WorldWideScience
 
 
1

Neuroprotection of Sex Steroids  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Sex steroids are essential for reproduction and development in animals and humans, and sex steroids also play an important role in neuroprotection following brain injury. New data indicate that sex-specific responses to brain injury occur at the cellular and molecular levels. This review summarizes the current understanding of neuroprotection by sex steroids, particularly estrogen, androgen, and progesterone, based on both in vitro and in vivo studies. Better understanding of the role of sex ...

2010-01-01

2

Sex, Sex steroids and Brain injury  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Biologic sex and sex steroids are important factors in clinical and experimental stroke and traumatic brain injury (TBI). Laboratory data strongly show that progesterone treatment after TBI reduces edema, improves outcomes and restores blood brain barrier function. Clinical studies to date agree with these data, and there are ongoing human trials for progesterone treatment after TBI. Estrogen has accumulated an impressive reputation as a neuroprotectant when evaluated at physiologically relev...

2009-01-01

3

Sex Steroids and Breast Cancer: An Overview  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sex steroids, also known as sex hormones are synthesized naturally by the gonads (ovaries or testes. The two main classes of sex steroids, androgens and estrogens, are crucial hormones for the proper development and function of the body; they regulate sexual differentiation, the secondary sex characteristics, and sexual habits. They are also well known to influence many common cancers, especially hormonally driven cancers such as breast and prostate cancer. In this report, we review the association of sex steroids with cancer and the potential use of endocrine manipulation in cancer therapy as well as the limitations and challenges faced in this field.

Zeina Nahleh

2013-05-01

4

Application of Rapid and Simul­taneous Measurement of Sex Steroid Hormones to the Monitoring of Gonadotropin Therapy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC method with both electrochemical detection (ECD and ultraviolet spectrometric detection (UVD was developed for the rapid and simultaneous measurement of estradiol (E2, estrone (E1, testosterone (T, 17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP and progesterone (P in serum. These hormones were extracted with diethylether, and chromatographed on an octadecyl silane-silica (ODS column with an eluent of a phosphate buffer solution - acetonitrile mixture (volume ratio 49:51. Estrogens were detected by ECD at +1.0 V vs. Ag/AgCl, and other hormones by UVD at 242 nm. With this method, the simultaneous determination of sex steroid hormones could be performed within approximately two hours with high precision. The hormones of 34 patients (39 menstrual cycles undergoing human menopausal gonadotropin (HMG-human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG therapy were measured. It was concluded that the switch from HMG to HCG should be performed when the E2 level reaches 400 pg/ml for ovulation and 800 pg/ml for pregnancy. The occurrence of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS can be predicted when the P level rises above 30 ng/ml on the 7th day after the switch. Moreover, conception may be indicated when the P level does not increase from the 7th to 14th day after the switch. In this way, this method proved to be useful for the monitoring of HMG-HCG therapy.

Hayata,Koshi

1985-06-01

5

Sex steroids regulation of appetitive behavior.  

Science.gov (United States)

Appetite is the desire to satisfy the need to consume food, felt as hunger. It is regulated by the balance of food intake and energy expenditure via signals between the brain, the digestive tract and the adipose tissue. Males and females vary in terms of eating behavior as well as the way the body fat is stored. Energy balance and body fat distribution are part of the sexual dimorphism in many mammalian species including human beings. These sex dissimilarities could be related to the different sex steroid hormone profile in each sex. Gonadal steroid hormones play an important role in the regulation of food intake and energy homeostasis. Human epidemiological and experimental animal studies have shown that estradiol has a key role in the control of food intake and energy balance. Estradiol has long been known to inhibit feeding in animals. There are important changes in food intake patterns during the estrous cycle, with a reduction of food intake around the time of ovulation, when estradiol presents its highest levels. Men have less total fat and more central fat distribution which carries a much greater risk for metabolic disorders while women have more total fat and more gluteal/femoral subcutaneous fat distribution. Men and postmenopausal women accumulate more fat in the intraabdominal depot. This review is focused on the mechanism by which sex steroids affect feeding behavior and fat distribution. PMID:22827220

Bautista, C J; Martínez-Samayoa, P M; Zambrano, E

2012-10-01

6

Digit Ratio (2D:4D: A biomarker for prenatal sex steroids and adult sex steroids in challenge situations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Digit ratio (2D:4D, which denotes the relative length of the 2nd and 4th digits, is considered to be a biomarker of the balance between foetal testosterone and oestrogen in a narrow window of early ontogeny. Evidence from this assertion is derived from direct and indirect measures of prenatal hormonal exposure (in experimental animals, via amniotic fluid samples and in the study of sex-typical traits in relation to 2D:4D. In contrast, the relationships between 2D:4D and levels of sex steroids in adults are less clear, as many correlational studies of 2D:4D and adult sex steroids have concluded that there is little in the way of associations. Here we suggest that in order to understand the link between 2D:4D and sex hormones one must consider both foetal organising and adult activating effects of testosterone and oestrogen. In particular, we hypothesise that 2D:4D correlates with early organising effects on the endocrine system that moderate activating effects in adulthood. We argue that this can be especially observed through an elevated propensity in adults to produce testosterone in “challenging” conditions such as aggressive and sexual encounters. We discuss this refinement of the 2D:4D paradigm in relation to the links between 2D:4D and sports performance, and aggression.

JohnManning

2014-01-01

7

Sex steroid–related candidate genes in psychiatric disorders  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Sex steroids readily pass the blood-brain barrier, and receptors for them are abundant in brain areas important for the regulation of emotions, cognition and behaviour. Animal experiments have revealed both important early effects of these hormones on brain development and their ongoing influence on brain morphology and neurotransmission in the adult organism. The important effects of sex steroids on human behaviour are illustrated by, for example, the effect of reduced levels of these hormon...

Westberg, Lars; Eriksson, Elias

2008-01-01

8

NEUROPROTECTIVE EFFECTS OF FEMALE SEX STEROIDS IN CEREBRAL ISCHEMIA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The central and peripheral nervous system are important targets of sex steroids. Sex steroids affect the brain development and differentiation, and influence neuronal functions. Recent evidence emphasizes a striking sex-linked difference in brain damage after experimental stroke, as well as the efficacy of hormones in treating cerebral stroke injury. Several different models ofcerebral ischemia have been utilized for hormone neuroprotection studies, including transient or permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion, transient global ischemia, and transient forebrain ischemia. Extensive experimental studies have shown that female sex steroids such as progesterone and 17ß-estradiol exert neuroprotective effects in the experimental models of stroke, although deleterious effects have also been reported. Also, a significance of numerous factors, including gender and age of experimental animals, localization of brain lesion, duration of ischemia and precise dose of steroids has been pointed out. There are multiple potential mechanisms that might be invoked to explain the beneficial effects of female sex steroids in brain injury, involving neuroprotection, anti-inflammatory properties, effects on vasculature and altered transcriptional regulation. A several clinical trials on the effects of sex hormones to traumatic brain injury have been performed, suggesting that hormone therapy may represent a new therapeutic tool to combat certain diseases, such as traumatic brain injury. Further basic science studies and randomized clinical trials are necessary to reveal a potential application of these molecules as a new therapeutic strategy.

Dra?a Sanja

2013-01-01

9

Sex steroid modulation of cortisol secretion in sheep.  

Science.gov (United States)

There is strong evidence that the gonads modulate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. To investigate these sex differences at the adrenal glands of sheep we compared the cortisol response to ACTH (experiment 1) and measured the relative expression of oestrogen receptor alpha (ERS1), androgen receptor (AR), melanocortin 2 receptor (MC2R) and steroid acute regulatory protein (STAR) mRNA in adrenal glands (experiment 2) of gonadectomised rams and ewes either with or without sex steroid replacement. In experiment 1 six castrated adult rams and four ovariectomised adult ewes were used in two ACTH trials. On each trial blood samples were taken every 15 min for 4 h through an indwelling jugular catheter and each animal received 0.5 mg of an ACTH analogue i.v., immediately after the sample at 1 h from the beginning of the trial. Four days after the first trial the males received 100 mg of Testosterone Cyclopentilpropionate (TC) i.m. and the females received 2.5 mg of Oestradiol Benzoate (EB) i.m. At 72 h after TC or EB administration the second trial was performed. In experiment 2 the adrenal glands were obtained from gonadectomised adult rams (n=8) and adult ewes (n=8). Four rams received 100 mg of TC i.m. and four females received 0.5 mg of EB i.m. Blood samples were taken at 0, 12, 24, 48 and 72 h relative to steroid replacement and the animals were thereafter slaughtered. Cortisol, testosterone and 17?-oestradiol were determined by radioimmunoanalysis. The transcripts of ERS1, AR, MC2R and STAR were determined by real-time reverse transcription PCR in adrenal tissue. Cortisol secretion was higher in female sheep than in male sheep, and higher in EB-treated than non-treated ewes. No difference in cortisol secretion was observed between TC-treated and non-treated rams. Gonadectomised rams treated with TC presented greater AR mRNA and MC2R mRNA expression than males without the steroid replacement. Gonadectomised ewes treated with EB tended to present lower AR mRNA than the ones without steroid replacement. Gonadectomised rams with TC also had greater AR mRNA, ERS1 mRNA and MC2R mRNA expression than ewes treated with EB. The relative amount of STAR transcript was not different among the different groups. The results confirm sex differences in ACTH-induced cortisol secretion in sheep, as well as in the expression of the receptor proteins for both 17?-oestradiol and testosterone in the sheep adrenal gland. However, the underlying mechanisms for sex steroid modulation remain unresolved. PMID:24703387

van Lier, E; Carriquiry, M; Meikle, A

2014-06-01

10

The Influence of Sex Steroid Hormones on Gingiva of Women  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Steroid sex hormones have a significant effect on different organ systems. As far as gingiva are concerned, they can influence the cellular proliferation, differentiation and growth of keratinocytes and fibroblasts. Estrogen is mainly responsible for alterations in blood vessels and progesterone stimulates the production of inflammatory mediators. In addition, some micro-organisms found in the human mouth synthesize enzymes needed for steroid synthesis and catabolism. In women, during puberty...

Markou, Eleni; Eleana, Boura; Lazaros, Tsalikis; Antonios, Konstantinides

2009-01-01

11

Roles of sex and gonadal steroids in mammalian pheromonal communication.  

Science.gov (United States)

A brain circuit (the accessory olfactory system) that originates in the vomeronasal organ (VNO) and includes the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB) plus additional forebrain regions mediates many of the effects of pheromones, typically comprised of a variety of non-volatile and volatile compounds, on aspects of social behavior. A second, parallel circuit (the main olfactory system) that originates in the main olfactory epithelium (MOE) and includes the main olfactory bulb (MOB) has also been shown to detect volatile pheromones from conspecifics. Studies are reviewed that point to specific roles of several different steroids and their water-soluble metabolites as putative pheromones. Other studies are reviewed that establish an adult, 'activational' role of circulating sex hormones along with sex differences in the detection and/or processing of non-steroidal pheromones by these two olfactory circuits. Persisting questions about the role of sex steroids in pheromonal processing are posed for future investigation. PMID:23872334

Baum, Michael J; Bakker, Julie

2013-10-01

12

Sex Differences and Sex Steroids in Lung Health and Disease  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Sex differences in the biology of different organ systems and the influence of sex hormones in modulating health and disease are increasingly relevant in clinical and research areas. Although work has focused on sex differences and sex hormones in cardiovascular, musculoskeletal, and neuronal systems, there is now increasing clinical evidence for sex differences in incidence, morbidity, and mortality of lung diseases including allergic diseases (such as asthma), chronic obstructive pulmonary ...

Townsend, Elizabeth A.; Miller, Virginia M.; Prakash, Y. S.

2012-01-01

13

Sex Steroidal Hormones and Respiratory Control  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

There is a growing public awareness that sex hormones can have an impact on a variety of physiological processes. Yet, despite almost a century of research, we still do not have a clear picture as to the effects of sex hormones on the regulation of breathing. Considerable data has accumulated showing that estrogen, progesterone and testosterone can influence respiratory function in animals and humans. Several disorders of breathing such as obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and sudden infant death...

Behan, Mary; Wenninger, Julie M.

2008-01-01

14

DHHC-7 and -21 are palmitoylacyltransferases for sex steroid receptors.  

Science.gov (United States)

Classical estrogen, progesterone, and androgen receptors (ERs, PRs, and ARs) localize outside the nucleus at the plasma membrane of target cells. From the membrane, the receptors signal to activate kinase cascades that are essential for the modulation of transcription and nongenomic functions in many target cells. ER, PR, and AR trafficking to the membrane requires receptor palmitoylation by palmitoylacyltransferase (PAT) protein(s). However, the identity of the steroid receptor PAT(s) is unknown. We identified the DHHC-7 and -21 proteins as conserved PATs for the sex steroid receptors. From DHHC-7 and -21 knockdown studies, the PATs are required for endogenous ER, PR, and AR palmitoylation, membrane trafficking, and rapid signal transduction in cancer cells. Thus the DHHC-7 and -21 proteins are novel targets to selectively inhibit membrane sex steroid receptor localization and function. PMID:22031296

Pedram, Ali; Razandi, Mahnaz; Deschenes, Robert J; Levin, Ellis R

2012-01-01

15

Sex steroids inhibit osmotic swelling of retinal glial cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

Osmotic swelling of glial cells may contribute to the development of retinal edema. We investigated whether sex steroids inhibit the swelling of glial somata in acutely isolated retinal slices and glial cells of the rat. Superfusion of retinal slices or cells from control animals with a hypoosmolar solution did not induce glial swelling, whereas glial swelling was observed in slices of postischemic and diabetic retinas. Progesterone, testosterone, estriol, and 17beta-estradiol prevented glial swelling with half-maximal effects at approximately 0.3, 0.6, 6, and 20 microM, respectively. The effect of progesterone was apparently mediated by transactivation of metabotropic glutamate receptors, P2Y1, and adenosine A1 receptors. The data suggest that sex steroids may inhibit cytotoxic edema in the retina. PMID:20238484

Neumann, Florian; Wurm, Antje; Linnertz, Regina; Pannicke, Thomas; Iandiev, Ianors; Wiedemann, Peter; Reichenbach, Andreas; Bringmann, Andreas

2010-04-01

16

Direct Transcriptional Targets of Sex Steroid Hormones in Bone  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The sex steroid hormones, androgens and estrogens, via their respective nuclear receptors, regulate bone mineral density in humans and mice. Very little is known about the direct targets of the androgen and estrogen receptors in bone cells. First, models of hormone and receptor deficiency in mouse and human bone are discussed. This review then focuses on the direct targets of the receptors in osteoblasts and osteoclasts. A direct target of a NR is defined here as a gene that is regulated by N...

Krum, Susan A.

2011-01-01

17

Effects of sex steroid hormones on sertoli cells metabolic pathways  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Developing germ cells use lactate, derived from glucose metabolism of Sertoli cells (SCs), as their main energy source. Androgens and estrogens have been implicated in the modulation of testicular cells energy metabolism, particularly in SCs. The goal of the present study was to shed light on the effects of sex steroid hormones on glucose metabolic pathways in rat SCs. The mRNA levels of glucose transporters 1 and 3 (GLUT1 and GLUT3), phosphofructokinase 1 (PFK1) and lactate dehydrogenase cha...

Martins, Ana Catarina Dias

2012-01-01

18

The association of urinary cadmium with sex steroid hormone concentrations in a general population sample of US adult men  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Studies investigating the association of cadmium and sex steroid hormones in men have been inconsistent, but previous studies were relatively small. Methods In a nationally representative sample of 1,262 men participating in the morning examination session of phase I (1998–1991) of the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, creatinine corrected urinary cadmium and serum concentrations of sex steroid hormones were measured f...

2008-01-01

19

Rapid and efficient method for extraction and separation of glucocorticosteroids and sex steroids from urines.  

Science.gov (United States)

The influence of different pH values on the recoveries of glucocorticosteroids and sex steroids from Kieselguhr-filled minicolumns has been investigated. While the recoveries of all steroids tested were similar if samples had acidic or neutral pH values, sex steroids could effectively be separated from glucocorticosteroids by increasing the pH value to 13.7: recoveries were 1.7% for glucocorticosteroids and 56-76% for sex steroids. For the determination of sex steroids in biological samples it is recommended to adjust samples to a strong alkaline pH before extraction; this holds especially true for samples with very high glucocorticosteroid levels. PMID:8548032

Fenske, M

1995-08-18

20

Serum sex steroids, gonadotrophins and sex hormone-binding globulin in prostatic hyperplasia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH develops in elderly males when serum androgens are relatively lower than in healthy younger males, but it is not well understood whether and how sex steroids are altered in prostatic hyperplasia. It is also uncertain whether there is any change in sex steroid levels in males older than 40 years of age. The use of androgens in elderly males is often discouraged because of the probable worsening effect of androgens on prostatism. This study aimed to determine the relationship between prostatic hyperplasia and sex steroid levels and whether there is any significant change in these hormones after the age of 40 years. Subjects and Methods: We studied healthy males of age 240 years with (n=92 or without (n=93 clinical prostatic hyperplasia. Serum testosterone, estradiol, gonadotrophins and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG were compared. The hormones and SHBG were also correlated with age. Results: No significant difference was found in any hormone in cases with prostatic hyperplasia as compared with the controls. There was no significant age-related change in any hormone except estradiol where as a negative correlation (P< .003 with age was found. Conclusions: Serum sex steroids and SHBG remained unchanged in symptomatic prostatic hyperplasia and except for estradiol there was no significant age-related change in serum testosterone, gonadotrophins and SHBG in healthy males after the fourth decade. More studies are needed to confirm the age-related decline of estrogens in males.

Ansari Mohammad Abdul

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
21

The Effects of Sex Steroids on Spatial Performance: A Review and an Experimental Clinical Investigation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Investigated the relationship between sex hormones and spatial performance among adolescents treated with sex steroids for delayed puberty. Found that spatial performance varied according to gender but did not vary with levels of actively circulating sex steroids. Reviewed physiological mechanisms, developmental periods, and past empirical work…

Liben, Lynn S.; Susman, Elizabeth J.; Finkelstein, Jordan W.; Chinchilli, Vernon M.; Kunselman, Susan; Schwab, Jacqueline; Dubas, Judith Semon; Demers, Laurence M.; Lookingbill, Georgia; D'Arcangelo, M. Rose; Krogh, Holleen R.; Kulin, Howard E.

2002-01-01

22

Assessment of circulating sex steroid levels in prepubertal and pubertal boys and girls by a novel ultrasensitive gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Estrogens and androgens play key roles for pubertal onset and sexual maturation. Most currently used immunoassays are not sensitive enough to accurately measure the low circulating levels of sex steroids in children without any signs of puberty. However, this does not exclude that sex steroids have important biological roles in prepubertal children.

Courant, Frédérique; Aksglæde, Lise

2010-01-01

23

The membrane receptor for sex steroid binding protein is not ubiquitous.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The tissue distribution of the membrane receptor for the Sex Steroid Binding Protein (SBP) has been studied, either in estrogen/androgen dependent tissues and in tissues not strictly sex steroid dependent. A specific interaction of SBP with cell membranes has been observed to occur only in estrogen/androgen dependent tissues, some of them had been previously shown by our laboratory and by other authors to possess a specific receptor for the protein. Thus, the sex steroid dependence of the tis...

Berta, Laura Adelaide Angela; Frairia, Roberto

1992-01-01

24

Sex steroid receptors, secondary bile acids and colorectal cancer. A possible mechanism of interaction.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

AIM: The aim of the work was to study in colon-rectum cancer mucosae the binding charateristics, as sex steroid receptors. METHODS: Specific androgen (AR), estrogen (ER) and progesterone (PgR) receptors were measured in the tissue samples of 35 patients (15 males, 20 females) undergoing colectomy or coloproctectomy for adenocarcinoma. The characteristics of androgen receptor (AR, DHT-R: dihydrotestosterone receptor) were also investigated using competitive activity of cyproterone acetate, cor...

Gaetini, Alessandro; Radice, Elisabetta; Frairia, Roberto; Berta, Laura Adelaide Angela; Bargoni, Alessandro; Fronticelli Baldelli, Carlomaria

2003-01-01

25

Acute Effects of Sex Steroid Hormones on Susceptibility to Cardiac Arrhythmias: A Simulation Study  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Acute effects of sex steroid hormones likely contribute to the observation that post-pubescent males have shorter QT intervals than females. However, the specific role for hormones in modulating cardiac electrophysiological parameters and arrhythmia vulnerability is unclear. Here we use a computational modeling approach to incorporate experimentally measured effects of physiological concentrations of testosterone, estrogen and progesterone on cardiac ion channel targets. We then study the hor...

Yang, Pei-chi; Kurokawa, Junko; Furukawa, Tetsushi; Clancy, Colleen E.

2010-01-01

26

Bidirectional sex change induced by sex steroid implantation in the hermaphrodite fish, Pseudolabrus sieboldi.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sex steroids have been suggested to be involved in gonadal sex change in hermaphrodite fish. Aromatase, the enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of androgens into estrogens, is a principal enzyme regulating gonadal sex. However, the detailed functions of each steroid hormone remain to be evaluated. Recent studies have demonstrated that estradiol-17? (E2) is synthesized via estrone (E1) in some hermaphrodite species. On the other hand, 11-ketotestosterone (11KT) is produced in the testis via testosterone (T). In this study, we hypothesized that E1 and T are also involved in the sex change as precursors for E2 and 11KT, respectively. We implanted females of the wrasse, Pseudolabrus sieboldi, with T and 11KT, and males with E1 and E2, by use of sustained-release capsules. In females, testicular tissues and body color change were observed after androgen administration, in which 11KT was more effective than T. In contrast, after estrogen administration, the gonads of males contained oocytes. In females, the administration of T and 11KT resulted in reduced serum E2 levels. Conversely, serum 11KT levels decreased in the E1- and E2-treated males. Thus, we successfully induced bidirectional sex change in the gonad by estrogen and androgen administration in vivo. Moreover, this study raises the possibility that E1 and T are involved in the sex change as precursors for E2 and 11KT, respectively. PMID:22927221

Ohta, Kohei; Sakai, Mami; Sundaray, Jittendra Kumar; Kitano, Takeshi; Takeda, Tatsusuke; Yamaguchi, Akihiko; Matsuyama, Michiya

2012-11-01

27

The association of urinary cadmium with sex steroid hormone concentrations in a general population sample of US adult men  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies investigating the association of cadmium and sex steroid hormones in men have been inconsistent, but previous studies were relatively small. Methods In a nationally representative sample of 1,262 men participating in the morning examination session of phase I (1998–1991 of the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, creatinine corrected urinary cadmium and serum concentrations of sex steroid hormones were measured following a standardized protocol. Results After adjustment for age and race-ethnicity, higher cadmium levels were associated with higher levels of total testosterone, total estradiol, sex hormone-binding globulin, estimated free testosterone, and estimated free estradiol (each p-trend 0.05. Conclusion Urinary cadmium levels were not associated with sex steroid hormone concentrations in a large nationally representative sample of US men.

Basaria Shehzad

2008-02-01

28

Sex steroids, bone mass, and bone loss. A prospective study of pre-, peri-, and postmenopausal women.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Although bone loss around the time of menopause is driven by estrogen deficiency, the roles of estrogens and androgens in the preservation of skeletal mass at other stages of life are less well understood. To address this issue we studied 231 women between the ages of 32 and 77 with multiple measurements of sex steroids and bone mass over a period of 2-8 yr. In all women bone mass was negatively associated with concentrations of sex-hormone binding globulin, and positively associated with wei...

Slemenda, C.; Longcope, C.; Peacock, M.; Hui, S.; Johnston, C. C.

1996-01-01

29

Measurement of Urinary Steroids; The Methods Which  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available 17 - Ketosteroids, 17-ketogenic steroids and 17-Hydroxy -corticosteroids, the major and clinically important urinary stero¬ids are largly originated from adrenal cortex and in some extent from gonads. These steroids have been and still are measured by Zimmerman and Porter-Silber colorimetric methods. At the time these measurements were considered highly valuable replacement for time consuming bioassays. Unfortunately, none of these assays are reliable indicator of the biological activity of specific steroids secreted by the endocrine glands. Therefore, considering such deficiencies and improvement techniques with higher sensi¬tivity and specificity for endocrine evaluation, it seems that colorimetric assays should be abandoned. In this article the disadvantages of these assays are described and new methods for evaluation of steroids are introduced.

M.G. Bigdeli M. Ahmadi

1990-07-01

30

The role of age, sex and steroid sex hormones in radiation cataractogenesis.  

Science.gov (United States)

It is critical to identify and gain a better understanding of the factors that enhance or reduce the risk of cataractogenesis, to minimize the possibility of occurrence after deliberate (e.g., radiation therapy, interplanetary travel) or unintentional exposure to ionizing radiation. Both gender and age at the time of exposure have been established as key determinants of cataractogenesis induced by sparsely ionizing (low-LET) and densely ionizing (high-LET) radiation. However, animal data from several older studies are often conflicting and somewhat difficult to interpret, in that the experiments suffered from small group sizes, limited dose ranges or short periods of observation, and human data are sparse or statistical significance is sometimes limited. Steroid sex hormones (SSH) may underlie age and gender-based differences in the progression and prevalence of cataracts that otherwise occur spontaneously in humans and animal models, and may also underlie age and sex-related differences in radiation cataractogenesis. Here, we review data that have aided in our understanding of the role of age, sex and steroid sex hormones in radiation cataractogenesis. PMID:24261552

Dynlacht, Joseph R

2013-12-01

31

Divergence in Sex Steroid Hormone Signaling between Sympatric Species of Japanese Threespine Stickleback  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Sex steroids mediate the expression of sexually dimorphic or sex-specific traits that are important both for mate choice within species and for behavioral isolation between species. We investigated divergence in sex steroid signaling between two sympatric species of threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus): the Japan Sea form and the Pacific Ocean form. These sympatric forms diverge in both male display traits and female mate choice behaviors, which together contribute to asymmetric be...

2011-01-01

32

Augmented transport and metabolism of sex steroids in lymphoid neoplasia in the rat  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sex steroid hormones have been shown to influence a number of biological properties of lymphoid neoplastic tissue. Receptor occupancy is a function of the pool size of cellular exchangeable hormone therefore it is important to understand the mechanisms regulating hormone transport from the microcirculation and hormone metabolism. In this study, steroid hormone transport and metabolism were investigated in control and neoplastic lymph nodes after transplanting control rats with the WR-6 leukemic line. Steroid hormone transport and metabolism were studied after pulse labeling the nodal tissue in vivo with arterial bolus injections of ["3H]testosterone. Residual vascular radioactivity was monitored by simultaneously injecting 113m indium chelated to bovine transferrin. Both testosterone and estradiol were partially available for transport through the capillary barriers of control and neoplastic lymph nodes from the circulating albumin-bound pool. Estradiol was readily available for transport from the circulating sex hormone-binding globulin-bound pool in both control and neoplastic lymph nodes. Testosterone was not available for transport from the sex hormone-binding globulin-bound pool in control lymph nodes, but was readily available for transport in metastatic lymph nodes. Thaw-mount autoradiography and physiological measurements showed that plasma proteins such as albumin or transferrin were confined to the microcirculation compartment. The transport of protein-bound hormones into lymph node represents a mechanism of enhanced steroid hormone dissociation from the binding protein without the plasma protein per se significantly exiting the microcirculation compartment. Metabolic studies showed no measurable metabolism of ["3H]testosterone in the control lymph nodes by 60 sec after arterial injection

1987-01-01

33

Seasonal Changes in Gonadotropins, Prolactin and Sex Steroid Hormones in Captive Hill Mynah Gracula religiosa  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the present study seasonal changes of gonadotropins, prolactin and sex steroid hormones in captive Hill Mynah were measured from October 1995 to September 1996. During the breeding season, these hormone levels were higher than during the non-breeding one. Plasma levels of FSH in males and females rose in December, prior to the onset of breeding and remained elevated throughout the breeding season except in May. LH, testosterone and estradiol in both sexes were elevated in January, th...

Manee Archawaranon

2006-01-01

34

Brain steroid contents in the catfish Heteropneustes fossilis: sex and gonad stage-specific changes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Neurosteroids are those which are synthesized in the central nervous system independently of supply by peripheral endocrine glands. In the present study, brain contents of the steroid hormones, estradiol-17? (E(2)), testosterone (T), corticosteroids, and progestins were investigated in both male and female catfish Heteropneustes fossilis in prespawning (vitellogenic) and spawning (post-vitellogenic) phases using ELISA or HPLC. The data show that the measured steroid hormones showed both stage-specific and sex-related variations. Brain E(2) was significantly higher in males in the prespawning phase and in females in the spawning phase. Testosterone was significantly higher in males in comparison with females in the prespawning phase. Cortisol was significantly higher in the prespawning and spawning phases in males than in females. Corticosterone level was low in the brain. 21-deoxycortisol and deoxycorticosterone were significantly higher in the prespawning phase than in the spawning phase. Male brain recorded the highest concentration of deoxycorticosterone. Progesterone (P(4)) was high in the prespawning phase and low in the spawning phase in both sexes. Levels of 17-hydroxy-4-pregnene-3,20-dione and 17,20?-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (17,20?-DP) and the metabolites of P(4) were the highest in females in the prespawning phase. The stage-specific and sexual differences in the content of the steroids suggest their biosynthesis in the brain, which may have implications in brain functions, in addition to reproductive regulation. PMID:22002168

Chaube, R; Mishra, S

2012-06-01

35

Sex and stress steroid modulation of GABA mediated chloride ion flux in rat CNS  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: Sex and stress steroids are metabolized to 3a-hydroxy-pregnane-steroid metabolites such as allopregnanolone (Allo) and tetrahydrodeoxycorticosterone (THDOC). Allo and THDOC are neuroactive steroids that are metabolized in the brain and act in brain as potent positive GABAA receptor function modulators. Allo as well as THDOC levels increase during stress. Allo has been associated with a number of symptoms and malfunctions such as impaired memory function and negative mood symptoms ...

Stro?mberg, Jessica

2007-01-01

36

Skeletal Involution by Age-associated Oxidative Stress and Its Acceleration by Loss of Sex Steroids*  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Both aging and loss of sex steroids have adverse effects on skeletal homeostasis, but whether and how they may influence each others negative impact on bone remains unknown. We report herein that both female and male C57BL/6 mice progressively lost strength (as determined by load-to-failure measurements) and bone mineral density in the spine and femur between the ages of 4 and 31 months. These changes were temporally associated with decreased rate of remodeling as evidenced by decreased osteo...

Almeida, Maria; Han, Li; Martin-millan, Marta; Plotkin, Lilian I.; Stewart, Scott A.; Roberson, Paula K.; Kousteni, Stavroula; O’brien, Charles A.; Bellido, Teresita; Parfitt, A. Michael; Weinstein, Robert S.; Jilka, Robert L.; Manolagas, Stavros C.

2007-01-01

37

Effects of sex steroids and tamoxifen on VEGF in the breast  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Sex steroid exposure constitutes a risk factor for breast cancer, but little is known about the effects of sex steroids on factors mediating angiogenesis, the development of new blood vessels, in normal and malignant breast tissue. In this thesis we have investigated the effects of estradiol, progesterone, and the nonsteroidal anti-estrogen tamoxifen on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its receptors (VEGFR-1 and VEGFR-2) in normal human breast tissue, endothelial cells, and breas...

Garvin, Stina

2006-01-01

38

Activation of PPAR? by Rosiglitazone Does Not Negatively Impact Male Sex Steroid Hormones in Diabetic Rats  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR?) activation decreased serum testosterone (T) in women with hyperthecosis and/or polycystic ovary syndrome and reduced the conversion of androgens to estradiol (E2) in female rats. This implies modulation of female sex steroid hormones by PPAR?. It is not clear if PPAR? modulates sex steroid hormones in diabetic males. Because PPAR? activation by thiazolidinedione increased insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetes, understanding the lon...

Mansour, Mahmoud; Coleman, Elaine; Dennis, John; Akingbemi, Benson; Schwartz, Dean; Braden, Tim; Judd, Robert; Plaisance, Eric; Stewart, Laura Ken; Morrison, Edward

2009-01-01

39

Metabolism of exogenous sex steroids and effect on brain functions with a focus on tibolone.  

Science.gov (United States)

Around the menopause, changes in ovarian secretion of steroids result in changes in brain function: hot flushes and sweating later followed by changes in mood, libido and cognition. The relationship between sex steroids and brain functions are reviewed, with focus on hormonal treatments, in particular tibolone, on the postmenopausal brain and on associations between tissue levels and brain functions. Data on steroid levels in human brain are limited. Exogenous oestrogens alone or combined with progestagens reduce hot flushes and sweating, and may favourably affect anxiety, depression and mood. Testosterone alone or combined with E(2) improves libido and mood. Tibolone reduces hot flushes and sweating, and improves mood and libido, but does not stimulate endometrium or breast, like oestrogens. Tibolone is an ideal compound for studying steroid levels and metabolism in brain in view of its structural differences from endogenous steroids and its extensive metabolism required to express its endocrine effects. Brain levels of tibolone metabolites were measured in ovariectomized cynomolgus monkeys receiving tibolone for 36 days. Compared to serum, higher levels of the oestrogenic 3alpha/beta-hydroxytibolone and the androgenic/progestagenic Delta(4)-tibolone, and lower levels of sulphated metabolites are found in various brain regions. The high levels of oestrogenic metabolites in the hypothalamus explain hot flush reduction. Combined with the presence of Delta(4)-tibolone, the tibolone-induced increase in free testosterone through SHBG reduction explains androgenic effects of tibolone on mood and libido. The levels of tibolone metabolites in the monkey brain support tibolone's effects on brain functions. PMID:17113982

Verheul, H A M; Kloosterboer, H J

2006-12-01

40

The plasma sex steroid profiles in the freshwater, sex-reversing teleost fish, Monopterus albus (Zuiew).  

Science.gov (United States)

The plasma levels of both the free and conjugated forms of six sex steroids (androstenedione, testosterone, 11-oxotestosterone, 11 beta-hydroxytestosterone, estrone, and 17 beta-estradiol) were determined by radioimmunoassay combined with Celite chromatography in different sexual phases of the protogynous Monopterus albus throughout the reproductive cycle. The amounts of 11-oxotestosterone and 11 beta-hydroxytestosterone were found to be very low and variable in all the specimens investigated. No conjugated 17 beta-estradiol or free estrone was detected. Female individuals showed a prespawning rise of androstenedione which subsequently dropped to a low level in the spawning period. The estrogen levels in the female phase were found to be higher than those in all other sexual phases during the spawning period, but the testosterone level remained constant throughout the reproductive cycle in the female phase. The level of androstenedione was highest in the early intersexual and mid-intersexual phases during the postspawning/inactive period. Compared with the female specimens in the same reproductive period, the early intersexual individuals showed a higher level of 17 beta-estradiol, while the mid-intersexual animals showed a higher level of testosterone in the postspawned/inactive period. In the mid-intersexual phase, the levels of androstenedione, testosterone, 17 beta-estradiol, and estrone dropped progressively in relation to the seasonal reproductive cycle. The male fish had a constant level of androstenedione, estrone, and 17 beta-estradiol. However, the level of testosterone increased as the spawning period approached. The hormonal profile in the late intersexual phase was essentially similar to that in the male phase. The changes in the plasma levels of sex steroids in M. albus apparently were related to the maturation of the female and male sex tissues and to their seasonal reproductive cycle. PMID:3817447

Yeung, W S; Chan, S T

1987-02-01

 
 
 
 
41

Sex, sex steroids, and diabetic cardiomyopathy: making the case for experimental focus.  

Science.gov (United States)

More than three decades ago, the Framingham study revealed that cardiovascular risk is elevated for all diabetics and that this jeopardy is substantially accentuated for women in particular. Numerous studies have subsequently documented worsened cardiac outcomes for women. Given that estrogen and insulin exert major regulatory effects through common intracellular signaling pathways prominent in maintenance of cardiomyocyte function, a sex-hormone:diabetic-disease interaction is plausible. Underlying aspects of female cardiovascular pathophysiology that exaggerate cardiovascular diabetic risk may be identified, including increased vulnerability to coronary microvascular disease, age-dependent impairment of insulin-sensitivity, and differential susceptibility to hyperglycemia. Since Framingham, considerable progress has been made in the development of experimental models of diabetic disease states, including a diversity of genetic rodent models. Ample evidence indicates that animal models of both type 1 and 2 diabetes variably recapitulate aspects of diabetic cardiomyopathy including diastolic and systolic dysfunction, and cardiac structural pathology including fibrosis, loss of compliance, and in some instances ventricular hypertrophy. Perplexingly, little of this work has explored the relevance and mechanisms of sexual dimorphism in diabetic cardiomyopathy. Only a small number of experimental studies have addressed this question, yet the prospects for gaining important mechanistic insights from further experimental enquiry are considerable. The case for experimental interrogation of sex differences, and of sex steroid influences in the aetiology of diabetic cardiomyopathy, is particularly compelling-providing incentive for future investigation with ultimate therapeutic potential. PMID:23792676

Reichelt, Melissa E; Mellor, Kimberley M; Bell, James R; Chandramouli, Chanchal; Headrick, John P; Delbridge, Lea M D

2013-09-15

42

Noninvasive measurement of steroid hormones in zebrafish holding-water.  

Science.gov (United States)

Zebrafish (Danio rerio) has recently emerged as a new animal model in neuroendocrinology and behavior (e.g., stress physiology and ecotoxicology studies). In these areas, the concentrations of steroid hormones in the blood are often used to study the endocrinological status of individuals. However, due to the small body size of zebrafish, blood sampling is difficult to perform and the amount of plasma obtained per sample for assaying hormones is very small (ca. 1-5??L), and therefore most studies have been using whole-body hormone concentrations, which implies sacrificing the individuals and hampers sequential sampling of the same individual. Here a noninvasive method to assay steroid hormones from zebrafish holding-water, based on the fact that steroids are released into the fish holding-water through the gills by passive diffusion, is validated. Cortisol and the androgen 11-ketotestosterone (KT) were measured in water samples and compared to plasma levels in the same individuals. Cortisol released to holding-water correlates positively with plasma concentrations, but there was a lack of correlation between KT water and circulating levels. However, KT levels showed a highly significant sex difference that can be used to noninvasively sex individuals. An ACTH challenge test demonstrated that an induced increase in circulating cortisol concentration can be reliably detected in holding-water levels, hence attesting the responsiveness of holding-water levels to fluctuations in circulating levels. PMID:23445429

Félix, Ana S; Faustino, Ana I; Cabral, Eduarda M; Oliveira, Rui F

2013-03-01

43

Measurement of steroid concentrations in brain tissue: methodological considerations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available It is well recognized that steroids are synthesized de novo in the brain (neurosteroids. In addition, steroids circulating in the blood enter the brain. Steroids play numerous roles in the brain, such as influencing neural development, behavior, neuroplasticity, and inflammation. In order to understand the regulation and functions of steroids in the brain, it is important to directly measure steroid concentrations in brain tissue. In this brief review, we discuss methods for the detection and quantification of steroids in the brain. We concisely present the major advantages and disadvantages of different technical approaches at various experimental stages: euthanasia, tissue collection, steroid extraction, steroid separation, and steroid measurement. We discuss, among other topics, the potential effects of anesthesia and saline perfusion prior to tissue collection; microdissection via Palkovits punch; solid phase extraction; chromatographic separation of steroids; and immunoassays and mass spectrometry for steroid quantification, particularly the use of mass spectrometry for “steroid profiling.” Finally, we discuss the interpretation of local steroid concentrations, such as comparing steroid levels in brain tissue with those in the circulation (plasma vs. whole blood samples; total vs. free steroid levels. This brief review highlights some of the major methodological considerations at multiple experimental stages and provides a broad framework for designing studies that examine local steroid levels in the brain as well as other tissues.

MatthewDTaves

2011-09-01

44

Sex steroid-binding protein interacts with a specific receptor on human premenopausal endometrium membrane: modulating effect of estradiol.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Sex steroid-binding protein receptor was detected on membranes prepared from human premenopausal endometrium. The binding of sex steroid-binding protein to membranes was specific, saturable, and high affinity. Scatchard analysis showed the presence of two binding sites at different affinities. The addition of estradiol (10(-8) M) did not produce any inhibition of binding; indeed, it resulted in a modification of binding characteristics. The demonstration of sex steroid-binding protein recepto...

Berta, Laura Adelaide Angela; Frairia, Roberto

1991-01-01

45

Analysis of In Vitro Effects of Sex Steroids on Lymphocyte Responsiveness in Murrah Buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Present study was carried out on forty four apparently healthy Murrah buffaloes of different age groups of both sexes to investigate the effects of sex steroids on cell mediated immunity in vitro. Estrogen inhibited proliferation in mitogen-stimulated lymphocytes from prepubertal but not post pubertal buffaloes of either sex. Estrogen at 100?pg/mL concentration stimulating the proliferation significantly (P < 0.05). in all groups and had higher stimulatory effect in lymphocytes from day 10 ...

2012-01-01

46

The receptor for human sex steroid binding protein (SBP) is expressed on membranes of neoplastic endometrium.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Sex steroid binding protein (SBP) receptor was detected on cell membranes obtained from human endometrium adenocarcinoma. The binding of SBP was proved to be highly specific, saturable, and at high affinity. It was, additionally, shown to occur at two sites at different affinities, as previously described for other human tissues. SBP was, therefore, demonstrated to recognized a specific receptor on endometrium adenocarcinoma membranes. The effect of steroid hormones on SBP-receptor interactio...

Berta, Laura Adelaide Angela; Frairia, Roberto

1992-01-01

47

Effects of steroid sex hormones and adriamycin on human bladder cancer cells in culture.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The effects of steroid sex hormones on the established cell lines derived from human urinary bladder cancer, T24, and from human transitional cell cancer of the urinary tract, 253J, were examined using the colony formation method. Of the seven kinds of steroid hormones tested, estradiol-17 beta was intensively cytotoxic for both cells. The cytotoxic effect was depended on the dose and time of treatment. The combined effect of Adriamycin and estradiol-17 beta on T24 cells could be recognize...

Yoshimoto, Jun; Matsumura, Yosuke; Tanahashi, Toyoko; Ohmori, Hiroyuki; Tokiwa, Takayoshi; Sato, Jiro

1982-01-01

48

Seasonal Changes in Gonadotropins, Prolactin and Sex Steroid Hormones in Captive Hill Mynah Gracula religiosa  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the present study seasonal changes of gonadotropins, prolactin and sex steroid hormones in captive Hill Mynah were measured from October 1995 to September 1996. During the breeding season, these hormone levels were higher than during the non-breeding one. Plasma levels of FSH in males and females rose in December, prior to the onset of breeding and remained elevated throughout the breeding season except in May. LH, testosterone and estradiol in both sexes were elevated in January, the onset of breeding. The maximum levels of these hormones were coincident with development of the gonads, secondary sex characters, territorial aggression and sexual behavior. Plasma testosterone and estradiol titers in males and females respectively were evidently bimodal with peaks in January and April which corresponded to the norm of two clutches per breeding season of this species. Progesterone levels in females surged in March, April and May which was the period of egg laying and incubation. Circulating prolactin in females was high during the parental phase of the breeding cycle in April and June. In addition, social cues such as sexual partner and external stimuli such as eggs or nestlings influenced the reproductive endocrinology.

Manee Archawaranon

2006-01-01

49

The sensitivity of the child to sex steroids: possible impact of exogenous estrogens  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The current trends of increasing incidences of testis, breast and prostate cancers are poorly understood, although it is assumed that sex hormones play a role. Disrupted sex hormone action is also believed to be involved in the increased occurrence of genital abnormalities among newborn boys and precocious puberty in girls. In this article, recent literature on sex steroid levels and their physiological roles during childhood is reviewed. It is concluded that (i) circulating levels of estradiol in prepubertal children are lower than originally claimed; (ii) children are extremely sensitive to estradiol and may respond with increased growth and/or breast development even at serum levels below the current detection limits; (iii) no threshold has been established, below which no hormonal effects can be seen in children exposed to exogenous steroids or endocrine disruptors; (iv) changes in hormone levels during fetal and prepubertal development may have severe effects in adult life and (v) the daily production rates of sex steroids in children estimated by the Food and Drug Administration in 1999 and still used in risk assessments are highly overestimated and should be revised. Because no lower threshold for estrogenic action has been established, caution should be taken to avoid unnecessary exposure of fetuses and children to exogenous sex steroids and endocrine disruptors, even at very low levels.

Aksglaede, Lise; Juul, Anders

2006-01-01

50

Interaction of blood sex steroid-binding globulin-steroid complexes with the plasma membranes of cells of the human decidual endometrium  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The plasma membranes of cells of the decidual tissue specifically bind complexes of the sex steroid-binding globulin (SBG) of the blood with estrogens (estradiol, estriol, estrone) and the pharmacological agent danazol but do not interact with SBG-testosterone and SBG-dihydrotestosterone complexes. The selectivity of the interaction of SBG-steroid complexes with the cell membranes of the decidual tissue confirms the hypothesis of an active role of SBG in the action of steroids on this target tissue.

Zhuk, N.I.; Avvakumov, G.V.; Strel' chenok, O.A.

1986-01-10

51

Interaction of blood sex steroid-binding globulin-steroid complexes with the plasma membranes of cells of the human decidual endometrium  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The plasma membranes of cells of the decidual tissue specifically bind complexes of the sex steroid-binding globulin (SBG) of the blood with estrogens (estradiol, estriol, estrone) and the pharmacological agent danazol but do not interact with SBG-testosterone and SBG-dihydrotestosterone complexes. The selectivity of the interaction of SBG-steroid complexes with the cell membranes of the decidual tissue confirms the hypothesis of an active role of SBG in the action of steroids on this target tissue

1986-01-10

52

Differential responses of brain, gonad and muscle steroid levels to changes in social status and sex in a sequential and bidirectional hermaphroditic fish.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sex steroids can both modulate and be modulated by behavior, and their actions are mediated by complex interactions among multiple hormone sources and targets. While gonadal steroids delivered via circulation can affect behavior, changes in local brain steroid synthesis also can modulate behavior. The relative steroid load across different tissues and the association of these levels with rates of behavior have not been well studied. The bluebanded goby (Lythrypnus dalli) is a sex changing fish in which social status determines sexual phenotype. We examined changes in steroid levels in brain, gonad and body muscle at either 24 hours or 6 days after social induction of protogynous sex change, and from individuals in stable social groups not undergoing sex change. For each tissue, we measured levels of estradiol (E(2)), testosterone (T) and 11-ketotestosterone (KT). Females had more T than males in the gonads, and more E(2) in all tissues but there was no sex difference in KT. For both sexes, E(2) was higher in the gonad than in other tissues while androgens were higher in the brain. During sex change, brain T levels dropped while brain KT increased, and brain E(2) levels did not change. We found a positive relationship between androgens and aggression in the most dominant females but only when the male was removed from the social group. The results demonstrate that steroid levels are responsive to changes in the social environment, and that their concentrations vary in different tissues. Also, we suggest that rapid changes in brain androgen levels might be important in inducing behavioral and/or morphological changes associated with protogynous sex change. PMID:23251444

Lorenzi, Varenka; Earley, Ryan L; Grober, Matthew S

2012-01-01

53

Differential Responses of Brain, Gonad and Muscle Steroid Levels to Changes in Social Status and Sex in a Sequential and Bidirectional Hermaphroditic Fish  

Science.gov (United States)

Sex steroids can both modulate and be modulated by behavior, and their actions are mediated by complex interactions among multiple hormone sources and targets. While gonadal steroids delivered via circulation can affect behavior, changes in local brain steroid synthesis also can modulate behavior. The relative steroid load across different tissues and the association of these levels with rates of behavior have not been well studied. The bluebanded goby (Lythrypnus dalli) is a sex changing fish in which social status determines sexual phenotype. We examined changes in steroid levels in brain, gonad and body muscle at either 24 hours or 6 days after social induction of protogynous sex change, and from individuals in stable social groups not undergoing sex change. For each tissue, we measured levels of estradiol (E2), testosterone (T) and 11-ketotestosterone (KT). Females had more T than males in the gonads, and more E2 in all tissues but there was no sex difference in KT. For both sexes, E2 was higher in the gonad than in other tissues while androgens were higher in the brain. During sex change, brain T levels dropped while brain KT increased, and brain E2 levels did not change. We found a positive relationship between androgens and aggression in the most dominant females but only when the male was removed from the social group. The results demonstrate that steroid levels are responsive to changes in the social environment, and that their concentrations vary in different tissues. Also, we suggest that rapid changes in brain androgen levels might be important in inducing behavioral and/or morphological changes associated with protogynous sex change.

Lorenzi, Varenka; Earley, Ryan L.; Grober, Matthew S.

2012-01-01

54

Sex steroids and the control of the Kiss1 system: developmental roles and major regulatory actions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Kisspeptins, encoded by the Kiss1 gene, and their canonical receptor, GPR54 (also termed Kiss1R), are unanimously recognised as essential regulators of puberty onset and gonadotrophin secretion. These key reproductive functions stem from the capacity of kisspeptins to stimulate gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion in the hypothalamus, where discrete populations of Kiss1 neurones have been identified. In rodents, two major groups of hypothalamic Kiss1 neurones exist: one present in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) and the other located in the anteroventral periventricular area (AVPV/RP3V). In recent years, numerous signals have been identified as putative modulators of the hypothalamic Kiss1 system. Among them, the prominent role of sex steroids as being important regulators of Kiss1 neurones has been documented in different species and developmental stages, such as early brain sex differentiation, puberty, adulthood and senescence. These regulatory actions are (mainly) conducted via oestrogen receptor (ER)?, which is expressed in almost all Kiss1 neurones, and likely involve both classical and nonclassical pathways. The regulatory effects of sex steroids are nucleus-specific. Thus, sex steroids inhibit the expression of Kiss1/kisspeptin at the ARC, as a mechanism to conduct their negative-feedback actions on gonadotrophin secretion. By contrast, oestrogens enhance Kiss1 expression at the AVPV/RP3V in rodents, suggesting the involvement of this population in the positive-feedback actions of oestradiol to generate the preovulatory surge of gonadotrophins. In addition, sex steroids have been shown to act post-transcriptionally, modulating GnRH/gonadotrophin responsiveness to kisspeptin. Finally, sex steroids also regulate the expression of co-transmitters of Kiss1 neurones, such as neurokinin B, whose mRNA content in the ARC fluctuates in parallel to that of Kiss1 in response to changes in the circulating levels of sex steroids, therefore suggesting the contribution of this neuropeptide in the feedback control of gonadotrophin secretion. In sum, compelling experimental evidence obtained in different mammalian (and non-mammalian) species, including primates, demonstrates that sex steroids are essential regulators of hypothalamic Kiss1 neurones, which in turn operate as conduits for their effects on GnRH neurones. The physiological relevance of such regulatory phenomena is thoroughly discussed. PMID:21951227

García-Galiano, D; Pinilla, L; Tena-Sempere, M

2012-01-01

55

Secondary osteoporosis due to sickle cell anemia: Do sex steroids play a role?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background : The exact cause of osteoporosis in patients with sickle cell disease (SCD is not known, and various hypotheses have been put forward. Aim: To assess the effect of sex steroids on bone mass in SCD patients. Settings and Design: In King Fahd Hospital of the university, Alkhobar, Saudi Arabia, a cross-sectional study was carried out. Materials and Methods : All patients known to suffer from SCD attending the hospital between August 2006 and August 2007 were subjects of the study. Blood was extracted for serum level of androgens, gonadotropins, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH, calcium, phosphorus, and alkaline phosphatase. Measurement of bone mineral density (BMD of hip and spine was done using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA. All tests were performed using SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Sciences, version 14.0, Chicago, Illinois, with P value of < 0.05 being statistically significant with confidence interval (CI of 95%. Results : One hundred three consecutive patients with an average age of 27.83 years were studied. Forty-five were males; and 58, females. Low bone mass (osteoporotic/osteopenic was found in 62.2% of the patients in the male group and 67.06% in the female group. In males, testosterone level was not significant between different groups, but total estradiol levels were significantly lower in the osteopenic and osteoporotic patients (P < 0.003 and < 0.01 respectively. In female patients, estradiol and testosterone levels were lower in osteoporotic patients in comparison to non-osteoporotic patients (P = 0.05 and 0.001. Conclusions : Our study indicates that sex steroids play a major role in the development of osteopenia and osteoporosis in patients with SCD

Sadat-Ali Mir

2008-05-01

56

Resistance training restores muscle sex steroid hormone steroidogenesis in older men.  

Science.gov (United States)

Skeletal muscle can synthesize testosterone and 5?-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) from dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) via steroidogenic enzymes in vitro, but hormone levels and steroidogenic enzyme expression decline with aging. Resistance exercise has been shown to increase in plasma sex steroid hormone levels. However, it remains unclear whether resistance training can restore impaired steroidogenic enzyme expressions in older individuals. Six young and 13 older men were recruited, and muscle biopsies were taken from the vastus lateralis at basal state. The same group of older subjects underwent resistance training involving knee extension and flexion exercises for 12 wk, and post-training biopsies were performed 4-5 d after the last exercise session. Muscular sex steroid hormone levels and sex steroidgenesis-related enzyme expressions were significantly lower in older subjects than younger ones at baseline, but 12 wk of resistance training significantly restored hormone levels (DHEA: 432±26 at baseline, 682±31 pg/?g protein, DHT: 6.2±0.9 at baseline, 9.8±1.4 pg/?g protein). Furthermore, the steroidogenesis-related enzymes such as 3?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD), 17?-HSD, and 5?-reductase expressions were significantly restored by resistance training. We conclude progressive resistance training restores age-related declines in sex steroidogenic enzyme and muscle sex steroid hormone levels in older men. PMID:24443372

Sato, Koji; Iemitsu, Motoyuki; Matsutani, Kenji; Kurihara, Toshiyuki; Hamaoka, Takafumi; Fujita, Satoshi

2014-04-01

57

Major cardiac surgery induces an increase in sex steroids in prepubertal children.  

