WorldWideScience
 
 
1

Sex steroids and the thyroid.  

Science.gov (United States)

Thyroid function is modulated by genetic and environmental causes as well as other illnesses and medications such as gonadal or sex steroids. The latter class of drugs (sex steroids) modulates thyroid function. Gonadal steroids exert their influence on thyroid function primarily by altering the clearance of thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG). While oestrogen administration causes an increase in serum TBG concentration, androgen therapy results in a decrease in this binding protein. These effects of gonadal steroids on TBG clearance and concentration are modulated by the chemical structure of the steroid being used, its dose and the route of administration. Despite the gonadal steroids-induced changes in serum TBG concentrations, subjects with normal thyroid glands maintain clinical and biochemical euthyroidism without changes in their serum free thyroxine (T4) or thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels. In contrast, the administration of gonadal steroids to patients with thyroid diseases causes significant biochemical and clinical alterations requiring changes in the doses of thyroid medications. Similarly, gonadal steroid therapy might unmask thyroid illness in previously undiagnosed subjects. It would be prudent to assess thyroid function in subjects with thyroid disease 6-8 weeks after gonadal steroid administration or withdrawal. PMID:19942152

Tahboub, Rundsarah; Arafah, Baha M

2009-12-01

2

Sex steroids and libido.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of steroidal hormones on sexual desire and motivation are a question still under debate. This paper reviews up-to-date knowledge regarding physiological imprinting and activation by endogenous hormones of central nervous system areas involved in libido during intrauterine life and puberty. The endocrine environment probably continues to play a role during fertile life and the postmenopausal period, but this effect is often overridden by psychological and social factors. The impairment of sexual interest during estrogen-progestin treatment is an infrequent but relevant side-effect whose possible underlying mechanisms are discussed. Both endocrine and psychorelational elements may interact. From the biological point of view, androgen and oxytocin level modification and loss of estrogen fluctuations have been considered, but also the history of hormone-related mood changes could be a risk factor. On the psychological side, both the profound repercussions of the contraceptive choice and consequent responsibility, as well as the high value attributed to sexual experience are probably facilitating elements in the loss of libido under treatment. PMID:9678082

Dei, M; Verni, A; Bigozzi, L; Bruni, V

1997-12-01

3

Sex Steroids and Breast Cancer: An Overview  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sex steroids, also known as sex hormones are synthesized naturally by the gonads (ovaries or testes. The two main classes of sex steroids, androgens and estrogens, are crucial hormones for the proper development and function of the body; they regulate sexual differentiation, the secondary sex characteristics, and sexual habits. They are also well known to influence many common cancers, especially hormonally driven cancers such as breast and prostate cancer. In this report, we review the association of sex steroids with cancer and the potential use of endocrine manipulation in cancer therapy as well as the limitations and challenges faced in this field.

Zeina Nahleh

2013-05-01

4

Sex steroids in intersexual fishes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Studies of thein vitro gonadal steroidogenesis in intersexual fishes, using labelled testosterone as precursor, showed large species variation. The protogynousMonopterus albus produced predominantly 5?-reduced metabolites while the protandrousRhabdosargus sarba produced mainly 5?-reduced products. Both fishes synthesized 11-oxotestosterone; the synthesis of which appeared to mediate mainly through adrenosterone inM. albus butvia 11?-hydroxytestosterone inR. sarba.When the plasma levels of androstenedione, testosterone, 11-oxotestosterone, 11?-hydroxytestosterone, estrone and 17?-estradiol among the male, intersexual and female phase of the same species were compared, available data showed that either there was no obvious difference among the different sexual phases or the differences could be accounted for by the seasonal reproductive activities of the animal.Except for androstenedione, there are no marked changes in plasma testosterone, 11-oxotestosterone, 11?-hydroxytestosterone, estrone and 17?-estradiol levels in the intersexual phase compared with the female and male, it is unlikely that these classical sex steroids act as a primary trigger of natural sex reversal in these fishes; the role of androstenedione awaits further elucidation. PMID:24221776

Chan, S T; Yeung, W S

1989-06-01

5

Sex steroid actions in male bone.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sex steroids are chief regulators of gender differences in the skeleton, and male gender is one of the strongest protective factors against osteoporotic fractures. This advantage in bone strength relies mainly on greater cortical bone expansion during pubertal peak bone mass acquisition and superior skeletal maintenance during aging. During both these phases, estrogens acting via estrogen receptor-? in osteoblast lineage cells are crucial for male cortical and trabecular bone, as evident from conditional genetic mouse models, epidemiological studies, rare genetic conditions, genome-wide meta-analyses, and recent interventional trials. Genetic mouse models have also demonstrated a direct role for androgens independent of aromatization on trabecular bone via the androgen receptor in osteoblasts and osteocytes, although the target cell for their key effects on periosteal bone formation remains elusive. Low serum estradiol predicts incident fractures, but the highest risk occurs in men with additionally low T and high SHBG. Still, the possible clinical utility of serum sex steroids for fracture prediction is unknown. It is likely that sex steroid actions on male bone metabolism rely also on extraskeletal mechanisms and cross talk with other signaling pathways. We propose that estrogens influence fracture risk in aging men via direct effects on bone, whereas androgens exert an additional antifracture effect mainly via extraskeletal parameters such as muscle mass and propensity to fall. Given the demographic trends of increased longevity and consequent rise of osteoporosis, an increased understanding of how sex steroids influence male bone health remains a high research priority. PMID:25202834

Vanderschueren, Dirk; Laurent, Michaël R; Claessens, Frank; Gielen, Evelien; Lagerquist, Marie K; Vandenput, Liesbeth; Börjesson, Anna E; Ohlsson, Claes

2014-12-01

6

Sex steroids and glucose metabolism  

Science.gov (United States)

Testosterone levels are lower in men with metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and also predict the onset of these adverse metabolic states. Body composition (body mass index, waist circumference) is an important mediator of this relationship. Sex hormone binding globulin is also inversely associated with insulin resistance and T2DM but the data regarding estrogen are inconsistent. Clinical models of androgen deficiency including Klinefelter's syndrome and androgen deprivation therapy in the treatment of advanced prostate cancer confirm the association between androgens and glucose status. Experimental manipulation of the insulin/glucose milieu and suppression of endogenous testicular function suggests the relationship between androgens and insulin sensitivity is bidirectional. Androgen therapy in men without diabetes is not able to differentiate the effect on insulin resistance from that on fat mass, in particular visceral adiposity. Similarly, several small clinical studies have examined the efficacy of exogenous testosterone in men with T2DM, however, the role of androgens, independent of body composition, in modifying insulin resistance is uncertain. PMID:24457840

Allan, Carolyn A

2014-01-01

7

Sex Steroid Effects at Target Tissues: Mechanisms of Action  

Science.gov (United States)

This review outlines new advances in our understanding of the spectrum of steroid hormone ligands, newly recognized target tissues, structure-function relationships of steroid receptors, and, finally, their genomic and nongenomic actions. Sex-based specific effects are often related to the different steroid hormone mileu in men compared with women. Understanding the mechanisms of sex steroid action gives insight into the differences in normal physiology and disease states.

Margaret E. Wierman (University of Colorado Veterans Affairs Medical Center)

2007-03-01

8

Influence of sex steroids on inflammation and bone metabolism.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sex steroids are central to sexual development and reproduction, exerting pleiotropic effects on multiple tissues and organs throughout the lifespan of humans. Sex steroids are fundamental to skeletal development, bone homeostasis and immune function. The composite effect of sex-specific genetic architecture and circulating levels of sex-steroid hormones closely parallels differences in the immune response and may account for corresponding sex-related differences in risk for chronic periodontitis, with men exhibiting greater susceptibility than women. Age-associated reductions in sex steroids also provide insight into apparent temporal increases in susceptibility to periodontitis and alveolar bone loss, particularly among women. Chronic infection and inflammatory conditions, such as periodontal disease, provide a unique platform for exploring the interface of sex steroids, immunity and bone metabolism. PMID:24320957

Shiau, Harlan J; Aichelmann-Reidy, Mary E; Reynolds, Mark A

2014-02-01

9

SEASONAL VARIATION IN PLASMA SEX STEROID CONCENTRATION IN JUVENILE ALLIGATORS  

Science.gov (United States)

Seasonal variation in plasma sex steroid concentrations is common in mature vertebrates, and is occasionally seen in juvenile animals. In this study, we examine the seasonal pattern of sex hormone concentration in juvenile American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) and make...

10

The influence of sex steroids on pineal enzymes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The influence of the gonadal sex steroids namely, estradiol, progesterone and testosterone on the two major enzymes responsible for the synthesis of melatonin in the pineal gland was investigated. These enzymes are Serotonin-N-acetyltransferase (SNAT) and Hydroxyindole-O-methyltransferase (H10MT). Testosterone was found to be the only sex steroid capable of influencing SNAT activity whereas all three of the sex steroids were found to influence H10MT activity in a biphasic dose-dependent manner. The influence of these sex steroids on radiolabelled serotonin metabolism by pineals in organ culture was also investigated. Ovariectomy, castration and the sex steroids were all found to alter the pattern of the radiolabelled serotonin metabolism by these pineal glands in organ culture

11

NEUROPROTECTIVE EFFECTS OF FEMALE SEX STEROIDS IN CEREBRAL ISCHEMIA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The central and peripheral nervous system are important targets of sex steroids. Sex steroids affect the brain development and differentiation, and influence neuronal functions. Recent evidence emphasizes a striking sex-linked difference in brain damage after experimental stroke, as well as the efficacy of hormones in treating cerebral stroke injury. Several different models ofcerebral ischemia have been utilized for hormone neuroprotection studies, including transient or permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion, transient global ischemia, and transient forebrain ischemia. Extensive experimental studies have shown that female sex steroids such as progesterone and 17ß-estradiol exert neuroprotective effects in the experimental models of stroke, although deleterious effects have also been reported. Also, a significance of numerous factors, including gender and age of experimental animals, localization of brain lesion, duration of ischemia and precise dose of steroids has been pointed out. There are multiple potential mechanisms that might be invoked to explain the beneficial effects of female sex steroids in brain injury, involving neuroprotection, anti-inflammatory properties, effects on vasculature and altered transcriptional regulation. A several clinical trials on the effects of sex hormones to traumatic brain injury have been performed, suggesting that hormone therapy may represent a new therapeutic tool to combat certain diseases, such as traumatic brain injury. Further basic science studies and randomized clinical trials are necessary to reveal a potential application of these molecules as a new therapeutic strategy.

Dra?a Sanja

2013-01-01

12

Sex Differences and Sex Steroids in Lung Health and Disease  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Sex differences in the biology of different organ systems and the influence of sex hormones in modulating health and disease are increasingly relevant in clinical and research areas. Although work has focused on sex differences and sex hormones in cardiovascular, musculoskeletal, and neuronal systems, there is now increasing clinical evidence for sex differences in incidence, morbidity, and mortality of lung diseases including allergic diseases (such as asthma), chronic obstructive pulmonary ...

Townsend, Elizabeth A.; Miller, Virginia M.; Prakash, Y. S.

2012-01-01

13

DHHC-7 and -21 are palmitoylacyltransferases for sex steroid receptors.  

Science.gov (United States)

Classical estrogen, progesterone, and androgen receptors (ERs, PRs, and ARs) localize outside the nucleus at the plasma membrane of target cells. From the membrane, the receptors signal to activate kinase cascades that are essential for the modulation of transcription and nongenomic functions in many target cells. ER, PR, and AR trafficking to the membrane requires receptor palmitoylation by palmitoylacyltransferase (PAT) protein(s). However, the identity of the steroid receptor PAT(s) is unknown. We identified the DHHC-7 and -21 proteins as conserved PATs for the sex steroid receptors. From DHHC-7 and -21 knockdown studies, the PATs are required for endogenous ER, PR, and AR palmitoylation, membrane trafficking, and rapid signal transduction in cancer cells. Thus the DHHC-7 and -21 proteins are novel targets to selectively inhibit membrane sex steroid receptor localization and function. PMID:22031296

Pedram, Ali; Razandi, Mahnaz; Deschenes, Robert J; Levin, Ellis R

2012-01-01

14

Actin cytoskeleton remodelling by sex steroids in neurones.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cell morphology and its interaction with the extracellular environment are integrated processes involving a number of intracellular controllers orchestrating cytoskeletal proteins and their interaction with the cell membrane and anchorage proteins. Sex steroids are effective regulators of cell morphology and tissue organisation, and recent evidence indicates that this is obtained through the regulation of the actin cytoskeleton. Intriguingly, many of these regulatory actions related to cell morphology are achieved through the rapid, nonclassical signalling of sex steroid receptors to kinase cascades, independently from nuclear alteration of gene expression or protein synthesis. The identification of the mechanistic basis for these rapid actions on cell cytoskeleton has special relevance for the characterisation of the effects of sex steroids under physiological conditions, such as for the development of neurone/neurone interconnections and dendritic spine density. This is considered to be critical for gender-specific differences in brain function and dysfunction. Recent advancements in the characterisation of the molecular basis of the extranuclear signalling of sex steroids help to clarify the role of oestrogen and progesterone in the brain, and may turn out to be of relevance for clinical purposes. This review highlights the regulatory effects of oestrogens and progesterone on actin cytoskeleton and neurone morphology, as well as recent progresses in the characterisation of these mechanisms, providing insights and working hypotheses on possible clinical applications for the modulation of these pathways in the central nervous system. PMID:22103470

Sanchez, A M; Flamini, M I; Polak, K; Palla, G; Spina, S; Mannella, P; Genazzani, A D; Simoncini, T

2012-01-01

15

Sex steroid content and metabolism in Trichostrongylus colubriformis (Nematoda).  

Science.gov (United States)

Testosterone, progesterone and cholesterol were found in mixed sexes of the nematode Trichostrongylus colubriformis from goats, according to thin-layer, gas-liquid and high-performance liquid chromatography. The structure of these steroids was confirmed by proton nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectroscopy. Melting points of the worms' steroids were similar to authentic standards of the steroids. Estradiol was not detected in worms from either goat sex. Cholesterol was about 0.08% of the worms' dry weight in helminths from either sex of host. Testosterone was 0.02% of the dry weight when worms were taken from male goats, but only 0.005% from female goats. Progesterone was not detected in worms from male goats, but was 0.005% of the dry weight of helminths from female hosts. Incubation of a worm preparation with tritiated steroids showed that progesterone was converted to 17-alpha-hydroxyprogesterone, based on retention during radioactive thin-layer and gas-liquid chromatography, and co-crystallization. Testosterone, cholesterol and 17-beta-estradiol were not metabolized. PMID:3734997

Chung, W L; Parish, E J; Bone, L W

1986-04-01

16

Taenia solium tapeworms synthesize corticosteroids and sex steroids in vitro.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cysticercosis is a disease caused by the larval stage of Taenia solium cestodes that belongs to the family Taeniidae that affects a number of hosts including humans. Taeniids tapeworms are hermaphroditic organisms that have reproductive units called proglottids that gradually mature to develop testis and ovaries. Cysticerci, the larval stage of these parasites synthesize steroids. To our knowledge there is no information about the capacity of T. solium tapeworms to metabolize progesterone or other precursors to steroid hormones. Therefore, the aim of this paper was to investigate if T. solium tapeworms were able to transform steroid precursors to corticosteroids and sex steroids. T. solium tapeworms were recovered from the intestine of golden hamsters that had been orally infected with cysticerci. The worms were cultured in the presence of tritiated progesterone or androstenedione. At the end of the experiments the culture media were analyzed by thin layer chromatography. The experiments described here showed that small amounts of testosterone were synthesized from (3)H-progesterone by complete or segmented tapeworms whereas the incubation of segmented tapeworms with (3)H-androstenedione, instead of (3)H-progesterone, improved their capacity to synthesize testosterone. In addition, the incubation of the parasites with (3)H-progesterone yielded corticosteroids, mainly deoxicorticosterone (DOC) and 11-deoxicortisol. In summary, the results described here, demonstrate that T. solium tapeworms synthesize corticosteroid and sex steroid like metabolites. The capacity of T. solium tapeworms to synthesize steroid hormones may contribute to the physiological functions of the parasite and also to their interaction with the host. PMID:24793221

Valdez, R A; Jiménez, P; Fernández Presas, A M; Aguilar, L; Willms, K; Romano, M C

2014-09-01

17

Effects of sex steroid hormones on sertoli cells metabolic pathways  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Developing germ cells use lactate, derived from glucose metabolism of Sertoli cells (SCs), as their main energy source. Androgens and estrogens have been implicated in the modulation of testicular cells energy metabolism, particularly in SCs. The goal of the present study was to shed light on the effects of sex steroid hormones on glucose metabolic pathways in rat SCs. The mRNA levels of glucose transporters 1 and 3 (GLUT1 and GLUT3), phosphofructokinase 1 (PFK1) and lactate dehydrogenase cha...

Martins, Ana Catarina Dias

2012-01-01

18

Influence of sex and oral contraceptive steroids on paracetamol metabolism.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Paracetamol metabolism was investigated in eight healthy males, eight healthy females and eight healthy females receiving oral contraceptive steroids (OCS). Paracetamol clearance was 22% greater in males compared to the control female group. This difference was entirely due to increased activity of the glucuronidation pathway in males, there being no sex-related differences in the sulphation or oxidative metabolism of paracetamol. Paracetamol clearance in females using OCS was 49% greater tha...

Miners, J. O.; Attwood, J.; Birkett, D. J.

1983-01-01

19

Serum-sex steroids, gonadotrophins and sex hormone-binding globulin inprostatic hyperplasia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) develops in elderly males when serumandrogens are relatively lower than in healthy younger males, but is not wellunderstood whether and how sex steroids are altered in prostatic hyperplasia.It is also uncertain that whether there is any change in sex steroids levelsin males older than 40 years of age. The use of androgens in elderly males isoften discouraged because of the probable worsening effect of androgens onprostatism. This study aimed to determine the relationship between prostatichyperplasia and sex steroid levels and whether there is any significantchange in these hormones after the age of 40 years. We studied healthy malesof >40 years with (n=92) or without (n=93) clinical prostatic hyperplasia.Serum testosterone, estradiol, gonadotrophins and sex hormone-bindingglobulin (SHBG) were compared. The hormones and SHGB were also correlatedwith age. No significant difference was found in any hormone in cases withprostatic hyperplasia as compared with the controls. There was no significantage-related change in any hormone except estradiol where as a negativecorrelation (P<0.003) with age was found. Serum sex steroids and SHGBremained unchanged in symptomatic prostatic hyperplasia and except forestrdoil there was no significant age-related change in serum testosterone,gonadotrophins and SHGB in healthy males after the fourth decade. Morestudies are needed to confirm the age-related decline of estrogens in males.(author)of estrogens in males.(author)

20

Serum sex steroids, gonadotrophins and sex hormone-binding globulin in prostatic hyperplasia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH develops in elderly males when serum androgens are relatively lower than in healthy younger males, but it is not well understood whether and how sex steroids are altered in prostatic hyperplasia. It is also uncertain whether there is any change in sex steroid levels in males older than 40 years of age. The use of androgens in elderly males is often discouraged because of the probable worsening effect of androgens on prostatism. This study aimed to determine the relationship between prostatic hyperplasia and sex steroid levels and whether there is any significant change in these hormones after the age of 40 years. Subjects and Methods: We studied healthy males of age 240 years with (n=92 or without (n=93 clinical prostatic hyperplasia. Serum testosterone, estradiol, gonadotrophins and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG were compared. The hormones and SHBG were also correlated with age. Results: No significant difference was found in any hormone in cases with prostatic hyperplasia as compared with the controls. There was no significant age-related change in any hormone except estradiol where as a negative correlation (P< .003 with age was found. Conclusions: Serum sex steroids and SHBG remained unchanged in symptomatic prostatic hyperplasia and except for estradiol there was no significant age-related change in serum testosterone, gonadotrophins and SHBG in healthy males after the fourth decade. More studies are needed to confirm the age-related decline of estrogens in males.

Ansari Mohammad Abdul

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
21

The Effects of Sex Steroids on Spatial Performance: A Review and an Experimental Clinical Investigation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Investigated the relationship between sex hormones and spatial performance among adolescents treated with sex steroids for delayed puberty. Found that spatial performance varied according to gender but did not vary with levels of actively circulating sex steroids. Reviewed physiological mechanisms, developmental periods, and past empirical work…

Liben, Lynn S.; Susman, Elizabeth J.; Finkelstein, Jordan W.; Chinchilli, Vernon M.; Kunselman, Susan; Schwab, Jacqueline; Dubas, Judith Semon; Demers, Laurence M.; Lookingbill, Georgia; D'Arcangelo, M. Rose; Krogh, Holleen R.; Kulin, Howard E.

2002-01-01

22

Factors That Contribute to Assay Variation in Quantitative Analysis of Sex Steroid Hormones Using Liquid and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry  

Science.gov (United States)

The list of physiological events in which sex steroids play a role continues to increase. To decipher the roles that sex steroids play in any condition requires high quality cohorts of samples and assays that provide highly accurate quantitative measures. Liquid and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC-MS and GC-MS) have…

Xu, Xia; Veenstra, Timothy D.

2012-01-01

23

Sex and androgenic steroid receptor expression in hepatic adenomas.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sex hormones and anabolic-androgenic steroids are implicated in the development and progression of hepatic adenomas (HA). We studied the expression of their receptors in HA and adjacent liver. Archival tissue sections of 27 HA (16 resections, four needle biopsies, seven aspirations) from 18 patients, and the adjacent liver, were immunostained with monoclonal antibody to estrogen receptor (ER, 1/80) (Dako, Carpinteria, CA), progesterone receptor (PR, 1/50) (BioGenex, San Ramon, CA), and androgen receptor (AR, 1/80) (BioGenex). An avidin-biotin complex technique was used with microwave antigen retrieval. Nuclear expression was assessed as 1+ to 3+ intensity, with semiquantitation of the percentage of nuclei immunopositive. Five percent or more nuclei immunopositive was regarded as positive. The 18 patients included 16 females of 34 years mean age (range, 16 to 49) with an available history of oral contraceptives in five; the two men were 24 and 30 years, with no history of androgenic steroids. ER, PR, and AR were present in seven (26%) (1+/-2+ intensity, 5% to 10% of nuclei) of HA, seven (26%) (1+/-2+ intensity, 5% to 30% of nuclei) and nine (33%) (1+/-3+ intensity, 5% to 80% of nuclei), respectively. In the adjacent liver in 11 cases, there were one (9%) ER, (2+ intensity, 5% of nuclei), four (36%) PR (1+/-2+ intensity, 5% to 20% of nuclei), and two (18%) AR (2+/-3+ intensity, 10% of nuclei). Receptors are present and may mediate the action of sex hormones or androgenic steroids on HA and adjacent liver, but in less than one third of patients. This may have therapeutic implications. PMID:9865828

Cohen, C; Lawson, D; DeRose, P B

1998-12-01

24

Sex steroid hormones, cardiovascular diseases and the metabolic syndrome.  

Science.gov (United States)

The metabolic syndrome (MS) has become the new epidemic of this century. Although its associated pathologies may vary, the most common are hypertension, central obesity, dyslipidemia, low High Density Lipoproteins (HDL), high Low Density Lipoproteins (LDL), and type-2 diabetes. Several others can be present, such as hypertriglyceridemia, cardiopathies, atherosclerosis, altered levels of sex hormones, hypogonadism in men and nephropathy. Several factors such as gender, age, race, lifestyle and diet may contribute to modify its prevalence: men develop cardiovascular diseases at an earlier age than pre-menopausal women, who seem to be protected by the antioxidant properties of estrogens. The present review offers information, mostly from 2008 to the present, as well as our own work on a rat model of MS, which was developed by the administration of sucrose in drinking water. Sex steroid hormones play an important role in the appearance and development of the MS and of cardiovascular diseases. Variations in the levels of sex hormones, whether normal or pathological, may have significant influence in the onset of several diseases, metabolic syndrome components included, as well as in the behavior of tissues and organs. These are just some of the non-reproductive actions of sex hormones. PMID:21745183

Baños, G; Guarner, V; Pérez-Torres, I

2011-07-01

25

The association of urinary cadmium with sex steroid hormone concentrations in a general population sample of US adult men  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies investigating the association of cadmium and sex steroid hormones in men have been inconsistent, but previous studies were relatively small. Methods In a nationally representative sample of 1,262 men participating in the morning examination session of phase I (1998–1991 of the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, creatinine corrected urinary cadmium and serum concentrations of sex steroid hormones were measured following a standardized protocol. Results After adjustment for age and race-ethnicity, higher cadmium levels were associated with higher levels of total testosterone, total estradiol, sex hormone-binding globulin, estimated free testosterone, and estimated free estradiol (each p-trend 0.05. Conclusion Urinary cadmium levels were not associated with sex steroid hormone concentrations in a large nationally representative sample of US men.

Basaria Shehzad

2008-02-01

26

Early pregnancy sex steroids and maternal risk of epithelial ovarian cancer.  

Science.gov (United States)

Well-established associations between reproductive characteristics and epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) support an involvement of sex steroid hormones in the etiology of EOC. Limited previous studies have evaluated circulating androgens and the risk of EOC, and estrogens and progesterone have been investigated in only one of the previous studies. Furthermore, there is little data on potential heterogeneity in the association between circulating hormones and EOC by histological subgroup. Therefore, we conducted a nested case-control study within the Finnish Maternity Cohort and the Northern Sweden Maternity Cohort to investigate the associations between circulating pre-diagnostic sex steroid concentrations and the histological subtypes of EOC. We identified 1052 EOC cases among cohort members diagnosed after recruitment (1975-2008) and before March 2011. Up to three controls were individually matched to each case (n=2694). Testosterone, androstenedione, 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP), progesterone, estradiol (E2), and sex hormone-binding globulin levels were measured in serum samples collected during the last pregnancy before EOC diagnosis. We used conditional logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CIs. Associations between hormones and EOC differed with respect to tumor histology and invasiveness. Sex steroid concentrations were not associated with invasive serous tumors; however, doubling of testosterone and 17-OHP concentration was associated with approximately 40% increased risk of borderline serous tumors. A doubling of androgen concentrations was associated with a 50% increased risk of mucinous tumors. The risk of endometrioid tumors increased with higher E2 concentrations (OR: 1.89 (1.20-2.98)). This large prospective study in pregnant women supports a role of sex steroid hormones in the etiology of EOC arising in the ovaries. PMID:25270324

Schock, Helena; Surcel, Heljä-Marja; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Grankvist, Kjell; Lakso, Hans-Åke; Fortner, Renée Turzanski; Kaaks, Rudolf; Pukkala, Eero; Lehtinen, Matti; Toniolo, Paolo; Lundin, Eva

2014-12-01

27

Endocrinology of sex steroid hormones and cell dynamics in the periodontium.  

Science.gov (United States)

Numerous scientific studies assert the existence of hormone-sensitive periodontal tissues. Tissue specificity of hormone localization, identification of hormone receptors and the metabolism of hormones are evidence that periodontal tissues are targets for sex steroid hormones. Although the etiologies of periodontal endocrinopathies are diverse, periodontal pathologies are primarily the consequence of the actions and interactions of sex steroid hormones on specific cells found in the periodontium. This review provides a broad overview of steroid hormone physiology, evidence for the periodontium being a target tissue for sex steroid hormones and theories regarding the roles of sex steroid hormones in periodontal pathogenesis. Using this information, a teleological argument for the actions of steroid hormones in the periodontium is assessed. PMID:23240944

Mariotti, Angelo; Mawhinney, Michael

2013-02-01

28

Augmented transport and metabolism of sex steroids in lymphoid neoplasia in the rat  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Sex steroid hormones have been shown to influence a number of biological properties of lymphoid neoplastic tissue. Receptor occupancy is a function of the pool size of cellular exchangeable hormone therefore it is important to understand the mechanisms regulating hormone transport from the microcirculation and hormone metabolism. In this study, steroid hormone transport and metabolism were investigated in control and neoplastic lymph nodes after transplanting control rats with the WR-6 leukemic line. Steroid hormone transport and metabolism were studied after pulse labeling the nodal tissue in vivo with arterial bolus injections of (/sup 3/H)testosterone. Residual vascular radioactivity was monitored by simultaneously injecting 113m indium chelated to bovine transferrin. Both testosterone and estradiol were partially available for transport through the capillary barriers of control and neoplastic lymph nodes from the circulating albumin-bound pool. Estradiol was readily available for transport from the circulating sex hormone-binding globulin-bound pool in both control and neoplastic lymph nodes. Testosterone was not available for transport from the sex hormone-binding globulin-bound pool in control lymph nodes, but was readily available for transport in metastatic lymph nodes. Thaw-mount autoradiography and physiological measurements showed that plasma proteins such as albumin or transferrin were confined to the microcirculation compartment. The transport of protein-bound hormones into lymph node represents a mechanism of enhanced steroid hormone dissociation from the binding protein without the plasma protein per se significantly exiting the microcirculation compartment. Metabolic studies showed no measurable metabolism of (/sup 3/H)testosterone in the control lymph nodes by 60 sec after arterial injection.

Cefalu, W.T.; Pardridge, W.M.

1987-03-01

29

Steroids  

Science.gov (United States)

... steroids (say: STARE-oydz), they often mean illegal anabolic steroids. Anabolic steroids are artificially produced hormones that are the same ... these is testosterone (say: tes-TOSS-tuh-rone). Anabolic steroids can be taken in the form of pills, ...

30

Sex and stress steroid modulation of GABA mediated chloride ion flux in rat CNS  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: Sex and stress steroids are metabolized to 3a-hydroxy-pregnane-steroid metabolites such as allopregnanolone (Allo) and tetrahydrodeoxycorticosterone (THDOC). Allo and THDOC are neuroactive steroids that are metabolized in the brain and act in brain as potent positive GABAA receptor function modulators. Allo as well as THDOC levels increase during stress. Allo has been associated with a number of symptoms and malfunctions such as impaired memory function and negative mood symptoms ...

Stro?mberg, Jessica

2007-01-01

31

Measurement of steroid concentrations in brain tissue: methodological considerations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available It is well recognized that steroids are synthesized de novo in the brain (neurosteroids. In addition, steroids circulating in the blood enter the brain. Steroids play numerous roles in the brain, such as influencing neural development, behavior, neuroplasticity, and inflammation. In order to understand the regulation and functions of steroids in the brain, it is important to directly measure steroid concentrations in brain tissue. In this brief review, we discuss methods for the detection and quantification of steroids in the brain. We concisely present the major advantages and disadvantages of different technical approaches at various experimental stages: euthanasia, tissue collection, steroid extraction, steroid separation, and steroid measurement. We discuss, among other topics, the potential effects of anesthesia and saline perfusion prior to tissue collection; microdissection via Palkovits punch; solid phase extraction; chromatographic separation of steroids; and immunoassays and mass spectrometry for steroid quantification, particularly the use of mass spectrometry for “steroid profiling.” Finally, we discuss the interpretation of local steroid concentrations, such as comparing steroid levels in brain tissue with those in the circulation (plasma vs. whole blood samples; total vs. free steroid levels. This brief review highlights some of the major methodological considerations at multiple experimental stages and provides a broad framework for designing studies that examine local steroid levels in the brain as well as other tissues.

MatthewDTaves

2011-09-01

32

Effects of Supraphysiological Doses of Sex Steroids on Wheel Running Activity in Mice  

Science.gov (United States)

The regulatory mechanisms of physical activity are postulated to include environmental and biological/genetic factors. In particular, the sex steroids appear to have profound effects on wheel running in rodents. The purpose of this project was to investigate the effects of 17?-estradiol and testosterone on wheel running distance, duration, and speed in male and female C57BL/6J mice. The mice (N=46) were provided free access to running wheels interfaced with computers to track daily running distance, duration, and speed. Activity was assessed at baseline in intact mice, after surgical gonadectomy, and after replacement with either 17?-estradiol or testosterone. Upon removal of the gonads, physical activity levels were significantly reduced in both males and females. Distance (10–30% of baseline) and duration (20–47% of baseline) measures were most affected by the loss of endogenous steroids, while running speed (60–77% of baseline) though significantly reduced-decreased by a much lower magnitude. Testosterone replacement fully recovered running distance, duration, and speed to pre-surgical levels in both sexes (100% of baseline). Distance (30–42% of baseline) and duration (43–47% of baseline) were partially recovered by 17?-estradiol, but not to baseline levels. Speed (100% of baseline) was fully recovered by 17?-estradiol replacement in males and females. This study suggests that physical activity in mice is affected by endogenous steroids and can be altered by exogenous steroid replacement. The differences in the recovery abilities of 17?-estradiol and testosterone suggest that both estrogenic and androgenic pathways may be involved to variable degrees in activity regulation.

Bowen, Robert S; Knab, Amy M; Hamilton, Alicia Trynor; McCall, Jennifer R; Moore-Harrison, Trudy L; Lightfoot, J Timothy

2014-01-01

33

Offspring sex in a TSD gecko correlates with an interaction between incubation temperature and yolk steroid hormones  

Science.gov (United States)

We incubated eggs of the Japanese gecko Gekko japonicus at three temperatures, and measured yolk testosterone (T) and 17?-estradiol (E2) levels at three time points in embryonic development (oviposition, 1/3 of incubation, and 2/3 of incubation), to examine whether maternal influence on offspring sex via yolk steroid hormone deposition is significant in the species. Eggs incubated at 24 °C and 32 °C produced mostly females, and eggs incubated at 28 °C almost a 50:50 sex ratio of hatchlings. Female-producing eggs were larger than male-producing eggs. Clutches in which eggs were incubated at the same temperature produced mostly same-sex siblings. Yolk T level at laying was negatively related to eggs mass, and yolk E2/T ratio was positively related to egg mass. Results of two-way ANOVA with incubation temperature and stage as the factors show that: yolk E2 level was higher at 32 °C than at 24 °C; yolk T level was higher, whereas yolk E2/T ratio was smaller, at 28 °C than at 24 °C; yolk E2 and T levels were higher at 2/3 than at 1/3 of incubation. Our data in G. japonucus show that: (1) maternal influence on offspring sex via yolk steroid hormone deposition is significant; (2) incubation temperature affects the dynamics of developmental changes in yolk steroid hormones; (3) influences of yolk steroid hormones on offspring sex are secondary relative to incubation temperature effects; and (4) offspring sex correlates with an interaction between incubation temperature and yolk steroid hormones.

Ding, Guo-Hua; Yang, Jing; Wang, Jin; Ji, Xiang

2012-12-01

34

The plasma sex steroid profiles in the freshwater, sex-reversing teleost fish, Monopterus albus (Zuiew).  

Science.gov (United States)

The plasma levels of both the free and conjugated forms of six sex steroids (androstenedione, testosterone, 11-oxotestosterone, 11 beta-hydroxytestosterone, estrone, and 17 beta-estradiol) were determined by radioimmunoassay combined with Celite chromatography in different sexual phases of the protogynous Monopterus albus throughout the reproductive cycle. The amounts of 11-oxotestosterone and 11 beta-hydroxytestosterone were found to be very low and variable in all the specimens investigated. No conjugated 17 beta-estradiol or free estrone was detected. Female individuals showed a prespawning rise of androstenedione which subsequently dropped to a low level in the spawning period. The estrogen levels in the female phase were found to be higher than those in all other sexual phases during the spawning period, but the testosterone level remained constant throughout the reproductive cycle in the female phase. The level of androstenedione was highest in the early intersexual and mid-intersexual phases during the postspawning/inactive period. Compared with the female specimens in the same reproductive period, the early intersexual individuals showed a higher level of 17 beta-estradiol, while the mid-intersexual animals showed a higher level of testosterone in the postspawned/inactive period. In the mid-intersexual phase, the levels of androstenedione, testosterone, 17 beta-estradiol, and estrone dropped progressively in relation to the seasonal reproductive cycle. The male fish had a constant level of androstenedione, estrone, and 17 beta-estradiol. However, the level of testosterone increased as the spawning period approached. The hormonal profile in the late intersexual phase was essentially similar to that in the male phase. The changes in the plasma levels of sex steroids in M. albus apparently were related to the maturation of the female and male sex tissues and to their seasonal reproductive cycle. PMID:3817447

Yeung, W S; Chan, S T

1987-02-01

35

Analgesic use and sex steroid hormone concentrations in postmenopausal women.  

Science.gov (United States)

Prior epidemiologic studies suggest that regular use of analgesics may decrease risk of breast and ovarian cancer. We explored possible hormone-mediated mechanisms for these associations by examining the relationship between use of aspirin, nonaspirin nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID), and acetaminophen and sex steroid hormone concentrations among 740 postmenopausal women in the Nurses' Health Study. All women reported their analgesic use in 1988 or 1990 and provided a blood sample in 1989 to 1990. We calculated adjusted geometric mean estrogen and androgen levels for each category of analgesic use and calculated the P value for trend with increasing frequency of use. There was no association between days of use per month of aspirin, nonaspirin NSAIDs, or acetaminophen in 1990 and hormone levels (all P(trend) > or = 0.09). However, we observed significant inverse trends between the estimated number of aspirin tablets per month in 1988 and concentrations of estrone (P(trend) = 0.04) and estrone sulfate (P(trend) = 0.03). In analyses of total (aspirin and nonaspirin) NSAID use in 1990, women who used NSAIDs at least 15 days per month had significantly lower levels of estradiol compared with women with no NSAID use (P(trend) = 0.03). Frequency of use of all analgesics (aspirin, nonaspirin NSAIDs, and acetaminophen) in 1990 was inversely associated with concentrations of estradiol (P(trend) = 0.001), free estradiol (P(trend) = 0.01), estrone sulfate (P(trend) = 0.03), and the ratio of estradiol to testosterone (P(trend) = 0.04). Among postmenopausal women, regular users of aspirin and other analgesics may have lower estrogen levels than nonusers, which could contribute to a decreased risk of breast or ovarian cancer among analgesic users. PMID:20332258

Gates, Margaret A; Tworoger, Shelley S; Eliassen, A Heather; Missmer, Stacey A; Hankinson, Susan E

2010-04-01

36

No effect of sex steroids on compensatory muscle hypertrophy  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of orchiectomy and/or subcutaneously implanted testosterone propionate (TP) on the hypertrophic response of rat plantaris muscles to functional overload (induced by bilateral removal of gastrocnemius and soleus muscles) are investigated experimentally. Muscle wet weight, metabolic substrate oxidation, and cytosolic androgen-receptor binding are measured, and the results are presented in tables. Eight weeks after surgery, the plantaris muscle weight as a percentage of body weight is found to be about twice that in rats without muscle overload, regardless of the sex-hormone status. Overloading causes decreased ability to oxidize glucose and pyruvate, decreased succinate dehydrogenase specific activity, and no change in the ability to oxidize beta-hydroxybutyrate or in androgen-receptor binding. The oxidative response is unaffected by orchiectomy or TP or both. It is argued that the actions of sex hormones and functional overload are not synergistic.

Max, S. R.; Rance, N. E.

1984-01-01

37

Distribution of sex steroid hormone receptors in the brain of an African cichlid fish, Astatotilapia burtoni.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sex steroid hormones released from the gonads play an important role in mediating social behavior across all vertebrates. Many effects of these gonadal hormones are mediated by nuclear steroid hormone receptors, which are crucial for integration in the brain of external (e.g., social) signals with internal physiological cues to produce an appropriate behavioral output. The African cichlid fish Astatotilapia burtoni presents an attractive model system for the study of how internal cues and external social signals are integrated in the brain as males display robust plasticity in the form of two distinct, yet reversible, behavioral and physiological phenotypes depending on the social environment. In order to better understand where sex steroid hormones act to regulate social behavior in this species, we have determined the distribution of the androgen receptor, estrogen receptor alpha, estrogen receptor beta, and progesterone receptor mRNA and protein throughout the telencephalon and diencephalon and some mesencephalic structures of A. burtoni. All steroid hormone receptors were found in key brain regions known to modulate social behavior in other vertebrates including the proposed teleost homologs of the mammalian amygdalar complex, hippocampus, striatum, preoptic area, anterior hypothalamus, ventromedial hypothalamus, and ventral tegmental area. Overall, there is high concordance of mRNA and protein labeling. Our results significantly extend our understanding of sex steroid pathways in the cichlid brain and support the important role of nuclear sex steroid hormone receptors in modulating social behaviors in teleosts and across vertebrates. PMID:20575061

Munchrath, Lauren A; Hofmann, Hans A

2010-08-15

38

Sex steroids and neuroprotection in spinal cord injury: a review of preclinical investigations.  

Science.gov (United States)

Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a debilitating condition that affects motor, sensory and autonomic functions. Subsequent to the first mechanical trauma, secondary events, which include inflammation and glial activation, exacerbate tissue damage and worsen functional deficits. Although these secondary injury mechanisms are amenable to therapeutic interventions, the efficacy of current approaches is inadequate. Further investigations are necessary to implement new therapies that can protect neural cells and attenuate some of the detrimental effects of inflammation while promoting regeneration. Studies on different animal models of SCI indicated that sex steroids, especially 17?-estradiol and progesterone, exert neuroprotective, anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory effects, ameliorate tissue sparing and improve functional deficits in SCI. As sex steroid receptors are expressed in a variety of cells including neurons, glia and immune system-related cells which infiltrate the injury epicenter, sex steroids could impact multiple processes simultaneously and in doing so, influence the outcomes of SCI. However, the translation of these pre-clinical findings into the clinical setting presents challenges such as the narrow therapeutic time window of sex steroid administration, the diversity of treatment regimens that have been employed in animal studies and the lack of sufficient information regarding the persistence of the effects in chronic SCI. The current review will summarize some of the major findings in this field and will discuss the challenges associated with the implementation of sex steroids as a promising treatment in human SCI. PMID:24440641

Elkabes, Stella; Nicot, Arnaud B

2014-09-01

39

2d:4d, sex steroid hormones and human psychological sex differences.  

Science.gov (United States)

Studies on 2d:4d, the ratio between the second and the fourth digit, as a possible indicator of prenatal androgen exposure, have failed to produce consistent results. This paper analyzes the relation between 2d:4d, sex steroids and well-documented sex differences in characteristics such as depression, dominance, and aggressive (ART) and non-aggressive adolescent risk-taking (NART) in a comparatively large sample of adolescent boys (N=301, mean age: 14.4 years) and girls (N=298, mean age: 14.3 years). Boys had on average a lower 2d:4d than girls (F=42.15; p<0.001). With respect to boys, controlling for age and pubertal development (PD), a small but marginally significant positive association was found between 2d:4d and total testosterone (TT) (r=0.11; p<0.05). In girls a significant association was found between 2d:4d and SHBG (r=0.18; p<0.01). However, relationships between 2d:4d and hormones depended on the phase of the menstrual cycle, with 2d:4d being negatively associated with FT (B=-0.013; p<0.05) once a positive association between 2d:4d and FT for girls in the mid-cycle group (B=0.019; p<0.01) is taken into account. With respect to sex differences in characteristics, we found evidence of a relationship between 2d:4d and depression in boys (r=-0.14; p<0.05) but not between 2d:4d and dominance, ART or NART. No relationships were found between 2d:4d and any of these variables in girls. PMID:18440537

Vermeersch, Hans; T'Sjoen, Guy; Kaufman, J M; Vincke, J

2008-08-01

40

The sensitivity of the child to sex steroids: possible impact of exogenous estrogens  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The current trends of increasing incidences of testis, breast and prostate cancers are poorly understood, although it is assumed that sex hormones play a role. Disrupted sex hormone action is also believed to be involved in the increased occurrence of genital abnormalities among newborn boys and precocious puberty in girls. In this article, recent literature on sex steroid levels and their physiological roles during childhood is reviewed. It is concluded that (i) circulating levels of estradiol in prepubertal children are lower than originally claimed; (ii) children are extremely sensitive to estradiol and may respond with increased growth and/or breast development even at serum levels below the current detection limits; (iii) no threshold has been established, below which no hormonal effects can be seen in children exposed to exogenous steroids or endocrine disruptors; (iv) changes in hormone levels during fetal and prepubertal development may have severe effects in adult life and (v) the daily production rates of sex steroids in children estimated by the Food and Drug Administration in 1999 and still used in risk assessments are highly overestimated and should be revised. Because no lower threshold for estrogenic action has been established, caution should be taken to avoid unnecessary exposure of fetuses and children to exogenous sex steroids and endocrine disruptors, even at very low levels.

Aksglaede, Lise; Juul, Anders

2006-01-01

 
 
 
 
41

Steroid binding sites in liver membranes: interplay between glucocorticoids, sex steroids, and pituitary hormones.  

Science.gov (United States)

Steroid hormones activate target cells through specific receptors that discriminate among ligands based upon recognition of distinct structural features. For most known steroids, membrane and nuclear receptors co-exist in many target cells. However, while the structure of the nuclear receptors and their function as transcriptional activators of specific target genes is generally well understood, the identity of the membrane receptors remains elusive. Using pharmacological and biochemical approaches, we are beginning to characterize receptors for glucocorticoids and anabolic-androgenic steroids in male rat liver membranes. Male rat liver endoplasmic reticulum contains two steroid binding sites which are functionally related and associated with a 90-134 kDa oligomeric protein: (1) the low-affinity glucocorticoid binding site (LAGS), composed at least in part of two peptides (37 and 53 kDa) that bind glucocorticoids and (2) the stanozolol binding protein (STBP), composed at least in part of three peptides (22, 31, and 55 kDa) that bind the synthetic androgen stanozolol. These steroid binding proteins have many properties different from those of classical nuclear receptors, with the salient differences being a failure to recognize "classical" ligands for nuclear receptors together with marked differences in biochemical properties and physiological regulation. The mechanism of interaction of glucocorticoids with the LAGS can be clearly distinguished from that with STBP. Moreover, STBP shows an extremely narrow pharmacological profile, being selective for ST and its analog, danazol, among more than 100 steroids and non-steroidal compounds that were assayed, including those that are able to displace glucocorticoids from the LAGS. The level of LAGS activity undergoes dramatic variations following changes from the physiological serum levels of thyroid hormones, glucocorticoids, GH, vitamin A, and E2. However, neither thyroid hormones nor GH have a critical role on STBP activity. The STBP is functionally related to LAGS. We have suggested a novel mechanism for STBP whereby membrane-associated glucocorticoid binding activity is targeted by stanozolol (and 16beta-hydroxylated stanozolol): stanozolol modulates glucocorticoid activity in the liver through negative allosteric modulation of the LAGS resulting in an effective increase in classical GR-signaling by increasing glucocorticoid availability to the cytosolic GR. PMID:18430567

Fernández-Pérez, L; Flores-Morales, A; Chirino-Godoy, R; Díaz-Chico, J C; Díaz-Chico, B N

2008-04-01

42

The mechanisms underlying sexual differentiation of behavior and physiology in mammals and birds: relative contributions of sex steroids and sex chromosomes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available From a classical viewpoint, sex-specific behavior and physiological functions as well as the brain structures of mammals such as rats and mice, have been thought to be influenced by perinatal sex steroids secreted by the gonads. Sex steroids have also been thought to affect the differentiation of the sex-typical behavior of a few members of the avian order Galliformes, including the Japanese quail and chickens, during their development in ovo. However, recent mammalian studies that focused on the artificial shuffling or knockout of the sex-determining gene, Sry, have revealed that sex chromosomal effects may be associated with particular types of sex-linked differences such as aggression levels, social interaction, and autoimmune diseases, independently of sex steroid-mediated effects. In addition, studies on naturally occurring, rare phenomena such as gynandromorphic birds and experimentally constructed chimeras in which the composition of sex chromosomes in the brain differs from that in the other parts of the body, indicated that sex chromosomes play certain direct roles in the sex-specific differentiation of the gonads and the brain. In this article, we review the relative contributions of sex steroids and sex chromosomes in the determination of brain functions related to sexual behavior and reproductive physiology in mammals and birds.

FumihikoMaekawa

2014-08-01

43

The mechanisms underlying sexual differentiation of behavior and physiology in mammals and birds: relative contributions of sex steroids and sex chromosomes  

Science.gov (United States)

From a classical viewpoint, sex-specific behavior and physiological functions as well as the brain structures of mammals such as rats and mice, have been thought to be influenced by perinatal sex steroids secreted by the gonads. Sex steroids have also been thought to affect the differentiation of the sex-typical behavior of a few members of the avian order Galliformes, including the Japanese quail and chickens, during their development in ovo. However, recent mammalian studies that focused on the artificial shuffling or knockout of the sex-determining gene, Sry, have revealed that sex chromosomal effects may be associated with particular types of sex-linked differences such as aggression levels, social interaction, and autoimmune diseases, independently of sex steroid-mediated effects. In addition, studies on naturally occurring, rare phenomena such as gynandromorphic birds and experimentally constructed chimeras in which the composition of sex chromosomes in the brain differs from that in the other parts of the body, indicated that sex chromosomes play certain direct roles in the sex-specific differentiation of the gonads and the brain. In this article, we review the relative contributions of sex steroids and sex chromosomes in the determination of brain functions related to sexual behavior and reproductive physiology in mammals and birds. PMID:25177264

Maekawa, Fumihiko; Tsukahara, Shinji; Kawashima, Takaharu; Nohara, Keiko; Ohki-Hamazaki, Hiroko

2014-01-01

44

Peripheral vs. central sex steroid hormones in experimental Parkinson’s disease  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The nigrostriatal dopaminergic (NSDA pathway degenerates in Parkinson’s disease (PD, which occurs with approximately twice the incidence in men than women. Studies of the influence of systemic estrogens in females suggest sex hormones contribute to these differences. In this review we analyse the evidence revealing great complexity in the response of the healthy and injured NSDA system to hormonal influences, and emphasize the importance of centrally generated estrogens. At physiological levels, circulating estrogen (in females or estrogen precursors (testosterone in males, aromatised to estrogen centrally have negligible effects on dopaminergic neurone survival in experimental PD, but can modify striatal dopamine levels via actions on the activity or adaptive responses of surviving cells. However, these effects are sexually dimorphic. In females, estradiol promotes adaptive responses in the partially injured NSDA pathway, preserving striatal dopamine, whereas in males gonadal steroids and exogenous estradiol have a negligible or even suppressive effect, effectively exacerbating dopamine loss. On balance, the different effects of gonadal factors in males and females contribute to sex differences in experimental PD. Fundamental sex differences in brain organization, including the sexually dimorphic networks regulating NSDA activity are likely to underpin these responses. In contrast, estrogen generated locally appears to preserve striatal dopamine in both sexes. The available data therefore highlight the need to understand the biological basis of sex-specific responses of the NSDA system to peripheral hormones, so as to realise the potential for sex-specific, hormone-based therapies in PD. Furthermore, they suggest that targeting central steroid generation could be equally effective in preserving striatal dopamine in both sexes. Clarification of the relative roles of peripheral and central sex steroid hormones is thus an important challenge for future studies.

SimonMcArthur

2011-11-01

45

Sex steroid hormone-mediated functional regulation of microglia-like BV-2 cells during hypoxia.  

Science.gov (United States)

17?-estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P) are neuroprotective hormones in different neurological disorders and in particular under hypoxic conditions in the brain. Both hormones dampen brain-intrinsic immune responses and regulate local glial cell function. Besides astrocytes which are functionally regulated in a manifold and complex manner, especially microglial cells are in the focus of steroid-mediated neuroprotection. In previous studies using a transient brain artery occlusion model, we demonstrated that microglial characteristics are critically modified after the administration of either E2 or P. We here studied the influence of sex steroids on the murine BV-2 microglia cell line under hypoxic conditions. Hypoxia changed the cell morphology from an amoeboid-like phenotype with processes to a rounded shape of secreting cell type. BV-2 cells expressed both estrogen receptor-? and progesterone receptors under each condition. Oxygen deprivation increased the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthetase (iNOS) and up-regulated selected cytokines and chemokines. Both hormones selectively prevented the induction of pro-inflammatory iNOS, interleukin IL-1ß, and chemokine ligand CCL5, whereas anti-inflammatory IL-10 and protective TREM 2 were up-regulated by sex steroids. Sex hormones abrogated hypoxia-dependent reduction of BV-2 phagocytic activity. We demonstrate that BV-2 microglia cells respond to hypoxia by enhanced pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion and reduced phagocytic activity. This effect is prevented by sex steroids resulting in a switch of BV-2 cells from a pro-inflammatory to a more anti-inflammatory phenotype. Anti-inflammatory effects of gonadal steroids might directly be mediated through hormone-microglia interactions in addition to known effects via astroglial regulation. PMID:23792783

Habib, Pardes; Dreymueller, Daniela; Ludwig, Andreas; Beyer, Cordian; Dang, Jon

2013-11-01

46

Social environment and steroid hormones affect species and sex differences in immune function among voles.  

Science.gov (United States)

Testosterone has bipotential effects on male fitness; that is, it both suppresses immune function and maintains characteristics important for reproductive success. Presumably, these effects of testosterone may be more pronounced among polygynous species because testosterone concentrations are generally higher among polygynous than monogamous males. The present study examined sex and species differences in cell-mediated immunity among four arvicoline rodents. The role of mating system and sex steroids in sex differences in immune function was examined in individually housed polygynous meadow (Microtus pennsylvanicus) and montane (M. montanus) voles and monogamous prairie (M. ochrogaster) and pine (M. pinetorum) voles in Experiment 1. No sex differences in splenocyte proliferation were observed among the four species and circulating testosterone concentrations did not correlate with immune function of individuals within each species. The contribution of social isolation to these results was examined in Experiment 2, in which meadow and prairie voles were housed individually, or with same- or opposite-sex conspecifics in either pairs or groups of four per cage for 28 days. Overall, prairie voles exhibited more robust immune responses than meadow voles when housed in pairs or in same-sex groups. Sex differences in immune function were also apparent; male meadow voles had higher immune responses than female conspecifics when housed in pairs, whereas female prairie voles had higher responses than male conspecifics when housed in same-sex pairs. Circulating sex steroid hormones and corticosterone appear to mediate some, but not all, of the changes in immune function evoked by differential housing conditions. Taken together, these results suggest that social factors have significant effects on immunity and should be considered in studies of sex differences in immunity at both proximate and ultimate levels. PMID:9344689

Klein, S L; Hairston, J E; Devries, A C; Nelson, R J

1997-08-01

47

Postmenopausal serum sex steroids and risk of hormone receptor positive and negative breast cancer: a nested case-control study  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Pre-diagnostic endogenous sex steroid hormone levels have well established associations with overall risk of breast cancer. While evidence towards the existence of distinct subtypes of breast cancer accumulates, few studies have investigated the associations of sex steroid hormone levels with risk of hormone receptor (estrogen (ER) and/or progesterone receptor (PR)) defined breast cancer. In a case-control study nested within the EPIC cohort (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition), estradiol, testosterone and sex hormone binding globulin levels were measured in pre-diagnostic serum samples from postmenopausal women not using HRT at blood donation. 554 women who developed invasive breast cancer with information on receptor status were matched with 821 control subjects. Conditional logistic regression models estimated breast cancer risk with hormone concentrations according to hormone receptor status of the tumor. Sex steroid hormones were associated with risks of not only ER+PR+ breast cancer [estradiol OR for highest versus lowest tertile=2.91 (95%CI:1.62-5.23), Ptrend0.002; testosterone OR=2.27 (95%CI:1.35-3.81), Ptrend=0.002] but also of ER-PR- breast cancer [estradiol OR=2.11 (95%CI:1.00-4.46), Ptrend =0.05; testosterone OR= 2.06 (95%CI:0.95-4.46), Ptrend=0.03], with associations appearing somewhat stronger in the receptor positive disease. Serum androgens and estrogens are associated with risks of both hormone receptor negative as well as receptor positive breast tumors. Further research is needed to establish through which molecular pathways, and during which evolutionary stages of development, androgens and estrogens can promote the occurrence of both receptor-positive and -negative clinical breast tumors.

