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Sample records for sex steroids measured

  1. Sex steroids and bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manolagas, S C; Kousteni, S; Jilka, R L

    2002-01-01

    The adult skeleton is periodically remodeled by temporary anatomic structures that comprise juxtaposed osteoclast and osteoblast teams and replace old bone with new. Estrogens and androgens slow the rate of bone remodeling and protect against bone loss. Conversely, loss of estrogen leads to increased rate of remodeling and tilts the balance between bone resorption and formation in favor of the former. Studies from our group during the last 10 years have elucidated that estrogens and androgens decrease the number of remodeling cycles by attenuating the birth rate of osteoclasts and osteoblasts from their respective progenitors. These effects result, in part, from the transcriptional regulation of genes responsible for osteoclastogenesis and mesenchymal cell replication and/or differentiation and are exerted through interactions of the ligand-activated receptors with other transcription factors. However, increased remodeling alone cannot explain why loss of sex steroids tilts the balance of resorption and formation in favor of the former. Estrogens and androgens also exert effects on the lifespan of mature bone cells: pro-apoptotic effects on osteoclasts but anti-apoptotic effects on osteoblasts and osteocytes. These latter effects stem from a heretofore unexpected function of the classical "nuclear" sex steroid receptors outside the nucleus and result from activation of a Src/Shc/extracellular signal-regulated kinase signal transduction pathway probably within preassembled scaffolds called caveolae. Strikingly, estrogen receptor (ER) alpha or beta or the androgen receptor can transmit anti-apoptotic signals with similar efficiency, irrespective of whether the ligand is an estrogen or an androgen. More importantly, these nongenotropic, sex-nonspecific actions are mediated by the ligand-binding domain of the receptor and can be functionally dissociated from transcriptional activity with synthetic ligands. Taken together, these lines of evidence strongly suggest that, in sex steroid deficiency, loss of transcriptional effects may be responsible for the increased osteoclastogenesis and osteoblastogenesis and thereby the increased rate of bone remodeling. Loss of nongenotropic anti-apoptotic effects on mature osteoblasts and osteocytes, in combination with an opposite effect on the lifespan of mature osteoclasts, may be responsible for the imbalance between formation and resorption and the progressive loss of bone mass and strength. Elucidation of the dual function of sex steroid receptors has important pathophysiologic and pharmacologic implications. Specifically, synthetic ligands of the ER that can evoke the nongenotropic but not the genotropic signal may be bone anabolic agents, as opposed to natural estrogens or selective estrogen receptor modulators that are antiresorptive agents. The same ligands may also circumvent the side effects associated with conventional hormone replacement therapy. PMID:12017554

  2. Sex steroids and glucose metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolyn A Allan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Testosterone levels are lower in men with metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM and also predict the onset of these adverse metabolic states. Body composition (body mass index, waist circumference is an important mediator of this relationship. Sex hormone binding globulin is also inversely associated with insulin resistance and T2DM but the data regarding estrogen are inconsistent. Clinical models of androgen deficiency including Klinefelter's syndrome and androgen deprivation therapy in the treatment of advanced prostate cancer confirm the association between androgens and glucose status. Experimental manipulation of the insulin/glucose milieu and suppression of endogenous testicular function suggests the relationship between androgens and insulin sensitivity is bidirectional. Androgen therapy in men without diabetes is not able to differentiate the effect on insulin resistance from that on fat mass, in particular visceral adiposity. Similarly, several small clinical studies have examined the efficacy of exogenous testosterone in men with T2DM, however, the role of androgens, independent of body composition, in modifying insulin resistance is uncertain.

  3. Sex-Steroid Hormone Manipulation Reduces Brain Response to Reward

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Macoveanu, Julian; Henningsson, Susanne; Pinborg, Anja; Jensen, Peter; Knudsen, Gitte M; Frokjaer, Vibe G; Siebner, Hartwig R

    2015-01-01

    Mood disorders are twice as frequent in women than in men. Risk mechanisms for major depression include adverse responses to acute changes in sex-steroid hormone levels, eg, postpartum in women. Such adverse responses may involve an altered processing of rewards. Here, we examine how women's vulnerability for mood disorders is linked to sex-steroid dynamics by investigating the effects of a pharmacologically induced fluctuation in ovarian sex steroids on the brain response to monetary rewards. I...

  4. Sex-Steroid Hormone Manipulation Reduces Brain Response to Reward

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Macoveanu, Julian; Henningsson, Susanne; Pinborg, Anja; Jensen, Peter; Knudsen, Gitte M; Frokjaer, Vibe G; Siebner, Hartwig R

    2015-01-01

    Mood disorders are twice as frequent in women than in men. Risk mechanisms for major depression include adverse responses to acute changes in sex-steroid hormone levels, eg postpartum in women. Such adverse responses may involve an altered processing of rewards. Here we examine how women's vulnerability for mood disorders is linked to sex-steroid dynamics by investigating the effects of a pharmacologically induced fluctuation in ovarian sex-steroids on the brain response to monetary rewards. In ...

  5. SEASONAL VARIATION IN PLASMA SEX STEROID CONCENTRATION IN JUVENILE ALLIGATORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seasonal variation in plasma sex steroid concentrations is common in mature vertebrates, and is occasionally seen in juvenile animals. In this study, we examine the seasonal pattern of sex hormone concentration in juvenile American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) and make...

  6. The influence of sex steroids on pineal enzymes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of the gonadal sex steroids namely, estradiol, progesterone and testosterone on the two major enzymes responsible for the synthesis of melatonin in the pineal gland was investigated. These enzymes are Serotonin-N-acetyltransferase (SNAT) and Hydroxyindole-O-methyltransferase (H10MT). Testosterone was found to be the only sex steroid capable of influencing SNAT activity whereas all three of the sex steroids were found to influence H10MT activity in a biphasic dose-dependent manner. The influence of these sex steroids on radiolabelled serotonin metabolism by pineals in organ culture was also investigated. Ovariectomy, castration and the sex steroids were all found to alter the pattern of the radiolabelled serotonin metabolism by these pineal glands in organ culture

  7. Sex differences in sleep: impact of biological sex and sex steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mong, Jessica A; Cusmano, Danielle M

    2016-02-19

    Men and women sleep differently. While much is known about the mechanisms that drive sleep, the reason for these sex differences in sleep behaviour is unknown and understudied. Historically, women and female animals are underrepresented in studies of sleep and its disorders. Nevertheless, there is a growing recognition of sex disparities in sleep and rhythm disorders. Women typically report poorer quality and more disrupted sleep across various stages of life. Findings from clinical and basic research studies strongly implicate a role for sex steroids in sleep modulation. Understanding how neuroendocrine mediators and sex differences influence sleep is central to advancing our understanding of sleep-related disorders. The investigation into sex differences and sex steroid modulation of sleep is in its infancy. Identifying the mechanisms underlying sex and gender differences in sleep will provide valuable insights leading to tailored therapeutics that benefit each sex. The goal of this review is to discuss our current understanding of how biological sex and sex steroids influence sleep behaviour from both the clinical and pre-clinical perspective. PMID:26833831

  8. Sex-Steroid Hormone Manipulation Reduces Brain Response to Reward

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Macoveanu, Julian; Henningsson, Susanne; Pinborg, Anja; Jensen, Peter; Knudsen, Gitte M; Frokjaer, Vibe G; Siebner, Hartwig R

    2015-01-01

    's vulnerability for mood disorders is linked to sex-steroid dynamics by investigating the effects of a pharmacologically induced fluctuation in ovarian sex steroids on the brain response to monetary rewards. In a double-blinded placebo controlled study, healthy women were randomized to receive either placebo or...... to map regional brain activity related to the magnitude of risk during choice and to monetary reward. The GnRHa intervention caused a net reduction in ovarian sex steroids (estradiol and testosterone) and increased depression symptoms. Compared with placebo, GnRHa reduced amygdala's reactivity to...

  9. Endogenous sex steroids and risk of cervical carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rinaldi, Sabina; Plummer, Martyn; Biessy, Carine; Castellsagué, Xavier; Overvad, Kim; Kjær, Susanne; Tjønneland, Anne; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Chabbert-Buffet, Nathalie; Mesrine, Sylvie; Lukanova, Annekatrin; Kaaks, Rudolf; Weikert, Cornelia; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Palli, Domenico; Agnoli, Claudia; Tumino, Rosario; Vineis, Paolo; Panico, Salvatore; Bueno-de-Mesquita, Bas; van Kranen, Henk J; Peeters, Petra Hm; Bakken, Kjersti; Lund, Eiliv; Gram, Inger Torhild; Rodríguez, Laudina; Bosch, F Xavier; Sánchez, Maria-José; Dorronsoro, Miren; Navarro, Carmen; Gurrea, Aurelio Barricarte; Kjellberg, Lennart; Dillner, Joakim; Manjer, Jonas; Butt, Salma; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas; Allen, Naomi E; Travis, Ruth; Romieu, Isabelle; Ferrari, Pietro; Riboli, Elio; Franceschi, Silvia

    2011-01-01

    Epidemiologic data and animal models suggest that, despite the predominant role of human papillomavirus infection, sex steroid hormones are also involved in the etiology of invasive cervical carcinoma (ICC).

  10. Sex-Steroid Hormone Manipulation Reduces Brain Response to Reward

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Macoveanu, Julian; Henningsson, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    Mood disorders are twice as frequent in women than in men. Risk mechanisms for major depression include adverse responses to acute changes in sex-steroid hormone levels, eg, postpartum in women. Such adverse responses may involve an altered processing of rewards. Here, we examine how women's vulnerability for mood disorders is linked to sex-steroid dynamics by investigating the effects of a pharmacologically induced fluctuation in ovarian sex steroids on the brain response to monetary rewards. In a double-blinded placebo controlled study, healthy women were randomized to receive either placebo or the gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) goserelin, which causes a net decrease in sex-steroid levels. Fifty-eight women performed a gambling task while undergoing functional MRI at baseline, during the mid-follicular phase, and again following the intervention. The gambling task enabled us to map regional brain activity related to the magnitude of risk during choice and to monetary reward. The GnRHa intervention caused a net reduction in ovarian sex steroids (estradiol and testosterone) and increased depression symptoms. Compared with placebo, GnRHa reduced amygdala's reactivity to high monetary rewards. There was a positive association between the individual changes in testosterone and changes in bilateral insula response to monetary rewards. Our data provide evidence for the involvement of sex-steroid hormones in reward processing. A blunted amygdala response to rewarding stimuli following a rapid decline in sex-steroid hormones may reflect a reduced engagement in positive experiences. Abnormal reward processing may constitute a neurobiological mechanism by which sex-steroid fluctuations provoke mood disorders in susceptible women.Neuropsychopharmacology advance online publication, 2 September 2015; doi:10.1038/npp.2015.236.

  11. Sex Steroids and Gene Variants in Bipolar Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Johansson, Anette GM

    2012-01-01

    Bipolar disorder is a chronic, cycling disorder affecting circa 2% of the population and whose pathophysiology is still largely unknown. It has been suggested that common treatments used for bipolar disorder have effects on the sex steroids yet sex steroids have also been shown to have widespread effects in the brain in systems of relevance to bipolar disorder. For example, DHEAS and progesterone have opposing effects on the glutamatergic and GABAergic systems essential fo...

  12. Sex steroid–related candidate genes in psychiatric disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Westberg, Lars; Eriksson, Elias

    2008-01-01

    Sex steroids readily pass the blood-brain barrier, and receptors for them are abundant in brain areas important for the regulation of emotions, cognition and behaviour. Animal experiments have revealed both important early effects of these hormones on brain development and their ongoing influence on brain morphology and neurotransmission in the adult organism. The important effects of sex steroids on human behaviour are illustrated by, for example, the effect of reduced levels of these hormon...

  13. The Influence of Sex Steroid Hormones on Gingiva of Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markou, Eleni; Eleana, Boura; Lazaros, Tsalikis; Antonios, Konstantinides

    2009-01-01

    Steroid sex hormones have a significant effect on different organ systems. As far as gingiva are concerned, they can influence the cellular proliferation, differentiation and growth of keratinocytes and fibroblasts. Estrogen is mainly responsible for alterations in blood vessels and progesterone stimulates the production of inflammatory mediators. In addition, some micro-organisms found in the human mouth synthesize enzymes needed for steroid synthesis and catabolism. In women, during puberty, ovulation and pregnancy, there is an increase in the production of sex steroid hormones which results in increased gingival inflammation, characterized by gingival enlargement, increased gingival bleeding and crevicular fluid flow and microbial changes. PMID:19812718

  14. Sex Steroid Hormone Receptor Expression Affects Ovarian Cancer Survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jönsson, Jenny-Maria; Skovbjerg Arildsen, Nicolai; Malander, Susanne; Måsbäck, Anna; Hartman, Linda; Nilbert, Mef; Hedenfalk, Ingrid

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Although most ovarian cancers express estrogen (ER), progesterone (PR), and androgen (AR) receptors, they are currently not applied in clinical decision making. We explored the prognostic impact of sex steroid hormone receptor protein and mRNA expression on survival in...

  15. Sex steroid dynamics during embryogenesis and sexual differentiation in Eurasian perch, Perca fluviatilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rougeot, C; Krim, A; Mandiki, S N M; Kestemont, P; Mélard, C

    2007-03-15

    It is widely accepted that sex steroid hormones play an important and a specific role during the process of sex differentiation in fish. In order to describe the role of the three main sex steroid hormones (testosterone--T, 17beta-estradiol--E2 and 11keto-testosterone--11KT) during embryogenesis and sex differentiation in Eurasian perch, Perca fluviatilis, eggs, larvae and juveniles originating from two mixed-sex and two all-female progenies were regularly sampled from fertilization to hatching (D0) and from hatching to day 70 post-hatching (D70). Just after spawning, a significant amount of sex steroids [T (1634.2pgg(-1)), E2 (554.4pgg(-1)) and 11KT (1513.2pgg(-1))] was measured in non-fertilised eggs suggesting a maternal transmission of these steroids. From D2 to D70 post-hatching, E2 levels were significantly higher in mixed-sex progenies (median: 725.7pgg(-1)) than in all-female progenies (156.2pgg(-1)) and significantly increased after the onset of the histological differentiation of the gonad in both progenies (D35). Levels of 11KT were significantly higher in mixed-sex (median: 431.5pgg(-1)) than in all-female progenies (below the limit of assay detection) and significantly increased at D35 in all-female progenies (median value: 343.2pgg(-1)). Mean 11KT to E2 ratio was six-fold higher in mixed-sex progenies (1.35) than in all-female progenies (0.24). The data suggest that the 11-oxygenated androgen (11KT) plays a major role in the male differentiation process, and that sex differentiation in Eurasian perch is probably determined by the 11KT to E2 ratio. PMID:17270265

  16. Analgesic use and sex steroid hormone concentrations in postmenopausal women

    OpenAIRE

    Gates, Margaret A.; Tworoger, Shelley S.; Eliassen, A. Heather; Missmer, Stacey A.; Hankinson, Susan E.

    2010-01-01

    Prior epidemiologic studies suggest that regular use of analgesics may decrease risk of breast and ovarian cancer. We explored possible hormone-mediated mechanisms for these associations by examining the relationship between use of aspirin, non-aspirin nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and acetaminophen and sex steroid hormone concentrations among 740 postmenopausal women in the Nurses' Health Study. All women reported their analgesic use in 1988 or 1990 and provided a blood samp...

  17. Influence of sex and oral contraceptive steroids on paracetamol metabolism.

    OpenAIRE

    Miners, J O; Attwood, J.; Birkett, D. J.

    1983-01-01

    Paracetamol metabolism was investigated in eight healthy males, eight healthy females and eight healthy females receiving oral contraceptive steroids (OCS). Paracetamol clearance was 22% greater in males compared to the control female group. This difference was entirely due to increased activity of the glucuronidation pathway in males, there being no sex-related differences in the sulphation or oxidative metabolism of paracetamol. Paracetamol clearance in females using OCS was 49% greater tha...

  18. No sex difference in yolk steroid concentrations of avian eggs at laying

    OpenAIRE

    Pilz, Kevin M; Adkins-Regan, Elizabeth; Schwabl, Hubert

    2005-01-01

    Yolk steroids of maternal origin have been proposed to influence genetic sex determination in birds, based on sex differences in yolk steroid concentrations of peafowl eggs incubated for 10 days. More recent reports dispute this proposal, as yolk steroids in eggs incubated for 3 days do not show such sex differences. To date, research examining this phenomenon has only analysed incubated eggs, although sex in avian species is determined before incubation begins. This may be a serious methodol...

  19. Effects of Steroid Hormones on Sex Differences in Cerebral Perfusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghisleni, Carmen; Bollmann, Steffen; Biason-Lauber, Anna; Poil, Simon-Shlomo; Brandeis, Daniel; Martin, Ernst; Michels, Lars; Hersberger, Martin; Suckling, John

    2015-01-01

    Sex differences in the brain appear to play an important role in the prevalence and progression of various neuropsychiatric disorders, but to date little is known about the cerebral mechanisms underlying these differences. One widely reported finding is that women demonstrate higher cerebral perfusion than men, but the underlying cause of this difference in perfusion is not known. This study investigated the putative role of steroid hormones such as oestradiol, testosterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS) as underlying factors influencing cerebral perfusion. We acquired arterial spin labelling perfusion images of 36 healthy adult subjects (16 men, 20 women). Analyses on average whole brain perfusion levels included a multiple regression analysis to test for the relative impact of each hormone on the global perfusion. Additionally, voxel-based analyses were performed to investigate the sex difference in regional perfusion as well as the correlations between local perfusion and serum oestradiol, testosterone, and DHEAS concentrations. Our results replicated the known sex difference in perfusion, with women showing significantly higher global and regional perfusion. For the global perfusion, DHEAS was the only significant predictor amongst the steroid hormones, showing a strong negative correlation with cerebral perfusion. The voxel-based analyses revealed modest sex-dependent correlations between local perfusion and testosterone, in addition to a strong modulatory effect of DHEAS in cortical, subcortical, and cerebellar regions. We conclude that DHEAS in particular may play an important role as an underlying factor driving the difference in cerebral perfusion between men and women. PMID:26356576

  20. Serum-sex steroids, gonadotrophins and sex hormone-binding globulin inprostatic hyperplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) develops in elderly males when serumandrogens are relatively lower than in healthy younger males, but is not wellunderstood whether and how sex steroids are altered in prostatic hyperplasia.It is also uncertain that whether there is any change in sex steroids levelsin males older than 40 years of age. The use of androgens in elderly males isoften discouraged because of the probable worsening effect of androgens onprostatism. This study aimed to determine the relationship between prostatichyperplasia and sex steroid levels and whether there is any significantchange in these hormones after the age of 40 years. We studied healthy malesof >40 years with (n=92) or without (n=93) clinical prostatic hyperplasia.Serum testosterone, estradiol, gonadotrophins and sex hormone-bindingglobulin (SHBG) were compared. The hormones and SHGB were also correlatedwith age. No significant difference was found in any hormone in cases withprostatic hyperplasia as compared with the controls. There was no significantage-related change in any hormone except estradiol where as a negativecorrelation (P<0.003) with age was found. Serum sex steroids and SHGBremained unchanged in symptomatic prostatic hyperplasia and except forestrdoil there was no significant age-related change in serum testosterone,gonadotrophins and SHGB in healthy males after the fourth decade. Morestudies are needed to confirm the age-related decline of estrogens in males.(author)

  1. Factors That Contribute to Assay Variation in Quantitative Analysis of Sex Steroid Hormones Using Liquid and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xia; Veenstra, Timothy D.

    2012-01-01

    The list of physiological events in which sex steroids play a role continues to increase. To decipher the roles that sex steroids play in any condition requires high quality cohorts of samples and assays that provide highly accurate quantitative measures. Liquid and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC-MS and GC-MS) have…

  2. Assessment of circulating sex steroid levels in prepubertal and pubertal boys and girls by a novel ultrasensitive gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Courant, Frédérique; Aksglæde, Lise; Antignac, Jean-Philippe; Monteau, Fabrice; Sørensen, Kaspar; Andersson, Anna-Maria; Skakkebæk, Niels Erik; Juul, Anders; Bizec, Bruno Le

    2010-01-01

    Estrogens and androgens play key roles for pubertal onset and sexual maturation. Most currently used immunoassays are not sensitive enough to accurately measure the low circulating levels of sex steroids in children without any signs of puberty. However, this does not exclude that sex steroids ha...

  3. Factors That Contribute to Assay Variation in Quantitative Analysis of Sex Steroid Hormones Using Liquid and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xia; Veenstra, Timothy D.

    2012-01-01

    The list of physiological events in which sex steroids play a role continues to increase. To decipher the roles that sex steroids play in any condition requires high quality cohorts of samples and assays that provide highly accurate quantitative measures. Liquid and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC-MS and GC-MS) have…

  4. Sex and sex steroids: impact on the kinetics of fatty acids underlying body shape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santosa, Sylvia; Jensen, Michael D

    2014-10-01

    Adult humans have a remarkable sexual dimorphism in body shape. Men tend to store relatively more fat in the upper body whereas women store more fat in the lower body. We do not have a complete understanding of the mechanisms underlying these differences, but we know that people who preferentially store abdominal fat are at greater risk of metabolic disease. It is also known that the changes in sex steroid concentrations during puberty and again with advancing age are accompanied by changes in body fat distribution. The objective of this review is to describe what has been learned regarding the mechanisms underlying changes in regional body fat distribution that occur as a result of changes in sex hormones and to delineate effects of sex steroids in modulating body composition. PMID:25460291

  5. The association of urinary cadmium with sex steroid hormone concentrations in a general population sample of US adult men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basaria Shehzad

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies investigating the association of cadmium and sex steroid hormones in men have been inconsistent, but previous studies were relatively small. Methods In a nationally representative sample of 1,262 men participating in the morning examination session of phase I (1998–1991 of the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, creatinine corrected urinary cadmium and serum concentrations of sex steroid hormones were measured following a standardized protocol. Results After adjustment for age and race-ethnicity, higher cadmium levels were associated with higher levels of total testosterone, total estradiol, sex hormone-binding globulin, estimated free testosterone, and estimated free estradiol (each p-trend 0.05. Conclusion Urinary cadmium levels were not associated with sex steroid hormone concentrations in a large nationally representative sample of US men.

  6. Augmented transport and metabolism of sex steroids in lymphoid neoplasia in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sex steroid hormones have been shown to influence a number of biological properties of lymphoid neoplastic tissue. Receptor occupancy is a function of the pool size of cellular exchangeable hormone therefore it is important to understand the mechanisms regulating hormone transport from the microcirculation and hormone metabolism. In this study, steroid hormone transport and metabolism were investigated in control and neoplastic lymph nodes after transplanting control rats with the WR-6 leukemic line. Steroid hormone transport and metabolism were studied after pulse labeling the nodal tissue in vivo with arterial bolus injections of [3H]testosterone. Residual vascular radioactivity was monitored by simultaneously injecting 113m indium chelated to bovine transferrin. Both testosterone and estradiol were partially available for transport through the capillary barriers of control and neoplastic lymph nodes from the circulating albumin-bound pool. Estradiol was readily available for transport from the circulating sex hormone-binding globulin-bound pool in both control and neoplastic lymph nodes. Testosterone was not available for transport from the sex hormone-binding globulin-bound pool in control lymph nodes, but was readily available for transport in metastatic lymph nodes. Thaw-mount autoradiography and physiological measurements showed that plasma proteins such as albumin or transferrin were confined to the microcirculation compartment. The transport of protein-bound hormones into lymph node represents a mechanism of enhanced steroid hormone dissociation from the binding protein without the plasma protein per se significantly exiting the microcirculation compartment. Metabolic studies showed no measurable metabolism of [3H]testosterone in the control lymph nodes by 60 sec after arterial injection

  7. Impact of Sex and Gonadal Steroids on Neonatal Brain Structure

    OpenAIRE

    Knickmeyer, Rebecca C.; Wang, Jiaping; ZHU, HONGTU; Geng, Xiujuan; Woolson, Sandra; Hamer, Robert M.; Konneker, Thomas; Styner, Martin; Gilmore, John H.

    2013-01-01

    There are numerous reports of sexual dimorphism in brain structure in children and adults, but data on sex differences in infancy are extremely limited. Our primary goal was to identify sex differences in neonatal brain structure. Our secondary goal was to explore whether brain structure was related to androgen exposure or sensitivity. Two hundred and ninety-three neonates (149 males) received high-resolution structural magnetic resonance imaging scans. Sensitivity to androgen was measured us...

  8. Prenatal versus postnatal sex steroid hormone effects on autistic traits in children at 18 to 24 months of age

    OpenAIRE

    Auyeung Bonnie; Ahluwalia Jag; Thomson Lynn; Taylor Kevin; Hackett Gerald; O’Donnell Kieran J; Baron-Cohen Simon

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Studies of prenatal exposure to sex steroid hormones predict autistic traits in children at 18 to 24 and at 96 months of age. However, it is not known whether postnatal exposure to these hormones has a similar effect. This study compares prenatal and postnatal sex steroid hormone levels in relation to autistic traits in 18 to 24-month-old children. Fetal testosterone (fT) and fetal estradiol (fE) levels were measured in amniotic fluid from pregnant women (n = 35) following...

  9. Measurement of steroid concentrations in brain tissue: methodological considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taves, Matthew D; Ma, Chunqi; Heimovics, Sarah A; Saldanha, Colin J; Soma, Kiran K

    2011-01-01

    It is well recognized that steroids are synthesized de novo in the brain (neurosteroids). In addition, steroids circulating in the blood enter the brain. Steroids play numerous roles in the brain, such as influencing neural development, adult neuroplasticity, behavior, neuroinflammation, and neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease. In order to understand the regulation and functions of steroids in the brain, it is important to directly measure steroid concentrations in brain tissue. In this brief review, we discuss methods for the detection and quantification of steroids in the brain. We concisely present the major advantages and disadvantages of different technical approaches at various experimental stages: euthanasia, tissue collection, steroid extraction, steroid separation, and steroid measurement. We discuss, among other topics, the potential effects of anesthesia and saline perfusion prior to tissue collection; microdissection via Palkovits punch; solid phase extraction; chromatographic separation of steroids; and immunoassays and mass spectrometry for steroid quantification, particularly the use of mass spectrometry for "steroid profiling." Finally, we discuss the interpretation of local steroid concentrations, such as comparing steroid levels in brain tissue with those in the circulation (plasma vs. whole blood samples; total vs. free steroid levels). We also present reference values for a variety of steroids in different brain regions of adult rats. This brief review highlights some of the major methodological considerations at multiple experimental stages and provides a broad framework for designing studies that examine local steroid levels in the brain as well as other steroidogenic tissues, such as thymus, breast, and prostate. PMID:22654806

  10. Steroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... steroids (say: STARE-oydz), they often mean illegal anabolic steroids. Anabolic steroids are artificially produced hormones that are the same ... these is testosterone (say: tes-TOSS-tuh-rone). Anabolic steroids can be taken in the form of pills, ...

  11. Sex steroid dynamics during embryogenesis and sexual differentiation in Eurasian perch, Perca fluviatilis

    OpenAIRE

    Rougeot, Carole; Krim, A.; Mandiki, S. N.; Kestemont, P.; Mélard, Charles

    2007-01-01

    It is widely accepted that sex steroid hormones play an important and a specific role during the process of sex differentiation in fish. In order to describe the role of the three main sex steroid hormones (testosterone--T, 17beta-estradiol--E2 and 11keto-testosterone--11KT) during embryogenesis and sex differentiation in Eurasian perch, Perca fluviatilis, eggs, larvae and juveniles originating from two mixed-sex and two all-female progenies were regularly sampled from fertilization to hatchi...

  12. Steroid Hormone Measurement in Epidemiological Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    July 17, 2014 10:30 AM - 11:30 AM Shady Grove, Room TE406 + Add to Outlook Calendar Speaker: Neal E. Craft, Ph.D. President Craft Technologies, Inc. Print This Page Steroid Hormone Measurement in Epidemiological Studies DCEG Seminar News & Events

  13. Impact of sex and gonadal steroids on neonatal brain structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knickmeyer, Rebecca C; Wang, Jiaping; Zhu, Hongtu; Geng, Xiujuan; Woolson, Sandra; Hamer, Robert M; Konneker, Thomas; Styner, Martin; Gilmore, John H

    2014-10-01

    There are numerous reports of sexual dimorphism in brain structure in children and adults, but data on sex differences in infancy are extremely limited. Our primary goal was to identify sex differences in neonatal brain structure. Our secondary goal was to explore whether brain structure was related to androgen exposure or sensitivity. Two hundred and ninety-three neonates (149 males) received high-resolution structural magnetic resonance imaging scans. Sensitivity to androgen was measured using the number of cytosine, adenine, guanine (CAG) triplets in the androgen receptor gene and the ratio of the second to fourth digit, provided a proxy measure of prenatal androgen exposure. There was a significant sex difference in intracranial volume of 5.87%, which was not related to CAG triplets or digit ratios. Tensor-based morphometry identified extensive areas of local sexual dimorphism. Males had larger volumes in medial temporal cortex and rolandic operculum, and females had larger volumes in dorsolateral prefrontal, motor, and visual cortices. Androgen exposure and sensitivity had minor sex-specific effects on local gray matter volume, but did not appear to be the primary determinant of sexual dimorphism at this age. Comparing our study with the existing literature suggests that sex differences in cortical structure vary in a complex and highly dynamic way across the human lifespan. PMID:23689636

  14. Measurement of steroid concentrations in brain tissue: methodological considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MatthewDTaves

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available It is well recognized that steroids are synthesized de novo in the brain (neurosteroids. In addition, steroids circulating in the blood enter the brain. Steroids play numerous roles in the brain, such as influencing neural development, behavior, neuroplasticity, and inflammation. In order to understand the regulation and functions of steroids in the brain, it is important to directly measure steroid concentrations in brain tissue. In this brief review, we discuss methods for the detection and quantification of steroids in the brain. We concisely present the major advantages and disadvantages of different technical approaches at various experimental stages: euthanasia, tissue collection, steroid extraction, steroid separation, and steroid measurement. We discuss, among other topics, the potential effects of anesthesia and saline perfusion prior to tissue collection; microdissection via Palkovits punch; solid phase extraction; chromatographic separation of steroids; and immunoassays and mass spectrometry for steroid quantification, particularly the use of mass spectrometry for “steroid profiling.” Finally, we discuss the interpretation of local steroid concentrations, such as comparing steroid levels in brain tissue with those in the circulation (plasma vs. whole blood samples; total vs. free steroid levels. This brief review highlights some of the major methodological considerations at multiple experimental stages and provides a broad framework for designing studies that examine local steroid levels in the brain as well as other tissues.

  15. Measurement of Steroid Concentrations in Brain Tissue: Methodological Considerations

    OpenAIRE

    Taves, Matthew D.; Ma, Chunqi; Heimovics, Sarah A; Saldanha, Colin J.; Soma, Kiran K.

    2011-01-01

    It is well recognized that steroids are synthesized de novo in the brain (neurosteroids). In addition, steroids circulating in the blood enter the brain. Steroids play numerous roles in the brain, such as influencing neural development, adult neuroplasticity, behavior, neuroinflammation, and neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease. In order to understand the regulation and functions of steroids in the brain, it is important to directly measure steroid concentrations in brain ti...

  16. Measurement of steroid concentrations in brain tissue: methodological considerations

    OpenAIRE

    MatthewDTaves; ColinJSaldanha; KiranKSoma

    2011-01-01

    It is well recognized that steroids are synthesized de novo in the brain (neurosteroids). In addition, steroids circulating in the blood enter the brain. Steroids play numerous roles in the brain, such as influencing neural development, behavior, neuroplasticity, and inflammation. In order to understand the regulation and functions of steroids in the brain, it is important to directly measure steroid concentrations in brain tissue. In this brief review, we discuss methods for the detection an...

  17. Body Image Dissatisfaction and Distortion, Steroid Use, and Sex Differences in College Age Bodybuilders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Mark Anthony; Phelps, LeAddelle

    2001-01-01

    Compares college age bodybuilders by sex and steroid intake on two variables: body image dissatisfaction and body image distortion. Results reveal only a significant effect for gender on body distortion. No steroid-use differences were apparent for either body image dissatisfaction or body image distortion. Analyses indicate that female…

  18. Endogenous sex steroids and risk of cervical carcinoma : results from the EPIC study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rinaldi, Sabina; Plummer, Martyn

    2011-01-01

    Epidemiologic data and animal models suggest that, despite the predominant role of human papillomavirus infection, sex steroid hormones are also involved in the etiology of invasive cervical carcinoma (ICC).

  19. Offspring sex in a TSD gecko correlates with an interaction between incubation temperature and yolk steroid hormones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Guo-Hua; Yang, Jing; Wang, Jin; Ji, Xiang

    2012-12-01

    We incubated eggs of the Japanese gecko Gekko japonicus at three temperatures, and measured yolk testosterone (T) and 17?-estradiol (E2) levels at three time points in embryonic development (oviposition, 1/3 of incubation, and 2/3 of incubation), to examine whether maternal influence on offspring sex via yolk steroid hormone deposition is significant in the species. Eggs incubated at 24 °C and 32 °C produced mostly females, and eggs incubated at 28 °C almost a 50:50 sex ratio of hatchlings. Female-producing eggs were larger than male-producing eggs. Clutches in which eggs were incubated at the same temperature produced mostly same-sex siblings. Yolk T level at laying was negatively related to eggs mass, and yolk E2/T ratio was positively related to egg mass. Results of two-way ANOVA with incubation temperature and stage as the factors show that: yolk E2 level was higher at 32 °C than at 24 °C; yolk T level was higher, whereas yolk E2/T ratio was smaller, at 28 °C than at 24 °C; yolk E2 and T levels were higher at 2/3 than at 1/3 of incubation. Our data in G. japonucus show that: (1) maternal influence on offspring sex via yolk steroid hormone deposition is significant; (2) incubation temperature affects the dynamics of developmental changes in yolk steroid hormones; (3) influences of yolk steroid hormones on offspring sex are secondary relative to incubation temperature effects; and (4) offspring sex correlates with an interaction between incubation temperature and yolk steroid hormones.

  20. Analgesic use and sex steroid hormone concentrations in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, Margaret A; Tworoger, Shelley S; Eliassen, A Heather; Missmer, Stacey A; Hankinson, Susan E

    2010-04-01

    Prior epidemiologic studies suggest that regular use of analgesics may decrease risk of breast and ovarian cancer. We explored possible hormone-mediated mechanisms for these associations by examining the relationship between use of aspirin, nonaspirin nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID), and acetaminophen and sex steroid hormone concentrations among 740 postmenopausal women in the Nurses' Health Study. All women reported their analgesic use in 1988 or 1990 and provided a blood sample in 1989 to 1990. We calculated adjusted geometric mean estrogen and androgen levels for each category of analgesic use and calculated the P value for trend with increasing frequency of use. There was no association between days of use per month of aspirin, nonaspirin NSAIDs, or acetaminophen in 1990 and hormone levels (all P(trend) > or = 0.09). However, we observed significant inverse trends between the estimated number of aspirin tablets per month in 1988 and concentrations of estrone (P(trend) = 0.04) and estrone sulfate (P(trend) = 0.03). In analyses of total (aspirin and nonaspirin) NSAID use in 1990, women who used NSAIDs at least 15 days per month had significantly lower levels of estradiol compared with women with no NSAID use (P(trend) = 0.03). Frequency of use of all analgesics (aspirin, nonaspirin NSAIDs, and acetaminophen) in 1990 was inversely associated with concentrations of estradiol (P(trend) = 0.001), free estradiol (P(trend) = 0.01), estrone sulfate (P(trend) = 0.03), and the ratio of estradiol to testosterone (P(trend) = 0.04). Among postmenopausal women, regular users of aspirin and other analgesics may have lower estrogen levels than nonusers, which could contribute to a decreased risk of breast or ovarian cancer among analgesic users. PMID:20332258

  1. No effect of sex steroids on compensatory muscle hypertrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Max, S. R.; Rance, N. E.

    1984-01-01

    The effects of orchiectomy and/or subcutaneously implanted testosterone propionate (TP) on the hypertrophic response of rat plantaris muscles to functional overload (induced by bilateral removal of gastrocnemius and soleus muscles) are investigated experimentally. Muscle wet weight, metabolic substrate oxidation, and cytosolic androgen-receptor binding are measured, and the results are presented in tables. Eight weeks after surgery, the plantaris muscle weight as a percentage of body weight is found to be about twice that in rats without muscle overload, regardless of the sex-hormone status. Overloading causes decreased ability to oxidize glucose and pyruvate, decreased succinate dehydrogenase specific activity, and no change in the ability to oxidize beta-hydroxybutyrate or in androgen-receptor binding. The oxidative response is unaffected by orchiectomy or TP or both. It is argued that the actions of sex hormones and functional overload are not synergistic.

  2. Parasites and steroid hormones: corticosteroid and sex steroid synthesis, their role in the parasite physiology and development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Marta C.; Jiménez, Pedro; Miranda-Brito, Carolina; Valdez, Ricardo A.

    2015-01-01

    In many cases parasites display highly complex life cycles that include the penetration and permanence of the larva or adults within host organs, but even in those that only have one host, reciprocal, intricate interactions occur. Evidence indicates that steroid hormones have an influence on the development and course of parasitic infections. The host gender's susceptibility to infection, and the related differences in the immune response are good examples of the host-parasite interplay. However, the capacity of these organisms to synthesize their own steroidogenic hormones still has more questions than answers. It is now well-known that many parasites synthesize ecdysteroids, but limited information is available on sex steroid and corticosteroid synthesis. This review intends to summarize some of the existing information in the field. In most, but not all parasitosis the host's hormonal environment determines the susceptibility, the course, and severity of parasite infections. In most cases the infection disturbs the host environment, and activates immune responses that end up affecting the endocrine system. Furthermore, sex steroids and corticosteroids may also directly modify the parasite reproduction and molting. Available information indicates that parasites synthesize some steroid hormones, such as ecdysteroids and sex steroids, and the presence and activity of related enzymes have been demonstrated. More recently, the synthesis of corticosteroid-like compounds has been shown in Taenia solium cysticerci and tapeworms, and in Taenia crassiceps WFU cysticerci. In-depth knowledge of the parasite's endocrine properties will contribute to understand their reproduction and reciprocal interactions with the host, and may also help designing tools to combat the infection in some clinical situations. PMID:26175665

  3. Parasites and steroid hormones: corticosteroid and sex steroid synthesis, their role in the parasite physiology and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Marta C; Jiménez, Pedro; Miranda-Brito, Carolina; Valdez, Ricardo A

    2015-01-01

    In many cases parasites display highly complex life cycles that include the penetration and permanence of the larva or adults within host organs, but even in those that only have one host, reciprocal, intricate interactions occur. Evidence indicates that steroid hormones have an influence on the development and course of parasitic infections. The host gender's susceptibility to infection, and the related differences in the immune response are good examples of the host-parasite interplay. However, the capacity of these organisms to synthesize their own steroidogenic hormones still has more questions than answers. It is now well-known that many parasites synthesize ecdysteroids, but limited information is available on sex steroid and corticosteroid synthesis. This review intends to summarize some of the existing information in the field. In most, but not all parasitosis the host's hormonal environment determines the susceptibility, the course, and severity of parasite infections. In most cases the infection disturbs the host environment, and activates immune responses that end up affecting the endocrine system. Furthermore, sex steroids and corticosteroids may also directly modify the parasite reproduction and molting. Available information indicates that parasites synthesize some steroid hormones, such as ecdysteroids and sex steroids, and the presence and activity of related enzymes have been demonstrated. More recently, the synthesis of corticosteroid-like compounds has been shown in Taenia solium cysticerci and tapeworms, and in Taenia crassiceps WFU cysticerci. In-depth knowledge of the parasite's endocrine properties will contribute to understand their reproduction and reciprocal interactions with the host, and may also help designing tools to combat the infection in some clinical situations. PMID:26175665

  4. Interactions of xenobiotics with steroid hormone receptors and the sex-steroid binding protein in spotted seatrout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, P.; Ghosh, S.; Pinter, J.; Sperry, T.; Breckenridge-Miller, D. [Univ. of Texas, Port Aransas, TX (United States). Marine Science Inst.; Laidley, C.W. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Environmental Science, Policy and Management

    1995-12-31

    A variety of xenobiotics, such as DDT, methoxychlor and PCB mixtures and Kepone have estrogenic actions and disrupt reproduction in mammals by binding to nuclear estrogen receptors (ER). These xenobiotics were tested for their ability to bind to the hepatic ER of a marine fish, spotted seatrout (Cynoscion nebulosus). Several of the DDT derivatives, Kepone and PCB mixtures also bound to the seatrout ER over a range of 10{sup {minus}5}--10{sup {minus}3}M. Moreover, Kepone was shown to have both estrogenic and antiestrogenic actions in an in vitro liver slice vitellogenesis assay. These estrogenic compounds were also tested for their ability to bind to nuclear and plasma membrane progestogen (20{beta}-S) receptors in ovarian tissues and to the sex-steroid binding protein in seatrout plasma. Kepone, methoxychlor and o,p{prime}-DDT caused concentration dependent displacement of {sup 3}H2O{beta}-S from its plasma membrane receptor and inhibition of 20{beta}-S induced final maturation in an in vitro assay over the range of 10{sup {minus}7}--10{sup {minus}3}M, but did not alter steroid binding to the nuclear progestogen receptor. Significant binding of methoxychlor and the other organochlorines to the sex steroid binding protein was also observed. It is concluded from these studies that a variety of xenobiotics with estrogenic actions can also bind to other steroid receptors and binding proteins to influence other endocrine-mediated processes.

  5. Maternally derived egg yolk steroid hormones and sex determination: Review of a paradox in reptiles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rajkumar S Radder

    2007-09-01

    During the past decade, maternally derived steroid hormones in the egg yolk of oviparous vertebrates have been the focus of attention for their possible role in sex determination and hence, information on the consequences of maternal egg yolk steroids on sex determination has accumulated rapidly in reptiles and birds. Until recently, the observations were dominated by the idea that yolk steroids of maternal origin play an important role in sex determination of oviparous vertebrates. However, more recent studies have cast significant doubt on the above conclusion. These studies suggest instead that steroids may be present in the yolk simply as the byproduct of passive uptake during yolk formation or observed correlations might reflect embryonically produced rather than maternally derived steroids. Thus, the objective of the present review is (i) to provide an overview of such paradoxical observations on the role of maternal yolk steroids in sex determination of reptiles, (ii) to identify and provide brief explanations for the observed paradoxical results, and (iii) to provide some future research directions.

  6. [Sex steroids and monoamines in the system of neuroendocrine regulation of amygdala functions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhmadeev, A V; Kalimullina, L B

    2011-05-01

    The aim of this review is a review of literature data, which characterize participation of monoamines brain systems and sex steroids in regulation (modulation) of the amygdalas' functions. Shown were characteristic noradrenergic, dopaminergic and serotoninergic systems and their representation in amygdala. Effect ofnoradrenaline, dopamine and serotonine on neurons of Amygdala was shown realized from appropriate cell receptors under modulated influence of sex steroids. Combined participation of monoamines and sex steroids occur in regulation of activity in cyclic centre of secretion and releasing of gonadotropins, constituted a base of forming adaptive (sexual, food and aggressive-defensive) behaviour, including stress reaction. The presented data could be used for understanding influence of gender factor on personality characteristics of humans, cognitive abilities and behavioural reactions, and also in application to development of optimal medicinal treatment of psychoneurological diseases. PMID:21874859

  7. The mechanisms underlying sexual differentiation of behavior and physiology in mammals and birds: relative contributions of sex steroids and sex chromosomes

    OpenAIRE

    FumihikoMaekawa; HirokoOhki-hamazaki

    2014-01-01

    From a classical viewpoint, sex-specific behavior and physiological functions as well as the brain structures of mammals such as rats and mice, have been thought to be influenced by perinatal sex steroids secreted by the gonads. Sex steroids have also been thought to affect the differentiation of the sex-typical behavior of a few members of the avian order Galliformes, including the Japanese quail and chickens, during their development in ovo. However, recent mammalian studies that focused on...

  8. Interaction of blood sex steroid-binding globulin-steroid complexes with the plasma membranes of cells of the human decidual endometrium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The plasma membranes of cells of the decidual tissue specifically bind complexes of the sex steroid-binding globulin (SBG) of the blood with estrogens (estradiol, estriol, estrone) and the pharmacological agent danazol but do not interact with SBG-testosterone and SBG-dihydrotestosterone complexes. The selectivity of the interaction of SBG-steroid complexes with the cell membranes of the decidual tissue confirms the hypothesis of an active role of SBG in the action of steroids on this target tissue

  9. Regulation of antioxidant enzyme activities in male and female rat macrophages by sex steroids

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    R.B., Azevedo; Z.G.M., Lacava; C.K., Miyasaka; S.B., Chaves; R., Curi.

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available Human and animal immune functions present sex dimorphism that seems to be mainly regulated by sex hormones. In the present study, the activities of the antioxidant enzymes total superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) were measured in intraperitoneal resident [...] macrophages from adult male and female rats. In addition to comparing males and females, we also examined the regulation of these enzyme activities in macrophages by sex steroids. GSH-Px activity did not differ between male and female macrophages. However, both total SOD and CAT activities were markedly higher in females than in males (83 and 180%). Removal of the gonads in both males and females (comparison between castrated groups) increased the difference in SOD activity from 83 to 138% and reduced the difference in CAT activity from 180 to 86%. Castration and testosterone administration did not significantly modify the activities of the antioxidant enzymes in male macrophages. Ovariectomy did not affect SOD or GSH-Px activity but markedly reduced (48%) CAT activity. This latter change was fully reversed by estrogen administration, whereas progesterone had a smaller effect. These results led us to conclude that differences in the SOD and CAT activities may partially explain some of the differences in immune function reported for males and females. Also, estrogen is a potent regulator of CAT in macrophages and therefore this enzyme activity in macrophages may vary considerably during the menstrual cycle.

  10. Regulation of antioxidant enzyme activities in male and female rat macrophages by sex steroids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azevedo R.B.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Human and animal immune functions present sex dimorphism that seems to be mainly regulated by sex hormones. In the present study, the activities of the antioxidant enzymes total superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px were measured in intraperitoneal resident macrophages from adult male and female rats. In addition to comparing males and females, we also examined the regulation of these enzyme activities in macrophages by sex steroids. GSH-Px activity did not differ between male and female macrophages. However, both total SOD and CAT activities were markedly higher in females than in males (83 and 180%. Removal of the gonads in both males and females (comparison between castrated groups increased the difference in SOD activity from 83 to 138% and reduced the difference in CAT activity from 180 to 86%. Castration and testosterone administration did not significantly modify the activities of the antioxidant enzymes in male macrophages. Ovariectomy did not affect SOD or GSH-Px activity but markedly reduced (48% CAT activity. This latter change was fully reversed by estrogen administration, whereas progesterone had a smaller effect. These results led us to conclude that differences in the SOD and CAT activities may partially explain some of the differences in immune function reported for males and females. Also, estrogen is a potent regulator of CAT in macrophages and therefore this enzyme activity in macrophages may vary considerably during the menstrual cycle.

  11. [Possibilities of testing sex steroid effects in the uropoietic system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, R; Klinger, G; Schneider, H J

    1978-10-01

    Progesterone as the main representative of gestagen-effective sexual steroide does not cause allone a statistically significant dilation of the lumina of the ureters compared with the adequate values of the control urogrammes. The fact that in pregnant rabbits no dilation of the ureters and of the renal pelvis was to be found allows the suspicion that during the pregnancy of the animal species used there are other mechanical conditions than during the human gravidity. PMID:735464

  12. Acute exposure to ultraviolet-B radiation modulates sex steroid hormones and receptor expression in the skin and may contribute to the sex-bias of melanoma in a fish model

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, David L.; Fernandez, André A.; Garcia, Rachel; Paniker, Lakshmi; Lin, Kevin; Hanninen, Amanda; Zigelsky, Kyle; May, Matthew; Nuttall, Mark; Lo, Herng-Hsiang; Person, Maria D; Earley, Ryan

    2014-01-01

    Using the Xiphophorus fish melanoma model we show a strong male bias for cutaneous malignant melanoma, consistent with that seen in the human population. To examine underlying factors, we exposed adult X. couchianus fish to a single, sub-lethal dose of UVB and measured circulating sex steroid hormones and expression of associated hormone receptor genes over a 24 hour period. We found that a single exposure had profound effects on circulating levels of steroid hormones with significant decreas...

  13. Gender identification in great sturgeon (Huso huso) using morphology, sex steroids, histology and endoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falahatkar, B; Poursaeid, S

    2014-04-01

    Gender identification of great sturgeon during different life stages was conducted using morphology, sex steroid concentrations, histological and endoscopic techniques. One hundred and forty great sturgeons from two sturgeon farms at ages between 3-16 years were selected for examination. Most of the morphological indices showed no significant sex-related differences except for the ratio of fork length to distance of snout to anterior of dorsal fin (PD). The urogenital opening had no difference in shapes for both sexes. Mean sex steroid concentrations showed no significant difference in levels of testosterone, estradiol and progesterone between males and females in the stage II of maturity. 95.8% of fish were correctly sexed using endoscopy at this stage. Histological investigation indicated the ovaries of 3- to 9-year-old females were at the different stages of pre-vitellogenic, and most males were at the early spermatogenesis for age 3. The result of this study suggests that endoscopy is a reliable tool for sex and stage determination after the age of 3 years. This method is useful in providing a quick discernment of sexes and stages compared with utilizing morphometric and blood indices. Direct observation of gonads can give us important information about the gonadal and maturity stages in sturgeon aquaculture and wild population management, with minimal damage or stress to this endangered species. PMID:23565575

  14. Peripheral vs. central sex steroid hormones in experimental Parkinson’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SimonMcArthur

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The nigrostriatal dopaminergic (NSDA pathway degenerates in Parkinson’s disease (PD, which occurs with approximately twice the incidence in men than women. Studies of the influence of systemic estrogens in females suggest sex hormones contribute to these differences. In this review we analyse the evidence revealing great complexity in the response of the healthy and injured NSDA system to hormonal influences, and emphasize the importance of centrally generated estrogens. At physiological levels, circulating estrogen (in females or estrogen precursors (testosterone in males, aromatised to estrogen centrally have negligible effects on dopaminergic neurone survival in experimental PD, but can modify striatal dopamine levels via actions on the activity or adaptive responses of surviving cells. However, these effects are sexually dimorphic. In females, estradiol promotes adaptive responses in the partially injured NSDA pathway, preserving striatal dopamine, whereas in males gonadal steroids and exogenous estradiol have a negligible or even suppressive effect, effectively exacerbating dopamine loss. On balance, the different effects of gonadal factors in males and females contribute to sex differences in experimental PD. Fundamental sex differences in brain organization, including the sexually dimorphic networks regulating NSDA activity are likely to underpin these responses. In contrast, estrogen generated locally appears to preserve striatal dopamine in both sexes. The available data therefore highlight the need to understand the biological basis of sex-specific responses of the NSDA system to peripheral hormones, so as to realise the potential for sex-specific, hormone-based therapies in PD. Furthermore, they suggest that targeting central steroid generation could be equally effective in preserving striatal dopamine in both sexes. Clarification of the relative roles of peripheral and central sex steroid hormones is thus an important challenge for future studies.

  15. The sensitivity of the child to sex steroids: possible impact of exogenous estrogens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aksglaede, Lise; Juul, Anders; Leffers, Henrik; Skakkebaek, Niels E; Andersson, Anna-Maria

    2006-01-01

    estradiol and may respond with increased growth and/or breast development even at serum levels below the current detection limits; (iii) no threshold has been established, below which no hormonal effects can be seen in children exposed to exogenous steroids or endocrine disruptors; (iv) changes in hormone...... levels during fetal and prepubertal development may have severe effects in adult life and (v) the daily production rates of sex steroids in children estimated by the Food and Drug Administration in 1999 and still used in risk assessments are highly overestimated and should be revised. Because no lower...

  16. The mechanisms underlying sexual differentiation of behavior and physiology in mammals and birds: relative contributions of sex steroids and sex chromosomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FumihikoMaekawa

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available From a classical viewpoint, sex-specific behavior and physiological functions as well as the brain structures of mammals such as rats and mice, have been thought to be influenced by perinatal sex steroids secreted by the gonads. Sex steroids have also been thought to affect the differentiation of the sex-typical behavior of a few members of the avian order Galliformes, including the Japanese quail and chickens, during their development in ovo. However, recent mammalian studies that focused on the artificial shuffling or knockout of the sex-determining gene, Sry, have revealed that sex chromosomal effects may be associated with particular types of sex-linked differences such as aggression levels, social interaction, and autoimmune diseases, independently of sex steroid-mediated effects. In addition, studies on naturally occurring, rare phenomena such as gynandromorphic birds and experimentally constructed chimeras in which the composition of sex chromosomes in the brain differs from that in the other parts of the body, indicated that sex chromosomes play certain direct roles in the sex-specific differentiation of the gonads and the brain. In this article, we review the relative contributions of sex steroids and sex chromosomes in the determination of brain functions related to sexual behavior and reproductive physiology in mammals and birds.

  17. Role of sex steroid receptors in pathobiology of hepatocellular carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamta Kalra, Jary Mayes, Senait Assefa, Anil K Kaul, Rashmi Kaul

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The striking gender disparity observed in the incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC suggests an important role of sex hormones in HCC pathogenesis. Though the studies began as early as in 1980s, the precise role of sex hormones and the significance of their receptors in HCC still remain poorly understood and perhaps contribute to current controversies about the potential use of hormonal therapy in HCC. A comprehensive review of the existing literature revealed several shortcomings associated with the studies on estrogen receptor (ER and androgen receptor (AR in normal liver and HCC. These shortcomings include the use of less sensitive receptor ligand binding assays and immunohistochemistry studies for ER? alone until 1996 when ER? isoform was identified. The animal models of HCC utilized for studies were primarily based on chemical-induced hepatocarcinogenesis with less similarity to virus-induced HCC pathogenesis. However, recent in vitro studies in hepatoma cells provide newer insights for hormonal regulation of key cellular processes including interaction of ER and AR with viral proteins. In light of the above facts, there is an urgent need for a detailed investigation of sex hormones and their receptors in normal liver and HCC. In this review, we systematically present the information currently available on androgens, estrogens and their receptors in normal liver and HCC obtained from in vitro, in vivo experimental models and clinical studies. This information will direct future basic and clinical research to bridge the gap in knowledge to explore the therapeutic potential of hormonal therapy in HCC.

  18. Steroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... When people use steroids, it gives them an unfair advantage against others who trained and practiced without ... a Fit Kid Taking the Pressure Off Sports Competition Cheating Dealing With Peer Pressure What Medicines Are ...

  19. Postmenopausal serum sex steroids and risk of hormone receptor positive and negative breast cancer: a nested case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    James, Rebecca E.; Lukanova, Annekatrin

    2011-01-01

    Pre-diagnostic endogenous sex steroid hormone levels have well established associations with overall risk of breast cancer. While evidence towards the existence of distinct subtypes of breast cancer accumulates, few studies have investigated the associations of sex steroid hormone levels with risk of hormone receptor (estrogen (ER) and/or progesterone receptor (PR)) defined breast cancer. In a case-control study nested within the EPIC cohort (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition), estradiol, testosterone and sex hormone binding globulin levels were measured in pre-diagnostic serum samples from postmenopausal women not using HRT at blood donation. 554 women who developed invasive breast cancer with information on receptor status were matched with 821 control subjects. Conditional logistic regression models estimated breast cancer risk with hormone concentrations according to hormone receptor status of the tumor. Sex steroid hormones were associated with risks of not only ER+PR+ breast cancer [estradiol OR for highest versus lowest tertile=2.91 (95%CI:1.62-5.23), Ptrend0.002; testosterone OR=2.27 (95%CI:1.35-3.81), Ptrend=0.002] but also of ER-PR- breast cancer [estradiol OR=2.11 (95%CI:1.00-4.46), Ptrend =0.05; testosterone OR= 2.06 (95%CI:0.95-4.46), Ptrend=0.03], with associations appearing somewhat stronger in the receptor positive disease. Serum androgens and estrogens are associated with risks of both hormone receptor negative as well as receptor positive breast tumors. Further research is needed to establish through which molecular pathways, and during which evolutionary stages of development, androgens and estrogens can promote the occurrence of both receptor-positive and -negative clinical breast tumors.

  20. Endogenous sex steroids and risk of cervical carcinoma: results from the EPIC study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rinaldi, Sabina; Plummer, Martyn; Biessy, Carine; Castellsague, Xavier; Overvad, Kim; Kjær, Susanne Krüger; Tjonneland, Anne A M; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Chabbert-Buffet, Nathalie; Mesrine, Sylvie; Lukanova, Annekartin; Kaaks, Rudolph; Weikert, Cornelia; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Palli, Domenico; Agnoli, Claudia; Tumino, Rosario; Vineis, Paolo; Panico, Salvatore; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; van Kranen, Henk J; Peeters, Petra H M; Bakken, Kjersti; Lund, Eiliv; Torhild Gram, Inger; Rodriguez, Laudina; Bosch, F Xavier; Sanchez, Maria-Jose; Dorronsoro, Miren; Navarro, Carmen; Barricarte Gurrea, Aurelio; Kjellberg, Lennart Does Not Apply; Dillner, Joakim; Manjer, Jonas; Butt, Salma; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas J; Allen, Naomi E; Travis, Ruth C; Romieu, Isabelle I; Ferrari, Pietro; Riboli, Elio; Franceschi, Silvia

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Epidemiological data and animal models suggest that, despite the predominant role of human papillomavirus infection, sex steroid hormones are also involved in the etiology of invasive cervical carcinoma (ICC).METHODS: 99 ICC cases, 121 cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 (CIN3) cases and 2 control women matched with each case for center, age, menopausal status and blood collection-related variables, were identified in the EPIC study. Circulating levels of testosterone (T) and ...

  1. Does priming with sex steroids improve the diagnosis of normal growth hormone secretion in short children?

    OpenAIRE

    Ashraf Soliman; Ashraf Adel; Aml Sabt; Elkhansa Elbukhari; Hannah Ahmed; Vincenzo De Sanctis

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: There is still controversy for priming with sex steroid before growth hormone (GH) testing. Objective: We studied GH response to stimulation in 92 children >9 years with idiopathic short stature (height standard deviation score [HtSDS]-2). They were divided randomly into two groups. Children in Group 1 (n = 50) were primed with premarin in girls and testosterone in boys and those in Group 2 were not primed (n = 42). All children were tested using standard clonidine test and thei...

  2. Sex steroids stimulate leptin gene expression in Atlantic salmon parr hepatocytes in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trombley, Susanne; Rocha, Ana; Schmitz, Monika

    2015-09-15

    In mammals, leptin plays an important role in puberty and reproduction and leptin is regulated by sex steroids. Elevated leptin levels have been associated with sexual maturation in some teleosts such as Atlantic salmon. In the present study, primary cultures of Atlantic salmon hepatocytes were used to investigate the direct effects of different sex steroids on expression of the two salmon leptin-a genes, lepa1 and lepa2. Testosterone (T) stimulated both lepa1 and lepa2 in a dose dependent manner after four days of incubation. The stimulatory effect of T on leptin expression was not prevented by co-incubation with the aromatase inhibitor fadrozole, indicating a direct androgen effect on transcription. The non-aromatizable androgen 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT), which is the main androgen in fish, was generally slightly less potent than T in stimulating lepa1 and lepa2. The strongest stimulatory response was seen for 17?-estradiol (E2). E2 treatment significantly up-regulated lepa1 and lepa2 gene expression at doses of 10nM and 1nM for each gene, respectively. Lepa1, but not lepa2, was stimulated by T and 11-KT in immature male and immature female parr, while E2 stimulated expression of both genes. The sensitivity to sex steroid stimulation differed in maturing males compared to immature. In maturing males, the androgens and E2 stimulated lepa2 but not lepa1, while in immature males, the androgens and E2 stimulated lepa1, but only E2 stimulated lepa2. The differential response of the two leptin paralogues to the sex steroids suggests differences in regulation of the two leptin genes during maturation. Altogether, these results indicate that leptin expression in Atlantic salmon hepatocytes is directly regulated at the transcriptional level by the main teleost androgens and an estrogen, and that the response might depend on the developmental stage of the fish. PMID:25644210

  3. Protective actions of sex steroid hormones in Alzheimer’s disease

    OpenAIRE

    Pike, Christian J.; Carroll, Jenna C.; Rosario, Emily R.; Barron, Anna

    2009-01-01

    Risk for Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is associated with age-related loss of sex steroid hormones in both women and men. In postmenopausal women, the precipitous depletion of estrogens and progestogens is hypothesized to increase susceptibility to AD pathogenesis, a concept largely supported by epidemiological evidence but refuted by some clinical findings. Experimental evidence suggests that estrogens have numerous neuroprotective actions relevant to prevention of AD, in particular promotion of ...

  4. Sex steroid hormones in barn swallow (Hirundo rustica) populations at a dioxin contaminated site in northeast Louisiana

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This study compares the gonadal sex steroid hormone levels i.e., estradiol, total estrogen, and testosterone in Louisiana barn swallows Hirundo rustica that were...

  5. Association Between Sex Steroid Hormones and Hematocrit in a Nationally Representative Sample of Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paller, Channing J.; Shiels, Meredith S.; Rohrmann, Sabine; Menke, Andy; Rifai, Nader; Nelson, William G.; Platz, Elizabeth A.; Dobs, Adrian S.

    2013-01-01

    Low or high hematocrit levels are associated with increased morbidity and mortality, mediated via anemia or thromboembolic events, respectively. It is therefore important to identify factors that influence hematocrit. Although androgens are known to stimulate hematopoietic cells, it is unknown whether circulating sex steroid hormones affect hematocrit. The association between serum sex steroid hormone concentrations and hematocrit in men aged ?20 years was evaluated in a cross-sectional study of 1273 men in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1988–1991). Outcomes were low (90th percentile), and mean hematocrit. Men with low free testosterone levels had a lower hematocrit than men with normal free testosterone levels (P = .03), although no relationship was found between total testosterone level and hematocrit. The relationship between sex hormone–binding globulin (SHBG) and hematocrit was complex, with both low (P < .001) and high (P = .01) SHBG levels associated with lower hematocrit in men aged ?20 years and only high (P = .01) SHBG levels in men aged ?50 years. The odds ratio (OR) of high vs normal hematocrit increased as total estradiol (OR, 2.84; P trend = .04) and free estradiol (OR, 2.23; P trend = .09) levels increased. In this nationally representative study of men, sex steroid hormone levels, particularly low free testosterone and high SHBG levels, were associated with lower hematocrit, and high total and free estradiol levels were associated with high hematocrit. Thus, changes in sex hormone levels with aging may contribute to the increased prevalence of anemia and thromboembolic stroke in men as they age. PMID:22604627

  6. Endogenous sex steroids and risk of cervical carcinoma: results from the EPIC study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rinaldi, Sabina; Plummer, Martyn

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Epidemiological data and animal models suggest that, despite the predominant role of human papillomavirus infection, sex steroid hormones are also involved in the etiology of invasive cervical carcinoma (ICC).METHODS: 99 ICC cases, 121 cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 (CIN3) cases and 2 control women matched with each case for center, age, menopausal status and blood collection-related variables, were identified in the EPIC study. Circulating levels of testosterone (T) and estradiol (E2); dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS); progesterone (pre-menopausal women); and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) were measured using immunoassays. Levels of free (f) T and E2 were calculated from absolute concentrations of T, E2 and SHBG. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were computed using regularized conditional logistic regression. RESULTS: Among pre-menopausal women, associations with ICC were observed for fT (OR for highest vs lowest tertile=5.16, 95% CI: 1.50-20.1). SHBG level was associated with a significant downward trend in ICC risk. T, E2, fE2 and DHEAS showed non significant positive association with ICC. Progesterone was uninfluential. Among post-menopausal women, associations with ICC were found for T (OR=3.14; 95% CI: 1.21-9.37), whereas E2, and fT showed non significant positive association. SHBG level was unrelated to ICC risk in post-menopausal women. No associations between any hormone and CIN3 were detected in either pre- or post-menopausal women.CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest for the first time that T and possibly E2 may be involved in the etiology of ICC.Impact:The responsiveness of cervical tumors to hormone modulators is worth exploring.