Science.gov (United States)

While the neuroprotective benefits of estrogen and progesterone in critical illness are well established, the data regarding the effects of androgens are conflicting. Surgical repair of congenital heart disease is associated with significant morbidity and mortality, but there are scant data regarding the postoperative metabolism of sex steroids in this setting. The objective of this prospective observational study was to compare the postoperative sex steroid patterns in pediatric patients undergoing major cardiac surgery (MCS) versus those undergoing less intensive non-cardiac surgery. Urinary excretion rates of estrogen, progesterone, and androgen metabolites (?g/mmol creatinine/m(2) body surface area) were determined in 24-h urine samples before and after surgery using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in 29 children undergoing scheduled MCS and in 17 control children undergoing conventional non-cardiac surgery. Eight of the MCS patients had Down's syndrome. There were no significant differences in age, weight, or sex between the groups. Seven patients from the MCS group showed multi-organ dysfunction after surgery. Before surgery, the median concentrations of 17?-estradiol, pregnanediol, 5?-dihydrotestosterone (DHT), and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) were (control/MCS) 0.1/0.1 (NS), 12.4/11.3 (NS), 4.7/4.4 (NS), and 2.9/1.1 (p=0.02). Postoperatively, the median delta 17?-estradiol, delta pregnanediol, delta DHT, and delta DHEA were (control/MCS) 0.2/6.4 (p=0.0002), -3.2/23.4 (p=0.013), -0.6/3.7 (p=0.0004), and 0.5/4.2 (p=0.004). Postoperative changes did not differ according to sex. We conclude that MCS, but not less intensive non-cardiac surgery, induced a distinct postoperative increase in sex steroid levels. These findings suggest that sex steroids have a role in postoperative metabolism following MCS in prepubertal children. PMID:24252380

Heckmann, Matthias; d'Uscio, Claudia H; de Laffolie, Jan; Neuhaeuser, Christoph; Bödeker, Rolf-Hasso; Thul, Josef; Schranz, Dietmar; Frey, Brigitte M

2014-03-01

58

Effects of steroid sex hormones and adriamycin on human bladder cancer cells in culture.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The effects of steroid sex hormones on the established cell lines derived from human urinary bladder cancer, T24, and from human transitional cell cancer of the urinary tract, 253J, were examined using the colony formation method. Of the seven kinds of steroid hormones tested, estradiol-17 beta was intensively cytotoxic for both cells. The cytotoxic effect was depended on the dose and time of treatment. The combined effect of Adriamycin and estradiol-17 beta on T24 cells could be recognized at low concentrations of Adriamycin (less than or equal to 10(-3 micrograms/ml after exposure for 24 h.

Yoshimoto,Jun

1982-02-01

59

Skeletal muscle and bone: effect of sex steroids and aging  

Science.gov (United States)

Both estrogen and testosterone are present in males and females. Both hormones contribute to the well being of skeletal muscle and bone in men and women, and there is evidence that the loss of sex hormones is associated with the age-related decline in bone and skeletal muscle mass. Hormonal supplementation of older adults to restore estrogen and testosterone levels to those of young men and women is not without penalty.

PhD Marybeth Brown (University of Missouri-Columbia Dept of Physical Therapy)

2008-02-14

60

Activation of PPAR? by Rosiglitazone Does Not Negatively Impact Male Sex Steroid Hormones in Diabetic Rats  

Science.gov (United States)

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR?) activation decreased serum testosterone (T) in women with hyperthecosis and/or polycystic ovary syndrome and reduced the conversion of androgens to estradiol (E2) in female rats. This implies modulation of female sex steroid hormones by PPAR?. It is not clear if PPAR? modulates sex steroid hormones in diabetic males. Because PPAR? activation by thiazolidinedione increased insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetes, understanding the long term impact of PPAR? activation on steroid sex hormones in males is critical. Our objective was to determine the effect of PPAR? activation on serum and intratesticular T, luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and E2 concentrations in male Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats treated with the PPAR? agonist rosiglitazone (a thiazolidinedione). Treatment for eight weeks increased PPAR? mRNA and protein in the testis and elevated serum adiponectin, an adipokine marker for PPAR? activation. PPAR? activation did not alter serum or intratesticular T concentrations. In contrast, serum T level but not intratesticular T was reduced by diabetes. Neither diabetes nor PPAR? activation altered serum E2 or gonadotropins FSH and LH concentrations. The results suggest that activation of PPAR? by rosiglitazone has no negative impact on sex hormones in male ZDF rats.

Mansour, Mahmoud; Coleman, Elaine; Dennis, John; Akingbemi, Benson; Schwartz, Dean; Braden, Tim; Judd, Robert; Plaisance, Eric; Stewart, Laura Ken; Morrison, Edward

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

Is priming with sex steroids useful for defining patients who will benefit from GH treatment?  

Science.gov (United States)

Classic criteria for diagnosing GHD include: short stature (height below the third percentile), slow growth velocity, delayed bone age and failure to produce growth hormone in response to two provocative tests. While provocation tests can diagnose complete GHD, debate still exists about of what constitutes a normal or a subnormal GH response in subjects with "idiopathic" short stature or constitutional delay of growth and puberty. It has been suggested that in children with intermediate GH responses to pharmacologic stimuli, a pre-treatment with sex steroids priming may be of value in enhancing the GH response and in helping to clarify the diagnosis, particularly in children with delayed onset of puberty. Nevertheless, the use of priming with sex steroids prior to GH stimulation test in the peripubertal period is still controversial because it is considered an "unphysiologic method" and may mask children with transient GHD. Further studies and uniform guidelines are needed before solving this intriguing puzzle. PMID:24716393

De Sanctis, Vincenzo; Soliman, Ashraf T; Yassin, Mohamed; Di Maio, Salvatore

2014-03-01

62

Secondary osteoporosis due to sickle cell anemia: Do sex steroids play a role?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background : The exact cause of osteoporosis in patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) is not known, and various hypotheses have been put forward. Aim: To assess the effect of sex steroids on bone mass in SCD patients. Settings and Design: In King Fahd Hospital of the university, Alkhobar, Saudi Arabia, a cross-sectional study was carried out. Materials and Methods : All patients known to suffer from SCD attending the hospital between August 2006 and August 2007 were su...

Sadat-Ali Mir; Al-Elq Abdulmoshsen; Sultan Osama; Al-Turki Haifa

2008-01-01

63

Sex steroid levels and AD-like pathology in 3xTgAD mice  

Science.gov (United States)

Decreases in testosterone (T) and 17?-oestradiol (E2) are associated with an increased risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD), which has been attributed to an increase in beta amyloid (A?) and tau pathologic lesions. While recent studies have used transgenic animal models to test the effects of sex steroid manipulations on AD-like pathology, virtually none have systematically characterised the associations between AD lesions and sex steroid levels in the blood or brain in any mutant model. The present study evaluated age-related changes in T and E2 concentrations, as well as androgen receptor (AR) and oestrogen receptor (ER) ? and ? expression, in brain regions displaying AD pathology in intact male and female 3xTgAD and non-transgenic (ntg) mice. We report for the first time that circulating and brain T levels significantly increase in male 3xTgAD mice with age, but without changes in AR-immunoreactive (ir) cell number in either the hippocampal CA1 or medial amygdala. The age-related increase in hippocampal T levels correlated positively with increases in the conformational tau isoform, Alz50. These data suggest that the over-expression of human tau may up regulate the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in these mice. Although circulating and brain E2 levels remained stable with age in both male and female 3xTgAD and ntg mice, ER-ir cell number in the hippocampus and medial amygdala decreased with age in female transgenic mice. Further, E2 levels were significantly higher in the hippocampus than in serum, suggesting local production of E2. Although triple transgenic mice mimic AD-like pathology, they do not fully replicate changes in human sex steroid levels, and may not be the best model for studying the effects of sex steroids on AD lesions.

Ma, Chunqi; Taves, Matthew D.; Soma, Kiran K.; Mufson, Elliott J.

2014-01-01

64

Longitudinal monitoring of sex steroid hormones in excrement of spectacled eiders (Somateria fischeri).  

Science.gov (United States)

From the 1970s to the 1990s, the breeding population of spectacled eiders (Somateria fischeri) in western Alaska declined by 96%, which led to the listing of this species as threatened under the Endangered Species Act in 1993. Since then, the population has stabilized, but has not recovered to pre-decline numbers. While little is known about reproductive endocrinology in spectacled eiders, in other avian species, estrogen and testosterone are known to initiate and modulate various reproductive processes including yolk protein synthesis, reproductive behaviors and secondary sex characteristics. Measurement of the metabolites of estrogen and testosterone (EM and TM, respectively) in excrement reflect circulating hormone concentrations and provide a non-invasive method to monitor reproductive physiology. We measured concentrations of excreted EM in captive females and TM in males to (1) determine the efficacy of commercially available radioimmunoassay kits to detect EM and TM, (2) describe annual profiles of EM and TM concentrations, and (3) define the reproductive season of captive spectacled eiders using endocrine status. Excrement samples were collected from captive female and male spectacled eiders three times per week throughout 1 year. Female EM and male TM levels were quantified using radioimmunoassay. Mean female EM profile exhibited values exceeding the threshold for "peak" values (EM>193.3 ng/g) from mid-February to early July, and again in September. Additionally, the highest average concentrations of EM were seen in March, May and September. Elevated TM concentrations occurred in mid March, mid May and late June. These data suggest that levels of excreted sex steroids reflect patterns predicted by breeding landmarks in the annual cycle and will assist in field monitoring and captive breeding programs for spectacled eiders. PMID:24406512

Ellsworth, Abigail; Buck, C Loren; Atkinson, Shannon; Hollmén, Tuula

2014-03-01

65

Bone turnover markers in patients with prostate carcinoma: influence of sex steroids levels.  

Science.gov (United States)

There are limited data about bone turnover markers (BTM) in androgen deprivation therapy (ADT)-treated prostate cancer (PCa) patients, and the relationship between sex steroids, bone mass, and BTM has not been explored. Our objective was to analyze the influence of sex steroids levels on BTM in patients with PCa treated with or without ADT. We performed a cross-sectional study including 83 subjects with PCa (54% with ADT). BTM, bone mineral density (BMD), and sex steroids were determined. BTM were inversely related to serum level of estrogens. Tartrate-specific acid phosphatase (TRAP-5b) showed a negative correlation with free estradiol (Free E) (r = -0.274, p = 0.014) and Bio E (r = -0.256, p = 0.022) that remained after adjustment for age: Free E (? = -0.241, p = 0.03) and Bio E (? = -0.213, p = 0.063). Bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BSAP) concentrations were inversely related to Free E (r = -0.281, p = 0.011, age-adjusted ? = -0.256, p = 0.024). There was a negative correlation between osteocalcin (OC) levels and Free E (r = -0.195, p = 0.082; age-adjusted ? = -0.203, p = 0.076) and Bio E (r = -0.215, p = 0.054; age-adjusted ? = -0.240, p = 0.039). BTM and androgens were inversely related to TRAP-5b: total testosterone (total T) (r = -0.238, p = 0.033), Free T (r = -0.309, p = 0.05), and Bio T (r = -0.310, p = 0.05), but these correlations disappeared after age-adjustment. We did not find any relationship between BMD at different locations and sex steroids. In conclusion, in patients with PCa, estrogen levels influence bone resorption and bone formation whereas androgens may exert actions only in bone resorption. These results suggest that estradiol is the main sex steroid that regulates bone metabolism in males with prostate carcinoma. PMID:23640678

Varsavsky, Mariela; Reyes-García, Rebeca; García-Martín, Antonia; Rozas-Moreno, Pedro; González-Ramírez, Rocío; Rocío, González-Ramírez; Muñoz-Torres, Manuel

2014-01-01

66

Prolactin and sex steroids levels in congenital lifetime isolated GH deficiency.  

Science.gov (United States)

Growth hormone (GH) and prolactin share similarities in structure and function. We have previously shown that women with congenital isolated GH deficiency (IGHD) caused by a homozygous mutation in the GHRH receptor gene (GHRHR) (MUT/MUT) have a short reproductive life, with anticipated climacteric. At climacteric, they have lower prolactin levels than normal controls (N/N). Because they are able to breast feed, we hypothesized that this prolactin reduction is limited to climacteric, as result of lower estradiol exposure of the lactotrophs. The purposes of this work were to assess prolactin levels in broader age adults homozygous and heterozygous (MUT/N) for the mutation and in normal controls (N/N), and to correlate them to sex steroids levels. We enrolled 24 GH-naïve MUT/MUT (12 female), 25 MUT/N (14 female), and 25 N/N (11 female) subjects, aged 25-65 years. Anthropometric data and serum prolactin, estradiol, total testosterone, and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) were measured. Free testosterone was calculated. Prolactin levels were similar in the three groups. In males, testosterone and SHBG levels were higher in MUT/MUT in comparison to N/N. There was no difference in free testosterone among groups. In all 74 individuals, prolactin correlated inversely with age (p Prolactin levels in subjects with IGHD due to a homozygous GHRHR mutation are similar to heterozygous and normal homozygous, but total testosterone and SHBG are higher in male MUT/MUT, with no difference in free testosterone. The reduced prolactin level is limited to climacteric period, possibly due to reduced estrogen exposure. PMID:23397510

Menezes, Menilson; Salvatori, Roberto; Melo, Luiza D; Rocha, Ívina E S; Oliveira, Carla R P; Pereira, Rossana M C; Souza, Anita H O; Valença, Eugênia H O; Melo, Enaldo V; Campos, Viviane C; Costa, Flavia O; Aguiar-Oliveira, Manuel H

2013-08-01

67

The diversity of sex steroid action: novel functions of hydroxysteroid (17?) dehydrogenases as revealed by genetically modified mouse models.  

Science.gov (United States)

Disturbed action of sex steroid hormones, i.e. androgens and estrogens, is involved in the pathogenesis of various severe diseases in humans. Interestingly, recent studies have provided data further supporting the hypothesis that the circulating hormone concentrations do not explain all physiological and pathological processes observed in hormone-dependent tissues, while the intratissue sex steroid concentrations are determined by the expression of steroid metabolising enzymes in the neighbouring cells (paracrine action) and/or by target cells themselves (intracrine action). This local sex steroid production is also a valuable treatment option for developing novel therapies against hormonal diseases. Hydroxysteroid (17?) dehydrogenases (HSD17Bs) compose a family of 14 enzymes that catalyse the conversion between the low-active 17-keto steroids and the highly active 17?-hydroxy steroids. The enzymes frequently expressed in sex steroid target tissues are, thus, potential drug targets in order to lower the local sex steroid concentrations. The present review summarises the recent data obtained for the role of HSD17B1, HSD17B2, HSD17B7 and HSD17B12 enzymes in various metabolic pathways and their physiological and pathophysiological roles as revealed by the recently generated genetically modified mouse models. Our data, together with that provided by others, show that, in addition to having a role in sex steroid metabolism, several of these HSD17B enzymes possess key roles in other metabolic processes: for example, HD17B7 is essential for cholesterol biosynthesis and HSD17B12 is involved in elongation of fatty acids. Additional studies in vitro and in vivo are to be carried out in order to fully define the metabolic role of the HSD17B enzymes and to evaluate their value as drug targets. PMID:22045753

Saloniemi, Taija; Jokela, Heli; Strauss, Leena; Pakarinen, Pirjo; Poutanen, Matti

2012-01-01

68

Racial variation in sex steroid hormone concentration in black and white men: a meta-analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sex steroid hormones are associated with chronic diseases and mortality with risk associations that differ between racial and ethnic groups. However, it is currently unclear whether sex steroid hormone levels differ between black and white men. The aim of this study was to assess racial variation in circulating testosterone, free testosterone, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) and estradiol levels in men. We searched PubMed for articles comparing circulating hormones in black and white men. A meta-analysis was performed using weighted mean differences (WMD) to compare hormones levels between black and white men. Fifteen eligible studies were identified; three did not report adjusted means. After age adjustment, free testosterone levels were significantly higher in black than in white men (WMD = 4.07 pg/mL, 95% CI 1.26, 6.88). Depending on the free testosterone concentration in white men, this WMD translates into a racial difference ranging from 2.5 to 4.9%. Total testosterone (WMD = 0.10 ng/mL, 95% CI -0.02, 0.22), estradiol (WMD = 0.67 pg/mL, 95% CI -0.04, 1.38) and SHBG (WMD = -0.45 nmol/L, 95% CI -1.75, 0.85) concentrations did not differ comparing blacks with whites. After adjustment for age, black men have a modestly but significantly 2.5 to 4.9% higher free testosterone level than white men. Based on previous studies on effects of sex steroid hormones on risk of chronic diseases or mortality, this modest difference is unlikely to explain racial differences in disease risk. PMID:24648111

Richard, A; Rohrmann, S; Zhang, L; Eichholzer, M; Basaria, S; Selvin, E; Dobs, A S; Kanarek, N; Menke, A; Nelson, W G; Platz, E A

2014-05-01

69

Hippocampal synthesis of sex steroids and corticosteroids: essential for modulation of synaptic plasticity  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sex steroids play essential roles in the modulation of synaptic plasticity and neuroprotection in the hippocampus. Accumulating evidence shows that hippocampal neurons synthesize both estrogen and androgen. Recently, we also revealed the hippocampal synthesis of corticosteroids. The accurate concentrations of these hippocampus-synthesized steroids are determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in combination with novel derivatization. The hippocampal levels of 17?-estradiol (E2, testosterone (T, dihydrotestosterone (DHT and corticosterone (CORT, are 5-15 nM, and these levels are sufficient to modulate synaptic plasticity. Hippocampal E2 modulates memory-related synaptic plasticity not only slowly/genomicaly but also rapidly/nongenomically. Slow actions of E2 occur via classical nuclear receptors (ER? or ER?, while rapid E2 actions occur via synapse-localized or extranuclear ER? or ER?. Nanomolar concentrations of E2 changes rapidly the density and morphology of spines in hippocampal neurons. ER?, but not ER?, drives this enhancement/suppression of spinogenesis in adult animals. Nanomolar concentrations of androgens (T and DHT and CORT also increase in the spine density. Kinase networks are involved downstream of ER? and androgen receptor (AR. Newly developed Spiso-3D mathematical analysis is useful to distinguish these complex effects by sex steroids and kinases. Significant advance has been achieved in investigations of rapid modulation by E2 of the long-term depression or the long-term potentiation.

SuguruKawato

2011-10-01

70

Differential Responses of Brain, Gonad and Muscle Steroid Levels to Changes in Social Status and Sex in a Sequential and Bidirectional Hermaphroditic Fish  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Sex steroids can both modulate and be modulated by behavior, and their actions are mediated by complex interactions among multiple hormone sources and targets. While gonadal steroids delivered via circulation can affect behavior, changes in local brain steroid synthesis also can modulate behavior. The relative steroid load across different tissues and the association of these levels with rates of behavior have not been well studied. The bluebanded goby (Lythrypnus dalli) is a sex changing fis...

Lorenzi, Varenka; Earley, Ryan L.; Grober, Matthew S.

2012-01-01

71

Cyclical changes of plasma sex steroids in captive breeding loggerhead turtles (Caretta caretta).  

Science.gov (United States)

Loggerhead turtles (Caretta caretta) have been laying eggs in an indoor artificial beach since 1995, at the Port of Nagoya Public Aquarium (PNPA). Four individuals landed and laid eggs several times during the breeding period in 1996. Blood samples from these individuals were collected monthly throughout that year in order to investigate the changes in sex steroid hormones (testosterone, estradiol, and progesterone). In addition, detailed investigations were conducted daily during the breeding period on one particular individual that landed and laid eggs five times in 1998. Each steroid hormone changed periodically based on the laying cycle, and extraordinarily high levels of estradiol were noted even during the breeding period. In reports regarding the green turtle (Chelonia mydas), extremely different results were observed. Some of the obtained data suggest that progesterone induced ovulation. Data from a completely artificial environment such as the one at the PNPA provides elucidation of the reproductive physiology in these endangered species. PMID:21370645

Kakizoe, Yuka; Fujiwara, Masato; Akune, Yuichiro; Kanou, Yoshihiko; Saito, Tomomi; Uchida, Itaru

2010-12-01

72

Sex steroids do not affect muscle weight, oxidative metabolism or cytosolic androgen reception binding of functionally overloaded rat Plantaris muscles  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of sex steroids on muscle weight and oxidative capacity of rat planaris muscles subjected to functional overload by removal of synergistic muscles were investigated. Ten weeks after bilateral synergist removal, plantaris muscles were significantly hypertrophic compared with unoperated controls. After this period, the ability of the muscles to oxide three substrates of oxidative metabolism was assessed. Experimental procedures are discussed and results are presented herein. Results suggest a lack of beneficial effect of sex hormone status on the process of hypertrophy and on biochemical changes in overloaded muscle. Such findings are not consistent with the idea of synergistic effects of sex steroids and muscle usage.

Max, S. R.; Rance, N.

1983-01-01

73

Serum osteoprotegerin and sex steroid levels in patients with prostate cancer.  

Science.gov (United States)

The relationship between sex steroids and osteoprotegerin (OPG) in patients with prostate cancer is not well established. Our aim was to evaluate serum OPG levels in patients with prostate cancer and its relationship with sex steroids, bone mineral density, bone turnover markers, and fractures. We performed a cross-sectional study including 91 patients with prostate cancer. We determined: bone mineral density by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, bone turnover markers, serum levels of sex steroids and osteoprotegerin, and prevalent radiographic vertebral fractures. Serum OPG levels were higher in patients with vertebral fractures (8.02 ± 2.0 vs 4.91 ± 0.28 pmol/L; P < .05). OPG level and the duration of hormonal therapy were related (r = 0.299, P = .004), but this association did not persist after adjustment for age. In patients without androgen deprivation therapy, serum OPG levels were correlated with the levels of total testosterone (r = 0.508, P = .001) and bioavailable testosterone (r = 0.311, P = .037). In patients receiving androgen deprivation therapy, serum OPG levels were correlated with levels of total estradiol (r = 0.199, P = .18), bioavailable estradiol (r = 0.37, P = .009), and free estradiol (r = 0.349, P = .016). In conclusion, in patients with prostate cancer treated with androgen deprivation therapy, serum OPG levels were correlated with the levels of total estradiol, bioavailable estradiol, and free estradiol. Our hypothesis is that in patients with androgen deprivation therapy, the higher relative estrogen levels could stimulate OPG production in response to the higher resorption state. Future prospective studies are needed to clarify the role of OPG in androgen deprivation therapy-mediated bone loss. PMID:21903971

Varsavsky, Mariela; Reyes-Garcia, Rebeca; Avilés Perez, Maria Dolores; Gonzalez Ramírez, Amanda Rocio; Mijan, Jose Luis; Muñoz-Torres, Manuel

2012-01-01

74

The growth hormone response to hexarelin in children: reproducibility and effect of sex steroids.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We studied the variability of the GH response to the synthetic hexapeptide hexarelin (Hex) and the effect of sex steroids on the GH-releasing effect of Hex in a group of prepubertal short normal children. Twenty-five children were tested on two occasions 3-7 days apart with 2 micrograms/kg, i.v., Hex. The GH response to Hex was reevaluated after testosterone (T) administration in 10 boys, after ethinyl estradiol (EE) administration in 15 children (5 boys and 10 girls), and after oxandrolone (...

Ghigo, Ezio

1997-01-01

75

Prenatal versus postnatal sex steroid hormone effects on autistic traits in children at 18 to 24 months of age  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies of prenatal exposure to sex steroid hormones predict autistic traits in children at 18 to 24 and at 96 months of age. However, it is not known whether postnatal exposure to these hormones has a similar effect. This study compares prenatal and postnatal sex steroid hormone levels in relation to autistic traits in 18 to 24-month-old children. Fetal testosterone (fT and fetal estradiol (fE levels were measured in amniotic fluid from pregnant women (n = 35 following routine second-trimester amniocentesis. Saliva samples were collected from these children when they reached three to four months of age and were analyzed for postnatal testosterone (pT levels. Mothers were asked to complete the Quantitative Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (Q-CHAT, a measure of autistic traits in children 18 to 24 months old. Finding fT (but not pT levels were positively associated with scores on the Q-CHAT. fE and pT levels showed no sex differences and no relationships with fT levels. fT levels were the only variable that predicted Q-CHAT scores. Conclusions These preliminary findings are consistent with the hypothesis that prenatal (but not postnatal androgen exposure, coinciding with the critical period for sexual differentiation of the brain, is associated with the development of autistic traits in 18 to 24 month old toddlers. However, it is recognized that further work with a larger sample population is needed before the effects of postnatal androgen exposure on autistic traits can be ruled out. These results are also in line with the fetal androgen theory of autism, which suggests that prenatal, organizational effects of androgen hormones influence the development of autistic traits in later life.

Auyeung Bonnie

2012-12-01

76

Effects of oral contraceptive agents and sex steroids on carbohydrate metabolism.  

Science.gov (United States)

The article offers a general interpretation of the influence of oral contraceptive agents on glucose tolerance, emphasizing comparisons of synthetic sex hormones. Although there are conflicting reports on steroid-induced diabetes in normal women, their glucose curves are often higher when under oral contraceptive treatment, suggesting that oral contraceptives may induce a form of subclinical diabetes melitus that is reversible. Evidence from diabetic women suggests definite deliterious effects from contraceptive administration. Estradiol, estriol, and estrone may improve glucose tolerance in nondiabetic women and reduce insulin requirements in diabetics. Progesterone has little effect on carbohydrate tolerance, as did synthetic progestin. Conjugated equine estrogens (equilenine or Premarin) may provoke mild to moderate deterioration of carbohydrate tolerance. Parenterally administered natural estrogens and orally administered synthetic derivatives appear to differ sharply in their effects. Sex hormones' effects on carbohydrate metabolism likely involve interactions with insulin and endogenous glucocorticoids. PMID:4566489

Kalkhoff, R K

1972-01-01

77

Heat Shock Protein 27 Is Required for Sex Steroid Receptor Trafficking to and Functioning at the Plasma Membrane ?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Classical sex steroid receptors (SRs) localize at the plasma membranes (PMs) of cells, initiating signal transduction through kinase cascades that contribute to steroid hormone action. Palmitoylation of the SRs is required for membrane localization and function, but the proteins that facilitate this modification and subsequent receptor trafficking are unknown. Initially using a proteomic approach, we identified that heat shock protein 27 (Hsp27) binds to a motif in estrogen receptor alpha (ER...

Razandi, Mahnaz; Pedram, Ali; Levin, Ellis R.

2010-01-01

78

Analysis of In Vitro Effects of Sex Steroids on Lymphocyte Responsiveness in Murrah Buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis).  

Science.gov (United States)

Present study was carried out on forty four apparently healthy Murrah buffaloes of different age groups of both sexes to investigate the effects of sex steroids on cell mediated immunity in vitro. Estrogen inhibited proliferation in mitogen-stimulated lymphocytes from prepubertal but not post pubertal buffaloes of either sex. Estrogen at 100?pg/mL concentration stimulating the proliferation significantly (P inhibited lymphocyte proliferation, and inhibition was directly related to the dose, in all groups of either sex. Testosterone did not inhibit proliferation at any dose level and did not show any consistent and lucid effects on lymphocyte proliferation. Present study revealed that buffalo lymphocytes produce appreciable amounts of NO in culture system after treatment with estradiol. Significantly high levels of NO in culture supernatant were found in prepubertal buffalo calves and least in post pubertal buffaloes, which had an inverse relation with lymphocyte proliferation in presence of estradiol. NO in culture supernatant was high at the lowest dose of progesterone which was proportional to the lymphocyte proliferation when treated with progesterone. No significant difference in NO culture supernatant was observed between different concentrations of testosterone treatment. PMID:22619742

Pampori, Zahoor Ahmad; Pandita, Sujata

2012-01-01

79

Cognitive functioning and sex steroid hormone gene polymorphisms in women at midlife.  

Science.gov (United States)

Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotype frequencies were examined to determine whether variation in 6 estrogen-related genes was associated with differences in cognitive functioning in women at midlife. DNA from a multiracial/multiethnic sample of 875 African American, Caucasian, Chinese, and Japanese women aged 45 to 56 years participating in the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN) was genotyped. Gene markers from the sex steroid hormone pathway were linked to measures of cognitive functioning including the Digit Span Backward Test (DSB), a measure of working memory; the Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT), a measure of perceptual speed; and the East Boston Memory Test (EBMT), a measure of episodic memory. Statistical models were fit using logistic regression and general linear models to estimate the strength of association of estrogen-related polymorphisms with DSB, SDMT, and EBMT scores. On the EBMT, African American women and Caucasian women with ESR1 rs9340799 GG genotypes had about 1.5 to 2.0 times greater odds of remembering story elements on the EBMT-immediate recall test. Caucasian women with ESR1 rs2234693 CC genotypes had 1.3 to 1.5 times greater odds of remembering story elements on the EBMT-delayed recall test. Chinese women with 17HSD rs615942 GG genotypes, 17HSD rs592389 TT genotypes, and 17HSD rs2830 GG genotypes had about 1.7 times greater odds of remembering story elements on the EBMT-immediate recall test. African American women with CYP 19 rs936306 CC genotypes had about 0.25 to 0.40 lower odds of remembering story elements on the EBMT-immediate recall test, whereas Chinese women with CYP 19 rs936306 CC genotypes had about 2.3 times greater odds of remembering story elements on both the EBMT-immediate and -delayed recall tests. On the DSB, African American women with CYP 19 rs749292 GG genotype had a higher mean score. On the SDMT, Japanese women with ESR1 rs728524 GG genotypes had a higher mean score. On the 3 tests of cognitive functioning, there was 1 significant finding for CYP1A1 and none for the CYP1B1 or ESR2 SNPs. We conclude that selected genes involved in estrogen synthesis and metabolism may be associated with performance differences on cognitive function tests. Also, the relevant estrogen-related polymorphisms may vary by race/ethnicity. PMID:16949394

Kravitz, Howard M; Meyer, Peter M; Seeman, Teresa E; Greendale, Gail A; Sowers, MaryFran R

2006-09-01

80

Sex differences and steroid modulation of cardiac iron in a mouse model of iron overload.  

Science.gov (United States)

Iron cardiomyopathy is the leading cause of death in transfusional iron overload, and men have twice the mortality of women. Because the prevalence of cardiac iron overload increases rapidly during the second decade of life, we postulated that there are steroid-dependent sex differences in cardiac iron uptake. To test this hypothesis, we manipulated sex steroids in mice with constitutive iron absorption (homozygous hemojuvelin knockout); this model mimics the myocyte iron deposition observed in humans. At 4 weeks of age, female mice were ovariectomized (OVX) and male mice were castrated (OrchX). Female mice received an estrogen implant (OVX + E) or a cholesterol control (OVX), whereas male mice received an implant containing testosterone (OrchX + T), dihydrotestosterone (OrchX + DHT), estrogen (OrchX + E), or cholesterol (OrchX). All animals received a high-iron diet for 8 weeks. OrchX, OVX, and OVX + E mice all had similar cardiac iron loads. However, OrchX + E males had a significant increase in cardiac iron concentration compared with OrchX mice (P DHT groups only trended higher (P < 0.06 and P < 0.15, respectively). Hormone treatments did not impact liver iron concentration in either sex. When data were pooled across hormone therapies, liver iron concentration was 25% greater in males than females (P < 0.01). In summary, we found that estrogen increased cardiac iron loading in male mice, but not in females. Male mice loaded 25% more hepatic iron than female mice regardless of the hormone treatment. PMID:24018182

Brewer, Casey; Otto-Duessel, Maya; Wood, Ruth I; Wood, John C

2014-02-01

 
 
 
 
81

Seasonal and sex-related variations in serum steroid hormone levels in wild and farmed brown trout Salmo trutta L. in the north-west of Spain.  

Science.gov (United States)

Serum steroid profiles were investigated in order to evaluate the potential use of circulating sex steroid levels as a tool for sex identification in brown trout. Changes in the serum concentrations of testosterone (T), progesterone (P), 17-?-estradiol (E2), and cortisol (F) in wild and farmed mature female and male brown trout, Salmo trutta L., were measured in each season (January, May, July, and October) in six rivers and four hatcheries located in the north-west of Spain. Serum cortisol levels in farmed brown trout were significantly higher and showed a seasonal pattern opposite to that found in wild trout. Because levels of the hormones under study can be affected by disruptive factors such as exposure to phytoestrogens (which alters the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis) and infection with Saprolegnia parasitica (which alters the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis), both factors are taken into account. PMID:24334846

Fregeneda-Grandes, Juan M; Hernández-Navarro, Salvador; Fernandez-Coppel, Ignacio A; Correa-Guimaraes, Adriana; Ruíz-Potosme, Norlan; Navas-Gracia, Luis M; Aller-Gancedo, J Miguel; Martín-Gil, Francisco J; Martín-Gil, Jesús

2013-12-01

82

A Genome-Wide Association Meta-Analysis of Circulating Sex Hormone-Binding Globulin Reveals Multiple Loci Implicated in Sex Steroid Hormone Regulation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) is a glycoprotein responsible for the transport and biologic availability of sex steroid hormones, primarily testosterone and estradiol. SHBG has been associated with chronic diseases including type 2 diabetes (T2D) and with hormone-sensitive cancers such as breast and prostate cancer. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) meta-analysis of 21,791 individuals from 10 epidemiologic studies and validated these findings in 7,046 individuals in an ...

2012-01-01

83

A Genome-Wide Association Meta-Analysis of Circulating Sex Hormone–Binding Globulin Reveals Multiple Loci Implicated in Sex Steroid Hormone Regulation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) is a glycoprotein responsible for the transport and biologic availability of sex steroid hormones, primarily testosterone and estradiol. SHBG has been associated with chronic diseases including type 2 diabetes (T2D) and with hormone-sensitive cancers such as breast and prostate cancer. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) meta-analysis of 21,791 individuals from 10 epidemiologic studies and validated these findings in 7,046 individuals in an ...

2012-01-01

84

A genome-wide association meta-analysis of circulating sex hormone-binding globulin reveals multiple loci implicated in sex steroid hormone regulation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) is a glycoprotein responsible for the transport and biologic availability of sex steroid hormones, primarily testosterone and estradiol. SHBG has been associated with chronic diseases including type 2 diabetes (T2D) and with hormone-sensitive cancers such as breast and prostate cancer. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) meta-analysis of 21,791 individuals from 10 epidemiologic studies and validated these findings in 7,046 individuals in an ...

Coviello, A. D.; Haring, R.; Wellons, M.; Vaidya, D.; Lehtima?ki, T.; Keildson, S.; Lunetta, K. L.; He, C.; Fornage, M.; Lagou, V.; Mangino, M.; Onland-moret, N. C.; Chen, B.; Eriksson, J.; Garcia, M.

2012-01-01

85

Receptor for sex steroid-binding protein of endometrium membranes: solubilization, partial characterization, and role of estradiol in steroid-binding protein-soluble receptor interaction.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The sex steroid-binding protein (SBP) receptor was solubilized from the membranes of human premenopausal endometrium with the zwitterionic detergent CHAPS. The binding activity of the soluble receptor was studied, allowing it to interact with [125I]SBP and precipitating the complex with polyethylene glycol 8,000. The interaction of SBP with the soluble receptor was specific, saturable, and at high affinity. Indeed, the specific binding was definitely improved on the solubilized form of the re...

Frairia, Roberto; Berta, Laura Adelaide Angela

1992-01-01

86

Parasitic castration, growth, and sex steroids in the freshwater bonefish Cyphocharax gilbert (Curimatidae) infested by Riggia paranensis (Cymothoidea)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Cyphocharax gilbert shows parasitic castration when infested by the crustacean Riggia paranensis, being unable to reproduce. Fish were sampled in the middle rio Itabapoana, Brazil, to study the prevalence of parasitism, growth, and sex steroid concentrations, considering the body size, sex, and reproductive condition of specimens. Most of the fish analyzed were infested (56.0%). The presence of two lines on the scales was more frequent among infested fish (22.0%) than among fish without paras...

Lima, Neuza R. W.; Azevedo, Juliana S.; Da Silva, Leonardo G.; Marilvia Dansa-Petretski

2007-01-01

87

Obesity and Sex Steroid Changes Across Puberty: Evidence for Marked Hyperandrogenemia in Pre- and Early Pubertal Obese Girls*  

Science.gov (United States)

Context Peripubertal obesity is associated with abnormal sex steroid concentrations, but the timing of onset and degree of these abnormalities remain unclear. Objective To assess the degree of hyperandrogenemia across puberty in obese girls, and to assess overnight sex steroid changes in Tanner 1–3 girls. Design Cross-sectional analysis. Setting General Clinical Research Centers. Subjects Thirty normal weight (BMI-for-age < 85%) and 74 obese (BMI-for-age ? 95%) peripubertal girls. Intervention Blood samples (circa 0500–0700 h) while fasting. Samples from the preceding evening (circa 2300 h) were obtained in 23 Tanner 1–3 girls. Main outcome measures Hormone concentrations stratified by Tanner stage. Results Compared to normal weight girls, mean free testosterone (T) was elevated 2- to 9-fold across puberty in obese girls, while fasting insulin was 3-fold elevated in obese Tanner 1–3 girls (P < 0.05). Mean LH was lower in obese Tanner 1 and 2 girls (P < 0.05), but not in more mature girls. In a subgroup of normal weight Tanner 1–3 girls (n = 17), mean progesterone (P) and T increased overnight 2.3- and 2.4-fold, respectively (P ? 0.001). In obese Tanner 1–3 girls (n = 6), evening P and T were elevated, and both tended to increase overnight (mean 1.4- and 1.6-fold, respectively [P = 0.06]). Conclusions Peripubertal obesity is associated with hyperandrogenemia and hyperinsulinemia throughout puberty, being especially marked shortly before and during early puberty. Progesterone and testosterone concentrations in normal weight Tanner 1–3 girls increase overnight, with similar but less evident changes in obese girls.

McCartney, Christopher R.; Blank, Susan K.; Prendergast, Kathleen A.; Chhabra, Sandhya; Eagleson, Christine A.; Helm, Kristin D.; Yoo, Richard; Chang, R. Jeffrey; Foster, Carol M.; Caprio, Sonia; Marshall, John C.

2008-01-01

88

Cardiovascular risk factors in men : The role of gonadal steroids and sex hormone-binding globulin  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Males have higher risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) than premenopausal females. Gonadal steroids are probably involved in the gender difference in CVD, but previous results have been conflicting. We investigated the associations between CVD risk factors and sex hormones in a cross-sectional designed study of 508 healthy males, aged 41 to 72 years. We determined total testosterone (T), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), free androgen index (FAI), and estradiol (E2) and studied their relationship to body fat mass (BF), blood pressure (BP), aortic compliance, left ventricular mass (LVM), and plasma lipids (total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein [HDL], low-density lipoprotein [LDL], very--low-density lipoprotein [VLDL], and triglycerides). In quartile analyses after adjustment for confounders (age, body mass index [BMI], alcohol consumption, and smoking), SHBG and E2 were positively associated with HDL, while FAI was negatively associated with HDL. T and SHBG were negatively associated with VLDL and triglycerides, while FAI was positively associated with VLDL and triglycerides. T and SHBG were negatively associated with BMI and BF, while FAI and E2 were positively associated with BMI and BF. E2 was negatively associated with LVM. No hormone varied with total cholesterol, LDL, BP, and aortic compliance in the adjusted analyses. In multiple regression analyses, SHBG was the main predictive variable of HDL, VLDL, and triglycerides explaining 12%, 17%, and 17% of the variation, respectively. No other hormones were selected as predictive variables for VLDL and triglycerides, but E2, T, and FAI were selected in the HDL regression, explaining 3%, 2%, and less than 1%, respectively. Our regression analyses illustrate the diverging results when investigating associations between gonadal steroids and lipids with and without SHBG adjustment. Atherogenic lipid profile in males is associated with low SHBG, low T levels, and a high FAI. Males with high E2 levels may have a less atherogenic lipid profile and lower LVM. SHBG is a key hormone in the association between sex hormones and plasma lipids. We suggest that conflicting results of cross-sectional and intervention studies of sex hormones and lipids, in part, may be explained by interindividual differences or changes in SHBG. Thus, further studies on the potential role of SHBG in the development of ischemic heart disease (IHD) should be performed.

Gyllenborg, J; Rasmussen, S L

2001-01-01

89

Organizing Effects of Sex Steroids on Brain Aromatase Activity in Quail  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Preoptic/hypothalamic aromatase activity (AA) is sexually differentiated in birds and mammals but the mechanisms controlling this sex difference remain unclear. We determined here (1) brain sites where AA is sexually differentiated and (2) whether this sex difference results from organizing effects of estrogens during ontogeny or activating effects of testosterone in adulthood. In the first experiment we measured AA in brain regions micropunched in adult male and female Japanese quail utilizi...

2011-01-01

90

Trioecy, a Unique Breeding Strategy in the Sea Anemone Aiptasia diaphana and Its Association with Sex Steroids.  

Science.gov (United States)

Reproductive development of anthozoans reveals wide range of breeding strategies. Here, we report the occurrence of trioecy in the sea anemone Aiptasia diaphana (co-occurrence of males, females, and hermaphrodites), which so far was well documented only in plants. Age-homogeneous populations were obtained from pedal lacerates (asexual propagules) and cultured under control conditions. Careful documentation of growth, gamete morphology, and vertebrate-like steroid (i.e., progesterone, testosterone, and estradiol) levels were carried out over a 9-wk period between 4 and 12 wk postlaceration (wpl). First phenotypic signs of gametes development were observed in 6-wk-old anemones, pointing to the differentiation of males and hermaphrodites. While the males exhibited cellular progression of spermatogenesis, the hermaphrodites underwent a process of sex allocation, giving rise to male, female, and hermaphrodite phenotypes. Testosterone levels were relatively high prior to gamete appearance (4 wpl) and later on during gamete maturation (10 wpl). Conversely, estradiol levels steadily increased from 6 to 10 wpl, reaching their peak concomitant with oocyte maturation. Interestingly, increased oocyte atresia incidences were recorded during 9-12 wpl, coinciding with declining levels of steroid hormones. These results point to a strong similarity between the activity of sex steroids in vertebrates and that of vertebrate-like sex steroids on critical stages of A. diaphana's sexual differentiation and gametogenic cycle. The reproductive characteristics of A. diaphana make this anthozoan an important model species for the study of evolutionary drivers and processes underlying sexual development. PMID:24790160

Armoza-Zvuloni, Rachel; Kramarsky-Winter, Esti; Loya, Yossi; Schlesinger, Ami; Rosenfeld, Hanna

2014-06-01

91

Roles of Sex Steroids in the Crowings with Sexual and Non-Sexual Motivations in Female Japanese Quail, Coturnix Japonica  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available To examine the sex differences in the crowing behavior of the Japanese quail, we investigated the effects of sex steroids on calling behaviors using female birds, and the data were compared with those obtained in our previous study in male birds which was performed using the same experimental procedures as those in the present study. We injected the female quails daily from 11 to 41 days after hatching with testosterone propionate (TP, 5?-dihydrotestosterone (DHT; a non-aromatizable androgen, estradiol benzoate (EB or vehicle, and examined their calling behaviors in both sexual and non-sexual contexts. In a non-sexual context of the birds being isolated in a recording chamber, androgens, either TP or DHT, induced crowing in place of distress calling while EB simply inhibited distress calling. These effects of sex steroids on the calling behaviors were almost identical to those in the male quails. In a sexual context of the birds being left undisturbed in their home cages, crowing was induced by chronic treatment with TP, but not either DHT or EB, suggesting that both estrogenic and androgenic actions are required to induce the sexually motivated crowing. Although these results were basically the same as those in the male quails, the crowing in the female quails occurred much less frequently compared to that of the male quails. These data suggest that in the Japanese quail, crowing behavior, when it is restricted to sexually motivated one, is quantitatively different between male and female in the responsiveness to sex steroids.

Atsuhiko Chiba

2013-07-01

92

The progestin levonorgestrel disrupts gonadotropin expression and sex steroid levels in pubertal roach (Rutilus rutilus).  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of the synthetic progestin levonorgestrel (LNG) on the reproductive endocrine system of a teleost fish, the roach (Rutilus rutilus). Pubertal roach were exposed for 28 days in a flow-through system to four concentrations of LNG (3, 31, 312, and 3124ng/l). Both males and females treated with 3124ng/l LNG exhibited the upregulated levels of vitellogenin and oestrogen receptor 1 mRNA in the liver. At the same concentration, LNG caused a significant upregulation of the mRNA expression of the gene encoding luteinising hormone ?-subunit (lh?) and the suppression of the mRNA expression of the gene encoding follicle-stimulating hormone ?-subunit (fsh?) in the pituitary of both male and female roach. A lower LNG concentration (312ng/l) suppressed mRNA expression of fsh? in males only. Females treated with 3124ng/l LNG exhibited significantly lower plasma 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT) and oestradiol (E2) concentrations, whereas their testosterone (T) level was higher compared with the control. Females exposed to 312ng/l LNG presented significantly lower plasma E2 concentrations. Males exposed to ?31ng/l LNG exhibited significantly reduced 11-KT levels. As determined through a histological analysis, the ovaries of females were not affected by LNG exposure, whereas the testes of males exposed to 31 and 312ng/l LNG exhibited a significantly higher percentage of spermatogonia B compared with the control. The results of the present study demonstrate that LNG disrupts the reproductive system of pubertal roach by affecting the pituitary gonadotropin expression and the sex steroid levels. This disruption was determined to occur in males after exposure to an environmentally relevant concentration (31ng/l). Moreover, the highest tested concentration of LNG (3124ng/l) exerted an oestrogenic effect on fish of both sexes. PMID:24893273

Kroupova, H K; Trubiroha, A; Lorenz, C; Contardo-Jara, V; Lutz, I; Grabic, R; Kocour, M; Kloas, W

2014-09-01

93

Organizing effects of sex steroids on brain aromatase activity in quail.  

Science.gov (United States)

Preoptic/hypothalamic aromatase activity (AA) is sexually differentiated in birds and mammals but the mechanisms controlling this sex difference remain unclear. We determined here (1) brain sites where AA is sexually differentiated and (2) whether this sex difference results from organizing effects of estrogens during ontogeny or activating effects of testosterone in adulthood. In the first experiment we measured AA in brain regions micropunched in adult male and female Japanese quail utilizing the novel strategy of basing the microdissections on the distribution of aromatase-immunoreactive cells. The largest sex difference was found in the medial bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (mBST) followed by the medial preoptic nucleus (POM) and the tuberal hypothalamic region. A second experiment tested the effect of embryonic treatments known to sex-reverse male copulatory behavior (i.e., estradiol benzoate [EB] or the aromatase inhibitor, Vorozole) on brain AA in gonadectomized adult males and females chronically treated as adults with testosterone. Embryonic EB demasculinized male copulatory behavior, while vorozole blocked demasculinization of behavior in females as previously demonstrated in birds. Interestingly, these treatments did not affect a measure of appetitive sexual behavior. In parallel, embryonic vorozole increased, while EB decreased AA in pooled POM and mBST, but the same effect was observed in both sexes. Together, these data indicate that the early action of estrogens demasculinizes AA. However, this organizational action of estrogens on AA does not explain the behavioral sex difference in copulatory behavior since AA is similar in testosterone-treated males and females that were or were not exposed to embryonic treatments with estrogens. PMID:21559434

Cornil, Charlotte A; Ball, Gregory F; Balthazart, Jacques; Charlier, Thierry D

2011-01-01

94

Determinants of Maternal Sex Steroids During the First Half of Pregnancy  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective To examine the associations of maternal and child characteristics with early pregnancy maternal concentrations of testosterone, androstenedione, progesterone, 17-hydroxyprogesterone and estradiol. Methods We analyzed these hormones among 1,343 women with singleton pregnancies who donated serum samples to the Finnish Maternity Cohort from 1986 to 2006 during the first half of pregnancy (median, 11 weeks). The associations of maternal and child characteristics with hormone concentrations were investigated by correlation and multivariable regression. Results Women above age 30 had lower androgen and estradiol but higher progesterone concentrations than women below that age. Multiparous women had 14% lower testosterone, 11% lower androstenedione and 17-hydroxyprogesterone, 9% lower progesterone, and 16% lower estradiol concentrations compared to nulliparous women (all P<.05). Smoking mothers had 11%, 18%, and 8% higher testosterone, androstenedione, and 17-hydroxyprogesterone levels, respectively, but 10% lower progesterone compared to non-smoking women (all P<.05). Estradiol concentrations were 9% higher (P<0.05) among women with a female fetus compared to those with a male fetus. Conclusions Parity, smoking, and to a lesser extent maternal age and child gender are associated with sex steroid levels during the first half of a singleton pregnancy. The effects of smoking on the maternal hormonal environment and the possible long-term deleterious consequences on the fetus deserve further evaluation.

Toriola, Adetunji T; Vaarasmaki, Marja; Lehtinen, Matti; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Lundin, Eva; Rodgers, Kenneth-Gary; Lakso, Hans-Ake; Chen, Tianhui; Schock, Helena; Hallmans, Goran; Pukkala, Eero; Toniolo, Paolo; Grankvist, Kjell; Surcel, Helja-Marja; Lukanova, Annekatrin

2011-01-01

95

Implantation: mutual activity of sex steroid hormones and the immune system guarantee the maternal-embryo interaction.  

Science.gov (United States)

Implantation is strictly dependent on the mutual interaction between a receptive endometrium and the blastocyst. Hence, synchronization between blastocyst development and the acquisition of endometrial receptivity is a prerequisite for the success of this process. This review depicts the cellular and molecular events that coordinate these complex activities. Specifically, the involvement of the sex steroid hormones, estrogen and progesterone, as well as components of the immune system, such as cytokines and specific blood cells, is elaborated. PMID:24959815

Gnainsky, Yulia; Dekel, Nava; Granot, Irit

2014-09-01

96

Linkage of the murine steroid sulfatase locus, Sts, to sex reversed, Sxr: a genetic and molecular analysis.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We present genetic and molecular data demonstrating linkage of the gene for steroid sulfatase (Sts) to the mutation sex reversed (Sxr) definitively showing the existance of a functional allele for Sts mapping to the pseudoautosomal region of the mouse Y chromosome. Thus, in mouse, functional Sts genes are present in the pseudoautosomal region of both the X and Y chromosomes. This is in contrast to man where Sts has been mapped to the short arm of the X just centromeric to the pseudoautosomal ...

1987-01-01

97

Sex-/ovarian steroid-dependent release of endomorphin 2 from spinal cord.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mu-opioid receptor (MOR) agonists have been shown to be more potent analgesics in male than female rodents. Regulation of spinal MOR-coupled antinociception by 17beta-estradiol (estrogen, E2) and progesterone (P) is also sexually dimorphic; pregnancy levels of E2/P activate MOR-coupled analgesic pathways in male but not female rats. We hypothesized that the sexual dimorphic characteristics of MOR-coupled antinociception reflects sexual dimorphism in the regulation of the release from spinal cord of the endogenous MOR agonist, endomorphin 2 (EM2). Parameters of spinal EM2 release manifesting sexual dimorphism include its 1) magnitude: in vitro basal and K+-evoked release of EM2 from spinal tissue of male rats is approximately 50% greater than that observed from spinal cord of females; 2) modulation by ovarian sex steroids: E2/P treatment significantly enhanced K+-evoked EM2 release from spinal tissue of males, but not females; and 3) enhancement by opioid receptor blockade: naloxone enhanced stimulated EM2 release from spinal tissue of both males and females, but it augmented basal release from spinal tissue of only males. Enhancement of EM2 release by naloxone reflects negative coupling of MOR to EM2 release and hence its modulation by negative feedback since only activation of MOR, not kappa-or delta-opioid receptors, was able to inhibit evoked EM2 release. These data reveal that the EM2-MOR spinal analgesic system is more robust and "higher gain" in male versus female rodents. These findings could provide a mechanistic rubric for understanding the male female dichotomy in prevalence and intensity of chronic pain syndromes. PMID:17308039

Gupta, Daya S; von Gizycki, Hans; Gintzler, Alan R

2007-05-01

98

Organization of Cytochrome P450 Enzymes Involved in Sex Steroid Synthesis  

Science.gov (United States)

Mounting evidence underscores the importance of protein-protein interactions in the functional regulation of drug-metabolizing P450s, but few studies have been conducted in membrane environments, and none have examined P450s catalyzing sex steroid synthesis. Here we report specific protein-protein interactions for full-length, human, wild type steroidogenic cytochrome P450 (P450, CYP) enzymes: 17?-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase (P450c17, CYP17) and aromatase (P450arom, CYP19), as well as their electron donor NADPH-cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (CPR). Fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)3 in live cells, coupled with quartz crystal microbalance (QCM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM) studies on phosphatidyl choline ± cholesterol (mammalian) biomimetic membranes were used to investigate steroidogenic P450 interactions. The FRET results in living cells demonstrated that both P450c17 and P450arom homodimerize but do not heterodimerize, although they each heterodimerize with CPR. The lack of heteroassociation between P450c17 and P450arom was confirmed by QCM, wherein neither enzyme bound a membrane saturated with the other. In contrast, the CPR bound readily to either P450c17- or P450arom-saturated surfaces. Interestingly, N-terminally modified P450arom was stably incorporated and gave similar results to the wild type, although saturation was achieved with much less protein, suggesting that the putative transmembrane domain is not required for membrane association but for orientation. In fact, all of the proteins were remarkably stable in the membrane, such that high resolution AFM images were obtained, further supporting the formation of P450c17, P450arom, and CPR homodimers and oligomers in lipid bilayers. This unique combination of in vivo and in vitro studies has provided strong evidence for homodimerization and perhaps some higher order interactions for both P450c17 and P450arom.

Praporski, Slavica; Ng, Su May; Nguyen, Ann D.; Corbin, C. Jo; Mechler, Adam; Zheng, Jie; Conley, Alan J.; Martin, Lisandra L.

