Rln(+/-) ) mice. We found significantly increased levels of BDNF in the ventral hippocampus (VHP) of female, but not male Rln(+/-) compared to wild-type (WT) controls. While levels of TrkB were not significantly altered, phosphorylated TrkB (pTrkB) levels were significantly lower, again only in female Rln(+/-) compared to WT. This translated to downstream effects with a significant decrease in phosphorylated ERK1 (pERK1). No changes in BDNF, TrkB, pTrkB or pERK1/2 were observed in the dorsal hippocampus of Rln(+/-) mice. Ovariectomy (OVX) had no effect in WT controls, but caused a significant decrease in BDNF expression in the VHP of Rln(+/-) mice to the levels of intact WT controls. The high expression of BDNF was restored in OVX Rln(+/-) mice by 17?-estradiol treatment, suggesting that Rln(+/-) mice respond differently to an altered estradiol state than WT controls. In addition, while OVX had no significant effect on TrkB or ERK expression/phosphorylation, OVX + estradiol treatment markedly increased TrkB and ERK1 phosphorylation in Rln(+/-) and, to a lesser extent in WT controls, compared to intact genotype-matched controls. These data may provide a better understanding of the interaction of Reelin and BDNF in the hippocampus, which may be involved in schizophrenia.

Hill RA; Wu YW; Gogos A; van den Buuse M

2013-08-01

190

Sex-dependent alterations in BDNF-TrkB signaling in the hippocampus of reelin heterozygous mice: a role for sex steroid hormones.  

Science.gov (United States)

Neurodevelopmental psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia may be caused by a combination of gene × environment, gene × gene, and/or gene × sex interactions. Reduced expression of both Reelin and Brain-Derived Neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been associated with schizophrenia in human post-mortem studies. However, it remains unclear how Reelin and BDNF interact (gene × gene) and whether this is sex-specific (gene × sex). This study investigated BDNF-TrkB signaling in the hippocampus of male and female Reelin heterozygous (Rln(+/-) ) mice. We found significantly increased levels of BDNF in the ventral hippocampus (VHP) of female, but not male Rln(+/-) compared to wild-type (WT) controls. While levels of TrkB were not significantly altered, phosphorylated TrkB (pTrkB) levels were significantly lower, again only in female Rln(+/-) compared to WT. This translated to downstream effects with a significant decrease in phosphorylated ERK1 (pERK1). No changes in BDNF, TrkB, pTrkB or pERK1/2 were observed in the dorsal hippocampus of Rln(+/-) mice. Ovariectomy (OVX) had no effect in WT controls, but caused a significant decrease in BDNF expression in the VHP of Rln(+/-) mice to the levels of intact WT controls. The high expression of BDNF was restored in OVX Rln(+/-) mice by 17?-estradiol treatment, suggesting that Rln(+/-) mice respond differently to an altered estradiol state than WT controls. In addition, while OVX had no significant effect on TrkB or ERK expression/phosphorylation, OVX + estradiol treatment markedly increased TrkB and ERK1 phosphorylation in Rln(+/-) and, to a lesser extent in WT controls, compared to intact genotype-matched controls. These data may provide a better understanding of the interaction of Reelin and BDNF in the hippocampus, which may be involved in schizophrenia. PMID:23414458

Hill, Rachel A; Wu, Yee-Wen Candace; Gogos, Andrea; van den Buuse, Maarten

2013-03-24

191

Validity of a Scale to Measure Teachers' Attitudes towards Sex Education  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite the current legislation requiring sex education as part of the school curriculum in Portugal, great obstacles to its implementation remain. Furthermore, sex education is far from being systematically administered. Thus, the main interest in our project was to validate a scale that measures teachers' attitudes towards sex education. There…

de Almeida Reis, Maria Helena; Vilar, Duarte Goncalo Rei

2006-01-01

192

Exposure assessment of prepubertal children to steroid endocrine disrupters 1. Analytical strategy for estrogens measurement in plasma at ultra-trace level.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Global concern has been raised in recent years over adverse effects that may result from exposure to chemicals that may interfere with the endocrine system. A specific question is related to low-dose effects and long-term exposure consequences, especially for critical populations (foetus, new born, prepubertal children). In this context, we decided to focus our attention on steroid hormones as they are the most potent endocrine disrupters. Our general goal is to investigate whether the steroid intake through food may represent a risk for prepubertal children, from an endocrine disruption point of view, especially with regard to the corresponding endogenous production level in this target population. As a starting point, it was estimated that a (re)-evaluation of the endogenous production of natural estrogens for this population was necessary, on the basis of a very sensitive and specific confirmatory measurement technique (gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry or gas chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry). Thus, a new ultra-sensitive approach for steroid trace measurement in biological samples was developed, which was mainly based on a specific derivatisation (pentafluorobenzyl derivative) and negative chemical ionisation (NCI). Preliminary results obtained by applying this method on plasma samples from healthy prepubertal children demonstrated that estradiol endogenous level in prepubertal children is unsurprisingly very low. Estrone was determined in almost all samples at concentration in the 2-70 ng L(-1) range while 17alpha and 17beta estradiol were quantified in only few samples at concentrations ranging from 2 to 6 ng L(-1). Exogenous contributions of estrogens will therefore constitute a relatively higher proportion of sex hormone activity in the immature child.

Courant F; Antignac JP; Maume D; Monteau F; Andersson AM; Skakkebaek N; Andre F; Le Bizec B

2007-03-01

193

Effect of a non steroidal tamoxifen on the gonad and sex differentiation in Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The effect of different doses of anti-estrogenic chemical was studied in a cichlid Oreochromis niloticus on mortality, growth, sexual development and sex differentiation. Percent mortality (5, 10 and 10) appeared to be dose-dependent. All groups of tamoxifen (TA) treated fishes exhibited significant growth as compared to the controlled fishes. Immature fishes treated with TA at 200 microg l(-1), showed lower gonado-somatic-index (GSI) (male 0.137; female 0.118) than control group (male 0.138; female 0.122) of fishes. Ovarian and testicular differentiation was adjudged by the appearance of the ovarian cavity (ovary) and the efferent (sperm) duct (testis), respectively. Sex and sexual maturity of individual fishes were determined using standard histological method. Tamoxifen treatment to the fry (yolk sac absorbed stage) of Oreochromis niloticus in the dose of 200 microg l(-1) for 60 days produced 90% males and 1% intersex population. Results suggested masculinizing action of tamoxifen reversing the sex of genetic female tilapia.

Singh R; Singh AK; Tripathi M

2012-07-01

194

Influência da idade e do diabetes sobre esteróides sexuais e SHBG em homens Influence of age and diabetes on sex steroids and SHBG in men  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Para analisar a influência de fatores clínicos, demográficos e laboratoriais sobre os níveis de esteróides sexuais e SHBG, estudamos 28 homens com diabetes tipo 2 (DM2) e 27 não-diabéticos, nos quais foram medidos o índice de massa corporal (IMC), a relação cintura quadril (RCQ) e a circunferência da cintura. Foram dosados: glicose, hemoglobina glicada, insulina, peptídeo C, estradiol, testosterona e SHBG. O índice de testosterona livre (ITL) foi calculado dividindo-se o valor da testosterona total (TT) pelo valor da SHBG. Utilizamos o índice HOMA-R como indicativo de resistência insulínica. Observamos que os diabéticos apresentavam HOMA-R mais elevado do que os não-diabéticos (4,7±2,7 vs 2,75±1,6; p= 0,04), tendência a menores níveis de TT (3400 [1829-7000] vs. 4267 [2097-7074]pg/ml; p= 0,07) e menor ITL (81,1 [46,3-200,1] vs. 96,1 [31,9-176,7]; p= 0,02). Na análise de regressão linear, a idade foi a única variável que influenciou o ITL (r= 0,34, r²= 0,12; p= 0,01) e o índice HOMA-R (r= 0,54, r²= -0,29; p= 0,0005) e a idade (r= 0,50, r²= 0,18; p= 0,0004) influenciaram a SHBG. Concluimos que o DM foi um dos fatores determinantes de menores níveis de TT e livre em um grupo de homens pareados para idade e adiposidade, porém a idade foi o fator mais importante em homens com ou sem DM.To study the role of clinical, demographic and laboratory factors on the levels of sex steroids, we studied 28 men with type 2 diabetes (DM2) and 27 non-diabetic controls. Body mass index (BMI), waist size and waist-hip ratio (WHR) were measured in all, as well as, glucose, hemoglobin A1c, insulin, peptide C, estradiol, testosterone, and SHBG. The free testosterone index (FTI) was calculated by dividing total testosterone (TT) by SHBG. The HOMA-R index was used as a measure of insulin resistance. We found that diabetics had a higher HOMA-R than non-diabetics (4.7±2.7 vs. 2.75±1.6; p= 0.04), a tendency toward lower levels of TT (3400 [1829-7000] vs. 4267 [2097-7074]pg/ml; p= 0.07) and lower FTI (81.1 [46.3-200.1] vs. 96.1 [31.9-176.7]; p= 0.02). Linear regression analysis showed that age was the only variable that affected FTI (r= 0.34, r²= 0.12; p= 0.01) and that HOMA-R (r= 0.54, r²= -0.29; p= 0.0005) and age (r= 0.50, r²= 0.18; p= 0.0004) influenced SHBG. We conclude that diabetes is partially responsible for lower levels of total and free testosterone in men matched for age and degree of body fat, but age was the most important determinant of lower level of androgens in men with and without diabetes.

Luciana Bahia; Marília de Brito Gomes

2003-01-01

195

EFFECTS OF THREE DIFFERENT GONADOTROPIN - RELEASING HORMONE ANALOGUES COMBINED WITH DOPAMINE ANTAGONISTS ON PLASMA SEX STEROID HORMONES, IN ENDANGERED MALE AND FEMALE CASPIAN BROWN TROUT, SALMO TRUTTA CASPIUS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available To understand the steroidogenic activities in Caspian brown trout, female and male broodstocks were injected with three different GnRHa in combination with two different dopamine antagonists and we examined changes in plasma sex steroid hormones during the experiments. In four separate experiments, female and male received two injections (at 0 day and 4 day) in total volume 0.5 and 0.25 ml per kg-1 body weight respectively. Control group received only propylene glycol (Vehicle only). The final concentrations of GnRHa and metoclopramide (MET) were 20 µg GnRHa kg-1 body weight (BW) and 10 mg kg-1 body weight (BW), respectively. Each injection, received half dose of hormone. Blood samples were taken at 0, 2, 5 and 7 days, and blood plasma was retained for analysis of steroid levels. In female, plasma levels of estradiol-17? (E2) and testosterone (T) showed significant decreases in fish treated with GnRHa plus Dopamine antagonist compared to control group. Plasma 17?,20?-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (17,20?-P) levels abruptly increased at the 2nd day post-injection in all treated groups, reached peak levels at the 5th day, and the elevated levels slightly decreased by the 7th day. In male, all experimental treatments showed lower blood plasma 11-ketotestosterone (11KT) levels relative to control. Treatment in all hormonal groups resulted in significant decrease in blood plasma 17,20?P levels compared to control group except fish treated with mGnRHa in combination with metoclopramide at 2nd post injection. Mean blood plasma T levels displayed a marked increase between 2nd and 5thyad . Changes in plasma T levels showed no significant change at the 7th day post injection.

Seyed Ehsan Mousavi

2013-01-01

196

Influência da idade e do diabetes sobre esteróides sexuais e SHBG em homens/ Influence of age and diabetes on sex steroids and SHBG in men  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Para analisar a influência de fatores clínicos, demográficos e laboratoriais sobre os níveis de esteróides sexuais e SHBG, estudamos 28 homens com diabetes tipo 2 (DM2) e 27 não-diabéticos, nos quais foram medidos o índice de massa corporal (IMC), a relação cintura quadril (RCQ) e a circunferência da cintura. Foram dosados: glicose, hemoglobina glicada, insulina, peptídeo C, estradiol, testosterona e SHBG. O índice de testosterona livre (ITL) foi calculado di (more) vidindo-se o valor da testosterona total (TT) pelo valor da SHBG. Utilizamos o índice HOMA-R como indicativo de resistência insulínica. Observamos que os diabéticos apresentavam HOMA-R mais elevado do que os não-diabéticos (4,7±2,7 vs 2,75±1,6; p= 0,04), tendência a menores níveis de TT (3400 [1829-7000] vs. 4267 [2097-7074]pg/ml; p= 0,07) e menor ITL (81,1 [46,3-200,1] vs. 96,1 [31,9-176,7]; p= 0,02). Na análise de regressão linear, a idade foi a única variável que influenciou o ITL (r= 0,34, r²= 0,12; p= 0,01) e o índice HOMA-R (r= 0,54, r²= -0,29; p= 0,0005) e a idade (r= 0,50, r²= 0,18; p= 0,0004) influenciaram a SHBG. Concluimos que o DM foi um dos fatores determinantes de menores níveis de TT e livre em um grupo de homens pareados para idade e adiposidade, porém a idade foi o fator mais importante em homens com ou sem DM. Abstract in english To study the role of clinical, demographic and laboratory factors on the levels of sex steroids, we studied 28 men with type 2 diabetes (DM2) and 27 non-diabetic controls. Body mass index (BMI), waist size and waist-hip ratio (WHR) were measured in all, as well as, glucose, hemoglobin A1c, insulin, peptide C, estradiol, testosterone, and SHBG. The free testosterone index (FTI) was calculated by dividing total testosterone (TT) by SHBG. The HOMA-R index was used as a measu (more) re of insulin resistance. We found that diabetics had a higher HOMA-R than non-diabetics (4.7±2.7 vs. 2.75±1.6; p= 0.04), a tendency toward lower levels of TT (3400 [1829-7000] vs. 4267 [2097-7074]pg/ml; p= 0.07) and lower FTI (81.1 [46.3-200.1] vs. 96.1 [31.9-176.7]; p= 0.02). Linear regression analysis showed that age was the only variable that affected FTI (r= 0.34, r²= 0.12; p= 0.01) and that HOMA-R (r= 0.54, r²= -0.29; p= 0.0005) and age (r= 0.50, r²= 0.18; p= 0.0004) influenced SHBG. We conclude that diabetes is partially responsible for lower levels of total and free testosterone in men matched for age and degree of body fat, but age was the most important determinant of lower level of androgens in men with and without diabetes.

Bahia, Luciana; Gomes, Marília de Brito

2003-06-01

197

Effects of sex steroid hormones, thyroid hormone levels, and insulin regulation on thyrotoxic periodic paralysis in Chinese men.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Our study is to determine the expression of thyroid hormone, sex hormone, insulin, and C-peptide in Chinese male patients with thyrotoxic periodic paralysis (TPP). This study covered 102 patients with hyperthyroidism from Xijing Hospital. According to whether occurrence of TPP or not, patients were divided into two groups (those that were hyperthyroid with and without TPP) that were, matched with age, blood pressure, urea, and creatinine. We found the body mass index (BMI) in patients with TPP was higher than that in pure hyperthyroidism patients. The levels of the total thyroxine (T4), free triiodothyronine (FT3), and free thyroxine (FT4) were significantly lower in patients with TPP compared with pure hyperthyroidism patients, while serum testosterone levels were higher compared with pure hyperthyroidism patients. Moreover, after glucose administration, the concentration of insulin at 60, 120, and 180 min were significantly higher in patients with TPP than those in pure hyperthyroidism patients. The insulin area under the curve (AUC) was significantly increased in patients with TPP compared with pure hyperthyroidism patients. The levels of thyroid hormone, sex hormone, and insulin were different in Chinese male patients with TPP compared to those with only hyperthyroidism.

Li W; Changsheng C; Jiangfang F; Bin G; Nanyan Z; Xiaomiao L; Deqiang L; Ying X; Wensong Z; Qiuhe J

2010-12-01

198

Effects of sex steroid hormones, thyroid hormone levels, and insulin regulation on thyrotoxic periodic paralysis in Chinese men.  

Science.gov (United States)

Our study is to determine the expression of thyroid hormone, sex hormone, insulin, and C-peptide in Chinese male patients with thyrotoxic periodic paralysis (TPP). This study covered 102 patients with hyperthyroidism from Xijing Hospital. According to whether occurrence of TPP or not, patients were divided into two groups (those that were hyperthyroid with and without TPP) that were, matched with age, blood pressure, urea, and creatinine. We found the body mass index (BMI) in patients with TPP was higher than that in pure hyperthyroidism patients. The levels of the total thyroxine (T4), free triiodothyronine (FT3), and free thyroxine (FT4) were significantly lower in patients with TPP compared with pure hyperthyroidism patients, while serum testosterone levels were higher compared with pure hyperthyroidism patients. Moreover, after glucose administration, the concentration of insulin at 60, 120, and 180 min were significantly higher in patients with TPP than those in pure hyperthyroidism patients. The insulin area under the curve (AUC) was significantly increased in patients with TPP compared with pure hyperthyroidism patients. The levels of thyroid hormone, sex hormone, and insulin were different in Chinese male patients with TPP compared to those with only hyperthyroidism. PMID:20972724

Li, Wang; Changsheng, Chen; Jiangfang, Fu; Bin, Gao; Nanyan, Zhang; Xiaomiao, Li; Deqiang, Li; Ying, Xing; Wensong, Zai; Qiuhe, Ji

2010-10-23

199

Sex and ovarian steroids modulate brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) protein levels in rat hippocampus under stressful and non-stressful conditions.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Abnormal levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) are associated with major depression, a disorder with a higher incidence in women than men. Stress affects BDNF levels in various brain regions and thus, a heightened stress response in females could contribute to the development of depression. As well, ovarian hormones directly affect brain levels of BDNF mRNA and protein. Two experiments were performed to investigate the effects of stress and sex and gonadal hormones on BDNF protein levels in CA1, CA3, and dentate gyrus (DG) subregions of the hippocampus. In the first experiment, male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to one hour of restraint stress or control handling prior to sacrifice. In the second experiment, fifty-one female rats were ovariectomized and separated into stress and control conditions, as described for the first experiment. Stressed and handled groups received a single injection of estrogen (E; 53h prior to stress), estrogen and progesterone (EP; E given at 53h and P given 5h prior to stress), or vehicle (OVX). In both experiments BDNF protein was quantified using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent enzyme assay (ELISA) in micropunches of hippocampus. Gonadally intact females had significantly higher levels of BDNF in CA3, but significantly lower levels in DG, relative to males. In CA3, stress significantly decreased BDNF in both males and females. In DG of ovariectomized female rats, the effects of stress were significantly different following EP vs. vehicle treatment. Thus, stress increased BDNF levels in EP-treated rats but decreased BDNF levels in vehicle-treated rats. Reduced trophic support in DG in the presence of estrogen and progesterone could jeopardize neurogenesis and under certain conditions could be a contributing factor to the hippocampal atrophy associated with stress-induced affective disorders. These results emphasize the need to consider sex, gonadal steroids, and hippocampal subregion when examining the effects of stress on the brain.

Franklin TB; Perrot-Sinal TS

2006-01-01

200

Oral Steroids (Steroid Pills and Syrups)  

Science.gov (United States)

Oral Steroids (Steroid Pills and Syrups) How are steroid pills and syrups used? What is a steroid burst? What about routine ... Want to learn more about steroids? How are steroid pills and syrups used? Steroid pills and syrups ...

 
 
 
 
201

[Evaluation of the prescription of long-term systemic steroid-therapy associated measures].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: To prevent the occurrence of corticosteroid's side effects, adjuvant measures are prescribed in a very different way depending on the practitioner's experience. The aim of this study was to assess the physicians' practices regarding the prescription of long-term corticosteroid therapy. METHODS: In May 2010, we realized a cross-sectional study among physicians in Ibn Sina University Hospital in Rabat. With a data collection form, we assessed the principal indications for prescribing steroids and the frequency of prescription of measures sometimes associated with systemic corticosteroid. RESULTS: Fifty-nine out of eighty physicians completed the data collection form (response rate: 69.4%). Calcium-vitamin D supplementation was recommended by most of the physicians. Half of them were prescribing biphosphonate therapy. Most of them propose a low-sodium, a low-fat and a low-carbohydrate dietary regimen. Regular physical exercise was recommended by 35% of physicians. Gastric protection was indicating by 54.4% of practicians and potassium supplementation by 42.1% of them. Finally, the recommendation for influenza vaccination, hydrocortisone prescription and Synacthen(®) test, varied between physicians. CONCLUSION: The prescription of adjuvant measures with a long-term corticosteroid therapy was very heterogeneous. There is no consensus regarding most of the measures.

Lamchahab FE; Reffas W; Bouattar T; Abdellaoui EK; Ouzeddoun N; Bayahia R; Aouni A; El Fassi Fihri T; Senouci K; Ait Ourhroui M; Hassam B

2012-09-01

202

The relationship between the concentration of female sex steroids and prostaglandins production by human gingiva in vitro.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The relationship between various concentrations of estradiol-17 beta and progesterone, alone and in combination, and the formation of radioactive prostaglandins (PGs) from 14C-arachidonic acid by gingival homogenate has been investigated. There was a statistically significant negative linear trend between each of the hormone treatments at concentrations of 10(-9), 10(-7), 10(-5) and 10(-3)M and the amounts of 6-keto-PGF1a, PGF2a, PGE2, PGD2 and 15-keto-PGE2 formed. Each of estradiol-17 beta and progesterone at 10(-9) and 10(-7)M exerted stimulatory effect, whereas at higher concentrations they had an inhibitory effect on all PGs tested. These observations suggest that the concentration of female sex hormones is an important factor in regulating PG biosynthesis by gingival tissue.

ElAttar TM; Lin HS; Tira DE

1982-05-01

203

Cryptic regulation of vasotocin neuronal activity but not anatomy by sex steroids and social stimuli in opportunistic desert finches.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In most vertebrate species, the production of vasotocin (VT; non-mammals) and vasopressin (VP; mammals) in the medial bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BSTm) waxes and wanes with seasonal reproductive state; however, opportunistically breeding species might need to maintain high levels of this behaviorally relevant neuropeptide year-round in anticipation of unpredictable breeding opportunities. We here provide support for this hypothesis and demonstrate that these neurons are instead regulated 'cryptically' via hormonal regulation of their activity levels, which may be rapidly modified to adjust VT signaling. First, we show that combined treatment of male and female zebra finches (Estrildidae: Taeniopygia guttata) with the androgen receptor antagonist flutamide and the aromatase inhibitor 1,4,6-androstatriene-3,17-dione does not alter the expression of VT immunoreactivity within the BSTm; however, both hormonal treatment and social housing environment (same-sex versus mixed-sex) alter VT colocalization with the immediate early gene product Fos (a proxy marker of neural activation) in the BSTm. In a second experiment, manipulations of estradiol (E2) levels with the aromatase inhibitor letrozole (LET) or subcutaneous E2 implants failed to alter colocalization, suggesting that the colocalization effects in experiment 1 were solely androgenic. LET treatment also did not affect VT immunoreactivity in a manner reversible by E2 treatment. Finally, comparisons of VT immunoreactivity in breeding and nonbreeding individuals of several estrildid species demonstrate that year-round stability of VT immunoreactivity is found only in highly opportunistic species, and is therefore not essential to the maintenance of long-term pair bonds, which are ubiquitous in the Estrildidae.

Kabelik D; Morrison JA; Goodson JL

2010-01-01

204

Cryptic regulation of vasotocin neuronal activity but not anatomy by sex steroids and social stimuli in opportunistic desert finches.  

Science.gov (United States)

In most vertebrate species, the production of vasotocin (VT; non-mammals) and vasopressin (VP; mammals) in the medial bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BSTm) waxes and wanes with seasonal reproductive state; however, opportunistically breeding species might need to maintain high levels of this behaviorally relevant neuropeptide year-round in anticipation of unpredictable breeding opportunities. We here provide support for this hypothesis and demonstrate that these neurons are instead regulated 'cryptically' via hormonal regulation of their activity levels, which may be rapidly modified to adjust VT signaling. First, we show that combined treatment of male and female zebra finches (Estrildidae: Taeniopygia guttata) with the androgen receptor antagonist flutamide and the aromatase inhibitor 1,4,6-androstatriene-3,17-dione does not alter the expression of VT immunoreactivity within the BSTm; however, both hormonal treatment and social housing environment (same-sex versus mixed-sex) alter VT colocalization with the immediate early gene product Fos (a proxy marker of neural activation) in the BSTm. In a second experiment, manipulations of estradiol (E2) levels with the aromatase inhibitor letrozole (LET) or subcutaneous E2 implants failed to alter colocalization, suggesting that the colocalization effects in experiment 1 were solely androgenic. LET treatment also did not affect VT immunoreactivity in a manner reversible by E2 treatment. Finally, comparisons of VT immunoreactivity in breeding and nonbreeding individuals of several estrildid species demonstrate that year-round stability of VT immunoreactivity is found only in highly opportunistic species, and is therefore not essential to the maintenance of long-term pair bonds, which are ubiquitous in the Estrildidae. PMID:20332615

Kabelik, David; Morrison, Jenilee A; Goodson, James L

2010-03-19

205

The effects of pulp mill effluent on the sex steroid binding protein in white sucker (Catostomus commersoni) and longnose sucker (C catostomus).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The objective of this study was to characterize the effects of pulp mill effluent on the properties of the sex steroid binding protein (SBP) in the plasma of white sucker (Catostomus commersoni) and longnose sucker (C. catostomus). SBPs which specifically bind estradiol and testosterone with high affinity (k(D) approximately 3 nM) and low capacity (B(max) approximately 73-81 nM) were identified in both species. Subsequent studies determined if the properties of the SBP in white sucker exposed to bleached kraft mill effluent (BKME) at Terrace Bay, ON, and in longnose sucker exposed to BKME at Grande Prairie, AB. differed from appropriate reference fish. There were no effects of BKME exposure on the binding affinity (k(D)) of the SBP in either species, but there was a significant increase in the binding capacity (B(max)) of longnose sucker SBP exposed to BKME. The livers of nai;ve white sucker exposed to effluent at Terrace Bay or a bleached sulfite/groundwood mill in Edmundston, NB, rapidly accumulated compounds of differing hydrophobicity that bound to both the white sucker and goldfish (Carassius auratus) SBP. Conversely, there was reduced accumulation of SBP ligands in the bile of effluent-exposed fish. We have demonstrated that constituents present within pulp mill effluent bind to both the white sucker and goldfish SBP, and that native species residing downstream of pulp mill effluents may experience modifications in the properties of their SBP.