  7. Hippocampal synthesis of sex steroids and corticosteroids: essential for modulation of synaptic plasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SuguruKawato

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Sex steroids play essential roles in the modulation of synaptic plasticity and neuroprotection in the hippocampus. Accumulating evidence shows that hippocampal neurons synthesize both estrogen and androgen. Recently, we also revealed the hippocampal synthesis of corticosteroids. The accurate concentrations of these hippocampus-synthesized steroids are determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in combination with novel derivatization. The hippocampal levels of 17?-estradiol (E2, testosterone (T, dihydrotestosterone (DHT and corticosterone (CORT, are 5-15 nM, and these levels are sufficient to modulate synaptic plasticity. Hippocampal E2 modulates memory-related synaptic plasticity not only slowly/genomicaly but also rapidly/nongenomically. Slow actions of E2 occur via classical nuclear receptors (ER? or ER?, while rapid E2 actions occur via synapse-localized or extranuclear ER? or ER?. Nanomolar concentrations of E2 changes rapidly the density and morphology of spines in hippocampal neurons. ER?, but not ER?, drives this enhancement/suppression of spinogenesis in adult animals. Nanomolar concentrations of androgens (T and DHT and CORT also increase in the spine density. Kinase networks are involved downstream of ER? and androgen receptor (AR. Newly developed Spiso-3D mathematical analysis is useful to distinguish these complex effects by sex steroids and kinases. Significant advance has been achieved in investigations of rapid modulation by E2 of the long-term depression or the long-term potentiation.

  8. Interaction of serum sex steroid-binding globulin with cell membranes of human decidual tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The interaction of the sex steroid-binding globulin (SBG) of human blood with plasma membranes of cells from human decidual tissue - the target tissue of estradiol - was studied. It was shown that SBG in complex with estradiol is capable of interacting specifically with these membranes. The dissociation (K/sub dis/) of this interaction is equal to (3.5 +/- 2.0) 10-12 M. The interaction of the SBG-estradiol complex with the membranes is characterized by high selectivity: such blood serum globulins as albumin, orosomucoid, transferrin, transcortin, and thyroxine-binding globulin do not compete with SBG for its binding sites on the membranes. The SBG-testosterone complex and SBG without steroid are also incapable of interacting with the membranes

  9. Interactions of 16α-[18F]-fluoroestradiol (FES) with sex steroid binding protein (SBP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fluorine-18 16α-Fluoroestradiol ([18F]- FES) is a positron-emitting tracer for the estrogen receptor that is used for positron emission tomography (PET) studies of tumor tissues rich in the estrogen receptor. The role of the sex steroid binding protein (SBP or SHBG) in the transport of the [18F]-FES to the estrogen-receptor-rich tissue in breast cancer patients in vivo was investigated. To determine the extent to which [18F]-FES is bound to SBP in the blood, we performed a series of studies using blood samples obtained from patients undergoing [18F]-FES PET scans. The binding of [18F]-FES to the SBP was measured using a simple protein precipitation assay. The binding of [18F]-FES metabolites to SBP was also measured. These measurements showed that the tracer was distributed between albumin and SBP, and the binding capacity of SBP was sufficient to ensure that the protein was not saturated when the tracer was fully mixed with the plasma; however, local saturation of SBP may occur when [18F]-FES is administered intravenously. Typically about 45% of [18F]-FES in circulating plasma was bound to SBP, but this fraction was dependent on the concentration of SBP in plasma. The transfer of the tracer between the two proteins was rapid, complete in less than 20 s at 0 deg. C, suggesting that the equilibrium was maintained under most circumstances and that local saturation resolved quickly when blood from the injection site entered the central circulation. These data suggest that SBP binding of [18F]-FES is significant and will affect the input function of the tracer for any model that is used for the quantitative evaluation of [18F]-FES uptake in PET studies. Estimates of equilibrium binding in blood samples are sufficient to characterize [18F]-FES binding to SBP in the circulation

  10. Serum levels of sex steroids and metabolites following 12 weeks of intravaginal 0.50% DHEA administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Yuyong; Labrie, Fernand; Gonthier, Renaud; Simard, Jean-Nicolas; Bergeron, Danielle; Martel, Céline; Vaillancourt, Mario; Montesino, Marlene; Lavoie, Lyne; Archer, David F; Balser, John; Moyneur, Erick

    2015-11-01

    The objective of the present phase III, placebo-controlled, double-blind, prospective and randomized study was to confirm the efficacy of daily intravaginal administration of 0.50% dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA; prasterone) ovules for 12 weeks on moderate to severe dyspareunia (or pain at sexual activity) as most bothersome symptom of vulvovaginal atrophy (VVA) while having serum steroid concentrations within normal postmenopausal values. To this end, serum levels of DHEA, DHEA-sulfate (DHEA-S), Androst-5-ene-diol-3?, 17?-diol (5-diol), testosterone, dihydrotestosterone (DHT), androstenedione (4-dione), estrone (E1), estradiol (E2), estrone sulfate (E1-S), androsterone glucuronide (ADT-G), and androstane-3?, 17?-diol 17-glucuronide (3?-diol-17G) were measured by validated liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). In agreement with the mechanisms of intracrinology, all serum sex steroids and metabolites concentrations after 12 weeks of daily intravaginal administration of 0.50% DHEA remain well within the limits of normal postmenopausal women. More specifically, the 12-week serum E2 concentration was measured at 22% below the average normal postmenopausal value (3.26 versus 4.17pg/ml), thus eliminating any fear of E2 exposure outside the vagina. In addition, serum E1-S, a particularly reliable indicator of global estrogenic activity, shows serum levels practically superimposable to the value observed in normal postmenopausal women (219 versus 220pg/ml). Similarly, serum ADT-G, the major metabolite of androgens, remains within normal postmenopausal values. The present data confirm the intracellular transformation of DHEA in the vagina resulting in local efficacy without any systemic exposure to sex steroids, observations which are in agreement with the physiological mechanisms of menopause. PMID:26291918

  11. [Control measures for anabolic androgenic steroid medicines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Mourelle, Raquel; Carracedo-Martínez, Eduardo; Ces Gens, Eugenio; Cadórniga Valiño, Luis; Álvaro Esteban, Pilar; Pose Reino, José Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) can cause serious adverse effects when used without a therapeutic purpose. This article aims to show that the AAS are susceptible to being sold on the black market. We also aim to describe how certain limitations on the health inspection services of the Galician health service to pursue these illegal actions prompted a regulatory initiative demanding that additional actions be granted to community pharmacies when dispensing AAS. Four pharmacy inspections detected the diversion of a total of 3118 packages of AAS, which led to the opening of four disciplinary proceedings. In two of these, specialized police forces were called in as there was sufficient evidence of possible diversion to gymnasiums, resulting in a police operation called Operation Fitness. PMID:25778637

  12. Effects of estradiol-17? implantation on ovarian growth, sex steroid levels and vitellogenin proxies in previtellogenic sturgeon Huso huso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhavan, Sobhan R; Falahatkar, Bahram; Gilani, Mohammad H Tolouei; Lokman, P Mark

    2015-06-01

    Sexual development in female great sturgeon (Huso huso) is arrested at the previtellogenic stage for many years. The present study investigated the effects of different levels of estradiol-17? (E2) on gonadal development, levels of sex steroids and proxies of vitellogenin in 3-year-old cultured previtellogenic great sturgeon. Fish were intraperitoneally implanted every 1.5 months over a 6-month period from January to July with capsules filled with 0, 3, 6 or 12 mg E2/kg body mass as control, low, mid and high experimental groups, respectively. Blood sampling was performed at the start of experimentation and 3 weeks after each implantation for quantification of sex steroid levels and of vitellogenin-associated variables (triacylglycerol, cholesterol, calcium, phosphorus). Gonad biopsy samples were taken at the beginning and the end of the experiment in order to determine the gonad stage and oocyte morphometrical measures were taken to evaluate treatment effects. E2 implants produced a significant elevation in serum concentrations of E2, calcium, triacylglycerol, cholesterol and phosphorus. A rapid significant decrease was observed in serum testosterone levels in a dose-independent manner, so that the highest testosterone concentrations were observed in control fish throughout the experiment. There were no significant differences in oocyte stage or morphometric end points among the treated fish. We conclude that E2 implants do not stimulate ovarian growth, and hence, E2 implants alone are insufficient to reducing the time until onset of sexual maturation in previtellogenic great sturgeon. PMID:25724452

  13. Impact of androgenic/antiandrogenic compounds (AAC) on human sex steroid metabolizing key enzymes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various pesticides, industrial pollutants and synthetic compounds, to which human populations are exposed, are known or suspected to interfere with endogenous sex hormone functions. Such interference potentially affect the development and expression of the male and female reproductive system or both. Chemicals in this class are thus referred to as endocrine disruptors (ED). This emphazises on the relevance of screening ED for a wide range of sex hormone-mimicking effects. These compounds are believed to exert influence on hormonal actions predominantly by (i) interfering with endogenous steroids in that they functionally interact with plasma membrane-located receptors as well as with nuclear receptors both for estrogens and androgens or (ii) affecting the levels of sex hormones as a result of their impact on steroid metabolizing key enzymes. Essential sex hormone-related enzymes within the endocrine system of humans are aromatase, 5α-reductase 2 as well as specific sulfotransferases and sulfatases (so-called phase I and phase II enzymes, respectively). Using suitable human tissues and human cancer cell lines (placenta, prostate, liver and JEG-3, lymph node carcinoma of prostate (LnCaP) cells) we investigated the impact of 10 widely used chemicals suspected of acting as ED with androgenic or antiandrogenic activity (so-called AAC) on the activity of these sex hormone metabolizing key enzymes in humans. In addition, the respective effects of six substances were also studied as positive controls due to their well-known specific hormonal agonistic/antagonistic activities. The aim of this report and subsequent investigations is to improve human health risk assessment for AAC and other ED

  14. Sex-Dependent Expression of Caveolin 1 in Response to Sex Steroid Hormones Is Closely Associated with Development of Obesity in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Mukherjee, Rajib; Kim, Sang Woo; Choi, Myung Sook; Yun, Jong Won

    2014-01-01

    Caveolin-1 (CAV1) is a conserved group of structural membrane proteins that form special cholesterol and sphingolipid-rich compartments, especially in adipocytes. Recently, it has been reported that CAV1 is an important target protein in sex hormone-dependent regulation of various metabolic pathways, particularly in cancer and diabetes. To clarify distinct roles of CAV1 in sex-dependent obesity development, we investigated the effects of high fat diet (HFD) and sex steroid hormones on CAV1 ex...

  15. Regulation of Estrogen Receptor ? Expression in the Hypothalamus by Sex Steroids: Implication in the Regulation of Energy Homeostasis

    OpenAIRE

    Xian Liu; Haifei Shi

    2015-01-01

    Sex differences exist in the complex regulation of energy homeostasis that utilizes central and peripheral systems. It is widely accepted that sex steroids, especially estrogens, are important physiological and pathological components in this sex-specific regulation. Estrogens exert their biological functions via estrogen receptors (ERs). ER?, a classic nuclear receptor, contributes to metabolic regulation and sexual behavior more than other ER subtypes. Physiological and molecular studies ha...

  16. Heat Shock Protein 27 Is Required for Sex Steroid Receptor Trafficking to and Functioning at the Plasma Membrane ?

    OpenAIRE

    Razandi, Mahnaz; Pedram, Ali; Levin, Ellis R

    2010-01-01

    Classical sex steroid receptors (SRs) localize at the plasma membranes (PMs) of cells, initiating signal transduction through kinase cascades that contribute to steroid hormone action. Palmitoylation of the SRs is required for membrane localization and function, but the proteins that facilitate this modification and subsequent receptor trafficking are unknown. Initially using a proteomic approach, we identified that heat shock protein 27 (Hsp27) binds to a motif in estrogen receptor alpha (ER...

  17. Does priming with sex steroids improve the diagnosis of normal growth hormone secretion in short children?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Soliman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There is still controversy for priming with sex steroid before growth hormone (GH testing. Objective: We studied GH response to stimulation in 92 children >9 years with idiopathic short stature (height standard deviation score [HtSDS]-2. They were divided randomly into two groups. Children in Group 1 (n = 50 were primed with premarin in girls and testosterone in boys and those in Group 2 were not primed (n = 42. All children were tested using standard clonidine test and their serum insulin-like growth factor-I concentration (IGF-I. Additionally the growth and GH-IGF-I data of the two groups of children were compared with those for 32 short children (HtSDS 9 years. The peak GH response to clonidine provocation test did not differ before (n = 42 versus after 9 years (n = 32 of age. Conclusions: In this randomized study priming with sex steroids before GH testing did not significantly increase the yield of diagnosing short patients with normal GH secretion. In addition, GH response to provocation did not vary significantly between young (9 years short children.

  18. Evidence for the presence of sex steroid hormones in Zhikong scallop, Chlamys farreri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Bing-Hui; An, Li-Hui; Chang, Hong; Liu, Ying; Jiang, Zhi-Qiang

    2014-09-01

    To obtain evidence of the presence of sex steroid hormones in mollusks, hormone variation in the gonads of the Zhikong scallop Chlamys farreri was analyzed using UPLC-MS/MS. These were found, as expected, with concentrations of estrone (E1), 17beta-estradiol (E2), and testosterone (T) in the testes ranging from not detected (ND) to 0.07 ± 0.10, ND to 3.10 ± 2.00, and ND to 2.67 ± 1.55 ng/g wet weight, respectively. In the ovaries, these hormones ranged from ND to 2.45 ± 1.22, ND to 27.90 ± 4.23, and ND to 2.38 ± 1.56 ng/g ww, respectively. The levels of T in males and E2 in females followed a trend similar to the gonadal-somatic index over the course of the reproductive period. In addition, the gene expression of vitellogenin and calmodulin-2 showed similar patterns to T and E2, while the estrogen receptors and calmodulin-1 did not. These results indicate that sex steroids are present in the scallop and that they may regulate endocrine functions during the reproductive process. PMID:24662324

  19. [Serotonine and sex steroids in the system of neuroendocrine regulation of amygdala functions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    This review contains modern information about the representation of serotoninergic system in the Amygdala with detailed characteristics of the localization of serotonine fibers and serotonine receptors in nuclear and paleocortical structures. These data indicate the joint participation of serotonine and sex steroids in the regulation of the neuroedocrine function of Amygdala, which have a modulating effect on the secretion and release gonadotropine centers and sexual behavior centers in the hypothalamic area of the brain. The survey also gives information about changes in the exchange of serotonine in the Amygdala's structures in the process of alimentary, maternal, aggressive-defensive and emotional behavior. Systematizes the data on the role of serotonin and sex steroids in the mechanisms involved in the stress response of Amygdala, and its participation in the formation of mood, emotions and the genesis of depression. Presented data on changes in morphometric characteristics of brain structures caused by polymorphic variants of genes of serotoninergic systems and data on the asymmetry of its content. PMID:25508091

  20. Racial variation in umbilical cord blood sex steroid hormones and the insulin-like growth factor axis in African-American and white female neonates

    OpenAIRE

    Agurs-Collins, Tanya; Rohrmann, Sabine; Sutcliffe, Catherine; Bienstock, Jessica L.; Monsegue, Deborah; Akereyeni, Folasade; Bradwin, Gary; Rifai, Nader; Pollak, Michael N; PLATZ, ELIZABETH A.

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate whether there is racial variation in venous umbilical cord blood concentrations of sex steroid hormones and the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) axis between female African-American and white neonates. METHODS: Maternal and birth characteristics and venous umbilical cord blood samples were collected from 77 African-American and 41 white full-term uncomplicated births at two urban hospitals in 2004 and 2005. Cord blood was measured for testosterone, dehydroespiandroste...

  1. Morphology, sex steroid level and gene expression analysis in gonadal sex reversal of triploid female (XXX) rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Gefeng; Huang, Tianqing; Jin, Xian; Cui, Cunhe; Li, Depeng; Sun, Cong; Han, Ying; Mu, Zhenbo

    2016-02-01

    In non-mammalian vertebrates, estrogens and expressions of cyp19a1 and foxl2 play critical roles in maintaining ovary differentiation and development, while dmrt1 and sox9 are male-specific genes in testicular differentiation and are highly conserved. In order to deeply understand the morphological change, sex steroids level and molecular mechanism of triploid female gonadal reversal in rainbow trout, we studied the ovary morphology, tendency of estradiol-17β (E2) and testosterone (T) levels and the relative expressions of dmrt1, cyp19a1, sox9 and foxl2 in juvenile and adult fish. Our results demonstrated that the development of triploid female gonads in rainbow trout went through arrested development, oocytes dedifferentiation, ovary reconstruction and sex reversal finally. During early gonadal development (154-334 days post-fertilization), the expressions of foxl2 and cyp19a1 increased linearly, while expressions of dmrt1 and sox9 were extremely suppressed, and E2 level was higher, while T level was lower. During the mid-to-late period of triploid female gonadal development (574-964 days post-fertilization), the expressions of dmrt1 and sox9 remained high and were very close to the quantity of diploid male genes, and T levels were even reaching diploid male plasma concentrations, while expressions of cyp19a1 and foxl2 were decreased, leading to decrease in E2 level. We realized that the development model of rainbow trout triploid female gonads was extremely rare, and the regulatory mechanism was very special. Genes involved in gonadal development and endogenous estrogens are pivotal factors in fish natural sex reversal. PMID:26373423

  2. Anabolic Steroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anabolic steroids are man-made substances related to male sex hormones. Doctors use anabolic steroids to treat some hormone problems in men, delayed ... from some diseases. Bodybuilders and athletes often use anabolic steroids to build muscles and improve athletic performance. Using ...

  3. Parasitic castration, growth, and sex steroids in the freshwater bonefish Cyphocharax gilbert (Curimatidae) infested by Riggia paranensis (Cymothoidea)

    OpenAIRE

    Neuza R. W. Lima; Juliana de S. Azevedo; Leonardo G. da Silva; Marilvia Dansa-Petretski

    2007-01-01

    Cyphocharax gilbert shows parasitic castration when infested by the crustacean Riggia paranensis, being unable to reproduce. Fish were sampled in the middle rio Itabapoana, Brazil, to study the prevalence of parasitism, growth, and sex steroid concentrations, considering the body size, sex, and reproductive condition of specimens. Most of the fish analyzed were infested (56.0%). The presence of two lines on the scales was more frequent among infested fish (22.0%) than among fish without paras...

  4. Origin of the response to adrenal and sex steroids: Roles of promiscuity and co-evolution of enzymes and steroid receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Michael E; Nelson, David R; Studer, Romain A

    2015-07-01

    Many responses to adrenal and sex steroids are mediated by receptors that belong to the nuclear receptor family of transcription factors. We investigated the co-evolution of these vertebrate steroid receptors and the enzymes that synthesize adrenal and sex steroids through data mining of genomes from cephalochordates [amphioxus], cyclostomes [lampreys, hagfish], chondrichthyes [sharks, rays, skates], actinopterygii [ray-finned fish], sarcopterygii [coelacanths, lungfishes and terrestrial vertebrates]. An ancestor of the estrogen receptor and 3-ketosteroid receptors evolved in amphioxus. A corticoid receptor and a progesterone receptor evolved in cyclostomes, and an androgen receptor evolved in gnathostomes. Amphioxus contains CYP11, CYP17, CYP19, 3?/?5-4-HSD and 17?-HSD14, which suffice for the synthesis of estradiol and ?5-androstenediol. Amphioxus also contains CYP27, which catalyzes the synthesis of 27-hydroxy-cholesterol, another estrogen. Lamprey contains, in addition, CYP21, which catalyzes the synthesis of 11-deoxycortisol. Chondrichthyes contain, in addition, CYP11A, CYP11C, CYP17A1, CYP17A2. Coelacanth also contains CYP11C1, the current descendent from a common ancestor with modern land vertebrate CYP11B genes, which catalyze the synthesis of cortisol, corticosterone and aldosterone. Interestingly, CYP11B2, aldosterone synthase, evolved from separate gene duplications in at least old world monkeys and two suborders of rodents. Sciurognathi (including mice and rats) and Hystricomorpha (including guinea pigs). Thus, steroid receptors and steroidogenic enzymes co-evolved at key transitions in the evolution of vertebrates. Together, this suite of receptors and enzymes through their roles in transcriptional regulation of reproduction, development, homeostasis and the response to stress contributed to the evolutionary diversification of vertebrates. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Steroid/Sterol signaling'. PMID:25445914

  5. Sites of production of sex steroids: secretion of steroids from x-irradiated and polycystic ovaries of rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ovaries of immature rats and PMS-induced pregnant rats were unilaterally x-irradiated. Ten days later, the concentrations of pregnane compounds in the ovarian venous plasma were measured. LH (2 ?g) was injected iv 30 min before bleeding. A comparison of steroid levels in the ovarian venous effluent of rats with and without destruction of selected tissue components by irradiation of the ovaries suggests that the follicles contribute to the secretion of 5?-pregnane-3,20-dione and 3?-hydroxy-5?-pregnan-20-one in the presence of interstitial gland tissue. Because it is known that follicular tissue is involved in the production of estrogens, we studied the interrelationship between the secretion of the two progesterone metabolites and estrogens in follicular polycystic ovaries of androgen-sterilized rats. Normal ovaries of diestrus-2 rats were used as controls for the polycystic ovaries. The injection of LH greatly increased the secretion of 5?-pregnane-3,20-dione and 3?-hydroxy-5?-pregnan-20-one within 1 h in normal ovaries, but the response of polycystic ovaries was low, suggesting low 5?-reductase activity in the cystic ovary. The polycystic ovaries exhibited a marked increase in the secretion of estrogens in response to LH, whereas normal ovaries showed no significant change. These results suggest that low 5?-reductase activity may be causally related to the high level of estrogen secretion in polycystic ovaries of androgen-sterilized rats

  6. Role of Serotonin Transporter Changes in Depressive Responses to Sex-Steroid Hormone Manipulation : A Positron Emission Tomography Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frokjaer, Vibe Gedsoe; Pinborg, Anja

    2015-01-01

    Background An adverse response to acute and pronounced changes in sex-hormone levels during, for example, the perimenopausal or postpartum period appears to heighten risk for major depression in women. The underlying risk mechanisms remain elusive but may include transiently compromised serotonergic brain signaling. Here, we modeled a biphasic ovarian sex hormone fluctuation using a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) and evaluated if emergence of depressive symptoms was associated with change in cerebral serotonin transporter (SERT) binding following intervention. Methods A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study included 63 healthy female volunteers (mean age 24.3 ± 4.9 years) with regular menstrual cycles between 23 and 35 days. Participants were randomized to active (goserelin [GnRHa] 3.6 mg implant) or placebo intervention. Sixty women completed follow-up and entered the analyses. Primary outcome measures were changes from baseline in depressive symptoms assessed on the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and SERT binding as imaged by [11C]DASB positron emission tomography. Outcome measures were acquired at baseline in the follicular phase (cycle day 6.6 ± 2.2) and at follow-up (16.2 ± 2.6 days after intervention start). Results Sex hormone manipulation with GnRHa significantly triggered subclinical depressive symptoms within-group (p = .003) and relative to placebo (p = .02), which were positively associated with net decreases in estradiol levels (p = .02) from baseline within the GnRHa group. Depressive symptoms were associated with increases in neocortical SERT binding in the GnRHa group relative to placebo (p = .003). Conclusions Our data imply both serotonergic signaling and estradiol in the mechanisms by which sex-steroid hormone fluctuations provoke depressive symptoms and thus provide a rationale for future preventive strategies in high-risk groups.

  7. Colonic transit in rats: effect of ovariectomy, sex steroid hormones, and pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In vitro studies suggest that the female sex steroid hormones [estrogen (E) and progesterone (P)] can affect the myoelectric and mechanical activity of colonic smooth muscle. The present study was designed to examine the influence of the hormones on colonic transit in vivo. Transit was assessed by quantifying the distribution within the colon of a radiolabeled marker (0.5 ?Ci Na251CrO4), using the geometric center method of analysis. Studies were performed with adult male rats and the following groups of female rats: nonpregnant, ovariectomized, ovariectomy plus hormone pretreatment, and pregnant (day 18). Hormone-pretreated animals were studied 24 h following the fourth injection. The data can be summarized as follows. 1) Colonic transit was affected by the timing of the estrus cycle. 2) Ovariectomy eliminated the biphasic transit pattern observed in estruscycling females and resulted in a geometric center value comparable with that of the metestrus-diestrus animals. 3) E + P pretreatment of ovariectomized rats resulted in a significant decrease in the geometric center compared with the untreated ovariectomized rats. 4) The geometric center value in pregnant anials and hormone-pretreated animals. 5) Adult male rats had a geometric center value of 4.12 +/- 0.29. The results suggest that a relation exists between colonic transit and the circulating levels of the steroid hormones

  8. Specific estrogen-binding protein of rat liver and sex steroid metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Model experiments were conducted to study the effect of a highly purified preparation of specific estrogen-binding protein (SEBP) on the intensity of estradiol and testosterone metabolism under the influence of enzymes in liver homogenate from female rats, not containing SEBP. The liver of mature female rats was homogenized in two volumes of 50 mM Tris-HCl buffer, pH 7.5, containing 600 mg% of glucose. The tritium-steroid was preincubated for 15 min at 0-4 C with 0-4 microg of the preparation of SEBP (200 microl). A standard preparation of partially purified SEBP was obtained from liver cystosol of mature male rats; affinity chromatography on estradiolagarose was used. It is shown that SEBP can really take part in regulation of the dynamics of sex steroids in the liver. E1 did not affect the metabolic rate of H 3-E2 by liver homogenate from females, but caused marked acceleration of H 3-E2 metabolism by male liver homogenate

  9. Sex Steroid Hormones Matter for Learning and Memory: Estrogenic Regulation of Hippocampal Function Inmale and Female Rodents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frick, Karyn M.; Kim, Jaekyoon; Tuscher, Jennifer J.; Fortress, Ashley M.

    2015-01-01

    Ample evidence has demonstrated that sex steroid hormones, such as the potent estrogen 17ß-estradiol (E[subscript 2]), affect hippocampal morphology, plasticity, and memory in male and female rodents. Yet relatively few investigators who work with male subjects consider the effects of these hormones on learning and memory. This review describes…

  10. Steroid sex hormone dynamics during estradiol-17? induced gonadal differentiation in Paralichthys olivaceus (Teleostei)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Peng; You, Feng; Liu, Mengxia; Wu, Zhihao; Wen, Aiyun; Li, Jun; Xu, Yongli; Zhang, Peijun

    2010-03-01

    Steroid sex hormones, such as estradiol-17? (E2) and testosterone (T), are important regulators of sex change in fish. In this study, we examined the effects of E2 treatment on the dynamics of E2 and T during gonadal differentiation in the olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus using histology and radioimmunoassay (RIA). Flounder larvae were divided into five groups (G0-G4), and fed with 0 (control), 0.2, 2, 20 and 100 mg E2/kg feed from 35 to 110 day post hatching (dph). Fish growth in the G1 and G2 groups was not significantly different from that of the control group ( P>0.05), while fish in the G3 and G4 groups were less active and showed growth depression and high mortality. The gonads of fish in the G3 and G4 groups were smaller and surrounded by hyperplastic connective tissue. The frequency of females in the G0-G4 groups was 54.5%, 75.0%, 100%, 100% and 93.3%, respectively. The RIA analyses of E2 and T showed that T levels decreased during gonadal differentiation, and increased slightly at the onset of ovarian differentiation, while E2 levels increased gradually and peaked at the onset of ovarian differentiation in the control group. In the E2-treated groups, T levels decreased before the onset of ovarian differentiation. E2 levels were high on the 48 dph, but declined to a lower level on the 54 dph, and then increased gradually during gonadal differentiation. And a sharp increase of E2 levels were observed in all E2-treated groups at the onset of ovarian differentiation. The data suggest that T and E2 play important roles during gonadal differentiation, and an E2 dose of 2 mg/kg feed could induce sex reversal in P. olivaceus.

  11. Designed modulation of sex steroid signaling inhibits telomerase activity and proliferation of human prostate cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The predominant estrogen-receptor (ER)-? signaling in normal prostate is countered by increased ER-? signaling in prostate cancer (CaP), which in association with androgen-receptor (AR) signaling results in pathogenesis of the disease. However CaP treatments mostly target AR signaling which is initially effective but eventually leads to androgen resistance, hence simultaneous targeting of ERs has been proposed. A novel series of molecules were designed with multiple sex-steroid receptor modulating capabilities by coalescing the pharmacophores of known anti-CaP molecules that act via modulation of ER(?/?) and/or AR, viz. 3,3?diindolylmethane (DIM), mifepristone, toremifene, tamoxifen and raloxifene. N,N-diethyl-4-((2-(4-methoxyphenyl)-1H-indol-3-yl)methyl) aniline (DIMA) was identified as the most promising structure of this new series. DIMA increased annexin-V labelling, cell-cycle arrest and caspase-3 activity, and decreased expression of AR and prostate specific antigen in LNCaP cells, in vitro. Concurrently, DIMA increased ER-?, p21 and p27 protein levels in LNCaP cells and exhibited ? 5 times more selective binding for ER-? than ER-?, in comparison to raloxifene. DIMA exhibited a dose-dependent ER-? agonism and ER-? antagonism in classical gene reporter assay and decreased hTERT (catalytic subunit of telomerase) transcript levels in LNCaP at 3.0 ?M (P < 0.05). DIMA also dose-dependently decreased telomerase enzyme activity in prostate cancer cells. It is thus concluded that DIMA acts as a multi-steroid receptor modulator and effectively inhibits proliferation of prostate cancer cells through ER-? mediated telomerase inhibition, by countering actions of ER-? and AR. Its unique molecular design can serve as a lead structure for generation of potent agents against endocrine malignancies like the CaP

  12. Urinary Sex Steroids and Anthropometric Markers of Puberty - A Novel Approach to Characterising Within-Person Changes of Puberty Hormones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gurmeet K. S.; Balzer, Ben W. R.; Kelly, Patrick J.; Paxton, Karen; Hawke, Catherine I.; Handelsman, David J.; Steinbeck, Katharine S.

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims The longitudinal relationships of within-individual hormone and anthropometric changes during puberty have not ever been fully described. The objectives of this study were to demonstrate that 3 monthly urine collection was feasible in young adolescents and to utilise liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry assay methods for serum and urine testosterone (T), estradiol (E2) and luteinizing hormone (LH) in adolescents by relating temporal changes in urine and serum hormones over 12 months to standard measures of pubertal development. Methods A community sample of 104 adolescents (57 female) was studied over 12 months with annual anthropometric assessment, blood sampling and self-rated Tanner staging and urine collected every 3 months. Serum and urine sex steroids (T, E2) were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and LH by immunoassay. Results A high proportion (92%) of scheduled samples were obtained with low attrition rate of 6.7% over the 12 months. Urine hormone measurements correlated cross-sectionally and longitudinally with age, anthropometry and Tanner stage. Conclusion We have developed a feasible and valid sampling methodology and measurements for puberty hormones in urine, which allows a sampling frequency by which individual pubertal progression in adolescents can be described in depth. PMID:26599397

  13. Regulation of Estrogen Receptor ? Expression in the Hypothalamus by Sex Steroids: Implication in the Regulation of Energy Homeostasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xian; Shi, Haifei

    2015-01-01

    Sex differences exist in the complex regulation of energy homeostasis that utilizes central and peripheral systems. It is widely accepted that sex steroids, especially estrogens, are important physiological and pathological components in this sex-specific regulation. Estrogens exert their biological functions via estrogen receptors (ERs). ER?, a classic nuclear receptor, contributes to metabolic regulation and sexual behavior more than other ER subtypes. Physiological and molecular studies have identified multiple ER?-rich nuclei in the hypothalamus of the central nervous system (CNS) as sites of actions that mediate effects of estrogens. Much of our understanding of ER? regulation has been obtained using transgenic models such as ER? global or nuclei-specific knockout mice. A fundamental question concerning how ER? is regulated in wild-type animals, including humans, in response to alterations in steroid hormone levels, due to experimental manipulation (i.e., castration and hormone replacement) or physiological stages (i.e., puberty, pregnancy, and menopause), lacks consistent answers. This review discusses how different sex hormones affect ER? expression in the hypothalamus. This information will contribute to the knowledge of estrogen action in the CNS, further our understanding of discrepancies in correlation of altered sex hormone levels with metabolic disturbances when comparing both sexes, and improve health issues in postmenopausal women. PMID:26491443

  14. The studies of controlled release of sex steroids hormones by radiation induced polymerization of glass forming monomers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The continuous long-term systemic administration of steroid hormones to rats was attempted by the capsules. Glass capsules containing sex hormone were made by low-temperature radiation-induced polymerization. Testosterone was eluted at a constant speed up to the 120th day in vitro, and could be administered up to the 56th day in vivo. The amount of testosterone released in vitro up to the 120th day was only 10% of the content. (Chiba, N.)

  15. The Role of Ovarian Sex Steroids in Metabolic Homeostasis, Obesity, and Postmenopausal Breast Cancer: Molecular Mechanisms and Therapeutic Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Boonyaratanakornkit, Viroj; Pateetin, Prangwan

    2015-01-01

    Obese postmenopausal women have an increased risk of breast cancer and are likely to have a worse prognosis than nonobese postmenopausal women. The cessation of ovarian function after menopause results in withdrawal of ovarian sex steroid hormones, estrogen, and progesterone. Accumulating evidence suggests that the withdrawal of estrogen and progesterone causes homeostasis imbalances, including decreases in insulin sensitivity and leptin secretion and changes in glucose and lipid metabolism, ...

  16. Disparate Changes in Kisspeptin and Neurokinin B Expression in the Arcuate Nucleus After Sex Steroid Manipulation Reveal Differential Regulation of the Two KNDy Peptides in Rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Agnete; Ruiz-Pino, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    Kisspeptin, neurokinin B (NKB) and dynorphin A are coexpressed in a population of neurons in the arcuate nucleus (ARC), termed KNDy neurons, which were recently recognized as important elements for the generation of GnRH pulses. However, the topographic distribution of these peptides and their regulated expression by sex steroids are still not well understood. In this study, detailed examination of NKB and kisspeptin immunoreactivity in the rat ARC was carried out, including comparison between sexes, with and without sex steroid replacement. Neurons expressing kisspeptin and NKB were more prominent in the caudal ARC of females, whereas neurons expressing NKB, but not kisspeptin, were the most abundant in the male. Sex steroid manipulation revealed differential regulation of kisspeptin and NKB; although kisspeptin immunoreactive (ir) cells increased in response to gonadectomy, NKB remained unchanged. Furthermore, the number of NKB-ir cells increased upon sex steroid replacement compared with gonadectomy, whereas kisspeptin did not, suggesting that sex steroids differently regulate these peptides. In addition, only in females did the density of kisspeptin- and NKB-ir fibers in the ARC increase upon sex steroid replacement in relation to sham and ovariectomy, respectively, suggesting sex-specific regulation of release. In conclusion, our observations reveal sex differences in the number of kisspeptin- and NKB-ir cells, which are more prominent in the caudal ARC. The divergent regulation of kisspeptin and NKB peptide contents in the ARC as a function of sex and steroid milieu enlarge our understanding on how these neuropeptides are posttranscriptionally regulated in KNDy neurons.

  17. Disparate changes in kisspeptin and neurokinin B expression in the arcuate nucleus following sex steroid manipulation reveal differential regulation of the two KNDy peptides in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Agnete; Ruiz-Pino, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    Kisspeptin, neurokinin B (NKB) and dynorphin A are co-expressed in a population of neurons in the arcuate nucleus (ARC), termed KNDy neurons, which were recently recognized as important elements for the generation of GnRH pulses. However, the topographic distribution of these peptides and their regulated expression by sex steroids are still not well understood. In this study, detailed examination of NKB and kisspeptin immunoreactivity in the rat ARC was carried out, including comparison between sexes, with and without sex steroid replacement. Neurons expressing kisspeptin and NKB were more prominent in the caudal ARC of females, whereas neurons expressing NKB, but not kisspeptin, were the most abundant in the male. Sex steroid manipulation revealed differential regulation of kisspeptin and NKB; while kisspeptin immunoreactive (-ir) cells increased in response to gonadectomy, NKB remained unchanged. Furthermore, the number of NKB-ir cells increased upon sex steroid replacement compared to gonadectomy, while kisspeptin did not, suggesting that sex steroids differently regulate these peptides. In addition, only in females did the density of kisspeptin- and NKB-ir fibers in the ARC increase upon sex steroid replacement in relation to sham and OVX, respectively, suggesting sex-specific regulation of release. In conclusion, our observations reveal sex differences in the number of kisspeptin- and NKB-ir cells, which are more prominent in the caudal ARC. The divergent regulation of kisspeptin and NKB peptide contents in the ARC as function of sex and steroid milieu enlarge our understanding on how these neuropeptides are post-transcriptionally regulated in KNDy neurons.

  18. Circulating gonadotropins and ovarian adiponectin system are modulated by acupuncture independently of sex steroid or ?-adrenergic action in a female hyperandrogenic rat model of polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maliqueo, Manuel; Benrick, Anna; Alvi, Asif; Johansson, Julia; Sun, Miao; Labrie, Fernand; Ohlsson, Claes; Stener-Victorin, Elisabet

    2015-09-01

    Acupuncture with combined manual and low-frequency electrical stimulation, or electroacupuncture (EA), reduces endocrine and reproductive dysfunction in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), likely by modulating sympathetic nerve activity or sex steroid synthesis. To test this hypothesis, we induced PCOS in rats by prepubertal implantation of continuous-release letrozole pellets (200?µg/day) or vehicle. Six weeks later, rats were treated for 5-6 weeks with low-frequency EA 5 days/week, subcutaneous injection of 17?-estradiol (2.0?µg) every fourth day, or a ?-adrenergic blocker (propranolol hydrochloride, 0.1?mg/kg) 5 days/week. Letrozole controls were handled without needle insertion or injected with sesame oil every fourth day. Estrous cyclicity, ovarian morphology, sex steroids, gonadotropins, insulin-like growth factor I, bone mineral density, and gene and protein expression in ovarian tissue were measured. Low-frequency EA induced estrous-cycle changes, decreased high levels of circulating luteinizing hormone (LH) and the LH/follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) ratio, decreased high ovarian gene expression of adiponectin receptor 2, and increased expression of adiponectin receptor 2 protein and phosphorylation of ERK1/2. EA also increased cortical bone mineral density. Propranolol decreased ovarian expression of Foxo3, Srd5a1, and Hif1a. Estradiol decreased circulating LH, induced estrous cycle changes, and decreased ovarian expression of Adipor1, Foxo3, and Pik3r1. Further, total bone mineral density was higher in the letrozole-estradiol group. Thus, EA modulates the circulating gonadotropin levels independently of sex steroids or ?-adrenergic action and affects the expression of ovarian adiponectin system. PMID:25963796

  19. Testosterone regulation of sex steroid-related mRNAs and dopamine-related mRNAs in adolescent male rat substantia nigra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purves-Tyson Tertia D

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increased risk of schizophrenia in adolescent males indicates that a link between the development of dopamine-related psychopathology and testosterone-driven brain changes may exist. However, contradictions as to whether testosterone increases or decreases dopamine neurotransmission are found and most studies address this in adult animals. Testosterone-dependent actions in neurons are direct via activation of androgen receptors (AR or indirect by conversion to 17β-estradiol and activation of estrogen receptors (ER. How midbrain dopamine neurons respond to sex steroids depends on the presence of sex steroid receptor(s and the level of steroid conversion enzymes (aromatase and 5α-reductase. We investigated whether gonadectomy and sex steroid replacement could influence dopamine levels by changing tyrosine hydroxylase (TH protein and mRNA and/or dopamine breakdown enzyme mRNA levels [catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT and monoamine oxygenase (MAO A and B] in the adolescent male rat substantia nigra. We hypothesized that adolescent testosterone would regulate sex steroid signaling through regulation of ER and AR mRNAs and through modulation of aromatase and 5α-reductase mRNA levels. Results We find ERα and AR in midbrain dopamine neurons in adolescent male rats, indicating that dopamine neurons are poised to respond to circulating sex steroids. We report that androgens (T and DHT increase TH protein and increase COMT, MAOA and MAOB mRNAs in the adolescent male rat substantia nigra. We report that all three sex steroids increase AR mRNA. Differential action on ER pathways, with ERα mRNA down-regulation and ERβ mRNA up-regulation by testosterone was found. 5α reductase-1 mRNA was increased by AR activation, and aromatase mRNA was decreased by gonadectomy. Conclusions We conclude that increased testosterone at adolescence can shift the balance of sex steroid signaling to favor androgenic responses through promoting conversion of T to DHT and increasing AR mRNA. Further, testosterone may increase local dopamine synthesis and metabolism, thereby changing dopamine regulation within the substantia nigra. We show that testosterone action through both AR and ERs modulates synthesis of sex steroid receptor by altering AR and ER mRNA levels in normal adolescent male substantia nigra. Increased sex steroids in the brain at adolescence may alter substantia nigra dopamine pathways, increasing vulnerability for the development of psychopathology.

  20. The relaxant effect of sex steroids in rat myometrium is independent of the gamma-amino butyric acid system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perusquía, M; Villalón, C M

    1996-01-01

    The mechanism of action on the uterine-relaxant effect of sex steroids has been suggested to involve an interaction with gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) receptors. However, other lines of evidence do not seem to support this suggestion. In view of this controversy, this study was designed to investigate the potential relaxant effect of GABA, muscimol (a GABA(A) receptor agonist), testosterone, progesterone and their 5-reduced metabolites in rat uterus at different endocrine stages (pregnant, nonpregnant and estrogenized), with particular emphasis on verifying if the relaxant effect of steroids involves an interaction with GABA(A) receptors. Contractions from uterine rings were recorded by isometric method, the sequential addition of either GABA (at different concentrations) on the spontaneous and KCl-induced contraction or muscimol (also at different concentrations) on the contraction induced by KCl was devoid of any significant effect. In contrast, the sequential addition of progesterone relaxed the tonic KCl-induced contraction in a concentration-dependent manner. This effect of progesterone was mimicked by its 5-reduced metabolites. The 5(beta)-configured isomers were more potent than progesterone and the 5(alpha)-configured ones. Interestingly, the relaxation produced by the above steroids was not blocked by the GABA(A) receptor antagonists, picrotoxin or bicuculline, but was reversed by calcium. Taken together, the above findings suggest that the relaxant action of the sex steroids analyzed in this study is not mediated by an interaction with GABA(A) receptors, instead a blockade of calcium influx appears to be responsible. PMID:8786697

  1. Sex steroid-induced inhibition of food intake in sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax)

    OpenAIRE

    Leal, Esther; Sánchez, Elisa; Muriach, Borja; Cerdá-Reverter, José Miguel

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted to test the sensitivity to gonadal steroids of the systems regulating food intake in sea bass. Animals were treated with silastic implants containing 17-?-estradiol or testosterone. Self-feeding was recorded for 31 days using computerized demand feeders and unfed-pellet recovery systems. Both steroids strongly decreased selffeeding levels, feed efficiency and specific growth rates. The linear growth of fish treated with testosterone was higher than in 17-?-estradiol t...

  2. Adults with Prader-Willi syndrome have weaker bones: effect of treatment with GH and sex steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhi, Silvia; Grugni, Graziano; Gatti, Davide; Spinozzi, Emiliano; Sartorio, Alessandro; Adami, Silvano; Fanolla, Antonio; Radetti, Giorgio

    2015-02-01

    Obesity has been considered to have a protective effect against the risk of fractures in adults. However, a high frequency of fracture is described in obese adults with Prader-Willi syndrome. To evaluate bone geometry, density and strength in a group of adult obese patients with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) and to examine the modulating effect on bone of treatment with growth hormone (GH) and sex steroids. This was a cross-sectional study performed in 41 (17 males, 24 females) obese subjects with genetically confirmed PWS, aged 29.4 ± 8.6 years. Forty-six healthy subjects (22 males and 24 females) served as controls. Digitalized X-rays were evaluated at the level of the 2nd metacarpal bone to assess bone geometry, i.e. cross-sectional area (CSA), cortical area (CA), medullary area (MA), metacarpal index (MI) and bone strength evaluated as bending breaking resistance index (BBRI). DEXA was also used to evaluate body composition and bone mineral density (total body, lumbar spine and femoral neck). PWS subjects, after adjusting for height and bone size, had a reduced CSA, CA and BBRI, while bone density was not different. GH treatment had a positive effect and sex steroids a negative effect on bone size and strength. PWS subjects showed a reduced bone size at the metacarpus leading to a reduced strength, while bone density was appropriate for size. GH treatment improves bone geometry but not bone density. Bone strength was significantly reduced in PWS patients who did not receive GH and had been treated with sex steroids. PMID:25577526

  3. The influence of gender and sex steroid hormones on the plasma binding of propranolol enantiomers.

    OpenAIRE

    Walle, U.K.; Fagan, T C; Topmiller, M J; Conradi, E C; Walle, T

    1994-01-01

    1. Plasma binding of tritium-labelled racemic propranolol (P) was measured by equilibrium dialysis. The unbound enantiomers were separated by h.p.l.c. after chiral derivatization. The binding of (-)-P was higher than that of (+)-P. 2. Contrary to previous suggestions, a sex difference in the plasma binding of the P enantiomers (9 young women, 12 young men) was not observed. The unbound percentage of (-)-P was 9.2 +/- 1.8 (mean +/- s.d.) in women vs 9.1 +/- 1.7 in men; for (+)-P it was 10.8 +/...

  4. Organization of Cytochrome P450 Enzymes Involved in Sex Steroid Synthesis: PROTEIN-PROTEIN INTERACTIONS IN LIPID MEMBRANES*

    OpenAIRE

    Praporski, Slavica; Ng, Su May; Nguyen, Ann D; Corbin, C. Jo; Mechler, Adam; Zheng, Jie; Conley, Alan J.; Martin, Lisandra L

    2009-01-01

    Mounting evidence underscores the importance of protein-protein interactions in the functional regulation of drug-metabolizing P450s, but few studies have been conducted in membrane environments, and none have examined P450s catalyzing sex steroid synthesis. Here we report specific protein-protein interactions for full-length, human, wild type steroidogenic cytochrome P450 (P450, CYP) enzymes: 17?-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase (P450c17, CYP17) and aromatase (P450arom, CYP19), as well as their elect...

  5. Sex-related differences in metabolism of 14C-acetate in response to steroid hormones by isolated rat hepatocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    No differences were found in the basal rate of lipid synthesis from 14C-acetate in hepatocytes isolated from mature male and virgin female rats. Lipid biosynthesis was stimulated 22-43% in the female 60 min after the addition of gonadal steroids. This rapid response suggests that subtle differences exist in the enzyme profile controlling the pathways of lipid metabolism in male and female rats. This difference may have been determined genetically or acquired after a period of sex-dependent hormonal stimulation beginning with puberty. (orig.)

  6. In vivo effect of sex steroids on uptake of 3H-leucine by female mouse brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In vivo effects of the sex steroids estrogen and progesterone on 3H-leucine uptake by the brain of mature ovariectomized mice were examined. Animals were divided into three groups: group 1, consisting of control animals treated with sesame oil, group 2, animals treated with estrogen, and group 3, animals first treated with estrogen and then with progesterone. Each group was given a single i.p. injection of 3H-leucine 2 hr after the last hormonal treatment, and sacrificed 2 hr later. Intensity of the uptake of radiolabeled leucine was measured by counting the number of reduced silver grains over cells in various brain regions using an autoradiographic technique. Group 1 showed a relatively high uptake in the supraoptic nucleus, paraventricular nucleus (PV) and ventromedial nucleus (VM) when compared with that in the remaining hypothalamic nuclei examined. Group 2 showed a significant enhancement of the uptake in all hypothalamic regions except the preoptic periventricular nucleus (PPV) when compared with that in group 1. Group 3 showed enhancement of the uptake in all hypothalamic nuclei when compared with that in group 1. However, only the PV, PPV, VM and periventricular arcuate nucleus revealed a significantly higher uptake than the respective nuclei in group 2. The remaining nuclei showed no change in uptake. Uptake by cells in the ependymal cells and cerebral cortex remained unchanged after hormonal treatment. The present results suggest that in female mice estrogen and estrogen plus progesterone stimulate protein synthesis in most of the hypothalamic nuclei and that the progesterone effect on protein synthesis is greatly influenced by estrogen-priming. (auth.)

  7. Role of sex steroids and their receptors in human preterm infants: Impacts on future treatment strategies for cerebral development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hübner, Stephanie; Reich, Bettina; Heckmann, Matthias

    2015-12-15

    Preterm birth is a major risk factor for cerebral complications, such as hemorrhage or periventricular leukomalacia, which lead to lifelong neurodevelopmental deficits. Hypoxia/ischemia, inflammation, hyperoxia, and prematurity itself contribute to the extent of impaired neurodevelopment. Preterm birth leads to disruption of the placental supply of estrogens and progesterone. Postnatally, the plasma levels of estrogens and progesterone drop 100-fold. Preterm infants are deprived of the placental supply of these hormones for up to sixteen weeks. Thus, supplementation of estradiol and progesterone to mimic intrauterine conditions may potentially improve a premature infant?s extrauterine development and help protect the brain against neurological complications. However, preliminary clinical studies did not find improved outcomes except for a trend towards less cerebral palsy. The decrease in estrogen and progesterone concentrations is accompanied by persistent, high postnatal production of fetal zone steroids, mainly dehydroepiandrosterone, which serve as precursors for maternal estrogen synthesis during pregnancy. This commentary will combine knowledge from endocrinology, pharmacology, and neonatology to explain the discrepancies between promising animal models and clinical findings. Most important targets will be classical and non-classical estrogen receptors, which interact differently-not only with estrogens but also with fetal zone steroids. The fetal zone is unique among humans and higher primates. Therefore, a clearly defined model is required to study the role of sex steroids and their receptors before further clinical studies begin. PMID:26300058

  8. Effects of 17 ?-methyltestosterone on transcriptome, gonadal histology and sex steroid hormones in rare minnow Gobiocypris rarus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jiancao; Liu, Shaozhen; Zhang, Yingying; Yang, Yanping; Yuan, Cong; Chen, Shu; Wang, Zaizhao

    2015-09-01

    The 17?-methyltestosterone (MT), a synthetic androgen, is known for its interference effects on the endocrine system. Aiming to investigate the transcriptome profiling of gonads induced by MT and to understand the molecular mechanism by which MT causes adverse effects in fish, transcriptome profiling of gonads, gonadal histology and the sex steroid hormones in response to MT were analyzed in Gobiocypris rarus. Eight libraries, 4 from the ovary and 4 from the testis, were constructed and sequenced and then a total number of clean reads per sample ranging from 7.03 to 9.99 million were obtained. In females, a total of 191 transcripts were differentially regulated by MT, consisting of 102 up-regulated transcripts and 89 down-regulated transcripts. In males, 268 differentially expressed genes with 108 up-regulated and 160 down-regulated were detected upon MT exposure. Testosterone serves as the major sex steroid hormone content in G. rarus of both sexes. The concentrations of 17?-estradiol, testosterone and 11-ketotestosterone were significantly increased in females and decreased in males after MT exposure. Interestingly, MT caused a decreased number of vitellogenic oocytes in the ovary and spermatozoa in the testis. After MT exposure, four differentially expressed genes (ndufa4, slc1a3a, caskin-2 and rpt3) were found in G. rarus of both sexes. Overall, we suggest that MT seemed to affect genes involved in pathways related to physiological processes in the gonads of G. rarus. These processes include the electron transfer of Complex IV, endothelial cell activation, axon growth and guidance, and proteasome assembly and glutamate transport metabolic. PMID:26070167

  9. Subchronic effects of cadmium on the gonads, expressions of steroid hormones and sex-related genes in tilapia Oreochromis niloticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yongju; Shan, Dan; Zhong, Huan; Zhou, Yi; Chen, Wenzhi; Cao, Jinling; Guo, Zhongbao; Xiao, Jun; He, Fulin; Huang, Yifan; Li, Jian; Huang, Heming; Xu, Pao

    2015-12-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is one of the most toxic heavy metals in aquatic ecosystem which affects fish health and aquaculture. In the present study, we examined the bioaccumulation of Cd in the gonads of tilapia via dissolved and dietary routes. We evaluated the subchronic effects of Cd on the histology of gonads, steroid hormone levels and sex-related gene expressions in tilapia. In addition, we also studied maternal transfer of Cd. Our results indicated that Cd was accumulated significantly in both ovary and testis from both exposure routes. Histopathological analysis showed that Cd induced ovary and testis injuries. Estradiol levels were significantly increased in dissolved Cd exposed female fish. In addition, the Cd exposure displayed different effects on gene expressions in gonads. In females, the estrogen receptor (ER?) was stimulated in dissolved Cd-exposed fish at 70.32 and 143.78 ?g/L for 30 days and in fish at 143.78 ?g/L for 60 days. Vitellogenin expression was significantly down-regulated in the ovary of dissolved Cd-exposed fish. In testis, GR expression was elevated after 60 days of dissolved Cd and dietary exposure. Furthermore, Cd level was significantly higher in the eggs than that in the fry. Our results demonstrated that both dissolved and dietary Cd exposures affected gonad development by altering steroid hormone levels and sex-related gene expressions in tilapia. PMID:26471182

  10. Sex-Steroid Regulation of Relaxin Receptor Isoforms (RXFP1 & RXFP2) Expression in the Patellar Tendon and Lateral Collateral Ligament of Female WKY Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Dehghan, Firouzeh; Muniandy, Sekaran; Yusof, Ashril; Salleh, Naguib

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of non-contact knee injury was found higher in female than in male and is related to the phases of the menstrual cycle. This raised the possibility that female sex-steroids are involved in the mechanism underlying this injury via affecting the expression of the receptors for relaxin, a peptide hormone known to modulate ligament laxity. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the effect of sex-steroids on relaxin receptor isoforms (RXFP1 & RXFP2) expression in the ligaments and...

  11. The Effects of Female Sex Steroids on Gastric Secretory Responses of Rat Following Traumatic Brain Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakieh Keshavarzi

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available AbstractObjective(sGastric ulceration is induced by various forms of stress like surgery, ischemia and trauma. The female sex has more resistance to stress and the gastrointestinal lesions happen fewer than male sex. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of estradiol and progesterone on the gastric acid and pepsin levels following traumatic brain injury (TBI induction.Materials and MethodsDiffuse TBI was induced by Marmarou method in female rats. Rats randomly assigned into 9 groups: intact, OVX (ovarectomized rat, Sham+OVX, TBI (intact rats under TBI, TBI+OVX (ovarectomized rats under TBI and treated OVX rats with vehicle (sesame oil, E2 (estradiol, P4 (progesterone or E2+P4 combination. The acid content and pepsin levels of each gastric washout sample were measured 5 days after the TBI induction.ResultsThere was no significant difference in gastric acid output between groups either after TBI induction or after treatment with E2 or P4 or E2+P4. Gastric pepsin levels were increased in Sham+OVX, TBI (P< 0.001 and TBI+OVX (P< 0.05 compared to intact group. Gastric pepsin levels were significantly lower in E2 and E2+ P4 treated rats than vehicle treated group (P< 0.01. P4 treatment increased gastric pepsin level compared to TBI+OVX group (P< 0.05 and this increment was higher than rats that were treated with the E2 and E2+P4 (P< 0.01.ConclusionThese results suggest that protective effect of estradiol and E2+P4 combination against mucosal damage after TBI, might be mediated by inhibition of pepsin secretion.

  12. Parasitic castration, growth, and sex steroids in the freshwater bonefish Cyphocharax gilbert (Curimatidae infested by Riggia paranensis (Cymothoidea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neuza R. W. Lima

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Cyphocharax gilbert shows parasitic castration when infested by the crustacean Riggia paranensis, being unable to reproduce. Fish were sampled in the middle rio Itabapoana, Brazil, to study the prevalence of parasitism, growth, and sex steroid concentrations, considering the body size, sex, and reproductive condition of specimens. Most of the fish analyzed were infested (56.0%. The presence of two lines on the scales was more frequent among infested fish (22.0% than among fish without parasites (12.0% for females and 10.0% for males. The occurrence of three lines on the scales was rare (3.5% among infested and 2.0% among females without parasites. These results suggest that growth of the host is faster than that of non infested fish. The serum concentrations of sex steroids from fish without parasites varied at different gonadal development stages (17 beta-estradiol: 60.0 to 976.7 pg/ml; total testosterone: 220.0 to 3,887.7 pg/ml. All infested fish had lower levels of the two sex steroids and undeveloped gonads. Sex steroids levels in infested females were close to those in females at post-spawning stages. Total testosterone concentrations of infested males were below those of males at early gonadal maturation stage. These results suggest that R. paranensis reduces the reproductive capacity of C. gilbert by affecting the host endocrine system.Cyphocharax gilbert exibe castração parasitária quando está infestado pelo crustáceo Riggia paranensis, estando impossibilitado de reproduzir. Os peixes foram coletados no trecho médio do rio Itabapoana, Brasil, para analisar a prevalência do parasitismo, quantificar crescimento e as concentrações de esteróides sexuais, considerando o tamanho do corpo, o sexo e a condição reprodutiva dos espécimes. A maioria dos peixes analisados estava infestada (56,0%. A presença de duas linhas em escamas foi mais freqüente entre os peixes infestados (22,0% que entre os peixes não infestados (12,0% para as fêmeas e 10,0% para os machos. A presença de três linhas na escama foi rara (3,5% entre os peixes infestados e 2,0% entre as fêmeas não infestadas. Estes resultados sugerem que o crescimento no hospeideiro pode ser mais rapido que no peixes não parasitados. As concentrações de esteróides sexuais no soro dos peixes não infestados variaram entre os diferentes estágios reprodutivos (17 beta-estradiol: 60,0 a 976,7 pg/ml; total testosterona: 220,0 a 3.887,7 pg/ml. Todos os peixes infestados apresentaram baixos níveis dos dois hormônios esteroidais e ausência de desenvolvimento gonadal. Os níveis de esteróides sexuais nas fêmeas infestadas foram próximos aos níveis encontrados nas fêmeas pós-desovadas. A concentração de testosterona encontrada nos machos infestados foi inferior àquela obtida nos machos que estavam iniciando o desenvolvimento gonadal. Estes resultados sugerem que R. paranensis impede a reprodução de C. gilbert, afetando o sistema endócrino do hospedeiro.

  13. Automation of radioimmunoassays for some sex steroids with use of both iodinated and tritiated ligands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe an automated technique for estradiol, progesterone, and testosterone, in which System Olli 3000 pipetting and incubation units are used. After extraction or chromatography, steroids are redissolved in ethanol or buffer, and duplicate aliquots are arranged for radioimmunoassay in 24-tube blocks. Addition of antibodies, tracers (125I or 3H), dextran-coated charcoal for separating free and bound ligands, and removal of a portion of the supernate for counting are all performed by the pipetting instrument. Incubations are at 370C in the incubation unit, or at 40C. After counting, steroid concentrations are computed from punch tape records by a Nova 840 computer. The management of assays in 24-tube units, and accurate simultaneous pipetting has reduced experimental error, and because there is no carryover, many different assays can be performed concurrently or in rapid sequence. Various scintillation media are compared

  14. Waste products of oilsands mine inhibit sex steroids in exposed fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mature fine tailings (MFT) and tailing pond water (TPW) are two of the wastes generated by oil sand mining operations at Syncrude Canada Ltd. in northern Alberta. A study was conducted to determine the impact of these wastes on reproductive steroid production in sexually mature goldfish. MFT is a toxic aqueous suspension consisting of organic acids, bitumen and metals. TPW is a saline solution consisting of both organic and inorganic contaminants. Goldfish were examined for 19 days in 3 of Syncrude's specially designed experimental ponds which were lined with or without MFT and capped with or without TPW. The study showed that plasma levels of testosterone and 17 β-estradiol in male and female fish in ponds with MFT but no TPW and ponds with both MFT and TPW were much lower compared to fish in a control pond with neither MFT nor TPW. The study also involved in vitro testis and ovarian incubations on the fish to determine potential differences in basal steroid production levels and how they react to gonadotropin. Results showed that gonadal tissues of fish from all ponds behaved similarly to the gonadotropin, thereby suggesting that under normal conditions, the oilsands wastes do not affect the ability of gonads to produce steroids. Compared to the control pond, both male and female fish from the pond with both MFT and TPW had significantly lower basal levels of testosterone, suggesting that the steroid inhibition could be caused at a site within the gonad. It was concluded that waste products of oilsands mining disrupt the reproductive endocrine system in goldfish

  15. Sex steroid-induced inhibition of food intake in sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, Esther; Sánchez, Elisa; Muriach, Borja; Cerdá-Reverter, José Miguel

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted to test the sensitivity to gonadal steroids of the systems regulating food intake in sea bass. Animals were treated with silastic implants containing 17-beta-estradiol or testosterone. Self-feeding was recorded for 31 days using computerized demand feeders and unfed-pellet recovery systems. Both steroids strongly decreased self-feeding levels, feed efficiency and specific growth rates. The linear growth of fish treated with testosterone was higher than in 17-beta-estradiol treated fish. In the second experiment, fish were treated with lower 17-beta-estradiol doses and 11-keto-androstenedione, a precursor of the main fish androgen (11-keto-testosterone). The results demonstrated a dose-response effect of estrogen and no effect of non-aromatizable androgens on food intake or growth performance. The inhibitory effect of testosterone on food intake seems to be mediated by its aromatization to estradiol, while linear growth promotion is mediated by the androgen per se. Data suggest that gonadal steroids may be involved in the seasonal feeding pattern of sea bass. The results demonstrate the sensitivity of the mechanisms regulating food intake to estrogenic compounds and point to the risk of including feed containing estrogenic substances in fish diets as well as the risk involved in exposure to "estrogenic environments". PMID:18709378

  16. Annual changes in plasma levels of cortisol and sex steroid hormones in male rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Ya-Yi; Han, Xiao-Dong; Suzuki, Yuzuru

    2001-09-01

    The profiles of cortisol, testosterone, 11-ketotestosterone and 17?, 20?-dihydroxy-4-pregnene-3-one in male rainbow trout reared under constant water temperature and natural photoperiod were determined by radioimmunoassay. Gonads of male rainbow trout reached maturity when the fish were two years old. Changes in the plasma levels of both sex steroid hormones and cortisol were closely related to the GSI. Plasma levels of testosterone, 11-ketotestosterone and 17?; 20?-dihydroxy 4-pregnene-3-one showed a clear peak in the annual breeding season, when the GSI reached their maxima. Plasma cortisol levels also showed clearly seasonal changes in both two- and three-year-old fish. The results suggest that the elevated plasma levels of cortisol may not just be due to stresses during the breeding season but have certain physiological functions in the reproduction of rainbow trout.