2009-01-01

99

Testosterone regulation of sex steroid-related mRNAs and dopamine-related mRNAs in adolescent male rat substantia nigra  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Increased risk of schizophrenia in adolescent males indicates that a link between the development of dopamine-related psychopathology and testosterone-driven brain changes may exist. However, contradictions as to whether testosterone increases or decreases dopamine neurotransmission are found and most studies address this in adult animals. Testosterone-dependent actions in neurons are direct via activation of androgen receptors (AR or indirect by conversion to 17?-estradiol and activation of estrogen receptors (ER. How midbrain dopamine neurons respond to sex steroids depends on the presence of sex steroid receptor(s and the level of steroid conversion enzymes (aromatase and 5?-reductase. We investigated whether gonadectomy and sex steroid replacement could influence dopamine levels by changing tyrosine hydroxylase (TH protein and mRNA and/or dopamine breakdown enzyme mRNA levels [catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT and monoamine oxygenase (MAO A and B] in the adolescent male rat substantia nigra. We hypothesized that adolescent testosterone would regulate sex steroid signaling through regulation of ER and AR mRNAs and through modulation of aromatase and 5?-reductase mRNA levels. Results We find ER? and AR in midbrain dopamine neurons in adolescent male rats, indicating that dopamine neurons are poised to respond to circulating sex steroids. We report that androgens (T and DHT increase TH protein and increase COMT, MAOA and MAOB mRNAs in the adolescent male rat substantia nigra. We report that all three sex steroids increase AR mRNA. Differential action on ER pathways, with ER? mRNA down-regulation and ER? mRNA up-regulation by testosterone was found. 5? reductase-1 mRNA was increased by AR activation, and aromatase mRNA was decreased by gonadectomy. Conclusions We conclude that increased testosterone at adolescence can shift the balance of sex steroid signaling to favor androgenic responses through promoting conversion of T to DHT and increasing AR mRNA. Further, testosterone may increase local dopamine synthesis and metabolism, thereby changing dopamine regulation within the substantia nigra. We show that testosterone action through both AR and ERs modulates synthesis of sex steroid receptor by altering AR and ER mRNA levels in normal adolescent male substantia nigra. Increased sex steroids in the brain at adolescence may alter substantia nigra dopamine pathways, increasing vulnerability for the development of psychopathology.

Purves-Tyson Tertia D

2012-08-01

100

Exposure of larvae to daily thermocycles affects gonad development, sex ratio, and sexual steroids in Solea senegalensis, kaup.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of water temperature during the development of fish larvae on sex differentiation is well known, but not so well known is the impact of the daily thermocycles. Our aim was to investigate the effect of early exposure of Senegal sole larvae to different temperature cycles on gonad development, sex ratio, and sex steroid (11-ketotestosterone (11-KT); estradiol (E(2) ); and testosterone, (T)) content in muscle extracts of juveniles. From 1 to 97 days posthatching (DPH) fish larvae and post-larvae were subjected to three temperature regimes: Thermophase-Cryophase (TC), Cryophase-Thermophase (CT), and constant temperature. In fish exposed to TC, sex determination occurred earlier, because 90% of soles were males/females at 110 DPH, whereas 45% of fish under CT were undifferentiated at that time. Fish under TC showed the highest growth rates, followed by fish under constant temperature and by fish under CT, the differences being statistically significant between the TC and CT groups. Regarding sex ratio, juveniles exposed to TC showed a higher proportion of females than fish under CT or constant temperature. Under TC, fish showed the highest concentration of E(2) , whereas 11-KT concentration was highest in fish under CT and constant temperature. Fish under constant temperature and CT showed higher T levels than those under TC. These results provide the first insights into the effect of daily thermocycles on sex differentiation in fish, and underline the key role of natural environmental cycles on the control of sex ratios during larval development, which may be applied to the manipulation of sex ratio in aquaculture. PMID:21370485

Blanco-Vives, Borja; Vera, Luisa María; Ramos, Jesús; Bayarri, María José; Mañanós, Evaristo; Sánchez-Vázquez, Francisco Javier

2011-03-01

 
 
 
 
101

Organization of Cytochrome P450 Enzymes Involved in Sex Steroid Synthesis: PROTEIN-PROTEIN INTERACTIONS IN LIPID MEMBRANES*  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Mounting evidence underscores the importance of protein-protein interactions in the functional regulation of drug-metabolizing P450s, but few studies have been conducted in membrane environments, and none have examined P450s catalyzing sex steroid synthesis. Here we report specific protein-protein interactions for full-length, human, wild type steroidogenic cytochrome P450 (P450, CYP) enzymes: 17?-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase (P450c17, CYP17) and aromatase (P450arom, CYP19), as well as their elec...

Praporski, Slavica; Ng, Su May; Nguyen, Ann D.; Corbin, C. Jo; Mechler, Adam; Zheng, Jie; Conley, Alan J.; Martin, Lisandra L.

2009-01-01

102

In vivo effect of sex steroids on uptake of 3H-leucine by female mouse brain  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In vivo effects of the sex steroids estrogen and progesterone on 3H-leucine uptake by the brain of mature ovariectomized mice were examined. Animals were divided into three groups: group 1, consisting of control animals treated with sesame oil, group 2, animals treated with estrogen, and group 3, animals first treated with estrogen and then with progesterone. Each group was given a single i.p. injection of 3H-leucine 2 hr after the last hormonal treatment, and sacrificed 2 hr later. Intensity of the uptake of radiolabeled leucine was measured by counting the number of reduced silver grains over cells in various brain regions using an autoradiographic technique. Group 1 showed a relatively high uptake in the supraoptic nucleus, paraventricular nucleus (PV) and ventromedial nucleus (VM) when compared with that in the remaining hypothalamic nuclei examined. Group 2 showed a significant enhancement of the uptake in all hypothalamic regions except the preoptic periventricular nucleus (PPV) when compared with that in group 1. Group 3 showed enhancement of the uptake in all hypothalamic nuclei when compared with that in group 1. However, only the PV, PPV, VM and periventricular arcuate nucleus revealed a significantly higher uptake than the respective nuclei in group 2. The remaining nuclei showed no change in uptake. Uptake by cells in the ependymal cells and cerebral cortex remained unchanged after hormonal treatment. The present results suggest that in female mice estrogen and estrogen plus progesterone stimulate protein synthesis in most of the hypothalamic nuclei and that the progesterone effect on protein synthesis is greatly influenced by estrogen-priming. (auth.)

1978-01-01

103

An instrument to measure safer sex strategies used by male sex workers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Several studies have related safe sex in the commercial sex encounter to the ability of sex workers to apply specific safer sex strategies. However, no instrument has been previously available to measure these skills. The Safer-Sex Strategy Scale (SSS) was developed for such purposes. The psychometric properties (reliability and validity) were evaluated with a sample of sex workers recruited from Australian cities. A questionnaire was administered to 184 sex workers aged 18-58 years using a convenience sampling method. Results indicated that the SSS can be conceptualized as a four variation construct and can be reliably (all subscales yielded at least a Cronbach's alpha = .60) and validly measured. Additionally, the relationship of the SSS to various sex work experiences was explored. The results show that the length of time working as a sex worker and contact with sex work organizations and sexual health clinics appear to influence the level of agreement of using the safer sex strategies evaluated. PMID:10992979

Mariño, R; Browne, J; Minichiello, V

2000-06-01

104

Leptin-mediated modulation of steroidogenic gene expression in hypoxic zebrafish embryos: implications for the disruption of sex steroids.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hypoxia can impair reproduction of fishes through the disruption of sex steroids. Here, using zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos, we investigated (i) whether hypoxia can directly affect steroidogenesis independent of pituitary regulation via modulation of steroidogenic gene expression, and (ii) the role of leptin in hypoxia-induced disruption of steroidogenesis. Exposure of fertilized zebrafish embryos to hypoxia (1.0 mg O(2) L(-1)) from 0-72 h postfertilization (hpf), a developmental window when steroidogenesis is unregulated by pituitary influence, resulted in the up-regulation of cyp11a, cyp17, and 3?-hsd and the down-regulation of cyp19a. Similar gene expression patterns were observed for embryos exposed to 10 mM cobalt chloride (CoCl(2), a chemical inducer of hypoxia-inducible factor 1, HIF-1), suggesting a regulatory role of HIF-1 in steroidogenesis. Testosterone (T) and estradiol (E2) concentrations in hypoxic embryos were greater and lesser, respectively, relative to the normoxic control, thus leading to an increased T/E2 ratio. Expression of the leptin-a gene (zlep-a) was up-regulated upon both hypoxia and CoCl(2) treatments. Functional assays suggested that under hypoxia, elevated zlep-a expression might activate cyp11a and 3?-hsd and inhibit cyp19a. Overall, this study indicates that hypoxia, possibly via HIF-1-induced leptin expression, modulates sex steroid synthesis by acting directly on steroidogenic gene expression. PMID:22816610

Yu, Richard Man Kit; Chu, Daniel Ling Ho; Tan, Tian-feng; Li, Vincent Wai Tsun; Chan, Alice Ka Yee; Giesy, John P; Cheng, Shuk Han; Wu, Rudolf Shiu Sun; Kong, Richard Yuen Chong

2012-08-21

105

The Effects of Female Sex Steroids on Gastric Secretory Responses of Rat Following Traumatic Brain Injury  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available AbstractObjective(sGastric ulceration is induced by various forms of stress like surgery, ischemia and trauma. The female sex has more resistance to stress and the gastrointestinal lesions happen fewer than male sex. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of estradiol and progesterone on the gastric acid and pepsin levels following traumatic brain injury (TBI induction.Materials and MethodsDiffuse TBI was induced by Marmarou method in female rats. Rats randomly assigned into 9 groups: intact, OVX (ovarectomized rat, Sham+OVX, TBI (intact rats under TBI, TBI+OVX (ovarectomized rats under TBI and treated OVX rats with vehicle (sesame oil, E2 (estradiol, P4 (progesterone or E2+P4 combination. The acid content and pepsin levels of each gastric washout sample were measured 5 days after the TBI induction.ResultsThere was no significant difference in gastric acid output between groups either after TBI induction or after treatment with E2 or P4 or E2+P4. Gastric pepsin levels were increased in Sham+OVX, TBI (P< 0.001 and TBI+OVX (P< 0.05 compared to intact group. Gastric pepsin levels were significantly lower in E2 and E2+ P4 treated rats than vehicle treated group (P< 0.01. P4 treatment increased gastric pepsin level compared to TBI+OVX group (P< 0.05 and this increment was higher than rats that were treated with the E2 and E2+P4 (P< 0.01.ConclusionThese results suggest that protective effect of estradiol and E2+P4 combination against mucosal damage after TBI, might be mediated by inhibition of pepsin secretion.

Zakieh Keshavarzi

2011-05-01

106

Interactions of 16{alpha}-[{sup 18}F]-fluoroestradiol (FES) with sex steroid binding protein (SBP)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Fluorine-18 16{alpha}-Fluoroestradiol ([{sup 18}F]- FES) is a positron-emitting tracer for the estrogen receptor that is used for positron emission tomography (PET) studies of tumor tissues rich in the estrogen receptor. The role of the sex steroid binding protein (SBP or SHBG) in the transport of the [{sup 18}F]-FES to the estrogen-receptor-rich tissue in breast cancer patients in vivo was investigated. To determine the extent to which [{sup 18}F]-FES is bound to SBP in the blood, we performed a series of studies using blood samples obtained from patients undergoing [{sup 18}F]-FES PET scans. The binding of [{sup 18}F]-FES to the SBP was measured using a simple protein precipitation assay. The binding of [{sup 18}F]-FES metabolites to SBP was also measured. These measurements showed that the tracer was distributed between albumin and SBP, and the binding capacity of SBP was sufficient to ensure that the protein was not saturated when the tracer was fully mixed with the plasma; however, local saturation of SBP may occur when [{sup 18}F]-FES is administered intravenously. Typically about 45% of [{sup 18}F]-FES in circulating plasma was bound to SBP, but this fraction was dependent on the concentration of SBP in plasma. The transfer of the tracer between the two proteins was rapid, complete in less than 20 s at 0 deg. C, suggesting that the equilibrium was maintained under most circumstances and that local saturation resolved quickly when blood from the injection site entered the central circulation. These data suggest that SBP binding of [{sup 18}F]-FES is significant and will affect the input function of the tracer for any model that is used for the quantitative evaluation of [{sup 18}F]-FES uptake in PET studies. Estimates of equilibrium binding in blood samples are sufficient to characterize [{sup 18}F]-FES binding to SBP in the circulation.

Tewson, T.J. E-mail: ttewson@u.washington.edu; Mankoff, D.A.; Peterson, L.M.; Woo, I.; Petra, P

1999-11-01

107

A Genome-Wide Association Meta-Analysis of Circulating Sex Hormone-Binding Globulin Reveals Multiple Loci Implicated in Sex Steroid Hormone Regulation  

Science.gov (United States)

Sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) is a glycoprotein responsible for the transport and biologic availability of sex steroid hormones, primarily testosterone and estradiol. SHBG has been associated with chronic diseases including type 2 diabetes (T2D) and with hormone-sensitive cancers such as breast and prostate cancer. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) meta-analysis of 21,791 individuals from 10 epidemiologic studies and validated these findings in 7,046 individuals in an additional six studies. We identified twelve genomic regions (SNPs) associated with circulating SHBG concentrations. Loci near the identified SNPs included SHBG (rs12150660, 17p13.1, p?=?1.8×10?106), PRMT6 (rs17496332, 1p13.3, p?=?1.4×10?11), GCKR (rs780093, 2p23.3, p?=?2.2×10?16), ZBTB10 (rs440837, 8q21.13, p?=?3.4×10?09), JMJD1C (rs7910927, 10q21.3, p?=?6.1×10?35), SLCO1B1 (rs4149056, 12p12.1, p?=?1.9×10?08), NR2F2 (rs8023580, 15q26.2, p?=?8.3×10?12), ZNF652 (rs2411984, 17q21.32, p?=?3.5×10?14), TDGF3 (rs1573036, Xq22.3, p?=?4.1×10?14), LHCGR (rs10454142, 2p16.3, p?=?1.3×10?07), BAIAP2L1 (rs3779195, 7q21.3, p?=?2.7×10?08), and UGT2B15 (rs293428, 4q13.2, p?=?5.5×10?06). These genes encompass multiple biologic pathways, including hepatic function, lipid metabolism, carbohydrate metabolism and T2D, androgen and estrogen receptor function, epigenetic effects, and the biology of sex steroid hormone-responsive cancers including breast and prostate cancer. We found evidence of sex-differentiated genetic influences on SHBG. In a sex-specific GWAS, the loci 4q13.2-UGT2B15 was significant in men only (men p?=?2.5×10?08, women p?=?0.66, heterogeneity p?=?0.003). Additionally, three loci showed strong sex-differentiated effects: 17p13.1-SHBG and Xq22.3-TDGF3 were stronger in men, whereas 8q21.12-ZBTB10 was stronger in women. Conditional analyses identified additional signals at the SHBG gene that together almost double the proportion of variance explained at the locus. Using an independent study of 1,129 individuals, all SNPs identified in the overall or sex-differentiated or conditional analyses explained ?15.6% and ?8.4% of the genetic variation of SHBG concentrations in men and women, respectively. The evidence for sex-differentiated effects and allelic heterogeneity highlight the importance of considering these features when estimating complex trait variance.

Lunetta, Kathryn L.; He, Chunyan; Fornage, Myriam; Lagou, Vasiliki; Mangino, Massimo; Onland-Moret, N. Charlotte; Chen, Brian; Eriksson, Joel; Garcia, Melissa; Liu, Yong Mei; Koster, Annemarie; Lohman, Kurt; Lyytikainen, Leo-Pekka; Petersen, Ann-Kristin; Prescott, Jennifer; Stolk, Lisette; Vandenput, Liesbeth; Wood, Andrew R.; Zhuang, Wei Vivian; Ruokonen, Aimo; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Pouta, Anneli; Bandinelli, Stefania; Biffar, Reiner; Brabant, Georg; Cox, David G.; Chen, Yuhui; Cummings, Steven; Ferrucci, Luigi; Gunter, Marc J.; Hankinson, Susan E.; Martikainen, Hannu; Hofman, Albert; Homuth, Georg; Illig, Thomas; Jansson, John-Olov; Johnson, Andrew D.; Karasik, David; Karlsson, Magnus; Kettunen, Johannes; Kiel, Douglas P.; Kraft, Peter; Liu, Jingmin; Ljunggren, Osten; Lorentzon, Mattias; Maggio, Marcello; Markus, Marcello R. P.; Mellstrom, Dan; Miljkovic, Iva; Mirel, Daniel; Nelson, Sarah; Morin Papunen, Laure; Peeters, Petra H. M.; Prokopenko, Inga; Raffel, Leslie; Reincke, Martin; Reiner, Alex P.; Rexrode, Kathryn; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Schwartz, Stephen M.; Siscovick, David; Soranzo, Nicole; Stockl, Doris; Tworoger, Shelley; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; van Gils, Carla H.; Vasan, Ramachandran S.; Wichmann, H.-Erich; Zhai, Guangju; Bhasin, Shalender; Bidlingmaier, Martin; Chanock, Stephen J.; De Vivo, Immaculata; Harris, Tamara B.; Hunter, David J.; Kahonen, Mika; Liu, Simin; Ouyang, Pamela; Spector, Tim D.; van der Schouw, Yvonne T.; Viikari, Jorma; Wallaschofski, Henri; McCarthy, Mark I.; Frayling, Timothy M.; Murray, Anna; Franks, Steve; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; de Jong, Frank H.; Raitakari, Olli; Teumer, Alexander; Ohlsson, Claes; Murabito, Joanne M.; Perry, John R. B.

2012-01-01

108

A genome-wide association meta-analysis of circulating sex hormone-binding globulin reveals multiple Loci implicated in sex steroid hormone regulation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) is a glycoprotein responsible for the transport and biologic availability of sex steroid hormones, primarily testosterone and estradiol. SHBG has been associated with chronic diseases including type 2 diabetes (T2D) and with hormone-sensitive cancers such as breast and prostate cancer. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) meta-analysis of 21,791 individuals from 10 epidemiologic studies and validated these findings in 7,046 individuals in an additional six studies. We identified twelve genomic regions (SNPs) associated with circulating SHBG concentrations. Loci near the identified SNPs included SHBG (rs12150660, 17p13.1, p = 1.8 × 10(-106)), PRMT6 (rs17496332, 1p13.3, p = 1.4 × 10(-11)), GCKR (rs780093, 2p23.3, p = 2.2 × 10(-16)), ZBTB10 (rs440837, 8q21.13, p = 3.4 × 10(-09)), JMJD1C (rs7910927, 10q21.3, p = 6.1 × 10(-35)), SLCO1B1 (rs4149056, 12p12.1, p = 1.9 × 10(-08)), NR2F2 (rs8023580, 15q26.2, p = 8.3 × 10(-12)), ZNF652 (rs2411984, 17q21.32, p = 3.5 × 10(-14)), TDGF3 (rs1573036, Xq22.3, p = 4.1 × 10(-14)), LHCGR (rs10454142, 2p16.3, p = 1.3 × 10(-07)), BAIAP2L1 (rs3779195, 7q21.3, p = 2.7 × 10(-08)), and UGT2B15 (rs293428, 4q13.2, p = 5.5 × 10(-06)). These genes encompass multiple biologic pathways, including hepatic function, lipid metabolism, carbohydrate metabolism and T2D, androgen and estrogen receptor function, epigenetic effects, and the biology of sex steroid hormone-responsive cancers including breast and prostate cancer. We found evidence of sex-differentiated genetic influences on SHBG. In a sex-specific GWAS, the loci 4q13.2-UGT2B15 was significant in men only (men p = 2.5 × 10(-08), women p = 0.66, heterogeneity p = 0.003). Additionally, three loci showed strong sex-differentiated effects: 17p13.1-SHBG and Xq22.3-TDGF3 were stronger in men, whereas 8q21.12-ZBTB10 was stronger in women. Conditional analyses identified additional signals at the SHBG gene that together almost double the proportion of variance explained at the locus. Using an independent study of 1,129 individuals, all SNPs identified in the overall or sex-differentiated or conditional analyses explained ~15.6% and ~8.4% of the genetic variation of SHBG concentrations in men and women, respectively. The evidence for sex-differentiated effects and allelic heterogeneity highlight the importance of considering these features when estimating complex trait variance. PMID:22829776

Coviello, Andrea D; Haring, Robin; Wellons, Melissa; Vaidya, Dhananjay; Lehtimäki, Terho; Keildson, Sarah; Lunetta, Kathryn L; He, Chunyan; Fornage, Myriam; Lagou, Vasiliki; Mangino, Massimo; Onland-Moret, N Charlotte; Chen, Brian; Eriksson, Joel; Garcia, Melissa; Liu, Yong Mei; Koster, Annemarie; Lohman, Kurt; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Petersen, Ann-Kristin; Prescott, Jennifer; Stolk, Lisette; Vandenput, Liesbeth; Wood, Andrew R; Zhuang, Wei Vivian; Ruokonen, Aimo; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Pouta, Anneli; Bandinelli, Stefania; Biffar, Reiner; Brabant, Georg; Cox, David G; Chen, Yuhui; Cummings, Steven; Ferrucci, Luigi; Gunter, Marc J; Hankinson, Susan E; Martikainen, Hannu; Hofman, Albert; Homuth, Georg; Illig, Thomas; Jansson, John-Olov; Johnson, Andrew D; Karasik, David; Karlsson, Magnus; Kettunen, Johannes; Kiel, Douglas P; Kraft, Peter; Liu, Jingmin; Ljunggren, Östen; Lorentzon, Mattias; Maggio, Marcello; Markus, Marcello R P; Mellström, Dan; Miljkovic, Iva; Mirel, Daniel; Nelson, Sarah; Morin Papunen, Laure; Peeters, Petra H M; Prokopenko, Inga; Raffel, Leslie; Reincke, Martin; Reiner, Alex P; Rexrode, Kathryn; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Schwartz, Stephen M; Siscovick, David; Soranzo, Nicole; Stöckl, Doris; Tworoger, Shelley; Uitterlinden, André G; van Gils, Carla H; Vasan, Ramachandran S; Wichmann, H-Erich; Zhai, Guangju; Bhasin, Shalender; Bidlingmaier, Martin; Chanock, Stephen J; De Vivo, Immaculata; Harris, Tamara B; Hunter, David J; Kähönen, Mika; Liu, Simin; Ouyang, Pamela; Spector, Tim D; van der Schouw, Yvonne T; Viikari, Jorma; Wallaschofski, Henri; McCarthy, Mark I; Frayling, Timothy M; Murray, Anna; Franks, Steve; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; de Jong, Frank H; Raitakari, Olli; Teumer, Alexander; Ohlsson, Claes; Murabito, Joanne M; Perry, John R B

2012-01-01

109

An Immunohistochemical Study on the Expression of Sex Steroid Receptors in Canine Mammary Tumors  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Steroid hormones are found to play a major role in the genesis and progression of mammary tumors. The aim of this study was to immunohistochemically detect the presence of estrogen receptor alpha (ER?), estrogen receptor beta (ER?), and progesterone receptor (PR) and also to study the association between these markers in 29 cases of benign (11) and malignant (18) canine mammary tumors. ER? immunostaining was noticed in only one case of carcinosarcoma specifically in the nuclei of epithelia...

Leena Rajathy Port Louis; Khub Chandra Varshney; Madhavan Gopalakrishnan Nair

2012-01-01

110

Waste products of oilsands mine inhibit sex steroids in exposed fish  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Mature fine tailings (MFT) and tailing pond water (TPW) are two of the wastes generated by oil sand mining operations at Syncrude Canada Ltd. in northern Alberta. A study was conducted to determine the impact of these wastes on reproductive steroid production in sexually mature goldfish. MFT is a toxic aqueous suspension consisting of organic acids, bitumen and metals. TPW is a saline solution consisting of both organic and inorganic contaminants. Goldfish were examined for 19 days in 3 of Syncrude's specially designed experimental ponds which were lined with or without MFT and capped with or without TPW. The study showed that plasma levels of testosterone and 17 {beta}-estradiol in male and female fish in ponds with MFT but no TPW and ponds with both MFT and TPW were much lower compared to fish in a control pond with neither MFT nor TPW. The study also involved in vitro testis and ovarian incubations on the fish to determine potential differences in basal steroid production levels and how they react to gonadotropin. Results showed that gonadal tissues of fish from all ponds behaved similarly to the gonadotropin, thereby suggesting that under normal conditions, the oilsands wastes do not affect the ability of gonads to produce steroids. Compared to the control pond, both male and female fish from the pond with both MFT and TPW had significantly lower basal levels of testosterone, suggesting that the steroid inhibition could be caused at a site within the gonad. It was concluded that waste products of oilsands mining disrupt the reproductive endocrine system in goldfish.

Lister, A.; Van Der Kraak, G.J. [Guelph Univ., ON (Canada); Nero, V.; Farwell, A.J.; Dixon, D.G. [Waterloo Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Biology

2002-07-01

111

Influence of mesonephros on foetal and neonatal rabbit gonads. I. Sex-steroid release by the testis in vitro  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The experiments were performed to study the influence of mesonephros on gonadal sex hormone release. Foetal and neonatal rabbit testes were cultured for 5 days, with and without their mesonephric tissue. The culture media were harvested every day and analyzed by RIA for the content of testosterone, progesterone and oestradiol. The development of the tissues were evaluated microscopically after culturing. The results show that between day 20 pc and day 1 pp the mesonephric tissue lowered the amounts of testosterone in co-cultures with testis. This effect disappears when the mesonephric derived cells develop the capacity to synthesize a meiosis inducing substance (MIS). A relationship between decrease of testosterone and secretion of MIS is discussed. It is concluded that the steroid producing cells of the testis, the Leydig cells, originate or are heavily influenced by mesonephros during early testicular organogenesis.

Grinsted, Jacob Peter; Byskov, A G

1982-01-01

112

Influx of testosterone-binding globulin (TeBG) and TeBG-bound sex steroid hormones into rat testis and prostate  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The availability of testosterone and estradiol to Sertoli and prostate cells is dependent upon 1) the permeability properties of the blood-tubular barrier (BTB) of the testis or prostate cell membrane, and 2) sex steroid binding to plasma proteins, such as albumin or testosterone-binding globulin (TeBG). Sex steroid influx into these tissues was studied after in vivo arterial bolus injections of [3H]testosterone or [3H]estradiol in anesthetized rats. Both testosterone and estradiol were readily cleared across the BTB or prostate cell membrane in the absence of plasma proteins and in the presence of human pregnancy serum, in which testosterone or estradiol are 80-95% distributed to TeBG. The extravascular extraction of [3H]TeBG across the BTB or prostate plasma membrane [73 +/- 2% (+/- SE) and 92 +/- 9%, respectively] was significantly greater than extraction of [3H]albumin or other plasma space markers and indicative of a rapid first pass clearance of TeBG by Sertoli or prostate cells. In summary, these studies indicate that 1) testosterone and estradiol are readily cleared by Sertoli and prostate cells; 2) albumin- and TeBG-bound sex steroids represent the major circulating pool of bioavailable hormone for testis or prostate; and 3) the TeBG-sex steroid complex may be nearly completely available for influx through the BTB or prostate plasma membrane

1988-01-01

113

Sexual activity and plasma levels of sex steroids in the aspic viper Vipera aspis L. (Reptilia, Viperidae).  

Science.gov (United States)

Reproductive behavior and associated sexual activity was studied in individual male and female Vipera aspis over a 3-year period in western France in an attempt to correlate mating behavior with blood levels of gonadal sex steroids. Males had higher average levels of both testosterone (T) and 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) than females. Levels of progesterone (P) did not differ significantly between the two sexes but estradiol-17 beta (E2) concentrations were significantly higher in females during the season of mating. Spring mating behavior and copulation in males was associated with significantly increased levels of T and DHT, compared with postmating males; and a similar, but not significant trend, was evident with autumnal mating. The only statistically significant hormonal difference detected in males showing no sexual activity in autumn, was an elevated level of E2 at 0.52 +/- 0.20 ng/ml compared with 0.09 +/- 0.03 ng/ml in spring-breeding males (P = 0.05). Estrus in females is associated with increased levels of all four steroids but significant only for E2 and DHT. Levels of P were significantly reduced in females displaying seasonal anestrous in the spring immediately following reproduction. Females not displaying estrus in either spring or autumn had significantly lower plasma DHT and E2. Although mating behavior in males is associated statistically with elevated levels of T and DHT, a tight correlation is not obvious at the individual level, suggesting that increased concentrations of androgens are a necessary, but not sufficient, condition for mating. The data from V. aspis suggest that, as in a number of other reptilian species, high circulating levels of androgens function to "condition" or "organize" sexual behavior in males which may be displayed at some later time, well after actual levels have fallen, thus engendering the impression that reproductive behavior may be temporally dissociated from essential hormonal stimuli. PMID:8224772

Saint Girons, H; Bradshaw, S D; Bradshaw, F J

1993-09-01

114

The macrophage low-grade inflammation marker sCD163 is modulated by exogenous sex steroids  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Soluble CD163 (sCD163) is a novel marker linked to states of low grade inflammation such as diabetes, obesity, liver disease and atherosclerosis, all prevalent in subjects with Turner and Klinefelter Syndromes. We aimed to assess the levels of sCD163 and the regulation of sCD163 in regards to treatment with sex hormone therapy in males with and without Klinefelter Syndrome and females with and without Turner Syndrome. Males with Klinefelter Syndrome (n=70) and age-matched controls (n=71) participating in a cross-sectional study and 12 healthy males from an experimental hypogonadism study. Females with Turner Syndrome (n=8) and healthy age- matched controls (n=8) participating in a randomized cross-over trial. The intervention comprised of treatment with sex steroids. Males with Klinefelter Syndrome had higher levels of sCD163 compared with controls (1.75 (0.47-6.90) and 1.36 (0.77-3.11) respectively, p

Thomsen, Henrik Holm; Møller, Holger Jon

2013-01-01

115

Intracrinology of sex steroids in ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) of human breast: comparison to invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) and non-neoplastic breast.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sex steroids, including those through intratumoral production in an intracrine manner, play important roles in the development of invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) of human breast, but biological and/or clinical significance of intratumoral production and metabolism of sex steroids, have remained largely unknown in the ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), an important precursor lesion of IDC. We recently examined tissue concentration of estradiol and 5-dihydrotestosterone using liquid chromatography/electrospray tandem mass spectrometry in non-neoplastic breast, DCIS, and IDC tissues. Results of our study suggest that intratumoral concentrations of both estradiol and 5-dihydrotestosterone are increased in DCIS, which is considered due to intratumoral production of these sex steroids. Therefore, both estradiol and 5-dehydrotestosterone are considered to play important roles in the development of DCIS as well as IDC through an intracrine manner. Intratumoral metabolism and synthesis of estrogens and androgens as a result of the interactions of various enzymes are therefore also considered to play important roles in hormone dependent DCIS. Aromatase, which is one of the estrogen synthesis enzymes, plays an important role in intratumoral production of estrogen but other enzymes also play pivotal roles in intratumoral estrogen and androgen productions in human breast carcinoma. Therefore, in this review, we also focused on the importance of key intracrine enzymes such as 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases, steroid sulfatase,estrogen sulfotransferase, 5alpha-reductases in both IDC and DCIS. PMID:19444935

Miki, Yasuhiro; Suzuki, Takashi; Sasano, Hironobu

2009-03-01

116

The relation of smoking, age, relative weight, and dietary intake to serum adrenal steroids, sex hormones, and sex hormone-binding globulin in middle-aged men.  

Science.gov (United States)

The relationships of cigarette smoking, age, relative weight, and dietary intake to serum dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), androstenedione, cortisol, 3-alpha-androstanediol, 3-alpha-androstanediol-glucuronide, testosterone, albumin-bound testosterone, free testosterone, dihydrotestosterone (DHT), and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) were examined cross-sectionally in 1241 randomly sampled middle-aged U.S. men. Compared with nonsmokers and independent of relative weight (body mass index) and age, cigarette smokers had increased serum levels of DHEA (18% higher, P = 0.0002), DHEAS (13% higher, P = 0.0007), cortisol (5% higher, P = 0.01), androstenedione (33% higher, P = 0.0001), testosterone (9% higher, P = 0.009), DHT (14% higher, P = 0.004), and SHBG (8% higher, P = 0.004). Androstenedione, total plasma testosterone, albumin-bound testosterone, DHT, and SHBG decreased with increasing relative weight. Age was positively associated with serum SHBG and negatively associated with albumin-bound testosterone, DHEA, and DHEAS. An association was found between alcohol intake and DHEA (r = 0.15; P = 0.0001), cortisol (r = 0.10; P = 0.0007), and 3-alpha-androstanediol-glucuronide (r = 0.08; P = 0.0004). Cortisol was the only hormone that was associated with carbohydrate intake (r = -0.09; P = 0.002). The only hormones associated with dietary lipids were DHT (for vegetable fat, r = 0.07; P = 0.02), cortisol (for total fat, r = 0.08; P = 0.007), and SHBG (for animal fat, r = -0.06; P = 0.05). In addition, SHBG was positively associated with dietary (r = 0.07; P = 0.008) and crude (r = 0.08; P = 0.007) fiber. These data suggest that serum adrenal steroid and sex hormone concentrations in middle-aged men are more influenced by cigarette smoking, age, and obesity than by dietary intake; however, serum adrenal steroids were influenced by alcohol intake. PMID:7962322

Field, A E; Colditz, G A; Willett, W C; Longcope, C; McKinlay, J B

1994-11-01

117

Mono-hydroxy methoxychlor alters levels of key sex steroids and steroidogenic enzymes in cultured mouse antral follicles.  

Science.gov (United States)

Methoxychlor (MXC) is an organochlorine pesticide that reduces fertility in female rodents by decreasing antral follicle numbers and increasing follicular death. MXC is metabolized in the body to mono-hydroxy MXC (mono-OH). Little is known about the effects of mono-OH on the ovary. Thus, this work tested the hypothesis that mono-OH exposure decreases production of 17?-estradiol (E?) by cultured mouse antral follicles. Antral follicles were isolated from CD-1 mice (age 35-39 days) and exposed to dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), or mono-OH (0.1-10 ?g/mL) for 96 h. Media and follicles were collected for analysis of sex steroid levels and mRNA expression, respectively. Mono-OH treatment (10 ?g/mL) decreased E(2) (DMSO: 3009.72±744.99 ng/mL; mono-OH 0.1 ?g/mL: 1679.66±461.99 ng/mL; 1 ?g/mL: 1752.72±532.41 ng/mL; 10 ?g/mL: 45.89±33.83 ng/mL), testosterone (DMSO: 15.43±2.86 ng/mL; mono-OH 0.1?g/mL: 17.17±4.71 ng/mL; 1 ?g/mL: 13.64±3.53 ng/mL; 10 ?g/mL: 1.29±0.23 ng/mL), androstenedione (DMSO: 1.92±0.34 ng/mL; mono-OH 0.1 ?g/mL: 1.49±0.43ng/mL; 1 ?g/mL: 0.64±0.31 ng/mL; 10 ?g/mL: 0.12±0.06 ng/mL) and progesterone (DMSO: 24.11±4.21 ng/mL; mono-OH 0.1?g/mL: 26.77±4.41 ng/mL; 1 ?g/mL: 20.90±3.75 ng/mL; 10 ?g/mL: 9.44±2.97 ng/mL) levels. Mono-OH did not alter expression of Star, Hsd3b1, Hsd17b1 and Cyp1b1, but it did reduce levels of Cyp11a1, Cyp17a1 and Cyp19a1 mRNA. Collectively, these data suggest that mono-OH significantly decreases levels of key sex steroid hormones and the expression of enzymes required for steroidogenesis. PMID:20840852

Craig, Zelieann R; Leslie, Traci C; Hatfield, Kimberly P; Gupta, Rupesh K; Flaws, Jodi A

2010-12-01

118

Recent aspects of steroid biosynthesis in male sex differentiation. Clinical studies.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent discoveries in molecular biology have much clarified the regulation and function of steroid-converting enzymes. Most progress has been made in the area of cytochromes, which regulate the side chain cleavage of cholesterol (P-450 SCC) and the 17 alpha-hydroxylase and 17,20-desmolase (or 17,20-lyase) activities (P-450 17 alpha), as well as in 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. Nevertheless, there are some discrepancies between fundamental knowledge and clinical experience, which are difficult to understand: why is it for example possible that cases with 'pure' 17 alpha-hydroxylase or 17,20-desmolase deficiency exist, when there is only one cytochrome regulating both steps? After a brief review of clinical and biochemical findings in the various defects of testosterone biosynthesis, a case is discussed, which is of interest in this respect. This XY patient with female external genitalia, who has been shown to have compound heterozygous mutations, had 'pure' 17,20-desmolase deficiency up to adolescence, but additional 17 alpha-hydroxylase deficiency with hypertension developed thereafter. From this observation, it has to be concluded that as yet unknown, possibly age-dependent modulating factors exist, which influence the activity of the cytochrome. Also the estrogen replacement given to the patient might have played a role in this change. PMID:1307738

Zachmann, M

1992-01-01

119

Sex steroids do not affect shigatoxin cytotoxicity on human renal tubular or glomerular cells  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The greater susceptibility of children to renal injury in post-diarrheal hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS may be related, at least in part, to heightened renal cell sensitivity to the cytotoxic effect of Shiga toxin (Stx, the putative mediator of kidney damage in HUS. We hypothesized that sexual maturation, which coincides with a falling incidence of HUS, may induce a relatively Stx-resistant state in the renal cells. Methods Cultured human glomerular endothelial (HGEN, human glomerular visceral epithelial (HGEC and human proximal tubule (HPT cells were exposed to Stx-1 after pre-incubation with progesterone, ?-estradiol or testosterone followed by determination of cytotoxicity. Results Under basal conditions, Stx-1 potently and dose-dependently killed HPT and HGEC, but had relatively little effect on HGEN. Pre-incubation for 1, 2 or 7 days with physiologic or pharmacologic concentrations of progesterone, ?-estradiol or testosterone had no effect on Stx-1 cytotoxicity dose-response on any cell type. In addition, no steroid altered Gb3 expression (Stx receptor by any cell type at any time point. Conclusion These data do not support the notion that hormonal changes associated with puberty induce an Stx-resistant state within kidney cells.

Kohan Donald E

2002-08-01

120

Plasma steroid hormones in relation to behavioral sex role reversal in the spotted sandpiper, Actitis macularia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Plasma samples collected from spotted sandpipers during the reproductive season were analyzed for testosterone, dihydrotestosterone (DHT), estradiol-17 beta and progesterone. Prior to incubation, plasma testosterone and DHT levels were significantly greater in males than in females. Estradiol levels of paired females were significantly greater than those of paired males. Testosterone and DHT levels of unpaired resident and paired males were significantly greater than those of incubating and brooding males. A 25-fold decline in testosterone occurred in males from the 1- or 2-egg stage to the 3-egg stage, when incubation is initiated. In females, testosterone values were low in unpaired, brooding, and transient birds. Paired females had levels 7-fold greater than unpaired birds. In both sexes, there was a strong correlation between testosterone and DHT levels. Prolactin values were negatively correlated with testosterone and DHT in males. These results indicate that the high level of intrasexual competition for mates among female spotted sandpipers is not based upon a total reversal of the normal male/female levels of androgens and estradiol. Territoriality and intense competition for mates in females may be based upon enhanced receptivity of neural centers to moderate hormone levels. Relative changes in testosterone between unpaired and paired females indicates that this hormone may play a role in mate acquisition and territoriality of these sex role-reversed females. PMID:3828434

Fivizzani, A J; Oring, L W

1986-12-01

 
 
 
 
121

Sex steroids effects on the molting process of the helminth human parasite Trichinella spiralis.  

Science.gov (United States)

We evaluated the in vitro effects of estradiol, progesterone, and testosterone on the molting process, which is the initial and crucial step in the development of the muscular larvae (ML or L1) to adult worm. Testosterone had no significative effect on the molting rate of the parasite, however, progesterone decreased the molting rate about a 50% in a concentration- and time-independent pattern, while estradiol had a slight effect (10%). The gene expression of caveolin-1, a specific gene used as a marker of parasite development, showed that progesterone and estradiol downregulated its expression, while protein expression was unaffected. By using flow citometry, a possible protein that is recognized by a commercial antiprogesterone receptor antibody was detected. These findings may have strong implications in the host-parasite coevolution, in the sex-associated susceptibility to this infection and could point out to possibilities to use antihormones to inhibit parasite development. PMID:22162638

Hernández-Bello, Romel; Ramirez-Nieto, Ricardo; Muñiz-Hernández, Saé; Nava-Castro, Karen; Pavón, Lenin; Sánchez-Acosta, Ana Gabriela; Morales-Montor, Jorge

2011-01-01

122

Effects of steroids and sex reversal on intestinal absorption of L-(/sup 14/C)leucine in vivo, in rainbow trout, Salmo gairdneri  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The effects of steroids (17 alpha-methyltestosterone (MT), 17 beta-oestradiol (E2)), and of sex reversal (XX male) on intestinal absorption and accumulation of L-(/sup 14/C)leucine (5 mM), were investigated in unanaesthetized rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri), using an in vivo gut perfusion technique. Each steroid was luminally perfused through the gut at a concentration of 50 micrograms/ml perfusate, during five separate perfusions carried out on the same fish at 30-min intervals (perfusion periods 1 to 5), for a total of 120 min at 14 degrees. Experiments were also conducted on masculinized, genetically female trout (XX male) with steroid-free perfusate. MT treatment significantly increased the intestinal absorption of radioleucine during periods 1 and 2, whilst E2 was without effect. Neither MT nor E2 influenced intestinal accumulation (mid- and hindgut) of radioleucine, and accumulation of /sup 14/C-solutes in skeletal muscle. Sex reversal, however, whilst having no effect on leucine absorption, nevertheless significantly increased intestinal accumulation of radioleucine, and accumulation of /sup 14/C-solutes in skeletal muscle. The effects observed in the present study are in agreement with previous work in trout using everted gut sac preparations. It is suggested that the growth-promoting effects of anabolic-androgenic steroids in fish may be partly explained by their action on gastrointestinal function.

Habibi, H.R.; Ince, B.W.

1983-12-01

123

Effects of steroids and sex reversal on intestinal absorption of L-[14C]leucine in vivo, in rainbow trout, Salmo gairdneri  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effects of steroids (17 alpha-methyltestosterone (MT), 17 beta-oestradiol (E2)), and of sex reversal (XX male) on intestinal absorption and accumulation of L-[14C]leucine (5 mM), were investigated in unanaesthetized rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri), using an in vivo gut perfusion technique. Each steroid was luminally perfused through the gut at a concentration of 50 micrograms/ml perfusate, during five separate perfusions carried out on the same fish at 30-min intervals (perfusion periods 1 to 5), for a total of 120 min at 14 degrees. Experiments were also conducted on masculinized, genetically female trout (XX male) with steroid-free perfusate. MT treatment significantly increased the intestinal absorption of radioleucine during periods 1 and 2, whilst E2 was without effect. Neither MT nor E2 influenced intestinal accumulation (mid- and hindgut) of radioleucine, and accumulation of 14C-solutes in skeletal muscle. Sex reversal, however, whilst having no effect on leucine absorption, nevertheless significantly increased intestinal accumulation of radioleucine, and accumulation of 14C-solutes in skeletal muscle. The effects observed in the present study are in agreement with previous work in trout using everted gut sac preparations. It is suggested that the growth-promoting effects of anabolic-androgenic steroids in fish may be partly explained by their action on gastrointestinal function

1983-01-01

124

Effects of Developmental Exposure to 2,2?,4,4?,5-Pentabromodiphenyl Ether (PBDE-99) on Sex Steroids, Sexual Development, and Sexually Dimorphic Behavior in Rats  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Increasing concentrations of polybrominated flame retardants, including polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), in breast milk cause concern about possible developmental effects in nursed babies. Because previous studies in rats have indicated effects on sex steroids and sexually dimorphic behavior after maternal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), our goal in the present study was to determine if developmental exposure to 2,2?,4,4?,5-pentabromodiphenyl ether (PBDE-99) induces s...

Lilienthal, Hellmuth; Hack, Alfons; Roth-ha?rer, Astrid; Grande, Simone Wichert; Talsness, Chris E.

2006-01-01

125

Breast cancer and sex steroids: critical review of epidemiological, experimental and clinical investigations on etiopathogenesis, chemoprevention and endocrine treatment of breast cancer  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

There is strong epidemiological, experimental and clinical evidence that the etiology of breast cancer is closely related to long-term exposure of breast epithelium to sex steroid hormones. Estrogens can enhance the development of breast cancer by stimulating cell proliferation rate and thereby increasing the number of errors occurring during DNA replication, as well as by causing DNA damage via their genotoxic metabolites produced during oxidation reactions. Anti-estrogenic drugs, including ...

Sismondi, Piero; Biglia, Nicoletta

2005-01-01

126

An immunohistochemical analysis of sex-steroid receptors, tumor suppressor gene p53 and Ki-67 in the normal and neoplastic uterine cervix squamous epithelium  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction. Malignant transformation of sex-steroid dependent tissues is associated with the loss of expression of sex steroid receptors as well as of the tumor suppression gene p53. The aim of this study is to evaluate the expression of sex-steroid receptors, p53 and Ki-67 in specimens from pre-malignant and malignant cervical epithelial lesions throughout the menstrual cycle. Material and Methods. Immunohistochemical staining was performed on formalin fixed, paraffin embedded tissue sections of normal squamous cervical epithelium, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and invasive squamous cervical carcinoma, specimens utilizing antibodies against estrogen receptors, progesterone receptors, p53 protein and Ki-67 antigen. Results. In the samples taken from the normal cervical tissue, basal cells were usually estrogen receptor-positive, progesterone receptornegative, p53-negative and Ki-67-negative throughout the menstrual cycle. In contrast, para-basal cells were estrogen receptorpositive and progesterone receptor-negative in the follicular phase, but estrogen receptor-negative and progesterone receptor -positive and Ki-67 positive in the luteal phase. In cervical precancerous and cancer tissue samples (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and squamous cervical carcinoma, the expression of estrogen receptors decreased. 31.15% of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and 11.5% of squamous cervical carcinoma were positive for estrogen receptors. However, the expression of progesterone receptors increased. 29.5% of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and 49.2% of squamous cervical carcinoma were positive for progesterone receptors. Positive staining for p53 was observed in 15 (24.59% cases of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and in 39 (64% of squamous cervical carcinoma. The expression Ki-67 index in squamous cervical carcinoma cases (47.60% was significantly higher than of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia cases (30.2% (p=0.041. Conclusion. The findings of this study suggest that tumor cervical cells evade normal growth control by sex steroid hormones while synchronously abnormal regulatory mechanisms acquire control of the cell cycle.

Nikolaou Marinos

2014-01-01

127

Selected variants of the steroid-5-alpha-reductase isoforms SRD5A1 and SRD5A2 and the sex steroid hormone receptors ESR1, ESR2 and PGR: no association with female pattern hair loss identified.  

Science.gov (United States)

Female pattern hair loss (FPHL) is a common disorder with a complex mode of inheritance. Although understanding of its etiopathogenesis is incomplete, an interaction between genetic and hormonal factors is assumed to be important. The involvement of an androgen-dependent pathway and sex steroid hormones is the most likely hypothesis. We therefore selected a total of 21 variants from the steroid-5-alpha-reductase isoforms SRD5A1 and SRD5A2, the sex steroid hormone receptors ESR1, ESR2 (oestrogen receptor) and PGR (progesterone receptor) and genotyped these in a case-control sample of 198 patients (145 UK; 53 German patients) and 329 controls (179 UK; 150 German). None of these variants showed any significant association, either in the overall UK and German samples or in the subgroup analyses. In summary, the present results, while based on a limited selection of gene variants, do not point to the involvement of SRD5A1, SRD5A2, ESR1, ESR2 or PGR in FPHL. PMID:22509838

Redler, Silke; Tazi-Ahnini, Rachid; Drichel, Dmitriy; Birch, Mary P; Brockschmidt, Felix F; Dobson, Kathy; Giehl, Kathrin A; Refke, Melanie; Kluck, Nadine; Kruse, Roland; Lutz, Gerhard; Wolff, Hans; Böhm, Markus; Becker, Tim; Nöthen, Markus M; Betz, Regina C; Messenger, Andrew

2012-05-01

128

Sex bias in the outcome of human tropical infectious diseases: influence of steroid hormones.  

Science.gov (United States)

Numerous investigations have revealed a bias toward males in the susceptibility to and severity of a variety of infectious diseases, especially parasitic diseases. Although different external factors may influence the exposure to infection sources among males and females, one recurrent phenomenon indicative of a hormonal influence is the simultaneous increase in disease occurrence and hormonal activity during the aging process. Substantial evidence to support the influence of hormones on disease requires rigorously controlled human population studies, as well as the same sex dimorphism being observed under controlled laboratory conditions. To date, only very few studies conducted have fulfilled these criteria. Herein, we introduce tropical infectious diseases, including amebiasis, malaria, leishmaniasis, toxoplasmosis, schistosomiasis, and paracoccidioidomycosis, in which hormones are suspected to play a role in disease processes. We summarize the most recent findings from epidemiologic studies in humans and from hormone replacement studies in animal models, as well as data regarding the influence of hormones on immune responses underlying the pathology of the diseases. PMID:24966190

Bernin, Hannah; Lotter, Hanna

2014-07-15

129

The Influence of Sex Steroid Hormones in the Immunopathology of Experimental Pulmonary Tuberculosis  

Science.gov (United States)

The relation between men and women suffering pulmonary tuberculosis is 7/3 in favor to males. Sex hormones could be a significant factor for this difference, considering that testosterone impairs macrophage activation and pro-inflammatory cytokines production, while estrogens are proinflammatory mediator’s inducer. The aim of this work was to compare the evolution of tuberculosis in male and female mice using a model of progressive disease. BALB/c mice, male and female were randomized into two groups: castrated or sham-operated, and infected by the intratracheal route with a high dose of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain H37Rv. Mice were euthanized at different time points and in their lungs were determined bacilli loads, inflammation, cytokines expression, survival and testosterone levels in serum. Non-castrated male mice showed significant higher mortality and bacilli burdens during late disease than female and castrated male animals. Compared to males, females and castrated males exhibited significant higher inflammation in all lung compartments, earlier formation of granulomas and pneumonia, while between castrated and non-castrated females there were not significant differences. Females and castrated males expressed significant higher TNF-?, IFN ?, IL12, iNOS and IL17 than non-castrated males during the first month of infection. Serum Testosterone of males showed higher concentration during late infection. Orchidectomy at day 60 post-infection produced a significant decrease of bacilli burdens in coexistence with higher expression of TNF?, IL-12 and IFN?. Thus, male mice are more susceptible to tuberculosis than females and this was prevented by castration suggesting that testosterone could be a tuberculosis susceptibility factor.

Bini, Estela Isabel; Mata Espinosa, Dulce; Marquina Castillo, Brenda; Barrios Payan, Jorge; Colucci, Dario; Cruz, Alejandro Francisco; Zatarain, Zyanya Lucia; Alfonseca, Edgar; Pardo, Marta Romano; Bottasso, Oscar; Pando, Rogelio Hernandez

2014-01-01

130

The influence of sex steroid hormones in the immunopathology of experimental pulmonary tuberculosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The relation between men and women suffering pulmonary tuberculosis is 7/3 in favor to males. Sex hormones could be a significant factor for this difference, considering that testosterone impairs macrophage activation and pro-inflammatory cytokines production, while estrogens are proinflammatory mediator's inducer. The aim of this work was to compare the evolution of tuberculosis in male and female mice using a model of progressive disease. BALB/c mice, male and female were randomized into two groups: castrated or sham-operated, and infected by the intratracheal route with a high dose of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain H37Rv. Mice were euthanized at different time points and in their lungs were determined bacilli loads, inflammation, cytokines expression, survival and testosterone levels in serum. Non-castrated male mice showed significant higher mortality and bacilli burdens during late disease than female and castrated male animals. Compared to males, females and castrated males exhibited significant higher inflammation in all lung compartments, earlier formation of granulomas and pneumonia, while between castrated and non-castrated females there were not significant differences. Females and castrated males expressed significant higher TNF-?, IFN ?, IL12, iNOS and IL17 than non-castrated males during the first month of infection. Serum Testosterone of males showed higher concentration during late infection. Orchidectomy at day 60 post-infection produced a significant decrease of bacilli burdens in coexistence with higher expression of TNF?, IL-12 and IFN?. Thus, male mice are more susceptible to tuberculosis than females and this was prevented by castration suggesting that testosterone could be a tuberculosis susceptibility factor. PMID:24722144

Bini, Estela Isabel; Mata Espinosa, Dulce; Marquina Castillo, Brenda; Barrios Payán, Jorge; Colucci, Darío; Cruz, Alejandro Francisco; Zatarain, Zyanya Lucía; Alfonseca, Edgar; Pardo, Marta Romano; Bottasso, Oscar; Pando, Rogelio Hernández

2014-01-01

131

Decreased glutathione S-transferase expression and activity and altered sex steroids in Lake Apopka brown bullheads (Ameriurus nebulosus)  

Science.gov (United States)

A number of freshwater lakes and reclaimed agricultural sites in Central Florida have been the receiving waters for agrochemical and municipal runoff. One of these sites, Lake Apopka, is also a eutrophic system that has been the focus of several case studies reporting altered reproductive activity linked to bioaccumulation of persistent organochlorine chemicals in aquatic species. The present study was initiated to determine if brown bullheads (Ameriurus nebulosus) from the north marsh of Lake Apopka (Lake Apopka Marsh) exhibit an altered capacity to detoxify environmental chemicals through hepatic glutathione S-transferase (GST)-mediated conjugation as compared with bullheads from a nearby reference site (Lake Woodruff). We also compared plasma sex hormone concentrations (testosterone, 17-?? estradiol, and 11 keto-testosterone) in bullheads from the two sites. Female bullheads from Lake Apopka had 40% lower initial rate GST conjugative activity toward 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB), 50% lower activity towards p-nitrobutyl chloride (NBC), 33% lower activity toward ethacrynic acid (ECA), and 43% lower activity toward ??5-androstene-3,17-dione (??5-ADI), as compared with female bullheads from Lake Woodruff. Enzyme kinetic analyses demonstrated that female bullheads from Lake Apopka had lower GST-catalyzed CDNB clearance than did female Lake Woodruff bullheads. Western blotting studies of bullhead liver cytosolic proteins demonstrated that the reduced GST catalytic activities in female Lake Apopka bullheads were accompanied by lower expression of hepatic GST protein. No site differences were observed with respect to GST activities or GST protein expression in male bullheads. Female Lake Apopka bullheads also had elevated concentrations of plasma androgens (testosterone and 11-ketotestosterone) as compared with females from Lake Woodruff. In contrast, male Lake Apopka bullheads had elevated levels of plasma estrogen but similar levels of androgens as compared with male bullheads from Lake Woodruff. Collectively, our studies indicate the presence of reduced GST protein expression, reduced GST conjugative capacity and altered sex steroid homeostasis in female bullheads from a contaminated field site in Central Florida. The implications of these physiological alterations in terms of pollutant biotransformation and reproduction are discussed. ?? 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

Gallagher, E. P.; Gross, T. S.; Sheehy, K. M.