James, Rebecca E.; Lukanova, Annekatrin

2011-01-01

48

Association of serum inorganic phosphate with sex steroid hormones and vitamin D in a nationally representative sample of men.  

Science.gov (United States)

Defects in bone regulatory pathways have been linked to chronic diseases including cardiovascular disease and cancer. In men, a link between bone metabolism and gonadal hormones has been suggested. However, to date, there is lack of evidence on the association between serum inorganic phosphate (Pi) and sex steroid hormones. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between Pi, sex steroid hormones and a known Pi metabolic regulator, vitamin D, in men in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III (NHANES III). From NHANES III, we selected 1412 men aged 20+ who participated in the morning session of Phase I (1988-1991) with serum measurements of Pi, sex hormones, and vitamin D. Multivariable linear regression was used to calculate crude and geometric mean Pi by total and estimated free testosterone and estradiol, sex hormone-binding globulin, androstanediol glucuronide (AAG), and vitamin D. Similar analyses were performed while stratifying by race/ethnicity and vitamin D levels. We found a lack of statistically significant difference in geometric means of Pi across quintiles of concentrations of sex hormones, indicating a tight regulation of Pi. However, Pi levels were inversely associated with calculated free testosterone in non-Hispanic black men, with geometric mean levels of Pi of 1.16 and 1.02 ng/mL for those in the lowest and highest quintiles of free testosterone, respectively (p-trend vitamin D concentration below the median (vitamin D levels at or above the median. Our findings suggest a weak link among sex hormones, vitamin D, and Pi in men. The observed effects of race/ethnicity and vitamin D indicate a complex association involving various regulators of Pi homeostasis. PMID:25270590

Wulaningsih, W; Van Hemelrijck, M; Michaelsson, K; Kanarek, N; Nelson, W G; Ix, J H; Platz, E A; Rohrmann, S

2014-11-01

49

[Molecular mechanisms of sex steroid-induced growth of cancer cells].  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent studies have suggested that the growth of sex steroid-dependent cancer is mediated through sex steroid-induced growth factors in an autocrine manner. In order to prove the hypothesis, estrogen-responsive human breast cancer cell lines such as MCF-7 have been used by many investigations. However, these studies have been unable to prove the hypothesis, since estrogen-dependent growth system in serum-free medium could not be established. We established in 1987 an androgen-dependent growth system in a serum-free medium using androgen-dependent mouse mammary cancer cells (SC-3). By use of this androgen-dependent growth system in serum-free medium, we could demonstrate that androgen-dependent growth of SC-3 cells is mediated via an androgen-induced new growth factor in fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family (AIGF; 8th member of FGF family) in an autocrine mechanism. PMID:8297810

Matsumoto, K

1993-09-01

50

Association of sex steroids, gonadotropins, and their trajectories with clinical cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality in elderly men from the Framingham Heart Study  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Emerging data from longitudinal studies suggests that low sex steroid concentrations in men are associated with increased cardiovascular risk and mortality. The impact of longitudinal trajectory patterns from serial sex steroid and gonadotropin measurements on the observed associations is unknown to date. Methods We prospectively evaluated 254 elderly men (mean age: 75.5 years) of the Framingham Heart Study with up to four serial measurements of serum total testosterone (TT), dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), and total estradiol (EST); and constructed age- and multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazard regression models relating baseline hormone concentrations and their mean, slope, and variation over time (modelled as continuous and categorized into quartiles) to the incidence of clinical cardiovascular disease (CVD) and all-cause mortality at 5-years and 10-years of follow-up. Results We observed no association between baseline concentrations of sex steroids, gonadotropins, and their trajectories with incident clinical CVD over 5-years and 10-years follow-up, respectively. Although higher baseline TT concentrations were associated with lower mortality risk at 5-years (hazard ratio per quartile increment, 0.74; 95% confidence interval, 0.56 – 0.98), correction for multiple statistical testing (p <0.005) rendered this association statistically non-significant. Repeat analyses at the 10-year follow-up time point also demonstrated no significant association between sex steroids, gonadotropins, or their trajectories and mortality. Conclusion Investigating longitudinal trajectory patterns of serial sex steroid and gonadotropin measurements, the present study found no consistent associations with incident clinical CVD and all-cause mortality risk in elderly men in the community. PMID:22901104

Haring, Robin; Teng, Zhaoyang; Xanthakis, Vanessa; Coviello, Andrea; Sullivan, Lisa; Bhasin, Shalender; Murabito, Joanne M.; Wallaschofski, Henri; Vasan, Ramachandran S.

2014-01-01

51

Steroids  

Science.gov (United States)

There are many companies producing products that claim to give you the benefits and results of exercise without all the work. These products are hoaxes, or fakes. Steroid abuse can permanently and fatally damage your body and they should never be used unless prescribed by a doctor.

N/A N/A (Drug Enforcement Administration;)

2007-09-25

52

Hippocampal Synthesis of Sex Steroids and Corticosteroids: Essential for Modulation of Synaptic Plasticity  

Science.gov (United States)

Sex steroids play essential roles in the modulation of synaptic plasticity and neuroprotection in the hippocampus. Accumulating evidence shows that hippocampal neurons synthesize both estrogen and androgen. Recently, we also revealed the hippocampal synthesis of corticosteroids. The accurate concentrations of these hippocampus-synthesized steroids are determined by liquid chromatography–tandem mass-spectrometry in combination with novel derivatization. The hippocampal levels of 17?-estradiol (E2), testosterone (T), dihydrotestosterone (DHT), and corticosterone (CORT), are 5–15?nM, and these levels are sufficient to modulate synaptic plasticity. Hippocampal E2 modulates memory-related synaptic plasticity not only slowly/genomically but also rapidly/non-genomically. Slow actions of E2 occur via classical nuclear receptors (ER? or ER?), while rapid E2 actions occur via synapse-localized or extranuclear ER? or ER?. Nanomolar concentrations of E2 change rapidly the density and morphology of spines in hippocampal neurons. ER?, but not ER?, drives this enhancement/suppression of spinogenesis in adult animals. Nanomolar concentrations of androgens (T and DHT) and CORT also increase the spine density. Kinase networks are involved downstream of ER? and androgen receptor. Newly developed Spiso-3D mathematical analysis is useful to distinguish these complex effects by sex steroids and kinases. Significant advance has been achieved in investigations of rapid modulation by E2 of the long-term depression or the long-term potentiation. PMID:22701110

Hojo, Yasushi; Higo, Shimpei; Kawato, Suguru; Hatanaka, Yusuke; Ooishi, Yuuki; Murakami, Gen; Ishii, Hirotaka; Komatsuzaki, Yoshimasa; Ogiue-Ikeda, Mari; Mukai, Hideo; Kimoto, Tetsuya

2011-01-01

53

Associations of adipokines & insulin resistance with sex steroids in patients with breast cancer  

Science.gov (United States)

Background & objectives: Several studies have suggested an important, but conflicting and controversial role for adipose tissue mass in breast cancer risk. Factors such as insulin-like growth factors, sex steroids, adipokines and obesity-related inflammatory markers have been postulated as potential effectors of the mechanisms by which obesity and associated metabolic disorders influence breast cancer risk. In this study we evaluated the associations between obesity indices, insulin resistance, circulating adipokines, sex steroids and breast cancer. Methods: Fasting adiponectin, leptin, insulin resistance (homeostasis model assessment, HOMA-IR), testosterone, estradiol, sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), LH and FSH were determined in 144 newly-diagnosed histologically confirmed breast cancer patients and 77 controls. Univariate and multivariate regression analyses were used to find the associations of these variables with each other, indices of obesity and with breast cancer. Results: BMI, waist circumference, HOMA-IR and leptin were significantly (P<0.001) higher in patients than in controls. Adiponectin level was also significantly (P<0.05) higher in patients compared to controls. Adiponectin and leptin showed significant correlations with insulin and HOMA-IR but only adiponectin was significantly correlated with estradiol and SHBG. Logistic regression analyses showed that factors associated with breast cancer were BMI [OR (95% CI) =2.8 (1.4-5.5), P=0.004]; high levels of adiponectin [5.1 (2.2-11.5), P<0.001); hyperinsulinaemia [1.1 (1.0-1.1), P=0.01], leptin [3.1 (1.7-5.7), P<0.0001], estradiol [2.5 (1.3-4.7), P=0.005] and testosterone [1.3 (1.03-1.7), P=0.03]. Interpretation & conclusions: Our findings confirm that adipokines, insulin resistance and sex steroids are associated with breast cancer. The paradoxical association of increased adiponectin with breast cancer is a novel finding that deserves further investigation. PMID:22664497

Al Awadhi, Shafika A.; Al Khaldi, Rasha M.; Al Rammah, Tahani; Kapila, Kusum; Mojiminiyi, Olusegun A.

2012-01-01

54

Annual sex steroid profiles and effects of gender and season on cytochrome P450 mRNA induction in Atlantic tomcod (Microgadus tomcod)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

As a preliminary step in a 4-year biomonitoring program, sex steroid levels, gonad weights, and diameter of vitellogenic oocytes were measured in tomcod collected bimonthly from the Miramichi and Kouchibouguac rivers from September 1993 to September 1994. As well as the reproductive indices, hepatic levels of cytochrome P4501A mRNA (CYP1A mRNA) were also measured. The preparatory period for spawning began in September, with maximal steroid levels in November, and spawning took place from late December to January. The CYP1A mRNA levels in female tomcod appeared inversely related to plasma steroids, with the lowest amounts of CYP1A mRNA coinciding with maximal steroids. The CYP1A mRNA levels in male tomcod did not exhibit this relationship. River-river comparisons of female tomcod showed significantly smaller vitellogenic oocytes in the Miramichi, along with lower plasma testosterone, estradiol, and relative gonad weight. Miramichi CYP1A mRNA levels were higher than Kouchibouguac in the fall but lower in the spring sample. The CYP1A mRNA-sex steroid relationship observed in this study will facilitate meaningful interpretation of data collected during the full 4-year study.

Williams, P.J.; Courtenay, S.C. [Dept. of Fisheries and Oceans, New Brunswick (Canada); Wilson, C.E. [Memorial Univ. of Newfoundland, St. John`s, Newfoundland (Canada). Ocean Sciences Center

1998-08-01

55

Sex steroids do not affect muscle weight, oxidative metabolism or cytosolic androgen reception binding of functionally overloaded rat Plantaris muscles  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of sex steroids on muscle weight and oxidative capacity of rat planaris muscles subjected to functional overload by removal of synergistic muscles were investigated. Ten weeks after bilateral synergist removal, plantaris muscles were significantly hypertrophic compared with unoperated controls. After this period, the ability of the muscles to oxide three substrates of oxidative metabolism was assessed. Experimental procedures are discussed and results are presented herein. Results suggest a lack of beneficial effect of sex hormone status on the process of hypertrophy and on biochemical changes in overloaded muscle. Such findings are not consistent with the idea of synergistic effects of sex steroids and muscle usage.

Max, S. R.; Rance, N.

1983-01-01

56

Impact of androgenic/antiandrogenic compounds (AAC) on human sex steroid metabolizing key enzymes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Various pesticides, industrial pollutants and synthetic compounds, to which human populations are exposed, are known or suspected to interfere with endogenous sex hormone functions. Such interference potentially affect the development and expression of the male and female reproductive system or both. Chemicals in this class are thus referred to as endocrine disruptors (ED). This emphazises on the relevance of screening ED for a wide range of sex hormone-mimicking effects. These compounds are believed to exert influence on hormonal actions predominantly by (i) interfering with endogenous steroids in that they functionally interact with plasma membrane-located receptors as well as with nuclear receptors both for estrogens and androgens or (ii) affecting the levels of sex hormones as a result of their impact on steroid metabolizing key enzymes. Essential sex hormone-related enzymes within the endocrine system of humans are aromatase, 5?-reductase 2 as well as specific sulfotransferases and sulfatases (so-called phase I and phase II enzymes, respectively). Using suitable human tissues and human cancer cell lines (placenta, prostate, liver and JEG-3, lymph node carcinoma of prostate (LnCaP) cells) we investigated the impact of 10 widely used chemicals suspected of acting as ED with androgenic or antiandrogenic activity (so-called AAC) on the activity of these sex hormone metabolizing key enzymes in humans. In addition, the respective effects of six substances were also stve effects of six substances were also studied as positive controls due to their well-known specific hormonal agonistic/antagonistic activities. The aim of this report and subsequent investigations is to improve human health risk assessment for AAC and other ED

57

Heat Shock Protein 27 Is Required for Sex Steroid Receptor Trafficking to and Functioning at the Plasma Membrane ?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Classical sex steroid receptors (SRs) localize at the plasma membranes (PMs) of cells, initiating signal transduction through kinase cascades that contribute to steroid hormone action. Palmitoylation of the SRs is required for membrane localization and function, but the proteins that facilitate this modification and subsequent receptor trafficking are unknown. Initially using a proteomic approach, we identified that heat shock protein 27 (Hsp27) binds to a motif in estrogen receptor alpha (ER...

Razandi, Mahnaz; Pedram, Ali; Levin, Ellis R.

2010-01-01

58

Epidermal growth factor directs sex-specific steroid signaling through Src activation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Estrogens and androgens exert many biological effects that do not require interactions of their receptors with chromosomal DNA. However, it has been a long-standing question how the sex steroid receptors provoke signal transduction outside the nucleus. Here we have shown that epidermal growth factor (EGF) directs sex-specific steroid signaling through Src activation. We have revealed that estrogen (E2)-induced Src activation takes place in, not only plasma, but also endomembranes. This was found ascribed to the existence of EGF and the occurrence of EGF receptor (EGFR)-involved endocytosis of estrogen receptor together with Src. EGFR, estrogen receptor, and Src were found to form a complex upon E2 stimulation. The cell growth of breast cancer-derived MCF-7 cells was found to remarkably increase through the above EGF-involved estrogen-signaling process. In contrast, the androgen 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone-induced Src activation occurs only in the plasma membrane free from the interaction of EGFR with androgen receptor, irrespective of EGF. The cell growth occurred only moderately as a result. The spatial difference in Src activation between E2 and 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone may be responsible for the different extent of observed cell growth. PMID:17284441

Hitosugi, Taro; Sasaki, Kazuki; Sato, Moritoshi; Suzuki, Yoshiko; Umezawa, Yoshio

2007-04-01

59

Sex steroids and their relationship to binding proteins in the serum of the marmoset monkey (Callithrix jacchus).  

Science.gov (United States)

A sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) similar to human SHBG was identified in marmoset serum based on its gel electrophoretic mobility, isoelectric point and steroid binding properties. Levels of serum SHBG were measured in immature and mature males, immature females and females during the luteal phase and pregnancy; serum progesterone, 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone (5 alpha-DHT), testosterone, oestradiol-17 beta and oestrone were also measured. Mean (+/- S.E.M.) concentrations of SHBG in immature males (336 +/- 19 nmol/l) were higher (P less than 0.01) than those in mature males (251 +/- 13 nmol/l), whereas values in the groups of females were similar (359 +/- 12, 395 +/- 17, 397 +/- 39 nmol/l in immature, non-pregnant and pregnant females respectively). There was an inverse relationship between SHBG and the levels of testosterone (r = -0.67) and 5 alpha-DHT (r = -0.86) in males, but the correlation was significant (P less than 0.05) only for 5 alpha-DHT. There was no correlation between levels of SHBG and oestrogens in males or between levels of SHBG and any of the steroids measured in females. Equilibrium dialysis was used to assess the percentage of steroid in serum in the unbound form. Mean percentage values for unbound testosterone and 5 alpha-DHT were lower in immature males than in mature males (P less than 0.01) and negatively correlated with levels of SHBG (r = -0.78, testosterone; r = -0.56, 5 alpha-DHT). PMID:6403644

Hodges, J K; Eastman, S A; Jenkins, N

1983-03-01

60

Seasonal and sex-related variations in serum steroid hormone levels in wild and farmed brown trout Salmo trutta L. in the north-west of Spain.  

Science.gov (United States)

Serum steroid profiles were investigated in order to evaluate the potential use of circulating sex steroid levels as a tool for sex identification in brown trout. Changes in the serum concentrations of testosterone (T), progesterone (P), 17-?-estradiol (E2), and cortisol (F) in wild and farmed mature female and male brown trout, Salmo trutta L., were measured in each season (January, May, July, and October) in six rivers and four hatcheries located in the north-west of Spain. Serum cortisol levels in farmed brown trout were significantly higher and showed a seasonal pattern opposite to that found in wild trout. Because levels of the hormones under study can be affected by disruptive factors such as exposure to phytoestrogens (which alters the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis) and infection with Saprolegnia parasitica (which alters the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis), both factors are taken into account. PMID:24334846

Fregeneda-Grandes, Juan M; Hernández-Navarro, Salvador; Fernandez-Coppel, Ignacio A; Correa-Guimaraes, Adriana; Ruíz-Potosme, Norlan; Navas-Gracia, Luis M; Aller-Gancedo, J Miguel; Martín-Gil, Francisco J; Martín-Gil, Jesús

2013-12-01

 
 
 
 
61

Sex differences and steroid modulation of cardiac iron in a mouse model of iron overload.  

Science.gov (United States)

Iron cardiomyopathy is the leading cause of death in transfusional iron overload, and men have twice the mortality of women. Because the prevalence of cardiac iron overload increases rapidly during the second decade of life, we postulated that there are steroid-dependent sex differences in cardiac iron uptake. To test this hypothesis, we manipulated sex steroids in mice with constitutive iron absorption (homozygous hemojuvelin knockout); this model mimics the myocyte iron deposition observed in humans. At 4 weeks of age, female mice were ovariectomized (OVX) and male mice were castrated (OrchX). Female mice received an estrogen implant (OVX + E) or a cholesterol control (OVX), whereas male mice received an implant containing testosterone (OrchX + T), dihydrotestosterone (OrchX + DHT), estrogen (OrchX + E), or cholesterol (OrchX). All animals received a high-iron diet for 8 weeks. OrchX, OVX, and OVX + E mice all had similar cardiac iron loads. However, OrchX + E males had a significant increase in cardiac iron concentration compared with OrchX mice (P < 0.01), whereas the OrchX + T and OrchX + DHT groups only trended higher (P < 0.06 and P < 0.15, respectively). Hormone treatments did not impact liver iron concentration in either sex. When data were pooled across hormone therapies, liver iron concentration was 25% greater in males than females (P < 0.01). In summary, we found that estrogen increased cardiac iron loading in male mice, but not in females. Male mice loaded 25% more hepatic iron than female mice regardless of the hormone treatment. PMID:24018182

Brewer, Casey; Otto-Duessel, Maya; Wood, Ruth I; Wood, John C

2014-02-01

62

A genome-wide association meta-analysis of circulating sex hormone-binding globulin reveals multiple Loci implicated in sex steroid hormone regulation.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) is a glycoprotein responsible for the transport and biologic availability of sex steroid hormones, primarily testosterone and estradiol. SHBG has been associated with chronic diseases including type 2 diabetes (T2D) and with hormone-sensitive cancers such as breast and prostate cancer. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) meta-analysis of 21,791 individuals from 10 epidemiologic studies and validated these findings in 7,046 individuals in an ...

Coviello, Ad; Haring, R.; Wellons, M.; Vaidya, D.; Lehtima?ki, T.; Keildson, S.; Lunetta, Kl; He, C.; Fornage, M.; Lagou, V.; Mangino, M.; Onland-moret, Nc; Chen, B.; Eriksson, J.; Garcia, M.

2012-01-01

63

A Genome-Wide Association Meta-Analysis of Circulating Sex Hormone-Binding Globulin Reveals Multiple Loci Implicated in Sex Steroid Hormone Regulation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) is a glycoprotein responsible for the transport and biologic availability of sex steroid hormones, primarily testosterone and estradiol. SHBG has been associated with chronic diseases including type 2 diabetes (T2D) and with hormone-sensitive cancers such as breast and prostate cancer. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) meta-analysis of 21,791 individuals from 10 epidemiologic studies and validated these findings in 7,046 individuals in an ...

2012-01-01

64

A Genome-Wide Association Meta-Analysis of Circulating Sex Hormone–Binding Globulin Reveals Multiple Loci Implicated in Sex Steroid Hormone Regulation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) is a glycoprotein responsible for the transport and biologic availability of sex steroid hormones, primarily testosterone and estradiol. SHBG has been associated with chronic diseases including type 2 diabetes (T2D) and with hormone-sensitive cancers such as breast and prostate cancer. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) meta-analysis of 21,791 individuals from 10 epidemiologic studies and validated these findings in 7,046 individuals in an ...

Coviello, Andrea D.; Haring, Robin; Wellons, Melissa; Vaidya, Dhananjay; Lehtima?ki, Terho; Keildson, Sarah; Lunetta, Kathryn L.; He, Chunyan; Fornage, Myriam; Lagou, Vasiliki; Mangino, Massimo; Onland-moret, N. Charlotte; Eriksson, Joel; Garcia, Melissa; Liu, Yong Mei

2012-01-01

65

A genome-wide association meta-analysis of circulating sex hormone-binding globulin reveals multiple loci implicated in sex steroid hormone regulation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) is a glycoprotein responsible for the transport and biologic availability of sex steroid hormones, primarily testosterone and estradiol. SHBG has been associated with chronic diseases including type 2 diabetes (T2D) and with hormone-sensitive cancers such as breast and prostate cancer. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) meta-analysis of 21,791 individuals from 10 epidemiologic studies and validated these findings in 7,046 individuals in an ...

Coviello, A. D.; Haring, R.; Wellons, M.; Vaidya, D.; Lehtima?ki, T.; Keildson, S.; Lunetta, K. L.; He, C.; Fornage, M.; Lagou, V.; Mangino, M.; Onland-moret, N. C.; Chen, B.; Eriksson, J.; Garcia, M.

2012-01-01

66

Anabolic Steroids  

Science.gov (United States)

Anabolic steroids are man-made substances related to male sex hormones. Doctors use anabolic steroids to treat some hormone problems in men, delayed ... from some diseases. Bodybuilders and athletes often use anabolic steroids to build muscles and improve athletic performance. Using ...

67

Sites of production of sex steroids: secretion of steroids from x-irradiated and polycystic ovaries of rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ovaries of immature rats and PMS-induced pregnant rats were unilaterally x-irradiated. Ten days later, the concentrations of pregnane compounds in the ovarian venous plasma were measured. LH (2 ?g) was injected iv 30 min before bleeding. A comparison of steroid levels in the ovarian venous effluent of rats with and without destruction of selected tissue components by irradiation of the ovaries suggests that the follicles contribute to the secretion of 5?-pregnane-3,20-dione and 3?-hydroxy-5?-pregnan-20-one in the presence of interstitial gland tissue. Because it is known that follicular tissue is involved in the production of estrogens, we studied the interrelationship between the secretion of the two progesterone metabolites and estrogens in follicular polycystic ovaries of androgen-sterilized rats. Normal ovaries of diestrus-2 rats were used as controls for the polycystic ovaries. The injection of LH greatly increased the secretion of 5?-pregnane-3,20-dione and 3?-hydroxy-5?-pregnan-20-one within 1 h in normal ovaries, but the response of polycystic ovaries was low, suggesting low 5?-reductase activity in the cystic ovary. The polycystic ovaries exhibited a marked increase in the secretion of estrogens in response to LH, whereas normal ovaries showed no significant change. These results suggest that low 5?-reductase activity may be causally related to the high level of estrogen secretion in polycystic ovaries of androgen-sterilized ratsrilized rats

68

Cardiovascular risk factors in men : The role of gonadal steroids and sex hormone-binding globulin  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Males have higher risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) than premenopausal females. Gonadal steroids are probably involved in the gender difference in CVD, but previous results have been conflicting. We investigated the associations between CVD risk factors and sex hormones in a cross-sectional designed study of 508 healthy males, aged 41 to 72 years. We determined total testosterone (T), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), free androgen index (FAI), and estradiol (E2) and studied their relationship to body fat mass (BF), blood pressure (BP), aortic compliance, left ventricular mass (LVM), and plasma lipids (total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein [HDL], low-density lipoprotein [LDL], very--low-density lipoprotein [VLDL], and triglycerides). In quartile analyses after adjustment for confounders (age, body mass index [BMI], alcohol consumption, and smoking), SHBG and E2 were positively associated with HDL, while FAI was negatively associated with HDL. T and SHBG were negatively associated with VLDL and triglycerides, while FAI was positively associated with VLDL and triglycerides. T and SHBG were negatively associated with BMI and BF, while FAI and E2 were positively associated with BMI and BF. E2 was negatively associated with LVM. No hormone varied with total cholesterol, LDL, BP, and aortic compliance in the adjusted analyses. In multiple regression analyses, SHBG was the main predictive variable of HDL, VLDL, and triglycerides explaining 12%, 17%, and 17% of the variation, respectively. No other hormones were selected as predictive variables for VLDL and triglycerides, but E2, T, and FAI were selected in the HDL regression, explaining 3%, 2%, and less than 1%, respectively. Our regression analyses illustrate the diverging results when investigating associations between gonadal steroids and lipids with and without SHBG adjustment. Atherogenic lipid profile in males is associated with low SHBG, low T levels, and a high FAI. Males with high E2 levels may have a less atherogenic lipid profile and lower LVM. SHBG is a key hormone in the association between sex hormones and plasma lipids. We suggest that conflicting results of cross-sectional and intervention studies of sex hormones and lipids, in part, may be explained by interindividual differences or changes in SHBG. Thus, further studies on the potential role of SHBG in the development of ischemic heart disease (IHD) should be performed.

Gyllenborg, J; Rasmussen, S L

2001-01-01

69

Stereotypes and steroids: using a psychobiosocial model to understand cognitive sex differences.  

Science.gov (United States)

To further our understanding of cognitive sex differences, we studied the relationship between menstrual phase (via serum estradiol and progesterone levels) and cognitive abilities and cognitive performance in a sample of medical students in eastern Turkey. As expected, we found no sex differences on the Cattell "Culture Fair Intelligence Test" (a figural reasoning test), with females scoring significantly higher on a Turkish version of the Finding A's Test (rapid word knowledge) and males scoring significantly higher on a paper-and-pencil mental rotation test. The women showed a slight enhancement on the Finding A's Test and a slight decrement in Cattell scores during the preovulatory phase of their cycle that (probably) coincided with a rise in estrogen. There were also small cycle-related enhancements in performance for these women on the mental rotation test that may reflect cyclical increases in estrogen and progesterone. Additional analyses showed an inverted U-shaped function in level of estradiol and the Cattell Test. Finally, for women who were tested on Day 10 of their menstrual cycle, there was a negative linear relationship between their Cattell scores and level of progesterone. Stereotypes about the cognitive abilities of males and females did not correspond to performance on the mental rotation or Finding A's Test, so the sex-typical results could not be attributed to either stereotype threat or stereotype activation. For practical purposes, hormone-related effects were generally small. Variations over the menstrual cycle do not provide evidence for a "smarter" sex, but they do further our understanding of steroidal action on human cognitive performance. PMID:11305881

Halpern, D F; Tan, U

2001-04-01

70

Expression of hypothalamic arginine vasotocin gene in response to water deprivation and sex steroid administration in female Japanese quail.  

Science.gov (United States)

Arginine vasotocin (AVT) is a neurohypophyseal hormone involved in reproductive function and control of osmoregulation in birds. In view of the dual function of AVT, the present experiment was designed to observe the effect of water deprivation (WD) and sex steroid [estradiol benzoate (EB) and testosterone propionate (TP)] treatment independently, as well as simultaneously, on the profile/activity of the hypothalamic AVT system. WD resulted in a significant increase in plasma osmolality, sodium ion concentration and AVT concentration, but administration of sex steroids had no significant influence on these parameters. By contrast, the amount of hypothalamic AVT transcript (northern analysis) and the size of immunoreactive vasotocin (ir-AVT) neurons and hybridization signals (in the form of silver grains), representing AVT mRNA in corresponding neurons of paraventricular nuclei (PVN), increased significantly in all the treated groups compared with controls. Our findings indicate that although sex steroid administration has no effect on plasma osmolality and AVT concentration, unlike water deprivation, it may stimulate the profile/activity of AVT neurons of PVN, supporting the possibility of sex steroid receptors on these neurons. It is concluded that in quail, osmotic stress not only upregulates the expression of the AVT gene in existing neurons but also recruits many more neurons to increase the rate of AVT synthesis and secretion, while sex steroids appear to have a stimulatory effect only on the existing number of neurons and only at the level of transcription/translation and hence may influence/modulate hypothalamic AVT gene expression in response to osmotic stress. This study also suggests an interrelationship between reproduction and AVT system/function in birds. PMID:15277557

Seth, R; Köhler, A; Grossmann, R; Chaturvedi, C M

2004-08-01

71

Relationship of alcohol intake and sex steroid concentrations in blood in pre- and post-menopausal women: The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objective: Women with a moderate intake of alcohol have higher concentrations of sex steroids in serum, and higher risk of developing breast cancer, compared to non-drinkers. In the present study, we investigate the relationships between alcohol consumption and serum levels of sex steroids and sex-hormone binding globulin (SHBG) in 790 pre- and 1,291 post-menopausal women, who were part of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Methods: Serum levels of testos...

Rinaldi, S.; Peeters, Phm; Bezemer, Id; Dossus, L.; Biessy, C.; Sacerdote, C.; Berrino, F.; Panico, S.; Palli, D.; Tumino, R.; Khaw, Kt; Bingham, S.; Allen, Ne; Key, T.; Jensen, Mk

2006-01-01

72

Ovarian steroidogenesis and the role of sex steroid hormones on ovarian growth and maturation of the Japanese eel.  

Science.gov (United States)

Three sex steroid hormones, estradiol-17? (E2), 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT), and 17?,20?-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (DHP), are well established as primary estrogen, androgen, and progestin, respectively, in teleost fish. Japanese eel, Anguilla japonica, would be a suitable candidate to study ovarian steroid physiology of fish because the ovarian growth and steroidogenesis is dormant under laboratory condition but can be induced by administration of exogenous gonadotropic reagents. In this review, we summarized our work on the function and production of sex steroid hormones in the ovary of the Japanese eel during ovarian growth and oocyte maturation artificially induced by treatment with extract of salmon pituitary. In vitro and in vivo assays suggest that 11-KT and E2 play primary roles in previtellogenic and vitellogenic growth of oocytes, respectively, whereas DHP is essential for induction of final oocyte maturation. We also reviewed the correlation between ovarian steroidogenesis to produce these sex steroid hormones, serum titers and gene expression. PMID:21414407

Kazeto, Yukinori; Tosaka, Ryota; Matsubara, Hajime; Ijiri, Shigeho; Adachi, Shinji

2011-11-01

73

Changes in the serum sex steroids, IL-7 and RANKL-OPG system after bone marrow transplantation: influences on bone and mineral metabolism.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study prospectively investigated the changes of the serum levels of the sex steroids, IL-7, soluble receptor activator of nuclear factor kappaB ligand (sRANKL) and osteoprotegerin (OPG) in bone marrow transplantation (BMT) recipients. This study also examined whether the changes of these cytokine levels and sex steroids actually influence bone turnover and post-BMT bone loss by correlation analysis. Data were analyzed from 39 patients (33.6+/-6.4 years, 19 men and 20 women) who had DXA performed before BMT and at 1 year after BMT. The bone turnover markers, sex steroids and the cytokine levels were measured before BMT and serially after BMT. The mean bone loss in the lumbar spine and the total proximal femur was 5.9% (P estradiol levels declined at 1 week after BMT, and they did not recover to the basal levels. For the male recipients, the testosterone levels decreased at 1 week and then it increased to its baseline level. The IL-7 levels reached their maximum at 1 week and then declined to baseline level by 3 months. The serum sRANKL, OPG levels and the sRANKL/OPG ratio showed their peak at post-BMT 3 weeks. The mean daily dose of steroid was associated with suppressed bone formation, enhanced bone resorption and increased sRANKL levels. The IL-7 levels were also noted to be either positively correlated with the levels of ICTP or they were negatively correlated with the levels of osteocalcin at 1 and 3 weeks after BMT. Bone loss at the lumbar spine and the proximal femur was influenced by the decreased sex steroids and increased IL-7 levels. During the observation period, the IL-7 levels showed positive correlations with the sRANKL levels and the sRANKL/OPG ratio. For the female patients, the serum IL-7 levels were negatively associated with the estradiol levels at 1 and 3 weeks after BMT. All these findings suggest that IL-7 plays an important role for post-BMT bone loss, and this possibly happens via the RANKL pathway. These data also suggest that the up-regulation of IL-7 during the early post-BMT period may result from a deficiency of estrogen. PMID:16905375

Baek, Ki Hyun; Oh, Ki Won; Lee, Won Young; Tae, Hyun Jung; Rhee, Eun Jung; Han, Je Ho; Cha, Bong Yun; Kim, Yoo Jin; Lee, Kwang Woo; Son, Ho Young; Kang, Sung Koo; Kim, Chun Choo; Kang, Moo Il

2006-12-01

74

The progestin levonorgestrel disrupts gonadotropin expression and sex steroid levels in pubertal roach (Rutilus rutilus).  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of the synthetic progestin levonorgestrel (LNG) on the reproductive endocrine system of a teleost fish, the roach (Rutilus rutilus). Pubertal roach were exposed for 28 days in a flow-through system to four concentrations of LNG (3, 31, 312, and 3124 ng/l). Both males and females treated with 3124 ng/l LNG exhibited the upregulated levels of vitellogenin and oestrogen receptor 1 mRNA in the liver. At the same concentration, LNG caused a significant upregulation of the mRNA expression of the gene encoding luteinising hormone ?-subunit (lh?) and the suppression of the mRNA expression of the gene encoding follicle-stimulating hormone ?-subunit (fsh?) in the pituitary of both male and female roach. A lower LNG concentration (312 ng/l) suppressed mRNA expression of fsh? in males only. Females treated with 3124 ng/l LNG exhibited significantly lower plasma 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT) and oestradiol (E2) concentrations, whereas their testosterone (T) level was higher compared with the control. Females exposed to 312 ng/l LNG presented significantly lower plasma E2 concentrations. Males exposed to ?31 ng/l LNG exhibited significantly reduced 11-KT levels. As determined through a histological analysis, the ovaries of females were not affected by LNG exposure, whereas the testes of males exposed to 31 and 312 ng/l LNG exhibited a significantly higher percentage of spermatogonia B compared with the control. The results of the present study demonstrate that LNG disrupts the reproductive system of pubertal roach by affecting the pituitary gonadotropin expression and the sex steroid levels. This disruption was determined to occur in males after exposure to an environmentally relevant concentration (31 ng/l). Moreover, the highest tested concentration of LNG (3124 ng/l) exerted an oestrogenic effect on fish of both sexes. PMID:24893273

Kroupova, H K; Trubiroha, A; Lorenz, C; Contardo-Jara, V; Lutz, I; Grabic, R; Kocour, M; Kloas, W

2014-09-01

75

Regulation of mouse liver flavin-containing monooxygenases 1 and 3 by sex steroids.  

Science.gov (United States)

Based on enzyme activity, protein levels, and mRNA levels, we have previously demonstrated the female-predominant, female-specific, and gender-independent expression in mouse liver of FMO forms 1, 3, and 5, respectively. This study investigated the roles of testosterone, 17 beta-estradiol, and progesterone in the regulation of hepatic FMOs. FMO expression was examined in gonadectomized CD-1 mice, normal CD-1 mice receiving hormonal implants, and gonadectomized mice receiving various hormonal treatments. Following castration of males, hepatic FMO activity levels were significantly increased and serum testosterone levels significantly decreased; however, administration of physiological levels of testosterone to castrated animals returned FMO activity and testosterone concentrations to control levels. When sexually intact and ovariectomized female mice were treated with testosterone, their hepatic FMO activity levels were reduced to those of their male counterparts, concomitant with high serum testosterone levels. In males, castration dramatically increased FMO3 and FMO1 expression, and testosterone replacement to castrated males resulted in ablation of FMO3 expression. In addition, testosterone administration to females (sexually intact and gonadectomized animals) reduced FMO1 expression and obviated FMO3 expression. In females, ovariectomy alone slightly reduced FMO activity, indicative of a possible stimulatory role of female sex steroids; however, female FMO isozyme expression was relatively unchanged, and hormone replacement therapy to ovariectomized females had no discernible effect. In males and females, FMO5 levels were unaffected by gonadectomy or hormone administration, thus indicating a sex hormone-independent mechanism of regulation for this isoform. Interestingly, FMO1 protein levels were increased in sexually intact males following treatment with 17 beta-estradiol; however, only a slight increase in FMO3 protein level was observed. No positive hormone effectors of female FMO expression were identified. PMID:9186481

Falls, J G; Ryu, D Y; Cao, Y; Levi, P E; Hodgson, E

1997-06-15

76

Sex steroids and the growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-I axis in adults  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In healthy adults insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I levels do not differ between males and females, whereas spontaneous growth hormone (GH) secretion is approximately twofold higher in females. Untreated GH-deficient (GHD) women exhibit lower IGF-I levels compared with men and the increase in serum IGF-I during GH replacement is also significantly less. These data suggest a resistance to GH in women, which in healthy subjects is compensated for by increased GH secretion. Administration of oral oestrogen in healthy postmenopausal women suppresses hepatic IGF-I production and increases pituitary GH release, and oral oestrogen replacement in women with GHD lowers IGF-I concentrations and increases the amount of GH necessary to achieve IGF-I target levels during treatment. These data clearly suggest that hepatic suppression of IGF-I production by oestrogen subserves the gender difference in GH sensitivity, but it is also likely that sex steroids may interact with the GH/IGF axis at other levels. There is also circumstantial evidence to indicate that testosterone stimulates IGF-I production and it is speculated that a certain threshold level of androgens is essential to ensure hepatic IGF-I production. Whether these data should translate into earlier discontinuation of oestrogen replacement therapy in women with hypopituitarism merits consideration.

JØrgensen, Jens O L; Christensen, Jens Juel

2005-01-01

77

Studies of controlled release of sex steroids hormones by radiation induced polymerization of glass forming monomers. [Gamma radiation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The continuous long-term systemic administration of steroid hormones to rats was attempted by the capsules. Glass capsules containing sex hormone were made by low-temperature radiation-induced polymerization. Testosterone was eluted at a constant speed up to the 120th day in vitro, and could be administered up to the 56th day in vivo. The amount of testosterone released in vitro up to the 120th day was only 10% of the content.

Nakai, K.; Yamanaka, H.; Imai, K. (Gunma Univ., Maebashi (Japan). School of Medicine)

1981-08-01

78

Influence of the lunar cycle on plasma melatonin, vitellogenin and sex steroids rhythms in Senegal sole, Solea senegalensis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The effect of the moon light cycle on plasma melatonin rhythms was examined in Senegal sole (Solea senegalensis) exposed to natural outdoor or artificial indoor lighting conditions. Furthermore, in a second experiment, the effect of the lunar cycle on vitellogenin and sex steroids (Testosterone, T; Estradiol, E2; 11-ketotestosterone, 11kt) was studied using mature individuals during reproductive season. In the first experiment, during full moon, plasma melatonin peaked at night in covered ...

Oliveira, Catarina R.; Duncan, Neil; Pousa?o-ferreira, P.; Man?ano?s, Evaristo L.; Sa?nchez-va?zquez, F. J.

2010-01-01

79

Disparate changes in kisspeptin and neurokinin B expression in the arcuate nucleus after sex steroid manipulation reveal differential regulation of the two KNDy peptides in rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Kisspeptin, neurokinin B (NKB) and dynorphin A are coexpressed in a population of neurons in the arcuate nucleus (ARC), termed KNDy neurons, which were recently recognized as important elements for the generation of GnRH pulses. However, the topographic distribution of these peptides and their regulated expression by sex steroids are still not well understood. In this study, detailed examination of NKB and kisspeptin immunoreactivity in the rat ARC was carried out, including comparison between sexes, with and without sex steroid replacement. Neurons expressing kisspeptin and NKB were more prominent in the caudal ARC of females, whereas neurons expressing NKB, but not kisspeptin, were the most abundant in the male. Sex steroid manipulation revealed differential regulation of kisspeptin and NKB; although kisspeptin immunoreactive (ir) cells increased in response to gonadectomy, NKB remained unchanged. Furthermore, the number of NKB-ir cells increased upon sex steroid replacement compared with gonadectomy, whereas kisspeptin did not, suggesting that sex steroids differently regulate these peptides. In addition, only in females did the density of kisspeptin- and NKB-ir fibers in the ARC increase upon sex steroid replacement in relation to sham and ovariectomy, respectively, suggesting sex-specific regulation of release. In conclusion, our observations reveal sex differences in the number of kisspeptin- and NKB-ir cells, which are more prominent in the caudal ARC. The divergent regulation of kisspeptin and NKB peptide contents in the ARC as a function of sex and steroid milieu enlarge our understanding on how these neuropeptides are posttranscriptionally regulated in KNDy neurons. PMID:25051440

Overgaard, Agnete; Ruiz-Pino, Francisco; Castellano, Juan M; Tena-Sempere, Manuel; Mikkelsen, Jens D

2014-10-01

80

Better prepared than synthesized: Adolf Butenandt, Schering Ag and the transformation of sex steroids into drugs (1930-1946).  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper follows the trajectory of sex steroids in 1930s Germany as a way to investigate the system of research which characterized the development of these drugs. Analyzing the changing relationship between the pharmaceutical company Schering and the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute für Biochemie headed by Nobel Prize winner Adolf Butenandt, the paper highlights the circulation of materials, information and money as much as the role of patents in shaping the study of sex steroids. Semi-synthetic analogs and metabolic pathways thus emerged as shared bio-industrial assets. This collaborative work participated in a more general 'internalization' of biology, which took place in pharmaceutical firms during the 1920s and 1930s as a strategy to standardize and develop biologicals. The construction of the hormone market was also based on Schering's collaboration with a selected group of clinicians who worked out the wide-range of indications associated with these 'natural' drugs. The paper finally shows how the wartime scientific and industrial mobilization in Nazi Germany marginalized the study of sex steroids and led to the dismantling of the KWIB-Schering network. PMID:16337554

Gaudillière, Jean-Paul

2005-12-01

 
 
 
 
81

[Profile of sex steroids in healthy volunteers' urine during experiment in isolated object].  

Science.gov (United States)

The quantitative determination a number of endogenous steroids and their metabolites in urine of healthy volunteers by means of gas chromatography - mass spectrometry was performed. The dynamic of steroid profile of healthy individuals as well as possible ranges of several endogenous steroid parameters have been investigated. Samples were obtained during 105-days experiment with 6 volunteers in isolated on ground modules where were modeling the main life conditions which could influence the steroid profile: meal volume and composition, water consumption, motion activity, air composition and temperature, rate sleep - wakefulness and emotional tension. The parameters of urine steroid profile of healthy volunteer which were affected by life conditions in isolated object were revealed. The parameters of individual and group variability of steroid profile and its dependence from definite experiment conditions - change of salt consumption periods, autonomy of vital activity were detected. PMID:21950090

Larina, I M; Kochnova, E A; Pastushkova, L Kh; Rodchenkov, G M; Nosovski?, A M; Nikolaev, E N

2011-01-01

82

A cross-sectional study of the association of age, race and ethnicity, and body mass index with sex steroid hormone marker profiles among men in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III)  

Science.gov (United States)

Objectives Since sex hormone markers are metabolically linked, examining sex steroid hormones singly may account for inconsistent findings by age, race/ethnicity and body mass index (BMI) across studies. First, these markers were statistically combined into profiles to account for the metabolic relationship between markers. Then, the relationships between sex steroid hormone profiles and age, race/ethnicity and BMI were explored in multinomial logistic regression models. Design Cross-sectional survey. Setting The US Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III). Participants 1538 Men, >17?years. Primary outcome measure Sex hormone profiles. Results Cluster analysis was used to identify four statistically determined profiles with Blom-transformed T, E, sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), and 3-? diol G. We used these four profiles with multinomial logistic regression models to examine differences by race/ethnicity, age and BMI. Mexican American men >50?years were associated with the profile that had lowest T, E and 3-? diol G levels compared to other profiles (p30?kg/m2) men were most likely to be associated with the cluster with the lowest SHBG (p<0.05). Conclusion The associations of sex steroid hormone profiles by race/ethnicity are novel, while the findings by age and BMI groups are largely consistent with observations from single hormone studies. Future studies should validate these hormone profile groups and investigate these profiles in relation to chronic diseases and certain cancers. PMID:23043125

Ritchey, Jamie; Karmaus, Wilfried; Sabo-Attwood, Tara; Steck, Susan E; Zhang, Hongmei

2012-01-01

83

Heat shock protein 27 is required for sex steroid receptor trafficking to and functioning at the plasma membrane.  

Science.gov (United States)

Classical sex steroid receptors (SRs) localize at the plasma membranes (PMs) of cells, initiating signal transduction through kinase cascades that contribute to steroid hormone action. Palmitoylation of the SRs is required for membrane localization and function, but the proteins that facilitate this modification and subsequent receptor trafficking are unknown. Initially using a proteomic approach, we identified that heat shock protein 27 (Hsp27) binds to a motif in estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha) and promotes palmitoylation of the SR. Hsp27-induced acylation occurred on the ERalpha monomer and augmented caveolin-1 interactions with ERalpha, resulting in membrane localization, kinase activation, and DNA synthesis in breast cancer cells. Oligomerization of Hsp27 was required, and similar results were found for the trafficking of endogenous progesterone and androgen receptors to the PMs of breast and prostate cancer cells, respectively. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) knockdown of Hsp27 prevented sex SR trafficking to and signaling from the membrane. These results identify a conserved and novel function for Hsp27 with potential as a target for interrupting signaling from membrane sex SRs to tumor biology in hormone-responsive cancers. PMID:20439495

Razandi, Mahnaz; Pedram, Ali; Levin, Ellis R

2010-07-01

84

The association of smoking with clinical indicators of altered sex steroids--a study of 50,145 women.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study was designed to test the association of smoking with four clinically apparent conditions that may be related to altered sex steroids: natural and induced menopause, infertility, oligomenorrhea, and hirsutism. Data were obtained from the personal inventories of 50,145 women ages 20-59 years in TOPS, a weight reduction program. The age-adjusted odds ratios of each condition for heavy smokers compared with nonsmokers were 1.59 for natural menopause, 1.49 for induced menopause, 1.35 fo...

Hartz, A. J.; Kelber, S.; Borkowf, H.; Wild, R.; Gillis, B. L.; Rimm, A. A.

1987-01-01

85

Sex-specific development of spatial orientation is independent of peripubertal gonadal steroids.  

Science.gov (United States)

Prenatal exposure to androgens has been shown to modulate brain development, resulting in changed behavioral attitudes, sexual orientation and cognitive functions, including processing of spatial information. Whether later changes in gonadotropic hormones during puberty induce further organizational effects within the brain is still insufficiently understood. The purpose of this study was to assess development of spatial orientation before and after the time of normal pubertal development, in an ovine model where half of the animals did not undergo typical reproductive maturation due to the pharmacological blockade of gonadotropin releasing hormone receptor (GnRHR) signaling. The study formed part of a larger trial and utilized 46 pairs of same sex Scottish Mule Texel Cross twins (22 female and 24 male). One twin remained untreated throughout (control) while the other received a subcutaneous GnRH agonist (GnRHa: Goserelin-Acetate) implant every fourth week. GnRHa treatment began at eight and 28 weeks of age, in males and females respectively, because the timing of the pubertal transition is sexually differentiated in sheep as it is in humans. Spatial orientation was assessed at three different time points: eight weeks of age, before puberty and treatment in both sexes; 28 weeks of age, after 20 weeks GnRHa treatment in males and before puberty and GnRHa treatment in females; and at 48 weeks of age, which is after the normal time of the pubertal transition in both sexes. Spatial orientation was tested in a spatial maze with traverse time as the main outcome measure. GnRHa treatment did not affect spatial maze performance as no significant differences in traverse time between treated and untreated animals were observed at any time-point. Adolescent females (48 weeks of age) traversed the maze significantly faster than adolescent males, whereas no sex differences in traverse time were seen at earlier developmental stages (eight and 28 weeks). Development of sex differences in spatial orientation was independent of exposure to pubertal hormones since puberty-blocked and control animals both showed the same pattern of spatial maze performance. This result demonstrates the prenatal nature of spatial orientation development. Furthermore, the unexpected finding that female animals outperformed males in the spatial orientation task, underscores the importance of the testing context in spatial orientation experiments. PMID:23477973

Wojniusz, Slawomir; Ropstad, Erik; Evans, Neil; Robinson, Jane; Solbakk, Anne-Kristin; Endestad, Tor; Haraldsen, Ira Ronit Hebold

2013-09-01

86

Serum insulin-like growth factor I levels in growth hormone-deficient adults: influence of sex steroids  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Measurement of serum insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) concentrations remains the single most important tool in the evaluation of growth hormone (GH) replacement in GH-deficient adults, and the therapeutic goal is to maintain the level within the age-adjusted normal range. In healthy adults, IGF-I levels do not differ between males and females, whereas spontaneous GH secretion is approximately twofold higher in females. Untreated GH-deficient women exhibit lower IGF-I levels compared with men, and the increase in serum IGF-I during GH replacement is also significantly less. Put together, these data suggest resistance to GH in women, which in healthy individuals is compensated for by increased GH secretion. Administration of oral oestrogen in healthy post-menopausal women suppresses hepatic IGF-I production and increases pituitary GH release, and oral oestrogen replacement in women with GH deficiency lowers IGF-I concentrations and increases the amount of GH necessary to obtain IGF-I target levels during treatment. These data clearly suggest that hepatic suppression of IGF-I production by oestrogen subserves the gender difference in GH sensitivity, but it is also likely that sex steroids may interact with the GH/IGF axis at further levels. There is also circumstantial evidence to indicate that testosterone stimulates IGF-I production, and it is speculated that a certain threshold level of androgens is essential to ensure hepatic IGF-I production. Whether these data should translate into earlier discontinuation of oestrogen replacement therapy in adult women with hypopituitarism merits consideration.

JØrgensen, Jens O L; Christensen, Jens Juul

2004-01-01

87

Retrospective evaluation of sex hormones and steroid hormone intermediates in dogs with alopecia.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to determine if there are specific steroid hormone aberrations associated with suspect endocrine alopecias in dogs in whom hypothyroidism and hyperadrenocorticism have been excluded. Steroid hormone panels submitted to the UTCVM endocrinology laboratory over a 7.5-year period (783 samples) from dogs with alopecia were reviewed. During this period, 276 dogs met the criteria for inclusion and were comprised of 54 different breeds. Approximately 73% of dogs had at least one baseline or post-ACTH stimulation steroid hormone intermediate greater than the normal range. The most frequent hormone elevation noted was for progesterone (57.6% of samples). When compared with normal dogs, oestradiol was significantly greater in Keeshond dogs and progesterone was significantly greater in Pomeranian and Siberian Husky dogs. Not all individual dogs had hormone abnormalities. Chow Chow, Samoyed and Malamute dogs had the greatest percentage of normal steroid hormone intermediates of the dogs in this study. Baseline cortisol concentrations were significantly correlated with progesterone, 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP) and androstenedione. Results of this study suggest that the pathomechanism of the alopecia, at least for some breeds, may not relate to steroid hormone intermediates and emphasizes the need for breed specific normals. PMID:12662266

Frank, Linda A; Hnilica, Keith A; Rohrbach, Barton W; Oliver, Jack W

2003-04-01

88

A study to correlate histopathology, biochemical marker and immunohistochemical expression of sex-steroid receptors in prostatic growth  

Science.gov (United States)

Prostate gland is a fibromusculoglandular structure situated at the neck of urinary bladder. So, enlargement or growth of prostate due to nodular hyperplasia (NHP) or prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) or adenocarcinoma may give rise to bladder outlet obstruction. Malignant growth i.e., PIN or adenocarcinoma cases are associated with increased blood level of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and increased expression of different sex-steroid receptors because the growth is dependent on the interactions of androgen, progesterone and estrogen. The aim of our study is to correlate the histopathology, PSA levels and expression of different sex-steroid receptors by immunohistochemistry in different prostatic growth lesions. Among the total 50 cases received, inclusive of transurethral resection of prostate (TURP), transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy and radical prostatectomy, 34 cases were diagnosed as NHP, 4 cases as PIN and 12 cases as adenocarcinoma histopathologically. Serum PSA values above 10 ng/ml were seen in 2 cases of PIN and 11 cases of adenocarcinoma and none of NHP. Estrogen receptor (ER) () expressions were negative in all cases. Progesterone receptor (PR) expressions were strongly positive in 35% cases of both NHP and adenocarcinoma, whereas androgen receptor (AR) expressions were strong among all cases of adenocarcinoma and only in four cases of NHP. By observing these findings it can be suggested that antiandrogen and antiprogesterone therapy simultaneously will do better than antiandrogen alone in treating prostatic growth lesions. PMID:25006283

Naskar, Sukla; Kundu, Soumya Kanti; Bhattacharyya, Nirmal Kumar; Bhattacharyya, Pranab Kumar; Kundu, Anup Kumar

2014-01-01

89

Waste products of oilsands mine inhibit sex steroids in exposed fish  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Mature fine tailings (MFT) and tailing pond water (TPW) are two of the wastes generated by oil sand mining operations at Syncrude Canada Ltd. in northern Alberta. A study was conducted to determine the impact of these wastes on reproductive steroid production in sexually mature goldfish. MFT is a toxic aqueous suspension consisting of organic acids, bitumen and metals. TPW is a saline solution consisting of both organic and inorganic contaminants. Goldfish were examined for 19 days in 3 of Syncrude's specially designed experimental ponds which were lined with or without MFT and capped with or without TPW. The study showed that plasma levels of testosterone and 17 {beta}-estradiol in male and female fish in ponds with MFT but no TPW and ponds with both MFT and TPW were much lower compared to fish in a control pond with neither MFT nor TPW. The study also involved in vitro testis and ovarian incubations on the fish to determine potential differences in basal steroid production levels and how they react to gonadotropin. Results showed that gonadal tissues of fish from all ponds behaved similarly to the gonadotropin, thereby suggesting that under normal conditions, the oilsands wastes do not affect the ability of gonads to produce steroids. Compared to the control pond, both male and female fish from the pond with both MFT and TPW had significantly lower basal levels of testosterone, suggesting that the steroid inhibition could be caused at a site within the gonad. It was concluded that waste products of oilsands mining disrupt the reproductive endocrine system in goldfish.

