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Sample records for sex steroids measured

  1. Modulation of brain dopamine transmission by sex steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Paolo, T

    1994-01-01

    Sex steroid hormones influence the dopaminergic systems of the hypothalamus as well as the extrahypothalamic regions of the brain in controlling movement and behavior in both humans and animals. This review focuses on the effects of sex steroids on dopaminergic activity in extrahypothalamic brain areas. Among sex steroids, estrogens have been most extensively investigated, and many studies report that estrogens affect behaviors mediated by the basal ganglia, such as in humans suffering from extrapyramidal disorders. Epidemiological and clinical evidence also suggests an influence of estrogens on the vulnerability threshold for schizophrenia and sex differences in the clinical expression of this disease. Clinical observations point to a role of androgenic hormones in Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome. In normal humans, sex steroids were also shown to influence motor and cognitive performance. Biochemical and behavioral studies in animals have also shown the effect of sex steroids on dopaminergic activity in the basal ganglia; however, both activating and inhibiting effects have been reported. This may partly be explained by effects of the dose, duration of treatment, interval between steroid administration and testing the behavior measured, and the part of the basal ganglia from which the behavior is elicited. In view of the numerous variables that influence net dopaminergic response to steroids, focus will be on the literature using similar experimental conditions to assess the effect of in vivo chronic steroid treatment, acute short-term steroid treatment and the estrous cycle as well as in vitro effects of steroids on dopamine receptors. These experimental paradigms point to two general mechanisms of action of steroids: a rapid short-term non-genomic membrane effect and a slower long-term possibly genomic effect of steroids on dopamine systems. Combining dopaminergic drugs with sex steroids could improve efficacy or reduce side effects associated with these drugs. Examples of such combined treatments in rats and monkeys are presented for delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol, cocaine, neuroleptics, apomorphine and L-DOPA. A better understanding of steroid-dopamine interactions and the possible isolation of conditions to have only pro or anti dopaminergic activity could then be used to develop combined therapies or to optimize drug treatments that would take into account the patient's sex and endocrine status. PMID:8019704

  2. Sex Steroid Effects at Target Tissues: Mechanisms of Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margaret E. Wierman (University of Colorado Veterans Affairs Medical Center)

    2007-03-01

    This review outlines new advances in our understanding of the spectrum of steroid hormone ligands, newly recognized target tissues, structure-function relationships of steroid receptors, and, finally, their genomic and nongenomic actions. Sex-based specific effects are often related to the different steroid hormone mileu in men compared with women. Understanding the mechanisms of sex steroid action gives insight into the differences in normal physiology and disease states.

  3. Sex steroids and bone: current perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasch, Juan

    2003-01-01

    Although the process of bone remodelling or its control has not yet been fully elucidated there is, at present, sufficient information available to conclude that ovarian steroids (estrogens, androgens, progesterone) play an essential role in skeletal homeostasis. The mechanism of action of sex steroids on the skeleton is still not entirely clear, but it has traditionally included indirect effects on systemic hormones that regulate calcium balance and a direct receptor-mediated action. More recently, changes in cytokine production within the bone marrow, as well as pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic effects in the osteoblastic cells, have been proposed as new perspectives on the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which sex steroids influence adult bone homeostasis. Mechanical loading, when combined with estrogens or androgens, results in a greater osteogenic response than either condition separately. Women are especially at risk for osteoporosis if they have had a premature or surgical menopause and have not received hormone replacement therapy (HRT). Other reproductive factors that can help to identify women with osteopenia and emphasize the role of sex steroids in preserving bone mass in premenopausal women include: age at menarche, menstrual history and irregularities (including those associated with excessive exercise), age at menopause, previous hysterectomy, hyperprolactinaemia, anorexia nervosa, scoliosis, ovarian dysgenesis, pregnancy and lactation, and pharmacological ovarian suppression. The prevention of osteoporosis starts with the onset of the menarche. A combination of exercise, appropriate nutrition and a healthy lifestyle all maximize bone mineral accrual and result in optimal peak bone mass; normal ovarian function is essential to this process. Unfortunately, many women actually become aware of the need for osteoporosis prevention much later in life, usually after they have already become menopausal. HRT, however, has important limitations for prevention of fractures in post-menopausal women. Future perspectives for treatment of osteoporosis include androgen therapy and anabolic agents. Specifically, synthetic ligands of the estrogen receptor that can evoke the non-genotrophic but not the genotrophic signal of the receptor may be bone anabolic agents, as opposed to natural estrogens or selective estrogen receptor modulators that are anti-resorptive agents. The same ligands may circumvent the side effects associated with conventional HRT. PMID:12859043

  4. The influence of sex steroids on pineal enzymes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of the gonadal sex steroids namely, estradiol, progesterone and testosterone on the two major enzymes responsible for the synthesis of melatonin in the pineal gland was investigated. These enzymes are Serotonin-N-acetyltransferase (SNAT) and Hydroxyindole-O-methyltransferase (H10MT). Testosterone was found to be the only sex steroid capable of influencing SNAT activity whereas all three of the sex steroids were found to influence H10MT activity in a biphasic dose-dependent manner. The influence of these sex steroids on radiolabelled serotonin metabolism by pineals in organ culture was also investigated. Ovariectomy, castration and the sex steroids were all found to alter the pattern of the radiolabelled serotonin metabolism by these pineal glands in organ culture

  5. Concentration of sex steroids in adipose tissue after menopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymczak, J; Milewicz, A; Thijssen, J H; Blankenstein, M A; Daroszewski, J

    1998-01-01

    Adipose tissue is a site of uptake, storage, action, and metabolism of sex steroids. After menopause aromatization of androgens to estrogens in adipose tissue is one of the most important sources of estrogen in the circulation and for peripheral tissues. The aim of this study was to estimate local sex steroid concentrations in breast and abdominal subcutaneous (s.c.) adipose tissue, to compare them with plasma concentrations and to investigate possible correlations with body mass index (BMI). The patients were postmenopausal women undergoing surgery for non-oncological reasons (Group A; n = 35) and breast cancer patients (group B; n = 19). The concentrations of estrone, 17 beta-estradiol, estrone sulfate, 17 beta-estradiol sulfate, androstenedione, androstenediol (androst-5-ene-3 beta, 17 beta-diol), testosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone were measured. The method was based on frozen tissue homogenization, extraction with ethanol: acetone, delipidation, extraction of estrogens with ether, and of androgens with iso-octane in toluene, followed by RIA. The mean levels of steroids were higher in fat than in plasma, apart from testosterone. Levels of sulfates of estrogens and androstenediol were higher in breast than abdominal adipose tissue, and levels of estradiol lower. Positive correlations were found between BMI and tissue and plasma concentration of both estrone and androstenedione. PMID:9618794

  6. Digit Ratio (2D:4D): A Biomarker for Prenatal Sex Steroids and Adult Sex Steroids in Challenge Situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, John; Kilduff, Liam; Cook, Christian; Crewther, Blair; Fink, Bernhard

    2014-01-01

    Digit ratio (2D:4D) denotes the relative length of the second and fourth digits. This ratio is considered to be a biomarker of the balance between fetal testosterone (T) and estrogen (E) in a narrow window of early ontogeny. Evidence for this assertion is derived from direct and indirect measures of prenatal hormonal exposure (in experimental animals, via amniotic fluid samples and in the study of sex-typical traits) in relation to 2D:4D. In contrast, the relationships between 2D:4D and levels of sex steroids in adults are less clear, as many correlational studies of 2D:4D and adult sex steroids have concluded that this association is statistically non-significant. Here, we suggest that in order to understand the link between 2D:4D and sex hormones, one must consider both fetal organizing and adult activating effects of T and E. In particular, we hypothesize that 2D:4D correlates with organizing effects on the endocrine system that moderate activating effects in adulthood. We argue that this is particularly evident in "challenging" conditions such as aggressive and sexual encounters, in which individuals show increased levels of T. We discuss this refinement of the 2D:4D paradigm in relation to the links between 2D:4D and sports performance, and aggression. PMID:24523714

  7. Digit Ratio (2D:4D: A biomarker for prenatal sex steroids and adult sex steroids in challenge situations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JohnManning

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Digit ratio (2D:4D, which denotes the relative length of the 2nd and 4th digits, is considered to be a biomarker of the balance between foetal testosterone and oestrogen in a narrow window of early ontogeny. Evidence from this assertion is derived from direct and indirect measures of prenatal hormonal exposure (in experimental animals, via amniotic fluid samples and in the study of sex-typical traits in relation to 2D:4D. In contrast, the relationships between 2D:4D and levels of sex steroids in adults are less clear, as many correlational studies of 2D:4D and adult sex steroids have concluded that there is little in the way of associations. Here we suggest that in order to understand the link between 2D:4D and sex hormones one must consider both foetal organising and adult activating effects of testosterone and oestrogen. In particular, we hypothesise that 2D:4D correlates with early organising effects on the endocrine system that moderate activating effects in adulthood. We argue that this can be especially observed through an elevated propensity in adults to produce testosterone in “challenging” conditions such as aggressive and sexual encounters. We discuss this refinement of the 2D:4D paradigm in relation to the links between 2D:4D and sports performance, and aggression.

  8. Cellular receptors for sex steroids in human pituitary adenomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffrain-Rea, M L; Petrangeli, E; Ortolani, F; Fraioli, B; Lise, A; Esposito, V; Spagnoli, L G; Tamburrano, G; Frati, L; Gulino, A

    1996-11-01

    Cellular receptors for sex steroids (SSRs) were studied in an unselected series of 55 human pituitary tumors. Cytosolic receptors for estrogen (ERcs) and progesterone (PgRcs) were determined in all cases and cytosolic androgen receptors (ARcs) in 47 cases. Nuclear receptors (ERns, PgRns, ARns) were also studied in 33 cases. ERs and PgRs were determined by an ELISA and ARs by [3H]methyltrienolone binding. Where both cytosolic and nuclear receptors were studied (n = 33), ERs, PgRs and ARs were found in at least one subcellular fraction in 66.7, 60.6 and 81.8% of cases respectively, ERs and ARs being mainly recovered from the cytosol and PgRs from the nucleus. No linear correlation was found between pre-operative plasma steroid hormones and their specific cellular receptors. Nonetheless, the differential expression of SSRs according to sex and gonadal status at the time of surgery strongly supports their regulation by the steroid environment in vivo: PgRcs were more frequent in tumors found in women (41.4 vs 15.4%, P 15 fmol/mg protein) was more common in tumors found in men (34.5 vs 10.3%, P 90%). The present results indicate that most pituitary tumors are targets for sex steroids, SSR expression being partially triggered by the steroid environment itself. Possible physiopathological and therapeutic implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:8958777

  9. Analgesic use and sex steroid hormone concentrations in postmenopausal women

    OpenAIRE

    Gates, Margaret A; Tworoger, Shelley S; Eliassen, A Heather; Missmer, Stacey A; Hankinson, Susan E.

    2010-01-01

    Prior epidemiologic studies suggest that regular use of analgesics may decrease risk of breast and ovarian cancer. We explored possible hormone-mediated mechanisms for these associations by examining the relationship between use of aspirin, non-aspirin nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and acetaminophen and sex steroid hormone concentrations among 740 postmenopausal women in the Nurses' Health Study. All women reported their analgesic use in 1988 or 1990 and provided a blood samp...

  10. Influence of sex and oral contraceptive steroids on paracetamol metabolism.

    OpenAIRE

    Miners, J O; Attwood, J; Birkett, D J

    1983-01-01

    Paracetamol metabolism was investigated in eight healthy males, eight healthy females and eight healthy females receiving oral contraceptive steroids (OCS). Paracetamol clearance was 22% greater in males compared to the control female group. This difference was entirely due to increased activity of the glucuronidation pathway in males, there being no sex-related differences in the sulphation or oxidative metabolism of paracetamol. Paracetamol clearance in females using OCS was 49% greater tha...

  11. Factors That Contribute to Assay Variation in Quantitative Analysis of Sex Steroid Hormones Using Liquid and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xia; Veenstra, Timothy D.

    2012-01-01

    The list of physiological events in which sex steroids play a role continues to increase. To decipher the roles that sex steroids play in any condition requires high quality cohorts of samples and assays that provide highly accurate quantitative measures. Liquid and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC-MS and GC-MS) have…

  12. Serum-sex steroids, gonadotrophins and sex hormone-binding globulin inprostatic hyperplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) develops in elderly males when serumandrogens are relatively lower than in healthy younger males, but is not wellunderstood whether and how sex steroids are altered in prostatic hyperplasia.It is also uncertain that whether there is any change in sex steroids levelsin males older than 40 years of age. The use of androgens in elderly males isoften discouraged because of the probable worsening effect of androgens onprostatism. This study aimed to determine the relationship between prostatichyperplasia and sex steroid levels and whether there is any significantchange in these hormones after the age of 40 years. We studied healthy malesof >40 years with (n=92) or without (n=93) clinical prostatic hyperplasia.Serum testosterone, estradiol, gonadotrophins and sex hormone-bindingglobulin (SHBG) were compared. The hormones and SHGB were also correlatedwith age. No significant difference was found in any hormone in cases withprostatic hyperplasia as compared with the controls. There was no significantage-related change in any hormone except estradiol where as a negativecorrelation (P<0.003) with age was found. Serum sex steroids and SHGBremained unchanged in symptomatic prostatic hyperplasia and except forestrdoil there was no significant age-related change in serum testosterone,gonadotrophins and SHGB in healthy males after the fourth decade. Morestudies are needed to confirm the age-related decline of estrogens in males.(author)of estrogens in males.(author)

  13. The association of urinary cadmium with sex steroid hormone concentrations in a general population sample of US adult men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basaria Shehzad

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies investigating the association of cadmium and sex steroid hormones in men have been inconsistent, but previous studies were relatively small. Methods In a nationally representative sample of 1,262 men participating in the morning examination session of phase I (1998–1991 of the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, creatinine corrected urinary cadmium and serum concentrations of sex steroid hormones were measured following a standardized protocol. Results After adjustment for age and race-ethnicity, higher cadmium levels were associated with higher levels of total testosterone, total estradiol, sex hormone-binding globulin, estimated free testosterone, and estimated free estradiol (each p-trend 0.05. Conclusion Urinary cadmium levels were not associated with sex steroid hormone concentrations in a large nationally representative sample of US men.

  14. Reproducibility of serum sex steroid assays in men by RIA and mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsing, Ann W; Stanczyk, Frank Z; Bélanger, Alain; Schroeder, Paul; Chang, Lilly; Falk, Roni T; Fears, Thomas R

    2007-05-01

    There is an increasing trend to apply gas chromatography combined with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) or liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) assay methods to large-scale epidemiologic studies for the measurement of serum sex steroids. These methods are generally considered the gold standard for sex steroid measurements because of their accuracy, sensitivity, turnaround time, and ability to assess a more complete panel of steroid metabolites in the same run. In this report, we evaluated the precision, including within-batch (intra) and between-batch (inter) reproducibility, of steroid hormone measurements determined by GC-MS and LC-MS/MS assays and RIA and compared measurements among these methods. Specifically, 282 overnight fasting serum samples from 20 male volunteers were analyzed for 12 steroid metabolites by GC-MS or LC-MS/MS in one lab over a 4-month period. Six of the analytes were also measured by RIA in another lab. Unconjugated hormones, including testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone, androstenedione, androst-5-ene-3beta,17beta-diol, estrone, and estradiol, were measured by GC-MS, whereas conjugated hormones, including DHEA sulfate, androsterone glucuronide, 5alpha-androstane-3alpha,17beta-diol 3-glucuronide, 5alpha-androstane-3alpha,17beta-diol 17-glucuronide, and estrone sulfate, were measured by LC-MS/MS. A subset of these hormones, including testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, androstenedione, 5alpha-androstane-3alpha,17beta-diol 17-glucuronide, estrone, and estradiol, were also measured by RIA following extraction and chromatography. We used the coefficient of variation (CV) and the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) to assess within- and between-batch assay variations. For the 12 analytes measured by GC-MS or LC-MS/MS, CVs and ICCs for within- and between-batch measurements were similar, with CVs ranging from 6.1% to 21.4% and ICCs ranging from 87.6% to 99.2%. The six analytes measured by RIA had good CVs and ICCs, with CVs 70% (range, 71.7-99.7%). For the six metabolites that were measured by both methods, the CVs were similar, whereas the ICCs were generally higher with the GC-MS method. The absolute values for each analyte measured by RIA and GC-MS differed, with RIAs usually yielding markedly higher levels than GC-MS, although the Pearson and Spearman correlation coefficients for these six analytes were near one and all were significant (P RIA, GC-MS, and LC-MS/MS assays for androgens and estrogens in the two labs included in the study have good reproducibility, as measured by small CVs (80%), with the exception of estradiol (71.7%) when measured by RIA. Despite substantial differences in absolute measurements of sex steroid hormones by RIA and MS methods, correlations between the two assays for the six sex steroids measured in the two labs were high (>0.9). However, it is important for future large epidemiologic studies to incorporate MS with high reproducibility and specificity to measure a more complete profile of androgen and estrogen metabolites to clarify the role of sex steroids in prostate cancer. PMID:17507629

  15. Body fatness and sex steroid hormone concentrations in US men – Results from NHANES III

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    Rohrmann, Sabine; Shiels, Meredith S.; Lopez, David S.; Rifai, Nader; Nelson, William G.; Kanarek, Norma; Guallar, Eliseo; Menke, Andy; Joshu, Corinne E; Feinleib, Manning; Sutcliffe, Siobhan; Platz, Elizabeth A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Obesity is associated with a variety of chronic diseases, including cancer, which may partly be explained by its influence on sex steroid hormone concentrations. Whether different measures of obesity, i.e., body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and percent body fat were differentially associated with circulating levels of sex steroid hormones was examined in 1,265 men, aged 20 to 90+ years, attending the morning examination session of the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III). Methods and Methods Serum hormones were measured by immunoassay. Weight, height, and waist circumference were measured by trained staff. Percent body fat was estimated from bioelectrical impedance. Multivariate linear regression was used to estimate associations between body fatness measures and hormone levels. Results Total and free testosterone and sex hormone binding globulin concentrations decreased, whereas total and free estradiol increased with increasing BMI, waist circumference, and percent body fat (all P-trend <0.05). The magnitude of change in these hormones was similar for a one quartile increase in each body fatness measure. Conclusion Measured BMI, waist circumference, and percent body fat led to similar inferences about their association with hormone levels in men. PMID:21678033

  16. Immunolocalization of sex steroid hormone receptors in canine vaginal and vulvar tissue and their relation to sex steroid hormone concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeirsch, Hilde; Van den Broeck, Wim; Simoens, Paul

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this immunohistochemical study was to describe the cellular distribution of the estrogen receptor-alpha (ERalpha), progesterone receptor (PR) and androgen receptor (AR) in canine vaginal and vulvar tissue. Samples were taken from dogs in different stages of the estrous cycle. Nuclear staining for ERalpha, PR and AR was observed in surface epithelium, stromal and smooth muscle cells. Receptors were also expressed in vulvar skin. Cytoplasmic staining for AR was observed in basal and parabasal cell layers of vulvar and vaginal epithelium. For all three receptors, staining intensity was generally higher in stromal cells compared with epithelial cells, suggesting that stromal cells may be more receptive to steroid hormone action. Therefore, as in other tissues of the female genital tract, stromal-epithelial interactions induced by sex steroid hormones may be of importance in canine vaginal and vulvar tissues. No cyclic changes in receptor immunostaining were observed. Significant positive correlations were found between receptor immunostaining in some vaginal and vulvar cell groups and the serum concentrations of estradiol-17beta and testosterone, but not with the serum progesterone concentration. Significant negative correlations were found between ERalpha immunostaining in epithelial and stromal cells of the vagina and the serum estradiol-17beta concentration, suggesting a negative feedback mechanism between estradiol-17beta and its receptor. Both cell types play a role in the differentiation of vaginal epithelium, under the influence of estradiol-17beta. PMID:12219948

  17. Sex steroids in serum of prepubertal male and female horses and correlation with bone characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemazurier, Emmanuel; Toquet, Marie Pierre; Fortier, Guillaume; Séralini, Gilles Eric

    2002-04-01

    We used radioimmunoassay (RIA) to measure monthly serum levels of unconjugated and conjugated sex steroids (testosterone T, androstenedione A, estradiol E(2), and estrone E(1)) in 4 male and 4 female foals during their first year of life. Maximal production of sex steroids was detected from April to August with hormonal peaks, corresponding to the natural breeding season in adults. In males, only A levels were more steady. Total estrogens (unconjugated plus conjugated E(2) and E(1)) were the major steroids in immature males in contrast to adults. Estrogens generally peaked in young females before males; the major estrogen was E(1), and total estrogens overtook total androgens (unconjugated and conjugated T and unconjugated A). We also sampled 3 male and 3 female foals with bone alterations in adulthood. For all animals, serum levels of four bone formation markers were obtained: osteocalcin (O), hydroxyproline (HP), and alkaline phosphatase (AP), and a radiographic score was determined. Only male foals with normal skeletal frame (good radiographic score GRS) in adulthood showed a correlation (P < 0.01) between the distribution frequency of each bone formation marker and unconjugated E(2) or E(1) levels; this finding highlighted the role of unconjugated estrogens in bone maturation in horses, since this was not found in the groups with bone alterations. In females, the threshold of estrogen synthesis and sensitivity was probably sufficient to be a nonlimiting factor at this stage of development. Our results strongly suggest a differential regulation of the estrogen/androgen balance in horses according to sex, sexual maturation, and photoperiod. Moreover, estrogens appear to be crucial for skeletal development in male colts, and these steroids are good modulators of skeletal frame characteristics in adulthood. PMID:11958792

  18. Modulation of the cytosolic androgen receptor in striated muscle by sex steroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rance, N. E.; Max, S. E.

    1982-01-01

    The influence of orchiectomy (GDX) and steroid administration on the level of the cytosolic androgen receptor in the rat levator ani muscle and in rat skeletal muscles (tibialis anterior and extensor digitorum longus) was studied. Androgen receptor binding to muscle cytosol was measured using H-3 methyltrienolone (R1881) as ligand, 100 fold molar excess unlabeled R1881 to assess nonspecific binding, and 500 fold molar excess of triamcinolone acetonide to prevent binding to glucocorticoid and progestin receptors. Results demonstrate that modification of the levels of sex steroids can alter the content of androgen receptors of rat striated muscle. Data suggest that: (1) cytosolic androgen receptor levels increase after orchiectomy in both levator ani muscle and skeletal muscle; (2) the acute increase in receptor levels is blocked by an inhibitor of protein synthesis; and (3) administration of estradiol-17 beta to castrated animals increases receptor binding in levator ani muscle but not in skeletal muscle.

  19. Dopamine and sex steroid regulation of POMC gene expression in the hypothalamus.

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    Matera, C; Wardlaw, S L

    1993-11-01

    Previous studies have shown that POMC mRNA and peptide levels are increased in the medial basal hypothalamus (MBH) of the chronically castrated rat and are suppressed with sex steroid replacement. In a parallel time course, hypothalamic dopamine turnover similarly changes after chronic castration and sex steroid replacement. In this study we have examined the effects of dopamine on POMC in the MBH and questioned whether the increase in dopamine activity which occurs in the MBH of chronically castrated rats is responsible for the stimulation of POMC seen under these conditions. We have therefore measured POMC gene expression and peptide content in the MBH of chronically castrated male and female rats in response to the dopamine antagonist haloperidol, and in intact or sex steroid replaced animals in response to the dopamine agonist pergolide. Adult male and female rats were studied 3-4 weeks after castration with and without testosterone (T) or estradiol (E2) replacement. POMC mRNA was measured by a solution hybridization S1 nuclease protection assay; beta-endorphin (beta-EP) and alpha-MSH were measured by RIA. In the first study 4 groups of ovariectomized (OVX) rats were treated with saline, haloperidol, E2 or E2 + pergolide. The mean POMC mRNA concentration in the MBH was 0.85 +/- 0.04 pg/microgram RNA in the saline group and decreased to 0.62 +/- 0.06 pg/microgram with haloperidol (p < 0.01). A similar decrease to 0.53 +/- 0.03 pg/microgram was seen with E2 (p < 0.01); pergolide however prevented the E2 induced decrease in POMC mRNA. In the second study ORCX rats received saline or haloperidol and sham-ORCX rats received saline or pergolide.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8115018

  20. Endogenous sex steroids and risk of cervical carcinoma : results from the EPIC study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rinaldi, Sabina; Plummer, Martyn

    2011-01-01

    Epidemiologic data and animal models suggest that, despite the predominant role of human papillomavirus infection, sex steroid hormones are also involved in the etiology of invasive cervical carcinoma (ICC).

  1. Effects of sex steroids on spatial cognition in the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata)

    OpenAIRE

    Haggis, Olivia

    2010-01-01

    It is well established in mammals that chronic, long-term elevations in sex steroids are associated with improvements in spatial cognition. It is less clear the extent to which short to medium term elevations in sex steroids improve spatial cognition and change hippocampal morphology, particularly in birds. The avian hippocampus expresses both androgen receptors (AR) and oestrogen receptor alpha (ER?) and high levels of the enzyme aromatase that converts testosterone to oestro...

  2. Associations between polymorphisms in glucuronidation and sulfation enzymes and sex steroid concentrations in premenopausal women in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Mellissa; Schwartz, Stephen M.; Atkinson, Charlotte; Makar, Karen W.; Thomas, Sushma S.; Stanczyk, Frank Z.; Westerlind, Kim C.; Newton, Katherine M.; Holt, Victoria L.; Leisenring, Wendy M.; Lampe, Johanna W.

    2011-01-01

    Glucuronidation, catalyzed by UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGT) and sulfation, catalyzed by sulfotransferases (SULT), are pathways through which sex steroids are metabolized to less active compounds. These enzymes are highly polymorphic and genetic variants frequently result in higher or lower activity. The phenotypic effects of these polymorphisms on circulating sex steroids in premenopausal women have not yet been investigated. One hundred and seventy women ages 40-45 years had a blood sample drawn during the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle for sex steroid measures and to obtain genomic DNA. Urine was collected for 2-hydroxy (OH) estrone (E1) and 16?-OH E1 measures. Generalized linear regression models were used to assess associations between sex steroids and polymorphisms in the UGT1A and UGT2B families, SULT1A1, and SULT1E1. Women with the UGT1A1(TA7/TA7) genotype had 25% lower mean estradiol (E2) concentrations compared to the wildtype (TA6/TA6) (p = 0.02). Similar associations were observed between SULT1A1(R213/H213) and E1 (13% lower mean E1 concentration vs. wildtype; p-value = 0.02) and UGT2B4(E458/E458) and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) (20% lower mean DHEA vs. wildtype; p-value = 0.03). The SULT1E1(A/C) and the UGT1A1(TA7)-UGT1A3(R11) haplotypes were associated with reduced estrogen concentrations. Further study of UGT and SULT polymorphisms and circulating sex steroid measures in larger populations of premenopausal women is warranted. PMID:21193038

  3. Offspring sex in a TSD gecko correlates with an interaction between incubation temperature and yolk steroid hormones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Guo-Hua; Yang, Jing; Wang, Jin; Ji, Xiang

    2012-12-01

    We incubated eggs of the Japanese gecko Gekko japonicus at three temperatures, and measured yolk testosterone (T) and 17?-estradiol (E2) levels at three time points in embryonic development (oviposition, 1/3 of incubation, and 2/3 of incubation), to examine whether maternal influence on offspring sex via yolk steroid hormone deposition is significant in the species. Eggs incubated at 24 °C and 32 °C produced mostly females, and eggs incubated at 28 °C almost a 50:50 sex ratio of hatchlings. Female-producing eggs were larger than male-producing eggs. Clutches in which eggs were incubated at the same temperature produced mostly same-sex siblings. Yolk T level at laying was negatively related to eggs mass, and yolk E2/T ratio was positively related to egg mass. Results of two-way ANOVA with incubation temperature and stage as the factors show that: yolk E2 level was higher at 32 °C than at 24 °C; yolk T level was higher, whereas yolk E2/T ratio was smaller, at 28 °C than at 24 °C; yolk E2 and T levels were higher at 2/3 than at 1/3 of incubation. Our data in G. japonucus show that: (1) maternal influence on offspring sex via yolk steroid hormone deposition is significant; (2) incubation temperature affects the dynamics of developmental changes in yolk steroid hormones; (3) influences of yolk steroid hormones on offspring sex are secondary relative to incubation temperature effects; and (4) offspring sex correlates with an interaction between incubation temperature and yolk steroid hormones.

  4. Digit Ratio (2D:4D): A biomarker for prenatal sex steroids and adult sex steroids in challenge situations

    OpenAIRE

    JohnManning; LiamKilduff; CristianCook; BlairCrewther; BernhardFink

    2014-01-01

    Digit ratio (2D:4D), which denotes the relative length of the 2nd and 4th digits, is considered to be a biomarker of the balance between foetal testosterone and oestrogen in a narrow window of early ontogeny. Evidence from this assertion is derived from direct and indirect measures of prenatal hormonal exposure (in experimental animals, via amniotic fluid samples and in the study of sex-typical traits) in relation to 2D:4D. In contrast, the relationships between 2D:4D and levels of sex steroi...

  5. Elevated serum IGF-I, but unaltered sex steroid levels, in healthy boys with pubertal gynaecomastia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mieritz, Mikkel G; Sorensen, Kaspar

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Pubertal gynaecomastia is a very common condition. Although the underlying aetiology is poorly understood, it is generally accepted that excess of oestrogens and deficit of androgens are involved in the pathogenesis. Furthermore, adiposity as well as the GH/IGF-I axis may play a role. In this study, we elucidate the association of adiposity and levels of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), testosterone, oestrogen, IGF-I and IGFBP-3 with the presence of pubertal gynaecomastia in a large cohort of healthy boys. PATIENTS: A total of 501 healthy Danish school boys (aged 6·1-19·8 year) from the COPENHAGEN Puberty Study. MEASUREMENTS: Anthropometry and pubertal stages (PH1-6 and G1-5) were evaluated, and the presence of gynaecomastia was assessed. Body fat percentage was calculated by means of four skin folds and impedance. Nonfasting blood samples were analysed for FSH, LH, testosterone, SHBG, oestradiol, IGF-I, IGFBP-3 and prolactin. RESULTS: We found that 23% (31/133) of all pubertal boys had gynaecomastia. More specifically, 63% (10/16) of boys in genital stage 4 had gynaecomastia. Boys with gynaecomastia had significantly higher IGF-I levels compared with controls (IGF-I SD-score 0·72 vs -0·037, P < 0·001). This difference was maintained after adjusting for confounders (age and pubertal stage). Sex steroid levels, oestradiol/testosterone ratio or free testosterone were not associated with the presence of gynaecomastia with or without adjustment for confounders. CONCLUSIONS: IGF-I levels were elevated in healthy boys with pubertal gynaecomastia compared with boys without gynaecomastia, whereas sex steroid levels did not differ. We speculate that the GH-IGF-I axis may be involved in the pathogenesis of pubertal gynaecomastia.

  6. Digit Ratio (2D:4D): A Biomarker for Prenatal Sex Steroids and Adult Sex Steroids in Challenge Situations

    OpenAIRE

    Manning, John; Kilduff, Liam; Cook, Christian; Crewther, Blair; Fink, Bernhard

    2014-01-01

    Digit ratio (2D:4D) denotes the relative length of the second and fourth digits. This ratio is considered to be a biomarker of the balance between fetal testosterone (T) and estrogen (E) in a narrow window of early ontogeny. Evidence for this assertion is derived from direct and indirect measures of prenatal hormonal exposure (in experimental animals, via amniotic fluid samples and in the study of sex-typical traits) in relation to 2D:4D. In contrast, the relationships between 2D:4D and level...

  7. The mechanisms underlying sexual differentiation of behavior and physiology in mammals and birds: relative contributions of sex steroids and sex chromosomes

    OpenAIRE

    FumihikoMaekawa; HirokoOhki-hamazaki

    2014-01-01

    From a classical viewpoint, sex-specific behavior and physiological functions as well as the brain structures of mammals such as rats and mice, have been thought to be influenced by perinatal sex steroids secreted by the gonads. Sex steroids have also been thought to affect the differentiation of the sex-typical behavior of a few members of the avian order Galliformes, including the Japanese quail and chickens, during their development in ovo. However, recent mammalian studies that focused on...

  8. Regulation of antioxidant enzyme activities in male and female rat macrophages by sex steroids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azevedo R.B.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Human and animal immune functions present sex dimorphism that seems to be mainly regulated by sex hormones. In the present study, the activities of the antioxidant enzymes total superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px were measured in intraperitoneal resident macrophages from adult male and female rats. In addition to comparing males and females, we also examined the regulation of these enzyme activities in macrophages by sex steroids. GSH-Px activity did not differ between male and female macrophages. However, both total SOD and CAT activities were markedly higher in females than in males (83 and 180%. Removal of the gonads in both males and females (comparison between castrated groups increased the difference in SOD activity from 83 to 138% and reduced the difference in CAT activity from 180 to 86%. Castration and testosterone administration did not significantly modify the activities of the antioxidant enzymes in male macrophages. Ovariectomy did not affect SOD or GSH-Px activity but markedly reduced (48% CAT activity. This latter change was fully reversed by estrogen administration, whereas progesterone had a smaller effect. These results led us to conclude that differences in the SOD and CAT activities may partially explain some of the differences in immune function reported for males and females. Also, estrogen is a potent regulator of CAT in macrophages and therefore this enzyme activity in macrophages may vary considerably during the menstrual cycle.

  9. Secondary osteoporosis due to sickle cell anemia: Do sex steroids play a role?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadat-Ali Mir

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Background : The exact cause of osteoporosis in patients with sickle cell disease (SCD is not known, and various hypotheses have been put forward. Aim: To assess the effect of sex steroids on bone mass in SCD patients. Settings and Design: In King Fahd Hospital of the university, Alkhobar, Saudi Arabia, a cross-sectional study was carried out. Materials and Methods : All patients known to suffer from SCD attending the hospital between August 2006 and August 2007 were subjects of the study. Blood was extracted for serum level of androgens, gonadotropins, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH, calcium, phosphorus, and alkaline phosphatase. Measurement of bone mineral density (BMD of hip and spine was done using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA. All tests were performed using SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Sciences, version 14.0, Chicago, Illinois, with P value of < 0.05 being statistically significant with confidence interval (CI of 95%. Results : One hundred three consecutive patients with an average age of 27.83 years were studied. Forty-five were males; and 58, females. Low bone mass (osteoporotic/osteopenic was found in 62.2% of the patients in the male group and 67.06% in the female group. In males, testosterone level was not significant between different groups, but total estradiol levels were significantly lower in the osteopenic and osteoporotic patients (P < 0.003 and < 0.01 respectively. In female patients, estradiol and testosterone levels were lower in osteoporotic patients in comparison to non-osteoporotic patients (P = 0.05 and 0.001. Conclusions : Our study indicates that sex steroids play a major role in the development of osteopenia and osteoporosis in patients with SCD

  10. Intracrine sex steroid synthesis and signaling in human epidermal keratinocytes and dermal fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomari, Elena; Dalla Valle, Luisa; Pertile, Paolo; Colombo, Lorenzo; Thornton, M Julie

    2015-02-01

    Peripheral intracrine sex steroid synthesis from adrenal precursors dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and DHEA-sulfate has evolved in humans. We sought to establish if there are differences in intracrine, paracrine, and endocrine regulation of sex steroids by primary cultures of human skin epidermal keratinocytes and dermal fibroblasts. Microarray analysis identified multifunctional genes modulated by steroids, quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) mRNA expression, enzymatic assay aromatase activity, scratch assay cell migration, immunocytochemistry ?-smooth muscle actin (?-SMA), and collagen gel fibroblast contraction. All steroidogenic components were present, although only keratinocytes expressed the organic anion organic anion transporter protein (OATP) 2B1 transporter. Both expressed the G-protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER1). Steroids modulated multifunctional genes, up-regulating genes important in repair and aging [angiopoietin-like 4 (ANGPTL4), chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 1 (CXCL1), lamin B1 (LMNB1), and thioredoxin interacting protein (TXNIP)]. DHEA-sulfate (DHEA-S), DHEA, and 17?-estradiol stimulated keratinocyte and fibroblast migration at early (4 h) and late (24-48 h) time points, suggesting involvement of genomic and nongenomic signaling. Migration was blocked by aromatase and steroid sulfatase (STS) inhibitors confirming intracrine synthesis to estrogen. Testosterone had little effect, implying it is not an intermediate. Steroids stimulated fibroblast contraction but not ?-SMA expression. Mechanical wounding reduced fibroblast aromatase activity but increased keratinocyte activity, amplifying the bioavailability of intracellular estrogen. Cultured fibroblasts and keratinocytes provide a biologically relevant model system to investigate the complex pathways of sex steroid intracrinology in human skin. PMID:25392269

  11. Major cardiac surgery induces an increase in sex steroids in prepubertal children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckmann, Matthias; d'Uscio, Claudia H; de Laffolie, Jan; Neuhaeuser, Christoph; Bödeker, Rolf-Hasso; Thul, Josef; Schranz, Dietmar; Frey, Brigitte M

    2014-03-01

    While the neuroprotective benefits of estrogen and progesterone in critical illness are well established, the data regarding the effects of androgens are conflicting. Surgical repair of congenital heart disease is associated with significant morbidity and mortality, but there are scant data regarding the postoperative metabolism of sex steroids in this setting. The objective of this prospective observational study was to compare the postoperative sex steroid patterns in pediatric patients undergoing major cardiac surgery (MCS) versus those undergoing less intensive non-cardiac surgery. Urinary excretion rates of estrogen, progesterone, and androgen metabolites (?g/mmol creatinine/m(2) body surface area) were determined in 24-h urine samples before and after surgery using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in 29 children undergoing scheduled MCS and in 17 control children undergoing conventional non-cardiac surgery. Eight of the MCS patients had Down's syndrome. There were no significant differences in age, weight, or sex between the groups. Seven patients from the MCS group showed multi-organ dysfunction after surgery. Before surgery, the median concentrations of 17?-estradiol, pregnanediol, 5?-dihydrotestosterone (DHT), and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) were (control/MCS) 0.1/0.1 (NS), 12.4/11.3 (NS), 4.7/4.4 (NS), and 2.9/1.1 (p=0.02). Postoperatively, the median delta 17?-estradiol, delta pregnanediol, delta DHT, and delta DHEA were (control/MCS) 0.2/6.4 (p=0.0002), -3.2/23.4 (p=0.013), -0.6/3.7 (p=0.0004), and 0.5/4.2 (p=0.004). Postoperative changes did not differ according to sex. We conclude that MCS, but not less intensive non-cardiac surgery, induced a distinct postoperative increase in sex steroid levels. These findings suggest that sex steroids have a role in postoperative metabolism following MCS in prepubertal children. PMID:24252380

  12. The mechanisms underlying sexual differentiation of behavior and physiology in mammals and birds: relative contributions of sex steroids and sex chromosomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FumihikoMaekawa

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available From a classical viewpoint, sex-specific behavior and physiological functions as well as the brain structures of mammals such as rats and mice, have been thought to be influenced by perinatal sex steroids secreted by the gonads. Sex steroids have also been thought to affect the differentiation of the sex-typical behavior of a few members of the avian order Galliformes, including the Japanese quail and chickens, during their development in ovo. However, recent mammalian studies that focused on the artificial shuffling or knockout of the sex-determining gene, Sry, have revealed that sex chromosomal effects may be associated with particular types of sex-linked differences such as aggression levels, social interaction, and autoimmune diseases, independently of sex steroid-mediated effects. In addition, studies on naturally occurring, rare phenomena such as gynandromorphic birds and experimentally constructed chimeras in which the composition of sex chromosomes in the brain differs from that in the other parts of the body, indicated that sex chromosomes play certain direct roles in the sex-specific differentiation of the gonads and the brain. In this article, we review the relative contributions of sex steroids and sex chromosomes in the determination of brain functions related to sexual behavior and reproductive physiology in mammals and birds.

  13. Association between endogenous sex steroid hormones and insulin-like growth factor proteins in US men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papatheodorou, Stefania I.; Rohrmann, Sabine; Lopez, David S.; Bradwin, Gary; Joshu, Corinne E.; Kanarek, Norma; Nelson, William G.; Rifai, Nader; Platz, Elizabeth A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Sex steroid hormone concentrations and insulin-like growth factor (IGF) proteins have been independently associated with risk of cancer, chronic diseases, and mortality. However, studies that evaluated the inter-relation between the sex hormones and IGF pathways have provided mixed results. We examined the association between endogenous sex hormones and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) with IGF-1 and IGF-binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3) in a population-based sample of US men. Methods Data from 1,135 men aged 20 years or older participating in the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) were analyzed. Weighted linear regression was used to estimate geometric means and 95 % confidence intervals for IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 concentrations by sex steroid hormones and SHBG after adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, body mass index, waist circumference, alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking, physical activity, diabetes, and mutually adjusting for other sex hormones and SHBG. Results No significant association was observed between sex steroid hormones, SHBG, and IGF-1 concentrations. Total estradiol (% difference in Q5 ? Q1 geometric means ?9.7 %; P-trend 0.05) and SHBG (% difference ?7.3 %; P-trend 0.02) were modestly inversely associated with IGFBP-3. Total testosterone was modestly inversely associated with IGFBP-3 (% difference ?6.2 %; P-trend 0.01), but this association disappeared after adjustment for total estradiol and SHBG (% difference 2.6 %; P-trend 0.23). Androstanediol glucuronide was not associated with IG-FBP-3. Conclusions These findings suggest that there may be inter-relationships between circulating total estradiol, SHBG, and IGFBP-3 concentrations. Future research may consider these inter-relationships when evaluating potential joint effects of the sex hormones and IGF pathways. PMID:24395140

  14. Sex steroid hormones modulate responses to social challenge and opportunity in males of the monogamous convict cichlid, Amatitliana nigrofasciata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sessa, Anna K; Harris, Rayna M; Hofmann, Hans A

    2013-08-01

    Steroid hormones play an important role in modulating behavioral responses to various social stimuli. It has been suggested that variation in the hormonal regulation of behavior across species is associated with social organization and/or mating system. In order to further elucidate the interplay of hormones and behavior in social situations, we exposed males of the monogamous convict cichlid Amatitliana nigrofasciata to three social stimuli: gravid female, intruder male, and a nonsocial stimulus. We used a repeated measure design to create behavioral profiles and explore how sex steroid hormones respond to and regulate social behavior. Results show distinct behavioral responses to different social situations, with circulating 11-ketotestosterone increasing in response to social stimuli. Pharmacological manipulations using specific androgen and estrogen receptor agonists and antagonists exposed complex control over digging behavior in the social opportunity context. In the social challenge context, aggressive behaviors decreased in response to blocking the androgen receptor pathway. Our results extend our understanding of sex steroid regulation of behavioral responses to social stimulation. PMID:23651580

  15. Postmenopausal serum sex steroids and risk of hormone receptor positive and negative breast cancer: a nested case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    James, Rebecca E.; Lukanova, Annekatrin

    2011-01-01

    Pre-diagnostic endogenous sex steroid hormone levels have well established associations with overall risk of breast cancer. While evidence towards the existence of distinct subtypes of breast cancer accumulates, few studies have investigated the associations of sex steroid hormone levels with risk of hormone receptor (estrogen (ER) and/or progesterone receptor (PR)) defined breast cancer. In a case-control study nested within the EPIC cohort (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition), estradiol, testosterone and sex hormone binding globulin levels were measured in pre-diagnostic serum samples from postmenopausal women not using HRT at blood donation. 554 women who developed invasive breast cancer with information on receptor status were matched with 821 control subjects. Conditional logistic regression models estimated breast cancer risk with hormone concentrations according to hormone receptor status of the tumor. Sex steroid hormones were associated with risks of not only ER+PR+ breast cancer [estradiol OR for highest versus lowest tertile=2.91 (95%CI:1.62-5.23), Ptrend0.002; testosterone OR=2.27 (95%CI:1.35-3.81), Ptrend=0.002] but also of ER-PR- breast cancer [estradiol OR=2.11 (95%CI:1.00-4.46), Ptrend =0.05; testosterone OR= 2.06 (95%CI:0.95-4.46), Ptrend=0.03], with associations appearing somewhat stronger in the receptor positive disease. Serum androgens and estrogens are associated with risks of both hormone receptor negative as well as receptor positive breast tumors. Further research is needed to establish through which molecular pathways, and during which evolutionary stages of development, androgens and estrogens can promote the occurrence of both receptor-positive and -negative clinical breast tumors.

  16. Skeletal muscle and bone: effect of sex steroids and aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    PhD Marybeth Brown (University of Missouri-Columbia Dept of Physical Therapy)

    2008-02-14

    Both estrogen and testosterone are present in males and females. Both hormones contribute to the well being of skeletal muscle and bone in men and women, and there is evidence that the loss of sex hormones is associated with the age-related decline in bone and skeletal muscle mass. Hormonal supplementation of older adults to restore estrogen and testosterone levels to those of young men and women is not without penalty.

  17. [The system of neuroendocrine regulation of amygdala functions: the role of dopamine and sex steroids].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhmadeev, A V; Kalimullina, L B

    2010-01-01

    This review contains the data on the representation of dopaminergic system in the amygdala and its functional importance in the realization of neuroendocrine functions of the amygdala as a reproductive center. The evidence presented indicate the combined participation of dopamine and sex steroids in the regulation of amygdala activity, which exerts a modulating influence both on the centers of gonadotropin secretion and release and on centers of sexual behavior in the hypothalamic area of the brain. It is shown that a significant role in this process belongs to the chemosensory information coming to amygdala from the olfactory bulbs, in which the functional activity of dopaminergic system is also controlled by the amount of sex steroids. This review also presents the data indicating the changes in dopamine metabolism in amygdala structures in the process of formation of the stress-response, food, maternal, aggressive-defensive and deviant behavior. PMID:21513109

  18. Sex steroid hormones in barn swallow (Hirundo rustica) populations at a dioxin contaminated site in northeast Louisiana

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This study compares the gonadal sex steroid hormone levels i.e., estradiol, total estrogen, and testosterone in Louisiana barn swallows Hirundo rustica that were...

  19. Signal Transduction Pathway Analysis in Desmoid-type Fibromatosis: TGF?, COX2 and Sex Steroid Receptors

    OpenAIRE

    Mignemi, Nicholas A.; Itani, Doha M; Fasig, John H.; Keedy, Vicki L.; Hande, Kenneth R.; Whited, Brent W.; Homlar, Kelly C.; Correa, Hernan; Coffin, Cheryl M; Black, Jennifer O.; Yi, Yajun; Halpern, Jennifer L.; Holt, Ginger E.; Schwartz, Herbert S.; Schoenecker, Jonathan G.

    2012-01-01

    Despite reports of sex steroid receptor and COX2 expression in desmoid-type fibromatosis, responses to single agent therapy with anti-estrogens and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are unpredictable. Perhaps combination pharmacotherapy might be more effective in desmoid tumors that co-express these targets. Clearly, a further understanding of the signaling pathways deregulated in desmoid tumors is essential for development of targeted molecular therapy. Transforming growth factor-? (TGF?...

  20. Protective actions of sex steroid hormones in Alzheimer’s disease

    OpenAIRE

    Pike, Christian J.; Carroll, Jenna C.; Rosario, Emily R.; Barron, Anna

    2009-01-01

    Risk for Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is associated with age-related loss of sex steroid hormones in both women and men. In postmenopausal women, the precipitous depletion of estrogens and progestogens is hypothesized to increase susceptibility to AD pathogenesis, a concept largely supported by epidemiological evidence but refuted by some clinical findings. Experimental evidence suggests that estrogens have numerous neuroprotective actions relevant to prevention of AD, in particular promotion o...

  1. Associations between polymorphisms in glucuronidation and sulfation enzymes and sex steroid concentrations in premenopausal women in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Yong, Mellissa; Schwartz, Stephen M.; Atkinson, Charlotte; Makar, Karen W.; Thomas, Sushma S.; Stanczyk, Frank Z.; Westerlind, Kim C.; Newton, Katherine M.; Holt, Victoria L.; Leisenring, Wendy M.; Lampe, Johanna W.

    2010-01-01

    Glucuronidation, catalyzed by UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGT) and sulfation, catalyzed by sulfotransferases (SULT), are pathways through which sex steroids are metabolized to less active compounds. These enzymes are highly polymorphic and genetic variants frequently result in higher or lower activity. The phenotypic effects of these polymorphisms on circulating sex steroids in premenopausal women have not yet been investigated. One hundred and seventy women ages 40-45 years had a blood sam...

  2. Endogenous sex steroids and risk of cervical carcinoma: results from the EPIC study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rinaldi, Sabina; Plummer, Martyn

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Epidemiological data and animal models suggest that, despite the predominant role of human papillomavirus infection, sex steroid hormones are also involved in the etiology of invasive cervical carcinoma (ICC).METHODS: 99 ICC cases, 121 cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 (CIN3) cases and 2 control women matched with each case for center, age, menopausal status and blood collection-related variables, were identified in the EPIC study. Circulating levels of testosterone (T) and estradiol (E2); dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS); progesterone (pre-menopausal women); and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) were measured using immunoassays. Levels of free (f) T and E2 were calculated from absolute concentrations of T, E2 and SHBG. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were computed using regularized conditional logistic regression. RESULTS: Among pre-menopausal women, associations with ICC were observed for fT (OR for highest vs lowest tertile=5.16, 95% CI: 1.50-20.1). SHBG level was associated with a significant downward trend in ICC risk. T, E2, fE2 and DHEAS showed non significant positive association with ICC. Progesterone was uninfluential. Among post-menopausal women, associations with ICC were found for T (OR=3.14; 95% CI: 1.21-9.37), whereas E2, and fT showed non significant positive association. SHBG level was unrelated to ICC risk in post-menopausal women. No associations between any hormone and CIN3 were detected in either pre- or post-menopausal women.CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest for the first time that T and possibly E2 may be involved in the etiology of ICC.Impact:The responsiveness of cervical tumors to hormone modulators is worth exploring.

  3. Validation of murine and human placental explant cultures for use in sex steroid and phase II conjugation toxicology studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Brittany L; Ward, Monika A; Astern, Joshua M; Kendal-Wright, Claire E; Collier, Abby C

    2015-02-01

    Human primary placental explant culture is well established for cytokine signaling and toxicity, but has not been validated for steroidogenic or metabolic toxicology. The technique has never been investigated in the mouse. We characterized human and mouse placental explants for up to 96 h in culture. Explant viability (Lactate dehydrogenase) and sex steroid levels were measured in media using spectrophotometry and ELISA, respectively. Expression and activities of the steroidogenic (3?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, Cytochrome P45017A1, Cytochrome P45019), conjugation (UDP-glucuronosyltransferase, sulfotransferase (SULT)), and regeneration (?-glucuronidase, arylsulfatase C (ASC)) enzymes were determined biochemically in tissues with fluorimetric and spectrophotometric assays, and western blot. Explants were viable up to 96 h, but progesterone, estrone, and 17?-estradiol secretion decreased. Steroidogenic enzyme expression and activities were stable in mouse explants and similar to levels in freshly isolated tissues, but were lower in human explants than in fresh tissue (P<0.01). Human and mouse explants exhibited significantly less conjugation after 96 h, SULT was not detected in the mouse, and neither explants had active ASC, although proteins were expressed. Mouse explants may be useful for steroid biochemistry and endocrine disruption studies, but not metabolic conjugation. In contrast, human explants may be useful for studying conjugation for <48 h, but not for steroid/endocrine studies. PMID:25283089

  4. Interactions of 16?-[18F]-fluoroestradiol (FES) with sex steroid binding protein (SBP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fluorine-18 16?-Fluoroestradiol ([18F]- FES) is a positron-emitting tracer for the estrogen receptor that is used for positron emission tomography (PET) studies of tumor tissues rich in the estrogen receptor. The role of the sex steroid binding protein (SBP or SHBG) in the transport of the [18F]-FES to the estrogen-receptor-rich tissue in breast cancer patients in vivo was investigated. To determine the extent to which [18F]-FES is bound to SBP in the blood, we performed a series of studies using blood samples obtained from patients undergoing [18F]-FES PET scans. The binding of [18F]-FES to the SBP was measured using a simple protein precipitation assay. The binding of [18F]-FES metabolites to SBP was also measured. These measurements showed that the tracer was distributed between albumin and SBP, and the binding capacity of SBP was sufficient to ensure that the protein was not saturated when the tracer was fully mixed with the plasma; however, local saturation of SBP may occur when [18F]-FES is administered intravenously. Typically about 45% of [18F]-FES in circulating plasma was bound to SBP, but this fraction was dependent on the concentration of SBP in plasma. The transfer of the tracer between the two proteins was rapid, complete in less than 20 s at 0 deg. C, suggesting that the equilibrium was maintained under most circumstances and that local saturation resolved quickly w that local saturation resolved quickly when blood from the injection site entered the central circulation. These data suggest that SBP binding of [18F]-FES is significant and will affect the input function of the tracer for any model that is used for the quantitative evaluation of [18F]-FES uptake in PET studies. Estimates of equilibrium binding in blood samples are sufficient to characterize [18F]-FES binding to SBP in the circulation

  5. Sex steroid levels in urine of cattle of different ages: evaluation of abuse control procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snoj, Tomaz; Dolenc, Jozica; Kobal, Silvestra

    2014-04-01

    Levels of several natural urinary steroids have been determined in the urine of a large number of animals of different cattle categories in the context of steroid abuse in beef production. Bovine animals of different breeds, sex and age included in the Slovene national residue detection plan for steroid abuse were studied. Urine from 120 males and 174 females was analysed. Urinary boldenone, boldione, androstenedione, equiline, medroxyprogesterone, medroxyprogesterone acetate, melengestrol acetate, progesterone, stanozolol, trenbolone, trenbolone acetate, 17?-ethinylestradiol, 17?-methyltestosterone, epitestosterone, 17?-estradiol, testosterone, and nandrolone were determined by LC-MS/MS. Epitestosterone was found in all bulls; while the proportion of animals containing testosterone and androstenedione increased with age. Testosterone was not detected in bulls less than 5 months of age. Epitestosterone levels, however, were not age dependent. The ratio of testosterone to epitestosterone thus increased with age, from 0.13 ± 0.09 at 1-7 months to 0.42 ± 0.10 at 25-38 months. It was significantly (p < 0.01) higher in bulls above 13 months than in younger animals. In contrast to males, no urinary testosterone was found in females, whereas epitestosterone, androstenedione, progesterone and estradiol were present. The proportion of animals of various age groups in which epitestosterone was detected ranged from 68% to 100%, but the differences were not significant. The presence of both estradiol and progesterone in the same sample was not observed in any animal. The results of this study could be helpful in determining physiological urinary steroid levels in order to provide a baseline for the control of steroid abuse in beef production. PMID:24405322

  6. The growth hormone response to hexarelin in children: reproducibility and effect of sex steroids.

    OpenAIRE

    Ghigo, Ezio

    1997-01-01

    We studied the variability of the GH response to the synthetic hexapeptide hexarelin (Hex) and the effect of sex steroids on the GH-releasing effect of Hex in a group of prepubertal short normal children. Twenty-five children were tested on two occasions 3-7 days apart with 2 micrograms/kg, i.v., Hex. The GH response to Hex was reevaluated after testosterone (T) administration in 10 boys, after ethinyl estradiol (EE) administration in 15 children (5 boys and 10 girls), and after oxandrolone (...

  7. Association between endogenous sex steroid hormones and inflammatory biomarkers in US men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsilidis, Konstantinos K.; Rohrmann, Sabine; McGlynn, Katherine A.; Nyante, Sarah J.; Lopez, David S.; Bradwin, Gary; Feinleib, Manning; Joshu, Corinne E.; Kanarek, Norma; Nelson, William G.; Selvin, Elizabeth; Platz, Elizabeth A.

    2013-01-01

    Sex steroid hormones and inflammatory biomarkers are both associated with the development and progression of chronic diseases, but their interrelationship is relatively uncharacterized. We examined the association of sex hormones and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) with biomarkers of inflammation, C-reactive protein (CRP) and white blood cell (WBC) count. The study included data from 809 adult men in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999–2004. Geometric means and 95% confidence intervals were estimated separately for CRP and WBC concentrations by sex steroid hormones and SHBG using weighted linear regression models. Higher concentrations of total (slope per 1 quintile in concentration, ?0.18; P-trend, 0.001) and calculated free (slope, ?0.13; P-trend, 0.03) testosterone were statistically significantly associated with lower concentrations of CRP, but not with WBC count. Men in the bottom quintile of total testosterone (?3.3 ng/mL), who might be considered to have clinically low testosterone, were more likely to have elevated CRP (? 3 mg/L) compared to men in the top four quintiles (OR, 1.61; 95% CI, 1.00 – 2.61). Total and calculated free estradiol (E2) were positively associated with both CRP (Total E2: slope, 0.14; P-trend, <0.001; Free E2: slope, 0.15; P-trend, <0.001) and WBC (Total E2: slope, 0.02; P-trend, 0.08; Free E2: slope, 0.02; P-trend, 0.02) concentrations. SHBG concentrations were inversely associated with WBC count (slope, ?0.03; P-trend, 0.04), but not with CRP. These cross-sectional findings are consistent with the hypothesis that higher androgen and lower estrogen concentrations may have an anti-inflammatory effect in men. PMID:24124163

  8. Anabolic Steroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and they do not have the same acute effects on the brain. The most important difference is that steroids do ... abusing steroids despite physical problems and nega-tive effects on social ... loss of appetite, insomnia, reduced sex drive, and steroid cravings, all of ...

  9. Gender-Related Effects of Sex Steroids on Histamine Release and Fc?RI Expression in Rat Peritoneal Mast Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Cruz, Samira; Mendoza-Rodríguez, Yolanda; Nava-Castro, Karen E.; Yepez-Mulia, Lilián; Morales-Montor, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Mast cells (MCs) are versatile effector and regulatory cells in various physiologic, immunologic, and pathologic processes. In addition to the well-characterized IgE/Fc?RI-mediated degranulation, a variety of biological substances can induce MCs activation and release of their granule content. Sex steroids, mainly estradiol and progesterone, have been demonstrated to elicit MCs activation. Most published studies have been conducted on MCs lines or freshly isolated peritoneal and bone marrow-derived MC without addressing gender impact on MC response. Our goal was to investigate if the effect of estradiol, progesterone, testosterone, and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) on MCs may differ depending on whether female or male rats are used as MCs donors. Our results demonstrated that effect of sex steroids on MCs histamine release is dose- and gender-dependent and can be direct, synergistic, or inhibitory depending on whether hormones are used alone or to pretreat MCs followed by substance P-stimulation or upon IgE-mediated stimulation. In contrast, sex steroids did not have effect on the MC expression of the IgE high affinity receptor, Fc?RI, no matter female or male rats were used. In conclusion, MCs degranulation is modulated by sex hormones in a gender-selective fashion, with MC from females being more susceptible than MC from males to the effects of sex steroids. PMID:25973435

  10. Role of Serotonin Transporter Changes in Depressive Responses to Sex-Steroid Hormone Manipulation : A Positron Emission Tomography Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frokjaer, Vibe Gedsoe; Pinborg, Anja

    2015-01-01

    Background An adverse response to acute and pronounced changes in sex-hormone levels during, for example, the perimenopausal or postpartum period appears to heighten risk for major depression in women. The underlying risk mechanisms remain elusive but may include transiently compromised serotonergic brain signaling. Here, we modeled a biphasic ovarian sex hormone fluctuation using a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) and evaluated if emergence of depressive symptoms was associated with change in cerebral serotonin transporter (SERT) binding following intervention. Methods A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study included 63 healthy female volunteers (mean age 24.3 ± 4.9 years) with regular menstrual cycles between 23 and 35 days. Participants were randomized to active (goserelin [GnRHa] 3.6 mg implant) or placebo intervention. Sixty women completed follow-up and entered the analyses. Primary outcome measures were changes from baseline in depressive symptoms assessed on the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and SERT binding as imaged by [11C]DASB positron emission tomography. Outcome measures were acquired at baseline in the follicular phase (cycle day 6.6 ± 2.2) and at follow-up (16.2 ± 2.6 days after intervention start). Results Sex hormone manipulation with GnRHa significantly triggered subclinical depressive symptoms within-group (p = .003) and relative to placebo (p = .02), which were positively associated with net decreases in estradiol levels (p = .02) from baseline within the GnRHa group. Depressive symptoms were associated with increases in neocortical SERT binding in the GnRHa group relative to placebo (p = .003). Conclusions Our data imply both serotonergic signaling and estradiol in the mechanisms by which sex-steroid hormone fluctuations provoke depressive symptoms and thus provide a rationale for future preventive strategies in high-risk groups.

  11. Aging-induced changes in sex-steroidogenic enzymes and sex-steroid receptors in the cortex, hypothalamus and cerebellum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munetomo, Arisa; Hojo, Yasushi; Higo, Shimpei; Kato, Asami; Yoshida, Kotaro; Shirasawa, Takuji; Shimizu, Takahiko; Barron, Anna; Kimoto, Tetsuya; Kawato, Suguru

    2015-05-01

    We investigated age-induced changes in mRNA expression profiles of sex-steroidogenic enzymes and sex-steroid receptors in 3-, 12-, and 24-month-old male rat brain subregions [cerebral cortex (CC), hypothalamus (Hy) and cerebellum (CL)]. In many cases, the expression levels of mRNA decreased with age for androgen synthesis enzyme systems, including Cyp17a1, Hsd17b and Srd5a in the CC and CL, but not in the Hy. Estradiol synthase Cyp19a1 did not show age-induced decline in the Hy, and nearly no expression of Cyp19a1 was observed in the CC and CL over 3-24 m. Androgen receptor Ar increased in the Hy but decreased in the CC with age. Estrogen receptor Esr1 increased in the CC and Hy, and did not change in the CL with age. Esr2 did not change in the CC and Hy, but decreased in the CL with age. As a comparison, age-induced changes of brain-derived neurotrophic factor mRNA were also investigated. PMID:25715777

  12. Effects of sex steroids on expression of genes regulating growth-related mechanisms in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleveland, Beth M; Weber, Gregory M

    2015-05-15

    Effects of a single injection of 17?-estradiol (E2), testosterone (T), or 5?-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) on expression of genes central to the growth hormone (GH)/insulin-like growth factor (IGF) axis, muscle-regulatory factors, transforming growth factor-beta (TGF?) superfamily signaling cascade, and estrogen receptors were determined in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) liver and white muscle tissue. In liver in addition to regulating GH sensitivity and IGF production, sex steroids also affected expression of IGF binding proteins, as E2, T, and DHT increased expression of igfbp2b and E2 also increased expression of igfbp2 and igfbp4. Regulation of this system also occurred in white muscle in which E2 increased expression of igf1, igf2, and igfbp5b1, suggesting anabolic capacity may be maintained in white muscle in the presence of E2. In contrast, DHT decreased expression of igfbp5b1. DHT and T decreased expression of myogenin, while other muscle regulatory factors were either not affected or responded similarly for all steroid treatments. Genes within the TGF? superfamily signaling cascade responded to steroid treatment in both liver and muscle, suggesting a regulatory role for sex steroids in the ability to transmit signals initiated by TGF? superfamily ligands, with a greater number of genes responding in liver than in muscle. Estrogen receptors were also regulated by sex steroids, with era1 expression increasing for all treatments in muscle, but only E2- and T-treatment in liver. E2 reduced expression of erb2 in liver. Collectively, these data identify how physiological mechanisms are regulated by sex steroids in a manner that promotes the disparate effects of androgens and estrogens on growth in salmonids. PMID:25482545

  13. Colonic transit in rats: effect of ovariectomy, sex steroid hormones, and pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In vitro studies suggest that the female sex steroid hormones [estrogen (E) and progesterone (P)] can affect the myoelectric and mechanical activity of colonic smooth muscle. The present study was designed to examine the influence of the hormones on colonic transit in vivo. Transit was assessed by quantifying the distribution within the colon of a radiolabeled marker (0.5 ?Ci Na251CrO4), using the geometric center method of analysis. Studies were performed with adult male rats and the following groups of female rats: nonpregnant, ovariectomized, ovariectomy plus hormone pretreatment, and pregnant (day 18). Hormone-pretreated animals were studied 24 h following the fourth injection. The data can be summarized as follows. 1) Colonic transit was affected by the timing of the estrus cycle. 2) Ovariectomy eliminated the biphasic transit pattern observed in estruscycling females and resulted in a geometric center value comparable with that of the metestrus-diestrus animals. 3) E + P pretreatment of ovariectomized rats resulted in a significant decrease in the geometric center compared with the untreated ovariectomized rats. 4) The geometric center value in pregnant anials and hormone-pretreated animals. 5) Adult male rats had a geometric center value of 4.12 +/- 0.29. The results suggest that a relation exists between colonic transit and the circulating levels of the steroid hormones

  14. Sperm production and quality in brill Scophthalmus rhombus L.: relation to circulating sex steroid levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachero-Cruzado, Ismael; Forniés, Asunción; Herrera, Marcelino; Mancera, Juan Miguel; Martínez-Rodríguez, Gonzalo

    2013-04-01

    The aims of the present study were to characterize sperm quality and to quantify seasonal changes in sexual hormone (testosterone [T], 11-ketotestosterone [11-KT] and 17,20?-dihydroxypregn-4-en-3-one [17,20?-P]) levels in male brill (Scophthalmus rhombus) plasma, as well as to test a more intensive sampling strategy to establish relationships between sex steroid levels and sperm production parameters. Sperm concentration ranged from 0.5 to 3.1 × 10(9) spermatozoa mL(-1), and changes in sperm quality parameters depending on sampling date were observed. Plasma sexual steroid levels remained high and changed in parallel during the spawning season and afterwards decreased to very low levels in summer. The analysis of annual changes of 11-KT and T ratios suggests that 11-KT can be the main circulating androgen for stimulating spermatogenesis in S. rhombus and that T could be involved in the beginning of spermatogenesis through the positive feedback on brain-pituitary-gonad axis. Finally, daily 11-KT and T levels showed similar patterns of variation in males sampled, whereas 17,20?-P amounts showed somewhat opposite trends. These differences could be related with the different role of androgens and progestin during the spermatogenesis. PMID:22806610

  15. Chronic cigarette smoking alters circulating sex hormones and neuroactive steroids in premenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dušková, M; Sim?nková, K; Hill, M; Velíková, M; Kubátová, J; Kancheva, L; Kazihnitková, H; Hruškovi?ová, H; Pospíšilová, H; Rácz, B; Salátová, M; Cirmanová, V; Králíková, E; Stárka, L; Pa?ízek, A

    2012-01-01

    Chronic smoking alters the circulating levels of sex hormones and possibly also the neuroactive steroids. However, the data available is limited. Therefore, a broad spectrum of free and conjugated steroids and related substances was quantified by GC-MS and RIA in premenopausal smokers and in age-matched (38.9+/-7.3 years of age) non-smokers in the follicular (FP) and luteal phases (LP) of menstrual cycle (10 non-smokers and 10 smokers, in the FP, and 10 non-smokers and 8 smokers in the LP). Smokers in both phases of the menstrual cycle showed higher levels of conjugated 17-hydroxypregnenolone, 5alpha-dihydroprogesterone, conjugated isopregnanolone, conjugated 5alpha-pregnane-3beta,20alpha-diol, conjugated androstenediol, androstenedione, testosterone, free testosterone, conjugated 5alpha-androstane-3alpha/beta,17beta-diols, and higher free testosterone index. In the FP, the smokers exhibited higher levels of conjugated pregnenolone, progesterone, conjugated pregnanolone, lutropin, and a higher lutropin/follitropin ratio, but lower levels of cortisol, allopregnanolone, and pregnanolone. In the LP, the smokers exhibited higher levels of free and conjugated 20alpha-dihydropregnenolone, free and conjugated dehydroepiandrosterone, free androstenediol, 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone, free and conjugated androsterone, free and conjugated epiandrosterone, free and conjugated etiocholanolone, 7alpha/beta-hydroxy-dehydroepiandrosterone isomers, and follitropin but lower levels of estradiol and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) and lower values of the lutropin/follitropin ratio. In conclusion, chronic cigarette smoking augments serum androgens and their 5alpha/beta-reduced metabolites (including GABAergic substances) but suppresses the levels of estradiol in the LP and SHBG and may induce hyperandrogenism in female smokers. The female smokers had pronouncedly increased serum progestogens but paradoxically suppressed levels of their GABA-ergic metabolites. Further investigation is needed concerning these effects. PMID:22188108

  16. Quantitative trait loci predicting circulating sex steroid hormones in men from the NCI-Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3)

    OpenAIRE

    Ahn, J.; Schumacher, Fr; Berndt, Si; Pfeiffer, R.; Albanes, D.; Andriole, Gl; Ardanaz, E.; Boeing, H.; Bueno-de-mesquita, B.; Chanock, Sj; Clavel-chapelon, F.; Diver, Wr; Feigelson, Hs; Gaziano, Jm; Giovannucci, E.