2001-01-01

132

Effects of thermal regime on ovarian maturation and plasma sex steroids in farmed white sturgeon, Acipenser transmontanus  

Science.gov (United States)

Recently, commercial aquaculture farms in Northern California have exposed gravid, cultured white sturgeon females to cold water (12 ?? 1??C) throughout the late phase of vitellogenesis and ovarian follicle maturation resulting in improved ovulation rates and egg quality. However, the optimum timing for transfer of broodfish to the cold water and the capacity of transferred broodfish to maintain reproductive competence over an extended time in cold water had not been evaluated. Gravid white sturgeon females that have been raised at water temperatures of 16-20??C were transported to either cold water (12 ?? 1??C; Group 1) in November 1997 or maintained in ambient water temperatures (10-19??C; Group 2) until early spring. In March 1998, half of the fish in Group 2 had regressed ovaries, but the remaining females had intact ovarian follicles and were transported to the cold water. Ovarian follicles and blood were collected from females until they reached the stage of spawning readiness (determined by germinal vesicle position and an oocyte maturation assay) or underwent ovarian regression. Exposure of gravid sturgeon females to ambient water temperatures (14.5 ?? 2.3??C, mean ?? S.D.) from October to March led to a decrease in plasma sex steroids and a high incidence of ovarian regression in fish with a more advanced stage of oocyte development. Transfer of females with intact ovarian follicles to cold water (12 ?? 1??C) in the fall or early spring resulted in normal ovarian development in the majority of females. Holding females in cold water does not seem to override their endogenous reproductive rhythms but extends their capacity to maintain oocyte maturational competence over a longer period of time. A temperature-sensitive phase in ovarian development may occur during the transition from vitellogenic growth to oocyte maturation, and the degree and timing of sensitivity to environmental temperature are dependent on the female's endogenous reproductive rhythm. ?? 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All Rights reserved.

Webb, M. A. H.; Van Eenennaam, J. P.; Feist, G. W.; Linares-Casenave, J.; Fitzpatrick, M. S.; Schreck, C. B.; Doroshov, S. I.

2001-01-01

133

Hepatic overexpression of steroid sulfatase ameliorates mouse models of obesity and type 2 diabetes through sex-specific mechanisms.  

Science.gov (United States)

The steroid sulfatase (STS)-mediated desulfation is a critical metabolic mechanism that regulates the chemical and functional homeostasis of endogenous and exogenous molecules. In this report, we first showed that the liver expression of Sts was induced in both the high fat diet (HFD) and ob/ob models of obesity and type 2 diabetes and during the fed to fasting transition. In defining the functional relevance of STS induction in metabolic disease, we showed that overexpression of STS in the liver of transgenic mice alleviated HFD and ob/ob models of obesity and type 2 diabetes, including reduced body weight, improved insulin sensitivity, and decreased hepatic steatosis and inflammation. Interestingly, STS exerted its metabolic benefit through sex-specific mechanisms. In female mice, STS may have increased hepatic estrogen activity by converting biologically inactive estrogen sulfates to active estrogens and consequently improved the metabolic functions, whereas ovariectomy abolished this protective effect. In contrast, the metabolic benefit of STS in males may have been accounted for by the male-specific decrease of inflammation in white adipose tissue and skeletal muscle as well as a pattern of skeletal muscle gene expression that favors energy expenditure. The metabolic benefit in male STS transgenic mice was retained after castration. Treatment with the STS substrate estrone sulfate also improved metabolic functions in both the HFD and ob/ob models. Our results have uncovered a novel function of STS in energy metabolism and type 2 diabetes. Liver-specific STS induction or estrogen/estrogen sulfate delivery may represent a novel approach to manage metabolic syndrome. PMID:24497646

Jiang, Mengxi; He, Jinhan; Kucera, Heidi; Gaikwad, Nilesh W; Zhang, Bin; Xu, Meishu; O'Doherty, Robert M; Selcer, Kyle W; Xie, Wen

2014-03-21

134

Control of the level of unusual estrogen-binding protein in rat liver by sex steroids and the pituitary  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper studies the role of sex steriods and the pituitary in regulation of the unusual estrogen-binding protein (UEBP) level in male rat liver. The concentration of E_2-binding sites of UEBP in the liver cytosol was determined by measuring binding of a minimal addition of 2,4,6,7-tritium-E_2, with specific radioactivity of 98-100 Ci/mmole. Data on the effect of hypophysectomy on the UEBP level in the liver of different groups of rats are presented. The presence of comparable quantities of E_2 and androgens in rats of both sexes is evidence of the existence of a fine mechanism of combined regulation of the UEBP concentration under natural conditions that reflect changes in the absolute E_2 or androgen levels or in the ratio between them

1986-02-01

135

Sex steroid hormones, bone mineral density, and risk of breast cancer.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Increased bone mineral density (BMD), as a marker of higher integrated estrogen exposure over time, could be an important risk factor for postmenopausal breast cancer. In the Study of Osteoporotic Fractures 8065 non-black women age 65 years and older were followed for an average of 3.2 years. There were 121 incident breast cancer cases. The age adjusted incidence rate/1000 person years of breast cancer was substantially higher among women with high BMD at several measured bone sites. There wa...

Kuller, L. H.; Cauley, J. A.; Lucas, L.; Cummings, S.; Browner, W. S.

1997-01-01

136

Histologia mamária após uso de esteróides sexuais - estudo em ratas / Breast histologic changes in female rats treated with sex steroids  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Avaliar as alterações histológicas em mamas de ratas submetidas à terapêutica com estrogênio, progestogênio e tibolona. MÉTODOS: Estudo experimental com 40 ratas, sendo 20 sem prole (grupo A) e 20 com prole (grupo B). Todas as ratas foram castradas e, após quatro semanas, alocadas aleatori [...] amente em subgrupos: A1, A2, A3, A4, A5 e B1, B2, B3, B4, B5. Os esteróides foram administrados da seguinte forma: A1 e B1 - benzoato de estradiol; A2 e B2 - acetato de medroxiprogesterona; A3 e B3 - benzoato de estradiol e acetato de medroxiprogesterona; A4 e B4 - tibolona; A5 e B5 - placebo. Após dez semanas de tratamento, os animais foram sacrificados e suas glândulas mamárias submetidas à análise histológica. Os parâmetros avaliados foram: proliferação epitelial, atividade secretora e atipias epiteliais nas unidades de ductos ou alvéolos terminais. A associação entre os achados histológicos e os esquemas terapêuticos foi avaliada por meio do odds ratio e intervalo de confiança de 95%. RESULTADOS: Alterações histológicas foram observadas em 29 ratas: hiperplasia moderada (52,5%), hiperplasia alvéolo-nodular (42,5%), atipia sem proliferação (35%), hiperplasia leve (32,5%), atividade secretora (20%) e hiperplasia severa (5%). Em ratas sem prole observou-se 1,3 mais chance, em relação ao grupo controle, de apresentar hiperplasia alvéolo-nodular no grupo que recebeu estrogênio, hiperplasia moderada no grupo tratado com progestogênio, e hiperplasia alvéolo-nodular e atipia sem proliferação epitelial com a associação entre estrogênio e progestogênio. CONCLUSÃO: Hiperplasia moderada e atipia epitelial associaram-se à terapia combinada de estrogênio e progestogênio, e o antecedente de prole reduziu a ocorrência destas alterações e de hiperplasia alvéolo-nodular. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association of histologic changes in the breasts of female rats undergoing therapy with sex steroids. METHODS: An experimental study was conducted of 40 castrated female non-pubertal rats, 20 had given birth (Group B) and 20 had no offspring (Group A). After four weeks, th [...] ese rats were randomly allocated to subgroups: A1, A2, A3, A4, A5 and B1, B2, B3, B4, B5. Steroids were given to subgroups as follows: A1 and B1 - estradiol benzoate; A2 and B2 - medroxyprogesterone acetate; A3 and B3 - estradiol benzoate and medroxyprogesterone acetate; A4 and B4 - tibolone; A5 and B5 - placebo. After 10 weeks of treatment, animals were sacrificed and their mammary glands were analyzed. Histologic parameters evaluated were: epithelial cell proliferation, epithelial cells with secretory activity; and cell atypia in terminal duct units and buds or terminal alveoli. The association between microscopic analysis and diverse therapeutic regimens were analyzed by calculating the odds ratio and its respective 95% confidence interval. RESULTS: Histologic changes were observed in 29 rats: moderate hyperplasia (52.5%), hyperplastic alveolar nodule (42.5%), epithelial atypia (35%), mild hyperplasia (32.5%), secretory activity (20%) and severe hyperplasia (5%). In rats with no offspring when compared to the control, 1.3 times more hyperplastic alveolar nodules were found in the group treated with estradiol, the same was true for moderate hyperplasia in the rats that received medroxyprogesterone acetate, hyperplastic alveolar nodules and epithelial atypia in the group treated with estradiol plus medroxyprogesterone acetate. In the rats with offspring 1.3 times more secretory activity was found with estradiol. CONCLUSION: Epithelial hyperplasia and epithelial atypia with no proliferation are strongly associated to combined therapy with estradiol plus medroxyprogesterone acetate, mainly in the rats without offspring.

Vicelli, José Tadeu; Gurgel, Maria Salete Costa; Alvarenga, Marcelo.

137

Histologia mamária após uso de esteróides sexuais - estudo em ratas Breast histologic changes in female rats treated with sex steroids  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar as alterações histológicas em mamas de ratas submetidas à terapêutica com estrogênio, progestogênio e tibolona. MÉTODOS: Estudo experimental com 40 ratas, sendo 20 sem prole (grupo A e 20 com prole (grupo B. Todas as ratas foram castradas e, após quatro semanas, alocadas aleatoriamente em subgrupos: A1, A2, A3, A4, A5 e B1, B2, B3, B4, B5. Os esteróides foram administrados da seguinte forma: A1 e B1 - benzoato de estradiol; A2 e B2 - acetato de medroxiprogesterona; A3 e B3 - benzoato de estradiol e acetato de medroxiprogesterona; A4 e B4 - tibolona; A5 e B5 - placebo. Após dez semanas de tratamento, os animais foram sacrificados e suas glândulas mamárias submetidas à análise histológica. Os parâmetros avaliados foram: proliferação epitelial, atividade secretora e atipias epiteliais nas unidades de ductos ou alvéolos terminais. A associação entre os achados histológicos e os esquemas terapêuticos foi avaliada por meio do odds ratio e intervalo de confiança de 95%. RESULTADOS: Alterações histológicas foram observadas em 29 ratas: hiperplasia moderada (52,5%, hiperplasia alvéolo-nodular (42,5%, atipia sem proliferação (35%, hiperplasia leve (32,5%, atividade secretora (20% e hiperplasia severa (5%. Em ratas sem prole observou-se 1,3 mais chance, em relação ao grupo controle, de apresentar hiperplasia alvéolo-nodular no grupo que recebeu estrogênio, hiperplasia moderada no grupo tratado com progestogênio, e hiperplasia alvéolo-nodular e atipia sem proliferação epitelial com a associação entre estrogênio e progestogênio. CONCLUSÃO: Hiperplasia moderada e atipia epitelial associaram-se à terapia combinada de estrogênio e progestogênio, e o antecedente de prole reduziu a ocorrência destas alterações e de hiperplasia alvéolo-nodular.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association of histologic changes in the breasts of female rats undergoing therapy with sex steroids. METHODS: An experimental study was conducted of 40 castrated female non-pubertal rats, 20 had given birth (Group B and 20 had no offspring (Group A. After four weeks, these rats were randomly allocated to subgroups: A1, A2, A3, A4, A5 and B1, B2, B3, B4, B5. Steroids were given to subgroups as follows: A1 and B1 - estradiol benzoate; A2 and B2 - medroxyprogesterone acetate; A3 and B3 - estradiol benzoate and medroxyprogesterone acetate; A4 and B4 - tibolone; A5 and B5 - placebo. After 10 weeks of treatment, animals were sacrificed and their mammary glands were analyzed. Histologic parameters evaluated were: epithelial cell proliferation, epithelial cells with secretory activity; and cell atypia in terminal duct units and buds or terminal alveoli. The association between microscopic analysis and diverse therapeutic regimens were analyzed by calculating the odds ratio and its respective 95% confidence interval. RESULTS: Histologic changes were observed in 29 rats: moderate hyperplasia (52.5%, hyperplastic alveolar nodule (42.5%, epithelial atypia (35%, mild hyperplasia (32.5%, secretory activity (20% and severe hyperplasia (5%. In rats with no offspring when compared to the control, 1.3 times more hyperplastic alveolar nodules were found in the group treated with estradiol, the same was true for moderate hyperplasia in the rats that received medroxyprogesterone acetate, hyperplastic alveolar nodules and epithelial atypia in the group treated with estradiol plus medroxyprogesterone acetate. In the rats with offspring 1.3 times more secretory activity was found with estradiol. CONCLUSION: Epithelial hyperplasia and epithelial atypia with no proliferation are strongly associated to combined therapy with estradiol plus medroxyprogesterone acetate, mainly in the rats without offspring.

José Tadeu Vicelli

2006-10-01

138

Effect of GnRHa, pimozide and Ovaprim on ovulation and plasma sex steroid hormones in African catfish Clarias gariepinus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nine groups each of four fish were injected with a single intramuscular dose of the following preparations: Physiological saline (0.9% NaCl) as a control group, 0.5 ml kg(-1) Ovaprim, 20 and 40 ?g kg(-1) BW of GnRHa, 8 and 16 mL kg(-1) pimozide tablets and the following combination of GnRHa with pimozide (GP): 20 ?g + 4 mg, 30 ?g + 8 mg and 40 ?g + 16 mg kg(-1) BW. The primary oocyte diameter (POD) before hormone administration ranged from 943.3 to 1071.0 ?m. The latency periods (LP) were in the range of 9.0 to 12.0 h after injection. The highest ovulation ratio (OR) was observed in groups Ovaprim, GP(30 + 8) and GP(40 + 16). Other treatments were effective for ovulation, the ovulation ratio in Groups G(40) and GP(20 + 4) were significantly higher than G(20) treatment. The ovulation index (OI) was in the range 62 to 77% and showed significant differences among groups. There was no significant difference in fertilization ratio (FR) among Ovaprim, GP(30 + 8) and GP(40 + 16) groups, while there were significant difference between the previous group and G(20) and G(40) groups. Control, P8, P16 showed negative results in all the parameters LP, OED, OR, OI and FR. Levels of sex steroids were analyzed on 6 and 12 h after initiation of treatments. A significant increase in plasma E(2) with GP(30 + 8) injection was observed 6 and 12 h after injection, while there were no significant increase between all the other groups 6 h after injection. Treatments with GP(20 + 4) resulted in a significant increase in plasma T concentration in females compared with control after 6 h. In contrast, plasma T and E(2) concentrations were lower during the combined GP(20 + 4), GP(30 + 8) and GP(40 + 16) after 12 h than after 16 h of injection. The combined treatments (GnRHa + PIM) are better compared with Ovaprim which gave the same results, they have some advantages, such as reliable response and low cost. Ovaprim is more than 3 to 5-fold of the cost of (GnRH + PIM). Therefore, this method could be useful tool for commercial catfish breeders to ensure spawning success. PMID:22365698

Sharaf, S M

2012-05-01

139

Cytotoxicity, cellular localisation and biomolecular interaction of non-covalent metallo-intercalators with appended sex hormone steroid vectors.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A range of terpyridine platinum(II) metallo-intercalators with bioactive steroids attached has been created with the aim of localizing cytotoxic drugs. Complexes where the steroid does not interfere with access to the terpyridine are shown to retain potent cytotoxicity and show certain selectivity towards their natural receptors. Because the intercalation of the terpyridine moiety between the bases of the DNA is the origin of the biological activity, a dramatic decrease of the activity is obs...

2009-01-01

140

Direct effect of sex steroid-binding protein (SBP) of plasma on the metabolic clearance rate of testosterone in the rhesus macaque.  

Science.gov (United States)

We report direct evidence for the effect of the sex steroid-binding protein (SBP) on the metabolic clearance rate of testosterone (MCRT). Pure rhesus SBP or human SBP was infused intravenously into three different cycling female rhesus monkeys. MCRT was measured before and after SBP had reached 150-300% of basal levels. A decrease in MCRT was observed in all cases. The effect of SBP on MCRT was tested further in four additional cycling females by infusing immunoaffinity-purified monospecific human SBP antibodies known to cross-react with rhesus SBP. SBP dropped to 54, 40, 4 and 2% of basal levels with a concomitant increase of 118, 190, 320 and 640% of basal MCRT. In one of these animals, pure rabbit SBP was administered after the anti-human SBP infusion resulting in a decrease in MCRT. The magnitude of the SBP effect on MCRT is related to the distribution of testosterone (T) bound to SBP and albumin in the plasma. Calculations show that as long as the percent of T bound to SBP is equal or higher than the percent of T bound to albumin, the influence on MCRT is small. However, if SBP is reduced to the extent that T is bound mostly to albumin, the redistribution of T is associated with a dramatic increase in MCRT. We conclude that under normal conditions each animal has an optimum concentration of plasma SBP which binds a maximum amount of T. If SBP increases above this level, little effect on MCRT will result. However, a drop below the optimum level, as is the case in certain physiological or clinical conditions, will produce a large increase in the clearance of T. PMID:3927063

Pétra, P H; Stanczyk, F Z; Namkung, P C; Fritz, M A; Novy, M J

1985-06-01

 
 
 
 
141

In vitro inhibition of CYP1A2 by model inhibitors, anti-inflammatory analgesics and female sex steroids: predictability of in vivo interactions.  

Science.gov (United States)

The cytochrome P450 enzyme CYP1A2 is crucial for the metabolism of many drugs, for example, tizanidine. As the effects of several non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) and female sex steroids on CYP1A2 activity in vitro are unknown, their effects on phenacetin O-deethylation were studied and compared with the effects of model inhibitors in human liver microsomes, followed by prediction of their interaction potential with tizanidine in vivo. In vitro, fluvoxamine, tolfenamic acid, mefenamic acid and rofecoxib potently inhibited CYP1A2 [the 50% inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) 200 microM). At 100 microM, the other tested NSAIDs and steroids inhibited CYP1A2 less than 35%. Pre-incubation increased the inhibitory effects of rofecoxib, progesterone and desogestrel. Using the free portal plasma inhibitor concentration and the competitive inhibition model, the effect of fluvoxamine and the lack of effects of tolfenamic acid and celecoxib on tizanidine pharmacokinetics in human beings were well predicted. However, the effects of ciprofloxacin, rofecoxib and oral contraceptives were greatly underestimated even when the predictions were based on their total portal plasma concentration. Besides rofecoxib, and possibly mefenamic acid, other NSAIDs were predicted not to significantly inhibit CYP1A2 in human beings. The type of enzyme inhibition, particularly metabolism-dependent inhibition, free inhibitor concentration and accumulation of the inhibitor into the hepatocytes should be considered in extrapolations of in vitro results to human beings. PMID:18816299

Karjalainen, Marjo J; Neuvonen, Pertti J; Backman, Janne T

2008-08-01

142

Influence of water temperature on induced reproduction by hypophysation, sex steroids concentrations and final oocyte maturation of the "curimatã-pacu" Prochilodus argenteus (Pisces: Prochilodontidae).  

Science.gov (United States)

Most fishes with commercial importance from the São Francisco basin are migratory and do not complete the reproductive cycle in lentic environments, such as hydroelectric plant reservoirs, hence natural stocks are declining and there is an urgent need to reduce the pressure of fishing on those wild populations. Therefore, studies on reproductive biology and its relationship with endocrine and environmental factors are key to improving the cultivation techniques of Brazilian fish species. This study examined the influence of water temperature on sex steroid concentrations (testosterone, 17?-estradiol and 17?-hydroxyprogesterone), spawning efficiency, fecundity, fertilisation rate, larval abnormality rates and involvement of the cytoskeleton during the final oocyte maturation of Prochilodus argenteus under experimental conditions. The results of our study showed that in captivity, sex steroid plasma concentrations and spawning performance of P. argenteus were clearly different for fish kept in water with different temperature regimes. In lower water temperature (23°C), it was observed that: 33% of females did not ovulate, fecundity was lower and vitellogenic oocytes after the spawning induction procedure exhibited a smaller diameter. Moreover, concentrations of 17?-estradiol and 17?-hydroxyprogesterone were lower and there was a delay in the final oocyte maturation and, consequently, ovulation and spawning. Our experiments showed direct influence of water temperature in the process of induced spawning of P. argenteus. Changes in water temperature also suggest the tubulin involvement in the nuclear dislocation process and the possible action of actin filaments in the release of polar bodies during final oocyte maturation of P. argenteus. PMID:21501616

Arantes, Fábio P; Santos, Hélio B; Rizzo, Elizete; Sato, Yoshimi; Bazzoli, Nilo

2011-07-01

143

Steroid hormones as biomarkers of endocrine disruption in wildlife  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Xenobiotic compounds introduced into the environment by human activity have been shown to adversely affect the endocrine system of wildlife. Various species exhibit abnormalities of (1) plasma sex steroid hormones, (2) altered steroid synthesis form the gonad in vitro and (3) altered steroidogenic enzyme function. These endpoints are sensitive and relatively easy to measure quantitatively with reliability and precision. These observations have led to the conclusion that sex steroid hormones could be markers of exposure to, and altered function from, endocrine disrupting contaminants (EDCs). However, there are serious limitations in the use of steroid hormones as generalized markers of EDC exposure. Steroid hormones exhibit seasonal, ontogenetic, gender and species-specific variation. Moreover, the regulation of sex steroid plasma concentrations is a relatively complex phenomenon capable of short-term (minutes-hours) alteration due to environmental inputs, such as acute stress--an activational response. Alterations in steroids synthesis and degradation also can be a response to altered embryonic development due to EDC exposure--an organizational response. If steroid hormones are to be used as biomarkers, then closely controlled, well designed sampling has to be performed. Additionally, an appreciation of the variation possible in endocrine responses among the species to be studied must be obtained.

Guillette, L.J. Jr.; Rooney, A.A.; Crain, D.A.; Orlando, E.F.

1999-07-01

144

Gonadal steroidogenesis and the possible role of steroid glucuronides as sex pheromones in two species of teleosts.  

Science.gov (United States)

In general, female zebrafish,Brachydanio rerio, ovulate only in the presence of males. The stimulant must be pheromonal as even male holding water is capable of inducing ovulation. After ovulation the mating phase begins. During this phase the male follows the female and oviposition as well as fertilization takes place. Both the ovulation and the mating are controlled by pheromones synthesized by the gonads. Ovulation can be induced by testicular homogenates. After the lipid material has been extracted from the testicular homogenates, the remaining aqueous phase can still induce ovulation. However, when the aqueous phase is treated with the enzyme?-glucuronidase, it loses the ability to induce ovulation. This is an indication that glucuronides, probably steroid glucuronides, are the compounds responsible.During the mating phase, ovulated female zebrafish become attractive to males. It was found that, after ovulation, ovarian extracts contain the compounds responsible for attracting males. The attractant consists of a mixture of steroid glucuronides.After incubation of the gonads with(3)H-precursors seven steroid glucuronides have been identified in the testis and five in the ovary.Under fish culture conditions the African catfish,Clarias gariepinus, can produce postivitellogenic oocytes throughout the year. However, in capitivity neither males nor females spawn. In female catfish maturation and ovulation can be induced by treatment with gonadotropins. It might be possible that, analogous to the zebrafish, some reproductive processes in the catfish have to be induced by pheromones. It has been demonstrated that pheromonal compounds released by the seminal vesicles are involved in the attraction of female conspecifics. The steroid glucuronide synthesizing capability of the testes and the seminal vesicles of the male catfish are examined, as well as that of the ovary before and after ovulation of the female catfish. Both testes and seminal vesicles appear to be capable of steroid biosynthesis but only the latter synthesizes steroid glucuronides. Six of these conjugates have been isolated and identified. In the female catfish the ovaries are capable of synthesizing seven steroid glucuronides, but only after ovulation. PMID:24233171

Lambert, J G; van den Hurk, R; Schoonen, W G; Resink, J W; van Oordt, P G

1986-10-01

145

Sex assessment using measurements of the first lumbar vertebra.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sex determination is a vital part of the medico-legal system but can be difficult in cases where the integrity of the body has been compromised. The purpose of this study was to develop a technique for sex assessment from measurements of the first lumber vertebrate. Twenty-nine linear measurements and five ratios were collected from 113 Chinese adult males and 97 Chinese adult females using digital three-dimensional anthropometry methods. By using discriminant analysis, we found that 23 linear measurements and two ratios identified sexual dimorphism (PEPDm). This study shows that a single first lumber vertebra can be used for this purpose, and that the discriminant equation will help forensic determination of sex in the Chinese population. PMID:22169166

Zheng, Wen Xu; Cheng, Fu Bo; Cheng, Kai Liang; Tian, Yong; Lai, Ying; Zhang, Wen Song; Zheng, Ya Juan; Li, You Qiong

2012-06-10

146

Genes related to sex steroids, neural growth, and social-emotional behavior are associated with autistic traits, empathy, and Asperger syndrome.  

Science.gov (United States)

Genetic studies of autism spectrum conditions (ASC) have mostly focused on the "low functioning" severe clinical subgroup, treating it as a rare disorder. However, ASC is now thought to be relatively common ( approximately 1%), and representing one end of a quasi-normal distribution of autistic traits in the general population. Here we report a study of common genetic variation in candidate genes associated with autistic traits and Asperger syndrome (AS). We tested single nucleotide polymorphisms in 68 candidate genes in three functional groups (sex steroid synthesis/transport, neural connectivity, and social-emotional responsivity) in two experiments. These were (a) an association study of relevant behavioral traits (the Empathy Quotient (EQ), the Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ)) in a population sample (n=349); and (b) a case-control association study on a sample of people with AS, a "high-functioning" subgroup of ASC (n=174). 27 genes showed a nominally significant association with autistic traits and/or ASC diagnosis. Of these, 19 genes showed nominally significant association with AQ/EQ. In the sex steroid group, this included ESR2 and CYP11B1. In the neural connectivity group, this included HOXA1, NTRK1, and NLGN4X. In the socio-responsivity behavior group, this included MAOB, AVPR1B, and WFS1. Fourteen genes showed nominally significant association with AS. In the sex steroid group, this included CYP17A1 and CYP19A1. In the socio-emotional behavior group, this included OXT. Six genes were nominally associated in both experiments, providing a partial replication. Eleven genes survived family wise error rate (FWER) correction using permutations across both experiments, which is greater than would be expected by chance. CYP11B1 and NTRK1 emerged as significantly associated genes in both experiments, after FWER correction (P<0.05). This is the first candidate-gene association study of AS and of autistic traits. The most promising candidate genes require independent replication and fine mapping. PMID:19598235

Chakrabarti, B; Dudbridge, F; Kent, L; Wheelwright, S; Hill-Cawthorne, G; Allison, C; Banerjee-Basu, S; Baron-Cohen, S

2009-06-01

147

Pituitary-gonadal Relationship in the Catfish Clarias batrachus (L): A Study Correlating Gonadotrophin-II and Sex Steroid Dynamics.  

Science.gov (United States)

A heterologous radioimmunoassay was developed for measuring gonadotrophin-II (GTH-II) in the catfish Clarias batrachus. Serum and/or pituitary levels of GTH-II showed significant annual/seasonal variations in male and female catfish, which could be correlated with both gonadosomatic index and/or serum testosterone level. GTH-II was not detected in resting phase, increased during gonadal recrudescence to peak values in late prespawning /spawning phases, and declined to low values in postspawning phase. During gonadal recrudescence, the pituitary and serum levels of GTH-II maintained positive or inverse relationships implying differential rates of hormone release and synthesis/storage. Gonadectomy resulted in increased release of GTH-II; the release pattern varied in females and hemi-castrated or completely castrated males. In females, the GTH-II increase followed a distinct biphasic pattern with the peak rise at week 4 of ovariectomy. In males, castration resulted in significant rise of serum GTH-II levels at all duration except week 5, but the magnitude of the rise was higher in completely castrated fish (weeks 1, 2 and 3). Testosterone replacement in 3-week hemi-castrated fish restored the GTH-II level to that of the sham control vehicle group. In intact fish, administration of testosterone elicited an increase in serum GTH-II levels in the low dose (0.25 and 0.5 mug / g BW) groups and no change in the high dose (1.0 mug / g BW) group. Methallibure treatment inhibited GTH-II levels in a dose-dependent manner. The reduction was greater in males. Withdrawal of the drug treatment restored the GTH-II and testosterone levels after 15 days in the low dose group (2 mug / g BW). The results indicate that there exists a dynamic positive or negative feedback relationship between gonadal steroids and GTH-II, which is essential to control the release and availability of circulating GTH-II. PMID:18494596

Joy, K P; Singh, M S; Senthilkumaran, B; Goos, H J

2000-04-01

148

Assessment of spermatogenesis and plasma sex steroids in a seasonal breeding teleost: a comparative study in an area of influence of a tributary, downstream from a hydroelectric power dam, Brazil.  

Science.gov (United States)

River damming and building of hydroelectric power plants interrupt the reproductive migration routes and change the major physicochemical parameters of water quality, with drastic consequences for populations of migratory fishes. The goal of this study was to evaluate proliferation and cell death during spermatogenesis and serum profiles of sex steroids in Prochilodus argenteus, from the São Francisco River, downstream from the Três Marias Dam. A total of 257 adult males were caught quarterly during a reproductive cycle in two sites: the first 34 km of the river after the dam (site 1) and the second 34-54 km after the dam (site 2), after the confluence with a tributary, the Abaeté River. Seasonal changes in the testicular activity associated with morphometric analyses of germ cells as well as proliferation and testicular apoptosis support a more active spermatogenesis in fish from site 2, where higher levels of sex steroids and gonadosomatic index (GSI) were also found. In site 1, fish presented low serum levels of testosterone, 17?-estradiol and 17?-hydroxyprogesterone and a low GSI during gonadal maturation. Spermatogonial proliferation (PCNA) and apoptosis (TUNEL) were more elevated in fish from site 1, but spermatocytes were mainly labelled in fish from site 2. Overall, these data demonstrate changes in testicular activity and plasma sex steroids in a neotropical teleost fish living downstream from a hydroelectric dam, supplying new data on fish reproduction in regulated rivers. Moreover, morphometric analyses associated with sex steroids profiles provide reliable tools to assess fish spermatogenesis under environmental stress conditions. PMID:22688450

Domingos, Fabricio F T; Thomé, Ralph G; Arantes, Fabio P; Castro, Antonio Carlos S; Sato, Yoshimi; Bazzoli, Nilo; Rizzo, Elizete

2012-12-01

149

Nitrite-induced alterations in sex steroids and thyroid hormones of Labeo rohita juveniles: effects of dietary vitamin E and L-tryptophan.  

Science.gov (United States)

An experiment was conducted to study the effect of sub-lethal nitrite exposure on sex steroids (testosterone and estradiol), cortisol and thyroid hormones (T3 and T4) of Labeo rohita juveniles. Fishes previously fed with normal or elevated levels of vitamin E (VE) and tryptophan for 60 days were exposed to sub-lethal nitrite for another 45 days with same feeding regime. There were nine treatment groups, viz. VE0TRP0-N, VE0TRP0+N, VE100TRP0-N, VE100TRP0+N, VE100TRP0.75+N, VE100TRP1.5+N, VE150TRP0+N, VE300TRP0+N and VE200TRP1+N. Except the groups VE0TRP0-N and VE100TRP0-N, all other groups were exposed to nitrite. At the end of the 45 days of nitrite exposure, serum samples were assayed for sex steroids, cortisol and thyroid hormones. The serum T3 and T4 levels decreased to the extent of 84.5 and 94.06%, respectively, upon nitrite exposure. Dietary supplementation with additional amounts of VE and tryptophan appears to reduce the decline of the production of T4. The serum testosterone and estradiol decreased 97.31 and 92.86%, respectively, upon nitrite exposure. Supplementation with additional amounts of VE was found to reverse nitrite-induced inhibition of testosterone and estradiol production. Serum cortisol increased upon nitrite exposure and unexposed (VE100-N) group showed lower levels, which were comparable to groups fed with elevated levels of VE. The overall results of the present study revealed that environmental nitrites have a negative impact on steroidogenesis, which can be overcome by dietary supplementation of elevated amounts of VE (minimum of 150 mg VE Kg diet(-1)) and to a lesser extent by tryptophan (only at the level of 1.5% of the diet). PMID:23504103

Ciji, A; Sahu, N P; Pal, A K; Akhtar, M S

2013-10-01

150

Standardization of androstenedione and estrone radioimmunoassay and profile of sex steroids, gonadotropins and prolactin - in patients with chronic anovulation due to inappropriate feedback (polycystic ovarian syndrome)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text. In order to evaluate the profile of the sex steroids gonadotropin and prolactin in polycystic ovarian syndrome (POS), 24 patients with POS were studied and compared with 20 normal women during the early follicular phase of the menstrual cycle. Radioimmunoassay techniques for androstenedione (A) and estrone (E1) were standardized for the purpose of the study. Androstenedione and estrone were extracted from plasma with ethyl ether. The assays were maintained in equilibrium and the labelled hormone-antibody complex was then separated from the free hormone using dextran charcoal. The sensitivity of the method was 6.8 pg/tube for A and 3.7 pg/tube for E1. Nonspecific binding ws 3.4 for A and 3.3 for E1. The interessay error at the D50 level was 15.6 for A and 8.6 for E1. Patients with POS had significantly higher basal levels of LH, A, T E1 and PRL and similar FSH and DHEA-S levels when compared with normal women. The LH/FSH ratio was significantly elevated and the A/T ratio was significantly decreased. The A/E1 and T/E2 ratios were elevated and the E1/E2 was decreased, although the differences were not statistically significant. A positive correlation between A and E1 was observed in patients with POS. In view of the above data, it was concluded that: the quality control parameters of the radioimmunoassay for A and E1 standardized in the present study are considered satisfactory, and the assay could be used for diagnosis and research; the patients with POS have a different sex steroid and gonadotropin profile when compared normal women during the early follicular phase of the menstrual cycle

1992-12-01

151

Profiles of sex steroids, fecundity and spawning of a migratory characiform fish from the Paraguay-Paraná basin: a comparative study in a three-river system.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated for the first time the reproductive biology of Prochilodus lineatus in a system of rivers in southeastern Brasil, relating it to the role of tributary rivers in the reproductive success of this important commercial fish in the Upper Paraná River basin, where a cascade of hydroelectric dams were deployed. Specimens were caught bimonthly in three river sites: (S1) Grande River, downstream from the Porto Colômbia dam; (S2) Pardo River; and (S3) Mogi Guaçu River. Sex steroid plasma levels, fecundity, follicular atresia, oocyte diameter and gonadosomatic index (GSI) were compared among sites. In S1, fish exhibited changes in the reproductive parameters: lower GSI, oocyte diameter and fecundity and higher follicular atresia index, when compared to S2 and S3. Frequency of maturing fish was higher in S3 and spawning was only registered in S3. In sites S2 and S3, plasma concentrations of testosterone and 17?-estradiol in females and testosterone in males showed wide variations following gonadal maturation. Fish from S1 showed few significant variations in sex steroid concentrations throughout the gonadal cycle. These results indicate that P. lineatus does not reproduce in Grande River (S1), but probably uses the Pardo River (S2) as a migratory route towards the Mogi Guaçu River (S3) where they complete gonadal maturation and spawning. Our findings contribute for understanding the reproductive biology of P. lineatus and to highlight the importance of tributaries in impounded rivers as a favourable environment for migration and spawning of fish. PMID:23616136

Perini, Violeta da Rocha; Paschoalini, Alessandro Loureiro; Cruz, Cláudia Kelly Fernandes da; Rocha, Rita de Cássia Gimenes Alcântara de; Senhorini, José Augusto; Ribeiro, Dirceu Marzulo; Formagio, Paulo Sérgio; Bazzoli, Nilo; Rizzo, Elizete

2013-12-01

152

Joint Effects of Smoking and Gene Variants Involved in Sex Steroid Metabolism on Hot Flashes in Late Reproductive-Age Women  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: Although smoking has a known association with hot flashes, the factors distinguishing smokers at greatest risk for menopausal symptoms have not been well delineated. Recent evidence supports a relationship between menopausal symptoms and variants in several genes encoding enzymes that metabolize substrates such as sex steriods, xenobiotics, and catechols. It is currently not known whether the impact of smoking on hot flashes is modified by the presence of such variants. Objective: The objective of the study was to investigate the relationship between smoking and hot flash occurrence as a function of genetic variation in sex steroid-metabolizing enzymes. Methods: A cross-sectional analysis of data from the Penn Ovarian Aging study, an ongoing population-based cohort of late reproductive-aged women, was performed. Smoking behavior was characterized. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms in five genes were investigated: COMT Val158Met (rs4680), CYP1A2*1F (rs762551), CYP1B1*4 (Asn452Ser, rs1800440), CYP1B1*3 (Leu432Val, rs1056836), and CYP3A4*1B (rs2740574). Results: Compared with nonsmokers, European-American COMT Val158Met double-variant carriers who smoked had increased odds of hot flashes [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 6.15, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.32–28.78)]; European-American COMT Val158Met double-variant carriers who smoked heavily had more frequent moderate or severe hot flashes than nonsmokers (AOR 13.7, 95% CI 1.2–154.9). European-American CYP 1B1*3 double-variant carriers who smoked described more frequent moderate or severe hot flashes than nonsmoking (AOR 20.6, 95% CI 1.64–257.93) and never-smoking (AOR 20.59, 95% CI 1.39–304.68) carriers, respectively. African-American single-variant CYP 1A2 carriers who smoked were more likely to report hot flashes than the nonsmoking carriers (AOR 6.16, 95% CI 1.11–33.91). Conclusion: This is the first report demonstrating the effects of smoking within the strata of gene variants involved in sex steroid metabolism on hot flashes in late reproductive-age women. The identification of individuals with a genetic susceptibility to smoking-related menopausal symptoms could contribute to interventions targeted at reducing reproductive morbidity both in the menopause and across the reproductive life course.

Freeman, Ellen W.; Sammel, Mary D.; Queen, Kaila; Lin, Hui; Rebbeck, Timothy R.

2012-01-01

153

Factors affecting exhaled nitric oxide measurements: the effect of sex  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Exhaled nitric oxide (FENO measurements are used as a surrogate marker for eosinophilic airway inflammation. However, many constitutional and environmental factors affect FENO, making it difficult to devise reference values. Our aim was to evaluate the relative importance of factors affecting FENO in a well characterised adult population. Methods Data were obtained from 895 members of the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study at age 32. The effects of sex, height, weight, lung function indices, smoking, atopy, asthma and rhinitis on FENO were explored by unadjusted and adjusted linear regression analyses. Results The effect of sex on FENO was both statistically and clinically significant, with FENO levels approximately 25% less in females. Overall, current smoking reduced FENO up to 50%, but this effect occurred predominantly in those who smoked on the day of the FENO measurement. Atopy increased FENO by 60%. The sex-related differences in FENO remained significant (p ENO. Conclusion Even after adjustment, FENO values are significantly different in males and females. The derivation of reference values and the interpretation of FENO in the clinical setting should be stratified by sex. Other common factors such as current smoking and atopy also require to be taken into account.

Williamson Avis J

2007-11-01

154

A test of sex determination from measurements of chest radiographs.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sexually dimorphic distinctions within the human thoracic area may include morphological as well as metric differences in the sternum and 4th rib. This research assesses the validity of a set of previously published measurements from chest radiographs and their use in contemporary forensic situations. The chest plates from 130 adult individuals of a known sample undergoing medico-legal post-mortem examination were examined at autopsy. Thoracic radiographs were taken using a Faxitron cabinet X-ray machine at 40 kV using Kodak Diagnostic Film Ready Pack X-Omat TL. Measurements were taken to the nearest millimetre using a sliding calliper. Logistic regression analysis of measurements of the sternum and 4th rib was undertaken to determine sex. Using 4th rib width and sternal area, sex was predicted at an accuracy of 95.8% for males and 90.3% for females. PMID:16078478

Torwalt, Carla R M M; Hoppa, Robert D

2005-07-01

155

Effects of diets containing genistein and diadzein in a long-term study on sex steroid dynamics of goldfish (Carassius auratus).  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of long-term exposure of goldfish to dietary genistein and diadzein on the concentrations of plasma sex steroids (testosterone (T), 17?-estradiol (E2)) and the gonadosomatic index (GSI) was assessed. The study was conducted on four groups for a period of 2 years, from the age of 20 weeks to first spawning. Four doses of genistein and diadzein were applied in the feed: genistein: 0 µg/g, diadzein: 0 µg/g (control group); genistein: 24.26 µg/g, diadzein: 21.7 µg/g (diet 1); genistein: 51.55 µg/g, diadzein: 46.13 µg/g (diet 2); and genistein: 75.83 µg/g, diadzein: 67.82 µg/g (diet 3). Throughout the experiment, there were no significant dose- or time-related effects of genistein and diadzein contents on the T level in both sexes. Furthermore, at the highest genistein and diadzein contents, there was an elevating plasma concentration of E2 at all sampling points (p < 0.05) and a time-related effect occurred (p < 0.05). Although the E2 concentrations in the plasma of female, throughout the experiment, were higher than in males, at the last sampling, the plasma concentrations of E2 reduced among females and became lower than that in males. The effects of isoflavone content were found on GSI of females at the fourth and fifth sampling among the treatments. Isoflavone contents also affect GSI of males at the second, fourth and the last sampling. Our findings suggest that overall genistein and diadzein exposure in early life stages can cause alterations in the reproductive organs and influence sex steroidogenesis. PMID:22778114

Bagheri, Tahere; Imanpoor, Mohammad Reza; Jafari, Valiollah

2014-03-01

156

Application of Double Isotope Derivative Dilution Procedures to Steroid Hormone Measurement  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The measurement of the concentration of specific steroid hormones in human peripheral plasma has required the development of sensitive analytical procedures. Of the various analytical techniques available, procedures based on the principle of double isotope derivative dilution have great specificity and precision at low levels, and can be readily applied to the measurement of androgens, oestrogens, progesterone and adrenocortical hormones. In these procedures a known amount of 14C- or 3H-labelled steroid is added to the sample as an internal recovery indicator to account for losses over the various analytical steps. Mass is determined by formation of a labelled derivative of the hormone following reaction with a radioactive reagent of known specific activity. These reagents are usually either 3H- or 35S-labelled. Separation of the various steroid hormones from each other and from the excess radioactivity arising from derivative formation is carried out by chromatography and by further chemical modification of the labelled derivative. The problems of developing a method suitable for the measurement of aldosterone in human peripheral plasma are described, and a comparison made between two methods, one which uses 14C-aldosterone as internal indicator and 3H-acetic anhydride for derivative formation, and another which uses 3H-aldosterone and 35S-tosan (toluene sulphonic acid anhydride). The subsequent modification of the basic 3H-acetic anhydride procedure to enable simultaneous measurement of cortisol, cortisone, corticosterone, desoxycortisol, desoxycorticosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone and testosterone in a single sample are described. The application of these procedures to the measurement of progesterone and oestrone and oestradiol- 178 are also discussed; in particular, the enzymatic reduction of progesterone to enable acetylation, or the use of 35S-pipsyl chloride (p-iodo benzene sulphonyl chloride) for derivative formation. The advantages and disadvantages of this type of methodology are also discussed with particular reference to specificity, accuracy, precision and suitability for routine analytical use. The sensitivity and precision of double isotope methodology is dependent not only on the specific activity of the labelled reagents but also on the performance of the liquid scintillation counting system. Statistical counting errors and an assessment of the precision and reliability of liquid scintillation counting systems used to count samples containing 3H and 14C are described. (author)

1970-02-01

157

In vivo effects of oLH and LHRH-analog on sex reversal and plasma sex steroid profiles in the female Monopterus albus.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of ovine-luteinizing hormone (oLH) or a synthetic analog of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone, Des-Gly10[S-Ala6]-LHRH ethylamide acetate salt (LHRH-A), on the female phase of the protogynous Monopterus albus were investigated, and the plasma levels of androstenedione (Ad), testosterone (T), 11-oxotestosterone (KT), 11 beta-hydroxytestosterone (OHT), 17 beta-estradiol (E2) and progesterone were determined. In the postspawning stage, oLH induced precocious sex reversal in the gonad from female to male and increased plasma levels of Ad, T, KT and OHT. However, such oLH effects in M. albus females were slight at the early prespawning stage, and no significant signs of precocious sex reversal were found either in gonadal structure or in plasma hormones as those in postspawning treatment. After LHRH-A treatment of M. albus females in both postspawning and early prespawning stages, the gonadal structure remained "female type" with no sign of proliferation of either Leydig cells or male germ cells. The plasma levels of E2 were greatly increased after the treatment. PMID:8504919

Yeung, W S; Chen, H; Chan, S T

1993-04-01

158

Influência da idade e do diabetes sobre esteróides sexuais e SHBG em homens Influence of age and diabetes on sex steroids and SHBG in men  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Para analisar a influência de fatores clínicos, demográficos e laboratoriais sobre os níveis de esteróides sexuais e SHBG, estudamos 28 homens com diabetes tipo 2 (DM2 e 27 não-diabéticos, nos quais foram medidos o índice de massa corporal (IMC, a relação cintura quadril (RCQ e a circunferência da cintura. Foram dosados: glicose, hemoglobina glicada, insulina, peptídeo C, estradiol, testosterona e SHBG. O índice de testosterona livre (ITL foi calculado dividindo-se o valor da testosterona total (TT pelo valor da SHBG. Utilizamos o índice HOMA-R como indicativo de resistência insulínica. Observamos que os diabéticos apresentavam HOMA-R mais elevado do que os não-diabéticos (4,7±2,7 vs 2,75±1,6; p= 0,04, tendência a menores níveis de TT (3400 [1829-7000] vs. 4267 [2097-7074]pg/ml; p= 0,07 e menor ITL (81,1 [46,3-200,1] vs. 96,1 [31,9-176,7]; p= 0,02. Na análise de regressão linear, a idade foi a única variável que influenciou o ITL (r= 0,34, r²= 0,12; p= 0,01 e o índice HOMA-R (r= 0,54, r²= -0,29; p= 0,0005 e a idade (r= 0,50, r²= 0,18; p= 0,0004 influenciaram a SHBG. Concluimos que o DM foi um dos fatores determinantes de menores níveis de TT e livre em um grupo de homens pareados para idade e adiposidade, porém a idade foi o fator mais importante em homens com ou sem DM.To study the role of clinical, demographic and laboratory factors on the levels of sex steroids, we studied 28 men with type 2 diabetes (DM2 and 27 non-diabetic controls. Body mass index (BMI, waist size and waist-hip ratio (WHR were measured in all, as well as, glucose, hemoglobin A1c, insulin, peptide C, estradiol, testosterone, and SHBG. The free testosterone index (FTI was calculated by dividing total testosterone (TT by SHBG. The HOMA-R index was used as a measure of insulin resistance. We found that diabetics had a higher HOMA-R than non-diabetics (4.7±2.7 vs. 2.75±1.6; p= 0.04, a tendency toward lower levels of TT (3400 [1829-7000] vs. 4267 [2097-7074]pg/ml; p= 0.07 and lower FTI (81.1 [46.3-200.1] vs. 96.1 [31.9-176.7]; p= 0.02. Linear regression analysis showed that age was the only variable that affected FTI (r= 0.34, r²= 0.12; p= 0.01 and that HOMA-R (r= 0.54, r²= -0.29; p= 0.0005 and age (r= 0.50, r²= 0.18; p= 0.0004 influenced SHBG. We conclude that diabetes is partially responsible for lower levels of total and free testosterone in men matched for age and degree of body fat, but age was the most important determinant of lower level of androgens in men with and without diabetes.

Luciana Bahia

2003-06-01

159

Influência da idade e do diabetes sobre esteróides sexuais e SHBG em homens / Influence of age and diabetes on sex steroids and SHBG in men  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Para analisar a influência de fatores clínicos, demográficos e laboratoriais sobre os níveis de esteróides sexuais e SHBG, estudamos 28 homens com diabetes tipo 2 (DM2) e 27 não-diabéticos, nos quais foram medidos o índice de massa corporal (IMC), a relação cintura quadril (RCQ) e a circunferência d [...] a cintura. Foram dosados: glicose, hemoglobina glicada, insulina, peptídeo C, estradiol, testosterona e SHBG. O índice de testosterona livre (ITL) foi calculado dividindo-se o valor da testosterona total (TT) pelo valor da SHBG. Utilizamos o índice HOMA-R como indicativo de resistência insulínica. Observamos que os diabéticos apresentavam HOMA-R mais elevado do que os não-diabéticos (4,7±2,7 vs 2,75±1,6; p= 0,04), tendência a menores níveis de TT (3400 [1829-7000] vs. 4267 [2097-7074]pg/ml; p= 0,07) e menor ITL (81,1 [46,3-200,1] vs. 96,1 [31,9-176,7]; p= 0,02). Na análise de regressão linear, a idade foi a única variável que influenciou o ITL (r= 0,34, r²= 0,12; p= 0,01) e o índice HOMA-R (r= 0,54, r²= -0,29; p= 0,0005) e a idade (r= 0,50, r²= 0,18; p= 0,0004) influenciaram a SHBG. Concluimos que o DM foi um dos fatores determinantes de menores níveis de TT e livre em um grupo de homens pareados para idade e adiposidade, porém a idade foi o fator mais importante em homens com ou sem DM. Abstract in english To study the role of clinical, demographic and laboratory factors on the levels of sex steroids, we studied 28 men with type 2 diabetes (DM2) and 27 non-diabetic controls. Body mass index (BMI), waist size and waist-hip ratio (WHR) were measured in all, as well as, glucose, hemoglobin A1c, insulin, [...] peptide C, estradiol, testosterone, and SHBG. The free testosterone index (FTI) was calculated by dividing total testosterone (TT) by SHBG. The HOMA-R index was used as a measure of insulin resistance. We found that diabetics had a higher HOMA-R than non-diabetics (4.7±2.7 vs. 2.75±1.6; p= 0.04), a tendency toward lower levels of TT (3400 [1829-7000] vs. 4267 [2097-7074]pg/ml; p= 0.07) and lower FTI (81.1 [46.3-200.1] vs. 96.1 [31.9-176.7]; p= 0.02). Linear regression analysis showed that age was the only variable that affected FTI (r= 0.34, r²= 0.12; p= 0.01) and that HOMA-R (r= 0.54, r²= -0.29; p= 0.0005) and age (r= 0.50, r²= 0.18; p= 0.0004) influenced SHBG. We conclude that diabetes is partially responsible for lower levels of total and free testosterone in men matched for age and degree of body fat, but age was the most important determinant of lower level of androgens in men with and without diabetes.

Luciana, Bahia; Marília de Brito, Gomes.

160

Manipulation of the periovulatory sex steroidal milieu affects endometrial but not luteal gene expression in early diestrus Nelore cows.  

Science.gov (United States)

In beef cattle, the ability to conceive has been associated positively with size of the preovulatory follicle (POF). Proestrus estradiol and subsequent progesterone concentrations can regulate the endometrium to affect receptivity and fertility. The aim of the present study was to verify the effect of the size of the POF on luteal and endometrial gene expression during subsequent early diestrus in beef cattle. Eighty-three multiparous, nonlactating, presynchronized Nelore cows received a progesterone-releasing device and estradiol benzoate on Day-10 (D-10). Animals received cloprostenol (large follicle-large CL group; LF-LCL; N = 42) or not (small follicle-small CL group; SF-SCL; N = 41) on D-10. Progesterone devices were withdrawn and cloprostenol administered 42 to 60 hours (LF-LCL) or 30 to 36 hours (SF-SCL) before GnRH treatment (D0). Tissues were collected at slaughter on D7. The LF-LCL group had larger (P < 0.0001) POF (13.24 ± 0.33 mm vs. 10.76 ± 0.29 mm), greater (P < 0.0007) estradiol concentrations on D0 (2.94 ± 0.28 pg/mL vs. 1.27 ± 0.20 pg/mL), and greater (P < 0.01) progesterone concentrations on D7 (3.71 ± 0.25 ng/mL vs. 2.62 ± 0.26 ng/mL) compared with the SF-SCL group. Luteal gene expression of vascular endothelial growth factor A, kinase insert domain receptor, fms-related tyrosine kinase 1, steroidogenic acute regulatory protein, cytochrome P450, family 11, subfamily A, polypeptide 1, and hydroxy-delta-5-steroid dehydrogenase, 3 beta- and steroid delta-isomerase 7 was similar between groups. Endometrial gene expression of oxytocin receptor and peptidase inhibitor 3, skin-derived was reduced, and estrogen receptor alpha 2, aldo-keto reductase family 1, member C4, and lipoprotein lipase expression was increased in LF-LCL versus SF-SCL. Results support the hypothesis that the size of the POF alters the periovulatory endocrine milieu (i.e., proestrus estradiol and diestrus progesterone concentrations) and acts on the uterus to alter endometrial gene expression. It is proposed that the uterine environment and receptivity might also be modulated. Additionally, it is suggested that increased progesterone secretion of cows ovulating larger follicles is likely due to increased CL size rather than increased luteal expression of steroidogenic genes. PMID:24507960

Mesquita, F S; Pugliesi, G; Scolari, S C; França, M R; Ramos, R S; Oliveira, M; Papa, P C; Bressan, F F; Meirelles, F V; Silva, L A; Nogueira, G P; Membrive, C M B; Binelli, M

2014-04-01

 
 
 
 
161

Profiles of sex steroids, fecundity, and spawning of the curimatã-pacu Prochilodus argenteus in the São Francisco River, downstream from the Três Marias Dam, Southeastern Brazil.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study evaluated for the first time sex steroid profiles and fecundity in females of Prochilodus argenteus from two sections of the São Francisco River Brazil, downstream from the Três Marias Dam, which influences characteristics of their water habitat. The model species in the study, P. argenteus, is an important commercial and recreational species in Brazil. In the region closest to the dam (section 1), females did not reach final oocyte maturation, failed to spawn, and displayed lesser circulating concentrations of testosterone, 17(-hydroxyprogesterone (17(-P) and 17beta-estradiol (E2) than those farther downstream of the dam (section 2). The endocrine and fecundity deficiencies probably are attributed to lower water temperature and oxygen concentration in (section 1). The follicular atresia rate in the region closest to the dam (26%) was greater than those fish captured farther downstream of the dam (13%), after the Abaeté River (section 2). Variations in testosterone, E2 and 17(-P concentrations in section 2, followed gonadal maturation which are typical features of species which have seasonal reproduction, group-synchronous oocyte development, and are single batch spawners such as P. argenteus. Results document the first evidence of endocrine and reproductive dysfunctions caused by inadequate water conditions in a wild population of the migratory species P. argenteus in the São Francisco River, downstream from the Três Marias dam. PMID:19683404

Arantes, Fábio P; Santos, Helio B; Rizzo, Elizete; Sato, Yoshimi; Bazzoli, Nilo

2010-04-01

162

Anabolic Steroids  

Science.gov (United States)

... deca-durabolin, and equipoise. What Are the Common Street Names for Anabolic Steroids? Slang words for steroids are ... find. Most people just say steroids. On the street, steroids may be called "roids" or "juice." The scientific name for this class of drugs is anabolic-androgenic ...