  17. Role of Serotonin Transporter Changes in Depressive Responses to Sex-Steroid Hormone Manipulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frokjaer, Vibe Gedsoe; Pinborg, Anja; Holst, Klaus Kähler; Overgaard, Agnete; Henningsson, Susanne; Heede, Maria; Larsen, Elisabeth Clare; Jensen, Peter Steen; Agn, Mikael; Nielsen, Anna Pors; Stenbæk, Dea Siggaard; da Cunha-Bang, Sophie; Lehel, Szabolcs; Siebner, Hartwig Roman; Mikkelsen, Jens Damsgaard; Svarer, Claus; Knudsen, Gitte Moos

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: An adverse response to acute and pronounced changes in sex-hormone levels during, for example, the perimenopausal or postpartum period appears to heighten risk for major depression in women. The underlying risk mechanisms remain elusive but may include transiently compromised serotonergic brain signaling. Here, we modeled a biphasic ovarian sex hormone fluctuation using a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) and evaluated if emergence of depressive symptoms was associated w...

  18. Sexual activity and plasma levels of sex steroids in the aspic viper Vipera aspis L. (Reptilia, Viperidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saint Girons, H; Bradshaw, S D; Bradshaw, F J

    1993-09-01

    Reproductive behavior and associated sexual activity was studied in individual male and female Vipera aspis over a 3-year period in western France in an attempt to correlate mating behavior with blood levels of gonadal sex steroids. Males had higher average levels of both testosterone (T) and 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) than females. Levels of progesterone (P) did not differ significantly between the two sexes but estradiol-17 beta (E2) concentrations were significantly higher in females during the season of mating. Spring mating behavior and copulation in males was associated with significantly increased levels of T and DHT, compared with postmating males; and a similar, but not significant trend, was evident with autumnal mating. The only statistically significant hormonal difference detected in males showing no sexual activity in autumn, was an elevated level of E2 at 0.52 +/- 0.20 ng/ml compared with 0.09 +/- 0.03 ng/ml in spring-breeding males (P = 0.05). Estrus in females is associated with increased levels of all four steroids but significant only for E2 and DHT. Levels of P were significantly reduced in females displaying seasonal anestrous in the spring immediately following reproduction. Females not displaying estrus in either spring or autumn had significantly lower plasma DHT and E2. Although mating behavior in males is associated statistically with elevated levels of T and DHT, a tight correlation is not obvious at the individual level, suggesting that increased concentrations of androgens are a necessary, but not sufficient, condition for mating. The data from V. aspis suggest that, as in a number of other reptilian species, high circulating levels of androgens function to "condition" or "organize" sexual behavior in males which may be displayed at some later time, well after actual levels have fallen, thus engendering the impression that reproductive behavior may be temporally dissociated from essential hormonal stimuli. PMID:8224772

  19. Influx of testosterone-binding globulin (TeBG) and TeBG-bound sex steroid hormones into rat testis and prostate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The availability of testosterone and estradiol to Sertoli and prostate cells is dependent upon 1) the permeability properties of the blood-tubular barrier (BTB) of the testis or prostate cell membrane, and 2) sex steroid binding to plasma proteins, such as albumin or testosterone-binding globulin (TeBG). Sex steroid influx into these tissues was studied after in vivo arterial bolus injections of [3H]testosterone or [3H]estradiol in anesthetized rats. Both testosterone and estradiol were readily cleared across the BTB or prostate cell membrane in the absence of plasma proteins and in the presence of human pregnancy serum, in which testosterone or estradiol are 80-95% distributed to TeBG. The extravascular extraction of [3H]TeBG across the BTB or prostate plasma membrane [73 +/- 2% (+/- SE) and 92 +/- 9%, respectively] was significantly greater than extraction of [3H]albumin or other plasma space markers and indicative of a rapid first pass clearance of TeBG by Sertoli or prostate cells. In summary, these studies indicate that 1) testosterone and estradiol are readily cleared by Sertoli and prostate cells; 2) albumin- and TeBG-bound sex steroids represent the major circulating pool of bioavailable hormone for testis or prostate; and 3) the TeBG-sex steroid complex may be nearly completely available for influx through the BTB or prostate plasma membrane

  20. Dynamic functional evolution of an odorant receptor for sex-steroid-derived odors in primates

    OpenAIRE

    Zhuang, Hanyi; Chien, Ming-Shan; Matsunami, Hiroaki

    2009-01-01

    Odorant receptors are among the fastest evolving genes in animals. However, little is known about the functional changes of individual odorant receptors during evolution. We have recently demonstrated a link between the in vitro function of a human odorant receptor, OR7D4, and in vivo olfactory perception of 2 steroidal ligands—androstenone and androstadienone—chemicals that are shown to affect physiological responses in humans. In this study, we analyzed the in vitro function of OR7D4 in pri...

  1. Effects of chlorpyrifos on in vitro sex steroid production and thyroid follicular development in adult and larval Lake Sturgeon, Acipenser fulvescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Catherine; Burnett, Duncan C; Arcinas, Liane; Palace, Vince; Gary Anderson, W

    2015-08-01

    Chlorpyrifos is a widely used organophosphate pesticide that has previously been shown to enter waterways in biologically relevant concentrations and has the potential to disrupt both thyroid hormone and sex steroid biosynthesis in vertebrates. Because gonadal maturation and larval development in Lake Sturgeon, Acipenser fulvescens, potentially coincide with the application of chlorpyrifos we examined the effects of chlorpyrifos on both thyroid follicular development in larval Lake Sturgeon, and sex hormone synthesis in adult Lake Sturgeon. For the first time, the present study reports steroidogenesis from testicular and ovarian tissue in Lake Sturgeon using an established in vitro bioassay. Furthermore, incubating gonad tissue with 5, 500 or 2000ngmL(-1) chlorpyrifos revealed an inhibitory effect on testosterone synthesis in both testicular (control, 40.29pgmg(-1) tissue wet weight(-1)h(-1) compared to experimental, 21.84pgmg(-1) tissue wet weight(-1)h(-1)) and ovarian (control, 33.83pgmg(-1) tissue wet weight(-1)h(-1) compared to experimental, 15.19pgmg(-1) tissue wet weight(-1)h(-1)) tissue. In a second series of experiments, larval Lake Sturgeon were exposed to equivalent concentrations of chlorpyrifos as above for 10days (d) between hatch and the onset of exogenous feeding. Larvae from each treatment group were raised until 67days post hatch (dph) and growth rates were compared alongside key indicators of thyroid follicle growth. Chlorpyrifos treatment had no effect on the measured indicators of thyroid follicular development. PMID:25855011

  2. Neural Differentiation of Mouse Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Treated with Sex Steroid Hormones and Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazem Parivar

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: There are several factors, like environmental agents, neurotrophic factors, serotonin and some hormones such as estrogen, affecting neurogenesis and neural differentiation. Regarding to importance of proliferation and regeneration in central nervous system, and a progressive increase in neurodegenerative diseases, cell therapy is an attractive approach in neuroscience. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of sex steroid hormones and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF on neuronal differentiation of mouse bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs. Materials and Methods: This experimental study was established in Kharazmi University. BM was isolated from the bones of femur and tibia of 4-6-week old Naval Medical Research Institute (NMRI mice, and the cells were cultured. The cells were divided into following 4 groups based on the applied treatments: I. control (no treatment, II. steroid hormones (?-estradiol, progesterone and testosterone, III. bFGF and IV. combination of steroid hormones and bFGF. Immunocytochemistry and flow cytometery analyses were applied for beta III-tubulin (?-III tubulin and microtubule-associated proteins-2 (MAP-2 in 4 days of treatment for all groups. Results: The cells treated with combination of bFGF and steroid hormones represented more expressions of neural markers as compared to control and to other two groups treated with either bFGF or steroid hormones. Conclusion: This study showed that BM-MSCs can express specific neural markers after receiving bFGF pretreatment that was followed by sex steroid hormones treatment. More investigations are necessary to specify whether steroid hormones and bFGF can be considered for treatment of CNS diseases and disorders.

  3. Analytical challenges for measuring steroid responses to stress, neurodegeneration and injury in the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, Michael; Guennoun, Rachida; Mattern, Claudia; Oudinet, Jean-Paul; Labombarda, Florencia; De Nicola, Alejandro F; Liere, Philippe

    2015-11-01

    Levels of steroids in the adult central nervous system (CNS) show marked changes in response to stress, degenerative disorders and injury. However, their analysis in complex matrices such as fatty brain and spinal cord tissues, and even in plasma, requires accurate and precise analytical methods. Radioimmunoassays (RIA) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, even with prepurification steps, do not provide sufficient specificity, and they are at the origin of many inconsistent results in the literature. The analysis of steroids by mass spectrometric methods has become the gold standard for accurate and sensitive steroid analysis. However, these technologies involve multiple purification steps prone to errors, and they only provide accurate reference values when combined with careful sample workup. In addition, the interpretation of changes in CNS steroid levels is not an easy task because of their multiple sources: the endocrine glands and the local synthesis by neural cells. In the CNS, decreased steroid levels may reflect alterations of their biosynthesis, as observed in the case of chronic stress, post-traumatic stress disorders or depressive episodes. In such cases, return to normalization by administering exogenous hormones or by stimulating their endogenous production may have beneficial effects. On the other hand, increases in CNS steroids in response to acute stress, degenerative processes or injury may be part of endogenous protective or rescue programs, contributing to the resistance of neural cells to stress and insults. The aim of this review is to encourage a more critical reading of the literature reporting steroid measures, and to draw attention to the absolute need for well-validated methods. We discuss reported findings concerning changing steroid levels in the nervous system by insisting on methodological issues. An important message is that even recent mass spectrometric methods have their limits, and they only become reliable tools if combined with careful sample preparation. PMID:26301525

  4. Simplified method for measuring sex-hormone binding globulin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe a simple, rapid method for measurement of sex-hormone binding globulin. Serial dilutions of pregnancy serum are prepared in serum from males that has been pre-treated by heating to 60 degrees C for 1 h to destroy endogenous binding globulin, which is then determined by a long-used technique to yield a set of ''standards.'' In the assay itself, a fixed amount of [3H]-labeled and unlabeled dihydrotestosterone is incubated with standard or unknown, and the bound fraction precipitated with saturated ammonium sulfate. A plot of percent of the steroid bound vs standard dilution yields a sigmoid curve, from which the results in unknowns can be read by simple extrapolation. Within-assay CVs for pools of serum from men, women, and women in late pregnancy were 6.56, 9.59, and 8.4%, respectively. Between-assay CVs for the same pools were 8.05, 9.5, and 11.5%, respectively. The correlation between results obtained by this method and those of the older technique was 0.95 for samples from non-pregnant subjects and 0.73 for those from pregnant women. Our procedure is simpler and faster than previous methods and accurately measures the differences in the globulin in sera from men, women, and pregnant women. Forty to 50 samples can be assayed in a working day

  5. Mono-hydroxy methoxychlor alters levels of key sex steroids and steroidogenic enzymes in cultured mouse antral follicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methoxychlor (MXC) is an organochlorine pesticide that reduces fertility in female rodents by decreasing antral follicle numbers and increasing follicular death. MXC is metabolized in the body to mono-hydroxy MXC (mono-OH). Little is known about the effects of mono-OH on the ovary. Thus, this work tested the hypothesis that mono-OH exposure decreases production of 17?-estradiol (E2) by cultured mouse antral follicles. Antral follicles were isolated from CD-1 mice (age 35-39 days) and exposed to dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), or mono-OH (0.1-10 ?g/mL) for 96 h. Media and follicles were collected for analysis of sex steroid levels and mRNA expression, respectively. Mono-OH treatment (10 ?g/mL) decreased E2 (DMSO: 3009.72 ± 744.99 ng/mL; mono-OH 0.1 ?g/mL: 1679.66 ± 461.99 ng/mL; 1 ?g/mL: 1752.72 ± 532.41 ng/mL; 10 ?g/mL: 45.89 ± 33.83 ng/mL), testosterone (DMSO: 15.43 ± 2.86 ng/mL; mono-OH 0.1 ?g/mL: 17.17 ± 4.71 ng/mL; 1 ?g/mL: 13.64 ± 3.53 ng/mL; 10 ?g/mL: 1.29 ± 0.23 ng/mL), androstenedione (DMSO: 1.92 ± 0.34 ng/mL; mono-OH 0.1 ?g/mL: 1.49 ± 0.43 ng/mL; 1 ?g/mL: 0.64 ± 0.31 ng/mL; 10 ?g/mL: 0.12 ± 0.06 ng/mL) and progesterone (DMSO: 24.11 ± 4.21 ng/mL; mono-OH 0.1 ?g/mL: 26.77 ± 4.41 ng/mL; 1 ?g/mL: 20.90 ± 3.75 ng/mL; 10 ?g/mL: 9.44 ± 2.97 ng/mL) levels. Mono-OH did not alter expression of Star, Hsd3b1, Hsd17b1 and Cyp1b1, but it did reduce levels of Cyp11a1, Cyp17a1 and Cyp19a1 mRNA. Collectively, these data suggest that mono-OH significantly decreases levels of key sex steroid hormones and the expression of enzymes required for steroidogenesis.

  6. Role of Serotonin Transporter Changes in Depressive Responses to Sex-Steroid Hormone Manipulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frokjaer, Vibe Gedsoe; Pinborg, Anja Bisgaard; Holst, Klaus Kähler; Overgaard, Agnete; Henningsson, Susanne; Heede, Maria; Larsen, Elisabeth Clare; Jensen, Peter Steen; Agn, Mikael; Nielsen, Anna Pors; Stenbæk, Dea Siggaard; da Cunha-Bang, Sophie; Lehel, Szabolcs; Siebner, Hartwig Roman; Mikkelsen, Jens Damsgaard; Svarer, Claus; Knudsen, Gitte Moos

    2015-01-01

    serotonergic brain signaling. Here, we modeled a biphasic ovarian sex hormone fluctuation using a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) and evaluated if emergence of depressive symptoms was associated with change in cerebral serotonin transporter (SERT) binding following intervention. METHODS: A...... double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study included 63 healthy female volunteers (mean age 24.3 ± 4.9 years) with regular menstrual cycles between 23 and 35 days. Participants were randomized to active (goserelin [GnRHa] 3.6 mg implant) or placebo intervention. Sixty women completed follow-up and...

  7. Inhaled Steroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Diseases > Long-Term Control Medications > Inhaled Steroids Inhaled Steroids What are some common inhaled steroids? How are ... more about steroids? What are some common inhaled steroids? Common inhaled steroids include: Asmanex ® (mometasone) Alvesco ® (ciclesonide) ...

  8. Sex steroid receptors and apoptosis-related proteins are differentially expressed in polycystic ovaries of adult dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuffa, Luiz Gustavo de Almeida; Lupi Júnior, Luiz Antonio; da Maia Lima, Alfredo Feio

    2016-02-01

    In Polycystic Ovaries (PCOs), the dynamics of sex hormone receptors and follicle-related apoptotic signaling remain unknown. In this study, we investigated the expression of androgen receptors (AR), estrogen receptors (ER? and ER?), and apoptosis-related molecules (BAX, active caspase-3, Bcl-2 and Survivin) on different follicular stages of PCOs in adult dogs. Clinical evidences of high estradiol and testosterone levels, persistent estrus and vaginal discharge were observed. Inhibin B immunolabeling was increased in primary and 2 to 5-mm follicles, and a marked epithelial hyperplasia was common in the ovarian surface. Ovarian epithelia and primary follicles showed low expression of AR, ER?, and ER?, whereas a moderate immunoexpression of AR was found in theca cells of secondary follicles and cysts. In PCOs, growing follicles displayed ER? expression, and secondary follicles exhibited higher ER? expression. In addition, while few ER?-positive cells were found in the cysts, ER? was moderately expressed in growing follicles and cysts. BAX was upregulated in the ovarian epithelium, primary follicles, and in the wall of follicular cysts. Active caspase-3 was significantly downregulated in the epithelium, primary follicles, and follicular cysts, whereas growing follicles had a strong immunoexpression in the granulosa cells. Bcl-2 and survivin were increased in the epithelium and primary follicles, and only survivin was upregulated in secondary and growing follicles. While Bcl-2 had a diffuse immunexpression in the follicular cysts, survivin was overexpressed by these cells. We concluded that sex steroid receptors and apoptotic proteins are differentially expressed in the follicles of adult dogs with PCOs. PMID:26767421

  9. Effects of steroids and sex reversal on intestinal absorption of L-(/sup 14/C)leucine in vivo, in rainbow trout, Salmo gairdneri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habibi, H.R.; Ince, B.W.

    1983-12-01

    The effects of steroids (17 alpha-methyltestosterone (MT), 17 beta-oestradiol (E2)), and of sex reversal (XX male) on intestinal absorption and accumulation of L-(/sup 14/C)leucine (5 mM), were investigated in unanaesthetized rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri), using an in vivo gut perfusion technique. Each steroid was luminally perfused through the gut at a concentration of 50 micrograms/ml perfusate, during five separate perfusions carried out on the same fish at 30-min intervals (perfusion periods 1 to 5), for a total of 120 min at 14 degrees. Experiments were also conducted on masculinized, genetically female trout (XX male) with steroid-free perfusate. MT treatment significantly increased the intestinal absorption of radioleucine during periods 1 and 2, whilst E2 was without effect. Neither MT nor E2 influenced intestinal accumulation (mid- and hindgut) of radioleucine, and accumulation of /sup 14/C-solutes in skeletal muscle. Sex reversal, however, whilst having no effect on leucine absorption, nevertheless significantly increased intestinal accumulation of radioleucine, and accumulation of /sup 14/C-solutes in skeletal muscle. The effects observed in the present study are in agreement with previous work in trout using everted gut sac preparations. It is suggested that the growth-promoting effects of anabolic-androgenic steroids in fish may be partly explained by their action on gastrointestinal function.

  10. Effects of steroids and sex reversal on intestinal absorption of L-[14C]leucine in vivo, in rainbow trout, Salmo gairdneri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of steroids (17 alpha-methyltestosterone (MT), 17 beta-oestradiol (E2)), and of sex reversal (XX male) on intestinal absorption and accumulation of L-[14C]leucine (5 mM), were investigated in unanaesthetized rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri), using an in vivo gut perfusion technique. Each steroid was luminally perfused through the gut at a concentration of 50 micrograms/ml perfusate, during five separate perfusions carried out on the same fish at 30-min intervals (perfusion periods 1 to 5), for a total of 120 min at 14 degrees. Experiments were also conducted on masculinized, genetically female trout (XX male) with steroid-free perfusate. MT treatment significantly increased the intestinal absorption of radioleucine during periods 1 and 2, whilst E2 was without effect. Neither MT nor E2 influenced intestinal accumulation (mid- and hindgut) of radioleucine, and accumulation of 14C-solutes in skeletal muscle. Sex reversal, however, whilst having no effect on leucine absorption, nevertheless significantly increased intestinal accumulation of radioleucine, and accumulation of 14C-solutes in skeletal muscle. The effects observed in the present study are in agreement with previous work in trout using everted gut sac preparations. It is suggested that the growth-promoting effects of anabolic-androgenic steroids in fish may be partly explained by their action on gastrointestinal function

  11. Expression analyses of sex steroid-regulated genes in neonatal rat hypothalamus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yonehara, Keisuke; Suzuki, Masatoshi; Yamanouchi, Keitaro; Nishihara, Masugi

    2003-01-01

    Estrogen plays an important role in sexual differentiation of the brain in rats during the perinatal period. To elucidate molecular mechanisms underlying sexual differentiation of the brain, in this study we investigated genes differentially expressed between sexes or induced to express by estrogen...... in neonatal rat hypothalamus using DNA microarray analysis in combination with real-time RT-PCR. It was found that the levels of expression of the genes encoding glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 and coronin 1b were higher in male than female hypothalamus on postnatal day (PN) 5 and those of collagen...... type 3 alpha1 and thioredoxin reductase 2 genes in female hypothalamus on PN5 were decreased and increased, respectively, by treatment with estradiol on PN2. Then the developmental changes in the expression of these 4 genes were examined from 1 day before the parturition to PN9, and they all showed...

  12. Effects of long-term cortisol treatments on gonadal development, sex steroids levels and ovarian cortisol content in cultured great sturgeon Huso huso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poursaeid, Samaneh; Falahatkar, Bahram; Mojazi Amiri, Bagher; Van Der Kraak, Glen

    2012-09-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of cortisol implantations on gonadal development, sex steroid levels, and ovarian cortisol content in cultured great sturgeon Huso huso. Three groups of 5 fish for each treatment were considered. The experimental groups included: control (capsules containing cocoa butter alone), low cortisol (C(5); 5mg cortisol/kg body mass+cocoa butter) and, high cortisol (C(50); 50mg cortisol/kg body mass+cocoa butter). The capsules containing hormones and cocoa butter were intraperitoneally implanted into 3-year-old female fish at pre-vitellogenic stage (mean initial body mass 6809.7 ± 73 g) every 6 weeks over a 6-month period from January to June. The serum levels of cortisol, glucose, cholesterol and sex steroids (testosterone and 17?-estradiol) were determined at the initial time and three weeks after each implantation. Oocyte histological characteristics (the diameter and area of the oocyte, the diameter and area of the nucleus and the ratio of the nucleus area to the oocyte area) were measured at the end of the experiment and compared to those at the initial time. Ovarian cortisol content was measured at the end of the experiment. The results showed that serum cortisol levels varied in a dose-independent manner, so that the highest cortisol concentrations were observed in C(5)-treated fish throughout the experiment. Serum glucose levels were significantly higher in cortisol-treated groups than those in the control group. The high dose of cortisol elicited a significant constant increase in serum cholesterol concentrations. Fish implanted with the high cortisol dose showed significant declines in serum testosterone and 17?-estradiol concentrations throughout the experiment. No significant differences were found in oocyte histological characteristics among experimental groups. The cortisol implants elicited a dose-dependent increase in ovarian cortisol content. At the end of trial, body-growth indices were the lowest in C(50)-implanted fish, while the low cortisol dose had no effect on growth relative to the controls. These results indicated that chronic stress induced by cortisol implantation in great sturgeon suppressed gonadal steroidogenesis and somatic growth but had no effect on ovarian growth and development. PMID:22643336

  13. An immunohistochemical analysis of sex-steroid receptors, tumor suppressor gene p53 and Ki-67 in the normal and neoplastic uterine cervix squamous epithelium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaou Marinos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Malignant transformation of sex-steroid dependent tissues is associated with the loss of expression of sex steroid receptors as well as of the tumor suppression gene p53. The aim of this study is to evaluate the expression of sex-steroid receptors, p53 and Ki-67 in specimens from pre-malignant and malignant cervical epithelial lesions throughout the menstrual cycle. Material and Methods. Immunohistochemical staining was performed on formalin fixed, paraffin embedded tissue sections of normal squamous cervical epithelium, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and invasive squamous cervical carcinoma, specimens utilizing antibodies against estrogen receptors, progesterone receptors, p53 protein and Ki-67 antigen. Results. In the samples taken from the normal cervical tissue, basal cells were usually estrogen receptor-positive, progesterone receptornegative, p53-negative and Ki-67-negative throughout the menstrual cycle. In contrast, para-basal cells were estrogen receptorpositive and progesterone receptor-negative in the follicular phase, but estrogen receptor-negative and progesterone receptor -positive and Ki-67 positive in the luteal phase. In cervical precancerous and cancer tissue samples (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and squamous cervical carcinoma, the expression of estrogen receptors decreased. 31.15% of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and 11.5% of squamous cervical carcinoma were positive for estrogen receptors. However, the expression of progesterone receptors increased. 29.5% of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and 49.2% of squamous cervical carcinoma were positive for progesterone receptors. Positive staining for p53 was observed in 15 (24.59% cases of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and in 39 (64% of squamous cervical carcinoma. The expression Ki-67 index in squamous cervical carcinoma cases (47.60% was significantly higher than of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia cases (30.2% (p=0.041. Conclusion. The findings of this study suggest that tumor cervical cells evade normal growth control by sex steroid hormones while synchronously abnormal regulatory mechanisms acquire control of the cell cycle.

  14. Spawning performance and plasma levels of GnRHa and sex steroids in cultured female Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) treated with different GnRHa-delivery systems

    OpenAIRE

    Guzmán, José M.; Ramos, Jesús; Mylonas, Constantinos; Mañanós, Evaristo L.

    2009-01-01

    The aquaculture of Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) is limited by the poor spawning performance of the F1 generation cultured broodstock. The present study compared the efficiency of two sustained-release delivery systems loaded with gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) and a single GnRHa injection on the stimulation of oocyte maturation (OM), sex steroid hormone secretion and spawning. Analysis with an ELISA showed that the administered GnRHa was no longer detectable in the pla...

  15. Disparate changes in kisspeptin and neurokinin B expression in the arcuate nucleus following sex steroid manipulation reveal differential regulation of the two KNDy peptides in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Agnete; Ruiz-Pino, Francisco; Castellano, Juan M; Tena-Sempere, Manuel; Mikkelsen, Jens D

    2014-01-01

    Kisspeptin, neurokinin B (NKB) and dynorphin A are co-expressed in a population of neurons in the arcuate nucleus (ARC), termed KNDy neurons, which were recently recognized as important elements for the generation of GnRH pulses. However, the topographic distribution of these peptides and their regulated expression by sex steroids are still not well understood. In this study, detailed examination of NKB and kisspeptin immunoreactivity in the rat ARC was carried out, including comparison between ...

  16. Sex and Exercise Interact to Alter the Expression of Anabolic Androgenic Steroid-Induced Anxiety-Like Behaviors in the Mouse

    OpenAIRE

    Onakomaiya, Marie M.; Porter, Donna M; Oberlander, Joseph G.; Henderson, Leslie P

    2014-01-01

    Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) are taken by both sexes to enhance athletic performance and body image, nearly always in conjunction with an exercise regime. Although taken to improve physical attributes, chronic AAS use can promote negative behavior, including anxiety. Few studies have directly compared the impact of AAS use in males versus females or assessed the interaction of exercise and AAS. We show that AAS increase anxiety-like behaviors in female but not male mice and that volunta...

  17. Expression analyses of sex steroid-regulated genes in neonatal rat hypothalamus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yonehara, Keisuke; Suzuki, Masatoshi

    2003-01-01

    Estrogen plays an important role in sexual differentiation of the brain in rats during the perinatal period. To elucidate molecular mechanisms underlying sexual differentiation of the brain, in this study we investigated genes differentially expressed between sexes or induced to express by estrogen in neonatal rat hypothalamus using DNA microarray analysis in combination with real-time RT-PCR. It was found that the levels of expression of the genes encoding glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 and coronin 1b were higher in male than female hypothalamus on postnatal day (PN) 5 and those of collagen type 3 alpha1 and thioredoxin reductase 2 genes in female hypothalamus on PN5 were decreased and increased, respectively, by treatment with estradiol on PN2. Then the developmental changes in the expression of these 4 genes were examined from 1 day before the parturition to PN9, and they all showed sexual dimorphic patterns. In addition, dependence of the expression of these genes on either estradiol, testosterone or dihydrotestosterone during the neonatal period was confirmed. These results suggest that these four genes are involved in sexual differentiation of the rat brain, and that androgen per se as well as estrogen may take part in the processes.

  18. Effects of female sex steroids on the development of autoimmune thyroiditis in thymectomized and irradiated rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, S.A.; Young, P.R.; Penhale, W.J. (Murdoch Univ. (Australia). School of Veterinary Studies)

    1983-11-01

    Female PVG/c strain rats are more susceptible to induction of autoimmune thyroiditis initiated by thymectomy and irradiation (Tx-X) than similarly treated males. Pre-pubertal ovariectomy further augmented susceptibility. Administration of oestrogen or progesterone to groups of 4 weeks old ovariectomized Tx-X animals over a period of 15 weeks significantly altered induction of this condition. Oestrogen administered repeatedly at dose levels of 1 ..mu..g and 10 ..mu..g/100 g body weight resulted in partial suppression of thyroiditis with a corresponding change in the incidence of antibodies to thyroglobulin. Oestrogen administered by a single implantation had a suppressive effect on the development of autoimmunity in ovariectomized Tx-X females. Oestrogen given by either of these procedures also reduced the incidence of thyroiditis and autoantibody induction in orchidectomized male Tx-X rats. In contrast, repeated administration of progesterone at a dose of 250 mg and 1,500 ..mu..g/100 g body weight appeared to augment levels of autoimmunity. It is concluded that the differential susceptibility to the induction of autoimmunity by thymectomy and irradiation is the direct consequence of sex hormonal influences. The higher incidence of the disease in the female would appear to be determined by the balance between the activity of oestrogen and progesterone which would further appear to have antagonistic influences in this particular situation.

  19. Effects of thermal regime on ovarian maturation and plasma sex steroids in farmed white sturgeon, Acipenser transmontanus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, M.A.H.; Van Eenennaam, J. P.; Feist, G.W.; Linares-Casenave, J.; Fitzpatrick, M.S.; Schreck, C.B.; Doroshov, S.I.

    2001-01-01

    Recently, commercial aquaculture farms in Northern California have exposed gravid, cultured white sturgeon females to cold water (12 ?? 1??C) throughout the late phase of vitellogenesis and ovarian follicle maturation resulting in improved ovulation rates and egg quality. However, the optimum timing for transfer of broodfish to the cold water and the capacity of transferred broodfish to maintain reproductive competence over an extended time in cold water had not been evaluated. Gravid white sturgeon females that have been raised at water temperatures of 16-20??C were transported to either cold water (12 ?? 1??C; Group 1) in November 1997 or maintained in ambient water temperatures (10-19??C; Group 2) until early spring. In March 1998, half of the fish in Group 2 had regressed ovaries, but the remaining females had intact ovarian follicles and were transported to the cold water. Ovarian follicles and blood were collected from females until they reached the stage of spawning readiness (determined by germinal vesicle position and an oocyte maturation assay) or underwent ovarian regression. Exposure of gravid sturgeon females to ambient water temperatures (14.5 ?? 2.3??C, mean ?? S.D.) from October to March led to a decrease in plasma sex steroids and a high incidence of ovarian regression in fish with a more advanced stage of oocyte development. Transfer of females with intact ovarian follicles to cold water (12 ?? 1??C) in the fall or early spring resulted in normal ovarian development in the majority of females. Holding females in cold water does not seem to override their endogenous reproductive rhythms but extends their capacity to maintain oocyte maturational competence over a longer period of time. A temperature-sensitive phase in ovarian development may occur during the transition from vitellogenic growth to oocyte maturation, and the degree and timing of sensitivity to environmental temperature are dependent on the female's endogenous reproductive rhythm. ?? 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All Rights reserved.

  20. Relationship between lipoprotein lipase activity and plasma sex steroid level in obese women.

    OpenAIRE

    Iverius, P H; Brunzell, J. D.

    1988-01-01

    In obese women (n = 16) at their weight, fasting adipose tissue lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity, obtained by elution with serum and heparin at 4 degrees and 37 degrees C, was inversely correlated to plasma estradiol levels (r = -0.724; P = 0.002) and (r = -0.641; P = 0.010), respectively. Furthermore, fasting postheparin plasma LPL activity during a heparin infusion, showed an even stronger inverse correlation to plasma estradiol when measured at 60 min (r = -0.815; P less than 0.001). None...

  1. Control of the level of unusual estrogen-binding protein in rat liver by sex steroids and the pituitary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper studies the role of sex steriods and the pituitary in regulation of the unusual estrogen-binding protein (UEBP) level in male rat liver. The concentration of E2-binding sites of UEBP in the liver cytosol was determined by measuring binding of a minimal addition of 2,4,6,7-tritium-E2, with specific radioactivity of 98-100 Ci/mmole. Data on the effect of hypophysectomy on the UEBP level in the liver of different groups of rats are presented. The presence of comparable quantities of E2 and androgens in rats of both sexes is evidence of the existence of a fine mechanism of combined regulation of the UEBP concentration under natural conditions that reflect changes in the absolute E2 or androgen levels or in the ratio between them

  2. Histologia mamária após uso de esteróides sexuais - estudo em ratas Breast histologic changes in female rats treated with sex steroids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Tadeu Vicelli

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar as alterações histológicas em mamas de ratas submetidas à terapêutica com estrogênio, progestogênio e tibolona. MÉTODOS: Estudo experimental com 40 ratas, sendo 20 sem prole (grupo A e 20 com prole (grupo B. Todas as ratas foram castradas e, após quatro semanas, alocadas aleatoriamente em subgrupos: A1, A2, A3, A4, A5 e B1, B2, B3, B4, B5. Os esteróides foram administrados da seguinte forma: A1 e B1 - benzoato de estradiol; A2 e B2 - acetato de medroxiprogesterona; A3 e B3 - benzoato de estradiol e acetato de medroxiprogesterona; A4 e B4 - tibolona; A5 e B5 - placebo. Após dez semanas de tratamento, os animais foram sacrificados e suas glândulas mamárias submetidas à análise histológica. Os parâmetros avaliados foram: proliferação epitelial, atividade secretora e atipias epiteliais nas unidades de ductos ou alvéolos terminais. A associação entre os achados histológicos e os esquemas terapêuticos foi avaliada por meio do odds ratio e intervalo de confiança de 95%. RESULTADOS: Alterações histológicas foram observadas em 29 ratas: hiperplasia moderada (52,5%, hiperplasia alvéolo-nodular (42,5%, atipia sem proliferação (35%, hiperplasia leve (32,5%, atividade secretora (20% e hiperplasia severa (5%. Em ratas sem prole observou-se 1,3 mais chance, em relação ao grupo controle, de apresentar hiperplasia alvéolo-nodular no grupo que recebeu estrogênio, hiperplasia moderada no grupo tratado com progestogênio, e hiperplasia alvéolo-nodular e atipia sem proliferação epitelial com a associação entre estrogênio e progestogênio. CONCLUSÃO: Hiperplasia moderada e atipia epitelial associaram-se à terapia combinada de estrogênio e progestogênio, e o antecedente de prole reduziu a ocorrência destas alterações e de hiperplasia alvéolo-nodular.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association of histologic changes in the breasts of female rats undergoing therapy with sex steroids. METHODS: An experimental study was conducted of 40 castrated female non-pubertal rats, 20 had given birth (Group B and 20 had no offspring (Group A. After four weeks, these rats were randomly allocated to subgroups: A1, A2, A3, A4, A5 and B1, B2, B3, B4, B5. Steroids were given to subgroups as follows: A1 and B1 - estradiol benzoate; A2 and B2 - medroxyprogesterone acetate; A3 and B3 - estradiol benzoate and medroxyprogesterone acetate; A4 and B4 - tibolone; A5 and B5 - placebo. After 10 weeks of treatment, animals were sacrificed and their mammary glands were analyzed. Histologic parameters evaluated were: epithelial cell proliferation, epithelial cells with secretory activity; and cell atypia in terminal duct units and buds or terminal alveoli. The association between microscopic analysis and diverse therapeutic regimens were analyzed by calculating the odds ratio and its respective 95% confidence interval. RESULTS: Histologic changes were observed in 29 rats: moderate hyperplasia (52.5%, hyperplastic alveolar nodule (42.5%, epithelial atypia (35%, mild hyperplasia (32.5%, secretory activity (20% and severe hyperplasia (5%. In rats with no offspring when compared to the control, 1.3 times more hyperplastic alveolar nodules were found in the group treated with estradiol, the same was true for moderate hyperplasia in the rats that received medroxyprogesterone acetate, hyperplastic alveolar nodules and epithelial atypia in the group treated with estradiol plus medroxyprogesterone acetate. In the rats with offspring 1.3 times more secretory activity was found with estradiol. CONCLUSION: Epithelial hyperplasia and epithelial atypia with no proliferation are strongly associated to combined therapy with estradiol plus medroxyprogesterone acetate, mainly in the rats without offspring.

  3. Involvement of pituitary gonadotropins, gonadal steroids and breeding season in sex change of protogynous dusky grouper, Epinephelus marginatus (Teleostei: Serranidae), induced by a non-steroidal aromatase inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Carlos Eduardo de O; Araújo, Bruno C; Mello, Paulo H; Narcizo, Amanda de M; Rodrigues-Filho, Jandyr A; Medrado, Andreone T; Zampieri, Ricardo A; Floeter-Winter, Lucile M; Moreira, Renata Guimarães

    2013-10-01

    Two experiments were performed using the aromatase inhibitor (AI) letrozole (100mg/kg) to promote sex change, from female-to-male, in protogynous dusky grouper. One experiment was performed during the breeding season (spring) and the other at the end of the breeding season (summer). During the spring, AI promoted sex change after 9 weeks and the sperm produced was able to fertilize grouper oocytes. During the summer, the sex change was incomplete; intersex individuals were present and sperm was not released by any of the animals. Sex changed gonads had a lamellar architecture; cysts of spermatocytes and spermatozoa in the lumen of the germinal compartment. In the spring, after 4 weeks, 11ketotestosterone (11KT) levels were higher in the AI than in control fish, and after 9 weeks, coincident with semen release, testosterone levels increased in the AI group, while 11KT returned to the initial levels. Estradiol (E2) levels remained unchanged during the experimental period. Instead of decreasing throughout the period, as in control group, 17 ?-OH progesterone levels did not change in the AI-treated fish, resulting in higher values after 9 weeks when compared with control fish. fsh? and lh? gene expression in the AI animals were lower compared with control fish after 9 weeks. The use of AI was effective to obtain functional males during the breeding season. The increase in androgens, modulated by gonadotropins, triggered the sex change, enabling the development of male germ cells, whereas a decrease in E2 levels was not required to change sex in dusky grouper. PMID:23792264

  4. Effect of GnRHa, pimozide and Ovaprim on ovulation and plasma sex steroid hormones in African catfish Clarias gariepinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharaf, S M

    2012-05-01

    Nine groups each of four fish were injected with a single intramuscular dose of the following preparations: Physiological saline (0.9% NaCl) as a control group, 0.5 ml kg(-1) Ovaprim, 20 and 40 ?g kg(-1) BW of GnRHa, 8 and 16 mL kg(-1) pimozide tablets and the following combination of GnRHa with pimozide (GP): 20 ?g + 4 mg, 30 ?g + 8 mg and 40 ?g + 16 mg kg(-1) BW. The primary oocyte diameter (POD) before hormone administration ranged from 943.3 to 1071.0 ?m. The latency periods (LP) were in the range of 9.0 to 12.0 h after injection. The highest ovulation ratio (OR) was observed in groups Ovaprim, GP(30 + 8) and GP(40 + 16). Other treatments were effective for ovulation, the ovulation ratio in Groups G(40) and GP(20 + 4) were significantly higher than G(20) treatment. The ovulation index (OI) was in the range 62 to 77% and showed significant differences among groups. There was no significant difference in fertilization ratio (FR) among Ovaprim, GP(30 + 8) and GP(40 + 16) groups, while there were significant difference between the previous group and G(20) and G(40) groups. Control, P8, P16 showed negative results in all the parameters LP, OED, OR, OI and FR. Levels of sex steroids were analyzed on 6 and 12 h after initiation of treatments. A significant increase in plasma E(2) with GP(30 + 8) injection was observed 6 and 12 h after injection, while there were no significant increase between all the other groups 6 h after injection. Treatments with GP(20 + 4) resulted in a significant increase in plasma T concentration in females compared with control after 6 h. In contrast, plasma T and E(2) concentrations were lower during the combined GP(20 + 4), GP(30 + 8) and GP(40 + 16) after 12 h than after 16 h of injection. The combined treatments (GnRHa + PIM) are better compared with Ovaprim which gave the same results, they have some advantages, such as reliable response and low cost. Ovaprim is more than 3 to 5-fold of the cost of (GnRH + PIM). Therefore, this method could be useful tool for commercial catfish breeders to ensure spawning success. PMID:22365698

  5. Hands as Sex Cues: Sensitivity Measures, Male Bias Measures, and Implications for Sex Perception Mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Gaetano, Justin; van der Zwan, Rick; Blair, Duncan; Brooks, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Sex perceptions, or more particularly, sex discriminations and sex categorisations, are high-value social behaviours. They mediate almost all inter-personal interactions. The two experiments reported here had the aim of exploring some of the basic characteristics of the processes giving rise to sex perceptions. Experiment 1 confirmed that human hands can be used as a cue to an individual’s sex even when colour and texture cues are removed and presentations are brief. Experiment 1 also showed ...

  6. Characterization of human fetal cord blood steroid profiles in relation to fetal sex and mode of delivery using temperature-dependent inclusion chromatography and principal component analysis (PCA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifton, Vicki L; Bisits, Andrew; Zarzycki, Pawe? K

    2007-08-15

    In the present work, human male and female fetal cord blood samples were purified, selectively extracted and separated to examine a fraction of steroids ranging from polar estetrol to relatively non-polar progesterone using solid phase extraction based on C-18 tubes and beta-cyclodextrin driven temperature dependent inclusion chromatography. Resulting UV diode array chromatographic patterns revealed the presence of 27 peaks. Chromatographic patterns of UV detected steroids were analyzed using principal components analysis which revealed differences between male/female and labour/not-in-labour clusters. Quantitative analysis of nine identified steroids including: estetrol, 17beta-estradiol, estrone, estriol, cortisol, cortisone, progesterone, 20 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone and 17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone were not significantly different between males and females. Significant differences between male and female fetuses were related to as yet unidentified compounds. Four peaks were significantly different with labour which corresponded with cortisol, cortisone and two unidentified compounds. This protocol may distinguish significant differences between clinical groups that are not readily identifiable using univariate measurements of single steroids or different low molecular mass biomarkers. Moreover, we have provided new evidence that despite the absence of testosterone there are number of steroids and low molecular mass compounds that differ between male and female fetuses. PMID:17625993

  7. Influence of mesonephros on foetal and neonatal rabbit gonads. I. Sex-steroid release by the testis in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grinsted, Jacob Peter; Byskov, A G; Christensen, I J; Jensenius, Jens Christian

    1982-01-01

    develop the capacity to synthesize a meiosis inducing substance (MIS). A relationship between decrease of testosterone and secretion of MIS is discussed. It is concluded that the steroid producing cells of the testis, the Leydig cells, originate or are heavily influenced by mesonephros during early...

  8. Sex estimation from sternal measurements using multidetector computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekizoglu, Oguzhan; Hocaoglu, Elif; Inci, Ercan; Bilgili, Mustafa Gokhan; Solmaz, Dilek; Erdil, Irem; Can, Ismail Ozgur

    2014-12-01

    We aimed to show the utility and reliability of sternal morphometric analysis for sex estimation.Sex estimation is a very important step in forensic identification. Skeletal surveys are main methods for sex estimation studies. Morphometric analysis of sternum may provide high accuracy rated data in sex discrimination. In this study, morphometric analysis of sternum was evaluated in 1 mm chest computed tomography scans for sex estimation. Four hundred forty 3 subjects (202 female, 241 male, mean age: 44 ± 8.1 [distribution: 30-60 year old]) were included the study. Manubrium length (ML), mesosternum length (2L), Sternebra 1 (S1W), and Sternebra 3 (S3W) width were measured and also sternal index (SI) was calculated. Differences between genders were evaluated by student t-test. Predictive factors of sex were determined by discrimination analysis and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Male sternal measurement values are significantly higher than females (P sexes. Stepwise 1 (ML, MSL, S1W, S3W) has the highest accuracy rate in stepwise discrimination analysis with 86.1% in females and 83.8% in males. Our study showed that morphometric computed tomography analysis of sternum might provide important information for sex estimation. PMID:25501090

  9. Effects of partial or total fish meal replacement by agricultural by-product diets on gonad maturation, sex steroids and vitellogenin dynamics of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyina-wamwiza, L; Defreyne, P S; Ngendahayo, L; Milla, S; Mandiki, S N M; Kestemont, P

    2012-10-01

    The establishment of the first sexual maturation was characterized in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) in order to study the efficiency of replacement of fish meal (FM) by diets composed of local vegetable ingredients. Four diets were formulated containing decreasing levels of FM (50-0% for diet 1 to diet 4) and increasing proportions of vegetable ingredients (50-100%). Gonadosomatic index (GSI), diameter and percentages of developmental stages of oocytes, plasma sex steroids and vitellogenin dynamics were investigated from February to June using one-year-old fish. Fish were individually tagged, and 12 individuals from each diet were investigated monthly. Replacement of FM with plant ingredients did not affect the GSI neither in males, nor in females. All males were spermiating, and no abnormal gonads were found. In females, GSI and percentages of advanced stages of oocytes decreased during the dry season, indicating seasonal changes in gonad development. Moreover, oocytes were in late exogenous vitellogenesis, but no final maturation stages were observed, whatever the diet. Higher plasma levels of E2 in females and of androgens (T and 11-KT) in both sexes were observed in fish fed diet 4 than in those receiving diet 1 depending on the season. Levels of plasma E2 and ALP (indicator for vitellogenin) in males did not differ among treatments and seasons suggesting no phytoestrogenic activity. The results showed that total replacement of FM by vegetable diets composed of groundnut oilcakes, bean and sunflower meals has no deleterious effect on the onset of sexual maturation in African catfish but, may stimulate the sex steroid production and in turns may potentially exert some positive actions on reproductive success. PMID:22382402

  10. Oral Steroids (Steroid Pills and Syrups)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lung Diseases > Quick-Relief Medications > Oral Steroids Oral Steroids (Steroid Pills and Syrups) How are steroid pills and ... Want to learn more about steroids? How are steroid pills and syrups used? Steroid pills and syrups ...

  11. Application of Double Isotope Derivative Dilution Procedures to Steroid Hormone Measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The measurement of the concentration of specific steroid hormones in human peripheral plasma has required the development of sensitive analytical procedures. Of the various analytical techniques available, procedures based on the principle of double isotope derivative dilution have great specificity and precision at low levels, and can be readily applied to the measurement of androgens, oestrogens, progesterone and adrenocortical hormones. In these procedures a known amount of 14C- or 3H-labelled steroid is added to the sample as an internal recovery indicator to account for losses over the various analytical steps. Mass is determined by formation of a labelled derivative of the hormone following reaction with a radioactive reagent of known specific activity. These reagents are usually either 3H- or 35S-labelled. Separation of the various steroid hormones from each other and from the excess radioactivity arising from derivative formation is carried out by chromatography and by further chemical modification of the labelled derivative. The problems of developing a method suitable for the measurement of aldosterone in human peripheral plasma are described, and a comparison made between two methods, one which uses 14C-aldosterone as internal indicator and 3H-acetic anhydride for derivative formation, and another which uses 3H-aldosterone and 35S-tosan (toluene sulphonic acid anhydride). The subsequent modification of the basic 3H-acetic anhydride procedure to enable simultaneous measurement of cortisol, cortisone, corticosterone, desoxycortisol, desoxycorticosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone and testosterone in a single sample are described. The application of these procedures to the measurement of progesterone and oestrone and oestradiol- 178 are also discussed; in particular, the enzymatic reduction of progesterone to enable acetylation, or the use of 35S-pipsyl chloride (p-iodo benzene sulphonyl chloride) for derivative formation. The advantages and disadvantages of this type of methodology are also discussed with particular reference to specificity, accuracy, precision and suitability for routine analytical use. The sensitivity and precision of double isotope methodology is dependent not only on the specific activity of the labelled reagents but also on the performance of the liquid scintillation counting system. Statistical counting errors and an assessment of the precision and reliability of liquid scintillation counting systems used to count samples containing 3H and 14C are described. (author)

  12. Standardization of androstenedione and estrone radioimmunoassay and profile of sex steroids, gonadotropins and prolactin - in patients with chronic anovulation due to inappropriate feedback (polycystic ovarian syndrome)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text. In order to evaluate the profile of the sex steroids gonadotropin and prolactin in polycystic ovarian syndrome (POS), 24 patients with POS were studied and compared with 20 normal women during the early follicular phase of the menstrual cycle. Radioimmunoassay techniques for androstenedione (A) and estrone (E1) were standardized for the purpose of the study. Androstenedione and estrone were extracted from plasma with ethyl ether. The assays were maintained in equilibrium and the labelled hormone-antibody complex was then separated from the free hormone using dextran charcoal. The sensitivity of the method was 6.8 pg/tube for A and 3.7 pg/tube for E1. Nonspecific binding ws 3.4 for A and 3.3 for E1. The interessay error at the D50 level was 15.6 for A and 8.6 for E1. Patients with POS had significantly higher basal levels of LH, A, T E1 and PRL and similar FSH and DHEA-S levels when compared with normal women. The LH/FSH ratio was significantly elevated and the A/T ratio was significantly decreased. The A/E1 and T/E2 ratios were elevated and the E1/E2 was decreased, although the differences were not statistically significant. A positive correlation between A and E1 was observed in patients with POS. In view of the above data, it was concluded that: the quality control parameters of the radioimmunoassay for A and E1 standardized in the present study are considered satisfactory, and the assay could be used for diagnosis and research; the patients with POS have a different sex steroid and gonadotropin profile when compared normal women during the early follicular phase of the menstrual cycle

  13. NCI: SBIR & STTR - Past Funding Opportunities - Contracts - 230 Synthesis of Stable Isotope-Labeled Steroids as Internal Standards for the Measurement of Endogenous Steroid Hormones in Biologic Samples by Liquid Chromatography - Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although endogenous steroid hormones, specifically estrogens, androgens, and progestogens, are believed to play critical roles in the etiology of breast, endometrial, ovarian, prostate, and possibly other cancers, research has been limited for many years by the absence of sensitive, accurate methods for measuring the absolute concentrations of steroid hormones and their metabolites in serum, urine, and tissue. The assays routinely used by epidemiologists and clinicians have relied on radiobinding kits with poor specificity and sensitivity in biologic matrixes.

  14. A test of sex determination from measurements of chest radiographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torwalt, Carla R M M; Hoppa, Robert D

    2005-07-01

    Sexually dimorphic distinctions within the human thoracic area may include morphological as well as metric differences in the sternum and 4th rib. This research assesses the validity of a set of previously published measurements from chest radiographs and their use in contemporary forensic situations. The chest plates from 130 adult individuals of a known sample undergoing medico-legal post-mortem examination were examined at autopsy. Thoracic radiographs were taken using a Faxitron cabinet X-ray machine at 40 kV using Kodak Diagnostic Film Ready Pack X-Omat TL. Measurements were taken to the nearest millimetre using a sliding calliper. Logistic regression analysis of measurements of the sternum and 4th rib was undertaken to determine sex. Using 4th rib width and sternal area, sex was predicted at an accuracy of 95.8% for males and 90.3% for females. PMID:16078478

  15. Validated LC-MS/MS simultaneous assay of five sex steroid/neurosteroid-related sulfates in human serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dury, Alain Y; Ke, Yuyong; Gonthier, Renaud; Isabelle, Maxim; Simard, Jean-Nicolas; Labrie, Fernand

    2015-05-01

    Conventionally, the concentration of steroidal sulfates was estimated by indirect or immuno?based assays before the use of liquid-chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). In the present study, a validated LC-MS/MS method is described for the simultaneous quantification of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S), estrone sulfate (E1?S), androsterone sulfate (ADT?S), pregnenolone sulfate (Preg?S) and allopregnanolone sulfate (Allopreg?S). E1?S binding to serum proteins was observed, especially for the high concentration quality control serum samples, leading to -10 to -15% bias using a polymer-based SPE. This protein binding can be efficiently eliminated using a Waters Oasis™ WAX following the same extraction procedure. Most likely, the E1?S binding elimination on Oasis™ WAX can be attributed to its different sorbent structure, where the benzeno group of E1-S can interact with the benzene of the backbone of Oasis™ WAX. With this improvement, the method has been fully validated according to the FDA guidelines. The low quantification limits (LLOQs) are 40ng/mL, 40pg/mL, 5ng/mL, 1.5ng/mL and 0.25ng/mL for DHEA?S, E1-S, ADT?S, Preg?S and Allopreg-S, respectively. A good linearity is obtained with R>0.99 for all compounds within the appropriate calibration range. Accuracies of all levels of QCs are within the range of 10% for DHEA-S, E1?S, ADT?S and Preg?S while for Allopreg?S, the accuracy is within the 15% range. The interday coefficient variance is 5.5-9.5% for the low limits of quantification of all five compounds while values of 1.3-9.9% are found for higher levels of QCs of all five compounds. Recovery of the five compounds in stripped serum is equivalent to that in unstripped serum. The average recovery difference is less than 5% between stripped and unstripped serum for each compound. All results of other test parameters such as matrix, hemolysis and lipemic effects as well as stabilities meet the acceptance criteria of EndoCeutics SOPs and FDA guidelines. PMID:25595042

  16. The effects of female sex steroids on the development of autoimmune thyroiditis in thymectomized and irradiated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Female PVG/c strain rats are more susceptible to induction of autoimmune thyroiditis initiated by thymectomy and irradiation (Tx-X) than similarly treated males. Pre-pubertal ovariectomy further augmented susceptibility. Administration of oestrogen or progesterone to groups of 4 weeks old ovariectomized Tx-X animals over a period of 15 weeks significantly altered induction of this condition. Oestrogen administered repeatedly at dose levels of 1 μg and 10 μg/100 g body weight resulted in partial suppression of thyroiditis with a corresponding change in the incidence of antibodies to thyroglobulin. Oestrogen administered by a single implantation had a suppressive effect on the development of autoimmunity in ovariectomized Tx-X females. Oestrogen given by either of these procedures also reduced the incidence of thyroiditis and autoantibody induction in orchidectomized male Tx-X rats. In contrast, repeated administration of progesterone at a dose of 250 mg and 1,500 μg/100 g body weight appeared to augment levels of autoimmunity. It is concluded that the differential susceptibility to the induction of autoimmunity by thymectomy and irradiation is the direct consequence of sex hormonal influences. The higher incidence of the disease in the female would appear to be determined by the balance between the activity of oestrogen and progesterone which would further appear to have antagonistic influences in this particular situation. (UK)

  17. Comparing sex offender risk assessment measures on a UK sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Leam A; Browne, Kevin D; Stringer, Ian

    2004-02-01

    The purpose of this study on 139 sex offenders was to consider the application of six measures of risk: Static-99, SACJ-Min (Structured Anchored Clinical Judgment Scale-Minimum), RRASOR (Rapid Risk Assessment for Sexual Offence Recidivism), Risk Matrix 2000-Sexual/Violent, and SVR-20 (Sexual Violence Risk-20) and to compare risk assessments conducted by a Regional Secure Unit (RSU) and the Probation Service. Levels of risk for the RSU sample ranged from 1% to 42% low risk to 1% to 66% high risk compared with the Probation sample of 8% to 43% low risk to 4% to 70% high risk. Offenders with adult victims obtained significantly higher scores using the RM2000/S and SACJ-Min than did those with child victims who obtained significantly higher scores on the RRASOR. Sex offenders referred to a RSU scored significantly higher on RRASOR and RM2000/S than did sex offenders supervised by the Probation Service. Forensic practitioners may be better served if risk measures assess specific subcategories of sexual offenders. PMID:14969113

  18. Steroidal Saponins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, N. P.; Banerjee, S.; Mondal, N. B.; Mandal, D.

    The medicinal activities of plants are generally due to the secondary metabolites (1) which often occur as glycosides of steroids, terpenoids, phenols etc. Saponins are a group of naturally occurring plant glycosides, characterized by their strong foam-forming properties in aqueous solution. The cardiac glycosides also possess this, property but are classified separately because of their specific biological activity. Unlike the cardiac glycosides, saponins generally do not affect the heart. These are classified as steroid or triterpenoid saponins depending on the nature of the aglycone. Steroidal glycosides are naturally occurring sugar conjugates of C27 steroidal compounds. The aglycone of a steroid saponin is usually a spirostanol or a furostanol. The glycone parts of these compounds are mostly oligosaccharides, arranged either in a linear or branched fashion, attached to hydroxyl groups through an acetal linkage (2, 3). Another class of saponins, the basic steroid saponins, contain nitrogen analogues of steroid sapogenins as aglycones.

  19. Hydropyrolysis over a platinum catalyst as a preparative technique for the compound-specific carbon isotope ratio measurement of C27 steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meredith, Will; Gomes, Rachel L; Cooper, Mick; Snape, Colin E; Sephton, Mark A

    2010-03-15

    Compound-specific stable carbon isotope analysis by gas chromatography/combustion/isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC/C/IRMS) is an important method for the determination of the (13)C/(12)C ratios of biomolecules such as steroids, for a wide range of applications. However, steroids in their natural form exhibit poor chromatographic resolution, while derivatisation adds carbon thereby corrupting the stable isotopic composition. Hydropyrolysis with a sulphided molybdenum catalyst has been shown to defunctionalise the steroids, while leaving their carbon skeleton intact, allowing for the accurate measurement of carbon isotope ratios. The presence of double bonds in unsaturated steroids such as cholesterol resulted in significant rearrangement of the products, but replacing the original catalyst system with one of platinum results in higher conversions and far greater selectivity. The improved chromatographic performance of the products should allow GC/C/IRMS to be applied to more structurally complex steroid hormones and their metabolites. PMID:20112272

  20. Spermatogenesis, epididymis morphology and plasma sex steroid secretion in the male lizard Podarcis sicula exposed to diuron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardone, Anna; Comitato, Raffaella; Angelini, Francesco

    2008-10-01

    The present study investigates the effects of diuron, a substituted urea-based herbicide, in the male lizard Podarcis sicula utilizing quantitative and qualitative morphological features of the reproductive system and endocrinological analysis. Besides the control group, lizards were divided into three groups ([a-c]) (n=6/group) and placed for 3 weeks in terraria on polluted soil substrate sprayed with 3.75 L/ha of herbicide Toterbane 50F (50% diuron). Each terrarium was supplemented either with drinking water contaminated by herbicide (i.e. 1.08 microg/mL of diuron; group [a]), or with food contaminated by herbicide (i.e. 5.4 mg of diuron; group [b]), or with drinking water and food contaminated as described above (group [c]). None of the animals exposed to the contaminant showed any signs of general toxicity or death during the course of the experiments. Severe testicular effects are evidenced in all herbicide-treated groups, although, such effects are of a greater magnitude in lizards exposed to contaminated water (groups [a] and [c]). The main degenerative changes observed include: (1) a significant decrease in the mean gonadosomatic index of 55% in group [a] (P<0.001), 21% in group [b] (P<0.01) and 34% in group [c] (P<0.001) compared with control group; (2) a significant shrinking (P<0.001) of seminiferous tubule diameter (more than 60% of the control) in groups [a] and [c], and about 18% in group [b] (P<0.01); (3) a significant decrease in the crude numbers of spermatogonia of 92% in group [a] (P<0.001), 27% in group [b] (P<0.01) and 62% in group [c] (P<0.001) compared with control group. A complete loss of meiotic and mature germ cells in groups [a] and [c], and a reduction of primary spermatocytes, secondary spermatocytes and spermatids (more than 27% of the control) and a decrease of spermatozoa (more than 90% of the control) in group [b]; and (4) an hypertrophy of interstitial connective tissue which contains numerous lymphocytes, neutrophils and monocytes. The decrease and/or loss of germ cells seems to be related to an induction of inflammation (necrosis) rather than to apoptotic processes. Indeed, this hypothesis is supported by a TUNEL-assay, which failed to reveal any apoptotic cells either in the seminiferous epithelium or in the interstitial space in the testis of all exposed groups. Also the epididymis appears affected by diuron exposure. In particular, in experimental groups [a] and [c] it is regressed with abundant connective tissue and low epithelial cells without secretory granules, whereas in group [b] it appears partially regressed, with some secretory granules still present. At the same time, an impairment of the plasma sex-hormone levels is observed in treated lizards, as evidenced by RIA analysis. Testosterone values significantly decreased by 43% in group [a] (P<0.001), 34% in group [b] (P<0.01) and 52% in group [c] compared with control group. Instead, 17beta-estradiol plasma content is undetectable in all diuron-exposed lizards. Taken together, the results presented here indicate that diuron exposure resulted in direct male reproductive toxicity and reveal that this lizard is suitable as a laboratory reptile species for toxicological investigations. PMID:18760409

  1. Steroid osteopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patients receiving steroids or having disease processes which increase natural steroid production often demonstrate ''the classic x-ray changes'' of avascular necrosis of bone. Bone scintigraphy in these patients most frequently demonstrates an increased radionuclide localization. The literature suggests that the increased activity is related to healing of the avascular process. In a recent study of Legg-Calve-Perthes Disease (LCPD), 37 of the children had multiple studies and increased activity within the epiphysis during revascularization was extremely rare. Not only are the scintigraphic findings in steroid osteopathy dissimilar to that in healing LCPD, but the time interval for healing is much to short for that of a vascular necrosis and no patients demonstrated an avascular phase on bone scintigraphy. Of 15 children with renal transplants on steroid therapy, 9 demonstrated x-ray and clinical findings of osteopathy. In 8 of 9 instances, bone scintigraphy showed increased localization of radionuclide in the affected bone. Improvement or a return to normal occurred in those patients in whom steroids were discontinued. The following is a proposed mechanism for steroid osteopathy. Steroids affect the osteoblastic and osteoclastic activity of bone and weaken its internal structure. Ordinary stress produces microtrabecular fractures. Fractures characteristically stimulate reactive hyperemia and increase bone metabolism. The result is increased bone radiopharmaceutical localization. The importance of recognizing this concept is that steroid osteopathy is preventable by reducing the administered steroid dose. As opposed to avascular necrosis, bone changes are reversible

  2. Steroid osteopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conway, J.J.; Weiss, S.C.

    1984-01-01

    Patients receiving steroids or having disease processes which increase natural steroid production often demonstrate ''the classic x-ray changes'' of avascular necrosis of bone. Bone scintigraphy in these patients most frequently demonstrates an increased radionuclide localization. The literature suggests that the increased activity is related to healing of the avascular process. In a recent study of Legg-Calve-Perthes Disease (LCPD), 37 of the children had multiple studies and increased activity within the epiphysis during revascularization was extremely rare. Not only are the scintigraphic findings in steroid osteopathy dissimilar to that in healing LCPD, but the time interval for healing is much to short for that of a vascular necrosis and no patients demonstrated an avascular phase on bone scintigraphy. Of 15 children with renal transplants on steroid therapy, 9 demonstrated x-ray and clinical findings of osteopathy. In 8 of 9 instances, bone scintigraphy showed increased localization of radionuclide in the affected bone. Improvement or a return to normal occurred in those patients in whom steroids were discontinued. The following is a proposed mechanism for steroid osteopathy. Steroids affect the osteoblastic and osteoclastic activity of bone and weaken its internal structure. Ordinary stress produces microtrabecular fractures. Fractures characteristically stimulate reactive hyperemia and increase bone metabolism. The result is increased bone radiopharmaceutical localization. The importance of recognizing this concept is that steroid osteopathy is preventable by reducing the administered steroid dose. As opposed to avascular necrosis, bone changes are reversible.