    2009-01-01

    Twin studies suggest a heritable component to circulating sex steroid hormones and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG). In the NCI-Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium, 874 SNPs in 37 candidate genes in the sex steroid hormone pathway were examined in relation to circulating levels of SHBG (N = 4720), testosterone (N = 4678), 3 alpha-androstanediol-glucuronide (N = 4767) and 17beta-estradiol (N = 2014) in Caucasian men. rs1799941 in SHBG is highly significantly associated with circula...

  17. Sex steroid-related genes and male-to-female transsexualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henningsson, Susanne; Westberg, Lars; Nilsson, Staffan; Lundström, Bengt; Ekselius, Lisa; Bodlund, Owe; Lindström, Eva; Hellstrand, Monika; Rosmond, Roland; Eriksson, Elias; Landén, Mikael

    2005-08-01

    Transsexualism is characterised by lifelong discomfort with the assigned sex and a strong identification with the opposite sex. The cause of transsexualism is unknown, but it has been suggested that an aberration in the early sexual differentiation of various brain structures may be involved. Animal experiments have revealed that the sexual differentiation of the brain is mainly due to an influence of testosterone, acting both via androgen receptors (ARs) and--after aromatase-catalyzed conversion to estradiol--via estrogen receptors (ERs). The present study examined the possible importance of three polymorphisms and their pairwise interactions for the development of male-to-female transsexualism: a CAG repeat sequence in the first exon of the AR gene, a tetra nucleotide repeat polymorphism in intron 4 of the aromatase gene, and a CA repeat polymorphism in intron 5 of the ERbeta gene. Subjects were 29 Caucasian male-to-female transsexuals and 229 healthy male controls. Transsexuals differed from controls with respect to the mean length of the ERbeta repeat polymorphism, but not with respect to the length of the other two studied polymorphisms. However, binary logistic regression analysis revealed significant partial effects for all three polymorphisms, as well as for the interaction between the AR and aromatase gene polymorphisms, on the risk of developing transsexualism. Given the small number of transsexuals in the study, the results should be interpreted with the utmost caution. Further study of the putative role of these and other sex steroid-related genes for the development of transsexualism may, however, be worthwhile. PMID:15854782

  18. Influence of Triazine Herbicide Exposure on Guppies (Poecilia sphenops) Aromatase Activities, Altered Sex Steroid Concentration and Vitellogenin Induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasanth, S; Arul, G; Karthikeyeni, S; Kumar, T S V; Vignesh, V; Manimegalai, M; Bupesh, G; Thirumurugan, R; Subramanian, P

    2015-01-01

    Atrazine, a herbicide is one the most toxic and sustaining pollutants in aquatic environment. It is detectable in surface water and in underground sources of drinking water. Many studies indicate that atrazine might be a potent endocrine disrupting xenobiotic. There are limited studies have revealed that the effects of atrazine on sex steroids hormones, vitellogenin and induction of aromatase, gonadosomatic index and hepatosomatic index. In this study, juvenile Poecilia sphenops fish was exposed to three different (0.83, 1.25 and 2.5 ppm) concentration of atrazine for 100 d. Changes in plasma and gonadal content and concentrations of sex steroids and vitellogenin protein in poecilia sphenops under laboratory conditions were assessed. The low level of the atrazine show estrogenic effect in males, as determined by a shortage of testosterone induction. Present study suggests that low induction of plasma vitellogenin and aromatase in male fish become suitable biomarkers of exposure to estrogenic chemicals. PMID:26009647

  19. Disparate changes in kisspeptin and neurokinin B expression in the arcuate nucleus following sex steroid manipulation reveal differential regulation of the two KNDy peptides in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Agnete; Ruiz-Pino, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    Kisspeptin, neurokinin B (NKB) and dynorphin A are co-expressed in a population of neurons in the arcuate nucleus (ARC), termed KNDy neurons, which were recently recognized as important elements for the generation of GnRH pulses. However, the topographic distribution of these peptides and their regulated expression by sex steroids are still not well understood. In this study, detailed examination of NKB and kisspeptin immunoreactivity in the rat ARC was carried out, including comparison between sexes, with and without sex steroid replacement. Neurons expressing kisspeptin and NKB were more prominent in the caudal ARC of females, whereas neurons expressing NKB, but not kisspeptin, were the most abundant in the male. Sex steroid manipulation revealed differential regulation of kisspeptin and NKB; while kisspeptin immunoreactive (-ir) cells increased in response to gonadectomy, NKB remained unchanged. Furthermore, the number of NKB-ir cells increased upon sex steroid replacement compared to gonadectomy, while kisspeptin did not, suggesting that sex steroids differently regulate these peptides. In addition, only in females did the density of kisspeptin- and NKB-ir fibers in the ARC increase upon sex steroid replacement in relation to sham and OVX, respectively, suggesting sex-specific regulation of release. In conclusion, our observations reveal sex differences in the number of kisspeptin- and NKB-ir cells, which are more prominent in the caudal ARC. The divergent regulation of kisspeptin and NKB peptide contents in the ARC as function of sex and steroid milieu enlarge our understanding on how these neuropeptides are post-transcriptionally regulated in KNDy neurons.

  20. Disparate Changes in Kisspeptin and Neurokinin B Expression in the Arcuate Nucleus After Sex Steroid Manipulation Reveal Differential Regulation of the Two KNDy Peptides in Rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Agnete; Ruiz-Pino, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    Kisspeptin, neurokinin B (NKB) and dynorphin A are coexpressed in a population of neurons in the arcuate nucleus (ARC), termed KNDy neurons, which were recently recognized as important elements for the generation of GnRH pulses. However, the topographic distribution of these peptides and their regulated expression by sex steroids are still not well understood. In this study, detailed examination of NKB and kisspeptin immunoreactivity in the rat ARC was carried out, including comparison between sexes, with and without sex steroid replacement. Neurons expressing kisspeptin and NKB were more prominent in the caudal ARC of females, whereas neurons expressing NKB, but not kisspeptin, were the most abundant in the male. Sex steroid manipulation revealed differential regulation of kisspeptin and NKB; although kisspeptin immunoreactive (ir) cells increased in response to gonadectomy, NKB remained unchanged. Furthermore, the number of NKB-ir cells increased upon sex steroid replacement compared with gonadectomy, whereas kisspeptin did not, suggesting that sex steroids differently regulate these peptides. In addition, only in females did the density of kisspeptin- and NKB-ir fibers in the ARC increase upon sex steroid replacement in relation to sham and ovariectomy, respectively, suggesting sex-specific regulation of release. In conclusion, our observations reveal sex differences in the number of kisspeptin- and NKB-ir cells, which are more prominent in the caudal ARC. The divergent regulation of kisspeptin and NKB peptide contents in the ARC as a function of sex and steroid milieu enlarge our understanding on how these neuropeptides are posttranscriptionally regulated in KNDy neurons.

  1. The progestin levonorgestrel disrupts gonadotropin expression and sex steroid levels in pubertal roach (Rutilus rutilus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroupova, H K; Trubiroha, A; Lorenz, C; Contardo-Jara, V; Lutz, I; Grabic, R; Kocour, M; Kloas, W

    2014-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of the synthetic progestin levonorgestrel (LNG) on the reproductive endocrine system of a teleost fish, the roach (Rutilus rutilus). Pubertal roach were exposed for 28 days in a flow-through system to four concentrations of LNG (3, 31, 312, and 3124 ng/l). Both males and females treated with 3124 ng/l LNG exhibited the upregulated levels of vitellogenin and oestrogen receptor 1 mRNA in the liver. At the same concentration, LNG caused a significant upregulation of the mRNA expression of the gene encoding luteinising hormone ?-subunit (lh?) and the suppression of the mRNA expression of the gene encoding follicle-stimulating hormone ?-subunit (fsh?) in the pituitary of both male and female roach. A lower LNG concentration (312 ng/l) suppressed mRNA expression of fsh? in males only. Females treated with 3124 ng/l LNG exhibited significantly lower plasma 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT) and oestradiol (E2) concentrations, whereas their testosterone (T) level was higher compared with the control. Females exposed to 312 ng/l LNG presented significantly lower plasma E2 concentrations. Males exposed to ?31 ng/l LNG exhibited significantly reduced 11-KT levels. As determined through a histological analysis, the ovaries of females were not affected by LNG exposure, whereas the testes of males exposed to 31 and 312 ng/l LNG exhibited a significantly higher percentage of spermatogonia B compared with the control. The results of the present study demonstrate that LNG disrupts the reproductive system of pubertal roach by affecting the pituitary gonadotropin expression and the sex steroid levels. This disruption was determined to occur in males after exposure to an environmentally relevant concentration (31 ng/l). Moreover, the highest tested concentration of LNG (3124 ng/l) exerted an oestrogenic effect on fish of both sexes. PMID:24893273

  2. The studies of controlled release of sex steroids hormones by radiation induced polymerization of glass forming monomers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The continuous long-term systemic administration of steroid hormones to rats was attempted by the capsules. Glass capsules containing sex hormone were made by low-temperature radiation-induced polymerization. Testosterone was eluted at a constant speed up to the 120th day in vitro, and could be administered up to the 56th day in vivo. The amount of testosterone released in vitro up to the 120th day was only 10% of the content. (Chiba, N.)

  3. Effect of sex-steroid hormones, testosterone and estradiol, on humoral immune parameters of gilthead seabream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuesta, A; Vargas-Chacoff, L; García-López, A; Arjona, F J; Martínez-Rodríguez, G; Meseguer, J; Mancera, J M; Esteban, M A

    2007-09-01

    The role of sex-steroid hormones, testosterone (T) and 17beta-estradiol (E2), on the humoral immune parameters of the teleost gilthead seabream Sparus aurata was studied attempting to deepen on the knowledge of the immune-reproductive system interactions. Fish were injected intraperitoneally with coconut oil containing different dosages of T (0, 2, or 5 microg g(-1) body weight [bw]) or E2 (0, 1, or 2 microg g(-1) bw) and sampled 1, 3, and 7 days later. Hormonal levels and immune parameters (complement, peroxidase and antiprotease activities and IgM levels) were determined in plasma. Plasma hormone levels peaked at 1 day post-injection decreasing thereafter. Treatment with T significantly increased both complement and peroxidase activities after 3 days of injection but antiprotease activity and IgM levels remained unchanged. Treatment with E2 enhanced complement activity 1 day post-injection while decreased it after 3 and 7 days. However, peroxidase activity increased at 3 and 7 days post-injection while total IgM levels decreased. Implications of T and E2 in the immune-reproductive system interactions were discussed. PMID:17349804

  4. Mechanisms of crosstalk between endocrine systems: regulation of sex steroid hormone synthesis and action by thyroid hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte-Guterman, Paula; Navarro-Martín, Laia; Trudeau, Vance L

    2014-07-01

    Thyroid hormones (THs) are well-known regulators of development and metabolism in vertebrates. There is increasing evidence that THs are also involved in gonadal differentiation and reproductive function. Changes in TH status affect sex ratios in developing fish and frogs and reproduction (e.g., fertility), hormone levels, and gonad morphology in adults of species of different vertebrates. In this review, we have summarized and compared the evidence for cross-talk between the steroid hormone and thyroid axes and present a comparative model. We gave special attention to TH regulation of sex steroid synthesis and action in both the brain and gonad, since these are important for gonad development and brain sexual differentiation and have been studied in many species. We also reviewed research showing that there is a TH system, including receptors and enzymes, in the brains and gonads in developing and adult vertebrates. Our analysis shows that THs influences sex steroid hormone synthesis in vertebrates, ranging from fish to pigs. This concept of crosstalk and conserved hormone interaction has implications for our understanding of the role of THs in reproduction, and how these processes may be dysregulated by environmental endocrine disruptors. PMID:24685768

  5. Sex-related differences in steroid concentrations in the blue mussel (Mytilus edulis trossulus) from the southern Baltic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabrza?ska, Sandra; Smolarz, Katarzyna; Hallmann, Anna; Konieczna, Lucyna; B?czek, Tomasz; Wo?owicz, Maciej

    2015-05-01

    This paper reports on sex-related differences in free steroid hormone concentrations including the concentrations of three naturally occurring estrogens (17?-estradiol E2, estrone E1, and estriol E3) and one androgen (testosterone T) in the tissues (gills and gonads) of the blue mussel Mytilus edulis trossulus sampled from the Gulf of Gda?sk (Baltic Sea, Poland). The dissimilarity in steroid concentrations between tissues was particularly evident in the T concentration with a level in gills almost three times higher compared to gonads (on average, 15.38ng/g w.w. and 5.31ng/g w.w., respectively, p=0.00008), suggesting its exogenous origin. In general, a tendency towards a skewed steroid profile related to sex, with E2 more abundant for males and T for females, was observed. Female gonads were characterized by a higher level of T than testis (4.61ng/g w.w. for females and 0.70ng/g w.w. for males, p=0.0121). At the same time, the level of E2 found in the testis was higher than in the ovary (4.81ng/g w.w. and 3.86ng/g w.w., respectively); however, the difference was not statistically significant. As for gills, similar trend with T and E2 being more abundant in males was observed. At the same time, no disturbances in the sex ratio and gametogenesis process were observed which suggests i) efficient deactivation of free forms of steroids, and/or ii) their little or no physiological role. PMID:25536333

  6. Measurement of steroid hormones in plasma by isocratic high performance liquid chromatography coupled to radioimmunoassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boschi, S; De Iasio, R; Mesini, P; Bolelli, G F; Sciajno, R; Pasquali, R; Capelli, M

    1994-11-01

    The study of steroidal profiles requires simultaneous determinations of various steroid hormones that cannot be appropriately carried out with the conventional routine immunoassays. Moreover, there are several trials for which the assessment of multiple steroids from a single serum sample is mandatory. In this paper we describe a procedure for simultaneously measuring steroid hormones using a unified solid phase extraction which allows the measurement of both unconjugated and conjugated steroids from 1 ml of sample and a combination of HPLC with isocratic elution followed by RIA. The entire procedure was preliminary carried out for the measurement of testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone and its sulphated conjugate, androstenedione and 17 hydroxyprogesterone. The use of this technique allows precise and accurate measurements of steroid profile with a single serum aliquot and could be helpful in the diagnosis of various form of endocrine disorders. PMID:7704942

  7. Organization of Cytochrome P450 Enzymes Involved in Sex Steroid Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praporski, Slavica; Ng, Su May; Nguyen, Ann D.; Corbin, C. Jo; Mechler, Adam; Zheng, Jie; Conley, Alan J.; Martin, Lisandra L.

    2009-01-01

    Mounting evidence underscores the importance of protein-protein interactions in the functional regulation of drug-metabolizing P450s, but few studies have been conducted in membrane environments, and none have examined P450s catalyzing sex steroid synthesis. Here we report specific protein-protein interactions for full-length, human, wild type steroidogenic cytochrome P450 (P450, CYP) enzymes: 17?-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase (P450c17, CYP17) and aromatase (P450arom, CYP19), as well as their electron donor NADPH-cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (CPR). Fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)3 in live cells, coupled with quartz crystal microbalance (QCM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM) studies on phosphatidyl choline ± cholesterol (mammalian) biomimetic membranes were used to investigate steroidogenic P450 interactions. The FRET results in living cells demonstrated that both P450c17 and P450arom homodimerize but do not heterodimerize, although they each heterodimerize with CPR. The lack of heteroassociation between P450c17 and P450arom was confirmed by QCM, wherein neither enzyme bound a membrane saturated with the other. In contrast, the CPR bound readily to either P450c17- or P450arom-saturated surfaces. Interestingly, N-terminally modified P450arom was stably incorporated and gave similar results to the wild type, although saturation was achieved with much less protein, suggesting that the putative transmembrane domain is not required for membrane association but for orientation. In fact, all of the proteins were remarkably stable in the membrane, such that high resolution AFM images were obtained, further supporting the formation of P450c17, P450arom, and CPR homodimers and oligomers in lipid bilayers. This unique combination of in vivo and in vitro studies has provided strong evidence for homodimerization and perhaps some higher order interactions for both P450c17 and P450arom. PMID:19805543

  8. Testosterone regulation of sex steroid-related mRNAs and dopamine-related mRNAs in adolescent male rat substantia nigra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purves-Tyson Tertia D

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increased risk of schizophrenia in adolescent males indicates that a link between the development of dopamine-related psychopathology and testosterone-driven brain changes may exist. However, contradictions as to whether testosterone increases or decreases dopamine neurotransmission are found and most studies address this in adult animals. Testosterone-dependent actions in neurons are direct via activation of androgen receptors (AR or indirect by conversion to 17?-estradiol and activation of estrogen receptors (ER. How midbrain dopamine neurons respond to sex steroids depends on the presence of sex steroid receptor(s and the level of steroid conversion enzymes (aromatase and 5?-reductase. We investigated whether gonadectomy and sex steroid replacement could influence dopamine levels by changing tyrosine hydroxylase (TH protein and mRNA and/or dopamine breakdown enzyme mRNA levels [catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT and monoamine oxygenase (MAO A and B] in the adolescent male rat substantia nigra. We hypothesized that adolescent testosterone would regulate sex steroid signaling through regulation of ER and AR mRNAs and through modulation of aromatase and 5?-reductase mRNA levels. Results We find ER? and AR in midbrain dopamine neurons in adolescent male rats, indicating that dopamine neurons are poised to respond to circulating sex steroids. We report that androgens (T and DHT increase TH protein and increase COMT, MAOA and MAOB mRNAs in the adolescent male rat substantia nigra. We report that all three sex steroids increase AR mRNA. Differential action on ER pathways, with ER? mRNA down-regulation and ER? mRNA up-regulation by testosterone was found. 5? reductase-1 mRNA was increased by AR activation, and aromatase mRNA was decreased by gonadectomy. Conclusions We conclude that increased testosterone at adolescence can shift the balance of sex steroid signaling to favor androgenic responses through promoting conversion of T to DHT and increasing AR mRNA. Further, testosterone may increase local dopamine synthesis and metabolism, thereby changing dopamine regulation within the substantia nigra. We show that testosterone action through both AR and ERs modulates synthesis of sex steroid receptor by altering AR and ER mRNA levels in normal adolescent male substantia nigra. Increased sex steroids in the brain at adolescence may alter substantia nigra dopamine pathways, increasing vulnerability for the development of psychopathology.

  9. Sjögren's syndome and extragonadal sex steroid formation: a clue to a better disease control?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konttinen, Y T; Stegajev, V; Al-Samadi, A; Porola, P; Hietanen, J; Ainola, M

    2015-01-01

    Sjögren's syndrome (SS) is an autoimmune disease characterized by lymphoplasmacytoid focal adenitis leading to mucosal dryness, with 9:1 female dominance and peak incidence at menopause. Due to autoimmune adenitis it can be speculated that the normal epithelial cell renewal has failed, possibly as a result of local intracrine failure to process dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) to dihydrotestosterone (DHT). Local intracrine/-cellular DHT deficiency seems to predispose to SS if estrogens are low, in menopausal women and in men. This intracrine failure could be the initial noxious stimulus, factor X, initiating the development of SS. Abnormal release and presentation of exocrine gland-derived antigens (Ag-epitopes), in a complex with major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC II), by migratory dendritic cells (DC) activates T-cells in the regional lymph nodes. B-cells with the same specificity capture and present self-Ag to Th-cells which provide T-cell help. B-cells transform to plasma cells and start to produce autoantibodies (Ab) against these T-cell-dependent Ag. Ab against SS-A/Ro and SS-B/La ribonucleoproteins occur only in HLA-DQw2.1/DQw6 heterozygous individuals, but hY-RNA and RNA polymerase III transcripts in these Ag may in all SS patients stimulate toll-like receptors (TLR) 7 and 9 of the plasmacytoid DCs, because IFN-? and IFN-signature are produced. CD8+?E?7+cytotoxic T-cells activated via cross-presentation recirculate to attack intracrine-deficient, apoptotic epithelial cells expressing self-Ag on their surface. Exocrine glands fall into the sphere of mucosal/gut-associated lymphatic tissue. This together with immune complexes spreads the immunological memory/aggression to extra-glandular sites explaining the systemic nature of the syndrome. Secondary SS could be explained by disturbed lymphocyte recirculation. There is no conclusive evidence that SS in those few men affected is more severe than in women, suggesting that sex steroid endo-/intracrinology has its major impact on the target tissue, not on immune modulation. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Essential role of DHEA'. PMID:25158020

  10. In vivo Regulation of Prolactin Gene Expression in the Male Rat: Role of Sex Steroids and Dopamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Y; Pelletier, G

    1991-12-01

    Abstract The influence of sex steroids and the dopaminergic system on the in vivo modulation of prolactin (PRL) mRNA levels was investigated by quantitative in situ hybridization in the male rat anterior pituitary gland. In situ hybridization was performed using a [(35)S]-labeled cDNA probe encoding PRL. Orchiectomy performed 14 days earlier did not modify PRL mRNA levels. In orchiectomized rats treatment with the dopaminergic agonist bromocriptine for 14 days decreased PRL mRNA levels by 30%, while in intact animals the same treatment did not induce any changes in PRL mRNA levels. Administration of the dopamine D(2) receptor antagonist haloperidol in both intact and orchiectomized rats induced a 4-fold increase in mRNA levels. Administration of dihydrotestosterone to orchiectomized animals which had been treated or not with haloperidol or bromocriptine did not modify PRL mRNA levels. In orchiectomized animals administration of 17ss-estradiol (0.25 mug twice daily) for 14 days caused a 4-fold increase in amounts of PRL mRNA. Administration of bromocriptine to 17ss-estradiol-treated animals induced a 15% decrease of PRL mRNA levels compared to those obtained by 17ss-estradiol administered alone. The concomitant administration of 17ss-estradiol and haloperidol resulted in a 50% increase in PRL mRNA levels compared to those measured in animals treated with haloperidol alone. The present results clearly demonstrate that in vivo estrogen as well as dopamine-mediated mechanisms play a regulatory role in PRL mRNA levels in the male rat. PMID:19215533

  11. In vivo effect of sex steroids on uptake of 3H-leucine by female mouse brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In vivo effects of the sex steroids estrogen and progesterone on 3H-leucine uptake by the brain of mature ovariectomized mice were examined. Animals were divided into three groups: group 1, consisting of control animals treated with sesame oil, group 2, animals treated with estrogen, and group 3, animals first treated with estrogen and then with progesterone. Each group was given a single i.p. injection of 3H-leucine 2 hr after the last hormonal treatment, and sacrificed 2 hr later. Intensity of the uptake of radiolabeled leucine was measured by counting the number of reduced silver grains over cells in various brain regions using an autoradiographic technique. Group 1 showed a relatively high uptake in the supraoptic nucleus, paraventricular nucleus (PV) and ventromedial nucleus (VM) when compared with that in the remaining hypothalamic nuclei examined. Group 2 showed a significant enhancement of the uptake in all hypothalamic regions except the preoptic periventricular nucleus (PPV) when compared with that in group 1. Group 3 showed enhancement of the uptake in all hypothalamic nuclei when compared with that in group 1. However, only the PV, PPV, VM and periventricular arcuate nucleus revealed a significantly higher uptake than the respective nuclei in group 2. The remaining nuclei showed no change in uptake. Uptake by cells in the ependymal cells and cerebral cortex remained unchanged after hormonal treatment. The present results suggest that eatment. The present results suggest that in female mice estrogen and estrogen plus progesterone stimulate protein synthesis in most of the hypothalamic nuclei and that the progesterone effect on protein synthesis is greatly influenced by estrogen-priming. (auth.)

  12. Effects of 17 ?-methyltestosterone on transcriptome, gonadal histology and sex steroid hormones in rare minnow Gobiocypris rarus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jiancao; Liu, Shaozhen; Zhang, Yingying; Yang, Yanping; Yuan, Cong; Chen, Shu; Wang, Zaizhao

    2015-09-01

    The 17?-methyltestosterone (MT), a synthetic androgen, is known for its interference effects on the endocrine system. Aiming to investigate the transcriptome profiling of gonads induced by MT and to understand the molecular mechanism by which MT causes adverse effects in fish, transcriptome profiling of gonads, gonadal histology and the sex steroid hormones in response to MT were analyzed in Gobiocypris rarus. Eight libraries, 4 from the ovary and 4 from the testis, were constructed and sequenced and then a total number of clean reads per sample ranging from 7.03 to 9.99 million were obtained. In females, a total of 191 transcripts were differentially regulated by MT, consisting of 102 up-regulated transcripts and 89 down-regulated transcripts. In males, 268 differentially expressed genes with 108 up-regulated and 160 down-regulated were detected upon MT exposure. Testosterone serves as the major sex steroid hormone content in G. rarus of both sexes. The concentrations of 17?-estradiol, testosterone and 11-ketotestosterone were significantly increased in females and decreased in males after MT exposure. Interestingly, MT caused a decreased number of vitellogenic oocytes in the ovary and spermatozoa in the testis. After MT exposure, four differentially expressed genes (ndufa4, slc1a3a, caskin-2 and rpt3) were found in G. rarus of both sexes. Overall, we suggest that MT seemed to affect genes involved in pathways related to physiological processes in the gonads of G. rarus. These processes include the electron transfer of Complex IV, endothelial cell activation, axon growth and guidance, and proteasome assembly and glutamate transport metabolic. PMID:26070167

  13. Sex steroid hormones, stress response, and drug craving in cocaine-dependent women: implications for relapse susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Rajita; Fox, Helen; Hong, Kwang-Ik; Sofuoglu, Mehmet; Morgan, Peter T; Bergquist, Ken T

    2007-10-01

    Cocaine dependence is associated with an enhanced sensitivity to stress and drug craving. Increases in stress-induced craving and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal reactivity are also predictive of cocaine relapse outcomes. More important, sex differences in these responses have also been reported. To further understand the basis of the sex differences, the authors examined the influence of sex steroid hormones on subjective and physiological stress responses and drug craving in cocaine-dependent women. Women who had low progesterone levels (n=5) were compared with those with high progesterone levels (n=5) and with those with moderate levels of estradiol and progesterone (n=9) in their responses during exposure to stress, cocaine cues, and neutral imagery conditions. The high progesterone group showed significantly lower stress-induced and drug cue-induced cocaine craving ( p<.05) and reduced drug cue-induced anxiety levels ( p<.08) and lower drug cue-induced systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels compared with the low progesterone group. These data suggest that there are significant effects of sex steroid hormones on stress and drug cue-induced cocaine craving, anxiety, and cardiovascular responses. In particular, high progesterone during the midluteal phase of the cycle was associated with decreased stress-induced and drug cue-induced craving and decreased cue-induced anxiety and blood pressure responses. These findings are consistent with previous preclinical and clinical studies of progesterone's effects on the behavioral responses to cocaine and warrant further research to examine the effects of progesterone on stress-induced cocaine craving, stress arousal, and cocaine relapse susceptibility in women. PMID:17924778

  14. [Circadian rhythms of the sex steroids of female Papio hamadryas in long-term hypokinesia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekhova, A N; Goncharov, N P; Katsiia, G V

    1984-09-01

    Radioimmunoassay was used to study the effect of restricted motor activity on circadian rhythms of blood plasma sexual steroids and cortisol in female Papio hamadryas during different phases of the menstrual cycle. Instact animals manifested clear-cut circadian rhythms of the testosterone and cortisol content during both the phases and those of estradiol and progesterone during the follicular phase of the cycle. Two-week immobilization did not produce any changes in the general pattern of circadian rhythms of cortisol and testosterone but led to a decrease in their mean daily concentrations, with that decrease being more pronounced for testosterone of females immobilized during the luteal phase. The authors established unbalance of sexual steroids with a dramatic fall of the mean daily concentrations of estradiol and progesterone and desynchronism of their circadian rhythms regardless of the cycle phase at the moment of immobilization. The mechanisms responsible for alterations in circadian rhythms of sexual steroids in hypokinetic females are discussed. PMID:6487794

  15. Pesticide- and sex steroid analogue-induced endocrine disruption differentially targets hypothalamo-hypophyseal-gonadal system during gametogenesis in teleosts - A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthilkumaran, Balasubramanian

    2015-08-01

    Pesticide-induced endocrine disruption often mimics sex steroidal action resulting in physiological functional disarray of hypothalamo-hypophyseal-gonadal (HHG) system at multiple levels. Among various group of pesticides, organochlorine and organophosphate family of pesticides are known to impart sex steroidal mimicking activity with slightly higher resemblance to estrogens when compared to androgenic action. This review will highlight the effects of organochlorine (for e.g. endosulfan) and organophosphate (for e.g. malathion) pesticides in comparison with sex-steroid analogue-induced changes on HHG axis during gametogenesis in few teleost fish models. Interestingly, the effects of these compounds have produced differential effects in juveniles and adults which also vary based on exposure dosage and duration. Further, the treatments had caused at times sexually dimorphic effects indicating that the action of these compounds bring out serious implications in sexual development. A comprehensive overview has been provided by considering all these aspects to recognize the adverse impacts of pesticide-induced endocrine disruption with special reference to endosulfan and malathion as those had been applied even today or used before for controlling agricultural pests in several Asian countries including India. This review also compares the effects of sex-steroid analogues where in sex reversal to reproductive dysfunction is evident, which may imply the extent of sexual plasticity in teleosts compared to other vertebrates. PMID:25637674

  16. The Effects of Female Sex Steroids on Gastric Secretory Responses of Rat Following Traumatic Brain Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakieh Keshavarzi

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available AbstractObjective(sGastric ulceration is induced by various forms of stress like surgery, ischemia and trauma. The female sex has more resistance to stress and the gastrointestinal lesions happen fewer than male sex. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of estradiol and progesterone on the gastric acid and pepsin levels following traumatic brain injury (TBI induction.Materials and MethodsDiffuse TBI was induced by Marmarou method in female rats. Rats randomly assigned into 9 groups: intact, OVX (ovarectomized rat, Sham+OVX, TBI (intact rats under TBI, TBI+OVX (ovarectomized rats under TBI and treated OVX rats with vehicle (sesame oil, E2 (estradiol, P4 (progesterone or E2+P4 combination. The acid content and pepsin levels of each gastric washout sample were measured 5 days after the TBI induction.ResultsThere was no significant difference in gastric acid output between groups either after TBI induction or after treatment with E2 or P4 or E2+P4. Gastric pepsin levels were increased in Sham+OVX, TBI (P< 0.001 and TBI+OVX (P< 0.05 compared to intact group. Gastric pepsin levels were significantly lower in E2 and E2+ P4 treated rats than vehicle treated group (P< 0.01. P4 treatment increased gastric pepsin level compared to TBI+OVX group (P< 0.05 and this increment was higher than rats that were treated with the E2 and E2+P4 (P< 0.01.ConclusionThese results suggest that protective effect of estradiol and E2+P4 combination against mucosal damage after TBI, might be mediated by inhibition of pepsin secretion.

  17. Parasitic castration, growth, and sex steroids in the freshwater bonefish Cyphocharax gilbert (Curimatidae) infested by Riggia paranensis (Cymothoidea)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Neuza R. W., Lima; Juliana de S., Azevedo; Leonardo G. da, Silva; Marilvia, Dansa-Petretski.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Cyphocharax gilbert exibe castração parasitária quando está infestado pelo crustáceo Riggia paranensis, estando impossibilitado de reproduzir. Os peixes foram coletados no trecho médio do rio Itabapoana, Brasil, para analisar a prevalência do parasitismo, quantificar crescimento e as concentrações d [...] e esteróides sexuais, considerando o tamanho do corpo, o sexo e a condição reprodutiva dos espécimes. A maioria dos peixes analisados estava infestada (56,0%). A presença de duas linhas em escamas foi mais freqüente entre os peixes infestados (22,0%) que entre os peixes não infestados (12,0% para as fêmeas e 10,0% para os machos). A presença de três linhas na escama foi rara (3,5% entre os peixes infestados e 2,0% entre as fêmeas não infestadas). Estes resultados sugerem que o crescimento no hospeideiro pode ser mais rapido que no peixes não parasitados. As concentrações de esteróides sexuais no soro dos peixes não infestados variaram entre os diferentes estágios reprodutivos (17 beta-estradiol: 60,0 a 976,7 pg/ml; total testosterona: 220,0 a 3.887,7 pg/ml). Todos os peixes infestados apresentaram baixos níveis dos dois hormônios esteroidais e ausência de desenvolvimento gonadal. Os níveis de esteróides sexuais nas fêmeas infestadas foram próximos aos níveis encontrados nas fêmeas pós-desovadas. A concentração de testosterona encontrada nos machos infestados foi inferior àquela obtida nos machos que estavam iniciando o desenvolvimento gonadal. Estes resultados sugerem que R. paranensis impede a reprodução de C. gilbert, afetando o sistema endócrino do hospedeiro. Abstract in english Cyphocharax gilbert shows parasitic castration when infested by the crustacean Riggia paranensis, being unable to reproduce. Fish were sampled in the middle rio Itabapoana, Brazil, to study the prevalence of parasitism, growth, and sex steroid concentrations, considering the body size, sex, and repr [...] oductive condition of specimens. Most of the fish analyzed were infested (56.0%). The presence of two lines on the scales was more frequent among infested fish (22.0%) than among fish without parasites (12.0% for females and 10.0% for males). The occurrence of three lines on the scales was rare (3.5% among infested and 2.0% among females without parasites). These results suggest that growth of the host is faster than that of non infested fish. The serum concentrations of sex steroids from fish without parasites varied at different gonadal development stages (17 beta-estradiol: 60.0 to 976.7 pg/ml; total testosterone: 220.0 to 3,887.7 pg/ml). All infested fish had lower levels of the two sex steroids and undeveloped gonads. Sex steroids levels in infested females were close to those in females at post-spawning stages. Total testosterone concentrations of infested males were below those of males at early gonadal maturation stage. These results suggest that R. paranensis reduces the reproductive capacity of C. gilbert by affecting the host endocrine system.

  18. Parasitic castration, growth, and sex steroids in the freshwater bonefish Cyphocharax gilbert (Curimatidae infested by Riggia paranensis (Cymothoidea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neuza R. W. Lima

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Cyphocharax gilbert shows parasitic castration when infested by the crustacean Riggia paranensis, being unable to reproduce. Fish were sampled in the middle rio Itabapoana, Brazil, to study the prevalence of parasitism, growth, and sex steroid concentrations, considering the body size, sex, and reproductive condition of specimens. Most of the fish analyzed were infested (56.0%. The presence of two lines on the scales was more frequent among infested fish (22.0% than among fish without parasites (12.0% for females and 10.0% for males. The occurrence of three lines on the scales was rare (3.5% among infested and 2.0% among females without parasites. These results suggest that growth of the host is faster than that of non infested fish. The serum concentrations of sex steroids from fish without parasites varied at different gonadal development stages (17 beta-estradiol: 60.0 to 976.7 pg/ml; total testosterone: 220.0 to 3,887.7 pg/ml. All infested fish had lower levels of the two sex steroids and undeveloped gonads. Sex steroids levels in infested females were close to those in females at post-spawning stages. Total testosterone concentrations of infested males were below those of males at early gonadal maturation stage. These results suggest that R. paranensis reduces the reproductive capacity of C. gilbert by affecting the host endocrine system.Cyphocharax gilbert exibe castração parasitária quando está infestado pelo crustáceo Riggia paranensis, estando impossibilitado de reproduzir. Os peixes foram coletados no trecho médio do rio Itabapoana, Brasil, para analisar a prevalência do parasitismo, quantificar crescimento e as concentrações de esteróides sexuais, considerando o tamanho do corpo, o sexo e a condição reprodutiva dos espécimes. A maioria dos peixes analisados estava infestada (56,0%. A presença de duas linhas em escamas foi mais freqüente entre os peixes infestados (22,0% que entre os peixes não infestados (12,0% para as fêmeas e 10,0% para os machos. A presença de três linhas na escama foi rara (3,5% entre os peixes infestados e 2,0% entre as fêmeas não infestadas. Estes resultados sugerem que o crescimento no hospeideiro pode ser mais rapido que no peixes não parasitados. As concentrações de esteróides sexuais no soro dos peixes não infestados variaram entre os diferentes estágios reprodutivos (17 beta-estradiol: 60,0 a 976,7 pg/ml; total testosterona: 220,0 a 3.887,7 pg/ml. Todos os peixes infestados apresentaram baixos níveis dos dois hormônios esteroidais e ausência de desenvolvimento gonadal. Os níveis de esteróides sexuais nas fêmeas infestadas foram próximos aos níveis encontrados nas fêmeas pós-desovadas. A concentração de testosterona encontrada nos machos infestados foi inferior àquela obtida nos machos que estavam iniciando o desenvolvimento gonadal. Estes resultados sugerem que R. paranensis impede a reprodução de C. gilbert, afetando o sistema endócrino do hospedeiro.

  19. [Diurnal dynamics of thyroid and sex steroid hormones in the blood of yearlings of the resident form of Black Sea trout Salmo trutta labrax].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganzha, E V; Pavlov, E D; Kostin, V V; Pavlov, D S

    2015-01-01

    The diurnal dynamics of the content of thyroid and sex steroid hormones is investigated in the blood of the resident form of Black Sea trout in summer. The maximums and minimums of concentration of the investigated hormones do not coincide over 24 h, except for the decrease in the level of T3 and testosterone before dawn. The dynamics of the investigated hormones is controlled to a high extent by the sex of fish in the morning and in the daytime. PMID:25872405

  20. Sex steroids influence pancreatic islet hypertrophy and subsequent autoimmune infiltration in nonobese diabetic (NOD) and NODscid mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosmalen, J G; Pigmans, M J; Kersseboom, R; Drexhage, H A; Leenen, P J; Homo-Delarche, F

    2001-02-01

    Female nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice more frequently develop autoimmune diabetes than NOD males. Orchidectomy of the latter aggravates insulitis and diabetes. Because clear differences in immune function have not been observed between prediabetic females and males, before or after castration, we hypothesized that sex-related differences in diabetes incidence are related to target organ-specific actions of sex steroids. Previously, we showed that prediabetic NOD females develop hyperinsulinemia and subsequently mega-islets. Infiltration of the first inflammatory leukocytes is predominantly associated with these mega-islets. Here, we determined the relationship between sex hormones, mega-islet formation, and infiltrating cells in NOD and nonobese diabetic/severe combined immune-deficient (NODscid) mice. Mega-islet formation was reduced in NOD males compared with NOD females, and orchidectomy increased it, indicating a relationship between androgen levels and mega-islet formation. Moreover, enhanced mega-islet formation in castrated NOD males was associated with increased numbers of infiltrating leukocytes. Castrated NODscid males also exhibited increased mega-islet formation and dendritic cell infiltration, indicating that lymphocytes are not required for castration-induced effects. In conclusion, we show that androgens influence pancreatic islets and autoimmune infiltration in NOD and NODscid mice. This suggests that the gender difference in diabetes incidence in NOD mice is related to target organ-specific androgen effects. PMID:11232645

  1. Automation of radioimmunoassays for some sex steroids with use of both iodinated and tritiated ligands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe an automated technique for estradiol, progesterone, and testosterone, in which System Olli 3000 pipetting and incubation units are used. After extraction or chromatography, steroids are redissolved in ethanol or buffer, and duplicate aliquots are arranged for radioimmunoassay in 24-tube blocks. Addition of antibodies, tracers (125I or 3H), dextran-coated charcoal for separating free and bound ligands, and removal of a portion of the supernate for counting are all performed by the pipetting instrument. Incubations are at 370C in the incubation unit, or at 40C. After counting, steroid concentrations are computed from punch tape records by a Nova 840 computer. The management of assays in 24-tube units, and accurate simultaneous pipetting has reduced experimental error, and because there is no carryover, many different assays can be performed concurrently or in rapid sequence. Various scintillation media are compared

  2. Influence of mesonephros on foetal and neonatal rabbit gonads. I. Sex-steroid release by the testis in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grinsted, Jacob Peter; Byskov, A G

    1982-01-01

    The experiments were performed to study the influence of mesonephros on gonadal sex hormone release. Foetal and neonatal rabbit testes were cultured for 5 days, with and without their mesonephric tissue. The culture media were harvested every day and analyzed by RIA for the content of testosterone, progesterone and oestradiol. The development of the tissues were evaluated microscopically after culturing. The results show that between day 20 pc and day 1 pp the mesonephric tissue lowered the amounts of testosterone in co-cultures with testis. This effect disappears when the mesonephric derived cells develop the capacity to synthesize a meiosis inducing substance (MIS). A relationship between decrease of testosterone and secretion of MIS is discussed. It is concluded that the steroid producing cells of the testis, the Leydig cells, originate or are heavily influenced by mesonephros during early testicular organogenesis.

  3. Effects of dopamine 2 receptor antagonist on sex steroid levels, oocyte maturation and spawning performances in Waigieu seaperch (Psammoperca waigiensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Hung Quoc; Arukwe, Augustine

    2013-04-01

    The present study has investigated the effects of domperidone (DOM), a dopamine 2 receptor antagonist, on plasma steroid hormone levels and reproductive performances of a female tropical marine finfish, Waigieu seaperch (Psammoperca waigiensis), with potential for cultivation in Vietnam. We showed that oral treatment of DOM during early stage of the reproductive cycle had no significant effects on the maturation and reproductive performances of the female fish, while plasma steroid hormone (testosterone (T), 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT), 17?-estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P)) levels were modulated based on month, DOM dose and the individual hormones measured. Overall, these findings suggest that DOM may not be needed for the induction of maturation and spawning of this species under aquaculture conditions. The data in the present study are significant in highlighting practical efforts for reducing drug use, production costs and for a sustainable aquaculture in a developing country such as Vietnam. PMID:22911104

  4. Effects of chlorpyrifos on in vitro sex steroid production and thyroid follicular development in adult and larval Lake Sturgeon, Acipenser fulvescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Catherine; Burnett, Duncan C; Arcinas, Liane; Palace, Vince; Gary Anderson, W

    2015-08-01

    Chlorpyrifos is a widely used organophosphate pesticide that has previously been shown to enter waterways in biologically relevant concentrations and has the potential to disrupt both thyroid hormone and sex steroid biosynthesis in vertebrates. Because gonadal maturation and larval development in Lake Sturgeon, Acipenser fulvescens, potentially coincide with the application of chlorpyrifos we examined the effects of chlorpyrifos on both thyroid follicular development in larval Lake Sturgeon, and sex hormone synthesis in adult Lake Sturgeon. For the first time, the present study reports steroidogenesis from testicular and ovarian tissue in Lake Sturgeon using an established in vitro bioassay. Furthermore, incubating gonad tissue with 5, 500 or 2000ngmL(-1) chlorpyrifos revealed an inhibitory effect on testosterone synthesis in both testicular (control, 40.29pgmg(-1) tissue wet weight(-1)h(-1) compared to experimental, 21.84pgmg(-1) tissue wet weight(-1)h(-1)) and ovarian (control, 33.83pgmg(-1) tissue wet weight(-1)h(-1) compared to experimental, 15.19pgmg(-1) tissue wet weight(-1)h(-1)) tissue. In a second series of experiments, larval Lake Sturgeon were exposed to equivalent concentrations of chlorpyrifos as above for 10days (d) between hatch and the onset of exogenous feeding. Larvae from each treatment group were raised until 67days post hatch (dph) and growth rates were compared alongside key indicators of thyroid follicle growth. Chlorpyrifos treatment had no effect on the measured indicators of thyroid follicular development. PMID:25855011

  5. The macrophage low-grade inflammation marker sCD163 is modulated by exogenous sex steroids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Henrik; MØller, Holger Jon

    2013-01-01

    Soluble CD163 (sCD163) is a novel marker linked to states of low-grade inflammation such as diabetes, obesity, liver disease, and atherosclerosis, all prevalent in subjects with Turner syndrome (TS) and Klinefelter syndrome (KS). We aimed to assess the levels of sCD163 and the regulation of sCD163 in regards to treatment with sex hormone therapy in males with and without KS and females with and without TS. Males with KS (n=70) and age-matched controls (n=71) participating in a cross-sectional study and 12 healthy males from an experimental hypogonadism study. Females with TS (n=8) and healthy age-matched controls (n=8) participating in a randomized crossover trial. The intervention comprised of treatment with sex steroids. Males with KS had higher levels of sCD163 compared with controls (1.75 (0.47-6.90) and 1.36 (0.77-3.11) respectively, P

  6. Role of sex steroids on the survival, neuritic outgrowth of neurons, and dopamine neurons in cultured preoptic area and hypothalamus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawashima, S; Takagi, K

    1994-12-01

    Morphological sex differences in some discrete brain regions are thought to be developed by the influence of circulating androgen during the perinatal period. In order to know whether the effect of androgen is a direct one, cells derived from neonatal rat preoptic area (POA) and/or hypothalamus were cultured in a serum-free medium, and the effects on survival, process growth of neurons, and dopaminergic function were examined. When the POA cells were exposed to testosterone (T), neuronal survival was greater than the controls, and the frequency distribution of total process length and the number of process branchings were significantly deviated from the controls. Estradiol-17 beta (E2) and 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone had less significant effects on these parameters than T. Moreover, the addition of T increased the dopamine (DA) contents of cells and medium DA in the hypothalamic culture. E2 also greatly increased DA content of the medium. These steroids failed to alter the DA levels in the POA cell cultures. These results generally conform to the notion of previous investigators that T has direct effects on the expansion of dendritic elements of the POA and the development of sex difference in the hypothalamic DA neurons, although the effect of T after conversion to E2 cannot be excluded. PMID:7729799

  7. Racial/ethnic differences in serum sex steroid hormone concentrations in US adolescent males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, David S.; Peskoe, Sarah B.; Joshu, Corinne E.; Dobs, Adrian; Feinleib, Manning; Kanarek, Norma; Nelson, William G.; Selvin, Elizabeth; Rohrmann, Sabine; Platz, Elizabeth A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Contrary to the hypothesis that the racial/ethnic disparity in prostate cancer has a hormonal basis, we did not observe a difference in serum testosterone concentration between non-Hispanic black and white men in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), although non-Hispanic black men had a higher estradiol level. Unexpectedly, Mexican-American men had the highest testosterone level. Next, we evaluated whether the same patterns are observed during adolescence, the time of prostate maturation. Methods We measured serum testosterone, estradiol, and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) by immunoassay in 134 males aged 12–19 in NHANES III. Mean concentrations were compared by race/ethnicity adjusting for age, Tanner stage, percent body fat, waist, physical activity, tobacco smoke, and the other hormones. Results After multivariable adjustment, in the 12–15 year-old males, testosterone concentration was lower in non-Hispanic blacks than whites (P=0.043), SHBG concentration did not significantly differ between the two groups. Mexican-Americans had the highest testosterone (versus non-Hispanic black: P=0.002) and lowest SHBG (versus non-Hispanic white: P=0.010; versus non-Hispanic black: P=0.047) concentrations. Estradiol concentration was lower in non-Hispanic blacks (P=0.11) and Mexican-Americans (P=0.033) compared with non-Hispanic whites. After multivariable adjustment, in the 16–19 year-old males, testosterone, estradiol, and SHBG concentrations did not differ between non-Hispanic blacks and whites. Mexican-Americans had the highest testosterone concentration (versus non-Hispanic white: P=0.08), but did not differ from the other groups on estradiol and SHBG concentrations. In both age groups, these patterns were generally present, but less pronounced after adjusting for age and Tanner stage only. Conclusion In adolescent males, non-Hispanic blacks did not have a higher testosterone concentration than non-Hispanic whites, and Mexican-Americans had the highest testosterone concentration, patterns similar to adult males. PMID:23354421

  8. Mono-hydroxy methoxychlor alters levels of key sex steroids and steroidogenic enzymes in cultured mouse antral follicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methoxychlor (MXC) is an organochlorine pesticide that reduces fertility in female rodents by decreasing antral follicle numbers and increasing follicular death. MXC is metabolized in the body to mono-hydroxy MXC (mono-OH). Little is known about the effects of mono-OH on the ovary. Thus, this work tested the hypothesis that mono-OH exposure decreases production of 17?-estradiol (E2) by cultured mouse antral follicles. Antral follicles were isolated from CD-1 mice (age 35-39 days) and exposed to dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), or mono-OH (0.1-10 ?g/mL) for 96 h. Media and follicles were collected for analysis of sex steroid levels and mRNA expression, respectively. Mono-OH treatment (10 ?g/mL) decreased E2 (DMSO: 3009.72 ± 744.99 ng/mL; mono-OH 0.1 ?g/mL: 1679.66 ± 461.99 ng/mL; 1 ?g/mL: 1752.72 ± 532.41 ng/mL; 10 ?g/mL: 45.89 ± 33.83 ng/mL), testosterone (DMSO: 15.43 ± 2.86 ng/mL; mono-OH 0.1 ?g/mL: 17.17 ± 4.71 ng/mL; 1 ?g/mL: 13.64 ± 3.53 ng/mL; 10 ?g/mL: 1.29 ± 0.23 ng/mL), androstenedione (DMSO: 1.92 ± 0.34 ng/mL; mono-OH 0.1 ?g/mL: 1.49 ± 0.43 ng/mL; 1 ?g/mL: 0.64 ± 0.31 ng/mL; 10 ?g/mL: 0.12 ± 0.06 ng/mL) and progesterone (DMSO: 24.11 ± 4.21 ng/mL; mono-OH 0.1 ?g/mL: 26.77 ± 4.41 ng/mL; 1 ?g/mL: 20.90 ± 3.75 ng/mL; 10 ?g/mL: 9.44 ± 2.97 ng/mL) levels. Mono-OH did not alter expression of Star, Hsd3b1, Hsd17b1 and Cyp1b1, but it did reduce levels of Cyp11a1, Cyp17a1 and Cyp19a1 mRNA. Collectively, these data suggest ta suggest that mono-OH significantly decreases levels of key sex steroid hormones and the expression of enzymes required for steroidogenesis.

  9. Sex steroids as pheromones in mammals: the exceptional role of estradiol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    deCatanzaro, Denys

    2015-02-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue (Chemosignals and Reproduction). Whether from endogenous or exogenous sources, 17?-estradiol (E2) has very powerful influences over mammalian female reproductive physiology and behavior. Given its highly lipophilic nature and low molecular mass, E2 readily enters excretions and can be absorbed from exogenous sources via nasal, cutaneous, and other modes of exposure. Indeed, systemic injection of tritiated estradiol ((3)H-E2) into a male mouse or bat has been shown to produce significant levels of radioactivity in the reproductive tissues and brain of cohabiting female conspecifics. Bioactive E2 and other steroids are naturally found in male mouse urine and other excretions, and males actively direct their urine at proximate females. Very low doses of E2 can mimic the Bruce effect (disruption of peri-implantation pregnancy by novel males), the Vandenbergh effect (early reproductive maturation induced by novel males), and male-induced estrus and ovulation. Males' capacities to induce the Bruce and Vandenbergh effects can both be diminished by manipulations that reduce their urinary E2. Uterine dynamics during the Bruce and Vandenbergh effects are consistent with the actions of E2. Collectively, these data demonstrate a critical role of male-sourced E2 in these major mammalian pheromonal effects. PMID:25125222

  10. Effects of long-term cortisol treatments on gonadal development, sex steroids levels and ovarian cortisol content in cultured great sturgeon Huso huso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poursaeid, Samaneh; Falahatkar, Bahram; Mojazi Amiri, Bagher; Van Der Kraak, Glen

    2012-09-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of cortisol implantations on gonadal development, sex steroid levels, and ovarian cortisol content in cultured great sturgeon Huso huso. Three groups of 5 fish for each treatment were considered. The experimental groups included: control (capsules containing cocoa butter alone), low cortisol (C(5); 5mg cortisol/kg body mass+cocoa butter) and, high cortisol (C(50); 50mg cortisol/kg body mass+cocoa butter). The capsules containing hormones and cocoa butter were intraperitoneally implanted into 3-year-old female fish at pre-vitellogenic stage (mean initial body mass 6809.7 ± 73 g) every 6 weeks over a 6-month period from January to June. The serum levels of cortisol, glucose, cholesterol and sex steroids (testosterone and 17?-estradiol) were determined at the initial time and three weeks after each implantation. Oocyte histological characteristics (the diameter and area of the oocyte, the diameter and area of the nucleus and the ratio of the nucleus area to the oocyte area) were measured at the end of the experiment and compared to those at the initial time. Ovarian cortisol content was measured at the end of the experiment. The results showed that serum cortisol levels varied in a dose-independent manner, so that the highest cortisol concentrations were observed in C(5)-treated fish throughout the experiment. Serum glucose levels were significantly higher in cortisol-treated groups than those in the control group. The high dose of cortisol elicited a significant constant increase in serum cholesterol concentrations. Fish implanted with the high cortisol dose showed significant declines in serum testosterone and 17?-estradiol concentrations throughout the experiment. No significant differences were found in oocyte histological characteristics among experimental groups. The cortisol implants elicited a dose-dependent increase in ovarian cortisol content. At the end of trial, body-growth indices were the lowest in C(50)-implanted fish, while the low cortisol dose had no effect on growth relative to the controls. These results indicated that chronic stress induced by cortisol implantation in great sturgeon suppressed gonadal steroidogenesis and somatic growth but had no effect on ovarian growth and development. PMID:22643336

  11. Effects of steroids and sex reversal on intestinal absorption of L-[14C]leucine in vivo, in rainbow trout, Salmo gairdneri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of steroids (17 alpha-methyltestosterone (MT), 17 beta-oestradiol (E2)), and of sex reversal (XX male) on intestinal absorption and accumulation of L-[14C]leucine (5 mM), were investigated in unanaesthetized rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri), using an in vivo gut perfusion technique. Each steroid was luminally perfused through the gut at a concentration of 50 micrograms/ml perfusate, during five separate perfusions carried out on the same fish at 30-min intervals (perfusion periods 1 to 5), for a total of 120 min at 14 degrees. Experiments were also conducted on masculinized, genetically female trout (XX male) with steroid-free perfusate. MT treatment significantly increased the intestinal absorption of radioleucine during periods 1 and 2, whilst E2 was without effect. Neither MT nor E2 influenced intestinal accumulation (mid- and hindgut) of radioleucine, and accumulation of 14C-solutes in skeletal muscle. Sex reversal, however, whilst having no effect on leucine absorption, nevertheless significantly increased intestinal accumulation of radioleucine, and accumulation of 14C-solutes in skeletal muscle. The effects observed in the present study are in agreement with previous work in trout using everted gut sac preparations. It is suggested that the growth-promoting effects of anabolic-androgenic steroids in fish may be partly explained by their action on gastrointestinal function

  12. Effects of steroids and sex reversal on intestinal absorption of L-(/sup 14/C)leucine in vivo, in rainbow trout, Salmo gairdneri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habibi, H.R.; Ince, B.W.

    1983-12-01

    The effects of steroids (17 alpha-methyltestosterone (MT), 17 beta-oestradiol (E2)), and of sex reversal (XX male) on intestinal absorption and accumulation of L-(/sup 14/C)leucine (5 mM), were investigated in unanaesthetized rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri), using an in vivo gut perfusion technique. Each steroid was luminally perfused through the gut at a concentration of 50 micrograms/ml perfusate, during five separate perfusions carried out on the same fish at 30-min intervals (perfusion periods 1 to 5), for a total of 120 min at 14 degrees. Experiments were also conducted on masculinized, genetically female trout (XX male) with steroid-free perfusate. MT treatment significantly increased the intestinal absorption of radioleucine during periods 1 and 2, whilst E2 was without effect. Neither MT nor E2 influenced intestinal accumulation (mid- and hindgut) of radioleucine, and accumulation of /sup 14/C-solutes in skeletal muscle. Sex reversal, however, whilst having no effect on leucine absorption, nevertheless significantly increased intestinal accumulation of radioleucine, and accumulation of /sup 14/C-solutes in skeletal muscle. The effects observed in the present study are in agreement with previous work in trout using everted gut sac preparations. It is suggested that the growth-promoting effects of anabolic-androgenic steroids in fish may be partly explained by their action on gastrointestinal function.

  13. EFFECTS OF THREE DIFFERENT GONADOTROPIN - RELEASING HORMONE ANALOGUES COMBINED WITH DOPAMINE ANTAGONISTS ON PLASMA SEX STEROID HORMONES, IN ENDANGERED MALE AND FEMALE CASPIAN BROWN TROUT, SALMO TRUTTA CASPIUS

    OpenAIRE

    Seyed Ehsan Mousavi

    2013-01-01

    To understand the steroidogenic activities in Caspian brown trout, female and male broodstocks were injected with three different GnRHa in combination with two different dopamine antagonists and we examined changes in plasma sex steroid hormones during the experiments. In four separate experiments, female and male received two injections (at 0 day and 4 day) in total volume 0.5 and 0.25 ml per kg-1 body weight respectively. Control group received only propylene glycol (Vehicle only). The fina...

  14. Gonadotropin-induced changes in oviducal mRNA expression levels of sex steroid hormone receptors and activin-related signaling factors in the alligator

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, Brandon C.; Forouhar, Sara; Kohno, Satomi; Botteri, Nicole L.; HAMLIN, HEATHER J.; Guillette, Louis J.

    2011-01-01

    Oviducts respond to hormonal cues from ovaries with tissue proliferation and differentiation in preparation of transporting and fostering gametes. These responses produce oviducal microenvironments conducive to reproductive success. Here we investigated changes in circulating plasma sex steroid hormones concentrations and ovarian and oviducal mRNA expression to an in vivo gonadotropin (FSH) challenge in sexually immature, five-month-old alligators. Further, we investigated differences in thes...

  15. Effects of Developmental Exposure to 2,2?,4,4?,5-Pentabromodiphenyl Ether (PBDE-99) on Sex Steroids, Sexual Development, and Sexually Dimorphic Behavior in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Lilienthal, Hellmuth; Hack, Alfons; Roth-Haerer, Astrid; Grande, Simone Wichert; Talsness, Chris E

    2005-01-01

    Increasing concentrations of polybrominated flame retardants, including polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), in breast milk cause concern about possible developmental effects in nursed babies. Because previous studies in rats have indicated effects on sex steroids and sexually dimorphic behavior after maternal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), our goal in the present study was to determine if developmental exposure to 2,2?,4,4?,5-pentabromodiphenyl ether (PBDE-99) induces simil...

  16. Simplified method for measuring sex-hormone binding globulin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe a simple, rapid method for measurement of sex-hormone binding globulin. Serial dilutions of pregnancy serum are prepared in serum from males that has been pre-treated by heating to 60 degrees C for 1 h to destroy endogenous binding globulin, which is then determined by a long-used technique to yield a set of ''standards.'' In the assay itself, a fixed amount of [3H]-labeled and unlabeled dihydrotestosterone is incubated with standard or unknown, and the bound fraction precipitated with saturated ammonium sulfate. A plot of percent of the steroid bound vs standard dilution yields a sigmoid curve, from which the results in unknowns can be read by simple extrapolation. Within-assay CVs for pools of serum from men, women, and women in late pregnancy were 6.56, 9.59, and 8.4%, respectively. Between-assay CVs for the same pools were 8.05, 9.5, and 11.5%, respectively. The correlation between results obtained by this method and those of the older technique was 0.95 for samples from non-pregnant subjects and 0.73 for those from pregnant women. Our procedure is simpler and faster than previous methods and accurately measures the differences in the globulin in sera from men, women, and pregnant women. Forty to 50 samples can be assayed in a working day

  17. Determination of steroid sex hormones in real matrices by bar adsorptive microextraction (BA?E).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, C; Nogueira, J M F

    2015-05-01

    In the present work, the development of a novel analytical approach which combines a miniaturized bar adsorptive microextraction device with a micro-liquid desorption in one single step, followed by high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection (BAµE-µLD/HPLC-DAD), is proposed for the determination of trace levels of nine steroid hormones (estriol, 17ß-estradiol, 17?-estradiol, 19-northisterone, 17?-ethynylestradiol, estrone, D-(-)-norgestrel, progesterone and mestranol) in environmental and biological matrices. From the comparison of ten different coating phases (five polymeric and five activated carbon sorbents), the modified pyrrolidone polymer (P2) showed the best compromise between selectivity and efficiency. Assays performed through BAµE(P2, 1.3mg)-µLD(100µL)/HPLC-DAD on 25mL of ultrapure water samples spiked at the 6.0?g/L level, yielded recoveries ranging from 93±9% to 101±8%, under optimized experimental conditions. The analytical performance showed convenient detection (50.0-100.0ng/L) and quantification limits (165.0-330.0ng/L), as well as good linear dynamic ranges (0.2-24.0µg/L) with remarkable determination coefficients (r(2)>0.9968). Excellent repeatability were also achieved through intraday (RSD<14%) and interday (RSD<12%) experiments. The application of the proposed analytical approach on environmental water and urine samples, using the standard addition methodology (SAM), revealed good linearity and sensitivity at trace level, with the detection of some of the target compounds. In short, the miniaturization of the analytical device for microextraction combined with the minimization of the solvent volume for back-extraction in one single step demonstrated remarkable performance, increasing the enrichment factor, being simultaneously more easier to implement and environment friendly. PMID:25702996

  18. Changes in plasma and gonadal steroid hormones in relation to the reproductive cycle and the sex inversion process in the protandrous seabass, Lates calcarifer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiguen, Y; Jalabert, B; Thouard, E; Fostier, A

    1993-12-01

    Plasma and gonadal levels of several gonadal steroids (testosterone, 11-ketotestosterone, androstenedione, 11 beta-hydroxyandrostenedione, 17 beta-estradiol, and estrone) were measured by RIA in the protandrous seabass, Lates calcarifer, throughout an annual reproductive cycle. Twenty to 25 fish were killed every month for gonadal and plasma sampling. Very low plasma levels of 11-ketotestosterone in females (monthly means always less than 75 pg/ml), and of 17 beta-estradiol (means always less than 68 pg/ml) and estrone (means always less than 42 pg/ml) in males did not fluctuate significantly during the cycle. Conversely, plasma concentrations of testosterone, estrone, and 17 beta-estradiol peaked during vitellogenesis in females (highest mean: 182 +/- 121, 182 +/- 32 and 598 +/- 369 pg/ml, respectively) and testosterone and 11-ketotestosterone peaked during spermiation in males (highest mean: 189 +/- 91 and 223 +/- 94 pg/ml, respectively). When sex type are compared over the whole cycle, females displayed higher 17 beta-estradiol (172 +/- 233.5 pg/ml) and estrone (79.5 +/- 72 pg/ml) levels than males (57 +/- 7.5 and 44 +/- 62.5 pg/ml, respectively), while males had higher 11-ketotestosterone levels (153 +/- 88 pg/ml) and, to a lesser extent, higher testosterone levels (128 +/- 82 pg/ml) than females (51.5 +/- 28 and 91.5 +/- 60 pg/ml, respectively). Transitional fish always exhibit low plasma levels for these four steroids (testosterone 56.5 +/- 12.5 pg/ml, 11-ketotestosterone 59 +/- 23.5 pg/ml, 17 beta-estradiol 65.6 +/- 36 pg/ml, and estrone 61 +/- 47.5 pg/ml). Among gonadal androgens, 11 beta-hydroxyandrostenedione predominated in testes (3.95 +/- 3 ng/g), except during spermiation (0.8 +/- 0.5 ng/g), and remained low in ovaries (1.05 +/- 1.4 ng/g). No differences were detected in gonads, for testosterone and 11-ketotestosterone whatever the sex type, but their concentrations were higher in vitellogenic and atretic ovaries. Androstenedione levels were slightly higher in testes (2.21 +/- 2 ng/g) than in ovaries (1.53 +/- 1.32 ng/g). Transitional gonads always showed low concentrations for these four androgens (testosterone 0.66 +/- 1.77 ng/g, 11-ketotestosterone 0.14 +/- 0.05 ng/g, androstenedione 0.3 +/- 0.34 ng/g, and 11 beta-hydroxyandrostenedione 0.2 +/- 0.23 ng/g). Gonadal 17 beta-estradiol was nearly undetectable in testes (0.06 +/- 0.07 ng/g), low in ovaries (0.42 +/- 0.46 ng/g), and strikingly high in transitional gonads (2.89 +/- 1.64 ng/g) even at the very beginning of sex inversion. This suggests an important role for this estrogen in the protandrous sex inversion process in the seabass L. calcarifer. PMID:8138100

  19. Hepatic overexpression of steroid sulfatase ameliorates mouse models of obesity and type 2 diabetes through sex-specific mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Mengxi; He, Jinhan; Kucera, Heidi; Gaikwad, Nilesh W; Zhang, Bin; Xu, Meishu; O'Doherty, Robert M; Selcer, Kyle W; Xie, Wen

    2014-03-21

    The steroid sulfatase (STS)-mediated desulfation is a critical metabolic mechanism that regulates the chemical and functional homeostasis of endogenous and exogenous molecules. In this report, we first showed that the liver expression of Sts was induced in both the high fat diet (HFD) and ob/ob models of obesity and type 2 diabetes and during the fed to fasting transition. In defining the functional relevance of STS induction in metabolic disease, we showed that overexpression of STS in the liver of transgenic mice alleviated HFD and ob/ob models of obesity and type 2 diabetes, including reduced body weight, improved insulin sensitivity, and decreased hepatic steatosis and inflammation. Interestingly, STS exerted its metabolic benefit through sex-specific mechanisms. In female mice, STS may have increased hepatic estrogen activity by converting biologically inactive estrogen sulfates to active estrogens and consequently improved the metabolic functions, whereas ovariectomy abolished this protective effect. In contrast, the metabolic benefit of STS in males may have been accounted for by the male-specific decrease of inflammation in white adipose tissue and skeletal muscle as well as a pattern of skeletal muscle gene expression that favors energy expenditure. The metabolic benefit in male STS transgenic mice was retained after castration. Treatment with the STS substrate estrone sulfate also improved metabolic functions in both the HFD and ob/ob models. Our results have uncovered a novel function of STS in energy metabolism and type 2 diabetes. Liver-specific STS induction or estrogen/estrogen sulfate delivery may represent a novel approach to manage metabolic syndrome. PMID:24497646

  20. Histologia mamária após uso de esteróides sexuais - estudo em ratas Breast histologic changes in female rats treated with sex steroids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Tadeu Vicelli

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar as alterações histológicas em mamas de ratas submetidas à terapêutica com estrogênio, progestogênio e tibolona. MÉTODOS: Estudo experimental com 40 ratas, sendo 20 sem prole (grupo A e 20 com prole (grupo B. Todas as ratas foram castradas e, após quatro semanas, alocadas aleatoriamente em subgrupos: A1, A2, A3, A4, A5 e B1, B2, B3, B4, B5. Os esteróides foram administrados da seguinte forma: A1 e B1 - benzoato de estradiol; A2 e B2 - acetato de medroxiprogesterona; A3 e B3 - benzoato de estradiol e acetato de medroxiprogesterona; A4 e B4 - tibolona; A5 e B5 - placebo. Após dez semanas de tratamento, os animais foram sacrificados e suas glândulas mamárias submetidas à análise histológica. Os parâmetros avaliados foram: proliferação epitelial, atividade secretora e atipias epiteliais nas unidades de ductos ou alvéolos terminais. A associação entre os achados histológicos e os esquemas terapêuticos foi avaliada por meio do odds ratio e intervalo de confiança de 95%. RESULTADOS: Alterações histológicas foram observadas em 29 ratas: hiperplasia moderada (52,5%, hiperplasia alvéolo-nodular (42,5%, atipia sem proliferação (35%, hiperplasia leve (32,5%, atividade secretora (20% e hiperplasia severa (5%. Em ratas sem prole observou-se 1,3 mais chance, em relação ao grupo controle, de apresentar hiperplasia alvéolo-nodular no grupo que recebeu estrogênio, hiperplasia moderada no grupo tratado com progestogênio, e hiperplasia alvéolo-nodular e atipia sem proliferação epitelial com a associação entre estrogênio e progestogênio. CONCLUSÃO: Hiperplasia moderada e atipia epitelial associaram-se à terapia combinada de estrogênio e progestogênio, e o antecedente de prole reduziu a ocorrência destas alterações e de hiperplasia alvéolo-nodular.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association of histologic changes in the breasts of female rats undergoing therapy with sex steroids. METHODS: An experimental study was conducted of 40 castrated female non-pubertal rats, 20 had given birth (Group B and 20 had no offspring (Group A. After four weeks, these rats were randomly allocated to subgroups: A1, A2, A3, A4, A5 and B1, B2, B3, B4, B5. Steroids were given to subgroups as follows: A1 and B1 - estradiol benzoate; A2 and B2 - medroxyprogesterone acetate; A3 and B3 - estradiol benzoate and medroxyprogesterone acetate; A4 and B4 - tibolone; A5 and B5 - placebo. After 10 weeks of treatment, animals were sacrificed and their mammary glands were analyzed. Histologic parameters evaluated were: epithelial cell proliferation, epithelial cells with secretory activity; and cell atypia in terminal duct units and buds or terminal alveoli. The association between microscopic analysis and diverse therapeutic regimens were analyzed by calculating the odds ratio and its respective 95% confidence interval. RESULTS: Histologic changes were observed in 29 rats: moderate hyperplasia (52.5%, hyperplastic alveolar nodule (42.5%, epithelial atypia (35%, mild hyperplasia (32.5%, secretory activity (20% and severe hyperplasia (5%. In rats with no offspring when compared to the control, 1.3 times more hyperplastic alveolar nodules were found in the group treated with estradiol, the same was true for moderate hyperplasia in the rats that received medroxyprogesterone acetate, hyperplastic alveolar nodules and epithelial atypia in the group treated with estradiol plus medroxyprogesterone acetate. In the rats with offspring 1.3 times more secretory activity was found with estradiol. CONCLUSION: Epithelial hyperplasia and epithelial atypia with no proliferation are strongly associated to combined therapy with estradiol plus medroxyprogesterone acetate, mainly in the rats without offspring.