Lister, A.; Van Der Kraak, G.J. [Guelph Univ., ON (Canada); Nero, V.; Farwell, A.J.; Dixon, D.G. [Waterloo Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Biology

2002-07-01

90

Waste products of oilsands mine inhibit sex steroids in exposed fish  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Mature fine tailings (MFT) and tailing pond water (TPW) are two of the wastes generated by oil sand mining operations at Syncrude Canada Ltd. in northern Alberta. A study was conducted to determine the impact of these wastes on reproductive steroid production in sexually mature goldfish. MFT is a toxic aqueous suspension consisting of organic acids, bitumen and metals. TPW is a saline solution consisting of both organic and inorganic contaminants. Goldfish were examined for 19 days in 3 of Syncrude's specially designed experimental ponds which were lined with or without MFT and capped with or without TPW. The study showed that plasma levels of testosterone and 17 ?-estradiol in male and female fish in ponds with MFT but no TPW and ponds with both MFT and TPW were much lower compared to fish in a control pond with neither MFT nor TPW. The study also involved in vitro testis and ovarian incubations on the fish to determine potential differences in basal steroid production levels and how they react to gonadotropin. Results showed that gonadal tissues of fish from all ponds behaved similarly to the gonadotropin, thereby suggesting that under normal conditions, the oilsands wastes do not affect the ability of gonads to produce steroids. Compared to the control pond, both male and female fish from the pond with both MFT and TPW had significantly lower basal levels of testosterone, suggesting that the steroid inhibition could be caused at a site within the gonad. It was coned at a site within the gonad. It was concluded that waste products of oilsands mining disrupt the reproductive endocrine system in goldfish

91

A genome-wide association meta-analysis of circulating sex hormone-binding globulin reveals multiple Loci implicated in sex steroid hormone regulation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) is a glycoprotein responsible for the transport and biologic availability of sex steroid hormones, primarily testosterone and estradiol. SHBG has been associated with chronic diseases including type 2 diabetes (T2D) and with hormone-sensitive cancers such as breast and prostate cancer. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) meta-analysis of 21,791 individuals from 10 epidemiologic studies and validated these findings in 7,046 individuals in an additional six studies. We identified twelve genomic regions (SNPs) associated with circulating SHBG concentrations. Loci near the identified SNPs included SHBG (rs12150660, 17p13.1, p = 1.8 × 10(-106)), PRMT6 (rs17496332, 1p13.3, p = 1.4 × 10(-11)), GCKR (rs780093, 2p23.3, p = 2.2 × 10(-16)), ZBTB10 (rs440837, 8q21.13, p = 3.4 × 10(-09)), JMJD1C (rs7910927, 10q21.3, p = 6.1 × 10(-35)), SLCO1B1 (rs4149056, 12p12.1, p = 1.9 × 10(-08)), NR2F2 (rs8023580, 15q26.2, p = 8.3 × 10(-12)), ZNF652 (rs2411984, 17q21.32, p = 3.5 × 10(-14)), TDGF3 (rs1573036, Xq22.3, p = 4.1 × 10(-14)), LHCGR (rs10454142, 2p16.3, p = 1.3 × 10(-07)), BAIAP2L1 (rs3779195, 7q21.3, p = 2.7 × 10(-08)), and UGT2B15 (rs293428, 4q13.2, p = 5.5 × 10(-06)). These genes encompass multiple biologic pathways, including hepatic function, lipid metabolism, carbohydrate metabolism and T2D, androgen and estrogen receptor function, epigenetic effects, and the biology of sex steroid hormone-responsive cancers including breast and prostate cancer. We found evidence of sex-differentiated genetic influences on SHBG. In a sex-specific GWAS, the loci 4q13.2-UGT2B15 was significant in men only (men p = 2.5 × 10(-08), women p = 0.66, heterogeneity p = 0.003). Additionally, three loci showed strong sex-differentiated effects: 17p13.1-SHBG and Xq22.3-TDGF3 were stronger in men, whereas 8q21.12-ZBTB10 was stronger in women. Conditional analyses identified additional signals at the SHBG gene that together almost double the proportion of variance explained at the locus. Using an independent study of 1,129 individuals, all SNPs identified in the overall or sex-differentiated or conditional analyses explained ~15.6% and ~8.4% of the genetic variation of SHBG concentrations in men and women, respectively. The evidence for sex-differentiated effects and allelic heterogeneity highlight the importance of considering these features when estimating complex trait variance. PMID:22829776

Coviello, Andrea D; Haring, Robin; Wellons, Melissa; Vaidya, Dhananjay; Lehtimäki, Terho; Keildson, Sarah; Lunetta, Kathryn L; He, Chunyan; Fornage, Myriam; Lagou, Vasiliki; Mangino, Massimo; Onland-Moret, N Charlotte; Chen, Brian; Eriksson, Joel; Garcia, Melissa; Liu, Yong Mei; Koster, Annemarie; Lohman, Kurt; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Petersen, Ann-Kristin; Prescott, Jennifer; Stolk, Lisette; Vandenput, Liesbeth; Wood, Andrew R; Zhuang, Wei Vivian; Ruokonen, Aimo; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Pouta, Anneli; Bandinelli, Stefania; Biffar, Reiner; Brabant, Georg; Cox, David G; Chen, Yuhui; Cummings, Steven; Ferrucci, Luigi; Gunter, Marc J; Hankinson, Susan E; Martikainen, Hannu; Hofman, Albert; Homuth, Georg; Illig, Thomas; Jansson, John-Olov; Johnson, Andrew D; Karasik, David; Karlsson, Magnus; Kettunen, Johannes; Kiel, Douglas P; Kraft, Peter; Liu, Jingmin; Ljunggren, Östen; Lorentzon, Mattias; Maggio, Marcello; Markus, Marcello R P; Mellström, Dan; Miljkovic, Iva; Mirel, Daniel; Nelson, Sarah; Morin Papunen, Laure; Peeters, Petra H M; Prokopenko, Inga; Raffel, Leslie; Reincke, Martin; Reiner, Alex P; Rexrode, Kathryn; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Schwartz, Stephen M; Siscovick, David; Soranzo, Nicole; Stöckl, Doris; Tworoger, Shelley; Uitterlinden, André G; van Gils, Carla H; Vasan, Ramachandran S; Wichmann, H-Erich; Zhai, Guangju; Bhasin, Shalender; Bidlingmaier, Martin; Chanock, Stephen J; De Vivo, Immaculata; Harris, Tamara B; Hunter, David J; Kähönen, Mika; Liu, Simin; Ouyang, Pamela; Spector, Tim D; van der Schouw, Yvonne T; Viikari, Jorma; Wallaschofski, Henri; McCarthy, Mark I; Frayling, Timothy M; Murray, Anna; Franks, Steve; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; de Jong, Frank H; Raitakari, Olli; Teumer, Alexander; Ohlsson, Claes; Murabito, Joanne M; Perry, John R B

2012-01-01

92

Plasma concentrations of vitellogenin and sex steroids in female tuatara (Sphenodon punctatus punctatus) from northern New Zealand.  

Science.gov (United States)

Vitellogenesis in tuatara (Sphenodon punctatus) on Stephens Island, New Zealand, at the southern (coolest) end of the geographical range of this species involves a prolonged period of about 3 years of the average 4-year reproductive cycle. These studies used a semiquantitative electrophoretic assay for vitellogenin (Vg). In the present study an ELISA was used to measure plasma levels of Vg in 138 female northern tuatara (S.p. punctatus) on 11 islands at the warmest end of the tuatara's range. Blood samples were collected in late summer-early autumn, just prior to the expected time of ovulation in those females that would nest the following spring. Plasma Vg levels ranged from nondetectable to 2.9 mg/ml but were not significantly correlated with plasma estradiol, testosterone, or progesterone levels. There was also no significant correlation among the three sex steroids. Plasma Vg and hormone levels were further examined as to whether females were ovulating. Incipient ovulation was inferred using endocrinological criteria derived from studies of tuatara on Stephens Island (i.e., elevated plasma testosterone). Plasma levels of Vg differed significantly between inferred ovulators and nonovulators when data for all islands were combined, although similar ranges were observed in the two groups of females (inferred ovulators: nondetectable to 2382 micrograms/ml, mean = 505 +/- 75; inferred nonovulators: nondetectable to 2864 micrograms/ml, mean = 460 +/- 63). Plasma levels of estradiol, but not progesterone, differed significantly between inferred ovulators and nonovulators when data for all islands were combined. Mean levels in inferred ovulators were: estradiol, 157 +/- 16 pg/ml (vs. 34 +/- 5 pg/ml in inferred nonovulators); progesterone, 1.1 +/- 0.2 ng/ml (vs. 0.7 +/- 0.1 ng/ml in inferred nonovulators); and testosterone, 5.6 +/- 0.5 ng/ml (vs. 0.2 +/- 0 ng/ml in inferred nonovulators). Only 37% of the females sampled met the minimum hormonal criteria indicative of ovulation. This suggests that, as in S. punctatus on Stephens Island, female S.p. punctatus on northern islands do not ovulate each year. PMID:7958750

Brown, M A; Cree, A; Daugherty, C H; Dawkins, B P; Chambers, G K

1994-08-01

93

Annual changes in plasma levels of cortisol and sex steroid hormones in male rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss  

Science.gov (United States)

The profiles of cortisol, testosterone, 11-ketotestosterone and 17?, 20?-dihydroxy-4-pregnene-3-one in male rainbow trout reared under constant water temperature and natural photoperiod were determined by radioimmunoassay. Gonads of male rainbow trout reached maturity when the fish were two years old. Changes in the plasma levels of both sex steroid hormones and cortisol were closely related to the GSI. Plasma levels of testosterone, 11-ketotestosterone and 17?; 20?-dihydroxy 4-pregnene-3-one showed a clear peak in the annual breeding season, when the GSI reached their maxima. Plasma cortisol levels also showed clearly seasonal changes in both two- and three-year-old fish. The results suggest that the elevated plasma levels of cortisol may not just be due to stresses during the breeding season but have certain physiological functions in the reproduction of rainbow trout.

Hou, Ya-Yi; Han, Xiao-Dong; Suzuki, Yuzuru

2001-09-01

94

Influence of mesonephros on foetal and neonatal rabbit gonads. I. Sex-steroid release by the testis in vitro  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The experiments were performed to study the influence of mesonephros on gonadal sex hormone release. Foetal and neonatal rabbit testes were cultured for 5 days, with and without their mesonephric tissue. The culture media were harvested every day and analyzed by RIA for the content of testosterone, progesterone and oestradiol. The development of the tissues were evaluated microscopically after culturing. The results show that between day 20 pc and day 1 pp the mesonephric tissue lowered the amounts of testosterone in co-cultures with testis. This effect disappears when the mesonephric derived cells develop the capacity to synthesize a meiosis inducing substance (MIS). A relationship between decrease of testosterone and secretion of MIS is discussed. It is concluded that the steroid producing cells of the testis, the Leydig cells, originate or are heavily influenced by mesonephros during early testicular organogenesis.

Grinsted, Jacob Peter; Byskov, A G

1982-01-01

95

Influx of testosterone-binding globulin (TeBG) and TeBG-bound sex steroid hormones into rat testis and prostate  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The availability of testosterone and estradiol to Sertoli and prostate cells is dependent upon 1) the permeability properties of the blood-tubular barrier (BTB) of the testis or prostate cell membrane, and 2) sex steroid binding to plasma proteins, such as albumin or testosterone-binding globulin (TeBG). Sex steroid influx into these tissues was studied after in vivo arterial bolus injections of (/sup 3/H)testosterone or (/sup 3/H)estradiol in anesthetized rats. Both testosterone and estradiol were readily cleared across the BTB or prostate cell membrane in the absence of plasma proteins and in the presence of human pregnancy serum, in which testosterone or estradiol are 80-95% distributed to TeBG. The extravascular extraction of (/sup 3/H)TeBG across the BTB or prostate plasma membrane (73 +/- 2% (+/- SE) and 92 +/- 9%, respectively) was significantly greater than extraction of (/sup 3/H)albumin or other plasma space markers and indicative of a rapid first pass clearance of TeBG by Sertoli or prostate cells. In summary, these studies indicate that 1) testosterone and estradiol are readily cleared by Sertoli and prostate cells; 2) albumin- and TeBG-bound sex steroids represent the major circulating pool of bioavailable hormone for testis or prostate; and 3) the TeBG-sex steroid complex may be nearly completely available for influx through the BTB or prostate plasma membrane.

Sakiyama, R.; Pardridge, W.M.; Musto, N.A.

1988-07-01

96

Influx of testosterone-binding globulin (TeBG) and TeBG-bound sex steroid hormones into rat testis and prostate  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The availability of testosterone and estradiol to Sertoli and prostate cells is dependent upon 1) the permeability properties of the blood-tubular barrier (BTB) of the testis or prostate cell membrane, and 2) sex steroid binding to plasma proteins, such as albumin or testosterone-binding globulin (TeBG). Sex steroid influx into these tissues was studied after in vivo arterial bolus injections of [3H]testosterone or [3H]estradiol in anesthetized rats. Both testosterone and estradiol were readily cleared across the BTB or prostate cell membrane in the absence of plasma proteins and in the presence of human pregnancy serum, in which testosterone or estradiol are 80-95% distributed to TeBG. The extravascular extraction of [3H]TeBG across the BTB or prostate plasma membrane [73 +/- 2% (+/- SE) and 92 +/- 9%, respectively] was significantly greater than extraction of [3H]albumin or other plasma space markers and indicative of a rapid first pass clearance of TeBG by Sertoli or prostate cells. In summary, these studies indicate that 1) testosterone and estradiol are readily cleared by Sertoli and prostate cells; 2) albumin- and TeBG-bound sex steroids represent the major circulating pool of bioavailable hormone for testis or prostate; and 3) the TeBG-sex steroid complex may be nearly completely available for influx through the BTB or prostate plasma membrane

97

The Effects of Female Sex Steroids on Gastric Secretory Responses of Rat Following Traumatic Brain Injury  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

AbstractObjective(s)Gastric ulceration is induced by various forms of stress like surgery, ischemia and trauma. The female sex has more resistance to stress and the gastrointestinal lesions happen fewer than male sex. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of estradiol and progesterone on the gastric acid and pepsin levels following traumatic brain injury (TBI) induction.Materials and MethodsDiffuse TBI was induced by Marmarou method in female rats. Rats randomly assigned into 9 g...

Zakieh Keshavarzi; Mohammad Khaksari Hadad; Mohammad Javad Zahedi; Abbas Bahrami

2011-01-01

98

Control of Sertoli cell metabolism by sex steroid hormones is mediated through modulation in glycolysis-related transporters and enzymes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sertoli cells (SCs) glucose metabolism is crucial for spermatogenesis since developing germ cells consume lactate produced by SCs as their main energy source. Recently, androgens and estrogens have been implicated in SCs energy metabolism modulation, although the molecular mechanisms remained undisclosed. Here, we report the effect of sex steroid hormones on key points of cultured rat SCs glycolytic pathway. We used primary cultures of immature rat SCs treated with 17?-estradiol (E2) or 5?-dihydrotestosterone (DHT). The transcript levels of glucose transporters (GLUTs), phosphofructokinase 1 (PFK-1) and lactate dehydrogenase C (LDH C) were analyzed after 25 and 50 h of culture by qPCR. Protein levels of GLUTs, PFK-1, LDH and monocarboxylate transporter 4 (MCT4) after 25 and 50 h were determined by western blot and LDH activity was also assessed. Our results show that both E2 and DHT downregulated the transcript levels of PFK-1, GLUT1 and GLUT3 after 50 h. However, only DHT-treated cells presented a downregulation of LDH C transcript levels. Interestingly, the protein levels of these enzymes and transporters remained unaltered except in DHT-treated cells that presented a significant decrease on GLUT1 protein levels evidencing a possible site for the regulation of SCs glucose metabolism by androgens. Taken together, our results provide evidence that sex steroid hormones action in SCs energy metabolism is mediated through modulation in glycolysis-related transporters and enzymes, particularly at the transcriptional level. DHT decreased GLUT1 protein levels and increased LDH activity after 25 h, evidencing key points for this hormone action in the regulation of SCs metabolism. PMID:24057877

Martins, Ana D; Alves, Marco G; Simões, Vera L; Dias, Tânia R; Rato, Luís; Moreira, Paula I; Socorro, Sílvia; Cavaco, José E; Oliveira, Pedro F

2013-12-01

99

Sex differences in the use of asthma drugs: cross sectional study  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

OBJECTIVES: To assess the use of asthma drugs by men and women with asthma and to identify sex specific predictors for the use of oral steroids. DESIGN: Cross sectional study. SETTING: Six general practices in East Anglia. SUBJECTS: 103 men and 134 women aged 20-54 with asthma. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Self reported use of agonists, inhaled steroids, and oral steroids. RESULTS: No sex difference was found in use of agonists or inhaled steroids. However a strong association existed between sex a...

Sexton, M.; Althuis, Md; Santanello, N.; Hyndman, S.; Williams, R.; Schmeidler, D.

1998-01-01

100

Novel galanin receptors in teleost fish: Identification, expression and regulation by sex steroids.  

Science.gov (United States)

In fish, the onset of puberty, the transition from juvenile to sexually reproductive adult animals, is triggered by the activation of pituitary gonadotropin secretion and its timing is influenced by external and internal factors that include the growth/adiposity status of the animal. Kisspeptins have been implicated in the activation of puberty but peripheral signals coming from the immature gonad or associated to the metabolic/nutritional status are also thought to be involved. Therefore we hypothesize the importance of the galinergic system in the brain and testis of pre-pubertal male sea bass as a candidate to translate the signals leading to activation of testicular maturation. Here, the transcripts for four galanin receptors (GALR), named GALR1a, 1b, 2a and 2b, were isolated from European sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed the previously reported duplication of GALR1 in teleost fish, and unravelled the duplication of GALR2 in teleost fish and in some tetrapod species. Comparison with human showed that the key amino acids involved in ligand binding are present in the corresponding GALR1 and GALR2 orthologs. Transcripts for all four receptors are expressed in brain and testes of adult fish with GALR1a and GALR1b abundant in testes and hardly detected in ovaries. In order to investigate whether GALR1 dimorphic expression was dependent on steroid context we evaluated the effect of 11-ketotestosterone and 17?-estradiol treatments on the receptor expression in brain and testes of pre-pubertal males. Interestingly, steroid treatments had no effect on the expression of GALRs in the brain while in the testes, GALR1a and GALR1b were significantly up regulated by 11KT. Altogether, these results support a role for the galaninergic system, in particular the GALR1 paralog, in fish reproductive function. PMID:25016048

Martins, Rute S T; Pinto, Patrícia I S; Guerreiro, Pedro M; Zanuy, Silvia; Carrillo, Manuel; Canário, Adelino V M

2014-09-01

 
 
 
 
101

IGF-I, EGF, and sex steroids regulate autophagy in bovine mammary epithelial cells via the mTOR pathway.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mammary gland growth and involution are based on a dynamic equilibrium between proliferation and apoptosis of mammary epithelial cells (MEC). The main type of cell death responsible for bovine mammary gland involution is apoptosis, but MEC also exhibit morphological features of autophagy. The present study has been undertaken in order to examine factors, which are responsible for the regulation of autophagy in bovine MEC. We used a model of in vitro mammary gland involution known to be dependent on fetal bovine serum (FBS) deficiency in the culture of bovine BME-UV1 cells. We investigated the effects of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-I) and epidermal growth factor (EGF) signaling, as well as sex steroids and rapamycin (a specific inhibitor of mammalian target of rapamycin, mTOR, kinase) on autophagy in the MEC line BME-UV1. Our main focus was on the role of mTOR in the regulation of autophagy by growth factors and hormones. Laser scanning cytometry, electron microscopy, Western-blot analysis, GFP-LC3 reporter-based expression analysis, and LysoTracker Green-related fluorescence were used to determine the activity of autophagy in BME-UV1 cells. We found that FBS deficiency induced both autophagy and apoptosis with the highest intensity of both processes after 48h of MEC exposure to the deficient medium (0.5% FBS). Addition of IGF-I or/and EGF to the FBS-deficient medium clearly diminished autophagy. We also show that IGF-I and EGF are involved in the activation of mTOR in bovine MEC, whereas inhibition of mTOR by rapamycin abrogated the suppressive effects of IGF-I and EGF on autophagy. This suggests that mTOR links IGF-I and EGF signaling in inhibiting the autophagy pathways. Contrary to IGF-I and EGF, 17beta-estradiol and progesterone exerted stimulatory effects on autophagy in bovine MEC. At the same time we observed a suppressive effect of both steroids on mTOR activation/phosphorylation. In conclusion, autophagy in bovine MEC undergoes complex regulation, where its activity is controlled by survival pathways dependent on IGF-I and EGF, which are involved in suppression of autophagy, and by pregnancy steroids, which act as inducers of the process. PMID:19013662

Sobolewska, Agnieszka; Gajewska, Malgorzata; Zarzy?ska, Joanna; Gajkowska, Barbara; Motyl, Tomasz

2009-02-01

102

Dynamic functional evolution of an odorant receptor for sex-steroid-derived odors in primates.  

Science.gov (United States)

Odorant receptors are among the fastest evolving genes in animals. However, little is known about the functional changes of individual odorant receptors during evolution. We have recently demonstrated a link between the in vitro function of a human odorant receptor, OR7D4, and in vivo olfactory perception of 2 steroidal ligands--androstenone and androstadienone--chemicals that are shown to affect physiological responses in humans. In this study, we analyzed the in vitro function of OR7D4 in primate evolution. Orthologs of OR7D4 were cloned from different primate species. Ancestral reconstruction allowed us to reconstitute additional putative OR7D4 orthologs in hypothetical ancestral species. Functional analysis of these orthologs showed an extremely diverse range of OR7D4 responses to the ligands in various primate species. Functional analysis of the nonsynonymous changes in the Old World Monkey and Great Ape lineages revealed a number of sites causing increases or decreases in sensitivity. We found that the majority of the functionally important residues in OR7D4 were not predicted by the maximum likelihood analysis detecting positive Darwinian selection. PMID:19955411

Zhuang, Hanyi; Chien, Ming-Shan; Matsunami, Hiroaki

2009-12-15

103

The impact of common genetic variations in genes of the sex hormone metabolic pathways on steroid hormone levels and prostate cancer aggressiveness.  

Science.gov (United States)

Our previous work suggested that there was no significant association between plasma steroid hormone levels and prostate cancer tumor grade at diagnosis. In this study, we systematically tested the hypothesis that inherited variations in the androgen and estrogen metabolic pathways may be associated with plasma levels of steroid hormones, or prostate cancer aggressiveness at diagnosis. Plasma hormone levels including total testosterone, total estradiol, and sex hormone-binding globulin were measured in a cohort of 508 patients identified with localized prostate cancer. D'Amico risk classification at diagnosis was also determined. A total of 143 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from 30 genes that are involved in androgen and estrogen metabolism were selected for analysis. The global association of genotypes with plasma hormone levels and prostate cancer aggressiveness (D'Amico risk classification) was statistically analyzed. Q values were estimated to account for multiple testing. We observed significant associations between plasma testosterone level and SNPs in HSD17B2 (rs1424151), HSD17B3 (rs9409407), and HSD17B1 (rs12602084), with P values of 0.002, 0.006, and 0.006, respectively. We also observed borderline significant associations between prostate aggressiveness at diagnosis and SNPs in AKR1C1 (rs11252845; P = 0.005), UGT2B15 (rs2045100; P = 0.007), and HSD17B12 (rs7932905; P = 0.008). No individual SNP was associated with both clinical variables. Genetic variants of genes in hormone metabolic pathways may influence plasma androgen levels or prostate cancer aggressiveness. However, it seems that the inherited variations affecting plasma hormone levels differ from those affecting disease aggressiveness. PMID:21900597

Sun, Tong; Oh, William K; Jacobus, Susanna; Regan, Meredith; Pomerantz, Mark; Freedman, Matthew L; Lee, Gwo-Shu Mary; Kantoff, Philip W

2011-12-01

104

Senescence and steroid hormone receptor reactivities in accessory sex glands of elderly rats (Sprague-Dawley) following exogenous hormonal therapy.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to characterize the stromal and epithelial distribution of AR, ER? and ER? reactivities in the different accessory sex glands of elderly rats and during strong hormonal changes. Ten month old male rats were divided into six senile groups and submitted to treatment: Senile/Control group (SC); Senile/Testosterone group (ST): Senile/Estrogen group (SE); Castrated group (CA); Castrated/Testosterone group (CT); Castrated/Estrogen group (CE). After a 30-day treatment, the prostatic ventral lobe (VL), dorsal lobe (DL) and coagulating gland (CG) samples were processed for immunohistochemistry and Western Blotting. The results showed that AR immunoreactivity was characterized in the epithelium of VL and DL in senile/control rats and senile rats submitted to exogenous hormonal therapy. AR reactivity in the coagulating gland was verified predominantly in the stromal cells in the different experimental groups. ER? reactivity occurred predominantly in the stromal compartment in all accessory sex glands. In the DL and CG, ER? immunoreactivities were intense in the groups which received testosterone (ST) and estrogen (SE). ER? immunoreactivity in the CG was verified in the stromal compartment in the different experimental groups, showing a positive response to both increased testosterone and estrogen levels. ER? reactivity, in the DL, was intensified in the stroma of senile rats with higher serum testosterone levels, and in senile rats with increased serum estrogen levels, especially in the glandular epithelium. Thus, the results revealed different distribution pattern of steroid hormone receptors in each one of the prostatic lobes in senescence, especially in the prostate dorsal lobe and coagulating gland, which is a fundamental factor due to the fact that major prostatic diseases occur in a later period of life. PMID:22541803

Cândido, Eduardo Marcelo; Fávaro, Wagner José; Montico, Fabio; Hetzl, Amanda Cia; Cagnon, Valéria Helena Alves

2012-08-01

105

The macrophage low-grade inflammation marker sCD163 is modulated by exogenous sex steroids.  

Science.gov (United States)

Soluble CD163 (sCD163) is a novel marker linked to states of low-grade inflammation such as diabetes, obesity, liver disease, and atherosclerosis, all prevalent in subjects with Turner syndrome (TS) and Klinefelter syndrome (KS). We aimed to assess the levels of sCD163 and the regulation of sCD163 in regards to treatment with sex hormone therapy in males with and without KS and females with and without TS. Males with KS (n=70) and age-matched controls (n=71) participating in a cross-sectional study and 12 healthy males from an experimental hypogonadism study. Females with TS (n=8) and healthy age-matched controls (n=8) participating in a randomized crossover trial. The intervention comprised of treatment with sex steroids. Males with KS had higher levels of sCD163 compared with controls (1.75 (0.47-6.90) and 1.36 (0.77-3.11) respectively, Preceiving hormone replacement therapy (HRT) had higher levels of sCD163 than those of their age-matched healthy controls (1.38±0.44 vs 0.91±0.40, P=0.04). HRT and oral contraceptive therapy decreased sCD163 in TS by 22% (1.07±0.30) and in controls by 39% (0.55±0.36), with significance in both groups (P=0.01 and P=0.04). We conclude that levels of sCD163 correlate with endogenous testosterone in KS and are higher in KS subjects compared with controls, but treatment did not significantly lower levels. Both endogenous and exogenous estradiol in TS was associated with lower levels of sCD163. PMID:24148221

Thomsen, Henrik H; Møller, Holger J; Trolle, Christian; Groth, Kristian A; Skakkebæk, Anne; Bojesen, Anders; Høst, Christian; Gravholt, Claus H

2013-01-01

106

Effects of steroids and sex reversal on intestinal absorption of L-(/sup 14/C)leucine in vivo, in rainbow trout, Salmo gairdneri  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The effects of steroids (17 alpha-methyltestosterone (MT), 17 beta-oestradiol (E2)), and of sex reversal (XX male) on intestinal absorption and accumulation of L-(/sup 14/C)leucine (5 mM), were investigated in unanaesthetized rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri), using an in vivo gut perfusion technique. Each steroid was luminally perfused through the gut at a concentration of 50 micrograms/ml perfusate, during five separate perfusions carried out on the same fish at 30-min intervals (perfusion periods 1 to 5), for a total of 120 min at 14 degrees. Experiments were also conducted on masculinized, genetically female trout (XX male) with steroid-free perfusate. MT treatment significantly increased the intestinal absorption of radioleucine during periods 1 and 2, whilst E2 was without effect. Neither MT nor E2 influenced intestinal accumulation (mid- and hindgut) of radioleucine, and accumulation of /sup 14/C-solutes in skeletal muscle. Sex reversal, however, whilst having no effect on leucine absorption, nevertheless significantly increased intestinal accumulation of radioleucine, and accumulation of /sup 14/C-solutes in skeletal muscle. The effects observed in the present study are in agreement with previous work in trout using everted gut sac preparations. It is suggested that the growth-promoting effects of anabolic-androgenic steroids in fish may be partly explained by their action on gastrointestinal function.

Habibi, H.R.; Ince, B.W.

1983-12-01

107

Age and sex steroid-related changes in glucocorticoid sensitivity of pro-inflammatory cytokine production after psychosocial stress.  

Science.gov (United States)

Aging is associated with an increased susceptibility to infections and chronic inflammatory diseases. This might be caused by dysregulations of the endocrine system with increased activity of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and decreased levels of sex steroids. Therefore, we investigated the stress-response of the HPA axis and glucocorticoid (GC) sensitivity of pro-inflammatory cytokine production in elderly men, compared to testosterone-treated elderly men and young controls. Stress-induced increases in cortisol did not differ significantly between experimental groups (F=2.10; p>0.10), but GC sensitivity increased significantly in young controls and testosterone-treated elderly men, while a decrease was found in untreated elderly men (F=5.28; p<0.01). We conclude that the increase in GC sensitivity after stress serves to protect the individual from detrimental increases of pro-inflammatory cytokines, a mechanism that is disturbed in elderly men and partly restored by testosterone treatment. PMID:12020958

Rohleder, Nicolas; Kudielka, Brigitte M; Hellhammer, Dirk H; Wolf, Jutta M; Kirschbaum, Clemens

2002-05-01

108

An immunohistochemical analysis of sex-steroid receptors, tumor suppressor gene p53 and Ki-67 in the normal and neoplastic uterine cervix squamous epithelium  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction. Malignant transformation of sex-steroid dependent tissues is associated with the loss of expression of sex steroid receptors as well as of the tumor suppression gene p53. The aim of this study is to evaluate the expression of sex-steroid receptors, p53 and Ki-67 in specimens from pre-malignant and malignant cervical epithelial lesions throughout the menstrual cycle. Material and Methods. Immunohistochemical staining was performed on formalin fixed, paraffin embedded tissue sections of normal squamous cervical epithelium, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and invasive squamous cervical carcinoma, specimens utilizing antibodies against estrogen receptors, progesterone receptors, p53 protein and Ki-67 antigen. Results. In the samples taken from the normal cervical tissue, basal cells were usually estrogen receptor-positive, progesterone receptornegative, p53-negative and Ki-67-negative throughout the menstrual cycle. In contrast, para-basal cells were estrogen receptorpositive and progesterone receptor-negative in the follicular phase, but estrogen receptor-negative and progesterone receptor -positive and Ki-67 positive in the luteal phase. In cervical precancerous and cancer tissue samples (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and squamous cervical carcinoma, the expression of estrogen receptors decreased. 31.15% of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and 11.5% of squamous cervical carcinoma were positive for estrogen receptors. However, the expression of progesterone receptors increased. 29.5% of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and 49.2% of squamous cervical carcinoma were positive for progesterone receptors. Positive staining for p53 was observed in 15 (24.59% cases of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and in 39 (64% of squamous cervical carcinoma. The expression Ki-67 index in squamous cervical carcinoma cases (47.60% was significantly higher than of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia cases (30.2% (p=0.041. Conclusion. The findings of this study suggest that tumor cervical cells evade normal growth control by sex steroid hormones while synchronously abnormal regulatory mechanisms acquire control of the cell cycle.

Nikolaou Marinos

2014-01-01

109

Sex bias in the outcome of human tropical infectious diseases: influence of steroid hormones.  

Science.gov (United States)

Numerous investigations have revealed a bias toward males in the susceptibility to and severity of a variety of infectious diseases, especially parasitic diseases. Although different external factors may influence the exposure to infection sources among males and females, one recurrent phenomenon indicative of a hormonal influence is the simultaneous increase in disease occurrence and hormonal activity during the aging process. Substantial evidence to support the influence of hormones on disease requires rigorously controlled human population studies, as well as the same sex dimorphism being observed under controlled laboratory conditions. To date, only very few studies conducted have fulfilled these criteria. Herein, we introduce tropical infectious diseases, including amebiasis, malaria, leishmaniasis, toxoplasmosis, schistosomiasis, and paracoccidioidomycosis, in which hormones are suspected to play a role in disease processes. We summarize the most recent findings from epidemiologic studies in humans and from hormone replacement studies in animal models, as well as data regarding the influence of hormones on immune responses underlying the pathology of the diseases. PMID:24966190

Bernin, Hannah; Lotter, Hanna

2014-07-15

110

Immunoreactive luteinizing hormone releasing factor in pituitary stalk blood from female rats: sex steroid modulation of response to electrical stimulation of preoptic area or median eminence.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of sex steroid hormones on the responsiveness of the neural mechanism responsible for the secretion of LH-RF have been examined in the female rat. Responsiveness was determined at pro-oestrus by measuring the increments in immunoreactive LH-RF of pituitary stalk blood produced by electrical stimulation of the medial preoptic area or median eminence. Ovariectomy on the morning of dioestrus reduced the LH-RF response to preoptic stimulation while oestradiol benzoate (OB) or testosterone propionate (TP) administered immediately after ovariectomy significantly augmented the response. The facilitatory effect of TP was possibly due to its conversion to an aromatized derivative since 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone monobenzoate was ineffective. Progesterone did not facilitate preoptic responsiveness, and, when administered to animals ovariectomized at 12.00 h of pro-oestrus, reduced the LH-RF response at 18.00 h the same day. Stimulation of the median eminence produced a significantly greater increment in LH-RF than stimulation of the preoptic area. The facilitatory action of OB on the LH-RF response was less marked for median eminence compared with preoptic stimulation. The administration of ICI 46474 at 17.00 h of dioestrus did not reduce preoptic responsiveness on the morning of the next day, suggesting that this compound does not act as an 'antioestrogen' at the level of the preoptic area. PMID:789804

Sherwood, N M; Chiappa, S A; Fink, G

1976-09-01

111

Effects of thermal regime on ovarian maturation and plasma sex steroids in farmed white sturgeon, Acipenser transmontanus  

Science.gov (United States)

Recently, commercial aquaculture farms in Northern California have exposed gravid, cultured white sturgeon females to cold water (12 ?? 1??C) throughout the late phase of vitellogenesis and ovarian follicle maturation resulting in improved ovulation rates and egg quality. However, the optimum timing for transfer of broodfish to the cold water and the capacity of transferred broodfish to maintain reproductive competence over an extended time in cold water had not been evaluated. Gravid white sturgeon females that have been raised at water temperatures of 16-20??C were transported to either cold water (12 ?? 1??C; Group 1) in November 1997 or maintained in ambient water temperatures (10-19??C; Group 2) until early spring. In March 1998, half of the fish in Group 2 had regressed ovaries, but the remaining females had intact ovarian follicles and were transported to the cold water. Ovarian follicles and blood were collected from females until they reached the stage of spawning readiness (determined by germinal vesicle position and an oocyte maturation assay) or underwent ovarian regression. Exposure of gravid sturgeon females to ambient water temperatures (14.5 ?? 2.3??C, mean ?? S.D.) from October to March led to a decrease in plasma sex steroids and a high incidence of ovarian regression in fish with a more advanced stage of oocyte development. Transfer of females with intact ovarian follicles to cold water (12 ?? 1??C) in the fall or early spring resulted in normal ovarian development in the majority of females. Holding females in cold water does not seem to override their endogenous reproductive rhythms but extends their capacity to maintain oocyte maturational competence over a longer period of time. A temperature-sensitive phase in ovarian development may occur during the transition from vitellogenic growth to oocyte maturation, and the degree and timing of sensitivity to environmental temperature are dependent on the female's endogenous reproductive rhythm. ?? 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All Rights reserved.

Webb, M.A.H.; Van Eenennaam, J. P.; Feist, G.W.; Linares-Casenave, J.; Fitzpatrick, M.S.; Schreck, C.B.; Doroshov, S.I.

2001-01-01

112

Decreased glutathione S-transferase expression and activity and altered sex steroids in Lake Apopka brown bullheads (Ameriurus nebulosus)  

Science.gov (United States)

A number of freshwater lakes and reclaimed agricultural sites in Central Florida have been the receiving waters for agrochemical and municipal runoff. One of these sites, Lake Apopka, is also a eutrophic system that has been the focus of several case studies reporting altered reproductive activity linked to bioaccumulation of persistent organochlorine chemicals in aquatic species. The present study was initiated to determine if brown bullheads (Ameriurus nebulosus) from the north marsh of Lake Apopka (Lake Apopka Marsh) exhibit an altered capacity to detoxify environmental chemicals through hepatic glutathione S-transferase (GST)-mediated conjugation as compared with bullheads from a nearby reference site (Lake Woodruff). We also compared plasma sex hormone concentrations (testosterone, 17-?? estradiol, and 11 keto-testosterone) in bullheads from the two sites. Female bullheads from Lake Apopka had 40% lower initial rate GST conjugative activity toward 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB), 50% lower activity towards p-nitrobutyl chloride (NBC), 33% lower activity toward ethacrynic acid (ECA), and 43% lower activity toward ??5-androstene-3,17-dione (??5-ADI), as compared with female bullheads from Lake Woodruff. Enzyme kinetic analyses demonstrated that female bullheads from Lake Apopka had lower GST-catalyzed CDNB clearance than did female Lake Woodruff bullheads. Western blotting studies of bullhead liver cytosolic proteins demonstrated that the reduced GST catalytic activities in female Lake Apopka bullheads were accompanied by lower expression of hepatic GST protein. No site differences were observed with respect to GST activities or GST protein expression in male bullheads. Female Lake Apopka bullheads also had elevated concentrations of plasma androgens (testosterone and 11-ketotestosterone) as compared with females from Lake Woodruff. In contrast, male Lake Apopka bullheads had elevated levels of plasma estrogen but similar levels of androgens as compared with male bullheads from Lake Woodruff. Collectively, our studies indicate the presence of reduced GST protein expression, reduced GST conjugative capacity and altered sex steroid homeostasis in female bullheads from a contaminated field site in Central Florida. The implications of these physiological alterations in terms of pollutant biotransformation and reproduction are discussed. ?? 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

Gallagher, E.P.; Gross, T.S.; Sheehy, K.M.

2001-01-01

113

Control of the level of unusual estrogen-binding protein in rat liver by sex steroids and the pituitary  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper studies the role of sex steriods and the pituitary in regulation of the unusual estrogen-binding protein (UEBP) level in male rat liver. The concentration of E2-binding sites of UEBP in the liver cytosol was determined by measuring binding of a minimal addition of 2,4,6,7-tritium-E2, with specific radioactivity of 98-100 Ci/mmole. Data on the effect of hypophysectomy on the UEBP level in the liver of different groups of rats are presented. The presence of comparable quantities of E2 and androgens in rats of both sexes is evidence of the existence of a fine mechanism of combined regulation of the UEBP concentration under natural conditions that reflect changes in the absolute E2 or androgen levels or in the ratio between them

114

Histologia mamária após uso de esteróides sexuais - estudo em ratas / Breast histologic changes in female rats treated with sex steroids  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Avaliar as alterações histológicas em mamas de ratas submetidas à terapêutica com estrogênio, progestogênio e tibolona. MÉTODOS: Estudo experimental com 40 ratas, sendo 20 sem prole (grupo A) e 20 com prole (grupo B). Todas as ratas foram castradas e, após quatro semanas, alocadas aleatori [...] amente em subgrupos: A1, A2, A3, A4, A5 e B1, B2, B3, B4, B5. Os esteróides foram administrados da seguinte forma: A1 e B1 - benzoato de estradiol; A2 e B2 - acetato de medroxiprogesterona; A3 e B3 - benzoato de estradiol e acetato de medroxiprogesterona; A4 e B4 - tibolona; A5 e B5 - placebo. Após dez semanas de tratamento, os animais foram sacrificados e suas glândulas mamárias submetidas à análise histológica. Os parâmetros avaliados foram: proliferação epitelial, atividade secretora e atipias epiteliais nas unidades de ductos ou alvéolos terminais. A associação entre os achados histológicos e os esquemas terapêuticos foi avaliada por meio do odds ratio e intervalo de confiança de 95%. RESULTADOS: Alterações histológicas foram observadas em 29 ratas: hiperplasia moderada (52,5%), hiperplasia alvéolo-nodular (42,5%), atipia sem proliferação (35%), hiperplasia leve (32,5%), atividade secretora (20%) e hiperplasia severa (5%). Em ratas sem prole observou-se 1,3 mais chance, em relação ao grupo controle, de apresentar hiperplasia alvéolo-nodular no grupo que recebeu estrogênio, hiperplasia moderada no grupo tratado com progestogênio, e hiperplasia alvéolo-nodular e atipia sem proliferação epitelial com a associação entre estrogênio e progestogênio. CONCLUSÃO: Hiperplasia moderada e atipia epitelial associaram-se à terapia combinada de estrogênio e progestogênio, e o antecedente de prole reduziu a ocorrência destas alterações e de hiperplasia alvéolo-nodular. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association of histologic changes in the breasts of female rats undergoing therapy with sex steroids. METHODS: An experimental study was conducted of 40 castrated female non-pubertal rats, 20 had given birth (Group B) and 20 had no offspring (Group A). After four weeks, th [...] ese rats were randomly allocated to subgroups: A1, A2, A3, A4, A5 and B1, B2, B3, B4, B5. Steroids were given to subgroups as follows: A1 and B1 - estradiol benzoate; A2 and B2 - medroxyprogesterone acetate; A3 and B3 - estradiol benzoate and medroxyprogesterone acetate; A4 and B4 - tibolone; A5 and B5 - placebo. After 10 weeks of treatment, animals were sacrificed and their mammary glands were analyzed. Histologic parameters evaluated were: epithelial cell proliferation, epithelial cells with secretory activity; and cell atypia in terminal duct units and buds or terminal alveoli. The association between microscopic analysis and diverse therapeutic regimens were analyzed by calculating the odds ratio and its respective 95% confidence interval. RESULTS: Histologic changes were observed in 29 rats: moderate hyperplasia (52.5%), hyperplastic alveolar nodule (42.5%), epithelial atypia (35%), mild hyperplasia (32.5%), secretory activity (20%) and severe hyperplasia (5%). In rats with no offspring when compared to the control, 1.3 times more hyperplastic alveolar nodules were found in the group treated with estradiol, the same was true for moderate hyperplasia in the rats that received medroxyprogesterone acetate, hyperplastic alveolar nodules and epithelial atypia in the group treated with estradiol plus medroxyprogesterone acetate. In the rats with offspring 1.3 times more secretory activity was found with estradiol. CONCLUSION: Epithelial hyperplasia and epithelial atypia with no proliferation are strongly associated to combined therapy with estradiol plus medroxyprogesterone acetate, mainly in the rats without offspring.

José Tadeu, Vicelli; Maria Salete Costa, Gurgel; Marcelo, Alvarenga.

115

Histologia mamária após uso de esteróides sexuais - estudo em ratas Breast histologic changes in female rats treated with sex steroids  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar as alterações histológicas em mamas de ratas submetidas à terapêutica com estrogênio, progestogênio e tibolona. MÉTODOS: Estudo experimental com 40 ratas, sendo 20 sem prole (grupo A e 20 com prole (grupo B. Todas as ratas foram castradas e, após quatro semanas, alocadas aleatoriamente em subgrupos: A1, A2, A3, A4, A5 e B1, B2, B3, B4, B5. Os esteróides foram administrados da seguinte forma: A1 e B1 - benzoato de estradiol; A2 e B2 - acetato de medroxiprogesterona; A3 e B3 - benzoato de estradiol e acetato de medroxiprogesterona; A4 e B4 - tibolona; A5 e B5 - placebo. Após dez semanas de tratamento, os animais foram sacrificados e suas glândulas mamárias submetidas à análise histológica. Os parâmetros avaliados foram: proliferação epitelial, atividade secretora e atipias epiteliais nas unidades de ductos ou alvéolos terminais. A associação entre os achados histológicos e os esquemas terapêuticos foi avaliada por meio do odds ratio e intervalo de confiança de 95%. RESULTADOS: Alterações histológicas foram observadas em 29 ratas: hiperplasia moderada (52,5%, hiperplasia alvéolo-nodular (42,5%, atipia sem proliferação (35%, hiperplasia leve (32,5%, atividade secretora (20% e hiperplasia severa (5%. Em ratas sem prole observou-se 1,3 mais chance, em relação ao grupo controle, de apresentar hiperplasia alvéolo-nodular no grupo que recebeu estrogênio, hiperplasia moderada no grupo tratado com progestogênio, e hiperplasia alvéolo-nodular e atipia sem proliferação epitelial com a associação entre estrogênio e progestogênio. CONCLUSÃO: Hiperplasia moderada e atipia epitelial associaram-se à terapia combinada de estrogênio e progestogênio, e o antecedente de prole reduziu a ocorrência destas alterações e de hiperplasia alvéolo-nodular.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association of histologic changes in the breasts of female rats undergoing therapy with sex steroids. METHODS: An experimental study was conducted of 40 castrated female non-pubertal rats, 20 had given birth (Group B and 20 had no offspring (Group A. After four weeks, these rats were randomly allocated to subgroups: A1, A2, A3, A4, A5 and B1, B2, B3, B4, B5. Steroids were given to subgroups as follows: A1 and B1 - estradiol benzoate; A2 and B2 - medroxyprogesterone acetate; A3 and B3 - estradiol benzoate and medroxyprogesterone acetate; A4 and B4 - tibolone; A5 and B5 - placebo. After 10 weeks of treatment, animals were sacrificed and their mammary glands were analyzed. Histologic parameters evaluated were: epithelial cell proliferation, epithelial cells with secretory activity; and cell atypia in terminal duct units and buds or terminal alveoli. The association between microscopic analysis and diverse therapeutic regimens were analyzed by calculating the odds ratio and its respective 95% confidence interval. RESULTS: Histologic changes were observed in 29 rats: moderate hyperplasia (52.5%, hyperplastic alveolar nodule (42.5%, epithelial atypia (35%, mild hyperplasia (32.5%, secretory activity (20% and severe hyperplasia (5%. In rats with no offspring when compared to the control, 1.3 times more hyperplastic alveolar nodules were found in the group treated with estradiol, the same was true for moderate hyperplasia in the rats that received medroxyprogesterone acetate, hyperplastic alveolar nodules and epithelial atypia in the group treated with estradiol plus medroxyprogesterone acetate. In the rats with offspring 1.3 times more secretory activity was found with estradiol. CONCLUSION: Epithelial hyperplasia and epithelial atypia with no proliferation are strongly associated to combined therapy with estradiol plus medroxyprogesterone acetate, mainly in the rats without offspring.

José Tadeu Vicelli

2006-10-01

116

Melatonin reduces LH, 17 beta-estradiol and induces differential regulation of sex steroid receptors in reproductive tissues during rat ovulation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Melatonin is associated with direct or indirect actions upon female reproductive function. However, its effects on sex hormones and steroid receptors during ovulation are not clearly defined. This study aimed to verify whether exposure to long-term melatonin is able to cause reproductive hormonal disturbances as well as their role on sex steroid receptors in the rat ovary, oviduct and uterus during ovulation. Methods Twenty-four adult Wistar rats, 60 days old (+/- 250 g were randomly divided into two groups. Control group (Co: received 0.9% NaCl 0.3 mL + 95% ethanol 0.04 mL as vehicle; Melatonin-treated group (MEL: received vehicle + melatonin [100 ?g/100 g BW/day] both intraperitoneally during 60 days. All animals were euthanized by decapitation during the morning estrus at 4 a.m. Results Melatonin significantly reduced the plasma levels of LH and 17 beta-estradiol, while urinary 6-sulfatoximelatonin (STM was increased at the morning estrus. In addition, melatonin promoted differential regulation of the estrogen receptor (ER, progesterone receptor (PR, androgen receptor (AR and melatonin receptor (MTR along the reproductive tissues. In ovary, melatonin induced a down-regulation of ER-alpha and PRB levels. Conversely, it was observed that PRA and MT1R were up-regulated. In oviduct, AR and ER-alpha levels were down-regulated, in contrast to high expression of both PRA and PRB. Finally, the ER-beta and PRB levels were down-regulated in uterus tissue and only MT1R was up-regulated. Conclusions We suggest that melatonin partially suppress the hypothalamus-pituitary-ovarian axis, in addition, it induces differential regulation of sex steroid receptors in the ovary, oviduct and uterus during ovulation.

Pinheiro Patrícia Fernanda F

2011-08-01

117

Effects of developmental exposure to 2,2 ,4,4 ,5-pentabromodiphenyl ether (PBDE-99) on sex steroids, sexual development, and sexually dimorphic behavior in rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Increasing concentrations of polybrominated flame retardants, including polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), in breast milk cause concern about possible developmental effects in nursed babies. Because previous studies in rats have indicated effects on sex steroids and sexually dimorphic behavior after maternal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), our goal in the present study was to determine if developmental exposure to 2,2 ,4,4 ,5-pentabromodiphenyl ether (PBDE-99) induces similar endocrine-mediated effects. Pregnant rats were exposed to vehicle or PBDE-99 (1 or 10 mg/kg body weight, daily during gestational days 10-18). For comparison, we also included a group exposed to the technical PCB mixture Aroclor 1254 (30 mg/kg body weight, daily). PBDE exposure resulted in pronounced decreases in circulating sex steroids in male offspring at weaning and in adulthood. Female offspring were less affected. Anogenital distance was reduced in male offspring. Puberty onset was delayed in female offspring at the higher dose level, whereas a slight acceleration was detected in low-dose males. The number of primordial/primary ovarian follicles was reduced in females at the lower dose, whereas decline of secondary follicles was more pronounced at the higher dose. Sweet preference was dose-dependently increased in PBDE-exposed adult males, indicating a feminization of this sexually dimorphic behavior. Aroclor 1254 did not alter sweet preference and numbers of primordial/primary and secondary follicles but it did affect steroid concentrations in males and sexual development in both sexes. PBDE concentrations in tissues of dams and offspring were highest on gestational day 19. These results support the hypothesis that PBDEs are endocrine-active compounds and interfere with sexual development and sexually dimorphic behavior. PMID:16451854

Lilienthal, Hellmuth; Hack, Alfons; Roth-Härer, Astrid; Grande, Simone Wichert; Talsness, Chris E

2006-02-01

118

Effect of GnRHa, pimozide and Ovaprim on ovulation and plasma sex steroid hormones in African catfish Clarias gariepinus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nine groups each of four fish were injected with a single intramuscular dose of the following preparations: Physiological saline (0.9% NaCl) as a control group, 0.5 ml kg(-1) Ovaprim, 20 and 40 ?g kg(-1) BW of GnRHa, 8 and 16 mL kg(-1) pimozide tablets and the following combination of GnRHa with pimozide (GP): 20 ?g + 4 mg, 30 ?g + 8 mg and 40 ?g + 16 mg kg(-1) BW. The primary oocyte diameter (POD) before hormone administration ranged from 943.3 to 1071.0 ?m. The latency periods (LP) were in the range of 9.0 to 12.0 h after injection. The highest ovulation ratio (OR) was observed in groups Ovaprim, GP(30 + 8) and GP(40 + 16). Other treatments were effective for ovulation, the ovulation ratio in Groups G(40) and GP(20 + 4) were significantly higher than G(20) treatment. The ovulation index (OI) was in the range 62 to 77% and showed significant differences among groups. There was no significant difference in fertilization ratio (FR) among Ovaprim, GP(30 + 8) and GP(40 + 16) groups, while there were significant difference between the previous group and G(20) and G(40) groups. Control, P8, P16 showed negative results in all the parameters LP, OED, OR, OI and FR. Levels of sex steroids were analyzed on 6 and 12 h after initiation of treatments. A significant increase in plasma E(2) with GP(30 + 8) injection was observed 6 and 12 h after injection, while there were no significant increase between all the other groups 6 h after injection. Treatments with GP(20 + 4) resulted in a significant increase in plasma T concentration in females compared with control after 6 h. In contrast, plasma T and E(2) concentrations were lower during the combined GP(20 + 4), GP(30 + 8) and GP(40 + 16) after 12 h than after 16 h of injection. The combined treatments (GnRHa + PIM) are better compared with Ovaprim which gave the same results, they have some advantages, such as reliable response and low cost. Ovaprim is more than 3 to 5-fold of the cost of (GnRH + PIM). Therefore, this method could be useful tool for commercial catfish breeders to ensure spawning success. PMID:22365698

Sharaf, S M

2012-05-01

119

Absence of daily cycles in plasma sex steroids in male and female tuatara (Sphenodon punctatus), and the effects of acute capture stress on females.  