163

Influence of sex steroids on the viability and CD11b, CD18 and CD47 expression of blood neutrophils from dairy cows in the last month of gestation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the period around parturition, cows experience an increased susceptibility for the development of Escherichia coli mastitis. This increased susceptibility has been correlated with a decreased functionality of neutrophils. In the current study, it is suggested that the decreased neutrophil functionality may be induced by the extensive alterations in sex steroid levels occurring around parturition. It was first hypothesized that 17 beta-estradiol and progesterone influence the viability, apo...

Lamote, Inge; Meyer, Evelyne; Ketelaere, Adelheid; Duchateau, Luc; Burvenich, Christian

2006-01-01

164

The effects of female sex steroids on the development of autoimmune thyroiditis in thymectomized and irradiated rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Female PVG/c strain rats are more susceptible to induction of autoimmune thyroiditis initiated by thymectomy and irradiation (Tx-X) than similarly treated males. Pre-pubertal ovariectomy further augmented susceptibility. Administration of oestrogen or progesterone to groups of 4 weeks old ovariectomized Tx-X animals over a period of 15 weeks significantly altered induction of this condition. Oestrogen administered repeatedly at dose levels of 1 ?g and 10 ?g/100 g body weight resulted in partial suppression of thyroiditis with a corresponding change in the incidence of antibodies to thyroglobulin. Oestrogen administered by a single implantation had a suppressive effect on the development of autoimmunity in ovariectomized Tx-X females. Oestrogen given by either of these procedures also reduced the incidence of thyroiditis and autoantibody induction in orchidectomized male Tx-X rats. In contrast, repeated administration of progesterone at a dose of 250 mg and 1,500 ?g/100 g body weight appeared to augment levels of autoimmunity. It is concluded that the differential susceptibility to the induction of autoimmunity by thymectomy and irradiation is the direct consequence of sex hormonal influences. The higher incidence of the disease in the female would appear to be determined by the balance between the activity of oestrogen and progesterone which would further appear to have antagonistic influences in this particular situation. (UK)

1983-01-01

165

NCI: SBIR & STTR - Past Funding Opportunities - Contracts - 230 Synthesis of Stable Isotope-Labeled Steroids as Internal Standards for the Measurement of Endogenous Steroid Hormones in Biologic Samples by Liquid Chromatography - Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS)  

Science.gov (United States)

Although endogenous steroid hormones, specifically estrogens, androgens, and progestogens, are believed to play critical roles in the etiology of breast, endometrial, ovarian, prostate, and possibly other cancers, research has been limited for many years by the absence of sensitive, accurate methods for measuring the absolute concentrations of steroid hormones and their metabolites in serum, urine, and tissue. The assays routinely used by epidemiologists and clinicians have relied on radiobinding kits with poor specificity and sensitivity in biologic matrixes.

166

Measuring Sex Differences in Violence Victimization and Perpetration within Date and Same-Sex Peer Relationships  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examines sex differences in the patterns of repeated perpetration and victimization of physical violence and psychological aggression within dating relationships and same-sex peer relationships. Data were obtained from the Youth Violence Survey: Linkages among Different Forms of Violence, conducted in 2004, and administered to all…

Swahn, Monica H.; Simon, Thomas R.; Arias, Ileana; Bossarte, Robert M.

2008-01-01

167

Disturbance in sex-steroid serum profiles of cattle in response to exogenous estradiol: a screening approach to detect forbidden treatments.  

Science.gov (United States)

Estradiol benzoate (EB) has been one of the most widely used estrogenic agents in animal husbandry, as a way of exogenously introducing the natural hormone estradiol-17? into the animal organism. Estradiol was previously employed to induce anabolic effects or reproductive improvements in cattle. However, the employment of EB in European countries has been permanently forbidden by Directive 2008/97/EC to guarantee consumers' health. Despite this prohibition, the control of estradiol-17? and its esters continues to be a difficult task for residue-monitoring plans in European Communities because official analyses of natural thresholds for hormones in cattle have not yet been established, leading to a lack of confirmation for any exogenous administration of natural hormones. Several researchers have worked on excretion profiles of metabolites, variation in specific hormonal ratios and metabolomic fingerprints after hormonal treatments. This research focuses on the possible existence of disturbances in the serum profile of animals treated with EB in terms of steroid sex hormones (androgens, oestrogens and progestogens), by investigating the serum levels of several of these hormones. The serum samples were collected from three groups of cows: one treated with an intramuscular injection of EB, one treated with a combination of intravaginal EB and progesterone and a control (non-treated) group. The samples have been analysed by a validated high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) method, and 17 natural hormones were identified and quantified. Subsequently, data from the serum profiles were submitted for statistic and multivariate analysis, and it was possible to observe a manifest variation between animal groups. The obtained results can help in the development of a viable screening tool for monitoring purposes in cattle. PMID:21172370

Regal, Patricia; Nebot, Carolina; Díaz-Bao, Mónica; Barreiro, Rocio; Cepeda, Alberto; Fente, Cristina

2011-03-01

168

Validity of a Scale to Measure Teachers' Attitudes towards Sex Education  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite the current legislation requiring sex education as part of the school curriculum in Portugal, great obstacles to its implementation remain. Furthermore, sex education is far from being systematically administered. Thus, the main interest in our project was to validate a scale that measures teachers' attitudes towards sex education. There…

de Almeida Reis, Maria Helena; Vilar, Duarte Goncalo Rei

2006-01-01

169

Sex steroids and cardiovascular disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

As men grow older, testosterone (T) levels decline and the significance of this change is debated. The evidence supporting a causal role for lower circulating T, or its metabolites dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and estradiol, in the genesis of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in men is limited. Observational studies associate low baseline T levels with carotid atherosclerosis, aortic and peripheral vascular disease, and with the incidence of cardiovascular events and mortality. Studies using mass spectrometry suggest that when total T is assayed optimally, calculation of free T might not necessarily improve risk stratification. There is limited evidence to support an association of estradiol with CVD. Interventional studies of T therapy in men with coronary artery disease have shown beneficial effects on exercise-induced myocardial ischemia. However, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trials (RCTs) of T therapy in men with the prespecified outcomes of cardiovascular events or deaths are lacking. Meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials of T published up to 2010 found no increase in cardiovascular events, mortality, or prostate cancer with therapy. Recently, in a trial of older men with mobility limitations, men randomized to receive a substantial dose of T reported cardiovascular adverse effects. This phenomenon was not reported from a comparable trial where men received a more conservative dose of T, suggesting a prudent approach should be adopted when considering therapy in frail older men with existing CVD. Adequately powered RCTs of T in middle-aged and older men are needed to clarify whether or not hormonal intervention would reduce the incidence of CVD. PMID:24407188

Yeap, Bu Beng

2014-01-01

170

Sex steroids in Sjögren's syndrome.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of the review is to consider pathomechanisms of Sjögren's syndrome (SS), which could explain the female dominance (9:1), the most common age of onset (40-50 years) and targeting of the exocrine glands. Estrogens seem to specifically protect secretory glandular acinar cells against apoptosis whereas lack of estrogens during menopause and climacterium specifically leads to increased apoptosis of the exocrine secretory cells. Male gonads produce testosterone and convert it in exocrine glands to dihydrotesterosterone (DHT), which is anti-apoptotic and protects against acinar cell apoptosis. Estrogen-deficient women need to produce dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) in the adrenal glands and convert it to DHT in exocrine glands in a complex and branching reaction network in which individual enzymatic reactions are catalyzed in forward and backward directions by a myriad of different isoforms of steroidogenic enzymes. Tailoring DHT in peripheral tissues is much more complex and vulnerable in women than in men. In SS the intracrine steroidogenic enzyme machinery is deranged. These endo-/intracrine changes impair acinar remodeling due to impaired integrin ?1?1 and integrin ?2?1 expression so that the intercalated duct progenitor cells are unable to migrate to the acinar space, to differentiate to secretory acinar cells upon contact with laminin-111 and laminin-211 specifically found in the acinar basement membrane. The disarranged endo-/intracrine estrogen/androgen balance induces acinar cells to release microparticles and apoptotic bodies and to undergo apoptotis and/or anoikis. Membrane particles contain potential autoantigens recognized by T- (TCRs) and B-cell receptors (BCRs) and danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) recognized by Toll-like receptors (TLRs). In membrane particles (or carrier-complexes) antigen/adjuvant complexes could stimulate professional antigen capturing, processing and presenting cells, which can initiate auto-inflammatory and autoimmune cascades, break the self-tolerance and finally lead to SS. PMID:22300712

Konttinen, Yrjö T; Fuellen, Georg; Bing, Yan; Porola, Pauliina; Stegaev, Vasily; Trokovic, Nina; Falk, Steffi S I; Liu, Yi; Szodoray, Peter; Takakubo, Yuya

2012-08-01

171

Expression of COX-1 and COX-2 in the endometrium of cyclic, pregnant and in a model of pseudopregnant rats and their regulation by sex steroids  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Cyclooxygenases (COXs are the rate limiting enzymes in the process of prostaglandins (PGs synthesis, which are critical regulators of a number of reproductive processes, including ovulation, implantation, decidualization and parturition. The aim of the present study was to investigate the expression and regulation of COX-1 and COX-2 and levels of prostaglandins during rat pregnancy, in a model of pseudopregnancy and estrous cycle. Methods Uteri were collected from the cyclic rats on each day of estrous cycle, after every two days for pregnant (days 2 to 22 and pseudopregnant rats (days 1 to 9. In vitro primary endometrial stromal cells were cultured in the presence of steroid hormones and their respective inhibitors for the possible modulation of COX-1 and COX-2. Endometrial protein extracts were used for western blot analysis and tissue sections were prepared for protein localization using immunofluorescence. Measurements of PGF2alpha and PGE2 metabolites in serum were performed by enzyme immunoassay (EIA. Results COX-1 expression was found to be elevated during implantation and parturition, however, the levels of COX-1 decreased during decidualization periods. COX-2 was detected during early pregnancy from day 2 to 5, increased during decidual regression, and was also expressed at the time of parturition. COX-2 protein expression was found to be increased at estrus phase in cyclic rats. Both enzymes were found to be modulated in the endometrium of pseudopregnant rats, suggesting that they are regulated by 17beta-estradiol and progesterone. A significant increase in PGE2 metabolite levels was observed on day 10, 12 and 14 of pregnancy. However, an increase in PGF2alpha metabolite levels was observed only on day 14. The concentration of both these metabolites changed during pseudopregnancy and maximum levels were observed at day 7. Significant increase in PGE2 metabolite was observed at proestrus phase, on the other hand, PGF2alpha metabolite was significantly increased at proestrus and metestrus phase. COX-2 protein was regulated by 17beta-estradiol in cultured endometrial stromal cells which was blocked in the presence of ICI-182,780. Conclusions Taken together, these results suggest that COX-1 and COX-2 could be differentially regulated by steroid hormones and might be the key factors involved in embryo implantation, decidualization, decidua basalis regression and parturition in rats.

St-Louis Isabelle

2010-08-01

172

Effects and metabolism of steroid hormones in human neuroblastoma cells  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The development of the central nervous system is influenced by sex steroids and by their metabolites. However, little information on the possible effects of steroid hormones on neuroblastoma cells is available. Human neuroblastoma cell lines have been used as a model of human neuroblasts in vitro to study the metabolism of steroid hormones; in addition, the effects of steroids and steroid antagonists on neuroblastoma cell growth have also been investigated. The results obtained show that SH-S...

Poletti, Angelo; Maggi, Roberto; Piva, Flavio; Martini, Luciano; Zanisi, Mariarosa Giuliana; Pimpinelli, Federica Alberta Elena Maria

1998-01-01

173

In situ forming microparticle implants for delivery of sex steroids in fish: Modulation of the immune response of gilthead seabream by testosterone.  

Science.gov (United States)

Current knowledge on the sensitivity of marine fish to androgenic environmental chemicals is limited, despite the growing interest in the effects of endocrine disrupting chemicals. To study in vivo the effects of testosterone (T) on the fish immune response, we used a microencapsulation implant technique, the in situ forming microparticle system, containing 1 mg T/kg body weight (T-ISM), in adult specimens of gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L.), a species of great economic interest. We demonstrated that implants themselves (without T) have no significant effect on most of the parameters measured. In T-ISM implanted fish, T serum levels reached supraphysiological concentrations accompanied by a slight increase in 11-ketotestosterone and 17?-estradiol levels 21 days post-implantation (dpi). Liver and head-kidney samples were processed 7 and 21 dpi to assess T-ISM effect on (i) the mRNA expression of genes involved in the metabolism of steroid hormones and in the immune response, and (ii) phagocyte activities. The expression profile of cytokines, chemokines and immune receptors was altered in T-ISM implanted animals that showed an early pro-inflammatory tendency, and then, a mixed pro-/anti-inflammatory activation during longer exposure. Furthermore, the enhancement of phagocytic activity and the production of reactive oxygen species by leukocytes 21 dpi in T-ISM implanted specimens suggest fine modulation of the innate immune response by T. Taken together, these data demonstrate for the first time the feasibility of using ISM implants in an aquatic species, and provide new data on the role played by T on the immune response in fish. PMID:23127815

Castillo-Briceño, P; Aguila-Martínez, S; Liarte, S; García Alcázar, A; Meseguer, J; Mulero, V; García-Ayala, A

2013-01-01

174

Endocrine assessment of impotence--pitfalls of measuring serum testosterone without sex-hormone-binding globulin.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The pitfalls of measuring only total serum testosterone are illustrated by a 52 year old man whose hyperprolactinaemia was associated with normal total serum testosterone but a raised sex-hormone-binding globulin, giving a low free testosterone. Prolactin suppression with bromocriptine normalized sex-hormone-binding globulin and free testosterone, and restored potency and energy after 30 years of impotence and tiredness.

Hardy, K. J.; Seckl, J. R.

1994-01-01

175

Age and sex-independent comparisons of morphological measurements.  

Science.gov (United States)

A method is proposed for the comparison of morphological parameters that compensates for sex and age effects. An index is calculated for individual animals, from which percentage differences in size that are independent of age-sex classes can be postulated for specific environmental effects. The method is appropriate for any data set that has a sufficiently broad age range to enable an accurate fitting of a growth curve, and thus overcomes the problem of using only fully mature animals for environmental comparisons. Besides detecting general size effects, the technique enables interpretation of changes at specific phases of the growth curve when more elaborate techniques for doing this are not appropriate. An hypothesised difference in size is confirmed between two fallow deer populations, living at different densities with different preferred food availability. The method is seen as being generally applicable, its appropriateness for any particular data set can be easily gauged, and the method itself is simple to apply. PMID:1601576

Frampton, C M; Nugent, G

1992-01-01

176

Infra-Sonic Measurement of Human Intracochlear Hydrodynamics: Variations with Age, Sex and Audiovestibular Pathology.  

Science.gov (United States)

The interim report describes the progress made towards achieving the objectives of the project entitled 'Infra-sonic measurements of human intra-cochlear hydrodynamics: variation with age, sex and audiovestibular pathology.' The main objectives of the res...

R. J. Marchbanks A. M. Martin

1986-01-01

177

Extensive esterification of adrenal C19-delta 5-sex steroids to long-chain fatty acids in the ZR-75-1 human breast cancer cell line  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Estrogen-sensitive human breast cancer cells (ZR-75-1) were incubated with the 3H-labeled adrenal C19-delta 5-steroids dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its fully estrogenic derivative, androst-5-ene-3 beta,17 beta-diol (delta 5-diol) for various time intervals. When fractionated by solvent partition, Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography and silica gel TLC, the labeled cell components were largely present (40-75%) in three highly nonpolar, lipoidal fractions. Mild alkaline hydrolysis of these lipoidal derivatives yielded either free 3H-labeled DHEA or delta 5-diol. The three lipoidal fractions cochromatographed with the synthetic DHEA 3 beta-esters, delta 5-diol 3 beta (or 17 beta)-monoesters and delta 5-diol 3 beta,17 beta-diesters of long-chain fatty acids. DHEA and delta 5-diol were mainly esterified to saturated and mono-unsaturated fatty acids. For delta 5-diol, the preferred site of esterification of the fatty acids is the 3 beta-position while some esterification also takes place at the 17 beta-position. Time course studies show that ZR-75-1 cells accumulate delta 5-diol mostly (greater than 95%) as fatty acid mono- and diesters while DHEA is converted to delta 5-diol essentially as the esterified form. Furthermore, while free C19-delta 5-steroids rapidly diffuse out of the cells after removal of the precursor (3H)delta 5-diol, the fatty acid ester derivatives are progressively hydrolyzed, and DHEA and delta 5-diol thus formed are then sulfurylated prior to their release into the culture medium. The latter process however is rate-limited, since new steady-state levels of free steroids and fatty acid esters are rapidly reached and maintained for extended periods of time after removal of precursor, thus maintaining minimal concentrations of intracellular steroids.

Poulin, R.; Poirier, D.; Merand, Y.; Theriault, C.; Belanger, A.; Labrie, F.

1989-06-05

178

Extensive esterification of adrenal C19-delta 5-sex steroids to long-chain fatty acids in the ZR-75-1 human breast cancer cell line  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Estrogen-sensitive human breast cancer cells (ZR-75-1) were incubated with the 3H-labeled adrenal C19-delta 5-steroids dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its fully estrogenic derivative, androst-5-ene-3 beta,17 beta-diol (delta 5-diol) for various time intervals. When fractionated by solvent partition, Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography and silica gel TLC, the labeled cell components were largely present (40-75%) in three highly nonpolar, lipoidal fractions. Mild alkaline hydrolysis of these lipoidal derivatives yielded either free 3H-labeled DHEA or delta 5-diol. The three lipoidal fractions cochromatographed with the synthetic DHEA 3 beta-esters, delta 5-diol 3 beta (or 17 beta)-monoesters and delta 5-diol 3 beta,17 beta-diesters of long-chain fatty acids. DHEA and delta 5-diol were mainly esterified to saturated and mono-unsaturated fatty acids. For delta 5-diol, the preferred site of esterification of the fatty acids is the 3 beta-position while some esterification also takes place at the 17 beta-position. Time course studies show that ZR-75-1 cells accumulate delta 5-diol mostly (greater than 95%) as fatty acid mono- and diesters while DHEA is converted to delta 5-diol essentially as the esterified form. Furthermore, while free C19-delta 5-steroids rapidly diffuse out of the cells after removal of the precursor [3H]delta 5-diol, the fatty acid ester derivatives are progressively hydrolyzed, and DHEA and delta 5-diol thus formed are then sulfurylated prior to their release into the culture medium. The latter process however is rate-limited, since new steady-state levels of free steroids and fatty acid esters are rapidly reached and maintained for extended periods of time after removal of precursor, thus maintaining minimal concentrations of intracellular steroids

1989-06-05

179

Regulation of reproduction- and biomarker-related gene expression by sex steroids in the livers and ovaries of adult female western mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis).  

Science.gov (United States)

To assess the adverse toxicological effects of steroid hormones on western mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis), 180 adult females were exposed to individual or binary combinations of progesterone (1?g/L), testosterone (1?g/L) and 17?-estradiol (1?g/L) for eight days. The expression patterns of vitellogenin, estrogen receptor, androgen receptor, metallothionein, and cytochrome P450 1A genes in mosquitofish varied according to tissue as well as the specificity of steroids. Treatment by progesterone or testosterone alone inhibited target gene expression in the livers. The expression levels of both vitellogenin A and vitellogenin B mRNAs were up-regulated by17?-estradiol, and a parallel induction of estrogen receptor ? mRNA expression was also observed in the livers. In addition, 17?-estradiol treatment alone suppressed androgen receptor ?, metallothionein and cytochrome P450 1A mRNA expression in the livers. In general, multiple hormone treatments had different effects on target gene expression compared with corresponding hormone alone. The results demonstrate that steroid hormones cause multiple biological responses including the expression of vitellogenin, estrogen receptor and androgen receptor mRNA in the hormone signaling pathways and the expression of metallothionein and cytochrome P450 1A mRNA in the xenobiotic signaling pathway. PMID:22353216

Huang, Guo-Yong; Ying, Guang-Guo; Liu, Shan; Fang, Yi-Xiang

2012-05-01

180

The effect of organochlorines and heavy metals on sex steroid-binding proteins in vitro in the plasma of nesting green turtles, Chelonia mydas.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study on green turtles, Chelonia mydas, from Peninsular Malaysia, the effect of selected environmental toxicants was examined in vitro. Emphasis was placed on purported hormone-mimicking chemicals such as dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene, dieldrin, lead, zinc and copper. Five concentrations were used: high (1 mg/L), medium (10(-1) mg/L), low (10(-2) mg/L), very low (10(-6) mg/L) and control (diluted carrier solvent but no toxicants). The results suggest that environmental pesticides and heavy metals may significantly alter the binding of steroids [i.e. testosterone (T) and oestradiol] to the plasma proteins in vitro. Competition studies showed that only Cu competed for binding sites with testosterone in the plasma collected from nesting C. mydas. Dieldrin and all heavy metals competed with oestradiol for binding sites. Furthermore, testosterone binding affinity was affected at various DDT concentrations and was hypothesised that DDT in vivo may act to inhibit steroid-protein interactions in nesting C. mydas. Although the precise molecular mechanism is yet to be described, DDT could have an effect upon the protein conformation thus affecting T binding (e.g. the T binding site on the steroid hormone binding protein molecule). PMID:19247670

Ikonomopoulou, Maria Petrou; Olszowy, Henry; Hodge, Mary; Bradley, Adrian J

2009-07-01

 
 
 
 
181

Steroid radioimmunoassays  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An estrogen radioimmunoassay was used to study the problem of blanks in steroid assays. Negligible binding (1.5 percent) in the non-antibody tubes prevailed throughout the study. The assay was validated using accepted procedures. Both water and solvent blanks had estrogen concentrations of 7-9 pg/tube. However, neither water nor solvent blanks showed a dose-related response, indicating that they were 'real' blanks. Exogenous estradiol, when added to water and solvent in quantities less than the estimated blank, was not quantitatively recovered. However, exogenous estradiol added to the water solvent in quantities greater than the blank estimate was quantitatively recovered. The sensitivity of the reference standard curve was 6-10 pg/tube, approximately the same as the blank estimate. These results indicated that the estimates of water and solvent blanks were measures of the assay sensitivity. In such circumstances, it is suggested that blank estimates should not be subtracted from sample values. If the blank estimates are high, attention should be directed towards improving the sensitivity of the assay

1981-01-01

182

Regulation of 3?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and sulphotransferase 2A1 gene expression in primary porcine hepatocytes by selected sex-steroids and plant secondary metabolites from chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) and wormwood (Artemisia sp.).  

Science.gov (United States)

In pigs the endogenously produced compound androstenone is metabolised in the liver in two steps by 3?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3?-HSD) and sulphotransferase 2A1 (SULT2A1). The present study investigated the effect of selected sex-steroids (0.01-1 ?M androstenone, testosterone and estradiol), skatole (1-100 ?M) and secondary plant metabolites (1-100 ?M) on the expression of 3?-HSD and SULT2A1 mRNA. Additionally the effect of a global methanolic extract of dried chicory root was investigated and compared to previous obtained in vivo effects. Primary hepatocytes were isolated from the livers of piglets (crossbreed: Landrace×Yorkshire and Duroc) and cultured for 24h before treatment for an additionally 24h. RNA was isolated from the hepatocytes and specific gene expression determined by RT-PCR using TaqMan probes. The investigated sex-steroids had no effect on the mRNA expression of 3?-HSD and SULT2A1, while skatole decreased the content of SULT2A1 30% compared to control. Of the investigated secondary plant metabolites artemisinin and scoparone (found in Artemisia sp.) lowered the content of SULT2A1 by 20 and 30% compared to control, respectively. Moreover, we tested three secondary plant metabolites (lactucin, esculetin and esculin) found in chicory root. Lactucin increased the mRNA content of both 3?-HSD and SULT2A1 by 200% compared to control. An extract of chicory root was shown to decrease the expression of both 3?-HSD and SULT2A1. It is concluded that the gene expression of enzymes with importance for androstenone metabolism is regulated by secondary plant metabolites in a complex manner. PMID:24333270

Rasmussen, Martin Krøyer; Ekstrand, Bo

2014-02-15

183

Estimation of sex from cranial measurements in a Western Australian population.  

Science.gov (United States)

It is widely accepted that the most accurate statistical estimations of biological attributes in the human skeleton (e.g., sex, age and stature) are produced using population-specific standards. As we previously demonstrated that the application of foreign standards to Western Australian individuals results in an unacceptably large sex bias (females frequently misclassified), the need for population-specific standards is duly required and greatly overdue. We report here on the first morphometric cranial sexing standards formulated specifically for application in, and based on the statistical analysis of, contemporary Western Australian individuals. The primary aim is to investigate the nature of cranial sexual dimorphism in this population and outline a series of statistically robust standards suitable for estimating sex in the complete bone and/or associated diagnostic fragments. The sample analysed comprised multi-detector computed tomography cranial scans of 400 individuals equally distributed by sex. Following 3D volume rendering, 31 landmarks were acquired using OsiriX, from which a total of 18 linear inter-landmark measurements were calculated. Measurements were analysed using basic descriptive statistics and discriminant function analyses employing jackknife validations of classification results. All measurements (except frontal breadth and orbital height - Bonferroni corrected) are sexually dimorphic with sex differences explaining 3.5-48.9% of sample variance. Bizygomatic breadth and maximum length of the cranium and the cranial base contribute most significantly to sex discrimination; the maximum classification accuracy was 90%, with a -2.1% sex-bias. We conclude that the cranium is both highly dimorphic and a reliable bone for estimating sex in Western Australian individuals. PMID:23537716

Franklin, Daniel; Cardini, Andrea; Flavel, Ambika; Kuliukas, Algis

2013-06-10

184

Regulation of prostaglandin D synthase and prostacyclin synthase in the endometrium of cyclic, pregnant, and pseudopregnant rats and their regulation by sex steroids.  

Science.gov (United States)

Prostaglandins (PGs) are critical regulators of a number of reproductive processes. To date, the presence and regulation of PGS in the rat endometrium have not yet been described. The objective of the present study was to investigate the expression of PGD synthase (PGDS) and prostacyclin synthase (PGIS) in the endometrium. Endometrial proteins and tissues were collected from cyclic non-pregnant, pregnant, and steroid-induced pseudopregnant rats. PGIS and PGDS were detected in the endometrium of cyclic, pregnant, and pseudopregnant rats but were not influenced by the estrous cycle. During early pregnancy, PGIS was significantly higher at day 5 and was gradually decreased from day 5.5 to 6.5. Later during pregnancy, PGIS was maximal on day 12 and gradually decreased to the end of pregnancy. PGDS expression was high during early and was maximal at the end of pregnancy. During pseudopregnancy, PGDS and PGIS were increased in a time-dependent manner and were maximal at day 5. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that PGDS and PGIS were found in luminal as well as glandular epithelial cells and in stroma during late pregnancy. We also found a significant increase of PGD(2) serum metabolite at days 21 and 22 of pregnancy. During steroid-induced pseudopregnancy, PGI(2) serum metabolite was increased in a time-dependent manner and was maximal at day 7. These results suggest that PGDS and PGIS are present and could be regulated by steroids in the rat uterus during pregnancy, and that the endometrium could be a significant source of PGD(2) and PGI(2) at specific times during pregnancy. PMID:17951541

Kengni, Junie Hurette Chansi; St-Louis, Isabelle; Parent, Sophie; Leblanc, Valérie; Shooner, Carl; Asselin, Eric

2007-11-01

185

Sex shapes experimental ischemic brain injury  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Biologic sex and sex steroids are important factors in clinical and experimental stroke. This review evaluates key evidence that biological sex strongly alters mechanisms and outcomes from cerebral ischemia. The role of androgens in male stroke is understudied and important to pursue given that male sex is a well known risk factor for human stroke. To date, male sex steroids remain largely evaluated at the bench rather than the bedside. We review recent advances in our understanding of androg...

Cheng, Jian; Hurn, Patricia D.

2010-01-01

186

Serum Steroid and Sex Hormone-Binding Globulin Concentrations and the Risk of Incident Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia: Results From the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The authors conducted a nested case-control study of serum steroid concentrations and risk of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), using data from the placebo arm of the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial (1993–2003). Incident BPH over 7 years (n?=?708) was defined as receipt of treatment, a report of 2 International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) values greater than 14, or 2 increases of 5 or more from baseline IPSS values with at least 1 value greater than or equal to 12. Controls (n?=?...

2008-01-01

187

Are there sex differences in Fetal Abdominal Subcutaneous Tissue (FAST) measurements?  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

OBJECTIVE: To determine if Fetal Abdominal Subcutaneous Tissue (FAST) measurements using antenatal ultrasound differ between male and female fetuses. STUDY DESIGN: Women who had an ultrasound examination for fetal growth between 20 and 40 weeks gestation were studied. Women with diabetes mellitus were excluded. The fetal anterior abdominal subcutaneous tissue was measured on the anterior abdominal wall in millimetres anterior to the margins of the ribs, using magnification at the level of the abdominal circumference. The fetal sex was recorded after delivery. RESULTS: A total of 557 fetuses were measured, 290 male and 267 female. The FAST measurements increased with gestational age. The FAST increased at the same rate for both male and female fetuses and at any given week there was no sex difference. CONCLUSIONS: The increased fat composition in females reported after birth was not found in abdominal wall subcutaneous fat measurements using ultrasound during pregnancy. Antenatal centile charts for FAST do not need to be based on sex.

Farah, Nadine

2012-02-01

188

Sex assessment using clavicle measurements: inter- and intra-population comparisons.  

Science.gov (United States)

We studied sexual dimorphism of the human clavicle in order to describe size variation and create population-specific discriminant tools for morphometric sex assessment. The studied sample consisted of 200 skeletons of adult individuals obtained from the University of Athens Human Skeletal Reference Collection, Athens, Greece. The specimens were well-documented and represented a modern population from cemeteries in the Athens area. Six dimensions typically used for clavicle measurements were recorded. For sexing clavicles, we used both traditional univariate (limiting, demarking and sectioning points) and multivariate discriminant function analysis. The accuracy of the best five classification equations/functions ranged from 91.62% to 92.55% of correctly assigned specimens. By testing new and previously published sexing functions (Greeks, Polynesians, Guatemalans) on four available population samples (English, Indians from Amritsar, Indians from Varanasi, and data from the present study) we found that, for some combinations of tested and reference samples, the accuracy of the sex assessment may decrease even below the probability given by random sex assignment. Therefore, measurements of the clavicle should not be used for sex assessment of individual cases (both forensic and archeological) whose population origin is unknown. However, significant metric differences were also recorded among three different Greek samples (i.e. within a population). As a consequence, application of a sexing method generated from one Greek sample and applied to another Greek sample led to negligible reduction in the success of sex assessment, despite general similarities in ethnic origin (Greeks), generation structure and presumed social background of the samples. Therefore, we believe that future studies should focus on understanding the nature of the differences among within-population reference samples. PMID:24075622

Králík, Miroslav; Urbanová, Petra; Wagenknechtová, Martina

2014-01-01

189

Testicular sex cord stromal tumour with granulosa cell differentiation: detection of steroid hormone receptors as a possible basis for tumour development and therapeutic management.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A testicular sex cord stromal tumour with granulosa cell differentiation, typical of granulosa cell tumours of the adult type, was investigated immunohistologically on snap frozen and paraffin wax embedded material. The predominance of vimentin and the additional expression of cytokeratin subtypes 8 and 18, as well as the negative staining for epithelial membrane antigen, accorded with results previously reported, for ovarian granulosa cell tumours; the lack of expression of desmoplakin, howe...

Du?e, W.; Dieckmann, K. P.; Niedobitek, G.; Bornho?ft, G.; Loy, V.; Stein, H.

1990-01-01

190

Factors affecting exhaled nitric oxide measurements: the effect of sex  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Exhaled nitric oxide (FENO) measurements are used as a surrogate marker for eosinophilic airway inflammation. However, many constitutional and environmental factors affect FENO, making it difficult to devise reference values. Our aim was to evaluate the relative importance of factors affecting FENO in a well characterised adult population. Methods Data were obtained from 895 members of the Dunedin Multidiscipl...

2007-01-01

191

Immunoradiometric measurement of pS2 in breast cancer. Correlation with steroid receptors and plasminogen activators  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

pS2 was measured by radioimmunometric assay in tumour extracts from 197 breast cancer patients. Values ranged from 0 to 50 ng/mg protein (mean 9.6 and median 3 ng/mg). We found no correlation with age, menopausal status, nodal metastases, disease stage of tumour histology. There was, however, a linear relationship with both ER (p<0.0001) (particularly nuclear ER) and PR (p<0.0001) expression determined by enzyme immunoassay (ELISA), as well as a good correlation when high and low expressors were stratified on the basis of combined ER/PR expression using consensus cut-off points. Only 15% of ER-ve/PR-ve patients were classified as pS2+ve compared with 83% of those who were ER+ve/PR+ve. pS2 was also directly correlated with high expression of tPA and inversely with uPA. Comparison with previous studies showed that the current ELISA method produced consistent results, in contrast to other methods, particularly those based on immunohistochemical detection. The close relationship between pS2 and both steroid receptors suggests that pS2 may be important in terms of defining hormone-responsive patients who are likely to benefit from endocrine therapy. (orig.)

1999-01-01

192

Radioimmunoassay of steroid hormone  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Low acid pepsin treated gamma-globulin was applied to ammonium sulfate salting out method, which was a method to separate bound fraction from free one in radioimmunoassay of steroid hormone, and the effect of the separation and the standard curve were examined. Pepsin treated gamma-globulin was prepared in pH 1.5 to 5.5 and then the pepsin was completely removed. It had an effect to accelerate the precipitation in radioimmunoassay of steroid hormone labelled with 3H. The effect of pepsin treated gamma-globulin to adhere free steroid hormone and to slat out bound one was compared with that of human gamma-globulin. Pepsin treated gamma-globulin, which was water soluble, could easier reach its optimal concentration, and the separation effect was better than human gamma-globulin. The standard curve of it was steeper, particularly in a small dose, and the reproducibility was also better. It could be applied not only to aldosterone and DOC, but also to the steroid hormones, such as progesterone and DHEA, and it seemed suitable for routine measurement method. (Kanao, N.)

1975-01-01

193

Measurement of Serum Leptin Concentrations in University Undergraduates by Competitive Elisa Reveals Correlations With Body Mass Index and Sex  

Science.gov (United States)

Synthesized mainly in adipocytes, leptin is a peptide hormone that plays a key role in the regulation of body weight and composition. The serum leptin concentrations of 193 Singapore university medical and bioscience undergraduates aged 19ÃÂ26 yr were measured using a competitive ELISA kit, and their leptin levels were correlated with sex and body mass index (BMI). Mean leptin levels were more than twice as high in females than in males of corresponding weight status, especially among females of healthy weight who exhibited levels that were 5.7 times higher. Overweight individuals generally demonstrated higher circulating leptin concentrations than healthy-weight and underweight participants. The differences in mean leptin levels between underweight and overweight males (P = 0.006), as well as between healthy-weight and overweight males (P = 0.011) were statistically significant. Comparison tests of leptin levels between healthy-weight and underweight females were highly significant (P = 0.001). Highly significant linear correlations between BMI and the logarithm of leptin concentration were observed in the female (r = 0.44) and male (r = 0.36) groups. These results reiterate the impact of gonadal steroids as mediators of the apparent sexual dimorphism in circulating leptin. The findings also corroborate evidence that adiposity determines leptin levels. This laboratory exercise has educational value for undergraduates by determining their BMIs, by alluding to the importance of maintaining healthy body composition, and by emphasizing the molecular mechanisms of body weight regulation and obesity, with special reference to leptin. This practical study also exemplifies the principles and applications of the competitive ELISA technique and integrates certain key concepts of physiology, molecular biology, immunology, and medicine.

Dr. Vincent T. K. Chow (National University of Singapore Faculty of Medicine Department of Microbiology); Dr. M. C. Phoon (National University of Singapore Faculty of Medicine Department of Microbiology)

2003-06-01

194

An interlaboratory study measuring sex steroids with RIAs and/or ELISAs: Are we comparing apples to oranges?  

Science.gov (United States)

Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are exogenous substances released into the environment that can lead to adverse reproductive effects in fish by a number of mechanisms including altering circulating levels of estradiol (E2), testosterone (T) and 11-ketotestosterone (11KT). ...

195

Steroid hormones, stress and the adolescent brain: a comparative perspective.  

Science.gov (United States)

Steroid hormones, including those produced by the gonads and the adrenal glands, are known to influence brain development during sensitive periods of life. Until recently, most brain organisation was assumed to take place during early stages of development, with relatively little neurogenesis or brain re-organisation during later stages. However, an increasing body of research has shown that the developing brain is also sensitive to steroid hormone exposure during adolescence (broadly defined as the period from nutritional independence to sexual maturity). In this review, we examine how steroid hormones that are produced by the gonads and adrenal glands vary across the lifespan in a range of mammalian and bird species, and we summarise the evidence that steroid hormone exposure influences behavioural and brain development during early stages of life and during adolescence in these two taxonomic groups. Taking a cross-species, comparative perspective reveals that the effects of early exposure to steroid hormones depend upon the stage of development at birth or hatching, as measured along the altricial-precocial dimension. We then review the evidence that exposure to stress during adolescence impacts upon the developing neuroendocrine systems, the brain and behaviour. Current research suggests that the effects of adolescent stress vary depending upon the sex of the individual and type of stressor, and the effects of stress could involve several neural systems, including the serotonergic and dopaminergic systems. Experience of stressors during adolescence could also influence brain development via the close interactions between the stress hormone and gonadal hormone axes. While sensitivity of the brain to steroid hormones during early life and adolescence potentially leaves the developing organism vulnerable to external adversities, developmental plasticity also provides an opportunity for the developing organism to respond to current circumstances and for behavioural responses to influence the future life history of the individual. PMID:23262238

Brown, G R; Spencer, K A

2013-09-26

196

Respiratory and skeletal muscle function in steroid-dependent bronchial asthma.  

Science.gov (United States)

Respiratory and skeletal (deltoid) muscle strength were evaluated in 34 oral steroid-dependent asthmatics by use of maximal inspiratory and expiratory pressures and a myometer. The patients were compared to age- and sex-matched asthmatics who had never been on continuous oral steroid treatment. Endurance time was also studied in ten steroid-dependent asthmatics and ten controls using a pressure threshold breathing device. Nutritional status was assessed from body weight, midarm circumference, triceps skinfold (TSF), prealbumin, albumin, and total protein. An open biopsy from deltoid muscle was taken from nine steroid-dependent asthmatics and the diameter of type 1 and type 2 fibers was measured by a morphometric study. No differences were found between study and control groups either in respiratory and skeletal muscle strength or in endurance time. Steroid-dependent asthmatics showed a decrease in TSF, total protein, albumin, and potassium serum levels when compared with the control group but differences were not statistically significant after Bonferroni's adjustment for multiple comparison studies. Transversal diameter of type 2 fibers was significantly correlated with the percentage of ideal weight (r = 0.75 p less than 0.05), but not with average daily dose of steroids nor with the length of steroid treatment. Our results support the clinical impression that steroids, at the doses usually administered in chronic severe asthma, do not cause muscular weakness. We also found that malnutrition rather than corticosteroids is the most important contributory factor to type 2 muscle fiber atrophy in steroid-dependent asthma. PMID:2297172

Picado, C; Fiz, J A; Montserrat, J M; Grau, J M; Fernandez-Sola, J; Luengo, M T; Casademont, J; Agusti-Vidal, A

1990-01-01

197

Sex determination in amphibians.  

Science.gov (United States)

The heterogametic sex is male in all mammals, whereas it is female in almost all birds. By contrast, there are two heterogametic types (XX/XY and ZZ/ZW) for genetic sex determination in amphibians. Though the original heterogametic sex was female in amphibians, the two heterogametic types were probably interchangeable, suggesting that sex chromosomes evolved several times in this lineage. Indeed, the frog Rana rugosa has the XX/XY and ZZ/ZW sex-determining systems within a single species, depending on the local population in Japan. The XY and ZW geographic forms with differentiated sex chromosomes probably have a common origin as undifferentiated sex chromosomes resulted from the hybridization between the primary populations of West Japan and Kanto forms. It is clear that the sex chromosomes are still undergoing evolution in this species group. Regardless of the presence of a sex-determining gene in amphibians, the gonadal sex of some species can be changed by sex steroids. Namely, sex steroids can induce the sex reversal, with estrogens inducing the male-to-female sex reversal, whereas androgens have the opposite effect. In R. rugosa, gonadal activity of CYP19 (P450 aromatase) is correlated with the feminization of gonads. Of particular interest is that high levels of CYP19 expression are observed in indifferent gonads at time before sex determination. Increases in the expression of CYP19 in female gonads and CYP17 (P450 17alpha-hydroxylase/C17-20 lyase) in male gonads suggest that the former plays an important role in phenotypic female determination, whereas the latter is needed for male determination. Thus, steroids could be the key factor for sex determination in R. rugosa. In addition to the role of sex steroids in gonadal sex determination in this species, Foxl2 and Sox3 are capable of promoting CYP19 expression. Since both the genes are autosomal, another factor up-regulating CYP19 expression must be recruited. The factor, which may be located on the X or W chromosome, intervenes directly or indirectly, in the transcriptional regulation of the CYP19 gene for feminization in amphibians. A factor up-regulating CYP17 expression remains to be identified. PMID:18996493

Nakamura, Masahisa

2009-05-01

198

Development and validation of HIV-related dyadic measures for men who have sex with men.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to develop and assess the psychometric properties of several scales that measure dyadic constructs derived from an integrated model of interdependence theory and communal coping perspectives. The scales are specific to HIV risk and men who have sex with men who are in an intimate relationship. These scales are newly developed measures of perceived severity of HIV, preferences for sexual health outcomes, outcome and couple efficacy to avoid HIV, and communal coping strategies. Scale items were created based on theoretical definitions and results from six focus groups with men who have sex with men. Face and content validity of the scales were assessed with a panel of six experts in the field of HIV prevention. Revised scales were subsequently administered to an online sample of 638 men who have sex with men, who indicated being in a relationship for at least three months. All scales showed adequate reliability, and evidence for construct validity was obtained for all scales, except for perceived severity of HIV. The results indicate that these dyadic scales are psychometrically sound and can be used in future HIV prevention research and practice with men who have sex with men couples. PMID:22206480

Salazar, Laura F; Stephenson, Robert B; Sullivan, Patrick S; Tarver, Russell

2013-01-01

199

Vertical transport of steroid alcohols and ketones measured in a sediment trap experiment in the equatorial Atlantic Ocean  

Science.gov (United States)

The vertical flux and free steroid alcohol (sterol) and ketone composition of particulate material was determined using sediment traps deployed at 389, 988, 3755 and 5068 m at a station in the equatorial North Atlantic, PARFLUX E. Cholest-5-en-3?-ol (cholesterol) was found to be the dominant sterol in all the traps. This compound had a maximum flux at 988 m, accounting for more than 90% of the sterols at this depth. Inputs from mesopelagic Zooplankton populations living in or migrating to depths between the 389 and 988 m traps appear to be responsible for this distribution. The deeper two traps exhibited an increased flux of phytosterols relative to cholesterol, probably due to (a) the incorporation of labile phytoplankton remains in fecal pellets and rapid transport into the deep sea and (b) differential dissolution of heterogeneous large particles. A maximum of 5-22% of the sterols produced in the euphotic zone were present in the 389 m trap. This value drops to less than 1% for the 5068 m trap, 200 m above the sediment surface. In general steroid ketone fluxes gradually decreased with depth. ?4-Stenones were found in greater abundance than their saturated counterparts. Cholest-4-en-3-one was the major steroid ketone detected in all the traps. A five-fold increase with depth in the cholest-4-en-3-one to cholesterol ratio is most likely due to microbial oxidation of sterols to steroid ketones, or higher ?4-stenone inputs relative to sterols from organisms.

Gagosian, Robert B.; Smith, Steven O.; Nigrelli, Gale E.

1982-07-01

200

Ovarian steroid hormones: what's hot in the stem cell pool?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The vital role of ovarian hormones in the development of the normal breast foreshadowed their importance in mammary stem cell regulation. Two recent papers reveal that 17?-estradiol and progesterone control the size and repopulating ability of the mammary stem cell compartment. This likely occurs via paracrine signaling from steroid receptor-positive luminal cells to steroid receptor-negative stem cells. These findings illuminate roles for the female sex steroids in mobilizing the stem cell ...

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

In silico prediction of sex-based differences in human susceptibility to cardiac ventricular tachyarrhythmias  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sex-based differences in human susceptibility to cardiac ventricular tachyarrhythmias likely result from the emergent effects of multiple intersecting processes that fundamentally differ in male and female hearts. Included are measured differences in the genes encoding key cardiac ion channels and effects of sex steroid hormones to acutely modify electrical activity. At the genome scale, human females have recently been shown to have lower expression of genes encoding key cardiac repolarizing potassium currents and connexin43, the primary ventricular gap junction subunit. Human males and females also have distinct sex steroid hormones. Here, we developed mathematical models for male and female ventricular human heart cells by incorporating experimentally determined genomic differences and effects of sex steroid hormones into the O’Hara-Rudy model. These “male” and “female” model cells and tissues then were used to predict how various sex-based differences underlie arrhythmia risk. Genomic-based differences in ion channel expression were alone sufficient to determine longer female cardiac action potential durations (APD in both epicardial and endocardial cells compared to males. Subsequent addition of sex steroid hormones exacerbated these differences, as testosterone further shortened APDs, while estrogen and progesterone application resulted in disparate effects on APDs. Our results indicate that incorporation of experimentally determined genomic differences from human hearts in conjunction with sex steroid hormones are consistent with clinically observed differences in QT interval, T-wave shape and morphology, and critically, in the higher vulnerability of adult human females to Torsades de Pointes type arrhythmias. The model suggests that female susceptibility to alternans stems from longer female action potentials, while reentrant arrhythmia derives largely from sex-based differences in conduction play an important role in arrhythmia vulnerability.

ColleenE.Clancy

2012-09-01

202

Simultaneous Measurement of Thirteen Steroid Hormones in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome and Control Women Using Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry  

Science.gov (United States)

Background The measurement of adrenal and ovarian androgens in women with PCOS has been difficult based on poor specificity and sensitivity of assays in the female range. Methods Women with PCOS (NIH criteria; n?=?52) and control subjects with 25–35 day menstrual cycles, no evidence of hyperandrogenism and matched for BMI (n?=?42) underwent morning blood sampling. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was used to simultaneously measure 13 steroids from a single blood sample to measure adrenal and ovarian steroids. Androgen and progesterone results were compared in the same samples using RIA. Results Testosterone, androstenedione, progesterone and 17OH progesterone levels were higher when measured using RIA compared to LC-MS/MS, although the testosterone RIA demonstrated the best agreement with the LC-MS/MS using a Bland-Altman analysis. Results using LC-MS/MS demonstrated that the concentration of androgens and their precursors were higher in women with PCOS than controls [median (2.5, 97.5th %ile); 1607 (638, 3085) vs. 1143 (511, 4784) ng/dL; p?=?0.03]. Women with PCOS had higher testosterone [49 (16, 125) vs. 24 (10, 59) ng/dL], androstenedione [203 (98, 476) vs. 106 (69, 223) ng/dL] and 17OH progesterone levels [80 (17, 176) vs. 44 (17, 142) ng/dL] compared to controls (all PPCOS also had an increase in the product:precursor ratio for 3?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase [22% (6, 92) vs. 20% (4, 43); p?=?0.009]. Conclusion LC-MS/MS was superior to RIA in measuring androstenedione, progesterone and 17OH progesterone levels, while testosterone measurements were better matched in the two assays. Androgen levels were higher in women with PCOS in the absence of a difference in adrenal-predominant steroids. These data support previous findings that the ovary is an important source for the androgen excess in women with PCOS.

Zhang, Ke; Clarke, Nigel; Welt, Corrine K.

2014-01-01

203

In silico Prediction of Sex-Based Differences in Human Susceptibility to Cardiac Ventricular Tachyarrhythmias  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Sex-based differences in human susceptibility to cardiac ventricular tachyarrhythmias likely result from the emergent effects of multiple intersecting processes that fundamentally differ in male and female hearts. Included are measured differences in the genes encoding key cardiac ion channels and effects of sex steroid hormones to acutely modify electrical activity. At the genome-scale, human females have recently been shown to have lower expression of genes encoding key cardiac repolarizing...

Yang, Pei-chi; Clancy, Colleen E.

2012-01-01

204

Steroid levels, steroid metabolic pathways and their modulation by endocrine disruptors in invertebrates  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

[EN] Ninety-five percent of all animal species are invertebrates, and like vertebrates, they are susceptible to endocrine disruption. Nevertheless, there are important gaps on the knowledge of the endocrine system of invertebrates that hinder the understanding of the endocrine disruption phenomena in those species. Steroid synthesis and metabolism is one of several possible targets of endocrine disruptors. This thesis aimed to characterize sex steroid metabolism in different invertebrate spec...

Janer, Gemma

2006-01-01

205

Steroid hormone binding macromolecules in meningiomas. Failure to meet criteria of specific receptors.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cytoplasmic estrogen and progesterone binding proteins were assayed in 26 meningiomas using an assay developed for the measurement of estrogen and progesterone receptors in human target tissue. The steroid specificity of the binding proteins was studied in both individual and pooled meningioma tissue by competitive binding assays. Eight meningiomas contained significant amounts of estrogen-binding protein and 18 contained significant amounts of progesterone-binding protein. There was no correlation between the amount of hormone-binding protein and patient age, sex, menstrual status or presentation, or tumor occurrence, location, or pathologic features. The competition studies demonstrated a lack of steroid specificity for these hormone-binding proteins. Therefore, the authors conclude that, contrary to recent reports, the hormone-binding proteins found in meningiomas are unlikely to be specific steroid receptors. PMID:6198062

Schwartz, M R; Randolph, R L; Cech, D A; Rose, J E; Panko, W B

1984-02-15

206

Serum gonadotrophin and sex steroid hormone levels during mid-follicular and mid-luteal phases in hyperprolactinaemic women with regular menstrual cycles.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hyperprolactinaemia was found in 15 of 135 infertile patients with regular menstrual cycles, biphasic basal body temperature record and no galactorrhoea. In those 15 women, mean serum prolactin levels during the mid-follicular and mid-luteal phases of the menstrual cycle were 29.8 (SEM 1.8) ng/ml and 29.5 (SEM 1.3) ng/ml, respectively. Although serum FSH and LH levels were similar in normal and hyperprolactinaemic women, serum oestradiol level during the mid-follicular phase was subnormal in hyperprolactinaemic women (P less than 0.05). In contrast, serum oestradiol and progesterone levels during the mid-luteal phase and luteal phase length were similar in normoprolactinaemic and hyperprolactinaemic groups. The results suggest that hyperprolactinaemia is associated with defects of follicle development as measured by oestradiol production during the mid-follicular phase, but not with corpus luteum function as measured by progesterone production during the mid-luteal phase, and luteal phase length. PMID:3103671

Nakano, R

1987-02-01

207

Thermal nociception as a measure of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug effectiveness in broiler chickens with articular pain  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Pain associated with poultry lameness is poorly understood. The anti-nociceptive properties of two non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) were evaluated using threshold testing in combination with an acute inflammatory arthropathy model. Broilers were tested in six groups (n = 8 per group). Each group underwent a treatment (saline, meloxicam (3 or 5 mg/kg) or carprofen (15 or 25 mg/kg)) and a procedure (Induced (arthropathy-induction) or sham (sham-handling)) prior to testing. Ind...

2013-01-01

208

Identifying and Distinguishing the Impact of Steroid Hormones  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Developmental programming is gaining considerable leverage as a conceptual framework for understanding individual variability in human behavioral and somatic health. The current mini-review examines some of the key conceptual and methodological challenges for developmental programming research focused on fetal sex steroid exposure and physical, behavioral, physiological and health outcomes. Specifically, we consider the bases for focusing on sex steroids, methods for assessing prenatal steroid hormone exposure, confounding factors, and the the most relevant postnatal outcomes. We conclude with a brief consideration, based on current knowledge, of the applications of the existing research findings for practice.

ThomasGO'connor

2014-04-01

209

Motor function measure scale, steroid therapy and patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy Medida de função motora, corticoterapia e pacientes com distrofia muscular de Duchenne  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

OBJECTIVE: To assess the evolution of motor function in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) treated with steroids (prednisolone or deflazacort) through the Motor Function Measure (MFM), which evaluates three dimensions of motor performance (D1, D2, D3). METHODS: Thirty-three patients with DMD (22 ambulant, 6 non-ambulant and 5 who lost the capacity to walk during the period of the study) were assessed using the MFM scale six times over a period of 18 months. RESULTS: All the motor...

2012-01-01

210

No Sex Difference in Body Fat in Response to Supervised and Measured Exercise  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

CAUDWELL, P., C. GIBBONS, M. HOPKINS, N. KING, G. FINLAYSON, and J. BLUNDELL. No Sex Difference in Body Fat in Response to Supervised and Measured Exercise. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., Vol. 45, No. 2, pp. 351-358, 2013. It is often reported that females lose less body weight than males do in response to exercise. These differences are suggested to be a result of females exhibiting a stronger defense of body fat and a greater compensatory appetite response to exercise than males do. Purpose: This...