Pryce-Hobby AC; McMaster ME; Hewitt LM; Van Der Kraak G

2003-02-01

206

The effects of pulp mill effluent on the sex steroid binding protein in white sucker (Catostomus commersoni) and longnose sucker (C catostomus).  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this study was to characterize the effects of pulp mill effluent on the properties of the sex steroid binding protein (SBP) in the plasma of white sucker (Catostomus commersoni) and longnose sucker (C. catostomus). SBPs which specifically bind estradiol and testosterone with high affinity (k(D) approximately 3 nM) and low capacity (B(max) approximately 73-81 nM) were identified in both species. Subsequent studies determined if the properties of the SBP in white sucker exposed to bleached kraft mill effluent (BKME) at Terrace Bay, ON, and in longnose sucker exposed to BKME at Grande Prairie, AB. differed from appropriate reference fish. There were no effects of BKME exposure on the binding affinity (k(D)) of the SBP in either species, but there was a significant increase in the binding capacity (B(max)) of longnose sucker SBP exposed to BKME. The livers of nai;ve white sucker exposed to effluent at Terrace Bay or a bleached sulfite/groundwood mill in Edmundston, NB, rapidly accumulated compounds of differing hydrophobicity that bound to both the white sucker and goldfish (Carassius auratus) SBP. Conversely, there was reduced accumulation of SBP ligands in the bile of effluent-exposed fish. We have demonstrated that constituents present within pulp mill effluent bind to both the white sucker and goldfish SBP, and that native species residing downstream of pulp mill effluents may experience modifications in the properties of their SBP. PMID:12600684

Pryce-Hobby, A C; McMaster, M E; Hewitt, L M; Van Der Kraak, G

2003-02-01

207

Profiles of sex steroids, fecundity, and spawning of the curimata-pacu Prochilodus argenteus in the Sao Francisco River, downstream from the Tres Marias Dam, Southeastern Brazil.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present study evaluated for the first time sex steroid profiles and fecundity in females of Prochilodus argenteus from two sections of the São Francisco River Brazil, downstream from the Três Marias Dam, which influences characteristics of their water habitat. The model species in the study, P. argenteus, is an important commercial and recreational species in Brazil. In the region closest to the dam (section 1), females did not reach final oocyte maturation, failed to spawn, and displayed lesser circulating concentrations of testosterone, 17(-hydroxyprogesterone (17(-P) and 17beta-estradiol (E2) than those farther downstream of the dam (section 2). The endocrine and fecundity deficiencies probably are attributed to lower water temperature and oxygen concentration in (section 1). The follicular atresia rate in the region closest to the dam (26%) was greater than those fish captured farther downstream of the dam (13%), after the Abaeté River (section 2). Variations in testosterone, E2 and 17(-P concentrations in section 2, followed gonadal maturation which are typical features of species which have seasonal reproduction, group-synchronous oocyte development, and are single batch spawners such as P. argenteus. Results document the first evidence of endocrine and reproductive dysfunctions caused by inadequate water conditions in a wild population of the migratory species P. argenteus in the São Francisco River, downstream from the Três Marias dam.

Arantes FP; Santos HB; Rizzo E; Sato Y; Bazzoli N

2010-04-01

208

Profiles of sex steroids, fecundity, and spawning of the curimatã-pacu Prochilodus argenteus in the São Francisco River, downstream from the Três Marias Dam, Southeastern Brazil.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study evaluated for the first time sex steroid profiles and fecundity in females of Prochilodus argenteus from two sections of the São Francisco River Brazil, downstream from the Três Marias Dam, which influences characteristics of their water habitat. The model species in the study, P. argenteus, is an important commercial and recreational species in Brazil. In the region closest to the dam (section 1), females did not reach final oocyte maturation, failed to spawn, and displayed lesser circulating concentrations of testosterone, 17(-hydroxyprogesterone (17(-P) and 17beta-estradiol (E2) than those farther downstream of the dam (section 2). The endocrine and fecundity deficiencies probably are attributed to lower water temperature and oxygen concentration in (section 1). The follicular atresia rate in the region closest to the dam (26%) was greater than those fish captured farther downstream of the dam (13%), after the Abaeté River (section 2). Variations in testosterone, E2 and 17(-P concentrations in section 2, followed gonadal maturation which are typical features of species which have seasonal reproduction, group-synchronous oocyte development, and are single batch spawners such as P. argenteus. Results document the first evidence of endocrine and reproductive dysfunctions caused by inadequate water conditions in a wild population of the migratory species P. argenteus in the São Francisco River, downstream from the Três Marias dam. PMID:19683404

Arantes, Fábio P; Santos, Helio B; Rizzo, Elizete; Sato, Yoshimi; Bazzoli, Nilo

2009-07-23

209

The effects of female sex steroids on the development of autoimmune thyroiditis in thymectomized and irradiated rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Female PVG/c strain rats are more susceptible to induction of autoimmune thyroiditis initiated by thymectomy and irradiation (Tx-X) than similarly treated males. Pre-pubertal ovariectomy further augmented susceptibility. Administration of oestrogen or progesterone to groups of 4 weeks old ovariectomized Tx-X animals over a period of 15 weeks significantly altered induction of this condition. Oestrogen administered repeatedly at dose levels of 1 ?g and 10 ?g/100 g body weight resulted in partial suppression of thyroiditis with a corresponding change in the incidence of antibodies to thyroglobulin. Oestrogen administered by a single implantation had a suppressive effect on the development of autoimmunity in ovariectomized Tx-X females. Oestrogen given by either of these procedures also reduced the incidence of thyroiditis and autoantibody induction in orchidectomized male Tx-X rats. In contrast, repeated administration of progesterone at a dose of 250 mg and 1,500 ?g/100 g body weight appeared to augment levels of autoimmunity. It is concluded that the differential susceptibility to the induction of autoimmunity by thymectomy and irradiation is the direct consequence of sex hormonal influences. The higher incidence of the disease in the female would appear to be determined by the balance between the activity of oestrogen and progesterone which would further appear to have antagonistic influences in this particular situation. (UK)

1983-01-01

210

Steroid assays in paediatric endocrinology.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Most steroid disorders of the adrenal cortex come to clinical attention in childhood and in order to investigate these problems, there are many challenges to the laboratory which need to be appreciated to a certain extent by clinicians. The analysis of sex steroids in biological fluids from neonates...

Honour, JW

211

Increased neurokinin B (Tac2) expression in the mouse arcuate nucleus is an early marker of pubertal onset with differential sensitivity to sex steroid-negative feedback than Kiss1.  

Science.gov (United States)

At puberty, neurokinin B (NKB) and kisspeptin (Kiss1) may help to amplify GnRH secretion, but their precise roles remain ambiguous. We tested the hypothesis that NKB and Kiss1 are induced as a function of pubertal development, independently of the prevailing sex steroid milieu. We found that levels of Kiss1 mRNA in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) are increased prior to the age of puberty in GnRH/sex steroid-deficient hpg mice, yet levels of Kiss1 mRNA in wild-type mice remained constant, suggesting that sex steroids exert a negative feedback effect on Kiss1 expression early in development and across puberty. In contrast, levels of Tac2 mRNA, encoding NKB, and its receptor (NK3R; encoded by Tacr3) increased as a function of puberty in both wild-type and hpg mice, suggesting that during development Tac2 is less sensitive to sex steroid-dependent negative feedback than Kiss1. To compare the relative responsiveness of Tac2 and Kiss1 to the negative feedback effects of gonadal steroids, we examined the effect of estradiol (E(2)) on Tac2 and Kiss1 mRNA and found that Kiss1 gene expression was more sensitive than Tac2 to E(2)-induced inhibition at both juvenile and adult ages. This differential estrogen sensitivity was tested in vivo by the administration of E(2). Low levels of E(2) significantly suppressed Kiss1 expression in the ARC, whereas Tac2 suppression required higher E(2) levels, supporting differential sensitivity to E(2). Finally, to determine whether inhibition of NKB/NK3R signaling would block the onset of puberty, we administered an NK3R antagonist to prepubertal (before postnatal d 30) females and found no effect on markers of pubertal onset in either WT or hpg mice. These results indicate that the expression of Tac2 and Tacr3 in the ARC are markers of pubertal activation but that increased NKB/NK3R signaling alone is insufficient to trigger the onset of puberty in the mouse. PMID:22893725

Gill, John C; Navarro, Víctor M; Kwong, Cecilia; Noel, Sekoni D; Martin, Cecilia; Xu, Shuyun; Clifton, Donald K; Carroll, Rona S; Steiner, Robert A; Kaiser, Ursula B

2012-08-14

212

Increased neurokinin B (Tac2) expression in the mouse arcuate nucleus is an early marker of pubertal onset with differential sensitivity to sex steroid-negative feedback than Kiss1.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

At puberty, neurokinin B (NKB) and kisspeptin (Kiss1) may help to amplify GnRH secretion, but their precise roles remain ambiguous. We tested the hypothesis that NKB and Kiss1 are induced as a function of pubertal development, independently of the prevailing sex steroid milieu. We found that levels of Kiss1 mRNA in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) are increased prior to the age of puberty in GnRH/sex steroid-deficient hpg mice, yet levels of Kiss1 mRNA in wild-type mice remained constant, suggesting that sex steroids exert a negative feedback effect on Kiss1 expression early in development and across puberty. In contrast, levels of Tac2 mRNA, encoding NKB, and its receptor (NK3R; encoded by Tacr3) increased as a function of puberty in both wild-type and hpg mice, suggesting that during development Tac2 is less sensitive to sex steroid-dependent negative feedback than Kiss1. To compare the relative responsiveness of Tac2 and Kiss1 to the negative feedback effects of gonadal steroids, we examined the effect of estradiol (E(2)) on Tac2 and Kiss1 mRNA and found that Kiss1 gene expression was more sensitive than Tac2 to E(2)-induced inhibition at both juvenile and adult ages. This differential estrogen sensitivity was tested in vivo by the administration of E(2). Low levels of E(2) significantly suppressed Kiss1 expression in the ARC, whereas Tac2 suppression required higher E(2) levels, supporting differential sensitivity to E(2). Finally, to determine whether inhibition of NKB/NK3R signaling would block the onset of puberty, we administered an NK3R antagonist to prepubertal (before postnatal d 30) females and found no effect on markers of pubertal onset in either WT or hpg mice. These results indicate that the expression of Tac2 and Tacr3 in the ARC are markers of pubertal activation but that increased NKB/NK3R signaling alone is insufficient to trigger the onset of puberty in the mouse.

Gill JC; Navarro VM; Kwong C; Noel SD; Martin C; Xu S; Clifton DK; Carroll RS; Steiner RA; Kaiser UB

2012-10-01

213

Mutations in exons of the CYP17-II gene affect sex steroid concentration in male Japanese flounder ( Paralichthys olivaceus)  

Science.gov (United States)

As a specific gene of fish, cytochrome P450c17-II ( CYP17-II) gene plays a key role in the growth, development an reproduction level of fish. In this study, the single-stranded conformational polymorphism (SSCP) technique was used to characterize polymorphisms within the coding region of CYP17-II gene in a population of 75 male Japanese flounder ( Paralichthys olivaceus). Three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified in CYP17-II gene of Japanese flounder. They were c.G594A (p.G188R), c.G939A and c.G1502A (p.G490D). SNP1 (c.G594A), located in exon 4 of CYP17-II gene, was significantly associated with gonadosomatic index (GSI). Individuals with genotype GG of SNP1 had significantly lower GSI ( P < 0.05) than those with genotype AA or AG. SNP2 (c.G939A) located at the CpG island of CYP17-II gene. The mutation changed the methylation of exon 6. Individuals with genotype AA of SNP2 had significantly lower serum testosterone (T) level and hepatosomatic index (HSI) compared to those with genotype GG. The results suggested that SNP2 could influence the reproductive endocrine of male Japanese flounder. However, the SNP3 (c.G1502A) located in exon 9 did not affect the four measured reproductive traits. This study showed that CYP17-II gene could be a potentially useful candidate gene for the research of genetic breeding and physiological aspects of Japanese flounder.

Ma, Ruiqin; He, Feng; Wen, Haishen; Li, Jifang; Shi, Bao; Shi, Dan; Liu, Miao; Mu, Weijie; Zhang, Yuanqing; Hu, Jian; Han, Weiguo; Zhang, Jianan; Wang, Qingqing; Yuan, Yuren; Liu, Qun

2012-03-01

214

Time- and dose-dependent neuroprotective effects of sex steroid hormones on inflammatory cytokines after a traumatic brain injury.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Following a traumatic brain injury (TBI), excessive release of proinflammatory cytokines is the major cause of cerebral edema and neuronal loss. This study was designed to examine changes in concentrations of some proinflammatory cytokines-including interleukin-1 beta (IL-1?), interleukin 6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?), and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-?)-in a rat model of TBI in which the animals were treated with different doses of estrogen or progesterone 6 and 24?h after the TBI. Adult female rats were divided into 14 groups. Hormones or vehicle were given intraperitoneally 30?min after a moderate TBI was induced by the Marmarou method. The levels of proinflammatory cytokines in brain were measured at 6 and 24?h after the TBI. A high dose of estrogen (E2) or a low dose of progesterone (P1) increased brain levels of IL-1? 52.7% and 79.2% respectively at 6?h after the TBI. By 24h, IL-1? levels in the brain were 27.5% and 27% lower following administration of estrogen low dose (E1) or E2, respectively. High-dose administration of progesterone reduced brain levels of IL-6 to 45.9% at 6?h after the TBI, and P1 and E1 treatment significantly decreased IL-6 levels at 24?h. Brain levels of TNF-? were 72.5% lower at 6?h after the TBI following P2 treatment and 48.5% higher at 24?hrs following treatment with E2. The levels of TGF-? were also 3.37 times higher 24?h after the TBI following treatment with E1. Both doses of the hormones tested increases TGF-? levels 6?h after the TBI. Based on our findings, we conclude that progesterone and estrogen influence the levels of proinflammatory cytokines either at the primary or secondary stages after a TBI. Accordingly, this study suggests a mechanism by which hormones reduce cerebral edema.

Sarkaki AR; Khaksari Haddad M; Soltani Z; Shahrokhi N; Mahmoodi M

2013-01-01

215

Time- and dose-dependent neuroprotective effects of sex steroid hormones on inflammatory cytokines after a traumatic brain injury.  

Science.gov (United States)

Following a traumatic brain injury (TBI), excessive release of proinflammatory cytokines is the major cause of cerebral edema and neuronal loss. This study was designed to examine changes in concentrations of some proinflammatory cytokines-including interleukin-1 beta (IL-1?), interleukin 6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?), and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-?)-in a rat model of TBI in which the animals were treated with different doses of estrogen or progesterone 6 and 24?h after the TBI. Adult female rats were divided into 14 groups. Hormones or vehicle were given intraperitoneally 30?min after a moderate TBI was induced by the Marmarou method. The levels of proinflammatory cytokines in brain were measured at 6 and 24?h after the TBI. A high dose of estrogen (E2) or a low dose of progesterone (P1) increased brain levels of IL-1? 52.7% and 79.2% respectively at 6?h after the TBI. By 24h, IL-1? levels in the brain were 27.5% and 27% lower following administration of estrogen low dose (E1) or E2, respectively. High-dose administration of progesterone reduced brain levels of IL-6 to 45.9% at 6?h after the TBI, and P1 and E1 treatment significantly decreased IL-6 levels at 24?h. Brain levels of TNF-? were 72.5% lower at 6?h after the TBI following P2 treatment and 48.5% higher at 24?hrs following treatment with E2. The levels of TGF-? were also 3.37 times higher 24?h after the TBI following treatment with E1. Both doses of the hormones tested increases TGF-? levels 6?h after the TBI. Based on our findings, we conclude that progesterone and estrogen influence the levels of proinflammatory cytokines either at the primary or secondary stages after a TBI. Accordingly, this study suggests a mechanism by which hormones reduce cerebral edema. PMID:21851230

Sarkaki, Ali Reza; Khaksari Haddad, Mohammad; Soltani, Zahra; Shahrokhi, Nader; Mahmoodi, Mehdi

2012-11-16

216

Determination of steroid metabolome as a possible tool for laboratory diagnosis of schizophrenia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Metabolomic studies represent a promising tool for early diagnosis of schizophrenia. The aim of this study was to find differences in the steroid spectrum in patients and controls, and to assess the diagnosis of schizophrenia by building a predictive model based on steroid data. Thirty-nine serum steroids (22 neuroactive steroids and their metabolites and 17 polar conjugates) representing steroid metabolome were measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in 22 drug-naive (first episode) schizophrenia patients (13 men and 9 women) before and after six-month treatment with atypical antipsychotics. The results were compared to the data from healthy subjects (22 males, 25 females). In summary the following significant differences were found: (1) In both sexes higher levels of pregnenolone sulfate and sulfated 5?- as well as 5?-saturated metabolites of C21-steroids in progesterone metabolic pathway were found in patients, pointing to decreased activity of sulfatase. (2) In a few instances decreased levels of the respective 5?-metabolites of C21 steroids were found in patients. (3) As C19 steroids concern, in both sexes there were considerably lowered levels of 5?-reduced metabolites in patients. On the other hand, with only a few exceptions, the treatment did not significantly influence most steroid levels. Further, to assess the relationships between schizophrenia status and steroid levels and to build the predictive model of schizophrenia, multivariate regression with reduction of dimensionality (the method of orthogonal projections to latent structures, OPLS) was applied. Irrespective of the small number of patients, use of this model enabled us to state the diagnosis of schizophrenia with almost 100% sensitivity. Our findings suggest that the assessment of steroid levels may become a valid and accurate laboratory test in psychiatry. A limitation of our study is the absence of subjects with a diagnosis other than schizophrenia, so we cannot conclude whether the results are specific for schizophrenia. On the other hand, steroid metabolome model may be used as a diagnostic tool for further studies.

Bicikova M; Hill M; Ripova D; Mohr P; Hampl R

2013-01-01

217

Determination of steroid metabolome as a possible tool for laboratory diagnosis of schizophrenia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Metabolomic studies represent a promising tool for early diagnosis of schizophrenia. The aim of this study was to find differences in the steroid spectrum in patients and controls, and to assess the diagnosis of schizophrenia by building a predictive model based on steroid data. Thirty-nine serum steroids (22 neuroactive steroids and their metabolites and 17 polar conjugates) representing steroid metabolome were measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in 22 drug-naive (first episode) schizophrenia patients (13 men and 9 women) before and after six-month treatment with atypical antipsychotics. The results were compared to the data from healthy subjects (22 males, 25 females). In summary the following significant differences were found: (1) In both sexes higher levels of pregnenolone sulfate and sulfated 5?- as well as 5?-saturated metabolites of C21-steroids in progesterone metabolic pathway were found in patients, pointing to decreased activity of sulfatase. (2) In a few instances decreased levels of the respective 5?-metabolites of C21 steroids were found in patients. (3) As C19 steroids concern, in both sexes there were considerably lowered levels of 5?-reduced metabolites in patients. On the other hand, with only a few exceptions, the treatment did not significantly influence most steroid levels. Further, to assess the relationships between schizophrenia status and steroid levels and to build the predictive model of schizophrenia, multivariate regression with reduction of dimensionality (the method of orthogonal projections to latent structures, OPLS) was applied. Irrespective of the small number of patients, use of this model enabled us to state the diagnosis of schizophrenia with almost 100% sensitivity. Our findings suggest that the assessment of steroid levels may become a valid and accurate laboratory test in psychiatry. A limitation of our study is the absence of subjects with a diagnosis other than schizophrenia, so we cannot conclude whether the results are specific for schizophrenia. On the other hand, steroid metabolome model may be used as a diagnostic tool for further studies. PMID:22944140

Bicikova, Marie; Hill, Martin; Ripova, Daniela; Mohr, Pavel; Hampl, Richard

2012-08-24

218

Measurement of steroids in rats after exposure to an endocrine disruptor: Mass spectrometry and radioimmunoassay demonstrate similar results.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: Commercially available radioimmunoassays (RIAs) are frequently used to evaluate effects of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) on steroidogenesis in rats. Currently there are limited data comparing steroid concentrations in rats as measured by RIAs to those obtained using liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). This study evaluates the concordance of serum and urine steroid concentrations as quantified by select RIA kits and LC-MS/MS following exposure to an EDC, atrazine (ATR). METHODS: Adult male rats were orally dosed with ATR (200mg/kg/d) or methylcellulose (solvent control) for 5days. Serum was collected and seperated into aliquots for analysis. Serum was assayed by RIA for androstenedione (ANDRO), corticosterone (CORT), estradiol (E2), estrone (E1), progesterone (P4), and testosterone (T). Serum was extracted prior to LC-MS/MS analysis with positive electrospray ionization in multiple-reaction monitoring mode for A, CORT, P4, and T. E1 and E2 serum concentrations were quantified similarly by LC-MS/MS, following derivatization with dansyl chloride. To compare CORT values from urine, pregnant adult rats were orally dosed with either ATR (100mg/kg/d) or methylcellulose for 5days (i.e., gestational days 14-18). Urine samples were collected daily and assayed for CORT by RIA and LC-MS/MS as described above. RESULTS: Data analyses demonstrated significant agreement between the two detection methods as assessed by Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient, Bland-Altman analysis, and the interclass correlation coefficent. No statistically significant differences were observed between RIA and LC-MS/MS means for any of the steroids assayed. DISCUSSION: These findings indicate a significant correlation between the measurement of steroids within rat serum and urine using RIA kits and LC-MS/MS. Differences in the absolute measurements existed, but these were not statistically significant. These findings indicate that steroids may be reliably measured in rat biological media using RIAs or LC-MS/MS.

Riffle BW; Henderson WM; Laws SC

2013-07-01

219

Radioimmunoassay of steroid hormones  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The present volume specifically reviews the present state of the art of steroid radioimmunoassay per se. Despite the many technical problems encountered in the application of these techniques, and in the elimination of the particular sources of error to which they are prone, such methods have totally transformed the field of steroid measurement.

Gupta, D.

1980-01-01

220

The steroid metabolome in lamotrigine-treated women with epilepsy.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Epilepsy in women may be associated with reproductive disorders and alterations in serum steroid levels. Some steroids can be induced by epilepsy and/or treatment with antiepileptic drugs; however, there are still limited data available concerning this effect on the levels of other neuroactive steroid metabolites such as 3a-hydroxy-5a/b-reduced androstanes. AIM: To evaluate steroid alterations in women with epilepsy (WWE) on lamotrigine monotherapy. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Eleven WWE and 11 age-matched healthy women underwent blood sampling in both phases of their menstrual cycles (MCs). The steroid metabolome, which included 30 unconjugated steroids, 17 steroid polar conjugates, gonadotropins, and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), was measured using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and radioimmunoassay (RIA). RESULTS: WWE had lower cortisol levels (status p<0.001), but elevated levels of unconjugated 17-hydroxypregnenolone (status p<0.001). Progesterone was higher in the follicular menstrual phase (FP) in WWE than in the controls (status×menstrual phase p<0.05, Bonferroni multiple comparisons p<0.05), whereas 17-hydroxyprogesterone was higher in WWE in both menstrual phases (status p<0.001). The steroid conjugates were mostly elevated in WWE. The levels of 5?/?-reduced androstanes in WWE that were significantly higher than the controls were etiocholanolone (status p<0.001), 5?-androstane-3?,17?-diol (status p<0.001), and the 5?/?-reduced androstane polar conjugates (status p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: WWE showed a trend toward higher circulating 3?-hydroxy-5?/?-reduced androstanes, increased activity of 17?-hydroxylase/17,20 lyase in the ?(5)-steroid metabolic pathway, and increased levels of the steroid polar conjugates.