  3. Mutations in exons of the CYP17-II gene affect sex steroid concentration in male Japanese flounder ( Paralichthys olivaceus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ruiqin; He, Feng; Wen, Haishen; Li, Jifang; Shi, Bao; Shi, Dan; Liu, Miao; Mu, Weijie; Zhang, Yuanqing; Hu, Jian; Han, Weiguo; Zhang, Jianan; Wang, Qingqing; Yuan, Yuren; Liu, Qun

    2012-03-01

    As a specific gene of fish, cytochrome P450c17-II ( CYP17-II) gene plays a key role in the growth, development an reproduction level of fish. In this study, the single-stranded conformational polymorphism (SSCP) technique was used to characterize polymorphisms within the coding region of CYP17-II gene in a population of 75 male Japanese flounder ( Paralichthys olivaceus). Three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified in CYP17-II gene of Japanese flounder. They were c.G594A (p.G188R), c.G939A and c.G1502A (p.G490D). SNP1 (c.G594A), located in exon 4 of CYP17-II gene, was significantly associated with gonadosomatic index (GSI). Individuals with genotype GG of SNP1 had significantly lower GSI ( P gene. The mutation changed the methylation of exon 6. Individuals with genotype AA of SNP2 had significantly lower serum testosterone (T) level and hepatosomatic index (HSI) compared to those with genotype GG. The results suggested that SNP2 could influence the reproductive endocrine of male Japanese flounder. However, the SNP3 (c.G1502A) located in exon 9 did not affect the four measured reproductive traits. This study showed that CYP17-II gene could be a potentially useful candidate gene for the research of genetic breeding and physiological aspects of Japanese flounder.

  4. Adrenal and sex steroid hormone production by a virilizing adrenal adenoma and its diagnosis with computerized tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho Yuen, B; Moon, Y S; Mincey, E K; Li, D

    1983-01-15

    The presence of an androgen-secreting tumor in a 29-year-old woman was confirmed and its location was determined by computerized axial tomographic (CAT) scanning. The hormone production from this virilizing adrenal adenoma was studied in vivo and in vitro. The major secretory products of the tumor (as compared to normal adrenal tissue) were testosterone (24-fold) and 17 beta-estradiol (five-fold). Although the adenoma produced lesser amounts of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), the demonstration of elevated serum testosterone and DHEAS in serial samples was a better marker for an androgen-secreting adrenal tumor than were the urinary 17-ketosteroids, which remained in the upper limit of normal. The hormone production from the tumor depended neither on adrenocorticotropic hormone nor on human chorionic gonadotropin. The conclusions were that: (1) on the basis of serial measurements of serum testosterone and DHEAS, virilizing adrenal adenomas may be suspected when the concentrations of these hormones reach or exceed 200 ng/dl and 6,600 ng/ml, respectively; (2) the high-resolution CAT scanner can accurately localize these tumors; (3) cosmetic and menstrual dysfunction regressed after resection of the tumor; and (4) virilizing adrenal adenomas may produce both androgens and estrogens. PMID:6217751

  5. A longitudinal study of growth, sex steroids and insulin-like growth factor I in boys with physiological gynaecomastia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mieritz, Mikkel G.; Raket, Lars Lau

    2015-01-01

    Context: Physiological gynaecomastia is common and affects a large proportion of otherwise healthy adolescent boys. It is thought to be caused by an imbalance between estrogen and testosterone, though this is rarely evident in analyses of serum. Objective: This study aimed to describe the frequency of physiological gynaecomastia, and to determine possible etiological factors (e.g. auxology and serum hormone levels) in a longitudinal set-up. Design, Settings and Participants: A prospective cohort study of 106 healthy Danish boys (5.8–16.4 years) participated in the longitudinal part of “the COPENHAGEN Puberty Study”. The boys were examined every six months during an eight year follow-up. Median number of examinations was 10 (2–15). Main outcome measurements: Blood samples and analysed for FSH, LH, testosterone, estradiol, SHBG, inhibin B, AMH, IGF-I and IGFBP-3 by immunoassays. Auxological parameters, pubertal development and the presence of gynaecomastia were evaluated at each visit. Results: 52 of 106 boys (49 developed gynaecomastia of which 10 (19 presented with intermittent gynaecomastia. Boys with physiological gynaecomastia reached peak height velocity at a significantly younger age than boys who did not develop gynaecomastia (13.5 vs 13.9 years, p = 0.027), and they had significantly higher serum levels of IGF-I (p = 0.000), estradiol (p = 0.013), free-testosterone (p <0.001) and FSH (p = 0.030) during pubertal transition. However, no differences in serum LH or in the estradiol to testosterone ratio were found. Conclusions: Gynaecomastia is frequent in pubertal boys. Increased IGF-I levels and pubertal growth appear to be associated, whereas changes in estrogen to testosterone ratio seem negligible.

  6. Sex differences in reported and objectively measured sleep in COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theorell-Haglöw J

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Jenny Theorell-Haglöw,1 Inga Sif Ólafsdóttir,1–3 Bryndís Benediktsdóttir,2,3 Thórarinn Gíslason,2,3 Eva Lindberg,1 Christer Janson1 1Department of Medical Sciences, Respiratory, Allergy and Sleep Research, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; 2Department of Respiratory Medicine and Sleep, Landspitali University Hospital, 3Medical Faculty, University of Iceland, Reykjavík, Iceland Background: The aim was to assess and compare reported sleep disturbances and objectively measured sleep in men and women with COPD compared with controls and also explore sex differences. Methods: A total of 96 patients with COPD and 90 age- and sex-matched controls answered a sleep questionnaire, underwent ambulatory polysomnography, a post-bronchodilatory spirometry, and blood sampling. Results: Of the patients with COPD, 51% reported sleep disturbances as compared with 31% in controls (P=0.008. Sleep disturbances were significantly more prevalent in males with COPD compared with controls, whereas there was no significant difference in females. The use of hypnotics was more common among patients with COPD compared with controls, both in men (15% vs 0%, P=0.009 and women (36% vs 16%, P=0.03. The men with COPD had significantly longer recorded sleep latency than the male control group (23 vs 9.3 minutes, P<0.001, while no corresponding difference was found in women. In men with COPD, those with reported sleep disturbances had lower forced vital capacity, higher C-reactive protein, myeloperoxidase, and higher prevalence of chronic bronchitis. Conclusion: The COPD was associated with impaired sleep in men while the association was less clear in women. This was also confirmed by recorded longer sleep latency in male subjects with COPD compared with controls. Keywords: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, sleep, polysomnography, quality of sleep, sex

  7. Changes in circulating LH, sex steroid hormones, thyroid hormones and corticosterone in relation to breeding and molting in captive humboldt penguins (Spheniscus Humboldti) kept in an outdoor open display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuka, R; Aoki, K; Hori, H; Wada, M

    1998-02-01

    Penguins are highly adapted to marine life. Their hydrodynamic efficiency depends on feathers which wear with age and need to be replaced regularly. During molting, penguins can not enter the sea to forage and are forced to fast. Therefore the duration of molting is necessarily brief. To better understand molting in penguins, we collected plasma samples from 16 (8 pairs) Humboldt penguins kept in an open display pen at Tokyo Sea Life Park from May to September, 1994 and estimated circulating concentrations of LH, testosterone, estradiol, thyroxine (T4), triiodothyronine (T3) and corticosterone. Body mass was also measured at each blood sampling. Throughout the year, reproductive activities (egg laying, incubation, hatching and rearing) and molting were observed and recorded. Humboldt penguins maintained reproductive activity from January to December except during molting. Each pair started molting between the end of July and early August; usually males started earlier. The duration of molting was 13.4 +/- 0.8 days for males and 12.9 +/- 0.3 days for females. Body masses were highest just before the start of molting in both sexes. Plasma concentrations of LH were high, (> 2 ng/ml) in May in both sexes, then gradually decreased, to 0.53 +/- 0.38 ng/ml in males and 0.72 +/- 0.11 ng/ml in females by the end of July. Testosterone and estradiol concentrations in plasma decreased and were lowest during molting. On the other hand, plasma concentrations of T4 were low until early July (ca. 20 ng/ml) and then doubled within 10 days; the high levels were maintained for one month and then decreased greatly in males and slightly in females. When the plasma concentrations of T4 started to decrease, plasma concentrations of LH increased. Changes in plasma T3 were not consistent with molting. These results indicate that the decrease of plasma levels of sex steroid hormones and the sharp increase of T4 induced molting, which lasted only for a short period. PMID:9615622

  8. Extracellular and intracellular steroid binding proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steroid hormone binding proteins can be measured, after the removal of endogenous steroids, as specific complexes with radio-labelled hormones. In this study all the requirements for a quantitative determination of steroid hormone binding proteins are defined. For different methods, agargel electrophoresis, density gradient centrifugation, equilibrium dialysis and polyacrylamide electrophoresis have been evaluated. Agar electrophoresis at low temperature was found to be the simplest and most useful procedure. With this method the dissociation rates of high affinity complexes can be assessed and absolute binding protein concentrations can be determined. The dissociation rates of the oestradiol-oestrogen receptor complex and the R-5020-progestin receptor complex are low (1-2% per h run time.) In contrast, that of complexes between androgen receptor and dihydrotestosterone (17?-hydroxy-5?-androstan-3-one (DHT), progestin receptor and progesterone, corticosteroid binding globulin (CBG) and cortisol or progesterone and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) and DHT were hign (16-27% per h run time). Target tissue extracts (cytosols) contain, besides soluble tissue proteins, large amounts of plasma proteins. The extent of this plasma contamination can be determined by measuring the albumin concentration in cytosols by immunodiffusion. In cytosols of 4 different human target tissues the albumin content varied from 20-30% corresponding to an even higher whole plasma concentration. Steroid binding plasma proteins, such as CBG and SHBG are constituents of this containment. (author)

  9. Validity of a Scale to Measure Teachers' Attitudes towards Sex Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida Reis, Maria Helena; Vilar, Duarte Goncalo Rei

    2006-01-01

    Despite the current legislation requiring sex education as part of the school curriculum in Portugal, great obstacles to its implementation remain. Furthermore, sex education is far from being systematically administered. Thus, the main interest in our project was to validate a scale that measures teachers' attitudes towards sex education. There…

  10. Epidural steroid injection for sciatica: An analysis of 526 consecutive cases with measurements and the whistle test.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loy TT

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The effects of epidural injections of triamcinolone acetonide and bupivacaine in the treatment of sciatica were analyzed in a retrospective series of 526 consecutive cases with measurements. A new test (the whistle test is described. There is a paucity of measureable parameters in reports on the subject in the literature, and many are not specific or symptom-oriented to sciatica. The procedure was performed by the same operator and reviewed one week post-operatively with measurements. 491 patients (93.35% achieved excellent to good pain relief, backed by appropriate increases of straight-leg-raise measurements. But 17 patients (3.46% of this group required surgery later. It is concluded that epidural steroid injection is a simple, cost-effective and minimally invasive treatment for sciatica, especially in the acute. It also serves as a method for crisis intervention and as a prognosticator.

  11. Multiple monolithic fiber solid-phase microextraction based on a polymeric ionic liquid with high-performance liquid chromatography for the determination of steroid sex hormones in water and urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Keren; Mei, Meng; Li, Haonan; Huang, Xiaojia; Wu, Cuiqin

    2016-02-01

    The development of a simple and sensitive analytical approach that combines multiple monolithic fiber solid-phase microextraction with liquid desorption followed by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection is proposed for the determination of trace levels of seven steroid sex hormones (estriol, 17?-estradiol, testosterone, ethinylestradiol, estrone, progesterone and mestranol) in water and urine matrices. To extract the target analytes effectively, multiple monolithic fiber solid-phase microextraction based on a polymeric ionic liquid was used to concentrate hormones. Several key extraction parameters including desorption solvent, extraction and desorption time, pH value and ionic strength in sample matrix were investigated in detail. Under the optimal experimental conditions, the limits of detection were found to be in the range of 0.027-0.12 ?g/L. The linear range was 0.10-200 ?g/L for 17?-estradiol, 0.25-200 ?g/L estriol, ethinylestradiol and estrone, and 0.50-200 ?g/L for the other hormones. Satisfactory linearities were achieved for analytes with the correlation coefficients above 0.99. Acceptable method reproducibility was achieved by evaluating the repeatability and intermediate precision with relative standard deviations of both less than 8%. The enrichment factors ranged from 54- to 74-fold. Finally, the proposed method was successfully applied to the analysis of steroid sex hormones in environmental water samples and human urines with spiking recoveries ranged from 75.6 to 116%. PMID:26608868

  12. 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin activates the aryl hydrocarbon receptor and alters sex steroid hormone secretion without affecting growth of mouse antral follicles in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karman, Bethany N., E-mail: bklement@illinois.edu; Basavarajappa, Mallikarjuna S., E-mail: mbshivapur@gmail.com; Craig, Zelieann R., E-mail: zelieann@illinois.edu; Flaws, Jodi A., E-mail: jflaws@illinois.edu

    2012-05-15

    The persistent environmental contaminant, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is an ovarian toxicant. These studies were designed to characterize the actions of TCDD on steroidogenesis and growth of intact mouse antral follicles in vitro. Specifically, these studies tested the hypothesis that TCDD exposure leads to decreased sex hormone production/secretion by antral follicles as well as decreased growth of antral follicles in vitro. Since TCDD acts through binding to the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), and the AHR has been identified as an important factor in ovarian function, we also conducted experiments to confirm the presence and activation of the AHR in our tissue culture system. To do so, we exposed mouse antral follicles for 96 h to a series of TCDD doses previously shown to have effects on ovarian tissues and cells in culture, which also encompass environmentally relevant and pharmacological exposures (0.1–100 nM), to determine a dose response for TCDD in our culture system for growth, hormone production, and expression of the Ahr and Cyp1b1. The results indicate that TCDD decreases progesterone, androstenedione, testosterone, and estradiol levels in a non-monotonic dose response manner without altering growth of antral follicles. The addition of pregnenolone substrate (10 ?M) restores hormone levels to control levels. Additionally, Cyp1b1 levels were increased by 3–4 fold regardless of the dose of TCDD exposure, evidence of AHR activation. Overall, these data indicate that TCDD may act prior to pregnenolone formation and through AHR transcriptional control of Cyp1b1, leading to decreased hormone levels without affecting growth of antral follicles. -- Highlights: ?TCDD disrupts sex steroid hormone levels, but not growth of antral follicles. ?Pregnenolone co-treatment by-passes TCDD-induced steroid hormone disruption. ?TCDD affects steroid hormone levels through an AHR pathway in antral follicles.

  13. 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin activates the aryl hydrocarbon receptor and alters sex steroid hormone secretion without affecting growth of mouse antral follicles in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The persistent environmental contaminant, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is an ovarian toxicant. These studies were designed to characterize the actions of TCDD on steroidogenesis and growth of intact mouse antral follicles in vitro. Specifically, these studies tested the hypothesis that TCDD exposure leads to decreased sex hormone production/secretion by antral follicles as well as decreased growth of antral follicles in vitro. Since TCDD acts through binding to the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), and the AHR has been identified as an important factor in ovarian function, we also conducted experiments to confirm the presence and activation of the AHR in our tissue culture system. To do so, we exposed mouse antral follicles for 96 h to a series of TCDD doses previously shown to have effects on ovarian tissues and cells in culture, which also encompass environmentally relevant and pharmacological exposures (0.1–100 nM), to determine a dose response for TCDD in our culture system for growth, hormone production, and expression of the Ahr and Cyp1b1. The results indicate that TCDD decreases progesterone, androstenedione, testosterone, and estradiol levels in a non-monotonic dose response manner without altering growth of antral follicles. The addition of pregnenolone substrate (10 μM) restores hormone levels to control levels. Additionally, Cyp1b1 levels were increased by 3–4 fold regardless of the dose of TCDD exposure, evidence of AHR activation. Overall, these data indicate that TCDD may act prior to pregnenolone formation and through AHR transcriptional control of Cyp1b1, leading to decreased hormone levels without affecting growth of antral follicles. -- Highlights: ►TCDD disrupts sex steroid hormone levels, but not growth of antral follicles. ►Pregnenolone co-treatment by-passes TCDD-induced steroid hormone disruption. ►TCDD affects steroid hormone levels through an AHR pathway in antral follicles.

  14. Conceptualization and measurement of homosexuality in sex surveys: a critical review

    OpenAIRE

    Michaels Stuart; Lhomond Brigitte

    2006-01-01

    This article reviews major national population sex surveys that have asked questions about homosexuality focusing on conceptual and methodological issues, including the definitions of sex, the measured aspects of homosexuality, sampling and interviewing technique, and questionnaire design. Reported rates of major measures of same-sex attraction, behavior, partners, and sexual identity from surveys are also presented and compared. The study of homosexuality in surveys has been shaped by the re...

  15. Steroid radioimmunoassays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An estrogen radioimmunoassay was used to study the problem of blanks in steroid assays. Negligible binding (1.5 percent) in the non-antibody tubes prevailed throughout the study. The assay was validated using accepted procedures. Both water and solvent blanks had estrogen concentrations of 7-9 pg/tube. However, neither water nor solvent blanks showed a dose-related response, indicating that they were 'real' blanks. Exogenous estradiol, when added to water and solvent in quantities less than the estimated blank, was not quantitatively recovered. However, exogenous estradiol added to the water solvent in quantities greater than the blank estimate was quantitatively recovered. The sensitivity of the reference standard curve was 6-10 pg/tube, approximately the same as the blank estimate. These results indicated that the estimates of water and solvent blanks were measures of the assay sensitivity. In such circumstances, it is suggested that blank estimates should not be subtracted from sample values. If the blank estimates are high, attention should be directed towards improving the sensitivity of the assay

  16. Steroids (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a number of health problems. Continue How Do Anabolic Steroids Work? Anabolic steroids are drugs that resemble the ... body can be harmful over time. Dangers of Anabolic Steroids Steroids are dangerous for two reasons: they are ...

  17. Extensive esterification of adrenal C19-delta 5-sex steroids to long-chain fatty acids in the ZR-75-1 human breast cancer cell line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poulin, R.; Poirier, D.; Merand, Y.; Theriault, C.; Belanger, A.; Labrie, F.

    1989-06-05

    Estrogen-sensitive human breast cancer cells (ZR-75-1) were incubated with the 3H-labeled adrenal C19-delta 5-steroids dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its fully estrogenic derivative, androst-5-ene-3 beta,17 beta-diol (delta 5-diol) for various time intervals. When fractionated by solvent partition, Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography and silica gel TLC, the labeled cell components were largely present (40-75%) in three highly nonpolar, lipoidal fractions. Mild alkaline hydrolysis of these lipoidal derivatives yielded either free 3H-labeled DHEA or delta 5-diol. The three lipoidal fractions cochromatographed with the synthetic DHEA 3 beta-esters, delta 5-diol 3 beta (or 17 beta)-monoesters and delta 5-diol 3 beta,17 beta-diesters of long-chain fatty acids. DHEA and delta 5-diol were mainly esterified to saturated and mono-unsaturated fatty acids. For delta 5-diol, the preferred site of esterification of the fatty acids is the 3 beta-position while some esterification also takes place at the 17 beta-position. Time course studies show that ZR-75-1 cells accumulate delta 5-diol mostly (greater than 95%) as fatty acid mono- and diesters while DHEA is converted to delta 5-diol essentially as the esterified form. Furthermore, while free C19-delta 5-steroids rapidly diffuse out of the cells after removal of the precursor (3H)delta 5-diol, the fatty acid ester derivatives are progressively hydrolyzed, and DHEA and delta 5-diol thus formed are then sulfurylated prior to their release into the culture medium. The latter process however is rate-limited, since new steady-state levels of free steroids and fatty acid esters are rapidly reached and maintained for extended periods of time after removal of precursor, thus maintaining minimal concentrations of intracellular steroids.

  18. Extensive esterification of adrenal C19-delta 5-sex steroids to long-chain fatty acids in the ZR-75-1 human breast cancer cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estrogen-sensitive human breast cancer cells (ZR-75-1) were incubated with the 3H-labeled adrenal C19-delta 5-steroids dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its fully estrogenic derivative, androst-5-ene-3 beta,17 beta-diol (delta 5-diol) for various time intervals. When fractionated by solvent partition, Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography and silica gel TLC, the labeled cell components were largely present (40-75%) in three highly nonpolar, lipoidal fractions. Mild alkaline hydrolysis of these lipoidal derivatives yielded either free 3H-labeled DHEA or delta 5-diol. The three lipoidal fractions cochromatographed with the synthetic DHEA 3 beta-esters, delta 5-diol 3 beta (or 17 beta)-monoesters and delta 5-diol 3 beta,17 beta-diesters of long-chain fatty acids. DHEA and delta 5-diol were mainly esterified to saturated and mono-unsaturated fatty acids. For delta 5-diol, the preferred site of esterification of the fatty acids is the 3 beta-position while some esterification also takes place at the 17 beta-position. Time course studies show that ZR-75-1 cells accumulate delta 5-diol mostly (greater than 95%) as fatty acid mono- and diesters while DHEA is converted to delta 5-diol essentially as the esterified form. Furthermore, while free C19-delta 5-steroids rapidly diffuse out of the cells after removal of the precursor [3H]delta 5-diol, the fatty acid ester derivatives are progressively hydrolyzed, and DHEA and delta 5-diol thus formed are then sulfurylated prior to their release into the culture medium. The latter process however is rate-limited, since new steady-state levels of free steroids and fatty acid esters are rapidly reached and maintained for extended periods of time after removal of precursor, thus maintaining minimal concentrations of intracellular steroids

  19. Adolescent Sex Education: A Preventive Mental Health Measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obstfeld, Lisa S.; Meyers, Andrew W.

    1984-01-01

    This article addresses the issue of adolescent sex education as a means of preventing sexuality-related disorders, including: sexual dysfunction; sexual deviance; physical health problems often contracted from sexual activity; and various psychological and sociological ill effects resulting from unplanned pregnancies. (Author/CJB)

  20. Radioimmunoassay of anabolic steroids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alternative antisera against 17 ?-methyltestosterone and 19-nortestosterone were raised and used for radioimmunoassay of anabolic steroids. Tritiated compounds were used as radioligands. The RIA method suitable for doping control is proposed for 17 ?-alkylated anabolic steroids in both plasma and urine, using qoat antiserum against methyltestosterone-3-carboxymethyloxime-BSA. Sensitivity of the method was expressed as least amount of nonradioactive methandienone which, when added to normal urine or plasma, caused statistically significant decrease of measured supernatant radioactivity at 99% level. The amounts from 50 to 500 pg were tested, each in eight parallel determinations. The amounts of 100 pg for plasma and 200 pg for urine met these criteria. The respective coefficients of variation did not depend on the amount of steroid added in this range. They averaged 4.60% for plasma and 4.95% for urine, respectively. (T.I.)

  1. Drug Facts: Anabolic Steroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Share Print Home » Publications » DrugFacts » Anabolic Steroids DrugFacts: Anabolic Steroids Email Facebook Twitter Revised July 2012 “Anabolic steroids” ... and/or improve their physical appearance. How Are Anabolic Steroids Abused? Anabolic steroids are usually either taken orally ...

  2. Cultural consensus modeling to measure transactional sex in Swaziland: Scale building and validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fielding-Miller, Rebecca; Dunkle, Kristin L; Cooper, Hannah L F; Windle, Michael; Hadley, Craig

    2016-01-01

    Transactional sex is associated with increased risk of HIV and gender based violence in southern Africa and around the world. However the typical quantitative operationalization, "the exchange of gifts or money for sex," can be at odds with a wide array of relationship types and motivations described in qualitative explorations. To build on the strengths of both qualitative and quantitative research streams, we used cultural consensus models to identify distinct models of transactional sex in Swaziland. The process allowed us to build and validate emic scales of transactional sex, while identifying key informants for qualitative interviews within each model to contextualize women's experiences and risk perceptions. We used logistic and multinomial logistic regression models to measure associations with condom use and social status outcomes. Fieldwork was conducted between November 2013 and December 2014 in the Hhohho and Manzini regions. We identified three distinct models of transactional sex in Swaziland based on 124 Swazi women's emic valuation of what they hoped to receive in exchange for sex with their partners. In a clinic-based survey (n = 406), consensus model scales were more sensitive to condom use than the etic definition. Model consonance had distinct effects on social status for the three different models. Transactional sex is better measured as an emic spectrum of expectations within a relationship, rather than an etic binary relationship type. Cultural consensus models allowed us to blend qualitative and quantitative approaches to create an emicly valid quantitative scale grounded in qualitative context. PMID:26647365

  3. Problems of Birds Sex Determination

    OpenAIRE

    Antonina V. Trukhina; Aleksandr F. Smirnov

    2014-01-01

    Sex determination system in birds is characterized by a homo-(Neognatae) and heteromorphic (Paleognatae) sex chromosomes. Heterogametic sex is female (ZZ/ZW system). DMRT1 gene is a gene regarded as a main male sex determining factor in this group of animals. The question remains about the participation of other factors (HEMOGEN, AMH etc.) in appearance of testis, and the role of steroid hormones in formation of ovaries. Complete sex inversion is not typical for species with genotypic sex det...

  4. Radioimmunoassay of steroid hormone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low acid pepsin treated gamma-globulin was applied to ammonium sulfate salting out method, which was a method to separate bound fraction from free one in radioimmunoassay of steroid hormone, and the effect of the separation and the standard curve were examined. Pepsin treated gamma-globulin was prepared in pH 1.5 to 5.5 and then the pepsin was completely removed. It had an effect to accelerate the precipitation in radioimmunoassay of steroid hormone labelled with 3H. The effect of pepsin treated gamma-globulin to adhere free steroid hormone and to slat out bound one was compared with that of human gamma-globulin. Pepsin treated gamma-globulin, which was water soluble, could easier reach its optimal concentration, and the separation effect was better than human gamma-globulin. The standard curve of it was steeper, particularly in a small dose, and the reproducibility was also better. It could be applied not only to aldosterone and DOC, but also to the steroid hormones, such as progesterone and DHEA, and it seemed suitable for routine measurement method. (Kanao, N.)

  5. SEX DIFFERENCES IN OBJECTIVE MEASURES OF SLEEP IN PTSD AND HEALTHY CONTROL SUBJECTS

    OpenAIRE

    Richards, Anne; Thomas J. Metzler; Ruoff, Leslie M.; Sabra S. Inslicht; Rao, Madhu; Talbot, Lisa S.; Neylan, Thomas C.

    2013-01-01

    A growing literature shows prominent sex effects for risk for PTSD and associated medical comorbid burden. Prior research indicates that PTSD is associated with reduced slow wave sleep (SWS), which may have implications for overall health, and abnormalities in REM sleep, which have been implicated in specific PTSD symptoms, but most research has been conducted in male subjects. We therefore sought to compare objective measures of sleep in male and female PTSD subjects with age and sex-matched...

  6. Sex-dependent effects on tasks assessing reinforcement learning and interference inhibition

    OpenAIRE

    Evans, Kelly L.; Hampson, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that the prefrontal cortex (PFC) is influenced by sex steroids and that some cognitive functions dependent on the PFC may be sexually differentiated in humans. Past work has identified a male advantage on certain complex reinforcement learning tasks, but it is unclear which latent task components are important to elicit the sex difference. The objective of the current study was to investigate whether there are sex differences on measures of response inhibition and...

  7. Are there sex differences in Fetal Abdominal Subcutaneous Tissue (FAST) measurements?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Farah, Nadine

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine if Fetal Abdominal Subcutaneous Tissue (FAST) measurements using antenatal ultrasound differ between male and female fetuses. STUDY DESIGN: Women who had an ultrasound examination for fetal growth between 20 and 40 weeks gestation were studied. Women with diabetes mellitus were excluded. The fetal anterior abdominal subcutaneous tissue was measured on the anterior abdominal wall in millimetres anterior to the margins of the ribs, using magnification at the level of the abdominal circumference. The fetal sex was recorded after delivery. RESULTS: A total of 557 fetuses were measured, 290 male and 267 female. The FAST measurements increased with gestational age. The FAST increased at the same rate for both male and female fetuses and at any given week there was no sex difference. CONCLUSIONS: The increased fat composition in females reported after birth was not found in abdominal wall subcutaneous fat measurements using ultrasound during pregnancy. Antenatal centile charts for FAST do not need to be based on sex.

  8. Effects of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors on three sex steroids in two versions of the aromatase enzyme inhibition assay and in the H295R cell assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, Naja Wessel; Hansen, Cecilie Hurup; Nellemann, Christine; Styrishave, Bjarne; Halling-Sørensen, Bent

    2015-10-01

    Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are known to have a range of disorders that are often linked to the endocrine system e.g. hormonal imbalances, breast enlargement, sexual dysfunction, and menstrual cycle disorders. The mechanisms behind most of these disorders are not known in details. In this study we investigated whether the endocrine effect due to SSRI exposure could be detected in well adopted in vitro steroidogenesis assays, two versions of the aromatase enzyme inhibition assay and the H295R cell assay. The five drugs citalopram, fluoxetine, fluvoxamine, paroxetine and sertraline, were shown to inhibit the aromatase enzyme in both types of aromatase assays. The IC50 values ranged from 3 to 600 ?M. All five SSRIs, were further investigated in the H295R cell line. All compounds altered the steroid secretion from the cells, the lowest observed effect levels were 0.9 ?M and 3.1 ?M for sertraline and fluvoxamine, respectively. In general the H295R cell assay was more sensitive to SSRI exposure than the two aromatase assays, up to 20 times more sensitive. This indicates that the H295R cell line is a better tool for screening endocrine disrupting effects. Our findings show that the endocrine effects of SSRIs may, at least in part, be due to interference with the steroidogenesis. PMID:26162595

  9. Effects of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors on three sex steroids in two versions of the aromatase enzyme inhibition assay and in the H295R cell assay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Naja Wessel; Hansen, Cecilie Hurup

    2015-01-01

    Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are known to have a range of disorders that are often linked to the endocrine system e.g. hormonal imbalances, breast enlargement, sexual dysfunction, and menstrual cycle disorders. The mechanisms behind most of these disorders are not known in details. In this study we investigated whether the endocrine effect due to SSRI exposure could be detected in well adopted in vitro steroidogenesis assays, two versions of the aromatase enzyme inhibition assay and the H295R cell assay. The five drugs citalopram, fluoxetine, fluvoxamine, paroxetine and sertraline, were shown to inhibit the aromatase enzyme in both types of aromatase assays. The IC50 values ranged from 3 to 600?M. All five SSRIs, were further investigated in the H295R cell line. All compounds altered the steroid secretion from the cells, the lowest observed effect levels were 0.9?M and 3.1?M for sertraline and fluvoxamine, respectively. In general the H295R cell assay was more sensitive to SSRI exposure than the two aromatase assays, up to 20 times more sensitive. This indicates that the H295R cell line is a better tool for screening endocrine disrupting effects. Our findings show that the endocrine effects of SSRIs may, at least in part, be due to interference with the steroidogenesis.

  10. Even Highly Correlated Measures Can Add Incrementally to Predicting Recidivism among Sex Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babchishin, Kelly M.; Hanson, R. Karl; Helmus, Leslie

    2012-01-01

    Criterion-referenced measures, such as those used in the assessment of crime and violence, prioritize predictive accuracy (discrimination) at the expense of construct validity. In this article, we compared the discrimination and incremental validity of three commonly used criterion-referenced measures for sex offenders (Rapid Risk Assessment for…

  11. Impulsivity and the Sexes: Measurement and Structural Invariance of the UPPS-P Impulsive Behavior Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyders, Melissa A.

    2013-01-01

    Before it is possible to test whether men and women differ in impulsivity, it is necessary to evaluate whether impulsivity measures are invariant across sex. The UPPS-P Impulsive Behavior Scale (negative urgency, lack of premeditation, lack of perseverance, and sensation seeking, with added subscale of positive urgency) is one measure of five…

  12. Sex and Self-Control Theory: The Measures and Causal Model May Be Different

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, George E.; Tewksbury, Richard

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the distribution differences across sexes in key measures of self-control theory and differences in a causal model. Using cross-sectional data from juveniles ("n" = 1,500), the study shows mean-level differences in many of the self-control, risky behavior, and delinquency measures. Structural equation modeling findings support…

  13. Vertical transport of steroid alcohols and ketones measured in a sediment trap experiment in the equatorial Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagosian, Robert B.; Smith, Steven O.; Nigrelli, Gale E.

    1982-07-01

    The vertical flux and free steroid alcohol (sterol) and ketone composition of particulate material was determined using sediment traps deployed at 389, 988, 3755 and 5068 m at a station in the equatorial North Atlantic, PARFLUX E. Cholest-5-en-3?-ol (cholesterol) was found to be the dominant sterol in all the traps. This compound had a maximum flux at 988 m, accounting for more than 90% of the sterols at this depth. Inputs from mesopelagic Zooplankton populations living in or migrating to depths between the 389 and 988 m traps appear to be responsible for this distribution. The deeper two traps exhibited an increased flux of phytosterols relative to cholesterol, probably due to (a) the incorporation of labile phytoplankton remains in fecal pellets and rapid transport into the deep sea and (b) differential dissolution of heterogeneous large particles. A maximum of 5-22% of the sterols produced in the euphotic zone were present in the 389 m trap. This value drops to less than 1% for the 5068 m trap, 200 m above the sediment surface. In general steroid ketone fluxes gradually decreased with depth. ?4-Stenones were found in greater abundance than their saturated counterparts. Cholest-4-en-3-one was the major steroid ketone detected in all the traps. A five-fold increase with depth in the cholest-4-en-3-one to cholesterol ratio is most likely due to microbial oxidation of sterols to steroid ketones, or higher ?4-stenone inputs relative to sterols from organisms.

  14. An interlaboratory study measuring sex steroids with RIAs and/or ELISAs: Are we comparing apples to oranges?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are exogenous substances released into the environment that can lead to adverse reproductive effects in fish by a number of mechanisms including altering circulating levels of estradiol (E2), testosterone (T) and 11-ketotestosterone (11KT). ...

  15. Adolescent Steroid Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office of Inspector General (DHHS), Washington, DC.

    The study focused on non-medical steroid use by adolescents according to data obtained from the National Institute on Drug Abuse, professional literature, 30 key informants knowledgeable in steroid issues, and 72 current or former steroid users. The findings indicated: (1) over 250,000 adolescents, primarily males, used or have used steroids, and…

  16. Ovarian steroid hormones: what's hot in the stem cell pool?

    OpenAIRE

    Cittelly, Diana M.; Richer, Jennifer K.; Sartorius, Carol A.

    2010-01-01

    The vital role of ovarian hormones in the development of the normal breast foreshadowed their importance in mammary stem cell regulation. Two recent papers reveal that 17?-estradiol and progesterone control the size and repopulating ability of the mammary stem cell compartment. This likely occurs via paracrine signaling from steroid receptor-positive luminal cells to steroid receptor-negative stem cells. These findings illuminate roles for the female sex steroids in mobilizing the stem cell p...

  17. Naturally occurring steroids in Xenopus oocyte during meiotic maturation. Unexpected presence and role of steroid sulfates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haccard, Olivier; Dupré, Aude; Liere, Philippe; Pianos, Antoine; Eychenne, Bernard; Jessus, Catherine; Ozon, René

    2012-10-15

    In the ovary, oocytes are surrounded by follicle cells and arrested in prophase of meiosis I. Although steroidogenic activity of follicle cells is involved in oogenesis regulation, clear qualitative and quantitative data about the steroid content of follicles are missing. We measured steroid levels of Xenopus oocytes and follicles by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. We show that dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate is the main steroid present in oocytes. Lower levels of free steroids are also detected, e.g., androgens, whereas progesterone is almost undetectable. We propose that sulfatation is a protective mechanism against local variations of active steroids that could be deleterious for follicle-enclosed oocytes. Steroid levels were measured after LH stimulation, responsible for the release by follicle cells of a steroid signal triggering oocyte meiosis resumption. Oocyte levels of androgens rise slowly during meiosis re-entry whereas progesterone increases abruptly to micromolar concentration, therefore representing the main physiological mediator of meiosis resumption in Xenopus oocyte. PMID:22687883

  18. Environmental impacts on the gonadotropic system in female Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) during vitellogenesis: Photothermal effects on pituitary gonadotropins, ovarian gonadotropin receptor expression, plasma sex steroids and oocyte growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taranger, Geir Lasse; Muncaster, Simon; Norberg, Birgitta; Thorsen, Anders; Andersson, Eva

    2015-09-15

    The gonadotropic system and ovarian growth and development were studied during vitellogenesis in female Atlantic salmon subjected to either simulated natural photoperiod and ambient water temperature (NL-amb), or an accelerating photoperiod (short day of LD8:16 from May 10) combined with either warmed (ca 2°C above ambient; 8L-warm) or cooled water (ca 2°C below ambient; 8L-cold) from May to September. Monthly samples were collected from 10 females/group for determination of transcript levels of pituitary gonadotropin subunits (fshb and lhb) and ovarian gonadotropin receptors (fshr and lhr), plasma sex steroids (testosterone: T and estradiol-17?: E2), gonadosomatic index (GSI) and oocyte size. Short day in combination with either warmed or cooled water induced an earlier increase in pituitary fshb and lhb levels compared with NL-amb controls, and advanced ovarian growth and the seasonal profiles of T, E2. By contrast only minor effects were seen of the photothermal treatments on ovarian fshr and lhr. The 8L-cold had earlier increase in fshb, lhb and E2, but similar oocyte and gonadal growth as 8L-warm, suggesting that the 8L-cold group tried to compensate for the lower water temperature during the period of rapid gonadal growth by increasing fshb and E2 production. Both the 8L-warm and 8L-cold groups showed incomplete ovulation in a proportion of the females, possibly due to the photoperiod advancement resulting in earlier readiness of spawning occurring at a higher ambient temperature, or due to some reproductive dysfunction caused by photothermal interference with normal neuroendocrine regulation of oocyte development and maturation. PMID:25712829

  19. Differentiation of subspecies and sexes of Beringian Dunlins using morphometric measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, H. River; Yezerinac, Stephen; Powell, Abby N.; Tomkovich, Pavel S.; Valchuk, Olga P.; Lanctot, Richard B.

    2013-01-01

    Five subspecies of Dunlins (Calidris alpina) that breed in Beringia are potentially sympatric during the non-breeding season. Studying their ecology during this period requires techniques to distinguish individuals by subspecies. Our objectives were to determine (1) if five morphometric measures (body mass, culmen, head, tarsus, and wing chord) differed between sexes and among subspecies (C. a. actites, arcticola, kistchinski, pacifica, and sakhalina), and (2) if these differences were sufficient to allow for correct classification of individuals using equations derived from discriminant function analyses. We conducted analyses using morphometric data from 10 Dunlin populations breeding in northern Russia and Alaska, USA. Univariate tests revealed significant differences between sexes in most morphometric traits of all subspecies, and discriminant function equations predicted the sex of individuals with an accuracy of 83–100% for each subspecies. We provide equations to determine sex and subspecies of individuals in mixed subspecies groups, including the (1) Western Alaska group of arcticola and pacifica (known to stage together in western Alaska) and (2) East Asia group of arcticola, actites, kistchinski, and sakhalina (known to winter together in East Asia). Equations that predict the sex of individuals in mixed groups had classification accuracies between 75% and 87%, yielding reliable classification equations. We also provide equations that predict the subspecies of individuals with an accuracy of 22–96% for different mixed subspecies groups. When the sex of individuals can be predetermined, the accuracy of these equations is increased substantially. Investigators are cautioned to consider limitations due to age and feather wear when using these equations during the non-breeding season. These equations will allow determination of sexual and subspecies segregation in non-breeding areas, allowing implementation of taxonomic-specific conservation actions.

  20. N-demethylation of ethylmorphine in pregnant and non-pregnant women and in men: an evaluation of the effects of sex steroids.

    OpenAIRE

    Gerdin, E; Rane, A

    1992-01-01

    1. The effects of oestrogens, testosterone, progesterone and medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) on the rate of N-demethylation of ethylmorphine (EM) to norethylmorphine (NEM) were studied in human adult liver microsomes. 2. N-Demethylase activity was found to be inhibited by progesterone and MPA to a similar extent while oestrogens and testosterone had no or negligible effects. 3. These findings prompted us to measure the N-demethylation of EM in relation to serum progesterone concentration in...

  1. Comprehensive Analysis of Hormone and Genetic Variation in 36 Genes Related to Steroid Hormone Metabolism in Pre- and Postmenopausal Women from the Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beckmann, L.; Husing, A.; Setiawan, V. W.; Amiano, P.; Clavel-Chapelon, F.; Chanock, S. J.; Cox, D. G.; Diver, R.; Dossus, L.; Feigelson, H. S.; Haiman, C.; Hallmans, G.; Hayes, R. B.; Henderson, B. E.; Hoover, R. N.; Hunter, D. J.; Khaw, K.; Kolonel, L. N.; Kraft, P.; Lund, E.; Le Marchand, L.; Peeters, P. H. M.; Riboli, E.; Stram, D.; Thomas, G.; Thun, M. J.; Tumino, R.; Trichopoulos, D.; Vogel, Ulla Birgitte; Willett, W. C.; Yeager, M.; Ziegler, R.; Hankinson, S. E.; Kaaks, R.

    2011-01-01

    existing hormone assays and data on breast cancer incidence, within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) and the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) cohorts; significant findings were reanalyzed in the Multiethnic Cohort (MEC).Setting and Participants: We analyzed data from a......Context: Sex steroids play a central role in breast cancer development.Objective: This study aimed to relate polymorphic variants in 36 candidate genes in the sex steroid pathway to serum concentrations of sex steroid hormones and SHBG.Design: Data on 700 genetic polymorphisms were combined with...... pooled sample of 3852 pre- and postmenopausal Caucasian women from EPIC and NHS and 454 postmenopausal women from MEC.Main Outcome Measures: Outcome measures were SHBG, testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEAS), androstenedione, estrone (E1), and estradiol (E2) as well as breast cancer risk...

  2. Marine polar steroids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Structures, taxonomic distribution and biological activities of polar steroids isolated from various marine organisms over the last 8-10 years are considered. The peculiarities of steroid biogenesis in the marine biota and their possible biological functions are discussed. Syntheses of some highly active marine polar steroids are described. The bibliography includes 254 references.

  3. Diagonal tooth measurements in sex assessment: A study on North Indian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adesh S Manchanda

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sexual dimorphism has been of great interest to anthropologists and odontologists. Dental measurements are important in anthropology for the study of sexual dimorphism with most common being the traditional linear odontometric measurements. Apart from these, alternative dental measurements have been developed such as the crown and cervical diagonal diameters and mesiodistal and buccolingual cervical diameters of teeth. Aims and Objective: The primary objective of the following study is to assess the degree of sexual dimorphism in teeth of a North Indian population using the crown diagonal diameters and secondary is to evaluate the applicability of diagonal measurements in sex determination by means of discriminant functional analysis. Materials and Methods: The study sample comprised 200 individuals (100 males and 100 females of an age group ranging from 18 to 57 years, in a North Indian population. The mesiobuccal-distolingual (MBDL and distobuccal-mesiolingual (DBML crown diameters of seven maxillary and seven mandibular teeth on the study models were measured using digital Vernier calipers. Results: The most dimorphic teeth amongst all for crown diagonal diameters are the maxillary central incisors and the least dimorphic are the maxillary second premolars. The mean diagonal crown dimensions in all but one tooth (DBML of maxillary lateral incisor of males exceeded that of females. The difference was statistically significant in MBDL dimensions of maxillary and mandibular central incisor, canine, first and second molar and DBML dimensions of maxillary central incisor and maxillary and mandibular canine, first molar and second molar (P < 0.05. The accuracy of determination of sex by MBDL crown dimension ranges from 55% to 75% in males and 47-84% in females, while by DBML crown dimension ranges from 55% to 80% in males and 65-80% in females with the overall accuracy of sex determination ranging from 51% to 80% respectively. Conclusion: MBDL and DBML crown dimensions are reliable indicators and can be used along with or/and instead of linear measurements in sex determination. In situations in which it is difficult to take correct measurements of linear dimensions of teeth, these alternative odontometric measurements can be used consistently to determine sex.

  4. Age and sex differences in estimated tibia strength: influence of measurement site

    OpenAIRE

    Vanessa D. Sherk; Bemben, Debra A

    2012-01-01

    Variability in peripheral Quantitative Computed Tomography (pQCT) measurement sites and outcome variables limit direct comparisons of results between studies. Further, it is unclear what estimates of bone strength are most indicative of changes due to aging, disease, or interventions. The purpose of this study was to examine age and sex differences in estimates of tibia strength. An additional purpose of this study was to determine which tibia site or sites are most sensitive for detecting ag...

  5. Steroid profiling and confirmation of the T/E - ratio in doping control

    OpenAIRE

    Hanssen, Kine Østnes

    2010-01-01

    Anabolic-androgenic steroids are naturally occurring or synthetic derivates of male sex hormones. All anabolic-androgenic steroids are prohibited by the World Anti-Doping Agency because of their muscle growth stimulating effect. At the Seibersdorf Doping-Control Laboratory, urine samples from athletes are first screened with a screen testing procedure to obtain an endogenous steroid profile, in order to identify samples suspected of containing endogenous steroids of exogenous origin. Thi...

  6. Differential Responses to Steroid Hormones in Fibroblasts From the Vocal Fold, Trachea, and Esophagus

    OpenAIRE

    Mukudai, Shigeyuki; Matsuda, Ken Ichi; Nishio, Takeshi; Sugiyama, Yoichiro; Bando, Hideki; Hirota, Ryuichi; Sakaguchi, Hirofumi; Hisa, Yasuo; Kawata, Mitsuhiro

    2014-01-01

    There is accumulating evidence that fibroblasts are target cells for steroids such as sex hormones and corticoids. The characteristics of fibroblasts vary among tissues and organs. Our aim in this study is to examine differences in responses to steroid hormones among fibroblasts from different cervicothoracic regions. We compared the actions of steroid hormones on cultured fibroblasts from the vocal folds, which are considered to be the primary target of steroid hormones, and the trachea and ...

  7. Conceptualization and measurement of homosexuality in sex surveys: a critical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart Michaels

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews major national population sex surveys that have asked questions about homosexuality focusing on conceptual and methodological issues, including the definitions of sex, the measured aspects of homosexuality, sampling and interviewing technique, and questionnaire design. Reported rates of major measures of same-sex attraction, behavior, partners, and sexual identity from surveys are also presented and compared. The study of homosexuality in surveys has been shaped by the research traditions and questions ranging from sexology to the epidemiology of HIV/AIDS. Sexual behavior has been a central topic at least since Kinsey. Issues of sexual attraction and/or orientation and sexual identity have emerged more recently. Differences in the treatment of men and women in the design and analysis of surveys as well as in the reported rates in different surveys, in different countries and time periods are also presented and discussed. We point out the importance of the consideration of both methodological and social change issues in assessing such differences.

  8. Conceptualization and measurement of homosexuality in sex surveys: a critical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaels Stuart

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews major national population sex surveys that have asked questions about homosexuality focusing on conceptual and methodological issues, including the definitions of sex, the measured aspects of homosexuality, sampling and interviewing technique, and questionnaire design. Reported rates of major measures of same-sex attraction, behavior, partners, and sexual identity from surveys are also presented and compared. The study of homosexuality in surveys has been shaped by the research traditions and questions ranging from sexology to the epidemiology of HIV/AIDS. Sexual behavior has been a central topic at least since Kinsey. Issues of sexual attraction and/or orientation and sexual identity have emerged more recently. Differences in the treatment of men and women in the design and analysis of surveys as well as in the reported rates in different surveys, in different countries and time periods are also presented and discussed. We point out the importance of the consideration of both methodological and social change issues in assessing such differences.

  9. Clinical significance of combined measurement of serum sex hormones in secondary amenorrhea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study the clinical significance of changes of levels of serum sex hormones in the diagnosis of the types of secondary amenorrhea. Methods: Serum sex hormones levels were measured with chemiluminescence in 100 patients with secondary amenorrhea and 42 controls. The serum hormones determined were: estradiol (E2)-, progesterone (PROG), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)-, luteinizing hormone (LH), prolactin (PRL), testosterone (TSTO). Results: Patients with secondary amenorrhea had significantly higher levels of serum FSH, LH and PRL ( P2 (P<0.05) than those in the controls. Serum levels of PROG and TSTO were about the same in the patients and controls. Conclusion: Determination of serum hormones levels with chemiluminescence is clinically useful for diagnosis of the types of secondary amenorrhea. (authors)

  10. Recent advances in steroid radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The advances since 1974 in the techniques of measuring steroid molecules by radioimmunoassay are reviewed in this paper. They are considered under the following headings: preparation and use of antisera; preparation and use of tracers; preparation of biological samples before assay; dispensing of the reagents in the assay; separation of free and bound radioactivity; counting and data processing; quality control and standardization. (orig.)

  11. Hypercholesterolemia in Male Power Lifters Using Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Jonathan C.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Measurement of serum cholesterol concentrations in male power lifters who used anabolic-androgenic steroids for eight weeks, three years, or eight years indicated that mean serum cholesterol levels increased with drug use, but decreased promptly to near pre-steroid levels after steroid use ended. (Author/CB)

  12. Reproductive Aging, Sex Steroids, and Mood Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Harsh, Veronica; Meltzer-Brody, Samantha; Rubinow, David R; Schmidt, Peter J.

    2009-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies have documented that the majority of women do not become depressed during the menopause transition. However, recent longitudinal studies suggest that in some women, the events related to the menopause transition could play a role in the onset of depression. In this article we review evidence suggesting a relationship between the menopause transition and depression. Additionally, we describe several findings that suggest a role of ovarian hormones in the onset of these de...

  13. Effect of breed, sex, age and body weight on echocardiographic measurements in the equine species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Haidar, A; Farnir, F; Deleuze, S; Sandersen, C F; Leroux, A A; Borde, L; Cerri, S; Amory, H

    2013-08-01

    Little is known about the effect of various animal's signalment variables on echocardiographic reference values in the equine species. This study was performed to evaluate the effect of sex, breed, age and body weight (BW) on echocardiographic measurements in the equine species. Echocardiography was performed on 212 ponies or horses of various breeds, aged from 1 day to 37 years old (mean±SD: 7.8 ± 5.8 years), BW 38-890 kg (mean ± SD: 421 ± 133 kg), and free of cardiac disease. Fifty of those animals aged from 2 months to 35 years old (mean ± SD: 11.6 ± 6.4 years old); BW 77-662 kg (mean ± SD: 436 ± 135 kg) were also examined using the pulsed-wave Doppler mode. Standard two-dimensional and M-mode echocardiography were performed on all animals. Standard pulsed-wave Doppler examination of each cardiac valve was performed on the 50 first examined animals. Data were analysed using a general linear model including the effect of sex, age, breed and BW after logarithmic transformation of the data. Therefore, the same analysis was performed separately on animals aged ? 2 years-old and on older animals. All dimensional echocardiographic measurements were significantly affected by BW and most of them were significantly affected by breed, but not by sex. Only the aortic and the pulmonary artery internal diameter were significantly affected by age. None of the Doppler measurements were significantly affected by the tested variables. In conclusion, in the equine species, dimensional echocardiographic reference values should be established using regression equations as a function of BW, which could increase the diagnostic value of this leading technique in equine cardiology. Breed could also have an effect on those measurements. PMID:23540604

  14. Steroids in childhood epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramachandrannair Rajesh

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of epileptic encephalopathies can be very challenging as most anticonvulsant drugs fail to achieve good seizure control. Steroids are disease modifying as well as anticonvulsant in these conditions. Though steroids are accepted as the first-line treatment for infantile spasms, there are many unanswered questions with regard to the preparation, dose and duration of treatment. In this review a re-exploration of the literature is attempted. Putative mechanism of action of steroids in infantile spasms is also discussed. As steroids are being increasingly used in other epileptic encephalopathies and Rasmussen?s encephalitis, a brief discussion on the role of steroids in these conditions is attempted. The review ends with the discussion on newer neuroactive steroids in the management of epilepsy.

  15. Age- and sex-related changes in bone mass measured by neutron activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Total-body calcium (TBCa) measurements have been employed in two basic types of studies. In the first type, serial measurements made on an individual patient are used to trace the time variation in body calcium. In the second type of study, the absolute total body calcium of an individual is determined and compared to a standard or predicted value in order to determine the deficit or excess of calcium. Generally, the standards are derived from data obtained from normal populations and grouped by the parameters of age and sex (mean value denoted TBCa/sub m/). In the study reported in this paper, the clinical usefulness of predicted calcium (TBCa/sub p/) is evaluated. The predicted value (TBCa/sub p/) for an individual is obtained with an algorithm utilizing values of sex and age, height and lean body mass (as derived from 40K measurement). The latter two components characterize skeletal size and body habitus, respectively. For the study, 133 white women and 71 white men ranging in age from 20 to 80 years were selected from a larger population. Individuals with evidence of metabolic calcium disorders or osteoporosis were excluded. Additionally, the women and men selected were first judged to have total body potassium levels in the normal range. For each age decade, the variance of TBCa values of these individuals, when expressed in terms of TBCa/sub p/, was significantly less than when expressed in terms of TBCa/sub m/. Thus, erroneous conclusions based on Ca deficit in osteoporosis could be drawn for individuals whose height and body size differ markedly from the average, as the variation of their TBCa values often exceeds the variation in the age and sex cohort. Data on a group of osteoporotic women were compared with the normal skeletal baseline values both in terms of the TBCa and the TBCa/sub p/ values

  16. Age- and sex-related changes in bone mass measured by neutron activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohn, S.H.; Aloia, J.F.; Vaswani, A.N.; Zanzi, I.; Vartsky, D.; Ellis, K.J.

    1981-01-01

    Total-body calcium (TBCa) measurements have been employed in two basic types of studies. In the first type, serial measurements made on an individual patient are used to trace the time variation in body calcium. In the second type of study, the absolute total body calcium of an individual is determined and compared to a standard or predicted value in order to determine the deficit or excess of calcium. Generally, the standards are derived from data obtained from normal populations and grouped by the parameters of age and sex (mean value denoted TBCa/sub m/). In the study reported in this paper, the clinical usefulness of predicted calcium (TBCa/sub p/) is evaluated. The predicted value (TBCa/sub p/) for an individual is obtained with an algorithm utilizing values of sex and age, height and lean body mass (as derived from /sup 40/K measurement). The latter two components characterize skeletal size and body habitus, respectively. For the study, 133 white women and 71 white men ranging in age from 20 to 80 years were selected from a larger population. Individuals with evidence of metabolic calcium disorders or osteoporosis were excluded. Additionally, the women and men selected were first judged to have total body potassium levels in the normal range. For each age decade, the variance of TBCa values of these individuals, when expressed in terms of TBCa/sub p/, was significantly less than when expressed in terms of TBCa/sub m/. Thus, erroneous conclusions based on Ca deficit in osteoporosis could be drawn for individuals whose height and body size differ markedly from the average, as the variation of their TBCa values often exceeds the variation in the age and sex cohort. Data on a group of osteoporotic women were compared with the normal skeletal baseline values both in terms of the TBCa and the TBCa/sub p/ values.

  17. Steroids in childhood epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    Ramachandrannair Rajesh

    2006-01-01

    Treatment of epileptic encephalopathies can be very challenging as most anticonvulsant drugs fail to achieve good seizure control. Steroids are disease modifying as well as anticonvulsant in these conditions. Though steroids are accepted as the first-line treatment for infantile spasms, there are many unanswered questions with regard to the preparation, dose and duration of treatment. In this review a re-exploration of the literature is attempted. Putative mechanism of action of steroids in i...

  18. Anabolic-androgenic steroids and related substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yesalis, Charles E; Bahrke, Michael S

    2002-08-01

    Testosterone is the primary male sex hormone, and anabolic-androgenic steroids are synthetic derivatives of testosterone. Anabolic steroids are used to enhance athletic performance and appearance. Adverse effects include those on the liver, serum lipids, psyche/behavior, and the reproductive system. Androstenedione is an anabolic-androgenic steroid used to increase blood testosterone levels for the purposes of increasing strength, lean body mass, and sexual performance. However, there is no research indicating androstenedione or its related compounds, significantly increases strength and/or lean body mass by increasing testosterone levels. The long-term health effects of prolonged androstenedione supplementation are unknown. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is a weak androgen also used to elevate testosterone levels. DHEA is also advertised as an antiobesity and antiaging supplement capable of improving libido, vitality, and immunity levels. However, research demonstrates that DHEA supplementation does not increase serum testosterone concentrations or increase strength in men, and it may have virilizing effects on women. PMID:12831702

  19. Novel approaches for the study of vertebrate steroid hormone receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohno, Satomi; Katsu, Yoshinao; Iguchi, Taisen; Guillette, Louis J

    2008-10-01

    Steroid hormones are essential for the normal function of most organ systems in vertebrates. Reproductive activities in females and males, such as the differentiation, growth and maintenance of the reproductive system, require signaling by sex steroid hormones. Although extensively studied in mammals and a few fish and bird species, the evolution and molecular mechanisms associated with the nuclear steroid hormone receptors are still poorly understood in amphibians and reptiles. Given our interest in environmental signaling of sex determination as well as a major interest in environmental contaminants that can mimic steroid hormone signaling, we have established an approach to study the molecular function (ligand binding and trans-activation) of steroid hormone receptors cloned from reptiles. This approach involves molecular cloning and sequencing of steroid hormone receptors, phylogenic analysis and in vitro trans-activation assays using endogenous or exogenous ligands. Comparing the in vitro trans-activation induced by different ligands with receptors cloned from different species would develop additional functional relationships (classification) among steroid hormone receptors. This approach can provide insight into understanding why each species could have different responses to exogenous ligands. Further, we have developed a novel and less invasive approach to obtaining mRNA for molecular cloning and sequencing of steroid hormone receptors in reptiles and other non-mammalian species, using blood cells as a source of genetic material. For example, white blood cells (WBCs) and red blood cells (RBCs) of the American alligator both express steroid hormone receptors and have adequate amounts of mRNA for molecular cloning. This approach would allow us to analyze components of endocrine function of steroid hormones without sacrificing animals. Especially in endangered species, this approach could provide an understanding of endocrine functions, elucidate the phylogenic relationships of various receptors in vitro, such as the steroid hormone receptors, and determine possible effects of environmental contaminants in a minimally invasive manner. PMID:21669814

  20. Effects of hyperthyroidism on binding proteins for steroid hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caron, P; Bennet, A; Barousse, C; Nisula, B C; Louvet, J P

    1989-08-01

    Sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) and corticosteroid binding globulin (CBG) binding capacities were examined weekly in eight normally cycling women and three women taking birth control pills during a 5-week baseline period and after daily ingestion of 75 micrograms of L-triiodothyronine (T3) for 30 days. The SHBG binding capacity increased whereas the CBG binding capacity decreased after T3 therapy. The binding capacities of proteins for steroid hormones were measured in 18 hyperthyroid subjects (Graves' disease) prior to and after 3 months of antithyroid drug therapy. SHBG binding capacity in hyperthyroid men or women was higher, and CBG binding capacity lower than those in euthyroid subjects. Thus, during hyperthyroidism, binding capacities of sex hormone binding globulin and corticosteroid binding globulin vary in opposite directions. A statistically significant correlation between the ratio of the sex hormone binding globulin to the corticosteroid binding globulin and triiodothyronine levels was found (P less than 0.01). Therefore the ratio of the sex hormone binding globulin to the corticosteroid binding globulin might be potentially useful as a biochemical index of thyroid hormone action in peripheral tissues. PMID:2605796

  1. The alteration of the urinary steroid profile under the stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Gronowska

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In the second part of twentieth century anabolic-androgenic steroids were introduced into doping practice and received continuously increasing significance. In order to prove the usage of doping substances, the determination of steroid profile in the urine came into practice. Several factors may be responsible for alterations in the normal steroid profile for example age, sex and diet. The aim of this study was to find out, whether the psychological stress may cause modifications in the steroid profile and T/Et ratio. The effect of physical activity was also considered. The steroid profile was determined in the group of 34 students being in non-stress conditions and under stress immediately before an important university exam. The intensity of stress was rated by self-reported questionnaire. The GC/MS method was applied to determine the steroid profile in the urine samples. The results of the experiment have shown that psychological stress may cause significant changes in the steroid profile, especially in females. Physical activity, independently of stress significantly modified the steroid profile. In summary, observed changes in steroid profile suggest, that major fluctuations of T/Et and A/E ratios under the influence of stressogenic factors and physical activity are unlikely.

  2. Steroids in neuroinfection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo Abraham

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The consequences of inflammatory response are primarily responsible for morbimortality in bacterial meningitis. Early use of steroids in these cases can reduce mortality and hearing loss and improve functional outcome without causing significant side effects. The formal recommendation towards pneumoccocal meningitis is being extended to other forms of Bacterial Meningitis. The same thought can be applied to tuberculous meningitis. In neurocysticercosis and neuroschistosomiasis steroids are more useful than parasiticides in most cases. Despite the evidence favoring the use of steroids in herpes simplex encephalitis, it is not sufficient to definitely support such indication. Among the opportunistic infections that affect AIDS patients, neurotoxoplasmosis and progressive multifocal leukoencephalopaty are those most often considered for the use of steroids; steroids are safe to use, but no definite benefit could be demonstrated in both conditions.

  3. An exploration of psychopathy in self-report measures among juvenile sex offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrell, Laura M; Burton, David L

    2014-05-01

    Researchers have indicated that adult psychopathy often originates in childhood or adolescence. It has also been established that psychopathic traits are linked to disruptive behavior, criminality, and violence. As knowledge about psychopathy and its manifestations in juvenile sex offender populations remains limited, several instruments have been developed in an effort to measure the construct. In this study, we assessed how the relationship of diverse scales of psychopathy related to characteristics of sexual aggression, and determined which scales were most correlated to sexual and nonsexual delinquency. We utilized four measures of juvenile psychopathy: the Modified Childhood Psychopathy Scale (mCPS; Lynam, 1997), the Antisocial Process Screening Device (APSD; Frick & Hare, 2001; Frick, O'Brien, Wootton, & McBurnett, 1994), the Millon Adolescent Clinical Inventory (MACI; Millon & Davis, 1993; using two derived psychopathy scales), and the Inventory of Callous and Unemotional (ICU) Traits (Frick, 2003), in a sample of 191 incarcerated adolescent sex offenders located in juvenile detention facilities across a Midwestern state. We found that of the four instruments and seven subscales, only the APSD Narcissism and Impulsivity Scale was significantly correlated to a characteristic of sexual crime (i.e., number of victims, level of crime severity). No subscales were found to predict sexual crime at a significant level. However, several scales were correlated to the total delinquency score as measured by the Self-Reported Delinquency Measure. In a series of multiple regressions, the MACI Factor 2 and ICU total score were determined as the best fit to total nonsexual delinquency. Implications are offered. PMID:23525176

  4. Development and Refinement of a Measure of Attitudes toward Sex Offender Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wnuk, Dorota; Chapman, Jason E; Jeglic, Elizabeth L.