  1. Histologia mamária após uso de esteróides sexuais - estudo em ratas / Breast histologic changes in female rats treated with sex steroids

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    José Tadeu, Vicelli; Maria Salete Costa, Gurgel; Marcelo, Alvarenga.

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar as alterações histológicas em mamas de ratas submetidas à terapêutica com estrogênio, progestogênio e tibolona. MÉTODOS: Estudo experimental com 40 ratas, sendo 20 sem prole (grupo A) e 20 com prole (grupo B). Todas as ratas foram castradas e, após quatro semanas, alocadas aleatori [...] amente em subgrupos: A1, A2, A3, A4, A5 e B1, B2, B3, B4, B5. Os esteróides foram administrados da seguinte forma: A1 e B1 - benzoato de estradiol; A2 e B2 - acetato de medroxiprogesterona; A3 e B3 - benzoato de estradiol e acetato de medroxiprogesterona; A4 e B4 - tibolona; A5 e B5 - placebo. Após dez semanas de tratamento, os animais foram sacrificados e suas glândulas mamárias submetidas à análise histológica. Os parâmetros avaliados foram: proliferação epitelial, atividade secretora e atipias epiteliais nas unidades de ductos ou alvéolos terminais. A associação entre os achados histológicos e os esquemas terapêuticos foi avaliada por meio do odds ratio e intervalo de confiança de 95%. RESULTADOS: Alterações histológicas foram observadas em 29 ratas: hiperplasia moderada (52,5%), hiperplasia alvéolo-nodular (42,5%), atipia sem proliferação (35%), hiperplasia leve (32,5%), atividade secretora (20%) e hiperplasia severa (5%). Em ratas sem prole observou-se 1,3 mais chance, em relação ao grupo controle, de apresentar hiperplasia alvéolo-nodular no grupo que recebeu estrogênio, hiperplasia moderada no grupo tratado com progestogênio, e hiperplasia alvéolo-nodular e atipia sem proliferação epitelial com a associação entre estrogênio e progestogênio. CONCLUSÃO: Hiperplasia moderada e atipia epitelial associaram-se à terapia combinada de estrogênio e progestogênio, e o antecedente de prole reduziu a ocorrência destas alterações e de hiperplasia alvéolo-nodular. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association of histologic changes in the breasts of female rats undergoing therapy with sex steroids. METHODS: An experimental study was conducted of 40 castrated female non-pubertal rats, 20 had given birth (Group B) and 20 had no offspring (Group A). After four weeks, th [...] ese rats were randomly allocated to subgroups: A1, A2, A3, A4, A5 and B1, B2, B3, B4, B5. Steroids were given to subgroups as follows: A1 and B1 - estradiol benzoate; A2 and B2 - medroxyprogesterone acetate; A3 and B3 - estradiol benzoate and medroxyprogesterone acetate; A4 and B4 - tibolone; A5 and B5 - placebo. After 10 weeks of treatment, animals were sacrificed and their mammary glands were analyzed. Histologic parameters evaluated were: epithelial cell proliferation, epithelial cells with secretory activity; and cell atypia in terminal duct units and buds or terminal alveoli. The association between microscopic analysis and diverse therapeutic regimens were analyzed by calculating the odds ratio and its respective 95% confidence interval. RESULTS: Histologic changes were observed in 29 rats: moderate hyperplasia (52.5%), hyperplastic alveolar nodule (42.5%), epithelial atypia (35%), mild hyperplasia (32.5%), secretory activity (20%) and severe hyperplasia (5%). In rats with no offspring when compared to the control, 1.3 times more hyperplastic alveolar nodules were found in the group treated with estradiol, the same was true for moderate hyperplasia in the rats that received medroxyprogesterone acetate, hyperplastic alveolar nodules and epithelial atypia in the group treated with estradiol plus medroxyprogesterone acetate. In the rats with offspring 1.3 times more secretory activity was found with estradiol. CONCLUSION: Epithelial hyperplasia and epithelial atypia with no proliferation are strongly associated to combined therapy with estradiol plus medroxyprogesterone acetate, mainly in the rats without offspring.

  2. Melatonin reduces LH, 17 beta-estradiol and induces differential regulation of sex steroid receptors in reproductive tissues during rat ovulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinheiro Patrícia Fernanda F

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Melatonin is associated with direct or indirect actions upon female reproductive function. However, its effects on sex hormones and steroid receptors during ovulation are not clearly defined. This study aimed to verify whether exposure to long-term melatonin is able to cause reproductive hormonal disturbances as well as their role on sex steroid receptors in the rat ovary, oviduct and uterus during ovulation. Methods Twenty-four adult Wistar rats, 60 days old (+/- 250 g were randomly divided into two groups. Control group (Co: received 0.9% NaCl 0.3 mL + 95% ethanol 0.04 mL as vehicle; Melatonin-treated group (MEL: received vehicle + melatonin [100 ?g/100 g BW/day] both intraperitoneally during 60 days. All animals were euthanized by decapitation during the morning estrus at 4 a.m. Results Melatonin significantly reduced the plasma levels of LH and 17 beta-estradiol, while urinary 6-sulfatoximelatonin (STM was increased at the morning estrus. In addition, melatonin promoted differential regulation of the estrogen receptor (ER, progesterone receptor (PR, androgen receptor (AR and melatonin receptor (MTR along the reproductive tissues. In ovary, melatonin induced a down-regulation of ER-alpha and PRB levels. Conversely, it was observed that PRA and MT1R were up-regulated. In oviduct, AR and ER-alpha levels were down-regulated, in contrast to high expression of both PRA and PRB. Finally, the ER-beta and PRB levels were down-regulated in uterus tissue and only MT1R was up-regulated. Conclusions We suggest that melatonin partially suppress the hypothalamus-pituitary-ovarian axis, in addition, it induces differential regulation of sex steroid receptors in the ovary, oviduct and uterus during ovulation.

  3. Cytotoxicity, cellular localisation and biomolecular interaction of non-covalent metallo-intercalators with appended sex hormone steroid vectors.

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez-Cano, C; Hannon, MJ

    2009-01-01

    A range of terpyridine platinum(II) metallo-intercalators with bioactive steroids attached has been created with the aim of localizing cytotoxic drugs. Complexes where the steroid does not interfere with access to the terpyridine are shown to retain potent cytotoxicity and show certain selectivity towards their natural receptors. Because the intercalation of the terpyridine moiety between the bases of the DNA is the origin of the biological activity, a dramatic decrease of the activity is obs...

  4. Clinically insignificant improvement of prostate cancer prediction by addition of sex steroid hormones and SHBG serum levels to serum PSA, fPSA%, and age in a screening setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidegger, Isabel; Popovscaia, Marina; Ramoner, Reinhold; Schäfer, Georg; Stenzel, Birgit; Bektic, Jasmin; Horninger, Wolfgang; Klocker, Helmut

    2012-10-01

    Abstract Various findings implicate sex hormones in prostate growth and development and also in prostate carcinogenesis. We investigated if addition of sex steroid hormone and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) serum levels to standard risk assessment parameters [prostate-specific antigen (PSA), free PSA percentage (fPSA%), and age] improves prostate cancer prediction in a PSA screening setting. Steroid hormones testosterone (T), free testosterone (fT), and estradiol (E2), and binding protein SHBG levels were measured in 762 men undergoing prostate biopsy due to suspect PSA serum levels. Prostate cancer was diagnosed in 286 (37.5%) of these men. Our data confirmed that PSA (mean BE=5.09; mean CA=6.05; p=1.24×10-5), fPSA% (mean BE=22.08; mean CA=18.67; p=1.97×10-7), and age (mean BE=60.64; mean CA=64.5; p=7.05×10-10) differentiate men with cancer (CA) and men with benign disease (BE), such as benign prostate hyperplasia. In addition, SHBG (mean BE=50.3; mean CA=54.9; p=0.008) also differed statistically significantly between these two groups. All hormones except E2 and tumor markers correlated significantly with age (T: ?=-0.09; fT: ?=-0.27; SHBG: ?=0.21; PSA: ?=0.32; and fPSA%: ?=0.22). Furthermore, we found that PSA correlates with E2 (?=0.08), and fPSA% with SHBG (?=0.1) and fT (?=-0.09). Addition of hormones and SHBG to a baseline marker model including PSA, fPSA%, and age improved cancer prediction in three multivariate classification methods; however, the improvement was minimal. The best improvement by 0.8% was obtained in the logistic regression model with the addition of T and SHBG or of E2 and SHBG, or in the support vector machine model with the addition of SHBG and all steroid hormones to the combination of standard markers PSA, fPSA%, and age; however, this additional gain of accuracy is too small to justify the additional efforts and costs. PMID:25436693

  5. Inhibition of steroid receptor coactivator-1 blocks estrogen and androgen action on male sex behavior and associated brain plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlier, Thierry D; Ball, Gregory F; Balthazart, Jacques

    2005-01-26

    Studies of eukaryotic gene expression demonstrate the importance of nuclear steroid receptor coactivators in mediating efficient gene transcription. However, little is known about the physiological role of these coactivators in vivo. In Japanese quail, the steroid receptor coactivator-1 (SRC-1) is broadly expressed in steroid-sensitive brain areas that control the expression of male copulatory behavior, and we investigated the role of this coactivator by antisense technology. Daily intracerebroventricular injections of locked nucleic acid (LNA) antisense (AS) oligonucleotides targeting SRC-1 significantly reduced the expression of androgen- and estrogen-dependent male-typical sexual behaviors compared with control animals that received the vehicle alone or scrambled oligonucleotides. Sexual behavior was restored and even enhanced within 48 h after interruption of LNA injections. Western blot analysis confirmed the decrease of SRC-1 expression in AS animals and suggested an overexpression 48 h after the end of injections. The effects of SRC-1 knock-down on behavior correlated with a reduction in volume of the preoptic medial nucleus (POM) when its borders were defined by Nissl staining or by aromatase immunohistochemistry. The amount of aromatase-immunoreactive material in POM was also reduced in the AS compared with the control group. Previous work on SRC-1 knock-out mice raised questions about the importance of this specific coactivator in the regulation of reproductive behavior and development of sexually dimorphic structures in the CNS. Together, the present findings indicate that SRC-1 modulates steroid-dependent gene transcription and behavior and highlight the rapid time course of steroid-induced brain plasticity in adult quail. PMID:15673671

  6. Genes related to sex steroids, neural growth, and social-emotional behavior are associated with autistic traits, empathy, and Asperger syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarti, B; Dudbridge, F; Kent, L; Wheelwright, S; Hill-Cawthorne, G; Allison, C; Banerjee-Basu, S; Baron-Cohen, S

    2009-06-01

    Genetic studies of autism spectrum conditions (ASC) have mostly focused on the "low functioning" severe clinical subgroup, treating it as a rare disorder. However, ASC is now thought to be relatively common ( approximately 1%), and representing one end of a quasi-normal distribution of autistic traits in the general population. Here we report a study of common genetic variation in candidate genes associated with autistic traits and Asperger syndrome (AS). We tested single nucleotide polymorphisms in 68 candidate genes in three functional groups (sex steroid synthesis/transport, neural connectivity, and social-emotional responsivity) in two experiments. These were (a) an association study of relevant behavioral traits (the Empathy Quotient (EQ), the Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ)) in a population sample (n=349); and (b) a case-control association study on a sample of people with AS, a "high-functioning" subgroup of ASC (n=174). 27 genes showed a nominally significant association with autistic traits and/or ASC diagnosis. Of these, 19 genes showed nominally significant association with AQ/EQ. In the sex steroid group, this included ESR2 and CYP11B1. In the neural connectivity group, this included HOXA1, NTRK1, and NLGN4X. In the socio-responsivity behavior group, this included MAOB, AVPR1B, and WFS1. Fourteen genes showed nominally significant association with AS. In the sex steroid group, this included CYP17A1 and CYP19A1. In the socio-emotional behavior group, this included OXT. Six genes were nominally associated in both experiments, providing a partial replication. Eleven genes survived family wise error rate (FWER) correction using permutations across both experiments, which is greater than would be expected by chance. CYP11B1 and NTRK1 emerged as significantly associated genes in both experiments, after FWER correction (P<0.05). This is the first candidate-gene association study of AS and of autistic traits. The most promising candidate genes require independent replication and fine mapping. PMID:19598235

  7. Alternative splicing of the D2 dopamine receptor messenger ribonucleic acid is modulated by activated sex steroid receptors in the MMQ prolactin cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guivarc'h, D; Vincent, J D; Vernier, P

    1998-10-01

    The two isoforms of the D2 dopamine receptor are generated by alternative splicing of the exon 6 of the premessenger RNA (pre-mRNA), changing the length of the third cytoplasmic loop involved in the coupling to G proteins. In the MMQ PRL cell line, sex steroid hormones modulated the proportion of the two D2 receptor isoforms. Under controlled culture conditions, 17beta-estradiol (E2) strongly favored the production of the long isoform of D2 mRNA over the short one, whereas both isoforms were equally abundant when culture medium was hormone depleted. In the presence of progesterone (P), E2 action was inhibited, and equal amounts of each D2 receptor isoform were produced in the cells. Hormone treatments never modified either the total amount of D2 receptor mRNA and D2 receptor binding sites or D2 receptor-mediated inhibition of adenylyl cyclase. Specific antagonists demonstrated that the activity of each hormone depended on their nuclear receptors. Inhibitors of gene transcription or translation also showed that their activity required protein synthesis. The expression of the short D2 receptor isoform was never prominent, even at the single cell level. Analysis of the intron sequence flanking alternative exon 6 showed that only the upstream intron presented two sequence tracts known to be targets for splicing factors. Taken together, these results provide converging evidence for a physiologically relevant mechanism by which sex steroid receptors could regulate the expression of a splicing factor favoring the production of the long dopamine D2 receptor isoform. PMID:9751502

  8. Standardization of androstenedione and estrone radioimmunoassay and profile of sex steroids, gonadotropins and prolactin - in patients with chronic anovulation due to inappropriate feedback (polycystic ovarian syndrome)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text. In order to evaluate the profile of the sex steroids gonadotropin and prolactin in polycystic ovarian syndrome (POS), 24 patients with POS were studied and compared with 20 normal women during the early follicular phase of the menstrual cycle. Radioimmunoassay techniques for androstenedione (A) and estrone (E1) were standardized for the purpose of the study. Androstenedione and estrone were extracted from plasma with ethyl ether. The assays were maintained in equilibrium and the labelled hormone-antibody complex was then separated from the free hormone using dextran charcoal. The sensitivity of the method was 6.8 pg/tube for A and 3.7 pg/tube for E1. Nonspecific binding ws 3.4 for A and 3.3 for E1. The interessay error at the D50 level was 15.6 for A and 8.6 for E1. Patients with POS had significantly higher basal levels of LH, A, T E1 and PRL and similar FSH and DHEA-S levels when compared with normal women. The LH/FSH ratio was significantly elevated and the A/T ratio was significantly decreased. The A/E1 and T/E2 ratios were elevated and the E1/E2 was decreased, although the differences were not statistically significant. A positive correlation between A and E1 was observed in patients with POS. In view of the above data, it was concluded that: the quality control parameters of the radioimmunoassay for A and E1 standardized in the presand E1 standardized in the present study are considered satisfactory, and the assay could be used for diagnosis and research; the patients with POS have a different sex steroid and gonadotropin profile when compared normal women during the early follicular phase of the menstrual cycle

  9. Application of Double Isotope Derivative Dilution Procedures to Steroid Hormone Measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The measurement of the concentration of specific steroid hormones in human peripheral plasma has required the development of sensitive analytical procedures. Of the various analytical techniques available, procedures based on the principle of double isotope derivative dilution have great specificity and precision at low levels, and can be readily applied to the measurement of androgens, oestrogens, progesterone and adrenocortical hormones. In these procedures a known amount of 14C- or 3H-labelled steroid is added to the sample as an internal recovery indicator to account for losses over the various analytical steps. Mass is determined by formation of a labelled derivative of the hormone following reaction with a radioactive reagent of known specific activity. These reagents are usually either 3H- or 35S-labelled. Separation of the various steroid hormones from each other and from the excess radioactivity arising from derivative formation is carried out by chromatography and by further chemical modification of the labelled derivative. The problems of developing a method suitable for the measurement of aldosterone in human peripheral plasma are described, and a comparison made between two methods, one which uses 14C-aldosterone as internal indicator and 3H-acetic anhydride for derivative formation, and another which uses 3H-aldosterone and 35S-tosan (toluene sulphonic acid anhydride). The subsequent modification of the basic 3H-acetic anhydride procedure to enable simultaneous measurement of cortisol, cortisone, corticosterone, desoxycortisol, desoxycorticosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone and testosterone in a single sample are described. The application of these procedures to the measurement of progesterone and oestrone and oestradiol- 178 are also discussed; in particular, the enzymatic reduction of progesterone to enable acetylation, or the use of 35S-pipsyl chloride (p-iodo benzene sulphonyl chloride) for derivative formation. The advantages and disadvantages of this type of methodology are also discussed with particular reference to specificity, accuracy, precision and suitability for routine analytical use. The sensitivity and precision of double isotope methodology is dependent not only on the specific activity of the labelled reagents but also on the performance of the liquid scintillation counting system. Statistical counting errors and an assessment of the precision and reliability of liquid scintillation counting systems used to count samples containing 3H and 14C are described. (author)

  10. Sex steroids are involved in the regulation of gonadotropin-releasing hormone and dopamine D2 receptors in female tilapia pituitary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levavi-Sivan, Berta; Biran, Jakob; Fireman, Einat

    2006-10-01

    Although molecular mechanisms underlying steroid effects on GnRH and dopamine receptors are well documented in mammals, little is known in fish. Herein, we describe the expression of pituitary GnRH and dopamine receptors relative to gonadotropin expression and release. We exposed female tilapia to graded doses of estradiol or 17alpha,20beta-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (DHP) in vitro, and of estradiol in vivo, and determined mRNA levels of gnrhr1, gnrhr3, drd2, lhb, and fshb by real-time PCR. We also determined gonadotropin levels using specific ELISAs. Exposure to low doses of estradiol caused increased gnrhr3 mRNA levels in vivo and in vitro, probably related to positive feedback on FSH release. Increasing concentrations of estradiol resulted in increased drd2 mRNA levels in vivo and in vitro, inhibition of LH and FSH release, and inhibition of lhb mRNA levels in vivo, possibly related to negative feedback. At high doses of estradiol, FSH release increased in preparation for a new generation of follicles. Exposure to nanomolar doses of DHP resulted in increased drd2 mRNA levels, probably related to negative feedback on LH release. A decrease in drd2 levels at the micromolar range of DHP (concomitant with increased gnrhr3 and fshb mRNA levels) may be related to the recruitment of a new generation of oocytes. Exposure to DHP also resulted in increased lhb mRNA levels toward final oocyte maturation. Salmon GnRH analog (sGnRHa) increased mRNA levels of gnrh1and gnrh3; when combined with DHP, sGnRHa synergistically increased expression of gnrh3 only. These results emphasize the role of sex steroids on positive and negative feedbacks controlling the reproductive cycle. PMID:16807382

  11. EFFECTS OF THREE DIFFERENT GONADOTROPIN - RELEASING HORMONE ANALOGUES COMBINED WITH DOPAMINE ANTAGONISTS ON PLASMA SEX STEROID HORMONES, IN ENDANGERED MALE AND FEMALE CASPIAN BROWN TROUT, SALMO TRUTTA CASPIUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Ehsan Mousavi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available To understand the steroidogenic activities in Caspian brown trout, female and male broodstocks were injected with three different GnRHa in combination with two different dopamine antagonists and we examined changes in plasma sex steroid hormones during the experiments. In four separate experiments, female and male received two injections (at 0 day and 4 day in total volume 0.5 and 0.25 ml per kg-1 body weight respectively. Control group received only propylene glycol (Vehicle only. The final concentrations of GnRHa and metoclopramide (MET were 20 µg GnRHa kg-1 body weight (BW and 10 mg kg-1 body weight (BW, respectively. Each injection, received half dose of hormone. Blood samples were taken at 0, 2, 5 and 7 days, and blood plasma was retained for analysis of steroid levels. In female, plasma levels of estradiol-17? (E2 and testosterone (T showed significant decreases in fish treated with GnRHa plus Dopamine antagonist compared to control group. Plasma 17?,20?-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (17,20?-P levels abruptly increased at the 2nd day post-injection in all treated groups, reached peak levels at the 5th day, and the elevated levels slightly decreased by the 7th day. In male, all experimental treatments showed lower blood plasma 11-ketotestosterone (11KT levels relative to control. Treatment in all hormonal groups resulted in significant decrease in blood plasma 17,20?P levels compared to control group except fish treated with mGnRHa in combination with metoclopramide at 2nd post injection. Mean blood plasma T levels displayed a marked increase between 2nd and 5thyad . Changes in plasma T levels showed no significant change at the 7th day post injection.

  12. Sex assessment using measurements of the first lumbar vertebra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Wen Xu; Cheng, Fu Bo; Cheng, Kai Liang; Tian, Yong; Lai, Ying; Zhang, Wen Song; Zheng, Ya Juan; Li, You Qiong

    2012-06-10

    Sex determination is a vital part of the medico-legal system but can be difficult in cases where the integrity of the body has been compromised. The purpose of this study was to develop a technique for sex assessment from measurements of the first lumber vertebrate. Twenty-nine linear measurements and five ratios were collected from 113 Chinese adult males and 97 Chinese adult females using digital three-dimensional anthropometry methods. By using discriminant analysis, we found that 23 linear measurements and two ratios identified sexual dimorphism (PEPDm). This study shows that a single first lumber vertebra can be used for this purpose, and that the discriminant equation will help forensic determination of sex in the Chinese population. PMID:22169166

  13. Sex steroid hormones change the differential distribution of the isoforms of the D2 dopamine receptor messenger RNA in the rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guivarc'h, D; Vernier, P; Vincent, J D

    1995-11-01

    The two isoforms of the rat dopamine D2 receptor are generated by alternative splicing of the pre-messenger RNA and differ in the length of their third cytoplasmic loop involved in coupling to G-proteins. As quantified by polymerase chain reaction, the long isoform D2L is predominant in the pituitary gland, the striatum and to a lesser extend in the olfactory tubercle, whereas the short isoform D2S is relatively more abundant in the hypothalamus and the substantia nigra. Changes in circulating sex hormone levels modulated the splicing without affecting the total amount of D2 receptor messenger RNA. Castration of male rats increased the ratio D2L/D2S in the pituitary, hypothalamus and substantia nigra, and decreased it in the olfactory tubercle. Testosterone substitution reversed the effect of castration in the pituitary and olfactory tubercle but not in the substantia nigra. In castrated rats, 17beta-estradiol had a similar effect to that of testosterone in the olfactory tubercle, indicating that testosterone may act after aromatization of estradiol. In the hypothalamus, 17beta-estradiol alone reversed the effect of castration. In the striatum, neither castration nor hormonal treatments modified the splicing of the D2 receptor mRNA. Treatment of animals with specific androgen and estrogen receptor blockers confirmed that steroids were acting through their specific intracellular receptors. These observations suggest a molecular mechanism, physiologically relevant, by which circulating sex hormones could modulate dopamine transmission in areas implicated in reproductive and parental behaviours. PMID:8637614

  14. Validated LC-MS/MS simultaneous assay of five sex steroid/neurosteroid-related sulfates in human serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dury, Alain Y; Ke, Yuyong; Gonthier, Renaud; Isabelle, Maxim; Simard, Jean-Nicolas; Labrie, Fernand

    2015-05-01

    Conventionally, the concentration of steroidal sulfates was estimated by indirect or immuno?based assays before the use of liquid-chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). In the present study, a validated LC-MS/MS method is described for the simultaneous quantification of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S), estrone sulfate (E1?S), androsterone sulfate (ADT?S), pregnenolone sulfate (Preg?S) and allopregnanolone sulfate (Allopreg?S). E1?S binding to serum proteins was observed, especially for the high concentration quality control serum samples, leading to -10 to -15% bias using a polymer-based SPE. This protein binding can be efficiently eliminated using a Waters Oasis™ WAX following the same extraction procedure. Most likely, the E1?S binding elimination on Oasis™ WAX can be attributed to its different sorbent structure, where the benzeno group of E1-S can interact with the benzene of the backbone of Oasis™ WAX. With this improvement, the method has been fully validated according to the FDA guidelines. The low quantification limits (LLOQs) are 40ng/mL, 40pg/mL, 5ng/mL, 1.5ng/mL and 0.25ng/mL for DHEA?S, E1-S, ADT?S, Preg?S and Allopreg-S, respectively. A good linearity is obtained with R>0.99 for all compounds within the appropriate calibration range. Accuracies of all levels of QCs are within the range of 10% for DHEA-S, E1?S, ADT?S and Preg?S while for Allopreg?S, the accuracy is within the 15% range. The interday coefficient variance is 5.5-9.5% for the low limits of quantification of all five compounds while values of 1.3-9.9% are found for higher levels of QCs of all five compounds. Recovery of the five compounds in stripped serum is equivalent to that in unstripped serum. The average recovery difference is less than 5% between stripped and unstripped serum for each compound. All results of other test parameters such as matrix, hemolysis and lipemic effects as well as stabilities meet the acceptance criteria of EndoCeutics SOPs and FDA guidelines. PMID:25595042

  15. Factors affecting exhaled nitric oxide measurements: the effect of sex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williamson Avis J

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exhaled nitric oxide (FENO measurements are used as a surrogate marker for eosinophilic airway inflammation. However, many constitutional and environmental factors affect FENO, making it difficult to devise reference values. Our aim was to evaluate the relative importance of factors affecting FENO in a well characterised adult population. Methods Data were obtained from 895 members of the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study at age 32. The effects of sex, height, weight, lung function indices, smoking, atopy, asthma and rhinitis on FENO were explored by unadjusted and adjusted linear regression analyses. Results The effect of sex on FENO was both statistically and clinically significant, with FENO levels approximately 25% less in females. Overall, current smoking reduced FENO up to 50%, but this effect occurred predominantly in those who smoked on the day of the FENO measurement. Atopy increased FENO by 60%. The sex-related differences in FENO remained significant (p ENO. Conclusion Even after adjustment, FENO values are significantly different in males and females. The derivation of reference values and the interpretation of FENO in the clinical setting should be stratified by sex. Other common factors such as current smoking and atopy also require to be taken into account.

  16. Two distinct dopamine D2 receptor genes in the European eel: molecular characterization, tissue-specific transcription, and regulation by sex steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasqualini, Catherine; Weltzien, Finn-Arne; Vidal, Bernadette; Baloche, Sylvie; Rouget, Céline; Gilles, Nicolas; Servent, Denis; Vernier, Philippe; Dufour, Sylvie

    2009-03-01

    Two full-length cDNA encoding putative dopamine D2-like receptors were cloned from the brain of female European eel. The deduced protein sequences, termed D2A- and D2B-R, exhibit closer phylogenetic relationships to vertebrate D2 receptors compared with D3 and D4 or D1 receptors. The two protein sequences share 100% identity within the transmembrane domains containing the highly conserved amino acids involved in dopamine binding. Accordingly, an apparent single population of sites on eel brain membranes bound [(3)H]spiperone, a D2-R-specific antagonist, with a K(d) of 0.2 +/- 0.04 nM. However, D2A- and D2B-R significantly differ within the amino terminus and the third intracellular loop. As analyzed by quantitative PCR and in situ hybridization, both receptor transcripts were found, with different relative abundance, in the majority of brain areas and in the pituitary, whereas in the retina, olfactory epithelium, spinal cord, and adipose tissue, only D2A-R gene was expressed. Because sex steroid hormones recently have been shown to regulate eel brain dopamine systems, we analyzed the effect of steroids on the amount of D2-R transcripts by quantitative PCR and in situ hybridization. In eels treated with testosterone, the gene expression of the D2B-R, but not D2A-R, was increased in a region-dependent manner. The effect of testosterone on D2B-R transcript levels was mimicked by dihydrotestosterone, a nonaromatizable androgen, whereas estradiol had no stimulatory action, evidencing an androgen receptor-dependent mechanism. Although functionality of the two receptors awaits determination of D2-R proteins, we hypothesize that differences in the tissue expression pattern and hormonal regulation of eel D2A- and D2B-R gene expression could represent selective forces that have contributed to the conservation of the duplicated D2-R. PMID:18974275

  17. The effects of female sex steroids on the development of autoimmune thyroiditis in thymectomized and irradiated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Female PVG/c strain rats are more susceptible to induction of autoimmune thyroiditis initiated by thymectomy and irradiation (Tx-X) than similarly treated males. Pre-pubertal ovariectomy further augmented susceptibility. Administration of oestrogen or progesterone to groups of 4 weeks old ovariectomized Tx-X animals over a period of 15 weeks significantly altered induction of this condition. Oestrogen administered repeatedly at dose levels of 1 ?g and 10 ?g/100 g body weight resulted in partial suppression of thyroiditis with a corresponding change in the incidence of antibodies to thyroglobulin. Oestrogen administered by a single implantation had a suppressive effect on the development of autoimmunity in ovariectomized Tx-X females. Oestrogen given by either of these procedures also reduced the incidence of thyroiditis and autoantibody induction in orchidectomized male Tx-X rats. In contrast, repeated administration of progesterone at a dose of 250 mg and 1,500 ?g/100 g body weight appeared to augment levels of autoimmunity. It is concluded that the differential susceptibility to the induction of autoimmunity by thymectomy and irradiation is the direct consequence of sex hormonal influences. The higher incidence of the disease in the female would appear to be determined by the balance between the activity of oestrogen and progesterone which would further appear to have antagonistic influences in this particular situation. (UK))

  18. Prevalence of Bronchiectasis in Asthma according to Oral Steroid Requirement: Influence of Immunoglobulin Levels

    OpenAIRE

    Manel Luján; Xavier Gallardo; Jos Amp Xe Amengual, Mar Amp Xed A.; Montserrat Bosque; Mirapeix, Rosa M.; Christian Domingo

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. To establish the prevalence of bronchiectasis in asthma in relation to patients' oral corticosteroid requirements and to explore whether the increased risk is due to blood immunoglobulin (Ig) concentration. Methods. Case-control cross-sectional study, including 100 sex- and age-matched patients, 50 with non-steroid-dependent asthma (NSDA) and 50 with steroid-dependent asthma (SDA). Study protocol: (a) measurement of Ig and gG subclass concentration; (b) forced spirometry; and (c) hig...

  19. Steroid Cell Tumor of the Ovary in an Adolescent: A Rare Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Gokhan Boyraz; Ilker Selcuk; Zarife Yusifli; Alp Usubutun; Serdar Gunalp

    2013-01-01

    Steroid cell tumors (SCTs) of the ovary are a rare subgroup of sex cord tumors, account for less than 0.1% of all ovarian tumors, and also will present at any age. These tumors can produce steroids, especially testosterone, and may give symptoms like hirsutism, hair loss, amenorrhea, or oligomenorrhea. For the evaluation of androgen excess, testosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) are the first laboratory tests to be measured. A pelvic ultrasound and a magnetic resonance imagi...

  20. ALTERED SERUM SEX STEROIDS AND VITELLOGENIN INDUCTION IN WALLEYE (STIZOSTEDION VITREUM) COLLECTED NEAR A METROPOLITAN SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feral, male walleye collected from the Mississippi River below the St. Paul metropolitan sewage treatment plant (STP) contained measurable levels of the estrogen-inducible, female egg protein, vitellogenin. These same fish showed significantly decreased serum androgen and signifi...

  1. Steroid osteopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patients receiving steroids or having disease processes which increase natural steroid production often demonstrate ''the classic x-ray changes'' of avascular necrosis of bone. Bone scintigraphy in these patients most frequently demonstrates an increased radionuclide localization. The literature suggests that the increased activity is related to healing of the avascular process. In a recent study of Legg-Calve-Perthes Disease (LCPD), 37 of the children had multiple studies and increased activity within the epiphysis during revascularization was extremely rare. Not only are the scintigraphic findings in steroid osteopathy dissimilar to that in healing LCPD, but the time interval for healing is much to short for that of a vascular necrosis and no patients demonstrated an avascular phase on bone scintigraphy. Of 15 children with renal transplants on steroid therapy, 9 demonstrated x-ray and clinical findings of osteopathy. In 8 of 9 instances, bone scintigraphy showed increased localization of radionuclide in the affected bone. Improvement or a return to normal occurred in those patients in whom steroids were discontinued. The following is a proposed mechanism for steroid osteopathy. Steroids affect the osteoblastic and osteoclastic activity of bone and weaken its internal structure. Ordinary stress produces microtrabecular fractures. Fractures characteristically stimulate reactive hyperemia and increase bone metabolism. The result is increased bone radiopharmaceutical llt is increased bone radiopharmaceutical localization. The importance of recognizing this concept is that steroid osteopathy is preventable by reducing the administered steroid dose. As opposed to avascular necrosis, bone changes are reversible

  2. Alterations in sex steroids and gonadotropins in post-menopausal women subsequent to long-term mifepristone administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikinheimo, O; Ranta, S; Grunberg, S; Spitz, I M

    2000-01-01

    Long-term administration of progesterone antagonists (PAs) and progesterone receptor modulators (PRMs) has been proposed as a novel hormonal therapy for various hormone dependent maladies. We studied the long-term endocrine effects of mifepristone on the kinetics of estradiol (E(2)) and its precursors, and on gonadotropin levels in five postmenopausal women treated for unresectable meningioma with mifepristone [200 mg/day] for at least 15 months. Serum samples were analyzed for LH, FSH and SHBG with fluoroimmunoassay; androstenedione (A), testosterone (T), estrone (E(1)) and E(2) were measured with radioimmunoassay (RIA). Serum levels of mifepristone were measured using both RIA and high performance-liquid chromatography (HPLC). Serum levels (mean +/- SD) of LH and FSH were suppressed from pretreatment values of 32 +/- 16 and 65 +/- 30 IU/l to 13 +/- 7 and 33 +/- 16 IU/l at 6 months (P < 0.05), respectively. Serum (mean +/- SD) A, T, E(1), and E(2) were increased from initial values of 6.9 +/- 0.9 nmol/l, 1.2 +/- 0.3 nmol/l, 77 +/- 25 pmol/l, and 29 +/- 14 pmol/l to 6 month values of 13.1 +/- 5.6 nmol/l, 1.8 +/- 0.6 nmol/l, 178 +/- 60 pmol/l, and 45 +/- 22 pmol/l (n.s.). The correlation coefficients between the levels of A, T, E(1), and E(2) were statistically significant, whereas the ratios of T/A, E(1)/A, E(2)/E(1), and E(2)/T remained unchanged. The levels of SHBG remained stable, and ranged from 48 +/- 10 to 65 +/- 9 nmol/l (mean +/- SD). Thus, prolonged mifepristone treatment marginally increased the serum levels of A, T, E(1) and E(2). These effects of mifepristone are likely due to its antiglucocorticoid effect and thus increased secretion of adrenal A. Serum levels of LH and FSH declined. The serum levels of gonadotropins and those of T, E(1) and E(2) were inversely, yet significantly, correlated. Therefore the decrease in LH and FSH might reflect the slightly increased levels of T, E(1) and E(2). However, the lack of change in SHBG and the low E(2) levels suggest that enhanced systemic estrogen effects are unlikely during long-term mifepristone treatment. PMID:11108895

  3. Sex steroids levels in the plasma and testis during the reproductive cycle of lizard Podarcis s. sicula Raf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andò, S; Ciarcia, G; Panno, M L; Imbrogno, E; Tarantino, G; Buffone, M; Beraldi, E; Angelini, F; Botte, V

    1992-01-01

    Progesterone (P), 17-OH-progesterone (17-OH-P), androstenedione (A), dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), testosterone (T), 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone (5 alpha-DHT), and 17 beta-estradiol (E2) were measured by RIA in plasma and testes of 114 males of the oviparous lizard Podarcis s. sicula raf, a species that displays annual hibernating cycles. Hormones were determined each month from January until December, except for August. Testosterone peaked at 174.8 ng/ml of plasma after emergence (March), while 5 alpha-DHT and A peaked in April. Plasma DHEA increased during hibernation. During the refractory period there were progressive increases in P and E2 plasma levels. The testicular peak of T, in March, coincided with that observed in plasma. The striking increases in testicular T and A in early July occurred at a time when plasma androgen concentrations were low. 5 alpha-DHT increased in April when spermatogenesis with spermiation occurred and then decreased alongside a second peak of T. There is an apparent separation of plasma and testicular androgen concentrations during the reproductive cycle. PMID:1532946

  4. Antiproliferative and apoptotic effect of epigallocatechin-3-gallate on Ishikawa cells is accompanied by sex steroid receptor downregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seung Bin; Bae, Jong Woon; Kim, Jong Min; Lee, Seung Gee; Han, Myoungseok

    2012-11-01

    Endometrial cancer is a significant malignancy in developed countries. Unopposed estrogen stimulation is considered as an important risk factor for endometrial cancer. Epigallocathechin-3-gallate (EGCG), biological active component of green tea, inhibits cancer cell proliferation. However, it is unknown whether EGCG has anticancer effects on endometrial cancer and what the molecular mechanism(s) are. We investigated the anticancer effects of EGCG on a human endometrial adenocarcinoma cell line (Ishikawa cells) with or without 17?-estradiol (E2) treatment. Cell proliferation assay was performed using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiaxol-2-yi)-2,5-diphenyltetraxolium bromide (MTT). The cell cycle was determined by flow cytometry and real-time analysis of cyclin and cdk genes. The apoptosis was measured by Annexin V-PI staining and real-time analysis of bcl-2, Bax and caspase genes. The MAPK signal, Akt and caspase-3 were determined by immunoblotting. Decreased estrogen and progesterone receptor expression was observed in EGCG-treated Ishikawa cells, and decreased MAPK signals and phospho-Akt were observed as well. EGCG caused the arrest of cells in the G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle. This compound interfered with Akt activation and MAPK signals, and increased apoptosis signals leading to a controlled caspases, Bcl-2, Bax genes and protein expression. Taken together, EGCG inhibits cell proliferation and induces apoptosis through Akt and MAPK signals. These findings suggest that EGCG may exert growth-inhibitory and apoptosis-inducing effects on endometrial cancer cells, accompanied by decreased estrogen and progesterone receptor. EGCG may have future clinical implications with respect to the development of novel approaches as an adjuvant therapy in endometrial cancer. PMID:22923012

  5. Effects of the sea louse Lepeophtheirus salmonis on temporal changes in cortisol, sex steroids, growth and reproductive investment in Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tveiten, H; Bjørn, P A; Johnsen, H K; Finstad, B; McKinley, R S

    2010-06-01

    Groups of mature (5+ year old) Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus held in sea water were exposed for 34 days to either a high (mean +/-s.e. 0.15 +/- 0.01 sea lice Lepeophtheirus salmonis g(-1) fish mass) (HI), medium (0.07 +/- 0.00 sea lice g(-1) fish mass) (MI) or no [control (C)] sea-lice infection during early stages of gonad development (June to July). Infection with sea lice resulted in increased plasma cortisol concentrations and this was related to intensity of infection; females tended to have higher cortisol concentrations than males at high infection intensities (HI group: female c. 130 ng ml(-1); male c. 80 ng ml(-1)). Plasma osmolality (C c. 330, MI c. 350 and HI c. 415 mOsm) and chloride concentrations (C c. 135, MI c. 155 and HI c. 190 mM) increased significantly with infection intensity, indicating osmoregulatory problems in infected fish. A strong positive relationship between plasma osmolality and cortisol concentration was recorded. Plasma sex-steroid concentrations were influenced negatively by sea-lice infection, particularly in the HI group, and were inversely related to plasma cortisol concentrations. The most heavily infected fish postponed the initiation of reproductive development until exposed to fresh water and timing of ovulation tended to be delayed in these fish. Growth rate and condition were negatively influenced by sea-lice infection and growth rate was inversely related to plasma cortisol concentrations. Sea-lice infection resulted in mortality among females in the HI group, and the proportion of maturing females was lower in the MI group (46%) than in the controls (85%). Egg production in the MI and HI groups was c. 50 and 30% of the C group. Egg size, embryonic survival and fry mass did not differ across groups. Sea lice influence reproductive development and egg production in S. alpinus, and consequently these parasites may influence populations via sublethal effects on broodfish, affecting growth and condition, and their reproductive output. PMID:20557595

  6. Anabolic Steroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... restless, loss of appetite, being unable to sleep (insomnia), and the desire to take more steroids. Depression ... Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration: National Survey on Drug Use and Health Drug Facts Anabolic ...

  7. Validity of a Scale to Measure Teachers' Attitudes towards Sex Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida Reis, Maria Helena; Vilar, Duarte Goncalo Rei

    2006-01-01

    Despite the current legislation requiring sex education as part of the school curriculum in Portugal, great obstacles to its implementation remain. Furthermore, sex education is far from being systematically administered. Thus, the main interest in our project was to validate a scale that measures teachers' attitudes towards sex education. There…

  8. Reliability and validity of serum sex hormone measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McShane, L M; Dorgan, J F; Greenhut, S; Damato, J J

    1996-11-01

    The laboratory reliability and validity of sex hormone measurements were examined at multiple levels, including lower levels characteristic of children and postmenopausal women. Serum was drawn from four adult male and four adult female healthy volunteers. From each individual's serum pool, a medium- and a low-dilution pool were created. Biochemical analyses for total and non-sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG)-bound estradiol, estrone, estrone sulfate, progesterone, and SHBG were performed on female samples. Male samples were analyzed for total and non-SHBG-bound testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, androstenedione, and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate. Two aliquots from each pool were assayed twice in each of two labs. All assays except SHBG in one lab used RIA procedures. Reliability was assessed by variance components analyses and estimated coefficients of variation (CVs). Validity was assessed by comparing observed measurements versus expected values based on known dilution ratios. For the testosterone and dihydrotestosterone assays, CVs were usually less than 10%. For estradiol and progesterone, CVs were usually less than 15%. Assays with larger estimated CVs included androstenedione, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, estrone, and estrone sulfate. Absolute levels differed markedly between labs for most assays. Observed measurements generally agreed with values expected from the dilution ratios. A notable exception was the estrone assay at the lowest dilution level, where observed measurements were 2-4 times those expected. A similar but less pronounced overestimation bias for the low levels of estradiol was also suggested. This intra- and interlaboratory variability and apparent low dilution overestimation should be accounted for in studies relating hormones to cancer risk, especially those involving children and postmenopausal women. PMID:8922302

  9. Steroid radioimmunoassays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An estrogen radioimmunoassay was used to study the problem of blanks in steroid assays. Negligible binding (1.5 percent) in the non-antibody tubes prevailed throughout the study. The assay was validated using accepted procedures. Both water and solvent blanks had estrogen concentrations of 7-9 pg/tube. However, neither water nor solvent blanks showed a dose-related response, indicating that they were 'real' blanks. Exogenous estradiol, when added to water and solvent in quantities less than the estimated blank, was not quantitatively recovered. However, exogenous estradiol added to the water solvent in quantities greater than the blank estimate was quantitatively recovered. The sensitivity of the reference standard curve was 6-10 pg/tube, approximately the same as the blank estimate. These results indicated that the estimates of water and solvent blanks were measures of the assay sensitivity. In such circumstances, it is suggested that blank estimates should not be subtracted from sample values. If the blank estimates are high, attention should be directed towards improving the sensitivity of the assay

  10. 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin activates the aryl hydrocarbon receptor and alters sex steroid hormone secretion without affecting growth of mouse antral follicles in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karman, Bethany N., E-mail: bklement@illinois.edu; Basavarajappa, Mallikarjuna S., E-mail: mbshivapur@gmail.com; Craig, Zelieann R., E-mail: zelieann@illinois.edu; Flaws, Jodi A., E-mail: jflaws@illinois.edu

    2012-05-15

    The persistent environmental contaminant, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is an ovarian toxicant. These studies were designed to characterize the actions of TCDD on steroidogenesis and growth of intact mouse antral follicles in vitro. Specifically, these studies tested the hypothesis that TCDD exposure leads to decreased sex hormone production/secretion by antral follicles as well as decreased growth of antral follicles in vitro. Since TCDD acts through binding to the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), and the AHR has been identified as an important factor in ovarian function, we also conducted experiments to confirm the presence and activation of the AHR in our tissue culture system. To do so, we exposed mouse antral follicles for 96 h to a series of TCDD doses previously shown to have effects on ovarian tissues and cells in culture, which also encompass environmentally relevant and pharmacological exposures (0.1–100 nM), to determine a dose response for TCDD in our culture system for growth, hormone production, and expression of the Ahr and Cyp1b1. The results indicate that TCDD decreases progesterone, androstenedione, testosterone, and estradiol levels in a non-monotonic dose response manner without altering growth of antral follicles. The addition of pregnenolone substrate (10 ?M) restores hormone levels to control levels. Additionally, Cyp1b1 levels were increased by 3–4 fold regardless of the dose of TCDD exposure, evidence of AHR activation. Overall, these data indicate that TCDD may act prior to pregnenolone formation and through AHR transcriptional control of Cyp1b1, leading to decreased hormone levels without affecting growth of antral follicles. -- Highlights: ?TCDD disrupts sex steroid hormone levels, but not growth of antral follicles. ?Pregnenolone co-treatment by-passes TCDD-induced steroid hormone disruption. ?TCDD affects steroid hormone levels through an AHR pathway in antral follicles.

  11. 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin activates the aryl hydrocarbon receptor and alters sex steroid hormone secretion without affecting growth of mouse antral follicles in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The persistent environmental contaminant, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is an ovarian toxicant. These studies were designed to characterize the actions of TCDD on steroidogenesis and growth of intact mouse antral follicles in vitro. Specifically, these studies tested the hypothesis that TCDD exposure leads to decreased sex hormone production/secretion by antral follicles as well as decreased growth of antral follicles in vitro. Since TCDD acts through binding to the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), and the AHR has been identified as an important factor in ovarian function, we also conducted experiments to confirm the presence and activation of the AHR in our tissue culture system. To do so, we exposed mouse antral follicles for 96 h to a series of TCDD doses previously shown to have effects on ovarian tissues and cells in culture, which also encompass environmentally relevant and pharmacological exposures (0.1–100 nM), to determine a dose response for TCDD in our culture system for growth, hormone production, and expression of the Ahr and Cyp1b1. The results indicate that TCDD decreases progesterone, androstenedione, testosterone, and estradiol levels in a non-monotonic dose response manner without altering growth of antral follicles. The addition of pregnenolone substrate (10 ?M) restores hormone levels to control levels. Additionally, Cyp1b1 levels were increased by 3–4 fold regardless of the dose of TCDD exposure, evidence of AHR activation. Overall, these data indicate that TCDD may act prior to pregnenolone formation and through AHR transcriptional control of Cyp1b1, leading to decreased hormone levels without affecting growth of antral follicles. -- Highlights: ?TCDD disrupts sex steroid hormone levels, but not growth of antral follicles. ?Pregnenolone co-treatment by-passes TCDD-induced steroid hormone disruption. ?TCDD affects steroid hormone levels through an AHR pathway in antral follicles.

  12. AN INTERLABORATORY STUDY ON THE USE OF STEROID HORMONES IN EVALUATING ENDOCRINE DISRUPTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    In recent years, there has been an increased use of the measurement of sex steroid hormone levels in the blood of animals exposed to chemicals as an indicator of reproductive impairment or an alteration in endocrine function. Although levels of hormones are often compared among a...

  13. Measuring Sex Differences in Violence Victimization and Perpetration within Date and Same-Sex Peer Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swahn, Monica H.; Simon, Thomas R.; Arias, Ileana; Bossarte, Robert M.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines sex differences in the patterns of repeated perpetration and victimization of physical violence and psychological aggression within dating relationships and same-sex peer relationships. Data were obtained from the Youth Violence Survey: Linkages among Different Forms of Violence, conducted in 2004, and administered to all…

  14. Comparative aspects of steroid hormone metabolism and ovarian activity in felids, measured noninvasively in feces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, J L; Wasser, S K; Wildt, D E; Graham, L H

    1994-10-01

    Noninvasive fecal assays were used to study steroid metabolism and ovarian activity in several felid species. Using the domestic cat (Felis catus) as model, the excretory products of injected [14C]estradiol (E2) and [14C]progesterone (P4) were determined. Within 2 days, 97.0 +/- 0.6% and 96.7 +/- 0.5% of recovered E2 and P4 radioactivity, respectively, was found in feces. E2 was excreted as unconjugated estradiol and estrone (40%) and as a non-enzyme-hydrolyzable conjugate (60%). P4 was excreted primarily as non-enzyme-hydrolyzable, conjugated metabolites (78%) and as unconjugated pregnenolone epimers. A simple method for extracting fecal steroid metabolites optimized extraction efficiencies of the E2 and P4 excretion products (90.1 +/- 0.8% and 87.2 +/- 1.4%, respectively). Analysis of HPLC fractions of extracted fecal samples from the radiolabel-injected domestic cats revealed that E2 immunoreactivity coincided primarily with the unconjugated metabolized [14C]E2 peak, whereas progestogen immunoreactivity coincided with a single conjugated epimer and multiple unconjugated pregnenolone epimers. After HPLC separation, similar immunoreactive E2 and P4 metabolite profiles were observed in the leopard cat (F. bengalensis), cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus), clouded leopard (Neofelis nebulosa), and snow leopard (Panthera uncia). Longitudinal analyses demonstrated that changes in fecal E2 and P4 metabolite concentrations reflected natural or artificially induced ovarian activity. For example, severalfold increases in E2 excretion were associated with overt estrus or exogenous gonadotropin treatment, and elevated fecal P4 metabolite concentrations occurred during pregnant and nonpregnant (pseudopregnant) luteal phases. Although overall concentrations were similar, the duration of elevated fecal P4 metabolites during pseudopregnancy was approximately half that observed during pregnancy. In summary, steroid metabolism mechanisms appear to be conserved among these physically diverse, taxonomically related species. Results indicate that this hormone-monitoring approach will be extremely useful for elucidating the hormonal regulatory mechanism associated with the reproductive cycle, pregnancy, and parturition of intractable and endangered felid species. PMID:7819459

  15. Extensive esterification of adrenal C19-delta 5-sex steroids to long-chain fatty acids in the ZR-75-1 human breast cancer cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estrogen-sensitive human breast cancer cells (ZR-75-1) were incubated with the 3H-labeled adrenal C19-delta 5-steroids dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its fully estrogenic derivative, androst-5-ene-3 beta,17 beta-diol (delta 5-diol) for various time intervals. When fractionated by solvent partition, Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography and silica gel TLC, the labeled cell components were largely present (40-75%) in three highly nonpolar, lipoidal fractions. Mild alkaline hydrolysis of these lipoidal derivatives yielded either free 3H-labeled DHEA or delta 5-diol. The three lipoidal fractions cochromatographed with the synthetic DHEA 3 beta-esters, delta 5-diol 3 beta (or 17 beta)-monoesters and delta 5-diol 3 beta,17 beta-diesters of long-chain fatty acids. DHEA and delta 5-diol were mainly esterified to saturated and mono-unsaturated fatty acids. For delta 5-diol, the preferred site of esterification of the fatty acids is the 3 beta-position while some esterification also takes place at the 17 beta-position. Time course studies show that ZR-75-1 cells accumulate delta 5-diol mostly (greater than 95%) as fatty acid mono- and diesters while DHEA is converted to delta 5-diol essentially as the esterified form. Furthermore, while free C19-delta 5-steroids rapidly diffuse out of the cells after removal of the precursor [3H]delta 5-diol, the fatty acid ester derivatives are progressively hydrolyzed, and DHEA and delta 5-diol thus formed are then sulfurylated prior to the formed are then sulfurylated prior to their release into the culture medium. The latter process however is rate-limited, since new steady-state levels of free steroids and fatty acid esters are rapidly reached and maintained for extended periods of time after removal of precursor, thus maintaining minimal concentrations of intracellular steroids

  16. The effect of pretreatment of saliva on steroid hormone concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meulenberg, E P; Hofman, J A

    1990-12-01

    We investigated the effect of the pretreatment (sonification or centrifugation) of saliva samples on the concentration of several steroid hormones as measured with highly specific RIA after extraction and chromatography. It appeared that sonification of saliva resulted in significantly higher values for progesterone, cortisone, 17-hydroxyprogesterone, testosterone and oestradiol (10-49% increase), compared with the levels recorded after centrifugation. No differences were demonstrated for the concentrations of cortisol and androstenedione, except that a sex-dependent difference effect was observed in the values for androstenedione: concentrations measured in sonificated male saliva were lower than those measured in supernatant saliva. PMID:2081963

  17. How Reliable Is Sex Differentiation From Teeth Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harish R.K

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Gender determination of human remains recovered in forensic contexts constitutes an important step in medico-legal examination. The ability of the inert, mineralized structures of teeth to resist post-mortem degradation and to survive deliberate, accidental or natural change has led forensic experts to focus on the teeth as a possible source for valuable forensic data in fragmentary and poorly preserved human remains. Numerous studies show that tooth size standards based on odontometric investigations are population specific and can be used in age and sex determination. This paper reviews the methods of determining sex by odontometrics, tooth proportions and sexual dimorphism.

  18. Radioimmunoassay of steroid hormone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low acid pepsin treated gamma-globulin was applied to ammonium sulfate salting out method, which was a method to separate bound fraction from free one in radioimmunoassay of steroid hormone, and the effect of the separation and the standard curve were examined. Pepsin treated gamma-globulin was prepared in pH 1.5 to 5.5 and then the pepsin was completely removed. It had an effect to accelerate the precipitation in radioimmunoassay of steroid hormone labelled with 3H. The effect of pepsin treated gamma-globulin to adhere free steroid hormone and to slat out bound one was compared with that of human gamma-globulin. Pepsin treated gamma-globulin, which was water soluble, could easier reach its optimal concentration, and the separation effect was better than human gamma-globulin. The standard curve of it was steeper, particularly in a small dose, and the reproducibility was also better. It could be applied not only to aldosterone and DOC, but also to the steroid hormones, such as progesterone and DHEA, and it seemed suitable for routine measurement method. (Kanao, N.)

  19. Testicular sex cord stromal tumour with granulosa cell differentiation: detection of steroid hormone receptors as a possible basis for tumour development and therapeutic management.

    OpenAIRE

    Du?e, W.; Dieckmann, K. P.; Niedobitek, G.; Bornho?ft, G.; Loy, V.; Stein, H.

    1990-01-01

    A testicular sex cord stromal tumour with granulosa cell differentiation, typical of granulosa cell tumours of the adult type, was investigated immunohistologically on snap frozen and paraffin wax embedded material. The predominance of vimentin and the additional expression of cytokeratin subtypes 8 and 18, as well as the negative staining for epithelial membrane antigen, accorded with results previously reported, for ovarian granulosa cell tumours; the lack of expression of desmoplakin, howe...

  20. Steroid content in endometrial tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suri, N K

    1997-04-01

    In the human endometrium, the role of C19 steroids is at present unclear. Radioimmunoassays (RIA) were developed which had sufficient specificity and accuracy to measure testosterone, 5 alpha-dihydroxytestosterone (5 alpha-DHT), oestradiol, progesterone and androstenedione in endometrial samples. Amounts of androstenedione were greater (range 1.2-20.8 ng/mg tissue) than other steroids. Samples were obtained from patients presenting conditions such as subfertility, postmenopausal bleeding, dysfunctional uterine bleeding and abdominal pain. Patients used as normals were admitted for sterilisation. A significant positive correlation (r = 0.80) was found between the levels of testosterone and 5 alpha-reductase system. No relationship was observed in tissue steroid concentration and age of the patients. Steroid concentrations were found to be high in tissue obtained from patients with endometrial carcinomas whereas progesterone concentration being low in subfertiles. PMID:9299827

  1. SEX DIFFERENCES IN OBJECTIVE MEASURES OF SLEEP IN PTSD AND HEALTHY CONTROL SUBJECTS

    OpenAIRE

    Richards, Anne; Metzler, Thomas J.; Ruoff, Leslie M.; Inslicht, Sabra S.; Rao, Madhu; Talbot, Lisa S.; Neylan, Thomas C.

    2013-01-01

    A growing literature shows prominent sex effects for risk for PTSD and associated medical comorbid burden. Prior research indicates that PTSD is associated with reduced slow wave sleep (SWS), which may have implications for overall health, and abnormalities in REM sleep, which have been implicated in specific PTSD symptoms, but most research has been conducted in male subjects. We therefore sought to compare objective measures of sleep in male and female PTSD subjects with age and sex-matched...

  2. Are there sex differences in Fetal Abdominal Subcutaneous Tissue (FAST) measurements?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Farah, Nadine

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine if Fetal Abdominal Subcutaneous Tissue (FAST) measurements using antenatal ultrasound differ between male and female fetuses. STUDY DESIGN: Women who had an ultrasound examination for fetal growth between 20 and 40 weeks gestation were studied. Women with diabetes mellitus were excluded. The fetal anterior abdominal subcutaneous tissue was measured on the anterior abdominal wall in millimetres anterior to the margins of the ribs, using magnification at the level of the abdominal circumference. The fetal sex was recorded after delivery. RESULTS: A total of 557 fetuses were measured, 290 male and 267 female. The FAST measurements increased with gestational age. The FAST increased at the same rate for both male and female fetuses and at any given week there was no sex difference. CONCLUSIONS: The increased fat composition in females reported after birth was not found in abdominal wall subcutaneous fat measurements using ultrasound during pregnancy. Antenatal centile charts for FAST do not need to be based on sex.

  3. Sex and Self-Control Theory: The Measures and Causal Model May Be Different

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, George E.; Tewksbury, Richard

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the distribution differences across sexes in key measures of self-control theory and differences in a causal model. Using cross-sectional data from juveniles ("n" = 1,500), the study shows mean-level differences in many of the self-control, risky behavior, and delinquency measures. Structural equation modeling findings support…

  4. Impulsivity and the Sexes: Measurement and Structural Invariance of the UPPS-P Impulsive Behavior Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyders, Melissa A.

    2013-01-01

    Before it is possible to test whether men and women differ in impulsivity, it is necessary to evaluate whether impulsivity measures are invariant across sex. The UPPS-P Impulsive Behavior Scale (negative urgency, lack of premeditation, lack of perseverance, and sensation seeking, with added subscale of positive urgency) is one measure of five…

  5. An interlaboratory study measuring sex steroids with RIAs and/or ELISAs: Are we comparing apples to oranges?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are exogenous substances released into the environment that can lead to adverse reproductive effects in fish by a number of mechanisms including altering circulating levels of estradiol (E2), testosterone (T) and 11-ketotestosterone (11KT). ...

  6. In silico prediction of sex-based differences in human susceptibility to cardiac ventricular tachyarrhythmias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ColleenE.Clancy

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Sex-based differences in human susceptibility to cardiac ventricular tachyarrhythmias likely result from the emergent effects of multiple intersecting processes that fundamentally differ in male and female hearts. Included are measured differences in the genes encoding key cardiac ion channels and effects of sex steroid hormones to acutely modify electrical activity. At the genome scale, human females have recently been shown to have lower expression of genes encoding key cardiac repolarizing potassium currents and connexin43, the primary ventricular gap junction subunit. Human males and females also have distinct sex steroid hormones. Here, we developed mathematical models for male and female ventricular human heart cells by incorporating experimentally determined genomic differences and effects of sex steroid hormones into the O’Hara-Rudy model. These “male” and “female” model cells and tissues then were used to predict how various sex-based differences underlie arrhythmia risk. Genomic-based differences in ion channel expression were alone sufficient to determine longer female cardiac action potential durations (APD in both epicardial and endocardial cells compared to males. Subsequent addition of sex steroid hormones exacerbated these differences, as testosterone further shortened APDs, while estrogen and progesterone application resulted in disparate effects on APDs. Our results indicate that incorporation of experimentally determined genomic differences from human hearts in conjunction with sex steroid hormones are consistent with clinically observed differences in QT interval, T-wave shape and morphology, and critically, in the higher vulnerability of adult human females to Torsades de Pointes type arrhythmias. The model suggests that female susceptibility to alternans stems from longer female action potentials, while reentrant arrhythmia derives largely from sex-based differences in conduction play an important role in arrhythmia vulnerability.

  7. Steroids (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... serious side effects. Using steroids for a long time can negatively affect the reproductive system. In males, steroids can lead to impotence, a reduction in the amount of sperm produced in the ...

  8. Steroid profiling and confirmation of the T/E - ratio in doping control

    OpenAIRE

    Hanssen, Kine Østnes

    2010-01-01

    Anabolic-androgenic steroids are naturally occurring or synthetic derivates of male sex hormones. All anabolic-androgenic steroids are prohibited by the World Anti-Doping Agency because of their muscle growth stimulating effect. At the Seibersdorf Doping-Control Laboratory, urine samples from athletes are first screened with a screen testing procedure to obtain an endogenous steroid profile, in order to identify samples suspected of containing endogenous steroids of exogenous origin. This i...

  9. Depression, Marital Satisfaction, and Marital and Personality Measures of Sex Roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whisman, Mark A.; Jacobson, Neil S.

    1989-01-01

    Examined relationship between depression, marital satisfaction, and marital and personality measures of sex roles in 50 couples in which woman was clinically depressed and 24 nondepressed, nondistressed control couples. Found that, compared to nondepressed couples, couples in which woman was depressed showed greater inequality in decision-making.…

  10. Differentiation of subspecies and sexes of Beringian Dunlins using morphometric measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, H. River; Yezerinac, Stephen; Powell, Abby N.; Tomkovich, Pavel S.; Valchuk, Olga P.; Lanctot, Richard B.

    2013-01-01

    Five subspecies of Dunlins (Calidris alpina) that breed in Beringia are potentially sympatric during the non-breeding season. Studying their ecology during this period requires techniques to distinguish individuals by subspecies. Our objectives were to determine (1) if five morphometric measures (body mass, culmen, head, tarsus, and wing chord) differed between sexes and among subspecies (C. a. actites, arcticola, kistchinski, pacifica, and sakhalina), and (2) if these differences were sufficient to allow for correct classification of individuals using equations derived from discriminant function analyses. We conducted analyses using morphometric data from 10 Dunlin populations breeding in northern Russia and Alaska, USA. Univariate tests revealed significant differences between sexes in most morphometric traits of all subspecies, and discriminant function equations predicted the sex of individuals with an accuracy of 83–100% for each subspecies. We provide equations to determine sex and subspecies of individuals in mixed subspecies groups, including the (1) Western Alaska group of arcticola and pacifica (known to stage together in western Alaska) and (2) East Asia group of arcticola, actites, kistchinski, and sakhalina (known to winter together in East Asia). Equations that predict the sex of individuals in mixed groups had classification accuracies between 75% and 87%, yielding reliable classification equations. We also provide equations that predict the subspecies of individuals with an accuracy of 22–96% for different mixed subspecies groups. When the sex of individuals can be predetermined, the accuracy of these equations is increased substantially. Investigators are cautioned to consider limitations due to age and feather wear when using these equations during the non-breeding season. These equations will allow determination of sexual and subspecies segregation in non-breeding areas, allowing implementation of taxonomic-specific conservation actions.