Hill M; Vrbíková J; Zárubová J; Kancheva R; Velíková M; Kancheva L; Kubátová J; Dušková M; Marusi? P; Pa?ízek A; Stárka L

2011-11-01

 
 
 
 
221

Sex differences in patterns of genital sexual arousal: measurement artifacts or true phenomena?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Sex differences in patterns of sexual arousal have been reported recently. Men's genital arousal is typically more category-specific than women's, such that men experience their greatest genital arousal to stimuli depicting their preferred sex partners whereas women experience significant genital arousal to stimuli depicting both their preferred and non-preferred sex partners. In addition, men's genital and subjective sexual arousal patterns are more concordant than women's: The correlation between genital and subjective sexual arousal is much larger in men than in women. These sex differences could be due to low response-specificity in the measurement of genital arousal in women. The most commonly used measure of female sexual arousal, vaginal photoplethysmography, has not been fully validated and may not measure sexual arousal specifically. A total of 20 men and 20 women were presented with various sexual and non-sexual emotionally laden short film clips while their genital and subjective sexual arousal were measured. Results suggest that vaginal photoplethysmography is a measure of sexual arousal exclusively. Women's genital responses were highest during sexual stimuli and absent during all non-sexual stimuli. Sex differences in degree of category-specificity and concordance were replicated: Men's genital responses were more category-specific than women's and men's genital and subjective sexual arousal were more strongly correlated than women's. The results from the current study support the continued use of vaginal photoplethysmography in investigating sex differences in patterns of sexual arousal.

Suschinsky KD; Lalumière ML; Chivers ML

2009-08-01

222

Sex differences in patterns of genital sexual arousal: measurement artifacts or true phenomena?  

Science.gov (United States)

Sex differences in patterns of sexual arousal have been reported recently. Men's genital arousal is typically more category-specific than women's, such that men experience their greatest genital arousal to stimuli depicting their preferred sex partners whereas women experience significant genital arousal to stimuli depicting both their preferred and non-preferred sex partners. In addition, men's genital and subjective sexual arousal patterns are more concordant than women's: The correlation between genital and subjective sexual arousal is much larger in men than in women. These sex differences could be due to low response-specificity in the measurement of genital arousal in women. The most commonly used measure of female sexual arousal, vaginal photoplethysmography, has not been fully validated and may not measure sexual arousal specifically. A total of 20 men and 20 women were presented with various sexual and non-sexual emotionally laden short film clips while their genital and subjective sexual arousal were measured. Results suggest that vaginal photoplethysmography is a measure of sexual arousal exclusively. Women's genital responses were highest during sexual stimuli and absent during all non-sexual stimuli. Sex differences in degree of category-specificity and concordance were replicated: Men's genital responses were more category-specific than women's and men's genital and subjective sexual arousal were more strongly correlated than women's. The results from the current study support the continued use of vaginal photoplethysmography in investigating sex differences in patterns of sexual arousal. PMID:18343987

Suschinsky, Kelly D; Lalumière, Martin L; Chivers, Meredith L

2008-03-15

223

Estimation of sex from cranial measurements in a Western Australian population.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

It is widely accepted that the most accurate statistical estimations of biological attributes in the human skeleton (e.g., sex, age and stature) are produced using population-specific standards. As we previously demonstrated that the application of foreign standards to Western Australian individuals results in an unacceptably large sex bias (females frequently misclassified), the need for population-specific standards is duly required and greatly overdue. We report here on the first morphometric cranial sexing standards formulated specifically for application in, and based on the statistical analysis of, contemporary Western Australian individuals. The primary aim is to investigate the nature of cranial sexual dimorphism in this population and outline a series of statistically robust standards suitable for estimating sex in the complete bone and/or associated diagnostic fragments. The sample analysed comprised multi-detector computed tomography cranial scans of 400 individuals equally distributed by sex. Following 3D volume rendering, 31 landmarks were acquired using OsiriX, from which a total of 18 linear inter-landmark measurements were calculated. Measurements were analysed using basic descriptive statistics and discriminant function analyses employing jackknife validations of classification results. All measurements (except frontal breadth and orbital height - Bonferroni corrected) are sexually dimorphic with sex differences explaining 3.5-48.9% of sample variance. Bizygomatic breadth and maximum length of the cranium and the cranial base contribute most significantly to sex discrimination; the maximum classification accuracy was 90%, with a -2.1% sex-bias. We conclude that the cranium is both highly dimorphic and a reliable bone for estimating sex in Western Australian individuals.

Franklin D; Cardini A; Flavel A; Kuliukas A

2013-06-01

224

Estimation of sex from cranial measurements in a Western Australian population.  

Science.gov (United States)

It is widely accepted that the most accurate statistical estimations of biological attributes in the human skeleton (e.g., sex, age and stature) are produced using population-specific standards. As we previously demonstrated that the application of foreign standards to Western Australian individuals results in an unacceptably large sex bias (females frequently misclassified), the need for population-specific standards is duly required and greatly overdue. We report here on the first morphometric cranial sexing standards formulated specifically for application in, and based on the statistical analysis of, contemporary Western Australian individuals. The primary aim is to investigate the nature of cranial sexual dimorphism in this population and outline a series of statistically robust standards suitable for estimating sex in the complete bone and/or associated diagnostic fragments. The sample analysed comprised multi-detector computed tomography cranial scans of 400 individuals equally distributed by sex. Following 3D volume rendering, 31 landmarks were acquired using OsiriX, from which a total of 18 linear inter-landmark measurements were calculated. Measurements were analysed using basic descriptive statistics and discriminant function analyses employing jackknife validations of classification results. All measurements (except frontal breadth and orbital height - Bonferroni corrected) are sexually dimorphic with sex differences explaining 3.5-48.9% of sample variance. Bizygomatic breadth and maximum length of the cranium and the cranial base contribute most significantly to sex discrimination; the maximum classification accuracy was 90%, with a -2.1% sex-bias. We conclude that the cranium is both highly dimorphic and a reliable bone for estimating sex in Western Australian individuals. PMID:23537716

Franklin, Daniel; Cardini, Andrea; Flavel, Ambika; Kuliukas, Algis

2013-03-26

225

Clinical significance of combined measurement of serum sex hormones in secondary amenorrhea  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To study the clinical significance of changes of levels of serum sex hormones in the diagnosis of the types of secondary amenorrhea. Methods: Serum sex hormones levels were measured with chemiluminescence in 100 patients with secondary amenorrhea and 42 controls. The serum hormones determined were: estradiol (E2)-, progesterone (PROG), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)-, luteinizing hormone (LH), prolactin (PRL), testosterone (TSTO). Results: Patients with secondary amenorrhea had significantly higher levels of serum FSH, LH and PRL ( P2 (P

2004-01-01

226

Steroidal Saponins  

Science.gov (United States)

The medicinal activities of plants are generally due to the secondary metabolites (1) which often occur as glycosides of steroids, terpenoids, phenols etc. Saponins are a group of naturally occurring plant glycosides, characterized by their strong foam-forming properties in aqueous solution. The cardiac glycosides also possess this, property but are classified separately because of their specific biological activity. Unlike the cardiac glycosides, saponins generally do not affect the heart. These are classified as steroid or triterpenoid saponins depending on the nature of the aglycone. Steroidal glycosides are naturally occurring sugar conjugates of C27 steroidal compounds. The aglycone of a steroid saponin is usually a spirostanol or a furostanol. The glycone parts of these compounds are mostly oligosaccharides, arranged either in a linear or branched fashion, attached to hydroxyl groups through an acetal linkage (2, 3). Another class of saponins, the basic steroid saponins, contain nitrogen analogues of steroid sapogenins as aglycones.

Sahu, N. P.; Banerjee, S.; Mondal, N. B.; Mandal, D.

227

Steroid Cell Tumor of the Ovary in an Adolescent: A Rare Case Report  

Science.gov (United States)

Steroid cell tumors (SCTs) of the ovary are a rare subgroup of sex cord tumors, account for less than 0.1% of all ovarian tumors, and also will present at any age. These tumors can produce steroids, especially testosterone, and may give symptoms like hirsutism, hair loss, amenorrhea, or oligomenorrhea. For the evaluation of androgen excess, testosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) are the first laboratory tests to be measured. A pelvic ultrasound and a magnetic resonance imaging are useful radiologic imaging techniques. Although steroid cell tumors are generally benign, there is a risk of malignant transformation and clinical malignant formation. Surgery is the most important and hallmark treatment.

Boyraz, Gokhan; Selcuk, Ilker; Yusifli, Zarife; Gunalp, Serdar

2013-01-01

228

Steroid cell tumor of the ovary in an adolescent: a rare case report.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Steroid cell tumors (SCTs) of the ovary are a rare subgroup of sex cord tumors, account for less than 0.1% of all ovarian tumors, and also will present at any age. These tumors can produce steroids, especially testosterone, and may give symptoms like hirsutism, hair loss, amenorrhea, or oligomenorrhea. For the evaluation of androgen excess, testosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) are the first laboratory tests to be measured. A pelvic ultrasound and a magnetic resonance imaging are useful radiologic imaging techniques. Although steroid cell tumors are generally benign, there is a risk of malignant transformation and clinical malignant formation. Surgery is the most important and hallmark treatment.

Boyraz G; Selcuk I; Yusifli Z; Usubutun A; Gunalp S

2013-01-01

229

Extracellular and intracellular steroid binding proteins  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Steroid hormone binding proteins can be measured, after the removal of endogenous steroids, as specific complexes with radio-labelled hormones. In this study all the requirements for a quantitative determination of steroid hormone binding proteins are defined. For different methods, agargel electrophoresis, density gradient centrifugation, equilibrium dialysis and polyacrylamide electrophoresis have been evaluated. Agar electrophoresis at low temperature was found to be the simplest and most useful procedure. With this method the dissociation rates of high affinity complexes can be assessed and absolute binding protein concentrations can be determined. The dissociation rates of the oestradiol-oestrogen receptor complex and the R-5020-progestin receptor complex are low (1-2% per h run time.) In contrast, that of complexes between androgen receptor and dihydrotestosterone (17?-hydroxy-5?-androstan-3-one (DHT), progestin receptor and progesterone, corticosteroid binding globulin (CBG) and cortisol or progesterone and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) and DHT were hign (16-27% per h run time). Target tissue extracts (cytosols) contain, besides soluble tissue proteins, large amounts of plasma proteins. The extent of this plasma contamination can be determined by measuring the albumin concentration in cytosols by immunodiffusion. In cytosols of 4 different human target tissues the albumin content varied from 20-30% corresponding to an even higher whole plasma concentration. Steroid binding plasma proteins, such as CBG and SHBG are constituents of this containment. (author)

1978-01-01

230

Sex-Steroid Hormones and Electrocardiographic QT-Interval Duration: Findings From the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis  

Science.gov (United States)

The association between physiologic levels of sex hormones and QT-interval duration in humans was evaluated using data from 727 men enrolled in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and 2,942 men and 1,885 postmenopausal women enrolled in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). Testosterone, estradiol, and sex hormone-binding globulin levels were measured in serum and free testosterone was calculated from those values. QT interval was measured using a standard 12-lead electrocardiogram. In men from the Third National Health and Nutrition Survey, the multivariate adjusted differences in average QT-interval duration comparing the highest quartiles with the lowest quartiles of total testosterone and free testosterone were ?8.5 ms (95% confidence interval (CI): ?15.5, ?1.4) and ?8.0 ms (95% CI: ?13.2, ?2.8), respectively. The corresponding differences were ?1.8 ms (95% CI: ?3.8, ?0.2), and ?4.7 ms (95% CI: ?6.7, ?2.6), respectively, in men from MESA and ?0.6 ms (95% CI: ?3.0, 1.8) and 0.8 ms (95% CI: ?1.6, 3.3), respectively, in postmenopausal women from MESA. Estradiol levels were not associated with QT-interval duration in men, but there was a marginally significant positive association in postmenopausal women. The findings suggest that testosterone levels may explain differences in QT-interval duration between men and women and could be a contributor to population variability in QT-interval duration among men.

Zhang, Yiyi; Ouyang, Pamela; Post, Wendy S.; Dalal, Darshan; Vaidya, Dhananjay; Blasco-Colmenares, Elena; Soliman, Elsayed Z.; Tomaselli, Gordon F.; Guallar, Eliseo

2011-01-01

231

In situ forming microparticle implants for delivery of sex steroids in fish: Modulation of the immune response of gilthead seabream by testosterone.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Current knowledge on the sensitivity of marine fish to androgenic environmental chemicals is limited, despite the growing interest in the effects of endocrine disrupting chemicals. To study in vivo the effects of testosterone (T) on the fish immune response, we used a microencapsulation implant technique, the in situ forming microparticle system, containing 1 mg T/kg body weight (T-ISM), in adult specimens of gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L.), a species of great economic interest. We demonstrated that implants themselves (without T) have no significant effect on most of the parameters measured. In T-ISM implanted fish, T serum levels reached supraphysiological concentrations accompanied by a slight increase in 11-ketotestosterone and 17?-estradiol levels 21 days post-implantation (dpi). Liver and head-kidney samples were processed 7 and 21 dpi to assess T-ISM effect on (i) the mRNA expression of genes involved in the metabolism of steroid hormones and in the immune response, and (ii) phagocyte activities. The expression profile of cytokines, chemokines and immune receptors was altered in T-ISM implanted animals that showed an early pro-inflammatory tendency, and then, a mixed pro-/anti-inflammatory activation during longer exposure. Furthermore, the enhancement of phagocytic activity and the production of reactive oxygen species by leukocytes 21 dpi in T-ISM implanted specimens suggest fine modulation of the innate immune response by T. Taken together, these data demonstrate for the first time the feasibility of using ISM implants in an aquatic species, and provide new data on the role played by T on the immune response in fish.

Castillo-Briceño P; Aguila-Martínez S; Liarte S; García Alcázar A; Meseguer J; Mulero V; García-Ayala A

2013-01-01

232

Estimation of sex from sternal measurements in a Western Australian population.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In Australia, particularly Western Australia, there is a relative paucity of contemporary population-specific morphometric standards for the estimation of sex from unknown skeletal remains. This is largely a historical artefact from lacking, or poorly documented, repositories of human skeletons available for study. However, medical scans, e.g. MSCT (multislice spiral computed tomography) are an ingenious and practical alternative source for contemporary data. To that end, this study is a comprehensive analysis of sternal sexual dimorphism in a sample of modern Western Australian (WA) individuals with a main purpose to develop a series of statistically robust standards for the estimation of sex. The sample comprises thoracic MSCT scans, with a mean of 0.9 millimeter (mm) slice thickness, on 187 non-pathological sterna. Following 3D volume rendering, 10 anatomical landmarks were acquired using OsiriX(®) (version 3.9) and a total of 8 inter landmark linear measurements were calculated using Morph Db (an in-house developed database application). Measurements were analyzed using basic descriptive statistics and discriminant function analyses, with statistical analyses performed using SPSS 19.0. All measurements are sexually dimorphic and sex differences explain 9.8-47.4% of sample variance. The combined length of the manubrium and body, sternal body length, manubrium width, and corpus sterni width at first sternebra contribute significantly to sex discrimination and yield the smallest sex-biases. Cross-validated classification accuracies, i.e., univariate, stepwise and direct function, are 72.2-84.5%, with a sex bias of less than 5%. We conclude that the sternum is a reliable element for sex estimation among Western Australians.

Franklin D; Flavel A; Kuliukas A; Cardini A; Marks MK; Oxnard C; O'Higgins P

2012-04-01

233

Estimation of sex from sternal measurements in a Western Australian population.  

Science.gov (United States)

In Australia, particularly Western Australia, there is a relative paucity of contemporary population-specific morphometric standards for the estimation of sex from unknown skeletal remains. This is largely a historical artefact from lacking, or poorly documented, repositories of human skeletons available for study. However, medical scans, e.g. MSCT (multislice spiral computed tomography) are an ingenious and practical alternative source for contemporary data. To that end, this study is a comprehensive analysis of sternal sexual dimorphism in a sample of modern Western Australian (WA) individuals with a main purpose to develop a series of statistically robust standards for the estimation of sex. The sample comprises thoracic MSCT scans, with a mean of 0.9 millimeter (mm) slice thickness, on 187 non-pathological sterna. Following 3D volume rendering, 10 anatomical landmarks were acquired using OsiriX(®) (version 3.9) and a total of 8 inter landmark linear measurements were calculated using Morph Db (an in-house developed database application). Measurements were analyzed using basic descriptive statistics and discriminant function analyses, with statistical analyses performed using SPSS 19.0. All measurements are sexually dimorphic and sex differences explain 9.8-47.4% of sample variance. The combined length of the manubrium and body, sternal body length, manubrium width, and corpus sterni width at first sternebra contribute significantly to sex discrimination and yield the smallest sex-biases. Cross-validated classification accuracies, i.e., univariate, stepwise and direct function, are 72.2-84.5%, with a sex bias of less than 5%. We conclude that the sternum is a reliable element for sex estimation among Western Australians. PMID:22154530

Franklin, Daniel; Flavel, Ambika; Kuliukas, Algis; Cardini, Andrea; Marks, Murray K; Oxnard, Charles; O'Higgins, Paul

2011-12-10

234

Steroid osteopathy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Patients receiving steroids or having disease processes which increase natural steroid production often demonstrate ''the classic x-ray changes'' of avascular necrosis of bone. Bone scintigraphy in these patients most frequently demonstrates an increased radionuclide localization. The literature suggests that the increased activity is related to healing of the avascular process. In a recent study of Legg-Calve-Perthes Disease (LCPD), 37 of the children had multiple studies and increased activity within the epiphysis during revascularization was extremely rare. Not only are the scintigraphic findings in steroid osteopathy dissimilar to that in healing LCPD, but the time interval for healing is much to short for that of a vascular necrosis and no patients demonstrated an avascular phase on bone scintigraphy. Of 15 children with renal transplants on steroid therapy, 9 demonstrated x-ray and clinical findings of osteopathy. In 8 of 9 instances, bone scintigraphy showed increased localization of radionuclide in the affected bone. Improvement or a return to normal occurred in those patients in whom steroids were discontinued. The following is a proposed mechanism for steroid osteopathy. Steroids affect the osteoblastic and osteoclastic activity of bone and weaken its internal structure. Ordinary stress produces microtrabecular fractures. Fractures characteristically stimulate reactive hyperemia and increase bone metabolism. The result is increased bone radiopharmaceutical localization. The importance of recognizing this concept is that steroid osteopathy is preventable by reducing the administered steroid dose. As opposed to avascular necrosis, bone changes are reversible.

Conway, J.J.; Weiss, S.C.

1984-01-01

235

The distance between Mars and Venus: measuring global sex differences in personality.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Sex differences in personality are believed to be comparatively small. However, research in this area has suffered from significant methodological limitations. We advance a set of guidelines for overcoming those limitations: (a) measure personality with a higher resolution than that afforded by the Big Five; (b) estimate sex differences on latent factors; and (c) assess global sex differences with multivariate effect sizes. We then apply these guidelines to a large, representative adult sample, and obtain what is presently the best estimate of global sex differences in personality. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Personality measures were obtained from a large US sample (N?=?10,261) with the 16PF Questionnaire. Multigroup latent variable modeling was used to estimate sex differences on individual personality dimensions, which were then aggregated to yield a multivariate effect size (Mahalanobis D). We found a global effect size D?=?2.71, corresponding to an overlap of only 10% between the male and female distributions. Even excluding the factor showing the largest univariate ES, the global effect size was D?=?1.71 (24% overlap). These are extremely large differences by psychological standards. SIGNIFICANCE: The idea that there are only minor differences between the personality profiles of males and females should be rejected as based on inadequate methodology.

Del Giudice M; Booth T; Irwing P

2012-01-01

236

Steroid signaling and temperature-dependent sex determination-Reviewing the evidence for early action of estrogen during ovarian determination in turtles.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The developmental processes underlying gonadal differentiation are conserved across vertebrates, but the triggers initiating these trajectories are extremely variable. The red-eared slider turtle (Trachemys scripta elegans) exhibits temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD), a system where incubation temperature during a temperature-sensitive period of development determines offspring sex. However, gonadal sex is sensitive to both temperature and hormones during this period-particularly estrogen. We present a model for temperature-based differences in aromatase expression as a critical step in ovarian determination. Localized estrogen production facilitates ovarian development while inhibiting male-specific gene expression. At male-producing temperatures aromatase is not upregulated, thereby allowing testis development.

Ramsey M; Crews D

2009-05-01

237

Age and sex differences in estimated tibia strength: influence of measurement site.  

Science.gov (United States)

Variability in peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) measurement sites and outcome variables limit direct comparisons of results between studies. Furthermore, it is unclear what estimates of bone strength are most indicative of changes due to aging, disease, or interventions. The purpose of this study was to examine age and sex differences in estimates of tibia strength. An additional purpose of this study was to determine which tibia site or sites are most sensitive for detecting age and sex differences in tibia strength. Self-identifying Caucasian men (n=55) and women (n=59) aged 20-59yr had their tibias measured with pQCT from 5% to 85% of limb length in 10% increments distal to proximal. Bone strength index, strength strain index (SSI), moments of inertia (Ip, Imax, and Imin), and strength-to-mass ratios (polar moment of inertia to total bone mineral content [BMC] ratio [Ip:Tot.BMC] and strength strain index to total BMC ratio [SSI:Tot.BMC]) were quantified. There were significant (p<0.01) site effects for all strength variables and strength-to-mass ratios. Site×sex interaction effects were significant (p<0.05) for all strength variables. Men had greater (p<0.01) values than women for all strength variables. Sex differences in Ip, Imax, Ip:Tot.BMC, SSI, and SSI:Tot.BMC ratios were the smallest at the 15% site and peaked at various sites, depending on variable. Site×age interactions existed for Imax, Ip:Tot.BMC, and SSI:Tot.BMC. There were significant age effects, Imax, Ip:Tot.BMC, and SSI:Tot.BMC, as values were the lowest in the 20-29 age group. Age and sex differences varied by measurement site and variable, and larger sex differences existed for moments of inertia than SSI. Strength-to-mass ratios may reflect efficiency of the whole bone architecture. PMID:22677196

Sherk, Vanessa D; Bemben, Debra A

2012-06-06

238

AN INTERLABORATORY STUDY ON THE USE OF STEROID HORMONES IN EVALUATING ENDOCRINE DISRUPTION  

Science.gov (United States)

In recent years, there has been an increased use of the measurement of sex steroid hormone levels in the blood of animals exposed to chemicals as an indicator of reproductive impairment or an alteration in endocrine function. Although levels of hormones are often compared among a...

239

In-vivo functional study on the involvement of CFTR, SLC26A6, NHE-1 and CA isoenzymes II and XII in uterine fluid pH, volume and electrolyte regulation in rats under different sex-steroid influence.  

Science.gov (United States)

Precise control of uterine fluid pH, volume and electrolytes is important for the reproductive processes. In this study, we examined the functional involvement of multiple proteins including Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Regulator (CFTR), Cl(-)/HCO3 (-) exchanger (SLC26A6), sodium-hydrogen exchanger-1 (NHE-1) and carbonic anhydrase (CA) in the regulation of these uterine fluid parameters. Methods: Adult female WKY rats were divided into intact, non-ovariectomised at different oestrous cycle phases and ovariectomised treated with sex-steroids. Following oestrous phase identification or sex-steroid treatment, in-vivo uterine perfusion was performed with and without the presence of these inhibitors: glibenclamide, DIDS, ACTZ and EIPA. The pH, volume, Cl(-), HCO3 (-) and Na(+) concentrations of the perfusate from different groups were then analyzed. Meanwhile, the expression of CFTR, SLC26A6, NHE-1, CAII and CAXII was visualized by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Results: Parallel increase in the pH, volume, Cl(-), HCO3 (-) and Na(+) concentrations was observed at estrus (Es), proestrus (Ps) and following 17?-oestradiol (E) treatment, which was inhibited by glibenclamide, DIDS and ACTZ while parallel reduction in these parameters was observed at diestrus (Ds) and following progesterone (P) treatment which was inhibited by ACTZ and EIPA. CFTR and SLC26A6 expression were up-regulated under E dominance, while NHE-1 expression was up-regulated under P dominance. Meanwhile, CA isoenzymes were expressed under both E and P influence. Conclusion: CFTR, SLC26A6 and CA were involved in mediating parallel increase in the uterine fluid volume, pH and electrolyte concentration under E while NHE and CA were involved in mediating the reduction of these parameters under P. PMID:23869188

Gholami, Khadijeh; Muniandy, Sekaran; Salleh, Naguib

2013-07-05

240

In-Vivo Functional Study on the Involvement of CFTR, SLC26A6, NHE-1 and CA Isoenzymes II and XII in Uterine Fluid pH, Volume and Electrolyte Regulation in Rats under Different Sex-Steroid Influence  

Science.gov (United States)

Precise control of uterine fluid pH, volume and electrolytes is important for the reproductive processes. In this study, we examined the functional involvement of multiple proteins including Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Regulator (CFTR), Cl-/HCO3- exchanger (SLC26A6), sodium-hydrogen exchanger-1 (NHE-1) and carbonic anhydrase (CA) in the regulation of these uterine fluid parameters. Methods: Adult female WKY rats were divided into intact, non-ovariectomised at different oestrous cycle phases and ovariectomised treated with sex-steroids. Following oestrous phase identification or sex-steroid treatment, in-vivo uterine perfusion was performed with and without the presence of these inhibitors: glibenclamide, DIDS, ACTZ and EIPA. The pH, volume, Cl-, HCO3- and Na+ concentrations of the perfusate from different groups were then analyzed. Meanwhile, the expression of CFTR, SLC26A6, NHE-1, CAII and CAXII was visualized by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Results: Parallel increase in the pH, volume, Cl-, HCO3- and Na+ concentrations was observed at estrus (Es), proestrus (Ps) and following 17?-oestradiol (E) treatment, which was inhibited by glibenclamide, DIDS and ACTZ while parallel reduction in these parameters was observed at diestrus (Ds) and following progesterone (P) treatment which was inhibited by ACTZ and EIPA. CFTR and SLC26A6 expression were up-regulated under E dominance, while NHE-1 expression was up-regulated under P dominance. Meanwhile, CA isoenzymes were expressed under both E and P influence. Conclusion: CFTR, SLC26A6 and CA were involved in mediating parallel increase in the uterine fluid volume, pH and electrolyte concentration under E while NHE and CA were involved in mediating the reduction of these parameters under P.