    2006-01-01

    In recent years public attitudes toward sex offenders have become increasingly punitive. Consequently, new legislation pertaining to the sentencing and treatment of convicted sex offenders has been focused on containment and monitoring rather than rehabilitation. However, research suggests that treatment programs for sex offenders are effective in…

  5. Measurement, methods, and divergent patterns: Reassessing the effects of same-sex parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Simon; Powell, Brian

    2015-07-01

    Scholars have noted that survey analysis of small subsamples-for example, same-sex parent families-is sensitive to researchers' analytical decisions, and even small differences in coding can profoundly shape empirical patterns. As an illustration, we reassess the findings of a recent article by Regnerus regarding the implications of being raised by gay and lesbian parents. Taking a close look at the New Family Structures Study (NFSS), we demonstrate the potential for misclassifying a non-negligible number of respondents as having been raised by parents who had a same-sex romantic relationship. We assess the implications of these possible misclassifications, along with other methodological considerations, by reanalyzing the NFSS in seven steps. The reanalysis offers evidence that the empirical patterns showcased in the original Regnerus article are fragile-so fragile that they appear largely a function of these possible misclassifications and other methodological choices. Our replication and reanalysis of Regnerus's study offer a cautionary illustration of the importance of double checking and critically assessing the implications of measurement and other methodological decisions in our and others' research. PMID:26004484

  6. Steroid immunoassay in clinical chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis reports experimental work in developing radioimmunoassays suitable for application in the routine clinical laboratory. Emphasis is placed on the cost-effectiveness of the assays. Because such an approach involves simplification of the assays, considerable emphasis is placed on the demonstration of accuracy. Experimental studies of factors which affect the specificities of steroid immunoassays are described. Factors other than measured cross-reactivities were found to influence the specificity of the immunoassay itself. These factors include other steroid binding proteins, including second antisera of a different specificity and an apparent heterogeneity of specificity within most antisera. A critical review of methods for measuring and reporting immunoassay- and antiserum specificities is included. The importance of antibody affinity in avoiding non-specific interference from, for instance proteins and minor variations in technique, is emphasised. Technical limitations, future clinical requirements, future possibilities and alternative methods of analysis are discussed. (Auth.)

  7. Steroid Signaling and Temperature-Dependent Sex Determination – Reviewing the Evidence for Early Action of Estrogen during Ovarian Determination in the Red-Eared Slider Turtle (Trachemys scripta elegans)

    OpenAIRE

    Ramsey, Mary; CREWS, DAVID

    2008-01-01

    The developmental processes underlying gonadal differentiation are conserved across vertebrates, but the triggers initiating these trajectories are extremely variable. The red-eared slider turtle (Trachemys scripta elegans) exhibits temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD), a system where incubation temperature during a temperature-sensitive period of development determines offspring sex. However, gonadal sex is sensitive to both temperature and hormones during this period – particularly...

  8. Epidural steroid injection for sciatica: An analysis of 526 consecutive cases with measurements and the whistle test.

    OpenAIRE

    Loy TT

    2000-01-01

    The effects of epidural injections of triamcinolone acetonide and bupivacaine in the treatment of sciatica were analyzed in a retrospective series of 526 consecutive cases with measurements. A new test (the whistle test) is described. There is a paucity of measureable parameters in reports on the subject in the literature, and many are not specific or symptom-oriented to sciatica. The procedure was performed by the same operator and reviewed one week post-operatively with measurements. 491 pa...

  9. When Public Protection becomes Punishment? – The UK Use of Civil Measures to Contain Sex Offender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry Thomas

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available The last ten years has witnessed an increased use of the civil law in the UK to contain and incapacitate the sex offender. These measures have been introduced to improve community safety and public protection, as the criminal law seeks to punish and condemn. This paper explores the contention that the civil and criminal law are in danger of becoming confused and the line between the two becoming blurred. At worst the civil law is in danger of becoming a form of criminal punishment in its own right and those charged with implementing it, in danger of getting their roles confused. What starts out as a civil regulatory or administrative arrangement for public safety becomes increasingly obstructive, has ‘gate-ways’ to criminal proceedings and is implemented in a punitive fashion.

  10. Steroids in teleost fishes: A functional point of view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokarz, Janina; Möller, Gabriele; Hrab? de Angelis, Martin; Adamski, Jerzy

    2015-11-01

    Steroid hormones are involved in the regulation of a variety of processes like embryonic development, sex differentiation, metabolism, immune responses, circadian rhythms, stress response, and reproduction in vertebrates. Teleost fishes and humans show a remarkable conservation in many developmental and physiological aspects, including the endocrine system in general and the steroid hormone related processes in particular. This review provides an overview of the current knowledge about steroid hormone biosynthesis and the steroid hormone receptors in teleost fishes and compares the findings to the human system. The impact of the duplicated genome in teleost fishes on steroid hormone biosynthesis and perception is addressed. Additionally, important processes in fish physiology regulated by steroid hormones, which are most dissimilar to humans, are described. We also give a short overview on the influence of anthropogenic endocrine disrupting compounds on steroid hormone signaling and the resulting adverse physiological effects for teleost fishes. By this approach, we show that the steroidogenesis, hormone receptors, and function of the steroid hormones are reasonably well understood when summarizing the available data of all teleost species analyzed to date. However, on the level of a single species or a certain fish-specific aspect of physiology, further research is needed. PMID:26102270

  11. Motor function measure scale, steroid therapy and patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy / Medida de função motora, corticoterapia e pacientes com distrofia muscular de Duchenne

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Elaine C. da, Silva; Darlene L., Machado; Maria B. D., Resende; Renata F., Silva; Edmar, Zanoteli; Umbertina C., Reed.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a evolução da função motora de pacientes com distrofia muscular de Duchenne (DMD) em corticoterapia (predinisolona e deflazacort), por meio da escala Medida da Função Motora (MFM), que avalia três dimensões de funções motoras (D1, D2, D3). MÉTODOS: Trinta e três pacientes com DMD ( [...] 22 deambulantes, seis cadeirantes e cinco que perderam a capacidade de andar ao longo do estudo) foram avaliados pela escala MFM em seis momentos durante 18 meses. RESULTADOS: Todas as funções motoras mantiveram-se estáveis durante 14 meses, exceto D1 para os pacientes que perderam a marcha. Nos pacientes deambulantes, a D2 (função motora axial e proximal) apresentou melhora durante seis meses. Melhora em D3 (função motora distal) também foi observada durante o seguimento. A D1 (postura em pé e transferências) e o escore total foram importantes para predizer a perda de marcha. CONCLUSÕES: O uso da MFM nos pacientes com DMD confirma os benefícios do tratamento com corticoides na diminuição da velocidade de progressão da doença. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To assess the evolution of motor function in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) treated with steroids (prednisolone or deflazacort) through the Motor Function Measure (MFM), which evaluates three dimensions of motor performance (D1, D2, D3). METHODS: Thirty-three patients wit [...] h DMD (22 ambulant, 6 non-ambulant and 5 who lost the capacity to walk during the period of the study) were assessed using the MFM scale six times over a period of 18 months. RESULTS: All the motor functions remained stable for 14 months in all patients, except D1 for those who lost their walking ability. In ambulant patients, D2 (axial and proximal motor capacities) motor functions improved during six months; an improvement in D3 (distal motor capacity) was noted during the total follow-up. D1 (standing posture and transfers) and total score were useful to predict the loss of the ability to walk. CONCLUSIONS: The use of the MFM in DMD patients confirms the benefits of the steroid treatment for slowing the progression of the disease.

  12. Association between narcotic use and anabolic-androgenic steroid use among American adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denham, Bryan E

    2009-01-01

    Drawing on the data gathered in the 2006 Monitoring the Future study of American youth, the present research examines associations between use of narcotics and use of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AASs) among high-school seniors (n = 2,489). With independent measures and controls including sex, race, media exposure, socializing with friends, participation in recreational and school-sponsored sports, perceptions of drug use among professional athletes, and perceptions of steroid use among close friends, binary logistic regression analyses revealed significant associations between AAS use and the use of alcohol, crack cocaine, Vicodin, gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB), Ketamine, and Rohypnol. While use of both AASs and the narcotic drugs generally did not eclipse 5% of the sample, the numbers extend to many thousands in larger populations. Implications for health practitioners and recommendations for future research are offered. The study's limitations are noted. PMID:20001694

  13. Measuring Effectiveness in School Sex Education--Methodological Dilemmas in Researching an Intervention Involving Young Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidger, Judi

    2006-01-01

    Defining and therefore evaluating the effectiveness of school sex education is problematic because of its location at the site of struggle between competing discourses. Those discourses--summarised here as "moralistic," "harm reductionist" and "empowering"--each emphasise a different conceptualisation of sex education's intended outcomes. The…

  14. Steroid hormone influence on melanomagenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitkov, Mario; Joseph, Richard; Copland, John

    2015-12-01

    Disparities in the prognosis and incidence of melanoma between male and female patients have led clinicians to explore the influence of steroid hormones on the development and progression of this malignancy. A better understanding of the disparities of melanoma behavior between sexes and ages could lead to improved prevention and treatment options. There are multiple themes in the literature that unify the physiologic functions of estrogen and androgen receptors; herein we discuss and map their pathways. Overall, it is important to understand that the differences in melanoma behavior between the sexes are multifactorial and likely involve interactions between the immune system, endocrine system, and environment, namely UV-radiation. Melanoma deserves a spot among hormone-sensitive tumors, and if tamoxifen is re-introduced for future therapy, tissue ratios of estrogen receptors should be obtained beforehand to assess their therapeutic predictive value. Because androgens, estrogens, and their receptors are involved in signaling of commonly mutated melanoma pathways, potential synergistic properties of the recently developed molecular kinase inhibitors that target those pathways may exist. PMID:26415591

  15. Standardization of androstenedione and estrone radioimmunoassay and profile of sex steroids, gonadotropins and prolactin - in patients with chronic anovulation due to inappropriate feedback (polycystic ovarian syndrome); Padronizacao do radioimunoensaio da androstenediona e da estrona e o perfil dos esteroides sexuais, gonadotrofinas e prolactina em pacientes com anovulacao cronica por retrocontrole improprio (sindrome dos ovarios policisticos)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vilanova, Maria do Socorro Veras

    1992-12-01

    Full text. In order to evaluate the profile of the sex steroids gonadotropin and prolactin in polycystic ovarian syndrome (POS), 24 patients with POS were studied and compared with 20 normal women during the early follicular phase of the menstrual cycle. Radioimmunoassay techniques for androstenedione (A) and estrone (E{sub 1}) were standardized for the purpose of the study. Androstenedione and estrone were extracted from plasma with ethyl ether. The assays were maintained in equilibrium and the labelled hormone-antibody complex was then separated from the free hormone using dextran charcoal. The sensitivity of the method was 6.8 pg/tube for A and 3.7 pg/tube for E{sub 1}. Nonspecific binding ws 3.4 for A and 3.3 for E{sub 1}. The interessay error at the D50 level was 15.6 for A and 8.6 for E{sub 1}. Patients with POS had significantly higher basal levels of LH, A, T E{sub 1} and PRL and similar FSH and DHEA-S levels when compared with normal women. The LH/FSH ratio was significantly elevated and the A/T ratio was significantly decreased. The A/E{sub 1} and T/E{sub 2} ratios were elevated and the E{sub 1}/E{sub 2} was decreased, although the differences were not statistically significant. A positive correlation between A and E{sub 1} was observed in patients with POS. In view of the above data, it was concluded that: the quality control parameters of the radioimmunoassay for A and E{sub 1} standardized in the present study are considered satisfactory, and the assay could be used for diagnosis and research; the patients with POS have a different sex steroid and gonadotropin profile when compared normal women during the early follicular phase of the menstrual cycle

  16. Conceptualization and measurement of homosexuality in sex surveys: a critical review Modos de conceitualizar e medir homossexualidade em pesquisas sobre sexualidade: uma revisão crítica

    OpenAIRE

    Stuart Michaels; Brigitte Lhomond

    2006-01-01

    This article reviews major national population sex surveys that have asked questions about homosexuality focusing on conceptual and methodological issues, including the definitions of sex, the measured aspects of homosexuality, sampling and interviewing technique, and questionnaire design. Reported rates of major measures of same-sex attraction, behavior, partners, and sexual identity from surveys are also presented and compared. The study of homosexuality in surveys has been shaped by the re...

  17. Sex differences on a measure of conformity in automated teller machine lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reysen, Stephen; Reysen, Matthew B

    2004-10-01

    Sex differences in conformity were examined as participants approached two ATMs, one of which was occupied by three confederates and the other immediately available. The number of men and women in the line in front of one of the ATMs was manipulated (3 men or 3 women), and an unobtrusive observer recorded the sex of each participant. The results indicated that women were more likely than men to wait in line to use the ATM regardless of the makeup of the line. Thus, the present study provides evidence in favor of the idea that sex differences in conformity are evident on a common task performed in a natural setting. PMID:15587205

  18. Treatment impact of an integrated sex offender program as measured by J-SOAP-II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehfuss, Mark C; Underwood, Lee A; Enright, Morgan; Hill, Savannah; Marshall, Rod; Tipton, Paula; West, Laura; Warren, Kellie

    2013-04-01

    Despite the increase in juvenile sex offending in society and the significant growth in the number of treatment programs, relatively few studies have examined the effectiveness of these programs. This study examined the effectiveness of an integrated sex offender program on a sample of 309 adjudicated male sex offenders in a juvenile correctional facility using the dynamic scale score of the Juvenile Sex Offender Assessment Protocol II (J-SOAP-II). The youth participated in one of the three treatment groups characterized by length of treatment and risk of recidivism: low risk (0 to 9 months), moderate risk (9 to 23 months), and high risk (23 to 56 months). A significant decrease in the dynamic scale scores of the J-SOAP-II was found only for the moderate treatment group (9 to 23 months). PMID:23475853

  19. Assigning sex and reproductive stage to adult Lake Sturgeon using ultrasonography and common morphological measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiotti, Justin A.; Boase, James C.; Hondorp, Darryl W.; Briggs, Andrew S.

    2016-01-01

    Sex determination of fish species is difficult to assess when sexual dimorphism and gametes are not apparent. For threatened and endangered fish species, noninvasive techniques are needed when determining sex to minimize stress and the potential for mortality. We evaluated the use of a portable ultrasound unit to determine sex of Lake Sturgeon Acipenser fulvescens in the field. Ultrasound images were collected from 9 yellow-egg (F2, F3), 32 black-egg (F4, F5), and 107 fully developed male (M2) Lake Sturgeon. Two readers accurately assigned sex to 88–96% of fish, but accuracy varied in relation to maturity stage. Black-egg females and fully developed males were correctly identified for 89–100% of the fish sampled, while these two readers identified yellow-egg females only 33% and 67% of the time. Time spent collecting images ranged between 2 and 3 min once the user was comfortable with operating procedures. Discriminant analysis revealed the total length : girth ratio was a strong predictor of sex and maturity, correctly classifying 81% of black-egg females and 97% of the fully developed males. However, yellow-egg females were incorrectly classified on all occasions. This study shows the utility of using ultrasonography and a total length : girth ratio for sex determination of Lake Sturgeon in later reproductive stages around the spawning season.

  20. 21 CFR 862.1385 - 17-Hydroxycorticosteroids (17-ketogenic steroids) test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...17-hydroxycorticosteroids (17-ketogenic steroids) test system is a device intended to measure corticosteroids that possess a dihydroxyacetone ER01FE93.028 moiety on the steroid nucleus in urine. Corticosteroids with this chemical...

  1. Measures of condom and safer sex social norms and stigma towards HIV/AIDS among Beijing MSM

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Yifei; Lu, HongYan; Raymond, H Fisher; Sun, Yanming; Sun, Jiangping; Jia, Yujiang; He, Xiong; Fan, Song; Xiao, Yan; McFarland, Willi; RUAN, Yuhua

    2014-01-01

    Social norms around condom use and safe sex as well as HIV/AIDS stigma are used to identify persons at higher risk for HIV. These measures have been developed and tested in a variety of settings and populations. While efforts have been undertaken to develop context specific measures of these domains among Chinese MSM, the feasibility of using existing measures is unknown. A survey of MSM, based on respondent-driven sampling (RDS), was conducted in Beijing. Existing measures of condom social n...

  2. Sex differences in the hypothalamic control of prolactin secretion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Sex differences in the brain may arise from the organisational effects of exposure to sex steroids during development, or from the exposure to a differential hormonal milieu in the adult. There is a marked sex difference in the neuroendocrine mechanism that regulates prolactin secretion. Levels of prolactin in the blood are higher in females than in males. Similarly, basal activity of tuberoinfundibular dopamine (TIDA) neurons, which are involved in the tonic suppression of prolactin secretion, are two fold higher in females than in males. Prolactin is known to stimulate the activity of TIDA neurons, thereby regulating its own secretion by short-loop feedback. Hence, it is thought that elevated TIDA neuronal activity in females is induced by increased prolactin in the blood. We have recently demonstrated that prolactin stimulation of TIDA neurons requires the transcription factor, STAT5b. We have now investigated prolactin secretion in male and female STAT5b-deficient mice, to test the hypothesis that sex differences in TIDA neuronal activity are dependent on stimulation by prolactin acting through STAT5b. Prolactin levels in blood were measured by radioimmunoassay, and TIDA activity was assessed by measuring concentrations of the dopamine metabolite DOPAC in the median eminence by HPLC, and by measuring tyrosine hydroxylase mRNA in the arcuate nucleus by real-time RT-PCR. The data demonstrate marked gender differences in the activity of TIDA neurons. While TIDA activity in STAT5b-deficient mice was reduced compared to wild type, the sex difference persisted. Since STAT5b is required for the actions of prolactin on these neurons, we can conclude that the sexual dimorphism in brain function is independent of gender differences in blood levels of prolactin. It seems likely that differential exposure to gonadal steroid hormones, either during development or in adulthood, might underlie the sex difference in TIDA neuronal activity. Copyright (2001) Australasian Society of Clinical and Experimental Pharmacologists and Toxicologists

  3. Sundhedspolitik på steroider

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Ask Vest

    Danmark er det land i verden der har valgt den måske mest drastiske metode til bekæmpelse af brug af anabole androgene steroider (AAS) i fitness- og styrketræningsmiljøerne. Ikke pga. oplysningskampagnerne, samarbejdet med SKAT eller at AAS er ulovlige. Der hvor Danmark skiller sig ud er ved brugen...

  4. Steroids. A Resource Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of School Health Education and Services.

    This guide provides information on steroid use as well as prevention and intervention strategies. It is intended to serve as a supplement to drug abuse education and prevention programs in elementary and secondary schools and as the basis for local curriculum development and instructional activities. The following topics are covered: (1) history…

  5. Effect of Age and Sex on Jumping Mechanography and Other Measures of Muscle Mass and Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siglinsky, Ellen; Krueger, Diane; Ward, Rachel E.; Caserotti, Paolo; Strotmeyer, Elsa S.; Harris, Tamara B.; Binkley, Neil; Buehring, Bjoern

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Sarcopenia increases falls and fracture risk. Sarcopenia clinical trials require robust quantitative tools to evaluate muscle function; jumping mechanography (JM) is likely one such tool. However, US data comparing JM with traditional tests across the lifespan is limited. This study evaluated the effect of age and sex on JM compared with traditional function tests and lean mass. Methods US adults (213 women/119 men; mean age 65.4 years, range 27–96) performed functional tests including JM, Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) and grip strength (GS). Appendicular lean mass (ALM) was measured using DXA. Results Men had higher relative jump power [mean (SD) 28.5 (10.52) vs. 21.9 (7.11) W/kg], GS [35.5 (9.84) vs. 22.7 (6.98) kg] and ALM/ht2 [.25 (1.35) vs. 6.99 (1.38) kg/m2] (all p<0.0001); no difference was observed for SPPB components. JM parameters were more strongly correlated with age than traditional tests (R2=0.38–0.61 vs. R2=0.01–0.28) and weakly with GS and chair rise time (R2=0.30–0.36). Conclusion JM parameters are correlated with GS and chair rise time and demonstrate stronger correlations with age. JM shows promise as a valuable tool to evaluate and monitor interventions for sarcopenia as it could potentially detect change in muscle function more precisely than existing tools. PMID:26636275

  6. Variation in lower leg growth with alternate day steroid treatment.

    OpenAIRE

    Wales, J. K.; Milner, R. D.

    1988-01-01

    Daily growth of the lower leg in a child receiving alternate day oral steroids for Crohn's disease was measured by knemometry. Growth occurred on days free of treatment. This may represent a direct observation of the growth sparing effect of alternate day steroid medication.

  7. Anabolic Steroids...What's the Hype?...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, Gregory L.; Wagner, Lauris L.

    This pamphlet uses a question-and-answer format to examine the use and abuse of anabolic steroids. It begins by explaining that all steroids are not anabolic steroids and that anabolic steroids are those used specifically to build muscles quickly. Medical uses of anabolic steroids are reviewed; how people get steroids, how they take them, and…

  8. Ovarian steroid sulphate functions as priming pheromone in male Barilius bendelisis (Ham.)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J P Bhatt; M S Sajwan

    2001-06-01

    The study reveals that pre-ovulatory females of the fish Barilius bendelisis (Ham.) release sex steroids and their conjugates into the water and that a steroid sulphate of these compounds functions as a potent sex pheromone which stimulates milt production in conspecific males prior to spawning. Since males exposed to the purified sub-fraction III of the steroid sulphate fraction have increased milt volume and more spermatozoa with greater motility, the function of this priming pheromone appears to be to enhance male spawning success. High turbulence and faster water currents render the hillstream ecosystem extremely challenging for chemical communication. Therefore, ovulatory female fish secrete highly water soluble steroid sulphates for rapid pheromonal action in males. Inhibited milt volume in olfactory tract lesioned (OTL) males exposed to the steroid sulphate fraction and 17,20-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one supports the concept that the pheromonally induced priming effect in male fish is mediated through olfactory pathways.

  9. Exposure assessment of prepubertal children to steroid endocrine disrupters 1. Analytical strategy for estrogens measurement in plasma at ultra-trace level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Courant, Frédérique; Antignac, Jean-Philippe; Maume, Daniel; Monteau, Fabrice; Andersson, Anna-Maria; Skakkebaek, Niels; Andre, François; Le Bizec, Bruno

    Global concern has been raised in recent years over adverse effects that may result from exposure to chemicals that may interfere with the endocrine system. A specific question is related to low-dose effects and long-term exposure consequences, especially for critical populations (foetus, new born......, prepubertal children). In this context, we decided to focus our attention on steroid hormones as they are the most potent endocrine disrupters. Our general goal is to investigate whether the steroid intake through food may represent a risk for prepubertal children, from an endocrine disruption point of view......) and negative chemical ionisation (NCI). Preliminary results obtained by applying this method on plasma samples from healthy prepubertal children demonstrated that estradiol endogenous level in prepubertal children is unsurprisingly very low. Estrone was determined in almost all samples at...

  10. Sex differences in human virtual water maze performance: Novel measures reveal the relative contribution of directional responding and spatial knowledge

    OpenAIRE

    Woolley, Daniel; Vermaercke, Ben; Op de Beeck, Hans; Wagemans, Johan; Gantois, Ilse; D'Hooge, Rudi; Swinnen, Stephan; Wenderoth, Nicole

    2010-01-01

    Sex differences in humans on virtual water maze navigation are well established when overall performance is measured, e.g., by the total time taken to find the hidden platform, total path length, or quadrant dwell time during probe trials. Currently, it is unknown whether males are better spatial learners than females, or if overall performance differences reflect other aspects of the task unrelated to spatial memory. Here, males and females were tested on a virtual analogue of the Morris wat...

  11. Age and Sex Differences in Controlled Force Exertion Measured by a Computing Bar Chart Target-Pursuit System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagasawa, Yoshinori; Demura, Shinichi

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the age and sex differences in controlled force exertion measured by the bar chart display in 207 males (age 42.1 [plus or minus] 19.8 years) and 249 females (age 41.7 [plus or minus] 19.1 years) aged 15 to 86 years. The subjects matched their submaximal grip strength to changing demand values, which appeared as a…

  12. Sexing monomorphic western mountain greenbuls on Mount Cameroon using morphometric measurements.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Djomo Nana, E.; Munclinger, P.; Ferenc, M.; Sedlá?ek, O.; Albrecht, Tomáš; Ho?ák, D.

    2014-01-01

    Ro?. 49, ?. 2 (2014), s. 247-252. ISSN 1562-7020 R&D Projects: GA ?R(CZ) GAP505/11/1617 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : morphology * And ropadus tephrolaemus * sex ratio * discriminant function analysis * tropical Africa Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.612, year: 2014

  13. Measures of Play Behavior: The Influence of Sex-Role Stereotyped Children's Books.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashton, Eleanor

    1983-01-01

    Following exposure to picture books that showed characters playing with either sex role stereotypic or nonstereotypic toys, preschoolers chose to play longer with the toys they had seen in the books. The books had a greater effect on girls than on boys. (Author/MJL)

  14. Comprehensive Analysis of Hormone and Genetic Variation in 36 Genes Related to Steroid Hormone Metabolism in Pre- and Postmenopausal Women from the Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beckmann, L.; Husing, A.; Setiawan, V. W.; Amiano, P.; Clavel-Chapelon, F.; Chanock, S. J.; Cox, D. G.; Diver, R.; Dossus, L.; Feigelson, H. S.; Haiman, C.; Hallmans, G.; Hayes, R. B.; Henderson, B. E.; Hoover, R. N.; Hunter, D. J.; Khaw, K.; Kolonel, L. N.; Kraft, P.; Lund, E.; Le Marchand, L.; Peeters, P. H. M.; Riboli, E.; Stram, D.; Thomas, G.; Thun, M. J.; Tumino, R.; Trichopoulos, D.; Vogel, Ulla Birgitte; Willett, W. C.; Yeager, M.; Ziegler, R.; Hankinson, S. E.; Kaaks, R.

    2011-01-01

    Context: Sex steroids play a central role in breast cancer development.Objective: This study aimed to relate polymorphic variants in 36 candidate genes in the sex steroid pathway to serum concentrations of sex steroid hormones and SHBG.Design: Data on 700 genetic polymorphisms were combined with existing hormone assays and data on breast cancer incidence, within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) and the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) cohorts; significant finding...

  15. The Measurement of Sexual Selection Using Bateman's Principles: An Experimental Test in the Sex-Role-Reversed Pipefish Syngnathus typhle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Adam G; Rosenqvist, Gunilla; Berglund, Anders; Avise, John C

    2005-11-01

    Angus J. Bateman's classic study of sexual selection in Drosophila melanogaster has had a major influence on the development of sexual selection theory. In some ways, Bateman's study has served a catalytic role by stimulating debate on sex roles, sexual conflict and other topics in sexual selection. However, there is still considerable disagreement regarding whether or not "Bateman's principles" are helpful in the study of sexual selection. Here, we test the idea that Bateman's principles provide the basis for a useful method to quantify and compare mating systems. In this study, we focus on the sex-role-reversed pipefish Syngnathus typhle as a model system to study the measurement of sexual selection. We set up artificial breeding assemblages of pipefish in the laboratory and used microsatellite markers to resolve parentage. Three different sex-ratio treatments (female-biased, even and male-biased) were used to manipulate the expected intensity of sexual selection. Measures of the mating system based on Bateman's principles were calculated and compared to the expected changes in the intensity of sexual selection. We also compare the results of this study to the results of a similar study of Bateman's principles in the rough-skinned newt, a species with conventional sex roles. The results of this experiment show that measures of the mating system based on Bateman's principles do accurately capture the relative intensities of sexual selection in the different treatments and species. Thus, widespread use of Bateman's principles to quantify mating systems in nature would facilitate comparative studies of sexual selection and mating system evolution. PMID:21676838

  16. GnRH and steroids in cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florio, Salvatore; Pagnini, Ugo; Crispino, Antonio; Pacilio, Carmen; Crispino, Luca; Giordano, Antonio

    2002-06-01

    Gonadotropin-releasing-hormone (GnRH) analogues are synthetic compounds derived from decapeptide neurohormones (LHRH; LH/FSH-RH). They have a key role in hormone dependent cancer, particularly breast and prostate cancer. GnRH analogues produce an efficient inhibition of gonadotropins and sex steroid hormones. Their use in cancer therapy result in a, pharmacological castration (i.e. ovariectomy and orchiectomy), providing an androgen and estrogen ablation. GnRH exert an inhibitory action on the growth of hormone-dependent human and canine mammary tumor. Mammary tumors can produce growth factor that potentially could modulate their own proliferation in an autocrine fashion (i.e. TGF-alpha and TGF-beta or with a paracrine mechanism (i.e. EGF, IGF, FGF). The expression of EGF receptors is related in mammary tissues to the action of oestrogen and progesteron and to the presence of functional receptors for oestrogen (ER) and progesteron (PR). The present review elucidate the role of GnRH receptors in cancer and their connection with steroid hormones. Besides we showed the link between GnRH and signal transductions pathways: Estrogen-receptors, GnRH-receptors, EGF-receptors signal transduction pathways. A very tight link exists between steroid hormones and GnRH analogues both on central pituitary gonadal axis and on tumor receptors peripherically. This last mechanism could be explained either locally activating GnRH receptors or locally interacting with EGF receptor-Intracellular NitricOxide system. PMID:12045004

  17. Radioimmunoassay of synthetic steroids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sensitivity of a radioimmunoassay depends on the intrinsic association constant of the interaction between ligand and antibody. Its specificity depends on the position of the chain which forms the link with the antigen. Thus, an antibody specific of estradiol has been obtained by coupling estradiol to albumin via a chain at position 7. For synthetic steroids the structure of which is sufficiency different from that of natural hormones, the requirements for a sensitive assay method not involving chromatography are simply maximum affinity and positioning of the couple at a site which does not undergo metabolic attack. These criteria were used to develop assays for R 2858 and R 2453 which obviate the need to administer radioactive product in clinical pharmacology. Cross-reaction with structural analogs may be used to assay competitors. Thus, R 2323 antibody, highly specific for endogenous steroids, may be used to assay other trienes such as R 1697 (trenbolone) and R 2010 (norgestrienone)

  18. Widespread Capacity for Steroid Synthesis in the Avian Brain and Song System

    OpenAIRE

    London, Sarah E; Monks, D Ashley; WADE, JULI; Schlinger, Barney A

    2006-01-01

    Steroids exert powerful effects on the brains and behavior of many species, but measures and manipulations of endocrine physiology in songbirds often reveal unexplained connections between steroids and the brain. The zebra finch song system, a sensorimotor neural circuit sensitive to steroids throughout life, organizes and functions largely in apparent independence from gonadally derived steroids. We tested the hypothesis that the zebra finch brain has the capacity for de novo steroidogenesis...

  19. Steroid resistance in leukemia

    OpenAIRE

    Darshan S. Shah; Kumar, Raj

    2013-01-01

    There are several types of leukemia which are characterized by the abnormal growth of cells from the myeloid or lymphoid lineage. Because of their lympholytic actions, glucocorticoids (GCs) are included in many therapeutic regimens for the treatment of various forms of leukemia. Although a significant number of acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients respond well to GC treatment during initial phases; prolonged treatments sometimes results in steroid-resistance. The exact mechanism of this resi...

  20. Androgen - secreting steroid cell tumor of the ovary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paras Ratilal Udhreja

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Steroid cell tumors (SCTs, not otherwise specified of the ovary are rare subgroup of sex cord tumors, which account for less than 0.1% of all ovarian tumors and also that will present at any age. The majority of these tumors produce steroids with testosterone being the most common. A case of a 28-year-old woman who presented with symptoms of virilization is reported. Although SCTs are generally benign, there is a risk for malignant transformation. Surgery is the most important and hallmark treatment.

  1. Measuring DHEA-S in saliva: time of day differences and positive correlations between two different types of collection methods

    OpenAIRE

    Klein Laura C; Whetzel Courtney A

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background The anabolic steroid, dehydroepiandosterone sulfate (DHEA-S), is secreted from the adrenal cortex. It plays a significant role in the body as a precursor to sex steroids as well as a lesser known role in the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis (HPA) response to stress. DHEA-S can be measured reliably in saliva, making saliva collection a valuable tool for health research because it minimizes the need for invasive sampling procedures (e.g., blood draws). Typical saliva coll...

  2. Feasibility and Acceptability of Cell Phone Diaries to Measure HIV Risk Behavior Among Female Sex Workers

    OpenAIRE

    Roth, Alexis M.; Hensel, Devon J; FORTENBERRY, J. DENNIS; Garfein, Richard S; Gunn, Jayleen K. L.; Wiehe, Sarah E.

    2014-01-01

    Individual, social, and structural factors affecting HIV risk behaviors among female sex workers (FSWs) are difficult to assess using retrospective surveys methods. To test the feasibility and acceptability of cell phone diaries to collect information about sexual events, we recruited 26 FSWs in Indianapolis, Indiana (US). Over 4 weeks, FSWs completed twice daily digital diaries about their mood, drug use, sexual interactions, and daily activities. Feasibility was assessed using repeated meas...

  3. Sex dimorphism of cortical water diffusion in normal aging measured by magnetic resonance imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Ng, Shu-Hang; Hsu, Wen-Chiun; Wai, Yau-Yau; Lee, Jiann-Der; Chan, Hsiao-Lung; Chen, Yao-Liang; Fung, Hon-Chung; Wu, Yih-Ru; Tsai, Ming-Lun; Wang, Jiun-Jie

    2013-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to examine sex dimorphism in water diffusion in the brain throughout the normal aging process by magnetic resonance imaging. Methods: Diffusion-weighted images covering the majority of the brain were acquired from 77 healthy participants. Both the mean water diffusivity and diffusion kurtosis were calculated from the cortical regions and parcellated according to the template in anatomical automatic labeling. The mean water diffusivity and diffusion...

  4. Sex differences in experimental measures of pain sensitivity and endogenous pain inhibition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulls HW

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Hailey W Bulls,1 Emily L Freeman,1 Austen JB Anderson,2 Meredith T Robbins,3 Timothy J Ness,3 Burel R Goodin1,3 1Department of Psychology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA; 2Department of Biology, Samford University, Birmingham, AL, USA; 3Department of Anesthesiology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA Abstract: It has been suggested that increased pain sensitivity and disruption of endogenous pain inhibitory processes may account, at least in part, for the greater prevalence and severity of chronic pain in women compared to men. However, previous studies addressing this topic have produced mixed findings. This study examined sex differences in pain sensitivity and inhibition using quantitative sensory testing (QST, while also considering the influence of other important factors such as depressive symptoms and sleep quality. Healthy men (n=24 and women (n=24 each completed a QST battery. This battery included an ischemic pain task (IPT that used a submaximal effort tourniquet procedure as well as a conditioned pain modulation (CPM procedure for the assessment of endogenous pain inhibition. Prior to QST, participants completed the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Analyses revealed significant sex differences for the ischemic pain task and the conditioned pain modulation procedure, such that women tolerated the ischemic pain for a shorter amount of time and demonstrated less pain inhibition compared with men. This remained true even when accounting for sex differences in depressive symptoms and sleep quality. The results of this study suggest that women may be more pain sensitive and possess less-efficient endogenous pain inhibitory capacity compared with men. Whether interventions that decrease pain sensitivity and enhance pain inhibition in women ultimately improve their clinical pain outcomes is an area of research that deserves additional attention in the future. Keywords: sex differences, pain sensitivity, inhibition, depressive symptoms, sleep

  5. Sex ratios of births, mortality, and air pollution: can measuring the sex ratios of births help to identify health hazards from air pollution in industrial environments?

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, F. L.; Ogston, S. A.; Lloyd, O L

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To compare the sex ratios of births and mortality in 12 Scottish localities with residential exposure to pollution from a variety of industrial sources with those in 12 nearby and comparable localities without such exposure. METHODS--24 localities were defined by postcode sectors. SMRs for lung cancer and for all causes of death and sex ratios of births were calculated for each locality for the years 1979-83. Log linear regression was used to assess the relation between exposure, ...

  6. Does the mechanism of sex determination constrain the potential for sex manipulation? A test in geckos with contrasting sex-determining systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratochvíl, Lukáš; Kubi?ka, Lukáš; Landová, Eva

    2008-03-01

    The concentration of yolk steroids was suggested to influence offspring gender in oviparous animals subject to both temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD) and genotypic sex determination (GSD). However, the proposed mechanisms of steroid effects are thought to differ between TSD and GSD: a direct effect of oestrogens on gonad feminisation in TSD species vs a differential induction of male-producing or female-producing gametes in GSD species. Geckos offer an ideal opportunity for testing these suggested mechanisms. Closely related gecko species differ in their modes of sex determination. They lay clutches of two synchronously formed eggs; both eggs share equal steroid levels. If identical hormonal composition and environment during vitellogenesis, gravidity and incubation determine the sex of the progeny, siblings should share the same gender in both TSD and GSD geckos. We found strong support for this prediction in a TSD gecko species. Among clutches that were incubated at the temperature that produced both sexes, there were no clutches with siblings of the opposite sex. On the other hand, about half of the clutches yielded siblings of the opposite sex in four GSD species. These results suggest that sex-determining systems constrain the ability of the female to produce single-sex siblings and, hence, it seems that the GSD mechanism constrains the opportunities for sex ratio manipulation in geckos via yolk steroid manipulation.

  7. Examining the effects of age, sex, and body mass index on normative median motor nerve excitability measurements.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McHugh, John C

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to build a large reference database of excitability measures in normal subjects and to examine the effects of age, sex, and BMI. METHODS: One hundred and five healthy subjects had median motor nerve excitability testing performed at the wrist using the automated threshold-tracking program, QTRAC. Statistical linear regression was used to explore relationships between nerve excitability and the independent variables. RESULTS: The main effect of age is a reduced superexcitability. Lesser effects are flattening of the normalized stimulus response curve and reduction in threshold change following strong hyperpolarizing currents. Females have lower thresholds than males and small but significant differences in voltage-gated potassium channel (KCNQ) mediated properties (late subexcitability, accommodation half time, and threshold undershoot following depolarizing electrotonus), as well as a small increase in superexcitability. BMI has no influence on nerve excitability data and does not explain sex-related differences in threshold. CONCLUSIONS: Age and sex have few and small effects on excitability parameters. SIGNIFICANCE: The expression of nodal KCNQ channels appears to be greater in females. Age-related increases in subexcitability may be attributable to changes in the muscle fibre and not the nerve.

  8. Role of Steroids in COPD

    OpenAIRE

    Vishnu Sharma

    2002-01-01

    There has been a lot of debate regarding the role of steroids in the management of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. Now with a better understanding of the pathophysiology of COPD, the role of steroids in the management of COPD has become clearer.

  9. Are Steroids Worth the Risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... effects of each individual drug, pyramiding allows the body to get used to high doses of steroids, and steroid- ... it comes right down to it, harming your body or getting disqualified aren't smart ways to try to improve your athletic performance. ...

  10. Physicochemical and biological properties of new steroid metal complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this investigation was to prepare stable steroid metal chelates by chemical conversion of the natural steroid hormones testerone, 5?-dihydrotestosterone (5?-DHT) and estradiol and to characterize these by means of their spectroscopic and other physico-chemical properties. In addition, various measuring techniques for the qualitative and quantitative study of complex stabilities and hydrolytic properties were employed. The distribution of some tritiated steroid metal complexes in the tissues of rats was tested using whole animal autoradiography, mainly with a view to identifying whether selective concentration occurs in certain organs. (orig.)

  11. Sex differences in attentional processes in adult rats as measured by performance on the 5-choice serial reaction time task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayless, Daniel W; Darling, Jeff S; Stout, Willy J; Daniel, Jill M

    2012-11-01

    The goal of the current study was to explore sex differences in attentional processes in adult rats using a test of attention shown to be dependent upon the prefrontal cortex. Male and female adult Long-Evans rats were trained on the 5-choice serial reaction time task. This task requires rats to identify the location of a brief light stimulus among five possible locations. Performance was assessed under baseline conditions and under behavioral challenge conditions during which task difficulty was increased. Behavioral challenge conditions included shortening the stimulus duration, shortening the time before the onset of the stimulus, lengthening the time before the onset of the stimulus, and presenting a distracting noise. Analyses across baseline and all challenge conditions revealed that vigilance or sustained attention was more disrupted in female rats than it was in male rats, as measured by percent correct and number of omissions. Analyses also revealed that inhibitory control was more disrupted in male rats than it was in female rats, as measured by number of premature responses. These differences were most prominent when the onset of the stimulus was unpredictably lengthened. There were no differences in reward collection latency or correct response latency indicating no differences in motivation or sensory processes between the sexes. These results indicate that under challenging conditions adult female rats are more prone to make errors of vigilance than are adult male rats, and adult male rats are more prone to make errors of inhibitory control than are adult female rats. PMID:22835820

  12. Measurements of vertebral shape by r[iographic morphometry: sex differences and relationships with vertebral level and lumbar lordosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective. To examine sex-related and vertebral-level-specific differences in vertebral shape and to investigate the relationships between the lumbar lordosis angle and vertebral morphology. Design and patients. Lateral thoracic and lumbar spine r[iographs were obtained with a standardized protocol in 142 healthy men and 198 healthy women over 50 years old. Anterior (Ha), central (Hc) and posterior (Hp) heights of each vertebra from T4 to L4 were measured using a digitizing technique, and the Ha/Hp and Hc/Hp ratios were calculated. The lumbar lordosis angle was measured on the lateral lumbar spine r[iographs. Results. Ha/Hp and Hc/Hp ratios were smaller in men than women by 1.8% and 0.7%, respectively, and these ratios varied with vertebral level. Significant correlations were found between vertebral shape and the lumbar lordosis angle. Conclusions. These results demonstrate that vertebral shape varies significantly with sex, vertebral level and lumbar lordosis angle. Awareness of these relationships may help prevent misdiagnosis in clinical vertebral morphometry. (orig.)

  13. Sex and gender in psychoneuroimmunology research: Past, present and future

    OpenAIRE

    Darnall, Beth D; Suarez, Edward C.

    2009-01-01

    To date, research suggests that sex and gender impact pathways central to the foci of psychoneuroimmunology (PNI). This review provides a historical perspective on the evolution of sex and gender in psychoneuroimmunology research. Gender and sexually dimorphic pathways may have synergistic effects on health differences in men and women. We provide an overview of the literature of sex and gender differences in brain structure and function, sex steroids, gender role identification, hypothalamic...

  14. Organocatalytic Asymmetric Formation of Steroids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halskov, Kim Soholm; Donslund, Bjarke S.

    2014-01-01

    A novel and simple one-step approach for the construction of optically active steroids in a highly stereoselective manner by using organocatalysis is presented. The reaction of (di)enals with cyclic dienophiles in the presence of a TMS-protected prolinol catalyst leads to the construction of important 14 beta-steroids. This new reaction allows an easy access to optically active steroids with a variety of substituents in the A ring in high yields and up to greater than 99% ee. The reaction has been extended to include the construction of B- and D-homosteroids as well as steroids containing heteroatoms in the B ring. The angular substituent at C13 can be varied and alkyl, ester, and sulfone functionalities are introduced with excellent stereoselectivities. Simple synthetic procedures provide access to a range of naturally occurring steroids such as estrone and related analogues.

  15. ANABOLIC ANDROGENIC STEROIDS AND DEPENDENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IHSAN SARI

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Anabolic androgenic steroids are used for sportive, cosmetic, therapeutic and occupational reasons and there are many side effects reported (George, 2005; Nieminen et al., 1996; O'Sullivan et al., 2000. Prevalence of anabolic steroids’ use also indicates the importance of this topic. Moreover, it is now known that use of anabolic steroids could lead to dependence which could be psychological or/and physiological (Copeland et al., 2000. It isimportant to know about all aspects of anabolic steroids including dependence. Therefore, this study has attempted to give an insight into use of anabolic steroids and dependence. The discussion will focus on prevalence, reasons, and side effects of use and physiological and psychological dependence

  16. A simple method for measuring sex-hormone binding protein (SHBP) - typical values in men and women and in pregnant women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assuming that the binding forces between steroid hormones and their binding proteins are similar to those between antigens and their antibodies, the authors describe how to determine SHBP activity by a dilution method analogous to that used for titration of antisera in radioimmunoassay. The method consists of the following stages: (1) plasma dilution; (2) incubation of the dilution with 20,000dis/min of 1,2-3H-testosterone; (3) separation of the fraction of tracer bound to the SHBP by precipitation with ammonium sulphate; (4) centrifugation and measurement of the supernatant; and (5) plotting of the results on a graph where the axis of ordinates represents the quotient given by bound steroid over free steroid (U/L) and the abscissa represents the plasma dilutions. The values are expressed as the 50% bound titre. An advantage of the method is the higher sensitivity of the dilution curves in the steepest part where the 50% bound is encountered; it is thus not necessary to use the saturation part of the curves where sensitivity is lost owing to the steeper slope. A further advantage of the method is that there is no need for costly processes such as dialysis. The SHBP values obtained for healthy subjects were as follows: 1/5 for men, 1/93 for women, and 1/360 in pregnant women. These physiological values showed no overlapping. (author)

  17. Genetic Parameters of Various Backfat Measurements of the Hungarian Large White Pig evaluated Within and Across Sexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lászlo Csató

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Genetic parameters for various backfat measurements (BF1FT, Backfat shoulder measured at the field test; BF2FT, Backfat mid-back measured at the field test; BF3FT, Backfat loin measured at the field test; BF1ST, Backfat shoulder measured at the station test; BF2ST, Backfat mid-back measured at the station test; BF3ST, Backfat loin measured at the station test were estimated. The analysis was based on the national database of the field and station tests, using various types of animal models in Hungarian Large White (LW, breed between May 1996 and February 2001 within and across sexes (females, males, castrates. Heritability for BFFT traits ranged between 0.15- 0.35, but higher estimates were observed in field traits (0.41-0.75. Genetic correlations were generally positive among all fat depth measurements but station traits showed stronger genetic correlations (0.76-0.88 than field traits (0.24-0.67.The genetic correlation estimates between field and station traits ranged between 0.09-0.40.

  18. Safe sex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safe sex means taking steps before and during sex that can prevent you from getting an infection, or from ... the skin around the genital area. Before having sex: Get to know your partner and discuss your ...

  19. Steroids and endocrine disruptors-History, recent state of art and open questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampl, Richard; Kubátová, Jana; Stárka, Luboslav

    2016-01-01

    This introductory chapter provides an overview of the levels and sites at which endocrine disruptors (EDs) affect steroid actions. In contrast to the special issue of Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology published three years ago and devoted to EDs as such, this paper focuses on steroids. We tried to point to more recent findings and opened questions. EDs interfere with steroid biosynthesis and metabolism either as inhibitors of relevant enzymes, or at the level of their expression. Particular attention was paid to enzymes metabolizing steroid hormones to biologically active products in target cells, such as aromatase, 5?-reductase and 3?-, 11?- and 17?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases. An important target for EDs is also steroid acute regulatory protein (StAR), responsible for steroid precursor trafficking to mitochondria. EDs influence receptor-mediated steroid actions at both genomic and non-genomic levels. The remarkable differences in response to various steroid-receptor ligands led to a more detailed investigation of events following steroid/disruptor binding to the receptors and to the mapping of the signaling cascades and nuclear factors involved. A virtual screening of a large array of EDs with steroid receptors, known as in silico methods (computer simulation), is another promising approach for studying quantitative structure activity relationships and docking. New data may be expected on the effect of EDs on steroid hormone binding to selective plasma transport proteins, namely transcortin and sex hormone-binding globulin. Little information is available so far on the effects of EDs on the major hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal/gonadal axes, of which the kisspeptin/GPR54 system is of particular importance. Kisspeptins act as stimulators for hormone-induced gonadotropin secretion and their expression is regulated by sex steroids via a feed-back mechanism. Kisspeptin is now believed to be one of the key factors triggering puberty in mammals, and various EDs affect its expression and function. Finally, advances in analytics of EDs, especially those persisting in the environment, in various body fluids (plasma, urine, seminal fluid, and follicular fluid) are mentioned. Surprisingly, relatively scarce information is available on the simultaneous determination of EDs and steroids in the same biological material. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Endocrine disruptors & steroids'. PMID:24816231

  20. Sex differentiation of channel catfish gonads: Normal development and effects of temperature

    OpenAIRE

    Patiño, R.; Davis, KB; Schoore, JE; Uguz, C; Strüssmann, CA; Parker, NC; Simco, BA; Goudie, CA

    1996-01-01

    Channel catfish have an XX female-XY male sex determination system. Although genetic males of this species are readily feminized with exogenous steroid, the pattern of gonadal sex differentiation and the effect of temperature on genetic sex determination are unknown. To document the pattern of gonadal sex differentiation, catfish from a mixed-sex progeny (XX female-XY male cross), known XY males (XX female-YY male cross), and steroid sex-reversed (XY) females were reared at 28°C and collected...

  1. Motivations for Anabolic Steroid use Among Bodybuilders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, S; Grogan, S; Hunter, G

    2000-07-01

    Steroid use is increasing, in parallel with rising concerns about body image. This study aimed to uncover bodybuilders' motivations for using steroids using 135 questionnaires completed by readers of two bodybuilding magazines. The analyses reveal a polarization of beliefs about steroids between users and non-users. Steroid users were less likely to be concerned about the physical side effects, and many believed that steroids are not harmful in moderation, and that only 'ignorant people' criticize steroid use. Their main motivations for using steroids were: wanting to excel at competitive bodybuilding; wanting to be more muscular; and feelings of enhanced confidence. The fact that steroid users in the sample were 'stacking' dangerously high levels of steroids (up to 15 steroids at a time) reveals the need for a detailed understanding of the motivations for steroid use in order to inform the development of effective harm minimization messages. PMID:22049197

  2. The HIV Care Cascade Measured Over Time and by Age, Sex, and Race in a Large National Integrated Care System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horberg, Michael Alan; Hurley, Leo Bartemeier; Klein, Daniel Benjamin; Towner, William James; Kadlecik, Peter; Antoniskis, Diana; Mogyoros, Miguel; Brachman, Philip Sigmund; Remmers, Carol Louise; Gambatese, Rebecca Claire; Blank, Jackie; Ellis, Courtney Georgiana; Silverberg, Michael Jonah

    2015-11-01

    HIV care cascades can evaluate programmatic success over time. However, methodologies for estimating cascade stages vary, and few have evaluated differences by demographic subgroups. We examined cascade performance over time and by age, sex, and race/ethnicity in Kaiser Permanente, providing HIV care in eight US states and Washington, DC. We created cascades for HIV+ members' age ?13 for 2010-2012. We measured "linkage" (a visit/CD4 within 90 days of being diagnosed for new patients; ?1 medical visit/year if established); "retention" (?2 medical visits ?60 days apart); filled ART (filled ?3 months of combination ART); and viral suppression (HIV RNA sex, age, and race/ethnicity. We found men had statistically (p?ART, and viral suppression for 2010 and 2011 but not for 2012. Women had significantly greater retention for all years. Annually, older age was associated (p?ART, and viral suppression but not linkage. Latinos had greater (p?ART and viral suppression was increased (p?ART prescribing. PMID:26505968

  3. The role of steroids in follicular growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drummond Ann E

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The steroidogenic pathway within the ovary gives rise to progestins, androgens and oestrogens, all of which act via specific nuclear receptors to regulate reproductive function and maintain fertility. The role of progestins in follicular growth and development is limited, its action confined largely to ovulation, although direct effects on granulosa cell function have been reported. Consistent with these findings, progesterone receptor knockout mice are infertile because they cannot ovulate. Androgens have been shown to promote early follicular growth, but also to impede follicular development by stimulating atresia and apoptosis. The inability of androgens to transduce a signal in mice lacking androgen receptors culminates in reduced fertility. Oestrogens are known to exert effects on granulosa cell growth and differentiation in association with gonadotrophins. Studies with oestrogen receptor knockouts and oestrogen depleted mice have shown us that oestrogen is essential for folliculogenesis beyond the antral stage and is necessary to maintain the female phenotype of ovarian somatic cells. In summary, the action of steroids within the ovary is based on the developmental status of the follicle. In the absence of any single sex steroid, ovarian function and subsequently fertility, are compromised.

  4. Sex hormone influence on human infants' sound characteristics: melody in spontaneous crying

    OpenAIRE

    Wermke, Kathleen; Hain, Johannes; Oehler, Klaus; Wermke, Peter; Hesse, Volker

    2014-01-01

    The specific impact of sex hormones on brain development and acoustic communication is known from animal models. Sex steroid hormones secreted during early development play an essential role in hemispheric organization and the functional lateralization of the brain, e.g. language. In animals, these hormones are well-known regulators of vocal motor behaviour. Here, the association between melody properties of infants' sounds and serum concentrations of sex steroids was investigated. Spontaneou...

  5. Topical steroid-damaged skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Abraham

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Topical steroids, commonly used for a wide range of skin disorders, are associated with side effects both systemic and cutaneous. This article aims at bringing awareness among practitioners, about the cutaneous side effects of easily available, over the counter, topical steroids. This makes it important for us as dermatologists to weigh the usefulness of topical steroids versus their side effects, and to make an informed decision regarding their use in each individual based on other factors such as age, site involved and type of skin disorder.

  6. Risk of sex-specific cancers in opposite-sex and same-sex twins in Denmark and Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahrenfeldt, Linda Juel; Skytthe, Axel; Möller, Sören; Czene, Kamila; Adami, Hans-Olov; Mucci, Lorelei A; Kaprio, Jaakko; Petersen, Inge; Christensen, Kaare; Lindahl-Jacobsen, Rune

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Increasing evidence shows that some cancers originate in utero. It is hypothesized that elevated exposure to some steroid hormones might increase cancer risk, and that hormone transfer between twin fetuses could result in different prenatal exposure to testosterone. METHODS: This large-scale prospective twin study compared opposite-sex (OS) and same-sex (SS) twins to test the impact of intrauterine exposures on cancer risk. Based on the Danish and Swedish twin and cancer registries, ...

  7. Sex differences in task distribution and task exposures among Danish house painters: : an observational study combining questionnaire data with biomechanical measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heilskov-Hansen, Thomas; Svendsen, Susanne Wulff

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Sex differences in occupational biomechanical exposures may be part of the explanation why musculoskeletal complaints and disorders tend to be more common among women than among men. We aimed to determine possible sex differences in task distribution and task-specific postures and movements of the upper extremities among Danish house painters, and to establish sex-specific task exposure matrices. METHODS: To obtain task distributions, we sent out a questionnaire to all members of the Painters' Union in Denmark (N?=?9364), of whom 53% responded. Respondents reported their task distributions in a typical week. To obtain task exposures, postures and movements were measured in 25 male and 25 female house painters for one whole working day per person. We used goniometers on the wrists, and inclinometers on the forehead and the upper arms. Participants filled in a logbook allowing task-specific exposures to be identified. Percentiles and % time with non-neutral postures were used to characterise postures. Velocity, range of motion, repetitiveness, and variation were used as measures of movement. Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel statistics and unpaired double-sided t-tests with post-hoc Bonferroni correction were used to evaluate sex differences. RESULTS: Statistically significant (p<0.05) sex differences were revealed in task proportions, but the proportions differed by less than 4%. For task exposures, no statistically significant sex differences were found. CONCLUSIONS: Only minor sex differences were found in task distribution and task exposures regarding postures and movements among Danish house painters. Sex-specific task exposure matrices were established.

  8. Sex differences in task distribution and task exposures among Danish house painters : an observational study combining questionnaire data with biomechanical measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heilskov-Hansen, Thomas; Svendsen, Susanne Wulff

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Sex differences in occupational biomechanical exposures may be part of the explanation why musculoskeletal complaints and disorders tend to be more common among women than among men. We aimed to determine possible sex differences in task distribution and task-specific postures and movements of the upper extremities among Danish house painters, and to establish sex-specific task exposure matrices. METHODS: To obtain task distributions, we sent out a questionnaire to all members of the Painters' Union in Denmark (N?=?9364), of whom 53% responded. Respondents reported their task distributions in a typical week. To obtain task exposures, postures and movements were measured in 25 male and 25 female house painters for one whole working day per person. We used goniometers on the wrists, and inclinometers on the forehead and the upper arms. Participants filled in a logbook allowing task-specific exposures to be identified. Percentiles and % time with non-neutral postures were used to characterise postures. Velocity, range of motion, repetitiveness, and variation were used as measures of movement. Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel statistics and unpaired double-sided t-tests with post-hoc Bonferroni correction were used to evaluate sex differences. RESULTS: Statistically significant (p<0.05) sex differences were revealed in task proportions, but the proportions differed by less than 4%. For task exposures, no statistically significant sex differences were found. CONCLUSIONS: Only minor sex differences were found in task distribution and task exposures regarding postures and movements among Danish house painters. Sex-specific task exposure matrices were established.

  9. Effect of long-term storage on hormone measurements in samples from pregnant women: The experience of the Finnish Maternity Cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Holl, Katsiaryna; Lundin, Eva; Kaasila, Marjo; Grankvist, Kjell; Afanasyeva, Yelena; Hallmans, Göran; Lehtinen, Matti; Pukkala, Eero; Surcel, Helja-Marja; Toniolo, Paolo; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Koskela, Pentti; Lukanova, Annekatrin

    2007-01-01

    Validity of biobank studies on hormone associated cancers depend on the extent the sample preservation is affecting the hormone measurements. We investigated the effect of long-term storage (up to 22 years) on immunoassay measurements of three groups of hormones and associated proteins: sex-steroids [estradiol, progesterone, testosterone, dihydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG)], pregnancy-specific hormones [human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), placental gr...

  10. Industrial and Compendial Steroid Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Görög, Sándor

    The aim of this section is to give an overview of the requirements of steroid analysis in pharmaceutical industry and to cover the methodological aspects of these requirements with regard to quality control of bulk steroid drugs and drug formulations. Although this is an important area, the challenges here are not comparable with those in biological-clinical steroid analysis, which was the sole topic of the first edition of this book. This is reflected by the much smaller number of research publications dealing with this pharmaceutical area of steroid analyses. Only a few (more or less obsolete) books are available (Görög and Szász, 1978; Görög, 1983, 1989). The newer developments in this area are summarised in a comprehensive review (Görög, 2004), on which this chapter is based.

  11. Treating Asthma with Inhaled Steroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to your doctor about inhaled steroids. What is asthma? Asthma is a disease in which the airways ... This makes it hard to breathe. How is asthma treated? Some people only need treatment during an ...

  12. Exposure assessment of prepubertal children to steroid endocrine disruptors. 2. Determination of steroid hormones in milk, egg, and meat samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courant, Frédérique; Antignac, Jean-Philippe; Laille, Julie; Monteau, Fabrice; Andre, François; Le Bizec, Bruno

    2008-05-14

    In the present study, the occurrence of the main sex steroid hormones in milk, egg, and meat was evaluated on the basis of a highly specific gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry measurement method. Globally, the results indicated that targeted estrogens and androgens occurred at similar levels (concentration levels in the 10-100 ng kg (-1) range) in the analyzed muscle and milk samples. The same compounds occurred at about 10-fold higher concentrations (i.e., in the 100-1000 ng kg (-1) range) in eggs and kidney samples. More precisely, egg and milk appeared as a non-negligible sources of estradiol (i.e., 2.2 +/- 0.8 and 3.1 +/- 2.0 ng day (-1), respectively), whereas testosterone exposure is caused by ingestion of meat and/or egg (i.e., 12.2 +/- 48.2 and 5.2 +/- 2.3 ng day (-1), respectively). The provided exposure data will be further exploited in the scope of a risk assessment study regarding endocrine disruption associated with these molecules. PMID:18412364

  13. Cognition, mood, and physiological concentrations of sex hormones in the early and late postmenopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Victor W; St John, Jan A; Hodis, Howard N; McCleary, Carol A; Stanczyk, Frank Z; Karim, Roksana; Shoupe, Donna; Kono, Naoko; Dustin, Laurie; Allayee, Hooman; Mack, Wendy J

    2013-12-10

    Variations in the hormonal milieu after menopause may influence neural processes concerned with cognition, cognitive aging, and mood, but findings are inconsistent. In particular, cognitive effects of estradiol may vary with time since menopause, but this prediction has not been assessed directly using serum hormone concentrations. We studied 643 healthy postmenopausal women not using hormone therapy who were recruited into early (Cognitive outcomes were standardized composite measures of verbal episodic memory, executive functions, and global cognition. Covariate-adjusted linear regression analyses were conducted for each hormone separately and after adjustment for other hormone levels. Endogenous sex steroid levels were unassociated with cognitive composites, but sex hormone binding globulin was positively associated with verbal memory. Results for early and late groups did not differ significantly, although progesterone concentrations were significantly positively associated with verbal memory and global cognition in early group women. Hormone concentrations were not significantly related to mood. Results fail to support the hypothesis that temporal proximity to menopause modifies the relation between endogenous serum levels of estradiol and verbal memory, executive functions, or global cognition. Physiological variations in endogenous postmenopausal levels of sex steroid hormones are not substantially related to these aspects of cognition or mood; positive associations for progesterone and sex hormone binding globulin merit additional study. PMID:24277815

  14. Combinatorial effects of genistein and sex-steroids on the level of cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR), adenylate cyclase (AC) and cAMP in the cervix of ovariectomised rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salleh, Naguib; Ismail, Nurain; Muniandy, Sekaran; Korla, Praveen Kumar; Giribabu, Nelli

    2015-12-01

    The combinatorial effects of genistein and estrogen (E) or estrogen plus progesterone (E+P) on CFTR, AC and cAMP levels in cervix were investigated. Ovariectomised adult female rats received 50 or 100mg/kg/day genistein with E or E followed by E+P [E+(E+P)] for seven consecutive days. Cervixes were harvested and analyzed for CFTR mRNA levels by Real-time PCR. Distribution of AC and CFTR proteins in endocervix were observed by immunohistochemistry. Levels of cAMP were measured by enzyme-immunoassay. Molecular docking predicted interaction between genistein and AC. Our results indicate that levels of CFTR, AC and cAMP in cervix of rats receiving genistein plus E were higher than E-only treatment (p<0.05) while genistein plus [E+(E+P)] were higher than E+(E+P)-only treatment (p<0.05). In conclusions, increased levels of CFTR, AC and cAMP in cervix of E and E+(E+P)-treated rats by genistein could affect the cervical secretory function which could influence the female reproductive processes. PMID:26529183

  15. Seasonal variation of LH, sex steroids, body mass, molt, display, and laying in two subspecies of Houbara bustard, Chlamydotis undulata macqueenii and Chlamydotis undulata undulata, housed in outdoor cages under natural conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saint Jalme, M; Williams, J; Mickaelian, I; Paillat, P

    1996-04-01

    Subspecies of the Houbara bustard are resident in North Africa (Chlamydotis undulata undulata) or are partial latitudinal migrants in Asia (Chlamydotis undulata macqueenii). Houbara breed in arid or semiarid zones, and the reproductive biology of wild Houbara is largely unknown. Body mass, molt, courtship display, laying, and plasma concentrations of LH, testosterone, and progesterone were measured in captive-bred birds of both subspecies, housed in outdoor cages under natural conditions, over a period of 1 year and 6 months, at Taif, Saudi Arabia (21 degrees 15' N). Captive Houbara bustards show a seasonal breeding pattern with a laying period from January to July. Males began displaying well in advance of any eggs laid and display long after the termination of laying. In females, gonadal activity and molt were mutually exclusive; however, in males, slight overlap between sexual display and molt was observed. In females, seasonal variation of LH and progesterone was synchronous with laying activity. In males both testosterone and LH plasma concentrations were highest in January (testosterone approximately 8 ng/ml; LH approximately 3 ng/ml) at the beginning display period. This could correspond, in the wild, to the establishment of territories. Levels dropped significantly before the females started laying but stayed at an intermediate level throughout the breeding season (testosterone approximately 3 ng/ml; LH approximately 1.5 ng/ml). In the middle of August, during molt, and following heavy rainfall, LH and testosterone peaked (testosterone approximately 2.3 ng/ml; LH approximately 1.8 ng/ml), suggesting a possible impact of rainfall on Houbara gonadal activity. Houbara stopped laying before the maximum ambient temperature reached 32 degrees, indicating that high temperature could be a factor terminating laying activity. No major differences were found between the two subspecies in the timing or duration of the reproductive period; only the annual variation of the body mass varied slightly between the subspecies. PMID:8860314

  16. Do sex hormones play a role in ankylosing spondylitis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masi, A T

    1992-02-01

    Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) has a striking disease marker, i.e., HLA-B27, indicating the major genetic predisposition; however, expression of disease is also strongly influenced by age- and sex-related factors. Sex steroids studies suggest greater androgenicity in AS than normal control persons. Therapeutic interventions that normalize such sex steroid status have shown clinical improvements in males and females. Muscle histopathology in AS shows frequent changes early in disease consistent with neuropathic and myopathic mechanisms of a noninflammatory nature. Accepting the available, aggregate data, one may infer that sex steroid imbalance in persons susceptible to AS may target axial and proximal muscle tissues, resulting in relative functional hypertonicity. Such phenomenon, developing in preteen and younger adult ages, may contribute to peripheral and axial manifestations of enthesopathy in this disease by complex and currently unknown mechanisms. PMID:1561401

  17. Sex-Role Development in Young Children: Relationships to Behavioral and Attitudinal Measures of Parental Gender Schemas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Louise C.; Morgan, Amy K.