Caudwell, Phillipa; Gibbons, Catherine; Hopkins, Mark; King, Neil; Finlayson, Graham; Blundell, John

2013-01-01

211

Inhaled Steroid Drugs  

Science.gov (United States)

... the Engelberg Foundation and National Library of Medicine help fund Consumer Reports Best Buy Drugs . DO YOU NEED AN INHALED STEROID? Inhaled steroids reduce and help prevent inflammation and mucus build-up in your ...

212

Adrenal Steroids Uniquely Influence Sexual Motivation Behavior in Male Rats  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The androgenic adrenal steroids dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA and 4?-androstenedione (4-A have significant biological activity, but it is unclear if the behavioral effects are unique or only reflections of the effects of testosterone (TS. Gonadally intact male Long-Evans rats were assigned to groups to receive supplements of DHEA, 4-A, TS, corticosteroid (CORT, all at 400 µg steroid/kg of body weight, or vehicle only for 5 weeks. All males were tested in a paradigm for sexual motivation that measures time and urinary marks near an inaccessible receptive female. It was found that DHEA and 4-A supplements failed to influence time near the estrous female in the same way TS supplements did, and, indeed, 5 weeks of 4-A administration reduced the time similar to the suppressive effects of CORT after 3 weeks. Further, animals treated with DHEA or 4-A left fewer urinary marks near an estrous female than TS and control groups. These results suggest that DHEA and 4-A are not merely precursors of sex hormones, and provide support for these steroids influencing the brain and behavior in a unique fashion that is dissimilar from the effects of TS on male sexual behavior.

George T. Taylor

2012-08-01

213

Measuring sexual selection on females in sex-role-reversed Mormon crickets (Anabrus simplex, Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae).  

Science.gov (United States)

Although many studies examine the form of sexual selection in males, studies characterizing this selection in females remain sparse. Sexual selection on females is predicted for sex-role-reversed Mormon crickets, Anabrus simplex, where males are choosy of mates and nutrient-deprived females compete for matings and nutritious nuptial gifts. We used selection analyses to describe the strength and form of sexual selection on female morphology. There was no positive linear sexual selection on the female body size traits predicted to be associated with male preferences and female competition. Instead, we detected selection for decreasing head width and mandible length, with stabilizing selection as the dominant form of nonlinear selection. Additionally, we tested the validity of a commonly used instantaneous measure of mating success by comparing selection results with those determined using cumulative mating rate. The two fitness measures yielded similar patterns of selection, supporting the common sampling method comparing mated and unmated fractions. PMID:20524949

Robson, L J; Gwynne, D T

2010-07-01

214

Steroid treatment of posttraumatic anosmia.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this study was to treat posttraumatic anosmia with oral steroid and evaluate its effect. One-hundred sixteen posttraumatic patients whose olfactory thresholds were -1.0 by the phenyl ethyl alcohol threshold test assembled in our department. They were treated with a course of high-dose steroid, and followed up for at least 3 months. During the latter period of this study, magnetic resonance imaging was performed to measure the volumes of olfactory bulbs and to detect subfrontal lobe damage. Among them, 19 (16.4%) patients' olfactory thresholds improved after steroid treatment, but the other 97 patients' thresholds did not change. The incidences of loss of consciousness and intracranial hemorrhage after head injury, the ratios of admission and craniotomy, the intervals between head injury and steroid treatment, the volumes of olfactory bulbs, and the incidences of subfrontal lobe damage were not significantly different between patients whose thresholds improved and those whose thresholds did not improve. However, patients with olfactory improvement were significantly younger than those who remained unchanged. Our study showed that oral steroid treatment might improve olfactory acuity in some patients with posttraumatic anosmia, but the possibility of spontaneous recovery cannot be ruled out. PMID:20379733

Jiang, Rong-San; Wu, Shang-Heng; Liang, Kai-Li; Shiao, Jiun-Yih; Hsin, Chung-Han; Su, Mao-Chang

2010-10-01

215

An exploration of psychopathy in self-report measures among juvenile sex offenders.  

Science.gov (United States)

Researchers have indicated that adult psychopathy often originates in childhood or adolescence. It has also been established that psychopathic traits are linked to disruptive behavior, criminality, and violence. As knowledge about psychopathy and its manifestations in juvenile sex offender populations remains limited, several instruments have been developed in an effort to measure the construct. In this study, we assessed how the relationship of diverse scales of psychopathy related to characteristics of sexual aggression, and determined which scales were most correlated to sexual and nonsexual delinquency. We utilized four measures of juvenile psychopathy: the Modified Childhood Psychopathy Scale (mCPS; Lynam, 1997), the Antisocial Process Screening Device (APSD; Frick & Hare, 2001; Frick, O'Brien, Wootton, & McBurnett, 1994), the Millon Adolescent Clinical Inventory (MACI; Millon & Davis, 1993; using two derived psychopathy scales), and the Inventory of Callous and Unemotional (ICU) Traits (Frick, 2003), in a sample of 191 incarcerated adolescent sex offenders located in juvenile detention facilities across a Midwestern state. We found that of the four instruments and seven subscales, only the APSD Narcissism and Impulsivity Scale was significantly correlated to a characteristic of sexual crime (i.e., number of victims, level of crime severity). No subscales were found to predict sexual crime at a significant level. However, several scales were correlated to the total delinquency score as measured by the Self-Reported Delinquency Measure. In a series of multiple regressions, the MACI Factor 2 and ICU total score were determined as the best fit to total nonsexual delinquency. Implications are offered. PMID:23525176

Morrell, Laura M; Burton, David L

2014-05-01

216

Recent advances in steroid radioimmunoassay  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The advances since 1974 in the techniques of measuring steroid molecules by radioimmunoassay are reviewed in this paper. They are considered under the following headings: preparation and use of antisera; preparation and use of tracers; preparation of biological samples before assay; dispensing of the reagents in the assay; separation of free and bound radioactivity; counting and data processing; quality control and standardization. (orig.)

1977-11-04

217

Measurements of the foramen magnum and mandible in relation to sex using CBCT.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to evaluate pre-existing CBCT images of a large sample of adult females and males to provide data on foramen magnum and mandibular measures of sexual dimorphism for use as a reference sample in cases of establishing identity in unknown fragmentary skulls. The study group consisted of 161 adult patients. 3D images of the patients were assessed retrospectively. FM measurements were obtained from reformatted axial sections. Six mandibular measurements were taken. According to the results, the study identified four mandibular measurements as final predictors of sex which are as follows: the gonial angle (G-angle) and ramus length (Ramus-L), gonion-gnathion length (G-G-L) and bigonial breadth (BG-Br). It was found that the cross-validated grouped overall predictive accuracy was 83.2% for FM and mandible measurements. It could correctly identify males in 77.3% and females in 87.4% of the cases. To assess sexual dimorphism, the gonial angle and ramus, gonion-gnathion lengths, and bigonial breadth of the mandible and sagittal diameter of the FM may be used on CBCT images. PMID:24588134

?lgüy, Dilhan; ?lgüy, Mehmet; Ersan, Nilüfer; Döleko?lu, Semanur; Fi?ekçio?lu, Erdo?an

2014-05-01

218

Measures of Condom and Safer Sex Social Norms and Stigma Towards HIV/AIDS Among Beijing MSM.  

Science.gov (United States)

Social norms around condom use and safe sex as well as HIV/AIDS stigma are used to identify persons at higher risk for HIV. These measures have been developed and tested in a variety of settings and populations. While efforts have been undertaken to develop context specific measures of these domains among Chinese MSM, the feasibility of using existing measures is unknown. A survey of MSM, based on respondent-driven sampling, was conducted in Beijing. Existing measures of condom social norms, attitudes towards safer sex and HIV/AIDS stigma were piloted. Internal consistency of all measures was high. As expected higher levels of condom social norms and positive attitudes towards safer sex were associated with condom use. HIV/AIDS stigma and discrimination had a significant relationship with never having an HIV test and lack of discussion of HIV/AIDS with male partners. Correlates of low condom social norms were age, education, employment and resident status. Existing measures of condom social norms, attitudes towards safer sex and HIV/AIDS stigma appear to be appropriate for use among Chinese MSM. Using existing measures as opposed to developing new measures has the potential to expedite investigations into psychosocial correlates of HIV risk behavior. PMID:24057931

Hu, Yifei; Lu, Hongyan; Raymond, H Fisher; Sun, Yanming; Sun, Jiangping; Jia, Yujiang; He, Xiong; Fan, Song; Xiao, Yan; McFarland, Willi; Ruan, Yuhua

2014-06-01

219

When Public Protection becomes Punishment? – The UK Use of Civil Measures to Contain Sex Offender  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The last ten years has witnessed an increased use of the civil law in the UK to contain and incapacitate the sex offender. These measures have been introduced to improve community safety and public protection, as the criminal law seeks to punish and condemn. This paper explores the contention that the civil and criminal law are in danger of becoming confused and the line between the two becoming blurred. At worst the civil law is in danger of becoming a form of criminal punishment in its own right and those charged with implementing it, in danger of getting their roles confused. What starts out as a civil regulatory or administrative arrangement for public safety becomes increasingly obstructive, has ‘gate-ways’ to criminal proceedings and is implemented in a punitive fashion.

Terry Thomas

2006-05-01

220

Steroids as ?-secretase modulators.  

Science.gov (United States)

Aggregation and accumulation of A?42 play an initiating role in Alzheimer's disease (AD); thus, selective lowering of A?42 by ?-secretase modulators (GSMs) remains a promising approach to AD therapy. Based on evidence suggesting that steroids may influence A? production, we screened 170 steroids at 10 ?M for effects on A?42 secreted from human APP-overexpressing Chinese hamster ovary cells. Many acidic steroids lowered A?42, whereas many nonacidic steroids actually raised A?42. Studies on the more potent compounds showed that A?42-lowering steroids were bonafide GSMs and A?42-raising steroids were inverse GSMs. The most potent steroid GSM identified was 5?-cholanic acid (EC50=5.7 ?M; its endogenous analog lithocholic acid was virtually equipotent), and the most potent inverse GSM identified was 4-androsten-3-one-17?-carboxylic acid ethyl ester (EC50=6.25 ?M). In addition, we found that both estrogen and progesterone are weak inverse GSMs with further complex effects on APP processing. These data suggest that certain endogenous steroids may have the potential to act as GSMs and add to the evidence that cholesterol, cholesterol metabolites, and other steroids may play a role in modulating A? production and thus risk for AD. They also indicate that acidic steroids might serve as potential therapeutic leads for drug optimization/development. PMID:23716494

Jung, Joo In; Ladd, Thomas B; Kukar, Thomas; Price, Ashleigh R; Moore, Brenda D; Koo, Edward H; Golde, Todd E; Felsenstein, Kevin M

2013-09-01

 
 
 
 
221

Steroids in childhood epilepsy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Treatment of epileptic encephalopathies can be very challenging as most anticonvulsant drugs fail to achieve good seizure control. Steroids are disease modifying as well as anticonvulsant in these conditions. Though steroids are accepted as the first-line treatment for infantile spasms, there are many unanswered questions with regard to the preparation, dose and duration of treatment. In this review a re-exploration of the literature is attempted. Putative mechanism of action of steroids in infantile spasms is also discussed. As steroids are being increasingly used in other epileptic encephalopathies and Rasmussen?s encephalitis, a brief discussion on the role of steroids in these conditions is attempted. The review ends with the discussion on newer neuroactive steroids in the management of epilepsy.

Ramachandrannair Rajesh

2006-01-01

222

Translating extranuclear steroid receptor signaling to clinical medicine.  

Science.gov (United States)

The existence and function of extranuclear steroid receptors (SR) to rapidly modulate signal transduction is now acknowledged as present in cells and organs throughout the body. Work over the past 15 years has defined key mechanisms that are required for sex steroid receptors to traffic to the plasma membrane, but mechanisms of localization in other cell organelles such as mitochondria is still unclear. Signaling by membrane-localized SR has now been reported to impact many aspects of adult organ functions, while the roles in organ development are under investigation. In hormone-responsive cancers, both extranuclear and nuclear sex steroid receptors appear to collaborate in the regulation of some key genes that promote malignancy. Here, I review what is understood about the impact of extranuclear steroid receptor signaling to mitigate or promote disease processes. PMID:24752388

Levin, Ellis R

2014-06-01

223

The alteration of the urinary steroid profile under the stress  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the second part of twentieth century anabolic-androgenic steroids were introduced into doping practice and received continuously increasing significance. In order to prove the usage of doping substances, the determination of steroid profile in the urine came into practice. Several factors may be responsible for alterations in the normal steroid profile for example age, sex and diet. The aim of this study was to find out, whether the psychological stress may cause modifications in the steroid profile and T/Et ratio. The effect of physical activity was also considered. The steroid profile was determined in the group of 34 students being in non-stress conditions and under stress immediately before an important university exam. The intensity of stress was rated by self-reported questionnaire. The GC/MS method was applied to determine the steroid profile in the urine samples. The results of the experiment have shown that psychological stress may cause significant changes in the steroid profile, especially in females. Physical activity, independently of stress significantly modified the steroid profile. In summary, observed changes in steroid profile suggest, that major fluctuations of T/Et and A/E ratios under the influence of stressogenic factors and physical activity are unlikely.

A Gronowska

2010-03-01

224

Measuring Effectiveness in School Sex Education--Methodological Dilemmas in Researching an Intervention Involving Young Mothers  

Science.gov (United States)

Defining and therefore evaluating the effectiveness of school sex education is problematic because of its location at the site of struggle between competing discourses. Those discourses--summarised here as "moralistic," "harm reductionist" and "empowering"--each emphasise a different conceptualisation of sex education's intended outcomes. The…

Kidger, Judi

2006-01-01

225

Positive and Negative Factors in the Measurement of Sex Roles: Findings from a Mexican Sample.  

Science.gov (United States)

Responses of 453 Mexican undergraduates were used to assess factor structure of Bem's Sex Role Inventory, test a wider pool of positive/negative items based on Latin American stereotypes of men and women, and explore sex-role dimensions which could contribute to a more comprehensive model of masculinity and femininity. (NEC)

Lara-Cantu, M. Asuncion; Navarro-Arias, Roberto

1986-01-01

226

Localization and functions of steroid hormone receptors  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This review focuses on the subcellular localization of steroid hormone receptors (SHRs), taking into account the technical problems of immunohistochemistry and the characteristics of nuclear localization signals (NLSs) of each receptor, on the interaction between SHKs and cellular components, and on the possible roles of sex SHRs in the reproductive organs. It is concluded that SHRs are basically localized in the nucleus, regardless of hormonal status, and that...

Yamashita, S.

1998-01-01

227

The steroid benefit in treating complicated haemangioma  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The clinical study included 30 patients with complicated cutaneous haemangioma (ulceration, bleeding, obstruction of anatomical orifices, and interference with function or movement). The patients were studied regarding the age group, sex, site of lesion, size of lesion, and the percentage of regression after treatment with steroid. The age ranged from three months to six years, there were 20 female patients and 10 male patients. We used local injection of diluted triamcinolone 4 mg with 5 ml....

Saleh Kamal

2009-01-01

228

Bone turnover in non-steroid treated rheumatoid arthritis.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

OBJECTIVE--To examine whether changes in cancellous bone turnover and resorption cavity depth contribute to bone loss in patients with non-steroid treated rheumatoid arthritis. METHODS--Iliac crest biopsies were obtained from 37 patients with non-steroid treated rheumatoid arthritis, 13 male and 24 female, aged 37-71 years. Bone turnover and resorption cavity characteristics were quantitatively assessed using semiautomated computerised techniques. RESULTS--When compared with age- and sex-matc...

1994-01-01

229

Steroid Concentrations in Plasma, Whole Blood and Brain: Effects of Saline Perfusion to Remove Blood Contamination from Brain  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The brain and other organs locally synthesize steroids. Local synthesis is suggested when steroid levels are higher in tissue than in the circulation. However, measurement of both circulating and tissue steroid levels are subject to methodological considerations. For example, plasma samples are commonly used to estimate circulating steroid levels in whole blood, but steroid levels in plasma and whole blood could differ. In addition, tissue steroid measurements might be affected by blood conta...

Taves, Matthew D.; Schmidt, Kim L.; Ruhr, Ilan M.; Kapusta, Katarzyna; Prior, Nora H.; Soma, Kiran K.

2010-01-01

230

Conceptualization and measurement of homosexuality in sex surveys: a critical review Modos de conceitualizar e medir homossexualidade em pesquisas sobre sexualidade: uma revisão crítica  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article reviews major national population sex surveys that have asked questions about homosexuality focusing on conceptual and methodological issues, including the definitions of sex, the measured aspects of homosexuality, sampling and interviewing technique, and questionnaire design. Reported rates of major measures of same-sex attraction, behavior, partners, and sexual identity from surveys are also presented and compared. The study of homosexuality in surveys has been shaped by the re...

Stuart Michaels; Brigitte Lhomond

2006-01-01

231

Virtual characters designed for forensic assessment and rehabilitation of sex offenders: standardized and made-to-measure  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents two studies pertaining to the use of virtual characters applied in clinical forensic rehabilitation of sex offenders. The first study is about the validation of the perceived age of virtual characters designed to simulate primary and secondary sexual character of typical adult and child individuals. The second study puts to use these virtual characters in comparing a group of sex offenders and a group of non deviant individuals on their sexual arousal responses as recorded in virtual immersion. Finally, two clinical vignettes illustrating the use of made-to-measure virtual characters to more closely fit sexual preferences are presented in Discussion.

Benoît Dassylva

2010-11-01

232

Age-related Purkinje cell death is steroid dependent: ROR? haplo-insufficiency impairs plasma and cerebellar steroids and Purkinje cell survival  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A major problem of ageing is progressive impairment of neuronal function and ultimately cell death. Since sex steroids are neuroprotective, their decrease with age may underlie age-related neuronal degeneration. To test this, we examined Purkinje cell numbers, plasma sex steroids and cerebellar neurosteroid concentrations during normal ageing (wild-type mice, WT), in our model of precocious ageing (Rora+/sg, heterozygous staggerer mice in which expression of the neuroprotective factor ROR? i...

Janmaat, Sonja; Akwa, Yvette; Doulazmi, Mohamed; Bakouche, Joe?lle; Gautheron, Vanessa; Liere, Philippe; Eychenne, Bernard; Pianos, Antoine; Luiten, Paul; Groothuis, Ton; Baulieu, Etienne-emile; Mariani, Jean; Sherrard, Rachel M.; Fre?de?ric, Florence

2011-01-01

233

Sex differences on a measure of conformity in automated teller machine lines.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sex differences in conformity were examined as participants approached two ATMs, one of which was occupied by three confederates and the other immediately available. The number of men and women in the line in front of one of the ATMs was manipulated (3 men or 3 women), and an unobtrusive observer recorded the sex of each participant. The results indicated that women were more likely than men to wait in line to use the ATM regardless of the makeup of the line. Thus, the present study provides evidence in favor of the idea that sex differences in conformity are evident on a common task performed in a natural setting. PMID:15587205

Reysen, Stephen; Reysen, Matthew B

2004-10-01

234

Hepatocellular Carcinoma and Sex Hormones  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The liver is morphologically and functionally modulated by sex hormones. Long-term use of oral contraceptives and androgenic steroids can induce benign and malignant hepatocellular tumors. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is more prevalent in men than in women. The role of sex hormones and their receptors in the development of HCC was reviewed. Some HCCs may be androgen dependent but others may be estrogen or even both dependent. Further studies are mandatory in order to utilize ...

Nagasue, Naofumi; Kohno, Hitoshi

1992-01-01

235

Influence of a two-year steroid treatment on body composition as measured by dual X-ray absorptiometry in boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Steroids are nowadays routinely used as a long-term treatment in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Their effects on body composition were assessed using dual X-ray absorptiometry. The study followed over 2years 29 genetically confirmed DMD patients: 21 in the steroid-treated group and 8 in the steroid-naïve group. After 2years of steroid treatment, the lean tissue mass values increased significantly (p<0.0001), the percentage of body fat mass remained practically constant (p=0.94) in comparison with the initial visit. In the steroid-naïve patients, there were no significant increases in the lean tissue mass but deterioration in body composition confirmed by a significant increase in the percentage of body fat mass. Besides, significant negative correlations were found between the percentage of body fat mass and the MFM total score (R=-0.79, n=76, p<0.0001). A 2-year steroid treatment improves significantly body composition of boys with DMD through a significant increase in lean tissue mass. We suggest that a thorough check of body composition should be carried out before steroid treatment discontinuation in case of overweight gain. PMID:24780149

Vuillerot, Carole; Braillon, Pierre; Fontaine-Carbonnel, Stephanie; Rippert, Pascal; André, Elisabeth; Iwaz, Jean; Poirot, Isabelle; Bérard, Carole

2014-06-01

236

Parent-reported measures of child health and wellbeing in same-sex parent families: a cross-sectional survey  

Science.gov (United States)

Background It has been suggested that children with same-sex attracted parents score well in psychosocial aspects of their health, however questions remain about the impact of stigma on these children. Research to date has focused on lesbian parents and has been limited by small sample sizes. This study aims to describe the physical, mental and social wellbeing of Australian children with same-sex attracted parents, and the impact that stigma has on them. Methods A cross-sectional survey, the Australian Study of Child Health in Same-Sex Families, was distributed in 2012 to a convenience sample of 390 parents from Australia who self-identified as same-sex attracted and had children aged 0-17 years. Parent-reported, multidimensional measures of child health and wellbeing and the relationship to perceived stigma were measured. Results 315 parents completed the survey (completion rate?=?81%) representing 500 children. 80% of children had a female index parent while 18% had a male index parent. Children in same-sex parent families had higher scores on measures of general behavior, general health and family cohesion compared to population normative data (??=?2.93, 95% CI?=?0.35 to 5.52, P?=?.03; ??=?5.60, 95% CI?=?2.69 to 8.52, P?=?parents score higher than population samples on a number of parent-reported measures of child health. Perceived stigma is negatively associated with mental health. Through improved awareness of stigma these findings play an important role in health policy, improving child health outcomes.

2014-01-01

237

Quantitative measure of sexual selection with respect to the operational sex ratio: a comparison of selection indices  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Despite numerous indices proposed to predict the evolution of mating systems, a unified measure of sexual selection has remained elusive. Three previous studies have compared indices of sexual selection under laboratory conditions. Here, we use a genetic study to compare the most widely used measures of sexual selection in natural populations. We explored the mating and reproductive successes of male and female bank voles, Clethrionomys glareolus, across manipulated operational sex ratios (OS...

2007-01-01

238

Dietary Regulation of Glycolytic Enzymes. XI. Effect of Inhibitors of Protein Synthesis on the Adaptation of Certain Jejunal Glycolytic and Folate-Metabolizing Enzymes to Diet and Sex Steroids.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of oral sex hormones, dietary fructose and casein without and with actinomycin D or ethionine and fasting upon the activities of two folate-metabolizing enzymes (serine hydroxymethyltransferase (L-Serine: tetrahydrofolate 5,10-hydroxymethyltra...

F. B. Stifel N. S. Rosensweig R. H. Herman

1971-01-01

239

Steroid immunoassay in clinical chemistry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This thesis reports experimental work in developing radioimmunoassays suitable for application in the routine clinical laboratory. Emphasis is placed on the cost-effectiveness of the assays. Because such an approach involves simplification of the assays, considerable emphasis is placed on the demonstration of accuracy. Experimental studies of factors which affect the specificities of steroid immunoassays are described. Factors other than measured cross-reactivities were found to influence the specificity of the immunoassay itself. These factors include other steroid binding proteins, including second antisera of a different specificity and an apparent heterogeneity of specificity within most antisera. A critical review of methods for measuring and reporting immunoassay- and antiserum specificities is included. The importance of antibody affinity in avoiding non-specific interference from, for instance proteins and minor variations in technique, is emphasised. Technical limitations, future clinical requirements, future possibilities and alternative methods of analysis are discussed. (Auth.)

1981-01-01

240

The steroid benefit in treating complicated haemangioma  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The clinical study included 30 patients with complicated cutaneous haemangioma (ulceration, bleeding, obstruction of anatomical orifices, and interference with function or movement. The patients were studied regarding the age group, sex, site of lesion, size of lesion, and the percentage of regression after treatment with steroid. The age ranged from three months to six years, there were 20 female patients and 10 male patients. We used local injection of diluted triamcinolone 4 mg with 5 ml. 0.9% NACI (normal saline, injected through 23-guage syringe under local or general anaesthesia every two weeks for six to eight sessions depending on the severity of the case, followed by a local pressure dressing. We measured the size of the lesion before each session and recorded the regression of the lesion. The patients were followed up for two years. Haemangioma commonly presents in infants and children, most commonly in females, especially in the head and neck and are usually of a small size. It regresses if the treatment is started earlier.

Saleh Kamal

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Sex differences in the hypothalamic control of prolactin secretion  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Sex differences in the brain may arise from the organisational effects of exposure to sex steroids during development, or from the exposure to a differential hormonal milieu in the adult. There is a marked sex difference in the neuroendocrine mechanism that regulates prolactin secretion. Levels of prolactin in the blood are higher in females than in males. Similarly, basal activity of tuberoinfundibular dopamine (TIDA) neurons, which are involved in the tonic suppression of prolactin secretion, are two fold higher in females than in males. Prolactin is known to stimulate the activity of TIDA neurons, thereby regulating its own secretion by short-loop feedback. Hence, it is thought that elevated TIDA neuronal activity in females is induced by increased prolactin in the blood. We have recently demonstrated that prolactin stimulation of TIDA neurons requires the transcription factor, STAT5b. We have now investigated prolactin secretion in male and female STAT5b-deficient mice, to test the hypothesis that sex differences in TIDA neuronal activity are dependent on stimulation by prolactin acting through STAT5b. Prolactin levels in blood were measured by radioimmunoassay, and TIDA activity was assessed by measuring concentrations of the dopamine metabolite DOPAC in the median eminence by HPLC, and by measuring tyrosine hydroxylase mRNA in the arcuate nucleus by real-time RT-PCR. The data demonstrate marked gender differences in the activity of TIDA neurons. While TIDA activity in STAT5b-deficient mice was reduced compared to wild type, the sex difference persisted. Since STAT5b is required for the actions of prolactin on these neurons, we can conclude that the sexual dimorphism in brain function is independent of gender differences in blood levels of prolactin. It seems likely that differential exposure to gonadal steroid hormones, either during development or in adulthood, might underlie the sex difference in TIDA neuronal activity. Copyright (2001) Australasian Society of Clinical and Experimental Pharmacologists and Toxicologists

2001-12-01

242

Standardization of androstenedione and estrone radioimmunoassay and profile of sex steroids, gonadotropins and prolactin - in patients with chronic anovulation due to inappropriate feedback (polycystic ovarian syndrome); Padronizacao do radioimunoensaio da androstenediona e da estrona e o perfil dos esteroides sexuais, gonadotrofinas e prolactina em pacientes com anovulacao cronica por retrocontrole improprio (sindrome dos ovarios policisticos)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Full text. In order to evaluate the profile of the sex steroids gonadotropin and prolactin in polycystic ovarian syndrome (POS), 24 patients with POS were studied and compared with 20 normal women during the early follicular phase of the menstrual cycle. Radioimmunoassay techniques for androstenedione (A) and estrone (E{sub 1}) were standardized for the purpose of the study. Androstenedione and estrone were extracted from plasma with ethyl ether. The assays were maintained in equilibrium and the labelled hormone-antibody complex was then separated from the free hormone using dextran charcoal. The sensitivity of the method was 6.8 pg/tube for A and 3.7 pg/tube for E{sub 1}. Nonspecific binding ws 3.4 for A and 3.3 for E{sub 1}. The interessay error at the D50 level was 15.6 for A and 8.6 for E{sub 1}. Patients with POS had significantly higher basal levels of LH, A, T E{sub 1} and PRL and similar FSH and DHEA-S levels when compared with normal women. The LH/FSH ratio was significantly elevated and the A/T ratio was significantly decreased. The A/E{sub 1} and T/E{sub 2} ratios were elevated and the E{sub 1}/E{sub 2} was decreased, although the differences were not statistically significant. A positive correlation between A and E{sub 1} was observed in patients with POS. In view of the above data, it was concluded that: the quality control parameters of the radioimmunoassay for A and E{sub 1} standardized in the present study are considered satisfactory, and the assay could be used for diagnosis and research; the patients with POS have a different sex steroid and gonadotropin profile when compared normal women during the early follicular phase of the menstrual cycle

Vilanova, Maria do Socorro Veras

1992-12-01

243

Motor function measure scale, steroid therapy and patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy Medida de função motora, corticoterapia e pacientes com distrofia muscular de Duchenne  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the evolution of motor function in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD treated with steroids (prednisolone or deflazacort through the Motor Function Measure (MFM, which evaluates three dimensions of motor performance (D1, D2, D3. METHODS: Thirty-three patients with DMD (22 ambulant, 6 non-ambulant and 5 who lost the capacity to walk during the period of the study were assessed using the MFM scale six times over a period of 18 months. RESULTS: All the motor functions remained stable for 14 months in all patients, except D1 for those who lost their walking ability. In ambulant patients, D2 (axial and proximal motor capacities motor functions improved during six months; an improvement in D3 (distal motor capacity was noted during the total follow-up. D1 (standing posture and transfers and total score were useful to predict the loss of the ability to walk. CONCLUSIONS: The use of the MFM in DMD patients confirms the benefits of the steroid treatment for slowing the progression of the disease.OBJETIVO: Avaliar a evolução da função motora de pacientes com distrofia muscular de Duchenne (DMD em corticoterapia (predinisolona e deflazacort, por meio da escala Medida da Função Motora (MFM, que avalia três dimensões de funções motoras (D1, D2, D3. MÉTODOS: Trinta e três pacientes com DMD (22 deambulantes, seis cadeirantes e cinco que perderam a capacidade de andar ao longo do estudo foram avaliados pela escala MFM em seis momentos durante 18 meses. RESULTADOS: Todas as funções motoras mantiveram-se estáveis durante 14 meses, exceto D1 para os pacientes que perderam a marcha. Nos pacientes deambulantes, a D2 (função motora axial e proximal apresentou melhora durante seis meses. Melhora em D3 (função motora distal também foi observada durante o seguimento. A D1 (postura em pé e transferências e o escore total foram importantes para predizer a perda de marcha. CONCLUSÕES: O uso da MFM nos pacientes com DMD confirma os benefícios do tratamento com corticoides na diminuição da velocidade de progressão da doença.

Elaine C. da Silva

2012-03-01

244

Motor function measure scale, steroid therapy and patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy / Medida de função motora, corticoterapia e pacientes com distrofia muscular de Duchenne  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Avaliar a evolução da função motora de pacientes com distrofia muscular de Duchenne (DMD) em corticoterapia (predinisolona e deflazacort), por meio da escala Medida da Função Motora (MFM), que avalia três dimensões de funções motoras (D1, D2, D3). MÉTODOS: Trinta e três pacientes com DMD ( [...] 22 deambulantes, seis cadeirantes e cinco que perderam a capacidade de andar ao longo do estudo) foram avaliados pela escala MFM em seis momentos durante 18 meses. RESULTADOS: Todas as funções motoras mantiveram-se estáveis durante 14 meses, exceto D1 para os pacientes que perderam a marcha. Nos pacientes deambulantes, a D2 (função motora axial e proximal) apresentou melhora durante seis meses. Melhora em D3 (função motora distal) também foi observada durante o seguimento. A D1 (postura em pé e transferências) e o escore total foram importantes para predizer a perda de marcha. CONCLUSÕES: O uso da MFM nos pacientes com DMD confirma os benefícios do tratamento com corticoides na diminuição da velocidade de progressão da doença. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To assess the evolution of motor function in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) treated with steroids (prednisolone or deflazacort) through the Motor Function Measure (MFM), which evaluates three dimensions of motor performance (D1, D2, D3). METHODS: Thirty-three patients wit [...] h DMD (22 ambulant, 6 non-ambulant and 5 who lost the capacity to walk during the period of the study) were assessed using the MFM scale six times over a period of 18 months. RESULTS: All the motor functions remained stable for 14 months in all patients, except D1 for those who lost their walking ability. In ambulant patients, D2 (axial and proximal motor capacities) motor functions improved during six months; an improvement in D3 (distal motor capacity) was noted during the total follow-up. D1 (standing posture and transfers) and total score were useful to predict the loss of the ability to walk. CONCLUSIONS: The use of the MFM in DMD patients confirms the benefits of the steroid treatment for slowing the progression of the disease.

Elaine C. da, Silva; Darlene L., Machado; Maria B. D., Resende; Renata F., Silva; Edmar, Zanoteli; Umbertina C., Reed.

245

Predicting the size and direction of sex differences in measures of emotion and personality.  

Science.gov (United States)

Plutchik's (1980, 1994) psychoevolutionary theory, which posited eight basic emotions, was used as a framework for the organization of Lazarus and Folkman's (1984) coping strategies and Bem's (1981) gender-schematic items regarding equivalent motivations and coping strategies. Personality factors from the 16PF, Edwards's Personal Preference Schedule (Edwards, 1959), and the Jackson Personality Research Form (Jackson, 1984) were drawn into the same model to explain and predict both typical (actually occurring) and stereotypical (expected or assigned) sex differences in motivation and emotion. Data from several experiments and a meta-analysis support the conclusion that the model can successfully predict sex differences and that although most differences tend to occur in the direction predicted by the model, typical sex differences are less frequent and of a smaller magnitude than stereotypical differences. PMID:8760495

Whissell, C M

1996-08-01

246

Steroid hormone receptors ER? and PR characterised by immunohistochemistry in the mare adrenal gland  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Sex steroid hormone receptors have been identified in the adrenal gland of rat, sheep and rhesus monkey, indicating a direct effect of sex steroids on adrenal gland function. Methods In the present study, immunohistochemistry using two different mouse monoclonal antibodies was employed to determine the presence of oestrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha) and progesterone receptor (PR) in the mare adrenal gland. Adrenal glands from intact (n = 5) an...

2009-01-01

247

Effect of genotype, sex and slaughter weight on veal Longissimus muscle area measured by ultrasound and planimeter  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of this research was to determine effect of genotype (Holstein, Simmental and their crossbreeds), sex and slaughter weight groups (SW1=150-160kg and SW2=190-200kg) on veal Longissimus muscle area (LMA). Between the12th and the13th rib, two ultrasound LMA (ULMA) images were taken from each animal and carcass LMA (CLMA) traced on transparent foil was measured by planimeter. For both measures, Simmental calves had larger LMA than Holstein (P<0.001) and crossbreeds (P<0.05). Male an...

2010-01-01

248

Mechanisms of prenatal programing: identifying and distinguishing the impact of steroid hormones.  

Science.gov (United States)

Developmental programing is gaining considerable leverage as a conceptual framework for understanding individual variability in human behavioral and somatic health. The current mini-review examines some of the key conceptual and methodological challenges for developmental programing research focused on fetal sex steroid exposure and physical, behavioral, physiological, and health outcomes. Specifically, we consider the bases for focusing on sex steroids, methods for assessing prenatal steroid hormone exposure, confounding factors, and the most relevant postnatal outcomes. We conclude with a brief consideration, based on current knowledge, of the applications of the existing findings for further research and practice. PMID:24782831

O'Connor, Thomas G; Barrett, Emily S

2014-01-01

249

Cognition, mood, and physiological concentrations of sex hormones in the early and late postmenopause.  

Science.gov (United States)

Variations in the hormonal milieu after menopause may influence neural processes concerned with cognition, cognitive aging, and mood, but findings are inconsistent. In particular, cognitive effects of estradiol may vary with time since menopause, but this prediction has not been assessed directly using serum hormone concentrations. We studied 643 healthy postmenopausal women not using hormone therapy who were recruited into early (estrone, progesterone, free testosterone, and sex hormone binding globulin measurements. Cognitive outcomes were standardized composite measures of verbal episodic memory, executive functions, and global cognition. Covariate-adjusted linear regression analyses were conducted for each hormone separately and after adjustment for other hormone levels. Endogenous sex steroid levels were unassociated with cognitive composites, but sex hormone binding globulin was positively associated with verbal memory. Results for early and late groups did not differ significantly, although progesterone concentrations were significantly positively associated with verbal memory and global cognition in early group women. Hormone concentrations were not significantly related to mood. Results fail to support the hypothesis that temporal proximity to menopause modifies the relation between endogenous serum levels of estradiol and verbal memory, executive functions, or global cognition. Physiological variations in endogenous postmenopausal levels of sex steroid hormones are not substantially related to these aspects of cognition or mood; positive associations for progesterone and sex hormone binding globulin merit additional study. PMID:24277815

Henderson, Victor W; St John, Jan A; Hodis, Howard N; McCleary, Carol A; Stanczyk, Frank Z; Karim, Roksana; Shoupe, Donna; Kono, Naoko; Dustin, Laurie; Allayee, Hooman; Mack, Wendy J

2013-12-10

250

Sex dimorphism of cortical water diffusion in normal aging measured by magnetic resonance imaging  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Diffusion-weighted images covering the majority of the brain were acquired from 77 healthy participants. Both the mean water diffusivity and diffusion kurtosis were calculated from the cortical regions and parcellated according to the template in Anatomical Automatic Labeling. The mean water diffusivity and diffusion kurtosis from both sexes were examined and subsequently correlated with age. Statistical significance was set at a threshold of p

Jiun-JieWang

2013-11-01

251

Examining the effects of age, sex, and body mass index on normative median motor nerve excitability measurements.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to build a large reference database of excitability measures in normal subjects and to examine the effects of age, sex, and BMI. METHODS: One hundred and five healthy subjects had median motor nerve excitability testing performed at the wrist using the automated threshold-tracking program, QTRAC. Statistical linear regression was used to explore relationships between nerve excitability and the independent variables. RESULTS: The main effect of age is a reduced superexcitability. Lesser effects are flattening of the normalized stimulus response curve and reduction in threshold change following strong hyperpolarizing currents. Females have lower thresholds than males and small but significant differences in voltage-gated potassium channel (KCNQ) mediated properties (late subexcitability, accommodation half time, and threshold undershoot following depolarizing electrotonus), as well as a small increase in superexcitability. BMI has no influence on nerve excitability data and does not explain sex-related differences in threshold. CONCLUSIONS: Age and sex have few and small effects on excitability parameters. SIGNIFICANCE: The expression of nodal KCNQ channels appears to be greater in females. Age-related increases in subexcitability may be attributable to changes in the muscle fibre and not the nerve.

McHugh, John C

2012-02-01

252

Are Steroids Worth the Risk?  

Science.gov (United States)

... group of steroids, sometimes called steroidal supplements , contains dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and/or androstenedione (also known as andro). For ... gyms, are now illegal and require a prescription. DHEA is one of the few exceptions and can ...

253

Cardiac effects of anabolic steroids  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Anabolic steroid abuse in athletes has been associated with a wide range of adverse conditions, including hypogonadism, testicular atrophy, impaired spermatogenesis, gynaecomastia, and psychiatric disturbance. But what effect does steroid abuse have on the cardiovascular system?

Payne, J. R.; Kotwinski, P. J.; Montgomery, H. E.

2004-01-01

254

Measuring DHEA-S in saliva: time of day differences and positive correlations between two different types of collection methods  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background The anabolic steroid, dehydroepiandosterone sulfate (DHEA-S), is secreted from the adrenal cortex. It plays a significant role in the body as a precursor to sex steroids as well as a lesser known role in the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis (HPA) response to stress. DHEA-S can be measured reliably in saliva, making saliva collection a valuable tool for health research because it minimizes the need for invasive sampling procedures (e.g., blood draws). Ty...

Whetzel Courtney A; Klein Laura C

2010-01-01

255

Steroids in kidney transplant patients  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Any evaluation of steroids in kidney transplantation is hampered by individual variability in metabolism, the lack of clinically available steroid blood levels, and overall little attention to steroid exposure. Many feel that steroids were an essential part of chronic immunosuppression in past decades but may no longer be necessary in low-risk populations when our newer and more potent drugs are used. Potential differences in long-term outcome will be unapparent in short-term antibody inducti...

Steiner, Robert W.; Awdishu, Linda

2011-01-01

256

Variation in lower leg growth with alternate day steroid treatment.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Daily growth of the lower leg in a child receiving alternate day oral steroids for Crohn's disease was measured by knemometry. Growth occurred on days free of treatment. This may represent a direct observation of the growth sparing effect of alternate day steroid medication.

Wales, J. K.; Milner, R. D.

1988-01-01

257

Zebrafish and steroids: what do we know and what do we need to know?  

Science.gov (United States)

Zebrafish, Danio rerio, has long been used as a model organism in developmental biology. Nowadays, due to their advantages compared to other model animals, the fish gain popularity and are also increasingly used in endocrinology. This review focuses on an important aspect of endocrinology in zebrafish by summarizing the progress in steroid hormone related research. We present the state of the art of research on steroidogenesis, the action of steroid hormones, and steroid catabolism and cover the incremental usage of zebrafish as a test animal in endocrine disruption research. By this approach, we demonstrate that some aspects of steroid hormone research are well characterized (e.g., expression patterns of the genes involved), while other aspects such as functional analyses of enzymes, steroid hormone elimination, or the impact of steroid hormones on embryonic development or sex differentiation have not been extensively studied and are poorly understood. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'CSR 2013'. PMID:23376612

Tokarz, Janina; Möller, Gabriele; de Angelis, Martin Hrab?; Adamski, Jerzy

2013-09-01

258

Measurements of vertebral shape by r[iographic morphometry: sex differences and relationships with vertebral level and lumbar lordosis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective. To examine sex-related and vertebral-level-specific differences in vertebral shape and to investigate the relationships between the lumbar lordosis angle and vertebral morphology. Design and patients. Lateral thoracic and lumbar spine r[iographs were obtained with a standardized protocol in 142 healthy men and 198 healthy women over 50 years old. Anterior (Ha), central (Hc) and posterior (Hp) heights of each vertebra from T4 to L4 were measured using a digitizing technique, and the Ha/Hp and Hc/Hp ratios were calculated. The lumbar lordosis angle was measured on the lateral lumbar spine r[iographs. Results. Ha/Hp and Hc/Hp ratios were smaller in men than women by 1.8% and 0.7%, respectively, and these ratios varied with vertebral level. Significant correlations were found between vertebral shape and the lumbar lordosis angle. Conclusions. These results demonstrate that vertebral shape varies significantly with sex, vertebral level and lumbar lordosis angle. Awareness of these relationships may help prevent misdiagnosis in clinical vertebral morphometry. (orig.)

1998-07-01

259

Measurements of vertebral shape by radiographic morphometry: sex differences and relationships with vertebral level and lumbar lordosis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Objective. To examine sex-related and vertebral-level-specific differences in vertebral shape and to investigate the relationships between the lumbar lordosis angle and vertebral morphology. Design and patients. Lateral thoracic and lumbar spine radiographs were obtained with a standardized protocol in 142 healthy men and 198 healthy women over 50 years old. Anterior (Ha), central (Hc) and posterior (Hp) heights of each vertebra from T4 to L4 were measured using a digitizing technique, and the Ha/Hp and Hc/Hp ratios were calculated. The lumbar lordosis angle was measured on the lateral lumbar spine radiographs. Results. Ha/Hp and Hc/Hp ratios were smaller in men than women by 1.8% and 0.7%, respectively, and these ratios varied with vertebral level. Significant correlations were found between vertebral shape and the lumbar lordosis angle. Conclusions. These results demonstrate that vertebral shape varies significantly with sex, vertebral level and lumbar lordosis angle. Awareness of these relationships may help prevent misdiagnosis in clinical vertebral morphometry. (orig.) With 4 figs., 2 tabs., 17 refs.

Cheng, X.G.; Sun, Y.; Boonen, S.; Nicholson, P.H.F.; Dequeker, J. [Arthritis and Metabolic Bone Disease Research Unit, U.Z. Pellenberg, Division of Rheumatology, Pellenberg (Belgium); Brys, P. [Radiology Department, University Hospitals, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Felsenberg, D. [Radiology Department, Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany)

1998-07-01

260

BMI, RQ, diabetes, and sex affect the relationships between amino acids and clamp measures of insulin action in humans.  

Science.gov (United States)

Previous studies have used indirect measures of insulin sensitivity to link circulating amino acids with insulin resistance and identify potential biomarkers of diabetes risk. Using direct measures (i.e., hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps), we examined the relationships between the metabolomic amino acid profile and insulin action (i.e., glucose disposal rate [GDR]). Relationships between GDR and serum amino acids were determined among insulin-sensitive, insulin-resistant, and type 2 diabetic (T2DM) individuals. In all subjects, glycine (Gly) had the strongest correlation with GDR (positive association), followed by leucine/isoleucine (Leu/Ile) (negative association). These relationships were dramatically influenced by BMI, the resting respiratory quotient (RQ), T2DM, and sex. Gly had a strong positive correlation with GDR regardless of BMI, RQ, or sex but became nonsignificant in T2DM. In contrast, Leu/Ile was negatively associated with GDR in nonobese and T2DM subjects. Increased resting fat metabolism (i.e., low RQ) and obesity were observed to independently promote and negate the association between Leu/Ile and insulin resistance, respectively. Additionally, the relationship between Leu/Ile and GDR was magnified in T2DM males. Future studies are needed to determine whether Gly has a mechanistic role in glucose homeostasis and whether dietary Gly enrichment may be an effective intervention in diseases characterized by insulin resistance. PMID:24130332

Thalacker-Mercer, Anna E; Ingram, Katherine H; Guo, Fangjian; Ilkayeva, Olga; Newgard, Christopher B; Garvey, W Timothy

2014-02-01

 
 
 
 
261

Measurements of neuron soma size and density in rat dorsal striatum, nucleus accumbens core and nucleus accumbens shell: differences between striatal region and brain hemisphere, but not sex  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Both hemispheric bias and sex differences exist in striatal-mediated behaviors and pathologies. The extent to which these dimorphisms can be attributed to an underlying neuroanatomical difference is unclear. We therefore quantified neuron soma size and density in the dorsal striatum (CPu) as well as the core (AcbC) and shell (AcbS) subregions of the nucleus accumbens to determine whether these anatomical measurements differ by region, hemisphere, or sex in adult Sprague-Dawley rats. Neuron so...

Meitzen, John; Pflepsen, Kelsey R.; Stern, Christopher M.; Meisel, Robert L.; Mermelstein, Paul G.

2011-01-01

262

Effect of genotype, sex and slaughter weight on veal Longissimus muscle area measured by ultrasound and planimeter  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this research was to determine effect of genotype (Holstein, Simmental and their crossbreeds, sex and slaughter weight groups (SW1=150-160kg and SW2=190-200kg on veal Longissimus muscle area (LMA. Between the12th and the13th rib, two ultrasound LMA (ULMA images were taken from each animal and carcass LMA (CLMA traced on transparent foil was measured by planimeter. For both measures, Simmental calves had larger LMA than Holstein (P<0.001 and crossbreeds (P<0.05. Male and female calves did not differ significantly in ULMA and CLMA. Calves of SW2 group had larger LMA (P<0.0001 than SW1 group. High correlation coefficient between ULMA and CLMA was determined in this research. Veal LMA was significantly affected by genotype and slaughter weight. According to high correlation coefficients, ultrasound can be useful in estimating carcass traits of cattle at early age.

Zoran Lukovi?

2010-01-01

263

Steroidal anticancer agents  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This thesis describes the design, synthesis, and bioactivity of steroidal anticancer agents. The program aimed to discover new chemistry, provide concise routes to natural and analogue cytotoxins, and comprehend their structure-activity relationships. The work resulted in advances in nine related projects: (1) asymmetric synthesis of bissteroidal pyrazines, including the first syntheses of the currently most potent natural (cephalostatin 1) and designed hybrid (ritterostatin GN1N) examples; (...

2001-01-01

264

A simple method for measuring sex-hormone binding protein (SHBP) - typical values in men and women and in pregnant women  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Assuming that the binding forces between steroid hormones and their binding proteins are similar to those between antigens and their antibodies, the authors describe how to determine SHBP activity by a dilution method analogous to that used for titration of antisera in radioimmunoassay. The method consists of the following stages: (1) plasma dilution; (2) incubation of the dilution with 20,000dis/min of 1,2-3H-testosterone; (3) separation of the fraction of tracer bound to the SHBP by precipitation with ammonium sulphate; (4) centrifugation and measurement of the supernatant; and (5) plotting of the results on a graph where the axis of ordinates represents the quotient given by bound steroid over free steroid (U/L) and the abscissa represents the plasma dilutions. The values are expressed as the 50% bound titre. An advantage of the method is the higher sensitivity of the dilution curves in the steepest part where the 50% bound is encountered; it is thus not necessary to use the saturation part of the curves where sensitivity is lost owing to the steeper slope. A further advantage of the method is that there is no need for costly processes such as dialysis. The SHBP values obtained for healthy subjects were as follows: 1/5 for men, 1/93 for women, and 1/360 in pregnant women. These physiological values showed no overlapping. (author)

1977-11-04

265

Objectively measured physical activity of USA adults by sex, age, and racial/ethnic groups: a cross-sectional study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Accelerometers were incorporated in the 2003–2004 National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (NHANES study cycle for objective assessment of physical activity. This is the first time that objective physical activity data are available on a nationally representative sample of U.S. residents. The use of accelerometers allows researchers to measure total physical activity, including light intensity and unstructured activities, which may be a better predictor of health outcomes than structured activity alone. The aim of this study was to examine objectively determined physical activity levels by sex, age and racial/ethnic groups in a national sample of U.S. adults. Methods Data were obtained from the 2003–2004 NHANES, a cross-sectional study of a complex, multistage probability sample of the U.S. population. Physical activity was assessed with the Actigraph AM-7164 accelerometer for seven days following an examination. 2,688 U.S. adults with valid accelerometer data (i.e. at least four days with at least 10 hours of wear-time were included in the analysis. Mean daily total physical activity counts, as well as counts accumulated in minutes of light, and moderate-vigorous intensity physical activity are presented by sex across age and racial/ethnic groups. Generalized linear modeling using the log link function was performed to compare physical activity in sex and racial/ethnic groups adjusting for age. Results Physical activity decreases with age for both men and women across all racial/ethnic groups with men being more active than women, with the exception of Hispanic women. Hispanic women are more active at middle age (40–59 years compared to younger or older age and not significantly less active than men in middle or older age groups (i.e. age 40–59 or age 60 and older. Hispanic men accumulate more total and light intensity physical activity counts than their white and black counterparts for all age groups. Conclusion Physical activity levels measured objectively by accelerometer demonstrated that Hispanic men are, in general, more active than their white and black counterparts. This appears to be in contrast to self-reported physical activity previously reported in the literature and identifies the need to use objective measures in situations where the contribution of light intensity and/or unstructured physical activity cannot be assumed homogenous across the populations of interest.

Hawkins Marquis S

2009-06-01

266

Characterization of steroid receptors in human prostate using mibolerone.  

Science.gov (United States)

Accurate quantitation of androgen receptors requires a radioactive ligand which has affinity and specificity for the receptor and which is stable to metabolic enzymes. In this report, we have characterized the properties of 7 alpha,17 alpha-dimethyl-17 beta-hydroxy-4-estren-3-one (mibolerone) in human benign hyperplastic prostate cytosol and compared them to those of 17 beta-hydroxy-17 alpha-methyl-estra-4,9,11-trien-3-one (R1881). Mibolerone was found to have an affinity (Kd = 1.5 nM) greater than R1881. (Kd = 2.3 nM) for the androgen receptor in human prostate tissue. Surprisingly, mibolerone was found to bind with high affinity to the progesterone receptor in both human prostate (Kd = 5.9 nM) and rabbit uterus (Kd = 1.1 nM). However, binding to this receptor in both species could be blocked with a 500-fold excess of triamcinolone acetonide. [3H]Mibolerone binding to the androgen receptor was competed effectively with unlabeled dihydrotestosterone, R1881, and mibolerone but not by progesterone, diethylstilbestrol or R5020, in the presence of triamcinolone acetonide. Interestingly, mibolerone was more resistant to metabolism than R1881 in prostate cytosol when exposed to elevated temperatures (30 degrees C) for extended periods of time. However, when exposed to high-intensity ultraviolet irradiation, both compounds lost 50% of their binding ability in about 30 minutes. Mibolerone was found to have a very low affinity (Ki = 540 nM) for human sex steroid binding protein. These studies demonstrate that mibolerone is a useful ligand for androgen receptor assays. They also emphasize the need for including competitors of progesterone receptor binding in assays utilizing this steroid for androgen receptor measurements. PMID:2422638

Murthy, L R; Johnson, M P; Rowley, D R; Young, C Y; Scardino, P T; Tindall, D J

1986-01-01

267

Reference Values and Age and Sex Differences in Physical Performance Measures for Community-Dwelling Older Japanese: A Pooled Analysis of Six Cohort Studies  

Science.gov (United States)

Objectives To determine age- and sex-specific reference values for six physical performance measures, i.e. hand-grip strength, one-legged stance, and gait speed and step length at both usual and maximum paces, and to investigate age and sex differences in these measures among community-dwelling older Japanese adults. Methods We conducted a pooled analysis of data from six cohort studies collected between 2002 and 2011 as part of the Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology-Longitudinal Interdisciplinary Study on Aging. The pooled analysis included cross-sectional data from 4683 nondisabled, community-dwelling adults aged 65 years or older (2168 men, 2515 women; mean age: 74.0 years in men and 73.9 years in women). Results Unweighted simple mean (standard deviation) hand-grip strength, one-legged stance, usual gait speed, usual gait step length, maximum gait speed, and maximum gait step length were 31.7 (6.7) kg, 39.3 (23.0) s, 1.29 (0.25) m/s, 67.7 (10.0) cm, 1.94 (0.38) m/s, and 82.3 (11.6) cm, respectively, in men and 20.4 (5.0) kg, 36.8 (23.4) s, 1.25 (0.27) m/s, 60.8 (10.0) cm, 1.73 (0.36) m/s, and 69.7 (10.8) cm, respectively, in women. All physical performance measures showed significant decreasing trends with advancing age in both sexes (all P<0.001 for trend). We also constructed age- and sex-specific appraisal standards according to quintiles. With increasing age, the sex difference in hand-grip strength decreased significantly (P<0.001 for age and sex interaction). In contrast, sex differences significantly increased in all other measures (all P<0.05 for interactions) except step length at maximum pace. Conclusion Our pooled analysis yielded inclusive age- and sex-specific reference values and appraisal standards for major physical performance measures in nondisabled, community-dwelling, older Japanese adults. The characteristics of age-related decline in physical performance measures differed between sexes.