  11. Assessing invariance across sex and race/ethnicity in measures of youth psychopathic characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horan, Jacqueline M; Brown, Joshua L; Jones, Stephanie M; Aber, J Lawrence

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the measurement invariance of 2 commonly used measures of youth psychopathic characteristics across sex and racial/ethnic groups. Among a community sample of Hispanic and Black adolescents (N = 355; 50.5% female; mean age = 15.09) and their parents, this study tested the configural and metric invariance of the Levenson Self-Report Psychopathy Scale (LSRP; Levenson, Fitzpatrick, & Kiehl, 1995) and the parent-report version of the Inventory of Callous-Unemotional Traits (Frick, 2004). Preliminary analyses indicated that the adolescents in the present study reported similar rates of psychopathic characteristics as those reported by other studies of adolescents and young adults. Results of the multigroup invariance analyses indicated that these measures are invariant across sex and between Hispanic and Black youth. In addition, further analyses assessing associations between these measures and a number of behavioral and emotional characteristics indicated that scores on the LSRP Scale and Callous-Unemotional Traits demonstrate good convergent and discriminant validity with few differences by sex or race/ethnicity. To date, research on psychopathy has focused predominantly on samples of White males. Therefore, it is important that research examines the equivalence of measures of psychopathic characteristics across different populations, so that accurate assessments can be made to inform intervention and treatment efforts. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:25383582

  12. Sex differences in [123I]beta-CIT SPECT measures of dopamine and serotonin transporter availability in healthy smokers and nonsmokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staley, J K; Krishnan-Sarin, S; Zoghbi, S; Tamagnan, G; Fujita, M; Seibyl, J P; Maciejewski, P K; O'Malley, S; Innis, R B

    2001-09-15

    Nicotine and other constituents of tobacco smoke elevate dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT) levels in brain and may cause homeostatic adaptations in DA and 5-HT transporters. Since sex steroids alter DA and 5-HT transporter expression, the effects of smoking on DA and 5-HT transporter availability may differ between sexes. In the present study, DA and 5-HT transporter availabilities were quantitated using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging approximately 22 h after bolus administration of [123I]beta-CIT, an analog of cocaine which labels DA and 5-HT transporters. Forty-two subjects including 21 pairs of age-, race-, and gender-matched healthy smokers and nonsmokers (12 female and 9 male pairs) were imaged. Regional uptake was assessed by the outcome measures, V3", which is the ratio of specific (i.e., ROI-cerebellar activity) to nondisplaceable (cerebellar) activity, and V3, the ratio of specific to free plasma parent. Overall, striatal and diencephalic [123I]beta-CIT uptake was not altered by smoking, whereas brainstem [123I]beta-CIT uptake was modestly higher (10%) in smokers vs. nonsmokers. When subgrouped by sex, regardless of smoking status, [123I]beta-CIT uptake was higher in the striatum (10%), diencephalon (15%), and brainstem (15%) in females vs. males. The sex*smoking interaction was not significant in the striatum, diencephalon, or brainstem, despite the observation of 20% higher brainstem [123I]beta-CIT uptake in male smokers vs. nonsmokers and less than a 5% difference between female smokers and nonsmokers. The results demonstrate higher DA and 5-HT transporter availability in females vs. males and no overall effect of smoking with the exception of a modest elevation in brainstem 5-HT transporters in male smokers. Although these findings are preliminary and need validation with a more selective 5-HT transporter radiotracer, the results suggest that brainstem 5-HT transporters may be regulated by smoking in a sex-specific manner. PMID:11494398

  13. Steroids in childhood epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramachandrannair Rajesh

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of epileptic encephalopathies can be very challenging as most anticonvulsant drugs fail to achieve good seizure control. Steroids are disease modifying as well as anticonvulsant in these conditions. Though steroids are accepted as the first-line treatment for infantile spasms, there are many unanswered questions with regard to the preparation, dose and duration of treatment. In this review a re-exploration of the literature is attempted. Putative mechanism of action of steroids in infantile spasms is also discussed. As steroids are being increasingly used in other epileptic encephalopathies and Rasmussen?s encephalitis, a brief discussion on the role of steroids in these conditions is attempted. The review ends with the discussion on newer neuroactive steroids in the management of epilepsy.

  14. The alteration of the urinary steroid profile under the stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Gronowska

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In the second part of twentieth century anabolic-androgenic steroids were introduced into doping practice and received continuously increasing significance. In order to prove the usage of doping substances, the determination of steroid profile in the urine came into practice. Several factors may be responsible for alterations in the normal steroid profile for example age, sex and diet. The aim of this study was to find out, whether the psychological stress may cause modifications in the steroid profile and T/Et ratio. The effect of physical activity was also considered. The steroid profile was determined in the group of 34 students being in non-stress conditions and under stress immediately before an important university exam. The intensity of stress was rated by self-reported questionnaire. The GC/MS method was applied to determine the steroid profile in the urine samples. The results of the experiment have shown that psychological stress may cause significant changes in the steroid profile, especially in females. Physical activity, independently of stress significantly modified the steroid profile. In summary, observed changes in steroid profile suggest, that major fluctuations of T/Et and A/E ratios under the influence of stressogenic factors and physical activity are unlikely.

  15. Conceptualization and measurement of homosexuality in sex surveys: a critical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaels Stuart

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews major national population sex surveys that have asked questions about homosexuality focusing on conceptual and methodological issues, including the definitions of sex, the measured aspects of homosexuality, sampling and interviewing technique, and questionnaire design. Reported rates of major measures of same-sex attraction, behavior, partners, and sexual identity from surveys are also presented and compared. The study of homosexuality in surveys has been shaped by the research traditions and questions ranging from sexology to the epidemiology of HIV/AIDS. Sexual behavior has been a central topic at least since Kinsey. Issues of sexual attraction and/or orientation and sexual identity have emerged more recently. Differences in the treatment of men and women in the design and analysis of surveys as well as in the reported rates in different surveys, in different countries and time periods are also presented and discussed. We point out the importance of the consideration of both methodological and social change issues in assessing such differences.

  16. Sex identification on the basis of hand and foot measurements in Indo-Mauritian population--a model based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jowaheer, Vandna; Agnihotri, Arun Kumar

    2011-05-01

    Identification is the foremost issue in crime investigation. A few studies have been performed so far in order to identify sex on the basis of single foot or hand of the victim. Moreover, these studies provide only crude measures to indicate sex and there exists no concrete methodology to predict sex using the available information. In the present paper, we have developed statistical models to identify sex based on the dimensions of foot and hand. The models containing both length and breadth of hand or foot as independent variables are capable of predicting sex in Indo-Mauritian population with fairly high accuracy as compared to those containing hand or foot indices. PMID:21550567

  17. Age- and sex-related changes in bone mass measured by neutron activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Total-body calcium (TBCa) measurements have been employed in two basic types of studies. In the first type, serial measurements made on an individual patient are used to trace the time variation in body calcium. In the second type of study, the absolute total body calcium of an individual is determined and compared to a standard or predicted value in order to determine the deficit or excess of calcium. Generally, the standards are derived from data obtained from normal populations and grouped by the parameters of age and sex (mean value denoted TBCa/sub m/). In the study reported in this paper, the clinical usefulness of predicted calcium (TBCa/sub p/) is evaluated. The predicted value (TBCa/sub p/) for an individual is obtained with an algorithm utilizing values of sex and age, height and lean body mass (as derived from 40K measurement). The latter two components characterize skeletal size and body habitus, respectively. For the study, 133 white women and 71 white men ranging in age from 20 to 80 years were selected from a larger population. Individuals with evidence of metabolic calcium disorders or osteoporosis were excluded. Additionally, the women and men selected were first judged to have total body potassium levels in the normal range. For each age decade, the variance of TBCa values of these individuals, when expressed in terms of TBCa/sub p/, was significantly less than when expressed in terms of TBCa/sub m/. Thus, erroneous conclusions based on Ca deficit in osteoporosis could be drawn for individuals whose height and body size differ markedly from the average, as the variation of their TBCa values often exceeds the variation in the age and sex cohort. Data on a group of osteoporotic women were compared with the normal skeletal baseline values both in terms of the TBCa and the TBCa/sub p/ values

  18. Age- and sex-related changes in bone mass measured by neutron activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohn, S.H.; Aloia, J.F.; Vaswani, A.N.; Zanzi, I.; Vartsky, D.; Ellis, K.J.

    1981-01-01

    Total-body calcium (TBCa) measurements have been employed in two basic types of studies. In the first type, serial measurements made on an individual patient are used to trace the time variation in body calcium. In the second type of study, the absolute total body calcium of an individual is determined and compared to a standard or predicted value in order to determine the deficit or excess of calcium. Generally, the standards are derived from data obtained from normal populations and grouped by the parameters of age and sex (mean value denoted TBCa/sub m/). In the study reported in this paper, the clinical usefulness of predicted calcium (TBCa/sub p/) is evaluated. The predicted value (TBCa/sub p/) for an individual is obtained with an algorithm utilizing values of sex and age, height and lean body mass (as derived from /sup 40/K measurement). The latter two components characterize skeletal size and body habitus, respectively. For the study, 133 white women and 71 white men ranging in age from 20 to 80 years were selected from a larger population. Individuals with evidence of metabolic calcium disorders or osteoporosis were excluded. Additionally, the women and men selected were first judged to have total body potassium levels in the normal range. For each age decade, the variance of TBCa values of these individuals, when expressed in terms of TBCa/sub p/, was significantly less than when expressed in terms of TBCa/sub m/. Thus, erroneous conclusions based on Ca deficit in osteoporosis could be drawn for individuals whose height and body size differ markedly from the average, as the variation of their TBCa values often exceeds the variation in the age and sex cohort. Data on a group of osteoporotic women were compared with the normal skeletal baseline values both in terms of the TBCa and the TBCa/sub p/ values.

  19. [Steroid induced glaucoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapir-Pichhadze, Ruth; Blumenthal, Eytan Z

    2003-02-01

    Steroid treatment has gained notoriety due to its tendency to induce multiple side effects, including a variety of ocular side effects. Administration of local, regional, inhalation or systemic steroids may induce the development of ocular hypertension, which might even result in subsequent open angle glaucoma. About one in every three people is considered a potential "steroid responder". A significant elevation of intraocular pressure might result in these patients in response to steroid treatment. Included in this group are patients with first degree relatives suffering from open angle glaucoma. Morphologic changes in the trabecular meshwork (which serves as the site of aqueous humor drainage from the eye) are suggested as the proposed mechanism through which steroid treatment results in glaucoma. Steroids are said to induce the expression of a gene that is located on chromosome 1 and is known as TIGR or GLCIA. its product is a protein called myocilin. Ocular hypertension secondary to steroid treatment is usually reversible, when treatment is limited to a period of less than 12 months. The fear of ocular hypertension, which is usually unnoticed by the patient, obligates regular ophthalmologic follow-up examinations, including tonometry, visual fields and optic disc examinations. PMID:12653048

  20. When Public Protection becomes Punishment? – The UK Use of Civil Measures to Contain Sex Offender

    OpenAIRE

    Terry Thomas

    2006-01-01

    The last ten years has witnessed an increased use of the civil law in the UK to contain and incapacitate the sex offender. These measures have been introduced to improve community safety and public protection, as the criminal law seeks to punish and condemn. This paper explores the contention that the civil and criminal law are in danger of becoming confused and the line between the two becoming blurred. At worst the civil law is in danger of becoming a form of criminal punishment in its own ...

  1. Motor function measure scale, steroid therapy and patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy / Medida de função motora, corticoterapia e pacientes com distrofia muscular de Duchenne

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Elaine C. da, Silva; Darlene L., Machado; Maria B. D., Resende; Renata F., Silva; Edmar, Zanoteli; Umbertina C., Reed.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a evolução da função motora de pacientes com distrofia muscular de Duchenne (DMD) em corticoterapia (predinisolona e deflazacort), por meio da escala Medida da Função Motora (MFM), que avalia três dimensões de funções motoras (D1, D2, D3). MÉTODOS: Trinta e três pacientes com DMD ( [...] 22 deambulantes, seis cadeirantes e cinco que perderam a capacidade de andar ao longo do estudo) foram avaliados pela escala MFM em seis momentos durante 18 meses. RESULTADOS: Todas as funções motoras mantiveram-se estáveis durante 14 meses, exceto D1 para os pacientes que perderam a marcha. Nos pacientes deambulantes, a D2 (função motora axial e proximal) apresentou melhora durante seis meses. Melhora em D3 (função motora distal) também foi observada durante o seguimento. A D1 (postura em pé e transferências) e o escore total foram importantes para predizer a perda de marcha. CONCLUSÕES: O uso da MFM nos pacientes com DMD confirma os benefícios do tratamento com corticoides na diminuição da velocidade de progressão da doença. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To assess the evolution of motor function in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) treated with steroids (prednisolone or deflazacort) through the Motor Function Measure (MFM), which evaluates three dimensions of motor performance (D1, D2, D3). METHODS: Thirty-three patients wit [...] h DMD (22 ambulant, 6 non-ambulant and 5 who lost the capacity to walk during the period of the study) were assessed using the MFM scale six times over a period of 18 months. RESULTS: All the motor functions remained stable for 14 months in all patients, except D1 for those who lost their walking ability. In ambulant patients, D2 (axial and proximal motor capacities) motor functions improved during six months; an improvement in D3 (distal motor capacity) was noted during the total follow-up. D1 (standing posture and transfers) and total score were useful to predict the loss of the ability to walk. CONCLUSIONS: The use of the MFM in DMD patients confirms the benefits of the steroid treatment for slowing the progression of the disease.

  2. Motor function measure scale, steroid therapy and patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy Medida de função motora, corticoterapia e pacientes com distrofia muscular de Duchenne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine C. da Silva

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the evolution of motor function in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD treated with steroids (prednisolone or deflazacort through the Motor Function Measure (MFM, which evaluates three dimensions of motor performance (D1, D2, D3. METHODS: Thirty-three patients with DMD (22 ambulant, 6 non-ambulant and 5 who lost the capacity to walk during the period of the study were assessed using the MFM scale six times over a period of 18 months. RESULTS: All the motor functions remained stable for 14 months in all patients, except D1 for those who lost their walking ability. In ambulant patients, D2 (axial and proximal motor capacities motor functions improved during six months; an improvement in D3 (distal motor capacity was noted during the total follow-up. D1 (standing posture and transfers and total score were useful to predict the loss of the ability to walk. CONCLUSIONS: The use of the MFM in DMD patients confirms the benefits of the steroid treatment for slowing the progression of the disease.OBJETIVO: Avaliar a evolução da função motora de pacientes com distrofia muscular de Duchenne (DMD em corticoterapia (predinisolona e deflazacort, por meio da escala Medida da Função Motora (MFM, que avalia três dimensões de funções motoras (D1, D2, D3. MÉTODOS: Trinta e três pacientes com DMD (22 deambulantes, seis cadeirantes e cinco que perderam a capacidade de andar ao longo do estudo foram avaliados pela escala MFM em seis momentos durante 18 meses. RESULTADOS: Todas as funções motoras mantiveram-se estáveis durante 14 meses, exceto D1 para os pacientes que perderam a marcha. Nos pacientes deambulantes, a D2 (função motora axial e proximal apresentou melhora durante seis meses. Melhora em D3 (função motora distal também foi observada durante o seguimento. A D1 (postura em pé e transferências e o escore total foram importantes para predizer a perda de marcha. CONCLUSÕES: O uso da MFM nos pacientes com DMD confirma os benefícios do tratamento com corticoides na diminuição da velocidade de progressão da doença.

  3. Measurement, methods, and divergent patterns: Reassessing the effects of same-sex parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Simon; Powell, Brian

    2015-07-01

    Scholars have noted that survey analysis of small subsamples-for example, same-sex parent families-is sensitive to researchers' analytical decisions, and even small differences in coding can profoundly shape empirical patterns. As an illustration, we reassess the findings of a recent article by Regnerus regarding the implications of being raised by gay and lesbian parents. Taking a close look at the New Family Structures Study (NFSS), we demonstrate the potential for misclassifying a non-negligible number of respondents as having been raised by parents who had a same-sex romantic relationship. We assess the implications of these possible misclassifications, along with other methodological considerations, by reanalyzing the NFSS in seven steps. The reanalysis offers evidence that the empirical patterns showcased in the original Regnerus article are fragile-so fragile that they appear largely a function of these possible misclassifications and other methodological choices. Our replication and reanalysis of Regnerus's study offer a cautionary illustration of the importance of double checking and critically assessing the implications of measurement and other methodological decisions in our and others' research. PMID:26004484

  4. Pharmacology of anabolic steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kicman, A T

    2008-06-01

    Athletes and bodybuilders have recognized for several decades that the use of anabolic steroids can promote muscle growth and strength but it is only relatively recently that these agents are being revisited for clinical purposes. Anabolic steroids are being considered for the treatment of cachexia associated with chronic disease states, and to address loss of muscle mass in the elderly, but nevertheless their efficacy still needs to be demonstrated in terms of improved physical function and quality of life. In sport, these agents are performance enhancers, this being particularly apparent in women, although there is a high risk of virilization despite the favourable myotrophic-androgenic dissociation that many xenobiotic steroids confer. Modulation of androgen receptor expression appears to be key to partial dissociation, with consideration of both intracellular steroid metabolism and the topology of the bound androgen receptor interacting with co-activators. An anticatabolic effect, by interfering with glucocorticoid receptor expression, remains an attractive hypothesis. Behavioural changes by non-genomic and genomic pathways probably help motivate training. Anabolic steroids continue to be the most common adverse finding in sport and, although apparently rare, designer steroids have been synthesized in an attempt to circumvent the dope test. Doping with anabolic steroids can result in damage to health, as recorded meticulously in the former German Democratic Republic. Even so, it is important not to exaggerate the medical risks associated with their administration for sporting or bodybuilding purposes but to emphasize to users that an attitude of personal invulnerability to their adverse effects is certainly misguided. PMID:18500378

  5. The sex difference of plasma homovanillic acid is unaffected by cross-sex hormone administration in transsexual subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Giltay, E. J.; Kho, King H.; Blansjaar, B. A.; Verbeek, M. M.; Geurtz, P. B. H.; Geleijnse, J. M.

    2005-01-01

    There is a close relationship between the brain and the endocrine system. The brain expresses receptors for sex steroids and is capable of metabolizing these hormones. We explored (1) sex differences in homovanillic acid (HVA), a metabolite of the neurotransmitter dopamine, and (2) the effects of cross-sex steroid administration in transsexual subjects. First, we compared plasma HVA levels between 38 male and 34 female healthy volunteers (not using hormone replacement therapy) of a mean age o...

  6. When Public Protection becomes Punishment? – The UK Use of Civil Measures to Contain Sex Offender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry Thomas

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available The last ten years has witnessed an increased use of the civil law in the UK to contain and incapacitate the sex offender. These measures have been introduced to improve community safety and public protection, as the criminal law seeks to punish and condemn. This paper explores the contention that the civil and criminal law are in danger of becoming confused and the line between the two becoming blurred. At worst the civil law is in danger of becoming a form of criminal punishment in its own right and those charged with implementing it, in danger of getting their roles confused. What starts out as a civil regulatory or administrative arrangement for public safety becomes increasingly obstructive, has ‘gate-ways’ to criminal proceedings and is implemented in a punitive fashion.

  7. Problems of Birds Sex Determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonina V. Trukhina

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Sex determination system in birds is characterized by a homo-(Neognatae and heteromorphic (Paleognatae sex chromosomes. Heterogametic sex is female (ZZ/ZW system. DMRT1 gene is a gene regarded as a main male sex determining factor in this group of animals. The question remains about the participation of other factors (HEMOGEN, AMH etc. in appearance of testis, and the role of steroid hormones in formation of ovaries. Complete sex inversion is not typical for species with genotypic sex determination (GSD, although the effect of estrogen metabolites is noted for birds. For birds epigenetic mechanisms of regulation (methylation of DNA and non-coding RNA have been described for sex controlling genes such as CYP19A1 and DMRT1.

  8. Ultraviolet-induced cutaneous hyperemia and steroid-induced cutaneous hypoemia measured by 133Xe disappearance in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    133Xe disappearance rates in dog skin were determined by injection of 100 ?c 133Xe dissolved in 0.025 ml physiologic saline solution into the skin with a 30-gauge needle and external detection of gamma radiation with a 2-inch sodium iodide crystal, photomultiplier, rate meter, and timer-scaler system. Skin temperature was measured by a thermistor. Skin blood flow was manipulated by the topical application of fluocinolone acetonide and by ultraviolet radiation. Fluocinolone acetonide caused significant reduction of skin blood flow, and ultraviolet irradiation caused significant increase in skin blood flow

  9. HPLC of Steroids.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dinan, L.; Harmatha, Juraj; Lafont, R.

    Boca Raton : CRC Press, 2010, s. 679-708 ISBN 9781420092608. - (Chromatographic Science Series. 102) Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : HPLC * sterols * ecdysteroids * steroidal saponins Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry http://www.crcpress.com/product/isbn/9781420092608

  10. Measuring DHEA-S in saliva: time of day differences and positive correlations between two different types of collection methods

    OpenAIRE

    Klein Laura C; Whetzel Courtney A

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background The anabolic steroid, dehydroepiandosterone sulfate (DHEA-S), is secreted from the adrenal cortex. It plays a significant role in the body as a precursor to sex steroids as well as a lesser known role in the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis (HPA) response to stress. DHEA-S can be measured reliably in saliva, making saliva collection a valuable tool for health research because it minimizes the need for invasive sampling procedures (e.g., blood draws). Typical saliva coll...

  11. Dimorfismo sexual inmunitario: ¿pueden los esteroides sexuales polarizar el perfil de citocinas Th1/Th2? / Immune sexual dimorphism: Can sex steroids affect the Thl/Th2 cytokine profile?

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marco A, De León-Nava; Jorge, Morales-Montor.

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available La secreción de citocinas es uno de los aspectos más importantes en la modulación de la respuesta inmune. El patrón de secreción de estas moléculas determina el tipo de respuesta inmune que confrontará a un antígeno particular. Ésta puede ser al menos de dos tipos: la respuesta Th1 (encargada princi [...] palmente de controlar patógenos intracelulares) y la respuesta Th2 (involucrada en el control de patógenos extracelulares). Existe una autorregulación del balance del tipo de respuesta Th1/Th2 por mecanismos inmunológicos que pueden afectar la expresión de estas proteínas, pero poco se sabe con respecto al papel de otros protagonistas de la fisiología de los mamíferos. En esta revisión se discuten los trabajos referentes al efecto de los esteroides sexuales en la regulación de la secreción de citocinas Th1/Th2 por parte de células del sistema inmune. Las evidencias indican que las citocinas y los esteroides constituyen un lenguaje químico común para el funcionamiento balanceado de los sistemas inmune y endocrino. La alteración de la delicada comunicación entre estos sistemas puede explicar diversas patologías en que existe susceptibilidad asociada al sexo, y en las que los esteroides sexuales son factores clave. Abstract in english Cytokine secretion is a crucial aspect in immune system modulation. The secretion pattern of these molecules determines the immune response type that will confront a particular antigen, and this pattern can be at least of two types. A Thl pattern, effective to eliminate mainly intracellular pathogen [...] s and a Th2 pattern, crucial to eradicate extra cellular pathogens. There are many immunological factors that affect expression of these proteins and auto regulate the Th1/Th2 balance, but there are few evidences about effect of other protagonists of mammals physiology. This review focuses on the regulation of the Th1/Th2 cytokine secretion pattern of immune cells by sexual steroids. The evidences indicate that cytokines and steroids form a common chemical language effective to keep the balance between immune and endocrine systems. Alterations of this delicate network can explain different pathologies where gender-associated differences exist and where sexual steroids are crucial factors.

  12. Steroid levels and steroid metabolism in relation to early gonadal development in the tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (Teleostei: cyprinoidei).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, G A; Boots, L R; Wibbels, T; Watts, S A

    1999-05-01

    Sex steroid levels and steroid metabolism were investigated in relation to early gonadal development in a mixed sex population of the tilapia Oreochromis niloticus. Androstenedione (AD), testosterone (T), 11-ketotestosterone (KT), and estradiol (E2) were quantified by radioimmunoassay (RIA) of whole body extracts. Androstenedione metabolism was assessed by incubations in vitro with 3H-AD and metabolites were identified by thin-layer chromatography coupled with radioisotope image analysis. Histology revealed the presence of gonadal structures at 15 days postfertilization (dpf) and ovaries at 36 dpf, with other individuals exhibiting undifferentiated gonads containing germinal cells, presumably eventual testes. Androgen levels were initially high in eggs then decreased severalfold prior to the emergence of gonads. A transient increase in the levels of T and KT occurred at 22 dpf. Levels of E2 were either low or undetectable except for a transient increase (43 dpf) after ovaries were present. Levels of T approached bimodality from 57 to 64 dpf. Steroid metabolism generally increased throughout development. Metabolites were generally similar, consisting of T predominantly as well as 5beta-reduced androgen derivatives and 11-oyxgenated derivatives. Estriol was tentatively identified. Conjugated steroids were not formed. Two types of steroid metabolic profiles occurred at 50 dpf. These results demonstrate that changes in the steroidogenic profile occur during early transitions of gonadal development. Notably, (1) steroid biosynthetic capacity preceeds gonadal differentiation, (2) evidence for estrogens occurs after ovarian development has begun, and (3) bimodality of levels of T and differential steroid metabolism later in development may reflect the onset of sexual divergence. PMID:10208772

  13. Sex differences on a measure of conformity in automated teller machine lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reysen, Stephen; Reysen, Matthew B

    2004-10-01

    Sex differences in conformity were examined as participants approached two ATMs, one of which was occupied by three confederates and the other immediately available. The number of men and women in the line in front of one of the ATMs was manipulated (3 men or 3 women), and an unobtrusive observer recorded the sex of each participant. The results indicated that women were more likely than men to wait in line to use the ATM regardless of the makeup of the line. Thus, the present study provides evidence in favor of the idea that sex differences in conformity are evident on a common task performed in a natural setting. PMID:15587205

  14. Regulation of brain microglia by female gonadal steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Pardes; Beyer, Cordian

    2015-02-01

    Microglial cells are the primary mediators of the CNS immune defense system and crucial for shaping inflammatory responses. They represent a highly dynamic cell population which is constantly moving and surveying their environment. Acute brain damage causes a local attraction and activation of this immune cell type which involves neuron-to-glia and glia-to-glia interactions. The prevailing view attributes microglia a "negative" role such as defense and debris elimination. More topical studies also suggest a protective and "positive" regulatory function. Estrogens and progestins exert anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects in the CNS in acute and chronic brain diseases. Recent work revealed that microglial cells express subsets of classical and non-classical estrogen and progesterone receptors in a highly dynamic way. In this review article, we would like to stress the importance of microglia for the spreading of neural damage during hypoxia, their susceptibility to functional modulation by sex steroids, the potency of sex hormones to switch microglia from a pro-inflammatory M1 to neuroprotective M2 phenotype, and the regulation of pro- and anti-inflammatory properties including the inflammasome. We will further discuss the possibility that the neuroprotective action of sex steroids in the brain involves an early and direct modulation of local microglia cell function. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Sex steroids and brain disorders'. PMID:24607811

  15. Does the mechanism of sex determination constrain the potential for sex manipulation? A test in geckos with contrasting sex-determining systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratochvíl, Lukáš; Kubi?ka, Lukáš; Landová, Eva

    2008-03-01

    The concentration of yolk steroids was suggested to influence offspring gender in oviparous animals subject to both temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD) and genotypic sex determination (GSD). However, the proposed mechanisms of steroid effects are thought to differ between TSD and GSD: a direct effect of oestrogens on gonad feminisation in TSD species vs a differential induction of male-producing or female-producing gametes in GSD species. Geckos offer an ideal opportunity for testing these suggested mechanisms. Closely related gecko species differ in their modes of sex determination. They lay clutches of two synchronously formed eggs; both eggs share equal steroid levels. If identical hormonal composition and environment during vitellogenesis, gravidity and incubation determine the sex of the progeny, siblings should share the same gender in both TSD and GSD geckos. We found strong support for this prediction in a TSD gecko species. Among clutches that were incubated at the temperature that produced both sexes, there were no clutches with siblings of the opposite sex. On the other hand, about half of the clutches yielded siblings of the opposite sex in four GSD species. These results suggest that sex-determining systems constrain the ability of the female to produce single-sex siblings and, hence, it seems that the GSD mechanism constrains the opportunities for sex ratio manipulation in geckos via yolk steroid manipulation.

  16. Self-reported Sex Partner Dates for Use in Measuring Concurrent Sexual Partnerships: Correspondence Between Two Assessment Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Claire E; Cassels, Susan L; Winer, Rachel L

    2015-05-01

    Although prevalence of concurrent sexual partnerships is increasingly investigated as a driver of HIV epidemics, its measurement varies and its role in transmission dynamics remains contested. Relying on different methods of obtaining self-reported partnership histories may lead to significant differences in prevalence. This study examined the reliability of two methods for assessing dates of sex and the implications for measuring concurrent sexual partnerships. We conducted a cross-sectional reliability study using self-reported survey data from 650 women ages 18-65 years, recruited online nationwide for human papillomavirus natural history studies from 2007 to 2012. Intermethod reliability of first and last sex with the most recent partner was assessed using weighted kappa. Intraclass correlation coefficient was estimated for intramethod reliability across two consecutive questionnaires administered 4 months apart. Point prevalence of concurrent sexual partnerships at 6 months prior to the questionnaire date was similar between the two question formats (10.5 % for categorical and 10.9 % for continuous). The range between the minimum and maximum cumulative prevalence for 12 months was larger when using the categorical questions (17.0-29.6 % compared to 27.6-28.6 % using the continuous questions). Agreement between the two question formats was moderate for the date of first sex with the most recent partner (? = 0.56, 95 % CI 0.48-0.64) and almost perfect for the date of last sex (? = 0.93, 95 % CI 0.91-0.94). Longitudinal agreement for date of first sex was high for the continuous date question (ICC = 0.89, 95 % CI 0.86-0.92). Results of this reliability study can be used to inform the design of future studies of concurrent sexual partnerships and their association with HIV. PMID:25391584

  17. Age- and sex-dependent regression models for predicting the live weight of West African Dwarf goat from body measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowande, O S; Oyewale, B F; Iyasere, O S

    2010-06-01

    The relationships between live weight and eight body measurements of West African Dwarf (WAD) goats were studied using 211 animals under farm condition. The animals were categorized based on age and sex. Data obtained on height at withers (HW), heart girth (HG), body length (BL), head length (HL), and length of hindquarter (LHQ) were fitted into simple linear, allometric, and multiple-regression models to predict live weight from the body measurements according to age group and sex. Results showed that live weight, HG, BL, LHQ, HL, and HW increased with the age of the animals. In multiple-regression model, HG and HL best fit the model for goat kids; HG, HW, and HL for goat aged 13-24 months; while HG, LHQ, HW, and HL best fit the model for goats aged 25-36 months. Coefficients of determination (R(2)) values for linear and allometric models for predicting the live weight of WAD goat increased with age in all the body measurements, with HG being the most satisfactory single measurement in predicting the live weight of WAD goat. Sex had significant influence on the model with R(2) values consistently higher in females except the models for LHQ and HW. PMID:20012193

  18. Topical Steroid-Damaged Skin

    OpenAIRE

    Abraham, Anil; Roga, Gillian

    2014-01-01

    Topical steroids, commonly used for a wide range of skin disorders, are associated with side effects both systemic and cutaneous. This article aims at bringing awareness among practitioners, about the cutaneous side effects of easily available, over the counter, topical steroids. This makes it important for us as dermatologists to weigh the usefulness of topical steroids versus their side effects, and to make an informed decision regarding their use in each individual based on other factors s...

  19. Reactive Arrays of Colorimetric Sensors for Metabolite and Steroid Identification

    OpenAIRE

    Gary Batres; Talia Jones; Hannah Johnke; Mark Wilson; Holmes, Andrea E.; Sharmin Sikich

    2014-01-01

    The work described herein examines a rapid mix-and-measure method called DETECHIP suitable for screening of steroids and metabolites. The addition of steroids and metabolites to reactive arrays of colorimetric sensors generated characteristic color “fingerprints” that were used to identify the analyte. A color analysis tool was used to identify the analyte pool that now includes biologically relevant analytes. The mix-and-measure arrays allowed the detection of disease metabolites, o...

  20. Age and Sex Differences in Controlled Force Exertion Measured by a Computing Bar Chart Target-Pursuit System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagasawa, Yoshinori; Demura, Shinichi

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the age and sex differences in controlled force exertion measured by the bar chart display in 207 males (age 42.1 [plus or minus] 19.8 years) and 249 females (age 41.7 [plus or minus] 19.1 years) aged 15 to 86 years. The subjects matched their submaximal grip strength to changing demand values, which appeared as a…

  1. Steroid hormone measurements from different types of assays in relation to body mass index and breast cancer risk in postmenopausal women: Reanalysis of eighteen prospective studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Epidemiological studies have examined breast cancer risk in relation to sex hormone concentrations measured by different methods: "extraction" immunoassays (with prior purification by organic solvent extraction, with or without column chromatography), "direct" immunoassays (no prior extraction or column chromatography), and more recently with mass spectrometry-based assays. We describe the associations of estradiol, estrone and testosterone with both body mass index and breast cancer risk in postmenopausal women according to assay method, using data from a collaborative pooled analysis of 18 prospective studies. In general, hormone concentrations were highest in studies that used direct assays and lowest in studies that used mass spectrometry-based assays. Estradiol and estrone were strongly positively associated with body mass index, regardless of the assay method; testosterone was positively associated with body mass index for direct assays, but less clearly for extraction assays, and there were few data for mass spectrometry assays. The correlations of estradiol with body mass index, estrone and testosterone were lower for direct assays than for extraction and mass spectrometry assays, suggesting that the estimates from the direct assays were less precise. For breast cancer risk, all three hormones were strongly positively associated with risk regardless of assay method (except for testosterone by mass spectrometry where there were few data), with no statistically significant differences in the trends, but differences may emerge as new data accumulate. Future epidemiological and clinical research studies should continue to use the most accurate assays that are feasible within the design characteristics of each study. PMID:25304359

  2. Adrenal-kidney and gonadal steroidogenesis during sexual differentiation of a reptile with temperature-dependent sex determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, R B; Thomas, P

    1992-10-01

    Adrenal-kidney and gonadal steroidogenesis were studied during early development in the red-eared slider turtle, Trachemys scripta, which exhibits temperature-dependent sex determination. In vitro steroid secretion by adrenal-kidney-gonad complexes (AKGs) incubated for 6 hr was determined by radioimmunoassay (RIA). AKGs from presumptive males and females secreted progesterone at developmental stages before (stage 15), during (stages 17 and 19), and after (stage 21) the temperature-sensitive period for sex determination, and progesterone secretion increased significantly throughout the period from stage 15 to 21. Presumptive male AKGs secreted significantly more progesterone than female AKGs at stage 19. Corticosterone secretion by AKGs was observed at stage 17 in males only, but in both sexes at stages 19 and 21. Testosterone, estradiol, androstenedione, and dehydroepiandrosterone secretion by AKGs was detected only at stage 21. Of the steroids measured, progesterone and corticosterone were consistently secreted at the highest levels. Although some sex differences were observed, no obvious patterns of sexually dimorphic steroid secretion from AKGs were apparent. Gonads from stage 21, stage 24, and 10-day-old hatchlings from both presumptive sexes incubated with [7-3H]pregnenolone showed only weak precursor conversion, primarily to polar metabolites, in incubations as long as 24 hr. None of the steroids assessed by RIA of AKG incubates could be identified by TLC or HPLC analysis of the stage 21 and stage 24 gonadal incubates. However, progesterone was tentatively identified in incubates of 10-day post-hatch female gonads. For stage 21 females, AKGs were separated into gonadal and adrenal-kidney tissue (AK) components and incubated in vitro for 1, 3, and 18 hr.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1426953

  3. How to Stop Steroid Medicines Safely

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pills, sprays or creams, your body may stop making its own steroids. If you have been taking steroids for ... months. While your body is getting used to making its own steroids, you may feel dizzy, lightheaded, tired, have ...

  4. Physicochemical and biological properties of new steroid metal complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this investigation was to prepare stable steroid metal chelates by chemical conversion of the natural steroid hormones testerone, 5?-dihydrotestosterone (5?-DHT) and estradiol and to characterize these by means of their spectroscopic and other physico-chemical properties. In addition, various measuring techniques for the qualitative and quantitative study of complex stabilities and hydrolytic properties were employed. The distribution of some tritiated steroid metal complexes in the tissues of rats was tested using whole animal autoradiography, mainly with a view to identifying whether selective concentration occurs in certain organs. (orig.)

  5. Synaptocrine Signaling: Steroid Synthesis and Action at the Synapse

    OpenAIRE

    Saldanha, Colin J.; Remage-healey, Luke; Schlinger, Barney A.

    2011-01-01

    Sex steroids have long been recognized for their dramatic impact on brain and behavior, including rapid modulation of membrane excitability. It is a widely held perception that these molecules are largely derived from peripheral sources and lack the spatial and temporal specificity ascribed to classical neuromodulatory systems. Neuromodulatory systems, in contrast, are defined by their regulated neuronal presynaptic secretion and by their functional modulation of perisynaptic events. Here we ...

  6. Sex and gender in psychoneuroimmunology research: Past, present and future

    OpenAIRE

    Darnall, Beth D; Suarez, Edward C.

    2009-01-01

    To date, research suggests that sex and gender impact pathways central to the foci of psychoneuroimmunology (PNI). This review provides a historical perspective on the evolution of sex and gender in psychoneuroimmunology research. Gender and sexually dimorphic pathways may have synergistic effects on health differences in men and women. We provide an overview of the literature of sex and gender differences in brain structure and function, sex steroids, gender role identification, hypothalamic...

  7. Sexing monomorphic western mountain greenbuls on Mount Cameroon using morphometric measurements.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Djomo Nana, E.; Munclinger, P.; Ferenc, M.; Sedlá?ek, O.; Albrecht, Tomáš; Ho?ák, D.

    2014-01-01

    Ro?. 49, ?. 2 (2014), s. 247-252. ISSN 1562-7020 R&D Projects: GA ?R(CZ) GAP505/11/1617 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : morphology * Andropadus tephrolaemus * sex ratio * discriminant function analysis * tropical Africa Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.612, year: 2014

  8. Indianness, Sex, and Grade Differences on Behavior and Personality Measures Among Oglala Sioux Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cress, Joseph N.; O'Donnell, James P.

    1974-01-01

    This study assesses Indianness (mixed or full-blood), sex, and grade differences among Oglala Sioux high school students, using the Coopersmith Behavior Rating Forms and the Quay-Peterson Behavior Problem Checklist. Results indicate that mixed-bloods had higher achievement and greater popularity than full-bloods. Fewer problems and higher…

  9. Steroid hormones and BDNF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pluchino, N; Russo, M; Santoro, A N; Litta, P; Cela, V; Genazzani, A R

    2013-06-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a neurotrophin abundantly expressed in several areas of the central nervous system (CNS) and is known to induce a lasting potentiation of synaptic efficacy, to enhance specific learning and memory processes. BDNF is one of the key molecules modulating brain plasticity and it affects cognitive deficit associated with aging and neurodegenerative disease. Several studies have shown an altered BDNF production and secretion in a variety of neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases but also in mood disorders like depression, eating disorders and schizophrenia. Plasma BDNF is also a biomarker of impaired memory and general cognitive function in aging women. Gonadal steroids are involved in the regulation of several CNS processes, specifically mood, affective and cognitive functions during fertile life and reproductive aging. These observations lead many scientists to investigate a putative co-regulation between BDNF and gonadal and/or adrenal steroids and their relationship with gender difference in the incidence of mental diseases. This overview aims to summarize the current knowledge on the correlation between BDNF expression/function and both gonadal (progesterone, estrogens, and testosterone) and adrenal hormones (mainly cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA)) with relevance in clinical application. PMID:23380505

  10. [Steroid-induced scabies norvegica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karrer, S; Szeimies, R M; Wlotzke, U; Stolz, W; Hohenleutner, U; Landthaler, M

    1997-05-01

    Two patients aged 50 and 84 years presented with generalized itching eczema that has been treated with external and internal steroids for months. Despite therapy, the condition worsened continuously. Examination of skin scrapings revealed numerous mites, so Norwegian scabies was diagnosed. General examinations excluded underlying diseases. Treatment with steroids over months most likely led via immunosuppression to the exacerbation of the disease. PMID:9303910

  11. Measuring the effects of aging and sex on regional brain stiffness with MR elastography in healthy older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arani, Arvin; Murphy, Matthew C; Glaser, Kevin J; Manduca, Armando; Lake, David S; Kruse, Scott A; Jack, Clifford R; Ehman, Richard L; Huston, John

    2015-05-01

    Changes in tissue composition and cellular architecture have been associated with neurological disease, and these in turn can affect biomechanical properties. Natural biological factors such as aging and an individual's sex also affect underlying tissue biomechanics in different brain regions. Understanding the normal changes is necessary before determining the efficacy of stiffness imaging for neurological disease diagnosis and therapy monitoring. The objective of this study was to evaluate global and regional changes in brain stiffness as a function of age and sex, using improved MRE acquisition and processing that have been shown to provide median stiffness values that are typically reproducible to within 1% in global measurements and within 2% for regional measurements. Furthermore, this is the first study to report the effects of age and sex over the entire cerebrum volume and over the full frontal, occipital, parietal, temporal, deep gray matter/white matter (insula, deep gray nuclei and white matter tracts), and cerebellum volumes. In 45 volunteers, we observed a significant linear correlation between age and brain stiffness in the cerebrum (Pmultiple linear regression model predicted an annual decline of 0.011±0.002kPa in cerebrum stiffness with a theoretical median age value (76years old) of 2.56±0.08kPa. Sexual dimorphism was observed in the temporal (P=.03) and occipital (P=.001) lobes of the brain, but no significant difference was observed in any of the other brain regions (P>.20 for all other regions). The model predicted female occipital and temporal lobes to be 0.23kPa and 0.09kPa stiffer than males of the same age, respectively. This study confirms that as the brain ages, there is softening; however, the changes are dependent on region. In addition, stiffness effects due to sex exist in the occipital and temporal lobes. PMID:25698157

  12. ANABOLIC ANDROGENIC STEROIDS AND DEPENDENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IHSAN SARI

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Anabolic androgenic steroids are used for sportive, cosmetic, therapeutic and occupational reasons and there are many side effects reported (George, 2005; Nieminen et al., 1996; O'Sullivan et al., 2000. Prevalence of anabolic steroids’ use also indicates the importance of this topic. Moreover, it is now known that use of anabolic steroids could lead to dependence which could be psychological or/and physiological (Copeland et al., 2000. It isimportant to know about all aspects of anabolic steroids including dependence. Therefore, this study has attempted to give an insight into use of anabolic steroids and dependence. The discussion will focus on prevalence, reasons, and side effects of use and physiological and psychological dependence

  13. Organocatalytic Asymmetric Formation of Steroids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halskov, Kim Soholm; Donslund, Bjarke S.

    2014-01-01

    A novel and simple one-step approach for the construction of optically active steroids in a highly stereoselective manner by using organocatalysis is presented. The reaction of (di)enals with cyclic dienophiles in the presence of a TMS-protected prolinol catalyst leads to the construction of important 14 beta-steroids. This new reaction allows an easy access to optically active steroids with a variety of substituents in the A ring in high yields and up to greater than 99% ee. The reaction has been extended to include the construction of B- and D-homosteroids as well as steroids containing heteroatoms in the B ring. The angular substituent at C13 can be varied and alkyl, ester, and sulfone functionalities are introduced with excellent stereoselectivities. Simple synthetic procedures provide access to a range of naturally occurring steroids such as estrone and related analogues.

  14. Sleep, Rhythms, and the Endocrine Brain: Influence of Sex and Gonadal Hormones

    OpenAIRE

    Mong, Jessica A.; Baker, Fiona C.; Mahoney, Megan M.; Paul, Ketema N.; Schwartz, Michael D.; Semba, Kazue; Silver, Rae

    2011-01-01

    While much is known about the mechanisms that underlie sleep and circadian rhythms, the investigation into sex differences and gonadal steroid modulation of sleep and biological rhythms is in its infancy. There is a growing recognition of sex disparities in sleep and rhythm disorders. Understanding how neuroendocrine mediators and sex differences influence sleep and biological rhythms is central to advancing our understanding of sleep-related disorders. While it is known that ovarian steroids...

  15. Sex determination of prehistoric human paleofeces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobolik, K D; Gremillion, K J; Whitten, P L; Watson, P J

    1996-10-01

    Analysis of 12 prehistoric human paleofecal specimens from the Mammoth Cave System, Kentucky has produced the first estimate of biological sex using fecal material from ancient humans. Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) radiocarbon dating indicates that the specimens range in age from ca. 2700 B.P. to 2300 B.P. Dietary contents and steroids were extracted and analyzed. Chromatography and radioimmunoassay were used to measure levels of testosterone and estradiol in both modern fecal reference samples and in ancient feces. Results indicate that all 12 paleofeces were probably deposited by males whose diet included a variety of native crops and wild plants. These preliminary analyses have the potential to revolutionize the investigation of gender difference in diet, health, and nutrition. PMID:8893089

  16. Examining the effects of age, sex, and body mass index on normative median motor nerve excitability measurements.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McHugh, John C

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to build a large reference database of excitability measures in normal subjects and to examine the effects of age, sex, and BMI. METHODS: One hundred and five healthy subjects had median motor nerve excitability testing performed at the wrist using the automated threshold-tracking program, QTRAC. Statistical linear regression was used to explore relationships between nerve excitability and the independent variables. RESULTS: The main effect of age is a reduced superexcitability. Lesser effects are flattening of the normalized stimulus response curve and reduction in threshold change following strong hyperpolarizing currents. Females have lower thresholds than males and small but significant differences in voltage-gated potassium channel (KCNQ) mediated properties (late subexcitability, accommodation half time, and threshold undershoot following depolarizing electrotonus), as well as a small increase in superexcitability. BMI has no influence on nerve excitability data and does not explain sex-related differences in threshold. CONCLUSIONS: Age and sex have few and small effects on excitability parameters. SIGNIFICANCE: The expression of nodal KCNQ channels appears to be greater in females. Age-related increases in subexcitability may be attributable to changes in the muscle fibre and not the nerve.

  17. Sex differences in experimental measures of pain sensitivity and endogenous pain inhibition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulls HW

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Hailey W Bulls,1 Emily L Freeman,1 Austen JB Anderson,2 Meredith T Robbins,3 Timothy J Ness,3 Burel R Goodin1,3 1Department of Psychology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA; 2Department of Biology, Samford University, Birmingham, AL, USA; 3Department of Anesthesiology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA Abstract: It has been suggested that increased pain sensitivity and disruption of endogenous pain inhibitory processes may account, at least in part, for the greater prevalence and severity of chronic pain in women compared to men. However, previous studies addressing this topic have produced mixed findings. This study examined sex differences in pain sensitivity and inhibition using quantitative sensory testing (QST, while also considering the influence of other important factors such as depressive symptoms and sleep quality. Healthy men (n=24 and women (n=24 each completed a QST battery. This battery included an ischemic pain task (IPT that used a submaximal effort tourniquet procedure as well as a conditioned pain modulation (CPM procedure for the assessment of endogenous pain inhibition. Prior to QST, participants completed the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Analyses revealed significant sex differences for the ischemic pain task and the conditioned pain modulation procedure, such that women tolerated the ischemic pain for a shorter amount of time and demonstrated less pain inhibition compared with men. This remained true even when accounting for sex differences in depressive symptoms and sleep quality. The results of this study suggest that women may be more pain sensitive and possess less-efficient endogenous pain inhibitory capacity compared with men. Whether interventions that decrease pain sensitivity and enhance pain inhibition in women ultimately improve their clinical pain outcomes is an area of research that deserves additional attention in the future. Keywords: sex differences, pain sensitivity, inhibition, depressive symptoms, sleep

  18. Safe sex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safe sex means taking steps before and during sex that can prevent you from getting an infection, or from ... the skin around the genital area. Before having sex: Get to know your partner and discuss your ...

  19. Reactive Arrays of Colorimetric Sensors for Metabolite and Steroid Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary Batres

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The work described herein examines a rapid mix-and-measure method called DETECHIP suitable for screening of steroids and metabolites. The addition of steroids and metabolites to reactive arrays of colorimetric sensors generated characteristic color “fingerprints” that were used to identify the analyte. A color analysis tool was used to identify the analyte pool that now includes biologically relevant analytes. The mix-and-measure arrays allowed the detection of disease metabolites, orotic acid and argininosuccinic acid; and the steroids androsterone, 1,4-androstadiene, testosterone, stanozolol, and estrone. The steroid 1,4-androstadiene was also detected by this method while dissolved in synthetic urine. Some of the steroids, such as androstadiene, stanozolol, and androsterone were co-dissolved with (2-hydroxypropyl-?-cyclodextrin in order to increase solubility in aqueous buffered solutions. The colorimetric arrays do not intend to eliminate ELISA or mass spectroscopy based screening, but to possibly provide an alternative analytical detection method for steroids and metabolites.

  20. Reactive Arrays of Colorimetric Sensors for Metabolite and Steroid Identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batres, Gary; Jones, Talia; Johnke, Hannah; Wilson, Mark; Holmes, Andrea E; Sikich, Sharmin

    2014-12-31

    The work described herein examines a rapid mix-and-measure method called DETECHIP suitable for screening of steroids and metabolites. The addition of steroids and metabolites to reactive arrays of colorimetric sensors generated characteristic color "fingerprints" that were used to identify the analyte. A color analysis tool was used to identify the analyte pool that now includes biologically relevant analytes. The mix-and-measure arrays allowed the detection of disease metabolites, orotic acid and argininosuccinic acid; and the steroids androsterone, 1,4-androstadiene, testosterone, stanozolol, and estrone. The steroid 1,4-androstadiene was also detected by this method while dissolved in synthetic urine. Some of the steroids, such as androstadiene, stanozolol, and androsterone were co-dissolved with (2-hydroxypropyl)-?-cyclodextrin in order to increase solubility in aqueous buffered solutions. The colorimetric arrays do not intend to eliminate ELISA or mass spectroscopy based screening, but to possibly provide an alternative analytical detection method for steroids and metabolites. PMID:25019034

  1. Sex Differences in Cardiovascular Drug Response

    OpenAIRE

    Rodenburg, E. M.

    2012-01-01

    In the early sixties, a prominent professor in Clinical Pharmacology at the University College in London, D.R. Laurence, stated: “There are no clinically important sex differences in drug action, except, of course, to sex steroid hormones, but the subject is poorly documented. Women are said to be more liable to become excited by morphine than are men; in this respect they resemble cats.” It was thought that study results in men could easily be extrapolated to women, an...

  2. A simple method for measuring sex-hormone binding protein (SHBP) - typical values in men and women and in pregnant women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assuming that the binding forces between steroid hormones and their binding proteins are similar to those between antigens and their antibodies, the authors describe how to determine SHBP activity by a dilution method analogous to that used for titration of antisera in radioimmunoassay. The method consists of the following stages: (1) plasma dilution; (2) incubation of the dilution with 20,000dis/min of 1,2-3H-testosterone; (3) separation of the fraction of tracer bound to the SHBP by precipitation with ammonium sulphate; (4) centrifugation and measurement of the supernatant; and (5) plotting of the results on a graph where the axis of ordinates represents the quotient given by bound steroid over free steroid (U/L) and the abscissa represents the plasma dilutions. The values are expressed as the 50% bound titre. An advantage of the method is the higher sensitivity of the dilution curves in the steepest part where the 50% bound is encountered; it is thus not necessary to use the saturation part of the curves where sensitivity is lost owing to the steeper slope. A further advantage of the method is that there is no need for costly processes such as dialysis. The SHBP values obtained for healthy subjects were as follows: 1/5 for men, 1/93 for women, and 1/360 in pregnant women. These physiological values showed no overlapping. (author)

  3. Yolk-albumen testosterone in a lizard with temperature-dependent sex determination: relation with development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Victoria; Bowden, Rachel M; Crews, David

    2013-06-01

    The leopard gecko (Eublepharis macularius) exhibits temperature-dependent sex determination as well as temperature-influenced polymorphisms. Research suggests that in oviparous reptiles with temperature-dependent sex determination, steroid hormones in the yolk might influence sex determination and sexual differentiation. From captive leopard geckos that were all from the same incubation temperature regime, we gathered freshly laid eggs, incubated them at one of two female-biased incubation temperatures (26 or 34°C), and measured testosterone content in the yolk-albumen at early or late development. No differences in the concentration of testosterone were detected in eggs from different incubation temperatures. We report testosterone concentrations in the yolk-albumen were higher in eggs of late development than early development at 26°C incubation temperatures, a finding opposite that reported in other TSD reptiles studied to date. PMID:23467072

  4. Seasonal modulation of immunity by melatonin and gonadal steroids in a short day breeder goat Capra hircus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Somenath; Singh, Amaresh K; Haldar, Chandana

    2014-11-01

    Role of melatonin in regulation of immunity and reproduction has never been studied in detail in goats. The aim of the present study was to explore hormonal regulation of immunity in goats with special reference to melatonin. Plasma of male and female goats (n = 18 per sex per season) was processed for hormonal (estrogen, testostrone, and melatonin) and cytokine (interleukin [IL-2], IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor ?) measurements during three seasons, i.e., summer, monsoon, and winter. To assess cell-mediated immune response, percent stimulation ratio of thymocytes was recorded during three seasons. To support and establish the modulation by hormones, Western blot analysis for expressions of melatonin receptors (MT1, MT2), androgen receptor, and estrogen receptor ? and estimations of marker enzymes, arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase for melatonin and 3?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activities for steroidogenesis were performed in thymus. All the hormones and cytokines were estimated by commercial kits. Biochemical, immunologic, and Western blot analyses were done by standardized protocols. We noted a significant increase in estrogen and testosterone levels (P < 0.05) in circulation during monsoon along with melatonin (P < 0.05) presenting a parallel relationship. Expressions of melatonin receptors (MT1 and MT2) in thymus of both the sexes were significantly high (P < 0.01) during winter. Estrogen receptor ? expression in female thymus was significantly high during monsoon (P < 0.05). However, androgen receptor showed almost static expression pattern in male thymus during three seasons. Further, both arylalkylamineN-acetyltransferase and 3?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase enzyme activities were significantly high (P < 0.05; P < 0.01, respectively) during monsoon. These results suggest that there may be a functional parallelism between gonadal steroids and melatonin as melatonin is progonadotrophic in goats. Cell-mediated immune parameters (percent stimulation ratio of thymocytes) and circulatory levels of cytokines (IL-2, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor ?) were significantly high (P < 0.01) during monsoon. In vitro supplementation of gonadal steroids to T-cell culture suppressed immunity but cosupplementation with melatonin restored it. Further, we may also suggest that reproductive and immune seasonality are maintained by variations in circulatory hormones and local synthesis of melatonin and gonadal steroids. These functional interactions between melatonin and gonadal steroid might be of great importance in regulating the goat immunity by developing some hormonal microcircuit (gonadal steroid and melatonin) in lymphatic organs. PMID:25175759

  5. Stress, Ethanol, and Neuroactive Steroids

    OpenAIRE

    Biggio, Giovanni; Concas, Alessandra; Follesa, Paolo; Sanna, Enrico; Serra, Mariangela

    2007-01-01

    Neurosteroids play a crucial role in stress, alcohol dependence and withdrawal, and other physiological and pharmacological actions by potentiating or inhibiting neurotransmitter action. This review article focuses on data showing that the interaction among stress, ethanol, and neuroactive steroids may result in plastic molecular and functional changes of GABAergic inhibitory neurotransmission. The molecular mechanisms by which stress-ethanol-neuroactive steroids interactions can produce plas...

  6. Congress on women's health Trudy Bush lecture 2014: new insights into sex Hormones and Cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Virginia M

    2014-12-01

    Many basic, mechanistic studies of how sex steroids alter vascular function proceeded from Dr. Bush's seminal epidemiologic observations that noncontraceptive use of estrogen reduced all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. However, translating findings from these basic science studies into clinical trials and clinical guidelines has been controversial. This commentary reviews the development of sex steroid vascular research, identifies mechanisms by which sex steroids affect vascular function, reviews findings from recent clinical hormone trials, and identifies challenges and the need for continued funding of such investigations. PMID:25495365

  7. Dehydroepiandrosterone: a neuroactive steroid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stárka, Luboslav; Dušková, Michaela; Hill, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulfate bound form (DHEAS) are important steroids of mainly adrenal origin. They are produced also in gonads and in the brain. Dehydroepiandrosterone easily crosses the brain-blood barrier and in part is also produced locally in the brain tissue. In the brain, DHEA exerts its effects after conversion to either testosterone and dihydrotestosterone or estradiol via androgen and estrogen receptors present in the most parts of the human brain, through mainly non-genomic mechanisms, or eventually indirectly via the effects of its metabolites formed locally in the brain. As a neuroactive hormone, DHEA in co-operation with other hormones and transmitters significantly affects some aspects of human mood, and modifies some features of human emotions and behavior. It has been reported that its administration can increase feelings of well-being and is useful in ameliorating atypical depressive disorders. It has neuroprotective and antiglucocorticoid activity and modifies immune reactions, and some authors have also reported its role in degenerative brain diseases. Here we present a short overview of the possible actions of dehydroepiandrosterone and its sulfate in the brain, calling attention to various mechanisms of their action as neurosteroids and to prospects for the knowledge of their role in brain disorders. PMID:24704258

  8. History, chemistry and pharmacodynamics of anabolic-androgenic steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochakian, C D

    1993-01-01

    It had been known for centuries that castration resulted in the loss of certain secondary male sex characteristics. The first inkling as to the cause of these changes were provided in 1849 by a prevention of the regression of the comb and wattles of capons by implantation of testis into the abdominal cavity of the castrated rooster. The results were correctly interpreted that the testis secreted a substance into the blood to regulate the development and maintenance of the male characteristics. The first active extract of testis, however, was not prepared until 1927. Shortly thereafter (1929), a similar type of activity was found in men's urine which was followed (1931) by the isolation of a pure substance, androsterone. A substance with the properties of the testis extract was quickly (1935) synthesized and proved to be identical to a pure substance, testosterone, obtained almost simultaneously from testis extract. Testosterone influences the growth, development, and function of practically every organ in the body. The chemically and endogenously modified steroids do not have parallel effects on the different biological properties of testosterone. Furthermore animal species and dose of steroid affect the response of the different organs. Many chemically modified steroids and some endogenous steroids of both the C19 and C21 series exhibit definite separation of undesirable biological effects. PMID:8256446

  9. A rare cause of virilization; Ovarian steroid cell tumor, not otherwise specified (NOS)

    OpenAIRE

    Tas?demir, Nicel; C?elik, Cem; Abal?, Remzi; Aksu, Erson; O?znur, Meltem; Y?lmaz, Murat

    2012-01-01

    Sex cord–stromal tumors account for 5% of ovarian tumors and 2% of malignant ovarian tumors. Steroid cell tumors (SCT), not otherwise specified (NOS), are rare sex cord–stromal tumors of the ovary and account for less than 0.1% of all ovarian tumors. We report a rare case of a post-menopausal woman presented with hirsutism, virilism and with findings of hyperestrogenism.

  10. Sex differences in the hypothalamic control of prolactin secretion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Sex differences in the brain may arise from the organisational effects of exposure to sex steroids during development, or from the exposure to a differential hormonal milieu in the adult. There is a marked sex difference in the neuroendocrine mechanism that regulates prolactin secretion. Levels of prolactin in the blood are higher in females than in males. Similarly, basal activity of tuberoinfundibular dopamine (TIDA) neurons, which are involved in the tonic suppression of prolactin secretion, are two fold higher in females than in males. Prolactin is known to stimulate the activity of TIDA neurons, thereby regulating its own secretion by short-loop feedback. Hence, it is thought that elevated TIDA neuronal activity in females is induced by increased prolactin in the blood. We have recently demonstrated that prolactin stimulation of TIDA neurons requires the transcription factor, STAT5b. We have now investigated prolactin secretion in male and female STAT5b-deficient mice, to test the hypothesis that sex differences in TIDA neuronal activity are dependent on stimulation by prolactin acting through STAT5b. Prolactin levels in blood were measured by radioimmunoassay, and TIDA activity was assessed by measuring concentrations of the dopamine metabolite DOPAC in the median eminence by HPLC, and by measuring tyrosine hydroxylase mRNA in the arcuate nucleus by real-time RT-PCR. The data demonstrate marked gender differences in the activity of TIDA neurons. Whileces in the activity of TIDA neurons. While TIDA activity in STAT5b-deficient mice was reduced compared to wild type, the sex difference persisted. Since STAT5b is required for the actions of prolactin on these neurons, we can conclude that the sexual dimorphism in brain function is independent of gender differences in blood levels of prolactin. It seems likely that differential exposure to gonadal steroid hormones, either during development or in adulthood, might underlie the sex difference in TIDA neuronal activity. Copyright (2001) Australasian Society of Clinical and Experimental Pharmacologists and Toxicologists

  11. BILATERAL STEROID INDUCED GLAUCOMA IN VERNAL KERATOCONJUNCTIVITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bangal Surekha V, Bankar Mahima S, Bhandari Akshay J, Kalkote Prasad R

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Vernal Keratoconjunctivits (VKC is a bilateral recurrent allergic interstitial conjunctival inflammation with a periodic seasonal incidence and of self limiting nature, mainly affecting the younger population. Patients of VKC on steroid therapy are at higher risk of developing steroid induced glaucoma. Raised intraocular pressure due to steroids typically occurs within few weeks of starting steroid therapy and comes back to normal on immediate stoppage of steroids. A case of steroid induced glaucoma in a 30 years old female with vernal keratoconjunctivitis. She was on topical steroids for 3-4 years. She was incompliant with the instructions to stop steroids. She eventually developed steroid induced glaucoma and glaucomatous optic neuropathy with tunnel vision.

  12. From molecule to market: steroid hormones and financial risk-taking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, John M; Gurnell, Mark; Sarnyai, Zoltan

    2010-01-27

    Little is known about the role of the endocrine system in financial decision-making. Here, we survey research on steroid hormones and their cognitive effects, and examine potential links to trader performance in the financial markets. Preliminary findings suggest that cortisol codes for risk and testosterone for reward. A key finding of this endocrine research is the different cognitive effects of acute versus chronic exposure to hormones: acutely elevated steroids may optimize performance on a range of tasks; but chronically elevated steroids may promote irrational risk-reward choices. We present a hypothesis suggesting that the irrational exuberance and pessimism observed during market bubbles and crashes may be mediated by steroid hormones. If hormones can exaggerate market moves, then perhaps the age and sex composition among traders and asset managers may affect the level of instability witnessed in the financial markets. PMID:20026470

  13. Sex-specific vitellogenin production in immature rainbow trout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, D.B.; Williams, D.E.

    1999-10-01

    Many xenobiotics interact with hormone systems of animals, potentially leading to a phenomenon commonly called endocrine disruption. Much attention has focused on steroid hormone systems and corresponding receptor proteins, particularly estrogens. Vitellogenin (Vg) was measured in sexually immature rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) exposed to 17{beta}-estradiol (E{sub 2}) in the diet. Mixed-sex populations of trout aged 3, 6, 12, or 18 months were maintained separately and fed E{sub 2} at 0.05 or 2.5 mg/kg for 7d. Females fed E{sub 2} at 0.05 mg/kg consistently produced three- to fourfold greater amounts of Vg than similarly aged males. Age- and sex-matched fish fed E{sub 2} at 2.5 mg/kg produced equivalent amounts of Vg. Sex differences in Vg production were apparent only at a dose of E{sub 2} (0.05 mg/kg) that results in submaximal Vg induction. Their results document the importance of considering the sex of juvenile fish when using Vg production as a marker of xenoestrogen exposure.

  14. Effect of the Steroidal Saponins of Fructus tribuli on Growth of Three Lactobacillus acidophilus

    OpenAIRE

    He Chen; Tao Qin; Qi Ma; Zhe Ji; Guowei Shu

    2014-01-01

    Effect of the steroidal saponins of Fructus tribuli on Growth of Lactobacillus acidophilus LA04, LA05 and LA06 was studied by measuring optical density at 600 nm (OD600) and pH using MRS media as the control. The addition of steroidal saponins (w/v) was 0.05, 0.10, 0.15, 0.20 and 0.25%, respectively. Results were as follows: addition of steroidal saponins of Fructus tribuli could promote the growth of Lactobacillus acidophilus A04, LA05 and LA06 and the optimum concentration of steroidal sapo...

  15. Effect of the Steroidal Saponins of Fructus tribuli on Growth of Three Lactobacillus acidophilus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Effect of the steroidal saponins of Fructus tribuli on Growth of Lactobacillus acidophilus LA04, LA05 and LA06 was studied by measuring optical density at 600 nm (OD600 and pH using MRS media as the control. The addition of steroidal saponins (w/v was 0.05, 0.10, 0.15, 0.20 and 0.25%, respectively. Results were as follows: addition of steroidal saponins of Fructus tribuli could promote the growth of Lactobacillus acidophilus A04, LA05 and LA06 and the optimum concentration of steroidal saponins was all 0.25% for the three strains.

  16. Sex Hormones as Potential Modulators of Vascular Function in Hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Khalil, Raouf A.

    2005-01-01

    The greater incidence of hypertension in men and postmenopausal women compared with premenopausal women has suggested gender differences in vascular function. Vascular effects of the female sex hormones estrogen and progesterone, and the male hormone testosterone have been described. Sex steroid receptors have been identified in vascular endothelium and smooth muscle. Interaction of sex hormones with cytosolic/nuclear receptors initiates long-term genomic effects that stimulate endothelial ce...

  17. The relationship assessment measure for same-sex couples (RAM-SSC): a standardized instrument for evaluating gay couple functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgoyne, R W

    2001-01-01

    The utility of a standardized relationship assessment tool for same-sex couples is evaluated in this preliminary study. The RAM-SSC, adapted from the Waring Intimacy Questionnaire (WIQ, Waring & Reddon, 1983; Waring, 1984), was administered to a clinical sample of 32 gay male couples beginning conjoint therapy and to a nonclinical comparison group of similar size from the gay community. Clinical sample couples reported significantly lower mean scores (less positive perceptions of functioning) in most dimensions of the RAM-SSC, compared to the nonclinical group, whose scores were found to resemble those of WIQ reference values for nongay male partners in heterosexual marriages. The RAM-SSC, therefore, can be considered as a potentially viable relationship measure for use in clinical work with gay male couples, for assessment and treatment outcome evaluation purposes. Further investigation into the psychometric properties of the RAM-SSC in terms of reliability and validity is recommended. PMID:11354933

  18. Localization of breast cancer resistance protein (Bcrp) in endocrine organs and inhibition of its transport activity by steroid hormones

    OpenAIRE

    Dankers, Anita C. A.; Sweep, Fred C. G. J.; Pertijs, Jeanne C. L. M.; Verweij, Vivienne; Den Heuvel, Jeroen J. M. W.; Koenderink, Jan B.; Russel, Frans G. M.; Masereeuw, Rosalinde

    2012-01-01

    Breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) is known for its protective function against the toxic effects of exogenous compounds. In addition to this, a role in the transport of endogenous compounds has been described. Since BCRP in the plasma membrane was shown to be regulated by sex steroids, we investigated the presence and possible role of BCRP in steroid hormone-producing organs. Therefore, the presence and localization of Bcrp was investigated in endocrine organs of wild-type mice. Further...