Gholami, Khadijeh; Muniandy, Sekaran; Salleh, Naguib

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Steroid signaling and temperature-dependent sex determination-Reviewing the evidence for early action of estrogen during ovarian determination in turtles.  

Science.gov (United States)

The developmental processes underlying gonadal differentiation are conserved across vertebrates, but the triggers initiating these trajectories are extremely variable. The red-eared slider turtle (Trachemys scripta elegans) exhibits temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD), a system where incubation temperature during a temperature-sensitive period of development determines offspring sex. However, gonadal sex is sensitive to both temperature and hormones during this period-particularly estrogen. We present a model for temperature-based differences in aromatase expression as a critical step in ovarian determination. Localized estrogen production facilitates ovarian development while inhibiting male-specific gene expression. At male-producing temperatures aromatase is not upregulated, thereby allowing testis development. PMID:18992835

Ramsey, Mary; Crews, David

2008-11-01

242

Measurement of reference intervals for urinary free adrenal steroid levels in Japanese newborn infants by using stable isotope dilution gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: In newborn infants, there are no reference intervals for urinary free steroids, which are thought to reflect the bioavailable fraction of steroids in the blood. We establish a method for simultaneous measurement of urinary free adrenal steroids such as pregnenolone, progesterone, 16?-hydroxyprogesterone, 17?-hydroxyprogesterone, 21-deoxycortisone, 21-deoxycortisol, dehydroepiandrosterone, androstenedione, and 11?-hydroxyandrostenedione by using stable isotope dilution gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (SID-GC/MS) and determined the reference intervals for urinary levels of free adrenal steroids in Japanese newborn infants. METHODS: Newborn pooled urine was used for validation. Spot urine samples were collected from 67 full-term Japanese newborn infants (34 male and 33 female infants) at 3-4 days of age to determine reference intervals. The extracted and purified free steroids were delivered with heptafluorobutyric anhydride and analyzed by SID-GC/MS. RESULTS: We validated a SID-GC/MS method with good repeatability and recovery rate. The preliminary reference intervals (median [range], ?mol/mol creatinine) were as follows: pregnenolone, 4.2 (0.7-31.6); progesterone, 0.5 (not detected (n.d.)-0.6); 16?-hydroxyprogesterone, 1.4 (n.d.-10.3); 17?-hydroxyprogesterone, 1.1 (n.d.-1.9); 21-deoxycortisone, n.d. (n.d.-n.d.); 21-deoxycortisol, n.d. (n.d.-n.d.); dehydroepiandrosterone, 2.2 (0.6-27.3); androstenedione, 0.7 (n.d.-5.2); and 11?-hydroxyandrostenedione, 2.9 (n.d.-26.7). CONCLUSIONS: We established a reliable SID-GC/MS method and were able to determine preliminary reference intervals for 9 urinary free adrenal steroids in newborn infants.

Koyama Y; Homma K; Miwa M; Ikeda K; Murata M; Hasegawa T

2013-01-01

243

Effects of female sex steroids on concanavalin A-mediated agglutination of hepatocytes from nonregenerating and regenerating rat liver and hepatic tumor marker enzymes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Effect of treatment of female rats with an oral contraceptive agent (OCA), Ovulen-50, for 7 weeks on agglutination of hepatocytes with concanavalin A (con A) and activities of certain tumor marker enzymes were examined to find out if OCA treatment is related to preneoplastic or neoplastic processes. Hepatocytes from regenerating and nonregenerating livers of control female rats showed negligible agglutination with Con A, whereas hepatocytes from non regenerating but not from the regenerating livers of female rats treated with a combination of 5 micrograms ethinyl estradiol and 100 micrograms ethynodiol diacetate showed agglutination. Of the tumor marker enzymes such as hepatic glucose 6-phosphatase, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (gamma-GT), and arginase examined in the liver, only gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase showed a significant increase in activity in the steroid-treated rats. Plasma alkaline phosphatase activity was also higher in the treated animals. However, the magnitude of the changes observed was relatively small and perhaps unrelated to the neoplastic process.

Annapurna VV; Mukundan MA; Sesikeran B; Bamji MS

1987-12-01

244

The Empathy Index: An Evaluation of the Psychometric Properties of a New Empathy Measure for Sex Offenders  

Science.gov (United States)

|This article examines the analysis of the psychometric properties, including the validity and reliability, of the Empathy Index (EI), a new instrument designed to measure empathy deficits of sex offenders. The EI was tested with a sample of 158 sex offenders incarcerated in North Carolina prisons. An exploratory factor analysis yielded three…

Grady, Melissa D.; Rose, Roderick A.

2011-01-01

245

Conceptualization and measurement of homosexuality in sex surveys: a critical review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article reviews major national population sex surveys that have asked questions about homosexuality focusing on conceptual and methodological issues, including the definitions of sex, the measured aspects of homosexuality, sampling and interviewing technique, and questionnaire design. Reported rates of major measures of same-sex attraction, behavior, partners, and sexual identity from surveys are also presented and compared. The study of homosexuality in surveys has been shaped by the research traditions and questions ranging from sexology to the epidemiology of HIV/AIDS. Sexual behavior has been a central topic at least since Kinsey. Issues of sexual attraction and/or orientation and sexual identity have emerged more recently. Differences in the treatment of men and women in the design and analysis of surveys as well as in the reported rates in different surveys, in different countries and time periods are also presented and discussed. We point out the importance of the consideration of both methodological and social change issues in assessing such differences.

Michaels Stuart; Lhomond Brigitte

2006-01-01

246

Immunoradiometric measurement of pS2 in breast cancer. Correlation with steroid receptors and plasminogen activators  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

pS2 was measured by radioimmunometric assay in tumour extracts from 197 breast cancer patients. Values ranged from 0 to 50 ng/mg protein (mean 9.6 and median 3 ng/mg). We found no correlation with age, menopausal status, nodal metastases, disease stage of tumour histology. There was, however, a linear relationship with both ER (p<0.0001) (particularly nuclear ER) and PR (p<0.0001) expression determined by enzyme immunoassay (ELISA), as well as a good correlation when high and low expressors were stratified on the basis of combined ER/PR expression using consensus cut-off points. Only 15% of ER-ve/PR-ve patients were classified as pS2+ve compared with 83% of those who were ER+ve/PR+ve. pS2 was also directly correlated with high expression of tPA and inversely with uPA. Comparison with previous studies showed that the current ELISA method produced consistent results, in contrast to other methods, particularly those based on immunohistochemical detection. The close relationship between pS2 and both steroid receptors suggests that pS2 may be important in terms of defining hormone-responsive patients who are likely to benefit from endocrine therapy. (orig.)

Luqmani, Y. [Kuwait Univ. (Kuwait). Faculty of Allied Health Sciences; Kuwait Cancer Control Center (Kuwait); Temmim, L.; Memon, A. [Kuwait Univ. (Kuwait). Faculty of Medicine; Parkar, A.; Ali, M.; Motawy, M.; Baker, H

1999-07-01

247

Effects of female sex steroids on concanavalin A-mediated agglutination of hepatocytes from nonregenerating and regenerating rat liver and hepatic tumor marker enzymes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Effect of treatment of female rats with an oral contraceptive agent (OCA), Ovulen-50, for 7 weeks on agglutination of hepatocytes with concanavalin A (con A) and activities of certain tumor marker enzymes were examined to find out if OCA treatment is related to preneoplastic or neoplastic processes. Hepatocytes from regenerating and nonregenerating livers of control female rats showed negligible agglutination with Con A, whereas hepatocytes from non regenerating but not from the regenerating livers of female rats treated with a combination of 5 micrograms ethinyl estradiol and 100 micrograms ethynodiol diacetate showed agglutination. Of the tumor marker enzymes such as hepatic glucose 6-phosphatase, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (gamma-GT), and arginase examined in the liver, only gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase showed a significant increase in activity in the steroid-treated rats. Plasma alkaline phosphatase activity was also higher in the treated animals. However, the magnitude of the changes observed was relatively small and perhaps unrelated to the neoplastic process. PMID:3435681

Annapurna, V V; Mukundan, M A; Sesikeran, B; Bamji, M S

1987-12-01

248

Designer steroids.  

Science.gov (United States)

Anabolic steroids have been studied for over 50 years and during that time numerous compounds with a variety of functional groups have been produced and many have been published. Of these only a small number have been introduced to the pharmaceutical market. WADA has continued the work begun by the IOC banning the use of these agents within sport as performance enhancing substances. Athletes, however, continue to use these anabolic steroids but tighter testing and the introduction of unannounced sample collection has made this form of cheating harder.In order to try to evade detection, athletes who continue to dope are having to resort to the use of a far more dangerous form of drug - the designer steroid. These steroids are manufactured to closely resemble existing known compounds, but with sufficient chemical diversity to ensure that their detection by the WADA accredited laboratories is more difficult. A worrying feature of the use of these compounds is that no data is available to evaluate either the efficacy or the safety of these substances. Many such drugs are now being made in clandestine ways (as demonstrated by the recent BALCO case) and then passed on to athletes who become the guinea pigs determining the potential of the substances as doping agents.Methods for the detection of these new compounds are being developed using emerging techniques such as gas chromatography or liquid chromatography attached to a variety of mass spectrometry instruments. This technology as well as vigilance by laboratories and enforcement agencies can all help in early detection of designer steroids being used for doping. PMID:20020364

Kazlauskas, Ray

2010-01-01

249

Designer steroids.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Anabolic steroids have been studied for over 50 years and during that time numerous compounds with a variety of functional groups have been produced and many have been published. Of these only a small number have been introduced to the pharmaceutical market. WADA has continued the work begun by the IOC banning the use of these agents within sport as performance enhancing substances. Athletes, however, continue to use these anabolic steroids but tighter testing and the introduction of unannounced sample collection has made this form of cheating harder.In order to try to evade detection, athletes who continue to dope are having to resort to the use of a far more dangerous form of drug - the designer steroid. These steroids are manufactured to closely resemble existing known compounds, but with sufficient chemical diversity to ensure that their detection by the WADA accredited laboratories is more difficult. A worrying feature of the use of these compounds is that no data is available to evaluate either the efficacy or the safety of these substances. Many such drugs are now being made in clandestine ways (as demonstrated by the recent BALCO case) and then passed on to athletes who become the guinea pigs determining the potential of the substances as doping agents.Methods for the detection of these new compounds are being developed using emerging techniques such as gas chromatography or liquid chromatography attached to a variety of mass spectrometry instruments. This technology as well as vigilance by laboratories and enforcement agencies can all help in early detection of designer steroids being used for doping.

Kazlauskas R

2010-01-01

250

Expression of integrin alpha5 and integrin beta4 and their extracellular ligands fibronectin and laminin in human decidua during early pregnancy and its sex steroid-mediated regulation.  

Science.gov (United States)

The reorganization of the human endometrium is termed decidualization, which includes endometrial cell proliferation, differentiation, integrin switching and extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling during early pregnancy. The present study aimed to investigate distribution patterns, staining intensity and sex steroid-mediated regulation of integrin alpha5 (CD49e), integrin beta4 (CD49f) expression and their ligands fibronectin and laminin during decidualization. Human tissue samples were evaluated in two groups, those collected in early days and those collected in advanced days of the first trimester. Correlating immunostaining was found between laminin and integrin beta4, and between fibronectin and integrin alpha5. The expression of fibronectin was higher than that of laminin in the early days (p < 0.05). Temporal and spatial immunostaining of integrin beta4 and alpha5 in the apical pole of luminal and glandular cells was observed as pregnancy progressed (p < 0.05). In vitro results showed that human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) stimulated laminin expression, downregulated integrin beta4 expression, whereas estradiol decreased fibronectin expression by Ishikawa cells. hCG suppressed fibronectin expression in endometrial stromal cells in culture. Our results suggest that fibronectin is responsible for induction of decidual cell differentiation, and different temporal and spatial expression of the integrins may play a role in implantation. Our in vitro results suggest that regulation of extracellular matrix remodeling and integrin switching are at least partially regulated by reproductive hormones. PMID:15964615

Kayisli, Umit A; Korgun, Emin T; Akkoyunlu, Gokhan; Arici, Aydin; Demir, Ramazan

2005-01-01

251

STEROID COMPOUND  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A steroid compound represented by formula (1). [In formula (1), R1 is H or a group selected from CH3, C2H5, C3H7, and CH(CH3)2, R2 is a group selected from NH2, NHAc, and OCOR1, and R3 is a group selected from CH3, COOCH3, and CH2OCOR1.

ISHII TAKAYUKI

252

STEROID COMPOUND  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A steroid compound of the Formula (1): [wherein R1 represents a group selected from the group consisting of H, CH3, C2H5, C3H7 and CH (CH3)2, R2 represents a group selected from NH2, NHAc and OCOR1, R3 represents a group selected from the group consisting of CH3, COOCH3 and CH2OCOR1.

ISHII TAKAYUKI

253

The influence of age, sex, and posture on the measurement of atlantodental interval in a normal population.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: The atlantodental interval (ADI) is used in assessing atlantoaxial stability. This measurement may potentially be affected by several features encountered during patient examination. This study examined the influence of 3 features: age, sex, and posture, on the measurement of ADI in a normal population. METHODS: The ADI was measured sequentially on 269 lateral cervical radiographs of adults with no demonstrated bony injury. Images were stratified by age and sex with equal representation in each age group. A further 25 asymptomatic adults were assessed for posture using craniovertebral angle measured from digital lateral photographs. The ADI was then measured from a lateral radiograph. The data were examined for correlation between age, craniovertebral angle, and ADI using Spearman rank correlation. The ADI of age groups was compared by Kruskal-Wallis test. The relationship between ADI and sex was examined using Wilcoxon rank sum test. Interaction between age and sex was explored using an interaction term in regression analysis. RESULTS: The ADI decreased with age, median measurements reducing from 2.07 to 0.85 mm across age groups (P < .01). No significant relationship was demonstrated between ADI and sex. No significant interaction was demonstrated between age and sex. Measurements of craniovertebral angle did not correlate with ADI (? = 0.03, P = .90). CONCLUSION: The magnitude of ADI decreases with advancing age. Age should be considered a modifying factor when interpreting measurement of ADI, particularly in consideration of potential minor instabilities. Patient sex does not appear to influence ADI, either independently or in interaction with age. Craniocervical posture variation does not influence ADI in an asymptomatic adult population.

Osmotherly PG; Farrell SF; Digby SD; Rowe LJ; Buxton AJ

2013-05-01

254

Measuring sexual selection on females in sex-role-reversed Mormon crickets (Anabrus simplex, Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae).  

Science.gov (United States)

Although many studies examine the form of sexual selection in males, studies characterizing this selection in females remain sparse. Sexual selection on females is predicted for sex-role-reversed Mormon crickets, Anabrus simplex, where males are choosy of mates and nutrient-deprived females compete for matings and nutritious nuptial gifts. We used selection analyses to describe the strength and form of sexual selection on female morphology. There was no positive linear sexual selection on the female body size traits predicted to be associated with male preferences and female competition. Instead, we detected selection for decreasing head width and mandible length, with stabilizing selection as the dominant form of nonlinear selection. Additionally, we tested the validity of a commonly used instantaneous measure of mating success by comparing selection results with those determined using cumulative mating rate. The two fitness measures yielded similar patterns of selection, supporting the common sampling method comparing mated and unmated fractions. PMID:20524949

Robson, L J; Gwynne, D T

2010-05-26

255

Perioral dermatitis -- the role of nasal steroids.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We present two patients with allergic rhinitis who developed perioral dermatitis (PD) after initiating intranasal steroid spray. Both patients had been previously misdiagnosed as having contact or seborrheic dermatitis, and therefore inappropriately and unsuccessfully treated with topical steroids. Physicians should be aware of this potential side effect of intranasal steroids to avoid incorrect therapeutic measures. In the setting of nasal steroids use, PD probably is an under-reported and commonly misdiagnosed condition that should be thought when a patient treated with nasal steroids present with small erythematous papules, papulovesicles, and papulopustules occurring against a background of redness, beginning in the nasolabial areas and spreading rapidly to the perioral zone.

Peralta L; Morais P

2012-06-01

256

Inhaled Steroid Drugs  

Science.gov (United States)

... Insurance Home > Consumer Reports Best Buy Drugs > Inhaled Steroid Drugs Inhaled Steroid Drugs How we rate drugs Our drug ratings ... Best Buy Drug reports Recommendations Compare Drugs Inhaled Steroid Drugs: Summary of Recommendations Download Full Report (285k ...

257

Steroids (For Parents)  

Science.gov (United States)

... steroids to give them an edge competitively. And steroid use has trickled down to younger athletes too, who ... help them feel well prepared for competition. When steroid use among pro athletes is in the news, use ...

258

Immunohistochemical expression of cyclins, cyclin-dependent kinases, tumor-suppressor gene products, Ki-67, and sex steroid receptors in endometrial carcinoma: positive staining for cyclin A as a poor prognostic indicator.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although aberrant expression of several cell-cycle regulators has been reported in endometrial carcinoma, correlations among these factors and their prognostic significance have not fully been elucidated. In the present study, expression of cyclins (D1, E, A, and B1), cyclin-dependent kinases (cdk2, cdk4, and cdc2), and tumor-suppressor gene products (p53, p21, and p27) were systematically examined by immunohistochemistry in 82 cases of endometrial carcinoma and 20 normal endometria. Results were compared with the expression of Ki-67, sex steroid receptor status, clinicopathological parameters, and patient outcomes. Positive staining for cyclin D1, cyclin E, cyclin A, cyclin B1, cdk2, cdk4, cdc2, p53, p21, and p27 was observed in 63%, 66%, 31%, 32%, 51%, 77%, 71%, 43%, 35%, and 60% of the 82 carcinomas, respectively. Among these factors, positive staining for cyclin D1, cdk4, and p53 was significantly frequent in advanced-stage tumors, and that for cyclin D1, cyclin A, cdk4, p21, and p53 was more frequent in higher-grade tumors. High correlation was found between cyclin A and p53 expression, between cyclin D1 and cdk4 expression, between cdk4 and Ki-67 expression, and between p21 and Ki-67 expression. Multivariate analysis showed that the factors for poor prognosis were advanced stage and cyclin A positivity. These findings suggest that various cell-cycle regulators are involved in activated cell growth of endometrial carcinoma, and that positive staining for cyclin A could be a useful marker for unfavorable patient prognosis. PMID:12792921

Shih, Hsien-Chang; Shiozawa, Tanri; Kato, Kiyoshi; Imai, Tsutomu; Miyamoto, Tsutomu; Uchikawa, Junko; Nikaido, Toshio; Konishi, Ikuo

2003-05-01

259

High-throughput bioaffinity mass spectrometry for screening and identification of designer anabolic steroids in dietary supplements.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A generic high-throughput bioaffinity liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (BioMS) approach was developed and applied for the screening and identification of known and unknown recombinant human sex hormone-binding globulin (rhSHBG)-binding designer steroids in dietary supplements. For screening, a semi-automated competitive inhibition binding assay was combined with fast ultrahigh-performance-LC-electrospray ionization-triple-quadrupole-MS (UPLC-QqQ-MS). 17?-Testosterone-D3 was used as the stable isotope label of which the binding to rhSHBG-coated paramagnetic microbeads was inhibited by any other binding (designer) steroid. The assay was performed in a 96-well plate and combined with the fast LC-MS, 96 measurements could be performed within 4 h. The concentration-dependent inhibition of the label by steroids in buffer and dietary supplements was demonstrated. Following an adjusted bioaffinity isolation procedure, suspect extracts were injected into a chip-UPLC(NanoTile)-Q-time-of-flight-MS system for full-scan accurate mass identification. Next to known steroids, 1-testosterone was identified in three of the supplements studied and the designer steroid tetrahydrogestrinone was identified in a spiked supplement. The generic steroid-binding assay can be used for high-throughput screening of androgens, estrogens, and gestagens in dietary supplements to fight doping. When combined with chip-UPLC-MS, it is a powerful tool for early warning of unknown emerging rhSHBG bioactive designer steroids in dietary supplements.

Aqai P; Cevik E; Gerssen A; Haasnoot W; Nielen MW

2013-03-01

260

Modulation of the expression of the transcription factors T-bet and GATA-3 in immortalized human endometrial stromal cells (HESCs) by sex steroid hormones and cAMP.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

T-bet and GATA-3 are known to regulate cytokine expression in T lymphocytes, and cytokines have been implicated in endometrial regulation and implantation. Previous work showed that female steroid hormones modulate the expression of T-bet in endometrial epithelial cells, suggesting a mechanism for local immune regulation in the human endometrium. We hypothesized that stromal cells are involved in immune regulation, as they have been shown to exert paracrine effects on other endometrial cells and compartments and also secrete cytokines. The objective of this study was to examine the modulation of the gene expression of T-bet and GATA-3, and of the cytokines interferon ? (IFN-?) and interleukin 4 (IL-4), by female steroid hormones, in human endometrial stromal cells (HESC) in long-term cultures (30 days) mimicking the normal menstrual cycle. T-bet and GATA-3 messenger RNA (mRNA) expression was detected by real-time polymerase chain reaction, and intracellular protein production was demonstrated by immunoblotting. In addition, secretion of IL-4 and IL-15 was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. T-bet and IL-4 mRNA expression increased and GATA-3 decreased under decidualization conditions; IFN-? was not detected. Secretion of IL-15 increased during decidualization, and IL-15 upregulated T-bet gene expression. In conclusion, gene expression of T-bet and GATA-3 by endometrial stromal cells is under hormonal conditions mimicking decidualization, and the results are consistent with an autocrine regulatory mechanism of IL-15 secretion and T-bet expression.

Lu Y; Bocca S; Anderson S; Wang H; Manhua C; Beydoun H; Oehninger S

2013-06-01

 
 
 
 
261

The Effects of [D-Ala6 Pro9 NEt]-LHRHa and LHRHa + Pimozide on Plasma Sex Steroid Profiles in Adult Female Seabream (Sparus aurata)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present study examined changes in the concentrations of plasma testosterone (T), progesterone (P4) and estradiol-17ß (E2) to determine changes in serum hormone profiles during the functional female phases in Sparus aurata. The fish were treated with [D-Ala6 Pro9 NEt]- luteinizing hormone releasing hormone analogue (LHRHa) alone, LHRHa plus pimozide (PIM) and Physiological Saline (PS) alone to stimulate gonadal development and sexual maturation. All fish were sampled and plasma levels of oestradiol (E2) Testosterone (T) and progesterone (P4) were measured by radioimmuno assay. LHRHa treatment alone, or in combination with PIM, elevated serum E2 and T concentrations (p0.05). Vitellogenesis was also stimulated by a combined LHRHa and PIM treatment. Responses to treatment with LHRHa plus PIM were comparable to those treated with LHRHa alone (p>0.05), suggesting that dopamine receptor antagonist, pimozide may not inhibit dopamine secretion in S. aurata.

Sehriban Cek; M. Ali Gokce

2006-01-01

262

The effect of plasma protein binding on the metabolism of steroid hormones.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Earlier views indicated that globulin (corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG) or sex hormone-binding globulin (SBG)) but not albumin binding in plasma, protects steroids from splanchnic metabolism in man. Also, the splanchnic extraction (HE) of a steroid seemed to be highly dependent on the rate of disassociation of the steroid-protein complex. However, the faster rate of disassociation (tau 1/2 = 0.9 s) of cortisol-CBG, as determined by later accurate fluorescence methods, intuitively meant that this complex must disassociate completely in a single 9 s passage through the liver. The low HE of total cortisol was then a puzzling anomaly. Using a differential equation solver (TUTSIM) and a model with unbound, albumin- and globulin-bound pools of steroid (with metabolism of unbound and also possibly albumin-bound steroid), the mechanism of splanchnic metabolism has been studied. The 'complex', probably most realistic, model includes 13 steroids, which can simultaneously bind to plasma albumin, CBG and SBG. The steroid concentration and numbers of occupied binding sites of the globulins decrease during the time of metabolism. The experimental data used are the in-vitro binding characteristics of the steroid-protein complexes, including the equilibrium constants and rates of disassociation and the in-vivo HE of nine steroids, usually measured by direct analysis of hepatic venous blood. However, the HE of cortisol had to be calculated from the metabolic clearance rate/splanchnic blood flow, giving a maximum value of 12%. The fractional metabolic rate of unbound steroid is generally represented by e. A certain value of e (RE) is required to give a remaining steroid concentration after 9 s of metabolism, which is made equal to (1-HE) in the model to simulate splanchnic extraction. If the fractional rate of metabolism of albumin-bound steroid is h (f = h/e), then RE will depend on the value of f. The maximum RE for cortisol is RE0 = 0.42 and RE1 = 0.16 for f = 0 and 1 respectively. For either value of RE, there will be the appreciable reassociation of cortisol to CBG after disassociation of the cortisol-CBG complex. With such reassociation, the total cortisol remaining after 9 s metabolism is fairly independent of the rate of dissociation of the cortisol-CBG complex. This explains the low total HE of cortisol in spite of the high rate of disassociation of cortisol-CBG.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

Tait JF; Tait SA

1991-12-01

263

The effect of plasma protein binding on the metabolism of steroid hormones.  