Seino, Satoshi; Shinkai, Shoji; Fujiwara, Yoshinori; Obuchi, Shuichi; Yoshida, Hideyo; Hirano, Hirohiko; Kim, Hun Kyung; Ishizaki, Tatsuro; Takahashi, Ryutaro

2014-01-01

268

Steroids and neuroprotection: new advances  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Gonadal hormones exert neuroprotective actions. In addition, it has become evident that the local synthesis of these molecules in the central nervous system may prevent or reduce neurodegeneration. The neuroprotective actions of steroids involve neurons, glial cells and blood vessels, are exerted via steroid receptor signaling initiated at the nuclear or membrane level and steroid receptor independent mechanisms. They include the regulation of phosphatases and kinases and the regulation of th...

Garcia-segura, Luis M.; Balthazart, Jacques

2009-01-01

269

Nonprescription Steroids on the Internet  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study evaluated the degree to which anabolic-androgenic steroids are proffered for sale over the Internet and how they are characterized on popular websites. Searches for specific steroid product labels (e.g., Dianabol) between March and June, 2006 revealed that approximately half of the websites advocated their “safe” use, and roughly one-third offered to sell them without prescriptions. The websites frequently presented misinformation about steroids and minimized their dangers. Les...

Mcdonald, Christen L.; Marlowe, Douglas B.; Patapis, Nicholas S.; Festinger, David S.; Forman, Robert F.

2012-01-01

270

Sex Differences in Sum Scores May Be Hard to Interpret: The Importance of Measurement Invariance  

Science.gov (United States)

In most assessment instruments, distinct items are designed to measure a trait, and the sum score of these items serves as an approximation of an individual's trait score. In interpreting group differences with respect to sum scores, the instrument should measure the same underlying trait across groups (e.g., male/female, young/old). Differences…

Slof-Op 't Landt, M. C. T.; van Furth, E. F.; Rebollo-Mesa, I.; Bartels, M.; van Beijsterveldt, C. E. M.; Slagboom, P. E.; Boomsma, D. I.; Meulenbelt, I.; Dolan, C. V.

2009-01-01

271

Factor structures of measures of cognitive distortions, emotional congruence, and victim empathy based on data from Irish child sex offenders  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study evaluated the factor structures of three instruments from the Sexual Offender Assessment Pack. The Children and Sex Cognitive Distortions Scale, the Children and Sex Emotional Congruence Scale, and the Child Victim Empathy Distortions Scale were administered to 203 sex offenders in Ireland. Confirmatory factor analyses did not support the proposed single factor structure for each of the three scales. Exploratory factor analyses suggested more complex factor structures. The Children...

2006-01-01

272

Steroid cell tumor not otherwise specified of bilateral ovaries: A rare cause of post menopausal virilization  

Science.gov (United States)

Steroid cell tumors of the ovaries are rare sex-hormone secreting tumors which are usually benign and unilateral. One previous study has estimated the tumors to be bilateral in 6% of patients. We report a case of post menopausal virilization where tumor histology revealed steroid cell tumor not otherwise specified with benign charactsristics. The presence of tumor in bilateral ovaries made this case unique.

Cooray, Samanthi M. A.; Bulugahapitiya, Uditha D. S.; Samarasinghe, Kamani; Samarathunga, Praboda

2013-01-01

273

Steroid cell tumor not otherwise specified of bilateral ovaries: A rare cause of post menopausal virilization.  

Science.gov (United States)

Steroid cell tumors of the ovaries are rare sex-hormone secreting tumors which are usually benign and unilateral. One previous study has estimated the tumors to be bilateral in 6% of patients. We report a case of post menopausal virilization where tumor histology revealed steroid cell tumor not otherwise specified with benign charactsristics. The presence of tumor in bilateral ovaries made this case unique. PMID:24251181

Cooray, Samanthi M A; Bulugahapitiya, Uditha D S; Samarasinghe, Kamani; Samarathunga, Praboda

2013-10-01

274

Hypothyroidism and hyperlipidemia with a virilizing ovarian steroid cell tumor, not otherwise specified.  

Science.gov (United States)

Steroid cell tumors, not otherwise specified, are rare ovarian sex cord-stromal tumors with malignant potential. The majority of these tumors produce steroids, with testosterone being the most common. A 44-year-old woman with hypothyroidism and hyperlipidemia presented with abrupt onset of oligomenorrhea, progressive virilization as acne, hirsutism and clitoromegaly, and a non-palpable pelvic mass. The preoperatively elevated serum testosterone level returned to normal after salpingo-oophorectomy, and then menstrual flow became regular. PMID:17454154

Tsai, Horng-Jyh; Chen, Shu-Chen; Wei, Hsiao-Yun; Chen, Gin-Den

2007-02-01

275

Same sex, no sex, and unaware sex in neurotoxicology.  

Science.gov (United States)

Males and females of virtually all species differ in how they respond to their environment. Because such differences exist in almost all biological realms, including disease patterns and therapeutic outcomes, they have evoked calls by various bodies to incorporate their assessment in research. Neurobehavioral indices pose special questions because, unlike outwardly visible markers, they are described by complex functional outcomes or subtle alterations in brain structure. These divergent responses arise because they are inscribed in the genome itself and then by endocrine mechanisms that govern sexual differentiation of the brain during development and operate throughout life. Other organ systems that exhibit sex differences include the liver, an important consideration for neurotoxicology because it may process many toxic chemicals differentially in males and females. Despite the scope and pervasiveness of sex differences, however, they are disregarded by much of neurotoxicology research. Males predominate in behavioral experiments, few such experiments study both sexes, some investigators fail to even describe the sex of their subjects, and in vitro studies tend to wholly ignore sex, even for model systems aimed at neurological disorders that display marked sex differences. The public is acutely aware of sex differences in behavior, as attested by its appetite for books on the topic. It closely follows debates about the proportion of women in professions that feature science and mathematics. Neurotoxicology, especially in the domain of laboratory research, will be hindered in its ability to translate its findings into human health measures if it assigns sex differences to a minor role. It must also be sensitive to how such debates are framed. Often, the differences evoking the most discussion are subtle in scope. They do not lend themselves to the typical analyses conducted by experimenters; that is, reliance on mean differences and null hypothesis testing. PMID:20875453

Weiss, Bernard

2011-10-01

276

Physicochemical and biological properties of new steroid metal complexes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of this investigation was to prepare stable steroid metal chelates by chemical conversion of the natural steroid hormones testerone, 5?-dihydrotestosterone (5?-DHT) and estradiol and to characterize these by means of their spectroscopic and other physico-chemical properties. In addition, various measuring techniques for the qualitative and quantitative study of complex stabilities and hydrolytic properties were employed. The distribution of some tritiated steroid metal complexes in the tissues of rats was tested using whole animal autoradiography, mainly with a view to identifying whether selective concentration occurs in certain organs. (orig.)

1980-01-01

277

Role of Steroids in COPD  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available There has been a lot of debate regarding the role of steroids in the management of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. Now with a better understanding of the pathophysiology of COPD, the role of steroids in the management of COPD has become clearer.

Vishnu Sharma

2002-04-01

278

Role of Steroids in COPD  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

There has been a lot of debate regarding the role of steroids in the management of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. Now with a better understanding of the pathophysiology of COPD, the role of steroids in the management of COPD has become clearer.

2002-01-01

279

Assessment of accused juvenile sex offenders in Germany: a comparison of five different measures.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study examines the relationship between risk and protective factors among young alleged sexual offenders (N = 66) in pre-trial and pre-treatment settings. For risk assessment purposes, the Screening Tool for the Assessment of Young Sexual Offenders' Risk (STAYSOR), the Structured Assessment of Violence Risk in Youth (SAVRY), and the Structured Assessment of Protective Factors for violence risk (SAPROF) were used. Psychopathological indicators measured with the Basis Raads Onderzoek (BARO) and the German adaption of the Reynolds Adolescent Adjustment Screening Inventory (RAASI) were used to examine the relationship between the risk assessment scales and instruments measuring risk-relevant psychopathological constructs. Risk and protective factors were significantly negatively correlated. Psychopathological measures were positively correlated with risk factors and negatively with protective factors. Although further studies on the predictive validity of the instruments are needed, the results of the present explorative pilot study indicate that the use of all five instruments may be clinically meaningful for the assessment of young persons who are at risk of sexual offending. PMID:22411449

Klein, Verena; Yoon, Dahlnym; Briken, Peer; Turner, Daniel; Spehr, Aranke; Rettenberger, Martin

2012-01-01

280

Sex chromosome complement affects social interactions in mice  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Sex differences in behavior can be attributed to differences in steroid hormones. Sex chromosome complement can also influence behavior, independent of gonadal differentiation. The mice used for this work combined a spontaneous mutation of the Sry gene with a transgene for Sry that is incorporated into an autosome thus disassociating gonad differentiation from sex chromosome complement. The resulting genotypes are XX and XY? females (ovary-bearing) along with XXSry and XY?Sry males (teste...

Mcphie-lalmansingh, Anika A.; Tejada, Lucia D.; Weaver, Jessica L.; Rissman, Emilie F.

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Organocatalytic asymmetric formation of steroids.  

Science.gov (United States)

A novel and simple one-step approach for the construction of optically active steroids in a highly stereoselective manner by using organocatalysis is presented. The reaction of (di)enals with cyclic dienophiles in the presence of a TMS-protected prolinol catalyst leads to the construction of important 14??-steroids. This new reaction allows an easy access to optically active steroids with a variety of substituents in the A?ring in high yields and up to greater than 99?% ee. The reaction has been extended to include the construction of B- and D-homosteroids as well as steroids containing heteroatoms in the B?ring. The angular substituent at C13 can be varied and alkyl, ester, and sulfone functionalities are introduced with excellent stereoselectivities. Simple synthetic procedures provide access to a range of naturally occurring steroids such as estrone and related analogues. PMID:24554381

Halskov, Kim Søholm; Donslund, Bjarke S; Barfüsser, Sebastian; Jørgensen, Karl Anker

2014-04-14

282

ANABOLIC ANDROGENIC STEROIDS AND DEPENDENCE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Anabolic androgenic steroids are used for sportive, cosmetic, therapeutic and occupational reasons and there are many side effects reported (George, 2005; Nieminen et al., 1996; O'Sullivan et al., 2000. Prevalence of anabolic steroids’ use also indicates the importance of this topic. Moreover, it is now known that use of anabolic steroids could lead to dependence which could be psychological or/and physiological (Copeland et al., 2000. It isimportant to know about all aspects of anabolic steroids including dependence. Therefore, this study has attempted to give an insight into use of anabolic steroids and dependence. The discussion will focus on prevalence, reasons, and side effects of use and physiological and psychological dependence

IHSAN SARI

2010-12-01

283

Variation of steroid concentrations during the reproductive cycle of the clam Ruditapes decussatus: a one year study in the gulf of Gabès area.  

Science.gov (United States)

Progesterone, testosterone and estradiol-17beta were measured by radio-immunoassay (RIA) in the gonads of the clam Ruditapes decussatus. The reproductive cycle was also investigated. Our study covered a period of one year, from September 2003 to August 2004. The chosen site "Kerkennah", located out of industrial effluents, belongs to the gulf of Gabès area (Tunisia). Steroids varied from 178 to 2459 pg g(-1) wet mass for progesterone, from 40 to 326 pg g(-1) wet mass for testosterone and from 10 to 235 pg g(-1) wet mass for estradiol-17beta in females. However in males, these steroids ranged from 304 to 2303 pg g(-1) wet mass for progesterone, from 81 to 381 pg g(-1) wet mass for testosterone and from 48 to 168 pg g(-1) wet mass for estradiol-17beta. The reproductive cycle of R. decussatus, investigated by histological examination of gonadic sections, showed that gametogenesis occurred from April to February in males and from April to November in females. Progesterone and testosterone increased at the end of gametogenesis in both sexes. The highest estradiol-17beta was recorded at the beginning of vitellogenesis in females. Fluctuations in the levels of sex steroids during the reproductive cycle suggest their possible role as endogenous modulators of gametogenesis in R. decussatus. Although this species is considered as gonochoristic, 0.83% of hermaphrodites were observed. PMID:17336113

Ketata, I; Guermazi, F; Rebai, T; Hamza-Chaffai, A

2007-06-01

284

A rare occurrence of a malignant ovarian steroid cell tumor not otherwise specified: A case report and literature review  

Science.gov (United States)

Steroid cell tumors not otherwise specified (NOS) are a rare subgroup of sex cord-stromal tumors. The tumors can occur at any age, although the mean age of occurrence is 43 years old. The majority are benign, but have the capability of producing one or more steroids associated with virilization. The present study reports the case of a 29-year-old female who presented to the Second Xiangya Hospital suffering from lower back and leg pain that had persisted for five months. The patient had regular menstrual cycles and no virilization symptoms were present. Laboratory investigations revealed normal hormone levels. Multiple areas of bone destruction and a right ovarian mass were confirmed via positron emission tomography/computed tomography. The patient underwent an exploratory laparotomy, and a mass measuring ~6 cm in diameter was subsequently identified in the right ovary. A right salpingo-oophorectomy and pelvic washings for cytology were performed. Histopathological studies confirmed the diagnosis of a malignant steroid cell tumor NOS of the right ovary. The patient underwent eight cycles of chemotherapy (docetaxel, 120 mg and nedaplatin, 80 mg). The patient continued to have relatively good health, with no deterioration of the condition for one year and a half, however, the disease progressed and the patient succumbed to brain metastases six months later.

LI, KAI; ZHU, FUFAN; XIONG, JING; LIU, FENGYING

2014-01-01

285

For the common good: measuring residents' efforts to protect their community from drug- and sex-related harm.  

Science.gov (United States)

People in high-risk neighbourhoods try to protect their friends, neighbours, relatives and others from the social and physical risks associated with sex and drug use. This paper develops and validates a community-grounded questionnaire to measure such 'intravention' (health-directed efforts to protect others). An initial ethnography, including life-history interviews and focus groups, explored the forms of intravention activities engaged in by residents of Bushwick (a high-risk New York City neighbourhood). Grassroots categories of intraventions were derived and questions developed to ask about such behaviours. Face validity and adequacy of the questions were assessed by independent experts. Pre-testing was conducted, and reliability and validity were assessed. An instrument including 110 intravention items was administered to 57 community-recruited residents. Analysis focused on 57 items in 11 domain-specific subscale. All subscales had good to very good reliability; Cronbach's alpha ranged from .81 to .95. The subscales evidenced both convergent and discriminant validity. Although further testing of this instrument on additional populations is clearly warranted, this intravention instrument seems valid and reliable. It can be used by researchers in comparative and longitudinal studies of the causes, prevalence and affects of different intravention activities in communities. It can benefit public health practitioners by helping them understand the environments in which they are intervening and by helping them find ways to cooperate with local neighbourhood-level health activists. PMID:18979048

Mateu-Gelabert, Pedro; Bolyard, Melissa; Maslow, Carey; Sandoval, Milagros; Flom, Peter L; Friedman, Samuel R

2008-09-01

286

Sex hormone binding globulin measurement before conception as a predictor of gestational diabetes in women with polycystic ovarian syndrome  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: The objective of this study was to investigate whether the sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) levels before conception are predictive of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in women with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). Materials and Methods: A total of 180 women with PCOS were enrolled and followed up during pregnancy. Diagnosis of GDM was based on a 2-hour, 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (GTT) performed at 24-28 weeks of gestational age. SHBG levels were measured from serum samples that had collected before conception. We examined the incidence of GDM and plotted a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve to assess discrimination. Results: Of the 180 women, 50 (27.8%) were diagnosed with GDM. Those with lower levels of SHBG before conception were more likely to develop GDM than those with higher SHBG (44.4 ± 14.8 nmol/l vs. 63.5 ± 22.7 nmol/l, P < 0.001). The area under the ROC was 77.0% (95% confidence interval [CI] 71.3-78.8). The optimal cut-off value for detecting GDM was a SHBG ?62.5 nmol/l. For every 1 nmol/l increase in SHBG value, there was a 7% reduction in the risk for development of GDM (Odds ratio 0.93 [95% CI 0.90-0.96], P < 0.001). Conclusion: In women with PCOS preconception, SHBG levels are strongly associated with development of GDM.

Mehrabian, Ferdous; Rezae, Marzieh

2013-01-01

287

Aplicação da Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Performance Como Método Preparativo Para a Dosagem de Esteróides Hormonais Por RIE: Dosagens de 17OH-Progesterona e Diidrotestosterona / Preparative HPLC for Steroid Measurements: Determinations of 170H-Progesterone and Dihydrotestosterone  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A dosagem dos esteróides hormonais tem apresentado evolução técnica significativa, sendo os principais esteróides de interesse clínico dosados, atualmente, por métodos simples, rápidos e automatizados. Existe, no entanto, um compromisso em detrimento da exatidão, que é mais evidente na determinação [...] de esteróides de menor concentração relativa e maior número de interferentes potenciais, como a 17-hidroxiprogesterona (17OHP), a diidrotestosterona (DHT) e outros. Nestes casos, um processo preparativo versátil e robusto é fundamental para garantir resultados com alto grau de exatidão. Apresentamos a padronização de um processo preparativo baseado em cromatografia líquida de alta performance (HPLC) comparado à cromatografia em coluna de celite para a dosagem de 17OHP e DHT. Os anticorpos empregados nos respectivos radioimunoensaios apresentam especificidade semelhante aos descritos na literatura. As amostras foram inicialmente extraídas em éter etílico e em seguida submetidas ao processo cromatográfico. Amostras de soro provenientes da rotina foram dosadas em paralelo pelos dois métodos, sendo 57 amostras para 17OHP e 84 para DHT. Não houve diferença significativa entre os resultados, e os índices de correlação foram elevados (R= 0,95 e 0,97). Os resultados comprovam que a aplicação do HPLC é válida, além de ser mais reprodutível, versátil e menos operador-dependente. Sua aplicação mais ampla permitirá uma melhora de exatidão na dosagem de esteróides de baixa concentração relativa, onde os métodos mais simples resultam em valores falsamente elevados. Abstract in english Measurement of steroid hormones has undergone a significant technical evolution so that steroids with greater clinical interest are, nowadays, measured with methods that are simple, fast and prone to automation. Nevertheless, a compromise is made in detriment of accuracy, which is more evident with [...] steroids with lower concentration and more potential interferents, as 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17OHP), dihydrotestosterone (DHT), and others. In such cases, a robust and versatile preparative process is of utmost importance to warrant results with the highest degree of accuracy. In this paper we present the results obtained with the use of a preparative process based on high-pressure chromatography (HPLC) for the measurement of 17OHP and DHT, as compared with a process based on celite column chromatography. The antibodies used in the radioimmunoassays have similar specificity to those previously described for these kinds of assays. Samples were initially extracted in ethyl ether and then submitted to HPLC. Routine samples (57 for 17OHP and 84 for DHT) were measured in parallel with both methods. The differences between results were not statistically significant, and the correlation indexes were high (R= 0.95 and 0.97). Our results confirm that systems based on HPLC are valid, besides being more robust, versatile and operator independent. A more pervasive application of HPLC preparation systems will allow an improvement in the accuracy of steroid measurements, specially those with low concentrations, where simple preparative processes result in falsely elevated results.

José Gilberto H., Vieira; Odete H., Nakamura; Keiko O., Noguti.

288

Aggressive Behaviors in Adult SF-1 Knockout Mice That Are Not Exposed to Gonadal Steroids During Development  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Sex hormones are a major factor responsible for the development of sex differences. Steroidogenic factor 1 (SF-1) is a key regulator of gonadal and adrenal development, and SF-1 knockout mice (SF-1 KO) are born without gonads and adrenal glands. Consequently, these mice are not exposed to gonadal sex steroids. SF-1 KO pups die shortly after birth due to adrenal deficiency. In the present study, SF-1 KO mice were rescued by neonatal corticosteroid injections followed by adrenal transplantation...

Grgurevic, Neza; Bu?defeld, Tomaz; Tobet, Stuart A.; Rissman, Emilie F.; Majdic, Gregor

2008-01-01

289

Sex Steroids and Bone Health Status in Men  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Male osteoporosis is a health problem which deserves more attention as nearly 30% of osteoporotic fractures happen in men aged 50 years and above. Although men do not experience an accelerated bone loss phase and testosterone deficiency is not a universal characteristic for aged men, osteoporosis due to age-related testosterone deficiency does have a negative impact on bone health status of men. Observations from epidemiological studies indicate that elderly men with higher testosterone can p...

Kok-Yong Chin; Soelaiman Ima-Nirwana

2012-01-01

290

Does hyperprolactinemia affect hepatic regeneration independent of sex steroids?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Prolactin, administered exogenously, has been shown to be trophic to the liver, causing increases in the liver weight–to–body weight ratio, in ornithine decarboxylase activity, and in thymidine kinase activity. To investigate the effect of endogenous hyperprolactinemia on hepatic regeneration, pituitary isografts were placed beneath the renal capsule in rats 2 weeks before the rats underwent a two-thirds partial hepatectomy. Prolactin levels 2 weeks after the transplant were greater in th...

Kahn, D.; Gavaler, J. S.; Makowka, L.; Chapchap, P.; Mazzaferro, V.; Casavilla, A.; Smith, M. S.; Eagon, P. K.; Starzl, T. E.; Thiel, D. H.

1988-01-01

291

Impaired hepatic drug and steroid metabolism in congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to P450 oxidoreductase deficiency  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objective: Patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to P450 oxidoreductase (POR) deficiency(ORD) present with disordered sex development and glucocorticoid deficiency. This is due to disruption of electron transfer from mutant POR to microsomal cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes that play a key role in glucocorticoid and sex steroid synthesis. POR also transfers electrons to all major drugmetabolizing CYP enzymes, including CYP3A4 that inactivates glucocorticoid and oestrogens. However, wh...

2010-01-01

292

Steroid myopathy: some unresolved issues  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Steroid myopathy is a non-inflammatory toxic myopathy that occurs as side effect of exogenous and endogenous glucocorticoid excess. The purpose of this review is to examine issues that limit our understanding of this myopathy with respect to nosology, etiopathogenesis, conditioning factors, and muscle fiber selectivity. We suggest that if more data were available on these issues, the understanding of steroid myopathy would be enhanced substantially, thus allowing an early detection of its occ...

Arvat, Emanuela; Motta, Giovanna; Minetto, Marco Alessandro; Lanfranco, Fabio; Allasia, Stefano

2011-01-01

293

Evaluating the Predictive Accuracy of Sex Offender Risk Assessment Measures on UK Samples: A Cross-Validation of the Risk Matrix 2000 Scales  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The predictive accuracy of the newly developed risk measures Risk Matrix 2000 Sexual/Violence (RMS, RMV were cross validated and compared with four risk scales (RRASOR, SACJ-Min, SVR-20, and Static-99 in a sample of sexual (n = 85, violent (n = 46, and general (n = 22 offenders. The sexual offense reconviction rate for the sex offender group was 18% at 10 years follow-up, compared with 2% for the violent offenders. Survival analyses revealed the violent offenders were reconvicted at twice the rate of any other group. Reconviction data were analyzed using the area under the curve (AUC of the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC. The RMV significantly predicted violent recidivism in the sex and combined sex/violent offender groups. The RMS obtained marginal accuracy in predicting sexual reconviction while the RMV obtained good accuracy at predicting violent non-sex reconviction. An item analysis revealed four factors not included in the risk scales significantly correlated with sexual and violent reconviction. Including these factors with Static-99, RMV and RMS increased the accuracy in predicting sexual reconviction but had a negative impact on the accuracy of RMV in predicting violent reconviction. The inclusion of static and dynamic risk factors with actuarial systems is discussed.

Leam A. Craig

2006-05-01

294

[Vaginal contraception with steroids].  

Science.gov (United States)

Some scientists added the progestin levonorgestrel to the vaginal ring which must be removed every 3 weeks to address the problem of irregular bleeding, but it adversely altered lipoprotein levels and caused too many hemorrhaging problems. On the other hand, scientists in the laboratory at Organon have conducted various studies of a vaginal ring with ethinyl estradiol and 3-keto-desogestrel at different doses which have yielded favorable results. A multicenter European study was conducted with 400 women aged 18-40 years wearing a vaginal ring with 0.120 mg keto-desogestrel and 0.015 mg ethinyl estradiol every day for 9 months. 10% had slight bleeding 15 days after insertion of the vaginal ring. In 10 women tested, the plasmal levels of progesterone and estrogen decreased by 4 nmol/l and 0.010 nmol/l, respectively. The first French study was conducted at the Gynecology College of Bordeaux and the South-West in 1988 and included 40 women followed for 9 cycles. The vaginal ring consisted of 2 compartments: the biggest compartment contained only 3-keto-desogestrel and the other also contained ethinyl estradiol. It remained in the vagina for 21 days, then was removed to be rinsed, dried, and placed in a box. It was reinserted on the 5th or 7th day of the cycle. This ring reduces the volume of blood during menses and eliminates abdominal cramps, nausea, and headaches. Women tolerate the vaginal ring better than they do oral contraceptives (OCs); for example, it does not cause them to gain weight, they tolerate glucose well, it brings about favorable changes in lipoproteins, it does not bring about conditions favorable to thrombophlebitis, and it can improve the skin for acne-sufferers. Young women accept vaginal rings enthusiastically. The efficacy of vaginal rings with 2 steroids is the same as that of OCs. PMID:12287400

Levrier, M

1993-11-01

295

From molecule to market: steroid hormones and financial risk-taking.  

Science.gov (United States)

Little is known about the role of the endocrine system in financial decision-making. Here, we survey research on steroid hormones and their cognitive effects, and examine potential links to trader performance in the financial markets. Preliminary findings suggest that cortisol codes for risk and testosterone for reward. A key finding of this endocrine research is the different cognitive effects of acute versus chronic exposure to hormones: acutely elevated steroids may optimize performance on a range of tasks; but chronically elevated steroids may promote irrational risk-reward choices. We present a hypothesis suggesting that the irrational exuberance and pessimism observed during market bubbles and crashes may be mediated by steroid hormones. If hormones can exaggerate market moves, then perhaps the age and sex composition among traders and asset managers may affect the level of instability witnessed in the financial markets. PMID:20026470

Coates, John M; Gurnell, Mark; Sarnyai, Zoltan

2010-01-27

296

Safe sex  

Science.gov (United States)

There are many diseases that humans can contract through sexual contact with each other. Humans can lower their risk of contracting these diseases by practicing safe sex techniques if they choose to participate in those kinds of actions.

Olivia Worland (Purdue University;Biological Sciences)

2008-07-09

297

Steroid-Refractory Acute GVHD: Predictors and Outcomes  

Science.gov (United States)

Patients with steroid-resistant acute graft versus host disease (aGVHD) have a dismal prognosis, with mortality rates in excess of 90%. We sought to identify a subgroup of patients less likely to benefit from initial therapy with corticosteroids as well as the impact of response on day 14 on outcome. Retrospective evaluation was performed of patients with biopsy-proven aGVHD treated with corticosteroids after allogeneic HSCT at M.D. Anderson Cancer Center from 1998 through 2002 (N = 287). Overall response to first-line therapy on day 14 was 56%. Grade III-IV aGVHD and hyperacute GVHD were the most significant factors predicting failure. Patients who fail to respond to steroids by day 14 should be considered for clinical trials. Severity of aGVHD, hyperacute GVHD, and sex mismatch could be integrated into prognostic scoring systems which may allow for pretreatment identification of patients unlikely to benefit from standard therapy with corticosteroids.

Westin, Jason R.; Saliba, Rima M.; De Lima, Marcos; Alousi, Amin; Hosing, Chitra; Qazilbash, Muzaffar H.; Khouri, Issa F.; Shpall, Elizabeth J.; Anderlini, Paolo; Rondon, Gabriela; Andersson, Borje S.; Champlin, Richard; Couriel, Daniel R.

2011-01-01

298

Sex work and sex trafficking.  

Science.gov (United States)

Preventing HIV infection and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), as well as sexual and physical violence, are major occupational health and safety concerns for prostitutes. Considerable evidence shows that anti-prostitution laws facilitate violence and abuse against prostitutes and may increase their risk of contracting HIV/STDs. For example, police often take advantage of existing laws against prostitution to demand money or sex. In general, the strict enforcement of anti-prostitution laws marginalizes prostitutes from services which could help them avoid abuse and promotes an environment in which prostitutes must take risks to avoid detection and arrest. One strategy to improve prostitutes' lives would therefore be to remove laws which prevent them from working safely and from travelling abroad to work legally. Projects in which prostitutes are actively involved have helped break down stereotypes against prostitutes, while police-sex worker liaison projects in Scotland and Australia have led to higher levels of reporting of crimes against prostitutes. The Network of Sex Work Projects (NSWP), an organization which links sex worker health programs around the world, has found that the incidence of HIV/STDs among prostitutes is lowest when they have control over their work conditions; access to condoms, lubricants, and other safe sex materials; and respect of their basic human and legal rights. People need to understand that consensual involvement in sex work is different from forced sex trafficking. PMID:12348692

Ditmore, M; Saunders, P

1998-01-01

299

Condom Use at Last Sex as a Proxy for Other Measures of Condom Use: Is It Good Enough?  

Science.gov (United States)

Condom use at last sex is a widely used indicator in sexual behavior research; however, there is little empirical research validating this indicator. This study examined whether a single-event recall period (the last time coitus occurred) was consistent with longer recall periods (14 days and 60 days) for a sample of African American adolescent…

Younge, Sinead N.; Salazar, Laura F.; Crosby, Richard F.; DiClemente, Ralph J.; Wingood, Gina M.; Rose, Eve

2008-01-01

300

Steroid abnormalities and the developing brain: Declarative memory for emotionally arousing and neutral material in children with congenital adrenal hyperplasia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Steroid hormones modulate memory in animals and human adults. Little is known on the developmental effect of these hormones on the neural networks underlying memory. Using Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (CAH) as a naturalistic model of early steroid abnormalities, this study examines the consequences of CAH on memory and its neural correlates for emotionally arousing and neutral material in children. Seventeen patients with CAH and 17 age- and sex-matched healthy children (ages 12 to 14 years...

Maheu, Franc?oise S.; Merke, Deborah P.; Schroth, Elizabeth A.; Keil, Margaret F.; Hardin, Julie; Poeth, Kaitlin; Pine, Daniel S.; Ernst, Monique

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Nuclear binding assay for steroid receptor functionality in cancerous cells  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A method is described for rapidly assaying a tissue sample for nuclear antisteroid binding comprising: (a) fragmenting the tissue sample; (b) digesting the fragmented tissue with collagenase; (c) isolating the cells from the digested tissue; (d) incubating the cells with an amount of a radiolabelled antisteroid capable of complexing with and saturating the steroid receptors in the cells; (e) isolating the cellular nuclei; (f) measuring the bound radioactivity and the total DNA of the nuclei; and (g) comparing the amount of bound radioactivity and the total DNA to determine a measure of the total nuclear bound steroid receptors

1987-02-11

302

Nuclear binding assay for steroid receptor functionality in cancerous cells  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A method is described for rapidly assaying a tissue sample for nuclear antisteroid binding comprising: (a) fragmenting the tissue sample; (b) digesting the fragmented tissue with collagenase; (c) isolating the cells from the digested tissue; (d) incubating the cells with an amount of a radiolabelled antisteroid capable of complexing with and saturating the steroid receptors in the cells; (e) isolating the cellular nuclei; (f) measuring the bound radioactivity and the total DNA of the nuclei; and (g) comparing the amount of bound radioactivity and the total DNA to determine a measure of the total nuclear bound steroid receptors.

Spelsberg, T.C.

1989-02-21

303

Permanent and functional male-to-female sex reversal in d-rR strain medaka (Oryzias latipes) following egg microinjection of o,p'-DDT.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Complete sex reversal of fish is accomplished routinely in aquaculture practices by exposing fish to exogenous sex steroids during gonadal differentiation. A variety of environmental chemicals are also active at sex steroid receptors and theoretically possess the potential to alter normal sexual differentiation in fish. However, in controlled environmental chemical exposures to date, only partial alterations of fish sexual phenotype have been observed. Here we report complete, permanent, and ...

Edmunds, J. S.; Mccarthy, R. A.; Ramsdell, J. S.

2000-01-01

304

CONDOM USE AT LAST SEX AS A PROXY FOR OTHER MEASURES OF CONDOM USE: IS IT GOOD ENOUGH?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Condom use at last sex is a widely used indicator in sexual behavior research; however, there is little empirical research validating this indicator. This study examined whether a single-event recall period (the last time coitus occurred) was consistent with longer recall periods (14 days and 60 days) for a sample of African American adolescent females (N = 566). The findings from this study demonstrate that condom use at last coitus is a valid proxy for condom use behaviors spanning longer t...

Younge, Sinead N.; Salazar, Laura F.; Crosby, Richard F.; Diclemente, Richard J.; Wingood, Gina M.; Rose, Eve

2008-01-01

305

Steroids for Treating Cancer (For Parents)  

Science.gov (United States)

... and the health risks they incur from abusing anabolic steroids — drugs that were originally intended for people with ... that he or she will not be taking anabolic steroids, but rather corticosteroids . Corticosteroids are made from a ...

306

Steroidal glycoalkaloids in Solanum chacoense.  

Science.gov (United States)

Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), a domesticated species that is the fourth most important world agricultural commodity, requires significant management to minimize the effects of herbivore and pathogen damage on crop yield. A wild relative, Solanum chacoense Bitt., has been of interest to plant breeders because it produces an abundance of novel steroidal glycoalkaloid compounds, leptines and leptinines, which are particularly effective deterrents of herbivory by the Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say). Biochemical approaches were used in this study to investigate the formation and accumulation of SGAs in S. chacoense. SGA contents were determined in various organs at different stages of organ maturity during a time course of plant development. Leptines and leptinines were the main contributors to the increased levels in SGA concentration measured in the aerial versus the subterranean organs of S. chacoense accession 8380-1. Leptines were not detected in aboveground stolons until the stage where shoots had formed mature chlorophyllous leaves. To gain insights into SGA biosynthesis, the abundance of SGAs and steady-state transcripts of genes coding for enzymes of the central terpene and SGA-specific pathways in various plant organs at anthesis were compared. For two genes of primary terpene metabolism, transcript and SGA abundances were correlated, although with some discrepancies. For genes associated with SGA biosynthesis, transcripts were not detected in some tissues containing SGAs; however these transcripts were detected in the progenitor tissues, indicating the possibility that under our standard growth conditions, SGA biosynthesis is largely limited to highly proliferative tissues such as shoot, root and floral meristems. PMID:22217745

Mweetwa, Alice M; Hunter, Danielle; Poe, Rebecca; Harich, Kim C; Ginzberg, Idit; Veilleux, Richard E; Tokuhisa, James G

2012-03-01

307

Effects of steroid hormones on Neisseria gonorrhoeae.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Various steroids were tested for their effects upon gonococcal O2 consumption and glucose catabolism. The ability to inhibit gonococcal O2 uptake appeared to be related to the molecular configuration of the steroid. The presence of lipophilic groups enhanced inhibition, whereas the addition of hydrophilic groups markedly diminished inhibition. Steroid inhibition decreased with an increasing number of polar groups. Glucose catabolism was inhibited by steroid hormones, and the degree of inhibit...

Lysko, P. G.; Morse, S. A.

1980-01-01

308

Anabolic Steroid Use in the Adolescent Athlete  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Recent surveys indicate that the use of androgenic-anabolic steroids (anabolic steroids) is prevalent among adolescent athletes, particularly those in high school. The cost of clinical drug testing makes it impractical to use random testing to identify users of these ergogenic aids. The athletic trainer is often in a position to identify anabolic steroid users if he/she knows the clinical signs and symptoms. In this article, we briefly discuss the history of anabolic steroid use, how they wor...

Potteiger, Jeffrey A.; Stilger, Vincent G.

1994-01-01

309

MEDICAL ISSUES ASSOCIATED WITH ANABOLIC STEROID USE: ARE THEY EXAGGERATED?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available For the past 50 years anabolic steroids have been at the forefront of the controversy surrounding performance enhancing drugs. For almost half of this time no attempt was made by sports governing bodies to control its use, and only recently have all of the major sports governing bodies in North America agreed to ban from competition and punish athletes who test positive for anabolic steroids. These punitive measures were developed with the primary concern for promotion of fair play and eliminating potential health risks associated with androgenic-anabolic steroids. Yet, controversy exists whether these testing programs deter anabolic steroid use. Although the scope of this paper does not focus on the effectiveness of testing, or the issue of fair play, it is of interest to understand why many athletes underestimate the health risks associated from these drugs. What creates further curiosity is the seemingly well-publicized health hazards that the medical community has depicted concerning anabolic steroidabuse. Is there something that the athletes know, or are they simply naïve regarding the dangers? The focus of this review is to provide a brief history of anabolic steroid use in North America, the prevalence of its use in both athletic and recreational populations and its efficacy. Primary discussion will focus on health issues associated with anabolic steroid use with an examination of the contrasting views held between the medical community and the athletes that are using these ergogenic drugs. Existing data suggest that in certain circumstances the medical risk associated with anabolic steroid use may have been somewhat exaggerated, possibly to dissuade use in athletes

Jay R. Hoffman

2006-06-01

310

Specific DNA-binding proteins and DNA sequences involved in steroid hormone regulation of gene expression  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Steroid hormones circulate in the blood and are taken by target cells via complexes with intracellular binding proteins termed receptors, that are hormone and tissue specific. Each receptor binds it specific steroid with very high affinity, having an equilibrium dissociation constant (K/sub d/) in the range of 10-9 to 10-10 M. Once bound by their specific steroid hormones, the steroid receptors undergo a conformational change which allows them to bind with high affinity to sites on chromatin, termed nuclear acceptor sites. There are estimated 5,000 to 10,000 of these sites expressed with an equal number not expressed (''masked'') in intact chromatin. The result of the binding to nuclear acceptor sites is an alteration of gene transcription or, in some cases, gene expression as measured by the changing levels of specific RNAs and proteins in that target tissue. Each steroid regulates specific effects on the RNA and protein profiles. The chronology of the above mechanism of action after injection of radiolabelled steroid as is follows: Steroid-receptor complex formation (1 minute), nuclear acceptor sites (2 minutes), effects on RNA synthesis (10 to 30 minutes), and finally the changing protein profiles via changes in protein synthesis and protein turnover (1 to 6 hours). Thus steroid receptors represent one of the first identified intracellular gene regulation proteins. The receptor molecules themselves are regulated by the presence or absence of the steroid molecule

1987-01-01

311

The radioimmunoassay of steroid glucuronides  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A modified radioimmunoassay for steroid glucuronides is described. A second carboxylated group is introduced into the steroid structure and used to attach the hapten to the protein. The unequivocal attachment through the second group, rather than through the glucuronide is achieved by leaving the glucuronide protected as its triacetyl methylester until after the hapten has been coupled to the protein. Subsequently, the glucuronide can be exposed by mild alkaline hydrolysis or alternatively, the protected immunogen can be injected into the rabbits, leaving the animals to deprotect the hapten. The hapten, immunogens and antisera to oestrone-3-glucuronide have been prepared using a 17-carboxymethyloxime bridge. The hapten, immunogen and antisera to pregnanediol-3 ? - glucuronide have also been prepared using a 6 ? - hemisuccinoxy bridge. A study has been made of the reactive properties of the 6 ?-hydroxyl group and its effect on the stereo-specificity of reduction of 4-ene and the 3-oxo group and on the reactivity of the 3 ?-hydroxyl group. The antisera raised to these immunogens have been characterised for their ability to discriminate between the free steroid and the steroid glucuronide, and evaluated for use in immunoassay. (author)

1980-01-01

312

Direct effect of gonadal and contraceptive steroids on insulin release from mouse pancreatic islets in organ culture  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Sex steroids are supposed to contribute to the normal glucose homeostasis and to the altered glucose and insulin metabolism in pregnancy and during contraception. In the present study isolated mouse pancreatic islets were maintained in tissue culture medium RPMI 1640 supplemented with 0.5% newborn calf serum and 100 ng/ml of one of the following steroids: oestradiol, progesterone, testosterone, megestrol acetate, medroxyprogesterone, chlormadinone acetate, norethynodrel, norethindrone acetate, and ethynyloestradiol. Release of insulin to the culture medium was measured during a 2 week culture period, and the islet content of insulin, glucagon, and DNA was measured at the end of the period. It was found that progesterone and its derivatives megestrol acetate, medroxyprogesterone, and chlormadinone caused a 2-fold increase in insulin release during the culture period. When islets cultured in the presence of oestradiol, progesterone, or testosterone were subjected to 30 min stimulation with 5.5, 11, 22 mmol/l glucose, only the progesterone-treated islets released more insulin in response to glucose than the control islets. It is concluded that progesterone and its derivatives have a direct effect on the glucose-stimulated insulin release probably by increasing the glucose sensitivity. The results suggest that the alterations in glucose and insulin metabolism in pregnancy and during treatment with certain oral contraceptives may in part be due to a direct effect of progestins on the beta-cell.

Nielsen, Jens Høiriis

1984-01-01

313

Human preovulatory follicular fluid: inhibin and free steroids related to optimal follicular maturation in ovarian stimulation regimes and possible function in ovulation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Concentrations of inhibin, total and free oestradiol and progesterone were determined in preovulatory follicular fluid from 15 women undergoing in-vitro fertilization and embryo transfer treatment. The women underwent ovarian stimulation using clomiphene citrate and human menopausal gonadotrophin (HMG) (69 follicular fluid samples) in one cycle, and gonadotrophin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) and HMG stimulation in the next treatment cycle (64 follicular fluid samples). The women thereby served as their own control. Inhibin, total oestradiol and progesterone were measured by radioimmunoassay. Concentrations of free steroid were calculated after quantitation of the steroid binding proteins, i.e. sex-hormone binding globulin (SHBG), cortisol binding protein (CBP) and albumin. Levels of inhibin and free and total progesterone were significantly higher in follicular fluids collected after stimulation with the GnRHa compared to the clomiphene regime (P less than 0.05, P less than 0.001, P less than 0.001, respectively). In contrast, levels of total and free oestradiol in follicular fluid were significantly lower after stimulation with GnRHa than after clomiphene stimulation (P less than 0.001). These results indicate that the follicles have achieved a more optimal maturation during the GnRHa regimen than during the clomiphene regime. It is suggested that the concentration of free biologically active steroids in follicular fluid, released into the peritoneal cavity during ovulation, may be physiologically important in stimulating the oviduct and the uterus in connection with ovulation, pre-embryo development and implantation. PMID:1500472

Andersen, C Y; Westergaard, L G; Sinosich, M J; Byskov, A G

1992-07-01

314

Sex Guilt in Abortion Patients  

Science.gov (United States)

A measure of sex guilt was administered to clients of a university problem pregnancy counseling service who were planning to have abortions and to a group of sexually active nonpregnant university coeds. Sex guilt was found to be significantly higher for the abortion patients than for the nonpregnant group. (Author)

Gerrard, Meg

1977-01-01

315

Hormonal status of breast cancer. II. Abnormal urinary steroid excretion.  

Science.gov (United States)

The urinary excretion of 14 neutral steroids was measured by gas-liquid chromatography in women with early and advanced breast cancer, in women with early uterine cancer, and in healthy women from urban and rural districts. The premenopausal patients with early breast cancer excreted subnormal amounts of five steroids (11-hydroxyandrosterone, 11-hydroxyetiocholanolone, pregnanediol, pregnanetriol, and tetrahydrocorticosterone) and increased amounts of tetrahydrocortisol as compared with the normal subjects of corresponding ages. From our findings, a new parameter was proposed by which a premenopausal breast-cancer patient was separated from the control. Postmenopausal breast-cancer patients excreted greater amounts of five steroids (one steroid from 17-ketosteroids and four from 17-hydroxycorticoids) than the corresponding controls. The discrepancy between premenopausal and postmenopausal breast cancer was tentatively related to ovarian-adrenal dysfunction in the course of aging. Oophorectomy induced a long-lasting tumor regression only in patients with a high value for the ratio of 11-deoxy-17-ketosteroid to 17-hydroxycorticosteroid in urine taken before surgery; the ratio in the responsive patients decreased remarkably after surgery. A constitutional change in 17-ketosteroids, as observed in a postmenopausal breast-cancer patient and a premenopausal healthy woman of urban origin, favored the geographic importance in the genesis of breast malignancy. The steroid abnormalities in uterine cancer were distinguishable from those of breast cancer in both premenopausal and postmenopausal women. PMID:1133844

Kodama, M; Kodama, T; Yoshida, M; Totania, R; Aoki, K

1975-06-01

316

Influence of Music on Steroid Hormones and the Relationship between Receptor Polymorphism and Musical Ability: a Pilot Study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Studies have shown that music confers plasticity to the brain. In a preliminary pilot study, we examined the effect of music listening on steroid hormones and the relationship between steroid hormone receptor polymorphisms and musical ability. Twenty-one subjects (10 males and 11 females were recruited and divided into musically talented and control groups. The subjects selected (1 music they preferred (chill-inducing music and (2 music they did not like. Before and after the experiments, saliva was collected to measure the levels of steroid hormones such as testosterone, estradiol, and cortisol. DNA was also isolated from the saliva samples to determine the androgen receptor and arginine vasopressin receptor 1A genotypes. Advanced Measures of Music Audiation (AMMA was used to determine the musical ability of the subjects. With both types of music, the cortisol levels decreased significantly in both sexes. The testosterone (T levels declined in males when they listened to both types of music. In females, the T levels increased in those listening to chill-inducing music but declined when they listened to music they disliked. However, these differences were not significant. The 17-beta estradiol levels increased in males with both types of music, whereas the levels increased with chill-inducing music but declined with disliked music in females. The AMMA scores were higher for the short repeat length-type AR than for the long repeat length-type. Comparisons of AR polymorphisms and T levels before the experiments showed that the T levels were within the low range in the short repeat length-type group and there was a positive relationship with the repeat length, although it was not significant. This is the first study conducted in humans to analyze the relationships between the AR gene, T levels, and musical ability.

HajimeFukui

2013-12-01

317

Influence of music on steroid hormones and the relationship between receptor polymorphisms and musical ability: a pilot study  

Science.gov (United States)

Studies have shown that music confers plasticity to the brain. In a preliminary pilot study, we examined the effect of music listening on steroid hormones and the relationship between steroid hormone receptor polymorphisms and musical ability. Twenty-one subjects (10 males and 11 females) were recruited and divided into musically talented and control groups. The subjects selected (1) music they preferred (chill-inducing music) and (2) music they did not like. Before and after the experiments, saliva was collected to measure the levels of steroid hormones such as testosterone, estradiol, and cortisol. DNA was also isolated from the saliva samples to determine the androgen receptor (AR) and arginine vasopressin receptor 1A genotypes. Advanced Measures of Music Audiation (AMMA) was used to determine the musical ability of the subjects. With both types of music, the cortisol levels decreased significantly in both sexes. The testosterone (T) levels declined in males when they listened to both types of music. In females, the T levels increased in those listening to chill-inducing music but declined when they listened to music they disliked. However, these differences were not significant. The 17-beta estradiol levels increased in males with both types of music, whereas the levels increased with chill-inducing music but declined with disliked music in females. The AMMA scores were higher for the short repeat length-type AR than for the long repeat length-type. Comparisons of AR polymorphisms and T levels before the experiments showed that the T levels were within the low range in the short repeat length-type group and there was a positive relationship with the repeat length, although it was not significant. This is the first study conducted in humans to analyze the relationships between the AR gene, T levels, and musical ability.

Fukui, Hajime; Toyoshima, Kumiko

2013-01-01

318

Seasonal changes in gonadal steroids of a monogamous versus a polyandrous shorebird.  

Science.gov (United States)

We examined the relationship between circulating levels of gonadal steroids (testosterone, progesterone, and estradiol) and breeding behavior in semipalmated sandpipers (Calidris pusilla) and red-necked phalaropes (Phalaropus lobatus) breeding sympatrically at La Pérouse Bay, 40 km east of Churchill, Manitoba. Semipalmated sandpipers are territorial and monogamous. Both parents incubate equally. Red-necked phalaropes are nonterritorial and polyandrous. Only male phalaropes care for eggs and young. Gonadal steroid hormone profiles were not reversed in the sex-role-reversed species. There was little difference in testosterone profiles between males of the territorial and nonterritorial species. PMID:2289682

Gratto-Trevor, C L; Fivizzani, A J; Oring, L W; Cooke, F

1990-12-01

319

Steroid treatment of eosinophilic esophagitis in adults.  

Science.gov (United States)

Topical steroid therapy has been used to treat eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) for more than 15 years. We review the treatment trials of topical steroid therapy in adult patients with EoE. Currently, there is no commercially available preparation designed to deliver the steroid to the esophagus. Current regimens consist of swallowing steroid preparations designed for inhalation treatment for asthma. In the short term, steroids are associated with an approximately 15% to 25% incidence of asymptomatic esophageal candidiasis, but otherwise appear to be well tolerated. PMID:24813521

Alexander, Jeffrey A

2014-06-01

320

Mapping of sex hormone receptors and their modulators along the nephron of male and female mice.  

Science.gov (United States)

Renal functions are regulated by steroid sex hormones, but the exhaustive identification of their receptors along the nephron is still lacking. Here, we have localized all known nuclear or membrane-bound sex hormone receptors and some of their activators along the nephron of male and female mice. Almost all receptors are present in male and female kidney, some of them having very restricted localization. Only one gene tested among 11 (ARA54) exhibits a gender difference in the level of its expression. This first "renal map" of sex steroid receptor expression may serve as a pre-requisite for investigating the role of these hormones on kidney functions. PMID:19401201

Grimont, Adrien; Bloch-Faure, May; El Abida, Boutaïna; Crambert, Gilles

2009-05-19

 
 
 
 
321

Remote assessment of stress in white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum) and black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis) by measurement of adrenal steroids in feces.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study monitored fecal cortisol and corticosterone levels in 14 black rhinoceroses (Diceros bicornis) and in seven white rhinoceroses (Certotherium simum) under various conditions of captivity, including translocation. Free cortisol and free corticosterone were measured in methylene chloride extracts of feces, using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The extraction-assay method was validated for quantitative measurement of these hormones by mass spectroscopy analysis, chemical derivitization, and radiolabel tracking and recovery. Both cortisol and corticosterone were extractable from feces and routinely detectable by HPLC. In three nonstressed, captivity-adapted white rhinoceroses monitored across 21 days of routine activity, fecal cortisol ranged from 2.0 to 7.3 ng/g dry feces and corticosterone from 4.0 to 10.8 ng/g dry feces, with no observable trend. Matched plasma, urine, and fecal samples in these rhinoceroses yielded corticosterone:cortisol ratios of 2.0:1.0, 2.7:1.0, and 2.2:1.0, respectively. Both black rhinoceroses (n = 5) and white rhinoceroses (n = 4) exhibited higher fecal cortisol (6.9- to 10.0-fold) and corticosterone (3.2- to 4.5-fold) levels in association with restraint-translocation than in limited free-roaming conditions. In five black rhinoceroses monitored across 6 wk after release from translocation, fecal levels of both cortisol and corticosterone decreased significantly between week 1 and weeks 4-6. In general, cortisol and corticosterone paralleled each other, with cortisol exhibiting a greater range of response. Measurement of either hormone in feces appears to be reliable for adrenal axis monitoring in the white and the black rhinoceroses. PMID:12462487

Turner, John W; Tolson, Peter; Hamad, Noel

2002-09-01

322

l-Kynurenine, an amino acid identified as a sex pheromone in the urine of ovulated female masu salmon  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Many animals employ sex pheromones to find mating partners during their reproductive seasons. However, most sex pheromones of vertebrates remain to be identified. Over the past 20 years, steroids and prostaglandins have been identified as sex pheromones in several fishes. These pheromones are broadly termed “hormonal pheromones” because they or their precursors act as hormones in these fishes. Hitherto, no other type of sex pheromone has been unambiguously identified in teleost fish. Here...

Yambe, Hidenobu; Kitamura, Shoji; Kamio, Michiya; Yamada, Miho; Matsunaga, Shigeki; Fusetani, Nobuhiro; Yamazaki, Fumio

2006-01-01

323

Endocrine correlates of musth in free-ranging Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) determined by non-invasive faecal steroid hormone metabolite measurements.  

Science.gov (United States)

The occurrence of musth, a period of elevated levels of androgens and heightened sexual activity, has been well documented for the male Asian elephant (Elephas maximus). However, the relationship between androgen-dependent musth and adrenocortical function in this species is unclear. The current study is the first assessment of testicular and adrenocortical function in free-ranging male Asian elephants by measuring levels of testosterone (androgen) and cortisol (glucocorticoid--a physiological indicator of stress) metabolites in faeces. During musth, males expectedly showed significant elevation in faecal testosterone metabolite levels. Interestingly, glucocorticoid metabolite concentrations remained unchanged between musth and non-musth periods. This observation is contrary to that observed with wild and captive African elephant bulls and captive Asian bull elephants. Our results show that musth may not necessarily represent a stressful condition in free-ranging male Asian elephants. PMID:24358371

Ghosal, Ratna; Ganswindt, André; Seshagiri, Polani B; Sukumar, Raman

2013-01-01

324

Chemosensory Communication of Gender through Two Human Steroids in a Sexually Dimorphic Manner.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent studies have suggested the existence of human sex pheromones, with particular interest in two human steroids: androstadienone (androsta-4,16,-dien-3-one) and estratetraenol (estra-1,3,5(10),16-tetraen-3-ol). The current study takes a critical step to test the qualification of the two steroids as sex pheromones by examining whether they communicate gender information in a sex-specific manner. By using dynamic point-light displays that portray the gaits of walkers whose gender is digitally morphed from male to female [1, 2], we show that smelling androstadienone systematically biases heterosexual females, but not males, toward perceiving the walkers as more masculine. By contrast, smelling estratetraenol systematically biases heterosexual males, but not females, toward perceiving the walkers as more feminine. Homosexual males exhibit a response pattern akin to that of heterosexual females, whereas bisexual or homosexual females fall in between heterosexual males and females. These effects are obtained despite that the olfactory stimuli are not explicitly discriminable. The results provide the first direct evidence that the two human steroids communicate opposite gender information that is differentially effective to the two sex groups based on their sexual orientation. Moreover, they demonstrate that human visual gender perception draws on subconscious chemosensory biological cues, an effect that has been hitherto unsuspected. PMID:24794295

Zhou, Wen; Yang, Xiaoying; Chen, Kepu; Cai, Peng; He, Sheng; Jiang, Yi

2014-05-19

325

Comparison of steroid pulse therapy and conventional oral steroid therapy as initial treatment for autoimmune pancreatitis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The efficacy of oral steroid therapy for autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) is well known, and oral prednisolone treatment is most usually commenced at 30-40 mg/day, but there have been few reports about comparative studies of oral steroid therapy and steroid pulse therapy as the initial treatment for AIP. We studied the clinical course and image findings to estimate the utility of steroid pulse therapy for AIP, comparing it with oral steroid therapy. Laboratory and image findings were assessed retrospectively in 11 patients who received steroid pulse therapy, and the findings were compared to those in 10 patients who received conventional oral steroid therapy. Change in pancreatic size showed no significant difference between the therapies after 2 weeks of treatment. Significant improvement of lower bile duct strictures after 2 weeks of treatment and that of immunoglobulin values within 6 months were shown with both therapies. However, steroid pulse therapy showed significant improvement of ?-guanosine triphosphate (GTP) in 2 weeks and of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in 2 and 8 weeks, compared with oral steroid therapy. Moreover, there was one patient in whom the lower bile duct stricture was not improved by oral steroid therapy, but it did show improvement with steroid pulse therapy. Initial steroid pulse therapy is a beneficial alternative to oral steroid therapy for the improvement of bile duct lesions. In future, the accumulation of a larger number of patients receiving steroid pulse therapy is needed, and prospective studies will be required. (author)

2011-01-01

326

Neuroactive steroids and rat CNS  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Several studies suggest profound effects on mood and cognition by neuroactive steroids. Estrogen alone or in combination with antidepressant drugs affecting the serotonin system has been used to treat mood disorders. On the other hand, progesterone is related to negative effects on mood and memory. A major part of the progesterone effects on the brain can be mediated by its metabolite allopregnanolone, which is also de novo synthesized in the brain, and affects the GABAA receptors. It would b...