  19. Green Light for Steroid Hormones

    Science.gov (United States)

    David W. Russell (University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center; Department of Molecular Genetics)

    1996-04-19

    Access to the article is free, however registration and sign-in are required. In his Perspective, D. Russell describes two papers--one in this week's issue of Science (Li et al., p. 398) and one in the 19 April issue of Cell (M. Szekeres et al.)--which report on two enzymes that synthesize steroid hormones cloned from Arabidopsis. These enzymes, DET2 and CPD, are in the biosynthetic pathway for brassinolides, steroids that seem to participate in the regulation of gene expression by light.

  20. In vivo detection of fluctuating brain steroid levels in zebra finches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Maaya; Rensel, Michelle A; Schlinger, Barney A; Remage-Healey, Luke

    2014-12-01

    This protocol describes a method for the in vivo measurement of steroid hormones in brain circuits of the zebra finch. A guide cannula is surgically implanted into the skull, microdilysate is collected through a microdialysis probe that is inserted into the cannula, and steroid concentrations in the microdialysate are determined using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In some cases, the steroids measured are derived locally (e.g., neural estrogens in males), whereas in other cases, the steroids measured reflect systemic circulating levels and/or central conversion (e.g., the primary androgen testosterone and the primary glucocorticoid corticosterone). A reverse-microdialysis ("retrodialysis") method that can be used to deliver pharmacological agents into the brain to influence local steroid neurochemistry as well as behavior is also discussed. PMID:25342066

  1. Production and secretion of C-19 steroids by rat and guinea pig adrenals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bélanger, B; Couture, J; Caron, S; Bodou, P; Fiet, J; Bélanger, A

    1990-08-01

    The concentrations of C-19 steroids were measured in guinea pig and rat adrenals before and after castration as well as after stimulation with adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH). Characterization of adrenal C-19 steroids was also carried out by isolation with high-performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). From radioimmunoassay (RIA) data, androstenedione (4-DIONE) and 11 beta hydroxyandrostenedione (11 beta-DIONE) were the major C-19 steroids found in guinea pig adrenals, and castration induced a decrease of 4-DIONE levels only while all other C-19 steroids remained unchanged. In rat adrenals, the major C-19 steroids were 4-DIONE and testosterone, and they were also markedly inhibited after castration. With the exception of 11 beta-DIONE, all other C-19 steroids in circulation were eliminated after castration in both animals species. After ACTH administration in the guinea pig, adrenal 4-DIONE and 11 beta-DIONE levels were markedly stimulated, while an increase of only 11 beta-DIONE was observed in plasma. In the rat, ACTH had a small stimulatory effect on adrenal 52-androstane-3 alpha, 17 beta-diol (3 alpha-DIOL) and plasma 11 beta-DIONE levels. Analysis of guinea pig adrenal steroids by GC/MS confirmed the presence of C-19 steroids in adrenals (namely, 4-DIONE and 11 beta-DIONE) while, in the rat, this could not be confirmed. Our data indicate that production of C-19 steroids occurs in guinea pig adrenals, and 11 beta-DIONE is the major C-19 steroid as well as the only C-19 steroid secreted into the circulation. In the rat, the production of C-19 steroids detected by RIA is not supported by GC/MS data. PMID:2173170

  2. MEDICAL ISSUES ASSOCIATED WITH ANABOLIC STEROID USE: ARE THEY EXAGGERATED?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay R. Hoffman

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available For the past 50 years anabolic steroids have been at the forefront of the controversy surrounding performance enhancing drugs. For almost half of this time no attempt was made by sports governing bodies to control its use, and only recently have all of the major sports governing bodies in North America agreed to ban from competition and punish athletes who test positive for anabolic steroids. These punitive measures were developed with the primary concern for promotion of fair play and eliminating potential health risks associated with androgenic-anabolic steroids. Yet, controversy exists whether these testing programs deter anabolic steroid use. Although the scope of this paper does not focus on the effectiveness of testing, or the issue of fair play, it is of interest to understand why many athletes underestimate the health risks associated from these drugs. What creates further curiosity is the seemingly well-publicized health hazards that the medical community has depicted concerning anabolic steroidabuse. Is there something that the athletes know, or are they simply naïve regarding the dangers? The focus of this review is to provide a brief history of anabolic steroid use in North America, the prevalence of its use in both athletic and recreational populations and its efficacy. Primary discussion will focus on health issues associated with anabolic steroid use with an examination of the contrasting views held between the medical community and the athletes that are using these ergogenic drugs. Existing data suggest that in certain circumstances the medical risk associated with anabolic steroid use may have been somewhat exaggerated, possibly to dissuade use in athletes

  3. Factor structures of measures of cognitive distortions, emotional congruence, and victim empathy based on data from Irish child sex offenders

    OpenAIRE

    Waldron, Brian; O'Reilly, Gary; Randall, Patrick; Dooley, Barbara A.; Carr, Alan; et al.

    2006-01-01

    This study evaluated the factor structures of three instruments from the Sexual Offender Assessment Pack. The Children and Sex Cognitive Distortions Scale, the Children and Sex Emotional Congruence Scale, and the Child Victim Empathy Distortions Scale were administered to 203 sex offenders in Ireland. Confirmatory factor analyses did not support the proposed single factor structure for each of the three scales. Exploratory factor analyses suggested more complex factor structures. The Children...

  4. Circulating sex steroids and breast cancer risk in premenopausal women

    OpenAIRE

    Hankinson, Susan E.; Eliassen, A Heather

    2010-01-01

    Evidence from both laboratory and epidemiologic studies indicate a key role of hormones in the etiology of breast cancer. In epidemiologic studies, indirect data, including the consistent associations observed between reproductive factors and breast cancer risk, support an important contribution of hormones to risk. Recently, the associations between circulating hormones in premenopausal women and subsequent risk of breast cancer have been evaluated. To date, both positive and null associatio...

  5. Sex Chromosome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darryl Leja (National Human Genome Research Institute REV)

    2005-04-14

    A sex chromosome is one of the two chromosomes that specify an organism's genetic sex. Humans have two kinds of sex chromosomes, one called X and the other Y. Normal females possess two X chromosomes and normal males one X and one Y.

  6. Assessment of Borderline Personality Features in Population Samples: Is the Personality Assessment Inventory-Borderline Features Scale Measurement Invariant across Sex and Age?

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Moor, Marleen H. M.; Distel, Marijn A.; Trull, Timothy J.; Boomsma, Dorret I.

    2009-01-01

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is more often diagnosed in women than in men, and symptoms tend to decline with age. Using a large community sample, the authors investigated whether sex and age differences in four main features of BPD, measured with the "Personality Assessment Inventory-Borderline Features" scale (PAI-BOR; Morey, 1991), are…

  7. The Relationship of the Watson-Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal to Sex and Four Selected Personality Measures for a Sample of Dutch First-Year Psychology Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoogstraten, Joh; Christiaans, H. H. C. M.

    1975-01-01

    The relationship of the 1964 forms of the Watson-Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal to four selected noncognitive measures was studied. Results suggest performance on the Watson-Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal is independent of sex, neurotic and rigid personality characteristics, and extroversion-introversion factors. (BJG)

  8. Direct effect of gonadal and contraceptive steroids on insulin release from mouse pancreatic islets in organ culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens HØiriis

    1984-01-01

    Sex steroids are supposed to contribute to the normal glucose homeostasis and to the altered glucose and insulin metabolism in pregnancy and during contraception. In the present study isolated mouse pancreatic islets were maintained in tissue culture medium RPMI 1640 supplemented with 0.5% newborn calf serum and 100 ng/ml of one of the following steroids: oestradiol, progesterone, testosterone, megestrol acetate, medroxyprogesterone, chlormadinone acetate, norethynodrel, norethindrone acetate, and ethynyloestradiol. Release of insulin to the culture medium was measured during a 2 week culture period, and the islet content of insulin, glucagon, and DNA was measured at the end of the period. It was found that progesterone and its derivatives megestrol acetate, medroxyprogesterone, and chlormadinone caused a 2-fold increase in insulin release during the culture period. When islets cultured in the presence of oestradiol, progesterone, or testosterone were subjected to 30 min stimulation with 5.5, 11, 22 mmol/l glucose, only the progesterone-treated islets released more insulin in response to glucose than the control islets. It is concluded that progesterone and its derivatives have a direct effect on the glucose-stimulated insulin release probably by increasing the glucose sensitivity. The results suggest that the alterations in glucose and insulin metabolism in pregnancy and during treatment with certain oral contraceptives may in part be due to a direct effect of progestins on the beta-cell.

  9. Influence of music on steroid hormones and the relationship between receptor polymorphisms and musical ability: a pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukui, Hajime; Toyoshima, Kumiko

    2013-01-01

    Studies have shown that music confers plasticity to the brain. In a preliminary pilot study, we examined the effect of music listening on steroid hormones and the relationship between steroid hormone receptor polymorphisms and musical ability. Twenty-one subjects (10 males and 11 females) were recruited and divided into musically talented and control groups. The subjects selected (1) music they preferred (chill-inducing music) and (2) music they did not like. Before and after the experiments, saliva was collected to measure the levels of steroid hormones such as testosterone, estradiol, and cortisol. DNA was also isolated from the saliva samples to determine the androgen receptor (AR) and arginine vasopressin receptor 1A genotypes. Advanced Measures of Music Audiation (AMMA) was used to determine the musical ability of the subjects. With both types of music, the cortisol levels decreased significantly in both sexes. The testosterone (T) levels declined in males when they listened to both types of music. In females, the T levels increased in those listening to chill-inducing music but declined when they listened to music they disliked. However, these differences were not significant. The 17-beta estradiol levels increased in males with both types of music, whereas the levels increased with chill-inducing music but declined with disliked music in females. The AMMA scores were higher for the short repeat length-type AR than for the long repeat length-type. Comparisons of AR polymorphisms and T levels before the experiments showed that the T levels were within the low range in the short repeat length-type group and there was a positive relationship with the repeat length, although it was not significant. This is the first study conducted in humans to analyze the relationships between the AR gene, T levels, and musical ability. PMID:24348454

  10. Psychological Predictors of Anabolic Steroid Use: An Exploratory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwerin, Michael J.; Corcoran, Kevin J.; LaFleur, Bonnie J.; Fisher, Leslee; Patterson, David; Olrich, Tracy

    1997-01-01

    Examined social physique anxiety, upper body esteem, social anxiety, and body dissatisfaction as possible predictors of anabolic steroid (AS) use. Results based on 185 AS-using bodybuilders and various control groups indicated that the upper body strength subscale of two measures, along with age, were significant predictors of AS use. (RJM)

  11. Multiple steroid radioimmunoassays and automation: versatile techniques for reproductive endocrinology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The combination of the efficient steroid separating properties of a lipophilic Sephadex derivative Lipidex-5000sup(TM), with the use of antibodies with carefully selected specificity allows the quantitative determination of pregnenolone, progesterone, 17?-hydroxyprogesterone, androstenedione, testosterone, 5?-dihydrotestosterone, 5?-androstanedione, androsterone and 5?-androstane-3?, 17?-diol from 1-2 ml samples of blood serum, amniotic fluid or 300-600 mg pieces of prostatic tissue. The adaptation of the pipetting unit and incubator of a discrete clinical chemical analyzer, System Olli 3000, for the automation of the radioimmunoassays has resulted in a greatly increased through-put and decreased experimental error of the procedure. In studies on reproductive endocrinology, the methodology developed has allowed the detection of a sex difference in androgen composition of the amniotic fluid early in pregnancy. Further, it is very likely that the decline in steroid production by the testis seen during the first year of life and then in senescence is affected by basically different mechanisms. There are also important differences in the steroid content of normal, hyperplastic and carcinomatous prostate. (orig.)

  12. Neuroactive steroids are altered in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder: relevance to pathophysiology and therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marx, Christine E; Stevens, Robert D; Shampine, Lawrence J; Uzunova, Veska; Trost, William T; Butterfield, Marian I; Massing, Mark W; Hamer, Robert M; Morrow, A Leslie; Lieberman, Jeffrey A

    2006-06-01

    Evidence suggests that neuroactive steroids may be candidate modulators of schizophrenia pathophysiology and therapeutics. We therefore investigated neuroactive steroid levels in post-mortem brain tissue from subjects with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, nonpsychotic depression, and control subjects to determine if neuroactive steroids are altered in these disorders. Posterior cingulate and parietal cortex tissue from the Stanley Foundation Neuropathology Consortium collection was analyzed for neuroactive steroids by negative ion chemical ionization gas chromatography/mass spectrometry preceded by high-performance liquid chromatography. Subjects with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, nonpsychotic depression, and control subjects were group matched for age, sex, ethnicity, brain pH, and post-mortem interval (n = 14-15 per group, 59-60 subjects total). Statistical analyses were performed by ANOVA with post-hoc Dunnett tests on log transformed neuroactive steroid levels. Pregnenolone and allopregnanolone were present in human post-mortem brain tissue at considerably higher concentrations than typically observed in serum or plasma. Pregnenolone and dehydroepiandrosterone levels were higher in subjects with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder compared to control subjects in both posterior cingulate and parietal cortex. Allopregnanolone levels tended to be decreased in parietal cortex in subjects with schizophrenia compared to control subjects. Neuroactive steroids are present in human post-mortem brain tissue at physiologically relevant concentrations and altered in subjects with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. A number of neuroactive steroids act at inhibitory GABA(A) and excitatory NMDA receptors and demonstrate neuroprotective and neurotrophic effects. Neuroactive steroids may therefore be candidate modulators of the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, and relevant to the treatment of these disorders. PMID:16319920

  13. Permanent and functional male-to-female sex reversal in d-rR strain medaka (Oryzias latipes) following egg microinjection of o,p'-DDT.

    OpenAIRE

    Edmunds, J. S.; Mccarthy, R. A.; Ramsdell, J. S.

    2000-01-01

    Complete sex reversal of fish is accomplished routinely in aquaculture practices by exposing fish to exogenous sex steroids during gonadal differentiation. A variety of environmental chemicals are also active at sex steroid receptors and theoretically possess the potential to alter normal sexual differentiation in fish. However, in controlled environmental chemical exposures to date, only partial alterations of fish sexual phenotype have been observed. Here we report complete, permanent, and ...

  14. The Steroid Metabolome of Adrenarche

    OpenAIRE

    Rege, Juilee; Rainey, William E.

    2012-01-01

    Adrenarche is an endocrine developmental process whereby humans and select nonhuman primates increase adrenal output of a series of steroids, especially dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS). The timing of adrenarche varies between primates, but in humans, serum levels of DHEAS are seen to increase around 6 years of age. This phenomenon corresponds with the development and expansion of the zona reticularis (ZR) of the adrenal gland. The physiological phenome...

  15. Anabolic Androgenic Steroids and Criminality

    OpenAIRE

    Klötz, Fia

    2008-01-01

    Anabolic Androgenic Steroids (AAS) have been associated with adverse psychiatric effects, aggression and violent behaviour. The use of them has spread to a larger subpopulation, and the use has been connected to different risk behaviours, such as use of other illicit substances and carrying a gun. Case reports tell about a connection between AAS use and violent crimes, including homicide. The aim of this thesis is to investigate the proposed connection between AAS and crime, focusing on viole...

  16. Differentiation of endogenous and exogenous steroids by gas chromatography-combustion-mass spectrometry isotope ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urinary steroids profiles are used to control the misuse of endogenous steroids such as testosterone and dihydrotestosterone. The testosterone/epistestosterone ratio, measured by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry, is used to control testosterone administration. When T/E ratio is higher than 4, consumption of testosterone or its precursors is suspected. Recent researches have demonstrated the effectiveness of Carbon Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry to detect and confirm endogenous steroids administration. The ratio of the two stable carbon isotopes 13C and 12C allows the differentiation of natural and synthetic steroids because synthetic steroids have lower 13C abundance. In fact, the carbon isotope ratios can be used to determine endogenous steroids administration even when testosterone/epistestosterone ratio is at its normal value. In the current work, some of the most important aspects related to differentiation of endogenous and exogenous steroids by means of Gas Chromatography-Combustion-Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry are discussed. Also, this article provides a review about the purification and sample preparation previous to the analysis, and diet effects on carbon isotope ratio of endogenous anabolics steroids is presented too

  17. A guide to understanding the steroid pathway: new insights and diagnostic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greaves, Ronda F; Jevalikar, Ganesh; Hewitt, Jacqueline K; Zacharin, Margaret R

    2014-10-01

    Steroid analysis has always been complicated requiring a clear understanding of both the clinical and analytical aspects in order to accurately interpret results. The literature relating to this specialised area spans many decades and the intricacies of the steroid pathway have evolved with time. A number of key changes, including discovery of the alternative androgen pathway, have occurred in the last decade, potentially changing our understanding and approach to investigating disorders of sexual development. Such investigation usually occurs in specialised paediatric centres and although preterm infants represent only a small percentage of the patient population, consideration of the persistence of the foetal adrenal zone is an additional important consideration when undertaking steroid hormone investigations. The recent expanded role of mass spectrometry and molecular diagnostic methods provides significant improvements for accurate steroid quantification and identification of enzyme deficiencies. However analysis of steroids and interpretation of results remain complicated. This review aims to provide an insight into the complexities of steroid measurement in children and offers an updated guide to interpretation, of serum and urine steroids through the presentation of a refined steroid pathway. PMID:25086367

  18. Chemosensory communication of gender through two human steroids in a sexually dimorphic manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wen; Yang, Xiaoying; Chen, Kepu; Cai, Peng; He, Sheng; Jiang, Yi

    2014-05-19

    Recent studies have suggested the existence of human sex pheromones, with particular interest in two human steroids: androstadienone (androsta-4,16,-dien-3-one) and estratetraenol (estra-1,3,5(10),16-tetraen-3-ol). The current study takes a critical step to test the qualification of the two steroids as sex pheromones by examining whether they communicate gender information in a sex-specific manner. By using dynamic point-light displays that portray the gaits of walkers whose gender is digitally morphed from male to female [1, 2], we show that smelling androstadienone systematically biases heterosexual females, but not males, toward perceiving the walkers as more masculine. By contrast, smelling estratetraenol systematically biases heterosexual males, but not females, toward perceiving the walkers as more feminine. Homosexual males exhibit a response pattern akin to that of heterosexual females, whereas bisexual or homosexual females fall in between heterosexual males and females. These effects are obtained despite that the olfactory stimuli are not explicitly discriminable. The results provide the first direct evidence that the two human steroids communicate opposite gender information that is differentially effective to the two sex groups based on their sexual orientation. Moreover, they demonstrate that human visual gender perception draws on subconscious chemosensory biological cues, an effect that has been hitherto unsuspected. PMID:24794295

  19. Comprehensive Analysis of Hormone and Genetic Variation in 36 Genes Related to Steroid Hormone Metabolism in Pre- and Postmenopausal Women from the Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beckmann, L.; Husing, A.

    2011-01-01

    Context: Sex steroids play a central role in breast cancer development.Objective: This study aimed to relate polymorphic variants in 36 candidate genes in the sex steroid pathway to serum concentrations of sex steroid hormones and SHBG.Design: Data on 700 genetic polymorphisms were combined with existing hormone assays and data on breast cancer incidence, within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) and the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) cohorts; significant findings were reanalyzed in the Multiethnic Cohort (MEC).Setting and Participants: We analyzed data from a pooled sample of 3852 pre- and postmenopausal Caucasian women from EPIC and NHS and 454 postmenopausal women from MEC.Main Outcome Measures: Outcome measures were SHBG, testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEAS), androstenedione, estrone (E1), and estradiol (E2) as well as breast cancer risk.Results: Globally significant associations were found among pre- and postmenopausal women combined between levels of SHBG and theSHBG gene and between DHEAS and the FSHR and AKR1C3 genes. Among postmenopausal women, serum E1 and E2 were significantly associated with the genes CYP19 and FSHR, and E1 was associated with ESR1. None of the variants related to serum hormone levels showed any significant association with breast cancer risk.Conclusions: We confirmed associations between serum levels of SHBG and the SHBG gene and of E1 and E2 and the CYP19 and ESR1 genes. Novel associations were observed between FSHR and DHEAS, E1, and E2 and between AKR1C3 and DHEAS. (J Clin Endocrinol Metab 96: E360-E367, 2011)

  20. Endocrine Correlates of Musth in Free-Ranging Asian Elephants (Elephas maximus) Determined by Non-Invasive Faecal Steroid Hormone Metabolite Measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Ghosal, Sukumar; Ganswindt, Andre; Seshagiri, Polani B.; Sukumar, Raman

    2013-01-01

    The occurrence of musth, a period of elevated levels of androgens and heightened sexual activity, has been well documented for the male Asian elephant (Elephas maximus). However, the relationship between androgen-dependent musth and adrenocortical function in this species is unclear. The current study is the first assessment of testicular and adrenocortical function in free-ranging male Asian elephants by measuring levels of testosterone (androgen) and cortisol (glucocorticoid - a physiologic...

  1. Endothelial function in male body builders taking anabolic androgenic steroids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Hashemi

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adverse cardiovascular events have been reported in body builders taking anabolic steroids. Adverse effects of AAS on endothelial function can initiate atherosclerosis. This study evaluates endothelial function in body builders using AAS, compared with non-steroids using athletes as controls. Methods: We recruited 30 nonsmoking male body builders taking AAS, 14 in build up phase, 8 in work out phase, and 8 in post steroid phase, and 30 nonsmoking male athletes who denied ever using steroids. Serum lipids and fasting plasma glucose were measured to exclude dyslipidemia and diabetes. Brachial artery diameter was measured by ultrasound at rest, after cuff inflation, and after sublingual glyceriltrinitrate (GTN to determine flow mediated dilation (FMD, nitro mediated dilation (NMD and ratio of FMD to NMD (index of endothelial function. Result: Use of AAS was associated with higher body mass index (BMI and low density lipoprotein–cholesterol (LDL-C. Mean ratio of flow mediated dilatation after cuff deflation to post GTN dilatation of brachial artery (index of endothelial function in body builders taking AAS was significantly lower than control group (0.96(0.05 versus 1(0.08; p=0.03. After adjusting BMI, age and weight, no significant difference was seen in index of endothelial function between two groups (p=0 .21. Conclusion: Our study indicates that taking AAS in body builders doesn’t have direct effect on endothelial function. Future study with bigger sample size and measurement of AAS metabolites is recommended. Key words: endothelium, lipids, anabolic steroids, body builders

  2. Sex Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Susan

    1991-01-01

    This paper on the problem of sex offending among individuals with intellectual disabilities examines the incidence of this problem, characteristics of intellectually disabled sex offenders, determination of whether the behavior is a paraphilia or functional age-related behavior, and treatment options, with emphasis on the situation in New South…

  3. Azoospermi hos to bodybuildere efter anaboliske steroider

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    SØrensen, M B; Ingerslev, Hans Jakob

    1995-01-01

    During investigations for infertility azoospermia was diagnosed in two men who were concomitantly using anabolic steroids for body-building. Following cessation of anabolic steroid use the semen quality was normalized. Suppression of spermatogenesis during treatment with testosterone and derivatives hereof is wellknown. Usage of anabolic steroids should be remembered as a cause of oligo- and azoospermia and asked about in cases of sperm counts approaching or at zero.

  4. Endocrine correlates of musth in free-ranging Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) determined by non-invasive faecal steroid hormone metabolite measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosal, Ratna; Ganswindt, André; Seshagiri, Polani B; Sukumar, Raman

    2013-01-01

    The occurrence of musth, a period of elevated levels of androgens and heightened sexual activity, has been well documented for the male Asian elephant (Elephas maximus). However, the relationship between androgen-dependent musth and adrenocortical function in this species is unclear. The current study is the first assessment of testicular and adrenocortical function in free-ranging male Asian elephants by measuring levels of testosterone (androgen) and cortisol (glucocorticoid--a physiological indicator of stress) metabolites in faeces. During musth, males expectedly showed significant elevation in faecal testosterone metabolite levels. Interestingly, glucocorticoid metabolite concentrations remained unchanged between musth and non-musth periods. This observation is contrary to that observed with wild and captive African elephant bulls and captive Asian bull elephants. Our results show that musth may not necessarily represent a stressful condition in free-ranging male Asian elephants. PMID:24358371

  5. Rats with steroid-induced polycystic ovaries develop hypertension and increased sympathetic nervous system activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ploj Karolina

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is a complex endocrine and metabolic disorder associated with ovulatory dysfunction, abdominal obesity, hyperandrogenism, hypertension, and insulin resistance. Methods Our objectives in this study were (1 to estimate sympathetic-adrenal medullary (SAM activity by measuring mean systolic blood pressure (MSAP in rats with estradiol valerate (EV-induced PCO; (2 to estimate alpha1a and alpha2a adrenoceptor expression in a brain area thought to mediate central effects on MSAP regulation and in the adrenal medulla; (3 to assess hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis regulation by measuring adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH and corticosterone (CORT levels in response to novel-environment stress; and (4 to measure abdominal obesity, sex steroids, and insulin sensitivity. Results The PCO rats had significantly higher MSAP than controls, higher levels of alpha1a adrenoceptor mRNA in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN, and lower levels of alpha2a adrenoceptor mRNA in the PVN and adrenal medulla. After exposure to stress, PCO rats had higher ACTH and CORT levels. Plasma testosterone concentrations were lower in PCO rats, and no differences in insulin sensitivity or in the weight of intraabdominal fat depots were found. Conclusion Thus, rats with EV-induced PCO develop hypertension and increased sympathetic and HPA-axis activity without reduced insulin sensitivity, obesity, or hyperandrogenism. These findings may have implications for mechanisms underlying hypertension in PCOS.

  6. Sex hormones and brain dopamine functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotomayor-Zarate, Ramon; Cruz, Gonzalo; Renard, Georgina M; Espinosa, Pedro; Ramirez, Victor D

    2014-01-01

    Sex hormones exert differential effects on a variety of sensitive tissues like the reproductive tract, gonads, liver, bone and adipose tissue, among others. In the brain, sex hormones act as neuroactive steroids regulating the function of neuroendocrine diencephalic structures like the hypothalamus. In addition, steroids can exert physiological effects upon cortical, limbic and midbrain structures, influencing different behaviors such as memory, learning, mood and reward. In the last three decades, the role of sex hormones on monoamine neurotransmitters in extra-hypothalamic areas related to motivated behaviors, learning and locomotion has been the focus of much research. The purpose of this thematic issue is to present the state of art concerning the effects of sex hormones on the neurochemical regulation of dopaminergic midbrain areas involved in neurobiological and pathological processes, such as addiction to drugs of abuse. We also discuss evidence of how neonatal exposure to sex hormones or endocrine disrupting chemicals can produce long-term changes on the neurochemical regulation of dopaminergic neurons in the limbic and midbrain areas. PMID:25540983

  7. Body water, extracellular water, body potassium, and exchangeable sodium in body builders using anabolic steroids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nine competitive male body builders aged 21 to 34 who were determined to take anabolic steroids were studied before and 6 to 10 weeks after a training cycle which included steroid administration. A control group of nine subjects matched in age and duration of competitive career, but using only natural training methods were studied on a single occasion while in training. Total body potassium (TBK) by 40K, total body water (TBW) by 3H2O dilution, extracellular water (ECW) by 35SO4 dilution and zero time extrapolation, and exchangeable sodium by 24Na dilution were measured before and after training. Intracellular water (ICW) was calculated from TBW - ECW. Initially steroid users had a greater skeletal muscle mass than control subjects, and obtained a further weight gain on steroids, all in skeletal muscle, based on parallel increases in TBK and ICW. Other body composition measurements did not change significantly. A single steroid user became ill taking steroids, decreased potassium by 5%, and increased extracellular water, changes which may represent the effects of hepatic dysfunction which occurred while on anabolic steroids

  8. Sex Differences in Dichotic Listening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voyer, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    The present study quantified the magnitude of sex differences in perceptual asymmetries as measured with dichotic listening. This was achieved by means of a meta-analysis of the literature dating back from the initial use of dichotic listening as a measure of laterality. The meta-analysis included 249 effect sizes pertaining to sex differences and…

  9. Mapping of sex hormone receptors and their modulators along the nephron of male and female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimont, Adrien; Bloch-Faure, May; El Abida, Boutaïna; Crambert, Gilles

    2009-05-19

    Renal functions are regulated by steroid sex hormones, but the exhaustive identification of their receptors along the nephron is still lacking. Here, we have localized all known nuclear or membrane-bound sex hormone receptors and some of their activators along the nephron of male and female mice. Almost all receptors are present in male and female kidney, some of them having very restricted localization. Only one gene tested among 11 (ARA54) exhibits a gender difference in the level of its expression. This first "renal map" of sex steroid receptor expression may serve as a pre-requisite for investigating the role of these hormones on kidney functions. PMID:19401201

  10. Use of radioimmunoassay procedures for the determination of sex hormones in animal tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, B. (Institut fuer Veterinaermedizin des Bundesgesundheitsamtes (Robert von Ostertag-Institut), Berlin (Germany, F.R.))

    1983-07-01

    Radioimmunoassay methods for the determination of sex steroids and other compounds with sex hormone-like activities in various edible animal tissues and endocrine glands have been developed. Reliability of these methods, allowing quantification in a range of 10/sup -11/ M, has been adequately demonstrated. When applied to monitoring residues of anabolic sex hormones in edible tissues of veal calves, physiological baseline levels of some endogenous ''anabolic'' steroids (like testosterone, oestrogens) were established; in the case of xenobiotics residues at the scheduled time of slaughter could be quantified (trenbolone) and a regulatory method to implement the ban of diethylstilbestrol was introduced.

  11. JAMA Patient Page: Steroid Injections to Treat Back Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    JAMA PATIENT PAGE Steroid Injections to Treat Back Pain Example of epidural steroid injection for back pain SIDE VIEW (CROSS SECTION) Needle inserted using fluoroscopic guidance Steroid Epidural space Dura (membrane covering ...

  12. Evaluation of 4-Nonylphenol in vivo exposure in Dreissena polymorpha: Bioaccumulation, steroid levels and oxidative stress

    OpenAIRE

    Riva, Consuelo; Porte Visa, Cinta; Binelli, Andrea; Provini, Alfredo

    2010-01-01

    Nonylphenol (NP) represents the most critical metabolite of alkylphenols (APs) and alkylphenol ethoxylates (APEs), non-ionic surfactants widely used in the formulation of domestic and industrial products. On the basis of in vitro and in vivo animal studies 4-nonylphenol (4-NP) is considered an endocrine disrupting chemical (EDC). The evidence to date indicates that mollusks are able to synthesize sex steroids from the precursor cholesterol and their endocrine pathways are theoretically suscep...

  13. Steroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... DEA Publications Drugs & Paraphernalia Find Help About the DEA DEA: Who We Are U.S. Department of Justice Legal ... is a United States Government, Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) website. The inclusion of a link on this ...

  14. Sex Determination from Occipital Condylar Measurements by Baudoin Index in Forensic Purposes / Determinación del Sexo desde Mediciones del Cóndilo Occipital Mediante el Índice de Baudoin con Propósitos Forenses

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Osvaldo Fortes de, Oliviera; Rachel Lima Ribeiro, Tinoco; Eduardo, Daruge Júnior; Laís Gomes de, Araujo; Ricardo Henrique Alves da, Silva; Luiz Renato, Paranhos.

    1297-13-01

    Full Text Available En la identificación de personas con fines forenses el sexo es una de las características más importantes y primordiales a evaluar en cada caso. El índice condilar Baudoin es un método de determinación del sexo basado en mediciones de la longitud y la anchura del cóndilo occipital. El objetivo de es [...] ta investigación fue aplicar el índice condilar de Baudoin para la determinación del sexo, y evaluar su fiabilidad. La muestra fue compuesta de 100 cráneos humanos brasileños, 50 hombres y 50 mujeres del cementerio São Gonçalo, ciudad de Cuiabá, Brasil. Los valores de medición se analizaron estadísticamente con el fin de comparar la tasa de coincidencia para cada sexo, cada lado, además de la media general. Los resultados mostraron que el porcentaje general de éxito en la aplicación del índice de Baudoin fue de 44,83% para los hombres y 51,93% para las mujeres, lo que asciende a una coincidencia del 47,5%. La precisión del índice de Baudoin para la determinación del sexo fue bastante baja para esta muestra brasileña, por lo que este método debe ser considerado como criterio para determinar el sexo de los cráneos en un contexto forense. Abstract in english In human identification for forensic purposes the sex is one of the most important and first features to be assessed in each case. Baudoin condylar index is a sex determination method based on measurements of length and width of the occipital condyle. The aim of this research was to apply the Baudoi [...] n condylar index for sex determination, and evaluate its reliability. The sample was composed of 100 Brazilian human skulls, 50 male and 50 female from São Gonçalo cemetery, City of Cuiabá, Brazil. The measurement values were statistically analyzed in order to compare the matching rate for each sex, each side, as well as the overall average. The results showed that the overall percentage of success in applying the Baudoin index was 44.83% to males, and 51.93% to females, amounting to 47.5% matching. The accuracy of the Baudoin index to sex determination was quite low for this Brazilian sample, the reason why this method should be disregarded as a criterion to sexing skulls in a forensic context.

  15. Sex determination

    OpenAIRE

    McCullagh, W. McK. H.

    2013-01-01

    How the sex of offspring is determined has puzzled philosophers and scientists for millennia. Modern science has identified both genetic and environmental factors, but the question is still not yet fully answered.

  16. Safe sex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivia Worland (Purdue University; Biological Sciences)

    2008-07-09

    There are many diseases that humans can contract through sexual contact with each other. Humans can lower their risk of contracting these diseases by practicing safe sex techniques if they choose to participate in those kinds of actions.

  17. Osteonecrosis following alcohol, cocaine, and steroid use.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ziraldo, Laura

    2012-02-01

    Alcohol, steroids and cocaine have all been shown to be independent risk factors for osteonecrosis when taken in excess. Here we present a case of a young girl who developed debilitating osteonecrosis secondary to low doses of alcohol, steroids and cocaine. We feel it is important to highlight to those caring for such patients of the potential devastating complication of these three agents.

  18. “Any Condomless Anal Intercourse” is No Longer an Accurate Measure of HIV Sexual risk Behavior in Gay and Other Men Who have Sex with Men

    OpenAIRE

    Jin, Fengyi; Prestage, Garrett P.; Mao, Limin; Poynten, I Mary; Templeton, David J; Grulich, Andrew E; Zablotska, Iryna

    2015-01-01

    Background: Condomless anal intercourse (CLAI) has long been recognized as the primary mode of sexual transmission of HIV in gay and other men who have sex with men (MSM). A variety of measures of CLAI have been commonly used in behavioral surveillance for HIV risk and to forecast trends in HIV infection. However, gay and other MSM’s sexual practices changed as the understanding of disease and treatment options advance. In the present paper, we argue that summary measures such as “any CLAI” d...

  19. Sexing of human hip bones.

    OpenAIRE

    Milne, N.

    1990-01-01

    Eight measurements of the hipbone were taken from 62 human skeletons of unknown sex. The subjective judgements of eight experienced anatomists were used to obtain subsets of male, female and unknown sex specimens. Principal components analysis was employed as a group-finding procedure; this confirmed the subjective determinations. Discriminant function analysis, using the subjectively determined 'known' specimens, was conducted. This yielded scores which sexed the unknown subset in agreement ...

  20. Sex hormones alter sex ratios in the Indian skipper frog, Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis: Determining sensitive stages for gonadal sex reversal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phuge, S K; Gramapurohit, N P

    2014-05-01

    In amphibians, although genetic factors are involved in sex determination, gonadal sex differentiation can be modified by exogenous steroid hormones suggesting a possible role of sex steroids in regulating the process. We studied the effect of testosterone propionate (TP) and estradiol-17? (E2) on gonadal differentiation and sex ratio at metamorphosis in the Indian skipper frog, Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis with undifferentiated type of gonadal differentiation. A series of experiments were carried out to determine the optimum dose and sensitive stages for gonadal sex reversal. Our results clearly indicate the importance of sex hormones in controlling gonadal differentiation of E. cyanophlyctis. Treatment of tadpoles with 10, 20, 40, and 80?g/L TP throughout larval period resulted in the development of 100% males at metamorphosis at all concentrations. Similarly, treatment of tadpoles with 40?g/L TP during ovarian and testicular differentiation resulted in the development of 90% males, 10% intersexes and 100% males respectively. Treatment of tadpoles with 10, 20, 40, and 80?g/L E2 throughout larval period likewise produced 100% females at all concentrations. Furthermore, exposure to 40?g/L E2 during ovarian and testicular differentiation produced 95% females, 5% intersexes and 91% females, 9% intersexes respectively. Both TP and E2 were also effective in advancing the stages of gonadal development. Present study shows the effectiveness of both T and E2 in inducing complete sex reversal in E. cyanophlyctis. Generally, exposure to E2 increased the larval period resulting in significantly larger females than control group while the larval period of control and TP treated groups was comparable. PMID:24815042

  1. Steroid use in acute liver failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karkhanis, Jamuna; Verna, Elizabeth C

    2014-01-01

    UNLABELLED: Drug-induced and indeterminate acute liver failure (ALF) might be due to an autoimmune-like hepatitis that is responsive to corticosteroid therapy. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether corticosteroids improve survival in fulminant autoimmune hepatitis, drug-induced, or indeterminate ALF, and whether this benefit varies according to the severity of illness. We conducted a retrospective analysis of autoimmune, indeterminate, and drug-induced ALF patients in the Acute Liver Failure Study Group from 1998-2007. The primary endpoints were overall and spontaneous survival (SS, survival without transplant). In all, 361 ALF patients were studied, 66 with autoimmune (25 steroids, 41 no steroids), 164 with indeterminate (21 steroids, 143 no steroids), and 131 with drug-induced (16 steroids, 115 no steroids) ALF. Steroid use was not associated with improved overall survival (61% versus 66%, P?=?0.41), nor with improved survival in any diagnosis category. Steroid use was associated with diminished survival in certain subgroups of patients, including those with the highest quartile of the Model for Endstage Liver Disease (MELD) (>40, survival 30% versus 57%, P?=?0.03). In multivariate analysis controlling for steroid use and diagnosis, age (odds ratio [OR] 1.37 per decade), coma grade (OR 2.02 grade 2, 2.65 grade 3, 5.29 grade 4), MELD (OR 1.07), and pH?steroid use was associated with a marginal benefit in SS overall (35% versus 23%, P?=?0.047), this benefit did not persistent in multivariate analysis; mechanical ventilation (OR 0.24), MELD (OR 0.93), and alanine aminotransferase (1.02) were the only significant predictors of SS. CONCLUSION: Corticosteroids did not improve overall survival or SS in drug-induced, indeterminate, or autoimmune ALF and were associated with lower survival in patients with the highest MELD scores.

  2. Use of steroids to monitor alterations in the outer membrane of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    OpenAIRE

    Plesiat, P.; Aires, J R; Godard, C; Köhler, T.

    1997-01-01

    Testosterone (a strongly hydrophobic steroid) and testosterone hemisuccinate (a negatively charged derivative) were used as probes to investigate alterations in the outer membrane of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Diffusion rates of the steroids across the lipid bilayer were measured by coupling the influx of these compounds to their subsequent oxidation by an intracellular delta1-dehydrogenase enzyme. Wild-type cells of P. aeruginosa (strain PAO1) were found to be 25 times more permeable to testost...

  3. Vertebral fractures in steroid dependent asthma and involutional osteoporosis: a comparative study.

    OpenAIRE

    Gallacher, S. J.; Fenner, J. A.; Anderson, K.; Adamson, B. B.; Banham, S. W.; Boyle, I. T.

    1991-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Reduced bone mass predisposes patients to the development of vertebral fractures. Measurement of bone mass by non-invasive methods is used to detect patients with involutional osteoporosis at risk from fractures. These methods have not been assessed in patients with steroid dependent osteoporosis. The objective of this study was to assess the value of a predictive fracture threshold value of bone density in patients with steroid dependent asthma. METHODS: Three groups of patients ...

  4. ABUSE OF ANABOLIC ANDROGENIC STEROIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Yavari

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available According to the International Olympic Committee, the abuse of anabolic androgenic steroids (AASS is found in over 50% of positive doping tests. AASS abuse is not restricted to the organized sports andwidespread use. It remains as an unsolved public-health problem.Lower black market price, easier access to AASS, bodybuilding clubs and internet advertising are factors of this increasingly misuse. There is not real data about the prevalence of AASS abuse in various populations or countries, because most of athletes or students, due to their prohibition or ethical aspects do not admit to AASS abuse. Often they are aware of the risks of their choice and yet, are eager to put themselves at risk without deeper consideration. The abusers use them to improve their physical fitness and appearance.Present article has been collected to elucidate the risks and adverse effects of AASS and explanation of mechanisms of these events.

  5. Intrauterine sexual differentiation: biosyntesis and action of sexual steroid hormones

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Amilton Cesar dos, Santos; Diego Carvalho, Viana; Gleidson Benevides de, Oliveira; Luis Miguel, Lobo; Antônio Chaves, Assis-Neto.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this review was to describe sexual differentiation events in mammals, relating them to biosynthesis of sexual steroid hormones and their mechanisms of action. Cholesterol is the precursor of sexual steroid hormone biosynthesis via action of several enzymes converting these hormones. [...] Progestagens hormones serve as substrate for the production of androgens, which in turn serve as substrate for estrogen hormones. These hormones are responsible for sexual differentiation and reproductive cycles of mammals. Sexual differentiation process comprises determining the sexual chromosomes XX or XY + SRY and other genes linked to them, differentiation of gonads in testis or ovary, differentiation of internal and external male or female genital organs from undifferentiated anatomical structures present in the embryo, which is dependent on the presence or absence of testes and the production of anti-Müllerian hormone and testosterone; and secondary sexual differentiation, which is the response of various tissues to hormones produced by the gonads, interacting with genes linked to sexual chromosomes to increase or decrease the differences in sexual phenotype. However, some differences between the sexes and some anomalies of sexual differentiation are not explained only by these sexual hormonal effects, but also by the effect of genes encoded in sexual chromosomes.

  6. Vibrational properties and phonon anharmonicity in ZnS1?xSex: Inelastic neutron scattering, Raman scattering, X-ray diffraction measurements and lattice dynamical studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inelastic neutron scattering, Raman and X-ray diffraction measurements coupled with lattice dynamical calculations (employing a semi-empirical transferable potential model) have been carried out to gain a detailed understanding of the peculiar vibrational spectrum exhibited by the mixed crystal ZnS1?xSex. Raman scattering measurements performed over a varying range of temperature (100–800 K) and pressure (up to 13 GPa) have confirmed that the additional mode observed in the spectra are visible over the entire range of temperature and pressure. Correlation of the individual motions of atoms (obtained from computed total and partial phonon density of states) with the inelastic neutron scattering measurements (carried out over the entire Brillouin zone) have then indicated that the existence of the additional mode in ZnS1?xSex is due to the vibrations of the Se atom being in resonance with that of the S atom. Further, it has been shown that the presence of this additional mode can be tuned by varying the mass of the atom at the Se site. In addition, an analysis of bond-length distribution with increasing Se concentration have elucidated that bond-length spread is not responsible for the presence of the additional mode. An analysis of the peak shifts of the Raman modes with temperature and pressure indicate that the anharmonicity of the vibrational modes increases with increasing compositional disorder. This is attributed to the fact that increasing Se concentration gives rise to a distribution of bond-lengths in ZnS1?xSex, which is responsible for this compositional disorder induced anharmonicity. Our computations have thus revealed that mass of the anion is responsible for the presence of additional mode while bond-length distribution gives rise to the existence of compositional disorder induced anharmonicity in ZnS1?xSex. Further, it is observed that the contribution of explicit anharmonicity to the total anharmonicity becomes dominant at higher temperatures. This compound also exhibits negative thermal expansion at low temperatures as obtained from our X-ray diffraction measurements as a function of temperature (10–800 K)

  7. A rare occurrence of a malignant ovarian steroid cell tumor not otherwise specified: A case report and literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Kai; Zhu, Fufan; Xiong, Jing; Liu, Fengying

    2014-01-01

    Steroid cell tumors not otherwise specified (NOS) are a rare subgroup of sex cord-stromal tumors. The tumors can occur at any age, although the mean age of occurrence is 43 years old. The majority are benign, but have the capability of producing one or more steroids associated with virilization. The present study reports the case of a 29-year-old female who presented to the Second Xiangya Hospital suffering from lower back and leg pain that had persisted for five months. The patient had regul...

  8. High-affinity anion binding by steroidal squaramide receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Sophie J; Valkenier, Hennie; Busschaert, Nathalie; Gale, Philip A; Davis, Anthony P

    2015-04-01

    Exceptionally powerful anion receptors have been constructed by placing squaramide groups in axial positions on a steroidal framework. The steroid preorganizes the squaramide NH groups such that they can act cooperatively on a bound anion, while maintaining solubility in nonpolar media. The acidic NH groups confer higher affinities than previously-used ureas or thioureas. Binding constants exceeding 10(14) ?M(-1) have been measured for tetraethylammonium salts in chloroform by employing a variation of Cram's extraction procedure. The receptors have also been studied as transmembrane anion carriers in unilamellar vesicles. Unusually their activities do not correlate with anion affinities, thus suggesting an upper limit for binding strength in the design of anion carriers. PMID:25690527

  9. Effect of testosterone and steroids homologues on indolamines and lipid peroxidation in rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán, David Calderón; Mejía, Gerardo Barragán; Vázquez, Ivonne Espitia; García, Ernestina Hernández; del Angel, Daniel Santamaría; Olguín, Hugo Juárez

    2005-03-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of 4-pregnen-17-hydroxy-3-one (A) and two steroids homologues: 3beta-acetoxy-5,16-pregnadien-20-one (B) and 3beta-acetoxy-16alpha-17alpha-epoxy-4-pregnen-20-one (C). Male Wistar rats were treated with o-cresol combined (A, B or C) steroids. Lipid peroxidation status as result of measurement reactive substances to thiobarbituric acid (TBARS) as well as serotonin (5-HT) and its precursor 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) were measured. The prostate glands were weighed, the 5alpha-reductase activity was determined. The animals treated with A, B, and C steroids showed a slight increase in both 5alpha-reductase activity and prostate size. 5-HT and 5-HTP levels did not change significantly, and TBARS showed an increase in the group treated with B steroid and a decrease in the A steroid group with significant differences in both groups (p<0.05) versus control group. Results suggest that A steroid reduces TBARS in rat brain, perhaps as a result of the interaction between the testosterone unsaturated carbons and OH(-) groups with free radicals. PMID:15857756

  10. Estimación del sexo en cazadores-recolectores de Sudamérica a partir de variables métricas del húmero Sex estimation of South american hunter-gatherers using humeral measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marien Béguelin

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es desarrollar funciones discriminantes para estimar el sexo en poblaciones cazadoras recolectoras sudamericanas a partir de variables métricas del húmero. Se seleccionaron tres muestras de poblaciones del Holoceno tardío procedentes de: a Sur de Patagonia (n= 64, b Noreste de Patagonia (n= 47, y c Noreste de Pampa y Entre Ríos (n= 35. Para obtener una estimación confiable del sexo se incluyeron individuos con estructuras diagnósticas presentes de la pelvis o el cráneo. Se analizaron seis variables del húmero que fueron empleadas para generar funciones discriminantes a través del método stepwise forward. El sexo estimado fue contrastado con el sexo basado en la pelvis a fin de establecer su exactitud. Las asignaciones correctas calculadas mediante el método de validación cruzada fueron relevadas en las tres muestras, que variaron entre el 82% y el 100%. A su vez, se estimó el sexo con funciones provenientes de otras poblaciones del mundo, que arrojaron porcentajes menores de asignaciones correctas. Por lo tanto, la técnica desarrollada proporciona estándares específicos para las poblaciones del cono sur de América y constituye una herramienta confiable para la estimación del sexo en muestras procedentes de las áreas analizadas.The purpose of this study is to develop discriminant functions for sex estimation in hunter-gatherer South American populations, using humerus metric variables. Three Late Holocene aboriginal population samples were selected from: a South Patagonia (n= 64, b Northeastern Patagonia (n= 47 and c Northeastern Pampa and Entre Ríos (n= 35. Only those individuals showing pelvic or cranial diagnostic structures were included, in order to obtain reliable and independent sex estimation. Six humeral variables were measured (Maximum Length, Epicondylar Breadth, Vertical Diameter of Head, Maximum and Minimum Diameter at Midshaft and Minimum Diaphyseal Circumference and discriminant functions were generated from them through stepwise forward method, which selected different combinations of these variables for each sample. In order to assess the accuracy of estimations, both pelvic and humeral sex results were compared. Cross-validation percentages of correct sex assignations were high, ranging between 82 and 100 percent. In turn, other functions were tested, generated from different populations worldwide, and results for the three samples showed mostly lower percentages. Therefore, it is concluded that Southern-South America population-specific standards were obtained through this method, allowing for reliable sex determination in samples from the studied areas.

  11. Estimación del sexo en cazadores-recolectores de Sudamérica a partir de variables métricas del húmero / Sex estimation of South american hunter-gatherers using humeral measurements

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marien, Béguelin; Federico P, Lotto; Paula N, Gonzalez.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es desarrollar funciones discriminantes para estimar el sexo en poblaciones cazadoras recolectoras sudamericanas a partir de variables métricas del húmero. Se seleccionaron tres muestras de poblaciones del Holoceno tardío procedentes de: a) Sur de Patagonia (n= 64), b) No [...] reste de Patagonia (n= 47), y c) Noreste de Pampa y Entre Ríos (n= 35). Para obtener una estimación confiable del sexo se incluyeron individuos con estructuras diagnósticas presentes de la pelvis o el cráneo. Se analizaron seis variables del húmero que fueron empleadas para generar funciones discriminantes a través del método stepwise forward. El sexo estimado fue contrastado con el sexo basado en la pelvis a fin de establecer su exactitud. Las asignaciones correctas calculadas mediante el método de validación cruzada fueron relevadas en las tres muestras, que variaron entre el 82% y el 100%. A su vez, se estimó el sexo con funciones provenientes de otras poblaciones del mundo, que arrojaron porcentajes menores de asignaciones correctas. Por lo tanto, la técnica desarrollada proporciona estándares específicos para las poblaciones del cono sur de América y constituye una herramienta confiable para la estimación del sexo en muestras procedentes de las áreas analizadas. Abstract in english The purpose of this study is to develop discriminant functions for sex estimation in hunter-gatherer South American populations, using humerus metric variables. Three Late Holocene aboriginal population samples were selected from: a) South Patagonia (n= 64), b) Northeastern Patagonia (n= 47) and c) [...] Northeastern Pampa and Entre Ríos (n= 35). Only those individuals showing pelvic or cranial diagnostic structures were included, in order to obtain reliable and independent sex estimation. Six humeral variables were measured (Maximum Length, Epicondylar Breadth, Vertical Diameter of Head, Maximum and Minimum Diameter at Midshaft and Minimum Diaphyseal Circumference) and discriminant functions were generated from them through stepwise forward method, which selected different combinations of these variables for each sample. In order to assess the accuracy of estimations, both pelvic and humeral sex results were compared. Cross-validation percentages of correct sex assignations were high, ranging between 82 and 100 percent. In turn, other functions were tested, generated from different populations worldwide, and results for the three samples showed mostly lower percentages. Therefore, it is concluded that Southern-South America population-specific standards were obtained through this method, allowing for reliable sex determination in samples from the studied areas.

  12. Immunoanalysis of steroid hormones in plants.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Simerský, Radim; Pouzar, Vladimír; Strnad, Miroslav

    Bialystok : University of Bialystok, 2005, s. 97. [Conference on Isoprenoids /21./. Bialowieza (PL), 23.09.2005-29.09.2005] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : steroids * antibody * plants Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry

  13. Steroid-induced Kager's fat pad atrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report a rare case of Kager's fat pad atrophy and fibrosis in a 60-year-old woman 1 year after a steroid injection for Achilles tendinopathy. There are few published reports of steroid-induced atrophy affecting deeper layers of fat tissue. To our knowledge, this case report is the first to illustrate its features using magnetic resonance imaging. A review of the scientific literature is also presented. (orig.)

  14. Disorders of sex development expose transcriptional autonomy of genetic sex and androgen-programmed hormonal sex in human blood leukocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Appari Mahesh

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gender appears to be determined by independent programs controlled by the sex-chromosomes and by androgen-dependent programming during embryonic development. To enable experimental dissection of these components in the human, we performed genome-wide profiling of the transcriptomes of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC in patients with rare defined "disorders of sex development" (DSD, e.g., 46, XY-females due to defective androgen biosynthesis compared to normal 46, XY-males and 46, XX-females. Results A discrete set of transcripts was directly correlated with XY or XX genotypes in all individuals independent of male or female phenotype of the external genitalia. However, a significantly larger gene set in the PBMC only reflected the degree of external genital masculinization independent of the sex chromosomes and independent of concurrent post-natal sex steroid hormone levels. Consequently, the architecture of the transcriptional PBMC-"sexes" was either male, female or even "intersex" with a discordant alignment of the DSD individuals' genetic and hormonal sex signatures. Conclusion A significant fraction of gene expression differences between males and females in the human appears to have its roots in early embryogenesis and is not only caused by sex chromosomes but also by long-term sex-specific hormonal programming due to presence or absence of androgen during the time of external genital masculinization. Genetic sex and the androgen milieu during embryonic development might therefore independently modulate functional traits, phenotype and diseases associated with male or female gender as well as with DSD conditions.

  15. Sex during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... satisfying and safe sexual relationship during pregnancy. Is Sex During Pregnancy Safe? Sex is considered safe during ... frequently asked questions about sex during pregnancy. Can sex harm my baby? No. Your baby is fully ...

  16. Distribution and bioaccumulation of steroidal and phenolic endocrine disrupting chemicals in wild fish species from Dianchi Lake, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The distribution and bioaccumulation of steroidal and phenolic endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) were studied in various tissues of wild fish species from Dianchi Lake, China. In muscle tissue, 4-tert-octylphenol, 4-cumylphenol, 4-nonlyphenol and bisphenol A were detected in fish from each sampling site, with maximal concentrations of 4.6, 4.4, 18.9 and 83.5 ng/g dry weight (dw), respectively. Steroids (estrone, 17?-estradiol 17?-ethynylestradiol and estriol) were found at lower levels (<11.3 ng/g dw) and less frequently in muscle samples. The highest concentrations of steroids and phenols were found in liver, followed by those in gill and the lowest concentration was found in muscle. The field bioconcentration factors (BCFs) of phenols were calculated in fish species ranged from 18 to 97. Moreover, the measured tissue concentrations were utilized in order to estimate water concentration of steroids (4.4-18.0 ng/L). These results showed that steroidal and phenolic EDCs were likely ubiquitous contaminants in wild fish. - Highlights: ? We assess the occurrence of EDCs in wild fish from Dianchi Lake, China. ? We investigate the distribution of steroidal and phenolic EDCs in fish tissues. ? We estimate the bioaccumulation of wild fish to steroidal and phenolic EDCs. ? Steroidal and phenolic EDCs are likely ubiquitous contaminants in wild fish. - Contaminants of endocrine disrupting chemicals in wild fish.

  17. Distribution and bioaccumulation of steroidal and phenolic endocrine disrupting chemicals in wild fish species from Dianchi Lake, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Jingliang; Wang Renmin; Huang Bin; Lin Chan; Wang Yu [Faculty of Environmental Science and Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming, Yunnan 650093 (China); Pan Xuejun, E-mail: xjpan@kmust.edu.cn [Faculty of Environmental Science and Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming, Yunnan 650093 (China)

    2011-10-15

    The distribution and bioaccumulation of steroidal and phenolic endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) were studied in various tissues of wild fish species from Dianchi Lake, China. In muscle tissue, 4-tert-octylphenol, 4-cumylphenol, 4-nonlyphenol and bisphenol A were detected in fish from each sampling site, with maximal concentrations of 4.6, 4.4, 18.9 and 83.5 ng/g dry weight (dw), respectively. Steroids (estrone, 17{beta}-estradiol 17{alpha}-ethynylestradiol and estriol) were found at lower levels (<11.3 ng/g dw) and less frequently in muscle samples. The highest concentrations of steroids and phenols were found in liver, followed by those in gill and the lowest concentration was found in muscle. The field bioconcentration factors (BCFs) of phenols were calculated in fish species ranged from 18 to 97. Moreover, the measured tissue concentrations were utilized in order to estimate water concentration of steroids (4.4-18.0 ng/L). These results showed that steroidal and phenolic EDCs were likely ubiquitous contaminants in wild fish. - Highlights: > We assess the occurrence of EDCs in wild fish from Dianchi Lake, China. > We investigate the distribution of steroidal and phenolic EDCs in fish tissues. > We estimate the bioaccumulation of wild fish to steroidal and phenolic EDCs. > Steroidal and phenolic EDCs are likely ubiquitous contaminants in wild fish. - Contaminants of endocrine disrupting chemicals in wild fish.

  18. Screening for Anabolic Steroids in Urine of Forensic Cases Using Fully Automated Solid Phase Extraction and LC–MS-MS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, David Wederkinck; Linnet, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    A screening method for 18 frequently measured exogenous anabolic steroids and the testosterone/epitestosterone (T/E) ratio in forensic cases has been developed and validated. The method involves a fully automated sample preparation including enzyme treatment, addition of internal standards and solid phase extraction followed by analysis by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) using electrospray ionization with adduct formation for two compounds. Urine samples from 580 forensic cases were analyzed to determine the T/E ratio and occurrence of exogenous anabolic steroids. Extraction recoveries ranged from 77 to 95%, matrix effects from 48 to 78%, overall process efficiencies from 40 to 54% and the lower limit of identification ranged from 2 to 40 ng/mL. In the 580 urine samples analyzed from routine forensic cases, 17 (2.9%) were found positive for one or more anabolic steroids. Only seven different steroids including testosterone were found in the material, suggesting that only a small number of common steroids are likely to occur in a forensic context. The steroids were often in high concentrations (>100 ng/mL), and a combination of steroids and/or other drugs of abuse were seen in the majority of cases. The method presented serves as a fast and automated screening procedure, proving the suitability of LC-MS-MS for analyzing anabolic steroids.

  19. Screening for anabolic steroids in urine of forensic cases using fully automated solid phase extraction and LC-MS-MS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, David Wederkinck; Linnet, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    A screening method for 18 frequently measured exogenous anabolic steroids and the testosterone/epitestosterone (T/E) ratio in forensic cases has been developed and validated. The method involves a fully automated sample preparation including enzyme treatment, addition of internal standards and solid phase extraction followed by analysis by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) using electrospray ionization with adduct formation for two compounds. Urine samples from 580 forensic cases were analyzed to determine the T/E ratio and occurrence of exogenous anabolic steroids. Extraction recoveries ranged from 77 to 95%, matrix effects from 48 to 78%, overall process efficiencies from 40 to 54% and the lower limit of identification ranged from 2 to 40 ng/mL. In the 580 urine samples analyzed from routine forensic cases, 17 (2.9%) were found positive for one or more anabolic steroids. Only seven different steroids including testosterone were found in the material, suggesting that only a small number of common steroids are likely to occur in a forensic context. The steroids were often in high concentrations (>100 ng/mL), and a combination of steroids and/or other drugs of abuse were seen in the majority of cases. The method presented serves as a fast and automated screening procedure, proving the suitability of LC-MS-MS for analyzing anabolic steroids.

  20. Mitochondrial benzodiazepine receptors regulate steroid biosynthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukhin, A.G.; Papadopoulos, V.; Costa, E.; Krueger, K.E. (Georgetown Univ. School of Medicine, Washington, DC (USA))

    1989-12-01

    Recent observations on the steroid synthetic capability within the brain open the possibility that benzodiazepines may influence steroid synthesis in nervous tissue through interactions with peripheral-type benzodiazepine recognition sites, which are highly expressed in steroidogenic cells and associated with the outer mitochondrial membrane. To examine this possibility nine molecules that exhibit a greater than 10,000-fold difference in their affinities for peripheral-type benzodiazepine binding sites were tested for their effects on a well-established steroidogenic model system, the Y-1 mouse adrenal tumor cell line. 4{prime}-Chlorodiazepam, PK 11195, and PK 14067 stimulated steroid production by 2-fold in Y-1 cells, whereas diazepam, flunitrazepam, zolpidem, and PK 14068 displayed a lower (1.2- to 1.5-fold) maximal stimulation. In contrast, clonazepam and flumazenil did not stimulate steroid synthesis. The potencies of these compounds to inhibit {sup 3}H-labeled PK 11195 binding to peripheral-type benzodiazepine recognition sites correlated with their potencies to stimulate steroid production. Similar findings were observed in bovine and rat adrenocortical cell preparations. These results suggest that ligands of the peripheral-type benzodiazepine recognition site acting on this mitochondrial receptor can enhance steroid production. This action may contribute specificity to the pharmacological profile of drugs preferentially acting on the benzodiazepine recognition site associated with the outer membrane of certain mitochondrial populations.

  1. Mitochondrial benzodiazepine receptors regulate steroid biosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent observations on the steroid synthetic capability within the brain open the possibility that benzodiazepines may influence steroid synthesis in nervous tissue through interactions with peripheral-type benzodiazepine recognition sites, which are highly expressed in steroidogenic cells and associated with the outer mitochondrial membrane. To examine this possibility nine molecules that exhibit a greater than 10,000-fold difference in their affinities for peripheral-type benzodiazepine binding sites were tested for their effects on a well-established steroidogenic model system, the Y-1 mouse adrenal tumor cell line. 4'-Chlorodiazepam, PK 11195, and PK 14067 stimulated steroid production by 2-fold in Y-1 cells, whereas diazepam, flunitrazepam, zolpidem, and PK 14068 displayed a lower (1.2- to 1.5-fold) maximal stimulation. In contrast, clonazepam and flumazenil did not stimulate steroid synthesis. The potencies of these compounds to inhibit 3H-labeled PK 11195 binding to peripheral-type benzodiazepine recognition sites correlated with their potencies to stimulate steroid production. Similar findings were observed in bovine and rat adrenocortical cell preparations. These results suggest that ligands of the peripheral-type benzodiazepine recognition site acting on this mitochondrial receptor can enhance steroid production. This action may contribute specificity to the pharmacological profile of drugs preferentially acting on the benzodiazepine recognition sacting on the benzodiazepine recognition site associated with the outer membrane of certain mitochondrial populations

  2. Stress and Sex Versus Immunity and Inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    George P. Chrousos (University of Athens; Children's Hospital Aghia Sophia REV)

    2010-10-12

    Glucocorticoids, the major effector hormones of the stress system, influence almost all aspects of mammalian physiology. These steroids exert their effects on a large network of primary, secondary, and tertiary target genes, encompassing up to 20% of the expressed genome in a tissue. New evidence shows quantitative and qualitative gender-specific differences in the actions of glucocorticoids on the rat liver transcriptome, suggesting that the pervasive actions of these hormones are modulated by gender, both as an inherent property of the target tissues and as a result of exposure of these tissues to estrogens and possibly also androgens. Generally, albeit not always, female mammals have more robust behavioral and somatic responses to stress and more potent immune and inflammatory reactions than males—differences that are inherent, sex steroid–mediated, or both and possibly the evolutionary products of natural selection of female and male roles.