Science.gov (United States)

Earlier views indicated that globulin (corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG) or sex hormone-binding globulin (SBG)) but not albumin binding in plasma, protects steroids from splanchnic metabolism in man. Also, the splanchnic extraction (HE) of a steroid seemed to be highly dependent on the rate of disassociation of the steroid-protein complex. However, the faster rate of disassociation (tau 1/2 = 0.9 s) of cortisol-CBG, as determined by later accurate fluorescence methods, intuitively meant that this complex must disassociate completely in a single 9 s passage through the liver. The low HE of total cortisol was then a puzzling anomaly. Using a differential equation solver (TUTSIM) and a model with unbound, albumin- and globulin-bound pools of steroid (with metabolism of unbound and also possibly albumin-bound steroid), the mechanism of splanchnic metabolism has been studied. The 'complex', probably most realistic, model includes 13 steroids, which can simultaneously bind to plasma albumin, CBG and SBG. The steroid concentration and numbers of occupied binding sites of the globulins decrease during the time of metabolism. The experimental data used are the in-vitro binding characteristics of the steroid-protein complexes, including the equilibrium constants and rates of disassociation and the in-vivo HE of nine steroids, usually measured by direct analysis of hepatic venous blood. However, the HE of cortisol had to be calculated from the metabolic clearance rate/splanchnic blood flow, giving a maximum value of 12%. The fractional metabolic rate of unbound steroid is generally represented by e. A certain value of e (RE) is required to give a remaining steroid concentration after 9 s of metabolism, which is made equal to (1-HE) in the model to simulate splanchnic extraction. If the fractional rate of metabolism of albumin-bound steroid is h (f = h/e), then RE will depend on the value of f. The maximum RE for cortisol is RE0 = 0.42 and RE1 = 0.16 for f = 0 and 1 respectively. For either value of RE, there will be the appreciable reassociation of cortisol to CBG after disassociation of the cortisol-CBG complex. With such reassociation, the total cortisol remaining after 9 s metabolism is fairly independent of the rate of dissociation of the cortisol-CBG complex. This explains the low total HE of cortisol in spite of the high rate of disassociation of cortisol-CBG.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:1783881

Tait, J F; Tait, S A

1991-12-01

264

Sex determination from measurements of the sternum and fourth rib using multislice computed tomography of the chest.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: One of the most important data that can be obtained from bones is sex determination for which the recommended method is taking metric measurements. Metric measurements can be performed directly on dried bones obtained from the cadaver or indirectly from their radiographs. AIM: We assessed the accuracy of sex determination and the applicability of previously defined rules using the sternum and 4th rib measurement data from chest multislice computed tomography (MSCT) imaging of 340 patients and developed a model/formula that would provide the best way to determine sex. METHODS: We analyzed the chest MSCT of 340 patients (143 females, 197 males; mean age: 57.6+/-15.2 years) and created a coronal image parallel to the sternal long axis and a coronal image at the level of sternal ending of the 4th rib. The 5 sternal measurements [length of the manubrium and sternal body, combined length of the manubrium and sternal body (CL), manubrium width and corpus sterni width] and 4th rib width (FRW) described in the literature were obtained. Sternal index (SI) and sternal area (SA) were calculated from these measurements. RESULTS: The left FRW values were used for sex determination as the left FRW was found to be more significant than the right FRW. An accuracy of over 80% was achieved for sex determination when the "142 rule" was used for CL only, a cut-off value of 5600 mm(2) for SA only and a cut-off value of 16 mm for FRW only. We found that Hyrtl's law and SI did not provide adequate accuracy for sex determination in our patients. The model with the highest accuracy (88.2%) for sex determination used SA and FRW together. We also believe that the best predictors for sex determination using the sternum and 4th rib are SA and FRW, similar to the Torwalt and Hoppa report. CONCLUSION: Radiological methods such as MSCT are useful in making reliable measurements to be used in various anthropological and forensic investigations and determining their accuracy.

Ramadan SU; Türkmen N; Dolgun NA; Gökharman D; Menezes RG; Kacar M; Ko?ar U

2010-04-01

265

Measuring Effectiveness in School Sex Education--Methodological Dilemmas in Researching an Intervention Involving Young Mothers  

Science.gov (United States)

Defining and therefore evaluating the effectiveness of school sex education is problematic because of its location at the site of struggle between competing discourses. Those discourses--summarised here as "moralistic," "harm reductionist" and "empowering"--each emphasise a different conceptualisation of sex education's intended outcomes. The…

Kidger, Judi

2006-01-01

266

Adolescent Steroid Use.  

Science.gov (United States)

The study focused on non-medical steroid use by adolescents according to data obtained from the National Institute on Drug Abuse, professional literature, 30 key informants knowledgeable in steroid issues, and 72 current or former steroid users. The findings indicated: (1) over 250,000 adolescents, primarily males, used or have used steroids, and…

Office of Inspector General (DHHS), Washington, DC.

267

Sex differences in anxiety and emotional behavior.  

Science.gov (United States)

Research has elucidated causal links between stress exposure and the development of anxiety disorders, but due to the limited use of female or sex-comparative animal models, little is known about the mechanisms underlying sex differences in those disorders. This is despite an overwhelming wealth of evidence from the clinical literature that the prevalence of anxiety disorders is about twice as high in women compared to men, in addition to gender differences in severity and treatment efficacy. We here review human gender differences in generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder and anxiety-relevant biological functions, discuss the limitations of classic conflict anxiety tests to measure naturally occurring sex differences in anxiety-like behaviors, describe sex-dependent manifestation of anxiety states after gestational, neonatal, or adolescent stressors, and present animal models of chronic anxiety states induced by acute or chronic stressors during adulthood. Potential mechanisms underlying sex differences in stress-related anxiety states include emerging evidence supporting the existence of two anatomically and functionally distinct serotonergic circuits that are related to the modulation of conflict anxiety and panic-like anxiety, respectively. We discuss how these serotonergic circuits may be controlled by reproductive steroid hormone-dependent modulation of crfr1 and crfr2 expression in the midbrain dorsal raphe nucleus and by estrous stage-dependent alterations of ?-aminobutyric acid (GABAergic) neurotransmission in the periaqueductal gray, ultimately leading to sex differences in emotional behavior. PMID:23588380

Donner, Nina C; Lowry, Christopher A

2013-04-16

268

Sex differences in anxiety and emotional behavior.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Research has elucidated causal links between stress exposure and the development of anxiety disorders, but due to the limited use of female or sex-comparative animal models, little is known about the mechanisms underlying sex differences in those disorders. This is despite an overwhelming wealth of evidence from the clinical literature that the prevalence of anxiety disorders is about twice as high in women compared to men, in addition to gender differences in severity and treatment efficacy. We here review human gender differences in generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder and anxiety-relevant biological functions, discuss the limitations of classic conflict anxiety tests to measure naturally occurring sex differences in anxiety-like behaviors, describe sex-dependent manifestation of anxiety states after gestational, neonatal, or adolescent stressors, and present animal models of chronic anxiety states induced by acute or chronic stressors during adulthood. Potential mechanisms underlying sex differences in stress-related anxiety states include emerging evidence supporting the existence of two anatomically and functionally distinct serotonergic circuits that are related to the modulation of conflict anxiety and panic-like anxiety, respectively. We discuss how these serotonergic circuits may be controlled by reproductive steroid hormone-dependent modulation of crfr1 and crfr2 expression in the midbrain dorsal raphe nucleus and by estrous stage-dependent alterations of ?-aminobutyric acid (GABAergic) neurotransmission in the periaqueductal gray, ultimately leading to sex differences in emotional behavior.

Donner NC; Lowry CA

2013-05-01

269

Steroid derivatives as inhibitors of steroid sulfatase.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Sulfated steroids function as a storage reservoir of biologically active steroid hormones. The sulfated steroids themselves are biologically inactive and only become active in vivo when they are converted into their desulfated (unconjugated) form by the enzyme steroid sulfatase (STS). Inhibitors of STS are considered to be potential therapeutics for the treatment of steroid-dependent cancers such as breast, prostate and endometrial cancer. The present review summarizes steroid derivatives as inhibitors of STS covering the literature from the early years of STS inhibitor development to October of 2012. A brief discussion of the function, structure and mechanism of STS and its role in estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) hormone-dependent breast cancer is also presented. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Synthesis of steroids'.

Mostafa YA; Taylor SD

2013-02-01

270

No sex difference in body fat in response to supervised and measured exercise.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

UNLABELLED: It is often reported that females lose less body weight than males do in response to exercise. These differences are suggested to be a result of females exhibiting a stronger defense of body fat and a greater compensatory appetite response to exercise than males do. PURPOSE: This study aimed to compare the effect of a 12-wk supervised exercise program on body weight, body composition, appetite, and energy intake in males and females. METHODS: A total of 107 overweight and obese adults (males = 35, premenopausal females = 72, BMI = 31.4 ± 4.2 kg·m(-2), age = 40.9 ± 9.2 yr) completed a supervised 12-wk exercise program expending approximately 10.5 MJ·wk(-1) at 70% HRmax. Body composition, energy intake, appetite ratings, RMR, and cardiovascular fitness were measured at weeks 0 and 12. RESULTS: The 12-wk exercise program led to significant reductions in body mass (males [M] = -3.03 ± 3.4 kg and females [F] = -2.28 ± 3.1 kg), fat mass (M = -3.14 ± 3.7 kg and F = -3.01 ± 3.0 kg), and percent body fat (M = -2.45% ± 3.3% and F = -2.45% ± 2.2%; all P < 0.0001), but there were no sex-based differences (P > 0.05). There were no significant changes in daily energy intake in males or females after the exercise intervention compared with baseline (M = 199.2 ± 2418.1 kJ and F = -131.6 ± 1912.0 kJ, P > 0.05). Fasting hunger levels significantly increased after the intervention compared with baseline values (M = 11.0 ± 21.1 min and F = 14.0 ± 22.9 mm, P < 0.0001), but there were no differences between males and females (P > 0.05). The exercise also improved satiety responses to an individualized fixed-energy breakfast (P < 0.0001). This was comparable in males and females. CONCLUSIONS: Males and premenopausal females did not differ in their response to a 12-wk exercise intervention and achieved similar reductions in body fat. When exercise interventions are supervised and energy expenditure is controlled, there are no sex-based differences in the measured compensatory response to exercise.

Caudwell P; Gibbons C; Hopkins M; King N; Finlayson G; Blundell J

2013-02-01

271

Gonadal steroids and humoral immunity.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Humoral immune responses are sexually dimorphic. Female individuals generally exhibit more-robust antibody responses to vaccines and, in the clinical setting as well as in experimental models, are more likely than male individuals to produce autoreactive antibodies of pathogenic potential. A number of differences between the sexes might account for these observations, including differences in the dosage of specific X-chromosome and Y-chromosomal genes, increased exposure of female individuals to antigenic stimulation in childbearing, and differences in circulating concentrations of gonadal steroid hormones. The role of gonadal steroids in modulating such humoral immune responses has been studied for nearly a century, but advances in our knowledge of B-lymphocyte development and function, the mechanisms of immune tolerance, and the molecular basis of gonadal steroid hormone action are now yielding new understanding of the influence of gonadal steroid hormones on the humoral immune system. This Review examines how oestrogens and androgens modulate B-lymphocyte development and function, focusing on the areas of B-cell production in the bone marrow, the maintenance of immune tolerance for self antigens, and the processes of immunoglobulin heavy chain gene somatic hypermutation and class switch recombination during maturation of cells involved in humoral immune responses.

Sakiani S; Olsen NJ; Kovacs WJ

2013-01-01

272

Virtual characters designed for forensic assessment and rehabilitation of sex offenders: standardized and made-to-measure  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents two studies pertaining to the use of virtual characters applied in clinical forensic rehabilitation of sex offenders. The first study is about the validation of the perceived age of virtual characters designed to simulate primary and secondary sexual character of typical adult and child individuals. The second study puts to use these virtual characters in comparing a group of sex offenders and a group of non deviant individuals on their sexual arousal responses as recorded in virtual immersion. Finally, two clinical vignettes illustrating the use of made-to-measure virtual characters to more closely fit sexual preferences are presented in Discussion.

Patrice Renaud; Joanne-L. Rouleau; Jean Proulx; Dominique Trottier; Mathieu Goyette; John P. Bradford; Paul Fedoroff; Marie-Hélène Dufresne; Benoît Dassylva; Gilles Côté; Stéphane Bouchard

2010-01-01

273

Urinary steroid profiling.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Urinary steroid profiling is a long-established technique which has wide application in the study of disorders of human steroid biosynthesis and catabolism. The method divides into extraction of free and conjugated steroids, steroid conjugate hydrolysis, free steroid re-extraction, derivatization and analysis by GC or GC-MS. Several developments have led to better understanding of these processes and of ways to simplify and speed them up. The core method is described, together with some alternative options.

Taylor NF

2013-01-01

274

Sex disparities in diabetes process of care measures and self-care in high-risk patients.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Patients with chronic diabetic complications experience high morbidity and mortality. Sex disparities in modifiable factors such as processes of care or self-care activities have not been explored in detail, particularly in these high-risk patients. Sex differences in processes of care and self-care activities were assessed in a cross-sectional analysis of the Pathways Study, an observational cohort of primary care diabetic patients from a managed care organization (N = 4,839). Compared to men, women had decreased odds of dyslipidemia screening (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 0.73, 95% CI 0.62-0.85), reaching low-density lipoprotein goal (AOR 0.70, 95% CI 0.58-0.86), and statin use (AOR 0.69, 95% CI 0.58-0.81); women had 19% greater odds of reaching hemoglobin A1c <7% (95% CI 1.02-1.41). There were no sex differences in hemoglobin A1c testing, microalbuminuria screening, or angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor use. Women were less likely to report regular exercise but had better adherence to healthy diet, glucose monitoring, and self-foot examination compared to men. Patterns of sex differences were consistent in subjects with diabetic complications. Significant sex disparities exist in diabetes process of care measures and self-care, even amongst patients known to have chronic diabetic complications.

Yu MK; Lyles CR; Bent-Shaw LA; Young BA

2013-01-01

275

Sex differences in brain maturation as measured using event-related potentials.  

Science.gov (United States)

Little is known about how sex influences functional brain maturation. The current study investigated sex differences in the maturation of event-related potential (ERP) amplitudes during an auditory oddball task (N = 170; age = 6-17 years). Performance improved with age. N200 amplitude declined with age: parietal sites showed earlier development than temporal and frontal locations. Girls showed greater bilateral frontal P300 amplitude development, approaching the higher values observed in boys during childhood. After controlling for age, right frontal P300 amplitude was associated with reaction time in girls. The findings demonstrate sex differences in ERP maturation in line with behavioral and neuroimaging studies. PMID:22799761

Sumich, Alexander L; Sarkar, Sagari; Hermens, Daniel F; Ibrahimovic, Almira; Kelesidi, Katerina; Wilson, Daniel; Rubia, Katya

2012-01-01

276

Sex differences on a measure of conformity in automated teller machine lines.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Sex differences in conformity were examined as participants approached two ATMs, one of which was occupied by three confederates and the other immediately available. The number of men and women in the line in front of one of the ATMs was manipulated (3 men or 3 women), and an unobtrusive observer recorded the sex of each participant. The results indicated that women were more likely than men to wait in line to use the ATM regardless of the makeup of the line. Thus, the present study provides evidence in favor of the idea that sex differences in conformity are evident on a common task performed in a natural setting.

Reysen S; Reysen MB

2004-10-01

277

GABAergic neuroactive steroids and resting-state functional connectivity in postpartum depression: a preliminary study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Postpartum depression (PPD) affects up to 1 in 8 women. The early postpartum period is characterized by a downward physiological shift from relatively elevated levels of sex steroids during pregnancy to diminished levels after parturition. Sex steroids influence functional brain connectivity in healthy non-puerperal subjects. This study tests the hypothesis that PPD is associated with attenuation of resting-state functional connectivity (rs-fc) within corticolimbic regions implicated in depression and alterations in neuroactive steroid concentrations as compared to healthy postpartum women. Subjects (n = 32) were prospectively evaluated during pregnancy and in the postpartum with repeated plasma neuroactive steroid measurements and mood and psychosocial assessments. Healthy comparison subjects (HCS) and medication-free subjects with unipolar PPD (PPD) were examined using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) within 9 weeks of delivery. We performed rs-fc analysis with seeds placed in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), and bilateral amygdala (AMYG), hippocampi (HIPP) and dorsolateral prefrontal cortices (DLPFCs). Postpartum rs-fc and perinatal neuroactive steroid plasma concentrations, quantified by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry, were compared between groups. PPD subjects showed attenuation of connectivity for each of the tested regions (i.e. ACC, AMYG, HIPP and DLPFC) and between corticocortical and corticolimbic regions vs. HCS. Perinatal concentrations of pregnanolone, allopregnanolone and pregnenolone were not different between groups. This is the first report of a disruption in the rs-fc patterns in medication-free subjects with PPD. This disruption may contribute to the development of PPD, at a time of falling neuroactive steroid concentrations.

Deligiannidis KM; Sikoglu EM; Shaffer SA; Frederick B; Svenson AE; Kopoyan A; Kosma CA; Rothschild AJ; Moore CM

2013-06-01

278

GABAergic neuroactive steroids and resting-state functional connectivity in postpartum depression: a preliminary study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Postpartum depression (PPD) affects up to 1 in 8 women. The early postpartum period is characterized by a downward physiological shift from relatively elevated levels of sex steroids during pregnancy to diminished levels after parturition. Sex steroids influence functional brain connectivity in healthy non-puerperal subjects. This study tests the hypothesis that PPD is associated with attenuation of resting-state functional connectivity (rs-fc) within corticolimbic regions implicated in depression and alterations in neuroactive steroid concentrations as compared to healthy postpartum women. Subjects (n = 32) were prospectively evaluated during pregnancy and in the postpartum with repeated plasma neuroactive steroid measurements and mood and psychosocial assessments. Healthy comparison subjects (HCS) and medication-free subjects with unipolar PPD (PPD) were examined using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) within 9 weeks of delivery. We performed rs-fc analysis with seeds placed in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), and bilateral amygdala (AMYG), hippocampi (HIPP) and dorsolateral prefrontal cortices (DLPFCs). Postpartum rs-fc and perinatal neuroactive steroid plasma concentrations, quantified by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry, were compared between groups. PPD subjects showed attenuation of connectivity for each of the tested regions (i.e. ACC, AMYG, HIPP and DLPFC) and between corticocortical and corticolimbic regions vs. HCS. Perinatal concentrations of pregnanolone, allopregnanolone and pregnenolone were not different between groups. This is the first report of a disruption in the rs-fc patterns in medication-free subjects with PPD. This disruption may contribute to the development of PPD, at a time of falling neuroactive steroid concentrations. PMID:23499388

Deligiannidis, Kristina M; Sikoglu, Elif M; Shaffer, Scott A; Frederick, Blaise; Svenson, Abby E; Kopoyan, Andre; Kosma, Chelsea A; Rothschild, Anthony J; Moore, Constance M

2013-03-15

279

Treatment impact of an integrated sex offender program as measured by J-SOAP-II.  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite the increase in juvenile sex offending in society and the significant growth in the number of treatment programs, relatively few studies have examined the effectiveness of these programs. This study examined the effectiveness of an integrated sex offender program on a sample of 309 adjudicated male sex offenders in a juvenile correctional facility using the dynamic scale score of the Juvenile Sex Offender Assessment Protocol II (J-SOAP-II). The youth participated in one of the three treatment groups characterized by length of treatment and risk of recidivism: low risk (0 to 9 months), moderate risk (9 to 23 months), and high risk (23 to 56 months). A significant decrease in the dynamic scale scores of the J-SOAP-II was found only for the moderate treatment group (9 to 23 months). PMID:23475853

Rehfuss, Mark C; Underwood, Lee A; Enright, Morgan; Hill, Savannah; Marshall, Rod; Tipton, Paula; West, Laura; Warren, Kellie

2013-03-08

280

Treatment impact of an integrated sex offender program as measured by J-SOAP-II.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Despite the increase in juvenile sex offending in society and the significant growth in the number of treatment programs, relatively few studies have examined the effectiveness of these programs. This study examined the effectiveness of an integrated sex offender program on a sample of 309 adjudicated male sex offenders in a juvenile correctional facility using the dynamic scale score of the Juvenile Sex Offender Assessment Protocol II (J-SOAP-II). The youth participated in one of the three treatment groups characterized by length of treatment and risk of recidivism: low risk (0 to 9 months), moderate risk (9 to 23 months), and high risk (23 to 56 months). A significant decrease in the dynamic scale scores of the J-SOAP-II was found only for the moderate treatment group (9 to 23 months).

Rehfuss MC; Underwood LA; Enright M; Hill S; Marshall R; Tipton P; West L; Warren K

2013-04-01

 
 
 
 
281

Steroid-free living-donor liver transplantation in adults.  

Science.gov (United States)

To examine the benefits of steroid avoidance in adult living donor liver transplantation, we compared the clinical courses of nine recipients receiving basiliximab or daclizumab and 13 historical patients who received steroids. The 1-year patient and graft survival and the incidence of acute cellular rejection were similar in both groups. The side effects of immunosuppression tended to be more frequent in the steroid group. Hepatitis C virus (HCV)-RNA levels measured early after transplantation remained suppressed in the steroid-free group. Steroid avoidance was beneficial in the recipients, as both steroid side effects and recurrence of HCV could be avoided. PMID:16177648

Marubashi, Shigeru; Dono, Keizo; Amano, Koji; Hama, Naoki; Gotoh, Kunihito; Takahashi, Hidenori; Hashimoto, Kazuhiko; Miyamoto, Atsushi; Takeda, Yutaka; Nagano, Hiroaki; Umeshita, Koji; Monden, Morito

2005-09-15

282

Steroid-free living-donor liver transplantation in adults.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

To examine the benefits of steroid avoidance in adult living donor liver transplantation, we compared the clinical courses of nine recipients receiving basiliximab or daclizumab and 13 historical patients who received steroids. The 1-year patient and graft survival and the incidence of acute cellular rejection were similar in both groups. The side effects of immunosuppression tended to be more frequent in the steroid group. Hepatitis C virus (HCV)-RNA levels measured early after transplantation remained suppressed in the steroid-free group. Steroid avoidance was beneficial in the recipients, as both steroid side effects and recurrence of HCV could be avoided.

Marubashi S; Dono K; Amano K; Hama N; Gotoh K; Takahashi H; Hashimoto K; Miyamoto A; Takeda Y; Nagano H; Umeshita K; Monden M

2005-09-01

283

Relationships between glucocorticoids and gonadal steroids in rheumatoid arthritis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Gender and sex hormones are strongly related to the incidence and progression of autoimmune rheumatic diseases. Although sex steroids have been shown to have direct effects on the immune system, their influence in vivo may be mediated via interactions with third party systems including the hypothala...

Pereira da Silva, JA

284

Adrenal Steroids Uniquely Influence Sexual Motivation Behavior in Male Rats  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The androgenic adrenal steroids dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and 4?-androstenedione (4-A) have significant biological activity, but it is unclear if the behavioral effects are unique or only reflections of the effects of testosterone (TS). Gonadally intact male Long-Evans rats were assigned to groups to receive supplements of DHEA, 4-A, TS, corticosteroid (CORT), all at 400 µg steroid/kg of body weight, or vehicle only for 5 weeks. All males were tested in a paradigm for sexual motivation that measures time and urinary marks near an inaccessible receptive female. It was found that DHEA and 4-A supplements failed to influence time near the estrous female in the same way TS supplements did, and, indeed, 5 weeks of 4-A administration reduced the time similar to the suppressive effects of CORT after 3 weeks. Further, animals treated with DHEA or 4-A left fewer urinary marks near an estrous female than TS and control groups. These results suggest that DHEA and 4-A are not merely precursors of sex hormones, and provide support for these steroids influencing the brain and behavior in a unique fashion that is dissimilar from the effects of TS on male sexual behavior.

George T. Taylor; Joshua T. Dearborn; Susan E. Maloney

2012-01-01

285

Depot differences in steroid receptor expression in adipose tissue: possible role of the local steroid milieu.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sex hormones play an important role in adipose tissue metabolism by activating specific receptors that alter several steps of the lipolytic and lipogenic signal cascade in depot- and sex-dependent manners. However, studies focusing on steroid receptor status in adipose tissue are scarce. In the present study, we analyzed steroid content [testosterone (T), 17beta-estradiol (17beta-E2), and progesterone (P4)] and steroid receptor mRNA levels in different rat adipose tissue depots. As expected, T levels were higher in males than in females (P = 0.031), whereas the reverse trend was observed for P4 (P < 0.001). It is noteworthy that 17beta-E2 adipose tissue levels were higher in inguinal than in the rest of adipose tissues for both sexes, where no sex differences in 17beta-E2 tissue levels were noted (P = 0.010 for retroperitoneal, P = 0.005 for gonadal, P = 0.018 for mesenteric). Regarding steroid receptor levels, androgen (AR) and estrogen receptor (ER)alpha and ERbeta densities were more clearly dependent on adipose depot location than on sex, with visceral depots showing overall higher mRNA densities than their subcutaneous counterparts. Besides, expression of ERalpha predominated over ERbeta expression, and progesterone receptor (PR-B form and PR-A+B form) mRNAs were identically expressed regardless of anatomic depot and sex. In vitro studies in 3T3-L1 cells showed that 17beta-E2 increased ERalpha (P = 0.001) and AR expression (P = 0.001), indicating that estrogen can alter estrogenic and androgenic signaling in adipose tissue. The results highlighted in this study demonstrate important depot-dependent differences in the sensitivity of adipose tissues to sex hormones between visceral and subcutaneous depots that could be related to metabolic situations observed in response to sex hormones. PMID:15367392

Rodriguez-Cuenca, S; Monjo, M; Proenza, A M; Roca, P

2004-09-14

286

Sex disparities in diabetes process of care measures and self-care in high-risk patients.  