Birzniece, Vita

2004-01-01

327

Anabolic steroids and Norwegian weightlifters.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The mean bodyweight, in kilograms, and mean weightlifting result, in points, for the ten best weightlifters at the annual Norwegian championships 1962-82 have been studied. During the 21 years, the mean bodyweight for these ten increased by 18 kg, probably due to the effect of androgens. The weightlifting results improved rapidly from 1968 onwards, probably reflecting an increasingly widespread use of anabolic steroids by Norwegian weightlifters. In 1977 doping tests were introduced, and from...

Solberg, S.

1982-01-01

328

Radioimmunoassay for steroid hormones, 3  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A specific, sensitive and reliable radioimmunoassay for plasma dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) has been developed. Anti-DHEA serum was obtained by immunizing rabbits with a DHEA-3-hemisuccinate-BSA conjugate. A useful range in the standard curve was from 10 pg to 500 pg. DHEA was separated from cross-reacting steroids by microcolumn chromatography. The coefficients of variation for within-assay and between-assay are 6.3% and 7.7%, respectively. (auth.)

1977-01-01

329

Modulation of Xenobiotic Receptors by Steroids  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Nuclear receptors (NRs are ligand-activated transcription factors that regulate the expression of their target genes. NRs play important roles in many human diseases, including metabolic diseases and cancer, and are therefore a key class of therapeutic targets. Steroids play important roles in regulating nuclear receptors; in addition to being ligands of steroid receptors, steroids (and their metabolites also regulate other NRs, such as the pregnane X receptor and constitutive androstane receptor (termed xenobiotic receptors, which participate in steroid metabolism. Xenobiotic receptors have promiscuous ligand-binding properties, and their structurally diverse ligands include steroids and their metabolites. Therefore, steroids, their metabolism and metabolites, xenobiotic receptors, steroid receptors, and the respective signaling pathways they regulate have functional interactions. This review discusses these functional interactions and their implications for activities mediated by steroid receptors and xenobiotic receptors, focusing on steroids that modulate pathways involving the pregnane X receptor and constitutive androstane receptor. The emphasis of the review is on structure-function studies of xenobiotic receptors bound to steroid ligands.

Delira Robbins

2013-06-01

330

Disorders of sex development expose transcriptional autonomy of genetic sex and androgen-programmed hormonal sex in human blood leukocytes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Gender appears to be determined by independent programs controlled by the sex-chromosomes and by androgen-dependent programming during embryonic development. To enable experimental dissection of these components in the human, we performed genome-wide profiling of the transcriptomes of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC in patients with rare defined "disorders of sex development" (DSD, e.g., 46, XY-females due to defective androgen biosynthesis compared to normal 46, XY-males and 46, XX-females. Results A discrete set of transcripts was directly correlated with XY or XX genotypes in all individuals independent of male or female phenotype of the external genitalia. However, a significantly larger gene set in the PBMC only reflected the degree of external genital masculinization independent of the sex chromosomes and independent of concurrent post-natal sex steroid hormone levels. Consequently, the architecture of the transcriptional PBMC-"sexes" was either male, female or even "intersex" with a discordant alignment of the DSD individuals' genetic and hormonal sex signatures. Conclusion A significant fraction of gene expression differences between males and females in the human appears to have its roots in early embryogenesis and is not only caused by sex chromosomes but also by long-term sex-specific hormonal programming due to presence or absence of androgen during the time of external genital masculinization. Genetic sex and the androgen milieu during embryonic development might therefore independently modulate functional traits, phenotype and diseases associated with male or female gender as well as with DSD conditions.

Appari Mahesh

2009-07-01

331

The Sturm und Drang of anabolic steroid use: angst, anxiety, and aggression.  

Science.gov (United States)

Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) are illicitly administered to enhance athletic performance and body image. Although conferring positive actions on performance, steroid abuse is associated with changes in anxiety and aggression. AAS users are often keenly invested in understanding the biological actions of these drugs. Thus, mechanistic information on AAS actions is important not only for the biomedical community, but also for steroid users. Here we review findings from animal studies on the impact of AAS exposure on neural systems that are crucial for the production of anxiety and aggression, and compare the effects of the different classes of AAS and their potential signaling mechanisms, as well as context-, age- and sex-dependent aspects of their actions. PMID:22516619

Oberlander, Joseph G; Henderson, Leslie P

2012-06-01

332

The brain of teleost fish, a source and a target of sexual steroids  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Neurosteroids are defined as steroids de novo synthesized in the central nervous system. While the production of neurosteroids is well documented in mammals or amphibians, there is little information in teleosts, the largest group of fish. Teleosts have long been known for their high brain aromatase and 5?-reductase activities, but recent data now document the capacity of the brain of fish to produce a large variety of sex steroids. This article aims at reviewing the available information regarding expression and/or activity of the main steroidogenic enzymes in the brain of fish. In addition, the distribution of estrogen, androgen and progesterone nuclear receptors is documented in relation with the potential sites of production of neurosteroids. Interestingly, radial glial cells acting as neuronal progenitors, appear to be a potential source of neurosteroids, but also a target for centrally and/or peripherally produced steroids.

OlivierKah

2011-12-01

333

Determinación del genero por medio de medidas y verificación del peso del hueso esternon (Brasil Sex determination by measures and weight verification of sternum bone.Brasil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available La determinación del género humano (sexo es una de las principales atribuciones del odontólogo forense y del médico legista encargados del análisis antropológico de esqueletos, piezas y fragmentos óseos. Entre los huesos que pueden y deben ser analizados se encuentra el hueso esternón, considerando, principalmente, sus características particulares. En el presente estudio fueron medidos y pesados 100 huesos esternón, siendo 50 del género femenino y 50 del género masculino, provenientes de Cuiabá, Mato Grosso, Brasil, con edades comprendidas entre 19 y 103 años. Fue verificado que la medida del centro de la escotadura de inserción del primer arco costal derecho al izquierdo y el peso del manubrio y cuerpo del esternón, altamente significantes, constituyen parámetros para determinar el género. Fue obtenida, también, una fórmula matemática que posibilita determinar el género en análisis futuras con índices de acierto de 69,2%. (SEX DETERMINATION BY MEASURES AND WEIGHT VERIFICATION OF ESTERNUM BONEHuman gender determination is one of the main attributions of forensic odontologists and forensic pathologists responsible for the anthropological analysis of skeletons, parts and fragmented bones. One of the bones that can and must be analyzed is the sternum, considering its particular characteristics. In the present study we’ve measured and weighed 100 sternums, 50 belonging to female gender and 50 to male gender proceeding from Cuiabá-MT, with age varying between 19 and 103 years. It was verified that the measure of the center of the chamfer of the insertion of the first to the left costal arc and the weight of the manubrium and body of sternum, are highly significant, becoming parameters to determine the gender. A mathematical formula was also obtained that permitted to determine the gender in future analyses with indices of 69,2%. (SEX DETERMINATION BY MEASURES AND WEIGHT VERIFICATION OF ESTERNUM BONE

Antonio Queiroz

2005-03-01

334

Genomics of sex determination.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sex determination is a major switch in the evolutionary history of angiosperm, resulting 11% monoecious and dioecious species. The genomic sequences of papaya sex chromosomes unveiled the molecular basis of recombination suppression in the sex determination region, and candidate genes for sex determination. Identification and analyses of sex determination genes in cucurbits and maize demonstrated conservation of sex determination mechanism in one lineage and divergence between the two systems. Epigenetic control and hormonal influence of sex determination were elucidated in both plants and animals. Intensive investigation of potential sex determination genes in model species will improve our understanding of sex determination gene network. Such network will in turn accelerate the identification of sex determination genes in dioecious species with sex chromosomes, which are burdensome due to no recombination in sex determining regions. The sex determination genes in dioecious species are crucial for understanding the origin of dioecy and sex chromosomes, particularly in their early stage of evolution. PMID:24682067

Zhang, Jisen; Boualem, Adnane; Bendahmane, Abdelhafid; Ming, Ray

2014-04-01

335

Rats with steroid-induced polycystic ovaries develop hypertension and increased sympathetic nervous system activity  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is a complex endocrine and metabolic disorder associated with ovulatory dysfunction, abdominal obesity, hyperandrogenism, hypertension, and insulin resistance. Methods Our objectives in this study were (1 to estimate sympathetic-adrenal medullary (SAM activity by measuring mean systolic blood pressure (MSAP in rats with estradiol valerate (EV-induced PCO; (2 to estimate alpha1a and alpha2a adrenoceptor expression in a brain area thought to mediate central effects on MSAP regulation and in the adrenal medulla; (3 to assess hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis regulation by measuring adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH and corticosterone (CORT levels in response to novel-environment stress; and (4 to measure abdominal obesity, sex steroids, and insulin sensitivity. Results The PCO rats had significantly higher MSAP than controls, higher levels of alpha1a adrenoceptor mRNA in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN, and lower levels of alpha2a adrenoceptor mRNA in the PVN and adrenal medulla. After exposure to stress, PCO rats had higher ACTH and CORT levels. Plasma testosterone concentrations were lower in PCO rats, and no differences in insulin sensitivity or in the weight of intraabdominal fat depots were found. Conclusion Thus, rats with EV-induced PCO develop hypertension and increased sympathetic and HPA-axis activity without reduced insulin sensitivity, obesity, or hyperandrogenism. These findings may have implications for mechanisms underlying hypertension in PCOS.

Ploj Karolina

2005-09-01

336

Sex, GABA, and Nicotine: The Impact of Smoking on Cortical GABA Levels Across the Menstrual Cycle as Measured with Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Given that nicotine modulates amino acid neurotransmission, we sought to examine the impact of nicotine on cortical ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA) levels in male and female smokers. Methods Healthy nicotine-dependent men (n = 10) and women (n = 6) underwent proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) to measure occipital cortex GABA concentrations. A subset of the smoking men (n = 5) underwent 1H-MRS scans before and after 48 hours of smoking abstinence, whereas each of the women were scheduled to undergo pre- and postabstinence scans during the follicular and luteal phases of one menstrual cycle. Healthy nonsmoking men (n = 7) and women (n = 13) underwent 1H-MRS for comparison. Results Short-term abstinence had no significant effect on cortical GABA concentrations in either men or women. There was, however, a significant effect of sex, diagnosis (smoker/nonsmoker), and menstrual cycle phase on cortical GABA levels, such that female smokers experienced a significant reduction in cortical GABA levels during the follicular phase and no cyclicity in GABA levels across the menstrual cycle, whereas cortical GABA levels were similar in smoking and nonsmoking men. Conclusions Taken together with previous 1H-MRS data showing abnormalities in occipital cortex GABA concentrations in several affective disorders, our preliminary finding that nicotine modulation of GABA levels varies by sex provides a further rationale for investigating the impact of nicotine on central GABAergic function as a potential risk factor for women to experience depressive symptoms during smoking cessation.

Epperson, C. Neill; O'Malley, Stephanie; Czarkowski, Kathryn A.; Gueorguieva, Ralitza; Jatlow, Peter; Sanacora, Gerard; Rothman, Douglas L.; Krystal, John H.; Mason, Graeme F.

2014-01-01

337

Endothelial function in male body builders taking anabolic androgenic steroids  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Adverse cardiovascular events have been reported in body builders taking anabolic steroids. Adverse effects of AAS on endothelial function can initiate atherosclerosis. This study evaluates endothelial function in body builders using AAS, compared with non-steroids using athletes as controls. Methods: We recruited 30 nonsmoking male body builders taking AAS, 14 in build up phase, 8 in work out phase, and 8 in post steroid phase, and 30 nonsmoking male athletes who denied ever using steroids. Serum lipids and fasting plasma glucose were measured to exclude dyslipidemia and diabetes. Brachial artery diameter was measured by ultrasound at rest, after cuff inflation, and after sublingual glyceriltrinitrate (GTN to determine flow mediated dilation (FMD, nitro mediated dilation (NMD and ratio of FMD to NMD (index of endothelial function. Result: Use of AAS was associated with higher body mass index (BMI and low density lipoprotein–cholesterol (LDL-C. Mean ratio of flow mediated dilatation after cuff deflation to post GTN dilatation of brachial artery (index of endothelial function in body builders taking AAS was significantly lower than control group (0.96(0.05 versus 1(0.08; p=0.03. After adjusting BMI, age and weight, no significant difference was seen in index of endothelial function between two groups (p=0 .21. Conclusion: Our study indicates that taking AAS in body builders doesn’t have direct effect on endothelial function. Future study with bigger sample size and measurement of AAS metabolites is recommended. Key words: endothelium, lipids, anabolic steroids, body builders

H Hashemi

2005-11-01

338

Age- and sex-related bone uptake of Tc-99m-HDP measured by whole-body bone scanning  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Aim of this study was to validate a recently introduced new and easy-to-perform method for quantifying bone uptake of Tc-99m-labelled diphosphonate in a routine clinical setting and to establish a normal data base for bone uptake depending on age and gender. Methods: In 49 women (14-79 years) and 47 men (6-89 years) with normal bone scans as well as in 49 women (33-81 years) and 37 men (27-88 years) with metastatic bone disease whole-body bone scans were acquired at 3 min and 3-4 hours p.i. to calculate bone uptake after correction for both urinary excretion and soft tissue retention. Results: Bone uptake values of various age-related subgroups showed no significant differences between men and women (p>0.05). Furthermore, no differences could be proven between age-matched subgroups of normals and patients with less than 10 metastatic bone lesions, while patients with wide-spread bone metastases revealed significantly increased uptake values. In both men and women highest bone uptake was obtained (p<0.05) in subjects younger than 20 years with active epiphyseal growth plates. In men, bone uptake slowly decreased with age up to 60 years and then showed a tendency towards increasing uptake values. In women, the mean uptake reached a minimum in the decade 20-29 years and then slowly increased with a positive linear correlation of age and uptake in subjects older than 55 years (r=0.57). Conclusion: Since the results proposed in this study are in good agreement with data from literature, the new method used for quantification could be validated in a large number of patients. Furthermore, age- and sex-related normal bone uptake values of Tc-99m-HDP covering a wide range of age could be presented for this method as a basis for further studies on bone uptake. (orig.)

2000-08-01

339

Steroid dynamics in the rabbit  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Male rabbits were infused at a constant rate with /sup 3/H-androstenedione//sup 14/C-estrone (n . 5) or /sup 3/H-testosterone//sup 14/C-estradiol-17 beta (n . 3) for 3 1/2 hr and blood samples were obtained over the last hour and analyzed for radioactivity as androstenedione (A), testosterone (T), estrone (E1), estradiol-17 beta (E2 beta) and estradiol-17 alpha (E2 alpha). The mean value for the metabolic clearance rate of androstenedione (MCRA) was 85 +/- 10 l/day/kg, which was significantly greater than the mean MCRE1 59 +/- 10 l/day/kg. MCRT, 42 +/- 8 l/day/kg, and MCRE2 beta, 45 +/- 9 l/day/kg were not different. The conversion ratio of androstenedione to testosterone (CRA,T) was greater than CRT,A but for the estrogens, CRE2 beta, E1 was greater than CRE1,E2 beta. CRE2 beta, E2 alpha was greater than CRE1,E2 alpha. The overall aromatization of androstenedione to estrone, the fraction of /sup 3/H-androstenedione infused into the blood and measured as /sup 3/H-estrone in blood (( rho)A,E1BB) was 0.0005 +/- 0.0001 and for (rho)T,E2 beta BB was 0.0012 +/- 0.0006. In the rabbit both sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) and albumin binding may effect the MCRs, and peripheral aromatization of androgens occurs to a far lesser degree than in humans and primates.

Bourget, C.; Flood, C.; Longcope, C.

1984-02-01

340

Steroid dynamics in the rabbit.  

Science.gov (United States)

Male rabbits were infused at a constant rate with 3H-androstenedione/14C-estrone (n = 5) or 3H-testosterone/14C-estradiol-17 beta (n = 3) for 3 1/2 hr and blood samples were obtained over the last hour and analyzed for radioactivity as androstenedione (A), testosterone (T), estrone (E1), estradiol-17 beta (E2 beta) and estradiol-17 alpha (E2 alpha). The mean value for the metabolic clearance rate of androstenedione (MCRA) was 85 +/- 10 l/day/kg, which was significantly greater than the mean MCRE1 59 +/- 10 l/day/kg. MCRT, 42 +/- 8 l/day/kg, and MCRE2 beta, 45 +/- 9 l/day/kg were not different. The conversion ratio of androstenedione to testosterone (CRA,T) was greater than CRT,A but for the estrogens, CRE2 beta, E1 was greater than CRE1,E2 beta. CRE2 beta, E2 alpha was greater than CRE1,E2 alpha. The overall aromatization of androstenedione to estrone, the fraction of 3H-androstenedione infused into the blood and measured as 3H-estrone in blood [( rho]A,E1BB) was 0.0005 +/- 0.0001 and for [rho]T,E2 beta BB was 0.0012 +/- 0.0006. In the rabbit both sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) and albumin binding may effect the MCRs, and peripheral aromatization of androgens occurs to a far lesser degree than in humans and primates. PMID:6523540

Bourget, C; Flood, C; Longcope, C

1984-02-01

 
 
 
 
341

Steroid dynamics in the rabbit  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Male rabbits were infused at a constant rate with 3H-androstenedione/14C-estrone (n . 5) or 3H-testosterone/14C-estradiol-17 beta (n . 3) for 3 1/2 hr and blood samples were obtained over the last hour and analyzed for radioactivity as androstenedione (A), testosterone (T), estrone (E1), estradiol-17 beta (E2 beta) and estradiol-17 alpha (E2 alpha). The mean value for the metabolic clearance rate of androstenedione (MCRA) was 85 +/- 10 l/day/kg, which was significantly greater than the mean MCRE1 59 +/- 10 l/day/kg. MCRT, 42 +/- 8 l/day/kg, and MCRE2 beta, 45 +/- 9 l/day/kg were not different. The conversion ratio of androstenedione to testosterone (CRA,T) was greater than CRT,A but for the estrogens, CRE2 beta, E1 was greater than CRE1,E2 beta. CRE2 beta, E2 alpha was greater than CRE1,E2 alpha. The overall aromatization of androstenedione to estrone, the fraction of 3H-androstenedione infused into the blood and measured as 3H-estrone in blood [( rho]A,E1BB) was 0.0005 +/- 0.0001 and for [rho]T,E2 beta BB was 0.0012 +/- 0.0006. In the rabbit both sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) and albumin binding may effect the MCRs, and peripheral aromatization of androgens occurs to a far lesser degree than in humans and primates

1984-01-01

342

Fluctuating Asymmetry and Steroid Hormones: A Review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Fluctuating asymmetry (FA represents random, minor deviations from perfect symmetry in paired traits. Because the development of the left and right sides of a paired trait is presumably controlled by an identical set of genetic instructions, these small imperfections are considered to reflect genetic and environmental perturbations experienced during ontogeny. The current paper aims to identify possible neuroendocrine mechanisms, namely the actions of steroid hormones that may impact the development of asymmetrical characters as a response to various stressors. In doing so, it provides a review of the published studies on the influences of glucocorticoids, androgens, and estrogens on FA and concomitant changes in other health and fitness indicators. It follows the premise that hormonal measures may provide direct, non-invasive indicators of how individuals cope with adverse life conditions, strengthening the associations between FA and health, fitness, and behavior.

Zeynep Benderlioglu

2010-04-01

343

Steroid profiling in doping analysis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Profiling androgens in urine samples is used in doping analysis for the detection of abused steroids of endogenous origin. These profiling techniques were originally developed for the analysis of testosterone, mostly by means of the ratio of testosterone to epitestosterone (T/E ratio). A study was performed on the influence of alcohol consumption on the T/E ratio. The applied dose increased the ratio of both males and females and it showed that, under the studied conditions, the risk of a pos...

Kerkhof, Danie?l Henri

2001-01-01

344

Steroid abuse in female athletes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Drug abuse in sport attracts considerable media and public interest, particularly around the time of major international events such as the Olympic Games. From a scientific viewpoint the benefits of drugs to sportspersons have been difficult to address. In the case of steroids, the experiments required for proof, particularly in women, are unethical. Drug testing is an expensive mechanism for deterrence, but there are areas in the scenario where validation data are lacking and improvements to the procedures are needed. Testing standards for women cannot be based on results from tests in men, and regulations need revision to take account of new data. PMID:9263702

Honour, J W

1997-06-01

345

Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and perforated diverticular disease: a case-control study.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have a wide range of side-effects in the gastrointestinal tract and the large intestine. This study examines the hypothesis that the use of NSAIDs is associated with colonic perforation in diverticular disease. Histological evidence was used to confirm perforation. A retrospective review of case records and pathology reports identified 20 patients admitted over 3 consecutive years. A total of 125 age- and sex-matched patients diagnosed with diver...

2002-01-01

346

Age-dependent role of steroids in the regulation of growth of the hen follicular wall  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background The ovaries are the primary targets of senescence effects in mammalian and avian species. In the present study, relationships between reproductive aging, sex steroids and the growth pattern of the pre-ovulatory follicle wall were investigated using young hens with long clutch (YLC), old hens with long clutch (OLC), old hens with short clutch (OSC), and old hens with interrupted long clutch (OILC). Methods Experiment 1: Hens were sacrificed 1....

2010-01-01

347

Evaluation of 4-Nonylphenol in vivo exposure in Dreissena polymorpha: Bioaccumulation, steroid levels and oxidative stress  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Nonylphenol (NP) represents the most critical metabolite of alkylphenols (APs) and alkylphenol ethoxylates (APEs), non-ionic surfactants widely used in the formulation of domestic and industrial products. On the basis of in vitro and in vivo animal studies 4-nonylphenol (4-NP) is considered an endocrine disrupting chemical (EDC). The evidence to date indicates that mollusks are able to synthesize sex steroids from the precursor cholesterol and their endocrine pathways are theoretically suscep...

Riva, Consuelo; Porte Visa, Cinta; Binelli, Andrea; Provini, Alfredo

2010-01-01

348

Paracrine stimulation of interstitial collagenase (MMP-1) in the human endometrium by interleukin 1? and its dual block by ovarian?steroids  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the cycling human endometrium, the expression of interstitial collagenase (MMP-1) and of several related matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) follows the late-secretory fall in sex steroid plasma concentrations and is thought to be a critical step leading to menstruation. The rapid and extensive lysis of interstitial matrix that precedes menstrual shedding requires a strict control of these proteinases. However, the mechanism by which ovarian steroids regulate endometrial MMPs remains unclear....

1997-01-01

349

Paracrine stimulation of interstitial collagenase (MMP-1) in the human endometrium by interleukin 1alpha and its dual block by ovarian steroids.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the cycling human endometrium, the expression of interstitial collagenase (MMP-1) and of several related matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) follows the late-secretory fall in sex steroid plasma concentrations and is thought to be a critical step leading to menstruation. The rapid and extensive lysis of interstitial matrix that precedes menstrual shedding requires a strict control of these proteinases. However, the mechanism by which ovarian steroids regulate endometrial MMPs remains unclear....

1997-01-01

350

Conceptualization and measurement of homosexuality in sex surveys: a critical review Modos de conceitualizar e medir homossexualidade em pesquisas sobre sexualidade: uma revisão crítica  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article reviews major national population sex surveys that have asked questions about homosexuality focusing on conceptual and methodological issues, including the definitions of sex, the measured aspects of homosexuality, sampling and interviewing technique, and questionnaire design. Reported rates of major measures of same-sex attraction, behavior, partners, and sexual identity from surveys are also presented and compared. The study of homosexuality in surveys has been shaped by the research traditions and questions ranging from sexology to the epidemiology of HIV/AIDS. Sexual behavior has been a central topic at least since Kinsey. Issues of sexual attraction and/or orientation and sexual identity have emerged more recently. Differences in the treatment of men and women in the design and analysis of surveys as well as in the reported rates in different surveys, in different countries and time periods are also presented and discussed. We point out the importance of the consideration of both methodological and social change issues in assessing such differences.O artigo traz uma revisão das principais pesquisas nacionais sobre sexualidade que apresentam perguntas sobre homossexualidade, com foco nas questões conceituais e metodológicas sobre as definições de sexo, os aspectos de medição da homossexualidade, as técnicas de amostragem e de entrevistas e o formato do questionário. As taxas de declaração sobre atração pelo mesmo sexo, comportamento, parceiros e identidade também são apresentadas e comparadas. O estudo da homossexualidade em inquéritos populacionais foi moldado com base em tradições de investigação e questões provenientes desde a sexologia até a epidemiologia do HIV/AIDS. O comportamento sexual é assunto central nas pesquisas sobre sexualidade desde Kinsey. Os temas sobre atração sexual, identidade e/ou orientação sexual surgem mais recentemente. São abordadas e discutidas as diferenças no tratamento de homens e mulheres na formulação e análise das pesquisas, assim como as taxas de respostas em diferentes pesquisas, em distintos países e momentos históricos. Ressaltamos a relevância de que sejam consideradas tanto mudanças metodológicas quanto sociais para interpretar as diferenças constatadas.

Stuart Michaels

2006-07-01

351

Steroid-induced ocular hypertension in Asian children with severe vernal keratoconjunctivitis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Marcus Ang,1 Seng-Ei Ti,1 Raymond Loh,1 Sonal Farzavandi,1 Rongli Zhang,2 Donald Tan,1 Cordelia Chan11Singapore National Eye Centre, Singapore; 2Singapore Eye Research Institute, SingaporeBackground: We describe clinical characteristics and risk factors for corticosteroid response in children with severe vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC.Design: Retrospective, noncontrolled, comparative case series.Participants: Patients from three tertiary centers in Singapore.Methods: We reviewed patients with severe VKC (clinical grade > 2 who were on topical steroid therapy, with a minimum follow-up period of 1 year post-presentation. Logistic regression was used to determine risk factors for corticosteroid response.Main outcome measure: Corticosteroid response was defined as intraocular pressure (IOP>21 mmHg (three consecutive readings, or a rise of more than 16 mmHg from baseline, after commencement of steroid therapy in the absence of other possible causes of raised IOP.Results: Forty-one of 145 (28.3% patients developed a corticosteroid response, of which eight (5.5% progressed to glaucoma. The overall mean age of onset of VKC was 9.9 ± 4.4 years. Longer duration of corticosteroid use (OR, 5.06; 95% CI: 1.04–25.56; P = 0.45 and topical dexamethasone 0.01% (OR, 2.25; 95% CI: 1.99–5.08; P = 0.40 were associated with corticosteroid response. Mixed type of VKC (OR, 9.76; 95% CI: 3.55–26.77; P < 0.001, the presence of limbal neovascularization of ? three quadrants (OR, 6.33; 95% CI: 2.36–16.97; P < 0.001, and corneal involvement (OR, 3.51; 95% CI: 1.31–9.41; P = 0.012 were significant clinical risk factors after adjusting for potential confounders such as age, sex, ethnicity, duration, and type of corticosteroid used.Conclusion: Children on long-term oral corticosteroids with severe, mixed-type VKC and corneal involvement are more likely to develop corticosteroid response, and may require early treatment to prevent progression to glaucoma.Keywords: vernal keratoconjunctivitis, glaucoma, steroids

Ang M

2012-08-01

352

EFFECT OF ACUTE STRESS ON PLASMA CONCENTRATIONS OF SEX AND STRESS HORMONES IN JUVENILE ALLIGATORS LIVING IN CONTROL AND CONTAMINATED LAKES  

Science.gov (United States)

Environmental contaminants can act as stressors, inducing elevated circulating concentrations of stress hormones such as corticosterone and cortisol. Development in contaminated eggs has been reported to modify circulating sex steroid hormone concentrations in alligators (Alligat...

353

CONTAMINANT INTERACTIONS WITH STEROID RECEPTORS: EVIDENCE FOR RECEPTOR BINDING.  

Science.gov (United States)

Steroid receptors are important determinants of endocrine disrupter consequences. As the most frequently proposed mechanism of endocrine-disrupting contaminant (EDC) action, steroid receptors are not only targets of natural steroids but are also commonly sites of nonsteroidal com...

354

Sex-linked recessive  

Science.gov (United States)

... recessive. See also: Autosomal dominant Autosomal recessive Chromosome Gene Heredity and disease Inheritance Sex-linked dominant ... Inheritance - sex-linked recessive; Genetics - sex-linked recessive; X-linked recessive

355

[Comparison of addition of theophylline to inhaled steroid with doubling of the dose of inhaled steroid in asthma].  

Science.gov (United States)

The anti-asthmatic effect of theophylline may supplement those of inhaled steroids in asthma. The aim of the present trial was to study how the addition of theophylline compares to doubling the dose of inhaled steroid in asthmatics who remain symptomatic on beclomethasone dipropionate (BDP) 400 micrograms/day. The trial was designed as a randomized, double-blind, parallel-group study in several European countries. 69 patients were treated for 6 weeks with theophylline plus BDP 400 micrograms/day, compared to 64 patients treated with BDP 800 micrograms/day. The mean +/- SD serum theophylline concentration was 10.1 +/- 4.2 mg/l. Lung function measurements were made throughout the study and patients kept daily records of peak expiratory flow rate (PEF), symptoms and salbutamol usage. Forced expiratory volume in one second and PEF at week 6 were significantly increased by both treatments (p < 0.01). PEF variability was reduced by about 30% in both groups. There were significant improvements in asthma symptoms and rescue medication use (p < 0.001). There were no significant differences between the treatment groups. The study demonstrated clinical equivalence of theophylline plus beclomethasone dipropionate 400 micrograms/day and beclomethasone dipropionate 800 micrograms/day in patients whose asthma is not controlled on beclomethasone dipropionate 400 micrograms/d. The results support the use of theophylline as steroid-sparing agent. The combination of low-dose inhaled steroid plus theophylline is a suitable treatment for moderate asthma. PMID:9738388

Ukena, D; Harnest, U; Sakalauskas, R; Magyar, P; Vetter, N; Steffen, H; Leichtl, S; Rathgeb, F; Keller, A; Steinijans, V W

1998-07-01

356

Psychological Characteristics of Adolescent Steroid Users.  

Science.gov (United States)

Used Millon Adolescent Personality Inventory and Profile of Mood States to assess psychological characteristics in 72 adolescent males: 24 adolescent athletes who reported steroid use, 24 athletes with no steroid use, and 24 nonathletes. Although some personality variables differentiated between athletes and nonathletes, no personality variables…

Burnett, Kent F.; Kleiman, Mark E.

1994-01-01

357

Osteonecrosis following alcohol, cocaine, and steroid use.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

Alcohol, steroids and cocaine have all been shown to be independent risk factors for osteonecrosis when taken in excess. Here we present a case of a young girl who developed debilitating osteonecrosis secondary to low doses of alcohol, steroids and cocaine. We feel it is important to highlight to those caring for such patients of the potential devastating complication of these three agents.

Ziraldo, Laura

2012-02-01

358

The Factor Structure of Effortful Control and Measurement Invariance Across Ethnicity and Sex in a High-Risk Sample  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Measurement invariance of a one-factor model of effortful control (EC) was tested for 853 low-income preschoolers (M age = 4.48 years). Using a teacher-report questionnaire and seven behavioral measures, configural invariance (same factor structure across groups), metric invariance (same pattern of factor loadings across groups), and partial scalar invariance (mostly the same intercepts across groups) were established across ethnicity (European Americans, African Americans and Hispanics) and ...

2009-01-01

359

Age- and sex-related bone uptake of Tc-99m-HDP measured by whole-body bone scanning  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Aim of this study was to validate a recently introduced new and easy-to-perform method for quantifying bone uptake of Tc-99m-labelled diphosphonate in a routine clinical setting and to establish a normal data base for bone uptake depending on age and gender. Methods: In 49 women (14-79 years) and 47 men (6-89 years) with normal bone scans as well as in 49 women (33-81 years) and 37 men (27-88 years) with metastatic bone disease whole-body bone scans were acquired at 3 min and 3-4 hours p.i. to calculate bone uptake after correction for both urinary excretion and soft tissue retention. Results: Bone uptake values of various age-related subgroups showed no significant differences between men and women (p>0.05). Furthermore, no differences could be proven between age-matched subgroups of normals and patients with less than 10 metastatic bone lesions, while patients with wide-spread bone metastases revealed significantly increased uptake values. In both men and women highest bone uptake was obtained (p<0.05) in subjects younger than 20 years with active epiphyseal growth plates. In men, bone uptake slowly decreased with age up to 60 years and then showed a tendency towards increasing uptake values. In women, the mean uptake reached a minimum in the decade 20-29 years and then slowly increased with a positive linear correlation of age and uptake in subjects older than 55 years (r=0.57). Conclusion: Since the results proposed in this study are in good agreement with data from literature, the new method used for quantification could be validated in a large number of patients. Furthermore, age- and sex-related normal bone uptake values of Tc-99m-HDP covering a wide range of age could be presented for this method as a basis for further studies on bone uptake. (orig.) [German] Ziel dieser Studie war die Validierung einer von uns neu entwickelten einfachen Methode zur Quantifizierung des Skelettuptake von Tc-99m-HDP im Rahmen der klinischen Routineanwendung und die Erstellung alters- und geschlechtsspezifischer Skelettuptakewerte fuer diese Methodik. Methodik: Untersucht wurden 49 Frauen (14-79 Jahre) und 47 (6-89 Jahre) mit normalem Skelettszintigramm sowie 49 Frauen (33-81 Jahre) und 37 Maenner (27-88 Jahre) mit Skelettmetastasen. Bei allen Patienten wurden Ganzkoerperszintigramme 3 min und 3-4 h p.i. akquiriert, um unter Beruecksichtigung der Urinausscheidung und der Gewerberetention des Tracers den Knochenuptake zu berechnen. Ergebnisse: Die Skelettuptakewerte der verschiedenen Altersgruppen zeigten keine signifikanten Unterschiede (p>0,05) zwischen Frauen und Maennern. Auch konnten fuer die altersentsprechenden Untergruppen von Patienten mit normalem Szintigramm und Patienten mit weniger als 10 Skelettmetastasen keine Unterschiede nachgewiesen werden. Dagegen war der Knochenuptake bei Patienten mit ausgepraegter Skelettmetastasierung signifikant erhoeht. Deutlich erhoehte Werte wurden auch bei jungen Patienten mit szintigraphisch noch aktiven Epiphysenfugen nachgewiesen (p<0,05). Bei den Maennern fiel der Skelettuptake langsam mit steigendem Alter bis etwa 60 Jahre ab, danach zeigte sich tendenziell ein Wiederanstieg. Bei den Frauen erreichte der mittlere Uptake ein Minimum in der Dekade von 20-29 Jahren und stieg dann langsam an mit einer positiven linearen Korrelation (r=0.57) von Alter und Uptake bei Frauen aelter als 55 Jahre. Schlussfolgerung: Die von uns kuerzlich neu entwickelte Methode zur Quantifizierung des Skelettuptake konnte im Rahmen dieser Studie auf Grund der guten Uebereinstimmung unserer Ergebnisse mit Literaturdaten fuer die klinische Routineanwendung validiert werden. Darueber hinaus werden alters- und geschlechtsspezifische Skelettuptakewerte fuer Tc-99m-HDP als Ausgangsbasis fuer weitere Studien praesentiert. (orig.)

Brenner, W.; Sieweke, N.; Kampen, W.U.; Zuhayra, M.; Henze, E. [Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, Univ. Kiel (Germany); Bohuslavizki, K.H.; Clausen, M. [Abt. Nuklearmedizin, Universitaetskrankenhaus Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany)

2000-08-01

360

Sex-Specific Biatrial Volumetric Measurements Obtained with Use of Multidetector Computed Tomography in Subjects with and without Coronary Artery Disease  

Science.gov (United States)

Atrial volumetric measurement has proven clinical implications. Advances in cardiac imaging, notably the precision enabled by multidetector computed tomography (MDCT), herald the need for new criteria of what constitutes normal volumetric measurements. With use of 64-slice MDCT, we compared the atrial volumes in healthy individuals with those in individuals with coronary artery disease. By means of manual segmentation, we measured biatrial volume in 686 participants who underwent retrospective electrocardiographic-gated MDCT angiographic evaluation. The study population included a control group of 203 persons with no cardiac abnormalities, and a study group of 483 patients with obstructive coronary artery disease. All variables were compared between men and women and between the groups. We found a significant difference in left atrial end-systolic and end-diastolic volumes between men and women in the control group (P <0.05); however, right atrial volumes were similar. In comparison with the entire control group, the coronary artery disease group had significantly higher left atrial volume, significantly lower right atrial stroke volume, and significantly lower biatrial ejection fraction, except for left atrial ejection fraction in men. Right atrial volume and left atrial stroke volume were not significantly different. The results imply that a sex-specific reference value is necessary for left atrial volumetric evaluation, and that left atrial volume and biatrial ejection fraction (excluding left atrial ejection fraction in men) might be useful during diagnosis and prognosis in patients who have coronary artery disease.

Pagali, Sandeep R.; Hamirani, Yasmin S.; Chen, Andy; Cheu, Gordon; Gao, Yanlin; Li, Dong; Mao, SongShou

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

Inaccuracy of the Bradford method for the quantitative determination of protein concentration in steroid-horseradish peroxidase conjugates  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Conjugates between horseradish peroxidase and steroid molecules were prepared with different steroids (progesterone, testosterone, cortisol, estradiol) and different reaction mole ratios. These conjugates were characterised by liquid chromatographic analysis to check purity grade, stability and the presence of polymeric compounds, and by spectrophotometric measurements to obtain values of the average substitution ratio and of protein concentration by the absorbance corresponding to the Soret ...

Giovannoli, Cristina; Baggiani, Claudio; Giraudi, Gianfranco

1997-01-01

362

Gonadal steroid hormones and the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis represents a complex neuroendocrine feedback loop controlling the secretion of adrenal glucocorticoid hormones. Central to its function is the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) where neurons expressing corticotropin releasing factor reside. These HPA motor neurons are a primary site of integration leading to graded endocrine responses to physical and psychological stressors. An important regulatory factor that must be considered, prior to generating an appropriate response is the animal's reproductive status. Thus, PVN neurons express androgen and estrogen receptors and receive input from sites that also express these receptors. Consequently, changes in reproduction and gonadal steroid levels modulate the stress response and this underlies sex differences in HPA axis function. This review examines the make up of the HPA axis and hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis and the interactions between the two that should be considered when exploring normal and pathological responses to environmental stressors. PMID:24246855

Handa, Robert J; Weiser, Michael J

2014-04-01

363

ABUSE OF ANABOLIC ANDROGENIC STEROIDS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available According to the International Olympic Committee, the abuse of anabolic androgenic steroids (AASS is found in over 50% of positive doping tests. AASS abuse is not restricted to the organized sports andwidespread use. It remains as an unsolved public-health problem.Lower black market price, easier access to AASS, bodybuilding clubs and internet advertising are factors of this increasingly misuse. There is not real data about the prevalence of AASS abuse in various populations or countries, because most of athletes or students, due to their prohibition or ethical aspects do not admit to AASS abuse. Often they are aware of the risks of their choice and yet, are eager to put themselves at risk without deeper consideration. The abusers use them to improve their physical fitness and appearance.Present article has been collected to elucidate the risks and adverse effects of AASS and explanation of mechanisms of these events.

Abbas Yavari

2009-09-01

364

Zebrafish sex determination and differentiation: involvement of FTZ-F1 genes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sex determination is the process deciding the sex of a developing embryo. This is usually determined genetically; however it is a delicate process, which in many cases can be influenced by environmental factors. The mechanisms controlling zebrafish sex determination and differentiation are not known. To date no sex linked genes have been identified in zebrafish and no sex chromosomes have been identified. However, a number of genes, as presented here, have been linked to the process of sex determination or differentiation in zebrafish. The zebrafish FTZ-F1 genes are of central interest as they are involved in regulating interrenal development and thereby steroid biosynthesis, as well as that they show expression patterns congruent with reproductive tissue differentiation and function. Zebrafish can be sex reversed by exposure to estrogens, suggesting that the estrogen levels are crucial during sex differentiation. The Cyp19 gene product aromatase converts testosterone into 17 beta-estradiol, and when inhibited leads to male to female sex reversal. FTZ-F1 genes are strongly linked to steroid biosynthesis and the regulatory region of Cyp19 contains binding sites for FTZ-F1 genes, further linking FTZ-F1 to this process. The role of FTZ-F1 and other candidates for zebrafish sex determination and differentiation is in focus of this review. PMID:16281973

von Hofsten, Jonas; Olsson, Per-Erik

2005-01-01

365

Neonatal thyroid function: prematurity, prenatal steroids, and respiratory distress syndrome.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Indices of thyroid function were measured in 97 preterm infants at birth and at 5, 10, and 15 days of age. Triiodothyronine uptake, free thyroxine index, thyroxine, free thyroxine, triiodothyronine, reverse triiodothyronine, and thyroxine binding globulin values at birth correlated with gestational age, whereas thyroid stimulating hormone values did not. Treatment with steroids prenatally had no apparent effect on thyroid function at birth or postnatally. Infants developing respiratory distre...

Franklin, R. C.; Purdie, G. L.; O Grady, C. M.

1986-01-01

366

Effects of steroid hormones on Neisseria gonorrhoeae.  

Science.gov (United States)

Various steroids were tested for their effects upon gonococcal O2 consumption and glucose catabolism. The ability to inhibit gonococcal O2 uptake appeared to be related to the molecular configuration of the steroid. The presence of lipophilic groups enhanced inhibition, whereas the addition of hydrophilic groups markedly diminished inhibition. Steroid inhibition decreased with an increasing number of polar groups. Glucose catabolism was inhibited by steroid hormones, and the degree of inhibition was influenced by pH and medium composition. Changes in growth medium and pH also resulted in differential steroid inhibition of O2 uptake. Under certain conditions, lactate partially relieved this inhibition. Gonococci that were grown in one environment and shifted to a new environment were inhibited by steroids to the same extent as if they had been originally grown in the new environment. The differential effects of medium and pH upon steroid inhibition may be due to structural rearrangements involving membrane phase transitions or to altered receptor affinity. PMID:6778380

Lysko, P G; Morse, S A

1980-08-01

367

Effects of steroid hormones on Neisseria gonorrhoeae.  

Science.gov (United States)

Various steroids were tested for their effects upon gonococcal O2 consumption and glucose catabolism. The ability to inhibit gonococcal O2 uptake appeared to be related to the molecular configuration of the steroid. The presence of lipophilic groups enhanced inhibition, whereas the addition of hydrophilic groups markedly diminished inhibition. Steroid inhibition decreased with an increasing number of polar groups. Glucose catabolism was inhibited by steroid hormones, and the degree of inhibition was influenced by pH and medium composition. Changes in growth medium and pH also resulted in differential steroid inhibition of O2 uptake. Under certain conditions, lactate partially relieved this inhibition. Gonococci that were grown in one environment and shifted to a new environment were inhibited by steroids to the same extent as if they had been originally grown in the new environment. The differential effects of medium and pH upon steroid inhibition may be due to structural rearrangements involving membrane phase transitions or to altered receptor affinity.

Lysko, P G; Morse, S A

1980-01-01

368

Sex Education for Patients  

Science.gov (United States)

Sex education evokes a wide variety of responses in the community and from teachers. Consequently, physicians have a responsibility to present sex education material in a factual, objective way. Many people are misinformed about sexual behavior. Physicians can help patients and the community by being aware of appropriate sex education for each age group. A curriculum for sex education, and opportunities to provide sex information for patients of different ages and stages in the lifecycle, are described.

Zitner, David

1985-01-01

369

Sex Education for Patients  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Sex education evokes a wide variety of responses in the community and from teachers. Consequently, physicians have a responsibility to present sex education material in a factual, objective way. Many people are misinformed about sexual behavior. Physicians can help patients and the community by being aware of appropriate sex education for each age group. A curriculum for sex education, and opportunities to provide sex information for patients of different ages and stages in the lifecycle, are...

1985-01-01

370

The influence of sex chromosomes on finger dermatoglyphic patterns.  

Science.gov (United States)

Finger pattern frequencies for patients exhibiting various sex chromosome aneuploidies were obtained from literature sources. The sample consisted of 141 XO, 500 XX, 68 XXX, 9 XXXX, 500 XY, 93 XYY, 30 XXYY and 6 XXXXY. Pattern frequencies were converted to radial and ulnar loop frequencies, and these in turn were used to construct four variables; pattern intensity; radial-ulnar difference; radial loop asymmetry; and ulnar loop asymmetry. The relationship between the dermatoglyphic variables on to the sex chromosomes was examined by regressing the dermatoglyphic variables on to the number of X and Y chromosomes. Radial-ulnar difference and radial loop asymmetry showed the strongest relationship with the number of X and Y chromosomes. The X and Y chromosomes had about equal influence on radial-ulnar difference, but the Y had a stronger effect on radial loop asymmetry. It is postulated that sex chromosomes influence dermatoglyphic development by controlling tissue sensitivity to fetal sex steroids. PMID:3752919

Jantz, R L; Hunt, D R

1986-01-01

371

Metabolic effects of contraceptive steroids.  

Science.gov (United States)

Estrogen and progestins have been used by millions of women as effective combined contraceptives. The safety of hormonal contraceptives has been documented by years of follow-up and serious adverse events that may be related to their use are rare in the young population exposed to these agents. The balance between the benefits and the risks of contraceptive steroids is generally positive in particular when comparing to the risks of pregnancy and especially in women with risk factors. The metabolic changes induced by the synthetic steroids used in contraception, such as lipoprotein changes, insulin response to glucose, and coagulation factors have been considered as potential markers of cardiovascular and venous risk. Observations of these effects have led to modifications of the composition of hormonal contraceptive in order to minimize these changes and hence potentially decrease the risks. The synthetic estrogen Ethinyl-Estradiol (EE) exerts a stronger effect that natural estradiol (E2) on hepatic metabolism including estrogen-dependent markers such as liver proteins. This stronger hepatic impact of EE has been related to its 17?-ethinyl group which prevents the inactivation of the molecule and results in a more pronounced hepatic effect of EE as compared to estradiol. Due to its strong activity, administering EE via a non-oral route does not prevent its impact on liver proteins. In order to circumvent the metabolic changes induced by EE, newer products using more natural compounds such as estradiol (E2) and estradiol valerate (E2V) have been introduced. The synthetic progestins used for contraception are structurally related either to testosterone (T) (estranes and gonanes) or to progesterone (pregnanes and 19-norpregnanes). Several new progestins have been designed to bind more specifically to the progesterone receptor and to minimize side-effects related to androgenic, estrogenic or glucocorticoid receptor interactions. Dienogest (DNG), and drospirenone (DRSP) and the 19-norpregnanes including Nestorone® (NES), nomegestrol acetate (NOMAc) and trimegestone (TMG) have been combined with estrogen either EE or E2 or estradiol valerate (E2V). Risks and benefits of the newer progestins used in contraception depend upon the type of molecular structure, the type and dose of estrogen associated in a combination and the route of administration. The lower metabolic impact of estradiol-based combinations may result in an improved safety profile, but large surveillance studies are warranted to confirm this plausible hypothesis. So far, the contraindications and warnings for use of current COCs also apply to the estradiol-based COCs. PMID:21538049

Sitruk-Ware, Regine; Nath, Anita

2011-06-01

372

Dimensiones del músculo masetero medido mediante ultrasonido, según sexo Masseter muscle dimensions measured by ultrasound per sex  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available INTRODUCCIÓN: para establecer las dimensiones en profundidad, ancho y largo del músculo masetero según sexo, se realizó un estudio analítico no experimental entre pacientes seleccionados que acudieron al servicio de ecografía del Hospital Base de Linares, Chile entre los meses de julio y septiembre del año 2005. MÉTODOS: la muestra quedó determinada por 180 músculos maseteros, 90 de ellos pertenecientes a individuos de sexo femenino y 90 pertenecientes a individuos de sexo masculino. Se realizaron las mediciones de cada una de las dimensiones del músculo masetero utilizando para ello un examen imaginológico ecográfico. La muestra se sometió al análisis estadístico ANOVA. RESULTADOS: los individuos de sexo masculino presentan músculos maseteros con profundidades promedio de 10,8 ± 1,6 mm y los individuos de sexo femenino profundidades promedio de 8,1 ± 1,4 mm. CONCLUSIONES: de acuerdo con lo encontrado, se concluye que en individuos de sexo masculino con una profundidad del músculo masetero mayor a 12,4 mm y en individuos de sexo femenino con una profundidad del músculo masetero mayor a 9,5 mm se podrían considerar el diagnóstico de hipertrofia maseterina.INTRODUCTION: in order to establish the dimensions in depth, width and length of the masseter muscle according to gender, a non analytical experimental observational study was performed on selected patients who attended the echography service at the Base Hospital of Linares-Chile between July and September 2005. METHODS: the sample consisted of 180 masseter muscles, 90 from female individuals and 90 from male individuals. Measurements of each masseter muscle were performed utilizing an echographic exam. ANOVA test statistical analysis was performed. RESULTS: the masseter muscle depth on male individuals has an averaged 10.8 ± 1.6 mm and on female individuals an average depth of 8.1 ± 1.4 mm. CONCLUSIONS: according to the findings, we concluded that in male individuals with a depth of the masseter muscle higher to 12.4 mm and in female individuals with a depth of masseter higher to 9.5 mm could be considered a diagnosis of masseteric hypertrophy.

Raúl Frugone A

2010-12-01

373

Inhaled steroid/tobacco smoke particle interactions: a new light on steroid resistance  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Inhaled steroid resistance is an obstacle to asthma control in asthmatic smokers. The reasons of this phenomenon are not yet entirely understood. Interaction of drug particles with environmental tobacco smoke (ETS could change the aerodynamic profile of the drug through the particle coagulation phenomenon. Aim of the present study was to examine whether steroid particles interact with smoke when delivered in the presence of ETS. Methods Beclomethasone-hydrofluoralkane (BDP-HFA pMDI particle profile was studied after a single actuation delivered in ambient air or in the presence of ETS in an experimental chamber using a light scattering Optical Particle Counter capable of measuring the concentrations of particle sized 0.3–1.0, 1.1–2.0, 2.1–3.0, 3.1–4.0, 4.1–5.0, and > 5.1 ?m in diameter with a sampling time of one second. The number of drug particles delivered after a single actuation was measured as the difference between total particle number after drug delivery and background particle number. Two groups of experiments were carried out at different ambient background particle concentrations. Two-tail Student's t-test was used for statistical analysis. Results When delivered in ambient air, over 90% of BDP-HFA particles were found in the 0.3–1.0 ?m size class, while particles sized 1.1–2.0 ?m and 2.1–3.0 represented less than 6.6% and 2.8% of total particles, respectively. However, when delivered in the presence of ETS, drug particle profile was modified, with an impressive decrease of 0.3–1.0 ?m particles, the most represented particles resulting those sized 1.1–2.0 ?m (over 66.6% of total particles, and 2.1–3.0 ?m particles accounting up to 31% of total particles. Conclusion Our data suggest that particle interaction between inhaled BDP-HFA pMDI and ETS takes place in the first few seconds after drug delivery, with a decrease in smaller particles and a concurrent increase of larger particles. The resulting changes in aerosol particle profile might modify regional drug deposition with potential detriment to drug efficacy, and represent a new element of steroid resistance in smokers. Although the present study does not provide any functional or clinical assessment, it might be useful to advise smokers and non smokers with obstructive lung disease such as asthma or COPD, to avoid to act inhaled drugs in the presence of ETS in order to obtain the best therapeutic effect.

Nicolini Gabriele

2009-06-01

374

Candida albicans keratitis modified by steroid application  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The paper reports on Candida albicans ocular infection modified by steroid eye drops. A 74-year-old male complained of conjunctival injection and pain in his right eye three months after pterygium and cataract surgery. After treatment with antibiotics and steroid eye drops for three days, he was referred to our hospital. Clear localized corneal endothelial plaque with injection of ciliary body was observed. No erosion of the corneal epithelium, or infiltration of stromal edema was observed, s...

Araki-sasaki, Kaoru; Sonoyama, Hiroko; Kawasaki, Tsutomu; Kazama, Nariyasu; Ideta, Hidenao; Inoue, Yoshitsugu

2009-01-01

375

Steroid-induced Kager's fat pad atrophy.  

Science.gov (United States)

We report a rare case of Kager's fat pad atrophy and fibrosis in a 60-year-old woman 1 year after a steroid injection for Achilles tendinopathy. There are few published reports of steroid-induced atrophy affecting deeper layers of fat tissue. To our knowledge, this case report is the first to illustrate its features using magnetic resonance imaging. A review of the scientific literature is also presented. PMID:24615408

Taneja, Atul K; Santos, Durval C B