Science.gov (United States)

The possible existence of daily cycles in plasma concentrations of sex steroids was examined in wild male and female tuatara (Sphenodon punctatus). Samples were collected from freshly captured animals at dusk, middle of the night, dawn, and middle of the day in January (summer) and July (winter). Males showed daily cycles in mean body temperature (Tb) in both seasons but no daily cycle in mean plasma testosterone concentration in either season. Vitellogenic female tuatara in January and females in mixed reproductive condition in July also showed significant daily variation in Tb. However, there were no daily cycles in mean plasma concentrations of estradiol, testosterone, or progesterone in either group of females. Vitellogenic female tuatara subjected to an acute capture stress (3-hr confinement) in January had mean plasma concentrations of estradiol and testosterone that did not differ from those of free-roaming females. However, progesterone and Tb were significantly higher in captives than in free-roaming females. The elevation in progesterone may result from physical confinement, the difference in Tb, or both. These data suggest that seasonal fluctuations in circulating concentrations of plasma sex steroids in tuatara can be determined using samples collected at different times of the 24-hr cycle. However, the effects of acute capture stress and/or changes in Tb on plasma progesterone concentrations need to be considered in future studies on this and possibly other female reptiles. PMID:2354772

Cree, A; Guillette, L J; Cockrem, J F; Brown, M A; Chambers, G K

1990-07-01

120

Impact of photoperiod manipulation on day/night changes in melatonin, sex steroids and vitellogenin plasma levels and spawning rhythms in Senegal sole, Solea senegalensis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Photoperiod and temperature are known as the main synchronizers of seasonal reproduction in fish. This paper studied the role of photoperiod on the synchronization of F1 Senegal sole reproduction rhythms. Fish were maintained under constant short-photoperiod (9L:15D) from the winter solstice onwards (experimental group) or under naturally-changing photoperiod (control group), and water temperature naturally oscillated in both groups. Blood samples were collected during the reproduction season at pre-spawning (March), spawning (April) and post-spawning (May) to determine the endocrine status. Spawning events and egg quality parameters were also monitored. The results revealed a significant increase in nocturnal melatonin concentration from March to May in the control group, while in the experimental group such seasonal change did not occur. As to plasma levels of vitellogenin, testosterone, estradiol and 11keto-testosterone, differences between groups were found mostly in March, while in April and May levels were often similar. Spawning was observed in both groups, although the experimental group started slightly earlier and also finished earlier than the control group, perhaps as a result of the increase in sex steroids and VTG observed at pre-spawning. Briefly, reproduction rhythms persisted in the absence of the natural lengthening of photoperiod, although photoperiod manipulation altered the seasonal modulation of melatonin, increased sex steroids and vitellogenin at pre-spawning, and slightly advanced the timing of spawning. PMID:21466857

Oliveira, Catarina; Mañanós, Evaristo; Ramos, Jesus; Sánchez-Vázquez, Francisco Javier

2011-07-01

 
 
 
 
121

Uterine expression of sodium/potassium/calcium exchanger 3 and its regulation by sex-steroid hormones during the estrous cycle of rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Plasma membrane sodium/calcium exchangers are an important component of intracellular calcium homeostasis and electrical conduction. NCKX3 (gene SLC24A3), a potassium-dependent sodium-/calcium exchanger, plays a critical role in the transport of one intracellular calcium and potassium ion across the cell membrane in exchange for four extracellular sodium ions. NCKX3 transcripts are most abundant in the brain and smooth muscle, but many other tissues, in particular, the uterus, aorta and intestine, also express this gene at lower levels. However, the expression and physiological roles of NCKX3 in the uterus of rats during the estrous cycle are unknown. Thus, we examined the uterine expression of NCKX3 mRNA and protein at different stages of the estrous cycle in mature and immature female rats in the absence or presence of the sex-steroid hormones estrogen (E2) and progesterone (P4). During the estrous cycle, uterine expression of NCKX3 mRNA and protein was enhanced up to 4.0- and 2.5-fold, respectively, at proestrus compared to during estrus and diestrus. To examine the effect of sex steroids on NCKX3 regulation in the uterus, immature female rats were treated with E2 (40?µg/kg body weight; BW), P4 (4?mg/kg BW), or E2 plus P4 for 3 days. The expression of NCKX3 mRNA and protein was induced by E2, whereas P4 antagonized E2-induced NCKX3 expression. Subsequent immunohistochemical analysis revealed that uterine NCKX3 protein was abundantly localized in the cytoplasm of luminal and glandular epithelial cells throughout the estrous cycle. Taken together, these results indicate that uterine NCKX3 is abundantly expressed in the uterus and that its expression is regulated by the steroid hormones, E2 and P4. These findings suggest that NCKX3 may be involved in reproductive function during the estrous cycle in female rats. PMID:21104767

Yang, Hyun; Yoo, Yeong-Min; Jung, Eui-Man; Choi, Kyung-Chul; Jeung, Eui-Bae

2010-11-01

122

Hands as sex cues: sensitivity measures, male bias measures, and implications for sex perception mechanisms.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sex perceptions, or more particularly, sex discriminations and sex categorisations, are high-value social behaviours. They mediate almost all inter-personal interactions. The two experiments reported here had the aim of exploring some of the basic characteristics of the processes giving rise to sex perceptions. Experiment 1 confirmed that human hands can be used as a cue to an individual's sex even when colour and texture cues are removed and presentations are brief. Experiment 1 also showed that when hands are sexually ambiguous observers tend to classify them as male more often than female. Experiment 2 showed that "male bias" arises not from sensitivity differences but from differences in response biases. Observers are conservative in their judgements of targets as female but liberal in their judgements of targets as male. These data, combined with earlier reports, suggest the existence of a sex-perception space that is cue-invariant. PMID:24603615

Gaetano, Justin; van der Zwan, Rick; Blair, Duncan; Brooks, Anna

2014-01-01

123

Flow cytometric measurement of DNA level and steroid hormone receptor assay in breast cancer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

DNA level measured by flow cytometry and estrogen and progesteron receptors assayed in tissue samples obtained from 85 malignant and 16 benign lesions of the breast. All the benign tumors revealed 2c DNA content and most of them were receptor-negative, while 74.1% of breast carcinomas displayed aneuploidy. Three patients (3.5%) had two lines of aneuploid cells. Many aneuploid tumors were receptor-negative. Preoperative radiation treatmet (14-20 Gy) did not significantly influence the level of steroid hormone receptors in tumors. Estrogen receptor level was higher in menopausal patients than in premenopausal ones

124

Paradoxical effects of GABA-A modulators may explain sex steroid induced negative mood symptoms in some persons.  

Science.gov (United States)

Some women have negative mood symptoms, caused by progestagens in hormonal contraceptives or sequential hormone therapy or by progesterone in the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle, which may be attributed to metabolites acting on the GABA-A receptor. The GABA system is the major inhibitory system in the adult CNS and most positive modulators of the GABA-A receptor (benzodiazepines, barbiturates, alcohol, GABA steroids), induce inhibitory (e.g. anesthetic, sedative, anticonvulsant, anxiolytic) effects. However, some individuals have adverse effects (seizures, increased pain, anxiety, irritability, aggression) upon exposure. Positive GABA-A receptor modulators induce strong paradoxical effects including negative mood in 3%-8% of those exposed, while up to 25% have moderate symptoms. The effect is biphasic: low concentrations induce an adverse anxiogenic effect while higher concentrations decrease this effect and show inhibitory, calming properties. The prevalence of premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) is also 3%-8% among women in fertile ages, and up to 25% have more moderate symptoms of premenstrual syndrome (PMS). Patients with PMDD have severe luteal phase-related symptoms and show changes in GABA-A receptor sensitivity and GABA concentrations. Findings suggest that negative mood symptoms in women with PMDD are caused by the paradoxical effect of allopregnanolone mediated via the GABA-A receptor, which may be explained by one or more of three hypotheses regarding the paradoxical effect of GABA steroids on behavior: (1) under certain conditions, such as puberty, the relative fraction of certain GABA-A receptor subtypes may be altered, and at those subtypes the GABA steroids may act as negative modulators in contrast to their usual role as positive modulators; (2) in certain brain areas of vulnerable women the transmembrane Cl(-) gradient may be altered by factors such as estrogens that favor excitability; (3) inhibition of inhibitory neurons may promote disinhibition, and hence excitability. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Neuroactive Steroids: Focus on Human Brain. PMID:21600269

Bäckström, T; Haage, D; Löfgren, M; Johansson, I M; Strömberg, J; Nyberg, S; Andréen, L; Ossewaarde, L; van Wingen, G A; Turkmen, S; Bengtsson, S K

2011-09-15

125

Sex steroid binding protein exerts a negative control on estradiol action in MCF-7 cells (human breast cancer) through cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate and protein kinase A.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Estradiol is considered to be a critical factor in the growth induction of some breast cancer cells, like MCF-7 cell line. Among other compounds involved in the control of neoplastic mammary cell growth, cAMP has been suggested, on the other hand, to exert an antiproliferative effect. Sex steroid binding protein (SBP) sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), the plasma carrier for both androgens and estradiol, recognizes a specific receptor located on membranes of estrogen- and androgen-sensitive...

Frairia, Roberto; Berta, Laura Adelaide Angela

1996-01-01

126

Temporal dynamics of oocyte development, plasma sex steroids and somatic energy reserves during seasonal ovarian maturation in captive Murray cod Maccullochella peelii peelii.  

Science.gov (United States)

The temporal dynamics of oocyte growth, plasma sex steroids and somatic energy stores were examined during a 12 month ovarian maturation cycle in captive Murray cod Maccullochella peelii peelii under simulated natural photothermal conditions. Ovarian function was found to be relatively uninhibited in captivity, with the exception that post-vitellogenic follicles failed to undergo final maturation, resulting in widespread pre-ovulatory atresia. Seasonal patterns of oocyte growth were characterised by cortical alveoli accumulation in March, deposition of lipids in April, and vitellogenesis between May and September. Two distinct batches of vitellogenic oocytes were found in Murray cod ovaries, indicating a capacity for multiple spawns. Plasma profiles of 17beta-oestradiol and testosterone were both highly variable during the maturation period suggesting that multiple roles exist for these steroids during different stages of oocyte growth. Condition factor, liver size and visceral fat stores were all found to increase prior to, or during the peak phase of vitellogenic growth. Murray cod appear to strategically utilise episodes of high feeding activity to accrue energy reserves early in the reproductive cycle prior to its deployment during periods of rapid ovarian growth. PMID:17904884

Newman, Dane M; Jones, Paul L; Ingram, Brett A

2007-12-01

127

Assessment of spermatogenesis and plasma sex steroids in a seasonal breeding teleost: a comparative study in an area of influence of a tributary, downstream from a hydroelectric power dam, Brazil.  

Science.gov (United States)

River damming and building of hydroelectric power plants interrupt the reproductive migration routes and change the major physicochemical parameters of water quality, with drastic consequences for populations of migratory fishes. The goal of this study was to evaluate proliferation and cell death during spermatogenesis and serum profiles of sex steroids in Prochilodus argenteus, from the São Francisco River, downstream from the Três Marias Dam. A total of 257 adult males were caught quarterly during a reproductive cycle in two sites: the first 34 km of the river after the dam (site 1) and the second 34-54 km after the dam (site 2), after the confluence with a tributary, the Abaeté River. Seasonal changes in the testicular activity associated with morphometric analyses of germ cells as well as proliferation and testicular apoptosis support a more active spermatogenesis in fish from site 2, where higher levels of sex steroids and gonadosomatic index (GSI) were also found. In site 1, fish presented low serum levels of testosterone, 17?-estradiol and 17?-hydroxyprogesterone and a low GSI during gonadal maturation. Spermatogonial proliferation (PCNA) and apoptosis (TUNEL) were more elevated in fish from site 1, but spermatocytes were mainly labelled in fish from site 2. Overall, these data demonstrate changes in testicular activity and plasma sex steroids in a neotropical teleost fish living downstream from a hydroelectric dam, supplying new data on fish reproduction in regulated rivers. Moreover, morphometric analyses associated with sex steroids profiles provide reliable tools to assess fish spermatogenesis under environmental stress conditions. PMID:22688450

Domingos, Fabricio F T; Thomé, Ralph G; Arantes, Fabio P; Castro, Antonio Carlos S; Sato, Yoshimi; Bazzoli, Nilo; Rizzo, Elizete

2012-12-01

128

Nitrite-induced alterations in sex steroids and thyroid hormones of Labeo rohita juveniles: effects of dietary vitamin E and L-tryptophan.  

Science.gov (United States)

An experiment was conducted to study the effect of sub-lethal nitrite exposure on sex steroids (testosterone and estradiol), cortisol and thyroid hormones (T3 and T4) of Labeo rohita juveniles. Fishes previously fed with normal or elevated levels of vitamin E (VE) and tryptophan for 60 days were exposed to sub-lethal nitrite for another 45 days with same feeding regime. There were nine treatment groups, viz. VE0TRP0-N, VE0TRP0+N, VE100TRP0-N, VE100TRP0+N, VE100TRP0.75+N, VE100TRP1.5+N, VE150TRP0+N, VE300TRP0+N and VE200TRP1+N. Except the groups VE0TRP0-N and VE100TRP0-N, all other groups were exposed to nitrite. At the end of the 45 days of nitrite exposure, serum samples were assayed for sex steroids, cortisol and thyroid hormones. The serum T3 and T4 levels decreased to the extent of 84.5 and 94.06%, respectively, upon nitrite exposure. Dietary supplementation with additional amounts of VE and tryptophan appears to reduce the decline of the production of T4. The serum testosterone and estradiol decreased 97.31 and 92.86%, respectively, upon nitrite exposure. Supplementation with additional amounts of VE was found to reverse nitrite-induced inhibition of testosterone and estradiol production. Serum cortisol increased upon nitrite exposure and unexposed (VE100-N) group showed lower levels, which were comparable to groups fed with elevated levels of VE. The overall results of the present study revealed that environmental nitrites have a negative impact on steroidogenesis, which can be overcome by dietary supplementation of elevated amounts of VE (minimum of 150 mg VE Kg diet(-1)) and to a lesser extent by tryptophan (only at the level of 1.5% of the diet). PMID:23504103

Ciji, A; Sahu, N P; Pal, A K; Akhtar, M S

2013-10-01

129

Standardization of androstenedione and estrone radioimmunoassay and profile of sex steroids, gonadotropins and prolactin - in patients with chronic anovulation due to inappropriate feedback (polycystic ovarian syndrome)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text. In order to evaluate the profile of the sex steroids gonadotropin and prolactin in polycystic ovarian syndrome (POS), 24 patients with POS were studied and compared with 20 normal women during the early follicular phase of the menstrual cycle. Radioimmunoassay techniques for androstenedione (A) and estrone (E1) were standardized for the purpose of the study. Androstenedione and estrone were extracted from plasma with ethyl ether. The assays were maintained in equilibrium and the labelled hormone-antibody complex was then separated from the free hormone using dextran charcoal. The sensitivity of the method was 6.8 pg/tube for A and 3.7 pg/tube for E1. Nonspecific binding ws 3.4 for A and 3.3 for E1. The interessay error at the D50 level was 15.6 for A and 8.6 for E1. Patients with POS had significantly higher basal levels of LH, A, T E1 and PRL and similar FSH and DHEA-S levels when compared with normal women. The LH/FSH ratio was significantly elevated and the A/T ratio was significantly decreased. The A/E1 and T/E2 ratios were elevated and the E1/E2 was decreased, although the differences were not statistically significant. A positive correlation between A and E1 was observed in patients with POS. In view of the above data, it was concluded that: the quality control parameters of the radioimmunoassay for A and E1 standardized in the present study are considered satisfactory, and the assay could be used for diagnosis and research; the patients with POS have a different sex steroid and gonadotropin profile when compared normal women during the early follicular phase of the menstrual cycle

130

Alternative splicing of the D2 dopamine receptor messenger ribonucleic acid is modulated by activated sex steroid receptors in the MMQ prolactin cell line.  

Science.gov (United States)

The two isoforms of the D2 dopamine receptor are generated by alternative splicing of the exon 6 of the premessenger RNA (pre-mRNA), changing the length of the third cytoplasmic loop involved in the coupling to G proteins. In the MMQ PRL cell line, sex steroid hormones modulated the proportion of the two D2 receptor isoforms. Under controlled culture conditions, 17beta-estradiol (E2) strongly favored the production of the long isoform of D2 mRNA over the short one, whereas both isoforms were equally abundant when culture medium was hormone depleted. In the presence of progesterone (P), E2 action was inhibited, and equal amounts of each D2 receptor isoform were produced in the cells. Hormone treatments never modified either the total amount of D2 receptor mRNA and D2 receptor binding sites or D2 receptor-mediated inhibition of adenylyl cyclase. Specific antagonists demonstrated that the activity of each hormone depended on their nuclear receptors. Inhibitors of gene transcription or translation also showed that their activity required protein synthesis. The expression of the short D2 receptor isoform was never prominent, even at the single cell level. Analysis of the intron sequence flanking alternative exon 6 showed that only the upstream intron presented two sequence tracts known to be targets for splicing factors. Taken together, these results provide converging evidence for a physiologically relevant mechanism by which sex steroid receptors could regulate the expression of a splicing factor favoring the production of the long dopamine D2 receptor isoform. PMID:9751502

Guivarc'h, D; Vincent, J D; Vernier, P

1998-10-01

131

Profiles of sex steroids, fecundity and spawning of a migratory characiform fish from the Paraguay-Paraná basin: a comparative study in a three-river system.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated for the first time the reproductive biology of Prochilodus lineatus in a system of rivers in southeastern Brasil, relating it to the role of tributary rivers in the reproductive success of this important commercial fish in the Upper Paraná River basin, where a cascade of hydroelectric dams were deployed. Specimens were caught bimonthly in three river sites: (S1) Grande River, downstream from the Porto Colômbia dam; (S2) Pardo River; and (S3) Mogi Guaçu River. Sex steroid plasma levels, fecundity, follicular atresia, oocyte diameter and gonadosomatic index (GSI) were compared among sites. In S1, fish exhibited changes in the reproductive parameters: lower GSI, oocyte diameter and fecundity and higher follicular atresia index, when compared to S2 and S3. Frequency of maturing fish was higher in S3 and spawning was only registered in S3. In sites S2 and S3, plasma concentrations of testosterone and 17?-estradiol in females and testosterone in males showed wide variations following gonadal maturation. Fish from S1 showed few significant variations in sex steroid concentrations throughout the gonadal cycle. These results indicate that P. lineatus does not reproduce in Grande River (S1), but probably uses the Pardo River (S2) as a migratory route towards the Mogi Guaçu River (S3) where they complete gonadal maturation and spawning. Our findings contribute for understanding the reproductive biology of P. lineatus and to highlight the importance of tributaries in impounded rivers as a favourable environment for migration and spawning of fish. PMID:23616136

Perini, Violeta da Rocha; Paschoalini, Alessandro Loureiro; Cruz, Cláudia Kelly Fernandes da; Rocha, Rita de Cássia Gimenes Alcântara de; Senhorini, José Augusto; Ribeiro, Dirceu Marzulo; Formagio, Paulo Sérgio; Bazzoli, Nilo; Rizzo, Elizete

2013-12-01

132

Variation in sex steroids and phallus size in juvenile American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) collected from 3 sites within the Kissimmee-Everglades drainage in Florida (USA).  

Science.gov (United States)

This 3-year study was designed to examine variation in plasma sex steroids, phallus size, and the standard error (S.E.) associated with these endpoints in juvenile alligators collected from 3 sites within the Kissimmee-Everglades drainage (Florida, USA) with varying concentrations of sediment organochlorine contaminants. We hypothesized that decreased plasma sex steroid concentrations and phallus size would be observed in the higher contaminant site when compared to the intermediate and lower contaminant sites. Furthermore, we hypothesized that greater S.E. associated with these endpoints would be observed for the populations from more contaminated sites. We found that differences existed with females from the higher contaminant site exhibiting lower plasma estradiol-17beta (E2) and testosterone (T) concentrations. Males from the higher contaminant site exhibited smaller phallus sizes than males from the intermediate and lower contaminant sites. Smaller phallus size in this case differed from that reported in Lake Apopka male alligators [Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. 116 (1999) 356] in that a significant positive relationship between body size and phallus size existed. No difference among sites was observed in plasma T for males. Lower S.E. was associated with E2 and T concentrations in females from the higher contaminant site and in phallus size in males from the higher contaminant site. This pattern was opposite to what we had hypothesized. We concluded that variation in plasma E2 and T concentrations, phallus size, and the S.E. associated with these endpoints exists among the 3 sites with the patterns matching the patterns of organochlorine contamination, although S.E. patterns were opposite to what was predicted. PMID:15183995

Gunderson, Mark P; Bermudez, Dieldrich S; Bryan, Teresa A; Degala, Satish; Edwards, Thea M; Kools, Stefan A E; Milnes, Matthew R; Woodward, Allan R; Guillette, Louis J

2004-07-01

133

Application of Double Isotope Derivative Dilution Procedures to Steroid Hormone Measurement  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The measurement of the concentration of specific steroid hormones in human peripheral plasma has required the development of sensitive analytical procedures. Of the various analytical techniques available, procedures based on the principle of double isotope derivative dilution have great specificity and precision at low levels, and can be readily applied to the measurement of androgens, oestrogens, progesterone and adrenocortical hormones. In these procedures a known amount of 14C- or 3H-labelled steroid is added to the sample as an internal recovery indicator to account for losses over the various analytical steps. Mass is determined by formation of a labelled derivative of the hormone following reaction with a radioactive reagent of known specific activity. These reagents are usually either 3H- or 35S-labelled. Separation of the various steroid hormones from each other and from the excess radioactivity arising from derivative formation is carried out by chromatography and by further chemical modification of the labelled derivative. The problems of developing a method suitable for the measurement of aldosterone in human peripheral plasma are described, and a comparison made between two methods, one which uses 14C-aldosterone as internal indicator and 3H-acetic anhydride for derivative formation, and another which uses 3H-aldosterone and 35S-tosan (toluene sulphonic acid anhydride). The subsequent modification of the basic 3H-acetic anhydride procedure to enable simultaneous measurement of cortisol, cortisone, corticosterone, desoxycortisol, desoxycorticosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone and testosterone in a single sample are described. The application of these procedures to the measurement of progesterone and oestrone and oestradiol- 178 are also discussed; in particular, the enzymatic reduction of progesterone to enable acetylation, or the use of 35S-pipsyl chloride (p-iodo benzene sulphonyl chloride) for derivative formation. The advantages and disadvantages of this type of methodology are also discussed with particular reference to specificity, accuracy, precision and suitability for routine analytical use. The sensitivity and precision of double isotope methodology is dependent not only on the specific activity of the labelled reagents but also on the performance of the liquid scintillation counting system. Statistical counting errors and an assessment of the precision and reliability of liquid scintillation counting systems used to count samples containing 3H and 14C are described. (author)

134

Sex and exercise interact to alter the expression of anabolic androgenic steroid-induced anxiety-like behaviors in the mouse.  

Science.gov (United States)

Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) are taken by both sexes to enhance athletic performance and body image, nearly always in conjunction with an exercise regime. Although taken to improve physical attributes, chronic AAS use can promote negative behavior, including anxiety. Few studies have directly compared the impact of AAS use in males versus females or assessed the interaction of exercise and AAS. We show that AAS increase anxiety-like behaviors in female but not male mice and that voluntary exercise accentuates these sex-specific differences. We also show that levels of the anxiogenic peptide corticotrophin releasing factor (CRF) are significantly greater in males, but that AAS selectively increase CRF levels in females, thus abrogating this sex-specific difference. Exercise did not ameliorate AAS-induced anxiety or alter CRF levels in females. Exercise was anxiolytic in males, but this behavioral outcome did not correlate with CRF levels. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has also been implicated in the expression of anxiety. As with CRF, levels of hippocampal BDNF mRNA were significantly greater in males than females. AAS and exercise were without effect on BDNF mRNA in females. In males, anxiolytic effects of exercise correlated with increased BDNF mRNA, however AAS-induced changes in BDNF mRNA and anxiety did not. In sum, we find that AAS elicit sex-specific differences in anxiety and that voluntary exercise accentuates these differences. In addition, our data suggest that these behavioral outcomes may reflect convergent actions of AAS and exercise on a sexually differentiated CRF signaling system within the extended amygdala. PMID:24768711

Onakomaiya, Marie M; Porter, Donna M; Oberlander, Joseph G; Henderson, Leslie P

2014-07-01

135

Variation in temporal measures of swallowing: sex and volume effects.  

Science.gov (United States)

Temporal measures of healthy swallowing appear to be variably sensitive to bolus and participant factors based on a recent meta-analysis of studies in the deglutition literature. In this carefully controlled study of healthy young volunteers, balanced for sex and height, we sought to understand the influence of bolus volume and participant sex on the three durations and three intervals most frequently reported in the deglutition literature. Three boluses per target volume (5, 10, and 20 ml) were repeated for each participant (n = 20, 10 male) using a spontaneous swallow paradigm in lateral view videofluoroscopy. None of the temporal durations or intervals was found to be correlated with participant height above an a priori cutoff point of r ? 0.3. Further, none of the temporal durations or intervals varied significantly by participant sex. Bolus volume significantly impacted upper esophageal sphincter (UES) opening duration, laryngeal closure duration, the laryngeal closure-to-UES opening interval, and the pharyngeal transit time interval, but not hyoid movement duration or the stage transition duration interval. When participants are sampled in such a manner as to represent the range of height reported to be typical for both sexes in the population, sex does not significantly influence temporal measures of swallowing. PMID:23271165

Molfenter, Sonja Melanie; Steele, Catriona M

2013-06-01

136

Measuring perceived stigma in female sex workers in Chennai, India.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although sex work is highly stigmatized throughout the world, a limited body of research has examined stigma among female sex workers (FSWs). We developed a Sex Worker Stigma (SWS) Index to measure perceived stigma among 150 FSWs in Chennai, India. These women were at a median age of 35 years and reported, on average, having engaged in sex work for nine out of the previous 12 months. The two-factor structure of the index was verified in both exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses with acceptable goodness of fit. The final 10-item index comprises of two domains of perceived stigma from the community and perceived stigma from one's family. Cronbach's ? coefficients were 0.87 and 0.88 for each domain, respectively. In regression analysis, we found that income from jobs other than sex work was correlated with decreased levels of perceived stigma from both the community (? = - 0.16; 95% CI: -0.30 and -0.02) and the family (? = - 0.24; 95% CI: -0.40 and -0.07); prior experience of accessing health care system increased perceived stigma from the community while heavier financial responsibility for the family was associated with lower perceived stigma from women's family. With the proposed SWS Index, we have a valid and reliable metric to document and track levels of perceived stigma among FSWs to assess the impact of stigma reduction interventions. PMID:21293991

Liu, Su-Hsun; Srikrishnan, A K; Zelaya, Carla E; Solomon, Suniti; Celentano, David D; Sherman, Susan G

2011-05-01

137

Assessment of the effect of sex steroids on the sexual behavior of the rat at late periods of observation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A study was made of sexual behavior of male rats exposed to prolonged (4 months) metandrostenolone (MAS) inhalations at the level Limch spec as of the effect of methyltestosterone (MT) on sexual behavior of the progeny following drug applications to the skin of pregnant rats in a dose at the level Limac spec. Methodological approaches to the appraisal of sexual behavior of rats are described. MAS (0.01 mg/m3) did not produce any deviations in sexual behavior of males. MT (1 mg/kg) applied during pregnancy had a masculinizing effect on the progeny females, that manifested in anatomical disorders of the urogenital area, thereby giving rise to alterations in sexual behavior of the progeny females and in that of their partners--intact males. The conclusion is made about high risk of the manifestations of specific effects of sexual steroids applied to the skin in the doses approximating the Limac spec.

Golubeva, M.I.; Shashkina, L.F.; Neugodova, O.P.

138

A test of sex determination from measurements of chest radiographs.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sexually dimorphic distinctions within the human thoracic area may include morphological as well as metric differences in the sternum and 4th rib. This research assesses the validity of a set of previously published measurements from chest radiographs and their use in contemporary forensic situations. The chest plates from 130 adult individuals of a known sample undergoing medico-legal post-mortem examination were examined at autopsy. Thoracic radiographs were taken using a Faxitron cabinet X-ray machine at 40 kV using Kodak Diagnostic Film Ready Pack X-Omat TL. Measurements were taken to the nearest millimetre using a sliding calliper. Logistic regression analysis of measurements of the sternum and 4th rib was undertaken to determine sex. Using 4th rib width and sternal area, sex was predicted at an accuracy of 95.8% for males and 90.3% for females. PMID:16078478

Torwalt, Carla R M M; Hoppa, Robert D

2005-07-01

139

EFFECTS OF THREE DIFFERENT GONADOTROPIN - RELEASING HORMONE ANALOGUES COMBINED WITH DOPAMINE ANTAGONISTS ON PLASMA SEX STEROID HORMONES, IN ENDANGERED MALE AND FEMALE CASPIAN BROWN TROUT, SALMO TRUTTA CASPIUS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available To understand the steroidogenic activities in Caspian brown trout, female and male broodstocks were injected with three different GnRHa in combination with two different dopamine antagonists and we examined changes in plasma sex steroid hormones during the experiments. In four separate experiments, female and male received two injections (at 0 day and 4 day in total volume 0.5 and 0.25 ml per kg-1 body weight respectively. Control group received only propylene glycol (Vehicle only. The final concentrations of GnRHa and metoclopramide (MET were 20 µg GnRHa kg-1 body weight (BW and 10 mg kg-1 body weight (BW, respectively. Each injection, received half dose of hormone. Blood samples were taken at 0, 2, 5 and 7 days, and blood plasma was retained for analysis of steroid levels. In female, plasma levels of estradiol-17? (E2 and testosterone (T showed significant decreases in fish treated with GnRHa plus Dopamine antagonist compared to control group. Plasma 17?,20?-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (17,20?-P levels abruptly increased at the 2nd day post-injection in all treated groups, reached peak levels at the 5th day, and the elevated levels slightly decreased by the 7th day. In male, all experimental treatments showed lower blood plasma 11-ketotestosterone (11KT levels relative to control. Treatment in all hormonal groups resulted in significant decrease in blood plasma 17,20?P levels compared to control group except fish treated with mGnRHa in combination with metoclopramide at 2nd post injection. Mean blood plasma T levels displayed a marked increase between 2nd and 5thyad . Changes in plasma T levels showed no significant change at the 7th day post injection.

Seyed Ehsan Mousavi

2013-08-01

140

Influência da idade e do diabetes sobre esteróides sexuais e SHBG em homens / Influence of age and diabetes on sex steroids and SHBG in men  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Para analisar a influência de fatores clínicos, demográficos e laboratoriais sobre os níveis de esteróides sexuais e SHBG, estudamos 28 homens com diabetes tipo 2 (DM2) e 27 não-diabéticos, nos quais foram medidos o índice de massa corporal (IMC), a relação cintura quadril (RCQ) e a circunferência d [...] a cintura. Foram dosados: glicose, hemoglobina glicada, insulina, peptídeo C, estradiol, testosterona e SHBG. O índice de testosterona livre (ITL) foi calculado dividindo-se o valor da testosterona total (TT) pelo valor da SHBG. Utilizamos o índice HOMA-R como indicativo de resistência insulínica. Observamos que os diabéticos apresentavam HOMA-R mais elevado do que os não-diabéticos (4,7±2,7 vs 2,75±1,6; p= 0,04), tendência a menores níveis de TT (3400 [1829-7000] vs. 4267 [2097-7074]pg/ml; p= 0,07) e menor ITL (81,1 [46,3-200,1] vs. 96,1 [31,9-176,7]; p= 0,02). Na análise de regressão linear, a idade foi a única variável que influenciou o ITL (r= 0,34, r²= 0,12; p= 0,01) e o índice HOMA-R (r= 0,54, r²= -0,29; p= 0,0005) e a idade (r= 0,50, r²= 0,18; p= 0,0004) influenciaram a SHBG. Concluimos que o DM foi um dos fatores determinantes de menores níveis de TT e livre em um grupo de homens pareados para idade e adiposidade, porém a idade foi o fator mais importante em homens com ou sem DM. Abstract in english To study the role of clinical, demographic and laboratory factors on the levels of sex steroids, we studied 28 men with type 2 diabetes (DM2) and 27 non-diabetic controls. Body mass index (BMI), waist size and waist-hip ratio (WHR) were measured in all, as well as, glucose, hemoglobin A1c, insulin, [...] peptide C, estradiol, testosterone, and SHBG. The free testosterone index (FTI) was calculated by dividing total testosterone (TT) by SHBG. The HOMA-R index was used as a measure of insulin resistance. We found that diabetics had a higher HOMA-R than non-diabetics (4.7±2.7 vs. 2.75±1.6; p= 0.04), a tendency toward lower levels of TT (3400 [1829-7000] vs. 4267 [2097-7074]pg/ml; p= 0.07) and lower FTI (81.1 [46.3-200.1] vs. 96.1 [31.9-176.7]; p= 0.02). Linear regression analysis showed that age was the only variable that affected FTI (r= 0.34, r²= 0.12; p= 0.01) and that HOMA-R (r= 0.54, r²= -0.29; p= 0.0005) and age (r= 0.50, r²= 0.18; p= 0.0004) influenced SHBG. We conclude that diabetes is partially responsible for lower levels of total and free testosterone in men matched for age and degree of body fat, but age was the most important determinant of lower level of androgens in men with and without diabetes.

Luciana, Bahia; Marília de Brito, Gomes.

 
 
 
 
141

Sex determination using patella metrical measurements: Iranian cadavers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-GB X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: One of the major problems in the medicine is personal identification in cases of skeletal remains. The first step is determination of sex. One of the elements that recently paied more attention to it is the patella. Since the measurements are population specific, so we measured the patellas of Iranians to determine their patellas dimensions for sex prediction."n"nMethods: In this study three metrical characteristics of patella were measured from 67 corps between 20-64 years refered to the autopasy hall of forensic medicine center in Tehran (L.M.O. For statistical analysis of datas, the statistical product and service solution (SPSS version 16 program was used and unvariate and multivariate discriminant function analysis were performed to indicate the efficiency of each variable for sex determination."n"nResults: The mean of patella height in male was 4.46 cm and in female was 3.87, the mean of patella width in male was 4.60 and in female was 4.03cm and the mean of patella thickness in male was 2.25 and in female was 2.07cm. Among these measurements maximal width with average accurancy of 94% and then maximal height with 91% and finally maximal thickness with 71.6-73.1% respectively were better variables for sex determination. Also in multivariate discriminant analysis, combination of all three measurements with average accuracy of 94% was the best function for sex determination."n"nConclusion: The results of this study revealed that we can determine sex with high confidence in situations such as explosions, air crashes and etc, just by using the patella measurement.

Akhlaghi M

2009-06-01

142

Gonadal steroid hormones maintain the stress-induced acetylcholine release in the hippocampus: simultaneous measurements of the extracellular acetylcholine and serum corticosterone levels in the same subjects.  

Science.gov (United States)

To examine the role of gonadal steroid hormones in the stress responses of acetylcholine (ACh) levels in the hippocampus and serum corticosterone levels, we observed these parameters simultaneously in intact, gonadectomized, or gonadectomized steroid-primed rats. In both sexes of rats, neither gonadectomy nor the replacement of gonadal steroid hormone affected the baseline levels of ACh. However, gonadectomy severely attenuated the stress response of ACh, whereas the replacement of corresponding gonadal hormone successfully restored the response to intact levels. The gonadal hormones affected the serum corticosterone levels in a different manner; the testosterone replacement in orchidectomized rats suppressed the baseline and the stress response of corticosterone levels, whereas the 17beta-estradiol replacement in ovariectomized rats increased the levels. We further found that letrozole or flutamide administration in intact male rats attenuated the stress response of ACh. In addition, flutamide treatment increased the baseline levels of corticosterone, whereas letrozole treatment attenuated the stress response of corticosterone. Moreover, we found a low positive correlation between the ACh levels and corticosterone levels, depending on the presence of gonadal steroid hormone. We conclude that: 1) gonadal steroid hormones maintain the stress response of ACh levels in the hippocampus, 2) the gonadal steroid hormone independently regulates the stress response of ACh in the hippocampus and serum corticosterone, and 3) the sex-specific action of gonadal hormone on the cholinergic stress response may suggest a neonatal sexual differentiation of the septohippocampal cholinergic system in rats. PMID:17962346

Mitsushima, Dai; Takase, Kenkichi; Funabashi, Toshiya; Kimura, Fukuko

2008-02-01

143

NCI: SBIR & STTR - Past Funding Opportunities - Contracts - 230 Synthesis of Stable Isotope-Labeled Steroids as Internal Standards for the Measurement of Endogenous Steroid Hormones in Biologic Samples by Liquid Chromatography - Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS)  

Science.gov (United States)

Although endogenous steroid hormones, specifically estrogens, androgens, and progestogens, are believed to play critical roles in the etiology of breast, endometrial, ovarian, prostate, and possibly other cancers, research has been limited for many years by the absence of sensitive, accurate methods for measuring the absolute concentrations of steroid hormones and their metabolites in serum, urine, and tissue. The assays routinely used by epidemiologists and clinicians have relied on radiobinding kits with poor specificity and sensitivity in biologic matrixes.

144

In vivo effects of oLH and LHRH-analog on sex reversal and plasma sex steroid profiles in the female Monopterus albus.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of ovine-luteinizing hormone (oLH) or a synthetic analog of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone, Des-Gly10[S-Ala6]-LHRH ethylamide acetate salt (LHRH-A), on the female phase of the protogynous Monopterus albus were investigated, and the plasma levels of androstenedione (Ad), testosterone (T), 11-oxotestosterone (KT), 11 beta-hydroxytestosterone (OHT), 17 beta-estradiol (E2) and progesterone were determined. In the postspawning stage, oLH induced precocious sex reversal in the gonad from female to male and increased plasma levels of Ad, T, KT and OHT. However, such oLH effects in M. albus females were slight at the early prespawning stage, and no significant signs of precocious sex reversal were found either in gonadal structure or in plasma hormones as those in postspawning treatment. After LHRH-A treatment of M. albus females in both postspawning and early prespawning stages, the gonadal structure remained "female type" with no sign of proliferation of either Leydig cells or male germ cells. The plasma levels of E2 were greatly increased after the treatment. PMID:8504919

Yeung, W S; Chen, H; Chan, S T

1993-04-01

145

Age-related changes in ovarian characteristics, plasma sex steroids and fertility during pubertal development in captive female Murray cod Maccullochella peelii peelii.  

Science.gov (United States)

Age-related changes in ovarian development characteristics and plasma sex steroids in female Murray cod were examined throughout their second, third and fourth years of life to better understand the physiological and endocrine processes associated with puberty in this species in captivity. Spawning performance of 2+ and 3+ year old females was also assessed to identify ontogenetic differences in egg fertility. Puberty was acquired in 38% of 1+ year old females and 100% of age 2+ females. By age 3+, all females had developed full (adult) reproductive function. Ovarian development in pubertal fish was characterised by a rapid transition between cortical alveoli and lipid droplet oogenic phases, coinciding with significantly lower plasma 17beta-oestradiol in age 2+ females (pMurray cod exhibited both vitellogenic and ovulatory capacities, yet functional abnormalities during secondary oocyte growth are likely to have contributed to poor egg fertility and consequently, evaluations of age-at-first maturity based on the presence of advanced ovarian stages may overestimate the reproductive potential of younger broodstock populations. PMID:18562230

Newman, Dane M; Jones, Paul L; Ingram, Brett A

2008-08-01

146

Physiological and analytical validations of fecal steroid hormone measures in black howler monkeys.  

Science.gov (United States)

The measurement of hormones in fecal samples allows for the noninvasive assessment of the endocrine status of free-ranging primates. However, procedures and techniques for hormone analysis in feces must be validated, both analytically and physiologically. Few studies have addressed the endocrinology of black howler monkeys (Alouatta pigra). Due to its conservation status, direct handling of individuals from this species and invasive sample collection are highly regulated, and therefore traditional methods for the validation of hormone assays, such as pharmacological challenges, are not allowed. As a consequence, sometimes studies of the fecal hormones of free-ranging black howler monkeys do not report physiological validations and therefore the biological reliability of such measurements cannot be assessed. In order to stimulate future research with this species, the present study aimed at providing methodological bases for fecal endocrine monitoring. Specifically, we compared the validity of two immunoassays (radioimmunoassays, RIA; solid-phase chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay, SPCEI) performed with commercial kits to measure cortisol, testosterone, estradiol, and progesterone; and demonstrate how the physiological functions of these steroid hormones can be determined through non-pharmacological validations. We found no differences between the analytical validity of RIA and SPCEI assays to measure cortisol and testosterone, whereas for estradiol and progesterone RIA showed better results. Concerning the physiological validation of our assays, we demonstrated that: (1) comparisons between pre- and post-stress situations may be used to assess cortisol response, (2) comparisons between females and males may be used to assess variation in testosterone levels, and (3) comparisons between pregnant and non-pregnant females may be used to determine variation in estradiol and progesterone activity. The analytical and physiological validations that we performed demonstrate that there are currently commercial kits that allow for correct endocrine monitoring of this species, and that there are non-pharmacological alternatives to assess the biological validity of hormone measurements. PMID:24939341

Rangel-Negrín, Ariadna; Flores-Escobar, Elizabeth; Chavira, Roberto; Canales-Espinosa, Domingo; Dias, Pedro Américo D

2014-10-01

147

The effects of female sex steroids on the development of autoimmune thyroiditis in thymectomized and irradiated rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Female PVG/c strain rats are more susceptible to induction of autoimmune thyroiditis initiated by thymectomy and irradiation (Tx-X) than similarly treated males. Pre-pubertal ovariectomy further augmented susceptibility. Administration of oestrogen or progesterone to groups of 4 weeks old ovariectomized Tx-X animals over a period of 15 weeks significantly altered induction of this condition. Oestrogen administered repeatedly at dose levels of 1 ?g and 10 ?g/100 g body weight resulted in partial suppression of thyroiditis with a corresponding change in the incidence of antibodies to thyroglobulin. Oestrogen administered by a single implantation had a suppressive effect on the development of autoimmunity in ovariectomized Tx-X females. Oestrogen given by either of these procedures also reduced the incidence of thyroiditis and autoantibody induction in orchidectomized male Tx-X rats. In contrast, repeated administration of progesterone at a dose of 250 mg and 1,500 ?g/100 g body weight appeared to augment levels of autoimmunity. It is concluded that the differential susceptibility to the induction of autoimmunity by thymectomy and irradiation is the direct consequence of sex hormonal influences. The higher incidence of the disease in the female would appear to be determined by the balance between the activity of oestrogen and progesterone which would further appear to have antagonistic influences in this particular situation. (UK))

148

ALTERED SERUM SEX STEROIDS AND VITELLOGENIN INDUCTION IN WALLEYE (STIZOSTEDION VITREUM) COLLECTED NEAR A METROPOLITAN SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANT  

Science.gov (United States)

Feral, male walleye collected from the Mississippi River below the St. Paul metropolitan sewage treatment plant (STP) contained measurable levels of the estrogen-inducible, female egg protein, vitellogenin. These same fish showed significantly decreased serum androgen and signifi...

149

Survey of receiving-water environmental impacts associated with discharges from pulp mills; 2: Gonad size, liver size, hepatic erod activity and plasma sex steroid levels in white sucker  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Fish collected from the receiving areas of 12 Canadian pulp mills were examined, including sites receiving effluent from kraft mills using chlorine as well as sulfite mills. Field collections included sampling of receiving water for chemistry and toxicity testing, and sampling of local fish for organ weights, hepatic MFO (ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase, EROD) activity, plasma steroid levels, and levels of liver dioxins. The main objectives of this study were to determine whether the discharge of effluent from pulp mills to sites other than Jackfish Bay was associated with physiological or biochemical disruptions in wild fish, whether there was any correlation between waste treatment and the presence of biological responses in wild fish, and whether there was any association between the use of chlorine as a bleaching agent and these responses. Although white sucker collected near bleached-kraft mills exhibited the highest EROD induction and dioxin levels, elevated enzyme activity was observed in fish from sites that did not use chlorine, and depressions in plasma sex steroid levels was not correlated with the level of EROD activity. The absence of chlorine bleaching or the presence of secondary treatment did not eliminate responses in fish, including decreased circulating levels of sex steroids, decreased gonadal size, and increase liver size. This survey has shown that (a) induction of hepatic EROD enzymes and depressions of plasma sex steroid levels during gonadal growth are found downstream of several pulp mills; (b) these changes are seen at some mills without chlorine bleaching and at mills that have secondary treatment; (c) substantial dilutions of nontoxic effluent do not appear to remove these responses; (d) the dominant factor determining the presence or absence of responses appeared to be dilution level; and (e) lab toxicity tests on invertebrates, rainbow trout, and fat-head minnows could not predict the presence of these responses in wild fish.

Munkittrick, K.R.; Servos, M.R. (Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Burlington, Ontario (Canada). Great Lakes Lab. for Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences); Van Der Kraak, G.J.; McMaster, M.E. (Univ. of Guelph, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Zoology); Portt, C.B. (C. Portt and Associates, Guelph, Ontario (Canada)); Heuvel, M.R. van den (Univ. of Waterloo, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Biology)

1994-07-01

150

Increased neurokinin B (Tac2) expression in the mouse arcuate nucleus is an early marker of pubertal onset with differential sensitivity to sex steroid-negative feedback than Kiss1.  

Science.gov (United States)

At puberty, neurokinin B (NKB) and kisspeptin (Kiss1) may help to amplify GnRH secretion, but their precise roles remain ambiguous. We tested the hypothesis that NKB and Kiss1 are induced as a function of pubertal development, independently of the prevailing sex steroid milieu. We found that levels of Kiss1 mRNA in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) are increased prior to the age of puberty in GnRH/sex steroid-deficient hpg mice, yet levels of Kiss1 mRNA in wild-type mice remained constant, suggesting that sex steroids exert a negative feedback effect on Kiss1 expression early in development and across puberty. In contrast, levels of Tac2 mRNA, encoding NKB, and its receptor (NK3R; encoded by Tacr3) increased as a function of puberty in both wild-type and hpg mice, suggesting that during development Tac2 is less sensitive to sex steroid-dependent negative feedback than Kiss1. To compare the relative responsiveness of Tac2 and Kiss1 to the negative feedback effects of gonadal steroids, we examined the effect of estradiol (E(2)) on Tac2 and Kiss1 mRNA and found that Kiss1 gene expression was more sensitive than Tac2 to E(2)-induced inhibition at both juvenile and adult ages. This differential estrogen sensitivity was tested in vivo by the administration of E(2). Low levels of E(2) significantly suppressed Kiss1 expression in the ARC, whereas Tac2 suppression required higher E(2) levels, supporting differential sensitivity to E(2). Finally, to determine whether inhibition of NKB/NK3R signaling would block the onset of puberty, we administered an NK3R antagonist to prepubertal (before postnatal d 30) females and found no effect on markers of pubertal onset in either WT or hpg mice. These results indicate that the expression of Tac2 and Tacr3 in the ARC are markers of pubertal activation but that increased NKB/NK3R signaling alone is insufficient to trigger the onset of puberty in the mouse. PMID:22893725

Gill, John C; Navarro, Víctor M; Kwong, Cecilia; Noel, Sekoni D; Martin, Cecilia; Xu, Shuyun; Clifton, Donald K; Carroll, Rona S; Steiner, Robert A; Kaiser, Ursula B

2012-10-01

151

Measuring Sex Differences in Violence Victimization and Perpetration within Date and Same-Sex Peer Relationships  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examines sex differences in the patterns of repeated perpetration and victimization of physical violence and psychological aggression within dating relationships and same-sex peer relationships. Data were obtained from the Youth Violence Survey: Linkages among Different Forms of Violence, conducted in 2004, and administered to all…

Swahn, Monica H.; Simon, Thomas R.; Arias, Ileana; Bossarte, Robert M.

2008-01-01

152

Sex steroids levels in the plasma and testis during the reproductive cycle of lizard Podarcis s. sicula Raf.  

Science.gov (United States)

Progesterone (P), 17-OH-progesterone (17-OH-P), androstenedione (A), dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), testosterone (T), 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone (5 alpha-DHT), and 17 beta-estradiol (E2) were measured by RIA in plasma and testes of 114 males of the oviparous lizard Podarcis s. sicula raf, a species that displays annual hibernating cycles. Hormones were determined each month from January until December, except for August. Testosterone peaked at 174.8 ng/ml of plasma after emergence (March), while 5 alpha-DHT and A peaked in April. Plasma DHEA increased during hibernation. During the refractory period there were progressive increases in P and E2 plasma levels. The testicular peak of T, in March, coincided with that observed in plasma. The striking increases in testicular T and A in early July occurred at a time when plasma androgen concentrations were low. 5 alpha-DHT increased in April when spermatogenesis with spermiation occurred and then decreased alongside a second peak of T. There is an apparent separation of plasma and testicular androgen concentrations during the reproductive cycle. PMID:1532946

Andò, S; Ciarcia, G; Panno, M L; Imbrogno, E; Tarantino, G; Buffone, M; Beraldi, E; Angelini, F; Botte, V

1992-01-01

153

Validity of a Scale to Measure Teachers' Attitudes towards Sex Education  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite the current legislation requiring sex education as part of the school curriculum in Portugal, great obstacles to its implementation remain. Furthermore, sex education is far from being systematically administered. Thus, the main interest in our project was to validate a scale that measures teachers' attitudes towards sex education. There…

de Almeida Reis, Maria Helena; Vilar, Duarte Goncalo Rei

2006-01-01

154

Sex steroids in Sjögren's syndrome.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of the review is to consider pathomechanisms of Sjögren's syndrome (SS), which could explain the female dominance (9:1), the most common age of onset (40-50 years) and targeting of the exocrine glands. Estrogens seem to specifically protect secretory glandular acinar cells against apoptosis whereas lack of estrogens during menopause and climacterium specifically leads to increased apoptosis of the exocrine secretory cells. Male gonads produce testosterone and convert it in exocrine glands to dihydrotesterosterone (DHT), which is anti-apoptotic and protects against acinar cell apoptosis. Estrogen-deficient women need to produce dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) in the adrenal glands and convert it to DHT in exocrine glands in a complex and branching reaction network in which individual enzymatic reactions are catalyzed in forward and backward directions by a myriad of different isoforms of steroidogenic enzymes. Tailoring DHT in peripheral tissues is much more complex and vulnerable in women than in men. In SS the intracrine steroidogenic enzyme machinery is deranged. These endo-/intracrine changes impair acinar remodeling due to impaired integrin ?1?1 and integrin ?2?1 expression so that the intercalated duct progenitor cells are unable to migrate to the acinar space, to differentiate to secretory acinar cells upon contact with laminin-111 and laminin-211 specifically found in the acinar basement membrane. The disarranged endo-/intracrine estrogen/androgen balance induces acinar cells to release microparticles and apoptotic bodies and to undergo apoptotis and/or anoikis. Membrane particles contain potential autoantigens recognized by T- (TCRs) and B-cell receptors (BCRs) and danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) recognized by Toll-like receptors (TLRs). In membrane particles (or carrier-complexes) antigen/adjuvant complexes could stimulate professional antigen capturing, processing and presenting cells, which can initiate auto-inflammatory and autoimmune cascades, break the self-tolerance and finally lead to SS. PMID:22300712

Konttinen, Yrjö T; Fuellen, Georg; Bing, Yan; Porola, Pauliina; Stegaev, Vasily; Trokovic, Nina; Falk, Steffi S I; Liu, Yi; Szodoray, Peter; Takakubo, Yuya

2012-08-01

155

MR measurement of normal corpus callosum: Age and sex differentiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Measurement of various portions of the corpus callosum was performed on magnetic resonance(MR) images of 114 subjects with no known or suspected corpus callosal disorders. Midsagittal T1-weighted images used for measurements and mean diameters of various portions in each age and sex group were obtained. Measures of five portions were made: (A) the anterio-posterior length, (B) the diameter of genu position, (C) the diameter of splenium, (D) the diameter of mid-body portion, (E) the diameter of a narrow portion at the body of corpus callosum. The mean diameter in each gender group for A, B, C, D and E were 68.8 mm, 12.1 mm, 12.3 mm, 6,9 mm, 4.1 mm in male and 69.9 mm, 12.0 mm, 12.1 mm, 6.4 mm, 4.1 mm in female, retrospectively. The groups of 0-9 years of both genders showed the minimum mean value in each portion

156

Regulatio of 3?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and sulphotransferase 2A1 gene expression in primary porcine hepatocytes by selected sex-steroids and plant secondary metabolites from chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) and wormwood (Artemisia sp.)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In pigs the endogenously produced compound androstenone is metabolised in the liver in two steps by 3?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3?-HSD) and sulphotransferase 2A1 (SULT2A1). The present study investigated the effect of selected sex-steroids (0.01–1 ?M androstenone, testosterone and estradiol), skatole (1–100 ?M) and secondary plant metabolites (1–100 ?M) on the expression of 3?-HSD and SULT2A1 mRNA. Additionally the effect of a global methanolic extract of dried chicory root w...

Rasmussen, Martin Krøyer; Ekstrand, Bo

2014-01-01

157

Neuroanatomical localization of sex steroid-concentrating cells in the Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica): autoradiography with [3H]-testosterone, [3H]-estradiol, and [3H]-dihydrotestosterone.  

Science.gov (United States)

Steroid autoradiography was undertaken to determine the neuroanatomical loci which might be involved in the activation of steroid-sensitive behaviors in the Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica). Male and female quail were either surgically gonadectomized or photically regressed and implanted with androgen or estrogen to restore normal sexual and courtship behavior. After gonadectomy or implant removal, each quail was injected with 250 microCi of [3H]-testosterone (3H-T), [3H]-estradiol (3H-E2), or [3H]-dihydrotestosterone (3H-DHT), sacrificed, processed for autoradiography, and the telencephalon, diencephalon, mesencephalon, and rhombencephalon were examined for labelled cells. Following 3H-T or 3H-E2 injection and autoradiography, labelled cells were found in nucleus septalis lateralis (SL), nucleus preopticus medialis (POM), nucleus paraventricularis (PVN), regio lateralis hypothalami (LHy), nucleus inferior hypothalami (IH), nucleus infundibuli (IN), nucleus intercollicularis (ICo), substantia grisea centralis (GCt), nucleus taeniae (Tn), and in the reticular formation near nucleus motorius nervi trigemini (MV). In addition, following 3H-E2 autoradiography, labelled cells were found around nucleus accumbens (Ac). Following 3H-DHT autoradiography, labelled cells were found only in SL, PVN, Tn, LHy, ICo, and CGt. No labelled cells were found in Ac, POM, IH, IN, or MV even after long exposure times. These results suggest that the nuclei labelled following 3H-E2 but not 3H-DHT administration bind exclusively the aromatized metabolites of T. Since quail show a sex difference in male-typical copulatory behavior in response to E2, labelled cells were counted in POM, LHy, IH, and Tn of male and female quail following 3H-E2 injection and autoradiography. No sex differences in the number of labelled cells were found in POM, LHy, or IH. Males were found to have more labelled cells than females in Tn. These results show that sex differences in male-typical copulatory behavior are not due to sex differences in the number of cells binding estrogens in POM. The results reported here constitute the most neuroanatomically extensive report of steroid binding cells to date for a galliform brain, the first comparison in a galliform bird of the distributions of cells labelled following injection of 3H-T, 3H-E2, and 3H-DHT and the first analysis of sex differences in numbers of estrogen-binding cells in four nuclei in the avian brain. PMID:2716950

Watson, J T; Adkins-Regan, E

1989-01-01

158

Epidural steroid injection for sciatica: An analysis of 526 consecutive cases with measurements and the whistle test.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The effects of epidural injections of triamcinolone acetonide and bupivacaine in the treatment of sciatica were analyzed in a retrospective series of 526 consecutive cases with measurements. A new test (the whistle test is described. There is a paucity of measureable parameters in reports on the subject in the literature, and many are not specific or symptom-oriented to sciatica. The procedure was performed by the same operator and reviewed one week post-operatively with measurements. 491 patients (93.35% achieved excellent to good pain relief, backed by appropriate increases of straight-leg-raise measurements. But 17 patients (3.46% of this group required surgery later. It is concluded that epidural steroid injection is a simple, cost-effective and minimally invasive treatment for sciatica, especially in the acute. It also serves as a method for crisis intervention and as a prognosticator.

Loy TT

2000-06-01

159

2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin activates the aryl hydrocarbon receptor and alters sex steroid hormone secretion without affecting growth of mouse antral follicles in vitro  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The persistent environmental contaminant, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is an ovarian toxicant. These studies were designed to characterize the actions of TCDD on steroidogenesis and growth of intact mouse antral follicles in vitro. Specifically, these studies tested the hypothesis that TCDD exposure leads to decreased sex hormone production/secretion by antral follicles as well as decreased growth of antral follicles in vitro. Since TCDD acts through binding to the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), and the AHR has been identified as an important factor in ovarian function, we also conducted experiments to confirm the presence and activation of the AHR in our tissue culture system. To do so, we exposed mouse antral follicles for 96 h to a series of TCDD doses previously shown to have effects on ovarian tissues and cells in culture, which also encompass environmentally relevant and pharmacological exposures (0.1–100 nM), to determine a dose response for TCDD in our culture system for growth, hormone production, and expression of the Ahr and Cyp1b1. The results indicate that TCDD decreases progesterone, androstenedione, testosterone, and estradiol levels in a non-monotonic dose response manner without altering growth of antral follicles. The addition of pregnenolone substrate (10 ?M) restores hormone levels to control levels. Additionally, Cyp1b1 levels were increased by 3–4 fold regardless of the dose of TCDD exposure, evidence of AHR activation. Overall, these data indicate that TCDD may act prior to pregnenolone formation and through AHR transcriptional control of Cyp1b1, leading to decreased hormone levels without affecting growth of antral follicles. -- Highlights: ?TCDD disrupts sex steroid hormone levels, but not growth of antral follicles. ?Pregnenolone co-treatment by-passes TCDD-induced steroid hormone disruption. ?TCDD affects steroid hormone levels through an AHR pathway in antral follicles.