Science.gov (United States)

Patients with chronic diabetic complications experience high morbidity and mortality. Sex disparities in modifiable factors such as processes of care or self-care activities have not been explored in detail, particularly in these high-risk patients. Sex differences in processes of care and self-care activities were assessed in a cross-sectional analysis of the Pathways Study, an observational cohort of primary care diabetic patients from a managed care organization (N = 4,839). Compared to men, women had decreased odds of dyslipidemia screening (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 0.73, 95% CI 0.62-0.85), reaching low-density lipoprotein goal (AOR 0.70, 95% CI 0.58-0.86), and statin use (AOR 0.69, 95% CI 0.58-0.81); women had 19% greater odds of reaching hemoglobin A1c self-foot examination compared to men. Patterns of sex differences were consistent in subjects with diabetic complications. Significant sex disparities exist in diabetes process of care measures and self-care, even amongst patients known to have chronic diabetic complications. PMID:23671877

Yu, Margaret K; Lyles, Courtney Rees; Bent-Shaw, Luis A; Young, Bessie A

2013-03-31

287

Steroids and osteoporosis: the quest for mechanisms.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Advances made during the last 35 years have improved our understanding of the mechanisms of steroid hormone action on bone and how physiologic, pathologic, or iatrogenic changes in hormone levels can lead to increased fracture risk. Estrogens, androgens, and glucocorticoids alter the cellular composition of bone by regulating the supply and lifespan of osteoclasts and osteoblasts. Additionally, they influence the survival of osteocytes, long-lived cells that are entombed within the mineralized matrix and mediate the homeostatic adaptation of bone to mechanical forces. Altered redox balance is a proximal underlying mechanism of some of these effects, and sex steroid deficiency or glucocorticoid excess contributes to the aging of the skeleton.

Manolagas SC

2013-05-01

288

Thermal nociception as a measure of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug effectiveness in broiler chickens with articular pain.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Pain associated with poultry lameness is poorly understood. The anti-nociceptive properties of two non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) were evaluated using threshold testing in combination with an acute inflammatory arthropathy model. Broilers were tested in six groups (n=8 per group). Each group underwent a treatment (saline, meloxicam (3 or 5mg/kg) or carprofen (15 or 25mg/kg)) and a procedure (Induced (arthropathy-induction) or sham (sham-handling)) prior to testing. Induced groups had Freund's complete adjuvant injected intra-articularly into the left intertarsal joint (hock). A ramped thermal stimulus (1°C/s) was applied to the skin of the left metatarsal. Data were analysed using random-intercept multi-level models. Saline-induced birds had a significantly higher skin temperature (± SD) than saline-sham birds (37.6±0.8°C vs. 36.5±0.5°C; Z=-3.47, P<0.001), consistent with an inflammatory response. Saline was associated with significantly lower thermal thresholds (TT) than analgesic treatment (meloxicam: Z=2.72, P=0.007; carprofen: Z=2.58, P=0.010) in induced birds. Saline-induced birds also had significantly lower TT than saline-sham birds (Z=-2.17, P=0.030). This study found direct evidence of an association between inflammatory arthropathies and thermal hyperalgesia, and showed that NSAID treatment maintained baseline thermal sensitivity (via anti-nociception). Quantification of nociceptive responsiveness in a predictable broiler pain model identified thermal anti-hyperalgesic properties of two NSAIDs, which suggested that therapeutically effective treatment was provided at the doses administered. Such validation of analgesic strategies will increase the understanding of pain associated with specific natural broiler lameness types.

Caplen G; Baker L; Hothersall B; McKeegan DE; Sandilands V; Sparks NH; Waterman-Pearson AE; Murrell JC

2013-09-01

289

[Steroid - induced osteoporosis  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Osteoporosis and femoral osteonecrosis are important as main bone lesion caused by the treatment with steroid. Steroid directly inhibits osteoblastgenesis through promotion of apoptosis of osteoblasts and decrease of osteoblast actions. The elucidation at the molecular levels such as decrease of Cbfa1 and TGF-beta type I receptor expression by steroid treatment recently advances. Further, we demonstrated that for the femoral osteonecrosis by steroid, bone marrow tissues concerned also lesions in endothelial cell dysfunctions and in apoptotic cell death. The effects of alendronate on bone quality is noticed recently as a treatments of the steroid-induced osteoporosis.

Kitajima I

2001-05-01

290

Steroids as ?-secretase modulators.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Aggregation and accumulation of A?42 play an initiating role in Alzheimer's disease (AD); thus, selective lowering of A?42 by ?-secretase modulators (GSMs) remains a promising approach to AD therapy. Based on evidence suggesting that steroids may influence A? production, we screened 170 steroids at 10 ?M for effects on A?42 secreted from human APP-overexpressing Chinese hamster ovary cells. Many acidic steroids lowered A?42, whereas many nonacidic steroids actually raised A?42. Studies on the more potent compounds showed that A?42-lowering steroids were bonafide GSMs and A?42-raising steroids were inverse GSMs. The most potent steroid GSM identified was 5?-cholanic acid (EC50=5.7 ?M; its endogenous analog lithocholic acid was virtually equipotent), and the most potent inverse GSM identified was 4-androsten-3-one-17?-carboxylic acid ethyl ester (EC50=6.25 ?M). In addition, we found that both estrogen and progesterone are weak inverse GSMs with further complex effects on APP processing. These data suggest that certain endogenous steroids may have the potential to act as GSMs and add to the evidence that cholesterol, cholesterol metabolites, and other steroids may play a role in modulating A? production and thus risk for AD. They also indicate that acidic steroids might serve as potential therapeutic leads for drug optimization/development.-Jung, J. I., Ladd, T. B., Kukar, T., Price, A. R., Moore, B. D., Koo, E. H., Golde, T. E., Felsenstein, K. M. Steroids as ?-secretase modulators.

Jung JI; Ladd TB; Kukar T; Price AR; Moore BD; Koo EH; Golde TE; Felsenstein KM

2013-09-01

291

Nitric oxide donor and non steroidal anti inflammatory drugs as a therapy for muscular dystrophies: evidence from a safety study with pilot efficacy measures in adult dystrophic patients.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This open-label, single centre pilot study was designed to evaluate safety and tolerability of the combination of the drugs isosorbide dinitrate, a nitric oxide donor, and ibuprofen, a non steroid anti-inflammatory drug, in a cohort of adult dystrophic patients (Duchenne, Becker and Limb-Girdle Muscular Dystrophy). Seventy-one patients were recruited: 35, treated with the drug combination for 12 months, and 36 untreated. Safety and adverse events were assessed by reported signs and symptoms, physical examinations, blood tests, cardiac and respiratory function tests. Exploratory outcomes measure, such as the motor function measure scale, were also applied. Good safety and tolerability profiles of the long-term co-administration of the drugs were demonstrated. Few and transient side effects (i.e. headache and low blood pressure) were reported. Additionally, exploratory outcomes measures were feasible in all the disease population studied and evidenced a trend towards amelioration that reached statistical significance in one dimension of the MFM scale. Systemic administration of ibuprofen and isosorbide dinitrate provides an adequate safety margin for clinical studies aimed at assessing efficacy.

D'Angelo MG; Gandossini S; Martinelli Boneschi F; Sciorati C; Bonato S; Brighina E; Comi GP; Turconi AC; Magri F; Stefanoni G; Brunelli S; Bresolin N; Cattaneo D; Clementi E

2012-04-01

292

Use of steroids in pediatric asthma.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Steroids are necessary for treatment of chronic asthma. They are life-saving in many acute exacerbations and enable daily functioning free of wheezing and disability for the chronic asthmatic. The beneficial effect of steroids for asthma is increasingly thought to be due to their anti-inflammatory effect on hyperreactive airways. Attempts have been made to develop synthetic steroids to maximize the anti-inflammatory effect on the target tissue while decreasing adverse effects on other tissues. Inhaled steroids with potent topical and minimal systemic effects have been the most important breakthrough in this regard. Long-term follow-up studies for over ten years of beclomethasone have not shown serious local or systemic side effects. Intravenous or oral steroids are still needed for acute exacerbations, and prednisone may be needed in combination with inhaled steroids for the severe asthmatic. Treatment of this complex, variable disease with any type of steroid should be accompanied by objective measurements of benefit (pulmonary function) and risk (steroid side effects).

Brenner M

1989-12-01

293

Use of steroids in pediatric asthma.  

Science.gov (United States)

Steroids are necessary for treatment of chronic asthma. They are life-saving in many acute exacerbations and enable daily functioning free of wheezing and disability for the chronic asthmatic. The beneficial effect of steroids for asthma is increasingly thought to be due to their anti-inflammatory effect on hyperreactive airways. Attempts have been made to develop synthetic steroids to maximize the anti-inflammatory effect on the target tissue while decreasing adverse effects on other tissues. Inhaled steroids with potent topical and minimal systemic effects have been the most important breakthrough in this regard. Long-term follow-up studies for over ten years of beclomethasone have not shown serious local or systemic side effects. Intravenous or oral steroids are still needed for acute exacerbations, and prednisone may be needed in combination with inhaled steroids for the severe asthmatic. Treatment of this complex, variable disease with any type of steroid should be accompanied by objective measurements of benefit (pulmonary function) and risk (steroid side effects). PMID:2480575

Brenner, M

1989-12-01

294

The alteration of the urinary steroid profile under the stress  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the second part of twentieth century anabolic-androgenic steroids were introduced into doping practice and received continuously increasing significance. In order to prove the usage of doping substances, the determination of steroid profile in the urine came into practice. Several factors may be responsible for alterations in the normal steroid profile for example age, sex and diet. The aim of this study was to find out, whether the psychological stress may cause modifications in the steroid profile and T/Et ratio. The effect of physical activity was also considered. The steroid profile was determined in the group of 34 students being in non-stress conditions and under stress immediately before an important university exam. The intensity of stress was rated by self-reported questionnaire. The GC/MS method was applied to determine the steroid profile in the urine samples. The results of the experiment have shown that psychological stress may cause significant changes in the steroid profile, especially in females. Physical activity, independently of stress significantly modified the steroid profile. In summary, observed changes in steroid profile suggest, that major fluctuations of T/Et and A/E ratios under the influence of stressogenic factors and physical activity are unlikely.

A Gronowska; D Kwiatkowska; A Pokrywka; M Koteras; E Turek-Lepa; M Szutowski

2010-01-01

295

Sex-specific association of anthropometric measures of body composition with arterial stiffness in a healthy population.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Anthropometric measures of body composition and arterial stiffness are commonly used as indicators of cardiovascular risk. Little is known, however, about the association of the anthropometric measures with arterial stiffness, especially in a healthy, generally non-obese population. MATERIAL/METHODS: In a sample of 352 healthy subjects (200 premenopausal women), 3 arterial stiffness indices were analyzed (pulse wave velocity, augmentation index and central systolic blood pressure) in relation to 5 anthropometric measures of body composition (body mass index - BMI, body fat percentage by skinfold measurements -%BF, waist circumference - WC, waist-hip ratio - WHpR, and waist-height ratio - WHtR). Data were analyzed using correlation and regression analyses, with adjustment for the following confounders: age, blood pressures, height, heart rate, blood lipids and smoking. RESULTS: Most correlations between anthropometric measures and arterial stiffness indices were significant and positive in both sex groups (r=0.14-0.40, P<0.05). After adjustment for confounding effects, BMI, WC and WHtR remained significant (but inverse) predictors of arterial stiffness (? from -0.06 to -0.16; P<0.05) in the females, while in the males BMI was the only measure inversely predicting arterial stiffness (? from -0.09 to -0.13; P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Measures of body composition are weak and inverse predictors of arterial stiffness and their influence is sex-dependent. BMI, WC and WHtR were key predictors of arterial stiffness in the females, while BMI was the principal predictor in the males. The associations of anthropometric measures with arterial stiffness are strongly and differently confounded by various factors that have to be taken into account when explaining results of similar studies.

Budimir D; Jeroncic A; Gunjaca G; Rudan I; Polasek O; Boban M

2012-02-01

296

Steroid hormones for contraception in men.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Male hormonal contraception has been an elusive goal. Administration of sex steroids to men can shut off sperm production through effects on the pituitary and hypothalamus. However, this approach also decreases production of testosterone, so 'add-back' therapy is needed. OBJECTIVES: To summarize all randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of male hormonal contraception. SEARCH METHODS: In January and February 2012, we searched the computerized databases CENTRAL, MEDLINE, POPLINE, and LILACS. We also searched for recent trials in ClinicalTrials.gov and ICTRP. Previous searches included EMBASE. We wrote to authors of identified trials to seek additional unpublished or published trials. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included all RCTs that compared a steroid hormone with another contraceptive. We excluded non-steroidal male contraceptives, such as gossypol. We included both placebo and active-regimen control groups. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: The primary outcome measure was the absence of spermatozoa on semen examination, often called azoospermia. Data were insufficient to examine pregnancy rates and side effects. MAIN RESULTS: We found 33 trials that met our inclusion criteria. The proportion of men who reportedly achieved azoospermia or had no detectable sperm varied widely. A few important differences emerged. 1) Levonorgestrel implants (160 ?g daily) combined with injectable testosterone enanthate (TE) were more effective than levonorgestrel 125 µg daily combined with testosterone patches. 2) Levonorgestrel 500 ?g daily improved the effectiveness of TE 100 mg injected weekly. 3) Levonorgestrel 250 ?g daily improved the effectiveness of testosterone undecanoate (TU) 1000 mg injection plus TU 500 mg injected at 6 and 12 weeks. 4) Desogestrel 150 ?g was less effective than desogestrel 300 ?g (with testosterone pellets). 5) TU 500 mg was less likely to produce azoospermia than TU 1000 mg (with levonorgestrel implants). 6) Norethisterone enanthate 200 mg with TU 1000 mg led to more azoospermia when given every 8 weeks versus 12 weeks. 7) Four implants of 7-alpha-methyl-19-nortestosterone (MENT) were more effective than two MENT implants. We did not conduct any meta-analysis due to intervention differences.Several trials showed promising efficacy in percentages with azoospermia. Three examined desogestrel and testosterone preparations or etonogestrel and testosterone, and two examined levonorgestrel and testosterone. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: No male hormonal contraceptive is ready for clinical use. Most trials were small exploratory studies. Their power to detect important differences was limited and their results imprecise. In addition, assessment of azoospermia can vary by sensitivity of the method used. Future trials need more attention to the methodological requirements for RCTs. More trials with adequate power would also be helpful.

Grimes DA; Lopez LM; Gallo MF; Halpern V; Nanda K; Schulz KF

2012-01-01

297

Anabolic Steroid Abuse  

Science.gov (United States)

Launched this month by the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA), this Website offers research about the abuse of anabolic steroids and provides support to educators and policymakers interested in educating the public, especially teenagers, about the problem. The site provides substantial medical information in layman's terms about the composition, use, and potentially harmful effects of steroids. The site also gives statistics from the Institute's Monitoring the Future Study that shows a "significant increase" in steroid use from 1998 to 1999 among middle school males. Links for further information and education strategies are also provided. The Website is part of NIDA's Education Initiative: Science, Steroids, and Youth.

298

Steroid ulcers: Any news?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Steroid ulcers, although a common feature in experimental studies, seldom develop in clinical practice, as observed by the meta-analyses carried out in the 90s. Corticosteroids alone become ulcerogenic only if treatment lasts longer than one month and the total administered dose exceeds 1000 mg. On the other hand concomitant intake of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs results in a synergistic, highly damaging effect on the gastroduodenal mucosa. Thus, despite the survival of the steroid ulcer myth in the medical culture, pharmacological protection against steroid-induced peptic ulcers is a rare necessity while the best prophylactic strategy still remains to be determined.

Guslandi M

2013-08-01

299

Standardization of androstenedione and estrone radioimmunoassay and profile of sex steroids, gonadotropins and prolactin - in patients with chronic anovulation due to inappropriate feedback (polycystic ovarian syndrome); Padronizacao do radioimunoensaio da androstenediona e da estrona e o perfil dos esteroides sexuais, gonadotrofinas e prolactina em pacientes com anovulacao cronica por retrocontrole improprio (sindrome dos ovarios policisticos)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Full text. In order to evaluate the profile of the sex steroids gonadotropin and prolactin in polycystic ovarian syndrome (POS), 24 patients with POS were studied and compared with 20 normal women during the early follicular phase of the menstrual cycle. Radioimmunoassay techniques for androstenedione (A) and estrone (E{sub 1}) were standardized for the purpose of the study. Androstenedione and estrone were extracted from plasma with ethyl ether. The assays were maintained in equilibrium and the labelled hormone-antibody complex was then separated from the free hormone using dextran charcoal. The sensitivity of the method was 6.8 pg/tube for A and 3.7 pg/tube for E{sub 1}. Nonspecific binding ws 3.4 for A and 3.3 for E{sub 1}. The interessay error at the D50 level was 15.6 for A and 8.6 for E{sub 1}. Patients with POS had significantly higher basal levels of LH, A, T E{sub 1} and PRL and similar FSH and DHEA-S levels when compared with normal women. The LH/FSH ratio was significantly elevated and the A/T ratio was significantly decreased. The A/E{sub 1} and T/E{sub 2} ratios were elevated and the E{sub 1}/E{sub 2} was decreased, although the differences were not statistically significant. A positive correlation between A and E{sub 1} was observed in patients with POS. In view of the above data, it was concluded that: the quality control parameters of the radioimmunoassay for A and E{sub 1} standardized in the present study are considered satisfactory, and the assay could be used for diagnosis and research; the patients with POS have a different sex steroid and gonadotropin profile when compared normal women during the early follicular phase of the menstrual cycle

Vilanova, Maria do Socorro Veras

1992-12-01

300

Comparing predicted against measured steroid estrogen concentrations and the associated risk in two United Kingdom river catchments.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Predicted concentrations of estrone, 17?-estradiol, and 17?-ethinylestradiol generated from a geographical information systems-based model (LF2000-WQX) have previously been used to assess the risk of causing intersex in male fish in the rivers of England and Wales, United Kingdom. Few measured data of sufficient quality and spatial extent have been available to verify this risk assessment. New measured data have been collected from sewage treatment plant effluents and the receiving waters upstream and downstream of these discharges from the Erewash River and the Avon River systems in England. The model results for these rivers were in good agreement with the measured values in terms of estradiol equivalents. Critically, the risk assessment based on the measured data gave a risk assessment nearly identical to that derived from the modeled results. For individual estrogens, 17?-ethinylestradiol was modeled best and estrone worst. Poor simulations reflected poor estimates of the effluent concentrations, which were more variable from day to day and between works of nominally similar type than is assumed in the model. In support of this, model results for the Erewash River, calculated using observed effluent concentrations, were in excellent agreement with the measured data. The model has proved to be adequate in predicting overall estrogenic potency, and therefore risk, along these rivers; however, improvements are possible, particularly in predicting STP removal efficiency and therefore effluent concentrations.

Williams RJ; Churchley JH; Kanda R; Johnson AC

2012-04-01

 
 
 
 
301

Motor function measure scale, steroid therapy and patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy/ Medida de função motora, corticoterapia e pacientes com distrofia muscular de Duchenne  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Avaliar a evolução da função motora de pacientes com distrofia muscular de Duchenne (DMD) em corticoterapia (predinisolona e deflazacort), por meio da escala Medida da Função Motora (MFM), que avalia três dimensões de funções motoras (D1, D2, D3). MÉTODOS: Trinta e três pacientes com DMD (22 deambulantes, seis cadeirantes e cinco que perderam a capacidade de andar ao longo do estudo) foram avaliados pela escala MFM em seis momentos durante 18 meses. (more) RESULTADOS: Todas as funções motoras mantiveram-se estáveis durante 14 meses, exceto D1 para os pacientes que perderam a marcha. Nos pacientes deambulantes, a D2 (função motora axial e proximal) apresentou melhora durante seis meses. Melhora em D3 (função motora distal) também foi observada durante o seguimento. A D1 (postura em pé e transferências) e o escore total foram importantes para predizer a perda de marcha. CONCLUSÕES: O uso da MFM nos pacientes com DMD confirma os benefícios do tratamento com corticoides na diminuição da velocidade de progressão da doença. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To assess the evolution of motor function in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) treated with steroids (prednisolone or deflazacort) through the Motor Function Measure (MFM), which evaluates three dimensions of motor performance (D1, D2, D3). METHODS: Thirty-three patients with DMD (22 ambulant, 6 non-ambulant and 5 who lost the capacity to walk during the period of the study) were assessed using the MFM scale six times over a period of 18 months. R (more) ESULTS: All the motor functions remained stable for 14 months in all patients, except D1 for those who lost their walking ability. In ambulant patients, D2 (axial and proximal motor capacities) motor functions improved during six months; an improvement in D3 (distal motor capacity) was noted during the total follow-up. D1 (standing posture and transfers) and total score were useful to predict the loss of the ability to walk. CONCLUSIONS: The use of the MFM in DMD patients confirms the benefits of the steroid treatment for slowing the progression of the disease.

Silva, Elaine C. da; Machado, Darlene L.; Resende, Maria B. D.; Silva, Renata F.; Zanoteli, Edmar; Reed, Umbertina C.

2012-03-01

302

Motor function measure scale, steroid therapy and patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy Medida de função motora, corticoterapia e pacientes com distrofia muscular de Duchenne  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the evolution of motor function in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) treated with steroids (prednisolone or deflazacort) through the Motor Function Measure (MFM), which evaluates three dimensions of motor performance (D1, D2, D3). METHODS: Thirty-three patients with DMD (22 ambulant, 6 non-ambulant and 5 who lost the capacity to walk during the period of the study) were assessed using the MFM scale six times over a period of 18 months. RESULTS: All the motor functions remained stable for 14 months in all patients, except D1 for those who lost their walking ability. In ambulant patients, D2 (axial and proximal motor capacities) motor functions improved during six months; an improvement in D3 (distal motor capacity) was noted during the total follow-up. D1 (standing posture and transfers) and total score were useful to predict the loss of the ability to walk. CONCLUSIONS: The use of the MFM in DMD patients confirms the benefits of the steroid treatment for slowing the progression of the disease.OBJETIVO: Avaliar a evolução da função motora de pacientes com distrofia muscular de Duchenne (DMD) em corticoterapia (predinisolona e deflazacort), por meio da escala Medida da Função Motora (MFM), que avalia três dimensões de funções motoras (D1, D2, D3). MÉTODOS: Trinta e três pacientes com DMD (22 deambulantes, seis cadeirantes e cinco que perderam a capacidade de andar ao longo do estudo) foram avaliados pela escala MFM em seis momentos durante 18 meses. RESULTADOS: Todas as funções motoras mantiveram-se estáveis durante 14 meses, exceto D1 para os pacientes que perderam a marcha. Nos pacientes deambulantes, a D2 (função motora axial e proximal) apresentou melhora durante seis meses. Melhora em D3 (função motora distal) também foi observada durante o seguimento. A D1 (postura em pé e transferências) e o escore total foram importantes para predizer a perda de marcha. CONCLUSÕES: O uso da MFM nos pacientes com DMD confirma os benefícios do tratamento com corticoides na diminuição da velocidade de progressão da doença.

Elaine C. da Silva; Darlene L. Machado; Maria B. D. Resende; Renata F. Silva; Edmar Zanoteli; Umbertina C. Reed

2012-01-01

303

Quantitative measurement of male steroid hormones using automated on-line solid phase extraction-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and comparison with radioimmunoassay.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A specific and sensitive method using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) equipped with automatic on-line solid-phase extraction device for the quantitative measurement of anabolic hormone residues, 4-androstene-3,17-dione, testosterone and dihydrotestosterone in cell culture medium was developed. Steroid content in cell culture medium was determined directly without an additional sample preparation step. Separation of analytes from polar endogenous compounds was carried out on an automatic column-switching device coupled with a C4-alkyl-diol silica restricted-access solid-phase extraction column. The lipophilic fraction containing anabolic hormone residues were back-flushed on to a conventional C-18 reversed-phase column for the final chromatography. The analyte was ionized in an ElectroSpray interface under positive ion mode before entering a quadrupole mass analyzer. The lowest points of calibration curves were 0.05 ng ml(-1) for 4-androstene-3,17-dione and testosterone, and 1 ng ml(-1) dihydrotestosterone, respectively. A comparison with results from radioimmunoassay (RIA) is also presented.