    To explore early sex-role development, this study examined the gender schemas of parents in relation to the sex-typed toy preferences of their own young children. Subjects were 82 parents of children between the ages of 3 and 8. Test stimuli consisted of 2 equivalent lists of 24 occupations, each list containing 8 occupations coded as typically…

  18. Steroidal Saponins in Oat Bran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Junli; Wang, Pei; Wu, Wenbin; Zhao, Yantao; Idehen, Emmanuel; Sang, Shengmin

    2016-02-24

    Saponins are one type of widespread defense compound in the plant kingdom and have been exploited for the production of lead compounds with diverse pharmacological properties in drug discovery. Oats contain two unique steroidal saponins, avenacoside A, 1, and avenacoside B, 2. However, the chemical composition, the levels of these saponins in commercial oat products, and their health effects are still largely unknown. In this study, we directly purified 5 steroidal saponins (1-5) from a methanol extract of oat bran, characterized their structures by analyzing their MS and NMR spectra, and also tentatively identified 11 steroidal saponins (6-16) on the basis of their tandem mass spectra (MS(n), n = 2-3). Among the five purified saponins, 5 is a new compound and 4 is purified from oats for the first time. Using HPLC-MS techniques, a complete profile of oat steroidal saponins was determined, and the contents of the two primary steroidal saponins, 1 and 2, were quantitated in 15 different commercial oat products. The total levels of these two saponins vary from 49.6 to 443.0 mg/kg, and oat bran or oatmeal has higher levels of these two saponins than cold oat cereal. Furthermore, our results on the inhibitory effects of 1 and 2 against the growth of human colon cancer cells HCT-116 and HT-29 showed that both had weak activity, with 2 being more active than 1. PMID:26852819

  19. Age and sex differences in cerebral glucose consumption measured by pet using [18-F] fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Resting cerebral glucose metabolic rates (CMRglc) were measured in 23 subjects by PET using FDG. Subjects were divided into several groups (mean age +- S.D.) 5 young males (YM) (27 +- 6); 6 young females (YF)(33 +9); 5 elderly males (EM)(73 +- 5); 7 elderly females (EF)(69 +- 7). Additionally, from these groups 4 YM, 3YF, 5EM and 4EF were studied again within 6 weeks under identical conditions. CMRglc in the YF group again was significantly hider than YM (p 0.05). No obvious relationships of CMRglc to the phase of the menstrual cycle was found in this small group. There was a trend (p=0.06) toward a higher CMRglc in YF than EF. These results support the findings of higher CBF in YF versus YM. The differences between the results of Kuhl et al (J. Cereb. and a reduction of CMRglc with age was found in a mixed group of males and females (58and female), and where no age effect was found the males, are also resolved by these findings. The authors suggest that the apparent age effect, in females in this study, is principally a hormonal one

  20. Roles of sex and gonadal steroids in mammalian pheromonal communication.

    OpenAIRE

    Baum, Michael J.; Bakker, Julie

    2013-01-01

    A brain circuit (the accessory olfactory system) that originates in the vomeronasal organ (VNO) and includes the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB) plus additional forebrain regions mediates many of the effects of pheromones, typically comprised of a variety of non-volatile and volatile compounds, on aspects of social behavior. A second, parallel circuit (the main olfactory system) that originates in the main olfactory epithelium (MOE) and includes the main olfactory bulb (MOB) has also been show...

  1. Pharmacokinetics of sex steroids in patients with beta thalassaemia major.

    OpenAIRE

    Katz, M.; De Sanctis, V; Vullo, C.; Wonke, B; McGarrigle, H. H.; Bagni, B.

    1993-01-01

    AIMS--To assess the pharmacokinetics of oral, intramuscular, or transdermal hormone replacement in patients with beta thalassaemia major. METHODS--Oral (testosterone undecanoate 40 mg) and intramuscular (testosterone propionate 15 mg, phenylpropionate 30 mg, isocaproate 30 mg and decanoate 50 mg) testosterone and transdermal (17 beta oestradiol 25 micrograms and 50 micrograms) oestradiol were evaluated in 21 male (16-29 years) and 11 female (19-26 years) patients with beta thalassaemia major ...

  2. Assessment of Borderline Personality Features in Population Samples: Is the Personality Assessment Inventory-Borderline Features Scale Measurement Invariant across Sex and Age?

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Moor, Marleen H. M.; Distel, Marijn A.; Trull, Timothy J.; Boomsma, Dorret I.

    2009-01-01

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is more often diagnosed in women than in men, and symptoms tend to decline with age. Using a large community sample, the authors investigated whether sex and age differences in four main features of BPD, measured with the "Personality Assessment Inventory-Borderline Features" scale (PAI-BOR; Morey, 1991), are…

  3. Sex chromosome complement affects social interactions in mice

    OpenAIRE

    McPhie-Lalmansingh, Anika A.; Tejada, Lucia D.; Weaver, Jessica L.; Rissman, Emilie F

    2008-01-01

    Sex differences in behavior can be attributed to differences in steroid hormones. Sex chromosome complement can also influence behavior, independent of gonadal differentiation. The mice used for this work combined a spontaneous mutation of the Sry gene with a transgene for Sry that is incorporated into an autosome thus disassociating gonad differentiation from sex chromosome complement. The resulting genotypes are XX and XY− females (ovary-bearing) along with XXSry and XY−Sry males (testes-be...

  4. Interactions of gonadal steroids with brain dopamine and gonadotropin-releasing hormone in the control of gonadotropin-II secretion in the goldfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trudeau, V L; Sloley, B D; Wong, A O; Peter, R E

    1993-01-01

    In goldfish it is known that intraperitoneal implantation with testosterone (T) or estradiol (E2) potentiates the serum gonadotropin-II (GtH-II) response to gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) without affecting basal GtH-II levels. Since the release of GtH-II in goldfish is under a tonic dopaminergic inhibitory tone, the possibility of sex steroids modulating brain and pituitary dopamine was examined in vivo and in vitro. Implantation of females with either T or E2 (100 micrograms/g in solid silastic pellets) also potentiated the increase in serum GtH-II in response to the dopamine antagonist, domperidone (10 micrograms/g). High-performance liquid chromatography measurements showed that steroid implantation had no effect on dopamine content in the telencephalon including preoptic area, hypothalamus, and pituitary. However, the present study demonstrates that T or E2 can increase pituitary dopamine turnover rates following tyrosine hydroxylase inhibition with alpha-methyl-p-tyrosine (240 micrograms/g). In vitro perifusion of pars distalis fragments from E2- or T-treated fish also showed a potentiation of salmon GnRH (sGnRH)-induced GtH-II release compared to controls. However, exposure to pituitary fragments from control and steroid-treated fish to increasing doses of the dopamine agonist LY 171555 did not demonstrate a significant difference in the sensitivity of the gonadotrophs to dopamine. Testosterone-induced alterations in DA turnover are dissociable from the positive action of T on pituitary responsiveness, since the potentiating effect of T implantation was not affected by severe depletion of brain and pituitary DA levels by alpha-methyl-p-tyrosine pretreatment. These data demonstrate that in gonad-intact goldfish, sex steroids enhance pituitary responsiveness to GnRH but basal serum GtH-II levels are maintained by a concomitant increase in DA turnover in the pituitary. PMID:8094059

  5. Hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls decrease circulating steroids in female polar bears (Ursus maritimus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustavson, Lisa; Ciesielski, Tomasz M; Bytingsvik, Jenny; Styrishave, Bjarne; Hansen, Martin; Lie, Elisabeth; Aars, Jon; Jenssen, Bjørn M

    2015-01-01

    As a top predator in the Arctic food chain, polar bears (Ursus maritimus) are exposed to high levels of persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Because several of these compounds have been reported to alter endocrine pathways, such as the steroidogenesis, potential disruption of the sex steroid...... synthesis by POPs may cause implications for reproduction by interfering with ovulation, implantation and fertility. Blood samples were collected from 15 female polar bears in Svalbard (Norway) in April 2008. The concentrations of nine circulating steroid hormones; dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA......-metabolites (hydroxylated PCBs [OH-PCBs] and hydroxylated PBDEs [OH-PBDEs]), steroid hormones, biological and capture variables in female polar bears. Inverse correlations were found between circulating levels of PRE and AN, and circulating levels of OH-PCBs. There were no significant relationships between the steroid...

  6. Prenatal sex determination by radioimmunoassay of testosterone with and without chromatography of the amniotic fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amniotic fluid testosterone measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA) without chromatography (immunoreactive testosterone) seems not to be a definitive test for prenatal sex determination in all cases. In this study testosterone (T) levels measured by RIA with chromatography of the amniotic fluid samples were compared with immunoreactive testosterone (iT) values, to determine the predictive accuracy of the two methods. In 111 amniotic fluid samples between 15 and 19 weeks of gestation iT and T were measured parallelly. There are significant differences between iT- and T-means of both sexes (p < 0.001). 95%-confidence limits of iT-values of the male and female fetuses are largely overlapping. In contrast, the overlap of 95%-confidence limits of the T-values is only minor. The measurement of testosterone with chromatography of the amniotic fluid samples shows for prenatal sex determination in over 90% accuracy. This result is due to the elimination of sex-specific differences in crossreacting steroids within the amniotic fluid of both sexes. (orig)

  7. Hydropyrolysis of steroids: a preparative step for compound-specific carbon isotope ratio analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sephton, Mark A; Meredith, Will; Sun, Cheng-Gong; Snape, Colin E

    2005-01-01

    Compound-specific stable carbon isotope analysis by gas chromatography/combustion/isotope ratio mass spectrometry is an important method for the detection of steroid abuse in athletes. However, steroids in their natural form exhibit poor chromatographic resolution, while derivatization adds carbon thereby corrupting the starting stable isotopic composition. Hydropyrolysis is a new approach, which defunctionalizes steroids but leaves their carbon skeleton intact. The process improves chromatography, allowing the faithful measurement of carbon isotope ratios and enabling a more effective apportionment for the source of steroids and their metabolites. PMID:16228967

  8. Effect of the Steroidal Saponins of Fructus tribuli on Growth of Three Lactobacillus acidophilus

    OpenAIRE

    He Chen; Tao Qin; Qi Ma; Zhe Ji; Guowei Shu

    2014-01-01

    Effect of the steroidal saponins of Fructus tribuli on Growth of Lactobacillus acidophilus LA04, LA05 and LA06 was studied by measuring optical density at 600 nm (OD600) and pH using MRS media as the control. The addition of steroidal saponins (w/v) was 0.05, 0.10, 0.15, 0.20 and 0.25%, respectively. Results were as follows: addition of steroidal saponins of Fructus tribuli could promote the growth of Lactobacillus acidophilus A04, LA05 and LA06 and the optimum concentration of steroidal sapo...

  9. Determination of steroids in manure and soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Martin; Björklund, Bengt Erland; Halling-Sørensen, Bent

    A genuine analytical method to determine native steroids (pregnenolone, progesterone, dehydroepiandrosterone, androstenedione, testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, estrone, 17b-estradiol, and 17a-estradiol) and one anthropogenic steroid (ethynylestradiol) in environmental solid samples is presented...

  10. Steroids/Nutritional Supplements/Antibiotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of creatine and Duchenne continue. back to top Anabolic steroids These, which act to build tissues in the ... loss. A pilot study of oxandrolone, a synthetic anabolic steroid, showed some promise in preserving muscle strength. Anabolic ...

  11. Steroids for Treating Cancer (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and the health risks they incur from abusing anabolic steroids — drugs that were originally intended for people with ... that he or she will not be taking anabolic steroids, but rather corticosteroids . Corticosteroids are made from a ...

  12. Sex Disparities in Diabetes Process of Care Measures and Self-Care in High-Risk Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Margaret K.; Courtney Rees Lyles; Luis A. Bent-Shaw; Bessie A. Young

    2013-01-01

    Patients with chronic diabetic complications experience high morbidity and mortality. Sex disparities in modifiable factors such as processes of care or self-care activities have not been explored in detail, particularly in these high-risk patients. Sex differences in processes of care and self-care activities were assessed in a cross-sectional analysis of the Pathways Study, an observational cohort of primary care diabetic patients from a managed care organization (N = 4,839). Compared to me...

  13. Steroidal glycoalkaloids in Solanum chacoense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mweetwa, Alice M; Hunter, Danielle; Poe, Rebecca; Harich, Kim C; Ginzberg, Idit; Veilleux, Richard E; Tokuhisa, James G

    2012-03-01

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), a domesticated species that is the fourth most important world agricultural commodity, requires significant management to minimize the effects of herbivore and pathogen damage on crop yield. A wild relative, Solanum chacoense Bitt., has been of interest to plant breeders because it produces an abundance of novel steroidal glycoalkaloid compounds, leptines and leptinines, which are particularly effective deterrents of herbivory by the Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say). Biochemical approaches were used in this study to investigate the formation and accumulation of SGAs in S. chacoense. SGA contents were determined in various organs at different stages of organ maturity during a time course of plant development. Leptines and leptinines were the main contributors to the increased levels in SGA concentration measured in the aerial versus the subterranean organs of S. chacoense accession 8380-1. Leptines were not detected in aboveground stolons until the stage where shoots had formed mature chlorophyllous leaves. To gain insights into SGA biosynthesis, the abundance of SGAs and steady-state transcripts of genes coding for enzymes of the central terpene and SGA-specific pathways in various plant organs at anthesis were compared. For two genes of primary terpene metabolism, transcript and SGA abundances were correlated, although with some discrepancies. For genes associated with SGA biosynthesis, transcripts were not detected in some tissues containing SGAs; however these transcripts were detected in the progenitor tissues, indicating the possibility that under our standard growth conditions, SGA biosynthesis is largely limited to highly proliferative tissues such as shoot, root and floral meristems. PMID:22217745

  14. MEDICAL ISSUES ASSOCIATED WITH ANABOLIC STEROID USE: ARE THEY EXAGGERATED?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay R. Hoffman

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available For the past 50 years anabolic steroids have been at the forefront of the controversy surrounding performance enhancing drugs. For almost half of this time no attempt was made by sports governing bodies to control its use, and only recently have all of the major sports governing bodies in North America agreed to ban from competition and punish athletes who test positive for anabolic steroids. These punitive measures were developed with the primary concern for promotion of fair play and eliminating potential health risks associated with androgenic-anabolic steroids. Yet, controversy exists whether these testing programs deter anabolic steroid use. Although the scope of this paper does not focus on the effectiveness of testing, or the issue of fair play, it is of interest to understand why many athletes underestimate the health risks associated from these drugs. What creates further curiosity is the seemingly well-publicized health hazards that the medical community has depicted concerning anabolic steroidabuse. Is there something that the athletes know, or are they simply naïve regarding the dangers? The focus of this review is to provide a brief history of anabolic steroid use in North America, the prevalence of its use in both athletic and recreational populations and its efficacy. Primary discussion will focus on health issues associated with anabolic steroid use with an examination of the contrasting views held between the medical community and the athletes that are using these ergogenic drugs. Existing data suggest that in certain circumstances the medical risk associated with anabolic steroid use may have been somewhat exaggerated, possibly to dissuade use in athletes

  15. Mind Over Matter: Anabolic Steroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NIDA's Easy-to-Read Web site Citation Site Map Print Mind Over Matter: Anabolic Steroids Home / Educators / NIDA Teaching ... Up: Real News About Drugs and Your Body Mind Over Matter Series Teacher's Guide Anabolic ... Policy Site Map Contact Us Site last updated February 11, 2016 ...

  16. Organocatalytic Asymmetric Formation of Steroids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halskov, Kim Soholm; Donslund, Bjarke S.; Barfüsser, Sebastian; Jorgensen, Karl Anker

    2014-01-01

    A novel and simple one-step approach for the construction of optically active steroids in a highly stereoselective manner by using organocatalysis is presented. The reaction of (di)enals with cyclic dienophiles in the presence of a TMS-protected prolinol catalyst leads to the construction of impo...

  17. How Steroids Steer T Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claude Libert

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent papers from Mahata et al. and Bereshchenko et al. reveal how steroids steer immune responses by tipping T helper (Th subset balances and activities. Pregnenolone produced by Th2 cells mediates immunosuppressive responses, and glucocorticoids stimulate regulatory T cell development via the induction of GILZ expression.

  18. Electroimmunoassay of sex hormone binding globulin. Enhanced sensitivity by autoradiography using A-ring 125I-17-?-oestradiol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four different 125I-iodinated steroids were tested for their binding to human sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) using an electrophoretic technique. 17-?-oestradiol iodinated in its A-ring bound with high affinity to SHBG. This radioactive steroid was used to increase the sensitivity of the electroimmunoassay of SHBG by adding the steroid to the samples before electroimmunoassay. The radioactive steroid incorporated into the immunoprecipitates could be observed by autoradiography. The sensitivity of the assay, which employed a rabbit antiserum against purified human SHBG and was standardized with pure SHBG, was about 0.2 mg/1. The coefficient of variation within and between assays was 2.4% and 2.6% respectively, for values within the normal range. The mean SHBG concentration in healthy regularly menstruating women was 3.50 +- 0.74 (SD) mg/1 when measured in plasma, and 3.78 +- 0.80 mg/1 when measured in serum. The corresponding mean concentrations in healthy men were 2.26 +- 0.45 and 2.44 +- 0.49 mg/1. The modified electroimmunoassay described is a simple modification, which increases the sensitivity sufficiently to permit reliable quantification of SHBG over the entire range of concentration which could be relevant in clinical practice. (author)

  19. Specific DNA-binding proteins and DNA sequences involved in steroid hormone regulation of gene expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steroid hormones circulate in the blood and are taken by target cells via complexes with intracellular binding proteins termed receptors, that are hormone and tissue specific. Each receptor binds it specific steroid with very high affinity, having an equilibrium dissociation constant (K/sub d/) in the range of 10-9 to 10-10 M. Once bound by their specific steroid hormones, the steroid receptors undergo a conformational change which allows them to bind with high affinity to sites on chromatin, termed nuclear acceptor sites. There are estimated 5,000 to 10,000 of these sites expressed with an equal number not expressed (''masked'') in intact chromatin. The result of the binding to nuclear acceptor sites is an alteration of gene transcription or, in some cases, gene expression as measured by the changing levels of specific RNAs and proteins in that target tissue. Each steroid regulates specific effects on the RNA and protein profiles. The chronology of the above mechanism of action after injection of radiolabelled steroid as is follows: Steroid-receptor complex formation (1 minute), nuclear acceptor sites (2 minutes), effects on RNA synthesis (10 to 30 minutes), and finally the changing protein profiles via changes in protein synthesis and protein turnover (1 to 6 hours). Thus steroid receptors represent one of the first identified intracellular gene regulation proteins. The receptor molecules themselves are regulated by the presence or absence of the steroid molecule

  20. Endocrine Correlates of Musth in Free-Ranging Asian Elephants (Elephas maximus) Determined by Non-Invasive Faecal Steroid Hormone Metabolite Measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Ghosal, Sukumar; Ganswindt, Andre; Seshagiri, Polani B.; Sukumar, Raman

    2013-01-01

    The occurrence of musth, a period of elevated levels of androgens and heightened sexual activity, has been well documented for the male Asian elephant (Elephas maximus). However, the relationship between androgen-dependent musth and adrenocortical function in this species is unclear. The current study is the first assessment of testicular and adrenocortical function in free-ranging male Asian elephants by measuring levels of testosterone (androgen) and cortisol (glucocorticoid - a physiologic...

  1. Steroid derivatives and their use in radioimmunoassays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioimmunoassay techniques have been used to determine the concentration in body fluids of various endogenous and exogenous steroids. In the development of radioimmunoassays for the various steroids, the preparation of an antigen labelled with iodine-125 is of primary concern. The chemical structure of steroids is such that it is generally not possible to radioiodinate them directly. It is necessary to utilize as a precursor of the radiolabeled antigen a derivative of the steroid to be assayed which can be readily iodinatd. The process by which steroids are chosen and structurally modified is given

  2. Environment and sex determination in farmed fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baroiller, J F; D'Cotta, H

    2001-12-01

    A plasticity of gonadal sex differentiation was reported in the 1930s following exogenous steroid treatments in fish, but demonstration that environmental factors (temperature, pH, density and social interactions) could influence the sex ratio in gonochoristic species has been relatively recent. In fish, as in reptiles and amphibians displaying environmental sex determination, the main environmental factor influencing sex seems to be temperature (TSD=Temperature Sex Determination). In most thermosensitive species (some Atherinids, Poecilids, Cichlids: tilapias, goldfish, a Siluriform, a flatfishellipsis) male to female ratio increases with temperature and/or ovarian differentiation is induced by low temperatures. Conversely, in some rare species (Dicentrarchus labrax, Ictalurus punctatus), high temperatures may produce female-biased sex ratios and/or low temperatures promote male-biased sex ratios. In the hirame Paralichthys olivaceus, both high and low temperatures induce monosex male populations while intermediate temperatures yield a 1:1 sex ratio (U-shape curve). Fish show particularities in their TSD patterns since mono-sex populations are generally not produced at extreme temperatures, suggesting the existence of strong temperature/genotype interactions. In reptiles, amphibians and fish displaying TSD, temperature treatments must be applied at a critical sensitive period, relatively similar to the hormone sensitive period. In gonochoristic fish, steroid hormones with estrogens in females and 11-oxygenated androgens in males, are probably key physiological steps in the regulation of gonadal sex differentiation. Cytochrome P450-aromatase, enzyme catalysing conversion of androgens to estrogens, seems to be a critical enzyme for ovarian differentiation. Molecular mechanisms of thermosensitivity have been addressed in two species tilapia Oreochromis niloticus and the hirame, where aromatase gene expression is down-regulated by masculinizing temperature treatments. Furthermore, in tilapia the gene expression of 11 beta-hydroxylase (a key enzyme involved in the synthesis of 11-oxygenated androgens) does not appear to be affected by temperature treatments. PMID:11738628

  3. Evaluating the Predictive Accuracy of Sex Offender Risk Assessment Measures on UK Samples: A Cross-Validation of the Risk Matrix 2000 Scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leam A. Craig

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available The predictive accuracy of the newly developed risk measures Risk Matrix 2000 Sexual/Violence (RMS, RMV were cross validated and compared with four risk scales (RRASOR, SACJ-Min, SVR-20, and Static-99 in a sample of sexual (n = 85, violent (n = 46, and general (n = 22 offenders. The sexual offense reconviction rate for the sex offender group was 18% at 10 years follow-up, compared with 2% for the violent offenders. Survival analyses revealed the violent offenders were reconvicted at twice the rate of any other group. Reconviction data were analyzed using the area under the curve (AUC of the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC. The RMV significantly predicted violent recidivism in the sex and combined sex/violent offender groups. The RMS obtained marginal accuracy in predicting sexual reconviction while the RMV obtained good accuracy at predicting violent non-sex reconviction. An item analysis revealed four factors not included in the risk scales significantly correlated with sexual and violent reconviction. Including these factors with Static-99, RMV and RMS increased the accuracy in predicting sexual reconviction but had a negative impact on the accuracy of RMV in predicting violent reconviction. The inclusion of static and dynamic risk factors with actuarial systems is discussed.

  4. Steroid radioimmunoassay: contribution of standards to blank values, ch. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sensitivity of the radioimmunoassay of steroids is considerably reduced by high blank values which may be derived in part from co-chromatographed standards. Blank levels approach the detection limit of the radioimmunoassay of aldosterone, testosterone and androstenedione when 10,000 dpm (30-35 pg) labelled steroids are used as reference standard. When 20 ?g aldosterone, testosterone, or androstenedione is used as standard, blank levels of up to 12,800 pg were measured in the radioimmunoassay. Application of the standards on a separate strip does not improve the results. From the experiments it appeared that contamination took place by transport by the solvent

  5. Sex Stereotyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas, Richard G.

    This article uses findings from several previous studies to define the kinds of sex stereotyping present in our society. The author considers sex roles as dealt with in children's literature, public schools, advertising, and vocational counseling. He describes, in particular, the situation at an unnamed state university, and cites the woman's…

  6. Multiple steroid radioimmunoassays and automation: versatile techniques for reproductive endocrinology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The combination of the efficient steroid separating properties of a lipophilic Sephadex derivative Lipidex-5000sup(TM), with the use of antibodies with carefully selected specificity allows the quantitative determination of pregnenolone, progesterone, 17?-hydroxyprogesterone, androstenedione, testosterone, 5?-dihydrotestosterone, 5?-androstanedione, androsterone and 5?-androstane-3?, 17?-diol from 1-2 ml samples of blood serum, amniotic fluid or 300-600 mg pieces of prostatic tissue. The adaptation of the pipetting unit and incubator of a discrete clinical chemical analyzer, System Olli 3000, for the automation of the radioimmunoassays has resulted in a greatly increased through-put and decreased experimental error of the procedure. In studies on reproductive endocrinology, the methodology developed has allowed the detection of a sex difference in androgen composition of the amniotic fluid early in pregnancy. Further, it is very likely that the decline in steroid production by the testis seen during the first year of life and then in senescence is affected by basically different mechanisms. There are also important differences in the steroid content of normal, hyperplastic and carcinomatous prostate. (orig.)

  7. Psychological Predictors of Anabolic Steroid Use: An Exploratory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwerin, Michael J.; Corcoran, Kevin J.; LaFleur, Bonnie J.; Fisher, Leslee; Patterson, David; Olrich, Tracy

    1997-01-01

    Examined social physique anxiety, upper body esteem, social anxiety, and body dissatisfaction as possible predictors of anabolic steroid (AS) use. Results based on 185 AS-using bodybuilders and various control groups indicated that the upper body strength subscale of two measures, along with age, were significant predictors of AS use. (RJM)

  8. Determination of steroid hormone receptors in cases of mammary carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the biochemical laboratory of the Rotterdam Radiotherapeutic Institute the determination of steroid receptors in mamma tumor tissues is carried out according to the specifications prescribed by EORTC. The exact execution of the determination is described, the computation and analysis (by Scatchard plot) of the measured values and possible errors and their sources as well as the quality control (also international) are discussed. (Auth.)

  9. Comparison of steroid pulse therapy and conventional oral steroid therapy as initial treatment for autoimmune pancreatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The efficacy of oral steroid therapy for autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) is well known, and oral prednisolone treatment is most usually commenced at 30-40 mg/day, but there have been few reports about comparative studies of oral steroid therapy and steroid pulse therapy as the initial treatment for AIP. We studied the clinical course and image findings to estimate the utility of steroid pulse therapy for AIP, comparing it with oral steroid therapy. Laboratory and image findings were assessed retrospectively in 11 patients who received steroid pulse therapy, and the findings were compared to those in 10 patients who received conventional oral steroid therapy. Change in pancreatic size showed no significant difference between the therapies after 2 weeks of treatment. Significant improvement of lower bile duct strictures after 2 weeks of treatment and that of immunoglobulin values within 6 months were shown with both therapies. However, steroid pulse therapy showed significant improvement of ?-guanosine triphosphate (GTP) in 2 weeks and of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in 2 and 8 weeks, compared with oral steroid therapy. Moreover, there was one patient in whom the lower bile duct stricture was not improved by oral steroid therapy, but it did show improvement with steroid pulse therapy. Initial steroid pulse therapy is a beneficial alternative to oral steroid therapy for the improvement of bile duct lesions. In future, the accumulation of a larger number of patients receiving steroid pulse therapy is needed, and prospective studies will be required. (author)

  10. Condom Use at Last Sex as a Proxy for Other Measures of Condom Use: Is It Good Enough?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younge, Sinead N.; Salazar, Laura F.; Crosby, Richard F.; DiClemente, Ralph J.; Wingood, Gina M.; Rose, Eve

    2008-01-01

    Condom use at last sex is a widely used indicator in sexual behavior research; however, there is little empirical research validating this indicator. This study examined whether a single-event recall period (the last time coitus occurred) was consistent with longer recall periods (14 days and 60 days) for a sample of African American adolescent…

  11. Stability of Attitudes toward Abortion and Sex Roles: A Two-Factor Measurement Model at Two Points in Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsup, Ruth; Gillespie, David F.

    1997-01-01

    Data from the General Social Survey for 1977 (n=1,303) and 1991 (n=430) are used to examine the stability of attitudes toward abortion and women's roles. Findings support the hypothesis that public attitudes toward discretionary abortion and nontraditional sex roles are discrete but correlated sets of attitudes that remained stable from 1977 to…

  12. Radioimmunoassay for steroid hormones, 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A specific, sensitive and reliable radioimmunoassay for plasma dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) has been developed. Anti-DHEA serum was obtained by immunizing rabbits with a DHEA-3-hemisuccinate-BSA conjugate. A useful range in the standard curve was from 10 pg to 500 pg. DHEA was separated from cross-reacting steroids by microcolumn chromatography. The coefficients of variation for within-assay and between-assay are 6.3% and 7.7%, respectively. (auth.)

  13. Steroidal saponins from Agave Attenuata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The polar fraction of the extract of Agave Attenuata Solm (family Agavaceae) afforded two steroidal saponins identified on the basis of spectral data as (25S)-sarsasapogenin-3-b-Dglyconside and (25S)-3-b, 22-a, 26-trihydroxy-16, 22-oxycoprostane-3-26 diglyconside. The glyconsidic moiety in the first compound is a disaccharide consists of glucose and galactose while in the second compound, the glyconsidic moieties are glucose and arabinose. (author)

  14. Anabolic Androgenic Steroids and Criminality

    OpenAIRE

    Klötz, Fia

    2008-01-01

    Anabolic Androgenic Steroids (AAS) have been associated with adverse psychiatric effects, aggression and violent behaviour. The use of them has spread to a larger subpopulation, and the use has been connected to different risk behaviours, such as use of other illicit substances and carrying a gun. Case reports tell about a connection between AAS use and violent crimes, including homicide. The aim of this thesis is to investigate the proposed connection between AAS and crime, focusing on viole...

  15. Anabolic steroids and Norwegian weightlifters.

    OpenAIRE

    Solberg, S.

    1982-01-01

    The mean bodyweight, in kilograms, and mean weightlifting result, in points, for the ten best weightlifters at the annual Norwegian championships 1962-82 have been studied. During the 21 years, the mean bodyweight for these ten increased by 18 kg, probably due to the effect of androgens. The weightlifting results improved rapidly from 1968 onwards, probably reflecting an increasingly widespread use of anabolic steroids by Norwegian weightlifters. In 1977 doping tests were introduced, and from...

  16. Neuroactive steroids and rat CNS

    OpenAIRE

    Birzniece, Vita

    2004-01-01

    Several studies suggest profound effects on mood and cognition by neuroactive steroids. Estrogen alone or in combination with antidepressant drugs affecting the serotonin system has been used to treat mood disorders. On the other hand, progesterone is related to negative effects on mood and memory. A major part of the progesterone effects on the brain can be mediated by its metabolite allopregnanolone, which is also de novo synthesized in the brain, and affects the GABAA receptors. It would b...

  17. Influence of Music on Steroid Hormones and the Relationship between Receptor Polymorphism and Musical Ability: a Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HajimeFukui

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies have shown that music confers plasticity to the brain. In a preliminary pilot study, we examined the effect of music listening on steroid hormones and the relationship between steroid hormone receptor polymorphisms and musical ability. Twenty-one subjects (10 males and 11 females were recruited and divided into musically talented and control groups. The subjects selected (1 music they preferred (chill-inducing music and (2 music they did not like. Before and after the experiments, saliva was collected to measure the levels of steroid hormones such as testosterone, estradiol, and cortisol. DNA was also isolated from the saliva samples to determine the androgen receptor and arginine vasopressin receptor 1A genotypes. Advanced Measures of Music Audiation (AMMA was used to determine the musical ability of the subjects. With both types of music, the cortisol levels decreased significantly in both sexes. The testosterone (T levels declined in males when they listened to both types of music. In females, the T levels increased in those listening to chill-inducing music but declined when they listened to music they disliked. However, these differences were not significant. The 17-beta estradiol levels increased in males with both types of music, whereas the levels increased with chill-inducing music but declined with disliked music in females. The AMMA scores were higher for the short repeat length-type AR than for the long repeat length-type. Comparisons of AR polymorphisms and T levels before the experiments showed that the T levels were within the low range in the short repeat length-type group and there was a positive relationship with the repeat length, although it was not significant. This is the first study conducted in humans to analyze the relationships between the AR gene, T levels, and musical ability.

  18. Modulation of Xenobiotic Receptors by Steroids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delira Robbins

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear receptors (NRs are ligand-activated transcription factors that regulate the expression of their target genes. NRs play important roles in many human diseases, including metabolic diseases and cancer, and are therefore a key class of therapeutic targets. Steroids play important roles in regulating nuclear receptors; in addition to being ligands of steroid receptors, steroids (and their metabolites also regulate other NRs, such as the pregnane X receptor and constitutive androstane receptor (termed xenobiotic receptors, which participate in steroid metabolism. Xenobiotic receptors have promiscuous ligand-binding properties, and their structurally diverse ligands include steroids and their metabolites. Therefore, steroids, their metabolism and metabolites, xenobiotic receptors, steroid receptors, and the respective signaling pathways they regulate have functional interactions. This review discusses these functional interactions and their implications for activities mediated by steroid receptors and xenobiotic receptors, focusing on steroids that modulate pathways involving the pregnane X receptor and constitutive androstane receptor. The emphasis of the review is on structure-function studies of xenobiotic receptors bound to steroid ligands.

  19. Sex Determination from Occipital Condylar Measurements by Baudoin Index in Forensic Purposes / Determinación del Sexo desde Mediciones del Cóndilo Occipital Mediante el Índice de Baudoin con Propósitos Forenses

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Osvaldo Fortes de, Oliviera; Rachel Lima Ribeiro, Tinoco; Eduardo, Daruge Júnior; Laís Gomes de, Araujo; Ricardo Henrique Alves da, Silva; Luiz Renato, Paranhos.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available En la identificación de personas con fines forenses el sexo es una de las características más importantes y primordiales a evaluar en cada caso. El índice condilar Baudoin es un método de determinación del sexo basado en mediciones de la longitud y la anchura del cóndilo occipital. El objetivo de es [...] ta investigación fue aplicar el índice condilar de Baudoin para la determinación del sexo, y evaluar su fiabilidad. La muestra fue compuesta de 100 cráneos humanos brasileños, 50 hombres y 50 mujeres del cementerio São Gonçalo, ciudad de Cuiabá, Brasil. Los valores de medición se analizaron estadísticamente con el fin de comparar la tasa de coincidencia para cada sexo, cada lado, además de la media general. Los resultados mostraron que el porcentaje general de éxito en la aplicación del índice de Baudoin fue de 44,83% para los hombres y 51,93% para las mujeres, lo que asciende a una coincidencia del 47,5%. La precisión del índice de Baudoin para la determinación del sexo fue bastante baja para esta muestra brasileña, por lo que este método debe ser considerado como criterio para determinar el sexo de los cráneos en un contexto forense. Abstract in english In human identification for forensic purposes the sex is one of the most important and first features to be assessed in each case. Baudoin condylar index is a sex determination method based on measurements of length and width of the occipital condyle. The aim of this research was to apply the Baudoi [...] n condylar index for sex determination, and evaluate its reliability. The sample was composed of 100 Brazilian human skulls, 50 male and 50 female from São Gonçalo cemetery, City of Cuiabá, Brazil. The measurement values were statistically analyzed in order to compare the matching rate for each sex, each side, as well as the overall average. The results showed that the overall percentage of success in applying the Baudoin index was 44.83% to males, and 51.93% to females, amounting to 47.5% matching. The accuracy of the Baudoin index to sex determination was quite low for this Brazilian sample, the reason why this method should be disregarded as a criterion to sexing skulls in a forensic context.

  20. Sex-dependent effects on tasks assessing reinforcement learning and interference inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Kelly L; Hampson, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that the prefrontal cortex (PFC) is influenced by sex steroids and that some cognitive functions dependent on the PFC may be sexually differentiated in humans. Past work has identified a male advantage on certain complex reinforcement learning tasks, but it is unclear which latent task components are important to elicit the sex difference. The objective of the current study was to investigate whether there are sex differences on measures of response inhibition and valenced feedback processing, elements that are shared by previously studied reinforcement learning tasks. Healthy young adults (90 males, 86 females) matched in general intelligence completed the Probabilistic Selection Task (PST), a Simon task, and the Stop-Signal task. On the PST, females were more accurate than males in learning from positive (but not negative) feedback. On the Simon task, males were faster than females, especially in the face of incongruent stimuli. No sex difference was observed in Stop-Signal reaction time. The current findings provide preliminary support for a sex difference in the processing of valenced feedback and in interference inhibition. PMID:26257691

  1. “Any Condomless Anal Intercourse” is No Longer an Accurate Measure of HIV Sexual risk Behavior in Gay and Other Men Who have Sex with Men

    OpenAIRE

    Jin, Fengyi; Prestage, Garrett P; Mao, Limin; Poynten, I Mary; Templeton, David J.; Grulich, Andrew E.; Zablotska, Iryna

    2015-01-01

    Background: Condomless anal intercourse (CLAI) has long been recognized as the primary mode of sexual transmission of HIV in gay and other men who have sex with men (MSM). A variety of measures of CLAI have been commonly used in behavioral surveillance for HIV risk and to forecast trends in HIV infection. However, gay and other MSM’s sexual practices changed as the understanding of disease and treatment options advance. In the present paper, we argue that summary measures such as “any CLAI” d...

  2. Differentiation of endogenous and exogenous steroids by gas chromatography-combustion-mass spectrometry isotope ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urinary steroids profiles are used to control the misuse of endogenous steroids such as testosterone and dihydrotestosterone. The testosterone/epistestosterone ratio, measured by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry, is used to control testosterone administration. When T/E ratio is higher than 4, consumption of testosterone or its precursors is suspected. Recent researches have demonstrated the effectiveness of Carbon Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry to detect and confirm endogenous steroids administration. The ratio of the two stable carbon isotopes 13C and 12C allows the differentiation of natural and synthetic steroids because synthetic steroids have lower 13C abundance. In fact, the carbon isotope ratios can be used to determine endogenous steroids administration even when testosterone/epistestosterone ratio is at its normal value. In the current work, some of the most important aspects related to differentiation of endogenous and exogenous steroids by means of Gas Chromatography-Combustion-Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry are discussed. Also, this article provides a review about the purification and sample preparation previous to the analysis, and diet effects on carbon isotope ratio of endogenous anabolics steroids is presented too

  3. Synthesis of steroidal dimers: Selective amine catalysed steroidal dimerization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Shamsuzzaman; Mohd Gulfam Aalam; Tabassum Siddiqui

    2011-07-01

    Some new dimeric steroids namely cholest-5-en-3-spiro-[6',5'-oxa]-5'-cholest-3'-one (2), cholest-5-en-7-spiro-[4',5'-oxa]-5'-cholest-7'-one (4a) and 3-substitutedcholest-5-en-7-spiro-[4',5'-oxa]-3'-substituted-5'-cholestan-7'-ones (4b, c) are synthesized starting from cholest-5-en-3-one (1), cholest-5-en-7-one (3a) and 3-substituted-cholest-5-en-7-ones (3b, c) respectively by using DMAP and xylene. All the synthesized compounds were characterized by using IR, MS and 1H, 13C NMR spectral and elemental analysis.

  4. Sex determination

    OpenAIRE

    McCullagh, W. McK. H.

    2013-01-01

    How the sex of offspring is determined has puzzled philosophers and scientists for millennia. Modern science has identified both genetic and environmental factors, but the question is still not yet fully answered.

  5. Why Sex?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus

    2006-01-01

    It is assumed that most organisms have sex because the resulting genetic recombination allows Darwinian selection to work better. It is now shown that in water fleas, recombination does lead to fewer deleterious mutations.

  6. Chemosensory communication of gender through two human steroids in a sexually dimorphic manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wen; Yang, Xiaoying; Chen, Kepu; Cai, Peng; He, Sheng; Jiang, Yi

    2014-05-19

    Recent studies have suggested the existence of human sex pheromones, with particular interest in two human steroids: androstadienone (androsta-4,16,-dien-3-one) and estratetraenol (estra-1,3,5(10),16-tetraen-3-ol). The current study takes a critical step to test the qualification of the two steroids as sex pheromones by examining whether they communicate gender information in a sex-specific manner. By using dynamic point-light displays that portray the gaits of walkers whose gender is digitally morphed from male to female [1, 2], we show that smelling androstadienone systematically biases heterosexual females, but not males, toward perceiving the walkers as more masculine. By contrast, smelling estratetraenol systematically biases heterosexual males, but not females, toward perceiving the walkers as more feminine. Homosexual males exhibit a response pattern akin to that of heterosexual females, whereas bisexual or homosexual females fall in between heterosexual males and females. These effects are obtained despite that the olfactory stimuli are not explicitly discriminable. The results provide the first direct evidence that the two human steroids communicate opposite gender information that is differentially effective to the two sex groups based on their sexual orientation. Moreover, they demonstrate that human visual gender perception draws on subconscious chemosensory biological cues, an effect that has been hitherto unsuspected. PMID:24794295

  7. Why Sex?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus

    2006-01-01

    It is assumed that most organisms have sex because the resulting genetic recombination allows Darwinian selection to work better. It is now shown that in water fleas, recombination does lead to fewer deleterious mutations.......It is assumed that most organisms have sex because the resulting genetic recombination allows Darwinian selection to work better. It is now shown that in water fleas, recombination does lead to fewer deleterious mutations....

  8. [Sequential changes of serum steroid levels in puerperium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Y; Kimura, T; Yanaihara, T; Nakayama, T

    1983-10-01

    To examine daily changes in blood hormone levels during the postpartum period, twenty steroids including free and conjugated pregnenolone (P5), 16 alpha OH-P5(16P5), dehydroepiandrosterone (DHA), 16 alpha OH-DHA(16DHA), estrone(E1), estradiol(E2), estriol(E3), estetrol(E4) and free progesterone(P4), 16 alpha OH - P4(16P4), 20 alpha-dihydro-P4(20P4) and cortisol(F) were measured simultaneously by RIA. Seven patients who delivered a healthy child vaginally were selected for this study. The steroid levels in maternal blood were measured daily until the 7th post partum day and were compared to those at delivery. Levels of free and conjugated E1, E2, P5, free E3 and 16P4 dropped rapidly within 24 hours and reached approximately 10% of those at delivery. Conjugated E2, E4, 16P5, and P4, 20P4 levels also dropped after delivery to less than 17% of those at delivery within 72 hours. However, the levels of these steroids were maintained at more than 20% of those at delivery until the 7th postpartum day. These results provide further information on the significance of the steroids in maternal blood during pregnancy. PMID:6226753

  9. Azoospermi hos to bodybuildere efter anaboliske steroider

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, M B; Ingerslev, Hans Jakob

    1995-01-01

    During investigations for infertility azoospermia was diagnosed in two men who were concomitantly using anabolic steroids for body-building. Following cessation of anabolic steroid use the semen quality was normalized. Suppression of spermatogenesis during treatment with testosterone and...... derivatives hereof is wellknown. Usage of anabolic steroids should be remembered as a cause of oligo- and azoospermia and asked about in cases of sperm counts approaching or at zero....

  10. Feasibility of desorption atmospheric pressure photoionization and desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry to monitor urinary steroid metabolites during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaikkinen, Anu; Rejšek, Jan; Vrkoslav, Vladimír; Kauppila, Tiina J; Cvačka, Josef; Kostiainen, Risto

    2015-06-23

    Steroids have important roles in the progress of pregnancy, and their study in maternal urine is a non-invasive method to monitor the steroid metabolome and its possible abnormalities. However, the current screening techniques of choice, namely immunoassays and gas and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, do not offer means for the rapid and non-targeted multi-analyte studies of large sample sets. In this study, we explore the feasibility of two ambient mass spectrometry methods in steroid fingerprinting. Urine samples from pregnant women were screened by desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) and desorption atmospheric pressure photoionization (DAPPI) Orbitrap high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS). The urine samples were processed by solid phase extraction for the DESI measurements and by enzymatic hydrolysis and liquid-liquid-extraction for DAPPI. Consequently, steroid glucuronides and sulfates were detected by negative ion mode DESI-HRMS, and free steroids by positive ion mode DAPPI-HRMS. In DESI, signals of eleven steroid metabolite ions were found to increase as the pregnancy proceeded, and in DAPPI ten steroid ions showed at least an order of magnitude increase during pregnancy. In DESI, the increase was seen for ions corresponding to C18 and C21 steroid glucuronides, while DAPPI detected increased excretion of C19 and C21 steroids. Thus both techniques show promise for the steroid marker screening in pregnancy. PMID:26092341

  11. Endothelial function in male body builders taking anabolic androgenic steroids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Hashemi

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adverse cardiovascular events have been reported in body builders taking anabolic steroids. Adverse effects of AAS on endothelial function can initiate atherosclerosis. This study evaluates endothelial function in body builders using AAS, compared with non-steroids using athletes as controls. Methods: We recruited 30 nonsmoking male body builders taking AAS, 14 in build up phase, 8 in work out phase, and 8 in post steroid phase, and 30 nonsmoking male athletes who denied ever using steroids. Serum lipids and fasting plasma glucose were measured to exclude dyslipidemia and diabetes. Brachial artery diameter was measured by ultrasound at rest, after cuff inflation, and after sublingual glyceriltrinitrate (GTN to determine flow mediated dilation (FMD, nitro mediated dilation (NMD and ratio of FMD to NMD (index of endothelial function. Result: Use of AAS was associated with higher body mass index (BMI and low density lipoprotein–cholesterol (LDL-C. Mean ratio of flow mediated dilatation after cuff deflation to post GTN dilatation of brachial artery (index of endothelial function in body builders taking AAS was significantly lower than control group (0.96(0.05 versus 1(0.08; p=0.03. After adjusting BMI, age and weight, no significant difference was seen in index of endothelial function between two groups (p=0 .21. Conclusion: Our study indicates that taking AAS in body builders doesn’t have direct effect on endothelial function. Future study with bigger sample size and measurement of AAS metabolites is recommended. Key words: endothelium, lipids, anabolic steroids, body builders

  12. A chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry method for the simultaneous profiling of ten endogenous steroids, including progesterone, adrenal precursors, androgens and estrogens, using low serum volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caron, Patrick; Turcotte, Véronique; Guillemette, Chantal

    2015-12-01

    Measurement of a large set of sex steroids in clinical epidemiology and laboratory research with reliable methods providing low quantification limits and using a limited volume of blood sample represents a significant challenge. We report a new validated gas chromatography selected reaction monitoring - tandem mass spectrometry assay (GC-MS/MS) for the simultaneous quantification of ten endogenous steroids including progesterone (PROG), dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), androstenediol (5-diol), androstenedione (4-dione), testosterone (T), dihydrotestosterone (DHT), androsterone (ADT), 5alpha-androstan-3beta-17beta-diol (3?-diol), estrone (E1) and estradiol (E2). After addition of stable isotope internal standards, the approach involved the combination of liquid-liquid extraction, derivatization and solid-phase extraction for injection into the GC system and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM). The method presents high reproducibility for all analytical parameters in 250?l serum samples. The lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) were of 100pg/ml for DHEA, 50pg/ml for PROG, 5-diol, 4-dione and ADT, 30pg/ml for T, 10pg/ml for 3?-diol and DHT, 5pg/ml for E1, and 1pg/ml for E2. The applicability of the validated method to determine the concentrations of these 10 steroids was successfully tested on serum from men (n=15), premenopausal (n=10) and postmenopausal women (n=20), and is currently used for larger cancer-related epidemiology studies. One of the most considerable advantages over existing methods is the simultaneous determination of ten steroids in a limited volume of serum that will help conserve important clinical samples from existing biobanks. PMID:26254607

  13. Steroid profiling in doping analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Kerkhof, Daniël Henri van de

    2001-01-01

    Profiling androgens in urine samples is used in doping analysis for the detection of abused steroids of endogenous origin. These profiling techniques were originally developed for the analysis of testosterone, mostly by means of the ratio of testosterone to epitestosterone (T/E ratio). A study was performed on the influence of alcohol consumption on the T/E ratio. The applied dose increased the ratio of both males and females and it showed that, under the studied conditions, the risk of a pos...

  14. Altered Serum Lipoprotein Profiles in Male and Female Power Lifters Ingesting Anabolic Steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Jonathan C.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Serum lipoprotein profiles were measured in nine male and three female weightlifters who were taking anabolic steroids. The profiles suggest that steriod users may face an increased risk of coronary artery disease. (Author/MT)

  15. Comprehensive Analysis of Hormone and Genetic Variation in 36 Genes Related to Steroid Hormone Metabolism in Pre- and Postmenopausal Women from the Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beckmann, L.; Husing, A.

    2011-01-01

    Context: Sex steroids play a central role in breast cancer development.Objective: This study aimed to relate polymorphic variants in 36 candidate genes in the sex steroid pathway to serum concentrations of sex steroid hormones and SHBG.Design: Data on 700 genetic polymorphisms were combined with existing hormone assays and data on breast cancer incidence, within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) and the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) cohorts; significant findings were reanalyzed in the Multiethnic Cohort (MEC).Setting and Participants: We analyzed data from a pooled sample of 3852 pre- and postmenopausal Caucasian women from EPIC and NHS and 454 postmenopausal women from MEC.Main Outcome Measures: Outcome measures were SHBG, testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEAS), androstenedione, estrone (E1), and estradiol (E2) as well as breast cancer risk.Results: Globally significant associations were found among pre- and postmenopausal women combined between levels of SHBG and theSHBG gene and between DHEAS and the FSHR and AKR1C3 genes. Among postmenopausal women, serum E1 and E2 were significantly associated with the genes CYP19 and FSHR, and E1 was associated with ESR1. None of the variants related to serum hormone levels showed any significant association with breast cancer risk.Conclusions: We confirmed associations between serum levels of SHBG and the SHBG gene and of E1 and E2 and the CYP19 and ESR1 genes. Novel associations were observed between FSHR and DHEAS, E1, and E2 and between AKR1C3 and DHEAS. (J Clin Endocrinol Metab 96: E360-E367, 2011)

  16. Steroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hormones that your adrenal glands make to fight stress associated with illnesses and injuries. They reduce inflammation and affect the immune system. You may need to take corticosteroids to treat ...

  17. Steroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News, Trends & Statistics Latest News Latest News Drug Trends Tracking Drug Use and Other Drug-Related Statistics Drugs & Your Family Social Media: Understanding a Teen's World Social Media: Understanding a ...

  18. Environmentally relevant concentrations of benzo[a]pyrene affect steroid levels and affect gonad of male scallop Chlamys farreri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Shuangmei; Pan, Luqing; Tao, Yanxia; Sun, Xiaohua

    2015-04-01

    Sexually mature male Chlamys farreri were exposed to benzo[a]pyrene for 10 days at four concentrations at 0, 0.025, 0.5 and 10 ?g/L. Fluctuations in sex steroids during the exposure period were observed, which indicated that sex steroids have a role in gamete development. Exposure to B[a]P altered levels of 17?-estradiol, testosterone, and progesterone. Furthermore, B[a]P treatments induced oxidative stress in a dose-dependent manner on spermary of scallop and led to delayed development and damaged spermatid in germinal epithelium of spermary. Overall, B[a]P affected the steroid levels and induced gonadal toxicity at environmentally relevant concentrations. PMID:25637750

  19. Evaluating the Predictive Accuracy of Sex Offender Risk Assessment Measures on UK Samples: A Cross-Validation of the Risk Matrix 2000 Scales

    OpenAIRE

    Leam A. Craig; Beech, Anthony R.; Browne, Kevin D.

    2006-01-01

    The predictive accuracy of the newly developed risk measures Risk Matrix 2000 Sexual/Violence (RMS, RMV) were cross validated and compared with four risk scales (RRASOR, SACJ-Min, SVR-20, and Static-99) in a sample of sexual (n = 85), violent (n = 46), and general (n = 22) offenders. The sexual offense reconviction rate for the sex offender group was 18% at 10 years follow-up, compared with 2% for the violent offenders. Survival analyses revealed the violent offenders were reconvicted at twic...

  20. Use of AUDIT, and measures of drinking frequency and patterns to detect associations between alcohol and sexual behaviour in male sex workers in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Temmerman Marleen

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous research has linked alcohol use with an increased number of sexual partners, inconsistent condom use and a raised incidence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs. However, alcohol measures have been poorly standardised, with many ill-suited to eliciting, with adequate precision, the relationship between alcohol use and sexual risk behaviour. This study investigates which alcohol indicator - single-item measures of frequency and patterns of drinking ( > = 6 drinks on 1 occasion, or the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT - can detect associations between alcohol use and unsafe sexual behaviour among male sex workers. Methods A cross-sectional survey in 2008 recruited male sex workers who sell sex to men from 65 venues in Mombasa district, Kenya, similar to a 2006 survey. Information was collected on socio-demographics, substance use, sexual behaviour, violence and STI symptoms. Multivariate models examined associations between the three measures of alcohol use and condom use, sexual violence, and penile or anal discharge. Results The 442 participants reported a median 2 clients/week (IQR = 1-3, with half using condoms consistently in the last 30 days. Of the approximately 70% of men who drink alcohol, half (50.5% drink two or more times a week. Binge drinking was common (38.9%. As defined by AUDIT, 35% of participants who drink had hazardous drinking, 15% harmful drinking and 21% alcohol dependence. Compared with abstinence, alcohol dependence was associated with inconsistent condom use (AOR = 2.5, 95%CI = 1.3-4.6, penile or anal discharge (AOR = 1.9, 95%CI = 1.0-3.8, and two-fold higher odds of sexual violence (AOR = 2.0, 95%CI = 0.9-4.9. Frequent drinking was associated with inconsistent condom use (AOR = 1.8, 95%CI = 1.1-3.0 and partner number, while binge drinking was only linked with inconsistent condom use (AOR = 1.6, 95%CI = 1.0-2.5. Conclusions Male sex workers have high levels of hazardous and harmful drinking, and require alcohol-reduction interventions. Compared with indicators of drinking frequency or pattern, the AUDIT measure has stronger associations with inconsistent condom use, STI symptoms and sexual violence. Increased use of the AUDIT tool in future studies may assist in delineating with greater precision the explanatory mechanisms which link alcohol use, drinking contexts, sexual behaviours and HIV transmission.

  1. Body water, extracellular water, body potassium, and exchangeable sodium in body builders using anabolic steroids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nine competitive male body builders aged 21 to 34 who were determined to take anabolic steroids were studied before and 6 to 10 weeks after a training cycle which included steroid administration. A control group of nine subjects matched in age and duration of competitive career, but using only natural training methods were studied on a single occasion while in training. Total body potassium (TBK) by 40K, total body water (TBW) by 3H2O dilution, extracellular water (ECW) by 35SO4 dilution and zero time extrapolation, and exchangeable sodium by 24Na dilution were measured before and after training. Intracellular water (ICW) was calculated from TBW - ECW. Initially steroid users had a greater skeletal muscle mass than control subjects, and obtained a further weight gain on steroids, all in skeletal muscle, based on parallel increases in TBK and ICW. Other body composition measurements did not change significantly. A single steroid user became ill taking steroids, decreased potassium by 5%, and increased extracellular water, changes which may represent the effects of hepatic dysfunction which occurred while on anabolic steroids

  2. 21 CFR 1308.34 - Exempt anabolic steroid products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 2010-04-01 false Exempt anabolic steroid products. 1308.34 Section 1308.34...OF CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Exempt Anabolic Steroid Products § 1308.34 Exempt anabolic steroid products. The list of compounds,...

  3. Intramesenteric Steroid Application for Steroid Refractory Gastrointestinal Graft versus Host Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aynur Ugur Bilgin

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Currently, Steroid refractory severe gastrointestinal (GI GVHD is one of the important complications in patients undergoing allogeneic transplantation and there has been no standard therapeutical approach of disease yet. We report here the results related to the application of intramesenteric steroid in two cases with steroid refractory GI GvHD. In both cases, the frequency and volume of diarrhea were completely resolved soon after intramesenteric methylprednisolone (MP injection. In conclusion, intra-arterial steroid injection might be an alternative approach especially steroid refractory GI GvHD.

  4. Measurements of the frontal and prefrontal lobe volumes by three dimensional magnetic resonance imaging scan. III. Analysis of sex differences with advanced age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine whether there is sex difference in the growth of the frontal and prefrontal lobes, we quantitatively measured the volume of these lobes by three dimensional (3-D) MRI in healthy 12 males (5 months to 39 years) and six females (1 year 11 months to 27 years). The left and right lobes were studied separately. The 3-D MRI data were acquired by the fast spoiled gradient recalled (SPGR) sequence using a 1.5 T MR imager. The frontal and prefrontal lobe volumes were measured by the volume measurement function of the Workstation. In males, the left to right ratio (L/R ratio) of the frontal and prefrontal lobes increased with age. On the contrary, in females, L/R ratio of the frontal and prefrontal lobes showed no significant change with advancing age. These results highlighted sex-specific maturational changes of the frontal and prefrontal lobes and suggested that quantitative data on the frontal and prefrontal lobe are important in interpreting brain abnormalities in children with developmental disorders. (author)

  5. Measurements of the frontal and prefrontal lobe volumes by three dimensional magnetic resonance imaging scan. III. Analysis of sex differences with advanced age

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanemura, Hideaki; Aihara, Masao; Nakazawa, Shinpei [Yamanashi Medical Univ., Tamaho (Japan)

    2002-09-01

    To determine whether there is sex difference in the growth of the frontal and prefrontal lobes, we quantitatively measured the volume of these lobes by three dimensional (3-D) MRI in healthy 12 males (5 months to 39 years) and six females (1 year 11 months to 27 years). The left and right lobes were studied separately. The 3-D MRI data were acquired by the fast spoiled gradient recalled (SPGR) sequence using a 1.5 T MR imager. The frontal and prefrontal lobe volumes were measured by the volume measurement function of the Workstation. In males, the left to right ratio (L/R ratio) of the frontal and prefrontal lobes increased with age. On the contrary, in females, L/R ratio of the frontal and prefrontal lobes showed no significant change with advancing age. These results highlighted sex-specific maturational changes of the frontal and prefrontal lobes and suggested that quantitative data on the frontal and prefrontal lobe are important in interpreting brain abnormalities in children with developmental disorders. (author)

  6. Use of radioimmunoassay procedures for the determination of sex hormones in animal tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioimmunoassay methods for the determination of sex steroids and other compounds with sex hormone-like activities in various edible animal tissues and endocrine glands have been developed. Reliability of these methods, allowing quantification in a range of 10-11 M, has been adequately demonstrated. When applied to monitoring residues of anabolic sex hormones in edible tissues of veal calves, physiological baseline levels of some endogenous ''anabolic'' steroids (like testosterone, oestrogens) were established; in the case of xenobiotics residues at the scheduled time of slaughter could be quantified (trenbolone) and a regulatory method to implement the ban of diethylstilbestrol was introduced. (author)

  7. Use of radioimmunoassay procedures for the determination of sex hormones in animal tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, B. (Institut fuer Veterinaermedizin des Bundesgesundheitsamtes (Robert von Ostertag-Institut), Berlin (Germany, F.R.))

    1983-07-01

    Radioimmunoassay methods for the determination of sex steroids and other compounds with sex hormone-like activities in various edible animal tissues and endocrine glands have been developed. Reliability of these methods, allowing quantification in a range of 10/sup -11/ M, has been adequately demonstrated. When applied to monitoring residues of anabolic sex hormones in edible tissues of veal calves, physiological baseline levels of some endogenous ''anabolic'' steroids (like testosterone, oestrogens) were established; in the case of xenobiotics residues at the scheduled time of slaughter could be quantified (trenbolone) and a regulatory method to implement the ban of diethylstilbestrol was introduced.

  8. Anabolic-androgenic steroids: in cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochakian, C D; Welder, A A

    1993-06-01

    Testosterone and related steroids at physiological concentrations positively stimulate in cell culture a number of reactions in a variety of tissues from different species of animals. Cells maintained in cell culture provide a means to study toxic effects in target organs and also the mechanism of action of these steroids. PMID:8331026

  9. Steroid-induced benign intracranial hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Vyas, C. K.; Bhatnagar, V.; Talwar, K K; B.K. Sharma

    1981-01-01

    A 41-year-old man whose systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) had been successfully treated for 15 months with a daily maintenance dose of 5 mg prednisolone, developed benign intracranial hypertension (BIH) when the steroid was increased to 60 mg daily for recrudescence of SLE symptoms. The BIH remitted when the steroid was discontinued.

  10. Osteonecrosis following alcohol, cocaine, and steroid use.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ziraldo, Laura

    2012-02-01

    Alcohol, steroids and cocaine have all been shown to be independent risk factors for osteonecrosis when taken in excess. Here we present a case of a young girl who developed debilitating osteonecrosis secondary to low doses of alcohol, steroids and cocaine. We feel it is important to highlight to those caring for such patients of the potential devastating complication of these three agents.

  11. Steroids: To Test or to Educate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaFee, Scott

    2006-01-01

    In February 2005, The Dallas Morning News published a multipart series on steroid use among high school students in Texas. The paper's four-month investigation was wide-ranging, but shined a particular spotlight upon alleged abuses in the 13,700-student Grapevine-Colleyville Independent School District, north of Dallas. Use of steroids and other…

  12. Estimación del sexo en cazadores-recolectores de Sudamérica a partir de variables métricas del húmero Sex estimation of South american hunter-gatherers using humeral measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marien Béguelin

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es desarrollar funciones discriminantes para estimar el sexo en poblaciones cazadoras recolectoras sudamericanas a partir de variables métricas del húmero. Se seleccionaron tres muestras de poblaciones del Holoceno tardío procedentes de: a Sur de Patagonia (n= 64, b Noreste de Patagonia (n= 47, y c Noreste de Pampa y Entre Ríos (n= 35. Para obtener una estimación confiable del sexo se incluyeron individuos con estructuras diagnósticas presentes de la pelvis o el cráneo. Se analizaron seis variables del húmero que fueron empleadas para generar funciones discriminantes a través del método stepwise forward. El sexo estimado fue contrastado con el sexo basado en la pelvis a fin de establecer su exactitud. Las asignaciones correctas calculadas mediante el método de validación cruzada fueron relevadas en las tres muestras, que variaron entre el 82% y el 100%. A su vez, se estimó el sexo con funciones provenientes de otras poblaciones del mundo, que arrojaron porcentajes menores de asignaciones correctas. Por lo tanto, la técnica desarrollada proporciona estándares específicos para las poblaciones del cono sur de América y constituye una herramienta confiable para la estimación del sexo en muestras procedentes de las áreas analizadas.The purpose of this study is to develop discriminant functions for sex estimation in hunter-gatherer South American populations, using humerus metric variables. Three Late Holocene aboriginal population samples were selected from: a South Patagonia (n= 64, b Northeastern Patagonia (n= 47 and c Northeastern Pampa and Entre Ríos (n= 35. Only those individuals showing pelvic or cranial diagnostic structures were included, in order to obtain reliable and independent sex estimation. Six humeral variables were measured (Maximum Length, Epicondylar Breadth, Vertical Diameter of Head, Maximum and Minimum Diameter at Midshaft and Minimum Diaphyseal Circumference and discriminant functions were generated from them through stepwise forward method, which selected different combinations of these variables for each sample. In order to assess the accuracy of estimations, both pelvic and humeral sex results were compared. Cross-validation percentages of correct sex assignations were high, ranging between 82 and 100 percent. In turn, other functions were tested, generated from different populations worldwide, and results for the three samples showed mostly lower percentages. Therefore, it is concluded that Southern-South America population-specific standards were obtained through this method, allowing for reliable sex determination in samples from the studied areas.