Karman, Bethany N., E-mail: bklement@illinois.edu; Basavarajappa, Mallikarjuna S., E-mail: mbshivapur@gmail.com; Craig, Zelieann R., E-mail: zelieann@illinois.edu; Flaws, Jodi A., E-mail: jflaws@illinois.edu

2012-05-15

160

How Reliable Is Sex Differentiation From Teeth Measurements  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Gender determination of human remains recovered in forensic contexts constitutes an important step in medico-legal examination. The ability of the inert, mineralized structures of teeth to resist post-mortem degradation and to survive deliberate, accidental or natural change has led forensic experts to focus on the teeth as a possible source for valuable forensic data in fragmentary and poorly preserved human remains. Numerous studies show that tooth size standards based on odontometric investigations are population specific and can be used in age and sex determination. This paper reviews the methods of determining sex by odontometrics, tooth proportions and sexual dimorphism.

Harish R.K

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Endocrine assessment of impotence--pitfalls of measuring serum testosterone without sex-hormone-binding globulin.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The pitfalls of measuring only total serum testosterone are illustrated by a 52 year old man whose hyperprolactinaemia was associated with normal total serum testosterone but a raised sex-hormone-binding globulin, giving a low free testosterone. Prolactin suppression with bromocriptine normalized sex-hormone-binding globulin and free testosterone, and restored potency and energy after 30 years of impotence and tiredness.

Hardy, K. J.; Seckl, J. R.

1994-01-01

162

Extensive esterification of adrenal C19-delta 5-sex steroids to long-chain fatty acids in the ZR-75-1 human breast cancer cell line  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Estrogen-sensitive human breast cancer cells (ZR-75-1) were incubated with the 3H-labeled adrenal C19-delta 5-steroids dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its fully estrogenic derivative, androst-5-ene-3 beta,17 beta-diol (delta 5-diol) for various time intervals. When fractionated by solvent partition, Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography and silica gel TLC, the labeled cell components were largely present (40-75%) in three highly nonpolar, lipoidal fractions. Mild alkaline hydrolysis of these lipoidal derivatives yielded either free 3H-labeled DHEA or delta 5-diol. The three lipoidal fractions cochromatographed with the synthetic DHEA 3 beta-esters, delta 5-diol 3 beta (or 17 beta)-monoesters and delta 5-diol 3 beta,17 beta-diesters of long-chain fatty acids. DHEA and delta 5-diol were mainly esterified to saturated and mono-unsaturated fatty acids. For delta 5-diol, the preferred site of esterification of the fatty acids is the 3 beta-position while some esterification also takes place at the 17 beta-position. Time course studies show that ZR-75-1 cells accumulate delta 5-diol mostly (greater than 95%) as fatty acid mono- and diesters while DHEA is converted to delta 5-diol essentially as the esterified form. Furthermore, while free C19-delta 5-steroids rapidly diffuse out of the cells after removal of the precursor (3H)delta 5-diol, the fatty acid ester derivatives are progressively hydrolyzed, and DHEA and delta 5-diol thus formed are then sulfurylated prior to their release into the culture medium. The latter process however is rate-limited, since new steady-state levels of free steroids and fatty acid esters are rapidly reached and maintained for extended periods of time after removal of precursor, thus maintaining minimal concentrations of intracellular steroids.

Poulin, R.; Poirier, D.; Merand, Y.; Theriault, C.; Belanger, A.; Labrie, F.

1989-06-05

163

A dual estrogen receptor TR-FRET assay for simultaneous measurement of steroid site binding and coactivator recruitment.  

Science.gov (United States)

The human estrogen receptors (hER) are members of the nuclear hormone receptor (NHR) superfamily and represent important drug targets for the pharmaceutical industry. Initially, ligand binding assays were used to identify novel ligands using receptors purified from native tissues. With the advent of molecular cloning techniques, cell-based transactivation assays have been the gold standard for many years of drug discovery. With the elucidation of the structural mechanisms underlying the activation of NHRs, cell-free assays with purified receptors have become important tools to directly assess different binding sites (e.g., the hormone binding site or the cofactor binding site). The available cell-free assays have so far facilitated the study of one binding site at a time. With the introduction of Terbium (Tb(3+))-based time-resolved fluorescence energy transfer (TR-FRET), it has become possible to measure 2 different interactions within 1 test tube in parallel. The authors have applied this technology to develop a dual readout system for the simultaneous monitoring of steroid hormone site binding and cofactor peptide recruitment. They took advantage of a commercially available fluorescent tracer as an indicator for classical steroid site binding and designed a novel peptide derived from the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1a (PGC1a) as an indicator for functional agonistic behavior of a test compound. The established assay is able to differentiate between agonists, antagonists, partial agonists, and compounds binding to the cofactor recruitment site. The IC(50) values obtained for a number of reference compounds in the multiplexed assay are in concordance with published data. The simple 1-step mix-and-measure protocol gives excellent quality and robustness and can be miniaturized to 5-microL volume. PMID:20150592

Hilal, Tarek; Puetter, Vera; Otto, Christiane; Parczyk, Karsten; Bader, Benjamin

2010-03-01

164

Steroid catabolism in marine and freshwater fish.  

Science.gov (United States)

Steroids play important roles in regulating many physiological functions in marine and freshwater fish. Levels of active steroid in blood and tissues are determined by the balance between synthetic and catabolic processes. This review examines what is known about pathways of catabolism of steroids, primarily sex steroids, in marine and freshwater fish. Cytochrome P450 (P450) isoforms present in hepatic microsomes catalyze steroid hydroxylation to metabolites with lower or no activity at estrogen or androgen receptors. Important pathways of steroid catabolism to readily excreted metabolites are glucuronidation and sulfonation of hydroxyl groups. Estradiol, testosterone, DHEA and hydroxylated metabolites of these and other steroids readily form glucuronide and sulfate conjugates in those fish species where these pathways have been examined. Little is known, however, of the structure and function of the UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) and sulfotransferase (SULT) enzymes involved in steroid conjugation in fish. Glucuronide and sulfate conjugates of steroids may be transported into and out of cells by organic anion transporter proteins and multi-drug resistance proteins, and there is growing evidence that these proteins play important roles in steroid conjugate transport and elimination. Induction or inhibition of any of these pathways by environmental chemicals can result in alteration of the natural balance of steroid hormones and could lead to disruption of the endocrine system. Recent studies in this area are presented, with particular focus on phase II (conjugative) pathways. PMID:20955793

James, Margaret O

2011-11-01

165

Designer steroids.  

Science.gov (United States)

Anabolic steroids have been studied for over 50 years and during that time numerous compounds with a variety of functional groups have been produced and many have been published. Of these only a small number have been introduced to the pharmaceutical market. WADA has continued the work begun by the IOC banning the use of these agents within sport as performance enhancing substances. Athletes, however, continue to use these anabolic steroids but tighter testing and the introduction of unannounced sample collection has made this form of cheating harder.In order to try to evade detection, athletes who continue to dope are having to resort to the use of a far more dangerous form of drug - the designer steroid. These steroids are manufactured to closely resemble existing known compounds, but with sufficient chemical diversity to ensure that their detection by the WADA accredited laboratories is more difficult. A worrying feature of the use of these compounds is that no data is available to evaluate either the efficacy or the safety of these substances. Many such drugs are now being made in clandestine ways (as demonstrated by the recent BALCO case) and then passed on to athletes who become the guinea pigs determining the potential of the substances as doping agents.Methods for the detection of these new compounds are being developed using emerging techniques such as gas chromatography or liquid chromatography attached to a variety of mass spectrometry instruments. This technology as well as vigilance by laboratories and enforcement agencies can all help in early detection of designer steroids being used for doping. PMID:20020364

Kazlauskas, Ray

2010-01-01

166

Serum Steroid and Sex Hormone-Binding Globulin Concentrations and the Risk of Incident Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia: Results From the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The authors conducted a nested case-control study of serum steroid concentrations and risk of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), using data from the placebo arm of the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial (1993–2003). Incident BPH over 7 years (n?=?708) was defined as receipt of treatment, a report of 2 International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) values greater than 14, or 2 increases of 5 or more from baseline IPSS values with at least 1 value greater than or equal to 12. Controls (n?=?...

Kristal, Alan R.; Schenk, Jeannette M.; Song, Yoonju; Arnold, Kathryn B.; Neuhouser, Marian L.; Goodman, Phyllis J.; Lin, Daniel W.; Stanczyk, Frank Z.; Thompson, Ian M.

2008-01-01

167

Radioimmunoassay of anabolic steroids  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Alternative antisera against 17 ?-methyltestosterone and 19-nortestosterone were raised and used for radioimmunoassay of anabolic steroids. Tritiated compounds were used as radioligands. The RIA method suitable for doping control is proposed for 17 ?-alkylated anabolic steroids in both plasma and urine, using qoat antiserum against methyltestosterone-3-carboxymethyloxime-BSA. Sensitivity of the method was expressed as least amount of nonradioactive methandienone which, when added to normal urine or plasma, caused statistically significant decrease of measured supernatant radioactivity at 99% level. The amounts from 50 to 500 pg were tested, each in eight parallel determinations. The amounts of 100 pg for plasma and 200 pg for urine met these criteria. The respective coefficients of variation did not depend on the amount of steroid added in this range. They averaged 4.60% for plasma and 4.95% for urine, respectively. (T.I.)

168

Simultaneous plasma and saliva steroid measurements as an index of control in congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). A longitudinal study.  

Science.gov (United States)

A detailed study involving simultaneous measurements of plasma and saliva 17OH-progesterone (17OHP), and plasma testosterone concentrations was performed at frequent intervals over a 3-year period in 16 patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). There was a close correlation between the results of these three biochemical measurements over a wide range of concentrations. The practical application of a sensitive saliva 17OHP radioimmunoassay permitted detailed monitoring of patients receiving various glucocorticoid preparations through repeated frequent saliva sampling over the whole day. When the results of serial steroid measurements were analysed in relation to growth velocity in prepubertal patients, it was possible to device upper limits of 40 nmol/l, 0.8 nmol/l and 1,500 pmol/l for plasma 17OHP, plasma testosterone and saliva 17OHP concentrations, respectively, in well-controlled patients. Applying these guidelines from the early onset of treatment should ensure normal growth potential in treated CAH children, at least until puberty. PMID:7106699

Hughes, I A; Read, G F

1982-01-01

169

Steroid requirements during radiotherapy for malignant gliomas.  

Science.gov (United States)

Radiotherapy (RT) is the standard treatment for high-grade gliomas. However, toxicity may develop during RT, such as brain edema or worsening of neurological symptoms. Surprisingly, no dedicated study had focused on steroid requirements during RT in adult patients with malignant gliomas. We evaluated prospectively all patients with malignant gliomas treated by RT in a single center from July 2006 to May 2009. Age, sex, initial Karnofsky performance status (KPS), tumor localization and histology, type of surgical resection, clinical target volume, total dose and duration of RT, concomitant treatment with temozolomide, and steroid dosage during RT and at 1 and 3 months after RT were recorded in all patients. Most of the 80 patients (70%) were already taking steroids before RT. Half of them (55%) required initiation or further steroids increase during RT. The median time to steroid increase was 8 days. Only 13% of patients remained free of steroids during RT, and the mean maximal dosage of prednisone was 55 ± 48 mg. At 3 months after RT, 29% of patients were free of steroids, and the mean prednisone dosage was 32 ± 50 mg. Unresected tumors and initial KPS ?80% were the only variables associated with higher steroid requirements on multivariate analysis. In our series, almost all patients required steroids during RT. Poor initial KPS and biopsy were associated with higher steroid requirements. PMID:20186461

Marantidou, Athina; Levy, Christine; Duquesne, Alyette; Ursu, Renata; Bailon, Olivier; Coman, Irene; Belin, Catherine; Carpentier, Antoine F

2010-10-01

170

Steroid signaling and temperature-dependent sex determination-Reviewing the evidence for early action of estrogen during ovarian determination in turtles.  

Science.gov (United States)

The developmental processes underlying gonadal differentiation are conserved across vertebrates, but the triggers initiating these trajectories are extremely variable. The red-eared slider turtle (Trachemys scripta elegans) exhibits temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD), a system where incubation temperature during a temperature-sensitive period of development determines offspring sex. However, gonadal sex is sensitive to both temperature and hormones during this period-particularly estrogen. We present a model for temperature-based differences in aromatase expression as a critical step in ovarian determination. Localized estrogen production facilitates ovarian development while inhibiting male-specific gene expression. At male-producing temperatures aromatase is not upregulated, thereby allowing testis development. PMID:18992835

Ramsey, Mary; Crews, David

2009-05-01

171

Are there sex differences in Fetal Abdominal Subcutaneous Tissue (FAST) measurements?  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

OBJECTIVE: To determine if Fetal Abdominal Subcutaneous Tissue (FAST) measurements using antenatal ultrasound differ between male and female fetuses. STUDY DESIGN: Women who had an ultrasound examination for fetal growth between 20 and 40 weeks gestation were studied. Women with diabetes mellitus were excluded. The fetal anterior abdominal subcutaneous tissue was measured on the anterior abdominal wall in millimetres anterior to the margins of the ribs, using magnification at the level of the abdominal circumference. The fetal sex was recorded after delivery. RESULTS: A total of 557 fetuses were measured, 290 male and 267 female. The FAST measurements increased with gestational age. The FAST increased at the same rate for both male and female fetuses and at any given week there was no sex difference. CONCLUSIONS: The increased fat composition in females reported after birth was not found in abdominal wall subcutaneous fat measurements using ultrasound during pregnancy. Antenatal centile charts for FAST do not need to be based on sex.

Farah, Nadine

2012-02-01

172

Immunoradiometric measurement of pS2 in breast cancer. Correlation with steroid receptors and plasminogen activators  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

pS2 was measured by radioimmunometric assay in tumour extracts from 197 breast cancer patients. Values ranged from 0 to 50 ng/mg protein (mean 9.6 and median 3 ng/mg). We found no correlation with age, menopausal status, nodal metastases, disease stage of tumour histology. There was, however, a linear relationship with both ER (p<0.0001) (particularly nuclear ER) and PR (p<0.0001) expression determined by enzyme immunoassay (ELISA), as well as a good correlation when high and low expressors were stratified on the basis of combined ER/PR expression using consensus cut-off points. Only 15% of ER-ve/PR-ve patients were classified as pS2+ve compared with 83% of those who were ER+ve/PR+ve. pS2 was also directly correlated with high expression of tPA and inversely with uPA. Comparison with previous studies showed that the current ELISA method produced consistent results, in contrast to other methods, particularly those based on immunohistochemical detection. The close relationship between pS2 and both steroid receptors suggests that pS2 may be important in terms of defining hormone-responsive patients who are likely to benefit from endocrine therapy. (orig.)

173

Radioimmunoassay of steroid hormone  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Low acid pepsin treated gamma-globulin was applied to ammonium sulfate salting out method, which was a method to separate bound fraction from free one in radioimmunoassay of steroid hormone, and the effect of the separation and the standard curve were examined. Pepsin treated gamma-globulin was prepared in pH 1.5 to 5.5 and then the pepsin was completely removed. It had an effect to accelerate the precipitation in radioimmunoassay of steroid hormone labelled with 3H. The effect of pepsin treated gamma-globulin to adhere free steroid hormone and to slat out bound one was compared with that of human gamma-globulin. Pepsin treated gamma-globulin, which was water soluble, could easier reach its optimal concentration, and the separation effect was better than human gamma-globulin. The standard curve of it was steeper, particularly in a small dose, and the reproducibility was also better. It could be applied not only to aldosterone and DOC, but also to the steroid hormones, such as progesterone and DHEA, and it seemed suitable for routine measurement method. (Kanao, N.)

174

Sex and Self-Control Theory: The Measures and Causal Model May Be Different  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examines the distribution differences across sexes in key measures of self-control theory and differences in a causal model. Using cross-sectional data from juveniles ("n" = 1,500), the study shows mean-level differences in many of the self-control, risky behavior, and delinquency measures. Structural equation modeling findings support…

Higgins, George E.; Tewksbury, Richard

2006-01-01

175

Impulsivity and the Sexes: Measurement and Structural Invariance of the UPPS-P Impulsive Behavior Scale  

Science.gov (United States)

Before it is possible to test whether men and women differ in impulsivity, it is necessary to evaluate whether impulsivity measures are invariant across sex. The UPPS-P Impulsive Behavior Scale (negative urgency, lack of premeditation, lack of perseverance, and sensation seeking, with added subscale of positive urgency) is one measure of five…

Cyders, Melissa A.

2013-01-01

176

Steroids (For Parents)  

Science.gov (United States)

... Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Steroids for Treating Cancer Fitness and Your 13- to 18-Year-Old Kids and Exercise Feeding Your Child Athlete Strength Training and Your Child Compulsive Exercise Steroids Steroids and ...

177

An interlaboratory study measuring sex steroids with RIAs and/or ELISAs: Are we comparing apples to oranges?  

Science.gov (United States)

Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are exogenous substances released into the environment that can lead to adverse reproductive effects in fish by a number of mechanisms including altering circulating levels of estradiol (E2), testosterone (T) and 11-ketotestosterone (11KT). ...

178

Vertical transport of steroid alcohols and ketones measured in a sediment trap experiment in the equatorial Atlantic Ocean  

Science.gov (United States)

The vertical flux and free steroid alcohol (sterol) and ketone composition of particulate material was determined using sediment traps deployed at 389, 988, 3755 and 5068 m at a station in the equatorial North Atlantic, PARFLUX E. Cholest-5-en-3?-ol (cholesterol) was found to be the dominant sterol in all the traps. This compound had a maximum flux at 988 m, accounting for more than 90% of the sterols at this depth. Inputs from mesopelagic Zooplankton populations living in or migrating to depths between the 389 and 988 m traps appear to be responsible for this distribution. The deeper two traps exhibited an increased flux of phytosterols relative to cholesterol, probably due to (a) the incorporation of labile phytoplankton remains in fecal pellets and rapid transport into the deep sea and (b) differential dissolution of heterogeneous large particles. A maximum of 5-22% of the sterols produced in the euphotic zone were present in the 389 m trap. This value drops to less than 1% for the 5068 m trap, 200 m above the sediment surface. In general steroid ketone fluxes gradually decreased with depth. ?4-Stenones were found in greater abundance than their saturated counterparts. Cholest-4-en-3-one was the major steroid ketone detected in all the traps. A five-fold increase with depth in the cholest-4-en-3-one to cholesterol ratio is most likely due to microbial oxidation of sterols to steroid ketones, or higher ?4-stenone inputs relative to sterols from organisms.

Gagosian, Robert B.; Smith, Steven O.; Nigrelli, Gale E.

1982-07-01

179

Influence of sex steroids on the viability and CD11b, CD18 and CD47 expression of blood neutrophils from dairy cows in the last month of gestation.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the period around parturition, cows experience an increased susceptibility for the development of Escherichia coli mastitis. This increased susceptibility has been correlated with a decreased functionality of neutrophils. In the current study, it is suggested that the decreased neutrophil functionality may be induced by the extensive alterations in sex steroid levels occurring around parturition. It was first hypothesized that 17beta-estradiol and progesterone influence the viability, apoptosis and necrosis of blood neutrophils from cows in their last month of gestation. Subsequently, it was hypothesized that 17beta-estradiol modulates the expression of CD11b, CD18 or CD47 thereby explaining its influence on the migration of bovine neutrophils. Neither 17beta-estradiol nor progesterone significantly influenced viability, apoptosis or necrosis in spontaneous apoptosis conditions. However, when apoptosis was induced with TNF-alpha and gliotoxin, progesterone exerted a survival effect (Pprogesterone do not affect spontaneous apoptosis of bovine blood neutrophils while a survival effect was observed for progesterone on induced neutrophils apoptosis. Moreover, our results concerning the influence of 17beta-estradiol on the CD11b, CD18 and CD47 expression extend previous demonstrations of the suppressive effect of 17beta-estradiol on neutrophils migration and indicate that the altered expression of CD47 may contribute to this phenomenon. PMID:16336925

Lamote, Inge; Meyer, Evelyne; De Ketelaere, Adelheid; Duchateau, Luc; Burvenich, Christian

2006-01-01

180

Differentiation of subspecies and sexes of Beringian Dunlins using morphometric measures  

Science.gov (United States)

Five subspecies of Dunlins (Calidris alpina) that breed in Beringia are potentially sympatric during the non-breeding season. Studying their ecology during this period requires techniques to distinguish individuals by subspecies. Our objectives were to determine (1) if five morphometric measures (body mass, culmen, head, tarsus, and wing chord) differed between sexes and among subspecies (C. a. actites, arcticola, kistchinski, pacifica, and sakhalina), and (2) if these differences were sufficient to allow for correct classification of individuals using equations derived from discriminant function analyses. We conducted analyses using morphometric data from 10 Dunlin populations breeding in northern Russia and Alaska, USA. Univariate tests revealed significant differences between sexes in most morphometric traits of all subspecies, and discriminant function equations predicted the sex of individuals with an accuracy of 83–100% for each subspecies. We provide equations to determine sex and subspecies of individuals in mixed subspecies groups, including the (1) Western Alaska group of arcticola and pacifica (known to stage together in western Alaska) and (2) East Asia group of arcticola, actites, kistchinski, and sakhalina (known to winter together in East Asia). Equations that predict the sex of individuals in mixed groups had classification accuracies between 75% and 87%, yielding reliable classification equations. We also provide equations that predict the subspecies of individuals with an accuracy of 22–96% for different mixed subspecies groups. When the sex of individuals can be predetermined, the accuracy of these equations is increased substantially. Investigators are cautioned to consider limitations due to age and feather wear when using these equations during the non-breeding season. These equations will allow determination of sexual and subspecies segregation in non-breeding areas, allowing implementation of taxonomic-specific conservation actions.

Gates, H. River; Yezerinac, Stephen; Powell, Abby N.; Tomkovich, Pavel S.; Valchuk, Olga P.; Lanctot, Richard B.

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Copy-number variations (CNVs) of the human sex steroid metabolizing genes UGT2B17 and UGT2B28 and their associations with a UGT2B15 functional polymorphism.  

Science.gov (United States)

UGT2B17 and UGT2B28 are among the most commonly deleted genes in humans and encode members of the uridine diphosphate (UDP)-glucuronosyltransferase 2B (UGT2B) subfamily. They are involved, along with UGT2B15, in the catabolism of sex-steroid hormones. Despite the recent biomedical interest in UGT2B17 and UGT2B28 copy-number variations (CNVs) within human populations, the impact of their gene dosage has been hampered by the lack of precise molecular identification of the common deletion breakpoints within high homology sequence regions on chromosome 4. We have characterized these common deletions and report their coexistence in Caucasians, along with the p.D85Y (rs1902023:G>T) functional polymorphism of UGT2B15. Segmental duplications of 4.9 kb for UGT2B17 and 6.8 kb for UGT2B28 comprise purine-rich recombination sites located 117 kb and 108 kb apart on both ends of the deletions. CNVs of UGT2B17 and UGT2B28 occur in Caucasians at 27% and 13.5%, respectively. While only 43% have two copies of both genes, 57% harbor at least one deletion. Their co-occurrence on 5% of chromosomes creates a 225-kb genomic gap. CNVs of both UGT2B17 and UGT2B28, with the co-occurrence of UGT2B15:p.D85Y, generate seven distinct haplotypes. Restricting the analyses to CNV of the UGT2B17 gene without evaluating UGT2B28 CNV, along with the genotype of UGT2B15, may over- or underestimate the impact of each gene under physiological conditions or disease states. PMID:19572376

Ménard, Vincent; Eap, Olivier; Harvey, Mario; Guillemette, Chantal; Lévesque, Eric

2009-09-01

182

Oral Steroids (Steroid Pills and Syrups)  

Science.gov (United States)

... and are not the same as the anabolic steroids used illegally by some athletes for bodybuilding. Corticosteroids do not affect the liver or cause sterility Available as pills and syrups. Often necessary ... disease, routine daily steroid pills may be required. Because long-term treatment ...

183

The Effects of [D-Ala6 Pro9 NEt]-LHRHa and LHRHa + Pimozide on Plasma Sex Steroid Profiles in Adult Female Seabream (Sparus aurata  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present study examined changes in the concentrations of plasma testosterone (T, progesterone (P4 and estradiol-17ß (E2 to determine changes in serum hormone profiles during the functional female phases in Sparus aurata. The fish were treated with [D-Ala6 Pro9 NEt]- luteinizing hormone releasing hormone analogue (LHRHa alone, LHRHa plus pimozide (PIM and Physiological Saline (PS alone to stimulate gonadal development and sexual maturation. All fish were sampled and plasma levels of oestradiol (E2 Testosterone (T and progesterone (P4 were measured by radioimmuno assay. LHRHa treatment alone, or in combination with PIM, elevated serum E2 and T concentrations (p<0.05 at 6, 24, 48 h after treatments while plasma P4 concentrations were unaffected by the treatments (p>0.05. Vitellogenesis was also stimulated by a combined LHRHa and PIM treatment. Responses to treatment with LHRHa plus PIM were comparable to those treated with LHRHa alone (p>0.05, suggesting that dopamine receptor antagonist, pimozide may not inhibit dopamine secretion in S. aurata.

Sehriban Cek

2006-01-01

184

Conceptualization and measurement of homosexuality in sex surveys: a critical review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article reviews major national population sex surveys that have asked questions about homosexuality focusing on conceptual and methodological issues, including the definitions of sex, the measured aspects of homosexuality, sampling and interviewing technique, and questionnaire design. Reported rates of major measures of same-sex attraction, behavior, partners, and sexual identity from surveys are also presented and compared. The study of homosexuality in surveys has been shaped by the research traditions and questions ranging from sexology to the epidemiology of HIV/AIDS. Sexual behavior has been a central topic at least since Kinsey. Issues of sexual attraction and/or orientation and sexual identity have emerged more recently. Differences in the treatment of men and women in the design and analysis of surveys as well as in the reported rates in different surveys, in different countries and time periods are also presented and discussed. We point out the importance of the consideration of both methodological and social change issues in assessing such differences.

Michaels Stuart

2006-01-01

185

Clinical significance of combined measurement of serum sex hormones in secondary amenorrhea  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To study the clinical significance of changes of levels of serum sex hormones in the diagnosis of the types of secondary amenorrhea. Methods: Serum sex hormones levels were measured with chemiluminescence in 100 patients with secondary amenorrhea and 42 controls. The serum hormones determined were: estradiol (E2)-, progesterone (PROG), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)-, luteinizing hormone (LH), prolactin (PRL), testosterone (TSTO). Results: Patients with secondary amenorrhea had significantly higher levels of serum FSH, LH and PRL ( P2 (P<0.05) than those in the controls. Serum levels of PROG and TSTO were about the same in the patients and controls. Conclusion: Determination of serum hormones levels with chemiluminescence is clinically useful for diagnosis of the types of secondary amenorrhea. (authors)

186

Hypercholesterolemia in Male Power Lifters Using Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids.  

Science.gov (United States)

Measurement of serum cholesterol concentrations in male power lifters who used anabolic-androgenic steroids for eight weeks, three years, or eight years indicated that mean serum cholesterol levels increased with drug use, but decreased promptly to near pre-steroid levels after steroid use ended. (Author/CB)

Cohen, Jonathan C.; And Others

1988-01-01

187

Adrenal Steroids Uniquely Influence Sexual Motivation Behavior in Male Rats  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The androgenic adrenal steroids dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA and 4?-androstenedione (4-A have significant biological activity, but it is unclear if the behavioral effects are unique or only reflections of the effects of testosterone (TS. Gonadally intact male Long-Evans rats were assigned to groups to receive supplements of DHEA, 4-A, TS, corticosteroid (CORT, all at 400 µg steroid/kg of body weight, or vehicle only for 5 weeks. All males were tested in a paradigm for sexual motivation that measures time and urinary marks near an inaccessible receptive female. It was found that DHEA and 4-A supplements failed to influence time near the estrous female in the same way TS supplements did, and, indeed, 5 weeks of 4-A administration reduced the time similar to the suppressive effects of CORT after 3 weeks. Further, animals treated with DHEA or 4-A left fewer urinary marks near an estrous female than TS and control groups. These results suggest that DHEA and 4-A are not merely precursors of sex hormones, and provide support for these steroids influencing the brain and behavior in a unique fashion that is dissimilar from the effects of TS on male sexual behavior.

George T. Taylor

2012-08-01

188

Steroids as ?-secretase modulators  

Science.gov (United States)

Aggregation and accumulation of A?42 play an initiating role in Alzheimer's disease (AD); thus, selective lowering of A?42 by ?-secretase modulators (GSMs) remains a promising approach to AD therapy. Based on evidence suggesting that steroids may influence A? production, we screened 170 steroids at 10 ?M for effects on A?42 secreted from human APP-overexpressing Chinese hamster ovary cells. Many acidic steroids lowered A?42, whereas many nonacidic steroids actually raised A?42. Studies on the more potent compounds showed that A?42-lowering steroids were bonafide GSMs and A?42-raising steroids were inverse GSMs. The most potent steroid GSM identified was 5?-cholanic acid (EC50=5.7 ?M; its endogenous analog lithocholic acid was virtually equipotent), and the most potent inverse GSM identified was 4-androsten-3-one-17?-carboxylic acid ethyl ester (EC50=6.25 ?M). In addition, we found that both estrogen and progesterone are weak inverse GSMs with further complex effects on APP processing. These data suggest that certain endogenous steroids may have the potential to act as GSMs and add to the evidence that cholesterol, cholesterol metabolites, and other steroids may play a role in modulating A? production and thus risk for AD. They also indicate that acidic steroids might serve as potential therapeutic leads for drug optimization/development.—Jung, J. I., Ladd, T. B., Kukar, T., Price, A. R., Moore, B. D., Koo, E. H., Golde, T. E., Felsenstein, K. M. Steroids as ?-secretase modulators. PMID:23716494

Jung, Joo In; Ladd, Thomas B.; Kukar, Thomas; Price, Ashleigh R.; Moore, Brenda D.; Koo, Edward H.; Golde, Todd E.; Felsenstein, Kevin M.

2013-01-01

189

Reproductive Aging, Sex Steroids, and Mood Disorders  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Epidemiologic studies have documented that the majority of women do not become depressed during the menopause transition. However, recent longitudinal studies suggest that in some women, the events related to the menopause transition could play a role in the onset of depression. In this article we review evidence suggesting a relationship between the menopause transition and depression. Additionally, we describe several findings that suggest a role of ovarian hormones in the onset of these de...

Harsh, Veronica; Meltzer-brody, Samantha; Rubinow, David R.; Schmidt, Peter J.

2009-01-01

190

Sex Steroids and Stem Cell Function  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Gender dimorphisms exist in the pathogenesis of a variety of cardiovascular, cardiopulmonary, neurodegenerative, and endocrine disorders. Estrogens exert immense influence on myocardial remodeling following ischemic insult, partially through paracrine growth hormone production by bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and endothelial progenitor cells. Estrogens also facilitate the mobilization of endothelial progenitor cells to the ischemic myocardium and enhance neovascularization at the ...

Ray, Rinki; Novotny, Nathan M.; Crisostomo, Paul R.; Lahm, Tim; Abarbanell, Aaron; Meldrum, Daniel R.

2008-01-01

191

Recent advances in steroid radioimmunoassay  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The advances since 1974 in the techniques of measuring steroid molecules by radioimmunoassay are reviewed in this paper. They are considered under the following headings: preparation and use of antisera; preparation and use of tracers; preparation of biological samples before assay; dispensing of the reagents in the assay; separation of free and bound radioactivity; counting and data processing; quality control and standardization. (orig.)

192

Age- and sex-related changes in bone mass measured by neutron activation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Total-body calcium (TBCa) measurements have been employed in two basic types of studies. In the first type, serial measurements made on an individual patient are used to trace the time variation in body calcium. In the second type of study, the absolute total body calcium of an individual is determined and compared to a standard or predicted value in order to determine the deficit or excess of calcium. Generally, the standards are derived from data obtained from normal populations and grouped by the parameters of age and sex (mean value denoted TBCa/sub m/). In the study reported in this paper, the clinical usefulness of predicted calcium (TBCa/sub p/) is evaluated. The predicted value (TBCa/sub p/) for an individual is obtained with an algorithm utilizing values of sex and age, height and lean body mass (as derived from /sup 40/K measurement). The latter two components characterize skeletal size and body habitus, respectively. For the study, 133 white women and 71 white men ranging in age from 20 to 80 years were selected from a larger population. Individuals with evidence of metabolic calcium disorders or osteoporosis were excluded. Additionally, the women and men selected were first judged to have total body potassium levels in the normal range. For each age decade, the variance of TBCa values of these individuals, when expressed in terms of TBCa/sub p/, was significantly less than when expressed in terms of TBCa/sub m/. Thus, erroneous conclusions based on Ca deficit in osteoporosis could be drawn for individuals whose height and body size differ markedly from the average, as the variation of their TBCa values often exceeds the variation in the age and sex cohort. Data on a group of osteoporotic women were compared with the normal skeletal baseline values both in terms of the TBCa and the TBCa/sub p/ values.

Cohn, S.H.; Aloia, J.F.; Vaswani, A.N.; Zanzi, I.; Vartsky, D.; Ellis, K.J.

1981-01-01

193

Age- and sex-related changes in bone mass measured by neutron activation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Total-body calcium (TBCa) measurements have been employed in two basic types of studies. In the first type, serial measurements made on an individual patient are used to trace the time variation in body calcium. In the second type of study, the absolute total body calcium of an individual is determined and compared to a standard or predicted value in order to determine the deficit or excess of calcium. Generally, the standards are derived from data obtained from normal populations and grouped by the parameters of age and sex (mean value denoted TBCa/sub m/). In the study reported in this paper, the clinical usefulness of predicted calcium (TBCa/sub p/) is evaluated. The predicted value (TBCa/sub p/) for an individual is obtained with an algorithm utilizing values of sex and age, height and lean body mass (as derived from 40K measurement). The latter two components characterize skeletal size and body habitus, respectively. For the study, 133 white women and 71 white men ranging in age from 20 to 80 years were selected from a larger population. Individuals with evidence of metabolic calcium disorders or osteoporosis were excluded. Additionally, the women and men selected were first judged to have total body potassium levels in the normal range. For each age decade, the variance of TBCa values of these individuals, when expressed in terms of TBCa/sub p/, was significantly less than when expressed in terms of TBCa/sub m/. Thus, erroneous conclusions based on Ca deficit in osteoporosis could be drawn for individuals whose height and body size differ markedly from the average, as the variation of their TBCa values often exceeds the variation in the age and sex cohort. Data on a group of osteoporotic women were compared with the normal skeletal baseline values both in terms of the TBCa and the TBCa/sub p/ values

194

Steroids as ?-secretase modulators.  

Science.gov (United States)

Aggregation and accumulation of A?42 play an initiating role in Alzheimer's disease (AD); thus, selective lowering of A?42 by ?-secretase modulators (GSMs) remains a promising approach to AD therapy. Based on evidence suggesting that steroids may influence A? production, we screened 170 steroids at 10 ?M for effects on A?42 secreted from human APP-overexpressing Chinese hamster ovary cells. Many acidic steroids lowered A?42, whereas many nonacidic steroids actually raised A?42. Studies on the more potent compounds showed that A?42-lowering steroids were bonafide GSMs and A?42-raising steroids were inverse GSMs. The most potent steroid GSM identified was 5?-cholanic acid (EC50=5.7 ?M; its endogenous analog lithocholic acid was virtually equipotent), and the most potent inverse GSM identified was 4-androsten-3-one-17?-carboxylic acid ethyl ester (EC50=6.25 ?M). In addition, we found that both estrogen and progesterone are weak inverse GSMs with further complex effects on APP processing. These data suggest that certain endogenous steroids may have the potential to act as GSMs and add to the evidence that cholesterol, cholesterol metabolites, and other steroids may play a role in modulating A? production and thus risk for AD. They also indicate that acidic steroids might serve as potential therapeutic leads for drug optimization/development. PMID:23716494

Jung, Joo In; Ladd, Thomas B; Kukar, Thomas; Price, Ashleigh R; Moore, Brenda D; Koo, Edward H; Golde, Todd E; Felsenstein, Kevin M

2013-09-01

195

MR measurement of normal pituitary gland height on midsagittal section: Age and sex differentiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Measurement of the normal pituitary gland height was performed on magnetic resonance (MR) images of 144 subjects with no known or suspected pituitary or hypothalamic diseases. Midsagittal T1 weighted images(T1WI) were used for measurement, and mean vertical height according to age and sex group was obtained. In all age groups, the pituitary height was greater in females than in male. The group of 0-9 years in both genders showed the minimum mean pituitary height. The maximum mean height was observed in the 10-19 years age group in both genders. The height gradually decreases with increasing age after age 20 years. There was no subject with a height more than 9.0 mm in females or 8.0 mm in males. In conclusion the measurement of the normal pituitary gland height using mid-sagittal MR imaging can be used for the evaluation of the pituitary gland lesions

196

Sex assignment of lake sturgeon (Acipenser fluvescens) based on plasma sex hormone and vitellogenin levels  

Science.gov (United States)

This study focused on identifying the sex of lake sturgeon by measuring the sex hormones estradiol and testosterone, and the phosphoprotein vitellogenin (Vtg) in blood plasma by radioimmunoassay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively, and evaluating these techniques as tools in lake sturgeon population management. Surveys of the St Clair River (SCR) lake sturgeon population have characterized it as rebounding by having steady or increasing recruitment since 1997. However, researchers have not been able to effectively determine the sex for most of the sturgeon they capture because few fish caught during surveys are releasing gametes. A total of 115 fish were sampled from May through June in 2004 and 2005 from the SCR, Michigan, USA. Of these, only four females and eight males were verified (i.e. they were releasing gametes at time of capture), resulting in very few fish with which to validate blood hormone and Vtg biomarkers of sex. Fifty-six percent of the fish were assigned a sex designation based on biomarker criteria. Correspondence between actual gonadal sex and biomarker-directed classification was good for the small subset of fish for which gonadal sex was definitively determined. Moreover, application of the steroid values in a predictive sex assignment model developed for white sturgeon misclassified only the same two fish that were misclassified with the steroid and Vtg biomarkers. The experimental results suggest a sex ratio of 1 : 2.7 (F:M), however more conclusive methods are needed to confirm this ratio because so few fish were available for sex validation. Of the 43 males, 14 were within the legal slot limit, 11 were smaller than 1067 mm total length (TL), and 18 were larger than 1270 mm TL. All 15 females were larger than 1270 mm TL, and thus protected by the slot limit criteria. Considering that lake sturgeon are threatened in Michigan, an advantage to using blood plasma assays was that fish were not harmed, and sample collection was quick, simple, and inexpensive. However, because a sufficiently large number of fish could not be validated for gonadal sex due to handling restrictions given the fish's protected status, assignment of sex is not based on a robust multi-variate model. An immediate alternative may be to use other non-invasive field methods (e.g. ultrasound, fiber-optic endoscope) to provide a more timely classification while establishing well-validated plasma hormone and Vtg-based predictive models for sex assignment of lake sturgeon. ?? 2009 Blackwell Verlag, Berlin.

Craig, J. M.; Papoulias, D. M.; Thomas, M. V.; Annis, M. L.; Boase, J.

2009-01-01

197

Steroid hormones and bone  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Steroid hormones have an important impact on bone. The mechanism of steroid action on bone cells is through an interaction with specific receptor proteins in the target cells. Steroid receptors are a class of molecules that function as both signal transducers and transcription factors. The receptors each have similar functional domains that are responsible for discrete functions. The mechanism of receptor action is mediated by both genomic and nongenomic pathwa...

Huang, W. H.; Zheng, M. H.

1999-01-01

198

Anabolic Steroid Abuse  

Science.gov (United States)

Launched this month by the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA), this Website offers research about the abuse of anabolic steroids and provides support to educators and policymakers interested in educating the public, especially teenagers, about the problem. The site provides substantial medical information in layman's terms about the composition, use, and potentially harmful effects of steroids. The site also gives statistics from the Institute's Monitoring the Future Study that shows a "significant increase" in steroid use from 1998 to 1999 among middle school males. Links for further information and education strategies are also provided. The Website is part of NIDA's Education Initiative: Science, Steroids, and Youth.

199

When Public Protection becomes Punishment? – The UK Use of Civil Measures to Contain Sex Offender  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The last ten years has witnessed an increased use of the civil law in the UK to contain and incapacitate the sex offender. These measures have been introduced to improve community safety and public protection, as the criminal law seeks to punish and condemn. This paper explores the contention that the civil and criminal law are in danger of becoming confused and the line between the two becoming blurred. At worst the civil law is in danger of becoming a form of criminal punishment in its own right and those charged with implementing it, in danger of getting their roles confused. What starts out as a civil regulatory or administrative arrangement for public safety becomes increasingly obstructive, has ‘gate-ways’ to criminal proceedings and is implemented in a punitive fashion.

Terry Thomas

2006-05-01

200

Days on feed and sex effects on live weight and carcass traits measured by ultrasound  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available There is a paucity of information in the literature on body composition changes in Nellore cattle and its crosses, mainly on heifers and intact males. Ultrasound is a useful, low cost tool to easily obtain this information, with minimal animal stress. Effects of sex and days on feed on live weight (LW and ultrasound Longissimus muscle area (ULMA and subcutaneous fat thickness (UFAT measurements were evaluated in F1 Piedmont Nelore, 27 heifers (HF and 27 intact males (IM. HF and IM had an initial LW of 256 ? 5.6 and 265 ? 5.6 kg, respectively, and were fed a diet containing 77% TDN for 131 days. LW, ULMA, and UFAT were evaluated at 28-d intervals. Interactions between sex and days on feed were found for all traits studied. LW increased linearly with days on feed, and IM had greater LW than HF throughout the trial. Mean initial ULMA was 55.8 and 55.5 cm² for HF and IM, respectively, and increased linearly until the end of the experiment (78.7 and 82.8 cm², respectively. IM showed higher ULMA than HF only in the last measurement. Initial UFAT averaged 0.04 and 0.4 mm for IM and HF, respectively, and increased linearly during the feeding period (2.4 and 4.3 mm, respectively. UFAT was higher n HF than in IM during the entire experimental period. IM showed faster growth rates and protein accretion than HF in the Longissimus muscle. HF showed faster subcutaneous fat accretion.

Silva Saulo da Luz e

2005-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Steroid Signaling and Temperature-Dependent Sex Determination – Reviewing the Evidence for Early Action of Estrogen during Ovarian Determination in the Red-Eared Slider Turtle (Trachemys scripta elegans)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The developmental processes underlying gonadal differentiation are conserved across vertebrates, but the triggers initiating these trajectories are extremely variable. The red-eared slider turtle (Trachemys scripta elegans) exhibits temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD), a system where incubation temperature during a temperature-sensitive period of development determines offspring sex. However, gonadal sex is sensitive to both temperature and hormones during this period – particular...

Ramsey, Mary; Crews, David

2009-01-01

202

Quantification of steroids and endocrine disrupting chemicals in rat ovaries by LC-MS/MS for reproductive toxicology assessment.  

Science.gov (United States)

Reproductive function is controlled by a finely tuned balance of androgens and estrogens. Environmental toxicants, notably endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), appear to be involved in the disruption of hormonal balance in several studies. To further describe the effects of selected EDCs on steroid secretion in female rats, we aim to simultaneously investigate the EDC concentration and the sex hormone balance in the ovaries. Therefore, an effective method has been developed for the quantification of the sex steroid hormones (testosterone, androstenedione, estradiol, and estrone) and four endocrine disrupting chemicals (bisphenol A, atrazine, and the active metabolites of methoxychlor and vinclozolin) in rat ovaries. The sample preparation procedure is based on the so-called "quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe" approach, and an analytical method was developed to quantify these compounds with low detection limits by liquid chromatography coupled with a tandem mass spectrometer. This analytical method, applied to rat ovary samples following subacute EDC exposure, revealed some new findings for toxicological evaluation. In particular, we showed that EDCs with the same described in vitro mechanisms of action have different effects on the gonadal steroid balance. These results highlight the need to develop an integrative evaluation with the simultaneous measurement of EDCs and numerous steroids for good risk assessment. PMID:22526662

Quignot, Nadia; Tournier, Mikaël; Pouech, Charlène; Cren-Olivé, Cécile; Barouki, Robert; Lemazurier, Emmanuel

2012-06-01

203

Gonadal steroid modulation of sleep and wakefulness in male and female rats is sexually differentiated and neonatally organized by steroid exposure.  

Science.gov (United States)

The paucity of clinical and preclinical studies investigating sex differences in sleep has resulted in mixed findings as to the exact nature of these differences. Although gonadal steroids are known to modulate sleep in females, less is known about males. Moreover, little evidence exists concerning the origin of these sex differences in sleep behavior. Thus, the goal of this study was to directly compare the sensitivity of sleep behavior in male and female Sprague Dawley rats to changes in the gonadal steroid milieu and to test whether the sex differences in sleep are the result of brain sexual differentiation or differences in circulating gonadal steroids. Here we report the magnitude of change in sleep behavior induced by either estradiol (E2) or testosterone (T) was greater in females compared with males, suggesting that sleep behavior in females is more sensitive to the suppressive effects of gonadal steroids. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the organizational effects of early gonadal steroid exposure result in male-like responsivity to gonadal steroids and directly alter the activity of the ventrolateral preoptic area (VLPO), an established sleep-promoting nucleus, in adult masculinized females. Moreover, the nonaromatizable androgen dihydrotestosterone did not suppress sleep in either males or females, suggesting that the T-mediated effect in females was due to the aromatization of T into E2. Together our data suggest that, like sex behavior, sex differences in sleep follow the classical organizational/activational effects of gonadal steroids. PMID:24189140

Cusmano, Danielle M; Hadjimarkou, Maria M; Mong, Jessica A

2014-01-01

204

Parent-reported measures of child health and wellbeing in same-sex parent families: a cross-sectional survey  

Science.gov (United States)

Background It has been suggested that children with same-sex attracted parents score well in psychosocial aspects of their health, however questions remain about the impact of stigma on these children. Research to date has focused on lesbian parents and has been limited by small sample sizes. This study aims to describe the physical, mental and social wellbeing of Australian children with same-sex attracted parents, and the impact that stigma has on them. Methods A cross-sectional survey, the Australian Study of Child Health in Same-Sex Families, was distributed in 2012 to a convenience sample of 390 parents from Australia who self-identified as same-sex attracted and had children aged 0-17 years. Parent-reported, multidimensional measures of child health and wellbeing and the relationship to perceived stigma were measured. Results 315 parents completed the survey (completion rate?=?81%) representing 500 children. 80% of children had a female index parent while 18% had a male index parent. Children in same-sex parent families had higher scores on measures of general behavior, general health and family cohesion compared to population normative data (??=?2.93, 95% CI?=?0.35 to 5.52, P?=?.03; ??=?5.60, 95% CI?=?2.69 to 8.52, P?=?same-sex attracted parents score higher than population samples on a number of parent-reported measures of child health. Perceived stigma is negatively associated with mental health. Through improved awareness of stigma these findings play an important role in health policy, improving child health outcomes. PMID:24952766

2014-01-01

205

The steroid benefit in treating complicated haemangioma  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The clinical study included 30 patients with complicated cutaneous haemangioma (ulceration, bleeding, obstruction of anatomical orifices, and interference with function or movement. The patients were studied regarding the age group, sex, site of lesion, size of lesion, and the percentage of regression after treatment with steroid. The age ranged from three months to six years, there were 20 female patients and 10 male patients. We used local injection of diluted triamcinolone 4 mg with 5 ml. 0.9% NACI (normal saline, injected through 23-guage syringe under local or general anaesthesia every two weeks for six to eight sessions depending on the severity of the case, followed by a local pressure dressing. We measured the size of the lesion before each session and recorded the regression of the lesion. The patients were followed up for two years. Haemangioma commonly presents in infants and children, most commonly in females, especially in the head and neck and are usually of a small size. It regresses if the treatment is started earlier.

Saleh Kamal

2009-01-01

206

Motor function measure scale, steroid therapy and patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy Medida de função motora, corticoterapia e pacientes com distrofia muscular de Duchenne  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the evolution of motor function in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD treated with steroids (prednisolone or deflazacort through the Motor Function Measure (MFM, which evaluates three dimensions of motor performance (D1, D2, D3. METHODS: Thirty-three patients with DMD (22 ambulant, 6 non-ambulant and 5 who lost the capacity to walk during the period of the study were assessed using the MFM scale six times over a period of 18 months. RESULTS: All the motor functions remained stable for 14 months in all patients, except D1 for those who lost their walking ability. In ambulant patients, D2 (axial and proximal motor capacities motor functions improved during six months; an improvement in D3 (distal motor capacity was noted during the total follow-up. D1 (standing posture and transfers and total score were useful to predict the loss of the ability to walk. CONCLUSIONS: The use of the MFM in DMD patients confirms the benefits of the steroid treatment for slowing the progression of the disease.OBJETIVO: Avaliar a evolução da função motora de pacientes com distrofia muscular de Duchenne (DMD em corticoterapia (predinisolona e deflazacort, por meio da escala Medida da Função Motora (MFM, que avalia três dimensões de funções motoras (D1, D2, D3. MÉTODOS: Trinta e três pacientes com DMD (22 deambulantes, seis cadeirantes e cinco que perderam a capacidade de andar ao longo do estudo foram avaliados pela escala MFM em seis momentos durante 18 meses. RESULTADOS: Todas as funções motoras mantiveram-se estáveis durante 14 meses, exceto D1 para os pacientes que perderam a marcha. Nos pacientes deambulantes, a D2 (função motora axial e proximal apresentou melhora durante seis meses. Melhora em D3 (função motora distal também foi observada durante o seguimento. A D1 (postura em pé e transferências e o escore total foram importantes para predizer a perda de marcha. CONCLUSÕES: O uso da MFM nos pacientes com DMD confirma os benefícios do tratamento com corticoides na diminuição da velocidade de progressão da doença.

Elaine C. da Silva

2012-03-01

207

Motor function measure scale, steroid therapy and patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy / Medida de função motora, corticoterapia e pacientes com distrofia muscular de Duchenne  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Avaliar a evolução da função motora de pacientes com distrofia muscular de Duchenne (DMD) em corticoterapia (predinisolona e deflazacort), por meio da escala Medida da Função Motora (MFM), que avalia três dimensões de funções motoras (D1, D2, D3). MÉTODOS: Trinta e três pacientes com DMD ( [...] 22 deambulantes, seis cadeirantes e cinco que perderam a capacidade de andar ao longo do estudo) foram avaliados pela escala MFM em seis momentos durante 18 meses. RESULTADOS: Todas as funções motoras mantiveram-se estáveis durante 14 meses, exceto D1 para os pacientes que perderam a marcha. Nos pacientes deambulantes, a D2 (função motora axial e proximal) apresentou melhora durante seis meses. Melhora em D3 (função motora distal) também foi observada durante o seguimento. A D1 (postura em pé e transferências) e o escore total foram importantes para predizer a perda de marcha. CONCLUSÕES: O uso da MFM nos pacientes com DMD confirma os benefícios do tratamento com corticoides na diminuição da velocidade de progressão da doença. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To assess the evolution of motor function in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) treated with steroids (prednisolone or deflazacort) through the Motor Function Measure (MFM), which evaluates three dimensions of motor performance (D1, D2, D3). METHODS: Thirty-three patients wit [...] h DMD (22 ambulant, 6 non-ambulant and 5 who lost the capacity to walk during the period of the study) were assessed using the MFM scale six times over a period of 18 months. RESULTS: All the motor functions remained stable for 14 months in all patients, except D1 for those who lost their walking ability. In ambulant patients, D2 (axial and proximal motor capacities) motor functions improved during six months; an improvement in D3 (distal motor capacity) was noted during the total follow-up. D1 (standing posture and transfers) and total score were useful to predict the loss of the ability to walk. CONCLUSIONS: The use of the MFM in DMD patients confirms the benefits of the steroid treatment for slowing the progression of the disease.

Elaine C. da, Silva; Darlene L., Machado; Maria B. D., Resende; Renata F., Silva; Edmar, Zanoteli; Umbertina C., Reed.

2012-03-01

208

Virtual characters designed for forensic assessment and rehabilitation of sex offenders: standardized and made-to-measure  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents two studies pertaining to the use of virtual characters applied in clinical forensic rehabilitation of sex offenders. The first study is about the validation of the perceived age of virtual characters designed to simulate primary and secondary sexual character of typical adult and child individuals. The second study puts to use these virtual characters in comparing a group of sex offenders and a group of non deviant individuals on their sexual arousal responses as recorded in virtual immersion. Finally, two clinical vignettes illustrating the use of made-to-measure virtual characters to more closely fit sexual preferences are presented in Discussion.

Benoît Dassylva

2010-11-01

209

Sex differences in the fetal human corpus callosum.  

Science.gov (United States)

Midsagittal sections of fetal cerebra from the Yakovlev collection ranging from 26-41 weeks gestational age were photographed. The photographs were used to obtain areal measurements of the cross-sectional surface of the corpora callosa; and linear measurements of the widths of genu, body and splenium. A significant sex difference, favoring females, was found in the splenial width of the corpus callosum by 26 weeks gestational age. Although other variables, including the overall cross-sectional area of the corpus callosum, were larger in females both absolutely and relative to brain weight, the differences were not statistically significant. These results suggest that the gonadal steroids and/or genetic sex have an important role in utero in the differentiation of neural structures not associated with reproductive functions. Elaboration of sex differences, however, may occur postnatally. PMID:3733479

de Lacoste, M C; Holloway, R L; Woodward, D J

1986-01-01

210

Steroidal contraception for men.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article is a review of the development of male steroidal contraceptives during the past 25 years. Numerous studies have been conducted on male volunteers with oral and/or injectable preparations of single or combined steroids. Progestogen, androgen alone, or progestogen and androgen combinations have been used as weekly or monthly injectable formulations. Most of the studies involved small numbers of subjects. There was reversible suppression of spermatogenesis to oligospermia and/or azoospermia during the treatment period. Alteration of LH, FSH and testosterone levels in the blood was observed in most of these studies, depending on the steroid or combination of steroids used. There were reports about decreased or increased libido and weight gain during treatment with steroids. No other serious side-effects were found. Attention has recently focused on developing an androgen-only male contraceptive, because testosterone ester has shown promising results. The development of an effective and reliable steroidal contraceptive for men may be possible but this requires further research. PMID:11220988

Sarkar, N N

2000-11-01

211

Conserved steroid hormone homology converges on nuclear factor ?B to modulate inflammation in asthma.  