Chang YC; Li CM; Li LA; Jong SB; Liao PC; Chang LW

2003-04-01

304

Measurements of vertebral shape by r[iographic morphometry: sex differences and relationships with vertebral level and lumbar lordosis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Objective. To examine sex-related and vertebral-level-specific differences in vertebral shape and to investigate the relationships between the lumbar lordosis angle and vertebral morphology. Design and patients. Lateral thoracic and lumbar spine r[iographs were obtained with a standardized protocol in 142 healthy men and 198 healthy women over 50 years old. Anterior (Ha), central (Hc) and posterior (Hp) heights of each vertebra from T4 to L4 were measured using a digitizing technique, and the Ha/Hp and Hc/Hp ratios were calculated. The lumbar lordosis angle was measured on the lateral lumbar spine r[iographs. Results. Ha/Hp and Hc/Hp ratios were smaller in men than women by 1.8% and 0.7%, respectively, and these ratios varied with vertebral level. Significant correlations were found between vertebral shape and the lumbar lordosis angle. Conclusions. These results demonstrate that vertebral shape varies significantly with sex, vertebral level and lumbar lordosis angle. Awareness of these relationships may help prevent misdiagnosis in clinical vertebral morphometry. (orig.)

1998-01-01

305

Immunoradiometric measurement of pS2 in breast cancer. Correlation with steroid receptors and plasminogen activators  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

pS2 was measured by radioimmunometric assay in tumour extracts from 197 breast cancer patients. Values ranged from 0 to 50 ng/mg protein (mean 9.6 and median 3 ng/mg). We found no correlation with age, menopausal status, nodal metastases, disease stage of tumour histology. There was, however, a linear relationship with both ER (p

1999-01-01

306

Steroid immunoassay in clinical chemistry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This thesis reports experimental work in developing radioimmunoassays suitable for application in the routine clinical laboratory. Emphasis is placed on the cost-effectiveness of the assays. Because such an approach involves simplification of the assays, considerable emphasis is placed on the demonstration of accuracy. Experimental studies of factors which affect the specificities of steroid immunoassays are described. Factors other than measured cross-reactivities were found to influence the specificity of the immunoassay itself. These factors include other steroid binding proteins, including second antisera of a different specificity and an apparent heterogeneity of specificity within most antisera. A critical review of methods for measuring and reporting immunoassay- and antiserum specificities is included. The importance of antibody affinity in avoiding non-specific interference from, for instance proteins and minor variations in technique, is emphasised. Technical limitations, future clinical requirements, future possibilities and alternative methods of analysis are discussed. (Auth.)

1981-01-01

307

The steroid benefit in treating complicated haemangioma  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The clinical study included 30 patients with complicated cutaneous haemangioma (ulceration, bleeding, obstruction of anatomical orifices, and interference with function or movement). The patients were studied regarding the age group, sex, site of lesion, size of lesion, and the percentage of regression after treatment with steroid. The age ranged from three months to six years, there were 20 female patients and 10 male patients. We used local injection of diluted triamcinolone 4 mg with 5 ml. 0.9% NACI (normal saline), injected through 23-guage syringe under local or general anaesthesia every two weeks for six to eight sessions depending on the severity of the case, followed by a local pressure dressing. We measured the size of the lesion before each session and recorded the regression of the lesion. The patients were followed up for two years. Haemangioma commonly presents in infants and children, most commonly in females, especially in the head and neck and are usually of a small size. It regresses if the treatment is started earlier.

Saleh Kamal

2009-01-01

308

Sex differences in objective measures of sleep in post-traumatic stress disorder and healthy control subjects.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A growing literature shows prominent sex effects for risk for post-traumatic stress disorder and associated medical comorbid burden. Previous research indicates that post-traumatic stress disorder is associated with reduced slow wave sleep, which may have implications for overall health, and abnormalities in rapid eye movement sleep, which have been implicated in specific post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms, but most research has been conducted in male subjects. We therefore sought to compare objective measures of sleep in male and female post-traumatic stress disorder subjects with age- and sex-matched control subjects. We used a cross-sectional, 2 × 2 design (post-traumatic stress disorder/control × female/male) involving83 medically healthy, non-medicated adults aged 19-39 years in the inpatient sleep laboratory. Visual electroencephalographic analysis demonstrated that post-traumatic stress disorder was associated with lower slow wave sleep duration (F(3,82)  = 7.63, P = 0.007) and slow wave sleep percentage (F(3,82)  = 6.11, P = 0.016). There was also a group × sex interaction effect for rapid eye movement duration (F(3,82)  = 4.08, P = 0.047) and rapid eye movement percentage (F(3,82)  = 4.30, P = 0.041), explained by greater rapid eye movement sleep in post-traumatic stress disorder females compared to control females, a difference not seen in male subjects. Quantitative electroencephalography analysis demonstrated that post-traumatic stress disorder was associated with lower energy in the delta spectrum (F(3,82)  = 6.79, P = 0.011) in non-rapid eye movement sleep. Slow wave sleep and delta findings were more pronounced in males. Removal of post-traumatic stress disorder subjects with comorbid major depressive disorder, who had greater post-traumatic stress disorder severity, strengthened delta effects but reduced rapid eye movement effects to non-significance. These findings support previous evidence that post-traumatic stress disorder is associated with impairment in the homeostatic function of sleep, especially in men with the disorder. These findings suggest that group × sex interaction effects on rapid eye movement may occur with more severe post-traumatic stress disorder or with post-traumatic stress disorder comorbid with major depressive disorder.

Richards A; Metzler TJ; Ruoff LM; Inslicht SS; Rao M; Talbot LS; Neylan TC

2013-06-01

309

Age and sex influence the relationship between waist circumference and abdominal fat distribution measured by bioelectrical impedance.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Waist circumference (WC) is a subrogate measurement of abdominal visceral fat (AVF) with a different normal threshold for men and women. However, age plays an important role in the relationship of WC with AVF. The hypothesis of the present work was that the adjustment of the WC, not only by sex but also by age, would improve WC prediction of AVF as measured by a new bioelectrical impedance (BIA) methodology. The study was carried out in 311 subjects (178 men and 133 women) with a body mass index between 18 and 35 kg/m(2). Abdominal fat composition was measured by BIA by using a new device recently developed specifically for the measurement of abdominal fat compartments (ViScan AB140;Omron Corp, Tokyo, Japan). Clinical, anthropometric, and biochemical data were also collected. There was a high correlation of WC with total abdominal fat and AVF in all age ranges and for both fat depots, which decreased with age in men but remained more stable in women. Age independently influenced the level of AVF in women and in those subjects with normal WC, increasing by 0.32 and 0.47 for each decade of age, respectively. In conclusion, age plays an important role in the association between WC and AVF with a high correlation existing in all age ranges. A specific BIA method that measures abdominal composition would be useful in women and in those subjects with normal WC as an indicator of AVF.

Mateo-Gallego R; Bea AM; Jarauta E; Perez-Ruiz MR; Civeira F

2012-06-01

310

Synthesis of Steroidal Thiadiazoles from Steroidal Ketones  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Syntheses of steroidal heterocycles containing a five-membered N,S- heterocycle attached at the 6,7 positions of the B ring are reported. 5α-Cholestane-6-one (1), its 3β-acetoxy- (2) and 3β-chloro- (3) analogues reacted with semicarbazide and aqueous sodium acetate in refluxing ethanol to y...

M. Mushfiq; M. Alam; M. Akhtar

311

A simple method for measuring sex-hormone binding protein (SHBP) - typical values in men and women and in pregnant women  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Assuming that the binding forces between steroid hormones and their binding proteins are similar to those between antigens and their antibodies, the authors describe how to determine SHBP activity by a dilution method analogous to that used for titration of antisera in radioimmunoassay. The method consists of the following stages: (1) plasma dilution; (2) incubation of the dilution with 20,000dis/min of 1,2-3H-testosterone; (3) separation of the fraction of tracer bound to the SHBP by precipitation with ammonium sulphate; (4) centrifugation and measurement of the supernatant; and (5) plotting of the results on a graph where the axis of ordinates represents the quotient given by bound steroid over free steroid (U/L) and the abscissa represents the plasma dilutions. The values are expressed as the 50% bound titre. An advantage of the method is the higher sensitivity of the dilution curves in the steepest part where the 50% bound is encountered; it is thus not necessary to use the saturation part of the curves where sensitivity is lost owing to the steeper slope. A further advantage of the method is that there is no need for costly processes such as dialysis. The SHBP values obtained for healthy subjects were as follows: 1/5 for men, 1/93 for women, and 1/360 in pregnant women. These physiological values showed no overlapping. (author)

1977-11-04

312

Quantitative measure of sexual selection with respect to the operational sex ratio: a comparison of selection indices.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Despite numerous indices proposed to predict the evolution of mating systems, a unified measure of sexual selection has remained elusive. Three previous studies have compared indices of sexual selection under laboratory conditions. Here, we use a genetic study to compare the most widely used measures of sexual selection in natural populations. We explored the mating and reproductive successes of male and female bank voles, Clethrionomys glareolus, across manipulated operational sex ratios (OSRs) by genotyping all adult and pup bank voles on 13 islands using six microsatellite loci. We used Bateman's principles (Is and I and Bateman gradients) and selection coefficients (s' and beta') to evaluate, for the first time, the genetic mating system of bank voles and compared these measures with alternative indices of sexual selection (index of monopolization and Morisita's index) across the OSRs. We found that all the sexual selection indices show significant positive intercorrelations for both males and females, suggesting that Bateman's principles are an accurate and a valid measure of the mating system. The Bateman gradient, in particular, provides information over and above that of other sexual selection indices. Male bank voles show a greater potential for sexual selection than females, and Bateman gradients indicate a polygynandrous mating system. Selection coefficients reveal strong selection gradients on male bank vole plasma testosterone level rather than body size.

Mills SC; Grapputo A; Koskela E; Mappes T

2007-01-01

313

Implementation of a liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry assay for eight adrenal C-21 steroids and pediatric reference data.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Sensitive and accurate determination of steroids is essential for diagnosing congenital and acquired adrenal diseases. Since plasma concentrations change during childhood, age-specific reference ranges are the prerequisite for clinical interpretation. The objectives of this study were to develop a sensitive and reliable method for simultaneous detection and quantification of progesterone, 17-hydroxyprogesterone, deoxycorticosterone (DOC), 11-deoxycortisol, 21-deoxycortisol, corticosterone, cortisol (F) and cortisone (E) by ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) and to establish age- and sex-specific reference ranges from birth to adulthood. METHODS: All eight steroids were measured simultaneously in 0.1 ml plasma by UPLC-MS/MS. Samples of 905 children were measured and grouped in five age groups. RESULTS: The assay was linear up to 70 ng/ml (700 ng/ml for F; r(2) > 0.992). The limit of detection ranged between 0.01 ng/ml for DOC and 0.07 ng/ml for E. Correlations with radioimmunoassays yielded a coefficient of determination between 0.82 and 0.99. Reference data are reported as a function of age and sex. CONCLUSIONS: The UPLC-MS/MS method presented here for the simultaneous detection of eight C-21 adrenal hormones together with the detailed reference ranges for children provides a valuable methodology for assessing adrenal steroids in clinical routine and research.

Kulle AE; Welzel M; Holterhus PM; Riepe FG

2013-01-01

314

Laryngeal steroid injection.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Vocal nodules are generally caused by vocal abuse and conservative treatments such as voice therapy - mainly voice rest and medical management - are used as a first choice. However, as patients with vocal nodules often have voice-related occupations, voice rest and voice therapy are sometimes difficult to perform, which makes treatment difficult. This study reviews the literature and discusses the usefulness of laryngeal steroid injection for the treatment of vocal fold nodules. RECENT FINDINGS: Steroid injection using a laryngeal telescope or a laryngeal flexible endoscope under topical anesthesia enables surgical manipulation under a good visual field through a monitor and an easy and accurate approach to the lesion on an outpatient basis. Although the literature is limited, steroid injection improves maximum phonation time and mean flow rate of the cases with vocal nodules. SUMMARY: Steroid injection using a laryngeal telescope or a laryngeal flexible endoscope is an easy and useful treatment option of vocal nodules.

Tateya I

2009-12-01

315

Sex determination of prehistoric human paleofeces.  

Science.gov (United States)

Analysis of 12 prehistoric human paleofecal specimens from the Mammoth Cave System, Kentucky has produced the first estimate of biological sex using fecal material from ancient humans. Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) radiocarbon dating indicates that the specimens range in age from ca. 2700 B.P. to 2300 B.P. Dietary contents and steroids were extracted and analyzed. Chromatography and radioimmunoassay were used to measure levels of testosterone and estradiol in both modern fecal reference samples and in ancient feces. Results indicate that all 12 paleofeces were probably deposited by males whose diet included a variety of native crops and wild plants. These preliminary analyses have the potential to revolutionize the investigation of gender difference in diet, health, and nutrition. PMID:8893089

Sobolik, K D; Gremillion, K J; Whitten, P L; Watson, P J

1996-10-01

316

Sex determination of prehistoric human paleofeces.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Analysis of 12 prehistoric human paleofecal specimens from the Mammoth Cave System, Kentucky has produced the first estimate of biological sex using fecal material from ancient humans. Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) radiocarbon dating indicates that the specimens range in age from ca. 2700 B.P. to 2300 B.P. Dietary contents and steroids were extracted and analyzed. Chromatography and radioimmunoassay were used to measure levels of testosterone and estradiol in both modern fecal reference samples and in ancient feces. Results indicate that all 12 paleofeces were probably deposited by males whose diet included a variety of native crops and wild plants. These preliminary analyses have the potential to revolutionize the investigation of gender difference in diet, health, and nutrition.

Sobolik KD; Gremillion KJ; Whitten PL; Watson PJ

1996-10-01

317

Permanent and functional male-to-female sex reversal in d-rR strain medaka (Oryzias latipes) following egg microinjection of o,p'-DDT.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Complete sex reversal of fish is accomplished routinely in aquaculture practices by exposing fish to exogenous sex steroids during gonadal differentiation. A variety of environmental chemicals are also active at sex steroid receptors and theoretically possess the potential to alter normal sexual dif...

Edmunds, J S; McCarthy, R A; Ramsdell, J S

318

Filling the Knowledge Gap: Measuring HIV Prevalence and Risk Factors among Men Who Have Sex with Men and Female Sex Workers in Tripoli, Libya.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Publications on Libya's HIV epidemic mostly examined the victims of the tragic nosocomial HIV outbreak in the 1990s and the related dispute about the detention of foreign medical workers. The dispute resolution in 2003 included an agreement with the European Union on humanitarian cooperation and the development of Libya's first National HIV Strategy. As part of this we conducted Libya's first bio-behavioural survey among men having sex with men (MSM) and female sex workers (FSW). METHODS: Using respondent-driven sampling, we conducted a cross-sectional study to estimate the prevalence of HIV, hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and related risk factors among 227 MSM and 69 FSW in Tripoli (FSW recruitment ended prematurely due to the political events in 2011). RESULTS: For MSM we estimated an HIV prevalence of 3.1%, HBV prevalence of 2.9%, and HCV prevalence of 7.3%, and for FSW an HIV prevalence of 15.7%, HBV prevalence of 0%, and HCV prevalence of 5.2%. We detected high levels of risk behaviours, poor HIV-related knowledge, high stigma and lack of prevention programmes. These results must be interpreted in the context of the political situation which prohibited reaching an ideal sample size for FSW. CONCLUSION: There is urgent need to implement an effective National HIV Strategy informed by the results of this research. The risk of transmission within different risk groups and to the general population may be high given the recent military events that led to increased violence, migration, and the disruption of essential HIV-related services.

Valadez JJ; Berendes S; Jeffery C; Thomson J; Ben Othman H; Danon L; Turki AA; Saffialden R; Mirzoyan L

2013-01-01

319

Ovarian steroid sulphate functions as priming pheromone in male Barilius bendelisis (Ham.).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The study reveals that pre-ovulatory females of the fish Barilius bendelisis (Ham.) release sex steroids and their conjugates into the water and that a steroid sulphate of these compounds functions as a potent sex pheromone which stimulates milt production in conspecific males prior to spawning. Since males exposed to the purified subfraction III of the steroid sulphate fraction have increased milt volume and more spermatozoa with greater motility, the function of this priming pheromone appears to be to enhance male spawning success. High turbulence and faster water currents render the hillstream ecosystem extremely challenging for chemical communication. Therefore, ovulatory female fish secrete highly water soluble steroid sulphates for rapid pheromonal action in males. Inhibited milt volume in olfactory tract lesioned (OTL) males exposed to the steroid sulphate fraction and 17alpha,20 beta-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one supports the concept that the pheromonally induced priming effect in male fish is mediated through olfactory pathways.

Bhatt JP; Sajwan MS

2001-06-01

320

Assessment of Borderline Personality Features in Population Samples: Is the Personality Assessment Inventory-Borderline Features Scale Measurement Invariant across Sex and Age?  

Science.gov (United States)

Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is more often diagnosed in women than in men, and symptoms tend to decline with age. Using a large community sample, the authors investigated whether sex and age differences in four main features of BPD, measured with the "Personality Assessment Inventory-Borderline Features" scale (PAI-BOR; Morey, 1991), are…

De Moor, Marleen H. M.; Distel, Marijn A.; Trull, Timothy J.; Boomsma, Dorret I.

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

The pre- and post-therapy measurement of communication skills of couples undergoing sex therapy at the Masters & Johnson Institute.  

Science.gov (United States)

A battery of five paper and pencil questionnaires designed to measure empirically 10 specific skills hypothesized to be involved in effective interpersonal communication was employed to assess the pre- and post-therapy levels of these skills in couples undergoing treatment for sexual dysfunction at the Masters & Johnson Institute in St. Louis, Missouri. The females exhibited significant increases across the 2-week period of therapy for the following skills: positive assertion in intimate heterosexual peer relationships, assertiveness, verbal expression of feelings, and nonmaterial support and evidence of love. For the males significant increases in the following skills were obtained: assertiveness, verbal expression of feelings, self-disclosure, and tolerance of the less pleasant aspects of the loved one. A significant decrease was observed for the skill entitled feelings not expressed verbally to the loved one. Thus, both the females and males became more assertive and more able to express their feelings openly and thus more able to share more of themselves with their partners as a result of the therapy. These results lend empirical support to Masters and Johnson's theoretical model of communication and to the view that much more than simple behavior therapy is involved in a successful sex therapy program. PMID:7247727

Tullman, G M; Gilner, F H; Kolodny, R C; Dornbush, R L; Tullman, G D

1981-04-01

322

The pre- and post-therapy measurement of communication skills of couples undergoing sex therapy at the Masters & Johnson Institute.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A battery of five paper and pencil questionnaires designed to measure empirically 10 specific skills hypothesized to be involved in effective interpersonal communication was employed to assess the pre- and post-therapy levels of these skills in couples undergoing treatment for sexual dysfunction at the Masters & Johnson Institute in St. Louis, Missouri. The females exhibited significant increases across the 2-week period of therapy for the following skills: positive assertion in intimate heterosexual peer relationships, assertiveness, verbal expression of feelings, and nonmaterial support and evidence of love. For the males significant increases in the following skills were obtained: assertiveness, verbal expression of feelings, self-disclosure, and tolerance of the less pleasant aspects of the loved one. A significant decrease was observed for the skill entitled feelings not expressed verbally to the loved one. Thus, both the females and males became more assertive and more able to express their feelings openly and thus more able to share more of themselves with their partners as a result of the therapy. These results lend empirical support to Masters and Johnson's theoretical model of communication and to the view that much more than simple behavior therapy is involved in a successful sex therapy program.

Tullman GM; Gilner FH; Kolodny RC; Dornbush RL; Tullman GD

1981-04-01

323

Zebrafish and steroids: What do we know and what do we need to know?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Zebrafish, Danio rerio, has long been used as a model organism in developmental biology. Nowadays, due to their advantages compared to other model animals, the fish gain popularity and are also increasingly used in endocrinology. This review focuses on an important aspect of endocrinology in zebrafish by summarizing the progress in steroid hormone related research. We present the state of the art of research on steroidogenesis, the action of steroid hormones, and steroid catabolism and cover the incremental usage of zebrafish as a test animal in endocrine disruption research. By this approach, we demonstrate that some aspects of steroid hormone research are well characterized (e.g., expression patterns of the genes involved), while other aspects such as functional analyses of enzymes, steroid hormone elimination, or the impact of steroid hormones on embryonic development or sex differentiation have not been extensively studied and are poorly understood. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'CSR 2013'.

Tokarz J; Möller G; Hrab? de Angelis M; Adamski J

2013-01-01

324

Finger, sex, and side differences in fingertip size and lack of association with image-based digit ratio (2D:4D) measurements.  

Science.gov (United States)

Different methods for measuring the second-to-fourth digit ratio (2D:4D), a putative marker for prenatal androgen exposure, may lead to varying values of 2D:4D. Specifically, it has been hypothesized that fingertip fat pads may be differentially deformed when taking palm images (photocopies or flatbed scans), but not when fingers are measured directly, thus yielding lower 2D:4D values from image-based measurements rather than direct ones. A measurement protocol for fingertip size is unavailable, as are data on finger and sex differences in this trait. Introducing such a protocol, this study found very large finger differences in adult fingertip size (largest for 4D, smaller for 3D and 5D, smallest for 2D), large side differences (larger in the left than in the right hand of right-handed subjects), but only small and not significant sex differences. Fingertip size was unrelated to image-based 2D:4D measurements, suggesting that fingertip size and the extent of finger and sex differences therein are unlikely to explain discrepant 2D:4D values obtained from image-based versus direct measurements. PMID:19093612

Voracek, Martin; Pietschnig, Jakob; Oeckher, Michael

2008-10-01

325

Yolk-albumen testosterone in a lizard with temperature-dependent sex determination: relation with development.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The leopard gecko (Eublepharis macularius) exhibits temperature-dependent sex determination as well as temperature-influenced polymorphisms. Research suggests that in oviparous reptiles with temperature-dependent sex determination, steroid hormones in the yolk might influence sex determination and sexual differentiation. From captive leopard geckos that were all from the same incubation temperature regime, we gathered freshly laid eggs, incubated them at one of two female-biased incubation temperatures (26 or 34°C), and measured testosterone content in the yolk-albumen at early or late development. No differences in the concentration of testosterone were detected in eggs from different incubation temperatures. We report testosterone concentrations in the yolk-albumen were higher in eggs of late development than early development at 26°C incubation temperatures, a finding opposite that reported in other TSD reptiles studied to date.

Huang V; Bowden RM; Crews D

2013-06-01

326

Pulse steroid therapy inhibits murine subglottic granulation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: Using a functional model of airway granulation tissue in subglottic stenosis, we investigated changes in inflammatory markers within granulation tissue in response to intraperitoneal dexamethasone injections. Changes in inflammatory markers will allow us to identify potential targets for immunological therapy. STUDY DESIGN: Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee-approved animal study. SETTING: Philadelphia Veterans Administration Medical Center animal research facility. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Laryngotracheal complexes of donor mice underwent direct airway injury and were transplanted into subcutaneous tissue of 19 recipient mice in 2 groups: steroid treated and untreated, with sample sizes of 10 and 9, respectively. The steroid-treated arm received intraperitoneal injection of dexamethasone for 3 weeks. Laryngotracheal complexes were then harvested, and granulation formation was measured. The messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of transforming growth factor (TGF)-?(1) and interleukin (IL)-1 was quantified. RESULTS: At 3 weeks posttransplantation, there were statistically significant differences in observable granulation formation as well as mRNA expression of TGF-?(1) and IL-1? in all groups within the steroid treated arm as compared with the untreated arm. CONCLUSIONS: Systemic steroids have been used to prevent formation of granulation tissue and subglottic stenosis. However, the study of the immunologic markers and the corresponding changes with steroid treatment has not been well studied in animal models. Using a previously described novel murine model, we begin to delineate inflammatory markers that can be applied for potential therapeutic targets.

Ghosh A; Philiponis G; Lee JY; Leahy KP; Singhal S; Cohen NA; Mirza N

2013-02-01

327

Does laser trabeculoplasty prevent steroid glaucoma?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of laser trabeculoplasty in the normal myopic eye on steroid intraocular pressure responsiveness in patients undergoing radial keratotomy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Diode laser trabeculoplasty was performed on 94 patients with myopia undergoing radial keratotomy who were then started on dexamethasone drops. Intraocular pressures were measured by applanation tonometry compensated for corneal flattening. RESULTS: Twenty-eight percent of patients had an intraocular pressure increase of 6 mm Hg or more by the fourth week. CONCLUSION: Laser trabeculoplasty does not prevent steroid intraocular pressure increase in patients with myopia.

Galin MA; Hirschman H; Gould H; Hofmann I

2000-03-01

328

Do sex hormones play a role in ankylosing spondylitis?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) has a striking disease marker, i.e., HLA-B27, indicating the major genetic predisposition; however, expression of disease is also strongly influenced by age- and sex-related factors. Sex steroids studies suggest greater androgenicity in AS than normal control persons. Therapeutic interventions that normalize such sex steroid status have shown clinical improvements in males and females. Muscle histopathology in AS shows frequent changes early in disease consistent with neuropathic and myopathic mechanisms of a noninflammatory nature. Accepting the available, aggregate data, one may infer that sex steroid imbalance in persons susceptible to AS may target axial and proximal muscle tissues, resulting in relative functional hypertonicity. Such phenomenon, developing in preteen and younger adult ages, may contribute to peripheral and axial manifestations of enthesopathy in this disease by complex and currently unknown mechanisms.