  13. Estimación del sexo en cazadores-recolectores de Sudamérica a partir de variables métricas del húmero / Sex estimation of South american hunter-gatherers using humeral measurements

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marien, Béguelin; Federico P, Lotto; Paula N, Gonzalez.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es desarrollar funciones discriminantes para estimar el sexo en poblaciones cazadoras recolectoras sudamericanas a partir de variables métricas del húmero. Se seleccionaron tres muestras de poblaciones del Holoceno tardío procedentes de: a) Sur de Patagonia (n= 64), b) No [...] reste de Patagonia (n= 47), y c) Noreste de Pampa y Entre Ríos (n= 35). Para obtener una estimación confiable del sexo se incluyeron individuos con estructuras diagnósticas presentes de la pelvis o el cráneo. Se analizaron seis variables del húmero que fueron empleadas para generar funciones discriminantes a través del método stepwise forward. El sexo estimado fue contrastado con el sexo basado en la pelvis a fin de establecer su exactitud. Las asignaciones correctas calculadas mediante el método de validación cruzada fueron relevadas en las tres muestras, que variaron entre el 82% y el 100%. A su vez, se estimó el sexo con funciones provenientes de otras poblaciones del mundo, que arrojaron porcentajes menores de asignaciones correctas. Por lo tanto, la técnica desarrollada proporciona estándares específicos para las poblaciones del cono sur de América y constituye una herramienta confiable para la estimación del sexo en muestras procedentes de las áreas analizadas. Abstract in english The purpose of this study is to develop discriminant functions for sex estimation in hunter-gatherer South American populations, using humerus metric variables. Three Late Holocene aboriginal population samples were selected from: a) South Patagonia (n= 64), b) Northeastern Patagonia (n= 47) and c) [...] Northeastern Pampa and Entre Ríos (n= 35). Only those individuals showing pelvic or cranial diagnostic structures were included, in order to obtain reliable and independent sex estimation. Six humeral variables were measured (Maximum Length, Epicondylar Breadth, Vertical Diameter of Head, Maximum and Minimum Diameter at Midshaft and Minimum Diaphyseal Circumference) and discriminant functions were generated from them through stepwise forward method, which selected different combinations of these variables for each sample. In order to assess the accuracy of estimations, both pelvic and humeral sex results were compared. Cross-validation percentages of correct sex assignations were high, ranging between 82 and 100 percent. In turn, other functions were tested, generated from different populations worldwide, and results for the three samples showed mostly lower percentages. Therefore, it is concluded that Southern-South America population-specific standards were obtained through this method, allowing for reliable sex determination in samples from the studied areas.

  14. Separation of radioactive androgenic steroids and precursors with high pressure liquid chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An HPLC system was developed for separation, identification and specific quantification of androgenic steroid hormones by using tritiated steroids as standard compounds. Detection is based on radioactivity, thus all steroids can be measured with the same method (?-liquid scintillation), and the recovery of samples can simply be controlled on the radiochromatogram. The specific activity of standards is so high that it is sufficient to put only a small amount onto the column, therefore the appearance of high baseline or any artifact is not expected in the further analytical application of the system. (author) 6 refs.; 3 figs.; 1 tab

  15. Hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls decrease circulating steroids in female polar bears (Ursus maritimus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustavson, Lisa; Ciesielski, Tomasz M; Bytingsvik, Jenny; Styrishave, Bjarne; Hansen, Martin; Lie, Elisabeth; Aars, Jon; Jenssen, Bjørn M

    2015-01-01

    As a top predator in the Arctic food chain, polar bears (Ursus maritimus) are exposed to high levels of persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Because several of these compounds have been reported to alter endocrine pathways, such as the steroidogenesis, potential disruption of the sex steroid synthesis by POPs may cause implications for reproduction by interfering with ovulation, implantation and fertility. Blood samples were collected from 15 female polar bears in Svalbard (Norway) in April 200...

  16. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and benign oesophageal stricture.

    OpenAIRE

    Heller, S R; Fellows, I. W.; Ogilvie, A L; Atkinson, M

    1982-01-01

    Drug histories were obtained from 76 patients at the time of initial Eder-Puestow dilatation for benign oesophageal stricture. Six patients had consumed drugs known to cause oesophageal ulceration (emepronium bromide and potassium preparations). Of the remaining 70 patients, 22 had regularly taken a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug before the onset of dysphagia compared with 10 patients in a control group matched for age and sex; this difference was significant (p less than 0.02). Non-ste...

  17. The Role of Steroid Hormones in the Modulation of Neuroinflammation by Dietary Interventions

    OpenAIRE

    Vasconcelos, Andrea Rodrigues; Cabral-Costa, João Victor; Mazucanti, Caio Henrique; Scavone, Cristoforo; Kawamoto, Elisa Mitiko

    2016-01-01

    Steroid hormones, such as sex hormones and glucocorticoids, have been demonstrated to play a role in different cellular processes in the central nervous system, ranging from neurodevelopment to neurodegeneration. Environmental factors, such as calorie intake or fasting frequency, may also impact on such processes, indicating the importance of external factors in the development and preservation of a healthy brain. The hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis and glucocorticoid activity play a role...

  18. Pregnancy-related steroids are potential negative regulators of B lymphopoiesis.

    OpenAIRE

    Medina, K L; Kincade, P W

    1994-01-01

    B lymphopoiesis is selectively suppressed in normal pregnant mice, suggesting that fluctuations in systemic hormone levels might influence local events within bone marrow. This has now been tested by sustained experimental elevation of sex steroids by hormone-containing pellet implants. We found that while numbers of total nucleated cells declined after treatment with estrone, beta-estradiol, or estriol, there was preferential suppression of B-lymphocyte lineage precursors. Progesterone pelle...

  19. Steroid use in acute liver failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karkhanis, Jamuna; Verna, Elizabeth C

    2014-01-01

    UNLABELLED: Drug-induced and indeterminate acute liver failure (ALF) might be due to an autoimmune-like hepatitis that is responsive to corticosteroid therapy. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether corticosteroids improve survival in fulminant autoimmune hepatitis, drug-induced, or indeterminate ALF, and whether this benefit varies according to the severity of illness. We conducted a retrospective analysis of autoimmune, indeterminate, and drug-induced ALF patients in the Acute Liver Failure Study Group from 1998-2007. The primary endpoints were overall and spontaneous survival (SS, survival without transplant). In all, 361 ALF patients were studied, 66 with autoimmune (25 steroids, 41 no steroids), 164 with indeterminate (21 steroids, 143 no steroids), and 131 with drug-induced (16 steroids, 115 no steroids) ALF. Steroid use was not associated with improved overall survival (61% versus 66%, P?=?0.41), nor with improved survival in any diagnosis category. Steroid use was associated with diminished survival in certain subgroups of patients, including those with the highest quartile of the Model for Endstage Liver Disease (MELD) (>40, survival 30% versus 57%, P?=?0.03). In multivariate analysis controlling for steroid use and diagnosis, age (odds ratio [OR] 1.37 per decade), coma grade (OR 2.02 grade 2, 2.65 grade 3, 5.29 grade 4), MELD (OR 1.07), and pH?steroid use was associated with a marginal benefit in SS overall (35% versus 23%, P?=?0.047), this benefit did not persistent in multivariate analysis; mechanical ventilation (OR 0.24), MELD (OR 0.93), and alanine aminotransferase (1.02) were the only significant predictors of SS. CONCLUSION: Corticosteroids did not improve overall survival or SS in drug-induced, indeterminate, or autoimmune ALF and were associated with lower survival in patients with the highest MELD scores.

  20. l-Kynurenine, an amino acid identified as a sex pheromone in the urine of ovulated female masu salmon

    OpenAIRE

    Yambe, Hidenobu; Kitamura, Shoji; Kamio, Michiya; Yamada, Miho; Matsunaga, Shigeki; Fusetani, Nobuhiro; Yamazaki, Fumio

    2006-01-01

    Many animals employ sex pheromones to find mating partners during their reproductive seasons. However, most sex pheromones of vertebrates remain to be identified. Over the past 20 years, steroids and prostaglandins have been identified as sex pheromones in several fishes. These pheromones are broadly termed “hormonal pheromones” because they or their precursors act as hormones in these fishes. Hitherto, no other type of sex pheromone has been unambiguously identified in teleost fish. Here we ...

  1. ABUSE OF ANABOLIC ANDROGENIC STEROIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Yavari

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available According to the International Olympic Committee, the abuse of anabolic androgenic steroids (AASS is found in over 50% of positive doping tests. AASS abuse is not restricted to the organized sports andwidespread use. It remains as an unsolved public-health problem.Lower black market price, easier access to AASS, bodybuilding clubs and internet advertising are factors of this increasingly misuse. There is not real data about the prevalence of AASS abuse in various populations or countries, because most of athletes or students, due to their prohibition or ethical aspects do not admit to AASS abuse. Often they are aware of the risks of their choice and yet, are eager to put themselves at risk without deeper consideration. The abusers use them to improve their physical fitness and appearance.Present article has been collected to elucidate the risks and adverse effects of AASS and explanation of mechanisms of these events.

  2. The Role of Steroid Hormones in the Modulation of Neuroinflammation by Dietary Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, Andrea Rodrigues; Cabral-Costa, João Victor; Mazucanti, Caio Henrique; Scavone, Cristoforo; Kawamoto, Elisa Mitiko

    2016-01-01

    Steroid hormones, such as sex hormones and glucocorticoids, have been demonstrated to play a role in different cellular processes in the central nervous system, ranging from neurodevelopment to neurodegeneration. Environmental factors, such as calorie intake or fasting frequency, may also impact on such processes, indicating the importance of external factors in the development and preservation of a healthy brain. The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and glucocorticoid activity play a role in neurodegenerative processes, including in disorders such as in Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. Sex hormones have also been shown to modulate cognitive functioning. Inflammation is a common feature in neurodegenerative disorders, and sex hormones/glucocorticoids can act to regulate inflammatory processes. Intermittent fasting can protect the brain against cognitive decline that is induced by an inflammatory stimulus. On the other hand, obesity increases susceptibility to inflammation, while metabolic syndromes, such as diabetes, are associated with neurodegeneration. Consequently, given that gonadal and/or adrenal steroids may significantly impact the pathophysiology of neurodegeneration, via their effect on inflammatory processes, this review focuses on how environmental factors, such as calorie intake and intermittent fasting, acting through their modulation of steroid hormones, impact on inflammation that contributes to cognitive and neurodegenerative processes. PMID:26869995

  3. Sex offenders and sex crime recidivism: investigating the role of sentence length and time served.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budd, Kristen; Desmond, Scott A

    2014-12-01

    The relationship between criminal justice sanctions and sex crime recidivism remains largely unexplored. Therefore, using a sample of 8,461 previously incarcerated male sex offenders from 13 states in the United States, we focus on the sentence meted out for the sex crime conviction and the amount of time sex offenders served as a result of their conviction. Sex offenders were grouped into four categories: rapists, sexual assaulters, child molesters, and all sex offenders combined. Recidivism was operationalized as rearrest and reconviction. Findings suggest how recidivism is operationalized matters. When recidivism is measured as rearrest for another sex offense, sentence length and time served are unrelated to sex crime recidivism. On the other hand, when recidivism is operationalized as reconviction for another sex offense, sentence length is positively related to recidivism for rapists, sexual assaulters, child molesters, and all sex offenders combined, while time served is negatively related to recidivism for child molesters and all sex offenders combined. PMID:24114424

  4. Risk of sex-specific cancers in opposite-sex and same-sex twins in Denmark and Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahrenfeldt, Linda Juel; Skytthe, Axel; Möller, Sören; Czene, Kamila; Adami, Hans-Olov; Mucci, Lorelei A; Kaprio, Jaakko; Petersen, Inge; Christensen, Kaare; Lindahl-Jacobsen, Rune

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Increasing evidence shows that some cancers originate in utero. It is hypothesized that elevated exposure to some steroid hormones might increase cancer risk, and that hormone transfer between twin fetuses could result in different prenatal exposure to testosterone. METHODS: This large......-scale prospective twin study compared opposite-sex (OS) and same-sex (SS) twins to test the impact of intrauterine exposures on cancer risk. Based on the Danish and Swedish twin and cancer registries, we calculated incidence rate ratios for OS and SS twins while standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) with 95......% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated for OS/SS twins compared with the general population. RESULTS: A total of 18,001 cancers were identified during 1943-2009. No significant differences were observed between OS and SS twins, neither for the sex-specific cancers nor for cancer at all sites. All...

  5. Paclitaxel and Carboplatin or Bleomycin Sulfate, Etoposide Phosphate, and Cisplatin in Treating Patients With Advanced or Recurrent Sex Cord-Ovarian Stromal Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-16

    Ovarian Granulosa Cell Tumor; Ovarian Gynandroblastoma; Ovarian Sertoli-Leydig Cell Tumor; Ovarian Sex Cord Tumor With Annular Tubules; Ovarian Sex Cord-Stromal Tumor; Ovarian Sex Cord-Stromal Tumor of Mixed or Unclassified Cell Types; Ovarian Steroid Cell Tumor

  6. Effects of Treadmill Exercise on Muscle Fibers in Mice with Steroid Myopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Okita, Minoru; Yoshimura, Toshiro; Nakano, Jiro; Watabe, Miwako; Nagai, Tomoko; Kato, Katsutomo; Eguchi, Katsumi

    2001-01-01

    We studied the effect of treadmill exercise on muscle fibers in mice with experimental steroid myopathy. Frozen sections of the extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and soleus (SOL) muscles were stained with hematoxylin-eosin, and the muscle fiber diameters measured. In the EDL, muscle fiber diameters in the steroid groups decreased significantly compared with those in the control groups; moreover, muscle fiber diameters in the exercise groups increased significantly compared with those in the non...

  7. Sex, Stress, and Mood Disorders: At the Intersection of Adrenal and Gonadal Hormones

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández-Guasti, A.; Fiedler, J. L.; L.Herrera; Handa, R.J.

    2012-01-01

    The risk for neuropsychiatric illnesses has a strong sex bias, and for major depressive disorder (MDD), females show a more than 2-fold greater risk compared to males. Such mood disorders are commonly associated with a dysregulation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Thus, sex differences in the incidence of MDD may be related with the levels of gonadal steroid hormone in adulthood or during early development as well as with the sex differences in HPA axis function. In rodents, ...

  8. Determinación del genero por medio de medidas y verificación del peso del hueso esternon (Brasil Sex determination by measures and weight verification of sternum bone.Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Queiroz

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available La determinación del género humano (sexo es una de las principales atribuciones del odontólogo forense y del médico legista encargados del análisis antropológico de esqueletos, piezas y fragmentos óseos. Entre los huesos que pueden y deben ser analizados se encuentra el hueso esternón, considerando, principalmente, sus características particulares. En el presente estudio fueron medidos y pesados 100 huesos esternón, siendo 50 del género femenino y 50 del género masculino, provenientes de Cuiabá, Mato Grosso, Brasil, con edades comprendidas entre 19 y 103 años. Fue verificado que la medida del centro de la escotadura de inserción del primer arco costal derecho al izquierdo y el peso del manubrio y cuerpo del esternón, altamente significantes, constituyen parámetros para determinar el género. Fue obtenida, también, una fórmula matemática que posibilita determinar el género en análisis futuras con índices de acierto de 69,2%. (SEX DETERMINATION BY MEASURES AND WEIGHT VERIFICATION OF ESTERNUM BONEHuman gender determination is one of the main attributions of forensic odontologists and forensic pathologists responsible for the anthropological analysis of skeletons, parts and fragmented bones. One of the bones that can and must be analyzed is the sternum, considering its particular characteristics. In the present study we’ve measured and weighed 100 sternums, 50 belonging to female gender and 50 to male gender proceeding from Cuiabá-MT, with age varying between 19 and 103 years. It was verified that the measure of the center of the chamfer of the insertion of the first to the left costal arc and the weight of the manubrium and body of sternum, are highly significant, becoming parameters to determine the gender. A mathematical formula was also obtained that permitted to determine the gender in future analyses with indices of 69,2%. (SEX DETERMINATION BY MEASURES AND WEIGHT VERIFICATION OF ESTERNUM BONE

  9. Intrauterine sexual differentiation: biosyntesis and action of sexual steroid hormones

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Amilton Cesar dos, Santos; Diego Carvalho, Viana; Gleidson Benevides de, Oliveira; Luis Miguel, Lobo; Antônio Chaves, Assis-Neto.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this review was to describe sexual differentiation events in mammals, relating them to biosynthesis of sexual steroid hormones and their mechanisms of action. Cholesterol is the precursor of sexual steroid hormone biosynthesis via action of several enzymes converting these hormones. [...] Progestagens hormones serve as substrate for the production of androgens, which in turn serve as substrate for estrogen hormones. These hormones are responsible for sexual differentiation and reproductive cycles of mammals. Sexual differentiation process comprises determining the sexual chromosomes XX or XY + SRY and other genes linked to them, differentiation of gonads in testis or ovary, differentiation of internal and external male or female genital organs from undifferentiated anatomical structures present in the embryo, which is dependent on the presence or absence of testes and the production of anti-Müllerian hormone and testosterone; and secondary sexual differentiation, which is the response of various tissues to hormones produced by the gonads, interacting with genes linked to sexual chromosomes to increase or decrease the differences in sexual phenotype. However, some differences between the sexes and some anomalies of sexual differentiation are not explained only by these sexual hormonal effects, but also by the effect of genes encoded in sexual chromosomes.

  10. Intrauterine sexual differentiation: biosyntesis and action of sexual steroid hormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amilton Cesar dos Santos

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this review was to describe sexual differentiation events in mammals, relating them to biosynthesis of sexual steroid hormones and their mechanisms of action. Cholesterol is the precursor of sexual steroid hormone biosynthesis via action of several enzymes converting these hormones. Progestagens hormones serve as substrate for the production of androgens, which in turn serve as substrate for estrogen hormones. These hormones are responsible for sexual differentiation and reproductive cycles of mammals. Sexual differentiation process comprises determining the sexual chromosomes XX or XY + SRY and other genes linked to them, differentiation of gonads in testis or ovary, differentiation of internal and external male or female genital organs from undifferentiated anatomical structures present in the embryo, which is dependent on the presence or absence of testes and the production of anti-Müllerian hormone and testosterone; and secondary sexual differentiation, which is the response of various tissues to hormones produced by the gonads, interacting with genes linked to sexual chromosomes to increase or decrease the differences in sexual phenotype. However, some differences between the sexes and some anomalies of sexual differentiation are not explained only by these sexual hormonal effects, but also by the effect of genes encoded in sexual chromosomes.

  11. When Sex Is Painful

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AQ FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS GYNECOLOGIC PROBLEMS FAQ020 When Sex Is Painful • How common is painful sex? • What causes pain during sex? • Where is pain during sex felt? • When should ...

  12. Sex during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Caring for Your Child All About Food Allergies Sex During Pregnancy KidsHealth > For Parents > Sex During Pregnancy ... satisfying and safe sexual relationship during pregnancy. Is Sex During Pregnancy Safe? Sex is considered safe during ...

  13. [Infliximab in moderate to severe steroid-dependent or steroid-refractory ulcerative colitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocciaro, Filippo; Orlando, Ambrogio; Scimeca, Daniela; Cottone, Mario

    2007-11-01

    Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha plays a main role in ulcerative colitis. Thirteen male and 8 female affected by moderate to severe steroid-dependent or refractory-severe ulcerative colitis were treated with 5 mg/kg of infliximab (Remicade). At 12 week efficacy, steroid-sparing, colectomy and side effects were evaluated. In steroid-dependent group (13 patients): 8 patients had a clinical benefit (7 obtained a clinical remission, 54%), 8 (61.5%) discontinued steroids, 1 patient underwent surgery. In steroid-severe refractory group (8 patients): 3 patients (37.5%) had a clinical remission, 2 (25%) had a clinical response and 3 (37.5%) underwent colectomy. One mild infusion reaction and one adverse event (itch) were observed. Infliximab is an effective and safe therapy in patients with moderate to severe steroid dependent and refractory ulcerative colitis. PMID:18044405

  14. 21 CFR 1308.34 - Exempt anabolic steroid products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exempt anabolic steroid products. 1308.34 Section... SUBSTANCES Exempt Anabolic Steroid Products § 1308.34 Exempt anabolic steroid products. The list of compounds, mixtures, or preparations that contain an anabolic steroid that have been exempted by the...

  15. Intramesenteric Steroid Treatment for Steroid- Refractory Gastrointestinal Graft Versus Host Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Bilgin, Aynur U?ur; Topcuo?lu, Pervin; Sancak, Tanzer; Konuk, Nahide; ARAT, Mutlu

    2012-01-01

    Currently, steroid-refractory severe gastrointestinal (GI) graft versus host disease (GVHD) is among the most important complications of allogeneic transplantation, and as yet there is no standard approach to its treatment. Herein we report two cases with steroid-refractory GI GVHD that received intramesenteric steroid treatment. In both cases the frequency and volume of diarrhea resolved completely following intramesenteric methylprednisolone (MP) injection. In conclusion, intra-arterial ste...

  16. Disorders of sex development expose transcriptional autonomy of genetic sex and androgen-programmed hormonal sex in human blood leukocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Appari Mahesh

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gender appears to be determined by independent programs controlled by the sex-chromosomes and by androgen-dependent programming during embryonic development. To enable experimental dissection of these components in the human, we performed genome-wide profiling of the transcriptomes of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC in patients with rare defined "disorders of sex development" (DSD, e.g., 46, XY-females due to defective androgen biosynthesis compared to normal 46, XY-males and 46, XX-females. Results A discrete set of transcripts was directly correlated with XY or XX genotypes in all individuals independent of male or female phenotype of the external genitalia. However, a significantly larger gene set in the PBMC only reflected the degree of external genital masculinization independent of the sex chromosomes and independent of concurrent post-natal sex steroid hormone levels. Consequently, the architecture of the transcriptional PBMC-"sexes" was either male, female or even "intersex" with a discordant alignment of the DSD individuals' genetic and hormonal sex signatures. Conclusion A significant fraction of gene expression differences between males and females in the human appears to have its roots in early embryogenesis and is not only caused by sex chromosomes but also by long-term sex-specific hormonal programming due to presence or absence of androgen during the time of external genital masculinization. Genetic sex and the androgen milieu during embryonic development might therefore independently modulate functional traits, phenotype and diseases associated with male or female gender as well as with DSD conditions.

  17. Synthesis of a steroidal dendrimer core

    OpenAIRE

    Solaja, Bogdan A.; GABRIELLA POCSFALVI; TATJANA KOP

    2004-01-01

    Synthesis of a steroidal dendrimer core possessing various functional termini, such as ester, carboxy and hydroxy, is presented. The approach described enables further simple manipulations for the introduction of more complex functionalities.

  18. Advances in immunoassay of anabolic steroids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A specific RIA for the main nortestosterone metabolites, norandrosterone and noretiocholanolone and a rapid, automatizable modification of testosterone RIA in urine are described. Additionally, an enzymeimmunoassay (EIA) variant for detection of 17?-methyltestosterone and related steroids is suggested. (Auth.)

  19. About Steroids (Inhaled and Oral Corticosteroids)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... anabolic steroids, used illegally by some athletes for bodybuilding. Corticosteroids do not affect the liver or cause ... your healthcare provider. Discuss all medicines and herbal supplements with your healthcare provider to make sure they ...

  20. Inhaled steroid/tobacco smoke particle interactions: a new light on steroid resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolini Gabriele

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inhaled steroid resistance is an obstacle to asthma control in asthmatic smokers. The reasons of this phenomenon are not yet entirely understood. Interaction of drug particles with environmental tobacco smoke (ETS could change the aerodynamic profile of the drug through the particle coagulation phenomenon. Aim of the present study was to examine whether steroid particles interact with smoke when delivered in the presence of ETS. Methods Beclomethasone-hydrofluoralkane (BDP-HFA pMDI particle profile was studied after a single actuation delivered in ambient air or in the presence of ETS in an experimental chamber using a light scattering Optical Particle Counter capable of measuring the concentrations of particle sized 0.3–1.0, 1.1–2.0, 2.1–3.0, 3.1–4.0, 4.1–5.0, and > 5.1 ?m in diameter with a sampling time of one second. The number of drug particles delivered after a single actuation was measured as the difference between total particle number after drug delivery and background particle number. Two groups of experiments were carried out at different ambient background particle concentrations. Two-tail Student's t-test was used for statistical analysis. Results When delivered in ambient air, over 90% of BDP-HFA particles were found in the 0.3–1.0 ?m size class, while particles sized 1.1–2.0 ?m and 2.1–3.0 represented less than 6.6% and 2.8% of total particles, respectively. However, when delivered in the presence of ETS, drug particle profile was modified, with an impressive decrease of 0.3–1.0 ?m particles, the most represented particles resulting those sized 1.1–2.0 ?m (over 66.6% of total particles, and 2.1–3.0 ?m particles accounting up to 31% of total particles. Conclusion Our data suggest that particle interaction between inhaled BDP-HFA pMDI and ETS takes place in the first few seconds after drug delivery, with a decrease in smaller particles and a concurrent increase of larger particles. The resulting changes in aerosol particle profile might modify regional drug deposition with potential detriment to drug efficacy, and represent a new element of steroid resistance in smokers. Although the present study does not provide any functional or clinical assessment, it might be useful to advise smokers and non smokers with obstructive lung disease such as asthma or COPD, to avoid to act inhaled drugs in the presence of ETS in order to obtain the best therapeutic effect.

  1. Cigarette smoking and steroid hormones in women.

    OpenAIRE

    Key, TJ; Pike, MC; Baron, JA; Moore, JW; Wang, DY; Thomas, BS; Bulbrook, RD

    1991-01-01

    Epidemiological evidence has suggested that cigarette smoking has an anti-oestrogenic effect in women, but the effects of smoking on steroid hormone metabolism are not fully understood. We compared serum concentrations of oestradiol, progesterone (luteal phase) and dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEA-S), and urinary excretion rates of six steroids of predominantly adrenal origin, in healthy premenopausal and postmenopausal female smokers and non-smokers. Serum concentrations of oestradiol, ...

  2. Steroid-induced Kager's fat pad atrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report a rare case of Kager's fat pad atrophy and fibrosis in a 60-year-old woman 1 year after a steroid injection for Achilles tendinopathy. There are few published reports of steroid-induced atrophy affecting deeper layers of fat tissue. To our knowledge, this case report is the first to illustrate its features using magnetic resonance imaging. A review of the scientific literature is also presented. (orig.)

  3. Sex Role Identity and Adjustment during Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massad, Christopher M.

    1981-01-01

    Examined the relationship between sex role identity and two measures of adjustment--self-acceptance and peer acceptance--among adolescents. Sex differences were discovered regarding factors positively associated with self-acceptance. Findings suggest that a model of sex role differentiation during adolescence must recognize differential pressures…

  4. Steroidal saponins from Dioscorea preussii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabopda, Turibio Kuiate; Mitaine-Offer, Anne-Claire; Tanaka, Chiaki; Miyamoto, Tomofumi; Mirjolet, Jean-François; Duchamp, Olivier; Ngadjui, Bonaventure Tchaleu; Lacaille-Dubois, Marie-Aleth

    2014-09-01

    Three new steroidal saponins, named diospreussinosides A-C (1-3), along with two known ones (4, 5) were isolated from rhizomes of Dioscorea preussii. Their structures were elucidated mainly by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic analysis and mass spectrometry as (25S)-17?,25-dihydroxyspirost-5-en-3?-yl-O-?-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1?4)-?-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1?4)-?-D-glucopyranoside (1), (25S)-17?,25-dihydroxyspirost-5-en-3?-yl-O-?-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1?4)-?-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1?4)-[?-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1?2)]-?-D-glucopyranoside (2), and (24S,25R)-17?,24,25-trihydroxyspirost-5-en-3?-yl-O-?-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1?4)-?-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1?4)-[?-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1?2)]-?-D-glucopyranoside (3). The spirostane-type skeleton of compound 3 possessing an unusual dihydroxylation pattern on the F-ring is reported for the first time. Cytotoxicity of compounds 2-5 was evaluated against two human colon carcinoma cell lines (HT-29 and HCT 116). PMID:24928475

  5. Steroidal saponins from Tribulus terrestris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Li-Ping; Wu, Ke-Lei; Yu, He-Shui; Pang, Xu; Liu, Jie; Han, Li-Feng; Zhang, Jie; Zhao, Yang; Xiong, Cheng-Qi; Song, Xin-Bo; Liu, Chao; Cong, Yu-Wen; Ma, Bai-Ping

    2014-11-01

    Sixteen steroidal saponins, including seven previously unreported compounds, were isolated from Tribulus terrestris. The structures of the saponins were established using 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, and chemical methods. They were identified as: 26-O-?-d-glucopyranosyl-(25R)-furost-4-en-2?,3?,22?,26-tetrol-12-one (terrestrinin C), 26-O-?-d-glucopyranosyl-(25R)-furost-4-en-22?,26-diol-3,12-dione (terrestrinin D), 26-O-?-d-glucopyranosyl-(25S)-furost-4-en-22?,26-diol-3,6,12-trione (terrestrinin E), 26-O-?-d-glucopyranosyl-(25R)-5?-furostan-3?,22?,26-triol-12-one (terrestrinin F), 26-O-?-d-glucopyranosyl-(25R)-furost-4-en-12?,22?,26-triol-3-one (terrestrinin G), 26-O-?-d-glucopyranosyl-(1?6)-?-d-glucopyranosyl-(25R)-furost-4-en-22?,26-diol-3,12-dione (terrestrinin H), and 24-O-?-d-glucopyranosyl-(25S)-5?-spirostan-3?,24?-diol-12-one-3-O-?-d-glucopyranosyl-(1?4)-?-d-galactopyranoside (terrestrinin I). The isolated compounds were evaluated for their platelet aggregation activities. Three of the known saponins exhibited strong effects on the induction of platelet aggregation. PMID:25172515

  6. Conceptualization and measurement of homosexuality in sex surveys: a critical review / Modos de conceitualizar e medir homossexualidade em pesquisas sobre sexualidade: uma revisão crítica

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Stuart, Michaels; Brigitte, Lhomond.

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available O artigo traz uma revisão das principais pesquisas nacionais sobre sexualidade que apresentam perguntas sobre homossexualidade, com foco nas questões conceituais e metodológicas sobre as definições de sexo, os aspectos de medição da homossexualidade, as técnicas de amostragem e de entrevistas e o fo [...] rmato do questionário. As taxas de declaração sobre atração pelo mesmo sexo, comportamento, parceiros e identidade também são apresentadas e comparadas. O estudo da homossexualidade em inquéritos populacionais foi moldado com base em tradições de investigação e questões provenientes desde a sexologia até a epidemiologia do HIV/AIDS. O comportamento sexual é assunto central nas pesquisas sobre sexualidade desde Kinsey. Os temas sobre atração sexual, identidade e/ou orientação sexual surgem mais recentemente. São abordadas e discutidas as diferenças no tratamento de homens e mulheres na formulação e análise das pesquisas, assim como as taxas de respostas em diferentes pesquisas, em distintos países e momentos históricos. Ressaltamos a relevância de que sejam consideradas tanto mudanças metodológicas quanto sociais para interpretar as diferenças constatadas. Abstract in english This article reviews major national population sex surveys that have asked questions about homosexuality focusing on conceptual and methodological issues, including the definitions of sex, the measured aspects of homosexuality, sampling and interviewing technique, and questionnaire design. Reported [...] rates of major measures of same-sex attraction, behavior, partners, and sexual identity from surveys are also presented and compared. The study of homosexuality in surveys has been shaped by the research traditions and questions ranging from sexology to the epidemiology of HIV/AIDS. Sexual behavior has been a central topic at least since Kinsey. Issues of sexual attraction and/or orientation and sexual identity have emerged more recently. Differences in the treatment of men and women in the design and analysis of surveys as well as in the reported rates in different surveys, in different countries and time periods are also presented and discussed. We point out the importance of the consideration of both methodological and social change issues in assessing such differences.

  7. Mitochondrial benzodiazepine receptors regulate steroid biosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent observations on the steroid synthetic capability within the brain open the possibility that benzodiazepines may influence steroid synthesis in nervous tissue through interactions with peripheral-type benzodiazepine recognition sites, which are highly expressed in steroidogenic cells and associated with the outer mitochondrial membrane. To examine this possibility nine molecules that exhibit a greater than 10,000-fold difference in their affinities for peripheral-type benzodiazepine binding sites were tested for their effects on a well-established steroidogenic model system, the Y-1 mouse adrenal tumor cell line. 4'-Chlorodiazepam, PK 11195, and PK 14067 stimulated steroid production by 2-fold in Y-1 cells, whereas diazepam, flunitrazepam, zolpidem, and PK 14068 displayed a lower (1.2- to 1.5-fold) maximal stimulation. In contrast, clonazepam and flumazenil did not stimulate steroid synthesis. The potencies of these compounds to inhibit 3H-labeled PK 11195 binding to peripheral-type benzodiazepine recognition sites correlated with their potencies to stimulate steroid production. Similar findings were observed in bovine and rat adrenocortical cell preparations. These results suggest that ligands of the peripheral-type benzodiazepine recognition site acting on this mitochondrial receptor can enhance steroid production. This action may contribute specificity to the pharmacological profile of drugs preferentially acting on the benzodiazepine recognition site associated with the outer membrane of certain mitochondrial populations

  8. Mitochondrial benzodiazepine receptors regulate steroid biosynthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukhin, A.G.; Papadopoulos, V.; Costa, E.; Krueger, K.E. (Georgetown Univ. School of Medicine, Washington, DC (USA))

    1989-12-01

    Recent observations on the steroid synthetic capability within the brain open the possibility that benzodiazepines may influence steroid synthesis in nervous tissue through interactions with peripheral-type benzodiazepine recognition sites, which are highly expressed in steroidogenic cells and associated with the outer mitochondrial membrane. To examine this possibility nine molecules that exhibit a greater than 10,000-fold difference in their affinities for peripheral-type benzodiazepine binding sites were tested for their effects on a well-established steroidogenic model system, the Y-1 mouse adrenal tumor cell line. 4{prime}-Chlorodiazepam, PK 11195, and PK 14067 stimulated steroid production by 2-fold in Y-1 cells, whereas diazepam, flunitrazepam, zolpidem, and PK 14068 displayed a lower (1.2- to 1.5-fold) maximal stimulation. In contrast, clonazepam and flumazenil did not stimulate steroid synthesis. The potencies of these compounds to inhibit {sup 3}H-labeled PK 11195 binding to peripheral-type benzodiazepine recognition sites correlated with their potencies to stimulate steroid production. Similar findings were observed in bovine and rat adrenocortical cell preparations. These results suggest that ligands of the peripheral-type benzodiazepine recognition site acting on this mitochondrial receptor can enhance steroid production. This action may contribute specificity to the pharmacological profile of drugs preferentially acting on the benzodiazepine recognition site associated with the outer membrane of certain mitochondrial populations.

  9. EFFECT OF ACUTE STRESS ON PLASMA CONCENTRATIONS OF SEX AND STRESS HORMONES IN JUVENILE ALLIGATORS LIVING IN CONTROL AND CONTAMINATED LAKES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental contaminants can act as stressors, inducing elevated circulating concentrations of stress hormones such as corticosterone and cortisol. Development in contaminated eggs has been reported to modify circulating sex steroid hormone concentrations in alligators (Alligat...

  10. Steroid hormone receptors and human breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steroid hormone receptor (SR) binding capacity can be measured both in the cytosol and in the nuclear fraction of the cancerous cells. Approximately 30-40% of breast cancers are hormone dependent. SR-positive tumors can be treated by endocrine therapy resulting in a favourable clinical response in 60-70% of the cases. At the National Institute of Oncology, Budapest, Hungary, estradiol (ER) and progesterone (PR) receptor assays are performed by a multipoint saturation analysis using Scatchard plot. Dextran coated charcoal technique is used for the separation of free and receptor protein-bound labelled hormones. Data obtained from 400 breast cancer patients show a correlation between the SR content of the tumor and the hormonal status of the patients. The ER binding capacity is higher after menopause compared to the premenopausal values. Specific correlation between the PR content of the tumor and the hormonal status of the patients cound not be observed. The PR binding capacity is the highest over 20 years. The highest clinical response rate, 80%, could be found in the group of patients with both ER and PR in their tumor tissues. (author)

  11. Distribution and bioaccumulation of steroidal and phenolic endocrine disrupting chemicals in wild fish species from Dianchi Lake, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Jingliang; Wang Renmin; Huang Bin; Lin Chan; Wang Yu [Faculty of Environmental Science and Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming, Yunnan 650093 (China); Pan Xuejun, E-mail: xjpan@kmust.edu.cn [Faculty of Environmental Science and Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming, Yunnan 650093 (China)

    2011-10-15

    The distribution and bioaccumulation of steroidal and phenolic endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) were studied in various tissues of wild fish species from Dianchi Lake, China. In muscle tissue, 4-tert-octylphenol, 4-cumylphenol, 4-nonlyphenol and bisphenol A were detected in fish from each sampling site, with maximal concentrations of 4.6, 4.4, 18.9 and 83.5 ng/g dry weight (dw), respectively. Steroids (estrone, 17{beta}-estradiol 17{alpha}-ethynylestradiol and estriol) were found at lower levels (<11.3 ng/g dw) and less frequently in muscle samples. The highest concentrations of steroids and phenols were found in liver, followed by those in gill and the lowest concentration was found in muscle. The field bioconcentration factors (BCFs) of phenols were calculated in fish species ranged from 18 to 97. Moreover, the measured tissue concentrations were utilized in order to estimate water concentration of steroids (4.4-18.0 ng/L). These results showed that steroidal and phenolic EDCs were likely ubiquitous contaminants in wild fish. - Highlights: > We assess the occurrence of EDCs in wild fish from Dianchi Lake, China. > We investigate the distribution of steroidal and phenolic EDCs in fish tissues. > We estimate the bioaccumulation of wild fish to steroidal and phenolic EDCs. > Steroidal and phenolic EDCs are likely ubiquitous contaminants in wild fish. - Contaminants of endocrine disrupting chemicals in wild fish.

  12. Distribution and bioaccumulation of steroidal and phenolic endocrine disrupting chemicals in wild fish species from Dianchi Lake, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The distribution and bioaccumulation of steroidal and phenolic endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) were studied in various tissues of wild fish species from Dianchi Lake, China. In muscle tissue, 4-tert-octylphenol, 4-cumylphenol, 4-nonlyphenol and bisphenol A were detected in fish from each sampling site, with maximal concentrations of 4.6, 4.4, 18.9 and 83.5 ng/g dry weight (dw), respectively. Steroids (estrone, 17?-estradiol 17?-ethynylestradiol and estriol) were found at lower levels (<11.3 ng/g dw) and less frequently in muscle samples. The highest concentrations of steroids and phenols were found in liver, followed by those in gill and the lowest concentration was found in muscle. The field bioconcentration factors (BCFs) of phenols were calculated in fish species ranged from 18 to 97. Moreover, the measured tissue concentrations were utilized in order to estimate water concentration of steroids (4.4-18.0 ng/L). These results showed that steroidal and phenolic EDCs were likely ubiquitous contaminants in wild fish. - Highlights: ? We assess the occurrence of EDCs in wild fish from Dianchi Lake, China. ? We investigate the distribution of steroidal and phenolic EDCs in fish tissues. ? We estimate the bioaccumulation of wild fish to steroidal and phenolic EDCs. ? Steroidal and phenolic EDCs are likely ubiquitous contaminants in wild fish. - Contaminants of endocrine disrupting chemicals in wild fish.

  13. Prostate volume change after radioactive seed implantation: Possible benefit of improved dose volume histogram with perioperative steroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate the changes in prostate volume associated with radioactive seed implantation and identify factors that influence prostate swelling. Methods and Materials: Between June 1997 and August 1999, 161 patients implanted for prostate carcinoma at the University of California, San Francisco, had prostate volume measurements taken at 4 time points (preplan, preimplant, postimplant, postimplant dosimetry). Patient records were reviewed for treatment with perioperative steroids, hormone therapy (nHT), and external beam radiotherapy (EBRT). One and 2-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) methods were used to test differences in mean effects among patient subsets. Results: A mean 20% volume increase was noted immediately postimplant overall (p < 0.0001), and even with EBRT and/or HT. Steroids were associated with a mean volume decrease of 19.9%, by 3-4 weeks post-procedure (p < 0.0001). Without steroids, only a 3.8% mean change was seen (p = ns). Steroid use resulted in a significant increase in mean dose-volume histogram (DVH) (p = 0.001); however, this benefit was only observed among patients who did not receive steroid. A consistently high DVH occurred with steroid use. Conclusion: A significant decrease in prostate volume and improved DVH are associated with steroid use. The diminished benefit of steroid use and higher mean DVH achieved in later years suggests the existence of a significant 'learning curve' for brachytherapy procedures.

  14. Screening for Anabolic Steroids in Urine of Forensic Cases Using Fully Automated Solid Phase Extraction and LC–MS-MS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, David Wederkinck; Linnet, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    A screening method for 18 frequently measured exogenous anabolic steroids and the testosterone/epitestosterone (T/E) ratio in forensic cases has been developed and validated. The method involves a fully automated sample preparation including enzyme treatment, addition of internal standards and solid phase extraction followed by analysis by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) using electrospray ionization with adduct formation for two compounds. Urine samples from 580 forensic cases were analyzed to determine the T/E ratio and occurrence of exogenous anabolic steroids. Extraction recoveries ranged from 77 to 95%, matrix effects from 48 to 78%, overall process efficiencies from 40 to 54% and the lower limit of identification ranged from 2 to 40 ng/mL. In the 580 urine samples analyzed from routine forensic cases, 17 (2.9%) were found positive for one or more anabolic steroids. Only seven different steroids including testosterone were found in the material, suggesting that only a small number of common steroids are likely to occur in a forensic context. The steroids were often in high concentrations (>100 ng/mL), and a combination of steroids and/or other drugs of abuse were seen in the majority of cases. The method presented serves as a fast and automated screening procedure, proving the suitability of LC-MS-MS for analyzing anabolic steroids.

  15. Use of an Anatomical Scalar to Control for Sex-Based Size Differences in Measures of Hyoid Excursion during Swallowing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molfenter, Sonja M.; Steele, Catriona M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Traditional methods for measuring hyoid excursion from dynamic videofluoroscopy recordings involve calculating changes in position in absolute units (mm). This method shows a high degree of variability across studies but agreement that greater hyoid excursion occurs inmen than in women. Given that men are typically taller than women, the…

  16. Determination of steroids in human plasma using temperature-dependent inclusion chromatography for metabolomic investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarzycki, Pawe? K; Kulhanek, Kathrin M; Smith, Roger; Clifton, Vicki L

    2006-02-01

    Clinical and metabolomic investigations of complex human fluids require cost-effective methodologies that can rapidly assess the steroid hormone milieu of individual samples. The efficiency of quantification of many steroids is limited using immunoassays as these methods can only measure a single component of biological samples and are dependent upon the specificity of the antiserum used in the protocol. In this study, we optimised the solid-phase extraction protocol for the extraction of a range of steroids of varied polarity from estetrol to progesterone from human plasma. The final SPE procedure for efficient extraction of steroids was a washing mixture of 5 ml of 30% methanol and an elution solvent of 2 ml of 100% methanol using 0.5 g C-18 cartridges. This protocol resulted in a high recovery rate, ranging from 85.2 to 99.9% for both the internal standard (7,8-dimethoxyflavone) and steroids of interest. We also improved the separation methodology of our previous work using temperature dependent inclusion chromatography with a mobile phase composition of 35% acetonitrile and 12 mM of beta-cyclodextrin at 29 degrees C. Under these conditions most of the fluid components including estetrol were detected in the first 10 min with progesterone appearing at 43 min. This method is simplistic, inexpensive and reproducible with the capabilities of accurate quantification of steroids. Therefore it could have numerous clinical and metabolomic applications. PMID:16364333

  17. Intracrine steroid production and mammalian target of rapamycin pathways in pulmonary lymphangioleiomyomatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, Koko; Miki, Yasuhiro; Saito, Ryoko; Hata, Shuko; Yamauchi, Masanori; Mikami, Yoshiki; Okada, Yoshinori; Seyama, Kuniaki; Kondo, Takashi; Sasano, Hironobu

    2015-11-01

    Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a rare, potentially fatal disease primarily affecting young women. Estrogens enhance cell proliferation and progression of the tumor. Clinical trials using molecularly targeted agents such as endocrine manipulation and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors are in progress, but the status of these molecules, including aromatase and mTOR, has not been explored in LAM tissue. We first examined immunoreactivity for sex steroid receptors (estrogen receptor [ER] ?, ER?, progesterone receptor, androgen receptor), sex steroid-synthesizing enzymes (aromatase, steroid sulfatase, 17?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1, 5?-reductases), apoptotic suppression factor (Bcl-2), and factors involved in the mTOR signaling pathway in 30 pulmonary LAM tissues. Immunoreactivity for ER?, ER?, progesterone receptor, aromatase, and Bcl-2 was significantly more abundant in epithelioid cells, whereas the status of androgen receptor, 5?-reductases, and phospho-mTOR signaling was not different in epithelioid and spindle-shaped LAM cells. We further examined the correlation among H scores of these markers using hierarchical clustering analysis. The results indicated that LAM tumors can be further classified into "aromatase" and "mTOR" groups on the basis of the patterns of immunoreactivity, and the 2 types could benefit from different modes of therapy. PMID:26298231

  18. Objectively measured physical activity of USA adults by sex, age, and racial/ethnic groups: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Hawkins Marquis S; Storti Kristi L; Richardson Caroline R; King Wendy C; Strath Scott J; Holleman Robert G; Kriska Andrea M

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Accelerometers were incorporated in the 2003–2004 National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (NHANES) study cycle for objective assessment of physical activity. This is the first time that objective physical activity data are available on a nationally representative sample of U.S. residents. The use of accelerometers allows researchers to measure total physical activity, including light intensity and unstructured activities, which may be a better predictor of healt...

  19. Wet- and dry-season steroid hormone profiles and stress reactivity of an insular dwarf snake, the Hog Island boa (Boa constrictor imperator).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holding, Matthew L; Frazier, Julius A; Dorr, Scott W; Pollock, Nicholas B; Muelleman, P J; Branske, Amber; Henningsen, Sloane N; Eikenaar, Cas; Escallón, Camilo; Montgomery, Chad E; Moore, Ignacio T; Taylor, Emily N

    2014-01-01

    Field endocrine studies providing new comparisons for inference into the evolutionary and ecological factors shaping organismal physiology are important, often yielding novel physiological insights. Here, we explored factors associated with the sex steroid hormone concentrations and adrenocortical response to capture stress in Hog Island boas (Boa constrictor imperator) in the Cayos Cochinos archipelago of Honduras to generate comparative field hormone data from a tropical reptile and test the island tameness hypothesis. Baseline concentrations of testosterone, corticosterone, estradiol, and progesterone were measured during the wet and dry seasons, and an acute stressor of 1 h in a cloth bag was used to assess the stress response. Plasma steroid concentrations in these snakes were generally low in comparison to other taxa. Higher testosterone concentrations in males and higher estradiol and corticosterone concentrations in females were observed during the wet season compared to the dry season, which may be indicative of mating activities and vitellogenesis during this period. Snakes displayed a 15-fold increase in corticosterone concentrations in response to capture stress, a rise that was not impacted by whether a snake had been captured during previous years. The adrenocortical stress response was greater in males and positively related to body temperature. We suggest that this system merits future inquiries into the physiology and behavior of B. c. imperator, particularly as a model for studying insular impacts on diverse life history characters. PMID:24769701

  20. 21 CFR 1308.33 - Exemption of certain anabolic steroid products; application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... false Exemption of certain anabolic steroid products; application. 1308.33...CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Exempt Anabolic Steroid Products § 1308.33 Exemption of certain anabolic steroid products; application....

  1. The associations among the dopamine D2 receptor Taq1, emotional intelligence, creative potential measured by divergent thinking, and motivational state and these associations' sex differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Hikaru; Tomita, Hiroaki; Taki, Yasuyuki; Kikuchi, Yoshie; Ono, Chiaki; Yu, Zhiqian; Sekiguchi, Atsushi; Nouchi, Rui; Kotozaki, Yuka; Nakagawa, Seishu; Miyauchi, Carlos M; Iizuka, Kunio; Yokoyama, Ryoichi; Shinada, Takamitsu; Yamamoto, Yuki; Hanawa, Sugiko; Araki, Tsuyoshi; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Kunitoki, Keiko; Sassa, Yuko; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2015-01-01

    Previous neuroscientific studies have shown that the dopaminergic system plays an important role in creative potential measured by divergent thinking (CPMDT), emotional control, and motivational state. However, although associations between two of these four components have been previously established (e.g., the association between CPMDT and emotional control, the association between CPMDT and motivational state, etc.), the interactions between these four remain unknown. The purpose of this study was to reveal these interactions using path analyses. The Taq1A polymorphism of the dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) gene was used for this purpose. For measuring emotional intelligence (EI), we used the Japanese version of the Emotional Intelligence Scale. CPMDT was measured using the S-A creativity test. Motivational state was measured using the Vigor subscale of the Japanese version of the Profile of Mood Scale (POMS). Data from 766 healthy, right-handed individuals (426 men and 340 women; 20.7 ± 1.9 years of age) were used in this study. There were significant and robust positive relationships among measures of CPMDT, EI, and motivational state across sex. In addition, the polymorphism of the DRD2 gene was significantly associated with EI, specifically in females. Path analysis in females indicates that the model in which (a) the DRD2 polymorphism primarily facilitates EI, (b) EI in turn facilitates CPMDT and leads to a better motivational state, and (c) a better motivational state also directly facilitates CPMDT explains the data in the most accurate manner. This study suggested a comprehensive picture of the cascade of the associations among dopamine, EI, motivational state, and CPMDT at least in females. PMID:26217259

  2. Review of Androgenic Anabolic Steroid Use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. Borges; G. Eisele; C. Byrd

    2001-07-31

    An area that has been overlooked within personnel security evaluations is employee use of androgenic-anabolic steroids (AAS). Current drug testing within the federal government does not include testing for anabolic steroids, and the difficulties to implement such testing protocols-not to mention the cost involved-make AAS testing highly improbable. The basis of this report is to bring to the forefront the damage that anabolic steroids can cause from both a physical and a psychological standpoint. Most individuals who use AASs do so to increase their muscle mass because they wish to gain some type of competitive edge during athletic competition or they wish to enhance their physical features for self-satisfaction and self-esteem (i.e., body building). Security officers are one group of men who often take high doses of anabolic steroids, according to the Second Report of the Senate Standing Committee (1990). The negative psychological characteristics for AAS use is extensive and includes prominent hostility, aggressiveness, irritability, euphoria, grandiose beliefs, hyperactivity, reckless behavior, increased sexual appetite, unpredictability, poor impulse control, mood fluctuations, and insomnia. The drug may invoke a sense of power and invincibility (Leckman and Scahill, 1990). Depressive symptoms, such as anhedonia, fatigue, impaired concentration, decreased libido, and even suicidality (Pope and Katz, 1992) have been noted with steroid withdrawal. It appears that long-term users of AAS experience similar characteristics as other substance abusers (i.e., craving, dependence, and withdrawal symptoms).

  3. Functionalization of new PN ligands with steroids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efforts are currently underway to radiolabel steroids for possible imaging and treatment of breast cancer. The authors are exploring the ligating properties of phosphorus hydrazides to anchor radionuclides of diagnostic and therapeutic use (e.g. 99mTc or 186Re/188Re) to estrogen and progesterone steroids which abound around breast tumor cells. The phenolic ring of estrone undergoes nucleophilic reaction with the pentavalent trichloro phosphorus sulfide (or oxide) in the presence of a weak base such as Et3N or pyridine. The chlorines were then substituted with hydrazine to produce the phosphorus attached steroid ligands in excellent yields. These ligands formed stable complexes with the metals at the open-quotes non-tracerclose quotes (Pd(II) and Re) and open-quotes tracerclose quotes (99mTc and 109Pd) levels. The alcohol functionalities as in 11-hydroxy progesterone and protected estradiol were also utilized with the use of a strong base LiN(SiMe3)2 and KH. Carbonyl containing steroid such as pregnenolone was directly added to a bishydrazido phosphine chelate by Schiff base coupling in a dean stark set-up. For estrone, which contains a hindered ketone, one hydrazone unit was first formed before the phosphorus chloride was introduced. C-O-P bond formation was also achieved from enolates of these ketones. By applying 2 eq of LDA or BuLi, ? C-P bonding was accomplished. Structures and reactivities of these phosphorus hydrazide bound steroids are discussed

  4. Sex hormones and ischemic stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmegard, Haya N; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Jensen, Gorm B; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne; Benn, Marianne

    2016-01-01

    CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Whether endogenous sex hormones are associated with ischemic stroke(IS) is unclear. We tested the hypothesis that extreme concentrations of endogenous sex hormones are associated with risk of IS in the general population. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Adult men(n=4......,615) and women(n=4,724) with measurements of endogenous sex hormones during the 1981-83 examination of the Copenhagen City Heart Study, Denmark, were followed for up to 29 years for incident IS, with no loss to follow-up. Mediation analyses assessed whether risk of IS was mediated through potential...

  5. Sex during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kids Deal With Bullies Pregnant? What to Expect Sex During Pregnancy KidsHealth > Parents > Pregnancy & Newborn Center > Your ... satisfying and safe sexual relationship during pregnancy. Is Sex During Pregnancy Safe? Sex is considered safe during ...

  6. Sex-linked dominant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inheritance - sex-linked dominant; Genetics - sex-linked dominant; X-linked dominant; Y-linked dominant ... type of chromosome that is affected (autosomal or sex chromosome). It also depends on whether the trait ...

  7. Pathological changes in anabolic androgenic steroid users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lusetti, Monia; Licata, Manuela; Silingardi, Enrico; Reggiani Bonetti, Luca; Palmiere, Cristian

    2015-07-01

    Several classes of recreational and prescription drugs have additional effects on the heart and vasculature, which may significantly contribute to morbidity and mortality in chronic users. The study presented herein focuses on pathological changes involving the heart possibly due to anabolic androgenic steroid use. The role these hormones may play in their occurrence of sudden cardiac death is also investigated. 98 medico-legal cases including 6 anabolic androgenic steroid users were retrospectively reviewed. Autopsies, histology, immunohistochemistry, biochemistry and toxicology were performed in all cases. Pathological changes consisted of various degrees of interstitial and perivascular fibrosis as well as fibroadipous metaplasia and perineural fibrosis within the myocardium of the left ventricle. Within the limits of the small number of investigated cases, our results appear to confirm former observations on this topic and suggest anabolic androgenic steroid's potential causative role in the pathogenesis of sudden cardiac deaths in chronic users. PMID:26048507

  8. Iatrogenic Cushing's syndrome due to topical steroid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nihal Hatipo?lu

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Iatrogenic Cushing's syndrome due to the use of steroid medication is extremely common because of the widespread use of these medicines in the treatment of many diseases. Systemic absorption of topical glucocorticoids may result in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis dysfunction in children. In this study, two cases with Cushing stigmata were presented. They had been administered topical corticosteroid treatment because of diaper dermatitis. We suggest that physicians should be alert to the signs of Cushing's syndrome in patients on topical steroid therapy. In addition, these findings show that the use of topical steroids, especially during infancy, should be limited to a short period and less potent agents should be preferred.

  9. Candida albicans keratitis modified by steroid application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaoru Araki-Sasaki

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Kaoru Araki-Sasaki1, Hiroko Sonoyama1, Tsutomu Kawasaki1, Nariyasu Kazama1, Hidenao Ideta1, Yoshitsugu Inoue21Ideta Eye Hospital, Kumamoto City, Kumamoto, Japan; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Tottori University, Koyama-Minami, Tottori, Japan Abstract: The paper reports on Candida albicans ocular infection modified by steroid eye drops. A 74-year-old male complained of conjunctival injection and pain in his right eye three months after pterygium and cataract surgery. After treatment with antibiotics and steroid eye drops for three days, he was referred to our hospital. Clear localized corneal endothelial plaque with injection of ciliary body was observed. No erosion of the corneal epithelium, or infiltration of stromal edema was observed, suggesting that the pathological organism derived from the intracameral region. Because ocular infection was suspected, steroid eye drops were stopped, which led immediately to typical infectious keratitis in the pathological region, with epithelial erosion, fluffy abscess, stromal infiltration, and edema. For diagnostic purposes, the plaque was surgically removed with forceps and the anterior chamber was irrigated with antibiotics. The smear and culture examination from the plaque revealed C. albicans surrounded by neutrophils. However, aqueous fluid and fibrous tissue after gonio procedure contained no mycotic organisms. Topical fluconazole, micafungin, and pimaricin with oral itraconazole (150 mg/day were effective. Special attention is needed when prescribing steroid eye drops to treat corneal disease especially postoperatively. Diagnosing infectious keratitis is sometimes difficult because of modification by some factors, such as postoperative conditions, scarring, and drug-induced masking. Here, we report on mycotic keratitis modified by postoperative steroid administration. Keywords: Candida albicans, cataract surgery, steroid, mycotic keratitis

  10. Zebrafish sex determination and differentiation: Involvement of FTZ-F1 genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olsson Per-Erik

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Sex determination is the process deciding the sex of a developing embryo. This is usually determined genetically; however it is a delicate process, which in many cases can be influenced by environmental factors. The mechanisms controlling zebrafish sex determination and differentiation are not known. To date no sex linked genes have been identified in zebrafish and no sex chromosomes have been identified. However, a number of genes, as presented here, have been linked to the process of sex determination or differentiation in zebrafish. The zebrafish FTZ-F1 genes are of central interest as they are involved in regulating interrenal development and thereby steroid biosynthesis, as well as that they show expression patterns congruent with reproductive tissue differentiation and function. Zebrafish can be sex reversed by exposure to estrogens, suggesting that the estrogen levels are crucial during sex differentiation. The Cyp19 gene product aromatase converts testosterone into 17 beta-estradiol, and when inhibited leads to male to female sex reversal. FTZ-F1 genes are strongly linked to steroid biosynthesis and the regulatory region of Cyp19 contains binding sites for FTZ-F1 genes, further linking FTZ-F1 to this process. The role of FTZ-F1 and other candidates for zebrafish sex determination and differentiation is in focus of this review.

  11. Using Digital Images of the Zebra Finch Song System as a Tool to Teach Organizational Effects of Steroid Hormones: A Free Downloadable Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grisham, William; Schottler, Natalie A.; Beck McCauley, Lisa M.; Pham, Anh P.; Ruiz, Maureen L.; Fong, Michelle C.; Cui, Xinran

    2011-01-01

    Zebra finch song behavior is sexually dimorphic: males sing and females do not. The neural system underlying this behavior is sexually dimorphic, and this sex difference is easy to quantify. During development, the zebra finch song system can be altered by steroid hormones, specifically estradiol, which actually masculinizes it. Because of the…

  12. Steroid metabolism in the mouse placenta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the study described in this thesis was to investigate the capacity for steroid synthesis of the mouse placenta - especially the production of progesterone, androgens and estrogens - and to determine, if possible, the relation of steroid synthesis to special cell types. In an introductory chapter the androgen production in the mouse placenta is surveyed by means of a histochemical and bioindicator study of different stages of development of the placenta. The metabolism of [3H]-dehydroepiandrosterone and [3H]-progesterone by mouse placental tissue in vitro is studied. The metabolism of [3H]-progesterone by the mouse fetal adrenal in vitro is also studied

  13. Using Anabolic Androgenic Steroids in Sport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sefa Lök

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available It is known that sportsmen especially youngers who engaged in athletism, weight lifting and body building sport have beenusing ‘‘Anabolic Androgenic Steroid’’ (AAS intensively for purpose of doping during world sport history. Used dopingsubstances to increase sport performance differ from sport branches. In some sport branches, it is used to diminish neuralstress while in other sport branches it is used to increase force, endurance and resistance against exhaustion. Today amongsportsmen using ergogenic substances to increase rivalry and physical performance for purpose of doping are increased. Inthis study using anabolic androgenic steroids in sports will be assessed.

  14. Dimensiones del músculo masetero medido mediante ultrasonido, según sexo Masseter muscle dimensions measured by ultrasound per sex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Frugone A

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCCIÓN: para establecer las dimensiones en profundidad, ancho y largo del músculo masetero según sexo, se realizó un estudio analítico no experimental entre pacientes seleccionados que acudieron al servicio de ecografía del Hospital Base de Linares, Chile entre los meses de julio y septiembre del año 2005. MÉTODOS: la muestra quedó determinada por 180 músculos maseteros, 90 de ellos pertenecientes a individuos de sexo femenino y 90 pertenecientes a individuos de sexo masculino. Se realizaron las mediciones de cada una de las dimensiones del músculo masetero utilizando para ello un examen imaginológico ecográfico. La muestra se sometió al análisis estadístico ANOVA. RESULTADOS: los individuos de sexo masculino presentan músculos maseteros con profundidades promedio de 10,8 ± 1,6 mm y los individuos de sexo femenino profundidades promedio de 8,1 ± 1,4 mm. CONCLUSIONES: de acuerdo con lo encontrado, se concluye que en individuos de sexo masculino con una profundidad del músculo masetero mayor a 12,4 mm y en individuos de sexo femenino con una profundidad del músculo masetero mayor a 9,5 mm se podrían considerar el diagnóstico de hipertrofia maseterina.INTRODUCTION: in order to establish the dimensions in depth, width and length of the masseter muscle according to gender, a non analytical experimental observational study was performed on selected patients who attended the echography service at the Base Hospital of Linares-Chile between July and September 2005. METHODS: the sample consisted of 180 masseter muscles, 90 from female individuals and 90 from male individuals. Measurements of each masseter muscle were performed utilizing an echographic exam. ANOVA test statistical analysis was performed. RESULTS: the masseter muscle depth on male individuals has an averaged 10.8 ± 1.6 mm and on female individuals an average depth of 8.1 ± 1.4 mm. CONCLUSIONS: according to the findings, we concluded that in male individuals with a depth of the masseter muscle higher to 12.4 mm and in female individuals with a depth of masseter higher to 9.5 mm could be considered a diagnosis of masseteric hypertrophy.