Science.gov (United States)

Asthma is a complex, multifactorial disease comprising multiple different subtypes, rather than a single disease entity, yet it has a consistent clinical phenotype: recurring episodes of chest tightness, wheezing, and difficulty breathing (Pediatr Pulmonol Suppl. 1997;15:9-12). Despite the complex pathogenesis of asthma, steroid hormones (eg, glucocorticoids) are ubiquitous in the short-term and long-term management of all types of asthma. Overall, steroid hormones are a class of widely relevant, biologically active compounds originating from cholesterol and altered in a stepwise fashion, but maintain a basic 17-carbon, 4-ring structure. Steroids are lipophilic molecules that diffuse readily through cell membranes to directly and/or indirectly affect gene transcription. In addition, they use rapid, nongenomic actions to affect cellular products. Steroid hormones comprise several groups (including glucocorticoids, sex steroid hormones, and secosteroids) with critical divergent biological and physiological functions relevant to health and disease. However, the conserved homology of steroid hormone molecules, receptors, and signaling pathways suggests that each of these is part of a dynamic system of hormone interaction, likely involving an overlap of downstream signaling mechanisms. Therefore, we will review the similarities and differences of these 3 groups of steroid hormones (ie, glucocorticoids, sex steroid hormones, and secosteroids), identifying nuclear factor ?B as a common inflammatory mediator. Despite our understanding of the impact of individual steroids (eg, glucocorticoids, sex steroids and secosteroids) on asthma, research has yet to explain the interplay of the dynamic system in which these hormones function. To do so, there needs to be a better understanding of the interplay of classic, nonclassic, and nongenomic steroid hormone functions. However, clues from the conserved homology steroid hormone structure and function and signaling pathways offer insight into a possible model of steroid hormone regulation of inflammation in asthma through common nuclear factor ?B-mediated downstream events. PMID:22183120

Payne, Asha S; Freishtat, Robert J

2012-01-01

212

Endocrine effects in female weight lifters who self-administer testosterone and anabolic steroids.  

Science.gov (United States)

It appears that the self-administration of testosterone and anabolic steroids is increasingly practiced by women in sports where strength and endurance are important. We recently evaluated endocrine parameters in nine female weight lifters using steroids and seven not using these agents. Of the nine anabolic steroid users, seven took multiple anabolic steroids simultaneously. Thirty-fold elevations of serum testosterone were noted in the women injecting testosterone. In three of these women serum testosterone levels exceeded the upper limits for normal male testosterone concentrations. A significant compensatory decrease in sex hormone-binding globulin and a decrease in thyroid-binding proteins were noted in the women steroid users. Also, a 39% decrease in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol was noted in the steroid-using weight lifters. Most of the subjects in this study used anabolic steroids continuously, which raises concern about premature atherosclerosis and other disease processes developing in these women. PMID:1835565

Malarkey, W B; Strauss, R H; Leizman, D J; Liggett, M; Demers, L M

1991-11-01

213

Standardization of androstenedione and estrone radioimmunoassay and profile of sex steroids, gonadotropins and prolactin - in patients with chronic anovulation due to inappropriate feedback (polycystic ovarian syndrome); Padronizacao do radioimunoensaio da androstenediona e da estrona e o perfil dos esteroides sexuais, gonadotrofinas e prolactina em pacientes com anovulacao cronica por retrocontrole improprio (sindrome dos ovarios policisticos)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Full text. In order to evaluate the profile of the sex steroids gonadotropin and prolactin in polycystic ovarian syndrome (POS), 24 patients with POS were studied and compared with 20 normal women during the early follicular phase of the menstrual cycle. Radioimmunoassay techniques for androstenedione (A) and estrone (E{sub 1}) were standardized for the purpose of the study. Androstenedione and estrone were extracted from plasma with ethyl ether. The assays were maintained in equilibrium and the labelled hormone-antibody complex was then separated from the free hormone using dextran charcoal. The sensitivity of the method was 6.8 pg/tube for A and 3.7 pg/tube for E{sub 1}. Nonspecific binding ws 3.4 for A and 3.3 for E{sub 1}. The interessay error at the D50 level was 15.6 for A and 8.6 for E{sub 1}. Patients with POS had significantly higher basal levels of LH, A, T E{sub 1} and PRL and similar FSH and DHEA-S levels when compared with normal women. The LH/FSH ratio was significantly elevated and the A/T ratio was significantly decreased. The A/E{sub 1} and T/E{sub 2} ratios were elevated and the E{sub 1}/E{sub 2} was decreased, although the differences were not statistically significant. A positive correlation between A and E{sub 1} was observed in patients with POS. In view of the above data, it was concluded that: the quality control parameters of the radioimmunoassay for A and E{sub 1} standardized in the present study are considered satisfactory, and the assay could be used for diagnosis and research; the patients with POS have a different sex steroid and gonadotropin profile when compared normal women during the early follicular phase of the menstrual cycle

Vilanova, Maria do Socorro Veras

1992-12-01

214

Isotope dilution - mass spectrometry of steroid hormones  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The analytical procedure for the measurement of steroid hormones consists of the following steps: (a) addition of a 14C-labelled steroid to the serum sample; (b) extraction of the 14C-labelled and of the non-labelled steroid by the use of an organic solvent; (c) purification of the steroid fraction by column chromatography on Sephadex LH-20 on Lipidex-5000; (d) formation of a derivative; (e) combined gas chromatography - mass spectrometry. During gas chromatography the mass spectrometer continuously records two m/e - values corresponding to the labelled and the non-labelled steroid; quantitative determination is performed by comparing the peak heights of the steroid to be determined and of the labelled internal standard. In the present investigation the technique of ID-MS has been applied to the specific and accurate determination of oestriol, oestradoil-17?, testosterone, progesterone, aldosterone and cortisol in human serum. The accuracy of the method is based on the high specificity of mass spectrometry and on the exact control of recovery employing the principle of isotope dilution. Therefore, the analytical procedures described here may be recommended as definitive methods in clinical chemistry. (Auth.)

215

Problems of Birds Sex Determination  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sex determination system in birds is characterized by a homo-(Neognatae and heteromorphic (Paleognatae sex chromosomes. Heterogametic sex is female (ZZ/ZW system. DMRT1 gene is a gene regarded as a main male sex determining factor in this group of animals. The question remains about the participation of other factors (HEMOGEN, AMH etc. in appearance of testis, and the role of steroid hormones in formation of ovaries. Complete sex inversion is not typical for species with genotypic sex determination (GSD, although the effect of estrogen metabolites is noted for birds. For birds epigenetic mechanisms of regulation (methylation of DNA and non-coding RNA have been described for sex controlling genes such as CYP19A1 and DMRT1.

Antonina V. Trukhina

2014-09-01

216

Quantitative measure of sexual selection with respect to the operational sex ratio: a comparison of selection indices  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Despite numerous indices proposed to predict the evolution of mating systems, a unified measure of sexual selection has remained elusive. Three previous studies have compared indices of sexual selection under laboratory conditions. Here, we use a genetic study to compare the most widely used measures of sexual selection in natural populations. We explored the mating and reproductive successes of male and female bank voles, Clethrionomys glareolus, across manipulated operational sex ratios (OS...

Mills, Suzanne C.; Grapputo, Alessandro; Koskela, Esa; Mappes, Tapio

2007-01-01

217

Pharmacology of anabolic steroids.  

Science.gov (United States)

Athletes and bodybuilders have recognized for several decades that the use of anabolic steroids can promote muscle growth and strength but it is only relatively recently that these agents are being revisited for clinical purposes. Anabolic steroids are being considered for the treatment of cachexia associated with chronic disease states, and to address loss of muscle mass in the elderly, but nevertheless their efficacy still needs to be demonstrated in terms of improved physical function and quality of life. In sport, these agents are performance enhancers, this being particularly apparent in women, although there is a high risk of virilization despite the favourable myotrophic-androgenic dissociation that many xenobiotic steroids confer. Modulation of androgen receptor expression appears to be key to partial dissociation, with consideration of both intracellular steroid metabolism and the topology of the bound androgen receptor interacting with co-activators. An anticatabolic effect, by interfering with glucocorticoid receptor expression, remains an attractive hypothesis. Behavioural changes by non-genomic and genomic pathways probably help motivate training. Anabolic steroids continue to be the most common adverse finding in sport and, although apparently rare, designer steroids have been synthesized in an attempt to circumvent the dope test. Doping with anabolic steroids can result in damage to health, as recorded meticulously in the former German Democratic Republic. Even so, it is important not to exaggerate the medical risks associated with their administration for sporting or bodybuilding purposes but to emphasize to users that an attitude of personal invulnerability to their adverse effects is certainly misguided. PMID:18500378

Kicman, A T

2008-06-01

218

Hepatocellular Carcinoma and Sex Hormones  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The liver is morphologically and functionally modulated by sex hormones. Long-term use of oral contraceptives and androgenic steroids can induce benign and malignant hepatocellular tumors. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is more prevalent in men than in women. The role of sex hormones and their receptors in the development of HCC was reviewed. Some HCCs may be androgen dependent but others may be estrogen or even both dependent. Further studies are mandatory in order to utilize ...

Nagasue, Naofumi; Kohno, Hitoshi

1992-01-01

219

Sex differences in the hypothalamic control of prolactin secretion  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Sex differences in the brain may arise from the organisational effects of exposure to sex steroids during development, or from the exposure to a differential hormonal milieu in the adult. There is a marked sex difference in the neuroendocrine mechanism that regulates prolactin secretion. Levels of prolactin in the blood are higher in females than in males. Similarly, basal activity of tuberoinfundibular dopamine (TIDA) neurons, which are involved in the tonic suppression of prolactin secretion, are two fold higher in females than in males. Prolactin is known to stimulate the activity of TIDA neurons, thereby regulating its own secretion by short-loop feedback. Hence, it is thought that elevated TIDA neuronal activity in females is induced by increased prolactin in the blood. We have recently demonstrated that prolactin stimulation of TIDA neurons requires the transcription factor, STAT5b. We have now investigated prolactin secretion in male and female STAT5b-deficient mice, to test the hypothesis that sex differences in TIDA neuronal activity are dependent on stimulation by prolactin acting through STAT5b. Prolactin levels in blood were measured by radioimmunoassay, and TIDA activity was assessed by measuring concentrations of the dopamine metabolite DOPAC in the median eminence by HPLC, and by measuring tyrosine hydroxylase mRNA in the arcuate nucleus by real-time RT-PCR. The data demonstrate marked gender differences in the activity of TIDA neurons. While TIDA activity in STAT5b-deficient mice was reduced compared to wild type, the sex difference persisted. Since STAT5b is required for the actions of prolactin on these neurons, we can conclude that the sexual dimorphism in brain function is independent of gender differences in blood levels of prolactin. It seems likely that differential exposure to gonadal steroid hormones, either during development or in adulthood, might underlie the sex difference in TIDA neuronal activity. Copyright (2001) Australasian Society of Clinical and Experimental Pharmacologists and Toxicologists

220

Predicting the size and direction of sex differences in measures of emotion and personality.  

Science.gov (United States)

Plutchik's (1980, 1994) psychoevolutionary theory, which posited eight basic emotions, was used as a framework for the organization of Lazarus and Folkman's (1984) coping strategies and Bem's (1981) gender-schematic items regarding equivalent motivations and coping strategies. Personality factors from the 16PF, Edwards's Personal Preference Schedule (Edwards, 1959), and the Jackson Personality Research Form (Jackson, 1984) were drawn into the same model to explain and predict both typical (actually occurring) and stereotypical (expected or assigned) sex differences in motivation and emotion. Data from several experiments and a meta-analysis support the conclusion that the model can successfully predict sex differences and that although most differences tend to occur in the direction predicted by the model, typical sex differences are less frequent and of a smaller magnitude than stereotypical differences. PMID:8760495

Whissell, C M

1996-08-01

 
 
 
 
221

Sex disparities in diabetes process of care measures and self-care in high-risk patients.  

Science.gov (United States)

Patients with chronic diabetic complications experience high morbidity and mortality. Sex disparities in modifiable factors such as processes of care or self-care activities have not been explored in detail, particularly in these high-risk patients. Sex differences in processes of care and self-care activities were assessed in a cross-sectional analysis of the Pathways Study, an observational cohort of primary care diabetic patients from a managed care organization (N = 4,839). Compared to men, women had decreased odds of dyslipidemia screening (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 0.73, 95% CI 0.62-0.85), reaching low-density lipoprotein goal (AOR 0.70, 95% CI 0.58-0.86), and statin use (AOR 0.69, 95% CI 0.58-0.81); women had 19% greater odds of reaching hemoglobin A1c foot examination compared to men. Patterns of sex differences were consistent in subjects with diabetic complications. Significant sex disparities exist in diabetes process of care measures and self-care, even amongst patients known to have chronic diabetic complications. PMID:23671877

Yu, Margaret K; Lyles, Courtney Rees; Bent-Shaw, Luis A; Young, Bessie A

2013-01-01

222

Mechanisms of prenatal programing: identifying and distinguishing the impact of steroid hormones.  

Science.gov (United States)

Developmental programing is gaining considerable leverage as a conceptual framework for understanding individual variability in human behavioral and somatic health. The current mini-review examines some of the key conceptual and methodological challenges for developmental programing research focused on fetal sex steroid exposure and physical, behavioral, physiological, and health outcomes. Specifically, we consider the bases for focusing on sex steroids, methods for assessing prenatal steroid hormone exposure, confounding factors, and the most relevant postnatal outcomes. We conclude with a brief consideration, based on current knowledge, of the applications of the existing findings for further research and practice. PMID:24782831

O'Connor, Thomas G; Barrett, Emily S

2014-01-01

223

Age and Sex Differences in Controlled Force Exertion Measured by a Computing Bar Chart Target-Pursuit System  

Science.gov (United States)

This study aimed to examine the age and sex differences in controlled force exertion measured by the bar chart display in 207 males (age 42.1 [plus or minus] 19.8 years) and 249 females (age 41.7 [plus or minus] 19.1 years) aged 15 to 86 years. The subjects matched their submaximal grip strength to changing demand values, which appeared as a…

Nagasawa, Yoshinori; Demura, Shinichi

2009-01-01

224

Evaluation of Sex Education Curricula: Measuring Up to the SIECUS Guidelines.  

Science.gov (United States)

Reports a content analysis of sexuality education curricula (nine nationally available curricula and one curriculum guide) for junior and senior high school students. The basis for analysis was the Sex Information Education Council of the U.S.'s Guidelines for Comprehensive Sexuality Education. Results found only six of the curricula acceptable.…

Klein, Nicole Aydt; And Others

1994-01-01

225

Anabolic Steroids...What's the Hype?...  

Science.gov (United States)

This pamphlet uses a question-and-answer format to examine the use and abuse of anabolic steroids. It begins by explaining that all steroids are not anabolic steroids and that anabolic steroids are those used specifically to build muscles quickly. Medical uses of anabolic steroids are reviewed; how people get steroids, how they take them, and…

Landry, Gregory L.; Wagner, Lauris L.

226

Steroids. A Resource Guide.  

Science.gov (United States)

This guide provides information on steroid use as well as prevention and intervention strategies. It is intended to serve as a supplement to drug abuse education and prevention programs in elementary and secondary schools and as the basis for local curriculum development and instructional activities. The following topics are covered: (1) history…

New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of School Health Education and Services.

227

Synthesis of Steroidal Thiadiazoles from Steroidal Ketones  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Syntheses of steroidal heterocycles containing a five-membered N,S- heterocycle attached at the 6,7 positions of the B ring are reported. 5α-Cholestane-6-one (1, its 3β-acetoxy- (2 and 3β-chloro- (3 analogues reacted with semicarbazide and aqueous sodium acetate in refluxing ethanol to yield 5α-cholestan-6-one-semicarbazone 1a and its 3-β-acetoxy and 3β-chloro derivatives 2a and 3a, respectively. The reactions of 1a, 2a and 3a with thionyl chloride in dichloromethane at low temperature afforded the cyclized thiadiazole 4 and its 3β-acetoxy- and 3β-chloro analogues 5 and 6 in good yields.

M. Akhtar

2005-08-01

228

Measuring DHEA-S in saliva: time of day differences and positive correlations between two different types of collection methods  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background The anabolic steroid, dehydroepiandosterone sulfate (DHEA-S), is secreted from the adrenal cortex. It plays a significant role in the body as a precursor to sex steroids as well as a lesser known role in the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis (HPA) response to stress. DHEA-S can be measured reliably in saliva, making saliva collection a valuable tool for health research because it minimizes the need for invasive sampling procedures (e.g., blood draws). Ty...

Klein Laura C; Whetzel Courtney A

2010-01-01

229

Hypothalamic indolamines during embryonic development and effects of steroid exposure.  

Science.gov (United States)

The serotonin system has been implicated in the modulation of endocrine and behavioral components of reproduction. In this study, we examined endogenous hypothalamic indolamines during sexual differentiation and long-term effects of exogenous steroids during this time. In Experiment 1, Japanese quail were studied during the last half of embryonic development and early post-hatch. Samples were taken at embryonic day 10 (E10), E12, E14, E16, hatch (day 0), and days 3 and 5, post-hatch. Hypothalamic indolamines, including serotonin (5-HT) and its metabolite, 5-hydroxy indole acetic acid (5-HIAA) were measured by HPLC-EC detection. Females had relatively higher hypothalamic 5-HT at E14 than males, with both sexes showing increasing levels thereafter. By day 5, post-hatch, hypothalamic 5-HT content was higher in males than in females. When turnover was estimated by comparing relative concentrations of 5-HT to 5-HIAA, males were significantly higher at E12 and E14 than females. These data suggest that there are stage specific changes in the serotonin system, as well as sexually dimorphic patterns in the ontogeny and activity of this system. In Experiment 2, we investigated the effects of embryonic steroid hormone treatment on the serotonin system and on male sexual behavior. Birds were treated with either estradiol benzoate (EB), testosterone propionate (TP) or sesame oil (vehicle control) at selected embryonic days (E10, E12, E14, E16, 0, D3, and D5). At 4 weeks post-hatch, birds were transferred to short photoperiod (16D:8L) for 3 weeks to prevent photostimulated reproductive development. At 7 weeks of age, males were implanted with a 20mm silastic capsule filled with testosterone and sexual behavior was tested 1 week later. Brains were collected from both males and females, and preoptic area (POA) indolamines were measured. Steroid treatment at E10 or E12 resulted in the loss of male sexual behavior. Moreover, males treated with EB or TP on E12 also had increased POA 5-HT content as adults, compared to control males. Females treated with EB on either E10 or E 12 also had higher POA 5-HT content than control or TP treated females. These data provide evidence for sexual dimorphism in the hypothalamic 5-HT system at specific stages during embryonic development. Moreover, males were sensitive to exogenous EB and TP on E12, whereas females appeared to be affected by EB only and appeared to be sensitive to steroid effects over a longer period of time in development. Moreover, exogenous steroids at E12 in males also correlated with impaired sexual behavioral. These data suggest that long-term effects of embryonic steroid exposure may be mediated in part through effects on the serotonin neurotransmitter system. PMID:12535620

Abdelnabi, M A; Ottinger, M A

2003-01-01

230

Zebrafish and steroids: what do we know and what do we need to know?  

Science.gov (United States)

Zebrafish, Danio rerio, has long been used as a model organism in developmental biology. Nowadays, due to their advantages compared to other model animals, the fish gain popularity and are also increasingly used in endocrinology. This review focuses on an important aspect of endocrinology in zebrafish by summarizing the progress in steroid hormone related research. We present the state of the art of research on steroidogenesis, the action of steroid hormones, and steroid catabolism and cover the incremental usage of zebrafish as a test animal in endocrine disruption research. By this approach, we demonstrate that some aspects of steroid hormone research are well characterized (e.g., expression patterns of the genes involved), while other aspects such as functional analyses of enzymes, steroid hormone elimination, or the impact of steroid hormones on embryonic development or sex differentiation have not been extensively studied and are poorly understood. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'CSR 2013'. PMID:23376612

Tokarz, Janina; Möller, Gabriele; de Angelis, Martin Hrab?; Adamski, Jerzy

2013-09-01

231

Effect of genotype, sex and slaughter weight on veal Longissimus muscle area measured by ultrasound and planimeter  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of this research was to determine effect of genotype (Holstein, Simmental and their crossbreeds), sex and slaughter weight groups (SW1=150-160kg and SW2=190-200kg) on veal Longissimus muscle area (LMA). Between the12th and the13th rib, two ultrasound LMA (ULMA) images were taken from each animal and carcass LMA (CLMA) traced on transparent foil was measured by planimeter. For both measures, Simmental calves had larger LMA than Holstein (P<0.001) and crossbreeds (P<0.05). Male and fema...

Zoran Lukovi?; Ivica Kos; Jelena Ramljak; Ante Ivankovi?; Nikolina Kelava; Miljenko Konja?i?

2010-01-01

232

Maternal Condition but Not Corticosterone Is Linked to Offspring Sex Ratio in a Passerine Bird  

Science.gov (United States)

There is evidence of offspring sex ratio adjustment in a range of species, but the potential mechanisms remain largely unknown. Elevated maternal corticosterone (CORT) is associated with factors that can favour brood sex ratio adjustment, such as reduced maternal condition, food availability and partner attractiveness. Therefore, the steroid hormone has been suggested to play a key role in sex ratio manipulation. However, despite correlative and causal evidence CORT is linked to sex ratio manipulation in some avian species, the timing of adjustment varies between studies. Consequently, whether CORT is consistently involved in sex-ratio adjustment, and how the hormone acts as a mechanism for this adjustment remains unclear. Here we measured maternal baseline CORT and body condition in free-living blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus) over three years and related these factors to brood sex ratio and nestling quality. In addition, a non-invasive technique was employed to experimentally elevate maternal CORT during egg laying, and its effects upon sex ratio and nestling quality were measured. We found that maternal CORT was not correlated with brood sex ratio, but mothers with elevated CORT fledged lighter offspring. Also, experimental elevation of maternal CORT did not influence brood sex ratio or nestling quality. In one year, mothers in superior body condition produced male biased broods, and maternal condition was positively correlated with both nestling mass and growth rate in all years. Unlike previous studies maternal condition was not correlated with maternal CORT. This study provides evidence that maternal condition is linked to brood sex ratio manipulation in blue tits. However, maternal baseline CORT may not be the mechanistic link between the maternal condition and sex ratio adjustment. Overall, this study serves to highlight the complexity of sex ratio adjustment in birds and the difficulties associated with identifying sex biasing mechanisms. PMID:25347532

Henderson, Lindsay J.; Evans, Neil P.; Heidinger, Britt J.; Adams, Aileen; Arnold, Kathryn E.

2014-01-01

233

Sex dimorphism of cortical water diffusion in normal aging measured by magnetic resonance imaging  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Diffusion-weighted images covering the majority of the brain were acquired from 77 healthy participants. Both the mean water diffusivity and diffusion kurtosis were calculated from the cortical regions and parcellated according to the template in Anatomical Automatic Labeling. The mean water diffusivity and diffusion kurtosis from both sexes were examined and subsequently correlated with age. Statistical significance was set at a threshold of p

Jiun-JieWang

2013-11-01

234

Cognition, mood, and physiological concentrations of sex hormones in the early and late postmenopause.  

Science.gov (United States)

Variations in the hormonal milieu after menopause may influence neural processes concerned with cognition, cognitive aging, and mood, but findings are inconsistent. In particular, cognitive effects of estradiol may vary with time since menopause, but this prediction has not been assessed directly using serum hormone concentrations. We studied 643 healthy postmenopausal women not using hormone therapy who were recruited into early (serum for free estradiol, estrone, progesterone, free testosterone, and sex hormone binding globulin measurements. Cognitive outcomes were standardized composite measures of verbal episodic memory, executive functions, and global cognition. Covariate-adjusted linear regression analyses were conducted for each hormone separately and after adjustment for other hormone levels. Endogenous sex steroid levels were unassociated with cognitive composites, but sex hormone binding globulin was positively associated with verbal memory. Results for early and late groups did not differ significantly, although progesterone concentrations were significantly positively associated with verbal memory and global cognition in early group women. Hormone concentrations were not significantly related to mood. Results fail to support the hypothesis that temporal proximity to menopause modifies the relation between endogenous serum levels of estradiol and verbal memory, executive functions, or global cognition. Physiological variations in endogenous postmenopausal levels of sex steroid hormones are not substantially related to these aspects of cognition or mood; positive associations for progesterone and sex hormone binding globulin merit additional study. PMID:24277815

Henderson, Victor W; St John, Jan A; Hodis, Howard N; McCleary, Carol A; Stanczyk, Frank Z; Karim, Roksana; Shoupe, Donna; Kono, Naoko; Dustin, Laurie; Allayee, Hooman; Mack, Wendy J

2013-12-10

235

Sex Role Development.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sex role development is discussed, beginning with processes through which children adopt sexual identity and related behaviors. The growth of androgyny (measured by the Bem Sex Role Inventory) in adult males and females is documented, and changes in the sex role behavior of men and women over 50 are described. (PP)

Havighurst, Robert J.

1983-01-01

236

GnRH and steroids in cancer.  

Science.gov (United States)

Gonadotropin-releasing-hormone (GnRH) analogues are synthetic compounds derived from decapeptide neurohormones (LHRH; LH/FSH-RH). They have a key role in hormone dependent cancer, particularly breast and prostate cancer. GnRH analogues produce an efficient inhibition of gonadotropins and sex steroid hormones. Their use in cancer therapy result in a, pharmacological castration (i.e. ovariectomy and orchiectomy), providing an androgen and estrogen ablation. GnRH exert an inhibitory action on the growth of hormone-dependent human and canine mammary tumor. Mammary tumors can produce growth factor that potentially could modulate their own proliferation in an autocrine fashion (i.e. TGF-alpha and TGF-beta or with a paracrine mechanism (i.e. EGF, IGF, FGF). The expression of EGF receptors is related in mammary tissues to the action of oestrogen and progesteron and to the presence of functional receptors for oestrogen (ER) and progesteron (PR). The present review elucidate the role of GnRH receptors in cancer and their connection with steroid hormones. Besides we showed the link between GnRH and signal transductions pathways: Estrogen-receptors, GnRH-receptors, EGF-receptors signal transduction pathways. A very tight link exists between steroid hormones and GnRH analogues both on central pituitary gonadal axis and on tumor receptors peripherically. This last mechanism could be explained either locally activating GnRH receptors or locally interacting with EGF receptor-Intracellular NitricOxide system. PMID:12045004

Florio, Salvatore; Pagnini, Ugo; Crispino, Antonio; Pacilio, Carmen; Crispino, Luca; Giordano, Antonio

2002-06-01

237

Does the mechanism of sex determination constrain the potential for sex manipulation? A test in geckos with contrasting sex-determining systems  

Science.gov (United States)

The concentration of yolk steroids was suggested to influence offspring gender in oviparous animals subject to both temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD) and genotypic sex determination (GSD). However, the proposed mechanisms of steroid effects are thought to differ between TSD and GSD: a direct effect of oestrogens on gonad feminisation in TSD species vs a differential induction of male-producing or female-producing gametes in GSD species. Geckos offer an ideal opportunity for testing these suggested mechanisms. Closely related gecko species differ in their modes of sex determination. They lay clutches of two synchronously formed eggs; both eggs share equal steroid levels. If identical hormonal composition and environment during vitellogenesis, gravidity and incubation determine the sex of the progeny, siblings should share the same gender in both TSD and GSD geckos. We found strong support for this prediction in a TSD gecko species. Among clutches that were incubated at the temperature that produced both sexes, there were no clutches with siblings of the opposite sex. On the other hand, about half of the clutches yielded siblings of the opposite sex in four GSD species. These results suggest that sex-determining systems constrain the ability of the female to produce single-sex siblings and, hence, it seems that the GSD mechanism constrains the opportunities for sex ratio manipulation in geckos via yolk steroid manipulation.

Kratochvíl, Lukáš; Kubi?ka, Lukáš; Landová, Eva

2008-03-01

238

Radioimmunoassay of synthetic steroids  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The sensitivity of a radioimmunoassay depends on the intrinsic association constant of the interaction between ligand and antibody. Its specificity depends on the position of the chain which forms the link with the antigen. Thus, an antibody specific of estradiol has been obtained by coupling estradiol to albumin via a chain at position 7. For synthetic steroids the structure of which is sufficiency different from that of natural hormones, the requirements for a sensitive assay method not involving chromatography are simply maximum affinity and positioning of the couple at a site which does not undergo metabolic attack. These criteria were used to develop assays for R 2858 and R 2453 which obviate the need to administer radioactive product in clinical pharmacology. Cross-reaction with structural analogs may be used to assay competitors. Thus, R 2323 antibody, highly specific for endogenous steroids, may be used to assay other trienes such as R 1697 (trenbolone) and R 2010 (norgestrienone)

239

Steroidal anticancer agents  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This thesis describes the design, synthesis, and bioactivity of steroidal anticancer agents. The program aimed to discover new chemistry, provide concise routes to natural and analogue cytotoxins, and comprehend their structure-activity relationships. The work resulted in advances in nine related projects: (1) asymmetric synthesis of bissteroidal pyrazines, including the first syntheses of the currently most potent natural (cephalostatin 1) and designed hybrid (ritterostatin GN1N) examples; (...

Lacour, Thomas Gerard

2001-01-01

240

Steroid induced glaucoma and cataract  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Long term use of topical & systemic steroids produce secondary open angle glaucoma similar to chronic simple glaucoma. The increased IOP caused by prolonged steroid therapy is reversible but the damage produced by it is irreversible. In this study, we analysed 25 patients (44 eyes with steroid induced glaucoma, who reported to us with dimness of vision, haloes and elevated I.O.P. and were using steroids for long duration due to various causes. The behaviour of the I.O.P. due to different steroid preparations, the type of lenticular change, and the management of those cases are discussed in this paper. From our study we conclude that dexamethasone and betamethasone both topical as well as systemic are more potent in producing glaucoma and cataract than medrysone and prednisolone. The condition is reversible without permanent damage when the duration of steroid therapy is short and vice versa.

Mohan R

1989-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Ovarian steroid cell tumor, not otherwise specified, producing testosterone.  

Science.gov (United States)

Steroid cell tumor, not otherwise specified, is a rare type of ovarian sex cord-stromal tumor with malignant potential. Some of these tumors produce testosterone. We describe a case of steroid cell tumor of the ovary associated with virilization. A 23-year-old nulliparous woman was found to have an ovarian tumor when she visited her primary doctor for virilization and oligomenorrhea. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a solid left ovarian tumor 40?mm in size. Her laboratory data revealed elevated testosterone with normal levels of gonadotropins, estradiol, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate and cortisol. She underwent left adnexectomy. On histopathologic and immunohistochemical analyses, the tumor was diagnosed as steroid cell tumor, not otherwise specified, without malignant behavior. After removal of the tumor, serum testosterone level decreased, and there have been no signs of recurrence. PMID:25181629

Mizoguchi, Mika; Minami, Sawako; Yamamoto, Madoka; Tanizaki, Yuko; Kobayashi, Aya; Ino, Kazuhiko

2014-09-01

242

Measurements of vertebral shape by r[iographic morphometry: sex differences and relationships with vertebral level and lumbar lordosis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective. To examine sex-related and vertebral-level-specific differences in vertebral shape and to investigate the relationships between the lumbar lordosis angle and vertebral morphology. Design and patients. Lateral thoracic and lumbar spine r[iographs were obtained with a standardized protocol in 142 healthy men and 198 healthy women over 50 years old. Anterior (Ha), central (Hc) and posterior (Hp) heights of each vertebra from T4 to L4 were measured using a digitizing technique, and the Ha/Hp and Hc/Hp ratios were calculated. The lumbar lordosis angle was measured on the lateral lumbar spine r[iographs. Results. Ha/Hp and Hc/Hp ratios were smaller in men than women by 1.8% and 0.7%, respectively, and these ratios varied with vertebral level. Significant correlations were found between vertebral shape and the lumbar lordosis angle. Conclusions. These results demonstrate that vertebral shape varies significantly with sex, vertebral level and lumbar lordosis angle. Awareness of these relationships may help prevent misdiagnosis in clinical vertebral morphometry. (orig.)

243

Safe sex  

Science.gov (United States)

Safe sex means taking steps before and during sex that can prevent you from getting an infection, or from ... the skin around the genital area. Before having sex: Get to know your partner and discuss your ...

244

A simple method for measuring sex-hormone binding protein (SHBP) - typical values in men and women and in pregnant women  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Assuming that the binding forces between steroid hormones and their binding proteins are similar to those between antigens and their antibodies, the authors describe how to determine SHBP activity by a dilution method analogous to that used for titration of antisera in radioimmunoassay. The method consists of the following stages: (1) plasma dilution; (2) incubation of the dilution with 20,000dis/min of 1,2-3H-testosterone; (3) separation of the fraction of tracer bound to the SHBP by precipitation with ammonium sulphate; (4) centrifugation and measurement of the supernatant; and (5) plotting of the results on a graph where the axis of ordinates represents the quotient given by bound steroid over free steroid (U/L) and the abscissa represents the plasma dilutions. The values are expressed as the 50% bound titre. An advantage of the method is the higher sensitivity of the dilution curves in the steepest part where the 50% bound is encountered; it is thus not necessary to use the saturation part of the curves where sensitivity is lost owing to the steeper slope. A further advantage of the method is that there is no need for costly processes such as dialysis. The SHBP values obtained for healthy subjects were as follows: 1/5 for men, 1/93 for women, and 1/360 in pregnant women. These physiological values showed no overlapping. (author)

245

Effect of genotype, sex and slaughter weight on veal Longissimus muscle area measured by ultrasound and planimeter  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this research was to determine effect of genotype (Holstein, Simmental and their crossbreeds, sex and slaughter weight groups (SW1=150-160kg and SW2=190-200kg on veal Longissimus muscle area (LMA. Between the12th and the13th rib, two ultrasound LMA (ULMA images were taken from each animal and carcass LMA (CLMA traced on transparent foil was measured by planimeter. For both measures, Simmental calves had larger LMA than Holstein (P<0.001 and crossbreeds (P<0.05. Male and female calves did not differ significantly in ULMA and CLMA. Calves of SW2 group had larger LMA (P<0.0001 than SW1 group. High correlation coefficient between ULMA and CLMA was determined in this research. Veal LMA was significantly affected by genotype and slaughter weight. According to high correlation coefficients, ultrasound can be useful in estimating carcass traits of cattle at early age.

Zoran Lukovi?

2010-01-01

246

The epigenetics of sex differences in the brain.  

Science.gov (United States)

Epigenetic changes in the nervous system are emerging as a critical component of enduring effects induced by early life experience, hormonal exposure, trauma and injury, or learning and memory. Sex differences in the brain are largely determined by steroid hormone exposure during a perinatal sensitive period that alters subsequent hormonal and nonhormonal responses throughout the lifespan. Steroid receptors are members of a nuclear receptor transcription factor superfamily and recruit multiple proteins that possess enzymatic activity relevant to epigenetic changes such as acetylation and methylation. Thus steroid hormones are uniquely poised to exert epigenetic effects on the developing nervous system to dictate adult sex differences in brain and behavior. Sex differences in the methylation pattern in the promoter of estrogen and progesterone receptor genes are evident in newborns and persist in adults but with a different pattern. Changes in response to injury and in methyl-binding proteins and steroid receptor coregulatory proteins are also reported. Many steroid-induced epigenetic changes are opportunistic and restricted to a single lifespan, but new evidence suggests endocrine-disrupting compounds can exert multigenerational effects. Similarly, maternal diet also induces transgenerational effects, but the impact is sex specific. The study of epigenetics of sex differences is in its earliest stages, with needed advances in understanding of the hormonal regulation of enzymes controlling acetylation and methylation, coregulatory proteins, transient versus stable DNA methylation patterns, and sex differences across the epigenome to fully understand sex differences in brain and behavior. PMID:19828794

McCarthy, Margaret M; Auger, Anthony P; Bale, Tracy L; De Vries, Geert J; Dunn, Gregory A; Forger, Nancy G; Murray, Elaine K; Nugent, Bridget M; Schwarz, Jaclyn M; Wilson, Melinda E

2009-10-14

247

Steroid hormones and BDNF.  

Science.gov (United States)

Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a neurotrophin abundantly expressed in several areas of the central nervous system (CNS) and is known to induce a lasting potentiation of synaptic efficacy, to enhance specific learning and memory processes. BDNF is one of the key molecules modulating brain plasticity and it affects cognitive deficit associated with aging and neurodegenerative disease. Several studies have shown an altered BDNF production and secretion in a variety of neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases but also in mood disorders like depression, eating disorders and schizophrenia. Plasma BDNF is also a biomarker of impaired memory and general cognitive function in aging women. Gonadal steroids are involved in the regulation of several CNS processes, specifically mood, affective and cognitive functions during fertile life and reproductive aging. These observations lead many scientists to investigate a putative co-regulation between BDNF and gonadal and/or adrenal steroids and their relationship with gender difference in the incidence of mental diseases. This overview aims to summarize the current knowledge on the correlation between BDNF expression/function and both gonadal (progesterone, estrogens, and testosterone) and adrenal hormones (mainly cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA)) with relevance in clinical application. PMID:23380505

Pluchino, N; Russo, M; Santoro, A N; Litta, P; Cela, V; Genazzani, A R

2013-06-01

248

Sex differences in objective measures of sleep in post-traumatic stress disorder and healthy control subjects.  

Science.gov (United States)

A growing literature shows prominent sex effects for risk for post-traumatic stress disorder and associated medical comorbid burden. Previous research indicates that post-traumatic stress disorder is associated with reduced slow wave sleep, which may have implications for overall health, and abnormalities in rapid eye movement sleep, which have been implicated in specific post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms, but most research has been conducted in male subjects. We therefore sought to compare objective measures of sleep in male and female post-traumatic stress disorder subjects with age- and sex-matched control subjects. We used a cross-sectional, 2 × 2 design (post-traumatic stress disorder/control × female/male) involving83 medically healthy, non-medicated adults aged 19-39 years in the inpatient sleep laboratory. Visual electroencephalographic analysis demonstrated that post-traumatic stress disorder was associated with lower slow wave sleep duration (F(3,82)  = 7.63, P = 0.007) and slow wave sleep percentage (F(3,82)  = 6.11, P = 0.016). There was also a group × sex interaction effect for rapid eye movement sleep duration (F(3,82)  = 4.08, P = 0.047) and rapid eye movement sleep percentage (F(3,82)  = 4.30, P = 0.041), explained by greater rapid eye movement sleep in post-traumatic stress disorder females compared to control females, a difference not seen in male subjects. Quantitative electroencephalography analysis demonstrated that post-traumatic stress disorder was associated with lower energy in the delta spectrum (F(3,82)  = 6.79, P = 0.011) in non-rapid eye movement sleep. Slow wave sleep and delta findings were more pronounced in males. Removal of post-traumatic stress disorder subjects with comorbid major depressive disorder, who had greater post-traumatic stress disorder severity, strengthened delta effects but reduced rapid eye movement effects to non-significance. These findings support previous evidence that post-traumatic stress disorder is associated with impairment in the homeostatic function of sleep, especially in men with the disorder. These findings suggest that group × sex interaction effects on rapid eye movement may occur with more severe post-traumatic stress disorder or with post-traumatic stress disorder comorbid with major depressive disorder. PMID:23763708

Richards, Anne; Metzler, Thomas J; Ruoff, Leslie M; Inslicht, Sabra S; Rao, Madhu; Talbot, Lisa S; Neylan, Thomas C

2013-12-01

249

Objectively measured physical activity of USA adults by sex, age, and racial/ethnic groups: a cross-sectional study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Accelerometers were incorporated in the 2003–2004 National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (NHANES study cycle for objective assessment of physical activity. This is the first time that objective physical activity data are available on a nationally representative sample of U.S. residents. The use of accelerometers allows researchers to measure total physical activity, including light intensity and unstructured activities, which may be a better predictor of health outcomes than structured activity alone. The aim of this study was to examine objectively determined physical activity levels by sex, age and racial/ethnic groups in a national sample of U.S. adults. Methods Data were obtained from the 2003–2004 NHANES, a cross-sectional study of a complex, multistage probability sample of the U.S. population. Physical activity was assessed with the Actigraph AM-7164 accelerometer for seven days following an examination. 2,688 U.S. adults with valid accelerometer data (i.e. at least four days with at least 10 hours of wear-time were included in the analysis. Mean daily total physical activity counts, as well as counts accumulated in minutes of light, and moderate-vigorous intensity physical activity are presented by sex across age and racial/ethnic groups. Generalized linear modeling using the log link function was performed to compare physical activity in sex and racial/ethnic groups adjusting for age. Results Physical activity decreases with age for both men and women across all racial/ethnic groups with men being more active than women, with the exception of Hispanic women. Hispanic women are more active at middle age (40–59 years compared to younger or older age and not significantly less active than men in middle or older age groups (i.e. age 40–59 or age 60 and older. Hispanic men accumulate more total and light intensity physical activity counts than their white and black counterparts for all age groups. Conclusion Physical activity levels measured objectively by accelerometer demonstrated that Hispanic men are, in general, more active than their white and black counterparts. This appears to be in contrast to self-reported physical activity previously reported in the literature and identifies the need to use objective measures in situations where the contribution of light intensity and/or unstructured physical activity cannot be assumed homogenous across the populations of interest.

Hawkins Marquis S

2009-06-01

250

ANABOLIC ANDROGENIC STEROIDS AND DEPENDENCE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Anabolic androgenic steroids are used for sportive, cosmetic, therapeutic and occupational reasons and there are many side effects reported (George, 2005; Nieminen et al., 1996; O'Sullivan et al., 2000. Prevalence of anabolic steroids’ use also indicates the importance of this topic. Moreover, it is now known that use of anabolic steroids could lead to dependence which could be psychological or/and physiological (Copeland et al., 2000. It isimportant to know about all aspects of anabolic steroids including dependence. Therefore, this study has attempted to give an insight into use of anabolic steroids and dependence. The discussion will focus on prevalence, reasons, and side effects of use and physiological and psychological dependence

IHSAN SARI

2010-12-01

251

Age and sex influence the relationship between waist circumference and abdominal fat distribution measured by bioelectrical impedance.  

Science.gov (United States)

Waist circumference (WC) is a subrogate measurement of abdominal visceral fat (AVF) with a different normal threshold for men and women. However, age plays an important role in the relationship of WC with AVF. The hypothesis of the present work was that the adjustment of the WC, not only by sex but also by age, would improve WC prediction of AVF as measured by a new bioelectrical impedance (BIA) methodology. The study was carried out in 311 subjects (178 men and 133 women) with a body mass index between 18 and 35 kg/m(2). Abdominal fat composition was measured by BIA by using a new device recently developed specifically for the measurement of abdominal fat compartments (ViScan AB140;Omron Corp, Tokyo, Japan). Clinical, anthropometric, and biochemical data were also collected. There was a high correlation of WC with total abdominal fat and AVF in all age ranges and for both fat depots, which decreased with age in men but remained more stable in women. Age independently influenced the level of AVF in women and in those subjects with normal WC, increasing by 0.32 and 0.47 for each decade of age, respectively. In conclusion, age plays an important role in the association between WC and AVF with a high correlation existing in all age ranges. A specific BIA method that measures abdominal composition would be useful in women and in those subjects with normal WC as an indicator of AVF. PMID:22749183

Mateo-Gallego, Rocio; Bea, Ana M; Jarauta, Estibaliz; Perez-Ruiz, Maria Rosario; Civeira, Fernando

2012-06-01

252

Motivations for Anabolic Steroid use Among Bodybuilders.  

Science.gov (United States)

Steroid use is increasing, in parallel with rising concerns about body image. This study aimed to uncover bodybuilders' motivations for using steroids using 135 questionnaires completed by readers of two bodybuilding magazines. The analyses reveal a polarization of beliefs about steroids between users and non-users. Steroid users were less likely to be concerned about the physical side effects, and many believed that steroids are not harmful in moderation, and that only 'ignorant people' criticize steroid use. Their main motivations for using steroids were: wanting to excel at competitive bodybuilding; wanting to be more muscular; and feelings of enhanced confidence. The fact that steroid users in the sample were 'stacking' dangerously high levels of steroids (up to 15 steroids at a time) reveals the need for a detailed understanding of the motivations for steroid use in order to inform the development of effective harm minimization messages. PMID:22049197

Wright, S; Grogan, S; Hunter, G

2000-07-01

253

Aplicação da Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Performance Como Método Preparativo Para a Dosagem de Esteróides Hormonais Por RIE: Dosagens de 17OH-Progesterona e Diidrotestosterona / Preparative HPLC for Steroid Measurements: Determinations of 170H-Progesterone and Dihydrotestosterone  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A dosagem dos esteróides hormonais tem apresentado evolução técnica significativa, sendo os principais esteróides de interesse clínico dosados, atualmente, por métodos simples, rápidos e automatizados. Existe, no entanto, um compromisso em detrimento da exatidão, que é mais evidente na determinação [...] de esteróides de menor concentração relativa e maior número de interferentes potenciais, como a 17-hidroxiprogesterona (17OHP), a diidrotestosterona (DHT) e outros. Nestes casos, um processo preparativo versátil e robusto é fundamental para garantir resultados com alto grau de exatidão. Apresentamos a padronização de um processo preparativo baseado em cromatografia líquida de alta performance (HPLC) comparado à cromatografia em coluna de celite para a dosagem de 17OHP e DHT. Os anticorpos empregados nos respectivos radioimunoensaios apresentam especificidade semelhante aos descritos na literatura. As amostras foram inicialmente extraídas em éter etílico e em seguida submetidas ao processo cromatográfico. Amostras de soro provenientes da rotina foram dosadas em paralelo pelos dois métodos, sendo 57 amostras para 17OHP e 84 para DHT. Não houve diferença significativa entre os resultados, e os índices de correlação foram elevados (R= 0,95 e 0,97). Os resultados comprovam que a aplicação do HPLC é válida, além de ser mais reprodutível, versátil e menos operador-dependente. Sua aplicação mais ampla permitirá uma melhora de exatidão na dosagem de esteróides de baixa concentração relativa, onde os métodos mais simples resultam em valores falsamente elevados. Abstract in english Measurement of steroid hormones has undergone a significant technical evolution so that steroids with greater clinical interest are, nowadays, measured with methods that are simple, fast and prone to automation. Nevertheless, a compromise is made in detriment of accuracy, which is more evident with [...] steroids with lower concentration and more potential interferents, as 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17OHP), dihydrotestosterone (DHT), and others. In such cases, a robust and versatile preparative process is of utmost importance to warrant results with the highest degree of accuracy. In this paper we present the results obtained with the use of a preparative process based on high-pressure chromatography (HPLC) for the measurement of 17OHP and DHT, as compared with a process based on celite column chromatography. The antibodies used in the radioimmunoassays have similar specificity to those previously described for these kinds of assays. Samples were initially extracted in ethyl ether and then submitted to HPLC. Routine samples (57 for 17OHP and 84 for DHT) were measured in parallel with both methods. The differences between results were not statistically significant, and the correlation indexes were high (R= 0.95 and 0.97). Our results confirm that systems based on HPLC are valid, besides being more robust, versatile and operator independent. A more pervasive application of HPLC preparation systems will allow an improvement in the accuracy of steroid measurements, specially those with low concentrations, where simple preparative processes result in falsely elevated results.

José Gilberto H., Vieira; Odete H., Nakamura; Keiko O., Noguti.

2002-02-01

254

Looking beyond the dogma of genomic steroid action: insights and facts of the 1990s.  

Science.gov (United States)

The genomic theory of steroid action has been the unquestioned dogma for the explanation of steroid effects over the past four decades. Despite early observations on rapid steroid effects being clearly incompatible with this theory, only recently has nongenomic steroid action been more widely recognized and led to a critical reappraisal of unsolved questions about this dogma. Evidence for nongenomic steroid effects is now coming from all fields of steroid research, and mechanisms of agonist action are being studied with regard to the membrane receptors and second messengers involved. A prominent example of a receptor/effector cascade for nongenomic steroid effects has been described for rapid aldosterone effects in various cell types, including lymphocytes and vascular smooth muscle cells. Rapid in vitro effects of aldosterone on the sodium proton antiport have been found in human lymphocytes, cultured vascular smooth muscle, and endothelial cells involving non-classical membrane receptors with a high affinity for aldosterone, but not for cortisol, and phosphoinositide turnover. Another important second messenger, [Ca2+]i, is consistently increased by aldosterone within 1-2 min. In vascular smooth muscle cells, calcium is released from perinuclear stores while in endothelial cells a predominant increase of subplasmalemmal calcium is seen. Effects are half-maximal at physiological concentrations of free aldosterone (0.1 nM), while cortisol is inactive up to 0.1 microM; the classical mineralocorticoid antagonist canrenone is ineffective in blocking the action of aldosterone. The data show that intracellular signaling for nongenomic aldosterone effects also involves calcium, but pathways of cell activation may vary between different cell types. Further evidence for nongenomic steroid effects is encountered presently for various groups of steroids such as neurosteroids, mineralocorticoids, vitamin D3, and sex hormones. Future research will have to target the cloning of the first membrane receptor for steroids and evaluate the clinical relevance of these rapid steroid effects. PMID:8528747

Wehling, M

1995-09-01

255

Steroids in Athletics: One University's Experience.  

Science.gov (United States)

Presents an account of one university's experience in conducting an investigation into possible steroid use by student athletes and the development of a program to deal with the problem. Discusses why athletes use steroids and how steroids are taken. Concludes it is likely many steroid-related deaths of athletes go undetected. (Author/ABL)

Lopez, Mike

1990-01-01

256

Sex Differences in Task Distribution and Task Exposures among Danish House Painters: An Observational Study Combining Questionnaire Data with Biomechanical Measurements  

Science.gov (United States)

Objectives Sex differences in occupational biomechanical exposures may be part of the explanation why musculoskeletal complaints and disorders tend to be more common among women than among men. We aimed to determine possible sex differences in task distribution and task-specific postures and movements of the upper extremities among Danish house painters, and to establish sex-specific task exposure matrices. Methods To obtain task distributions, we sent out a questionnaire to all members of the Painters' Union in Denmark (N?=?9364), of whom 53% responded. Respondents reported their task distributions in a typical week. To obtain task exposures, postures and movements were measured in 25 male and 25 female house painters for one whole working day per person. We used goniometers on the wrists, and inclinometers on the forehead and the upper arms. Participants filled in a logbook allowing task-specific exposures to be identified. Percentiles and % time with non-neutral postures were used to characterise postures. Velocity, range of motion, repetitiveness, and variation were used as measures of movement. Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel statistics and unpaired double-sided t-tests with post-hoc Bonferroni correction were used to evaluate sex differences. Results Statistically significant (pdifferences were revealed in task proportions, but the proportions differed by less than 4%. For task exposures, no statistically significant sex differences were found. Conclusions Only minor sex differences were found in task distribution and task exposures regarding postures and movements among Danish house painters. Sex-specific task exposure matrices were established. PMID:25365301

Heilskov-Hansen, Thomas; Wulff Svendsen, Susanne; Fr?lund Thomsen, Jane; Mikkelsen, Sigurd; Hansson, Gert-Ake

2014-01-01

257

Steroid/nuclear receptor coactivators.  

Science.gov (United States)

In higher eukaryotes, steroids/thyroid hormones and many lipophilic compounds regulate cellular physiology through binding to the steroid/nuclear receptor proteins. Steroid/nuclear receptors are ligand-dependent transcriptional activators that can stimulate gene expression. This transcriptional activation plays a pivotal role in hormone-regulated physiological and pharmacological responses. In recent years, several steroid/nuclear receptor cofactors have been identified and found to interact with the receptor and modulate its transcriptional activity. Among these cofactors, a family of three co-activators has been the focus of intense studies. Although gaps remain, progress has been made in understanding how a given co-activator interacts with the receptor and promotes transcriptional activation. We are beginning to understand co-activator action; for instance, several studies have established the molecular basis of antagonism by anti-hormones and the connection of co-activators with human cancers. PMID:10668406

Chen, J D

2000-01-01

258

Multigroup Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Cognitive Dysfunction Questionnaire: instrument refinement and measurement invariance across age and sex.  

Science.gov (United States)

The study adopted Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) to investigate the factorial structure and reduce the number of items of the Cognitive Dysfunction Questionnaire (CDQ). The analyses were based on data for a total of 1,115 participants from population based samples (mean age: 63.0 ± 14.5 years, range: 25-95) randomly split into a refinement (N = 569) and a cross-validation (N = 546) sample. Equivalence of the measurement and structural portions of the refined model was demonstrated across the refinement and cross-validation samples. Among competing models the best fitting and parsimonious model had a hierarchical factor structure with five first-order and one second-order general factor. For the final version of the CDQ, 20 items within five domains were selected (Procedural actions, Semantic word knowledge, Face recognition, Temporal orientation, and Spatial navigation). Internal consistency reliabilities were adequate for the total scale and for the subscales. Multigroup CFAs indicated measurement invariance across age and sex up to the scalar level. Finally, higher levels of cognitive dysfunction as reflected by CDQ scores were predicted by advancing age, fewer years of education, and with deficits in general cognitive functioning as reflected by scores on the Mini-Mental State Examination. In conclusion, the CDQ appears to be psychometrically sound and shows the expected relationships with variables known to be associated with cognitive dysfunction and dementia. Future studies should apply it among clinical groups to further test its usefulness. PMID:22962857

Vestergren, Peter; Rönnlund, Michael; Nyberg, Lars; Nilsson, Lars-Göran

2012-10-01

259

Sex Chromosome  

Science.gov (United States)

A sex chromosome is one of the two chromosomes that specify an organism's genetic sex. Humans have two kinds of sex chromosomes, one called X and the other Y. Normal females possess two X chromosomes and normal males one X and one Y.

Darryl Leja (National Human Genome Research Institute REV)

2005-04-14

260

Age and sex differences in cerebral glucose consumption measured by pet using [18-F] fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Resting cerebral glucose metabolic rates (CMRglc) were measured in 23 subjects by PET using FDG. Subjects were divided into several groups (mean age +- S.D.) 5 young males (YM) (27 +- 6); 6 young females (YF)(33 +9); 5 elderly males (EM)(73 +- 5); 7 elderly females (EF)(69 +- 7). Additionally, from these groups 4 YM, 3YF, 5EM and 4EF were studied again within 6 weeks under identical conditions. CMRglc in the YF group again was significantly hider than YM (p 0.05). No obvious relationships of CMRglc to the phase of the menstrual cycle was found in this small group. There was a trend (p=0.06) toward a higher CMRglc in YF than EF. These results support the findings of higher CBF in YF versus YM. The differences between the results of Kuhl et al (J. Cereb. and a reduction of CMRglc with age was found in a mixed group of males and females (58and female), and where no age effect was found the males, are also resolved by these findings. The authors suggest that the apparent age effect, in females in this study, is principally a hormonal one

 
 
 
 
261

Prenatal sex determination by radioimmunoassay of testosterone with and without chromatography of the amniotic fluid  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Amniotic fluid testosterone measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA) without chromatography (immunoreactive testosterone) seems not to be a definitive test for prenatal sex determination in all cases. In this study testosterone (T) levels measured by RIA with chromatography of the amniotic fluid samples were compared with immunoreactive testosterone (iT) values, to determine the predictive accuracy of the two methods. In 111 amniotic fluid samples between 15 and 19 weeks of gestation iT and T were measured parallelly. There are significant differences between iT- and T-means of both sexes (p < 0.001). 95%-confidence limits of iT-values of the male and female fetuses are largely overlapping. In contrast, the overlap of 95%-confidence limits of the T-values is only minor. The measurement of testosterone with chromatography of the amniotic fluid samples shows for prenatal sex determination in over 90% accuracy. This result is due to the elimination of sex-specific differences in crossreacting steroids within the amniotic fluid of both sexes. (orig)

262

Effect of the Steroidal Saponins of Fructus tribuli on Growth of Three Lactobacillus acidophilus  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Effect of the steroidal saponins of Fructus tribuli on Growth of Lactobacillus acidophilus LA04, LA05 and LA06 was studied by measuring optical density at 600 nm (OD600 and pH using MRS media as the control. The addition of steroidal saponins (w/v was 0.05, 0.10, 0.15, 0.20 and 0.25%, respectively. Results were as follows: addition of steroidal saponins of Fructus tribuli could promote the growth of Lactobacillus acidophilus A04, LA05 and LA06 and the optimum concentration of steroidal saponins was all 0.25% for the three strains.