  3. Sexing in guinea fowls (Numida meleagris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul-Rahman, Iddriss I; Awumbila, Bawa; Jeffcoate, Ian A; Robinson, Jane E; Obese, Frederick Y

    2015-02-01

    Despite the potentials and contributions of guinea fowls to economic and social life in Ghana, accurate sex identification in these birds is still a major problem. Three hundred and sixty guinea fowls (180 birds per sex) were used in determining a more accurate and farmer friendly sexing technique. The sexing methods explored were vent, biometric, and molecular techniques. Vent sexing was accomplished by measuring phalli in 28 and 32-week-old birds, while biometric sexing involved the measurement of morphometric traits and data analyzed using discriminant function analysis. Molecular sexing was carried out by DNA extraction and subsequent PCR using the 2550F/2718R primer set. Females had a wider (P biometric variables in a discriminant function, males could be distinguished from females with an accuracy of 94%. During molecular sexing, the P2/P8 primer set was not effective in sexing guinea fowls because it amplified a single band in both sexes and in the same manner. The sex of guinea fowls was properly determined using the primer set 2550F/2718R. Females produced 2 bands of 396 bp and 344 bp, while males only produced the larger band. Phallus size in the 2 sexes were distinguishable from 8 weeks of age, with males having longer and thicker (P?biometric method emerged as the most farmer friendly approach to sexing guinea fowls. PMID:25595479

  4. Steroidal saponins from Dioscorea preussii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabopda, Turibio Kuiate; Mitaine-Offer, Anne-Claire; Tanaka, Chiaki; Miyamoto, Tomofumi; Mirjolet, Jean-François; Duchamp, Olivier; Ngadjui, Bonaventure Tchaleu; Lacaille-Dubois, Marie-Aleth

    2014-09-01

    Three new steroidal saponins, named diospreussinosides A-C (1-3), along with two known ones (4, 5) were isolated from rhizomes of Dioscorea preussii. Their structures were elucidated mainly by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic analysis and mass spectrometry as (25S)-17?,25-dihydroxyspirost-5-en-3?-yl-O-?-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1?4)-?-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1?4)-?-D-glucopyranoside (1), (25S)-17?,25-dihydroxyspirost-5-en-3?-yl-O-?-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1?4)-?-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1?4)-[?-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1?2)]-?-D-glucopyranoside (2), and (24S,25R)-17?,24,25-trihydroxyspirost-5-en-3?-yl-O-?-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1?4)-?-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1?4)-[?-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1?2)]-?-D-glucopyranoside (3). The spirostane-type skeleton of compound 3 possessing an unusual dihydroxylation pattern on the F-ring is reported for the first time. Cytotoxicity of compounds 2-5 was evaluated against two human colon carcinoma cell lines (HT-29 and HCT 116). PMID:24928475

  5. Free and sulfated steroids secretion in postpubertal boars (Sus scrofa domestica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuler, G; Dezhkam, Y; Bingsohn, L; Hoffmann, B; Failing, K; Galuska, C E; Hartmann, M F; Sánchez-Guijo, A; Wudy, S A

    2014-09-01

    Sulfated steroids have been traditionally regarded as inactive metabolites. However, they may also serve as precursors for the production of active free steroids in target cells. In this study, we used the boar as a model to study the metabolism, transport, and function of steroid sulfates due to their high production in the porcine testicular-epididymal compartment, of which the role is unknown. To characterize the secretion of free and sulfated steroids, plasma samples were collected from six postpubertal boars over 6 ?h every 20 ?min from the jugular vein. Long-term secretion profiles were also established in seven boars stimulated with human chorionic gonadotropin. To directly characterize the testicular output, samples were collected from superficial testicular arterial and venous blood vessels. Testosterone, androstenedione and sulfated pregnenolone, DHEA, estrone (E1), and estradiol-17? (E2) were determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Free E1 and E2 were measured by RIA. Irrespective of a high variability between individuals, the results suggest that i) all steroids assessed are primarily produced in the testis, ii) they exhibit similar profiles pointing to a pulsatile secretion with low frequency (three to five pulses per day), and iii) after synthesis at least a major proportion is immediately released into peripheral circulation. The fact that all steroid sulfates assessed are original testicular products and their high correlations with one another suggest their role as being intermediates of testicular steroidogenesis rather than as being inactivated end products. Moreover, a substantial use of sulfated steroids in porcine testicular steroidogenesis would assign a crucial regulatory role to steroid sulfatase, which is highly expressed in Leydig cells. PMID:24961601

  6. Determinación del genero por medio de medidas y verificación del peso del hueso esternon (Brasil Sex determination by measures and weight verification of sternum bone.Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Queiroz

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available La determinación del género humano (sexo es una de las principales atribuciones del odontólogo forense y del médico legista encargados del análisis antropológico de esqueletos, piezas y fragmentos óseos. Entre los huesos que pueden y deben ser analizados se encuentra el hueso esternón, considerando, principalmente, sus características particulares. En el presente estudio fueron medidos y pesados 100 huesos esternón, siendo 50 del género femenino y 50 del género masculino, provenientes de Cuiabá, Mato Grosso, Brasil, con edades comprendidas entre 19 y 103 años. Fue verificado que la medida del centro de la escotadura de inserción del primer arco costal derecho al izquierdo y el peso del manubrio y cuerpo del esternón, altamente significantes, constituyen parámetros para determinar el género. Fue obtenida, también, una fórmula matemática que posibilita determinar el género en análisis futuras con índices de acierto de 69,2%. (SEX DETERMINATION BY MEASURES AND WEIGHT VERIFICATION OF ESTERNUM BONEHuman gender determination is one of the main attributions of forensic odontologists and forensic pathologists responsible for the anthropological analysis of skeletons, parts and fragmented bones. One of the bones that can and must be analyzed is the sternum, considering its particular characteristics. In the present study we’ve measured and weighed 100 sternums, 50 belonging to female gender and 50 to male gender proceeding from Cuiabá-MT, with age varying between 19 and 103 years. It was verified that the measure of the center of the chamfer of the insertion of the first to the left costal arc and the weight of the manubrium and body of sternum, are highly significant, becoming parameters to determine the gender. A mathematical formula was also obtained that permitted to determine the gender in future analyses with indices of 69,2%. (SEX DETERMINATION BY MEASURES AND WEIGHT VERIFICATION OF ESTERNUM BONE

  7. Expression of glucocorticoid receptors ? and ß in steroid sensitive and steroid insensitive interstitial lung diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Pujols, L; Xaubet, A.; Ramirez, J.; Mullol, J. (J.); Roca-Ferrer, J; Torrego, A; Cidlowski, J; Picado, C

    2004-01-01

    Background: Sensitivity to glucocorticoids may be related to the concentration of glucocorticoid receptors ? (GR?) and ß (GRß). A study was undertaken to assess GR? and GRß expression in steroid insensitive interstitial lung disease (idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF)) and steroid sensitive interstitial lung diseases (sarcoidosis and cryptogenic organising pneumonia (COP)).

  8. Steroids, hypoxemia, and oxygen transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farber, M O; Daly, R S; Strawbridge, R A; Manfredi, F

    1979-04-01

    This study investigated the effects of administration of methylprednisolone on oxygen transport in ten stable hypoxemic (mean arterial oxygen pressure, 54 +/- 3 mm Hg) patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). At 24 hours (after four injections of a bolus of 30 mg of methylprednisolone sodium succinate per kilogram of body weight, given intravenously every six hours), significant differences (P less than 0.05) were an increased cardiac index (3.0 +/- 0.2 to 4.1 +/- 0.2 L/min/sq m), a decreased peripheral vascular resistance (1,186 +/- 100 to 849 +/- 60 dynes/sec/cm-5), an increased flow of oxygen to tissue (0.90 +/- 0.07 to 1.16 +/- 0.09 L/min), a decreased arteriovenous oxygen content difference (49 +/- 3 to 43 +/- 2 ml/L), a decreased concentration of hydrogen ions in the arterial blood (38 +/- 1 to 35 +/- 1 nmol/L) and arterial carbon dioxide tension (39 +/- 2 to 32 +/- 1 mm Hg), and increased levels of lactate (1.1 +/- 0.2 to 3.7 +/- 1.0 mmol/L) and pyruvate (0.14 +/- 0.04 to 0.37 +/- 0.08 mmol/L). Fractional oxygen utilization, oxygen consumption, the partial pressure of oxygen at which hemoglobin was 50 percent saturated, and the level of 2,3-diphosphoglyceric acid remained unchanged. In vitro studies showed that these patients' red blood cells responded with a significant (more than 35 percent) increase in the level of 2.3-diphosphoglyceric acid when incubated for ten hours with concentrations of methylprednisolone that were much higher (1.0 mg/ml) than those attained in vivo (12.5 microgram/ml). These studies demonstrate that repeated infusions of high doses of steroids in a bolus in stable hypoxemic patients with COPD produce significant physiologic changes but no apparent net gain in the oxygenation of tissues. PMID:446133

  9. Ovarian steroids in endometrial angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrot-Applanat, M; Ancelin, M; Buteau-Lozano, H; Meduri, G; Bausero, P

    2000-01-01

    Angiogenesis, the sprouting of new blood vessels from pre-existing ones, is fundamental for human endometrial development and differentiation, which are necessary for implantation. This vascular process is supposed to be mainly mediated by the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), also named vascular permeability factor (VPF). We report here the expression and modulation of VEGF and its receptors, Flk-1/KDR and Flt-1, in the functionalis throughout the menstrual cycle. Using immunocytochemistry, VEGF is localized in glandular epithelial cells and in the surrounding stroma, as well as in capillaries and spiral arterioles. The localization of VEGF on the endothelium correlates with the presence of Flt-1 and Flk-1/KDR receptors on vascular structures, including capillary strands that have not yet formed a lumen and that have been previously described in tumors as angiogenic capillaries. The strongest immunoreactivity for both VEGF and Flk-1/KDR receptor on endothelial cells is detected in the proliferative and midsecretory phases. Enhanced expression of VEGF and its Flk-1 receptors on narrow capillary strands during the proliferative phase may account for the rapid capillary growth associated with endometrial regeneration from the residual basal layer following menstrual shedding of the functionalis. The vascular expression of Flt-1 is more important in the secretory than in the proliferative phase, associated with a high microvascular density and an increase in vascular permeability in the implantation period. Consistently with these in vivo observations, the treatment of isolated endometrial stromal cells with estradiol (E(2)), or E(2) + progesterone, significantly increased VEGF mRNA over the control value in a dose-dependent manner. These results demonstrate that the expression of VEGF and its receptors is cyclically modulated by ovarian steroids, and that this endothelial growth factor acts on the endothelium in a paracrine fashion to control endometrial angiogenesis and permeability. PMID:11108865

  10. Using Digital Images of the Zebra Finch Song System as a Tool to Teach Organizational Effects of Steroid Hormones: A Free Downloadable Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grisham, William; Schottler, Natalie A.; Beck McCauley, Lisa M.; Pham, Anh P.; Ruiz, Maureen L.; Fong, Michelle C.; Cui, Xinran

    2011-01-01

    Zebra finch song behavior is sexually dimorphic: males sing and females do not. The neural system underlying this behavior is sexually dimorphic, and this sex difference is easy to quantify. During development, the zebra finch song system can be altered by steroid hormones, specifically estradiol, which actually masculinizes it. Because of the…

  11. Review of Androgenic Anabolic Steroid Use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. Borges; G. Eisele; C. Byrd

    2001-07-31

    An area that has been overlooked within personnel security evaluations is employee use of androgenic-anabolic steroids (AAS). Current drug testing within the federal government does not include testing for anabolic steroids, and the difficulties to implement such testing protocols-not to mention the cost involved-make AAS testing highly improbable. The basis of this report is to bring to the forefront the damage that anabolic steroids can cause from both a physical and a psychological standpoint. Most individuals who use AASs do so to increase their muscle mass because they wish to gain some type of competitive edge during athletic competition or they wish to enhance their physical features for self-satisfaction and self-esteem (i.e., body building). Security officers are one group of men who often take high doses of anabolic steroids, according to the Second Report of the Senate Standing Committee (1990). The negative psychological characteristics for AAS use is extensive and includes prominent hostility, aggressiveness, irritability, euphoria, grandiose beliefs, hyperactivity, reckless behavior, increased sexual appetite, unpredictability, poor impulse control, mood fluctuations, and insomnia. The drug may invoke a sense of power and invincibility (Leckman and Scahill, 1990). Depressive symptoms, such as anhedonia, fatigue, impaired concentration, decreased libido, and even suicidality (Pope and Katz, 1992) have been noted with steroid withdrawal. It appears that long-term users of AAS experience similar characteristics as other substance abusers (i.e., craving, dependence, and withdrawal symptoms).

  12. Hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls decrease circulating steroids in female polar bears (Ursus maritimus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustavson, Lisa; Ciesielski, Tomasz M

    2015-01-01

    As a top predator in the Arctic food chain, polar bears (Ursus maritimus) are exposed to high levels of persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Because several of these compounds have been reported to alter endocrine pathways, such as the steroidogenesis, potential disruption of the sex steroid synthesis by POPs may cause implications for reproduction by interfering with ovulation, implantation and fertility. Blood samples were collected from 15 female polar bears in Svalbard (Norway) in April 2008. The concentrations of nine circulating steroid hormones; dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), androstenedione (AN), testosterone (TS), dihydrotestosterone (DHT), estrone (E1), 17?-estradiol (?E2), 17?-estradiol (?E2), pregnenolone (PRE) and progesterone (PRO) were determined. The aim of the study was to investigate associations among circulating levels of specific POP compounds and POP-metabolites (hydroxylated PCBs [OH-PCBs] and hydroxylated PBDEs [OH-PBDEs]), steroid hormones, biological and capture variables in female polar bears. Inverse correlations were found between circulating levels of PRE and AN, and circulating levels of OH-PCBs. There were no significant relationships between the steroid concentrations and other analyzed POPs or the variables capture date and capture location (latitude and longitude), lipid content, condition and body mass. Although statistical associations do not necessarily represent direct cause-effect relationships, the present study indicate that OH-PCBs may affect the circulating levels of AN and PRE in female polar bears and that OH-PCBs thus may interfere with the steroid homeostasis. Increase in PRO and a decrease in AN concentrations suggest that the enzyme CYP17 may be a potential target for OH-PCBs. In combination with natural stressors, ongoing climate change and contaminant exposure, it is possible that OH-PCBs may disturb the reproductive potential of polar bears.

  13. Hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls decrease circulating steroids in female polar bears (Ursus maritimus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustavson, Lisa; Ciesielski, Tomasz M; Bytingsvik, Jenny; Styrishave, Bjarne; Hansen, Martin; Lie, Elisabeth; Aars, Jon; Jenssen, Bjørn M

    2015-04-01

    As a top predator in the Arctic food chain, polar bears (Ursus maritimus) are exposed to high levels of persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Because several of these compounds have been reported to alter endocrine pathways, such as the steroidogenesis, potential disruption of the sex steroid synthesis by POPs may cause implications for reproduction by interfering with ovulation, implantation and fertility. Blood samples were collected from 15 female polar bears in Svalbard (Norway) in April 2008. The concentrations of nine circulating steroid hormones; dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), androstenedione (AN), testosterone (TS), dihydrotestosterone (DHT), estrone (E1), 17?-estradiol (?E2), 17?-estradiol (?E2), pregnenolone (PRE) and progesterone (PRO) were determined. The aim of the study was to investigate associations among circulating levels of specific POP compounds and POP-metabolites (hydroxylated PCBs [OH-PCBs] and hydroxylated PBDEs [OH-PBDEs]), steroid hormones, biological and capture variables in female polar bears. Inverse correlations were found between circulating levels of PRE and AN, and circulating levels of OH-PCBs. There were no significant relationships between the steroid concentrations and other analyzed POPs or the variables capture date and capture location (latitude and longitude), lipid content, condition and body mass. Although statistical associations do not necessarily represent direct cause-effect relationships, the present study indicate that OH-PCBs may affect the circulating levels of AN and PRE in female polar bears and that OH-PCBs thus may interfere with the steroid homeostasis. Increase in PRO and a decrease in AN concentrations suggest that the enzyme CYP17 may be a potential target for OH-PCBs. In combination with natural stressors, ongoing climate change and contaminant exposure, it is possible that OH-PCBs may disturb the reproductive potential of polar bears. PMID:25725300

  14. Conceptualization and measurement of homosexuality in sex surveys: a critical review / Modos de conceitualizar e medir homossexualidade em pesquisas sobre sexualidade: uma revisão crítica

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Stuart, Michaels; Brigitte, Lhomond.

    1365-13-01

    Full Text Available O artigo traz uma revisão das principais pesquisas nacionais sobre sexualidade que apresentam perguntas sobre homossexualidade, com foco nas questões conceituais e metodológicas sobre as definições de sexo, os aspectos de medição da homossexualidade, as técnicas de amostragem e de entrevistas e o fo [...] rmato do questionário. As taxas de declaração sobre atração pelo mesmo sexo, comportamento, parceiros e identidade também são apresentadas e comparadas. O estudo da homossexualidade em inquéritos populacionais foi moldado com base em tradições de investigação e questões provenientes desde a sexologia até a epidemiologia do HIV/AIDS. O comportamento sexual é assunto central nas pesquisas sobre sexualidade desde Kinsey. Os temas sobre atração sexual, identidade e/ou orientação sexual surgem mais recentemente. São abordadas e discutidas as diferenças no tratamento de homens e mulheres na formulação e análise das pesquisas, assim como as taxas de respostas em diferentes pesquisas, em distintos países e momentos históricos. Ressaltamos a relevância de que sejam consideradas tanto mudanças metodológicas quanto sociais para interpretar as diferenças constatadas. Abstract in english This article reviews major national population sex surveys that have asked questions about homosexuality focusing on conceptual and methodological issues, including the definitions of sex, the measured aspects of homosexuality, sampling and interviewing technique, and questionnaire design. Reported [...] rates of major measures of same-sex attraction, behavior, partners, and sexual identity from surveys are also presented and compared. The study of homosexuality in surveys has been shaped by the research traditions and questions ranging from sexology to the epidemiology of HIV/AIDS. Sexual behavior has been a central topic at least since Kinsey. Issues of sexual attraction and/or orientation and sexual identity have emerged more recently. Differences in the treatment of men and women in the design and analysis of surveys as well as in the reported rates in different surveys, in different countries and time periods are also presented and discussed. We point out the importance of the consideration of both methodological and social change issues in assessing such differences.

  15. Local mechanisms in sex specific morphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drews, U

    2000-01-01

    Sex determination in mammals occurs on three levels. Segregation of sex chromosomes determines the chromosomal sex. Sry on the Y chromosome induces formation of a testis which in turn regulates via AMH and testosterone the development of the genital tract and the external phenotype. Recently a number of new factors have been described, which affect sexual development but have not yet found a place in the above canonical scheme of sex determination. For the purpose of this review, the factors are aligned according to their quality as transcription factors, steroid hormones, or growth factors. In this web of regulatory factors, the classical sex determining factors have evolved as master mechanisms while others function as slaves, or were totally suppressed. In this context, androgens acquired a dominant role in mammalian development. Androgens determine the morphogenesis of the genital tract. The effects of androgens are mediated by local cellular interactions. In the cranial section of the Wolffian duct the androgen receptor appears in the epithelium and mediates maintenance of the duct via an epithelial factor. In the caudal section of the duct the androgen receptor is expressed in the embryonic mesenchyme. Vesicular glands are induced via a morphogenetically active mesenchymal condensation, while the epithelial buds are primarily AR androgen receptor negative. The dominant role of androgens and formation of a vagina evolved together at the transition to eutherian mammals. Under this aspect, the role of androgens in the development of the vagina is analyzed. PMID:11173834

  16. Iatrogenic Cushing's syndrome due to topical steroid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nihal Hatipo?lu

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Iatrogenic Cushing's syndrome due to the use of steroid medication is extremely common because of the widespread use of these medicines in the treatment of many diseases. Systemic absorption of topical glucocorticoids may result in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis dysfunction in children. In this study, two cases with Cushing stigmata were presented. They had been administered topical corticosteroid treatment because of diaper dermatitis. We suggest that physicians should be alert to the signs of Cushing's syndrome in patients on topical steroid therapy. In addition, these findings show that the use of topical steroids, especially during infancy, should be limited to a short period and less potent agents should be preferred.

  17. Pathological changes in anabolic androgenic steroid users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lusetti, Monia; Licata, Manuela; Silingardi, Enrico; Reggiani Bonetti, Luca; Palmiere, Cristian

    2015-07-01

    Several classes of recreational and prescription drugs have additional effects on the heart and vasculature, which may significantly contribute to morbidity and mortality in chronic users. The study presented herein focuses on pathological changes involving the heart possibly due to anabolic androgenic steroid use. The role these hormones may play in their occurrence of sudden cardiac death is also investigated. 98 medico-legal cases including 6 anabolic androgenic steroid users were retrospectively reviewed. Autopsies, histology, immunohistochemistry, biochemistry and toxicology were performed in all cases. Pathological changes consisted of various degrees of interstitial and perivascular fibrosis as well as fibroadipous metaplasia and perineural fibrosis within the myocardium of the left ventricle. Within the limits of the small number of investigated cases, our results appear to confirm former observations on this topic and suggest anabolic androgenic steroid's potential causative role in the pathogenesis of sudden cardiac deaths in chronic users. PMID:26048507

  18. Benign and malignant ovarian steroid cell tumors, not otherwise specified: case studies, comparison, and review of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Wei; Tao, Xiang; Fang, Fang; Zhang, Shaofen; Xu, Congjian

    2013-01-01

    Ovarian steroid cell tumors, not otherwise specified (NOS) are rare sex cord-stromal tumors of the ovary with malignant potential. So far only a few cases were reported in English literature through the Pubmed search. Here we report two cases of such tumor, one was benign (first case underwent laparoscopic cystectomy) and the other was malignant (died 10 months later after initial diagnosis), both presented with amenorrhea and clinical signs or symptoms of virilization. In malignant case, we...

  19. Effects of centrifugation on gonadal and adrenocortical steroids in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakihana, R.; Butte, J. C.

    1980-01-01

    Many endocrine systems are sensitive to external changes in the environment. Both the pituitary adrenal and pituitary gonadal systems are affected by stress including centrifugation stress. The effect of centrifugation on the pituitary gonadal and pituitary adrenocortical systems was examined by measuring the gonadal and adrenal steroids in the plasma and brain following different duration and intensity of centrifugation stress in rats. Two studies were completed and the results are presented. The second study was carried out to describe the developmental changes of brain, plasma and testicular testosterone and dihydrotestosterone in Sprague Dawley rats so that the effect of centrifugation stress on the pituitary gonadal syatem could be better evaluated in future studies.

  20. Sex hormone replacement in ovarian failure - new treatment concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassarini, Jenifer; Lumsden, Mary Ann; Critchley, Hilary O D

    2015-01-01

    Premature ovarian failure is associated with decreased bone mass and fractures, and an increased risk of premature death from cardiovascular disease. There is also fertility compromise associated not only with the loss of ovarian function but, in those with pre-pubertal POF, inadequate uterine morphology. A wide variety of hormone replacement regimes are reported, but there is no clear evidence of best practice. Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) and the combined oral contraceptive pill (COCP) will suppress menopausal symptoms; however neither is designed to achieve physiological replacement of oestrogen and progesterone. There is evidence that physiological sex steroid replacement is superior to standard hormone replacement, in improving uterine volume as well as an improved blood pressure profile and bone mineral density. Sex steroid replacement therapy is long-term in these women, and therefore it is essential that the risk benefit ratio is optimal to maximise longer term health. PMID:25617176

  1. Using Anabolic Androgenic Steroids in Sport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sefa Lök

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available It is known that sportsmen especially youngers who engaged in athletism, weight lifting and body building sport have beenusing ‘‘Anabolic Androgenic Steroid’’ (AAS intensively for purpose of doping during world sport history. Used dopingsubstances to increase sport performance differ from sport branches. In some sport branches, it is used to diminish neuralstress while in other sport branches it is used to increase force, endurance and resistance against exhaustion. Today amongsportsmen using ergogenic substances to increase rivalry and physical performance for purpose of doping are increased. Inthis study using anabolic androgenic steroids in sports will be assessed.

  2. Steroid promiscuity: Diversity of enzyme action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lathe, Richard; Kotelevtsev, Yuri; Mason, J Ian

    2015-07-01

    This Special Issue on the topic of Steroid and Sterol Signaling: Promiscuity and Diversity, dwells on the growing realization that the 'one ligand, one binding site' and 'one enzyme, one reaction' concepts are out of date. Focusing on cytochromes P450 (CYP), hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (HSDs), and related enzymes, the Special Issue highlights that a single enzyme can bind to diverse substrates, and in different conformations, and can catalyze multiple different conversions (and in different directions), thereby, generating an unexpectedly wide spectrum of ligands that can have subtly different biological actions. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Steroid/Sterol Signaling' . PMID:25596328

  3. Steroid metabolism in the mouse placenta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the study described in this thesis was to investigate the capacity for steroid synthesis of the mouse placenta - especially the production of progesterone, androgens and estrogens - and to determine, if possible, the relation of steroid synthesis to special cell types. In an introductory chapter the androgen production in the mouse placenta is surveyed by means of a histochemical and bioindicator study of different stages of development of the placenta. The metabolism of [3H]-dehydroepiandrosterone and [3H]-progesterone by mouse placental tissue in vitro is studied. The metabolism of [3H]-progesterone by the mouse fetal adrenal in vitro is also studied

  4. Steroid allergy in patients with inflammatory bowel disease.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Malik, M

    2007-11-01

    Background: Contact allergy to a steroid enema leading to worsening of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has recently been reported. This study was designed to look for evidence of steroid allergy in patients with IBD.

  5. Gonadal- and sex-chromosome-dependent sex differences in the circadian system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuljis, Dika A; Loh, Dawn H; Truong, Danny; Vosko, Andrew M; Ong, Margaret L; McClusky, Rebecca; Arnold, Arthur P; Colwell, Christopher S

    2013-04-01

    Compelling reasons to study the role of sex in the circadian system include the higher rates of sleep disorders in women than in men and evidence that sex steroids modulate circadian control of locomotor activity. To address the issue of sex differences in the circadian system, we examined daily and circadian rhythms in wheel-running activity, electrical activity within the suprachiasmatic nucleus, and PER2::LUC-driven bioluminescence of gonadally-intact adult male and female C57BL/6J mice. We observed greater precision of activity onset in 12-hour light, 12-hour dark cycle for male mice, longer activity duration in 24 hours of constant darkness for female mice, and phase-delayed PER2::LUC bioluminescence rhythm in female pituitary and liver. Next, in order to investigate whether sex differences in behavior are sex chromosome or gonadal sex dependent, we used the 4 core genotypes (FCG) mouse model, in which sex chromosome complement is independent of gonadal phenotype. Gonadal males had more androgen receptor expression in the suprachiasmatic nucleus and behaviorally reduced photic phase shift response compared with gonadal female FCG mice. Removal of circulating gonadal hormones in adults, to test activational vs organizational effects of sex revealed that XX animals have longer activity duration than XY animals regardless of gonadal phenotype. Additionally, we observed that the activational effects of gonadal hormones were more important for regulating activity levels in gonadal male mice than in gonadal female FCG mice. Taken together, sex differences in the circadian rhythms of activity, neuronal physiology, and gene expression were subtle but provide important clues for understanding the pathophysiology of the circadian system. PMID:23439698

  6. The endocrine nervous system: Source and target for neuroactive steroids

    OpenAIRE

    Panzica, Giancarlo

    2008-01-01

    For a long time the endocrine brain was considered to the hypothalamus and to its special relationships with the hypophysis. The discovery of the wide distribution of steroid hormone receptors, as well as that of the possibility of metabolizing or synthesizing steroids by neural cells (neuroactive steroids), suggest, on the contrary, that interactions among steroids and nervous system are key points of the regulatory processes in the central and peripheral nervous system in normal conditions ...

  7. Steroid Dermatitis Resembling Rosacea: A Clinical Evaluation of 75 Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Hameed, Ammar F.

    2013-01-01

    Background. The use of topical steroids on the skin of the face should be carefully evaluated by the dermatologist; however, its misuse still occurs producing dermatological problem resembling rosacea. Objectives. To report the different clinical manifestations of steroid dermatitis resembling rosacea and to discover causes behind abusing topical steroids on the face. Methods. In this prospective observational study, 75 patients with steroid dermatitis resembling rosacea who had history of to...

  8. Vocational Steroid Use: Reconsidering the Effectiveness of a Prohibition Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Fogel, Curtis A.

    2012-01-01

    The vast majority of literature on the topic of anabolic steroid use pertains to use by athletes and/or bodybuilders. Recent evidence suggests that performance-enhancing drugs, and anabolic steroids in particular, are used widely outside the realm of sport. In this paper, the term “vocational steroid use” is further developed and explored, referring to any form of steroid use for the purposes of enhanced performance in the workplace; a type of use uncharacteristic of most illicit substanc...

  9. Structural architecture of the human long non-coding RNA, steroid receptor RNA activator

    OpenAIRE

    Novikova, Irina V.; Hennelly, Scott P.; Sanbonmatsu, Karissa Y.

    2012-01-01

    While functional roles of several long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been determined, the molecular mechanisms are not well understood. Here, we report the first experimentally derived secondary structure of a human lncRNA, the steroid receptor RNA activator (SRA), 0.87?kB in size. The SRA RNA is a non-coding RNA that coactivates several human sex hormone receptors and is strongly associated with breast cancer. Coding isoforms of SRA are also expressed to produce proteins, making the SRA g...

  10. [Sex hormones].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Kuy, A; van den Bemd, A A; Beysens, A J

    1977-03-15

    An overview of the sex hormones is presented. Testosterone is a natural androgen produced in the testes, adrenal glands, and ovaries. It has anabolic as well as androgenic effects. Testosterone is used to treat inoperable breast cancer and osteoporosis, and to stimulate erythropoesis. Androgens are absolutely counterindicated in cases of prostate cancer. Estrone, estradiol, and estriol are natural estrogens produced in the ovaries, placenta, testes, and adrenal glands. These hormones also influence the production of gonadotropins by the pituitary gland. Estrogens are used to treat menopausal disorders, ovarial insufficiency, estrogen-independent breast cancer, prostate cancer, and in some cases pregnancy disorders. Estrogens and progestagens are 2 components used in oral contraceptives. Progesterone, a natural progestagen, is produced by the corpus luteum. It promotes the proliferation phase of the endometrium, fertilization, and nidation, and it works to maintain pregnancy. Progesterone is used to treat spontaneous abortion, corpus luteum insufficiency, and endometrial cancer. PMID:242426

  11. Sex-linked dominant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inheritance - sex-linked dominant; Genetics - sex-linked dominant; X-linked dominant; Y-linked dominant ... type of chromosome that is affected (autosomal or sex chromosome). It also depends on whether the trait ...

  12. Sex and Arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pain Pregnancy and Rheumatic Disease Sex and Arthritis Sex and Arthritis PRINT Download PDF Description Sexuality is ... sensation Erectile dysfunction or impotence Begin overcoming barriers Sex is not simply about reaching rapid orgasm with ...

  13. Psychological Aspects of the Treatment of Patients with Disorders of Sex Development

    OpenAIRE

    Sandberg, David E.; Gardner, Melissa; Cohen-kettenis, Peggy T.

    2012-01-01

    Research on the psychological development of persons with Disorders of Sex Development (DSD) has focused on understanding the influence of atypical sex hormone exposure during steroid-sensitive periods of prenatal brain development on the process of psychosexual differentiation (i.e., gender identity, gender role, and sexual orientation). In contrast, analysis of clinical management strategies has focused on gender assignment and the desirability and timing of genital surgery.

  14. Norwegian scabies following topical steroid therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, Roger; Farrow, Simon

    1975-01-01

    Following an outbreak of scabies in a hospital ward, a correct diagnosis of Norwegian scabies was made in an eczematous patient whose skin had unexpectedly deteriorated with topical potent fluorinated cortico-steroid therapy. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4 PMID:1197167

  15. Anabolic androgenic steroid-induced Takotsubo cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Placci, Angelo; Sella, Gianluigi; Bellanti, Giancarlo; Margheri, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Anabolic steroid abuse, aimed at increasing muscle mass, has been growing in recent years. We describe a case of a 25-year-old bodybuilder who, after taking nandrolone and stanozolol, presented with Takotsubo syndrome. The angiography showed a normal coronary anatomy with the absence of stenosis. The left ventricular function was completely normalised after 1 week. PMID:25804946

  16. TLC of sterols, steroids, and related triterpenoids.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dinan, L.; Harmatha, Juraj; Lafont, R.

    Vol. 17. New York : CRC Press, 2008 - (Waksmundzka-Hajnos, M. - Sherma, J. - Kowalska, T.), s. 576-603 ISBN 978-1-4200-4677-9. - (Chromatographic Science Series. 99) Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : TLC * sterols * steroids * ecdysteroids Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry

  17. Antifungal steroid glycoside from sea cucumber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, S

    1969-03-28

    An antifungal steroid glycoside, holotoxin, has been isolated from the sea cucumber Stichopus japonicus (Selenka). In vitro, it exhibits high activity against various fungi, including vegetable pathogens, but has scarcely any activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and mycobacteria in vitro. PMID:5812983

  18. Sex chromosome complement contributes to sex differences in coxsackievirus B3 but not influenza A virus pathogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson Dionne P; Huber Sally A; Moussawi Mohamad; Roberts Brian; Teuscher Cory; Watkins Rebecca; Arnold Arthur P; Klein Sabra L

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Both coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) and influenza A virus (IAV; H1N1) produce sexually dimorphic infections in C57BL/6 mice. Gonadal steroids can modulate sex differences in response to both viruses. Here, the effect of sex chromosomal complement in response to viral infection was evaluated using four core genotypes (FCG) mice, where the Sry gene is deleted from the Y chromosome, and in some mice is inserted into an autosomal chromosome. This results in four genotypes: XX or XY ...

  19. Mice lacking Mrp1 have reduced testicular steroid hormone levels and alterations in steroid biosynthetic enzymes

    OpenAIRE

    Sivils, Jeffrey C.; GONZALEZ, IVEN; Bain, Lisa J.

    2010-01-01

    The multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 (MRP1/ABCC1) is a member of the ABC active transporter family that can transport several steroid hormone conjugates, including 17?-estradiol glucuronide, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), and estrone 3-sulfate. The present study investigated the role that MRP1 plays in maintaining proper hormone levels in the serum and testes. Serum and testicular steroid hormone levels were examined in both wild-type mice and Mrp1 null mice. Serum testoster...

  20. Fluorochemicals used in food packaging inhibit male sex hormone synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenmai, A.K., E-mail: akjro@food.dtu.dk [Division of Toxicology and Risk Assessment, National Food Institute, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2860 Søborg (Denmark); Nielsen, F.K. [Section of Toxicology, Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Pedersen, M. [Division of Food Chemistry, National Food Institute, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2860 Søborg (Denmark); Hadrup, N. [Division of Toxicology and Risk Assessment, National Food Institute, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2860 Søborg (Denmark); Trier, X. [Division of Food Chemistry, National Food Institute, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2860 Søborg (Denmark); Christensen, J.H. [Department of Basic Sciences and Environment, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Copenhagen, DK-1871 Frederiksberg C. (Denmark); Vinggaard, A.M. [Division of Toxicology and Risk Assessment, National Food Institute, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2860 Søborg (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    Polyfluoroalkyl phosphate surfactants (PAPS) are widely used in food contact materials (FCMs) of paper and board and have recently been detected in 57% of investigated materials. Human exposure occurs as PAPS have been measured in blood; however knowledge is lacking on the toxicology of PAPS. The aim of this study was to elucidate the effects of six fluorochemicals on sex hormone synthesis and androgen receptor (AR) activation in vitro. Four PAPS and two metabolites, perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and 8:2 fluorotelomer alcohol (8:2 FTOH) were tested. Hormone profiles, including eight steroid hormones, generally showed that 8:2 diPAPS, 8:2 monoPAPS and 8:2 FTOH led to decreases in androgens (testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone, and androstenedione) in the H295R steroidogenesis assay. Decreases were observed for progesterone and 17-OH-progesterone as well. These observations indicated that a step prior to progestagen and androgen synthesis had been affected. Gene expression analysis of StAR, Bzrp, CYP11A, CYP17, CYP21 and CYP19 mRNA showed a decrease in Bzrp mRNA levels for 8:2 monoPAPS and 8:2 FTOH indicating interference with cholesterol transport to the inner mitochondria. Cortisol, estrone and 17?-estradiol levels were in several cases increased with exposure. In accordance with these data CYP19 gene expression increased with 8:2 diPAPS, 8:2 monoPAPS and 8:2 FTOH exposures indicating that this is a contributing factor to the decreased androgen and the increased estrogen levels. Overall, these results demonstrate that fluorochemicals present in food packaging materials and their metabolites can affect steroidogenesis through decreased Bzrp and increased CYP19 gene expression leading to lower androgen and higher estrogen levels. -- Highlights: ? Fluorochemicals found in 57% of paper and board food packaging were tested. ? Collectively six fluorochemicals were tested for antiandrogenic potential in vitro. ? Three out of six tested fluorochemicals inhibited synthesis of male sex hormones. ? Generally, levels of estrogens and cortisol stayed unaffected or increased. ? The effect on steroid synthesis was specific on gene expression of Bzrp and CYP19.

  1. Fluorochemicals used in food packaging inhibit male sex hormone synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polyfluoroalkyl phosphate surfactants (PAPS) are widely used in food contact materials (FCMs) of paper and board and have recently been detected in 57% of investigated materials. Human exposure occurs as PAPS have been measured in blood; however knowledge is lacking on the toxicology of PAPS. The aim of this study was to elucidate the effects of six fluorochemicals on sex hormone synthesis and androgen receptor (AR) activation in vitro. Four PAPS and two metabolites, perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and 8:2 fluorotelomer alcohol (8:2 FTOH) were tested. Hormone profiles, including eight steroid hormones, generally showed that 8:2 diPAPS, 8:2 monoPAPS and 8:2 FTOH led to decreases in androgens (testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone, and androstenedione) in the H295R steroidogenesis assay. Decreases were observed for progesterone and 17-OH-progesterone as well. These observations indicated that a step prior to progestagen and androgen synthesis had been affected. Gene expression analysis of StAR, Bzrp, CYP11A, CYP17, CYP21 and CYP19 mRNA showed a decrease in Bzrp mRNA levels for 8:2 monoPAPS and 8:2 FTOH indicating interference with cholesterol transport to the inner mitochondria. Cortisol, estrone and 17?-estradiol levels were in several cases increased with exposure. In accordance with these data CYP19 gene expression increased with 8:2 diPAPS, 8:2 monoPAPS and 8:2 FTOH exposures indicating that this is a contributing factor to the decreased androgen and the increased estrogen levels. Overall, these results demonstrate that fluorochemicals present in food packaging materials and their metabolites can affect steroidogenesis through decreased Bzrp and increased CYP19 gene expression leading to lower androgen and higher estrogen levels. -- Highlights: ? Fluorochemicals found in 57% of paper and board food packaging were tested. ? Collectively six fluorochemicals were tested for antiandrogenic potential in vitro. ? Three out of six tested fluorochemicals inhibited synthesis of male sex hormones. ? Generally, levels of estrogens and cortisol stayed unaffected or increased. ? The effect on steroid synthesis was specific on gene expression of Bzrp and CYP19.

  2. Steroids in neuroinfection / Esteroides em neuroinfeccao

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ronaldo, Abraham.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available As consequências da resposta inflamatória são as grandes responsáveis pela morbimortalidade das meningites bacterianas. O uso precoce de esteróides nestes casos pode reduzir a mortalidade e a perda auditiva, além de atenuar as consequências a longo prazo deste grupo de doenças, sem causar efeitos co [...] laterais importantes. A recomendação formal de seu uso na meningite pneumocócica tem sido ampliada para outras formas de meningite bacteriana. O mesmo raciocínio pode ser aplicado para a Meningite tuberculosa. Na neurocisticercose e na neuroesquistossomose, os esteróides são mais úteis que as drogas parasiticidas na maior parte dos casos. Apesar de evidências a favor do seu uso na Encefalite Herpética, não existe ainda suporte definitivo para esta recomendação. Entre as infecções oportunísticas que ocorrem nos pacientes com AIDS, a Neurotoxoplasmose e a leucoencefalopatia multifocal progressiva são as mais frequentemente relacionadas com o uso dos esteróides; seu uso tem se mostrado seguro, mas seus benefícios não parecem bem estabelecidos em ambas as condições. Abstract in english The consequences of inflammatory response are primarily responsible for morbimortality in bacterial meningitis. Early use of steroids in these cases can reduce mortality and hearing loss and improve functional outcome without causing significant side effects. The formal recommendation towards pneumo [...] ccocal meningitis is being extended to other forms of Bacterial Meningitis. The same thought can be applied to tuberculous meningitis. In neurocysticercosis and neuroschistosomiasis steroids are more useful than parasiticides in most cases. Despite the evidence favoring the use of steroids in herpes simplex encephalitis, it is not sufficient to definitely support such indication. Among the opportunistic infections that affect AIDS patients, neurotoxoplasmosis and progressive multifocal leukoencephalopaty are those most often considered for the use of steroids; steroids are safe to use, but no definite benefit could be demonstrated in both conditions.

  3. In vitro metabolism of androstenedione and identification of endogenous steroids in Helix aspersa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In vitro metabolism of androstenedione in gonads of juvenile and adult Helix aspersa has been investigated. The conversion of [3H]androstenedione into testosterone, 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone, androsterone, and estriol was demonstrated. In juvenile animals testosterone (59.8%) is the major metabolite whereas in adult animals androsterone (18.8%) is. The following endogenous steroids have been identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in adult gonads: androsterone, dehydroepiandrosterone, androstenedione, 3 alpha-androstanediol, estrone, estradiol-17 beta, and estriol. The levels of testosterone, 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone, androstenedione, and progesterone have been measured by RIAs in gonads and hemolymph. Their levels vary with the physiological stage: the gonadal and circulating levels of testosterone decrease with the sexual maturation whereas the 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone increases. These differences observed in metabolism and in level of steroids between the juvenile and the adult snails allow us to suppose that these steroids have a biological role

  4. Sex determination strategies in 2012: towards a common regulatory model?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelopoulou Roxani

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Sex determination is a complicated process involving large-scale modifications in gene expression affecting virtually every tissue in the body. Although the evolutionary origin of sex remains controversial, there is little doubt that it has developed as a process of optimizing metabolic control, as well as developmental and reproductive functions within a given setting of limited resources and environmental pressure. Evidence from various model organisms supports the view that sex determination may occur as a result of direct environmental induction or genetic regulation. The first process has been well documented in reptiles and fish, while the second is the classic case for avian species and mammals. Both of the latter have developed a variety of sex-specific/sex-related genes, which ultimately form a complete chromosome pair (sex chromosomes/gonosomes. Interestingly, combinations of environmental and genetic mechanisms have been described among different classes of animals, thus rendering the possibility of a unidirectional continuous evolutionary process from the one type of mechanism to the other unlikely. On the other hand, common elements appear throughout the animal kingdom, with regard to a conserved key genes and b a central role of sex steroid control as a prerequisite for ultimately normal sex differentiation. Studies in invertebrates also indicate a role of epigenetic chromatin modification, particularly with regard to alternative splicing options. This review summarizes current evidence from research in this hot field and signifies the need for further study of both normal hormonal regulators of sexual phenotype and patterns of environmental disruption.

  5. Sex Control in Fish: Approaches, Challenges and Opportunities for Aquaculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alyssa M. Budd

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available At present, aquaculture is the fastest growing sector of animal food production and holds great potential as a sustainable solution for world food security. The ability to control sex is one of the most important factors for the commercialisation and efficient propagation of fish species, due to influences on reproduction, growth and product quality. Accordingly, there is a large body of research that targets sexual development in commercially important species in an attempt to understand and control fish sex and reproductive function. In this review, we provide an introduction to sex determination and differentiation in fish, including the genetic, epigenetic and environmental factors that can influence fish sex ratios. We also summarise the major approaches used to control sex in fish and discuss their application in commercially important species. Specifically, we discuss the use of exogenous steroid hormones, chromosome ploidy, environmental manipulations, sex-linked genetic markers, selection for altered sex ratios, and transgenics and comment on the challenges associated with controlling sex in a commercial environment.

  6. A critical review of the efficacy of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyre, Harris A; Air, Tracy; Proctor, Simon; Rositano, Sebastian; Baune, Bernhard T

    2015-03-01

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) require further investigation given mixed results regarding efficacy. We critically and systematically reviewed the literature to determine whether selective COX-2 and non-selective COX inhibitor NSAIDs as adjuncts or monotherapy affect depressive symptoms. Electronic databases including Embase, PsycINFO, Ovid Medline, ScienceDirect, Google Scholar and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials database were searched up to September 2013. We utilised randomised controlled trials (RCTs), cohort studies and an open label study examining the efficacy of NSAIDs as adjuncts or monotherapy on depressive symptoms in subjects without major comorbidities. There were a total of 6 studies exploring the efficacy of selective COX-2 inhibitor NSAIDs on depressive symptoms with a total of 2706 subjects from 6 RCTs. 4 of the RCTs showed a significant effect of NSAIDs; 2 demonstrated no effect. There were a total of 5 studies exploring the efficacy of non-selective COX inhibitor NSAIDs on depressive symptoms with a total of 7978 subjects. There was 1 RCT, 3 cohort studies and 1 open label pilot study. The RCT failed to show a significant result. 1 of the retrospective cohort studies showed a positive result, with the other 2 showing no effect. The pilot study showed a positive result for NSAIDs. These studies demonstrated significant methodological heterogeneity (i.e. age range, sex, presence of antidepressant use, method of depression measure, severity of depressive symptoms, duration and study design (RCT vs. cohort)). The efficacy of NSAIDs on depressive symptoms appears negligible, however firm conclusions are difficult given the inconsistent findings and substantial methodological heterogeneity. Further high quality research is needed to explore NSAID efficacy in clinical and biological subtypes of depression, as monotherapy and adjunct with various antidepressants, and across various ages. PMID:25455584

  7. Differences between seven measures of self-reported numbers of clients of female sex workers in southern India: implications for individual- and population-level analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deering, Kathleen N; Vickerman, P; Pickles, M; Moses, S; Blanchard, J F; Ramesh, B M; Isac, S; Boily, M-C

    2013-02-01

    Quantifying sexual activity of sub-populations with high-risk sexual behaviour is important in understanding HIV epidemiology. This study examined inconsistency of seven outcomes measuring self-reported clients per month (CPM) of female sex workers (FSWs) in southern India and implications for individual/population-level analysis. Multivariate negative binomial regression was used to compare key social/environmental factors associated with each outcome. A transmission dynamics model was used to assess the impact of differences between outcomes on population-level FSW/client HIV prevalence. Outcomes based on 'clients per last working day' produced lower estimates than those based on 'clients per typical day'. Although the outcomes were strongly correlated, their averages differed by approximately two-fold (range 39.0-79.1 CPM). The CPM measure chosen did not greatly influence standard epidemiological 'risk factor' analysis. Differences across outcomes influenced HIV prevalence predictions. Due to this uncertainty, we recommend basing population-based estimates on the range of outcomes, particularly when assessing the impact of interventions. PMID:22886176

  8. Altered Amphibian Secondary Sex Characteristics following Exposure to Model Endocrine Disruptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    The formation of the secondary sex characteristics, oviducts and nuptial pads, are under the control of steroid hormones in frogs and as such are potential targets for endocrine-disrupting compounds. Oviducts are large, convoluted tubules derived from the Mullerian ducts in whic...

  9. Vocational Steroid Use: Reconsidering the Effectiveness of a Prohibition Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Curtis A. Fogel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The vast majority of literature on the topic of anabolic steroid use pertains to use by athletes and/or bodybuilders. Recent evidence suggests that performance-enhancing drugs, and anabolic steroids in particular, are used widely outside the realm of sport. In this paper, the term “vocational steroid use” is further developed and explored, referring to any form of steroid use for the purposes of enhanced performance in the workplace; a type of use uncharacteristic of most illicit substances. Vocational steroid users do not use steroids because of addictions or for recreation; they do so to increase their workplace abilities and productivity. Seven forms of documented vocational steroid use are described including use by: athletes, bodybuilders, police, actors, strength coaches, ?re?ghters, and soldiers. While little research has examined the idea of vocational steroid use, even less attention has been given to issues related to examining the effectiveness of steroid prohibition strategies. This paper concludes with a discussion on the dangers of continued prohibition strategies on steroids, particularly in light of vocational steroid use. This study utilized an unobtrusive methodological approach. The unobtrusive data in this study involved media ?le collection, indexing, and analysis derived from online archives of newspapers throughout Canada and the United States.

  10. Lung function monitoring in patients with duchenne muscular dystrophy on steroid therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Machado Darlene L

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD is a sex-linked inherited muscle disease characterized by a progressive loss in muscle strength and respiratory muscle involvement. After 12 years of age, lung function declines at a rate of 6 % to 10.7 % per year in patients with DMD. Steroid therapy has been proposed to delay the loss of motor function and also the respiratory involvement. Method In 21 patients with DMD aged between seven and 16 years, the forced vital capacity (FVC and the forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1 were evaluated at three different times during a period of two years. Results We observed in this period of evaluation the maintenance of the FVC and the FEV1 in this group of patients independently of chronological age, age at onset of steroid therapy, and walking capacity. Conclusion The steroid therapy has the potential to stabilize or delay the loss of lung function in DMD patients even if they are non-ambulant or older than 10 years, and in those in whom the medication was started after 7 years of age.

  11. A REVIEW OF NATURAL STEROIDS AND THEIR APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anas Rasheed* and Mohd. Qasim

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Natural steroids, the simple mention of the word brings up topics like cheating, unfair advantages. The first misconception is that all steroids are used for muscle building. This is not at all the case, steroids are natural substances with many different effects in the human body, which begin over several days, as even birth control pills are a form of steroids. “Natural Steroids”, are the organic compounds which are not chemically altered, that mimics hormones, and obviously the hormone it mimics is testosterone. Natural Steroids are involved in a wide range of physiologic processes, including stress response, immune response, carbohydrate metabolism, protein catabolism, blood electrolyte levels, and in the regulation of inflammation, and behavior. The uses are far outreach simply bulking up on muscle. Natural steroids can be used to increase certain enzymes a person's body may have trouble creating naturally, such as testosterone, which is vital in the development in growing men.

  12. Molecularly imprinted polymer applied to the selective isolation of urinary steroid hormones: an efficient tool in the control of natural steroid hormones abuse in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doué, Mickael; Bichon, Emmanuelle; Dervilly-Pinel, Gaud; Pichon, Valérie; Chapuis-Hugon, Florence; Lesellier, Eric; West, Caroline; Monteau, Fabrice; Le Bizec, Bruno

    2012-12-28

    The use of anabolic substances to promote growth in livestock is prohibited within the European Union as laid down in Directive 96/22/EC. Nowadays, efficient methods such as steroid profiling or isotopic deviation measurements allow to control natural steroid hormones abuse. In both cases, urine is often selected as the most relevant matrix and, due to its relatively high content of potential interferents, its preparation before analysis is considered as a key step. In this context, the use of a selective sorbent such as molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) was investigated. A MIP was synthesized based on 17?-estradiol, methacrylic acid and acetonitrile as template, monomer and porogen, respectively. Two approaches were then tested for non-conjugated (aglycons and glucuronides deconjugated) steroid purification: (i) molecularly imprinted solid phase extraction (MISPE) and (ii) semi-preparative supercritical fluid chromatography with a commercial MIP as stationary phase (SFC-MIP). Parameters for both approaches were optimized based on the main bovine metabolites of testosterone, estradiol, nandrolone and boldenone. The MISPE protocol developed for screening purposes allowed satisfactory recoveries (upper 65% for the 12 target steroids) with sufficient purification for gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. For confirmatory purposes, the use of isotopic ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) requires a higher degree of purity of the target compounds, which can be reached by the SFC-MIP protocol with three steps less compared to the official and current method. Purity, concentration and absence of isotopic fractionation of target steroids extracted from urine of treated cattle (treated with testosterone, estradiol, androstenedione, and boldenone) allowed the measurement of (13)C/(12)C isotopic ratios of corresponding metabolites and endogenous reference compounds (ERC) and proved the relevance of the strategy. PMID:23195708

  13. Sex differences in angiotensin II- induced hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Xue

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Sex differences in the development of hypertension and cardiovascular disease have been described in humans and in animal models. In this paper we will review some of our studies which have as their emphasis the examination of the role of sex differences and sex steroids in modulating the central actions of angiotensin II (ANG II via interactions with free radicals and nitric oxide, generating pathways within brain circumventricular organs and in central sympathomodulatory systems. Our studies indicate that low-dose infusions of ANG II result in hypertension in wild-type male mice but not in intact wild-type females. Furthermore, we have demonstrated that ANG II-induced hypertension in males is blocked by central infusions of the androgen receptor antagonist, flutamide, and by central infusions of the superoxide dismutase mimetic, tempol. We have also found that, in comparison to females, males show greater levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species in circumventricular organ neurons following long-term ANG II infusions. In female mice, ovariectomy, central blockade of estrogen receptors or total knockout of estrogen a receptors augments the pressor effects of ANG II. Finally, in females but not in males, central blockade of nitric oxide synthase increases the pressor effects of ANG II. Taken together, these results suggest that sex differences and estrogen and testosterone play important roles in the development of ANG II-induced hypertension.

  14. Sex differences in angiotensin II- induced hypertension

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    B., Xue; A.K., Johnson; M., Hay.

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Sex differences in the development of hypertension and cardiovascular disease have been described in humans and in animal models. In this paper we will review some of our studies which have as their emphasis the examination of the role of sex differences and sex steroids in modulating the central ac [...] tions of angiotensin II (ANG II) via interactions with free radicals and nitric oxide, generating pathways within brain circumventricular organs and in central sympathomodulatory systems. Our studies indicate that low-dose infusions of ANG II result in hypertension in wild-type male mice but not in intact wild-type females. Furthermore, we have demonstrated that ANG II-induced hypertension in males is blocked by central infusions of the androgen receptor antagonist, flutamide, and by central infusions of the superoxide dismutase mimetic, tempol. We have also found that, in comparison to females, males show greater levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species in circumventricular organ neurons following long-term ANG II infusions. In female mice, ovariectomy, central blockade of estrogen receptors or total knockout of estrogen a receptors augments the pressor effects of ANG II. Finally, in females but not in males, central blockade of nitric oxide synthase increases the pressor effects of ANG II. Taken together, these results suggest that sex differences and estrogen and testosterone play important roles in the development of ANG II-induced hypertension.

  15. Long-Term Use of Steroids Protects from the Development of Symptomatic Diverticulitis Requiring Hospitalization in the Asian Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Objective The pathophysiology of diverticulitis is poorly understood. Factors such as physical inactivity, constipation, obesity, smoking, and the use of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have been associated with an increased risk of diverticular disease. To evaluate whether patients exhibiting long-term steroid use are at increased risk of colonic diverticulitis. Method We conducted a population-based, nested case–control study. Data were retrospectively collected from the National Health Insurance Research Database. The study cohort comprised patients diagnosed with diverticulitis, identified using inpatient discharge records using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) codes (562.11 and 562.13), and those who were administered one or more prescriptions for corticosteroids for systemic use. Control patients were matched to cases by age, sex, NSAID use, laxative drug use, and index date. We enrolled 690 patients with colonic diverticulitis and 2760 in the control group. The adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using conditional logistic regression. Results Compared with steroid nonusers, the adjusted ORs were 0.60 (95% CI?=?0.35–1.06) and 0.80 (95% CI?=?0.64–1.008) in current steroid users and previous steroid users, respectively. In addition, the adjusted ORs were 0.55 (95% CI?=?0.31–0.98), 0.57 (95% CI?=?0.31–0.98), and 0.44 (95% CI?=?0.22–0.86) for steroid use duration more than half time by an exposure period of 90 days, 180 days, and 365 days before the claim date of colonic diverticulitis, respectively. Conclusions The results indicated that long-term steroid use within one year is associated with lower risk of colonic diverticulitis. PMID:25919040

  16. The Riddle of Sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagan, Dorion; Margulis, Lynn

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the work of evolutionary biologists in determining how sexual reproduction arose. Topics explored include the nature of sex, bacterial sex, meiotic sex, and asexual reproduction. A diagram (which can be used as a duplicating master) illustrating types of bacterial sex is included. (DH)

  17. Radioreceptor assay for evaluation of the plasma glucocorticoid activity of natural and synthetic steroids in man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An assay for plasma glucocorticoid activity has been developed using specific glucocorticoid receptors. Unlike other assays for cortisol and certain synthetic corticosteroids, this radioreceptor assay measures the glucocorticoid activity of all natural and synthetic steroids. Steroids extracted from as little as 0.05 ml of plasma are incubated with 3H-dexamethasone and cytosol receptors from cultured rat hepatoma cells. From 0.5 to 50 ng of cortisol are accurately detected. Glucocorticoid activities of adult plasmas determined by the assay correlate closely with corticoid levels obtained in the CBG-isotope and fluorometric assays. Other steroids are measured in proportion to both concentration and potency as glucocorticoids. Relative activities include: cortisol 100, dexamethasone 940, prednisolone 230, prednisone 3, estradiol 1 and androstenedione 1. A similar ranking of steroids was found using receptors from a human source (fetal lung). The assay has been useful in detecting glucocorticoid activity in unidentified medications and in measuring plasma glucocorticoid levels after administration of synthetic corticosteroids. (auth)

  18. Inhalational Steroids and Iatrogenic Cushing’s Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    A.V, Raveendran

    2014-01-01

    Bronchial asthma (BA) and Allergic rhinitis (AR) are common clinical problems encountered in day to day practice, where inhalational corticosteroids (ICS) or intranasal steroids (INS) are the mainstay of treatment. Iatrogenic Cushing syndrome (CS) is a well known complication of systemic steroid administration. ICS /INS were earlier thought to be safe, but now more and more number of case reports of Iatrogenic Cushing syndrome have been reported, especially in those who are taking cytochrome P450 (CYP 450) inhibitors. Comparing to the classical clinical features of spontaneous Cushing syndrome, iatrogenic Cushing syndrome is more commonly associated with osteoporosis, increase in intra-ocular pressure, benign intracranial hypertension, aseptic necrosis of femoral head and pancreatitis, where as hypertension, hirsuitisum and menstrual irregularities are less common. Endocrine work up shows low serum cortisol level with evidence of HPA (hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal) axis suppression. In all patients with features of Cushing syndrome with evidence of adrenal suppression always suspect iatrogenic CS. Since concomitant administration of cytochrome P450 inhibitors in patients on ICS/INS can precipitate iatrogenic CS, avoidance of CYP450 inhibitors, its dose reduction or substitution of ICS are the available options. Along with those, measures to prevent the precipitation of adrenal crisis has to be taken. An update on ICS-/INS- associated iatrogenic CS and its management is presented here. PMID:25674177

  19. Characteristics and Behaviors of Older Male Anabolic Steroid Users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ip, Eric J; Trinh, Karen; Tenerowicz, Michael J; Pal, Jai; Lindfelt, Tristan A; Perry, Paul J

    2014-03-18

    Objective:To compare and contrast the characteristics of 2 groups of men ?40 years old: reported anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) users and nonusers.Design:Cross-sectional survey.Setting:Thirty-eight online fitness, weight lifting, bodybuilding, and steroid Web sites.Participants:A total of 67 male AAS users and 76 male nonusers ?40 years old.Main Outcomes Measured:Demographics, utilization of AAS and other performance-enhancing agents (PEAs), exercise patterns, history of illicit drugs and alcohol use, and psychiatric traits/diagnoses.Results:The majority of AAS users ?40 years old were caucasian (92.5%), heterosexual (97.0%), and classified themselves as recreational exercisers (79.1%). AAS users took more PEAs (11.5 ± 5.6 vs 4.6 ± 2.7; P < .001), were more likely to binge drink (47.8% vs 29.0%; P = .025), report heavy alcohol use (21.0% vs 7.9%; P = .031), meet criteria for substance dependence disorder (27.4% vs 4.0%; P < .001), and report an anxiety disorder diagnosis (12.0% vs 2.6%; P = .046) than nonusers.Conclusions:AAS misuse is prevalent among older men and is associated with polypharmacy, more aggressive alcohol use, and a higher incidence of substance dependence and anxiety disorders compared to nonusers. This information may help clinicians and researchers identify and develop appropriate intervention strategies for AAS abuse among older men. PMID:24643452

  20. Sex Education for Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Zitner, David

    1985-01-01

    Sex education evokes a wide variety of responses in the community and from teachers. Consequently, physicians have a responsibility to present sex education material in a factual, objective way. Many people are misinformed about sexual behavior. Physicians can help patients and the community by being aware of appropriate sex education for each age group. A curriculum for sex education, and opportunities to provide sex information for patients of different ages and stages in the lifecycle, are...

  1. Hurgadacin: a new steroid from Sinularia polydactyla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaaban, Mohamed; Shaaban, Khaled A; Ghani, Mohamed A

    2013-09-01

    Hurgadacin (1), a 24,25-bishomo-26-methylenecholesterol was isolated from the soft coral Sinularia polydactyla, collected from the Red Sea, near Hurghada at the Egyptian coast. The new steroid 1 was isolated together with the closely related polyhydroxy steroids 24-methylenecholestane-3?,5?,6?-triol (2) and 24-methylenecholestane-1?,3?,5?,6?,11?-pentol (3), in addition to the sesquiterpene lactiflorenol (4) and the trinorcarotenolide acetate peridinin (5), The structures of the isolated compounds were confirmed by intensive studies of their 1D and 2D NMR spectra and mass data. The antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of the soft coral extract and the corresponding constituents were evaluated against diverse pathogenic microorganisms and brine shrimps, respectively. PMID:23685088

  2. Determination of steroids in manure and soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Martin; Björklund, Bengt Erland

    A genuine analytical method to determine native steroids (pregnenolone, progesterone, dehydroepiandrosterone, androstenedione, testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, estrone, 17b-estradiol, and 17a-estradiol) and one anthropogenic steroid (ethynylestradiol) in environmental solid samples is presented. In summary, the sample preparation was systematically evaluated with testing different solvents and a suite of solid phase extraction materials. The optimized method utilizes the pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) technology with automated (integrated) clean-up combined with an additional off-line multi-step clean-up. The sample extracts were derivatized and analyzed utilizing a gas chromatography triple quadrupole mass spectrometry technology. This method is applicable on all types of environmental solid samples (e.g., biosolids, soils and sediments).

  3. Cytotoxic steroidal saponins from Agave sisalana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Pi-Yu; Chen, Chin-Hui; Kuo, Ching-Chuan; Lee, Tzong-Huei; Kuo, Yueh-Hsiung; Lee, Ching-Kuo

    2011-06-01

    Two new steroidal saponins, 8 and 10, along with 7 known steroidal sapogenins and saponins (1-7) and a furostanol saponin (9) were isolated from Agave sisalana Perrine ex Engelm. The structures of these two new compounds were identified and characterized by 1D and 2D?NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. In addition, acid hydrolysis and GC-FID were used to confirm the sugar moieties of 8 and 10. The cytotoxic effects of 1-10 on MCF-7, NCI-H460, and SF-268 cancer cells were evaluated, and among them, compound 10 proved to be the most cytotoxic with IC?? values of 1.2, 3.8, and 1.5 µM, respectively. PMID:21243587

  4. Limonoid and Steroidal Saponin from Azadirachta indica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lu; Zhao, Yun-Li; Cheng, Gui-Guang; Chen, Ying-Ying; Qin, Xu-Jie; Song, Chang-Wei; Yang, Xing-Wei; Liu, Ya-Ping; Luo, Xiao-Dong

    2014-11-01

    A new limonoid, 17-(5-methoxy-2-oxofuran-3-yl)-28-deoxonimbolide (1), and a new C21 steroidal saponin, 2?,4?-dihydroxy-pregn-5-en-16-one-3?-O-D-glucopyranoside (2), together with 11 known compounds were isolated from the methanol extract of the leaves of Azadirachta indica. The structures were elucidated by means of spectroscopic analysis and putative biosynthetic origins. All the compounds were evaluated for their antibacterial activities against six bacterial strains. PMID:25381190

  5. Spreading characteristics of proprietary rectal steroid preparations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three types of rectal steroid preparation were labelled with Technetium 99 or Indium 111, and the extent of spread of each within the bowel was followed, immediately after administration and at 2hrs, using a gamma camera. Patients with ulcerative colitis were compared with controls. Results indicate that 'Colifoam' enema and 'Predsol' suppository act mainly in the rectum, but 'Predsol retention' enema spreads further into the colon, making it more useful for patients with extensive ulcerative colitis. (U.K.)

  6. Illicit Anabolic-Androgenic Steroid Use

    OpenAIRE

    Kanayama, Gen; Hudson, James I.; Pope, Harrison G.

    2009-01-01

    The anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) are a family of hormones that includes testosterone and its derivatives. These substances have been used by elite athletes since the 1950s, but they did not become widespread drugs of abuse in the general population until the 1980s. Thus, knowledge of the medical and behavioral effects of illicit AAS use is still evolving. Surveys suggest that many millions of boys and men, primarily in Western countries, have abused AAS to enhance athletic performance o...

  7. Echocardiographic Finding in Anabolic Steroids Abuser Athletics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Haji Moradi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Abuse of anabolic steroids in body builders and competitive sports (doping is common and prevalent in our country. Due to disagreement about cardiovascular side effects of these drugs and existing controversy in published articles, this study was designed to evaluate the echocardiographic finding in athletics who are current user of these drugs. Materials & Methods: Body builders with continues sport for preceding year and at least twice weekly selected and divided into steroid abuser and not abuser and compared with age and BMI matched non athletic healthy volunteers .Results: There was not significant difference in age, body mass index, ejection fraction, ventricular compliance and valve function between three groups. But diastolic size of septum and free wall is significantly thicker in both of athletics in comparison with non athletic volunteer but observed differences were only significant (Pvalue = 0.05 between first and third group. The difference between the above mentioned index was not significant between two groups of athleticConclusion: Observed differences in diastolic size of septum and free wall between first and third group and also absence of difference between two athletic groups is in favor of that long term abuse of anabolic steroid (more than one year results in augmentation of physiologic hypertrophy due to isometric exercise. Furthermore long term abuse and supra pharmacologic dose does not have significant effect in size and left ventricular function.

  8. Cyclosporine in steroid refractory acute severe colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, N Suraj; Khosla, Rajiv; Makharia, Govind K

    2014-08-01

    Approximately 15-20% patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) suffer from a severe flare during their lifetime which required hospitalization. Intravenous corticosteroids are the first line of therapy for acute severe UC. While almost 70-80% of patients respond to corticosteroids 20% do not. Although colectomy for UC is curative, it has its problems such as increased frequency of stool and pouchitis, which led to search for colon rescue therapy. Cyclosporine and anti-tumor necrosis factor-alpha (anti-TNF á) have emerged as effective colon rescue therapy. While the short-term efficacy of cyclosporine in preventing colectomy is 64-86%, the long-term efficacy is not as good and almost 70% eventually require colectomy over 1-7 years. The efficacy of cyclosporine is equivalent both at a high and low doses and cyclosporine is now used most often as a low dose regime in patients with steroid refractory acute severe UC. Furthermore, recent data suggest that the both cyclosporine and infliximab are equally effective in steroid refractory acute severe UC. Monitoring patients for adverse events and serum cyclosporine levels is mandatory. The response to both cyclosporine and infliximab is rapid and usually occurs within 4-5 days. Despite mounting evidence of its efficacy, cyclosporine remains largely underused because it requires intense monitoring for toxicity especially at higher dosage. Gastroenterologists need to be more familiar with cyclosporine for the management of steroid refractory acute severe UC. PMID:25735123

  9. Steroidal Compounds in Commercial Parenteral Lipid Emulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafat A. Siddiqui

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Parenteral nutrition lipid emulsions made from various plant oils contain steroidal compounds, called phytosterols. During parenteral administration of lipid emulsions, phytosterols can reach levels in the blood that are many fold higher than during enteral administration. The elevated phytosterol levels have been associated with the development of liver dysfunction and the rare development of liver failure. There is limited information available in the literature related to phytosterol concentrations in lipid emulsions. The objective of the current study was to validate an assay for steroidal compounds found in lipid emulsions and to compare their concentrations in the most commonly used parenteral nutrition lipid emulsions: Liposyn® II, Liposyn® III, Lipofundin® MCT, Lipofundin® N, Structolipid®, Intralipid®, Ivelip® and ClinOleic®. Our data demonstrates that concentrations of the various steroidal compounds varied greatly between the eight lipid emulsions, with the olive oil-based lipid emulsion containing the lowest levels of phytosterols and cholesterol, and the highest concentration of squalene. The clinical impression of greater incidences of liver dysfunction with soybean versus MCT/LCT and olive/soy lipid emulsions may be reflective of the levels of phytosterols in these emulsions. This information may help guide future studies and clinical care of patients with lipid emulsion-associated liver dysfunction.

  10. Constraints on temperature-dependent sex determination in the leopard gecko ( Eublepharis macularius): response to Kratochvil et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Victoria; Sakata, Jon T.; Rhen, Turk; Coomber, Patricia; Simmonds, Sarah; Crews, David

    2008-12-01

    Kratochvil et al. (Naturwissenschaften 95:209 215, 2008) reported recently that in the leopard gecko ( Eublepharis macularius) of the family Eublepharidae with temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD), clutches in which eggs were incubated at the same temperature produce only same-sex siblings. Interpreting this result in light of studies of sex steroid hormone involvement in sex determination, they suggested that maternally derived yolk steroid hormones could constrain sex-determining mechanisms in TSD reptiles. We have worked extensively with this species and have routinely incubated clutches at constant temperatures. To test the consistency of high frequency same-sex clutches across different incubation temperatures, we examined our records of clutches at the University of Texas at Austin from 1992 to 2001. We observed that clutches in which eggs were incubated at the same incubation temperature produced mixed-sex clutches as well as same-sex clutches. Furthermore, cases in which eggs within a clutch were separated and incubated at different temperatures produced the expected number of mixed-sex clutches. These results suggest that maternal influences on sex determination are secondary relative to incubation temperature effects.