  15. Age and sex dimorphism of the ratio between body measurements to live weights in Red Sokoto, Sahel and West African Dwarf goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Shoyombo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out in Borno, Sokoto and Ogun States. These states were selected because those locations are having close to pure breeds of the goats. Animals used for this study were sampled in the abattoir of Borno, Sokoto and Ogun States when brought for slaughtering either by the owner or by the slaughter man. 900 goats comprising of three hundred Sahel goats from Borno State, three hundred Red Sokoto goats from Sokoto State and three hundred West African Dwarf goats from Ogun State were used for the study made up of fifty males and fifty females distributed in the following age groups <1, 1-2 and 2-3 years. These were evaluated for morphometric characteristics. The pairs of permanent incisors in the dentition of the goat were used to determine age. The following metric characters were measured on each animal: body weight (BW, age, horn length (HL, ear length (EL, shoulder width (SW, neck circumference (NC, body length (BL, withers height (WH, heart girth (HG, pouch girth (PG and tail Length (TL along with body weight. Obtained measures were compared to body weight as ratio of measures to body weight and resulting ratio was subjected to analysis of variance using age and sex as classification variables with the SAS software. It was observed that PG had the highest ratio of 4.82, 3.68 and 3.58 respectively for the three breeds of goat. HL showed the least ratio of 0.50, 0.53 and 0.36 for Red Sokoto, Sahel and WAD goats. It follows that higher ratio indicates higher contribution of a given morphometric part to liveweight relative to that of other parts, so that selection could be made on the basis of this ratio. In conclusion, PG in this study consistently indicate high ratio and should be recommended for further studies as a selection factor in breeding and production of goats.

  16. Hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls decrease circulating steroids in female polar bears (Ursus maritimus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustavson, Lisa; Ciesielski, Tomasz M

    2015-01-01

    As a top predator in the Arctic food chain, polar bears (Ursus maritimus) are exposed to high levels of persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Because several of these compounds have been reported to alter endocrine pathways, such as the steroidogenesis, potential disruption of the sex steroid synthesis by POPs may cause implications for reproduction by interfering with ovulation, implantation and fertility. Blood samples were collected from 15 female polar bears in Svalbard (Norway) in April 2008. The concentrations of nine circulating steroid hormones; dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), androstenedione (AN), testosterone (TS), dihydrotestosterone (DHT), estrone (E1), 17?-estradiol (?E2), 17?-estradiol (?E2), pregnenolone (PRE) and progesterone (PRO) were determined. The aim of the study was to investigate associations among circulating levels of specific POP compounds and POP-metabolites (hydroxylated PCBs [OH-PCBs] and hydroxylated PBDEs [OH-PBDEs]), steroid hormones, biological and capture variables in female polar bears. Inverse correlations were found between circulating levels of PRE and AN, and circulating levels of OH-PCBs. There were no significant relationships between the steroid concentrations and other analyzed POPs or the variables capture date and capture location (latitude and longitude), lipid content, condition and body mass. Although statistical associations do not necessarily represent direct cause-effect relationships, the present study indicate that OH-PCBs may affect the circulating levels of AN and PRE in female polar bears and that OH-PCBs thus may interfere with the steroid homeostasis. Increase in PRO and a decrease in AN concentrations suggest that the enzyme CYP17 may be a potential target for OH-PCBs. In combination with natural stressors, ongoing climate change and contaminant exposure, it is possible that OH-PCBs may disturb the reproductive potential of polar bears.

  17. Heritable Variation for Sex Ratio under Environmental Sex Determination in the Common Snapping Turtle (Chelydra Serpentina)

    OpenAIRE

    Janzen, F J

    1992-01-01

    The magnitude of quantitative genetic variation for primary sex ratio was measured in families extracted from a natural population of the common snapping turtle (Chelydra serpentina), which possesses temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD). Eggs were incubated at three temperatures that produced mixed sex ratios. This experimental design provided estimates of the heritability of sex ratio in multiple environments and a test of the hypothesis that genotype X environment (G X E) interacti...

  18. Steroid allergy in patients with inflammatory bowel disease.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Malik, M

    2007-11-01

    Background: Contact allergy to a steroid enema leading to worsening of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has recently been reported. This study was designed to look for evidence of steroid allergy in patients with IBD.

  19. Anabolic-androgenic steroids for alcoholic liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rambaldi, Andrea; Iaquinto, Gaetano; Gluud, Christian

    2002-01-01

    The objectives were to assess the beneficial and harmful effects of anabolic-androgenic steroids for alcoholic liver disease.......The objectives were to assess the beneficial and harmful effects of anabolic-androgenic steroids for alcoholic liver disease....

  20. Bell's Palsy: Treatment with Steroids and Antiviral Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Evidence-based Guideline for PATIENTS and their FAMILIES BELL’S PALSY: TREATMENT WITH STEROIDS AND ANTIVIRAL DRUGS This ... role of steroids and antiviral drugs for treating Bell’s palsy. Neurologists from the AAN are doctors who ...

  1. Nucleus Paragigantocellularis Afferents in Male and Female Rats: Organization, Gonadal Steroid Sensitivity, and Activation During Sexual Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Normandin, Joseph J.; Murphy, Anne Z

    2008-01-01

    The central regulation of genital reflexes is poorly understood. The brainstem nucleus paragigantocellularis (nPGi) of rats is a well-established source of tonic inhibition of genital reflexes. However the organization, gonadal steroid sensitivity, and activity of nPGi afferents during sex have not been fully characterized in male and female rats. To delineate the anatomical and physiological organization of nPGi afferents, the retrograde tracer Fluorogold (FG) was injected into the nPGi of s...

  2. Steroid Dermatitis Resembling Rosacea: A Clinical Evaluation of 75 Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Hameed, Ammar F.

    2013-01-01

    Background. The use of topical steroids on the skin of the face should be carefully evaluated by the dermatologist; however, its misuse still occurs producing dermatological problem resembling rosacea. Objectives. To report the different clinical manifestations of steroid dermatitis resembling rosacea and to discover causes behind abusing topical steroids on the face. Methods. In this prospective observational study, 75 patients with steroid dermatitis resembling rosacea who had history of to...

  3. Sex ratio evolution under probabilistic sex determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paixão, Tiago; Phadke, Sujal S; Azevedo, Ricardo B R; Zufall, Rebecca A

    2011-07-01

    Sex allocation theory has been remarkably successful at explaining the prevalence of even sex ratios in natural populations and at identifying specific conditions that can result in biased sex ratios. Much of this theory focuses on parental sex determination (SD) strategies. Here, we consider instead the evolutionary causes and consequences of mixed offspring SD strategies, in which the genotype of an individual determines not its sex, but the probability of developing one of multiple sexes. We find that alleles specifying mixed offspring SD strategies can generally outcompete alleles that specify pure strategies, but generate constraints that may prevent a population from reaching an even sex ratio. We use our model to analyze sex ratios in natural populations of Tetrahymena thermophila, a ciliate with seven sexes determined by mixed SD alleles. We show that probabilistic SD is sufficient to account for the occurrence of skewed sex ratios in natural populations of T. thermophila, provided that their effective population sizes are small. Our results highlight the importance of genetic drift in sex ratio evolution and suggest that mixed offspring SD strategies should be more common than currently thought. PMID:21729059

  4. CONSERVATIVE THERAPY VERSUS EPIDURAL STEROID INFILTRATION IN MANAGEMENT OF CHRONIC LOW BACK ACHE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian Roshan D

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sciatica due to lumbar intervertebral disc herniation is one of the most common causes of radicular pain in an adult working population. This study aims at studying the effectiveness of conservative management of lumbar disc herniation as an alternative to surgical measures. METHODS: A prospective study of 100 patients with lumbar disc herniations who were treated conservatively were followed up at intervals of 1 month, 6 months and 1 year. Patients planned for conservative treatment were treated with pharmacological therapy, rest and physiotherapy. Those planned for epidural steroid injections were administered a single dose of steroid one level higher than the lesion in the epidural space. The collected data was analyzed by Chi square. RESULTS: Our results showed that in both genders, epidural steroid infiltration yielded better results than conservative treatment. Occupation had no discernible effect on the magnitude of disc herniation. People with sedentary lifestyle recovered better with epidural steroid infiltration as compared to the heavy physical labor group. Irrespective of disc bulge, protrusion or extrusion, the epidural steroid injection group showed significant improvement in symptoms as compared to conservative treatment. Smokers tended to show delay in the recovery as compared with the non-smoker group. The amount of disc herniation is not directly proportional to the outcome of treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Epidural steroid infiltration showed significant improvement in symptoms of lumbar intervertebral disc herniation thereby avoiding disc surgery. Conservative management for atleast 4 to 6 weeks can be recommended followed by epidural steroid in those patients without improvement. Cessation of smoking should be an integral part of the treatment.

  5. TLC of sterols, steroids, and related triterpenoids.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dinan, L.; Harmatha, Juraj; Lafont, R.

    Vol. 17. New York : CRC Press, 2008 - (Waksmundzka-Hajnos, M. - Sherma, J. - Kowalska, T.), s. 576-603 ISBN 978-1-4200-4677-9. - (Chromatographic Science Series. 99) Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : TLC * sterols * steroids * ecdysteroids Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry

  6. Genetics of steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joshi, S; Andersen, R; Jespersen, Bente; Rittig, Søren

    2013-01-01

    Identification of genes, associated mutations and genotype-phenotype correlations in steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS) is being translated to clinical practice through genetic testing. This review provides an update on the genes and mutations associated with SRNS along with a suggested...

  7. Leverpatologi associeret med anaboliske-androgene steroider

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søe, Katrine; Søe, Martin Jensen; Gluud, C N

    1994-01-01

    This review regards the liver damaging side-effects of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS). It seems that AAS can cause development of peliosis hepatis, subcellular changes of hepatocytes, hepatocellular hyperplasia and hepatocellular adenomas. On the other hand, it has not been convincingly proved...

  8. Steroidal glycosides from the starfish Gomophia watsoni

    OpenAIRE

    R. Riccio; D'Auria, M.V.; Iorizzi, M.; Minale, L.; Laurent, Dominique; Duhet, Daniel

    1985-01-01

    Two novel steroidal glycosides have been isolated from the starfish Gomophia watsoni; they co-occur with one known glycoside and two new polyhydroxysteroids. The structures of the new metabolites, 2,3,4 and 5, were determined on the basis of spectral data. (Résumé d'auteur)

  9. Epidural steroid injection for lumbosacral radiculopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, Mi Sook [The Catholic University of Korea, Pucheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-06-15

    Low back pain combined with radicular pain remains as one of the most challenging musculoskeletal problems for its therapeutic management. This malady results from nerve root impingement and/or inflammation that causes neurologic symptoms in the distribution of the affected nerve root(s) Conservative treatment, percutaneous spine interventions and surgery have all been used as treatment; and the particular treatment that's chosen depends on the severity of the clinical and neurologic presentation. In 1930, Evans reported that sciatica could treated by epidural injection. The use of epidural corticosteroid injections for the treatment of axial and radicular back pain was first reported in 1953. Epidural steroid injections are currently used by many medical professionals for the treatment of lumbosacral radiculopathy. Performing 'blind' epidural steroid injection lacks target specificity that often results in incorrect delivery of medication to the lesion. Imaging-guided steroid injections are now becoming more popular despite the controversy regarding their efficacy. Many reports, including a few randomized controlled trials, have documented the clinical utility of epidural steroid injections.

  10. Epidural steroid injection for lumbosacral radiculopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low back pain combined with radicular pain remains as one of the most challenging musculoskeletal problems for its therapeutic management. This malady results from nerve root impingement and/or inflammation that causes neurologic symptoms in the distribution of the affected nerve root(s) Conservative treatment, percutaneous spine interventions and surgery have all been used as treatment; and the particular treatment that's chosen depends on the severity of the clinical and neurologic presentation. In 1930, Evans reported that sciatica could treated by epidural injection. The use of epidural corticosteroid injections for the treatment of axial and radicular back pain was first reported in 1953. Epidural steroid injections are currently used by many medical professionals for the treatment of lumbosacral radiculopathy. Performing 'blind' epidural steroid injection lacks target specificity that often results in incorrect delivery of medication to the lesion. Imaging-guided steroid injections are now becoming more popular despite the controversy regarding their efficacy. Many reports, including a few randomized controlled trials, have documented the clinical utility of epidural steroid injections

  11. Preventing Anabolic Steroid Use: Guidelines and Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutter, June; Rauhe, Betty

    1997-01-01

    Information about anabolic steroids should be included in the school health curriculum as early as possible. The paper presents suggestions for planning education programs and offers a variety of activities and strategies appropriate for many age groups, including case studies, story completion, posters, demonstrations, projects, creative writing,…

  12. Spontaneous rupture of the anterior cruciate ligament after anabolic steroids.

    OpenAIRE

    Freeman, B J; Rooker, G D

    1995-01-01

    Anabolic steroids remain popular among body builders and power athletes despite numerous warning about their side effects. A case of spontaneous rupture of the anterior cruciate ligament is reported in a bodybuilder taking steroids. While there are many published reports of tendon rupture associated with steroid intake, the authors could find no report relating to ligament disruption.

  13. The Incidence of Anabolic Steroid Use among Competitive Bodybuilders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tricker, Ray; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Investigated incidence of anabolic steroid use among 380 competitive male and female bodybuilders in Kansas and Missouri. Results indicated more than half (54 percent) of the male bodybuilders were using steroids on a regular basis compared to 10 percent of the female competitors. Found main reason for use of steroids was desire to win. (Author/TE)

  14. The role of sulfonated steroids and parmaceutical compouds in steroid hormone biosynthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Neunzig, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Steroid hormones display many regulatory functions in mammalian organisms and thus are indispensable for normal development and reproduction. They are synthesized in steroidogenic tissues, like the adrenal gland and the gonads, in a cascade of reactions, where six different steroidogenic cytochromes P450 (CYPs) participate. Investigations of compounds influencing the activity of these CYP´s are of great importance, as an altered function of the enzymes might lead to an imbalance of steroid ho...

  15. Steroid-antivirals treatment versus steroids alone for the treatment of Bell’s palsy: a meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Dong, Yabing; Zhu, Yong; Ma, Chuan; Zhao, Huaqiang

    2015-01-01

    Background: To illustrate whether the steroid-antivirals treatment could acquire a better recovery in patients with Bell’s palsy than the steroids alone treatment. Materials and methods: We conducted an exhaustive search over Pub med/Medline, Ovid, Elsevier search engines and the Cochrane library thereby collecting the randomized controlled trials in the treatment of patients with Bell’s palsy with steroid-antivirals and steroids. The qualities of relevant articles were assessed by GRADE, whi...

  16. Biased sex ratio in the European eel (Anguilla anguilla) swimbladder parasite Anguillicola crassus, experimentally induced by 11-ketosterone

    OpenAIRE

    G. FAZIO; MONÉ H.; Mouahid, G.; Sasal, P.

    2008-01-01

    Parasites are intimately connected to the host in which they live, and some may be affected by the polluted environment of their host. The present study describes the effect of a steroid hormone (11-ketotestosterone) on the sex ratio of the invasive hematophagous nematode Anguillicola crassus Kuwahara, Niimi & Itagaki, 1974, when experimentally injected to European eels, Anguilla anguilla, Our results showed that this steroid induced a significant male-biased ratio in the nematode A. crassus ...

  17. Neuroactive steroids and peripheral myelin proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnaghi, V; Cavarretta, I; Galbiati, M; Martini, L; Melcangi, R C

    2001-11-01

    The present review summarizes observations obtained in our laboratories which underline the importance of neuroactive steroids (i.e., progesterone (PROG), dihydroprogesterone (5alpha-DH PROG), tetrahydroprogesterone (3alpha, 5alpha-TH PROG), testosterone (T), dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and 5alpha-androstan-3alpha,17beta-diol (3alpha-diol)) in the control of the gene expression of myelin proteins (i.e. glycoprotein Po (Po) and the peripheral myelin protein 22 (PMP22)) in the peripheral nervous system. Utilizing different in vivo (aged and adult male rats) and in vitro (Schwann cell cultures) experimental models, we have observed that neuroactive steroids are able to stimulate the mRNA levels of Po and PMP22. The effects of these neuroactive steroids, which are able to interact with classical (progesterone receptor, PR, and androgen receptor, AR) and non-classical (GABA(A) receptor) steroid receptors is further supported by our demonstration in sciatic nerve and/or Schwann cells of the presence of these receptors. On the basis of the observations obtained in the Schwann cells cultures, we suggest that the stimulatory effect of neuroactive steroids on Po is acting through PR, while that on PMP22 needs the GABA(A) receptor. The present findings might be of importance for the utilization of specific receptor ligands as new therapeutical approaches for the rebuilding of the peripheral myelin, particularly in those situations in which the synthesis of Po and PMP22 is altered (i.e. demyelinating diseases like Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 1A and type 1B, hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies and the Déjérine-Sottas syndrome, aging, and after peripheral injury). PMID:11744100

  18. Steroids in neuroinfection / Esteroides em neuroinfeccao

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ronaldo, Abraham.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available As consequências da resposta inflamatória são as grandes responsáveis pela morbimortalidade das meningites bacterianas. O uso precoce de esteróides nestes casos pode reduzir a mortalidade e a perda auditiva, além de atenuar as consequências a longo prazo deste grupo de doenças, sem causar efeitos co [...] laterais importantes. A recomendação formal de seu uso na meningite pneumocócica tem sido ampliada para outras formas de meningite bacteriana. O mesmo raciocínio pode ser aplicado para a Meningite tuberculosa. Na neurocisticercose e na neuroesquistossomose, os esteróides são mais úteis que as drogas parasiticidas na maior parte dos casos. Apesar de evidências a favor do seu uso na Encefalite Herpética, não existe ainda suporte definitivo para esta recomendação. Entre as infecções oportunísticas que ocorrem nos pacientes com AIDS, a Neurotoxoplasmose e a leucoencefalopatia multifocal progressiva são as mais frequentemente relacionadas com o uso dos esteróides; seu uso tem se mostrado seguro, mas seus benefícios não parecem bem estabelecidos em ambas as condições. Abstract in english The consequences of inflammatory response are primarily responsible for morbimortality in bacterial meningitis. Early use of steroids in these cases can reduce mortality and hearing loss and improve functional outcome without causing significant side effects. The formal recommendation towards pneumo [...] ccocal meningitis is being extended to other forms of Bacterial Meningitis. The same thought can be applied to tuberculous meningitis. In neurocysticercosis and neuroschistosomiasis steroids are more useful than parasiticides in most cases. Despite the evidence favoring the use of steroids in herpes simplex encephalitis, it is not sufficient to definitely support such indication. Among the opportunistic infections that affect AIDS patients, neurotoxoplasmosis and progressive multifocal leukoencephalopaty are those most often considered for the use of steroids; steroids are safe to use, but no definite benefit could be demonstrated in both conditions.

  19. Sexual differentiation of the zebra finch song system: potential roles for sex chromosome genes

    OpenAIRE

    Clayton David F; Replogle Kirstin; Peabody Camilla; Tomaszycki Michelle L; Tempelman Robert J; Wade Juli

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Recent evidence suggests that some sex differences in brain and behavior might result from direct genetic effects, and not solely the result of the organizational effects of steroid hormones. The present study examined the potential role for sex-biased gene expression during development of sexually dimorphic singing behavior and associated song nuclei in juvenile zebra finches. Results A microarray screen revealed more than 2400 putative genes (with a false discovery rate ...

  20. Fluorochemicals used in food packaging inhibit male sex hormone synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenmai, A.K., E-mail: akjro@food.dtu.dk [Division of Toxicology and Risk Assessment, National Food Institute, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2860 Søborg (Denmark); Nielsen, F.K. [Section of Toxicology, Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Pedersen, M. [Division of Food Chemistry, National Food Institute, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2860 Søborg (Denmark); Hadrup, N. [Division of Toxicology and Risk Assessment, National Food Institute, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2860 Søborg (Denmark); Trier, X. [Division of Food Chemistry, National Food Institute, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2860 Søborg (Denmark); Christensen, J.H. [Department of Basic Sciences and Environment, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Copenhagen, DK-1871 Frederiksberg C. (Denmark); Vinggaard, A.M. [Division of Toxicology and Risk Assessment, National Food Institute, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2860 Søborg (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    Polyfluoroalkyl phosphate surfactants (PAPS) are widely used in food contact materials (FCMs) of paper and board and have recently been detected in 57% of investigated materials. Human exposure occurs as PAPS have been measured in blood; however knowledge is lacking on the toxicology of PAPS. The aim of this study was to elucidate the effects of six fluorochemicals on sex hormone synthesis and androgen receptor (AR) activation in vitro. Four PAPS and two metabolites, perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and 8:2 fluorotelomer alcohol (8:2 FTOH) were tested. Hormone profiles, including eight steroid hormones, generally showed that 8:2 diPAPS, 8:2 monoPAPS and 8:2 FTOH led to decreases in androgens (testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone, and androstenedione) in the H295R steroidogenesis assay. Decreases were observed for progesterone and 17-OH-progesterone as well. These observations indicated that a step prior to progestagen and androgen synthesis had been affected. Gene expression analysis of StAR, Bzrp, CYP11A, CYP17, CYP21 and CYP19 mRNA showed a decrease in Bzrp mRNA levels for 8:2 monoPAPS and 8:2 FTOH indicating interference with cholesterol transport to the inner mitochondria. Cortisol, estrone and 17?-estradiol levels were in several cases increased with exposure. In accordance with these data CYP19 gene expression increased with 8:2 diPAPS, 8:2 monoPAPS and 8:2 FTOH exposures indicating that this is a contributing factor to the decreased androgen and the increased estrogen levels. Overall, these results demonstrate that fluorochemicals present in food packaging materials and their metabolites can affect steroidogenesis through decreased Bzrp and increased CYP19 gene expression leading to lower androgen and higher estrogen levels. -- Highlights: ? Fluorochemicals found in 57% of paper and board food packaging were tested. ? Collectively six fluorochemicals were tested for antiandrogenic potential in vitro. ? Three out of six tested fluorochemicals inhibited synthesis of male sex hormones. ? Generally, levels of estrogens and cortisol stayed unaffected or increased. ? The effect on steroid synthesis was specific on gene expression of Bzrp and CYP19.

  1. Fluorochemicals used in food packaging inhibit male sex hormone synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polyfluoroalkyl phosphate surfactants (PAPS) are widely used in food contact materials (FCMs) of paper and board and have recently been detected in 57% of investigated materials. Human exposure occurs as PAPS have been measured in blood; however knowledge is lacking on the toxicology of PAPS. The aim of this study was to elucidate the effects of six fluorochemicals on sex hormone synthesis and androgen receptor (AR) activation in vitro. Four PAPS and two metabolites, perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and 8:2 fluorotelomer alcohol (8:2 FTOH) were tested. Hormone profiles, including eight steroid hormones, generally showed that 8:2 diPAPS, 8:2 monoPAPS and 8:2 FTOH led to decreases in androgens (testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone, and androstenedione) in the H295R steroidogenesis assay. Decreases were observed for progesterone and 17-OH-progesterone as well. These observations indicated that a step prior to progestagen and androgen synthesis had been affected. Gene expression analysis of StAR, Bzrp, CYP11A, CYP17, CYP21 and CYP19 mRNA showed a decrease in Bzrp mRNA levels for 8:2 monoPAPS and 8:2 FTOH indicating interference with cholesterol transport to the inner mitochondria. Cortisol, estrone and 17β-estradiol levels were in several cases increased with exposure. In accordance with these data CYP19 gene expression increased with 8:2 diPAPS, 8:2 monoPAPS and 8:2 FTOH exposures indicating that this is a contributing factor to the decreased androgen and the increased estrogen levels. Overall, these results demonstrate that fluorochemicals present in food packaging materials and their metabolites can affect steroidogenesis through decreased Bzrp and increased CYP19 gene expression leading to lower androgen and higher estrogen levels. -- Highlights: ► Fluorochemicals found in 57% of paper and board food packaging were tested. ► Collectively six fluorochemicals were tested for antiandrogenic potential in vitro. ► Three out of six tested fluorochemicals inhibited synthesis of male sex hormones. ► Generally, levels of estrogens and cortisol stayed unaffected or increased. ► The effect on steroid synthesis was specific on gene expression of Bzrp and CYP19.

  2. “Any Condomless Anal Intercourse” is No Longer an Accurate Measure of HIV Sexual risk Behavior in Gay and Other Men Who have Sex with Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Fengyi; Prestage, Garrett P.; Mao, Limin; Poynten, I. Mary; Templeton, David J.; Grulich, Andrew E.; Zablotska, Iryna

    2015-01-01

    Background: Condomless anal intercourse (CLAI) has long been recognized as the primary mode of sexual transmission of HIV in gay and other men who have sex with men (MSM). A variety of measures of CLAI have been commonly used in behavioral surveillance for HIV risk and to forecast trends in HIV infection. However, gay and other MSM’s sexual practices changed as the understanding of disease and treatment options advance. In the present paper, we argue that summary measures such as “any CLAI” do not accurately measure HIV sexual risk behavior. Methods: Participants were 1,427 HIV-negative men from the Health in Men cohort study run from 2001 to 2007 in Sydney, Australia, with six-monthly interviews. At each interview, detailed quantitative data on the number of episodes of insertive and receptive CLAI in the last 6?months were collected, separated by partner type (regular vs. casual) and partners’ HIV status (negative, positive, and HIV status unknown). Results: A total of 228,064 episodes of CLAI were reported during the study period with a mean of 44 episodes per year per participant (median: 14). The great majority of CLAI episodes were with a regular partner (92.6%), most of them with HIV-negative regular partners (84.8%). Participants were more likely to engage in insertive CLAI with casual than with regular partners (66.7 vs. 55.3% of all acts of CLAI with each partner type, p?measure of HIV behavioral risk is not helpful in understanding the current drivers of HIV transmission in the community. PMID:25774158

  3. Sex Control in Fish: Approaches, Challenges and Opportunities for Aquaculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alyssa M. Budd

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available At present, aquaculture is the fastest growing sector of animal food production and holds great potential as a sustainable solution for world food security. The ability to control sex is one of the most important factors for the commercialisation and efficient propagation of fish species, due to influences on reproduction, growth and product quality. Accordingly, there is a large body of research that targets sexual development in commercially important species in an attempt to understand and control fish sex and reproductive function. In this review, we provide an introduction to sex determination and differentiation in fish, including the genetic, epigenetic and environmental factors that can influence fish sex ratios. We also summarise the major approaches used to control sex in fish and discuss their application in commercially important species. Specifically, we discuss the use of exogenous steroid hormones, chromosome ploidy, environmental manipulations, sex-linked genetic markers, selection for altered sex ratios, and transgenics and comment on the challenges associated with controlling sex in a commercial environment.

  4. Sex determination strategies in 2012: towards a common regulatory model?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelopoulou Roxani

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Sex determination is a complicated process involving large-scale modifications in gene expression affecting virtually every tissue in the body. Although the evolutionary origin of sex remains controversial, there is little doubt that it has developed as a process of optimizing metabolic control, as well as developmental and reproductive functions within a given setting of limited resources and environmental pressure. Evidence from various model organisms supports the view that sex determination may occur as a result of direct environmental induction or genetic regulation. The first process has been well documented in reptiles and fish, while the second is the classic case for avian species and mammals. Both of the latter have developed a variety of sex-specific/sex-related genes, which ultimately form a complete chromosome pair (sex chromosomes/gonosomes. Interestingly, combinations of environmental and genetic mechanisms have been described among different classes of animals, thus rendering the possibility of a unidirectional continuous evolutionary process from the one type of mechanism to the other unlikely. On the other hand, common elements appear throughout the animal kingdom, with regard to a conserved key genes and b a central role of sex steroid control as a prerequisite for ultimately normal sex differentiation. Studies in invertebrates also indicate a role of epigenetic chromatin modification, particularly with regard to alternative splicing options. This review summarizes current evidence from research in this hot field and signifies the need for further study of both normal hormonal regulators of sexual phenotype and patterns of environmental disruption.

  5. Sex differences in the relative contribution of social and clinical factors to the Health Utilities Index Mark 2 measure of health-related quality of life in older home care clients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hogan David B

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The heterogeneity evident among home care clients highlights the need for greater understanding of the clinical and social determinants of multi-dimensional health-related quality of life (HRQL indices and of potential sex-differences in these determinants. We examined the relative contribution of social and clinical factors to HRQL among older home care clients and explored whether any of the observed associations varied by sex. Methods The Canadian-US sample included 514 clients. Self-reported HRQL was measured during in-home interviews (2002-04 using the Health Utilities Index Mark 2 (HUI2. Data on clients' sociodemographic, health and clinical characteristics were obtained with the Minimum Data Set for Home Care. The relative associations between clients' characteristics and HUI2 scores were examined using multivariable linear regression models. Results Women had a significantly lower mean HUI2 score than men (0.48, 95%CI 0.46-0.50 vs. 0.52, 0.49-0.55. Clients with distressed caregivers and poor self-rated health exhibited significantly lower HRQL scores after adjustment for a comprehensive list of clinical conditions. Several other factors remained statistically significant (arthritis, psychiatric illness, bladder incontinence, urinary tract infection or clinically important (reported loneliness, congestive heart failure, pressure ulcers correlates of lower HUI2 scores in adjusted analyses. These associations generally did not vary significantly by sex. Conclusion For females and males, HRQL scores were negatively associated with conditions predictive or indicative of disability and with markers of psychosocial stress. Despite sex differences in the prevalence of social and clinical factors likely to affect HRQL, few varied significantly by sex in their relative impact on HUI2 scores. Further exploration of differences in the relative importance of clinical and psychosocial well-being (e.g., loneliness to HRQL among female and male clients may help guide the development of sex-specific strategies for risk screening and care management.

  6. Prognostic significance of p53 overexpression in primary breast cancer; a novel luminometric immunoassay applicable on steroid receptor cytosols.

    OpenAIRE

    Borg, A.; Lennerstrand, J.; Stenmark-Askmalm, M; Fernö, M.; Brisfors, A.; Ohrvik, A.; Stål, O.; Killander, D.; Lane, D.; Brundell, J.

    1995-01-01

    A novel quantitative luminometric immunoassay (LIA) has been developed for the measurement of wild-type and mutant p53 protein in extracts from breast tumour tissue. The LIA was found to yield reliable estimates of p53 expression in cytosol samples routinely prepared for steroid receptor analysis as compared with results obtained with immunohistochemical analysis. The LIA was evaluated on 205 primary breast tumour cytosols prepared for steroid receptor analysis and stored frozen at -80 degree...

  7. Growth hormone and growth hormone secretagogue effects on nitrogen balance and urea synthesis in steroid treated rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Niels Kristian; Grøfte, Thorbjørn; Greisen, Jacob; Malmlöf, Kjell; Johansen, Peter B; Grønbæk, Henning; Ørskov, Hans; Tygstrup, Niels; Vilstrup, Hendrik

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Growth hormone (GH) reduces the catabolic side effects of steroid treatment via effects on the amino-nitrogen metabolism. Ipamorelin is a synthetic peptide with GH releasing properties. We wished to study the metabolic effects of Ipamorelin and GH on selected hepatic measures of alpha-amino-nitrogen conversion during steroid-induced catabolism. DESIGN: Five groups of rats were included: (1) free-fed controls (2) pair-fed controls (3) prednisolone (delcortol, 4mgxkg(-1)xday(-1)) (4) p...

  8. Sex Education for Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Zitner, David

    1985-01-01

    Sex education evokes a wide variety of responses in the community and from teachers. Consequently, physicians have a responsibility to present sex education material in a factual, objective way. Many people are misinformed about sexual behavior. Physicians can help patients and the community by being aware of appropriate sex education for each age group. A curriculum for sex education, and opportunities to provide sex information for patients of different ages and stages in the lifecycle, are...

  9. Adolescent anabolic/androgenic steroids: Aggression and anxiety during exposure predict behavioral responding during withdrawal in Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, Lesley A; Morrison, Thomas R; Melloni, Richard H

    2013-11-01

    In the U.S. and worldwide anabolic/androgenic steroid use remains high in the adolescent population. This is concerning given that anabolic/androgenic steroid use is associated with a higher incidence of aggressive behavior during exposure and anxiety during withdrawal. This study uses pubertal Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) to investigate the hypothesis that an inverse behavioral relationship exists between anabolic/androgenic steroid-induced aggression and anxiety across adolescent exposure and withdrawal. In the first experiment, we examined aggression and anxiety during adolescent anabolic/androgenic steroid exposure and withdrawal. Adolescent anabolic/androgenic steroid administration produced significant increases in aggression and decreases in anxiety during the exposure period followed by significant decreases in aggression and increases in anxiety during anabolic/androgenic steroid withdrawal. In a second experiment, anabolic/androgenic steroid exposed animals were separated into groups based on their aggressive response during the exposure period and then tested for anxiety during exposure and then for both aggression and anxiety during withdrawal. Data were analyzed using a within-subjects repeated measures predictive analysis. Linear regression analysis revealed that the difference in aggressive responding between the anabolic/androgenic steroid exposure and withdrawal periods was a significant predictor of differences in anxiety for both days of testing. Moreover, the combined data suggest that the decrease in aggressive behavior from exposure to withdrawal predicts an increase in anxiety-like responding within these same animals during this time span. Together these findings indicate that early anabolic/androgenic steroid exposure has potent aggression- and anxiety-eliciting effects and that these behavioral changes occur alongside a predictive relationship that exists between these two behaviors over time. PMID:24126136

  10. Sex hormones adjust "sex-specific" reactive and diurnal cortisol profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juster, Robert-Paul; Raymond, Catherine; Desrochers, Alexandra Bisson; Bourdon, Olivier; Durand, Nadia; Wan, Nathalie; Pruessner, Jens C; Lupien, Sonia J

    2016-01-01

    Sex differences in stress hormone functions are presumed to depend on sex hormones. And yet, surprisingly few psychoneuroendocrine studies actually assess within-sex variations of testosterone, estradiol, and progesterone when investigating sex-specific activities of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. In this methodological study of 204 healthy adults (60 men), we assessed whether cortisol profiles would differ between the sexes when unadjusted or adjusted for basal sex hormones among both sexes. Reactive cortisol was sampled using 6 saliva samples measured every 10-min as part of the Trier Social Stress Test that generally activates cortisol among men more than women. Diurnal cortisol was sampled over two days at (1) awakening, (2) 30-min thereafter, (3) 1400h, (4) 1600h, and (5) bedtime. Sex hormones were collected at baseline before the psychosocial stressor and on two occasions during diurnal cortisol assessment. Repeated-measures analysis of covariance controlled for key covariates in analyses unadjusted or adjusted for sex hormones. Results revealed that men had higher reactive cortisol than women in unadjusted analysis, but this sex difference was attenuated when adjusting for sex hormones. While diurnal cortisol showed no sex differences in unadjusted models, adjusting for sex hormones revealed that women have higher morning cortisol. Correlations using area under the curve formulae revealed intriguing sex-specific associations with progesterone in men and testosterone in women that we propose have implications for social and affective neuroscience. In summary, our results reveal that adjusting for sex hormones alters "sex-specific" reactive and diurnal cortisol profiles. PMID:26539966

  11. Interactions between ethanol and oral contraceptive steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbes, J; Boutagy, J; Shenfield, G M

    1985-10-01

    We investigated the effect of oral contraceptive steroids (OCSs) on plasma ethanol disposition and tolerance to ethanol. Fifty-four healthy women between 18 and 40 years old were classified as light (31) or moderate (23) drinkers. Each group was further subdivided into controls (no OCS; 10 light, seven moderate drinkers), 30 or 35 micrograms estrogen OCS (14 light, 11 moderate drinkers), and 50 micrograms estrogen OCS (seven light, five moderate drinkers). Four of the subjects were studied on a second occasion, thus acting as their own controls with and without OCS use. All women were studied between days 14 and 21 of their pill/menstrual cycle. Plasma ethanol concentrations and two simple tests of motor function were measured for 6 hours after ethanol, 0.9 gm/kg in orange juice drank over a 30-minute period. The groups were well matched for age and weight. There were no significant differences between any of the six subgroups in mean peak plasma ethanol concentration, mean time to peak, mean AUC, or mean rate of ethanol disappearance. This was also the case for the four women who acted as their own controls. Analyses between those receiving high and low progestogen OCSs and between smokers and nonsmokers showed no significant differences. There was acute deterioration in functional performance as measured by two motor function tests in all subjects, regardless of OCS use. Moderate drinkers were significantly less functionally impaired than light drinkers whether with or without OCS use, indicating acquired tolerance. The mean degree of impairment and mean recovery time for both tests were significantly less in the OCS groups than in the control groups. The same trend was seen in the four women who were their own controls. Our results suggest that OCS use may induce some form of "tolerance" to ethanol. However, because there is no evidence of any change in ethanol disposition even at high plasma ethanol concentrations (greater than 100 mg/dl), women taking OCSs should not attempt to drink more than usual. PMID:4042520

  12. Vocational Steroid Use: Reconsidering the Effectiveness of a Prohibition Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Curtis A. Fogel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The vast majority of literature on the topic of anabolic steroid use pertains to use by athletes and/or bodybuilders. Recent evidence suggests that performance-enhancing drugs, and anabolic steroids in particular, are used widely outside the realm of sport. In this paper, the term “vocational steroid use” is further developed and explored, referring to any form of steroid use for the purposes of enhanced performance in the workplace; a type of use uncharacteristic of most illicit substances. Vocational steroid users do not use steroids because of addictions or for recreation; they do so to increase their workplace abilities and productivity. Seven forms of documented vocational steroid use are described including use by: athletes, bodybuilders, police, actors, strength coaches, ?re?ghters, and soldiers. While little research has examined the idea of vocational steroid use, even less attention has been given to issues related to examining the effectiveness of steroid prohibition strategies. This paper concludes with a discussion on the dangers of continued prohibition strategies on steroids, particularly in light of vocational steroid use. This study utilized an unobtrusive methodological approach. The unobtrusive data in this study involved media ?le collection, indexing, and analysis derived from online archives of newspapers throughout Canada and the United States.

  13. In vitro metabolism of androstenedione and identification of endogenous steroids in Helix aspersa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In vitro metabolism of androstenedione in gonads of juvenile and adult Helix aspersa has been investigated. The conversion of [3H]androstenedione into testosterone, 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone, androsterone, and estriol was demonstrated. In juvenile animals testosterone (59.8%) is the major metabolite whereas in adult animals androsterone (18.8%) is. The following endogenous steroids have been identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in adult gonads: androsterone, dehydroepiandrosterone, androstenedione, 3 alpha-androstanediol, estrone, estradiol-17 beta, and estriol. The levels of testosterone, 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone, androstenedione, and progesterone have been measured by RIAs in gonads and hemolymph. Their levels vary with the physiological stage: the gonadal and circulating levels of testosterone decrease with the sexual maturation whereas the 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone increases. These differences observed in metabolism and in level of steroids between the juvenile and the adult snails allow us to suppose that these steroids have a biological role

  14. Sex differences in hypothalamic astrocyte response to estradiol stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo John

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reproductive functions controlled by the hypothalamus are highly sexually differentiated. One of the most dramatic differences involves estrogen positive feedback, which leads to ovulation. A crucial feature of this positive feedback is the ability of estradiol to facilitate progesterone synthesis in female hypothalamic astrocytes. Conversely, estradiol fails to elevate hypothalamic progesterone levels in male rodents, which lack the estrogen positive feedback-induced luteinizing hormone (LH surge. To determine whether hypothalamic astrocytes are sexually differentiated, we examined the cellular responses of female and male astrocytes to estradiol stimulation. Methods Primary adult hypothalamic astrocyte cultures were established from wild type rats and mice, estrogen receptor-? knockout (ERKO mice, and four core genotype (FCG mice, with the sex determining region of the Y chromosome (Sry deleted and inserted into an autosome. Astrocytes were analyzed for Sry expression with reverse transcription PCR. Responses to estradiol stimulation were tested by measuring free cytoplasmic calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i with fluo-4 AM, and progesterone synthesis with column chromatography and radioimmunoassay. Membrane estrogen receptor-? (mER? levels were examined using surface biotinylation and western blotting. Results Estradiol stimulated both [Ca2+]i release and progesterone synthesis in hypothalamic astrocytes from adult female mice. Male astrocytes had a significantly elevated [Ca2+]i response but it was significantly lower than in females, and progesterone synthesis was not enhanced. Surface biotinylation demonstrated mER? in both female and male astrocytes, but only in female astrocytes did estradiol treatment increase insertion of the receptor into the membrane, a necessary step for maximal [Ca2+]i release. Regardless of the chromosomal sex, estradiol facilitated progesterone synthesis in astrocytes from mice with ovaries (XX and XY-, but not in mice with testes (XY-Sry and XXSry. Conclusions Astrocytes are sexually differentiated, and in adulthood reflect the actions of sex steroids during development. The response of hypothalamic astrocytes to estradiol stimulation was determined by the presence or absence of ovaries, regardless of chromosomal sex. The trafficking of mER? in female, but not male, astrocytes further suggests that cell signaling mechanisms are sexually differentiated.

  15. A REVIEW OF NATURAL STEROIDS AND THEIR APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anas Rasheed* and Mohd. Qasim

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Natural steroids, the simple mention of the word brings up topics like cheating, unfair advantages. The first misconception is that all steroids are used for muscle building. This is not at all the case, steroids are natural substances with many different effects in the human body, which begin over several days, as even birth control pills are a form of steroids. “Natural Steroids”, are the organic compounds which are not chemically altered, that mimics hormones, and obviously the hormone it mimics is testosterone. Natural Steroids are involved in a wide range of physiologic processes, including stress response, immune response, carbohydrate metabolism, protein catabolism, blood electrolyte levels, and in the regulation of inflammation, and behavior. The uses are far outreach simply bulking up on muscle. Natural steroids can be used to increase certain enzymes a person's body may have trouble creating naturally, such as testosterone, which is vital in the development in growing men.

  16. Effects of steroid hormone on estrogen sulfotransferase and on steroid sulfatase expression in endometriosis tissue and stromal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccinato, Carla A; Neme, Rosa M; Torres, Natália; Sanches, Lívia Renta; Derogis, Priscilla Bento Mattos Cruz; Brudniewski, Heloísa F; Rosa E Silva, Júlio C; Ferriani, Rui A

    2016-04-01

    Endometriosis is an estrogen-dependent disease that afflicts about 10% of women in their reproductive age, causing severe pain and infertility. The potential roles of female steroid hormones in modulating key estrogen-metabolizing enzymes, steroid sulfatase (STS) and estrogen sulfotransferase (SULT1E1), were investigated. The expression of STS and SULT1E1 mRNA in biopsy samples (n=78) of superficial and deep endometriotic lesions, eutopic endometrium of women with endometriosis and endometrium from control patients were compared according to the menstrual cycle phase. Increased STS gene expression was detected in superficial and deep-infiltrating lesions and a reduced SULT1E1 expression was also observed in the eutopic endometrium relative to the superficial lesions. Additionally, a significantly positive correlation was detected between STS and SULT1E1 mRNA expression levels in biopsy specimens collected from the endometriosis patients, and not in control individuals. The actions of female steroid hormones on SULT1E1 and STS expression were evidenced in endometriosis, revealed by increased expression levels in the luteal phase of the cycle. There was an increased STS expression in primary eutopic and ectopic endometrial stromal cells treated with estradiol and progesterone (representative of the luteal phase, n=3). Although an increased STS mRNA expression was observed in hormone-induced endometrial stromal cells in vitro, no difference could be detected between the hormone treatment groups in estradiol formation from estradiol sulfate measured by LC-MS-MS. Interestingly, a greater expression of STS was observed in stromal cells from eutopic endometrium with an agreement in estradiol formation originated from estradiol sulfate. The differential regulation of STS and SULT1E1 could provide insights for novel studies of the therapeutic use of STS inhibitors. PMID:26723541

  17. EVALUATION OF STEROID HORMONES AND THEIR RECEPTORS IN DEVELOPMENT AND PROGRESSION OF RENAL CELL CARCINOMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nigel Bennett

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Steroid hormones and their receptors have important roles in normal kidney biology, and alterations in their expression and function help explain the differences in development of kidney diseases, such as nephrotic syndrome and chronic kidney disease. The distinct gender difference in incidence of renal cell carcinoma (RCC, with males having almost twice the incidence as females globally, also suggests a role for sex hormones or their receptors in RCC development and progression. There was a peak in interest in evaluating the roles of androgen and estrogen receptors in RCC pathogenesis in the late 20th century, with some positive outcomes for RCC therapy that targeted estrogen receptors, especially for metastatic disease. Since that time, however, there have been few studies that look at use of steroid hormone modulators for RCC, especially in the light of new therapies such as the tyrosine kinase inhibitors and new immune therapies, which are having some success for treatment of metastatic RCC. This review summarises past and current literature and attempts to stimulate renewed interest in research into the steroid hormones and their receptors, which might be used to effect, for example, in combination with the other newer targeted therapies for RCC.

  18. Molecular parameters of maturation in the Toarcian shales, Paris Basin, France - III. Changes in aromatic steroid hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenzie, A. S.; Hoffmann, C. F.; Maxwell, J. R.

    1981-08-01

    Three series of monoaromatic steroid hydrocarbons ( basepeak = m/ z 239, 253 and 267) and four series of triaromatic steroid hydrocarbons ( basepeak = m/ z 217, 231, 245 and 259) have been recognised by computerised gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in a variety of samples of Lower Toarcian shales from the Paris Basin. An increase in the extent of aromatisation of the monoaromatic steroid hydrocarbons in the m/ z 253 series (measured by the abundance of monoaromatic components relative to triaromatic components in the m/ z 231 series) is observed with increasing maturity. Variations between reported maximum burial depth and extent of aromatisation are explicable partly in terms of new maximum burial depth information for some of the shales. The extent of carbon-carbon bond cracking in the side chains of the aromatic steroid hydrocarbons has only begun to be significant in certain of the deepest samples.

  19. Estetrol: a unique steroid in human pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holinka, Christian F; Diczfalusy, Egon; Coelingh Bennink, Herjan J T

    2008-05-01

    Estetrol (E(4)) is an estrogenic steroid molecule synthesized exclusively by the fetal liver during human pregnancy and reaching the maternal circulation through the placenta. Its function is presently unknown. After its discovery in the mid-1960s, E(4) research revealed rather unique properties of this steroid and spawned a large body of state-of-the art publications. Nevertheless, 20 years later experimental work was virtually abandoned. In recent years based on new data, E(4) has experienced a vita nova, a revival of preclinical and clinical research activities with the goal to elucidate its physiological function and explore its potential for therapeutic use in humans. This review is intended to offer an historical account of the discovery of E(4) and the preclinical studies conducted during the heyday of E(4) research that ended in the mid-1980s. PMID:18462934

  20. Determination of steroids in manure and soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Martin; Björklund, Bengt Erland

    A genuine analytical method to determine native steroids (pregnenolone, progesterone, dehydroepiandrosterone, androstenedione, testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, estrone, 17b-estradiol, and 17a-estradiol) and one anthropogenic steroid (ethynylestradiol) in environmental solid samples is presented. In summary, the sample preparation was systematically evaluated with testing different solvents and a suite of solid phase extraction materials. The optimized method utilizes the pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) technology with automated (integrated) clean-up combined with an additional off-line multi-step clean-up. The sample extracts were derivatized and analyzed utilizing a gas chromatography triple quadrupole mass spectrometry technology. This method is applicable on all types of environmental solid samples (e.g., biosolids, soils and sediments).

  1. Steroids from the Soft Coral Sinularia crassa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuei-Ju Chou

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available One new sterol, crassarosterol A (1, and four new steroidal glycosides, crassarosterosides A–D (2–5 were isolated from the Formosan soft coral Sinularia crassa. The absolute configuration of 1 was determined using the Mosher’s method. The absolute configurations for the sugar moieties of 2–5 were determined by HPLC analysis on the o-tolylthiocarbamates derived from the liberated sugar after acid hydrolysis. Compounds 2 and 4 could significantly inhibit the expression of pro-inflammatory iNOS protein at 10 µM. In contrast, 1–3 were found to stimulate the expression of COX-2 protein at this concentration. Steroids 1 and 4 also showed cytotoxicity toward the selected human liver cancer cells.

  2. Spreading characteristics of proprietary rectal steroid preparations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three types of rectal steroid preparation were labelled with Technetium 99 or Indium 111, and the extent of spread of each within the bowel was followed, immediately after administration and at 2hrs, using a gamma camera. Patients with ulcerative colitis were compared with controls. Results indicate that 'Colifoam' enema and 'Predsol' suppository act mainly in the rectum, but 'Predsol retention' enema spreads further into the colon, making it more useful for patients with extensive ulcerative colitis. (U.K.)

  3. Synthesis of highly fluorescent neuroactive steroids.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kapras, Vojt?ch; Chodounská, Hana; Borovská, Ji?ina; Vyklický ml., Ladislav

    Karpacz : Institute of Organic Chemistry Polish Academy of Sciences , 2009. P08-P08. [Conference on Advances in Organic Synthesis /22./ Conference on Isoprenoids. 08.07.2009-12.09.2009, Karpacz] R&D Projects: GA ?R(CZ) GA203/08/1498 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506; CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : steroid * fluorescent * labelling Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry

  4. Steroids and osteoporosis: the quest for mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Manolagas, Stavros C.

    2013-01-01

    Advances made during the last 35 years have improved our understanding of the mechanisms of steroid hormone action on bone and how physiologic, pathologic, or iatrogenic changes in hormone levels can lead to increased fracture risk. Estrogens, androgens, and glucocorticoids alter the cellular composition of bone by regulating the supply and lifespan of osteoclasts and osteoblasts. Additionally, they influence the survival of osteocytes, long-lived cells that are entombed within the mineralize...

  5. Possible side effects of topical steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morman, M R

    1981-02-01

    When used properly in controlled situations, topical corticosteroids provide dramatic relief in distressing disorders such as eczema, psoriasis and seborrheic dermatitis. The fluorinated preparations are associated with a variety of side effects, including acne, striae, premature aging of the skin, hypertrichosis, perioral dermatitis, glaucoma and even adrenal suppression. Except for the severe, acute dermatoses, a nonfluorinated steroid is the better choice because of the relative lack of side effects and lower cost. PMID:6450525

  6. Members of opposite sex mutually regulate gonadal recrudescence in the lizard Calotes versicolor (Agamidae)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B A Shanbhag; R S Radder; S K Saidapur

    2002-09-01

    Adult males and females of the seasonally breeding lizard Calotes versicolor were subjected to various social situations under semi-natural conditions to explain the role of socio-sexual factors in gonadal recrudescence. They were grouped as: (i) males and females, (ii) males and females separated by a wire mesh, (iii) same sex groups of males or females, (iv) castrated males with intact females and (v) ovariectomized (OvX) females with intact males from postbreeding to breeding phase. Specimens collected from the wild during breeding season served as the control group. Plasma sex steroid levels (testosterone in male and 17-estradiol in female), spermatogenetic activity and vitellogenesis were the criteria to judge gonadal recrudescence. In intact males and females that were kept together, gonadal recrudescence and plasma sex steroids levels were comparable to those in wild-caught individuals. Gonadal recrudescence was at its least in all male and all female groups, and plasma sex steroids were at basal levels. Association with OvX females initiated testicular recrudescence but spermatogenetic activity progressed only up to the spermatid stage while males separated from females by wire mesh showed spermatogenetic activity for a shorter period. Females grouped with castrated males and those separated from males by wire mesh produced vitellogenic follicles. However, the total number and diameter of vitellogenic follicles, and plasma estradiol levels were lower than in the females grouped with intact males. The findings indicate that association with members of the opposite sex with progressively rising titers of sex steroids is crucial in both initiating and sustaining gonadal recrudescence in the lizard. Thus, members of the opposite sex mutually regulate gonadal recrudescence in the C. versicolor.

  7. Steroidal Compounds in Commercial Parenteral Lipid Emulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafat A. Siddiqui

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Parenteral nutrition lipid emulsions made from various plant oils contain steroidal compounds, called phytosterols. During parenteral administration of lipid emulsions, phytosterols can reach levels in the blood that are many fold higher than during enteral administration. The elevated phytosterol levels have been associated with the development of liver dysfunction and the rare development of liver failure. There is limited information available in the literature related to phytosterol concentrations in lipid emulsions. The objective of the current study was to validate an assay for steroidal compounds found in lipid emulsions and to compare their concentrations in the most commonly used parenteral nutrition lipid emulsions: Liposyn® II, Liposyn® III, Lipofundin® MCT, Lipofundin® N, Structolipid®, Intralipid®, Ivelip® and ClinOleic®. Our data demonstrates that concentrations of the various steroidal compounds varied greatly between the eight lipid emulsions, with the olive oil-based lipid emulsion containing the lowest levels of phytosterols and cholesterol, and the highest concentration of squalene. The clinical impression of greater incidences of liver dysfunction with soybean versus MCT/LCT and olive/soy lipid emulsions may be reflective of the levels of phytosterols in these emulsions. This information may help guide future studies and clinical care of patients with lipid emulsion-associated liver dysfunction.

  8. Perils and pitfalls of reporting sex differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maney, Donna L

    2016-02-19

    The idea of sex differences in the brain both fascinates and inflames the public. As a result, the communication and public discussion of new findings is particularly vulnerable to logical leaps and pseudoscience. A new US National Institutes of Health policy to consider both sexes in almost all preclinical research will increase the number of reported sex differences and thus the risk that research in this important area will be misinterpreted and misrepresented. In this article, I consider ways in which we might reduce that risk, for example, by (i) employing statistical tests that reveal the extent to which sex explains variation, rather than whether or not the sexes 'differ', (ii) properly characterizing the frequency distributions of scores or dependent measures, which nearly always overlap, and (iii) avoiding speculative functional or evolutionary explanations for sex-based variation, which usually invoke logical fallacies and perpetuate sex stereotypes. Ultimately, the factor of sex should be viewed as an imperfect, temporary proxy for yet-unknown factors, such as hormones or sex-linked genes, that explain variation better than sex. As scientists, we should be interested in discovering and understanding the true sources of variation, which will be more informative in the development of clinical treatments. PMID:26833839

  9. Male Sex is Associated with a Reduced Alveolar Epithelial Sodium Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaltofen, Till; Haase, Melanie; Thome, Ulrich H.; Laube, Mandy

    2015-01-01

    Respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) is the most frequent pulmonary complication in preterm infants. RDS incidence differs between genders, which has been called the male disadvantage. Besides maturation of the surfactant system, Na+ transport driven alveolar fluid clearance is crucial for the prevention of RDS. Na+ transport is mediated by the epithelial Na+ channel (ENaC) and the Na,K-ATPase, therefore potential differences in their expression or activity possibly contribute to the gender imbalance observed in RDS. Fetal distal lung epithelial (FDLE) cells of rat fetuses were separated by sex and analyzed regarding expression and activity of the Na+ transporters. Ussing chamber experiments showed a higher baseline short-circuit current (ISC) and amiloride-sensitive ?ISC in FDLE cells of female origin. In addition, maximal amiloride-sensitive ?ISC and maximal ouabain-sensitive ?ISC of female cells were higher when measured in the presence of a permeabilized basolateral or apical membrane, respectively. The number of FDLE cells per fetus recoverable during cell isolation was also significantly higher in females. In addition, lung wet-to-dry weight ratio was lower in fetal and newborn female pups. Female derived FDLE cells had higher mRNA levels of the ENaC- and Na,K-ATPase subunits. Furthermore, estrogen (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) mRNA levels were higher in female cells, which might render female cells more responsive, while concentrations of placenta-derived sex steroids do not differ between both genders during fetal life. Inhibition of ER-? abolished the sex differences in Na+ transport and female cells were more responsive to estradiol stimulation. In conclusion, a higher alveolar Na+ transport, possibly attributable to a higher expression of hormone receptors in female FDLE cells, provides an explanation for the well known sex-related difference in RDS occurrence and outcome. PMID:26291531

  10. The effect of sex ratios on suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroki, Masanori

    2014-12-01

    Whereas sex ratios are likely to affect the likelihood of marriage, how sex ratios affect health and survival is underexplored. This study uses suicide as a measure of mental health and examines how suicides are affected by sex ratios. As women tend to marry men older than themselves, shrinking populations will lead to higher sex ratios (i.e., higher proportions of men) in the marriage market. Using data from Japan, I find that high sex ratios, both early-life and current, are correlated with higher male suicide rates, whereas female suicide rates are generally not affected. The results of this study have important implications for public health in countries where imbalanced sex ratios are a concern. PMID:23943552

  11. Radioreceptor assay for evaluation of the plasma glucocorticoid activity of natural and synthetic steroids in man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An assay for plasma glucocorticoid activity has been developed using specific glucocorticoid receptors. Unlike other assays for cortisol and certain synthetic corticosteroids, this radioreceptor assay measures the glucocorticoid activity of all natural and synthetic steroids. Steroids extracted from as little as 0.05 ml of plasma are incubated with 3H-dexamethasone and cytosol receptors from cultured rat hepatoma cells. From 0.5 to 50 ng of cortisol are accurately detected. Glucocorticoid activities of adult plasmas determined by the assay correlate closely with corticoid levels obtained in the CBG-isotope and fluorometric assays. Other steroids are measured in proportion to both concentration and potency as glucocorticoids. Relative activities include: cortisol 100, dexamethasone 940, prednisolone 230, prednisone 3, estradiol 1 and androstenedione 1. A similar ranking of steroids was found using receptors from a human source (fetal lung). The assay has been useful in detecting glucocorticoid activity in unidentified medications and in measuring plasma glucocorticoid levels after administration of synthetic corticosteroids. (auth)

  12. Effect of steroid hormones, estrogen and progesterone, on epithelial mesenchymal transition in ovarian cancer development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, So-Ye; Hwang, Kyung-A; Choi, Kyung-Chul

    2016-04-01

    As the primary female sex steroid hormones, estrogens and progesterone play important roles to regulate growth, differentiation, and function of a broad range of target tissues in the human body and maintain the function of female reproductive tissues. Ovarian cancer is the most cause of cancer death in gynecological malignancy. Despite enormous outcomes in the understanding of ovarian cancer pathology, this disease has resulted in poor survival rates since most patients are asymptomatic until the disease has been metastasized. The exact molecular events leading to metastasis of ovarian tumor cells have not yet been well elucidated, although it is recognized that the acquisition of capacity for migration and invasiveness would be a necessary prerequisite. During metastasis, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is an important process, in which epithelial cells lose their intracellular adhesion and cell polarity and acquire increased motility and invasive properties to become mesenchymal like cells. The process of cancer cells to undergo EMT is regulated through the up- and down- regulation of a multiple cellular markers and signaling proteins. In this review, we focused the roles of women sex steroid hormones, estrogen and progesterone, in ovarian cancer, especially the ovarian cancer undergoing EMT and metastatic process. All things considered, we may suggest that progesterone is a potent hormone which inhibits the growth of human ovarian cancer cells and development to metastasis whereas estrogen may act as a risk factor of ovarian cancer progression and that progesterone therapy may be an alternative clinically effective tool for the treatment of human ovarian cancer. PMID:26873134

  13. Safer Sex Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sheets Permission to Use Fact Sheets Sponsors and Advertising Privacy Policy Project Staff Contact Us ... a Language: Fact Sheet 151 Safer Sex Guidelines HOW DOES HIV SPREAD DURING SEX? UNSAFE ...

  14. Practice Safer Sex

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... This information in Spanish ( en español ) Practice safer sex Related information Men's health Screening tests and vaccines ... Return to top More information on Practice safer sex Explore other publications and websites Addressing HIV, Other ...

  15. Adolescents, Teens and Sex

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... videos/news/Adolescent_113015.html Adolescents, Teens and Sex HealthDay News Video - December 1, 2015 To use ... please enable JavaScript. Play video: Adolescents, Teens and Sex For closed captioning, click the CC button on ...

  16. Risk of sex-specific cancers in opposite-sex and same-sex twins in Denmark and Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahrenfeldt, Linda Juel; Skytthe, Axel

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Increasing evidence shows that some cancers originate in utero. It is hypothesized that elevated exposure to some steroid hormones might increase cancer risk, and that hormone transfer between twin fetuses could result in different prenatal exposure to testosterone. METHODS: This large-scale prospective twin study compared opposite-sex (OS) and same-sex (SS) twins to test the impact of intrauterine exposures on cancer risk. Based on the Danish and Swedish twin and cancer registries, we calculated incidence rate ratios for OS and SS twins while standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated for OS/SS twins compared with the general population. RESULTS: A total of 18,001 cancers were identified during 1943-2009. No significant differences were observed between OS and SS twins, neither for the sex-specific cancers nor for cancer at all sites. All-cause cancer was slightly reduced for OS and SS twins compared with the general population, significant for OS males (SIR = 0.95; 95% CI 0.92-0.98) and for SS males and females (SIR = 0.97; 95% CI 0.94-0.99). CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that having a male co-twin - which may entail higher exposure to prenatal testosterone - does not increase the risk of sex-specific cancers in OS females. Furthermore, the study supports that twinning per se is not a risk factor of cancer. IMPACT: Findings are reassuring as they fail to provide evidence for the hypothesis that endocrine or other difference in the in utero milieu affects the risk of sex-specific cancers.

  17. Sex Education in Croatia

    OpenAIRE

    Bijeli?, Nataša

    2008-01-01

    Abstract This article explores the influence of the Catholic church on educational policy, more specifically on sex education, in Croatia. It explores tensions between secular and religious discourses regarding the introduction of a sex education programme supported by the Catholic church into Croatian schools. The presence of the Catholic doctrine in the educational system provided the basis for the introduction of sex education with a religious framework, namely the GROZD sex edu...

  18. Single-Sex Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protheroe, Nancy

    2009-01-01

    Although single-sex education was once the norm in the U.S., the practice has largely been confined to private schools for more than a century. However, with the introduction of the final version of the U.S. Department of Education's so-called single-sex regulations in 2006, public schools were allowed greater flexibility to offer single-sex…

  19. 3D model of amphioxus steroid receptor complexed with estradiol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, Michael E., E-mail: mbaker@ucsd.edu [Department of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093-0693 (United States); Chang, David J. [Department of Biology, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093-0693 (United States)

    2009-08-28

    The origins of signaling by vertebrate steroids are not fully understood. An important advance was the report that an estrogen-binding steroid receptor [SR] is present in amphioxus, a basal chordate with a similar body plan as vertebrates. To investigate the evolution of estrogen-binding to steroid receptors, we constructed a 3D model of amphioxus SR complexed with estradiol. This 3D model indicates that although the SR is activated by estradiol, some interactions between estradiol and human ER{alpha} are not conserved in the SR, which can explain the low affinity of estradiol for the SR. These differences between the SR and ER{alpha} in the steroid-binding domain are sufficient to suggest that another steroid is the physiological regulator of the SR. The 3D model predicts that mutation of Glu-346 to Gln will increase the affinity of testosterone for amphioxus SR and elucidate the evolution of steroid-binding to nuclear receptors.

  20. 3D model of amphioxus steroid receptor complexed with estradiol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The origins of signaling by vertebrate steroids are not fully understood. An important advance was the report that an estrogen-binding steroid receptor [SR] is present in amphioxus, a basal chordate with a similar body plan as vertebrates. To investigate the evolution of estrogen-binding to steroid receptors, we constructed a 3D model of amphioxus SR complexed with estradiol. This 3D model indicates that although the SR is activated by estradiol, some interactions between estradiol and human ER? are not conserved in the SR, which can explain the low affinity of estradiol for the SR. These differences between the SR and ER? in the steroid-binding domain are sufficient to suggest that another steroid is the physiological regulator of the SR. The 3D model predicts that mutation of Glu-346 to Gln will increase the affinity of testosterone for amphioxus SR and elucidate the evolution of steroid-binding to nuclear receptors.