He Chen

2014-01-01

263

Electroimmunoassay of sex hormone binding globulin. Enhanced sensitivity by autoradiography using A-ring 125I-17-?-oestradiol  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Four different 125I-iodinated steroids were tested for their binding to human sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) using an electrophoretic technique. 17-?-oestradiol iodinated in its A-ring bound with high affinity to SHBG. This radioactive steroid was used to increase the sensitivity of the electroimmunoassay of SHBG by adding the steroid to the samples before electroimmunoassay. The radioactive steroid incorporated into the immunoprecipitates could be observed by autoradiography. The sensitivity of the assay, which employed a rabbit antiserum against purified human SHBG and was standardized with pure SHBG, was about 0.2 mg/1. The coefficient of variation within and between assays was 2.4% and 2.6% respectively, for values within the normal range. The mean SHBG concentration in healthy regularly menstruating women was 3.50 +- 0.74 (SD) mg/1 when measured in plasma, and 3.78 +- 0.80 mg/1 when measured in serum. The corresponding mean concentrations in healthy men were 2.26 +- 0.45 and 2.44 +- 0.49 mg/1. The modified electroimmunoassay described is a simple modification, which increases the sensitivity sufficiently to permit reliable quantification of SHBG over the entire range of concentration which could be relevant in clinical practice. (author)

264

Medical issues associated with anabolic steroid use: are they exaggerated?  

Science.gov (United States)

For the past 50 years anabolic steroids have been at the forefront of the controversy surrounding performance enhancing drugs. For almost half of this time no attempt was made by sports governing bodies to control its use, and only recently have all of the major sports governing bodies in North America agreed to ban from competition and punish athletes who test positive for anabolic steroids. These punitive measures were developed with the primary concern for promotion of fair play and eliminating potential health risks associated with androgenic-anabolic steroids. Yet, controversy exists whether these testing programs deter anabolic steroid use. Although the scope of this paper does not focus on the effectiveness of testing, or the issue of fair play, it is of interest to understand why many athletes underestimate the health risks associated from these drugs. What creates further curiosity is the seemingly well-publicized health hazards that the medical community has depicted concerning anabolic steroidabuse. Is there something that the athletes know, or are they simply naïve regarding the dangers? The focus of this review is to provide a brief history of anabolic steroid use in North America, the prevalence of its use in both athletic and recreational populations and its efficacy. Primary discussion will focus on health issues associated with anabolic steroid use with an examination of the contrasting views held between the medical community and the athletes that are using these ergogenic drugs. Existing data suggest that in certain circumstances the medical risk associated with anabolic steroid use may have been somewhat exaggerated, possibly to dissuade use in athletes. Key PointsFor many years the scientific and medical communities depicted a lack of efficacy and serious adverse effects from anabolic steroid use.Clinical case studies continue to link anabolic steroid administration with myocardial infarct, suicide, and cancer, evidence to support a cause and effect relationship is lacking.It may be other contributing factors (i.e. genetic predisposition, diet, etc.) that play a substantial role and potentiate the harmful effects from anabolic steroids. PMID:24259990

Hoffman, Jay R; Ratamess, Nicholas A

2006-01-01

265

Green Light for Steroid Hormones  

Science.gov (United States)

Access to the article is free, however registration and sign-in are required. In his Perspective, D. Russell describes two papers--one in this week's issue of Science (Li et al., p. 398) and one in the 19 April issue of Cell (M. Szekeres et al.)--which report on two enzymes that synthesize steroid hormones cloned from Arabidopsis. These enzymes, DET2 and CPD, are in the biosynthetic pathway for brassinolides, steroids that seem to participate in the regulation of gene expression by light.

David W. Russell (University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center;Department of Molecular Genetics)

1996-04-19

266

Localization of breast cancer resistance protein (Bcrp) in endocrine organs and inhibition of its transport activity by steroid hormones  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) is known for its protective function against the toxic effects of exogenous compounds. In addition to this, a role in the transport of endogenous compounds has been described. Since BCRP in the plasma membrane was shown to be regulated by sex steroids, we investigated the presence and possible role of BCRP in steroid hormone-producing organs. Therefore, the presence and localization of Bcrp was investigated in endocrine organs of wild-type mice. Further...

Dankers, Anita C. A.; Sweep, Fred C. G. J.; Pertijs, Jeanne C. L. M.; Verweij, Vivienne; Den Heuvel, Jeroen J. M. W.; Koenderink, Jan B.; Russel, Frans G. M.; Masereeuw, Rosalinde

2012-01-01

267

The steroid hormone ecdysone functions with intrinsic chromatin remodeling factors to control female germline stem cells in Drosophila  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Steroid hormones are known systemic regulators of multiple normal and cancerous tissues; however, whether or how they impact the fate and function of adult stem cells is unclear. In the Drosophila ovary, insulin signals modulate the proliferation and self-renewal of germline stem cells (GSCs), yet despite evidence that additional systemic factors control GSC activity, these have remained largely unknown. Here, we report that ecdysone, a steroid hormone structurally related to mammalian sex st...

Ables, Elizabeth T.; Drummond-barbosa, Daniela

2010-01-01

268

Teens and Steroids: A Dangerous Combo  

Science.gov (United States)

... Biologics Articulos en Espanol Teens and Steroids: A Dangerous Combo Search the Consumer Updates Section Ali Mohamadi, ... officer at FDA, wants teens to know how dangerous it is to use steroids in hopes of ...

269

Steroids for Treating Cancer (For Parents)  

Science.gov (United States)

... and the health risks they incur from abusing anabolic steroids — drugs that were originally intended for people with ... that he or she will not be taking anabolic steroids, but rather corticosteroids . Corticosteroids are made from a ...

270

Environment and sex determination in farmed fish.  

Science.gov (United States)

A plasticity of gonadal sex differentiation was reported in the 1930s following exogenous steroid treatments in fish, but demonstration that environmental factors (temperature, pH, density and social interactions) could influence the sex ratio in gonochoristic species has been relatively recent. In fish, as in reptiles and amphibians displaying environmental sex determination, the main environmental factor influencing sex seems to be temperature (TSD=Temperature Sex Determination). In most thermosensitive species (some Atherinids, Poecilids, Cichlids: tilapias, goldfish, a Siluriform, a flatfishellipsis) male to female ratio increases with temperature and/or ovarian differentiation is induced by low temperatures. Conversely, in some rare species (Dicentrarchus labrax, Ictalurus punctatus), high temperatures may produce female-biased sex ratios and/or low temperatures promote male-biased sex ratios. In the hirame Paralichthys olivaceus, both high and low temperatures induce monosex male populations while intermediate temperatures yield a 1:1 sex ratio (U-shape curve). Fish show particularities in their TSD patterns since mono-sex populations are generally not produced at extreme temperatures, suggesting the existence of strong temperature/genotype interactions. In reptiles, amphibians and fish displaying TSD, temperature treatments must be applied at a critical sensitive period, relatively similar to the hormone sensitive period. In gonochoristic fish, steroid hormones with estrogens in females and 11-oxygenated androgens in males, are probably key physiological steps in the regulation of gonadal sex differentiation. Cytochrome P450-aromatase, enzyme catalysing conversion of androgens to estrogens, seems to be a critical enzyme for ovarian differentiation. Molecular mechanisms of thermosensitivity have been addressed in two species tilapia Oreochromis niloticus and the hirame, where aromatase gene expression is down-regulated by masculinizing temperature treatments. Furthermore, in tilapia the gene expression of 11 beta-hydroxylase (a key enzyme involved in the synthesis of 11-oxygenated androgens) does not appear to be affected by temperature treatments. PMID:11738628

Baroiller, J F; D'Cotta, H

2001-12-01

271

MEDICAL ISSUES ASSOCIATED WITH ANABOLIC STEROID USE: ARE THEY EXAGGERATED?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available For the past 50 years anabolic steroids have been at the forefront of the controversy surrounding performance enhancing drugs. For almost half of this time no attempt was made by sports governing bodies to control its use, and only recently have all of the major sports governing bodies in North America agreed to ban from competition and punish athletes who test positive for anabolic steroids. These punitive measures were developed with the primary concern for promotion of fair play and eliminating potential health risks associated with androgenic-anabolic steroids. Yet, controversy exists whether these testing programs deter anabolic steroid use. Although the scope of this paper does not focus on the effectiveness of testing, or the issue of fair play, it is of interest to understand why many athletes underestimate the health risks associated from these drugs. What creates further curiosity is the seemingly well-publicized health hazards that the medical community has depicted concerning anabolic steroidabuse. Is there something that the athletes know, or are they simply naïve regarding the dangers? The focus of this review is to provide a brief history of anabolic steroid use in North America, the prevalence of its use in both athletic and recreational populations and its efficacy. Primary discussion will focus on health issues associated with anabolic steroid use with an examination of the contrasting views held between the medical community and the athletes that are using these ergogenic drugs. Existing data suggest that in certain circumstances the medical risk associated with anabolic steroid use may have been somewhat exaggerated, possibly to dissuade use in athletes

Jay R. Hoffman

2006-06-01

272

Adolescents and Steroids: A User Perspective.  

Science.gov (United States)

Anabolic-androgenic steroids ("steroids") are synthetic derivatives of the natural male hormone testosterone. They were first used non-medically by elite athletes seeking to improve performance. More recently, however, steroid use has filtered down to high school and junior high school levels. The purpose of this study was to describe adolescent…

Office of Inspector General (DHHS), Washington, DC.

273

About Steroids (Inhaled and Oral Corticosteroids)  

Science.gov (United States)

... may decrease your steroid dose by tapering the dose to prevent "breakthrough" symptoms and to allow the adrenal glands time to function again. If you have been taking steroids long-term do not ... to a lower steroid dose, you may notice some withdrawal side effects. These ...

274

Sex Offenders.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper on the problem of sex offending among individuals with intellectual disabilities examines the incidence of this problem, characteristics of intellectually disabled sex offenders, determination of whether the behavior is a paraphilia or functional age-related behavior, and treatment options, with emphasis on the situation in New South…

Hayes, Susan

1991-01-01

275

Steroid derivatives and their use in radioimmunoassays  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radioimmunoassay techniques have been used to determine the concentration in body fluids of various endogenous and exogenous steroids. In the development of radioimmunoassays for the various steroids, the preparation of an antigen labelled with iodine-125 is of primary concern. The chemical structure of steroids is such that it is generally not possible to radioiodinate them directly. It is necessary to utilize as a precursor of the radiolabeled antigen a derivative of the steroid to be assayed which can be readily iodinatd. The process by which steroids are chosen and structurally modified is given

276

Steroid radioimmunoassay: contribution of standards to blank values, ch. 4  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The sensitivity of the radioimmunoassay of steroids is considerably reduced by high blank values which may be derived in part from co-chromatographed standards. Blank levels approach the detection limit of the radioimmunoassay of aldosterone, testosterone and androstenedione when 10,000 dpm (30-35 pg) labelled steroids are used as reference standard. When 20 ?g aldosterone, testosterone, or androstenedione is used as standard, blank levels of up to 12,800 pg were measured in the radioimmunoassay. Application of the standards on a separate strip does not improve the results. From the experiments it appeared that contamination took place by transport by the solvent

277

Steroids, cancer and vertebral fractures: a dreaded combination.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hyporexia/anorexia is a relevant clinical problem affecting the quality of life of many cancer patients. Corticosteroids are the first drugs evaluated in placebo-controlled trials for the palliation of cancer anorexia resulting in a temporary improvement in appetite. However, this measure should be balanced with its secondary events. A frequent side effect mainly after long-term treatment with steroids is the loss of bone mass, which causes osteoporosis and vertebral fractures. But this secondary event might also appear after short courses of steroids. Percutaneous vertebroplasty is an effective treatment of painful osteoporotic compression fractures, minimally invasive and with very low morbidity, which is very useful to improve quality of life in these patients. We present here a case of a 71-year-old woman, with history of osteoporosis, who developed a painful vertebral fracture after a short course of steroids to alleviate anorexia secondary to cancer treatment. PMID:20395352

Uña Cidón, Esther

2011-09-01

278

Steroid toxicity and detoxification in ascomycetous fungi.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the last couple of decades fungal infections have become a significant clinical problem. A major interest into fungal steroid action has been provoked since research has proven that steroid hormones are toxic to fungi and affect the host/fungus relationship. Steroid hormones were found to differ in their antifungal activity in ascomycetous fungi Hortaea werneckii, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Aspergillus oryzae. Dehydroepiandrosterone was shown to be the strongest inhibitor of growth in all three varieties of fungi followed by androstenedione and testosterone. For their protection, fungi use several mechanisms to lower the toxic effects of steroids. The efficiency of biotransformation in detoxification depended on the microorganism and steroid substrate used. Biotransformation was a relatively slow process as it also depended on the growth phase of the fungus. In addition to biotransformation, steroid extrusion out of the cells contributed to the lowering of the active intracellular steroid concentration. Plasma membrane Pdr5 transporter was found to be the most effective, followed by Snq2 transporter and vacuolar transporters Ybt1 and Ycf1. Proteins Aus1 and Dan1 were not found to be involved in steroid import. The research of possible targets of steroid hormone action in fungi suggests that steroid hormones inhibit ergosterol biosynthesis in S. cerevisiae and H. werneckii. Results of this inhibition caused changes in the sterol content of the cellular membrane. The presence of steroid hormones most probably causes the degradation of the Tat2 permease and impairment of tryptophan import. PMID:23257178

Cvelbar, Damjana; Zist, Vanja; Kobal, Katja; Zigon, Dušan; Zakelj-Mavri?, Marija

2013-02-25

279

Sex Determination from Occipital Condylar Measurements by Baudoin Index in Forensic Purposes / Determinación del Sexo desde Mediciones del Cóndilo Occipital Mediante el Índice de Baudoin con Propósitos Forenses  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish En la identificación de personas con fines forenses el sexo es una de las características más importantes y primordiales a evaluar en cada caso. El índice condilar Baudoin es un método de determinación del sexo basado en mediciones de la longitud y la anchura del cóndilo occipital. El objetivo de es [...] ta investigación fue aplicar el índice condilar de Baudoin para la determinación del sexo, y evaluar su fiabilidad. La muestra fue compuesta de 100 cráneos humanos brasileños, 50 hombres y 50 mujeres del cementerio São Gonçalo, ciudad de Cuiabá, Brasil. Los valores de medición se analizaron estadísticamente con el fin de comparar la tasa de coincidencia para cada sexo, cada lado, además de la media general. Los resultados mostraron que el porcentaje general de éxito en la aplicación del índice de Baudoin fue de 44,83% para los hombres y 51,93% para las mujeres, lo que asciende a una coincidencia del 47,5%. La precisión del índice de Baudoin para la determinación del sexo fue bastante baja para esta muestra brasileña, por lo que este método debe ser considerado como criterio para determinar el sexo de los cráneos en un contexto forense. Abstract in english In human identification for forensic purposes the sex is one of the most important and first features to be assessed in each case. Baudoin condylar index is a sex determination method based on measurements of length and width of the occipital condyle. The aim of this research was to apply the Baudoi [...] n condylar index for sex determination, and evaluate its reliability. The sample was composed of 100 Brazilian human skulls, 50 male and 50 female from São Gonçalo cemetery, City of Cuiabá, Brazil. The measurement values were statistically analyzed in order to compare the matching rate for each sex, each side, as well as the overall average. The results showed that the overall percentage of success in applying the Baudoin index was 44.83% to males, and 51.93% to females, amounting to 47.5% matching. The accuracy of the Baudoin index to sex determination was quite low for this Brazilian sample, the reason why this method should be disregarded as a criterion to sexing skulls in a forensic context.

Osvaldo Fortes de, Oliviera; Rachel Lima Ribeiro, Tinoco; Eduardo, Daruge Júnior; Laís Gomes de, Araujo; Ricardo Henrique Alves da, Silva; Luiz Renato, Paranhos.

280

Sex Determination from Occipital Condylar Measurements by Baudoin Index in Forensic Purposes / Determinación del Sexo desde Mediciones del Cóndilo Occipital Mediante el Índice de Baudoin con Propósitos Forenses  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish En la identificación de personas con fines forenses el sexo es una de las características más importantes y primordiales a evaluar en cada caso. El índice condilar Baudoin es un método de determinación del sexo basado en mediciones de la longitud y la anchura del cóndilo occipital. El objetivo de es [...] ta investigación fue aplicar el índice condilar de Baudoin para la determinación del sexo, y evaluar su fiabilidad. La muestra fue compuesta de 100 cráneos humanos brasileños, 50 hombres y 50 mujeres del cementerio São Gonçalo, ciudad de Cuiabá, Brasil. Los valores de medición se analizaron estadísticamente con el fin de comparar la tasa de coincidencia para cada sexo, cada lado, además de la media general. Los resultados mostraron que el porcentaje general de éxito en la aplicación del índice de Baudoin fue de 44,83% para los hombres y 51,93% para las mujeres, lo que asciende a una coincidencia del 47,5%. La precisión del índice de Baudoin para la determinación del sexo fue bastante baja para esta muestra brasileña, por lo que este método debe ser considerado como criterio para determinar el sexo de los cráneos en un contexto forense. Abstract in english In human identification for forensic purposes the sex is one of the most important and first features to be assessed in each case. Baudoin condylar index is a sex determination method based on measurements of length and width of the occipital condyle. The aim of this research was to apply the Baudoi [...] n condylar index for sex determination, and evaluate its reliability. The sample was composed of 100 Brazilian human skulls, 50 male and 50 female from São Gonçalo cemetery, City of Cuiabá, Brazil. The measurement values were statistically analyzed in order to compare the matching rate for each sex, each side, as well as the overall average. The results showed that the overall percentage of success in applying the Baudoin index was 44.83% to males, and 51.93% to females, amounting to 47.5% matching. The accuracy of the Baudoin index to sex determination was quite low for this Brazilian sample, the reason why this method should be disregarded as a criterion to sexing skulls in a forensic context.

Osvaldo Fortes de, Oliviera; Rachel Lima Ribeiro, Tinoco; Eduardo, Daruge Júnior; Laís Gomes de, Araujo; Ricardo Henrique Alves da, Silva; Luiz Renato, Paranhos.

1297-13-01

 
 
 
 
281

Psychological Predictors of Anabolic Steroid Use: An Exploratory Study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Examined social physique anxiety, upper body esteem, social anxiety, and body dissatisfaction as possible predictors of anabolic steroid (AS) use. Results based on 185 AS-using bodybuilders and various control groups indicated that the upper body strength subscale of two measures, along with age, were significant predictors of AS use. (RJM)

Schwerin, Michael J.; Corcoran, Kevin J.; LaFleur, Bonnie J.; Fisher, Leslee; Patterson, David; Olrich, Tracy

1997-01-01

282

Influence of Music on Steroid Hormones and the Relationship between Receptor Polymorphism and Musical Ability: a Pilot Study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Studies have shown that music confers plasticity to the brain. In a preliminary pilot study, we examined the effect of music listening on steroid hormones and the relationship between steroid hormone receptor polymorphisms and musical ability. Twenty-one subjects (10 males and 11 females were recruited and divided into musically talented and control groups. The subjects selected (1 music they preferred (chill-inducing music and (2 music they did not like. Before and after the experiments, saliva was collected to measure the levels of steroid hormones such as testosterone, estradiol, and cortisol. DNA was also isolated from the saliva samples to determine the androgen receptor and arginine vasopressin receptor 1A genotypes. Advanced Measures of Music Audiation (AMMA was used to determine the musical ability of the subjects. With both types of music, the cortisol levels decreased significantly in both sexes. The testosterone (T levels declined in males when they listened to both types of music. In females, the T levels increased in those listening to chill-inducing music but declined when they listened to music they disliked. However, these differences were not significant. The 17-beta estradiol levels increased in males with both types of music, whereas the levels increased with chill-inducing music but declined with disliked music in females. The AMMA scores were higher for the short repeat length-type AR than for the long repeat length-type. Comparisons of AR polymorphisms and T levels before the experiments showed that the T levels were within the low range in the short repeat length-type group and there was a positive relationship with the repeat length, although it was not significant. This is the first study conducted in humans to analyze the relationships between the AR gene, T levels, and musical ability.

HajimeFukui

2013-12-01

283

Influence of music on steroid hormones and the relationship between receptor polymorphisms and musical ability: a pilot study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Studies have shown that music confers plasticity to the brain. In a preliminary pilot study, we examined the effect of music listening on steroid hormones and the relationship between steroid hormone receptor polymorphisms and musical ability. Twenty-one subjects (10 males and 11 females) were recruited and divided into musically talented and control groups. The subjects selected (1) music they preferred (chill-inducing music) and (2) music they did not like. Before and after the experiments, saliva was collected to measure the levels of steroid hormones such as testosterone, estradiol, and cortisol. DNA was also isolated from the saliva samples to determine the androgen receptor (AR) and arginine vasopressin receptor 1A genotypes. Advanced Measures of Music Audiation (AMMA) was used to determine the musical ability of the subjects. With both types of music, the cortisol levels decreased significantly in both sexes. The testosterone (T) levels declined in males when they listened to both types of music. In females, the T levels increased in those listening to chill-inducing music but declined when they listened to music they disliked. However, these differences were not significant. The 17-beta estradiol levels increased in males with both types of music, whereas the levels increased with chill-inducing music but declined with disliked music in females. The AMMA scores were higher for the short repeat length-type AR than for the long repeat length-type. Comparisons of AR polymorphisms and T levels before the experiments showed that the T levels were within the low range in the short repeat length-type group and there was a positive relationship with the repeat length, although it was not significant. This is the first study conducted in humans to analyze the relationships between the AR gene, T levels, and musical ability. PMID:24348454

Fukui, Hajime; Toyoshima, Kumiko

2013-01-01

284

Influence of music on steroid hormones and the relationship between receptor polymorphisms and musical ability: a pilot study  

Science.gov (United States)

Studies have shown that music confers plasticity to the brain. In a preliminary pilot study, we examined the effect of music listening on steroid hormones and the relationship between steroid hormone receptor polymorphisms and musical ability. Twenty-one subjects (10 males and 11 females) were recruited and divided into musically talented and control groups. The subjects selected (1) music they preferred (chill-inducing music) and (2) music they did not like. Before and after the experiments, saliva was collected to measure the levels of steroid hormones such as testosterone, estradiol, and cortisol. DNA was also isolated from the saliva samples to determine the androgen receptor (AR) and arginine vasopressin receptor 1A genotypes. Advanced Measures of Music Audiation (AMMA) was used to determine the musical ability of the subjects. With both types of music, the cortisol levels decreased significantly in both sexes. The testosterone (T) levels declined in males when they listened to both types of music. In females, the T levels increased in those listening to chill-inducing music but declined when they listened to music they disliked. However, these differences were not significant. The 17-beta estradiol levels increased in males with both types of music, whereas the levels increased with chill-inducing music but declined with disliked music in females. The AMMA scores were higher for the short repeat length-type AR than for the long repeat length-type. Comparisons of AR polymorphisms and T levels before the experiments showed that the T levels were within the low range in the short repeat length-type group and there was a positive relationship with the repeat length, although it was not significant. This is the first study conducted in humans to analyze the relationships between the AR gene, T levels, and musical ability. PMID:24348454

Fukui, Hajime; Toyoshima, Kumiko

2013-01-01

285

Multiple steroid radioimmunoassays and automation: versatile techniques for reproductive endocrinology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The combination of the efficient steroid separating properties of a lipophilic Sephadex derivative Lipidex-5000sup(TM), with the use of antibodies with carefully selected specificity allows the quantitative determination of pregnenolone, progesterone, 17?-hydroxyprogesterone, androstenedione, testosterone, 5?-dihydrotestosterone, 5?-androstanedione, androsterone and 5?-androstane-3?, 17?-diol from 1-2 ml samples of blood serum, amniotic fluid or 300-600 mg pieces of prostatic tissue. The adaptation of the pipetting unit and incubator of a discrete clinical chemical analyzer, System Olli 3000, for the automation of the radioimmunoassays has resulted in a greatly increased through-put and decreased experimental error of the procedure. In studies on reproductive endocrinology, the methodology developed has allowed the detection of a sex difference in androgen composition of the amniotic fluid early in pregnancy. Further, it is very likely that the decline in steroid production by the testis seen during the first year of life and then in senescence is affected by basically different mechanisms. There are also important differences in the steroid content of normal, hyperplastic and carcinomatous prostate. (orig.)

286

Safe sex  

Science.gov (United States)

There are many diseases that humans can contract through sexual contact with each other. Humans can lower their risk of contracting these diseases by practicing safe sex techniques if they choose to participate in those kinds of actions.

Olivia Worland (Purdue University;Biological Sciences)

2008-07-09

287

Do sex differences in the brain explain sex differences in the hormonal induction of reproductive behavior? What 25 years of research on the Japanese quail tells us.  

Science.gov (United States)

Early workers interested in the mechanisms mediating sex differences in morphology and behavior assumed that differences in behavior that are commonly observed between males and females result from the sex specificity of androgens and estrogens. Androgens were thought to facilitate male-typical traits, and estrogens were thought to facilitate female-typical traits. By the mid-20th century, however, it was apparent that administering androgens to females or estrogens to males was not always effective in sex-reversing behavior and that in some cases a "female" hormone such as an estrogen could produce male-typical behavior and an androgen could induce female-typical behavior. These conceptual difficulties were resolved to a large extent by the seminal paper of C. H. Phoenix, R. W. Goy, A. A. Gerall, and W. C. Young in (1959, Endocrinology 65, 369-382) that illustrated that several aspects of sexual behavior are different between males and females because the sexes have been exposed during their perinatal life to a different endocrine milieu that has irreversibly modified their response to steroids in adulthood. Phoenix et al. (1959) therefore formalized a clear dichotomy between the organizational and activational effects of sex steroid hormones. Since this paper, a substantial amount of research has been carried out in an attempt to identify the aspects of brain morphology or neurochemistry that differentiate under the embryonic/neonatal effects of steroids and are responsible for the different behavioral response of males and females to the activation by steroids in adulthood. During the past 25 years, research in behavioral neuroendocrinology has identified many sex differences in brain morphology or neurochemistry; however many of these sex differences disappear when male and female subjects are placed in similar endocrine conditions (e.g., are gonadectomized and treated with the same amount of steroids) so that these differences appear to be of an activational nature and cannot therefore explain sex differences in behavior that are still present in gonadectomized steroid-treated adults. This research has also revealed many aspects of brain morphology and chemistry that are markedly affected by steroids in adulthood and are thought to mediate the activation of behavior at the central level. It has been explicitly, or in some cases, implicitly assumed that the sexual differentiation of brain and behavior driven by early exposure to steroids concerns primarily those neuroanatomical/neurochemical characteristics that are altered by steroids in adulthood and presumably mediate the activation of behavior. Extensive efforts to identify these sexually differentiated brain characteristics over the past 20 years has only met with limited success, however. As regards reproductive behavior, in all model species that have been studied it is still impossible to identify satisfactorily brain characteristics that differentiate under early steroid action and explain the sex differences in behavioral activating effects of steroids. This problem is illustrated by research conducted on Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica), an avian model system that displays prominent sex differences in the sexual behavioral response to testosterone, and in which the endocrine mechanisms that control sexual differentiation of behavior have been clearly identified so that subjects with a fully sex-reversed behavioral phenotype can be easily produced. In this species, studies of sex differences in the neural substrate mediating the action of steroids in the brain, including the activity of the enzymes that metabolize steroids such as aromatase and the distribution of steroid hormone receptors as well as related neurotransmitter systems, did not result in a satisfactory explanation of sex differences in the behavioral effectiveness of testosterone. Possible explanations for the relative failure to identify the organized brain characteristics responsible for behavio PMID:9047287

Balthazart, J; Tlemçani, O; Ball, G F

1996-12-01

288

Steroidal saponins from Dracaena marginata.  

Science.gov (United States)

Three new steroidal saponins and ten known ones were isolated from the bark of Dracaena marginata, along with two known steroidal saponins from the roots. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive 1D and 2D NMR experiments and mass spectrometry as (25R)-26-(beta-D-glucopyranosyloxy)3beta,22alpha-dihydroxyfurost-5-en-1beta-yl O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 --> 2)-[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 --> 4)]-beta-D-glucopyranoside (1), (25R)-26-(beta-D-glucopyranosyloxy)-3beta,22alpha-dihydroxyfurost-5-en-1beta-yl O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 --> 2)-4-O-sulfo-alpha-L-arabinopyranoside (2), and (25S)-3beta-hydroxyspirost-5-en-1beta-yl O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 --> 2)-4-O-sulfo-alpha-L-arabinopyranoside (3). PMID:23513716

Rezgui, Abdelmalek; Mitaine-Offer, Anne-Claire; Pertuit, David; Miyamoto, Tomofumi; Tanaka, Chiaki; Delemasure, Stéphanie; Dutartre, Patrick; Lacaille-Dubois, Marie-Aleth

2013-02-01

289

Radioimmunoassay for steroid hormones, 3  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A specific, sensitive and reliable radioimmunoassay for plasma dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) has been developed. Anti-DHEA serum was obtained by immunizing rabbits with a DHEA-3-hemisuccinate-BSA conjugate. A useful range in the standard curve was from 10 pg to 500 pg. DHEA was separated from cross-reacting steroids by microcolumn chromatography. The coefficients of variation for within-assay and between-assay are 6.3% and 7.7%, respectively. (auth.)

290

ABUSE OF ANABOLIC ANDROGENIC STEROIDS  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

According to the International Olympic Committee, the abuse of anabolic androgenic steroids (AASS) is found in over 50% of positive doping tests. AASS abuse is not restricted to the organized sports andwidespread use. It remains as an unsolved public-health problem.Lower black market price, easier access to AASS, bodybuilding clubs and internet advertising are factors of this increasingly misuse. There is not real data about the prevalence of AASS abuse in various populations or countries, be...

Abbas Yavari

2009-01-01

291

Steroids, triterpenoids and molecular oxygen  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

There is a close connection between modern-day biosynthesis of particular triterpenoid biomarkers and presence of molecular oxygen in the environment. Thus, the detection of steroid and triterpenoid hydrocarbons far back in Earth history has been used to infer the antiquity of oxygenic photosynthesis. This prompts the question: were these compounds produced similarly in the past? In this paper, we address this question with a review of the current state of knowledge surrounding the oxygen req...

Summons, Roger E.; Bradley, Alexander S.; Jahnke, Linda L.; Waldbauer, Jacob R.

2006-01-01

292

Steroidal saponins from Agave Attenuata  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The polar fraction of the extract of Agave Attenuata Solm (family Agavaceae) afforded two steroidal saponins identified on the basis of spectral data as (25S)-sarsasapogenin-3-b-Dglyconside and (25S)-3-b, 22-a, 26-trihydroxy-16, 22-oxycoprostane-3-26 diglyconside. The glyconsidic moiety in the first compound is a disaccharide consists of glucose and galactose while in the second compound, the glyconsidic moieties are glucose and arabinose. (author)

293

Comprehensive Analysis of Hormone and Genetic Variation in 36 Genes Related to Steroid Hormone Metabolism in Pre- and Postmenopausal Women from the Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3)  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Context: Sex steroids play a central role in breast cancer development.Objective: This study aimed to relate polymorphic variants in 36 candidate genes in the sex steroid pathway to serum concentrations of sex steroid hormones and SHBG.Design: Data on 700 genetic polymorphisms were combined with existing hormone assays and data on breast cancer incidence, within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) and the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) cohorts; significant findings were reanalyzed in the Multiethnic Cohort (MEC).Setting and Participants: We analyzed data from a pooled sample of 3852 pre- and postmenopausal Caucasian women from EPIC and NHS and 454 postmenopausal women from MEC.Main Outcome Measures: Outcome measures were SHBG, testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEAS), androstenedione, estrone (E1), and estradiol (E2) as well as breast cancer risk.Results: Globally significant associations were found among pre- and postmenopausal women combined between levels of SHBG and theSHBG gene and between DHEAS and the FSHR and AKR1C3 genes. Among postmenopausal women, serum E1 and E2 were significantly associated with the genes CYP19 and FSHR, and E1 was associated with ESR1. None of the variants related to serum hormone levels showed any significant association with breast cancer risk.Conclusions: We confirmed associations between serum levels of SHBG and the SHBG gene and of E1 and E2 and the CYP19 and ESR1 genes. Novel associations were observed between FSHR and DHEAS, E1, and E2 and between AKR1C3 and DHEAS. (J Clin Endocrinol Metab 96: E360-E367, 2011)

Vogel, Ulla Birgitte

2011-01-01

294

Microbial biotransformation: recent developments on steroid drugs.  

Science.gov (United States)

About 300 of steroid drugs have been identified since the research and development to steroid drugs was triggered in 1950's. Although much progress in microbial biotransformation on steroid drugs is well-achieved, many efforts are ongoing in order to improve the efficiency of steroidal drug production as well as to degrade their derivatives. In this work an overview of recent and important findings related to patents and various microbial biotransformations of steroidal compounds including dehydrogenation/reduction, hydroxylation, esterification, methylation, halogenation and methoxylation is presented. Both metabolic pathway and genetic manipulation and screening for new strains capable of metabolizing/transforming steroid drugs, as the powerful endocrine disruptors, are introduced since they are serious environmental contaminants. PMID:19519569

Tong, Wang-Yu; Dong, Xiang

2009-01-01

295

21 CFR 862.1385 - 17-Hydroxycorticosteroids (17-ketogenic steroids) test system.  

Science.gov (United States)

...their tetrahydroderivatives. This group of hormones is synthesized by the adrenal gland. Measurements of 17-hydroxycorticosteroids (17-ketogenic steroids) are used in the diagnosis and treatment of various diseases of the adrenal or...

2010-04-01

296

Altered Serum Lipoprotein Profiles in Male and Female Power Lifters Ingesting Anabolic Steroids.  

Science.gov (United States)

Serum lipoprotein profiles were measured in nine male and three female weightlifters who were taking anabolic steroids. The profiles suggest that steriod users may face an increased risk of coronary artery disease. (Author/MT)

Cohen, Jonathan C.; And Others

1986-01-01

297

Azoospermi hos to bodybuildere efter anaboliske steroider  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

During investigations for infertility azoospermia was diagnosed in two men who were concomitantly using anabolic steroids for body-building. Following cessation of anabolic steroid use the semen quality was normalized. Suppression of spermatogenesis during treatment with testosterone and derivatives hereof is wellknown. Usage of anabolic steroids should be remembered as a cause of oligo- and azoospermia and asked about in cases of sperm counts approaching or at zero.

SØrensen, M B; Ingerslev, Hans Jakob

1995-01-01

298

Carrier-free astatination of steroid hormones  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The alpha emitting radiohalogen 211At has potential use as a radiotherapeutic agent when linked to biologically active molecules. The range of compounds which may be astatinated is limited by relative lack of knowledge of organoastatine syntheses. The production of astatovinyl steroids was carried out via electrophilic substitution of tri-n-butylstannylvinyl steroids with astatide in the presence of mild oxidizing agents. The astatinated steroids are synthesized rapidly and in carrier-free fashion yielding compounds of high radiochemical purity. (author)

299

Carrier-free astatination of steroid hormones  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The alpha emitting radiohalogen /sup 211/At has potential use as a radiotherapeutic agent when linked to biologically active molecules. The range of compounds which may be astatinated is limited by relative lack of knowledge of organoastatine syntheses. The production of astatovinyl steroids was carried out via electrophilic substitution of tri-n-butylstannylvinyl steroids with astatide in the presence of mild oxidizing agents. The astatinated steroids are synthesized rapidly and in carrier-free fashion yielding compounds of high radiochemical purity.

Pillai, K.M.R.; McLaughlin, W.H.; Bloomer, W.D.; Lambrecht, R.M.

1987-09-01

300

Endothelial function in male body builders taking anabolic androgenic steroids  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Adverse cardiovascular events have been reported in body builders taking anabolic steroids. Adverse effects of AAS on endothelial function can initiate atherosclerosis. This study evaluates endothelial function in body builders using AAS, compared with non-steroids using athletes as controls. Methods: We recruited 30 nonsmoking male body builders taking AAS, 14 in build up phase, 8 in work out phase, and 8 in post steroid phase, and 30 nonsmoking male athletes who denied ever using steroids. Serum lipids and fasting plasma glucose were measured to exclude dyslipidemia and diabetes. Brachial artery diameter was measured by ultrasound at rest, after cuff inflation, and after sublingual glyceriltrinitrate (GTN to determine flow mediated dilation (FMD, nitro mediated dilation (NMD and ratio of FMD to NMD (index of endothelial function. Result: Use of AAS was associated with higher body mass index (BMI and low density lipoprotein–cholesterol (LDL-C. Mean ratio of flow mediated dilatation after cuff deflation to post GTN dilatation of brachial artery (index of endothelial function in body builders taking AAS was significantly lower than control group (0.96(0.05 versus 1(0.08; p=0.03. After adjusting BMI, age and weight, no significant difference was seen in index of endothelial function between two groups (p=0 .21. Conclusion: Our study indicates that taking AAS in body builders doesn’t have direct effect on endothelial function. Future study with bigger sample size and measurement of AAS metabolites is recommended. Key words: endothelium, lipids, anabolic steroids, body builders

H Hashemi

2005-11-01

 
 
 
 
301

Measurements of the frontal and prefrontal lobe volumes by three dimensional magnetic resonance imaging scan. III. Analysis of sex differences with advanced age  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To determine whether there is sex difference in the growth of the frontal and prefrontal lobes, we quantitatively measured the volume of these lobes by three dimensional (3-D) MRI in healthy 12 males (5 months to 39 years) and six females (1 year 11 months to 27 years). The left and right lobes were studied separately. The 3-D MRI data were acquired by the fast spoiled gradient recalled (SPGR) sequence using a 1.5 T MR imager. The frontal and prefrontal lobe volumes were measured by the volume measurement function of the Workstation. In males, the left to right ratio (L/R ratio) of the frontal and prefrontal lobes increased with age. On the contrary, in females, L/R ratio of the frontal and prefrontal lobes showed no significant change with advancing age. These results highlighted sex-specific maturational changes of the frontal and prefrontal lobes and suggested that quantitative data on the frontal and prefrontal lobe are important in interpreting brain abnormalities in children with developmental disorders. (author)

302

Use of radioimmunoassay procedures for the determination of sex hormones in animal tissues  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Radioimmunoassay methods for the determination of sex steroids and other compounds with sex hormone-like activities in various edible animal tissues and endocrine glands have been developed. Reliability of these methods, allowing quantification in a range of 10/sup -11/ M, has been adequately demonstrated. When applied to monitoring residues of anabolic sex hormones in edible tissues of veal calves, physiological baseline levels of some endogenous ''anabolic'' steroids (like testosterone, oestrogens) were established; in the case of xenobiotics residues at the scheduled time of slaughter could be quantified (trenbolone) and a regulatory method to implement the ban of diethylstilbestrol was introduced.

Hoffmann, B. (Institut fuer Veterinaermedizin des Bundesgesundheitsamtes (Robert von Ostertag-Institut), Berlin (Germany, F.R.))

1983-07-01

303

Use of radioimmunoassay procedures for the determination of sex hormones in animal tissues  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radioimmunoassay methods for the determination of sex steroids and other compounds with sex hormone-like activities in various edible animal tissues and endocrine glands have been developed. Reliability of these methods, allowing quantification in a range of 10-11 M, has been adequately demonstrated. When applied to monitoring residues of anabolic sex hormones in edible tissues of veal calves, physiological baseline levels of some endogenous ''anabolic'' steroids (like testosterone, oestrogens) were established; in the case of xenobiotics residues at the scheduled time of slaughter could be quantified (trenbolone) and a regulatory method to implement the ban of diethylstilbestrol was introduced. (author)

304

Estimación del sexo en cazadores-recolectores de Sudamérica a partir de variables métricas del húmero Sex estimation of South american hunter-gatherers using humeral measurements  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es desarrollar funciones discriminantes para estimar el sexo en poblaciones cazadoras recolectoras sudamericanas a partir de variables métricas del húmero. Se seleccionaron tres muestras de poblaciones del Holoceno tardío procedentes de: a Sur de Patagonia (n= 64, b Noreste de Patagonia (n= 47, y c Noreste de Pampa y Entre Ríos (n= 35. Para obtener una estimación confiable del sexo se incluyeron individuos con estructuras diagnósticas presentes de la pelvis o el cráneo. Se analizaron seis variables del húmero que fueron empleadas para generar funciones discriminantes a través del método stepwise forward. El sexo estimado fue contrastado con el sexo basado en la pelvis a fin de establecer su exactitud. Las asignaciones correctas calculadas mediante el método de validación cruzada fueron relevadas en las tres muestras, que variaron entre el 82% y el 100%. A su vez, se estimó el sexo con funciones provenientes de otras poblaciones del mundo, que arrojaron porcentajes menores de asignaciones correctas. Por lo tanto, la técnica desarrollada proporciona estándares específicos para las poblaciones del cono sur de América y constituye una herramienta confiable para la estimación del sexo en muestras procedentes de las áreas analizadas.The purpose of this study is to develop discriminant functions for sex estimation in hunter-gatherer South American populations, using humerus metric variables. Three Late Holocene aboriginal population samples were selected from: a South Patagonia (n= 64, b Northeastern Patagonia (n= 47 and c Northeastern Pampa and Entre Ríos (n= 35. Only those individuals showing pelvic or cranial diagnostic structures were included, in order to obtain reliable and independent sex estimation. Six humeral variables were measured (Maximum Length, Epicondylar Breadth, Vertical Diameter of Head, Maximum and Minimum Diameter at Midshaft and Minimum Diaphyseal Circumference and discriminant functions were generated from them through stepwise forward method, which selected different combinations of these variables for each sample. In order to assess the accuracy of estimations, both pelvic and humeral sex results were compared. Cross-validation percentages of correct sex assignations were high, ranging between 82 and 100 percent. In turn, other functions were tested, generated from different populations worldwide, and results for the three samples showed mostly lower percentages. Therefore, it is concluded that Southern-South America population-specific standards were obtained through this method, allowing for reliable sex determination in samples from the studied areas.

Marien Béguelin

2011-07-01

305

Estimación del sexo en cazadores-recolectores de Sudamérica a partir de variables métricas del húmero / Sex estimation of South american hunter-gatherers using humeral measurements  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El objetivo de este trabajo es desarrollar funciones discriminantes para estimar el sexo en poblaciones cazadoras recolectoras sudamericanas a partir de variables métricas del húmero. Se seleccionaron tres muestras de poblaciones del Holoceno tardío procedentes de: a) Sur de Patagonia (n= 64), b) No [...] reste de Patagonia (n= 47), y c) Noreste de Pampa y Entre Ríos (n= 35). Para obtener una estimación confiable del sexo se incluyeron individuos con estructuras diagnósticas presentes de la pelvis o el cráneo. Se analizaron seis variables del húmero que fueron empleadas para generar funciones discriminantes a través del método stepwise forward. El sexo estimado fue contrastado con el sexo basado en la pelvis a fin de establecer su exactitud. Las asignaciones correctas calculadas mediante el método de validación cruzada fueron relevadas en las tres muestras, que variaron entre el 82% y el 100%. A su vez, se estimó el sexo con funciones provenientes de otras poblaciones del mundo, que arrojaron porcentajes menores de asignaciones correctas. Por lo tanto, la técnica desarrollada proporciona estándares específicos para las poblaciones del cono sur de América y constituye una herramienta confiable para la estimación del sexo en muestras procedentes de las áreas analizadas. Abstract in english The purpose of this study is to develop discriminant functions for sex estimation in hunter-gatherer South American populations, using humerus metric variables. Three Late Holocene aboriginal population samples were selected from: a) South Patagonia (n= 64), b) Northeastern Patagonia (n= 47) and c) [...] Northeastern Pampa and Entre Ríos (n= 35). Only those individuals showing pelvic or cranial diagnostic structures were included, in order to obtain reliable and independent sex estimation. Six humeral variables were measured (Maximum Length, Epicondylar Breadth, Vertical Diameter of Head, Maximum and Minimum Diameter at Midshaft and Minimum Diaphyseal Circumference) and discriminant functions were generated from them through stepwise forward method, which selected different combinations of these variables for each sample. In order to assess the accuracy of estimations, both pelvic and humeral sex results were compared. Cross-validation percentages of correct sex assignations were high, ranging between 82 and 100 percent. In turn, other functions were tested, generated from different populations worldwide, and results for the three samples showed mostly lower percentages. Therefore, it is concluded that Southern-South America population-specific standards were obtained through this method, allowing for reliable sex determination in samples from the studied areas.

Marien, Béguelin; Federico P, Lotto; Paula N, Gonzalez.

306

Estimación del sexo en cazadores-recolectores de Sudamérica a partir de variables métricas del húmero / Sex estimation of South american hunter-gatherers using humeral measurements  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El objetivo de este trabajo es desarrollar funciones discriminantes para estimar el sexo en poblaciones cazadoras recolectoras sudamericanas a partir de variables métricas del húmero. Se seleccionaron tres muestras de poblaciones del Holoceno tardío procedentes de: a) Sur de Patagonia (n= 64), b) No [...] reste de Patagonia (n= 47), y c) Noreste de Pampa y Entre Ríos (n= 35). Para obtener una estimación confiable del sexo se incluyeron individuos con estructuras diagnósticas presentes de la pelvis o el cráneo. Se analizaron seis variables del húmero que fueron empleadas para generar funciones discriminantes a través del método stepwise forward. El sexo estimado fue contrastado con el sexo basado en la pelvis a fin de establecer su exactitud. Las asignaciones correctas calculadas mediante el método de validación cruzada fueron relevadas en las tres muestras, que variaron entre el 82% y el 100%. A su vez, se estimó el sexo con funciones provenientes de otras poblaciones del mundo, que arrojaron porcentajes menores de asignaciones correctas. Por lo tanto, la técnica desarrollada proporciona estándares específicos para las poblaciones del cono sur de América y constituye una herramienta confiable para la estimación del sexo en muestras procedentes de las áreas analizadas. Abstract in english The purpose of this study is to develop discriminant functions for sex estimation in hunter-gatherer South American populations, using humerus metric variables. Three Late Holocene aboriginal population samples were selected from: a) South Patagonia (n= 64), b) Northeastern Patagonia (n= 47) and c) [...] Northeastern Pampa and Entre Ríos (n= 35). Only those individuals showing pelvic or cranial diagnostic structures were included, in order to obtain reliable and independent sex estimation. Six humeral variables were measured (Maximum Length, Epicondylar Breadth, Vertical Diameter of Head, Maximum and Minimum Diameter at Midshaft and Minimum Diaphyseal Circumference) and discriminant functions were generated from them through stepwise forward method, which selected different combinations of these variables for each sample. In order to assess the accuracy of estimations, both pelvic and humeral sex results were compared. Cross-validation percentages of correct sex assignations were high, ranging between 82 and 100 percent. In turn, other functions were tested, generated from different populations worldwide, and results for the three samples showed mostly lower percentages. Therefore, it is concluded that Southern-South America population-specific standards were obtained through this method, allowing for reliable sex determination in samples from the studied areas.

Marien, Béguelin; Federico P, Lotto; Paula N, Gonzalez.

2011-07-01

307

Steroidal esters from Ferula sinkiangensis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two new steroidal esters with an unusual framework, Sinkiangenorin A and B, a new organic acid glycoside, Sinkiangenorin C, and four known lignin compounds were isolated from the seeds of Ferula sinkiangensis. The structures of these compounds were established by spectroscopic analysis and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. All of the isolated compounds were tested against Hela, K562 and AGS human cancer cell lines. Sinkiangenorin C showed cytotoxic activity against AGS cells with an IC50 of 36.9 ?M. PMID:24979220

Li, Guangzhi; Li, Xiaojin; Cao, Li; Shen, Liangang; Zhu, Jun; Zhang, Jing; Wang, Junchi; Zhang, Lijing; Si, Jianyong

2014-09-01

308

Steroidal saponins from Solanum nigrum.  

Science.gov (United States)

Six new steroidal saponins, solanigrosides C-H (2-7), and one known saponin, degalactotigonin (1), were isolated from the whole plant of Solanum nigrum. Their chemical structures were elucidated using spectroscopic analysis, chemical degradation, and derivatization. All seven compounds were tested for their cytotoxicity using four human tumor cell lines (HepG2, NCI-H460, MCF-7, SF-268). Only compound 1 was cytotoxic, with IC50 values of 0.25-4.49 microM. PMID:16933867

Zhou, Xinlan; He, Xiangjiu; Wang, Guanghui; Gao, Hao; Zhou, Guangxiong; Ye, Wencai; Yao, Xinsheng

2006-08-01

309

Microbial oxidation of anabolic steroids.  

Science.gov (United States)

Microbial transformation of two anabolic steroids, ethylestrenol (1) and nandrolone (2), were carried out. Ethylestrenol (1), when incubated with Rhizopus stolonifer (TSY 0471), yielded two oxidative metabolites named 17alpha-ethyl-3beta,17beta-dihydroxy-19-norndrost-4-ene (3) and 17alpha-ethyl-17beta-hydroxy-19-norandrost-4-en-3-one (4), while incubation of compound 2 with the same fungus yielded two oxidative metabolites, 19-norandrost-4-en-3,17-dione (5) and 6alpha,17beta-dihydroxy-19-norandrost-1,4-dien-3-one (6). PMID:19023784

Iqbal Choudhary, M; Adnan, S; Shah, A; Atta-Ur-Rahman

2008-01-01

310

Steroid abuse in female athletes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Drug abuse in sport attracts considerable media and public interest, particularly around the time of major international events such as the Olympic Games. From a scientific viewpoint the benefits of drugs to sportspersons have been difficult to address. In the case of steroids, the experiments required for proof, particularly in women, are unethical. Drug testing is an expensive mechanism for deterrence, but there are areas in the scenario where validation data are lacking and improvements to the procedures are needed. Testing standards for women cannot be based on results from tests in men, and regulations need revision to take account of new data. PMID:9263702

Honour, J W

1997-06-01

311

Body water, extracellular water, body potassium, and exchangeable sodium in body builders using anabolic steroids  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nine competitive male body builders aged 21 to 34 who were determined to take anabolic steroids were studied before and 6 to 10 weeks after a training cycle which included steroid administration. A control group of nine subjects matched in age and duration of competitive career, but using only natural training methods were studied on a single occasion while in training. Total body potassium (TBK) by 40K, total body water (TBW) by 3H2O dilution, extracellular water (ECW) by 35SO4 dilution and zero time extrapolation, and exchangeable sodium by 24Na dilution were measured before and after training. Intracellular water (ICW) was calculated from TBW - ECW. Initially steroid users had a greater skeletal muscle mass than control subjects, and obtained a further weight gain on steroids, all in skeletal muscle, based on parallel increases in TBK and ICW. Other body composition measurements did not change significantly. A single steroid user became ill taking steroids, decreased potassium by 5%, and increased extracellular water, changes which may represent the effects of hepatic dysfunction which occurred while on anabolic steroids

312

Sex offenders and sex crime recidivism: investigating the role of sentence length and time served.  

Science.gov (United States)

The relationship between criminal justice sanctions and sex crime recidivism remains largely unexplored. Therefore, using a sample of 8,461 previously incarcerated male sex offenders from 13 states in the United States, we focus on the sentence meted out for the sex crime conviction and the amount of time sex offenders served as a result of their conviction. Sex offenders were grouped into four categories: rapists, sexual assaulters, child molesters, and all sex offenders combined. Recidivism was operationalized as rearrest and reconviction. Findings suggest how recidivism is operationalized matters. When recidivism is measured as rearrest for another sex offense, sentence length and time served are unrelated to sex crime recidivism. On the other hand, when recidivism is operationalized as reconviction for another sex offense, sentence length is positively related to recidivism for rapists, sexual assaulters, child molesters, and all sex offenders combined, while time served is negatively related to recidivism for child molesters and all sex offenders combined. PMID:24114424

Budd, Kristen; Desmond, Scott A

2014-12-01

313

Steroids  

Science.gov (United States)

... Brain Development and Affect Teens The Negative Health Effects of Marijuana Use Legal Consequences of Drug Use Treatment and ... more about this dangerous activity. The Negative Health Effects of Marijuana Use “Besides being addictive, marijuana is cognitively impairing ...

314

Steroid dynamics in the rabbit  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Male rabbits were infused at a constant rate with 3H-androstenedione/14C-estrone (n . 5) or 3H-testosterone/14C-estradiol-17 beta (n . 3) for 3 1/2 hr and blood samples were obtained over the last hour and analyzed for radioactivity as androstenedione (A), testosterone (T), estrone (E1), estradiol-17 beta (E2 beta) and estradiol-17 alpha (E2 alpha). The mean value for the metabolic clearance rate of androstenedione (MCRA) was 85 +/- 10 l/day/kg, which was significantly greater than the mean MCRE1 59 +/- 10 l/day/kg. MCRT, 42 +/- 8 l/day/kg, and MCRE2 beta, 45 +/- 9 l/day/kg were not different. The conversion ratio of androstenedione to testosterone (CRA,T) was greater than CRT,A but for the estrogens, CRE2 beta, E1 was greater than CRE1,E2 beta. CRE2 beta, E2 alpha was greater than CRE1,E2 alpha. The overall aromatization of androstenedione to estrone, the fraction of 3H-androstenedione infused into the blood and measured as 3H-estrone in blood [( rho]A,E1BB) was 0.0005 +/- 0.0001 and for [rho]T,E2 beta BB was 0.0012 +/- 0.0006. In the rabbit both sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) and albumin binding may effect the MCRs, and peripheral aromatization of androgens occurs to a far lesser degree than in humans and primates

315

21 CFR 1308.34 - Exempt anabolic steroid products.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exempt anabolic steroid products. 1308.34 Section 1308...SCHEDULES OF CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Exempt Anabolic Steroid Products § 1308.34 Exempt anabolic steroid products. The list of...

2010-04-01

316

Miscellaneous uses of anabolic steroids.  