  11. Dimensiones del músculo masetero medido mediante ultrasonido, según sexo / Masseter muscle dimensions measured by ultrasound per sex

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Raúl, Frugone A; Arnoldo, Hernández C; Hernán, Valenzuela P; Víctor, Retamal.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCCIÓN: para establecer las dimensiones en profundidad, ancho y largo del músculo masetero según sexo, se realizó un estudio analítico no experimental entre pacientes seleccionados que acudieron al servicio de ecografía del Hospital Base de Linares, Chile entre los meses de julio y septiembre [...] del año 2005. MÉTODOS: la muestra quedó determinada por 180 músculos maseteros, 90 de ellos pertenecientes a individuos de sexo femenino y 90 pertenecientes a individuos de sexo masculino. Se realizaron las mediciones de cada una de las dimensiones del músculo masetero utilizando para ello un examen imaginológico ecográfico. La muestra se sometió al análisis estadístico ANOVA. RESULTADOS: los individuos de sexo masculino presentan músculos maseteros con profundidades promedio de 10,8 ± 1,6 mm y los individuos de sexo femenino profundidades promedio de 8,1 ± 1,4 mm. CONCLUSIONES: de acuerdo con lo encontrado, se concluye que en individuos de sexo masculino con una profundidad del músculo masetero mayor a 12,4 mm y en individuos de sexo femenino con una profundidad del músculo masetero mayor a 9,5 mm se podrían considerar el diagnóstico de hipertrofia maseterina. Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: in order to establish the dimensions in depth, width and length of the masseter muscle according to gender, a non analytical experimental observational study was performed on selected patients who attended the echography service at the Base Hospital of Linares-Chile between July and Se [...] ptember 2005. METHODS: the sample consisted of 180 masseter muscles, 90 from female individuals and 90 from male individuals. Measurements of each masseter muscle were performed utilizing an echographic exam. ANOVA test statistical analysis was performed. RESULTS: the masseter muscle depth on male individuals has an averaged 10.8 ± 1.6 mm and on female individuals an average depth of 8.1 ± 1.4 mm. CONCLUSIONS: according to the findings, we concluded that in male individuals with a depth of the masseter muscle higher to 12.4 mm and in female individuals with a depth of masseter higher to 9.5 mm could be considered a diagnosis of masseteric hypertrophy.

  12. Dimensiones del músculo masetero medido mediante ultrasonido, según sexo Masseter muscle dimensions measured by ultrasound per sex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Frugone A

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCCIÓN: para establecer las dimensiones en profundidad, ancho y largo del músculo masetero según sexo, se realizó un estudio analítico no experimental entre pacientes seleccionados que acudieron al servicio de ecografía del Hospital Base de Linares, Chile entre los meses de julio y septiembre del año 2005. MÉTODOS: la muestra quedó determinada por 180 músculos maseteros, 90 de ellos pertenecientes a individuos de sexo femenino y 90 pertenecientes a individuos de sexo masculino. Se realizaron las mediciones de cada una de las dimensiones del músculo masetero utilizando para ello un examen imaginológico ecográfico. La muestra se sometió al análisis estadístico ANOVA. RESULTADOS: los individuos de sexo masculino presentan músculos maseteros con profundidades promedio de 10,8 ± 1,6 mm y los individuos de sexo femenino profundidades promedio de 8,1 ± 1,4 mm. CONCLUSIONES: de acuerdo con lo encontrado, se concluye que en individuos de sexo masculino con una profundidad del músculo masetero mayor a 12,4 mm y en individuos de sexo femenino con una profundidad del músculo masetero mayor a 9,5 mm se podrían considerar el diagnóstico de hipertrofia maseterina.INTRODUCTION: in order to establish the dimensions in depth, width and length of the masseter muscle according to gender, a non analytical experimental observational study was performed on selected patients who attended the echography service at the Base Hospital of Linares-Chile between July and September 2005. METHODS: the sample consisted of 180 masseter muscles, 90 from female individuals and 90 from male individuals. Measurements of each masseter muscle were performed utilizing an echographic exam. ANOVA test statistical analysis was performed. RESULTS: the masseter muscle depth on male individuals has an averaged 10.8 ± 1.6 mm and on female individuals an average depth of 8.1 ± 1.4 mm. CONCLUSIONS: according to the findings, we concluded that in male individuals with a depth of the masseter muscle higher to 12.4 mm and in female individuals with a depth of masseter higher to 9.5 mm could be considered a diagnosis of masseteric hypertrophy.

  13. Wired on steroids: Sexual differentiation of the brain and its role in the expression of sexual partner preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BrendaMaeAlexander

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The preference to seek out a sexual partner of the opposite sex is robust and ensures reproduction and survival of the species. Development of female-directed partner preference in the male is dependent on exposure of the developing brain to gonadal steroids synthesized during critical periods of sexual differentiation of the central nervous system. In the absence of androgen exposure, a male-directed partner preference develops. The development and expression of sexual partner preference has been extensively studied in rats, ferrets, and sheep model systems. From these models it is clear that gonadal testosterone, often through estrogenic metabolites, cause both masculinization and defeminization of behavior during critical periods of brain development. Changes in the steroid environment during these critical periods results in atypical sexual partner preference. In this manuscript, we review the major findings which support the hypothesis that the organizational actions of sex steroids are responsible for sexual differentiation of sexual partner preferences in select non-human species. We also explore how this information has helped to frame our understanding of the biological influences on human sexual orientation and gender identity.

  14. Sex Determination Using Mastoid Process Measurements in Brazilian Skulls Determinación del Sexo Usando Mediciones en el Proceso Mastoides en Cráneos Brasileños

    OpenAIRE

    Iván Claudio Suazo Galdames; Daniela Alejandra Zavando Matamala; Ricardo Luiz Smith

    2008-01-01

    The mastoid process characteristics are of great utility in the diagnosis of sex. De Paiva & Segre (2003) described that sex diagnosis was possible based on the determination of the área of the triangle formed by the points porion, mastoidale, and asterion. The purpose of this study was to determine the existence of sexual dimorphism in the dimensions and the área of the mastoid triangle using statistical and discriminant function analysis. A total of 81 skulls of Brazilian individuáis tha...

  15. Sex Trait Stereotypes in Malaysian Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Colleen

    1985-01-01

    To examine the development of sex-role stereotyping in Malaysia, 80 children were tested with the Sex Stereotype Measurement II. Results revealed that stereotyping increases with age, that the male stereotype is more easily recognized than the female, and that boys are more familiar with the male stereotype than are girls. (KH)

  16. Study Protocol- Lumbar Epidural Steroid Injections for Spinal Stenosis (LESS: a double-blind randomized controlled trial of epidural steroid injections for lumbar spinal stenosis among older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friedly Janna L

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lumbar spinal stenosis is one of the most common causes of low back pain among older adults and can cause significant disability. Despite its prevalence, treatment of spinal stenosis symptoms remains controversial. Epidural steroid injections are used with increasing frequency as a less invasive, potentially safer, and more cost-effective treatment than surgery. However, there is a lack of data to judge the effectiveness and safety of epidural steroid injections for spinal stenosis. We describe our prospective, double-blind, randomized controlled trial that tests the hypothesis that epidural injections with steroids plus local anesthetic are more effective than epidural injections of local anesthetic alone in improving pain and function among older adults with lumbar spinal stenosis. Methods We will recruit up to 400 patients with lumbar central canal spinal stenosis from at least 9 clinical sites over 2 years. Patients with spinal instability who require surgical fusion, a history of prior lumbar surgery, or prior epidural steroid injection within the past 6 months are excluded. Participants are randomly assigned to receive either ESI with local anesthetic or the control intervention (epidural injections with local anesthetic alone. Subjects receive up to 2 injections prior to the primary endpoint at 6 weeks, at which time they may choose to crossover to the other intervention. Participants complete validated, standardized measures of pain, functional disability, and health-related quality of life at baseline and at 3 weeks, 6 weeks, and 3, 6, and 12 months after randomization. The primary outcomes are Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire and a numerical rating scale measure of pain intensity at 6 weeks. In order to better understand their safety, we also measure cortisol, HbA1c, fasting blood glucose, weight, and blood pressure at baseline, and at 3 and 6 weeks post-injection. We also obtain data on resource utilization and costs to assess cost-effectiveness of epidural steroid injection. Discussion This study is the first multi-center, double-blind RCT to evaluate the effectiveness of epidural steroid injections in improving pain and function among older adults with lumbar spinal stenosis. The study will also yield data on the safety and cost-effectiveness of this procedure for older adults. Trial Registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01238536

  17. Steroid withdrawal in renal transplant patients: the Irish experience.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Phelan, P J

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Steroid therapy is associated with significant morbidity in renal transplant recipients. However, there is concern that steroid withdrawal will adversely affect outcome. METHODS: We report on 241 renal transplant recipients on different doses of corticosteroids at 3 months (zero, <\\/= 5 mg\\/day, > 5 mg\\/day). Parameters analysed included blood pressure, lipid profile, weight change, new onset diabetes after transplantation (NODAT), allograft survival and acute rejection. RESULTS: Elimination of corticosteroids had no impact on allograft survival at 1 year. There were no cases of NODAT in the steroid withdrawal group compared with over 7% in each of the steroid groups. There were no significant improvements in weight gain, blood pressure control or total cholesterol with withdrawal of steroids before 3 months. CONCLUSIONS: In renal transplant patients treated with tacrolimus and mycophenolate, early withdrawal of steroids does not appear to adversely affect allograft outcome at 1 year. It may result in less NODAT.

  18. Steroid withdrawal in renal transplant patients: the Irish experience.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Phelan, P J

    2010-10-29

    BACKGROUND: Steroid therapy is associated with significant morbidity in renal transplant recipients. However, there is concern that steroid withdrawal will adversely affect outcome. METHODS: We report on 241 renal transplant recipients on different doses of corticosteroids at 3 months (zero, ?5 mg\\/day, >5 mg\\/day). Parameters analysed included blood pressure, lipid profile, weight change, new onset diabetes after transplantation (NODAT), allograft survival and acute rejection. RESULTS: Elimination of corticosteroids had no impact on allograft survival at 1 year. There were no cases of NODAT in the steroid withdrawal group compared with over 7% in each of the steroid groups. There were no significant improvements in weight gain, blood pressure control or total cholesterol with withdrawal of steroids before 3 months. CONCLUSIONS: In renal transplant patients treated with tacrolimus and mycophenolate, early withdrawal of steroids does not appear to adversely affect allograft outcome at 1 year. It may result in less NODAT.

  19. Preparation, preliminary screening of new types of steroid conjugates and their activities on steroid receptors.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jurášek, M.; Džubák, P.; Sedlák, David; Dvo?áková, H.; Hajduch, M.; Bart?n?k, Petr; Drasar, P.

    2013-01-01

    Ro?. 78, ?. 3 (2013), s. 356-361. ISSN 0039-128X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06077; GA ?R(CZ) GAP503/11/0616; GA ?R(CZ) GAP304/10/1951 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : click chemistry * steroid ribbons * cytotoxic activity * steroid receptor reporter assay * 2,6-bis((1H-1,2,3- triazol -1-yl)methyl)pyridine Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.716, year: 2013

  20. Bilateral patellar tendon rupture secondary to repeated local steroid injections.

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, S.C.; Jones, M.W.; Choudhury, R.R.; Smith, E.

    1995-01-01

    A case is reported of bilateral patellar tendon rupture in a fit man after a fall. He had a history of repeated local steroid injections into both tendons and histology confirmed steroid-induced changes. The history of repeated local steroid administration has to be implicated as the cause of this extremely rare injury in this patient, which can also be associated with hyperparathyroidism, systemic lupus erythematosus, diabetes and rheumatoid arthritis. All doctors performing repeated local s...

  1. Bringing GC-MS profiling of steroids into clinical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Man Ho; Chung, Bong Chul

    2015-01-01

    Abnormalities of steroid biosynthesis and excretion are responsible for the development and prevention of endocrine disorders, such as metabolic syndromes, cancers, and neurodegenerative diseases. Due to their biochemical roles in endocrine system, qualitative and quantitative analysis of steroid hormones in various biological specimens is needed to elucidate their altered expression. Mass spectrometry (MS)-based steroid profiling can reveal the states of metabolites in biological systems and provide comprehensive insights by allowing comparisons between metabolites present in cells, tissues, or organisms. In addition, the activities of many enzymes related to steroid metabolism often lead to hormonal imbalances that have serious consequences, and which are responsible for the progress of hormone-dependent diseases. In contrast to immunoaffinity-based enzyme assays, MS-based methods are more reproducible in quantification. In particular, high-resolution gas chromatographic (GC) separation of steroids with similar chemical structures can be achieved to provide rapid and reproducible results with excellent purification. GC-MS profiling therefore has been widely used for steroid analysis, and offers the basis for techniques that can be applied to large-scale clinical studies. Recent advances in analytical technologies combined with inter-disciplinary strategies, such as physiology and bioinformatics, will help in understanding the biochemical roles of steroid hormones. Therefore, comprehensive analytical protocols in steroid analysis for different research purposes may contribute to the elucidation of complex metabolic processes relevant to steroid function in many endocrine disorders, and in the identification of diagnostic biomarkers. PMID:24965919

  2. Cellular uptake of steroid carrier proteins--mechanisms and implications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willnow, Thomas E; Nykjaer, Anders

    2010-01-01

    Steroid hormones are believed to enter cells solely by free diffusion through the plasma membrane. However, recent studies suggest the existence of cellular uptake pathways for carrier-bound steroids. Similar to the clearance of cholesterol via lipoproteins, these pathways involve the recognition of carrier proteins by endocytic receptors on the surface of target cells, followed by internalization and cellular delivery of the bound sterols. Here, we discuss the emerging concept that steroid hormones can selectively enter steroidogenic tissues by receptor-mediated endocytosis, and we discuss the implications of these uptake pathways for steroid hormone metabolism and action in vivo.

  3. Determination of ovarian steroid hormone levels in saliva. An overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riad-Fahmy, D; Read, G F; Walker, R F; Walker, S M; Griffiths, K

    1987-04-01

    Assessment of ovarian activity based on saliva samples has proven particularly useful in studies of women in well-developed countries and is potentially of even greater value in women of lower socioeconomic status in Third World countries. Assay techniques suitable for measuring low concentrations of steroids in saliva have become available only recently, so data derived from salivary sampling regimens are far less extensive than those based on plasma or urinary sampling procedures. Collecting saliva is an attractive alternative to the more conventional procedures because of the ease of frequent collection and freedom from religious and social constraints. Simple, direct assays for salivary progesterone have been established, but those for estradiol require considerably more research before becoming useful in routine practice. Predicting ovulation with data derived from saliva sampling awaits the development of more suitable assays for salivary estradiol. PMID:3585869

  4. Ulcerative colitis and steroid-responsive, diffuse interstitial lung disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors describe a patient with ulcerative colitis and extracolonic manifestations in whom diffuse interstitial pulmonary disease developed that was responsive to glucocorticoid therapy one year after total proctocolectomy. The patient presented in December 1983 with a subacute course marked by cough and progressive exertional dyspnea, abnormal chest examination results, and a chest roentgenogram that revealed diffuse interstitital and alveolar infiltrates. A transbronchial biopsy specimen revealed a polymorphic interstitial infiltrate, mild interstitial fibrosis without apparent intraluminal fibrosis, and no vasculitis, granulomas, or significant eosinophilic infiltration. Within one week of the initiation of daily high-dose steroid therapy, the patient's symptoms dramatically improved; chest roentgenogram and forced vital capacity (60%) improved at a slower rate. All three measures deteriorated when alternate-day prednisone therapy was started but once again improved until the patient was totally asymptomatic, chest roentgenograms were normal, and forced vital capacity was 80% of the predicted value 2 1/2 years later

  5. Sex-Offender Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safety & Prevention Law Enforcement Training Victim & Family Support Sex Offender Tracking The primary goal of the National Center for Missing & Exploited Children's Sex Offender Tracking Team ® is to provide assistance to ...

  6. Practice Safer Sex

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... This information in Spanish ( en español ) Practice safer sex Related information Men's health Screening tests and vaccines ... Return to top More information on Practice safer sex Explore other publications and websites Addressing HIV, Other ...

  7. Sex hormones and skeletal muscle weakness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sipilä, Sarianna; Narici, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Human ageing is accompanied with deterioration in endocrine functions the most notable and well characterized of which being the decrease in the production of sex hormones. Current research literature suggests that low sex hormone concentration may be among the key mechanism for sarcopenia and muscle weakness. Within the European large scale MYOAGE project, the role of sex hormones, estrogens and testosterone, in causing the aging-related loss of muscle mass and function was further investigated. Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) in women is shown to diminish age-associated muscle loss, loss in fast muscle function (power), and accumulation of fat in skeletal muscle. Further HRT raises the protein synthesis rate in skeletal muscle after resistance training, and has an anabolic effect upon connective tissue in both skeletal muscle and tendon, which influences matrix structure and mechanical properties. HRT influences gene expression in e.g. cytoskeletal and cell-matrix proteins, has a stimulating effect upon IGF-I, and a role in IL-6 and adipokine regulation. Despite low circulating steroid-hormone level, postmenopausal women have a high local concentration of steroidogenic enzymes in skeletal muscle.

  8. Cardiovascular manifestations of anabolic steroids in association with demographic variables in body building athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gheshlaghi, Farzad; Piri-Ardakani, Mohammad-Reza; Masoumi, Gholam Reza; Behjati, Mohaddaseh; Paydar, Parva

    2015-01-01

    Background: The most common drug abuse among athletes is anabolic steroids which lead to the development of cardiovascular diseases and sudden death. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate cardiovascular outcomes of anabolic consumption in body building athletes. Materials and Methods: Totally, 267 male athletes at the range of 20-45 years old with the regular consumption of anabolic steroids for >2 months with at least once weekly. High-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), triglyceride (TG), and hematocrit (Hct) levels were measured after 10 h of fasting. Data analysis was performed using K2, t-test, ANOVA and correlation coefficient through SPSS 17. Results: There was a nonsignificant difference between groups regarding HDL, TG, and total cholesterol. There was a significant decrease in the total and categorized LDL and Hct levels in consumers of anabolic steroid versus nonusers (P = 0.01 and P = 0.041, respectively). Results showed a significant increase in systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP) in anabolic steroid users which associates with duration of abuse (P = 0.02 and P = 0.03, respectively). No significant electrocardiography changes were found within the follow-up period. Conclusion: Increase in SBP or DBP is a common complication of these drugs which can lead serious vascular disorders. The lower LDL cholesterol level might be due to the higher amounts of lipid consumption in these athletes. PMID:25983770

  9. Biomechanical effects of steroid injections used to treat pyogenic flexor tenosynovitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turvey Blake R

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A recent study from our laboratory has demonstrated improved range of motion in the toes of broiler chickens afflicted with pyogenic flexor tenosynovitis when treated with local antibiotic and corticosteroid injections, without surgical drainage. However, the use of corticosteroids as an adjunct treatment raised peer concern, as steroids are thought to have deleterious effects on tendon strength. The purpose of this study was to compare the tensile strength of the aforementioned steroid treated tendons, to a group of tendons administered with the current standard treatment: systemic antibiotics, surgical drainage and no corticosteroids. Methods Twenty-three tendons’ structural and material properties were investigated (fifteen receiving the standard treatment, eight receiving the steroid treatment. The measurements from each group were interpreted via Student’s unpaired t-test and a post-hoc power analysis. Results The steroid treated tendons did demonstrate a trend toward decreased mechanical properties when compared with the standard treatment group, but the results were not statistically significant. Conclusions Treatment of septic tenosynovitis with local corticosteroid and local antibiotic injections resulted in better digital motion, without a significant loss of tendon strength, over a twenty-eight day recovery period.

  10. Endogenous sex hormones and endometrial cancer risk in women in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)

    OpenAIRE

    Allen, Ne; Key, Tj; Dossus, L.; Rinaldi, S.; Cust, A.; Lukanova, A.; Peeters, Ph; Onland-moret, Nc; Lahmann, Ph; Berrino, F.; Panico, S.; Larran?aga, N.; Pera, G.; Tormo, Mj; Sa?nchez, Mj

    2008-01-01

    Epidemiological data show that reproductive and hormonal factors are involved in the etiology of endometrial cancer, but there is little data on the association with endogenous sex hormone levels. We analyzed the association between prediagnostic serum concentrations of sex steroids and endometrial cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition using a nested case-control design of 247 incident endometrial cancer cases and 481 controls, matched on center, meno...

  11. Cervical epidural steroid injection for cervicobrachialgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stav, A; Ovadia, L; Sternberg, A; Kaadan, M; Weksler, N

    1993-08-01

    Fifty patients with chronic resistant cervicobrachialgia were randomly divided into two groups. Twenty-five patients (group A) were treated with cervical epidural steroid/lidocaine injections and 17 patients (group B) were treated with steroid/lidocaine injections into the posterior neck muscles. Another eight patients from group B were excluded from the study because they had started the process of litigation of insurance claims and their subjective analysis of pain relief might therefore not be trustworthy. One to three injections were administered at 2-week intervals according to the clinical response. All patients continued their various pre-study treatments: non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, non-opioid analgesics and physiotherapy. Pain relief was evaluated by the visual analogue scale 1 week after the last injection and then 1 year later. One week after the last injection we rated pain relief as very good and good in 76% of the patients in group A, as compared to 35.5% of the patients in group B. One year after the treatment 68% of the group A patients still had very good and good pain relief, whereas only 11.8% of group B patients reported this degree of pain relief. These differences were statistically significant. We failed to achieve significant improvement of tendon reflexes or of sensory loss in both groups, but the increase in the range of motion, the fraction of patients who were able to decrease their daily dose of analgesics, and recovery of the capacity for work were significantly better in group A. We encountered no complications in either group of patients.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8213020

  12. Men and women, so different, so similar: observations from cross-sex hormone treatment of transsexual subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooren, L J; Giltay, E J

    2014-06-01

    Sexual differentiation in mammals is largely driven by the presence of androgen in males and their absence in females. The presence of androgens induces a number of irreversible changes in males: prenatally, the genital differentiation; during puberty, the development of secondary sex characteristics - the larger facial bones, hand, feet and height in males. A large number of metabolic variables are influenced by sex hormones and consequently show difference between men and women, and this helps to explain differences in pathologies, such as cardiovascular disease, bone fractures and auto immune disease. There is some recent evidence that some sex differences in brain functions are not mediated by sex hormones, but by-products of genes located on the X and Y chromosomes. This communication reviews the results of administration of cross-sex hormone treatment to transsexual persons transitioning to the other sex. Natal males are treated with anti-androgens+oestrogens and natal females with testosterone. This provides a unique opportunity to study which metabolic functions are not irreversibly sex-differentiated but are determined by the prevailing milieu of sex steroids. The insights gained with these studies should lead to a better appreciation of the role of sex steroids in cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus which presently do not receive due attention. PMID:23682909

  13. Sex Education in Croatia

    OpenAIRE

    Bijelic?, Natas?a

    2008-01-01

    Abstract This article explores the influence of the Catholic church on educational policy, more specifically on sex education, in Croatia. It explores tensions between secular and religious discourses regarding the introduction of a sex education programme supported by the Catholic church into Croatian schools. The presence of the Catholic doctrine in the educational system provided the basis for the introduction of sex education with a religious framework, namely the GROZD sex edu...

  14. Release of Steroids from Plastibase Semisolid Bases

    OpenAIRE

    Kararayar, D. Hassan-zadeh S.

    1991-01-01

    The present research is carried out in order to study the possibility of replacing the classic semisolid bases in steroidal commercial products with Plastibase."nAs regard to its high lipophilic properties, the plastibase alone is not a suitable base for hydrocortisone acetate and f.luocinolone acetonide. Addition of 5 and 7.5% of Propylene glycol to plastibase can increase the rate of drug release from vehicle. This change in drug release is related to decrease in drug-vehicle interacti...

  15. Leverpatologi associeret med anaboliske-androgene steroider

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    SØe, Katrine; SØe, Martin Jensen

    1994-01-01

    This review regards the liver damaging side-effects of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS). It seems that AAS can cause development of peliosis hepatis, subcellular changes of hepatocytes, hepatocellular hyperplasia and hepatocellular adenomas. On the other hand, it has not been convincingly proved that AAS can cause development of hepatocellular carcinomas when used in usual therapeutical doses. Tumours reported as hepatocellular carcinomas caused by AAS seem to be hyperplastic lesions of a benign nature that are able to regress on withdrawal of the putative agent. The effect of untraditional combinations of AAS and high-dose AAS is not yet known, leaving the possibility of a carcinogenic effect in those cases.

  16. Leverpatologi associeret med anaboliske-androgene steroider.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    SØe, K L; SØe, M

    1994-01-01

    This review regards the liver damaging side-effects of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS). It seems that AAS can cause development of peliosis hepatis, subcellular changes of hepatocytes, hepatocellular hyperplasia and hepatocellular adenomas. On the other hand, it has not been convincingly proved that AAS can cause development of hepatocellular carcinomas when used in usual therapeutical doses. Tumours reported as hepatocellular carcinomas caused by AAS seem to be hyperplastic lesions of a benign nature that are able to regress on withdrawal of the putative agent. The effect of untraditional combinations of AAS and high-dose AAS is not yet known, leaving the possibility of a carcinogenic effect in those cases.

  17. Single-Sex Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protheroe, Nancy

    2009-01-01

    Although single-sex education was once the norm in the U.S., the practice has largely been confined to private schools for more than a century. However, with the introduction of the final version of the U.S. Department of Education's so-called single-sex regulations in 2006, public schools were allowed greater flexibility to offer single-sex

  18. When Sex Is Painful

    Science.gov (United States)

    How common is painful sex? Pain during intercourse is very common—nearly 3 out of 4 women have pain during intercourse at some time during ... a long-term problem. What causes pain during sex? Pain during sex may be a sign of ...

  19. Making Healthy Decisions About Sex

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Teens: How to Make Healthy Decisions About Sex Article Body Before you decide to have sex ... alcohol or use drugs. Are You Ready for Sex? Sex can change your life and relationships. Having ...

  20. 21 CFR 1308.26 - Excluded veterinary anabolic steroid implant products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 2010-04-01 false Excluded veterinary anabolic steroid implant products...OF CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Excluded Veterinary Anabolic Steroid Implant Products § 1308.26 Excluded veterinary anabolic steroid implant...

  1. 21 CFR 1308.25 - Exclusion of a veterinary anabolic steroid implant product; application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Exclusion of a veterinary anabolic steroid implant product...CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Excluded Veterinary Anabolic Steroid Implant Products § 1308.25 Exclusion of a veterinary anabolic steroid implant...

  2. Pathways to ischemic neuronal cell death: are sex differences relevant?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCullough Louise D

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We have known for some time that the epidemiology of human stroke is sexually dimorphic until late in life, well beyond the years of reproductive senescence and menopause. Now, a new concept is emerging: the mechanisms and outcome of cerebral ischemic injury are influenced strongly by biological sex as well as the availability of sex steroids to the brain. The principal mammalian estrogen (17 ? estradiol or E2 is neuroprotective in many types of brain injury and has been the major focus of investigation over the past several decades. However, it is becoming increasingly clear that although hormones are a major contributor to sex-specific outcomes, they do not fully account for sex-specific responses to cerebral ischemia. The purpose of this review is to highlight recent studies in cell culture and animal models that suggest that genetic sex determines experimental stroke outcome and that divergent cell death pathways are activated after an ischemic insult. These sex differences need to be identified if we are to develop efficacious neuroprotective agents for use in stroke patients.

  3. Sex differences in Parkinson's disease and other movement disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kara M; Dahodwala, Nabila

    2014-09-01

    Movement disorders including Parkinson's disease (PD), Huntington's disease (HD), chorea, tics, and Tourette's syndrome (TS) display sex differences in disease susceptibility, disease pathogenesis, and clinical presentation. PD is more common in males than in females. Epidemiologic studies suggest that exposure to endogenous and exogenous estrogen contributes to these sex differences. There is extensive evidence that estrogen prevents dopaminergic neuron depletion induced by neurotoxins in PD animal models and therefore is neuroprotective. Estrogen may also decrease the efficacy of other neuroprotective substances such as caffeine in females but not males. Sex chromosomes can exert effects independent of sex steroid hormones on the development and maintenance of the dopamine system. As a result of hormone, chromosome and other unknown effects, there are sexual dimorphisms in the basal ganglia, and at the molecular levels in dopaminergic neurons that may lead to distinct mechanisms of pathogenesis in males and females. In this review, we summarize the evidence that estrogen and selective estrogen receptor modulators are neuroprotective in PD and discuss potential mechanisms of action. We also briefly review how sex differences in basal ganglia function and dopaminergic pathways may impact HD, chorea, and tics/Tourette's syndrome. Further understanding of these sex differences may lead to novel therapeutic strategies for prevention and treatment of these diseases. PMID:24681088

  4. Esteróides anabolizantes no esporte Anabolic steroids in sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Rodrigo Pedroso da Silva

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Os hormônios esteróides anabólicos androgênicos (EAA compreendem a testosterona e seus derivados. Eles são produzidos nos testículos e no córtex adrenal, e promovem as características sexuais secundárias associadas à masculinidade. Na medicina, os EAA são utilizados geralmente no tratamento de sarcopenias, do hipogonadismo, do câncer de mama e da osteoporose. Nos esportes, são utilizados para o aumento da força física e da massa muscular; entretanto, os efeitos sobre o desempenho atlético permanecem, ainda, controversos. Os EAA podem causar diversos efeitos colaterais, como psicopatologias, câncer de próstata, doença coronariana e esterilidade. Estudos epidemiológicos apontam a problemática acerca do uso de EAA, nos esportes; todavia, no Brasil não existem publicações substanciais sobre esse tema. Esta revisão analisa esse assunto, procurando despertar a curiosidade e o interesse dos leitores para a produção científica de novos trabalhos relacionados ao tema.Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS are hormones that include or are derivatives of testosterone. They are produced in the testicles and in the adrenal cortex. AAS promote development of sexual characteristics associated with the male sex. They are applied as a general rule in the treatment of sarcopenia, hypogonadism, breast cancer, and osteoporosis. In relation to sports, they are used to increase strength and muscle mass. Their effects on athletics performance are still controversial. AAS can cause several side-effects, such as mental disease, prostate cancer, coronary disease, and sterility. There are no epidemiologic studies regarding the use of AAS in Brazil . This review intends to deal with this matter widely and aims at stimulating curiosity and interest in order to provide new publications about this issue.

  5. Esteróides anabolizantes no esporte / Anabolic steroids in sports

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Paulo Rodrigo Pedroso da, Silva; Ricardo, Danielski; Mauro Antônio, Czepielewski.

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Os hormônios esteróides anabólicos androgênicos (EAA) compreendem a testosterona e seus derivados. Eles são produzidos nos testículos e no córtex adrenal, e promovem as características sexuais secundárias associadas à masculinidade. Na medicina, os EAA são utilizados geralmente no tratamento de sarc [...] openias, do hipogonadismo, do câncer de mama e da osteoporose. Nos esportes, são utilizados para o aumento da força física e da massa muscular; entretanto, os efeitos sobre o desempenho atlético permanecem, ainda, controversos. Os EAA podem causar diversos efeitos colaterais, como psicopatologias, câncer de próstata, doença coronariana e esterilidade. Estudos epidemiológicos apontam a problemática acerca do uso de EAA, nos esportes; todavia, no Brasil não existem publicações substanciais sobre esse tema. Esta revisão analisa esse assunto, procurando despertar a curiosidade e o interesse dos leitores para a produção científica de novos trabalhos relacionados ao tema. Abstract in english Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) are hormones that include or are derivatives of testosterone. They are produced in the testicles and in the adrenal cortex. AAS promote development of sexual characteristics associated with the male sex. They are applied as a general rule in the treatment of sarcop [...] enia, hypogonadism, breast cancer, and osteoporosis. In relation to sports, they are used to increase strength and muscle mass. Their effects on athletics performance are still controversial. AAS can cause several side-effects, such as mental disease, prostate cancer, coronary disease, and sterility. There are no epidemiologic studies regarding the use of AAS in Brazil . This review intends to deal with this matter widely and aims at stimulating curiosity and interest in order to provide new publications about this issue.

  6. Steroids and flavonoids of Porcelia macrocarpa

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mariana H., Chaves; Nidia F., Roque; Mariane C. Costa, Ayres.

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Três misturas de esteróides (1a+1b, 2a+2b e 3a+3b) e dois flavonóides glicosilados (4 e 5) foram isolados do extrato etanólico dos galhos da Porcelia macrocarpa (Warm.) R. E. Fries (Annonaceae). Os esteróides Estigmasta-4,25-dien-3-ona (2a) e (22E)-Estigmasta-4,22,25-trien-3-ona (2b) são substâncias [...] novas. As estruturas foram determinadas com base na análise de dados espectrais de RMN e de massas e por comparação com dados de substâncias da literatura usadas como modelos. Abstract in english Three mixtures of steroids (1a+1b, 2a+2b and 3a+3b) and two flavonoid glycosides (4 and 5) were isolated from the ethanol extract of branches of Porcelia macrocarpa (Warm.) R. E. Fries (Annonaceae). The steroids Stigmasta-4,25-dien-3-one (2a) and (22E)-Stigmasta-4,22,25-trien-3-one (2b) are news. Th [...] e structures were elucidated by NMR and MS data and comparison with literature data of model compounds.

  7. Plasma-sulfated C21-steroids increase during the periovulatory period in female common wolffish and are influenced by temperature during vitellogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tveiten, H; Scott, A P; Johnsen, H K

    2000-03-01

    Plasma concentrations of steroids during the periovulatory period were measured in female common wolffish reared at three different temperatures. Steroids were quantified by radioimmunoassay (RIA). Two "broad-spectrum specificity" RIAs-one which detects C21-steroids with a 17,20beta-dihydroxyl configuration (17,20beta-steroids) and the other which detects C21-steroids with a 5beta-reduced, 3alpha-hydroxyl configuration (5beta,3alpha-steroids)-picked up very large amounts of cross-reacting material (1.7 microg ml(-1) in one fish) in the sulfate fraction of plasma from ovulating females. Reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography and thin-layer chromatography revealed two major steroids: 5beta-pregnane-3alpha,17,20beta-triol (80%) and 5beta-pregnane-3beta,17,20beta-triol (20%). The sulfated forms of these steroids were elevated 4 to 6 days before and during ovulation, compared with those of females in vitellogenic and postspawning condition, in which concentrations were below 2.0 ng ml(-1). In the three groups of fish held at 4, 8, and 12 degrees C during vitellogenesis, but returned to 4 degrees C just prior to the spawning season, the mean concentrations of sulfated 17,20beta-steroids in ovulating females were 530, 635, and 325 ng ml(-1), respectively. The corresponding concentrations of free 17,20beta-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (17,20beta-P; the maturation-inducing steroid in many teleosts) were 0.88, 0.86, and 0.57 ng ml(-1), respectively. Only minute amounts of 17,20beta,21-P and its sulfated derivatives were detected. Significantly lower steroid concentrations in the 12 degrees C group indicate that steroid synthesis and/or metabolism during the periovulatory period are influenced by the temperature experienced during vitellogenesis. In male fish, plasma concentrations of both sulfated 17,20beta-steroids and free 17,20beta-P were low (< 2.0 ng ml(-1)) at all times. PMID:10764557

  8. Gluteal Subcutaneous Atrophy After Depot Steroid Injection for Allergic Rhinitis

    OpenAIRE

    Ameratunga, Rohan

    2012-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis is a common and often distressing condition. Currently, treatment with nonsedating antihistamines, topical therapy, and immunotherapy are very effective. Despite this, intramuscular depot steroids are commonly used in clinical practice. Here, we present the case of a young woman who developed disfiguring scarring after a depot steroid injection. This case highlights the risks of this form of treatment for allergic rhinitis.

  9. Pregnane steroids from the heartwood of Azadirachta indica

    OpenAIRE

    SIDDIQUI, Bina Shaheen; ALI, Syed Kashif

    2009-01-01

    The heartwood of Azadirachta indica (Meliaceae) yielded a new steroid (2a, 3b, 4b-trihydroxypregnan-16-one) and 2 known steroids (2b, 3b, 4b-trihydroxypregnan-16-one and 2a, 3a, 4b-trihydroxypregnan-16-one). Their structures were elucidated through spectral studies including 2D NMR (COSY, NOESY, J-resolved, HMQC, HMBC) experiments.

  10. Steroid sulfatase and sulfuryl transferase activities in human brain tumors.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    K?íž, L.; Bi?íková, M.; Mohapl, M.; Hill, M.; ?erný, Ivan; Hampl, R.

    2008-01-01

    Ro?. 109, ?. 1 (2008), s. 31-39. ISSN 0960-0760 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : dehydroepiandrosterone * steroid sulfatase * steroid sulfuryl transferase * brain Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.827, year: 2008

  11. Better science with sex and gender: Facilitating the use of a sex and gender-based analysis in health research

    OpenAIRE

    Greaves Lorraine; Johnson Joy L; Repta Robin

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Much work has been done to promote sex and gender-based analyses in health research and to think critically about the influence of sex and gender on health behaviours and outcomes. However, despite this increased attention on sex and gender, there remain obstacles to effectively applying and measuring these concepts in health research. Some health researchers continue to ignore the concepts of sex and gender or incorrectly conflate their meanings. We report on a primer that was devel...

  12. Chemometric Evaluation of Urinary Steroid Hormone Levels as Potential Biomarkers of Neuroendocrine Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Seroczy?ska

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs are uncommon tumors which can secrete specific hormone products such as peptides, biogenic amines and hormones. So far, the diagnosis of NETs has been difficult because most NET markers are not specific for a given tumor and none of the NET markers can be used to fulfil the criteria of high specificity and high sensitivity for the screening procedure. However, by combining the measurements of different NET markers, they become highly sensitive and specific diagnostic tests. The aim of the work was to identify whether urinary steroid hormones can be identified as potential new biomarkers of NETs, which could be used as prognostic and clinical course monitoring factors. Thus, a rapid and sensitive reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic method (RP-HPLC with UV detection has been developed for the determination of cortisol, cortisone, corticosterone, testosterone, epitestosterone and progesterone in human urine. The method has been validated for accuracy, precision, selectivity, linearity, recovery and stability. The limits of detection and quantification were 0.5 and 1 ng mL?1 for each steroid hormone, respectively. Linearity was confirmed within a range of 1–300 ng mL?1 with a correlation coefficient greater than 0.9995 for all analytes. The described method was successfully applied for the quantification of six endogenous steroid levels in human urine. Studies were performed on 20 healthy volunteers and 19 patients with NETs. Next, for better understanding of tumor biology in NETs and for checking whether steroid hormones can be used as potential biomarkers of NETs, a chemometric analysis of urinary steroid hormone levels in both data sets was performed.

  13. "Bareback" pornography consumption and safe-sex intentions of men having sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonas, Kai J; Hawk, Skyler T; Vastenburg, Danny; de Groot, Peter

    2014-05-01

    Men having sex with men (MSM) commonly consume "bareback" pornography, which includes scenes of unprotected anal intercourse. Prior research on human imitative behavior suggests that these media might counteract efforts to promote safe-sex behaviors. To date, no studies have demonstrated a causal link between bareback pornography consumption and reduced safe-sex intentions. Study 1 utilized a correlational design conducted as an online survey. Study 2 was set in an actual MSM sex club, using a 2 × 2 mixed-factorial design to compare type of pornography (unprotected vs. protected anal intercourse) and age of actors (younger vs. older). As the main dependent variable in both studies, participants self-reported their inclinations toward unprotected versus protected intercourse, using a 100-point sliding scale (1 = unprotected, 100 = protected). In Study 1, more attention to unprotected sex acts on actual DVD film covers predicted lower safe-sex intentions, as compared to other elements of the film cover. In Study 2, safe-sex intentions after viewing unprotected-sex films were lower than after viewing protected-sex films. The results provide novel and ecologically valid evidence that "bareback" pornography consumption impacts viewer's inclinations toward sexual risk-taking by lowering their intentions to use protected sex measures. Suggestions are given as to how these findings can be utilized for purposes of intervention and prevention of STI and HIV infections. PMID:24729135

  14. Sex differences in feeding behavior in rats: the relationship with neuronal activation in the hypothalamus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, Atsushi; Hagiwara, Hiroko; Fujioka, Hitomi; Kimura, Fukuko; Akema, Tatsuo; Funabashi, Toshiya

    2015-01-01

    There is general agreement that the central nervous system in rodents differs between sexes due to the presence of gonadal steroid hormone during differentiation. Sex differences in feeding seem to occur among species, and responses to fasting (i.e., starvation), gonadal steroids (i.e., testosterone and estradiol), and diet (i.e., western-style diet) vary significantly between sexes. The hypothalamus is the center for controlling feeding behavior. We examined the activation of feeding-related peptides in neurons in the hypothalamus. Phosphorylation of cyclic AMP response element-binding protein (CREB) is a good marker for neural activation, as is the Fos antigen. Therefore, we predicted that sex differences in the activity of melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) neurons would be associated with feeding behavior. We determined the response of MCH neurons to glucose in the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) and our results suggested MCH neurons play an important role in sex differences in feeding behavior. In addition, fasting increased the number of orexin neurons harboring phosphorylated CREB in female rats (regardless of the estrous day), but not male rats. Glucose injection decreased the number of these neurons with phosphorylated CREB in fasted female rats. Finally, under normal spontaneous food intake, MCH neurons, but not orexin neurons, expressed phosphorylated CREB. These sex differences in response to fasting and glucose, as well as under normal conditions, suggest a vulnerability to metabolic challenges in females. PMID:25870535

  15. Age-dependent role of steroids in the regulation of growth of the hen follicular wall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lebedev Vladimir A

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ovaries are the primary targets of senescence effects in mammalian and avian species. In the present study, relationships between reproductive aging, sex steroids and the growth pattern of the pre-ovulatory follicle wall were investigated using young hens with long clutch (YLC, old hens with long clutch (OLC, old hens with short clutch (OSC, and old hens with interrupted long clutch (OILC. Methods Experiment 1: Hens were sacrificed 1.5 and 14.5 h after ovulation. Experiment 2: YLC and OILC hens were sacrificed 3.5 h after treatments with LH and/or aminoglutethimide (AG, an inhibitor of steroid synthesis. Volumes of pre-ovulatory follicles (F1-F5 and plasma concentrations of ovarian steroids were determined. Experiment 3: Granulosa and theca cells from F3 follicles of OSC and/or YLC hens were exposed in vitro to estradiol-17beta (E2, testosterone (T and LH and the proliferative activity of the cells was examined using CellTiter 96 Aqueous One Solution Assay. Results In YLC and OLC groups, the total volume of F1-F5 follicles rose between 1.5 and 14.5 h after ovulation (P 2 (P 2 and the follicular volume (P 2 (r = -0.54, P 2 enhanced proliferation of granulosa cells from YLC and OSC groups. The proliferative activity of granulosa and theca cells of YLC hens depended on the interaction between T and LH (P Conclusions These data indicate for the first time that the growth pattern of pre-ovulatory follicles during the ovulatory cycle changes in the course of reproductive aging. E2 seems to play a dual role in this adjustment; it stimulates the growth of the follicular wall in reproductive aged hens, whereas it may inhibit this process in young birds. T and LH are apparently involved in the growth regulation during the pre-ovulatory surge in young hens.

  16. Phenotypic classification of male pseudohermaphroditism due to steroid 5{alpha}-reductase 2 deficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinnecker, G.H.G; Hiort, O.; Kruse, K.; Dibbelt, L. [Medical Univ. of Luebeck (Germany)] [and others

    1996-05-03

    Conversion of testosterone (T) to dihydrotestosterone (DHT) in genital tissue is catalysed by the enzyme 5{alpha}-reductase 2, which is encoded by the SRD5A2 gene. The potent androgen DHT is required for full masculinization of the external genitalia. Mutations of the SRD5A2 gene inhibit enzyme activity, diminish DHT formation, and hence cause masculinization defects of varying degree. The classical syndrome, formerly described as pseudovaginal perineoscrotal hypospadias, is characterized by a predominantly female phenotype at birth and significant virilization without gynecomastia at puberty. We investigated nine patients with steroid 5{alpha}-reductase 2 deficiency (SRD). T/DHT-ratios were highly increased in the classical syndrome, but variable in the less severe affected patients. Mutations in the SRD5A2 gene had been characterized using PCR-SSCP analysis and direct DNA sequencing. A small deletion was encountered in two patients, while all other patients had single base mutations which result in amino acid substitutions. We conclude that phenotypes may vary widely in patients with SRD5A2 gene mutations spanning the whole range from completely female to normal male without distinctive clinical signs of the disease. Hence, steroid 5{alpha}-reductase deficiency should be considered not only in sex reversed patients with female or ambiguous phenotypes, but also in those with mild symptoms of undermasculinization as encountered in patients with hypospadias and/or micropenis. A classification based on the severity of the masculinization defect may be used for correlation of phenotypes with enzyme activities and genotypes, and for comparisons of phenotypes between different patients as the basis for clinical decisions to be made in patients with pseudohermaphroditism due to steroid 5{alpha}-reductase 2 deficiency. 22 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. TeBG- and CBG-bound steroid hormones in rabbits are available for influx into uterus in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The metabolic clearance rate (MCR) of gonadal or adrenal steroid hormones in rabbits often does not bear the expected inverse relationship with hormone binding to testosterone-binding globulin (TeBG) or corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG). This suggests TeBG or CBG may not impede steroid hormone delivery to tissues. The effects of rabbit plasma proteins on the influxes of 3H-labeled steroids from the circulation into the rabbit uterus were measured in vivo using a tissue sampling single-injection technique. In the absence of plasma proteins, estradiol (E2) and testosterone (T) were freely diffusible through the uterine microvasculature (i.e., extraction >80%). The extractions of dihydrostestosterone (DHT) and corticosterone (B) ranged from 60 to 72%, while that of cortisol (F) was reduced at 40%. Rabbit serum exerted no inhibition of the influxes of the steroids tested. The influxes of T and B greatly exceeded the rates that would be expected if only the free and albumin-bound fractions estimated in vitro were diffusible in vivo. However, the extraction of [3H]corticosteroid-binding globulin or bovine [3H]albumin were low, consistent with little, if any, extravascular uptake of the plasma proteins. The results indicate both albumin-bound and globulin-bound steroid hormone are available for transport into the uterus in the rabbit in vivo without significant exodus of the plasma protein, per seein, per se

  18. Tissue-specific expression of human arylsulfatase-C isozymes and steroid sulfatase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munroe, D G; Chang, P L

    1987-02-01

    Steroid sulfatase (STS; E.C.3.1.6.2), which acts on 3-hydroxysteroid sulfates, and arylsulfatase-C (ARC; E.C.3.1.6.1), assayed with aromatic artificial substrates, are both membrane-bound, microsomal enzymes with alkaline pH optima. Although they copurify during preparation and their gene loci are mapped to the short arm of the human X chromosome where they appear to have escaped from X inactivation, it has not been settled whether STS and ARC are the same enzyme or not. Recent work from our laboratory has shown that ARC exists in two electrophoretically distinct forms in human fibroblasts. We now report that these two forms--the faster migrating (F) and more slowly migrating (S)--occur in human tissues. Each of 11 human tissue types from 10 subjects showed a consistent pattern of ARC isozymes. Thyroid, heart, spleen, skeletal muscle, and adrenal tissue mainly had the S form. In contrast, kidney, liver, and pancreas tissue had mainly the F form, while gonadal, lung, and intestinal tissue had both the S and the F forms. The question of escape of their gene locus from X-chromosome inactivation was examined by comparing the specific activities of ARC and STS in male-derived vis-à-vis female-derived tissues. The majority of the tissues did not show any significant difference in these activities between the sexes, the exceptions being heart muscle, gonadal, and kidney tissue. None showed the 1:2 ratio between male- and female-derived tissues expected of a locus that had escaped X inactivation. The question of identity between ARC and STS was examined by comparing the ratios of their activities in these tissue types: if the enzymes were identical, the ratios of their activities should have remained constant across the different tissue types. It was thus shown that ARC activity varied by as much as 100-fold, depending on the ARC isozymic pattern of the tissue. STS, measured as estrone sulfatase and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfatase, did not show similar variations. This provides further evidence that ARC activity is not necessarily identical to that of STS. PMID:3471087

  19. Steroids in rhinoplasty: a survey of current UK otolaryngologists' practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofo, E; Singh, A; Marais, J

    2006-02-01

    The use of steroids during rhinoplasty to reduce post-operative periorbital oedema and ecchymosis has been advocated. A number of randomized controlled trials have demonstrated the benefit of steroids in rhinoplasty. The aim of this study was to determine current UK practice in the use of steroids during rhinoplasty performed by otolaryngologists. A postal survey of consultant otolaryngologists in the UK was conducted. We received 203 responses, with 115 consultants performing 12 or more rhinoplasties per year. Only 28 consultants (24 per cent) used steroids routinely in patients undergoing rhinoplasty and of these 11 used a protocol, although this was unpublished. Dexamethasone was the most common steroid used (82 per cent), being administered as a single intravenous dose of 8 mg in the majority of cases (54 per cent). There was no correlation between the use of steroids and the number of rhinoplasties performed by individual consultants. Despite the evidence supporting the use of steroids to reduce post-operative sequelae following rhinoplasty, only a minority of consultants in the UK appear to use them as part of their practice. PMID:16359159

  20. Steroid receptors and their ligands: effects on male gamete functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquila, Saveria; De Amicis, Francesca

    2014-11-01

    In recent years a new picture of human sperm biology is emerging. It is now widely recognized that sperm contain nuclear encoded mRNA, mitochondrial encoded RNA and different transcription factors including steroid receptors, while in the past sperm were considered incapable of transcription and translation. One of the main targets of steroid hormones and their receptors is reproductive function. Expression studies on Progesterone Receptor, estrogen receptor, androgen receptor and their specific ligands, demonstrate the presence of these systems in mature spermatozoa as surface but also as nuclear conventional receptors, suggesting that both systemic and local steroid hormones, through sperm receptors, may influence male reproduction. However, the relationship between the signaling events modulated by steroid hormones and sperm fertilization potential as well as the possible involvement of the specific receptors are still controversial issues. The main line of this review highlights the current research in human sperm biology examining new molecular systems of response to the hormones as well as specific regulatory pathways controlling sperm cell fate and biological functions. Most significant studies regarding the identification of steroid receptors are reported and the mechanistic insights relative to signaling pathways, together with the change in sperm metabolism energy influenced by steroid hormones are discussed.The reviewed evidences suggest important effects of Progesterone, Estrogen and Testosterone and their receptors on spermatozoa and implicate the involvement of both systemic and local steroid action in the regulation of male fertility potential. PMID:25062984

  1. Family Sex Communication and the Sexual Desire, Attitudes, and Behavior of Late Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamboni, Brian D.; Silver, Rachel

    2009-01-01

    Parental sex education might promote healthy sexual behavior among adolescents, but some parents assume that family communication about sex will lead to sexual activity. Family sex communication has been studied with a limited range of adolescent sexual behaviors but not sexual fantasy or desire. Two measures of family sex communication were…

  2. Sex hormones in postmenopausal women with primary biliary cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Becker, U; Almdal, Thomas Peter

    1991-01-01

    To evaluate serum sex hormone profiles in nonalcoholic postmenopausal women with liver disease, 25 women with primary biliary cirrhosis (11 in cirrhotic stage) and 46 healthy controls were studied. The patients had significantly (p less than 0.05) elevated serum concentrations of estrone and androstenedione and significantly (p less than 0.05) lower concentrations of estrone sulfate, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate and 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone compared with the 46 controls. Serum concentrations of sex hormone binding globulin, testosterone, non-sex hormone binding globulin-bound testosterone and non-protein-bound testosterone did not differ significantly (p greater than 0.05) between primary biliary cirrhosis patients and controls. Patients in the cirrhotic stage had significantly (p less than 0.05) higher concentrations of sex hormone binding globulin than did controls. Patients in the cirrhotic stage had significantly (p less than 0.05) higher sex hormone binding globulin and estrone sulfate levels compared with noncirrhotic patients with primary biliary cirrhosis. Otherwise, no significant differences were observed between cirrhotic and noncirrhotic patients. The observed changes in steroid concentrations may be a consequence of hepatic dysfunction.

  3. ROLE OF STEROID HORMONES AND DECIDUAL INDUCTION IN THE REGULATION OF ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHORIBOSYL TRANSFERASE ACTIVITY IN RAT ENDOMETRIUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    To assess the effect of ovarian steroid hormones on enzyme activity, adenosine diphosphoribosyl transferase (ADPRT) was measured in endometrial nuclei isolated on estrus and on d 4 from rats ovariectomized on estrus (d 0) and treated d 0-3 with (a) vehicle, (b) 1 ug estrone/d (E)...

  4. Steroid metabolism and effects in central and peripheral glial cells

    OpenAIRE

    Melcangi, Cosimo; Magnaghi, Valerio; Martini, Luciano

    1999-01-01

    Hormonal steroids participate in the control of a large number of functions of the central nervous system (CNS); recent data show that they may also intervene at the level of the peripheral nervous system (PNS). Both the CNS and the PNS metabolize endogenous as well as exogenous steroids; one of the major enzymatic system is represented by the 5alpha-reductase-3alpha-hydroxysteroid complex. This is a versatile system, since every steroid possessing the delta 4-3keto configuration (e.g., testo...

  5. Evidence for the contribution of non-covalent steroid interactions between DNA and topoisomerase in the genotoxicity of steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Ronald D; Holt, Patrick A; Maguire, Jon M; Trent, John O

    2015-04-01

    Fifty two steroids and 9 Vitamin D analogs were docked into ten crystallographically-defined DNA dinucleotide sites and two human topoisomerase II ATP binding sites using two computational programs, Autodock and Surflex. It is shown that both steroids and Vitamin D analogs exhibit a propensity for non-covalent intercalative binding to DNA. A higher predicted binding affinity was found, however, for steroids and the ATP binding site of topoisomerase; in fact these drugs exhibited among the highest topo II binding observed in over 1370 docked drugs. These findings along with genotoxicity data from 26 additional steroids not subjected to docking analysis, support a mechanism wherein the long known, but poorly understood, clastogenicity of steroids may be attributable to inhibition of topoisomerase. A "proof of principle" experiment with dexamethasone demonstrated this to be the likely mechanism of clastogenicity of, at least, this steroid. The generality of this proposed mechanism of genotoxicity across the steroids and vitamin-D analogs is discussed. PMID:24975547

  6. Steroids and Standardised Tests: Meritocracy and the Myth of Fair Play in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayles, Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    Steroid use in professional sports continues to receive much media attention in the United States. The predominant response to the use of steroids in professional sports is negative. Much of the opposition to steroid use focuses on the critical importance of fair play in American society. To the degree that steroids provide some players with an…

  7. Steroid estrogens, conjugated estrogens and estrogenic activity in farm dairy shed effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agricultural wastes are a source of steroid estrogens and, if present, conjugated estrogens may add to the estrogen load released to soil and aquatic environments. Dairy shed effluent samples were collected from 18 farms for analysis of steroid estrogens by GC-MS, conjugated estrogens by LC-MS-MS, and estrogenic activity by E-screen in vitro bioassay. 17?-estradiol was found at highest concentrations (median 730 ng l-1), followed by estrone (100 ng l-1) and 17?-estradiol (24 ng l-1). Conjugated estrogens (estrone-3-sulfate, 17?-estradiol-3-sulfate and 17?-estradiol-3,17-disulfate) were measured in most samples (12-320 ng l-1). Median estrogenic activity was 46 ng l-1 17?-estradiol equivalents. Conjugated estrogens contributed up to 22% of the total estrogen load from dairy farming, demonstrating their significance. Steroid estrogens dominated overall estrogenic activity measured in the samples. Significantly, 17?-estradiol contributed 25% of overall activity, despite potency 2% that of 17?-estradiol, highlighting the importance in environmental risk assessments of this previously neglected compound. - In rural ecosystems, 17?-estradiol and conjugated estrogens are significant sources of environmental estrogens from agricultural wastes.

  8. Sex tourism in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Kerkwijk, C

    1992-01-01

    Many foreigners visit Thailand in search of sex. While long-distance tourism was long enjoyed by members of more privileged social classes, even the lower economical classes of Japan, Malaysia, Europe, America, and Australia can now afford to travel over long distances. This relatively new breed of tourist is more likely to be of lower socioeconomic and educational status and less likely to use condoms when having sex. An estimated 30,000 sex workers are active in Bangkok, of whom 7000/10,000 are females who work specifically in the tourism sector. 1/2-1/3 of the 600 commercial sex establishments in the city are visited by foreigners. Phuket, Pattaya, Koh Samui, and Chiangmai are also well-frequented by sex tourists. Overall, a large, diverse, inexpensive, and accessible commercial sex market exists in Thailand. One may meet sex workers quasi-ubiquitously and be assured to find someone capable of meeting one's sexual needs. With these attributes, Thailand strongly attracts tourists in search of sex. A certain degree of recklessness also prevails among those on vacation. Away from the peers and social mores of their native lands, tourists may engage in sexually activities without criticism. Likewise, Thai sex workers who cater to foreigners, especially females, enjoy more freedom and control in sexual relations than their peers who work among nationals. Neither single nor married women in Thailand are allowed much sexual freedom and are traditionally expected to be obliging docile, and submissive. The greater than normal personal latitude enjoyed by both sex worker and foreigner lead to more negotiation on condom use and overall lower use. As such, Thailand's commercial sex market with foreigners' involvement therein threatens to spread HIV to many other countries throughout the world. PMID:12286018

  9. Fluorochemicals used in food packaging inhibit male sex hormone synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenmai, Anna Kjerstine; Nielsen, F. K.

    2013-01-01

    Polyfluoroalkyl phosphate surfactants (PAPS) are widely used in food contact materials (FCMs) of paper and board and have recently been detected in 57% of investigated materials. Human exposure occurs as PAPS have been measured in blood; however knowledge is lacking on the toxicology of PAPS. The aim of this study was to elucidate the effects of six fluorochemicals on sex hormone synthesis and androgen receptor (AR) activation in vitro. Four PAPS and two metabolites, perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and 8:2 fluorotelomer alcohol (8:2 FTOH) were tested. Hormone profiles, including eight steroid hormones, generally showed that 8:2 diPAPS, 8:2 monoPAPS and 8:2 FTOH led to decreases in androgens (testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone, and androstenedione) in the H295R steroidogenesis assay. Decreases were observed for progesterone and 17-OH-progesterone as well. These observations indicated that a step prior to progestagen and androgen synthesis had been affected. Gene expression analysis of StAR, Bzrp, CYP11A, CYP17, CYP21 and CYP19 mRNA showed a decrease in Bzrp mRNA levels for 8:2 monoPAPS and 8:2 FTOH indicating interference with cholesterol transport to the inner mitochondria. Cortisol, estrone and 17?-estradiol levels were in several cases increased with exposure. In accordance with these data CYP19 gene expression increased with 8:2 diPAPS, 8:2 monoPAPS and 8:2 FTOH exposures indicating that this is a contributing factor to the decreased androgen and the increased estrogen levels. Overall, these results demonstrate that fluorochemicals present in food packaging materials and their metabolites can affect steroidogenesis through decreased Bzrp and increased CYP19 gene expression leading to lower androgen and higher estrogen levels.

  10. Developmental programming: exposure to testosterone excess disrupts steroidal and metabolic environment in pregnant sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abi Salloum, B; Veiga-Lopez, A; Abbott, D H; Burant, C F; Padmanabhan, V

    2015-06-01

    Gestational exposure to excess T leads to intrauterine growth restriction, low birth weight, and adult metabolic/reproductive disorders in female sheep. We hypothesized that as early mediators of such disruptions, gestational T disrupts steroidal and metabolic homeostasis in both the mother and fetus by both androgenic and metabolic pathways. Maternal blood samples were measured weekly for levels of insulin, glucose, and progesterone from four groups of animals: control; gestational T (twice weekly im injections of 100 mg of T propionate from d 30 to d 90 of gestation); T plus an androgen antagonist, flutamide (15 mg/kg·d oral; T-Flutamide); and T plus the insulin sensitizer, rosiglitazone (0.11 mg/kg·d oral; T-Rosi) (n = 10-12/group). On day 90 of gestation, maternal and umbilical cord samples were collected after a 48-hour fast from a subset (n = 6/group) for the measurement of steroids, free fatty acids, amino acids, and acylcarnitines. Gestational T decreased maternal progesterone levels by 36.5% (P insulin levels and decreased medium chained acylcarnitines, suggesting increased mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation. These changes were prevented by rosiglitazone, suggesting alterations in maternal fuel use. Gestational T-induced increases in fetal estradiol were not prevented by either cotreatment. Gestational T disrupted associations of steroids with metabolites and progesterone with acylcarnitines, which was prevented either by androgen antagonist or insulin sensitizer cotreatment. These findings suggest a future combination of these treatments might be required to prevent alteration in maternal/fetal steroidal and metabolic milieu(s). PMID:25763641

  11. Sex Determination in Papaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sex determination is an intriguing system in trioecious papaya. Over the past seven decades various hypotheses, based on the knowledge and information available at the time, have been proposed to explain the genetics of the papaya's sex determination. These include a single gene with three alleles...

  12. Sex: Who Cares? Introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liben, Lynn S.

    2000-01-01

    Presents evidence supporting claim that sex and gender are important to the explanatory as well as the descriptive goals of developmental psychology. Maintains that studying psychosocial and biological components of gender and sex helps one to develop hypotheses about causal mechanisms for developmental outcomes more generally. Introduces the…

  13. Attitudes Towards Premarital Sex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracy Dietz

    This activity is used in a General Sociology class for undergraduate students. This activity looks attitudes towards prematiral sex in the U.S. by race, sex, age, political party and education. This activity uses General Social Survey data provided on the Wadsworth Publishing Company website. See instructions in the exercise documents under teaching materials to open the data analyzer.

  14. Sex Determination Using Mastoid Process Measurements in Brazilian Skulls / Determinación del Sexo Usando Mediciones en el Proceso Mastoides en Cráneos Brasileños

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Iván Claudio, Suazo Galdames; Daniela Alejandra, Zavando Matamala; Ricardo Luiz, Smith.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Las características del proceso mastoides son de gran utilidad para el diagnóstico del sexo. De Paiva & Segre (2003) describieron que era posible el diagnóstico del sexo, en base a la determinación del área del triángulo formado entre los puntos porion, mastoidale y asterion. El propósito de este es [...] tudio fue determinar la existencia de dimorfismo sexual en las dimensiones y el área del triángulo mastoideo, mediante análisis estadístico y de función discriminante. Se utilizaron 81 cráneos de individuos Brasileños, pertenecientes a la colección de la UNIFESP, de sexo y edad conocidos, 50 hombres y 31 mujeres, de entre 40 y 70 años (media 51.58 años, DS 7.319). La mayoría de las dimensiones lineales y las áreas calculadas fueron mayores en hombres que en mujeres. Sólo la distancia porion-mastoidale (Po-Ma), el área del triángulo mastoideo derecho y el área total resultaron mayores y significativas en hombres con p Abstract in english The mastoid process characteristics are of great utility in the diagnosis of sex. De Paiva & Segre (2003) described that sex diagnosis was possible based on the determination of the área of the triangle formed by the points porion, mastoidale, and asterion. The purpose of this study was to determine [...] the existence of sexual dimorphism in the dimensions and the área of the mastoid triangle using statistical and discriminant function analysis. A total of 81 skulls of Brazilian individuáis that were part of the Museum of the Federal University of Sao Paulo (UNIFESP) collection were used, with sex and ages known: 50 men and 31 women between 40 and 70 years of age (mean 51.58 years, SD 7.319). Most of the lineal dimensions and the calculated áreas were higher in men than in women. Only the distance porion-mastoidale, the área of the right mastoid triangle and the total área, was higher and more significant in men with p

  15. A Homerun on Steroids, Baseball and Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Center for Atmospheric Research

    This short cartoon video uses a simple baseball analogy (steroid use increases probability of hitting home runs) to explain how small increases in greenhouse gases can cause global temperature changes and increase the probability of extreme weather events.

  16. Immunomagnetic capture of lens membrane fractions containing steroid binding protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sexton, Patricia S; Cenedella, Richard J

    2002-07-26

    This study describes the use of magnetic Dynabeads to purify microsomes from a crude microsomal fraction. A 28 kDa membrane-associated protein is proposed to mediate the binding of progesterone and other steroid hormones to ocular lens membranes and the rapid-nongenomic actions of these steroids. The subcellular location of this membrane steroid binding protein (MSBP) was probed by capture of organelles containing MSBP by magnetic beads displaying an antibody to a cytoplasmic domain of the protein. The beads were exposed to a crude microsomal fraction from lens epithelia. Western blotting was used to identify captured organelles and confirm the presence of MSBP. Microsomes and trace fiber cell plasma membrane were captured. Microsomes contained the 28 kDa MSBP. Lens fiber cell membrane contained a 55 kDa immunoreactive protein. The role of this serendipitously recognized protein in binding of steroids is unknown. PMID:12127999

  17. Regulation of object recognition and object placement by ovarian sex steroid hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuscher, Jennifer J; Fortress, Ashley M; Kim, Jaekyoon; Frick, Karyn M

    2015-05-15

    The ovarian hormones 17?-estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4) are potent modulators of hippocampal memory formation. Both hormones have been demonstrated to enhance hippocampal memory by regulating the cellular and molecular mechanisms thought to underlie memory formation. Behavioral neuroendocrinologists have increasingly used the object recognition and object placement (object location) tasks to investigate the role of E2 and P4 in regulating hippocampal memory formation in rodents. These one-trial learning tasks are ideal for studying acute effects of hormone treatments on different phases of memory because they can be administered during acquisition (pre-training), consolidation (post-training), or retrieval (pre-testing). This review synthesizes the rodent literature testing the effects of E2 and P4 on object recognition (OR) and object placement (OP), and the molecular mechanisms in the hippocampus supporting memory formation in these tasks. Some general trends emerge from the data. Among gonadally intact females, object memory tends to be best when E2 and P4 levels are elevated during the estrous cycle, pregnancy, and in middle age. In ovariectomized females, E2 given before or immediately after testing generally enhances OR and OP in young and middle-aged rats and mice, although effects are mixed in aged rodents. Effects of E2 treatment on OR and OP memory consolidation can be mediated by both classical estrogen receptors (ER? and ER?), and depend on glutamate receptors (NMDA, mGluR1) and activation of numerous cell signaling cascades (e.g., ERK, PI3K/Akt, mTOR) and epigenetic processes (e.g., histone acetylation, DNA methylation). Acute P4 treatment given immediately after training also enhances OR and OP in young and middle-aged ovariectomized females by activating similar cell signaling pathways as E2 (e.g., ERK, mTOR). The few studies that have administered both hormones in combination suggest that treatment can enhance OR and OP, but that effects are highly dependent on factors such as dose and timing of administration. In addition to providing more detail on these general conclusions, this review will discuss directions for future avenues of research into the hormonal regulation of object memory. PMID:25131507

  18. Acute Sex Steroid Withdrawal Increases Cholesterol Efflux Capacity and HDL-Associated Clusterin in Men

    OpenAIRE

    Rubinow, Katya B.; Tang, Chongren; Hoofnagle, Andrew N.; Snyder, Christin N.; Amory, John K.; Heinecke, Jay W.; Page, Stephanie T.