Masi AT

1992-02-01

329

2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin activates the aryl hydrocarbon receptor and alters sex steroid hormone secretion without affecting growth of mouse antral follicles in vitro  

Science.gov (United States)

The persistent environmental contaminant, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is an ovarian toxicant. These studies were designed to characterize the actions of TCDD on steroidogenesis and growth of intact mouse antral follicles in vitro. Specifically, these studies tested the hypothesis that TCDD exposure leads to decreased sex hormone production/secretion by antral follicles as well as decreased growth of antral follicles in vitro. Since TCDD acts through binding to the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), and the AHR has been identified as an important factor in ovarian function, we also conducted experiments to confirm the presence and activation of the AHR in our tissue culture system. To do so, we exposed mouse antral follicles for 96 hours to a series of TCDD doses previously shown to have effects on ovarian tissues and cells in culture, which also encompass environmentally relevant and pharmacological exposures (0.1-100nM), to determine a dose response for TCDD in our culture system for growth, hormone production, expression of the Ahr and Cyp1b1. The results indicate that TCDD decreases progesterone, androstenedione, testosterone, and estradiol levels in a non-monotonic dose response manner without altering growth of antral follicles. The addition of pregnenolone substrate (10?M) restores hormone levels to control levels. Additionally, Cyp1b1 levels were increased by 3-4 fold regardless of the dose of TCDD exposure, evidence of AHR activation. Overall, these data indicate that TCDD may act prior to pregnenolone formation and through AHR transcriptional control of Cyp1b1, leading to decreased hormone levels without affecting growth of antral follicles.

Karman, Bethany N.; Basavarajappa, Mallikarjuna S.; Craig, Zelieann R.; Flaws, Jodi A.

2012-01-01

330

Synthesis of Steroidal Thiadiazoles from Steroidal Ketones  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Syntheses of steroidal heterocycles containing a five-membered N,S- heterocycle attached at the 6,7 positions of the B ring are reported. 5α-Cholestane-6-one (1), its 3β-acetoxy- (2) and 3β-chloro- (3) analogues reacted with semicarbazide and aqueous sodium acetate in refluxing ethanol to yield 5α-cholestan-6-one-semicarbazone 1a and its 3-β-acetoxy and 3β-chloro derivatives 2a and 3a, respectively. The reactions of 1a, 2a and 3a with thionyl chloride in dichloromethane at low temperature afforded the cyclized thiadiazole 4 and its 3β-acetoxy- and 3β-chloro analogues 5 and 6 in good yields.

M. Mushfiq; M. Alam; M. Akhtar

2005-01-01

331

Nonprescription steroids on the Internet.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study evaluated the degree to which anabolic-androgenic steroids are proffered for sale over the Internet and how they are characterized on popular Web sites. Searches for specific steroid product labels (e.g., Dianabol) between March 2006 and June 2006 revealed that approximately half of the Web sites advocated their "safe" use, and roughly one third offered to sell them without prescriptions. The Web sites frequently presented misinformation about steroids and minimized their dangers. Less than 5% of the Web sites presented accurate health risk information about steroids or provided information to abusers seeking to discontinue their steroid use. Implications for education, prevention, treatment, and policy are discussed.

Clement CL; Marlowe DB; Patapis NS; Festinger DS; Forman RF

2012-02-01

332

Evaluating the Predictive Accuracy of Sex Offender Risk Assessment Measures on UK Samples: A Cross-Validation of the Risk Matrix 2000 Scales  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The predictive accuracy of the newly developed risk measures Risk Matrix 2000 Sexual/Violence (RMS, RMV) were cross validated and compared with four risk scales (RRASOR, SACJ-Min, SVR-20, and Static-99) in a sample of sexual (n = 85), violent (n = 46), and general (n = 22) offenders. The sexual offense reconviction rate for the sex offender group was 18% at 10 years follow-up, compared with 2% for the violent offenders. Survival analyses revealed the violent offenders were reconvicted at twice the rate of any other group. Reconviction data were analyzed using the area under the curve (AUC) of the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC). The RMV significantly predicted violent recidivism in the sex and combined sex/violent offender groups. The RMS obtained marginal accuracy in predicting sexual reconviction while the RMV obtained good accuracy at predicting violent non-sex reconviction. An item analysis revealed four factors not included in the risk scales significantly correlated with sexual and violent reconviction. Including these factors with Static-99, RMV and RMS increased the accuracy in predicting sexual reconviction but had a negative impact on the accuracy of RMV in predicting violent reconviction. The inclusion of static and dynamic risk factors with actuarial systems is discussed.

Leam A. Craig; Anthony R. Beech; Kevin D. Browne

2006-01-01

333

Quantitative measures of sexual selection reveal no evidence for sex-role reversal in a sea spider with prolonged paternal care.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Taxa in which males alone invest in postzygotic care of offspring are often considered good models for investigating the proffered relationships between sexual selection and mating systems. In the pycnogonid sea spider Pycnogonum stearnsi, males carry large egg masses on their bodies for several weeks, so this species is a plausible candidate for sex-role reversal (greater intensity of sexual selection on females than on males). Here, we couple a microsatellite-based assessment of the mating system in a natural population with formal quantitative measures of genetic fitness to investigate the direction of sexual selection in P. stearnsi. Both sexes proved to be highly polygamous and showed similar standardized variances in reproductive and mating successes. Moreover, the fertility (number of progeny) of males and females appeared to be equally and highly dependent on mate access, as shown by similar Bateman gradients for the two sexes. The absence of sex-role reversal in this population of P. stearnsi is probably attributable to the fact that males are not limited by brooding space but have evolved an ability to carry large numbers of progeny. Body length was not a good predictor of male mating or reproductive success, so the aim of future studies should be to determine what traits are the targets of sexual selection in this species.

Barreto FS; Avise JC

2010-10-01

334

Role of microsomal steroid hydroxylases in ?7-steroid biosynthesis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

CYP17 (steroid 17?-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase) is a key enzyme in steroid hormone biosynthesis. It catalyzes two independent reactions at the same active center and has a unique ability to differentiate ?(4)-steroids and ?(5)-steroids in the 17,20-lyase reaction. The present work presents a complex experimental analysis of the role of CYP17 in the metabolism of 7-dehydrosteroids. The data indicate the existence of a possible alternative pathway of steroid hormone biosynthesis using 7-dehydrosteroids. The major reaction products of CYP17 catalyzed hydroxylation of 7-dehydropregnenolone have been identified. Catalytic activity of CYP17 from different species with 7-dehydropregnenolone has been estimated. It is shown that CYP21 cannot use ?(5)-?(7) steroids as a substrate.

Sushko TA; Gilep AA; Yantsevich AV; Usanov SA

2013-03-01

335

Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available There are evidences of the increase in the consumption of anabolic steroids and the damages to health caused by their indiscriminate use, mainly among children and youngsters. The anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) consist in testosterone and its derivatives. They are produced endogenously in the testicles and adrenal cortex and are responsible for the secondary sexual characteristics associated to masculinity. Although the results of the exogenous use of AAS are still controversial, they have been used for the increase of physical strength and muscle mass. These substances are directly related to different clinical conditions such as: bladder cancer, coronary disease, gynecomastia, hepatic disorders and cancer, and sterility. This study aimed at approaching relevant topics related to the drugs action mechanisms, ways of use and metabolism, and side effects, besides the importance of the prevention in the use of those drugs in most diverse age groups. The abusive use of anabolic-androgenic steroids consists in a problem that has gradually occurred, which has given rise to laws, rules and support groups turned to the prevention, education and restriction of their use.

Urival Magno Gomes Ferreira; Alan de Carvalho Dias Ferreira; Andréa Maria Pires Azevedo; Rafaella Lucena de Medeiros; Carlos Antonio Bruno da Silva

2007-01-01

336

Identification of steroid receptors in human adipose tissue.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Steroids have the ability to alter adipose tissue distribution. Controversy exists as to whether these effects of sex hormones (oestrogen, progesterone and testosterone) on human adipose tissue are indirect or direct, as only very few studies have focused on steroid receptor status in human adipose tissue. In the present study, we reinvestigated steroid receptor status in human mature adipose tissue and human preadipocytes. Oestrogen, glucocorticoid and androgen receptors were found in human mature adipocytes from both women and men. The receptors were detected by ligand binding. Furthermore, the existence of the receptors was confirmed by demonstrating that adipocytes contained mRNA encoding the receptors. cDNA was generated using reverse transcriptase (RT) followed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification using specific primers (RT-PCR) for the specific steroid receptors. Adipocytes did not contain mRNA encoding the progesterone receptor (PR), and no progesterone binding was detectable in human adipocytes. Human preadipocytes contained glucocorticoid receptor (GR) mRNA and androgen receptor (AR) mRNA, whereas we were unable to detect oestrogen receptor (ER) mRNA and progesterone mRNA in human preadipocytes. In conclusion, oestrogen glucocorticoid and androgen receptors are present in mature adipocytes from subjects of both sexes, whereas adipocytes do not contain progesterone receptors. In preadipocytes, only glucocorticoid receptors and androgen receptors are present, whereas oestrogen receptors and progesterone receptors are not present.

Pedersen SB; Fuglsig S; Sjøgren P; Richelsen B

1996-12-01

337

Steroid induced glaucoma and cataract  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Long term use of topical & systemic steroids produce secondary open angle glaucoma similar to chronic simple glaucoma. The increased IOP caused by prolonged steroid therapy is reversible but the damage produced by it is irreversible. In this study, we analysed 25 patients (44 eyes) with steroid induced glaucoma, who reported to us with dimness of vision, haloes and elevated I.O.P. and were using steroids for long duration due to various causes. The behaviour of the I.O.P. due to different steroid preparations, the type of lenticular change, and the management of those cases are discussed in this paper. From our study we conclude that dexamethasone and betamethasone both topical as well as systemic are more potent in producing glaucoma and cataract than medrysone and prednisolone. The condition is reversible without permanent damage when the duration of steroid therapy is short and vice versa.

Mohan R; Muralidharan A

1989-01-01

338

Effect of sex and prior exposure to a cafeteria diet on the distribution of sex hormones between plasma and blood cells.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

It is generally assumed that steroid hormones are carried in the blood free and/or bound to plasma proteins. We investigated whether blood cells were also able to bind/carry sex-related hormones: estrone, estradiol, DHEA and testosterone. Wistar male and female rats were fed a cafeteria diet for 30 days, which induced overweight. The rats were fed the standard rat diet for 15 additional days to minimize the immediate effects of excess ingested energy. Controls were always kept on standard diet. After the rats were killed, their blood was used for 1) measuring plasma hormone levels, 2) determining the binding of labeled hormones to washed red blood cells (RBC), 3) incubating whole blood with labeled hormones and determining the distribution of label between plasma and packed cells, discounting the trapped plasma volume, 4) determining free plasma hormone using labeled hormones, both through membrane ultrafiltration and dextran-charcoal removal. The results were computed individually for each rat. Cells retained up to 32% estrone, and down to 10% of testosterone, with marked differences due to sex and diet (the latter only for estrogens, not for DHEA and testosterone). Sex and diet also affected the concentrations of all hormones, with no significant diet effects for estradiol and DHEA, but with considerable interaction between both factors. Binding to RBC was non-specific for all hormones. Estrogen distribution in plasma compartments was affected by sex and diet. In conclusion: a) there is a large non-specific RBC-carried compartment for estrone, estradiol, DHEA and testosterone deeply affected by sex; b) Prior exposure to a cafeteria (hyperlipidic) diet induced hormone distribution changes, affected by sex, which hint at sex-related structural differences in RBC membranes; c) We postulate that the RBC compartment may contribute to maintain free (i.e., fully active) sex hormone levels in a way similar to plasma proteins non-specific binding.

Romero Mdel M; Fernández-López JA; Remesar X; Alemany M

2012-01-01

339

Aplicação da Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Performance Como Método Preparativo Para a Dosagem de Esteróides Hormonais Por RIE: Dosagens de 17OH-Progesterona e Diidrotestosterona/ Preparative HPLC for Steroid Measurements: Determinations of 170H-Progesterone and Dihydrotestosterone  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese A dosagem dos esteróides hormonais tem apresentado evolução técnica significativa, sendo os principais esteróides de interesse clínico dosados, atualmente, por métodos simples, rápidos e automatizados. Existe, no entanto, um compromisso em detrimento da exatidão, que é mais evidente na determinação de esteróides de menor concentração relativa e maior número de interferentes potenciais, como a 17-hidroxiprogesterona (17OHP), a diidrotestosterona (DHT) e out (more) ros. Nestes casos, um processo preparativo versátil e robusto é fundamental para garantir resultados com alto grau de exatidão. Apresentamos a padronização de um processo preparativo baseado em cromatografia líquida de alta performance (HPLC) comparado à cromatografia em coluna de celite para a dosagem de 17OHP e DHT. Os anticorpos empregados nos respectivos radioimunoensaios apresentam especificidade semelhante aos descritos na literatura. As amostras foram inicialmente extraídas em éter etílico e em seguida submetidas ao processo cromatográfico. Amostras de soro provenientes da rotina foram dosadas em paralelo pelos dois métodos, sendo 57 amostras para 17OHP e 84 para DHT. Não houve diferença significativa entre os resultados, e os índices de correlação foram elevados (R= 0,95 e 0,97). Os resultados comprovam que a aplicação do HPLC é válida, além de ser mais reprodutível, versátil e menos operador-dependente. Sua aplicação mais ampla permitirá uma melhora de exatidão na dosagem de esteróides de baixa concentração relativa, onde os métodos mais simples resultam em valores falsamente elevados. Abstract in english Measurement of steroid hormones has undergone a significant technical evolution so that steroids with greater clinical interest are, nowadays, measured with methods that are simple, fast and prone to automation. Nevertheless, a compromise is made in detriment of accuracy, which is more evident with steroids with lower concentration and more potential interferents, as 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17OHP), dihydrotestosterone (DHT), and others. In such cases, a robust and versati (more) le preparative process is of utmost importance to warrant results with the highest degree of accuracy. In this paper we present the results obtained with the use of a preparative process based on high-pressure chromatography (HPLC) for the measurement of 17OHP and DHT, as compared with a process based on celite column chromatography. The antibodies used in the radioimmunoassays have similar specificity to those previously described for these kinds of assays. Samples were initially extracted in ethyl ether and then submitted to HPLC. Routine samples (57 for 17OHP and 84 for DHT) were measured in parallel with both methods. The differences between results were not statistically significant, and the correlation indexes were high (R= 0.95 and 0.97). Our results confirm that systems based on HPLC are valid, besides being more robust, versatile and operator independent. A more pervasive application of HPLC preparation systems will allow an improvement in the accuracy of steroid measurements, specially those with low concentrations, where simple preparative processes result in falsely elevated results.

Vieira, José Gilberto H.; Nakamura, Odete H.; Noguti, Keiko O.

2002-02-01

340

Aplicação da Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Performance Como Método Preparativo Para a Dosagem de Esteróides Hormonais Por RIE: Dosagens de 17OH-Progesterona e Diidrotestosterona Preparative HPLC for Steroid Measurements: Determinations of 170H-Progesterone and Dihydrotestosterone  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A dosagem dos esteróides hormonais tem apresentado evolução técnica significativa, sendo os principais esteróides de interesse clínico dosados, atualmente, por métodos simples, rápidos e automatizados. Existe, no entanto, um compromisso em detrimento da exatidão, que é mais evidente na determinação de esteróides de menor concentração relativa e maior número de interferentes potenciais, como a 17-hidroxiprogesterona (17OHP), a diidrotestosterona (DHT) e outros. Nestes casos, um processo preparativo versátil e robusto é fundamental para garantir resultados com alto grau de exatidão. Apresentamos a padronização de um processo preparativo baseado em cromatografia líquida de alta performance (HPLC) comparado à cromatografia em coluna de celite para a dosagem de 17OHP e DHT. Os anticorpos empregados nos respectivos radioimunoensaios apresentam especificidade semelhante aos descritos na literatura. As amostras foram inicialmente extraídas em éter etílico e em seguida submetidas ao processo cromatográfico. Amostras de soro provenientes da rotina foram dosadas em paralelo pelos dois métodos, sendo 57 amostras para 17OHP e 84 para DHT. Não houve diferença significativa entre os resultados, e os índices de correlação foram elevados (R= 0,95 e 0,97). Os resultados comprovam que a aplicação do HPLC é válida, além de ser mais reprodutível, versátil e menos operador-dependente. Sua aplicação mais ampla permitirá uma melhora de exatidão na dosagem de esteróides de baixa concentração relativa, onde os métodos mais simples resultam em valores falsamente elevados.Measurement of steroid hormones has undergone a significant technical evolution so that steroids with greater clinical interest are, nowadays, measured with methods that are simple, fast and prone to automation. Nevertheless, a compromise is made in detriment of accuracy, which is more evident with steroids with lower concentration and more potential interferents, as 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17OHP), dihydrotestosterone (DHT), and others. In such cases, a robust and versatile preparative process is of utmost importance to warrant results with the highest degree of accuracy. In this paper we present the results obtained with the use of a preparative process based on high-pressure chromatography (HPLC) for the measurement of 17OHP and DHT, as compared with a process based on celite column chromatography. The antibodies used in the radioimmunoassays have similar specificity to those previously described for these kinds of assays. Samples were initially extracted in ethyl ether and then submitted to HPLC. Routine samples (57 for 17OHP and 84 for DHT) were measured in parallel with both methods. The differences between results were not statistically significant, and the correlation indexes were high (R= 0.95 and 0.97). Our results confirm that systems based on HPLC are valid, besides being more robust, versatile and operator independent. A more pervasive application of HPLC preparation systems will allow an improvement in the accuracy of steroid measurements, specially those with low concentrations, where simple preparative processes result in falsely elevated results.

José Gilberto H. Vieira; Odete H. Nakamura; Keiko O. Noguti

2002-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

Steroid induced huge mediastinal lipomatosis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Mediastinal lipomatosis induced by steroid is an unusual byproduct of such therapy and has been reported after prolonged and large doses of steroid therapy. The radiologic findings of mediastinal lipomatosis in simple chest film are nonspecific, but with the advent of CT scan, differentiation the fatty lesion from other mediastinal decreases can be made easily. Recently we expended steroid induced huge mediastinal lipomatosis and report the case with review including radiologic findings.

Kim, Jang Min; Chung, Suk Tae; Kang, Eun Young; Suh, Won Hyuck [Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

1990-04-15

342

The reproductive cycle of the male house gecko, Hemidactylus flaviviridis, in relation to plasma steroid concentrations, progesterone receptors, and steroidogenic ultrastructural features, in Oman.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The annual testicular cycle of the house gecko Hemidactylus flaviviridis in Oman was studied. Plasma testosterone (T), estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P) concentrations were measured using a sensitive HPLC-MS/MS detection technique. The ultrastructural steroidogenic features in Sertoli and Leydig cells, which were the major source of steriodogenesis, were examined, using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). In addition, progesterone receptors (PR) were examined throughout the testicular cycle, using an immunohistochemical technique. The steroidogenic ultrastructural features were characterized by the presence of smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER) in the form of cisternal whorls and tubular cisternae, presence of swollen vesiculated mitochondria, and association between SER, mitochondria and lipid droplets. The rise in plasma steroid concentrations was closely associated with the development of the ultrastructural features and PR expression in Leydig and Sertoli cells. During the active phase (November-May), there was a significant rise in plasma steroid concentrations (P<0.05) related to well developed steroidogenic features and strongly expressed PR. During the quiescent phase (June-August) there was a significant decline in plasma steroid concentrations, undeveloped steroiodogenic features and weakly expressed PR. The Renal Sexual Segment (RSS) was fully developed during the active phase. The data provides strong evidence that these ultrastructural steroidogenic features were related to the plasma sex steroid concentrations during the testicular cycle.

Al-Amri IS; Mahmoud IY; Waring CP; Alkindi AY; Khan T; Bakheit C; Al-Mawali KM

2013-06-01

343

Sex Stereotyping.  

Science.gov (United States)

Presents the Norwegian Ministry of Education's recommendations to the Council of Europe for reforming European education to prevent sex discrimination against women at the elementary and secondary levels. (AM)

Western European Education, 1982

1982-01-01

344

Seasonal variation of LH, sex steroids, body mass, molt, display, and laying in two subspecies of Houbara bustard, Chlamydotis undulata macqueenii and Chlamydotis undulata undulata, housed in outdoor cages under natural conditions.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Subspecies of the Houbara bustard are resident in North Africa (Chlamydotis undulata undulata) or are partial latitudinal migrants in Asia (Chlamydotis undulata macqueenii). Houbara breed in arid or semiarid zones, and the reproductive biology of wild Houbara is largely unknown. Body mass, molt, courtship display, laying, and plasma concentrations of LH, testosterone, and progesterone were measured in captive-bred birds of both subspecies, housed in outdoor cages under natural conditions, over a period of 1 year and 6 months, at Taif, Saudi Arabia (21 degrees 15' N). Captive Houbara bustards show a seasonal breeding pattern with a laying period from January to July. Males began displaying well in advance of any eggs laid and display long after the termination of laying. In females, gonadal activity and molt were mutually exclusive; however, in males, slight overlap between sexual display and molt was observed. In females, seasonal variation of LH and progesterone was synchronous with laying activity. In males both testosterone and LH plasma concentrations were highest in January (testosterone approximately 8 ng/ml; LH approximately 3 ng/ml) at the beginning display period. This could correspond, in the wild, to the establishment of territories. Levels dropped significantly before the females started laying but stayed at an intermediate level throughout the breeding season (testosterone approximately 3 ng/ml; LH approximately 1.5 ng/ml). In the middle of August, during molt, and following heavy rainfall, LH and testosterone peaked (testosterone approximately 2.3 ng/ml; LH approximately 1.8 ng/ml), suggesting a possible impact of rainfall on Houbara gonadal activity. Houbara stopped laying before the maximum ambient temperature reached 32 degrees, indicating that high temperature could be a factor terminating laying activity. No major differences were found between the two subspecies in the timing or duration of the reproductive period; only the annual variation of the body mass varied slightly between the subspecies.

Saint Jalme M; Williams J; Mickaelian I; Paillat P

1996-04-01

345

Steroid-responsive depression.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A 48-year-old man presented with long-standing symptoms of major depression in the absence of markedly abnormal neurological findings or structural brain alterations. Antidepressive treatment, including medication and psychotherapy, had not led to significant improvement. The EEG, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis, fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography and neuropsychological testing showed pathological findings. An epileptic state provided further evidence for an organic encephalopathy. Extensively elevated thyroid-antibodies in the serum and CSF, as well as the rapid and sustained recovery after intravenous treatment with prednisolone, pointed to the diagnosis of a primarily psychiatric manifestation of a steroid responsive encephalopathy associated with autoimmune thyroiditis (SREAT).

Normann C; Frase L; Berger M; Nissen C

2013-01-01

346

[Steroid therapy in oncology].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Corticosteroid is widely used in the clinical practice of malignant neoplasmas. Antitumor effect of corticosteroid is exceptional except lymphoproliferative disorders such as malignant lymphoma, acute lymphoblastic leukemia, and multiple myeloma. Standard regimens of these hematological disorders include corticosteroid as a chemotherapeutic agent. Chemotherapy for hematological and solid tumors always has many serious adverse effects. In these circumstance, corticosteroid is especially effective as antiemesis agent, anti-inflammatory agent, and anti-allergic drug. In addition, corticosteroid may provide some improvements of quality of life, pain, appetite, and performance status in terminal cancer patients. However, steroid has also many adverse effects. Careful use of corticosteroid should be considered in clinical oncology.

Tsurumi H

2008-01-01

347

[Steroid therapy in oncology].  

Science.gov (United States)

Corticosteroid is widely used in the clinical practice of malignant neoplasmas. Antitumor effect of corticosteroid is exceptional except lymphoproliferative disorders such as malignant lymphoma, acute lymphoblastic leukemia, and multiple myeloma. Standard regimens of these hematological disorders include corticosteroid as a chemotherapeutic agent. Chemotherapy for hematological and solid tumors always has many serious adverse effects. In these circumstance, corticosteroid is especially effective as antiemesis agent, anti-inflammatory agent, and anti-allergic drug. In addition, corticosteroid may provide some improvements of quality of life, pain, appetite, and performance status in terminal cancer patients. However, steroid has also many adverse effects. Careful use of corticosteroid should be considered in clinical oncology. PMID:18193553

Tsurumi, Hisashi

2008-01-01

348

Electroimmunoassay of sex hormone binding globulin. Enhanced sensitivity by autoradiography using A-ring 125I-17-?-oestradiol  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Four different 125I-iodinated steroids were tested for their binding to human sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) using an electrophoretic technique. 17-?-oestradiol iodinated in its A-ring bound with high affinity to SHBG. This radioactive steroid was used to increase the sensitivity of the electroimmunoassay of SHBG by adding the steroid to the samples before electroimmunoassay. The radioactive steroid incorporated into the immunoprecipitates could be observed by autoradiography. The sensitivity of the assay, which employed a rabbit antiserum against purified human SHBG and was standardized with pure SHBG, was about 0.2 mg/1. The coefficient of variation within and between assays was 2.4% and 2.6% respectively, for values within the normal range. The mean SHBG concentration in healthy regularly menstruating women was 3.50 +- 0.74 (SD) mg/1 when measured in plasma, and 3.78 +- 0.80 mg/1 when measured in serum. The corresponding mean concentrations in healthy men were 2.26 +- 0.45 and 2.44 +- 0.49 mg/1.