Science.gov (United States)

The original list of indications for anabolic-androgenic steroids has been reduced to those discussed in this publication so far and to mammary carcinoma, deficiency states and growth disorders. In disseminated endocrine-responsive mammary carcinoma in the female, anabolic drugs have a proven palliative effect in some 20 to 40% of patients, arresting tumour growth for up to 12 months and improving the patient's general condition. In high doses they can cause a disturbing increase in libido. Patients with deficiency states can, irrespective of the cause, benefit from adjunctive anabolic steroid treatment, provided their food supply is adequate. Positive effects are exerted by the anabolic agents' protein anabolic and anticatabolic actions, by psychic stimulation of the patient and by enhancement of recovery. Current trials strongly indicate that oral anabolic drugs administered alone or in combination with growth hormone or thyroid preparations are of therapeutic value in growth disorders such as constitutional delay of growth and puberty, hypopituitary dwarfism, chronic renal diseases and in Turner's syndrome. PMID:7504853

Kopera, H

1993-01-01

317

Sex-related variation in compact bone microstructure of the femoral diaphysis in juvenile rabbits  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background While gross morphological changes in the skeleton between males and females are well know, differences between sexes in the histomorphology are less known. It is important to have knowledge on the bone structure of rabbits, as this is a widely used species in biomedical research. A study was performed to evaluate the association between sex and the compact bone morphology of the femoral diaphysis in juvenile rabbits. Methods Seventeen clinically healthy 2–3 month-old rabbits (9 females, 8 males were included in the study. The rabbits were euthanized and the right femur was sampled for analysis. 70–80 microns thick bone sections of the femoral diaphysis were prepared using standard histological equipment. The qualitative histological characteristics were determined according to internationally accepted classification systems while the quantitative parameters were assessed using the software Scion Image. Areas, perimeters, minimum and maximum diameters of primary osteons' vascular canals, Haversian canals and secondary osteons were measured. Additionally, blood plasma concentrations of progesterone, corticosterone, IGF-I, testosterone and estradiol were analyzed. Results Qualitative histological characteristics were similar for both sexes. However, variations of certain quantitative histological characteristics were identified. Measured parameters of the primary osteons' vascular canals were higher in males than for females. On the other hand, females had significant higher values of secondary osteons parameters. Differences in Haversian canals parameters were only significant for minimum diameter. Conclusion The study demonstrated that quantitative histological characteristics of compact bone tissue of the femoral diaphysis in juvenile rabbits were sex dependent. The variations may be associated with different growth and modeling of the femur through influence by sex-specific steroids, mechanical loads, genetic factors and a multitude of other sources. The results can be applied in experimental studies focusing on comparison of the skeletal biology of the sexes.

Sirotkin Alexander V

2008-06-01

318

Steroid-induced ocular hypertension in Asian children with severe vernal keratoconjunctivitis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Marcus Ang,1 Seng-Ei Ti,1 Raymond Loh,1 Sonal Farzavandi,1 Rongli Zhang,2 Donald Tan,1 Cordelia Chan11Singapore National Eye Centre, Singapore; 2Singapore Eye Research Institute, SingaporeBackground: We describe clinical characteristics and risk factors for corticosteroid response in children with severe vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC.Design: Retrospective, noncontrolled, comparative case series.Participants: Patients from three tertiary centers in Singapore.Methods: We reviewed patients with severe VKC (clinical grade > 2 who were on topical steroid therapy, with a minimum follow-up period of 1 year post-presentation. Logistic regression was used to determine risk factors for corticosteroid response.Main outcome measure: Corticosteroid response was defined as intraocular pressure (IOP>21 mmHg (three consecutive readings, or a rise of more than 16 mmHg from baseline, after commencement of steroid therapy in the absence of other possible causes of raised IOP.Results: Forty-one of 145 (28.3% patients developed a corticosteroid response, of which eight (5.5% progressed to glaucoma. The overall mean age of onset of VKC was 9.9 ± 4.4 years. Longer duration of corticosteroid use (OR, 5.06; 95% CI: 1.04–25.56; P = 0.45 and topical dexamethasone 0.01% (OR, 2.25; 95% CI: 1.99–5.08; P = 0.40 were associated with corticosteroid response. Mixed type of VKC (OR, 9.76; 95% CI: 3.55–26.77; P < 0.001, the presence of limbal neovascularization of ? three quadrants (OR, 6.33; 95% CI: 2.36–16.97; P < 0.001, and corneal involvement (OR, 3.51; 95% CI: 1.31–9.41; P = 0.012 were significant clinical risk factors after adjusting for potential confounders such as age, sex, ethnicity, duration, and type of corticosteroid used.Conclusion: Children on long-term oral corticosteroids with severe, mixed-type VKC and corneal involvement are more likely to develop corticosteroid response, and may require early treatment to prevent progression to glaucoma.Keywords: vernal keratoconjunctivitis, glaucoma, steroids

Ang M

2012-08-01

319

Prognostic Significance of Steroid Hormone Receptors and DNA Content in Meningiomas  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

To investigate the prognostic utility of Estrogen and progesterone receptors (ER, PR) as part of the classical nuclear Steroid hormone receptors superfamily markers and DNA content in a representative intracranial meningiomas. We have immunohistochemically studied the expression of ER and PR as well as DNA content of meningioma collected retrospectively and studied the Correlations between every studied prognostic parameter (age, sex, menopause, nuclear grades, PR and ER). Tumor specimens wer...

El-shaer, Marwa A.; El-sharkawy, Sonia L.; Hassan, Nabila S.

2007-01-01

320

Lung function monitoring in patients with duchenne muscular dystrophy on steroid therapy  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a sex-linked inherited muscle disease characterized by a progressive loss in muscle strength and respiratory muscle involvement. After 12 years of age, lung function declines at a rate of 6 % to 10.7 % per year in patients with DMD. Steroid therapy has been proposed to delay the loss of motor function and also the respiratory involvement. Method In 21 patients with DMD aged between seven and 16 years, the ...

Machado Darlene L; Silva Elaine C; Resende Maria B D; Carvalho Celso R F; Zanoteli Edmar; Reed Umbertina C

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Elevations in sex hormones in dogs with sudden acquired retinal degeneration syndrome (SARDS).  

Science.gov (United States)

Dogs diagnosed with sudden acquired retinal degeneration syndrome (SARDS) commonly are presented with concurrent clinical, physical, and historical findings consistent with hyperadreno-corticism (HAC) at the time of vision loss. Thirteen dogs diagnosed with SARDS on the basis of complete ophthalmic examination and extinguished bright-flash electroretinogram were evaluated for steroid hormonal abnormalities. Signalment, case history, physical examination, and clinicopathological findings were recorded. Serum cortisol and sex-hormone concentrations were measured before and after adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) stimulation. Clinical signs of HAC, systemic hypertension, and proteinuria were commonly found in dogs with SARDS. Elevations in one or more sex hormones were found in 11 (85%) of 13 dogs (95% confidence interval [CI] 65% to 100%); cortisol was elevated in nine (69%) of 13 dogs (95% CI 44% to 94%). A minority of dogs (three [23%] of 13; 95% CI 0.2% to 46%) exhibited only an increase in adrenal sex hormones. Only one dog had completely normal ACTH stimulation test results. Symptoms of HAC were associated with abnormal ACTH stimulation results. Routine ACTH stimulation testing to evaluate cortisol and sex hormones, blood pressure screening, and urinalysis are recommended in these animals. PMID:19723843

Carter, Renee T; Oliver, Jack W; Stepien, Rebecca L; Bentley, Ellison

2009-01-01

322

[Mechanism, diagnosis, and treatment of steroid myopathy].  

Science.gov (United States)

Steroid myopathy, characterized by muscle atrophy and weakness, is an adverse effect of high-dose steroid therapy. Weakness of proximal muscle that interferes with activities of daily living is a serious problem for patients with steroid myopathy. Here, we outline the pathogenic mechanism, diagnosis, and treatment of steroid myopathy. Recent studies have shown that steroid-mediated induction of ubiquitin ligases (atrogin-1, muscle RING finger-1) and suppression of mammalian/mechanistic target of rapamycin cause an imbalance between anabolism and catabolism of muscle proteins, resulting in muscle atrophy. Despite the progress in understanding the pathogenic mechanism, the diagnosis and treatment of steroid myopathy has not yet been established. Small changes in muscle enzymes, including CK, LDH, and aldolase, make it difficult to define diagnostic criteria. Furthermore, since there is no drug available for treating the disorder, the patients have no opinion except waiting for spontaneous recovery with steroid tapering and exercising. To address these issues, we introduce novel approaches involving branched-chain amino acids that aim at treatment and assessment of steroid myopathy. PMID:24200615

Kohsaka, Hitoshi

2013-11-01

323

Steroids Update, Part 1 and Part 2.  

Science.gov (United States)

Part 1 of this two-part article describes the views of a physician who believes that athletes who want to take steroids are best protected by receiving a prescription and monitoring. Part 2 discusses the more general view of physicians that steroids should not be prescribed but perhaps should be monitored. (MT)

Miller, Calvin; Duda, Marty

1986-01-01

324

Psychological Characteristics of Adolescent Steroid Users.  

Science.gov (United States)

Used Millon Adolescent Personality Inventory and Profile of Mood States to assess psychological characteristics in 72 adolescent males: 24 adolescent athletes who reported steroid use, 24 athletes with no steroid use, and 24 nonathletes. Although some personality variables differentiated between athletes and nonathletes, no personality variables…

Burnett, Kent F.; Kleiman, Mark E.

1994-01-01

325

Steroid-induced benign intracranial hypertension  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A 41-year-old man whose systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) had been successfully treated for 15 months with a daily maintenance dose of 5 mg prednisolone, developed benign intracranial hypertension (BIH) when the steroid was increased to 60 mg daily for recrudescence of SLE symptoms. The BIH remitted when the steroid was discontinued.

Vyas, C. K.; Bhatnagar, V.; Talwar, K. K.; Sharma, B. K.

1981-01-01

326

Regulation of phase I and phase II steroid metabolism enzymes by PPAR? activators  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

all PP. The mouse 6?-testosterone hydroxylase, Cyp3a11 was down-regulated by WY in wild-type but not PPAR?-null mice. In contrast, DEHP increased Cyp3a11 in both wild-type and PPAR?-null mice. These studies demonstrate that PP alter the expression and activity of a number of enzymes which regulate levels of sex steroids. The changes in these enzymes may help explain why exposure to some PP leads to adverse effects in endocrine tissues that produce or are the targets of sex hormones

327

Determinación del genero por medio de medidas y verificación del peso del hueso esternon (Brasil Sex determination by measures and weight verification of sternum bone.Brasil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available La determinación del género humano (sexo es una de las principales atribuciones del odontólogo forense y del médico legista encargados del análisis antropológico de esqueletos, piezas y fragmentos óseos. Entre los huesos que pueden y deben ser analizados se encuentra el hueso esternón, considerando, principalmente, sus características particulares. En el presente estudio fueron medidos y pesados 100 huesos esternón, siendo 50 del género femenino y 50 del género masculino, provenientes de Cuiabá, Mato Grosso, Brasil, con edades comprendidas entre 19 y 103 años. Fue verificado que la medida del centro de la escotadura de inserción del primer arco costal derecho al izquierdo y el peso del manubrio y cuerpo del esternón, altamente significantes, constituyen parámetros para determinar el género. Fue obtenida, también, una fórmula matemática que posibilita determinar el género en análisis futuras con índices de acierto de 69,2%. (SEX DETERMINATION BY MEASURES AND WEIGHT VERIFICATION OF ESTERNUM BONEHuman gender determination is one of the main attributions of forensic odontologists and forensic pathologists responsible for the anthropological analysis of skeletons, parts and fragmented bones. One of the bones that can and must be analyzed is the sternum, considering its particular characteristics. In the present study we’ve measured and weighed 100 sternums, 50 belonging to female gender and 50 to male gender proceeding from Cuiabá-MT, with age varying between 19 and 103 years. It was verified that the measure of the center of the chamfer of the insertion of the first to the left costal arc and the weight of the manubrium and body of sternum, are highly significant, becoming parameters to determine the gender. A mathematical formula was also obtained that permitted to determine the gender in future analyses with indices of 69,2%. (SEX DETERMINATION BY MEASURES AND WEIGHT VERIFICATION OF ESTERNUM BONE

Antonio Queiroz

2005-03-01

328

Steroid withdrawal in kidney allograft recipients.  

Science.gov (United States)

This review highlights the aggregate of knowledge obtained from the temporal trend of kidney transplant immune suppression. We will discuss the burden of steroid side effects and their impact on quality of life in kidney allograft recipients, which have led to minimizing steroid exposure. Issues arising since the inception of the concept of steroid withdrawal will be discussed, along with how they have continually led to a shift in research focus on this subject matter. The usefulness of surveillance biopsies and how further elucidation of the pathophysiology of interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy could contribute to improving long-term allograft outcomes will also be discussed. We will elaborate on the role of calcineurin inhibitor minimization alongside steroid withdrawal in improving long-term graft survival. Future expectations of subsequent studies with a view to improving overall kidney allograft outcomes by eliminating attendant problems associated with steroids will also be covered. PMID:25119423

Adesina, Sanni; Alkhudhayri, Abdullah; Patel, Jyodi Kiran; Naufal, Mary; Geara, Abdallah; Azzi, Jamil

2014-09-01

329

[Lethal sex].  

Science.gov (United States)

Asphyxiophilic sex is a form of autoerotic activity, in which the user creates mechanical means (such as hanging or bondage) in order to achieve cerebral hypoxia, which, in turn, enhances sexual, as well as orgasmic, stimulus. Failure of safety mechanisms, created by the user, may lead to instant death as a result of asphyxiation or strangulation. This kind of sexual practice is more prevalent among men than in women. In cases of death, it is difficult to relate it to the sexual practice itself. Suicide and homicide are the main differential diagnoses. Closely related derivatives of asphyxiophilic sex are anesthesiophilia (inhalation of variable volatile substances) and electrophilia (use of electric current during sexual activity)--both also intended to enhance the sexual stimulation. These forms of sexual practice are less prevalent than asphyxiophilia. PMID:21574359

Rabinerson, David; Ben-Shitrit, Gadi; Glezerman, Marek

2011-03-01

330

Sex during Pregnancy  

Science.gov (United States)

... satisfying and safe sexual relationship during pregnancy. Is Sex During Pregnancy Safe? Sex is considered safe during ... frequently asked questions about sex during pregnancy. Can sex harm my baby? No. Your baby is fully ...

331

Steroid management in newly diagnosed glioblastoma.  

Science.gov (United States)

Glucocorticoids ameliorate neurologic symptoms in patients with glioblastoma, but their adverse effects limit long-term use. This study sought to identify factors associated with steroid taper success or failure in the early stages of glioblastoma treatment. We retrospectively reviewed steroid prescribing practices from date of surgery until one month following radiotherapy (RT) completion among 85 patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma who were treated on a prospective clinical trial with RT and temozolomide. Sufficient information on steroid dosing was available in 72 patients included in the final analysis. The mean age was 54 years, and 65 % were men. Thirty-nine percent had a gross-total resection. Fifteen patients (21 %) tolerated steroid taper without requiring dose increase during the study. Men and patients with Karnofsky performance scale 90-100 were more likely to have a successful steroid taper. The most common symptom of taper failure was headache, but the reason for steroid increase differed among the different time intervals examined: worsening neurologic deficit in the early post-operative period, headache and non-focal symptoms during RT, and headache and seizure post-RT. Of the 50 patients in whom steroid use during RT was known, 36 (72 %) underwent dose reduction and of those, 21 (58 %) required an increase. The successful early taper of steroids in glioblastoma was associated with male gender and better functional status. Steroids are often tapered during RT, but there is frequent taper failure with this approach. A prospective trial with standardized steroid dosing regimens would be needed to verify these findings. PMID:23462855

Deutsch, Mariel B; Panageas, Katherine S; Lassman, Andrew B; Deangelis, Lisa M

2013-05-01

332

A large volume spacer significantly reduces the effect of inhaled steroids on bone formation.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Inhaled steroids are increasingly advocated as first line treatment for mild asthma. Some studies suggest that inhaled steroids suppress bone formation as reflected by a fall in plasma osteocalcin. Spacers have been shown to increase the proportion of inhaled aerosol that is deposited in the lungs and to reduce the amount swallowed. We measured plasma osteocalcin levels to determine the effect on bone formation of inhaled beclomethasone dipropionate (BDP) with and without a 750 ml spacer in a...

Meeran, K.; Burrin, J. M.; Noonan, K. A.; Price, C. P.; Ind, P. W.

1995-01-01

333

Trends in steroid contraceptive research.  

Science.gov (United States)

Contraceptive technology research in China has reflected the influence of scientific progress, changes in the country's social and economic situation, and the shifting needs and preferences of family planning clients. This article reviews briefly trends in steroid contraceptive research, including oral contraception, levonorgestrel-releasing IUDs, mifepristone, and "visiting pills." At present, and in response to international consensus, an emphasis is being placed on developing an emergency contraception regimen suitable for the Chinese context. Clinical research is investigating the efficacy of anordrin and mifepristone, both alone and in combination, for postcoital fertility control. Also of interest are preparations such as norgestrinone and quingestanol that may have a longer duration of action and protect against repeated unprotected intercourse. PMID:9594314

Xiao, B

1997-01-01

334

ABUSE OF ANABOLIC ANDROGENIC STEROIDS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available According to the International Olympic Committee, the abuse of anabolic androgenic steroids (AASS is found in over 50% of positive doping tests. AASS abuse is not restricted to the organized sports andwidespread use. It remains as an unsolved public-health problem.Lower black market price, easier access to AASS, bodybuilding clubs and internet advertising are factors of this increasingly misuse. There is not real data about the prevalence of AASS abuse in various populations or countries, because most of athletes or students, due to their prohibition or ethical aspects do not admit to AASS abuse. Often they are aware of the risks of their choice and yet, are eager to put themselves at risk without deeper consideration. The abusers use them to improve their physical fitness and appearance.Present article has been collected to elucidate the risks and adverse effects of AASS and explanation of mechanisms of these events.

Abbas Yavari

2009-09-01

335

Systematic comparison of ?13C measurements of testosterone and derivative steroids in a freeze-dried urine candidate reference material for sports drug testing by gas chromatography/combustion/isotope ratio mass spectrometry and uncertainty evaluation using four different metrological approaches.  

Science.gov (United States)

An alternative calibration procedure for use when performing carbon isotope ratio measurements by gas chromatography/combustion/isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC/C/IRMS) has been developed. This calibration procedure does not rely on the corrections in-built in the instrument software, as the carbon isotope ratios of a sample are calculated from the measured raw peak areas. The method was developed for the certification of a urine reference material for sports drug testing, as the estimation of measurement uncertainty is greatly simplified. To ensure that the method is free from bias arising from the choice of calibration material and instrument, the carbon isotope ratios of steroids in urine extracts were measured using two different instruments in different laboratories, and three different reference materials (CU/USADA steroid standards from Brenna Laboratory, Cornell University; NIST RM8539 mineral oil; methane calibrated against NIST RM8560 natural gas). The measurements were performed at LGC and the Australian National Measurement Institute (NMI). It was found that there was no significant difference in measurement results when different instruments and reference materials were used to measure the carbon isotope ratio of the major testosterone metabolites androsterone and etiocholanolone, or the endogenous reference compounds pregnanediol, 11- ketoetiocholanolone and 11?-hydroxyandrosterone. Expanded measurement uncertainties at the 95% coverage probability ranged from 0.21‰ to 1.4‰, depending on analyte, instrument and reference material. The measurement results of this comparison were used to estimate a measurement uncertainty of ?(13)C for the certification of the urine reference material being performed on a single instrument using a single reference material at NMI. PMID:21594940

Munton, Ellaine; Murby, John; Hibbert, D Brynn; Santamaria-Fernandez, Rebeca

2011-06-15

336

Age- and sex-related bone uptake of Tc-99m-HDP measured by whole-body bone scanning  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Aim of this study was to validate a recently introduced new and easy-to-perform method for quantifying bone uptake of Tc-99m-labelled diphosphonate in a routine clinical setting and to establish a normal data base for bone uptake depending on age and gender. Methods: In 49 women (14-79 years) and 47 men (6-89 years) with normal bone scans as well as in 49 women (33-81 years) and 37 men (27-88 years) with metastatic bone disease whole-body bone scans were acquired at 3 min and 3-4 hours p.i. to calculate bone uptake after correction for both urinary excretion and soft tissue retention. Results: Bone uptake values of various age-related subgroups showed no significant differences between men and women (p>0.05). Furthermore, no differences could be proven between age-matched subgroups of normals and patients with less than 10 metastatic bone lesions, while patients with wide-spread bone metastases revealed significantly increased uptake values. In both men and women highest bone uptake was obtained (p<0.05) in subjects younger than 20 years with active epiphyseal growth plates. In men, bone uptake slowly decreased with age up to 60 years and then showed a tendency towards increasing uptake values. In women, the mean uptake reached a minimum in the decade 20-29 years and then slowly increased with a positive linear correlation of age and uptake in subjects older than 55 years (r=0.57). Conclusion: Since the results proposed in this study are in good agreement with data from literature, the new method used for quantification could be validated in a large number of patients. Furthermore, age- and sex-related normal bone uptake values of Tc-99m-HDP covering a wide range of age could be presented for this method as a basis for further studies on bone uptake. (orig.)

337

Impact of high preoperative steroid doses on postoperative complications among patients on prolonged preoperative steroid therapy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Corticosteroids are essential to maintain the organic homeostasis. Steroid, glucocorticoid or its synthetic analog is widely used for inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Prolonged steroid therapy is reported to cause the susceptibility to infection, impaired wound healing and psychoneurosis, however whether the quantity of taking the preoperative steroid is associated the postoperative complication is still unknown. The aim of this study was to elucidate whether the steroid dose in patients on prolonged preoperative steroid therapy is associated postoperative morbidity and mortality. Twenty-five patients taking steroid for various illnesses and underwent the surgery under general anesthesia were selected in this study. The mean +/- standard deviation and the median of the steroid dose converted into hydrocortisone (mg/day) were 39.2 +/- 31.0 and 20, respectively. Of 25 cases, postoperative complications were seen in 10 cases. The postoperative complication was severe based on the grade of Clavien and Dindo by ANOVA as the doses of taking steroid increased (p = 0.0171). The grave postoperative complication classified as Clavien and Dindo grade III occurred with 100% sensitivity and 87% specificity for the steroid dose converted into hydrocortisone > 80 mg/day. Preoperative taking the large amount of steroid (> 80 mg/day) could cause a grave complication. More careful selection of the operative procedure might improve the mobidity rate. PMID:24693677

Iguchi, Tomohiro; Shirabe, Ken; Inoue, Kentaro; Ito, Shuhei; Ohga, Takefumi; Nozoe, Tadahiro; Ezaki, Takahiro; Yoshizumi, Tomoharu; Uchiyama, Hideaki; Soejima, Yuji; Ikegami, Toru; Yamashita, Yo-Ichi; Kawanaka, Hirofumi; Ikeda, Tetsuo; Saeki, Hiroshi; Morita, Masaru; Maehara, Yoshihiko

2013-12-01

338

Stress and Sex Versus Immunity and Inflammation  

Science.gov (United States)

Glucocorticoids, the major effector hormones of the stress system, influence almost all aspects of mammalian physiology. These steroids exert their effects on a large network of primary, secondary, and tertiary target genes, encompassing up to 20% of the expressed genome in a tissue. New evidence shows quantitative and qualitative gender-specific differences in the actions of glucocorticoids on the rat liver transcriptome, suggesting that the pervasive actions of these hormones are modulated by gender, both as an inherent property of the target tissues and as a result of exposure of these tissues to estrogens and possibly also androgens. Generally, albeit not always, female mammals have more robust behavioral and somatic responses to stress and more potent immune and inflammatory reactions than males—differences that are inherent, sex steroid–mediated, or both and possibly the evolutionary products of natural selection of female and male roles.

George P. Chrousos (University of Athens;Children's Hospital Aghia Sophia REV)

2010-10-12

339

Conceptualization and measurement of homosexuality in sex surveys: a critical review / Modos de conceitualizar e medir homossexualidade em pesquisas sobre sexualidade: uma revisão crítica  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O artigo traz uma revisão das principais pesquisas nacionais sobre sexualidade que apresentam perguntas sobre homossexualidade, com foco nas questões conceituais e metodológicas sobre as definições de sexo, os aspectos de medição da homossexualidade, as técnicas de amostragem e de entrevistas e o fo [...] rmato do questionário. As taxas de declaração sobre atração pelo mesmo sexo, comportamento, parceiros e identidade também são apresentadas e comparadas. O estudo da homossexualidade em inquéritos populacionais foi moldado com base em tradições de investigação e questões provenientes desde a sexologia até a epidemiologia do HIV/AIDS. O comportamento sexual é assunto central nas pesquisas sobre sexualidade desde Kinsey. Os temas sobre atração sexual, identidade e/ou orientação sexual surgem mais recentemente. São abordadas e discutidas as diferenças no tratamento de homens e mulheres na formulação e análise das pesquisas, assim como as taxas de respostas em diferentes pesquisas, em distintos países e momentos históricos. Ressaltamos a relevância de que sejam consideradas tanto mudanças metodológicas quanto sociais para interpretar as diferenças constatadas. Abstract in english This article reviews major national population sex surveys that have asked questions about homosexuality focusing on conceptual and methodological issues, including the definitions of sex, the measured aspects of homosexuality, sampling and interviewing technique, and questionnaire design. Reported [...] rates of major measures of same-sex attraction, behavior, partners, and sexual identity from surveys are also presented and compared. The study of homosexuality in surveys has been shaped by the research traditions and questions ranging from sexology to the epidemiology of HIV/AIDS. Sexual behavior has been a central topic at least since Kinsey. Issues of sexual attraction and/or orientation and sexual identity have emerged more recently. Differences in the treatment of men and women in the design and analysis of surveys as well as in the reported rates in different surveys, in different countries and time periods are also presented and discussed. We point out the importance of the consideration of both methodological and social change issues in assessing such differences.

Stuart, Michaels; Brigitte, Lhomond.

340

Conceptualization and measurement of homosexuality in sex surveys: a critical review / Modos de conceitualizar e medir homossexualidade em pesquisas sobre sexualidade: uma revisão crítica  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O artigo traz uma revisão das principais pesquisas nacionais sobre sexualidade que apresentam perguntas sobre homossexualidade, com foco nas questões conceituais e metodológicas sobre as definições de sexo, os aspectos de medição da homossexualidade, as técnicas de amostragem e de entrevistas e o fo [...] rmato do questionário. As taxas de declaração sobre atração pelo mesmo sexo, comportamento, parceiros e identidade também são apresentadas e comparadas. O estudo da homossexualidade em inquéritos populacionais foi moldado com base em tradições de investigação e questões provenientes desde a sexologia até a epidemiologia do HIV/AIDS. O comportamento sexual é assunto central nas pesquisas sobre sexualidade desde Kinsey. Os temas sobre atração sexual, identidade e/ou orientação sexual surgem mais recentemente. São abordadas e discutidas as diferenças no tratamento de homens e mulheres na formulação e análise das pesquisas, assim como as taxas de respostas em diferentes pesquisas, em distintos países e momentos históricos. Ressaltamos a relevância de que sejam consideradas tanto mudanças metodológicas quanto sociais para interpretar as diferenças constatadas. Abstract in english This article reviews major national population sex surveys that have asked questions about homosexuality focusing on conceptual and methodological issues, including the definitions of sex, the measured aspects of homosexuality, sampling and interviewing technique, and questionnaire design. Reported [...] rates of major measures of same-sex attraction, behavior, partners, and sexual identity from surveys are also presented and compared. The study of homosexuality in surveys has been shaped by the research traditions and questions ranging from sexology to the epidemiology of HIV/AIDS. Sexual behavior has been a central topic at least since Kinsey. Issues of sexual attraction and/or orientation and sexual identity have emerged more recently. Differences in the treatment of men and women in the design and analysis of surveys as well as in the reported rates in different surveys, in different countries and time periods are also presented and discussed. We point out the importance of the consideration of both methodological and social change issues in assessing such differences.

Stuart, Michaels; Brigitte, Lhomond.

 
 
 
 
341

Flowers for Algernon: steroid dysgenesis, epigenetics and brain disorders.  

Science.gov (United States)

While a recent study has reported that early citalopram exposure alters cortical network function and produces autistic-like behaviors in male rats, when evaluating antidepressant animal models of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) it is important to note that some selective serotonin (5-HT) reuptake inhibitors alter 3?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity, and thus steroidogenesis. At least one study has examined the effect of repeated citalopram administration on the serum and brain concentration of testosterone (T) and its metabolites and shown that citalopram increases serum T. Several in vitro studies also suggest that sex steroid can alter 5-HT homeostasis. While research efforts have demonstrated that transgenic mice expressing the most common of multiple gain-of-function 5-HT reuptake transporter (SERT) coding variants, SERT Ala56, previously identified in children with ASD, exhibit autistic-like behaviors, elevated p38 MAPK-dependent transporter phosphorylation, enhanced 5-HT clearance rates and hyperserotonemia, a few studies provide some evidence that 5-HT may alter gonadal steroidogenesis. T, 17?-estradiol and synthetic estrogens are known inhibitors of AKR1C21 (BRENDA, E.C. 1.1.1.209), the epitestosterone (epiT) producing enzyme in rodents. EpiT is a naturally occurring steroid in mammals, including man. An analysis of the literature suggests that epiT may be the central mediator in the epigenetic regulation of gene expression. Over thirty years ago, it was shown that rat brain epiT production is higher in females than in males. A similar finding in humans could explain the sex differences in the incidence of autism and other brain disorders. Despite this, the role of epiT in brain development remains a long neglected area of research. PMID:23406739

Sanders, Bryan K

2012-01-01

342

Genomics of sex determination.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sex determination is a major switch in the evolutionary history of angiosperm, resulting 11% monoecious and dioecious species. The genomic sequences of papaya sex chromosomes unveiled the molecular basis of recombination suppression in the sex determination region, and candidate genes for sex determination. Identification and analyses of sex determination genes in cucurbits and maize demonstrated conservation of sex determination mechanism in one lineage and divergence between the two systems. Epigenetic control and hormonal influence of sex determination were elucidated in both plants and animals. Intensive investigation of potential sex determination genes in model species will improve our understanding of sex determination gene network. Such network will in turn accelerate the identification of sex determination genes in dioecious species with sex chromosomes, which are burdensome due to no recombination in sex determining regions. The sex determination genes in dioecious species are crucial for understanding the origin of dioecy and sex chromosomes, particularly in their early stage of evolution. PMID:24682067

Zhang, Jisen; Boualem, Adnane; Bendahmane, Abdelhafid; Ming, Ray

2014-04-01

343

Metabolic effects of contraceptive steroids.  

Science.gov (United States)

Estrogen and progestins have been used by millions of women as effective combined contraceptives. The safety of hormonal contraceptives has been documented by years of follow-up and serious adverse events that may be related to their use are rare in the young population exposed to these agents. The balance between the benefits and the risks of contraceptive steroids is generally positive in particular when comparing to the risks of pregnancy and especially in women with risk factors. The metabolic changes induced by the synthetic steroids used in contraception, such as lipoprotein changes, insulin response to glucose, and coagulation factors have been considered as potential markers of cardiovascular and venous risk. Observations of these effects have led to modifications of the composition of hormonal contraceptive in order to minimize these changes and hence potentially decrease the risks. The synthetic estrogen Ethinyl-Estradiol (EE) exerts a stronger effect that natural estradiol (E2) on hepatic metabolism including estrogen-dependent markers such as liver proteins. This stronger hepatic impact of EE has been related to its 17?-ethinyl group which prevents the inactivation of the molecule and results in a more pronounced hepatic effect of EE as compared to estradiol. Due to its strong activity, administering EE via a non-oral route does not prevent its impact on liver proteins. In order to circumvent the metabolic changes induced by EE, newer products using more natural compounds such as estradiol (E2) and estradiol valerate (E2V) have been introduced. The synthetic progestins used for contraception are structurally related either to testosterone (T) (estranes and gonanes) or to progesterone (pregnanes and 19-norpregnanes). Several new progestins have been designed to bind more specifically to the progesterone receptor and to minimize side-effects related to androgenic, estrogenic or glucocorticoid receptor interactions. Dienogest (DNG), and drospirenone (DRSP) and the 19-norpregnanes including Nestorone® (NES), nomegestrol acetate (NOMAc) and trimegestone (TMG) have been combined with estrogen either EE or E2 or estradiol valerate (E2V). Risks and benefits of the newer progestins used in contraception depend upon the type of molecular structure, the type and dose of estrogen associated in a combination and the route of administration. The lower metabolic impact of estradiol-based combinations may result in an improved safety profile, but large surveillance studies are warranted to confirm this plausible hypothesis. So far, the contraindications and warnings for use of current COCs also apply to the estradiol-based COCs. PMID:21538049

Sitruk-Ware, Regine; Nath, Anita

2011-06-01

344

Advances in immunoassay of anabolic steroids  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A specific RIA for the main nortestosterone metabolites, norandrosterone and noretiocholanolone and a rapid, automatizable modification of testosterone RIA in urine are described. Additionally, an enzymeimmunoassay (EIA) variant for detection of 17?-methyltestosterone and related steroids is suggested. (Auth.)

345

Topical steroid addiction in atopic dermatitis  

Science.gov (United States)

The American Academy of Dermatology published a new guideline regarding topical therapy in atopic dermatitis in May 2014. Although topical steroid addiction or red burning skin syndrome had been mentioned as possible side effects of topical steroids in a 2006 review article in the Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, no statement was made regarding this illness in the new guidelines. This suggests that there are still controversies regarding this illness. Here, we describe the clinical features of topical steroid addiction or red burning skin syndrome, based on the treatment of many cases of the illness. Because there have been few articles in the medical literature regarding this illness, the description in this article will be of some benefit to better understand the illness and to spur discussion regarding topical steroid addiction or red burning skin syndrome. PMID:25378953

Fukaya, Mototsugu; Sato, Kenji; Sato, Mitsuko; Kimata, Hajime; Fujisawa, Shigeki; Dozono, Haruhiko; Yoshizawa, Jun; Minaguchi, Satoko

2014-01-01

346

Cigarette smoking and steroid hormones in women.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Epidemiological evidence has suggested that cigarette smoking has an anti-oestrogenic effect in women, but the effects of smoking on steroid hormone metabolism are not fully understood. We compared serum concentrations of oestradiol, progesterone (luteal phase) and dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEA-S), and urinary excretion rates of six steroids of predominantly adrenal origin, in healthy premenopausal and postmenopausal female smokers and non-smokers. Serum concentrations of oestradiol, ...

Key, Tj; Pike, Mc; Baron, Ja; Moore, Jw; Wang, Dy; Thomas, Bs; Bulbrook, Rd

1991-01-01

347

Androgene-anabole steroider (AAS) og vold  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background: The androgenic-anabolic steroids (AAS) are a family of drugs including the male hormone, testosterone, and a series of synthetic analogs of testosterone. These drugs are widely abused by athletes and nonathletes seeking gains in strength and appearance. Over the last years, a series of studies has suggested that steroids may cause hypomanic or manic symptoms, including particularly aggressive or violent behavior, in some ...

Lohan, Shahid Ahmad

2007-01-01

348

DHR3: a Drosophila steroid receptor homolog.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In Drosophila the steroid hormone ecdysone triggers a genetic regulatory hierarchy in which ecdysone combines with a receptor protein to form a complex that induces the transcription of a small class of "early" genes, which encode transcription factors that regulate other genes. We previously reported that one of the early genes, E75, encodes members of the steroid receptor superfamily. Using an E75 hybridization probe, we have identified two additional Drosophila genes that encode members of...

Koelle, M. R.; Segraves, W. A.; Hogness, D. S.

1992-01-01

349

Steroid-induced Kager's fat pad atrophy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We report a rare case of Kager's fat pad atrophy and fibrosis in a 60-year-old woman 1 year after a steroid injection for Achilles tendinopathy. There are few published reports of steroid-induced atrophy affecting deeper layers of fat tissue. To our knowledge, this case report is the first to illustrate its features using magnetic resonance imaging. A review of the scientific literature is also presented. (orig.)

350

Mitochondrial benzodiazepine receptors regulate steroid biosynthesis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Recent observations on the steroid synthetic capability within the brain open the possibility that benzodiazepines may influence steroid synthesis in nervous tissue through interactions with peripheral-type benzodiazepine recognition sites, which are highly expressed in steroidogenic cells and associated with the outer mitochondrial membrane. To examine this possibility nine molecules that exhibit a greater than 10,000-fold difference in their affinities for peripheral-type benzodiazepine binding sites were tested for their effects on a well-established steroidogenic model system, the Y-1 mouse adrenal tumor cell line. 4{prime}-Chlorodiazepam, PK 11195, and PK 14067 stimulated steroid production by 2-fold in Y-1 cells, whereas diazepam, flunitrazepam, zolpidem, and PK 14068 displayed a lower (1.2- to 1.5-fold) maximal stimulation. In contrast, clonazepam and flumazenil did not stimulate steroid synthesis. The potencies of these compounds to inhibit {sup 3}H-labeled PK 11195 binding to peripheral-type benzodiazepine recognition sites correlated with their potencies to stimulate steroid production. Similar findings were observed in bovine and rat adrenocortical cell preparations. These results suggest that ligands of the peripheral-type benzodiazepine recognition site acting on this mitochondrial receptor can enhance steroid production. This action may contribute specificity to the pharmacological profile of drugs preferentially acting on the benzodiazepine recognition site associated with the outer membrane of certain mitochondrial populations.

Mukhin, A.G.; Papadopoulos, V.; Costa, E.; Krueger, K.E. (Georgetown Univ. School of Medicine, Washington, DC (USA))

1989-12-01

351

Mitochondrial benzodiazepine receptors regulate steroid biosynthesis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recent observations on the steroid synthetic capability within the brain open the possibility that benzodiazepines may influence steroid synthesis in nervous tissue through interactions with peripheral-type benzodiazepine recognition sites, which are highly expressed in steroidogenic cells and associated with the outer mitochondrial membrane. To examine this possibility nine molecules that exhibit a greater than 10,000-fold difference in their affinities for peripheral-type benzodiazepine binding sites were tested for their effects on a well-established steroidogenic model system, the Y-1 mouse adrenal tumor cell line. 4'-Chlorodiazepam, PK 11195, and PK 14067 stimulated steroid production by 2-fold in Y-1 cells, whereas diazepam, flunitrazepam, zolpidem, and PK 14068 displayed a lower (1.2- to 1.5-fold) maximal stimulation. In contrast, clonazepam and flumazenil did not stimulate steroid synthesis. The potencies of these compounds to inhibit 3H-labeled PK 11195 binding to peripheral-type benzodiazepine recognition sites correlated with their potencies to stimulate steroid production. Similar findings were observed in bovine and rat adrenocortical cell preparations. These results suggest that ligands of the peripheral-type benzodiazepine recognition site acting on this mitochondrial receptor can enhance steroid production. This action may contribute specificity to the pharmacological profile of drugs preferentially acting on the benzodiazepine recognition sacting on the benzodiazepine recognition site associated with the outer membrane of certain mitochondrial populations

352

Steroidal saponins from Dioscorea preussii.  

Science.gov (United States)

Three new steroidal saponins, named diospreussinosides A-C (1-3), along with two known ones (4, 5) were isolated from rhizomes of Dioscorea preussii. Their structures were elucidated mainly by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic analysis and mass spectrometry as (25S)-17?,25-dihydroxyspirost-5-en-3?-yl-O-?-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1?4)-?-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1?4)-?-D-glucopyranoside (1), (25S)-17?,25-dihydroxyspirost-5-en-3?-yl-O-?-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1?4)-?-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1?4)-[?-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1?2)]-?-D-glucopyranoside (2), and (24S,25R)-17?,24,25-trihydroxyspirost-5-en-3?-yl-O-?-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1?4)-?-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1?4)-[?-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1?2)]-?-D-glucopyranoside (3). The spirostane-type skeleton of compound 3 possessing an unusual dihydroxylation pattern on the F-ring is reported for the first time. Cytotoxicity of compounds 2-5 was evaluated against two human colon carcinoma cell lines (HT-29 and HCT 116). PMID:24928475

Tabopda, Turibio Kuiate; Mitaine-Offer, Anne-Claire; Tanaka, Chiaki; Miyamoto, Tomofumi; Mirjolet, Jean-François; Duchamp, Olivier; Ngadjui, Bonaventure Tchaleu; Lacaille-Dubois, Marie-Aleth

2014-09-01

353

Androgenic-anabolic steroid effects on serum thyroid, pituitary and steroid hormones in athletes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Endocrine responses in seven power athletes were investigated during a 12 week strength training period, when the athletes were taking high doses of androgenic-anabolic steroids, and during the 13 weeks following drug withdrawal. During the use of steroids significant decreases (P less than 0.05 to 0.001) in the serum concentrations of thyroid stimulating hormone, thyroxine, triidothyronine, free thyroxine, and thyroid hormone-binding globulin (TBG) were found, whereas the value of triidothyronine uptake increased (P less than 0.001). In relation to the changes in the thyroid function parameters measured, we suggest that the primary target of androgen action was TBG biosynthesis. In five of the seven subjects, serum concentrations of growth hormone increased at some point of the study 5 to 60-fold. Because of the use of exogenous testosterone, serum testosterone concentration tended to increase. This increase was associated with a corresponding increase (P less than 0.001) in serum estradiol. Furthermore, there were major decreases in serum LH (P less than 0.01) and FSH (P less than 0.01) concentrations, and testicular testosterone production was therefore decreased. This was characterized by a very low serum testosterone concentration (5.1 +/- 1.8 nmol/l) 4 weeks following drug withdrawal. Cessation of drug use resulted in return of all the variables measured to the initial values, except for serum testosterone, which was at a low level (14.6 +/- 8.8 nmol/l) 9 weeks after drug withdrawal, indicating prolonged impairment of testicular endocrine function. No consistent changes were found in the eight control athletes. PMID:3661817

Alèn, M; Rahkila, P; Reinilä, M; Vihko, R

1987-01-01

354

Distribution and bioaccumulation of steroidal and phenolic endocrine disrupting chemicals in wild fish species from Dianchi Lake, China  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The distribution and bioaccumulation of steroidal and phenolic endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) were studied in various tissues of wild fish species from Dianchi Lake, China. In muscle tissue, 4-tert-octylphenol, 4-cumylphenol, 4-nonlyphenol and bisphenol A were detected in fish from each sampling site, with maximal concentrations of 4.6, 4.4, 18.9 and 83.5 ng/g dry weight (dw), respectively. Steroids (estrone, 17?-estradiol 17?-ethynylestradiol and estriol) were found at lower levels (<11.3 ng/g dw) and less frequently in muscle samples. The highest concentrations of steroids and phenols were found in liver, followed by those in gill and the lowest concentration was found in muscle. The field bioconcentration factors (BCFs) of phenols were calculated in fish species ranged from 18 to 97. Moreover, the measured tissue concentrations were utilized in order to estimate water concentration of steroids (4.4-18.0 ng/L). These results showed that steroidal and phenolic EDCs were likely ubiquitous contaminants in wild fish. - Highlights: ? We assess the occurrence of EDCs in wild fish from Dianchi Lake, China. ? We investigate the distribution of steroidal and phenolic EDCs in fish tissues. ? We estimate the bioaccumulation of wild fish to steroidal and phenolic EDCs. ? Steroidal and phenolic EDCs are likely ubiquitous contaminants in wild fish. - Contaminants of endocrine disrupting chemicals in wild fish.

355

Distribution and bioaccumulation of steroidal and phenolic endocrine disrupting chemicals in wild fish species from Dianchi Lake, China  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The distribution and bioaccumulation of steroidal and phenolic endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) were studied in various tissues of wild fish species from Dianchi Lake, China. In muscle tissue, 4-tert-octylphenol, 4-cumylphenol, 4-nonlyphenol and bisphenol A were detected in fish from each sampling site, with maximal concentrations of 4.6, 4.4, 18.9 and 83.5 ng/g dry weight (dw), respectively. Steroids (estrone, 17{beta}-estradiol 17{alpha}-ethynylestradiol and estriol) were found at lower levels (<11.3 ng/g dw) and less frequently in muscle samples. The highest concentrations of steroids and phenols were found in liver, followed by those in gill and the lowest concentration was found in muscle. The field bioconcentration factors (BCFs) of phenols were calculated in fish species ranged from 18 to 97. Moreover, the measured tissue concentrations were utilized in order to estimate water concentration of steroids (4.4-18.0 ng/L). These results showed that steroidal and phenolic EDCs were likely ubiquitous contaminants in wild fish. - Highlights: > We assess the occurrence of EDCs in wild fish from Dianchi Lake, China. > We investigate the distribution of steroidal and phenolic EDCs in fish tissues. > We estimate the bioaccumulation of wild fish to steroidal and phenolic EDCs. > Steroidal and phenolic EDCs are likely ubiquitous contaminants in wild fish. - Contaminants of endocrine disrupting chemicals in wild fish.

Liu Jingliang; Wang Renmin; Huang Bin; Lin Chan; Wang Yu [Faculty of Environmental Science and Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming, Yunnan 650093 (China); Pan Xuejun, E-mail: xjpan@kmust.edu.cn [Faculty of Environmental Science and Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming, Yunnan 650093 (China)

2011-10-15

356

Prostate volume change after radioactive seed implantation: Possible benefit of improved dose volume histogram with perioperative steroid  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To evaluate the changes in prostate volume associated with radioactive seed implantation and identify factors that influence prostate swelling. Methods and Materials: Between June 1997 and August 1999, 161 patients implanted for prostate carcinoma at the University of California, San Francisco, had prostate volume measurements taken at 4 time points (preplan, preimplant, postimplant, postimplant dosimetry). Patient records were reviewed for treatment with perioperative steroids, hormone therapy (nHT), and external beam radiotherapy (EBRT). One and 2-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) methods were used to test differences in mean effects among patient subsets. Results: A mean 20% volume increase was noted immediately postimplant overall (p < 0.0001), and even with EBRT and/or HT. Steroids were associated with a mean volume decrease of 19.9%, by 3-4 weeks post-procedure (p < 0.0001). Without steroids, only a 3.8% mean change was seen (p = ns). Steroid use resulted in a significant increase in mean dose-volume histogram (DVH) (p = 0.001); however, this benefit was only observed among patients who did not receive steroid. A consistently high DVH occurred with steroid use. Conclusion: A significant decrease in prostate volume and improved DVH are associated with steroid use. The diminished benefit of steroid use and higher mean DVH achieved in later years suggests the existence of a significant 'learning curve' for brachytherapy procedures.

357

Reexamination of Testosterone, Dihydrotestosterone, Estradiol and Estrone Levels across the Menstrual Cycle and in Postmenopausal Women Measured by Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Measuring serum androgen levels in women has been challenging due to limitations in method accuracy, precision sensitivity and specificity at low hormone levels. The clinical significance of changes in sex steroids across the menstrual cycle and lifespan has remained controversial, in part due to these limitations. We used validated liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry(LC-MS/MS) assays to determine testosterone (T) and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) along with estradiol (E2) and estrone ...

Rothman, Micol S.; Carlson, Nichole E.; Xu, Mei; Wang, Christina; Swerdloff, Ronald; Lee, Paul; Goh, Victor H. H.; Ridgway, E. Chester; Wierman, Margaret E.

2011-01-01

358

Auto-modulation of neuroactive steroids on GABA A receptors: a novel pharmacological effect.  

Science.gov (United States)

GABA(A) receptor function is modulated by various important drugs including neuroactive steroids that act on allosteric modulatory sites and can directly activate GABA(A) receptor channels at high concentrations. We used whole cell patch-clamp recordings and rapid applications of the neuroactive steroid alphaxalone to investigate repetitive steroid effects. Alphaxalone potentiation of submaximal GABA-evoked currents was enhanced significantly by repetitive coapplications at all investigated recombinant isoforms (alpha1beta3delta, alpha1beta3gamma2L, alpha6beta3delta, alpha6beta3gamma2L) and at GABA(A) receptors of differentiated human NT2 neurons. A similar increase of current amplitudes was induced by repetitive applications of a high steroid concentration without GABA. We refer to these reversible effects as auto-modulation because repeated interactions of steroids enhanced their own pharmacological impact at the receptor sites in a time and concentration dependent manner without affecting GABA controls. Pronounced auto-modulatory actions were also measured using the neurosteroid 5alpha-THDOC in contrast to indiplon, THIP, and pentobarbital indicating a steroid specificity. Protein kinase A inhibition significantly reduced alphaxalone auto-modulation at alpha1beta3gamma2L, alpha6beta3gamma2L, and alpha6beta3delta subtypes while it enhanced potentiation at alpha1beta3delta isoforms suggesting a crucial influence of receptor subunit composition and phosphorylation for steroid actions. Especially at extrasynaptic GABA(A) receptor sites containing the delta subunit steroid auto-modulation may have a critical role in enhancing potentiation of GABA-induced currents. PMID:17084864

Wegner, Florian; Rassler, Cornelia; Allgaier, Clemens; Strecker, Karl; Wohlfarth, Kai

2007-02-01

359

Free and sulfated steroids secretion in postpubertal boars (Sus scrofa domestica).  

Science.gov (United States)

Sulfated steroids have been traditionally regarded as inactive metabolites. However, they may also serve as precursors for the production of active free steroids in target cells. In this study, we used the boar as a model to study the metabolism, transport, and function of steroid sulfates due to their high production in the porcine testicular-epididymal compartment, of which the role is unknown. To characterize the secretion of free and sulfated steroids, plasma samples were collected from six postpubertal boars over 6 ?h every 20 ?min from the jugular vein. Long-term secretion profiles were also established in seven boars stimulated with human chorionic gonadotropin. To directly characterize the testicular output, samples were collected from superficial testicular arterial and venous blood vessels. Testosterone, androstenedione and sulfated pregnenolone, DHEA, estrone (E1), and estradiol-17? (E2) were determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Free E1 and E2 were measured by RIA. Irrespective of a high variability between individuals, the results suggest that i) all steroids assessed are primarily produced in the testis, ii) they exhibit similar profiles pointing to a pulsatile secretion with low frequency (three to five pulses per day), and iii) after synthesis at least a major proportion is immediately released into peripheral circulation. The fact that all steroid sulfates assessed are original testicular products and their high correlations with one another suggest their role as being intermediates of testicular steroidogenesis rather than as being inactivated end products. Moreover, a substantial use of sulfated steroids in porcine testicular steroidogenesis would assign a crucial regulatory role to steroid sulfatase, which is highly expressed in Leydig cells. PMID:24961601

Schuler, G; Dezhkam, Y; Bingsohn, L; Hoffmann, B; Failing, K; Galuska, C E; Hartmann, M F; Sánchez-Guijo, A; Wudy, S A

2014-09-01

360

Regulation by Gonadal Steroids of Estrogen and Progesterone Receptors Along the Reproductive Tract in Female Lambs  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The regulation of estrogen and progesterone receptor (ER, PR expression by estradiol (E2 and progesterone (P4 in the oviduct, uterus and cervix of female lambs was studied. The animals received three intramuscular injections of E2, P4 or vehicle with an interval of 24 h and they were slaugthered 24 h after the third injection. Determinations of ER and PR were performed by binding assays and mRNAs of ER? and PR by solution hybridization. High levels of ER and PR in both cervix and oviduct were found in the female lamb, differing from other mammalian species. No significant effects by either E2 or P4 treatment on ER and PR levels in the cervix and oviduct could be observed. E2 treatment increased the mRNA levels of ERa and PR more than 3-fold in the cervix, while P4 treatment increased the mRNA levels of ERa and PR in the uterus. The results show differential effects of gonadal steroids on sex steroid receptor expression along the reproductive tract in female lambs, suggesting that steroid target tissues can modulate responses to the same circulating levels of steroid hormones.

Rodríguez-Piñón M

2001-03-01

 
 
 
 
361

In vitro binding of steroid hormones by natural and purified fibers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The in vitro binding of estrone, estradiol-17?, estriol, testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, and estrone-3-glucuronide by wheat, oat and corn brans, oat hulls, cellulose, lignin, and cholestyramine resin was measured. Steroid binding was carried out by mixing 50 mg of binding substance with varying substrate quantities (0.037 ?Ci; 0.50-2.51 pmol/incubation) of 3H-estrone, 3H-estradiol-17?, 3H-estriol, 3H-estrone-3-glucuronide, 4H-testosterone, and 370C for 1 hr with shaking. Following centrifugation of the reaction mixture, a 1 ml aliquot was analyzed for radioactivity. The extent of steroid sequestration was characteristic and reproducible for each hormone. Cholestyramine bound an average of 90% of all the steroids tested, whereas cellulose bound the least (12%). Of the other substances tested, lignin bound 87%; wheat and oat grans, 45% each; corn bran, 44%; and oat hulls, 32% of the unconjugated hormones. The conjugated steroid was less likely to bind than the unconjugated steroids. Lignin appeared to be an important component in the interaction with steroid hormones. The results support the hydrophobic of nature of adsorption and suggest that the components of the fiber in diet should be considered separately when evaluating in vivo metabolic effects. Implications include the possible modification of hormone-dependent cancer risk through dietary intervention

362

Steroid hormone receptors and human breast cancer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Steroid hormone receptor (SR) binding capacity can be measured both in the cytosol and in the nuclear fraction of the cancerous cells. Approximately 30-40% of breast cancers are hormone dependent. SR-positive tumors can be treated by endocrine therapy resulting in a favourable clinical response in 60-70% of the cases. At the National Institute of Oncology, Budapest, Hungary, estradiol (ER) and progesterone (PR) receptor assays are performed by a multipoint saturation analysis using Scatchard plot. Dextran coated charcoal technique is used for the separation of free and receptor protein-bound labelled hormones. Data obtained from 400 breast cancer patients show a correlation between the SR content of the tumor and the hormonal status of the patients. The ER binding capacity is higher after menopause compared to the premenopausal values. Specific correlation between the PR content of the tumor and the hormonal status of the patients cound not be observed. The PR binding capacity is the highest over 20 years. The highest clinical response rate, 80%, could be found in the group of patients with both ER and PR in their tumor tissues. (author)

363

Steroid hormone receptors and human breast cancer  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Steroid hormone receptor (SR) binding capacity can be measured both in the cytosol and in the nuclear fraction of the cancerous cells. Approximately 30-40% of breast cancers are hormone dependent. SR-positive tumors can be treated by endocrine therapy resulting in a favourable clinical response in 60-70% of the cases. At the National Institute of Oncology, Budapest, Hungary, estradiol (ER) and progesterone (PR) receptor assays are performed by a multipoint saturation analysis using Scatchard plot. Dextran coated charcoal technique is used for the separation of free and receptor protein-bound labelled hormones. Data obtained from 400 breast cancer patients show a correlation between the SR content of the tumor and the hormonal status of the patients. The ER binding capacity is higher after menopause compared to the premenopausal values. Specific correlation between the PR content of the tumor and the hormonal status of the patients cound not be observed. The PR binding capacity is the highest over 20 years. The highest clinical response rate, 80%, could be found in the group of patients with both ER and PR in their tumor tissues. (author).

Szamel, I.

1985-02-01

364

Sex-linked dominant  

Science.gov (United States)

Inheritance - sex-linked dominant; Genetics - sex-linked dominant; X-linked dominant; Y-linked dominant ... on the type of chromosome affected (autosomal or sex chromosome). It also depends on whether the trait ...

365

21 CFR 1308.26 - Excluded veterinary anabolic steroid implant products.  

Science.gov (United States)

... false Excluded veterinary anabolic steroid implant products. 1308...SUBSTANCES Excluded Veterinary Anabolic Steroid Implant Products § 1308.26 Excluded veterinary anabolic steroid implant products. (a)...

2010-04-01

366

21 CFR 1308.25 - Exclusion of a veterinary anabolic steroid implant product; application.  

Science.gov (United States)

... Exclusion of a veterinary anabolic steroid implant product; application...SUBSTANCES Excluded Veterinary Anabolic Steroid Implant Products § 1308.25 Exclusion of a veterinary anabolic steroid implant product;...

2010-04-01