    2012-01-01

    Exogenous androgens can lower HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) concentrations, yet men with low serum testosterone have elevated rates of cardiovascular disease (CVD). HDL function may better predict CVD risk than absolute HDL-C quantity. We evaluated the acute effects of medical castration in men on HDL-C, cholesterol efflux capacity and HDL protein composition. Twenty-one healthy men, ages 18–55, received the GnRH antagonist acyline and one of the following for 28 days: Group 1: placebo, Group 2: ...

  19. Placental claudin expression and its regulation by endogenous sex steroid hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Changhwan; Yang, Hyun; Lee, Dongoh; An, Beum-Soo; Jeung, Eui-Bae

    2015-08-01

    Tight junctions (TJs) form continuous intercellular contacts controlling the paracellular transportation across the cell-to-cell junction. TJ components include the peripheral protein zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1), junctional adhesion molecules (JAMs), and integral proteins such as occludin and claudins. Among the junction proteins, claudins play a major role in regulation of paracellular electrolyte transportation. This study explores the expression and distribution of tight junctions and their regulation during pregnancy. To study the regulation of claudin family, we examined expression of mouse placental tight junction proteins, including claudin-1 to -24, with real-time PCR and Western blotting and distribution of tight junction proteins with immunohistochemistry. Pregnant C57/BL6 mice were used in this study. The pregnant mice were divided into three groups depending on pregnant day (on days 12, 16, and 20 of gestation). Regarding the transcription levels, claudin-1, claudin-2, claudin-4, and claudin-5 expression levels were relatively high compared to other claudin family in all periods of pregnancy. Claudin-4 and 5 expressions, which reduce ion permeability, were increased over a period of time. However, claudin-2 expression, that is the responsive protein for a decrease in paracellular conductance, was decreased. Following this modulation of expression during mid-term pregnancy, we identified endogenous hormonal modulation of claudin family using estrogen receptor antagonist ICI 182,780 and progesterone receptor antagonist RU-486. After administration of ICI and RU-486, expression of claudin-4 mRNA and protein was increased. In addition, immunohistochemistry was performed to identify their localization for inferring permeability in placenta. Due to the function of claudins as effectors of ion transport at the end of regulatory pathways, they must be transducing proteins that modulate the function of claudins and thus link the physiologic inputs to the final effectors. This study will provide the claudin expressions and their localization in the mouse placenta, and their regulation by endogenous hormones. Taken together, the results of this study may contribute to assuming the roles and regulatory mechanism of these tight junction genes regarding maternal-fetal ion transportation in the placenta. PMID:25982333

  20. Neuroendocrinology of song behavior and avian brain plasticity: multiple sites of action of sex steroid hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Gregory F; Riters, Lauren V; Balthazart, Jacques

    2002-04-01

    Seasonal changes in the brain of songbirds are one of the most dramatic examples of naturally occurring neuroplasticity that have been described in any vertebrate species. In males of temperate-zone songbird species, the volumes of several telencephalic nuclei that control song behavior are significantly larger in the spring than in the fall. These increases in volume are correlated with high rates of singing and high concentrations of testosterone in the plasma. Several song nuclei express either androgen receptors or estrogen receptors, therefore it is possible that testosterone acting via estrogenic or androgenic metabolites regulates song behavior by seasonally modulating the morphology of these song control nuclei. However, the causal links among these variables have not been established. Dissociations among high concentrations of testosterone, enlarged song nuclei, and high rates of singing behavior have been observed. Singing behavior itself can promote cellular changes associated with increases in the volume of the song control nuclei. Also, testosterone may stimulate song behavior by acting in brain regions outside of the song control system such as in the preoptic area or in catecholamine cell groups in the brainstem. Thus testosterone effects on neuroplasticity in the song system may be indirect in that behavioral activity stimulated by testosterone acting in sites that promote male sexual behavior could in turn promote morphological changes in the song system. PMID:11950243

  1. Gonadal Development, Spawning and Plasma Sex Steroid Levels of the Indoor Cultured Grunt, Hapalogenys nitens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hee Woong; Cho, Jae-Kwon; Son, Maeng-Hyun; Park, Jong Youn; Hong, Chang Gi; Chung, Jae Seung; Chung, Ee-Yung

    2015-01-01

    The gonadosomatic index (GSI), gonadal development and changes in hormones in plasma level of the indoor cultured grunt (Hapalogenys nitens) were investigated by histological study from August 2011 to October 2012. The GSI showed similar trends with gonad developmental stages during the culture periods. Changes in plasma level of estradiol-17? of female H. nitens reached the highest value before the spawning period, and seasonal changes in plasma level of estradiol-17? were similar in trends of oocyte developments and GSI changes. Testosterone levels of male H. nitens reached the highest value before and after the spent stage. Ovarian developmental stages of H. nitens could be classified into early growing stage, late growing stage, mature stage, ripe and spawning stage, recovery and resting stage. The testicular developmental stages could be divided into growing stage, mature stage, ripe and spent stage, and recovery and resting stage. PMID:25949208

  2. Effects of sex steroids on muscarinic sties in the rat brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The level of binding sites for [3H]scopolamine in the rat hypothalamus and amygdala (but not elsewhere in the brain) is modified by hormonal status. In females, there is an inverse relation between the level of sites and estrogen (E2) and progesterone (P) concentration. Binding is high in metoestrous (Met) and in ovariectomized (Ovx) animals but low in proestrous (Pro). Hormone replacement in ovariectomized animals lowers the level of the sites. Castration (Cast) of males reduces the level of sites but subsequent testosterone (T) treatment restores normal levels. The results support a role of hormones in sexual behavior via alteration in levels of muscarinic receptors: male hormone increases and female hormones decrease receptor levels

  3. Is it Just the Hormones? : Sex Steroids, Chronic Stress and Violence in Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Segebladh, Birgitta

    2011-01-01

    Premenstrual depressive symptoms and mood swings affect 3-8% of women in fertile age. The female hormones are believed to be the cause. Progesterone is well studied, but estrogen is not, and either are other causes such as intimate partner violence and chronic stress. The aim in this thesis was to investigate the influence of hormones as well as psychological aspects on the most common problems among women seeking care for premenstrual symptoms. In a cross-sectional study, four groups of wome...

  4. Hepatitis C: Sex and Sexuality

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with Hepatitis » Sex and Sexuality: Entire Lesson Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For Veterans and ... hepatitis C virus through sex. Can you pass hepatitis C to a sex partner? Yes, but it ...

  5. Accurate determination of tissue steroid hormones, precursors and conjugates in adult male rat

    OpenAIRE

    Maeda, Naoyuki; Tanaka, Emi; Suzuki, Tomokazu; Okumura, Kanako; Nomura, Sachiko; Miyasho, Taku; Haeno, Satoko; Yokota, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    The actual levels of steroid hormones in organs are vital for endocrine, reproductive and neuronal health and disorders. We developed an accurate method to determine the levels of steroid hormones and steroid conjugates in various organs by an efficient preparation using a solid-phase-extraction cartridge. Each steroid was identified by the precursor ion spectra using liquid chromatography–electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry, and the respective steroids were quantitativ...

  6. Evaluation of serum steroid hormones in schizophrenic patients

    OpenAIRE

    Taherianfard M; Shariaty M

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recent studies have implicated the abnormalities in the -aminobutyric acid (GABA) neurotransmmiter system in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. There are also evidences indicating that steroids of central or peripheral origin may modulate GABAergic system through direct interaction with the GABAA receptor complex. These raise the possibility that alternations in serum steroid hormones may contribute to the pathophysiological process in the schizophrenia. AIMS: The purposes of ...

  7. Catchment Risk Assessment of Steroid Oestrogens from Sewage Treatment Works

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Richard; Johnson, Andrew; Keller, Virginie; Young, Andrew; Holmes, Matthew; Wells, Clare

    2008-01-01

    This project has developed a regional catchment-based risk assessment for steroid oestrogens in England and Wales. Using the Low Flows 2000 water quality (LF2000-WQX) model, which can predict river concentrations of contaminants discharged through sewage treatment plants (STPs), the project has focussed on predicting concentrations of the three most potent steroid oestrogens in rivers and the associated risk of endocrine disruption in fish. The model could equally well be appli...

  8. Steroid-induced Kager's fat pad atrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taneja, Atul K. [Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, Musculoskeletal Radiology Division, Imaging Department, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Musculoskeletal Imaging, Diagnostic Center, Hospital do Coracao (HCor) and Teleimagem, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Santos, Durval C.B. [Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, Musculoskeletal Radiology Division, Imaging Department, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2014-08-15

    We report a rare case of Kager's fat pad atrophy and fibrosis in a 60-year-old woman 1 year after a steroid injection for Achilles tendinopathy. There are few published reports of steroid-induced atrophy affecting deeper layers of fat tissue. To our knowledge, this case report is the first to illustrate its features using magnetic resonance imaging. A review of the scientific literature is also presented. (orig.)

  9. Steroid - induced rosacea: A clinical study of 200 patients

    OpenAIRE

    Bhat Yasmeen; Manzoor Sheikh; Qayoom Seema

    2011-01-01

    Background: Topical corticosteroids were first introduced for use in 1951. Since then uncontrolled use (abuse) has caused many different reactions resembling rosacea - steroid dermatitis or iatrosacea. Multiple pathways including rebound vasodilatation and proinflammatory cytokine release have been proposed as the mechanism for such reactions. Aim: The aim was to study the adverse effects of topical steroid abuse and the response to various treatment modalities. Materials and Methods: Two hun...

  10. Bel A?r?s? Tedavisinde Epidural Steroid Enjeksiyonu

    OpenAIRE

    Gu?ldog?us?, F.; Sarihasan, B.; Karakaya, D.; Esener, Z.

    2010-01-01

    Epidural Steroid Injections for Low Back Pain |/ Low back pain can be caused by inflammation, degeneration, mechanic and traumatic ab-normalities and muscular pathologies. The cause of pain is mechanical compression with compression of perineural vessels resulting inflammation and edema. Epidural steroid in-jections are recommended in patients with signs and symptoms of nerve root irritation. Kronik bel a?r?s? enflamatuar, dejeneratif, yap?sal, travmatik ve müsküler patolojiler...

  11. Steroids for otitis media with effusion: a systematic review.

    OpenAIRE

    Butler, Cc; Voort, Jh

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Otitis media with effusion (OME) is common and may cause hearing loss with associated delayed language development in children. Treatment remains controversial. OBJECTIVE: To examine evidence for or against treating OME with systemic or topical nasal steroids. DATA SOURCES: We searched the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register using the terms otitis media; otitis media with effusion; glue ear; or OME and steroids; glucocorticoids; glucocorticoids, synthetic; glucocorticoids, topical...

  12. Characterization of inclusion complexes of betamethasone-related steroids with cyclodextrins using high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flood, K G; Reynolds, E R; Snow, N H

    2000-12-01

    HPLC was used to study the inclusion complexes formed between various beta- and gamma-cyclodextrins and a series of corticosteroids related to betamethasone. Apparent association constants were measured in acetonitrile-water for a set of 13 steroids. An increase in the stability of the steroid-cyclodextrin complex is observed at lower concentrations of acetonitrile. The effects of the nature of the halide at the 9-position, the location of a double bond within the C-ring, substitution at the 9- and 11-positions, and modification of the D-ring of the steroid backbone were studied. The 11- and 17-positions were found to be critically involved in the inclusion process. Larger apparent association constants were obtained with gamma-cyclodextrin (gamma-CD) than with beta-cyclodextrin (beta-CD) due to the increased diameter of the gamma-CD cavity. Van't Hoff plots were constructed to examine the thermodynamic properties of the inclusion process. Plots constructed using retention factors were found to be nonlinear when gamma-CD was present in the mobile phase. This is due to an increase in the strength of the inclusion complex as temperature decreases. Plots constructed using apparent association constants were linear, indicating that the mechanism of inclusion does not change over the range of temperatures studied (10 to 80 degrees C). Enthalpy-entropy compensation was observed for 11 of the 13 steroids studied. The usefulness of cyclodextrins to achieve the separation of steroids in HPLC is discussed and a practical application for the analysis of a steroid and three potential impurities is described. PMID:11153955

  13. Region and sex differences in constituent dopamine neurons and immunoreactivity for intracellular estrogen and androgen receptors in mesocortical projections in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Kritzer, M. F.; Creutz, L. M.

    2008-01-01

    Many cortical and prefrontal functions show sex differences in development, adult capacity and in their dysfunction in disorders like schizophrenia. Correlations between circulating gonadal hormones and certain prefrontal functions have also been identified in humans and experimental animal models. Although multiple mechanisms may be involved, such hormone sensitivities/sex differences could be related to gonadal steroid actions on another regulator of cortical/prefrontal cortical function-- ...

  14. Role of STAT5a in Regulation of Sex-specific Gene Expression in Female but not Male Mouse Liver Revealed by Microarray Analysis*

    OpenAIRE

    Clodfelter, Karl H.; Miles, Gregory D.; Wauthier, Valerie; Holloway, Minita G.; Zhang, Xiaohua; Hodor, Paul; Ray, William J.; Waxman, David J.

    2007-01-01

    Sexual dimorphism in mammalian liver impacts genes affecting hepatic physiology, including inflammatory responses, diseased states and the metabolism of steroids and foreign compounds. Liver sex-specificity is dictated by sex differences in pituitary growth hormone (GH) secretion, with the transcription factor STAT5b required for intracellular signaling initiated by the pulsatile, male plasma GH profile. STAT5a, a highly homologous but minor liver STAT5 form, also responds to sexually dimorph...

  15. Sex-role differentiation in preschoolers: effects of maternal employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seegmiller, B R

    1980-03-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine whether maternal employment affects sex-role differentiation in preschoolers, and whether this relationship varies as a function of the sex of the child, father's presence or absence, and/or the sex of the child's siblings (N = 398 boys and girls, mean age 51.2 months). The dependent measure consisted of a maximally reliable composite z score derived from five tests (Draw-A-Person, Occupational Preference, Nadleman Recall, Toy Preference, It Scale for Children). The fact of the mother working and the social status of her occupation were unrelated to sex-role differentiation, regardless of whether the child was a girl or a boy; had brothers, sisters, both, or was an only child; or came from an intact or nonintact family. However, the main effect for sex and the sex of child X sex of sibling interaction were significant. PMID:7365701

  16. Steroidal saponins from two species of Dracaena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kougan, Guy Beddos; Miyamoto, Tomofumi; Tanaka, Chiaki; Paululat, Thomas; Mirjolet, Jean-François; Duchamp, Olivier; Sondengam, Beibam Lucas; Lacaille-Dubois, Marie-Aleth

    2010-07-23

    Four new steroidal saponins (1-4) were isolated from the stem and bark of two species of Dracaena: deistelianosides A and B (1 and 2) from D. deisteliana and arboreasaponins A and B (3 and 4) from D. arborea. Six known saponins and one known sapogenin were also isolated. The structures of 1-4 were established as diosgenin 3-O-[3-O-sulfate-alpha-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->4)]-beta-d-glucopyranoside (1), 1-O-beta-d-xylopyranosyl-(1-->2)-[alpha-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->3)]-beta-d-fucopyranosyl(23S,24S)-spirosta-5,25(27)-diene-1beta,3beta,23alpha,24alpha-tetrol 24-O-alpha-l-arabinopyranoside (2), pennogenin-3-O-alpha-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)-[alpha-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->3)]-[6-O-acetyl]-beta-d-glucopyranoside (3), and 24alpha-hydroxypennogenin 3-O-alpha-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)-[alpha-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->3)]-beta-d-glucopyranoside (4) using extensive 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic analyses and mass spectrometry. Cytotoxic activity of several of these compounds was evaluated against the HT-29 and HCT 116 human colon cancer cell lines. PMID:20553003

  17. [Treatment of diabetic amyotrophy with steroids].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavri?, M; Drulovi?, J; Stojsavljevi?, N; Apostolski, S; Levi?, Z

    1997-01-01

    The cause of diabetic neuropathies has not yet been fully elucidated. In severe forms of proximal diabetic neuropathy, the role of ischaemia caused by inflammatory microvasculopathy has been recently implicated, suggesting the use of anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive therapeutic agents. We present a 70-year-old man with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, who developed diabetic amyotrophy responsive to steroids. Pain preceded the development of severe, asymmetric, lower extremities weakness, with amyotrophy, areflexia and fasciculations. Weakness gradually worsened over a 15-month period. The electrophysiologic study revealed predominant motor and axonal polyneuropathies. Laboratory analyses showed elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate (130/h), moderately elevated cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) protein level and mildly elevated CSF cell content. Therapy with methylprednisolone (120 mg dailu, i.m., with slow tapering) was administered with beneficial effect. Pain subsided immediately after starting the therapy, and strength gradually improved. In conclusion, immunosuppressive treatment should be considered in selected patients with diabetic amyotrophy who develop severe and disabling weakness of the lower extremities. PMID:17974356

  18. Reduced steroid doses in cadaveric renal transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ost, L; Collste, H; Lundgren, G; Magnusson, G; Ringdén, O; Groth, C G

    1981-01-01

    Commencing 1978, we reduced the initial dose of prednisolone to 40 mg/day against a former 120-200 mg/day for cadaver kidney recipients aged 60 years and above. The patient and graft survivals at 1 year which earlier had been 59 and 47% is 69 and 46% after the change (NS). From August 1980, we reduced the initial prednisolone dose to 30 mg/day for all recipients of cadaver kidneys. From the same time, all patients were given 5 units of leukocyte poor blood prior to the transplantation, and in addition, RATG (Stanford) was given during 2 weeks immediately following the transplantation. Preceding the reduction the patient and graft survivals at 6 months were 91 and 62% while they were 88 and 88% after the reduction (NS). The intravenous dose of methylprednisolone, which is used for the treatment of acute rejection, was reduced twice in this period, first from 6 to 3 g, and then to 1.75 g total dose. The proportion of rejections, successfully treated, had remained unchanged. Our preliminary results support the notion that it is possible to use lower steroid doses than previously in conjunction with cadaveric kidney transplantations. However, we have introduced other alterations of the routines which could have influenced the results. PMID:6755680

  19. Incidence of anabolic steroid counterfeiting in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Justa Neves, Diana Brito; Marcheti, Ravane Gracy Ament; Caldas, Eloisa Dutra

    2013-05-10

    This retrospective study reports data obtained from the National Institute of Criminalistics of the Brazilian Federal Police Department (DPF) on 3676 anabolic products seized between 2006 and 2011. Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) were declared on the labels of 96.2% of the products. About one third of the products declared to be from Paraguay, and 14.3% from Brazil. Stanozolol, testosterone and nandrolone were the substances most declared on the labels. Package and qualitative chemical analyses (performed on 2818 products) found that 31.7% of the seized products were counterfeit, with an increase in the counterfeit detection rate during the period. Almost half of the fake products did not contain the declared substances, and 28.3% had only non-declared substances. Testosterone and its esters were responsible for 45% of the 582 cases of non-declared drug detection. Package analysis alone was responsible for the identification of 4.6% of all counterfeit products. These results indicate the need for a continuous effort by the government aimed at decreasing the availability of these products in the country. PMID:23522522

  20. Illicit anabolic-androgenic steroid use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanayama, Gen; Hudson, James I; Pope, Harrison G

    2010-06-01

    The anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) are a family of hormones that includes testosterone and its derivatives. These substances have been used by elite athletes since the 1950s, but they did not become widespread drugs of abuse in the general population until the 1980s. Thus, knowledge of the medical and behavioral effects of illicit AAS use is still evolving. Surveys suggest that many millions of boys and men, primarily in Western countries, have abused AAS to enhance athletic performance or personal appearance. AAS use among girls and women is much less common. Taken in supraphysiologic doses, AAS show various long-term adverse medical effects, especially cardiovascular toxicity. Behavioral effects of AAS include hypomanic or manic symptoms, sometimes accompanied by aggression or violence, which usually occur while taking AAS, and depressive symptoms occurring during AAS withdrawal. However, these symptoms are idiosyncratic and afflict only a minority of illicit users; the mechanism of these idiosyncratic responses remains unclear. AAS users may also ingest a range of other illicit drugs, including both "body image" drugs to enhance physical appearance or performance, and classical drugs of abuse. In particular, AAS users appear particularly prone to opioid use. There may well be a biological basis for this association, since both human and animal data suggest that AAS and opioids may share similar brain mechanisms. Finally, AAS may cause a dependence syndrome in a substantial minority of users. AAS dependence may pose a growing public health problem in future years but remains little studied. PMID:19769977

  1. Fetal sex determination in infants in Punjab, India: correlations and implications.

    OpenAIRE

    Booth, B. E.; Verma, M.; Beri, R. S.

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To determine the proportion of children whose sex was determined prenatally among those attending one Indian hospital and to identify factors which affect use of fetal sex determination. DESIGN--Cross sectional study using interviews with mothers. SETTING--Medical school hospital in Punjab, India. SUBJECTS--596 children delivered or seen for inpatient or outpatient care. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Fetal sex determination, sex of child, number and sex of siblings, type of care received...

  2. A comparative study to evaluate the role of inhaled steroid versus low-dose oral steroid in patients of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surya Kant

    2015-04-01

    Conclusion: The use of steroids has ever been a subject of divergence of views ever since its role in the treatment of COPD was first described. Although, overall steroid in any form is beneficial in symptomatic/subjective and objective improvements in COPD, oral steroids stand a better chance as compared to inhaled steroids. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2015; 4(2.000: 240-244

  3. Steroid-decorated antibiotic microparticles for inhaled anti-infective therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sie Huey; Teo, Jeanette; Heng, Desmond; Zhao, Yanli; Ng, Wai Kiong; Chan, Hak-Kim; Tan, Reginald B H

    2014-04-01

    Despite advances in vaccination and antimicrobial therapy, community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) remains as a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. As the severity of CAP has been linked to the extent of inflammation in the body, adjunctive therapeutic measures aimed at modulating the immune response have therefore become increasingly attractive in recent years. In particular, for CAP patients with underlying medical conditions such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), a steroid-antibiotic combination will no doubt be a useful and timely therapeutic intervention. Unfortunately, no combined steroid-antibiotic dry powder formulation is available commercially or has been reported in the academic literature. The aim of this work was hence to develop a novel steroid-antibiotic dry powder inhaler formulation [ciprofloxacin hydrochloride (CIP) and beclomethasone dipropionate (BP)] for inhaled anti-infective therapy. The spray-dried powder was of respirable size (d50 of ?2.3 ?m), partially crystalline and had BP preferentially deposited on the particle surface. Favorably, when formulated as a binary mix, both CIP and BP showed much higher drug release and fine particle fractions (of the loaded dose) over their singly delivered counterparts, and had robust activity against the respiratory tract infection-causing bacteria Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus. PMID:24510431

  4. Effect of steroid treatment on the migration behaviour of neutrophils in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aglas, F; Rainer, F; Lipp, R W; Schnedl, W J; Horn, S; Egger, G

    1997-01-01

    The influence of methylprednisolone on the migratory characteristics of neutrophil granulocytes was investigated in 10 patients with early rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and compared to 12 controls. The migration of neutrophils was measured with a whole-blood membrane filter assay with and without stimulation by the chemoattractant N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP). Total migration index (TMI), distribution characteristics (DC) and the product of TMI and DC (neutrophil migratory activity; NMA) served to characterize the migratory behaviour of neutrophils. The data demonstrated an increased polymorphonuclear leucocyte (PMN) migration in patients with early RA, indicating a bystander role of PMNs in inflammatory joint injury. Treatment with methylprednisolone reduced significantly the penetration depth (DC) of neutrophils, but did not influence the number of migrating cells (TMI). The unstimulated NMA was significantly reduced due to the marked DC reduction, whereas steroids did not influence the stimulated NMA of neutrophils. A significant reduction in PMN penetration depth was demonstrated only after a steroid therapy of at least 10 days, suggesting that a longer period of steroid therapy is necessary to provide effective inflammatory control. PMID:9440143

  5. Measurement of DNA adducts and strand breaks in dab (Limanda limanda) collected in the field: effects of biotic (age, sex) and abiotic (sampling site and period) factors on the extent of DNA damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the Eastern English Channel, the potential application of the comet assay and post-labelling technique in dab was evaluated for genotoxicity monitoring of the marine environment. The effects of biotic (age, sex) and abiotic (sampling site and period) factors on the extent of DNA lesions were also studied. Female and male dab of two class of size (juvenile and adult) were collected by trawling in different sites in Seine Bay and Somme Bay during September 2001. Single-strand breaks and adducts were, respectively, measured in erythrocytes and the liver. Results obtained for the adult female were compared with those collected during a first cruise in March 2001 [Akcha et al., Mutat Res. 534 (1-2) (2003) 21]. Significant effects of sex and age were demonstrated on the level of strand breaks. Moreover, a significant interaction between age and sex was shown that might indicate the complex influence of other factors on the extent of DNA damage (i.e. reproduction status). In the adult dab, the level of breaks is higher in the male than in the female, whereas the opposite trend was observed for the juvenile. Whatever the sex, the number of DNA breaks is higher in the adult than in the juvenile. For the female dab, significant differences were observed with the comet assay between the Seine Bay and the Somme Bay in March but not in September. This may be due to seasonal variations in the formation of DNA lesions related to variations in lipid content and levels of biotransfs in lipid content and levels of biotransformation activities and/or to spawning cycles. The presence of genotoxic substances in the study areas was also confirmed by the detection of DNA adducts in each sample analysed. Whereas no effect was shown on the total level of adducts for the tested biotic and abiotic factors, qualitative differences in adduct profiles were observed for each of these factors. For the female dab, comparison of adduct profiles obtained in March and September with one generated by hepatic microsomal activation in dab of a PAH mixture indicated a PAH contamination of the study areas in autumn. These results show the importance of studying the effects of biotic and abiotic factors on the genotoxic endpoints considered to correctly assess the contribution of chemical contamination to the measured biological responses

  6. Distinct RNA motifs are important for coactivation of steroid hormone receptors by steroid receptor RNA activator (SRA)

    OpenAIRE

    Lanz, Rainer B.; Razani, Bahram; Goldberg, Aaron D; O'malley, Bert W

    2002-01-01

    Steroid receptor RNA activator (SRA) is an RNA transcript that functions as a eukaryotic transcriptional coactivator for steroid hormone receptors. We report here the isolation and functional characterization of distinct RNA substructures within the SRA molecule that constitute its coactivation function. We used comparative sequence analysis and free energy calculations to systematically study SRA RNA subdomains for identification of structured regions and base pairings, and we used site-dire...

  7. Sex selection through traditional drugs in rural north India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bandyopadhyay S

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Repidly declining sex ratio has highlighted a strong son preference among many societies various methods are employed by people to get a son. Objective: To determine the use pattern of sex selection drugs (SSDs in rural North India. Methods: An integrated qualitative and quantitative study was conducted in rural North India. A rapid population and hospital based survey of women in their early reproductive life was done in the study area to enlist the respondents. Few SSD samples were collected and analyzed. Results: SSDs were freely available from grocers, chemist shops and specific people in villages. These contained Shivalingi (Bryonia Laciniosa and Majuphal (Gtuercus infectoria. SSD use rate was 46% and 30% in community based and hospital based studies respectively. Use rate was significantly higher in women who did not have any son. Of the SSD samples and two individual ingredients analyzed by thin layer chromatography, 3 contained testosterone and one progesterone; one ingredient contained testosterone and the other natural steroids. Conclusion: Use of SSDs seems to be very common in North India. Implication of presence of steroids in SSDs needs further evaluation.

  8. Sex determination using the Probabilistic Sex Diagnosis (DSP: Diagnose Sexuelle Probabiliste) tool in a virtual environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Tara; Lefevre, Philippe; Semal, Patrick; Moiseev, Fedor; Sholukha, Victor; Louryan, Stéphane; Rooze, Marcel; Van Sint Jan, Serge

    2014-01-01

    The hip bone is one of the most reliable indicators of sex in the human body due to the fact it is the most dimorphic bone. Probabilistic Sex Diagnosis (DSP: Diagnose Sexuelle Probabiliste) developed by Murail et al., in 2005, is a sex determination method based on a worldwide hip bone metrical database. Sex is determined by comparing specific measurements taken from each specimen using sliding callipers and computing the probability of specimens being female or male. In forensic science it is sometimes not possible to sex a body due to corpse decay or injury. Skeletalization and dissection of a body is a laborious process and desecrates the body. There were two aims to this study. The first aim was to examine the accuracy of the DSP method in comparison with a current visual sexing method on sex determination. A further aim was to see if it was possible to virtually utilise the DSP method on both the hip bone and the pelvic girdle in order to utilise this method for forensic sciences. For the first part of the study, forty-nine dry hip bones of unknown sex were obtained from the Body Donation Programme of the Université Libre de Bruxelles (ULB). A comparison was made between DSP analysis and visual sexing on dry bone by two researchers. CT scans of bones were then analysed to obtain three-dimensional (3D) virtual models and the method of DSP was analysed virtually by importing the models into a customised software programme called lhpFusionBox which was developed at ULB. The software enables DSP distances to be measured via virtually-palpated bony landmarks. There was found to be 100% agreement of sex between the manual and virtual DSP method. The second part of the study aimed to further validate the method by analysing thirty-nine supplementary pelvic girdles of known sex blind. There was found to be a 100% accuracy rate further demonstrating that the virtual DSP method is robust. Statistically significant differences were found in the identification of sex between researchers in the visual sexing method although both researchers identified the same sex in all cases in the manual and virtual DSP methods for both the hip bones and pelvic girdles. PMID:24290894

  9. Radioimmunoassay of tissue steroids in adenocarcinoma of the prostate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tissue steroid levels in 48 needle-biopsy samples of adenocarcinoma of the prostate were quantified by radioimmunoassay (RIA). Tissue levels of dihydrotestosterone (DHT), estradiol-17?, and estrone were correlated with tumor stage, histologic grade, and patient response to endocrine therapy. All patients with well-differentiated carcinoma of the prostate had tissue DHT content greater than 2.0 ng/g while 35% of patients with moderately differentiated or poorly differentiated tumors had tissue DHT content less than 2.0 ng/g. DHT content appeared to be unrelated to tumor stage. Estradiol and estrone content correlated well with tumor grade but not with tumor stage. DHT levels were measured in 17 patients with symptomatic Stage D2 carcinoma of the prostate. Thirteen patients with DHT content greater than 2.0 ng/g initially had an objective and/or subjective response to endocrine therapy. Four patients with tissue DHT levels below 2.0 ng/g had no response to hormonal therapy. Quantification of tissue DHT content by RIA is a promising method for predicting initial response to hormonal therapy in adenocarcinoma of the prostate

  10. Exacerbations of severe asthma: a focus on steroid therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaggiari, Lorenza; Bertorelli, Giuseppina; Ridolo, Erminia; Morelli, Ilaria; Guida, Loredana; Pigna, Federica; Ticinesi, Andrea; Nouvenne, Antonio; Borghi, Loris; Meschi, Tiziana

    2014-01-01

    Bronchial asthma remains one of the most common chronic diseases in the world; approximately 10% of patients shows exacerbations severe enough to be judged life-threatening, whereas around 2-20% of patients are admitted to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU). Acute severe asthma is a dangerous condition where the deterioration of the asthmatic exacerbation usually progresses over days or weeks, although in a few patients over hours or even minutes. Morbidity and mortality are mainly related to the underestimation of the severity of the exacerbation, delay in referring to hospital and inadequate emergency treatment. The cornerstone measures of therapy for acute severe asthma are oxygen supplementation, as to achieve arterial saturation >90%, and repetitive or continuous administration of bronchodilators (short-acting inhaled ?2-agonists and ipratropium bromide) and corticosteroids. Despite extensive clinical experience in treatment of chronic asthma with steroids, there is considerable uncertainty about the accurate use of these agents for treatment of acute severe asthma in emergency settings. PMID:25567456

  11. Steroidal Hormone Receptor Expression in Male Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Homaei-Shandiz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The etiology of male breast cancer is unclear, but hormonal levels may play a role in development of this disease. It seems that the risk of male breast cancer related to increased lifelong exposure to estrogen or reduced androgen. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of the steroid hormone receptors including estrogen receptor (ER and progesterone receptor (PR in Iranian cases with male breast cancer. Methods: This is a prospective review of 18 cases of male breast cancer in in Omid Hospital, Mashhad, North East of Iran, between October 2001 and October 2006. ER and PR were measured by immunohistochemistry. Clinicopathologic features and family history were obtained by interview. Data were analyzed with SPSS 13 using descriptive statistics.  Results: The median age was 63.2 year. All the cases were infiltrating ductal carcinoma. A high rate of expression of ER (88.8% and PR (66.6% was found in the studied cases. Conclusion: Cancers of the male breast are significantly more likely than cancers of the female breast to express hormonal receptors.

  12. Sex Determination Using Mastoid Process Measurements in Brazilian Skulls Determinación del Sexo Usando Mediciones en el Proceso Mastoides en Cráneos Brasileños

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Claudio Suazo Galdames

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The mastoid process characteristics are of great utility in the diagnosis of sex. De Paiva & Segre (2003 described that sex diagnosis was possible based on the determination of the área of the triangle formed by the points porion, mastoidale, and asterion. The purpose of this study was to determine the existence of sexual dimorphism in the dimensions and the área of the mastoid triangle using statistical and discriminant function analysis. A total of 81 skulls of Brazilian individuáis that were part of the Museum of the Federal University of Sao Paulo (UNIFESP collection were used, with sex and ages known: 50 men and 31 women between 40 and 70 years of age (mean 51.58 years, SD 7.319. Most of the lineal dimensions and the calculated áreas were higher in men than in women. Only the distance porion-mastoidale, the área of the right mastoid triangle and the total área, was higher and more significant in men with p Las características del proceso mastoides son de gran utilidad para el diagnóstico del sexo. De Paiva & Segre (2003 describieron que era posible el diagnóstico del sexo, en base a la determinación del área del triángulo formado entre los puntos porion, mastoidale y asterion. El propósito de este estudio fue determinar la existencia de dimorfismo sexual en las dimensiones y el área del triángulo mastoideo, mediante análisis estadístico y de función discriminante. Se utilizaron 81 cráneos de individuos Brasileños, pertenecientes a la colección de la UNIFESP, de sexo y edad conocidos, 50 hombres y 31 mujeres, de entre 40 y 70 años (media 51.58 años, DS 7.319. La mayoría de las dimensiones lineales y las áreas calculadas fueron mayores en hombres que en mujeres. Sólo la distancia porion-mastoidale (Po-Ma, el área del triángulo mastoideo derecho y el área total resultaron mayores y significativas en hombres con p<0.01. El análisis de la función discriminante mostró que el conjunto de dimensiones lineales analizadas presenta un bajo poder discriminante (Lambda de Wilks= 0.960, Correlación Canónica= 0.199, sólo Po-Ma permitió clasificar en grupos de hombres y de mujeres con una exactitud general del 64.2%, con una alta sensibilidad para clasificar hombres (93% y una muy baja sensibilidad para mujeres (17.7%. Estos resultados indican que la determinación del sexo en base a las dimensiones del triángulo mastoideo, tiende a subestimar a las mujeres, siendo de baja utilidad en la práctica.

  13. Sex education in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frade, A; Vilar, D

    1991-05-01

    The article on sex education in Portugal covers background, the educational system, the clashes of the 1960's over sex education, the Committee for the Study of Sexuality and Education (CSSE), the policies, politics and social movements during the period 1974 - 1984, the discussions in Parliament, the 1988 Reform of the Educational System, the Family Planning Association (FPA) and sex education, and the future role of the FPA. It was not until the institution of the multiparity parliamentary system in 1974 that discussing social and political changes was possible, culminating in 1984 with new legislation on abortion, family planning, and sex education. School reform came in 1987/8 with the Ministry of Education primarily responsible for curricula. The 1960's brought with it the influence of the Catholic Church. Change came in the form of progressivism among Catholics who replaced dogma with dialogue and listening. Sex education was considered as preparation for marriage, but masturbation, contraception, and prostitution were also discussed. In addition, the founder of FPA chaired the CSSE in 1971 and opened up debate on sex issues and drafted a bill to establish co-education in Portuguese schools. The revolution of 1974 brought an end to censorship and brought forth a policy of developing family planning. Changed in the Family Code gave women greater equality. UNFPA supported teacher training in non-sexist education. With human reproduction included in the natural sciences, there was still no school sex education policy and contraception was only sometimes represented in the biology curriculum. The focus of FPA was on contraception and abortion. Finally in the 1980's, the first sex education programs were developed for out-of-school youth. Even though in the 1970's there were leftists groups promoting sex education, it took leftist parliamentary power to get legislation on sex education in the schools adopted. The Ministry of Education however was pressured by the Catholic Church. As in 1973, committees were formed but no action was taken. Sex education activity increased nonetheless - the first FPA document on school education prepared. In 1986 Personal and Social Education was approved by parliament providing an alternative (due to the Catholic Church) to Religious Education, but even with FPA support documents, the implementation did not begin until the end of 1990. In brief the FPA's emphasis was on the body, sexuality, sex and interpersonal relationships, and sexual reproduction. The role of FPA continues at the grass roots level in stimulating discussion; cooperating with schools, students and parents; and acting as a resource center. PMID:12343180

  14. Cyclosporine A and steroid therapy in childhood steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gargah Tahar

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Gargah Tahar, Lakhoua M RachidDepartment of Pediatric Nephrology, Charles Nicolle Hospital, Tunis, TunisiaBackground: In children, idiopathic nephrotic syndrome (INS is primarily treated using corticosteroids. When remission is not achieved, the coadministration of potent immunosuppressant therapy becomes imperative. Cyclosporine A (CsA is reportedly associated with a higher incidence of remission in comparison with other immunosuppressive agents.Methods: The present study investigated the response of combination therapy using CsA and prednisolone in 30 Tunisian children with idiopathic steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (ISRNS. Renal histopathology was compatible with focal segmental glomerular sclerosis (FSGS in 15 children, minimal change disease (MCD in nine children, and diffuses mesangiale proliferation (DMP in six children.Results: The therapy protocol produced a complete remission of proteinuria in 15 patients (50% and a partial remission in nine patients (30%. Six patients (20% showed no response to therapy. Progression to end stage renal disease occurred in five CsA-resistant children and in four CsA-responsive patients. CsA-related nephrotoxicity was detected by renal biopsy in one patient.Conclusions: CsA remains the primary cytotoxic treatment for childhood steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome. Its use in combination with corticosteroids provides optimum efficiency without high risk of nephrotoxicity.Keywords: children, corticosteroids, cyclosporine A, nephrotic syndrome

  15. A new model for separation between brain dopamine and serotonin transporters in 123I-beta-CIT SPECT measurements: normal values and sex and age dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryding, Erik; Lindström, Mats; Brådvik, Björn; Grabowski, Martin; Bosson, Peter; Träskman-Bendz, Lil; Rosén, Ingmar

    2004-08-01

    123I-beta-CIT is a radioactive ligand for single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging of the pre-synaptic (transporter) re-uptake sites for dopamine (DAT) and serotonin (5HTT), and it is widely used to visualize monoamine turnover. Since 123I-beta-CIT uptake occurs at 5HTT and DAT sites in conjunction with the presence of freely soluble 123I-beta-CIT in brain tissue, adequate separation of these three components is necessary. However, only partial separation is possible with current methods. Two main strategies have previously been used for 123I-beta-CIT component separation, based on the following considerations: (1) the faster uptake rate for 5HTT compared with DAT enables temporal separation by performing 5HTT imaging at 1-2 h and DAT imaging at 20-24 h; (2) blocking the 5HTT re-uptake with citalopram renders 123I-beta-CIT imaging DAT (non-5HTT) specific. In a new analytical model, we combined these two approaches with methods to isolate the passively dissolved 123I-beta-CIT in brain tissue from the monoamine transporter uptake, and to correct the 5HTT and DAT values for concomitant uptake. The new analytical model was used to study brain 5HTT and DAT in 23 normal subjects, with the aim of clarifying the effect of age and sex. A significant correlation between 5HTT and DAT values was found only in the thalamus, indicating successful component separation. Negative correlations between age and DAT were found for basal ganglia, thalami, brain stem and temporal lobes, but not for the frontal, parietal or occipital regions. No correlation with age was found for 5HTT. We found no sex difference for 5HTT or DAT. PMID:15014902

  16. A new model for separation between brain dopamine and serotonin transporters in {sup 123}I-{beta}-CIT SPECT measurements: normal values and sex and age dependence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryding, Erik; Rosen, Ingmar [Department of Clinical Neurophysiology, University Hospital, Lund (Sweden); Lindstroem, Mats; Bosson, Peter; Traeskman-Bendz, Lil [Department of Psychiatry, University Hospital, Lund (Sweden); Braadvik, Bjoern; Grabowski, Martin [Department of Neurology, University Hospital, Lund (Sweden)

    2004-08-01

    {sup 123}I-{beta}-CIT is a radioactive ligand for single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging of the pre-synaptic (transporter) re-uptake sites for dopamine (DAT) and serotonin (5HTT), and it is widely used to visualize monoamine turnover. Since {sup 123}I-{beta}-CIT uptake occurs at 5HTT and DAT sites in conjunction with the presence of freely soluble {sup 123}I-{beta}-CIT in brain tissue, adequate separation of these three components is necessary. However, only partial separation is possible with current methods. Two main strategies have previously been used for {sup 123}I-{beta}-CIT component separation, based on the following considerations: (1) the faster uptake rate for 5HTT compared with DAT enables temporal separation by performing 5HTT imaging at 1-2 h and DAT imaging at 20-24 h; (2) blocking the 5HTT re-uptake with citalopram renders {sup 123}I-{beta}-CIT imaging DAT (non-5HTT) specific. In a new analytical model, we combined these two approaches with methods to isolate the passively dissolved {sup 123}I-{beta}-CIT in brain tissue from the monoamine transporter uptake, and to correct the 5HTT and DAT values for concomitant uptake. The new analytical model was used to study brain 5HTT and DAT in 23 normal subjects, with the aim of clarifying the effect of age and sex. A significant correlation between 5HTT and DAT values was found only in the thalamus, indicating successful component separation. Negative correlations between age and DAT were found for basal ganglia, thalami, brain stem and temporal lobes, but not for the frontal, parietal or occipital regions. No correlation with age was found for 5HTT. We found no sex difference for 5HTT or DAT. (orig.)

  17. A new model for separation between brain dopamine and serotonin transporters in 123I-?-CIT SPECT measurements: normal values and sex and age dependence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    123I-?-CIT is a radioactive ligand for single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging of the pre-synaptic (transporter) re-uptake sites for dopamine (DAT) and serotonin (5HTT), and it is widely used to visualize monoamine turnover. Since 123I-?-CIT uptake occurs at 5HTT and DAT sites in conjunction with the presence of freely soluble 123I-?-CIT in brain tissue, adequate separation of these three components is necessary. However, only partial separation is possible with current methods. Two main strategies have previously been used for 123I-?-CIT component separation, based on the following considerations: (1) the faster uptake rate for 5HTT compared with DAT enables temporal separation by performing 5HTT imaging at 1-2 h and DAT imaging at 20-24 h; (2) blocking the 5HTT re-uptake with citalopram renders 123I-?-CIT imaging DAT (non-5HTT) specific. In a new analytical model, we combined these two approaches with methods to isolate the passively dissolved 123I-?-CIT in brain tissue from the monoamine transporter uptake, and to correct the 5HTT and DAT values for concomitant uptake. The new analytical model was used to study brain 5HTT and DAT in 23 normal subjects, with the aim of clarifying the effect of age and sex. A significant correlation between 5HTT and DAT values was found only in the thalamus, indicating successful component separation. Negative correlations between age and DAT we correlations between age and DAT were found for basal ganglia, thalami, brain stem and temporal lobes, but not for the frontal, parietal or occipital regions. No correlation with age was found for 5HTT. We found no sex difference for 5HTT or DAT. (orig.)

  18. Morphometric sexing of Northwest Atlantic Roseate Terns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palestis, Brian G.; Nisbet, Ian C.T.; Hatch, Jeremy J.; Szczys, Patricia; Spendelow, Jeffrey A.

    2012-01-01

    A difficulty in the study of monomorphic species is the inability of observers to visually distinguish females from males. Based on a sample of 745 known-sex birds nesting at Bird Island, MA, USA, a discriminant function analysis (DFA) was used to sex Roseate Terns (Sterna dougallii) of the Northwest Atlantic population using morphological measurements. DFA using only the total length of the head (including the bill) correctly identified the sex of approximately 86% of the terns, which increased to 88% if both members of a pair were measured. Including additional measurements increased these percentages slightly, to 87% and 90%, respectively. These levels of accuracy are generally higher than those reported for other species of terns. Because female-female pairs are frequent in this population, one cannot assume that the member of a pair with the larger head is a male, and additional discriminant functions were developed to help separate female-female from male-female pairs.

  19. Pulse cyclophosphamide therapy for steroid-resistant focal segmental glomerulosclerosis in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In children, steroid-resistant nephritic syndrome due to focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) is frequently a progressive condition resulting in end-stage renal disease (ESRD). We report the response of 15 patients with steroid resistant FSGS to treatment with intravenous pulse cyclophosphamide (IVCP) and oral prednisone after 4 years of follow up. 5 patients had initial steroid resistance and 10 patients had late steroid resistance. All patients were treated with IVCP at a dose of 500 mg/m/day for four weeks followed by 40/mg/m on alternate days for 4 weeks and then tapered over next 4 weeks. All patients with initial resistance to steroids showed no response to IVCP and continued to be steroid resistant. 3 developed CRF during the observation period. The other 10 patients with late steroid resistance responded to IVCP but all were steroid dependent at the end of observation period. 5 could not be weaned from steroids during the IVCP period. The other 5 patients achieved relatively prolonged remission (7 months to 24 months), but eventually become steroid dependent. 67% of the steroid resistant FSGS become steroid dependent. Patient with initial steroid resistance did not respond to IVCP. We no correlation between IgM deposition and the response to therapy. The side effects of IVCP were negligible. Beneficial therapy for initial steroid-resistant FSGS remains to be determined. (author)

  20. Sex differences on prefrontally-dependent cognitive tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Kelly L; Hampson, Elizabeth

    2015-02-01

    There is preliminary evidence to suggest that the prefrontal cortex (PFC) is modulated by sex steroids in humans and other primates. The current study examined whether sex differences in performance could be discerned on two working memory tasks that emphasize monitoring and updating processes, and on two tasks that engage the ventromedial PFC/orbitofrontal cortex (VMPFC/OFC). Healthy young adults (48 females; 45 males) completed the n-back, Self-Ordered Pointing (SOP), Iowa Gambling Task (IGT), and a probabilistic reversal learning task. On the IGT, males selected more cards from the advantageous decks than females. On the reversal learning task, there was no significant sex difference in acquisition of the reinforcement contingencies, but males made fewer errors than females during the reversal phase. The sexes did not differ significantly on the n-back or SOP tasks. These findings provide tentative support for the hypothesis that functions carried out by the VMPFC/OFC are sexually differentiated in humans. PMID:25528435

  1. Sex-linked recessive

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... families through one of the X or Y chromosomes. X and Y are sex chromosomes. Dominant inheritance occurs ... usually occur in males. Males have only one X chromosome. A single recessive gene on that X chromosome ...

  2. [[On the change of sex ratio by the Japanese zodiac

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, H

    1989-04-01

    Changes in the sex ratio in Japan from 1899 to 1986 are analyzed using data from official sources. The emphasis is on differences in the sex ratio according to the signs of the Japanese zodiac. The author notes that although the significance of the zodiac on the sex ratio has been decreasing since the early 1970s, it still has a measurable impact. PMID:12282506

  3. Single Sex Education. WEEA Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, Diane S.

    Title IX of the Educational Amendments of 1972 prohibits discrimination on the basis of sex in educational institutions that receive federal financial assistance. This digest focuses on the theme of single-sex education. Articles featured in this issue include: (1) "Single-Sex Education" (Diane S. Pollard); (2) "A Legal Framework for Single-Sex

  4. Sex difference in leukocyte telomere length is ablated in opposite-sex co-twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benetos, Athanase; Dalgård, Christine

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In eutherian mammals and in humans, the female fetus may be masculinized while sharing the intra-uterine environment with a male fetus. Telomere length (TL), as expressed in leukocytes, is heritable and is longer in women than in men. The main determinant of leukocyte TL (LTL) is LTL at birth. However, LTL is modified by age-dependent attrition. METHODS: We studied LTL dynamics (LTL and its attrition) in adult same-sex (monozygotic, n?=?268; dizygotic, n?=?308) twins and opposite-sex (n?=?144) twins. LTL was measured by Southern blots of the terminal restriction fragments. RESULTS: We observed that in same-sex (both monozygotic and dizygotic) twins, as reported in singletons, LTL was longer in females than in males [estimate?±?standard error (SE):163?±?63?bp, P?sex twins, female LTL was indistinguishable from that of males (-31?±?52?bp, P?=?0.6), whereas male LTL was not affected. Findings were similar when the comparison was restricted to opposite-sex and same-sex dizygotic twins (females relative to males: same-sex: 188?±?90?bp, P?sex: -32?±?64?bp, P?=?0.6). CONCLUSIONS: These findings are compatible with masculinization of the female fetus in opposite-sex twins. They suggest that the sex difference in LTL, seen in the general population, is largely determined in utero, perhaps by the intrauterine hormonal environment. Further studies in newborn twins are warranted to test this thesis.

  5. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and efficacy of antidepressants in major depressive disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uher, R; Carver, S

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It has been proposed that non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may interfere with the efficacy of antidepressants and contribute to treatment resistance in major depressive disorder (MDD). This effect requires replication and a test of whether it is specific to serotonin-reuptake inhibiting (SRI) antidepressants.MethodWe tested the effect of concomitant medication with NSAIDs on the efficacy of escitalopram, a SRI antidepressant, and nortriptyline, a tricyclic antidepressant, among 811 subjects with MDD treated for up to 12 weeks in the GENDEP study. Effects of NSAIDs on improvement of depressive symptoms were tested in mixed-effect linear models. Effects on remission were tested in logistic regression. Age, sex, baseline severity and centre of recruitment were considered as potential confounding factors. RESULTS: Ten percent (n=78) of subjects were taking NSAIDs during the antidepressant treatment. Older subjects were significantly more likely to take NSAIDs. After controlling for age, sex, centre of recruitment and baseline severity, concomitant medication with NSAIDs did not significantly influence the efficacy of escitalopram [?=0.035, 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.145 to 0.215, p=0.704] or nortriptyline (?=0.075, 95% CI -0.131 to 0.281, p=0.476). Although slightly fewer subjects who took NSAIDs reached remission [odds ratio (OR) 0.80, 95% CI 0.49-1.31, p=0.383], this non-significant effect was reversed after controlling for age, sex, baseline severity and recruitment centre effects (OR 1.04, 95% CI 0.61-1.77, p=0.882). CONCLUSIONS: NSAIDs are unlikely to affect the efficacy of SRI or other antidepressants. Concurrent use of NSAIDs and antidepressants does not need to be avoided.

  6. Allegations of steroid abuse mar start of spring training

    Science.gov (United States)

    The spring training season for major league baseball got underway this past Tuesday, but most of the talk seemed to center around the claims contained within the recent book penned by that proverbial Peck's Bad Boy of baseball, Jose Canseco. In the book, which is named "Juiced: Wild Times, Rampant 'Roids", Smash Hits, and How Baseball Got Big", Canseco claimed that many of his former teammates (and many who were not) used steroids, including Roger Clemens, Mark McGwire, Bret Boone, Miguel Tejada, and numerous others. Throughout the book, Canseco defends the use of steroids, and also claims that President George W. Bush (who was president of the Texas Rangers when Canseco was on the team) also knew about the steroid use that was going on at the time on the roster. White House press secretary Scott McClellan responded to the claim that President Bush knew about steroid abuse by stating that, "If there was, he was not aware of it at the time."The first link leads to a news report from Fox Sports Online which discusses the ripple effect the claims made by Canseco have had around the league during the past few days. The second link will take visitors to the 60 Minutes interview with Jose Canseco from this past Sunday. Here visitors can read the transcript of the segment and view a video clip of Canseco talking with Mike Wallace about his steroid use. The third link leads to a news piece from SportsLine which talks about the accusation that President Bush knew about the alleged steroid use that Canseco claims went on during his time with the Texas Rangers. The fourth link leads to a piece from the New York Post that talks about the accusation made by Canseco that noted Yankee Jason Giambi was a heavy steroid user. The fifth link will take users to a rather biting editorial on the current steroid scandal from the Chicago Sun-Times' sports columnist, Jay Mariotti. On a bit more upbeat note, the sixth link leads to the Major League Baseball's official spring training website. Here visitors can learn about the upcoming games and read news reports on their favorite teams and individual players. The final link leads to the National Institute of Drug Abuse's homepage dedicated to providing information about current research on anabolic steroids.

  7. An asymptomatic ovarian steroid cell tumor with complete cystic morphology: A case report

    OpenAIRE

    Chun, Yoon Jung; Choi, Hyun Jung; Lee, Han Na; Cho, Sook; Choi, Ji Hyang

    2013-01-01

    Steroid cell tumors of the ovary are extremely rare, accounting for only 0.1% of all ovarian tumors. Of these, steroid cell tumors, not otherwise specified (NOS) constitute about 56% of all steroid cell tumors. Most steroid cell tumors secrete steroid hormones, and only about 10% to 15% of patients are asymptomatic. The morphology of steroid cell tumors, NOS is predominantly reported to be solid, and a review of case reports from 1979 until now revealed only 5 cases that were mainly cystic tu...

  8. Steroid - induced rosacea: A clinical study of 200 patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhat Yasmeen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Topical corticosteroids were first introduced for use in 1951. Since then uncontrolled use (abuse has caused many different reactions resembling rosacea - steroid dermatitis or iatrosacea. Multiple pathways including rebound vasodilatation and proinflammatory cytokine release have been proposed as the mechanism for such reactions. Aim: The aim was to study the adverse effects of topical steroid abuse and the response to various treatment modalities. Materials and Methods: Two hundred patients with a history of topical steroid use on face for more than 1 month were studied clinically and various treatments tried. Results: The duration of topical corticosteroid use varied from 1 month to 20 years with an average of 19.76 months. Majority of patients were using potent (class II topical steroids for trivial facial dermatoses. The common adverse effects were erythema, telangiectasia, xerosis, hyperpigmentation, photosensitivity, and rebound phenomenon. No significant change in laboratory investigations was seen. Conclusion: A combination of oral antibiotics and topical tacrolimus is the treatment of choice for steroid-induced rosacea.

  9. Current perspectives on anabolic-androgenic steroid abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukas, S E

    1993-02-01

    For the past 40 years anabolic-androgenic steroids have been used by a wide variety of athletes with the hope of improving their training, endurance and performance. Proponents of their use claim that the drugs increase muscle strength and mass, endurance, decrease recovery time between workouts and improve physique. Critics claim that these beneficial effects are due primarily to expectancy and other factors associated with training; many doctors also claim that their use is actually quite dangerous. Regardless of their efficacy, the use and abuse of anabolic-androgenic steroids has escalated such that in 1990 the US Congress enacted the Anabolic Steroids Control Act requiring that anabolic steroids be added to Schedule III of the Controlled Substances Act. This action placed compounds such as testosterone cipionate and nandrolone decanoate in the company of various opioid drugs, amphetamines and barbiturates. As chair of the American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics' Committee on Substance Abuse, Scott Lukas advocates continued research on the effectiveness, toxicity and natural history of anabolic-androgenic steroid abuse. PMID:8480376

  10. Steroid production in testicular tissue of the European eel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Testicular tissue of normal and hCG-stimulated European eels was incubated in vitro with tritiated progesterone or androstenedione as substrates. The following compounds were isolated and identified: 5 beta-androstane-3,17-dione; 17 beta-hydroxy-5 beta-androstan-3-one; androst-4-ene-3,11,17-trione (adrenosterone); 11 beta-hydroxyandrost-4-ene-3,17-dione; 11 beta-hydroxytestosterone; 3 alpha,11 beta-dihydroxy-5 beta-androstan-17-one, and an additional steroid for which the oxidation product was identified as 5 beta-androstene-3,11,17-trione. Four of these steroids have not been hitherto identified in gonadal tissue of any vertebrate. The pattern of steroid production in this tissue is unique for its 5 beta-reduction, for the appearance of adrenosterone as a major metabolite, and for the lack of production of 11-ketotestosterone, which is a regular metabolite of gonadal tissue of teleosts. Thus, it appears that steroid metabolism in the eel testis deviates considerably from the known pattern of steroid production in gonads of other vertebrates

  11. A randomized, multicenter study comparing steroid-free immunosuppression and standard immunosuppression for liver transplant recipients with chronic hepatitis C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klintmalm, Göran B; Davis, Gary L; Teperman, Lewis; Netto, George J; Washburn, Kenneth; Rudich, Stephen M; Pomfret, Elizabeth A; Vargas, Hugo E; Brown, Robert; Eckhoff, Devin; Pruett, Timothy L; Roberts, John; Mulligan, David C; Charlton, Michael R; Heffron, Thomas G; Ham, John M; Douglas, David D; Sher, Linda; Baliga, Prabhakar K; Kinkhabwala, Milan; Koneru, Baburao; Abecassis, Michael; Millis, Michael; Jennings, Linda W; Fasola, Carlos G

    2011-12-01

    This randomized, prospective, multicenter trial compared the safety and efficacy of steroid-free immunosuppression (IS) to the safety and efficacy of 2 standard IS regimens in patients undergoing transplantation for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. The outcome measures were acute cellular rejection (ACR), severe HCV recurrence, and survival. The patients were randomized (1:1:2) to tacrolimus (TAC) and corticosteroids (arm 1; n = 77), mycophenolate mofetil (MMF), TAC, and corticosteroids (arm 2; n = 72), or MMF, TAC, and daclizumab induction with no corticosteroids (arm 3; n = 146). In all, 295 HCV RNA-positive subjects were enrolled. At 2 years, there were no differences in ACR, HCV recurrence (biochemical evidence), patient survival, or graft survival rates. The side effects of IS did not differ, although there was a trend toward less diabetes in the steroid-free group. Liver biopsy samples revealed no significant differences in the proportions of patients in arms 1, 2, and 3 with advanced HCV recurrence (ie, an inflammation grade ? 3 and/or a fibrosis stage ? 2) in years 1 (48.2%, 50.4%, and 43.0%, respectively) and 2 (69.5%, 75.9%, and 68.1%, respectively). Although we have found that steroid-free IS is safe and effective for liver transplant recipients with chronic HCV, steroid sparing has no clear advantage in comparison with traditional IS. PMID:21850690

  12. Profundidad del Músculo Masetero Medido Mediante Ultrasonido, según Índice Facial en Relación al Sexo Masseter Muscle Deep Measured by Ultrasound per Facial Index Related to Sex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnoldo Hernández Caldera

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Para establecer las dimensiones en profundidad del músculo masetero según índice facial en relación al sexo, se realizó un estudio analítico no experimental entre pacientes seleccionados que acudieron al servicio de imagenología del hospital base de Linares, Chile. La muestra quedó determinada por 180 músculos maseteros, 90 de mujeres y 90 de hombres. Se clasificaron según su índice facial en euriprosopos, leptoprosopos y mesoprosopos quedando la muestra conformada por 60 músculos de individuos euriprosopos, mesoprosopos y leptoprosopos, respectivamente. Se realizó la medición de la profundidad de cada uno de los músculos maseteros utilizando para ello un examen imagenológico ecográfico. La muestra se sometió al análisis estadístico ANOVA. La profundidad del músculo masetero varió dependiendo del índice facial y en ambos sexos (p To establish the dimensions of the masseter muscle deep as a facial index in relation to gender, an analytical study was conducted among patients who were attended at the imaging service Linares Hospital, Chile. The sample was 180 masseter muscles, 90 of them belonging to female individuals and 90 individuals belonging to male subjects. The subjects were classified according to facial index in euryprosopous, mesoprosopous and leptoprosopous. Each group was composed of 60 muscles. The depth of each masseter muscles was performing using an ultrasound-imaging test. The sample was subjected to ANOVA statistical analysis. The depth of masseter muscles varied depending facial index in both sexes (p <0.05. Euryprosopous individuals showed an average of 11.5±2.08 mm for male and 8.8±1.4 mm for female. Mesoprosopous individuals showed an average of 11.4±1.6 mm. for male and 7.8±1.6 mm for female. Leptoprosopous individuals showed an average of 10.08±1.2 mm for male and 7.7±1.4 mm. for female. The depth of the masseter muscle varies depending of facial index on both sexes. The difference is significant between muscles of leptoprosopous and euryprosopous subjects (p <0.005. It was concluded that the facial index of individuals should be considered in the diagnosis of altered masticatory muscle size.

  13. Violence and Sex in Music Videos: TV and Rock n' Roll.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Barry L.; Dominick, Joseph R.

    1986-01-01

    Describes a study measuring the amount and kind of violence and sex presented in prime time music videos during a seven-week period. Compares sex and violence on music television to known data on conventional TV. (MS)

  14. Sex work on the rise. International news.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    The AIDS epidemic has brought to the fore many social injustices; for instance, inappropriate laws. The groups of people most at risk of HIV/AIDS are women, young people, and sex workers. More appropriate laws are needed to protect their rights. In many instances sex workers are prosecuted for selling their services, but their clients are not prosecuted for seeking these services. Most people become sex workers so they can feed, clothe, and supply the basic needs for themselves and their families. Many sex workers are abandoned wives, mothers with no means of support, and poverty stricken people. A Health Ministry commission in Sweden proposed that prostitutes, clients, and pimps be prosecuted and be liable to imprisonment. Authorities in Scotland, where prostitution is illegal, have granted licenses to more than 20 clubs in Edinburgh in which sex is for sale. In the UK, the Royal College of Nursing called for a measure to decriminalize prostitution and to introduce licensed, regulated brothels. The legalization of sex clubs and brothels will occur soon in the Netherlands. In Poland, 30,000-50,000 youth, 33% of whom are underage, sell sex during holidays. Organizations are beginning to work only with male prostitutes in Belgium. In the countries of the former Soviet Union and China, prostitution is becoming more and more common. Some young girls in these countries practice currency prostitution. In almost all Asian countries except Thailand condom use is low; yet prostitution and sexually transmitted diseases are very common. Some people participate in the corrupt trade in women from Nepal to supply the sex market in Bombay, India. Sex tourism is still common in cities of Eastern Europe and the former USSR and in areas where tourism is increasing. There are more than 1 million prostitutes aged under 16 in eight Asian countries, with 400,000 in India. Sweden and the UK have taken steps to prosecute natives who have sex with children abroad. Philippine authorities are increasing their efforts to target foreigners involved in the sex trade. PMID:12291521

  15. CT-guided epidural steroid injections in lumbar spinal stenosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To identify the short and long-term therapeutic benefits of CT-guided transforaminal epidural steroid injections in lumbar spinal stenosis. Methods: Thirty six patients with lumbar spinal stenosis shown by CT underwent CT-guided transforaminal epidural steroid injections because of irresponsible to conservative treatment. Patients were evaluated by visual analogue scale (VAS) before the initial injection, at 2 weeks and 1 year after the injection. Results: All patients were followed up for 2 weeks and 1 year. 19 (52.8%) patients had successful short-term outcome, and 15(41.6%) had long-term outcome. 15(41.6%) patients satisfied with the short-term result and 12(33.3%) were satisfactory with the long-term result. Conclusions: CT-guided transforaminal epidural steroid injection may reduce the pain and improve the quality of life in some patients with lumbar spinal stenosis. (authors)

  16. Increasing use of inhaled steroids associated with declining asthma mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumana, C R; Kou, M; Lauder, I J; Ip, M S; Lam, W K

    2001-04-01

    Increasing worldwide asthma prevalence and mortality has led to greater advocacy of inhaled agents, especially steroids. To determine whether corresponding drug usage trends had ensued locally, wholesale data (expressed as defined daily doses (DDDs)/1000 inhabitants/day) were compared for inclusive periods 1984-1986 and 1992-1994. Whereas absolute usage of anti-asthmatics increased by 79%, proportional inhaled usage increased markedly, especially of steroids (571%) and in hospitals. An odds ratio trend analysis revealed asthma mortality from 1992 onward had declined, particularly in males (p < 0.001). In Hong Kong, despite increasing asthma prevalence, more intensive use of anti-asthmatic drugs (especially inhaled steroids) was associated with declining asthma mortality. PMID:11321687

  17. Potential Insecticidal Activity of Steroidal C-17 Pyrazolinyl Derivatives

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ning-Juan, Fan; Jin-Ming, Gao; Jiang-Jiang, Tang.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Agrochemical research, over the last two decades, has resulted in the discovery of chemically novel insecticides, of which steroids-based compounds that mimic the action of hormones have been considered as safe insecticides. In this study, eight steroidal C-17 pyrazolinyl derivatives were resynthesi [...] zed through molecular hybridization and their insecticidal activities against 4th instar larvae of Mythimna separate were evaluated. These results showed that some compounds exhibited significant insecticidal activities and the susceptibility assays were expressed as the median lethal dose (LD50), of which one of the compounds exerted the most potent insecticidal activity (LD50 = 296 µg g-1), comparable to that of the natural product insecticide, celangulatin V (LD50 = 260 µg g-1). This strategy led to a promising candidate for the development of new steroidal insecticidal agents.

  18. How sex and age affect immune responses, susceptibility to infections, and response to vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giefing-Kröll, Carmen; Berger, Peter; Lepperdinger, Günter; Grubeck-Loebenstein, Beatrix

    2015-06-01

    Do men die young and sick, or do women live long and healthy? By trying to explain the sexual dimorphism in life expectancy, both biological and environmental aspects are presently being addressed. Besides age-related changes, both the immune and the endocrine system exhibit significant sex-specific differences. This review deals with the aging immune system and its interplay with sex steroid hormones. Together, they impact on the etiopathology of many infectious diseases, which are still the major causes of morbidity and mortality in people at old age. Among men, susceptibilities toward many infectious diseases and the corresponding mortality rates are higher. Responses to various types of vaccination are often higher among women thereby also mounting stronger humoral responses. Women appear immune-privileged. The major sex steroid hormones exhibit opposing effects on cells of both the adaptive and the innate immune system: estradiol being mainly enhancing, testosterone by and large suppressive. However, levels of sex hormones change with age. At menopause transition, dropping estradiol potentially enhances immunosenescence effects posing postmenopausal women at additional, yet specific risks. Conclusively during aging, interventions, which distinctively consider the changing level of individual hormones, shall provide potent options in maintaining optimal immune functions. PMID:25720438

  19. Sex differences, hormones, and fMRI stress response circuitry deficits in psychoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Jill M; Lancaster, Katie; Longenecker, Julia M; Abbs, Brandon; Holsen, Laura M; Cherkerzian, Sara; Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan; Makris, Nicolas; Tsuang, Ming T; Buka, Stephen L; Seidman, Larry J; Klibanski, Anne

    2015-06-30

    Response to stress is dysregulated in psychosis (PSY). fMRI studies showed hyperactivity in hypothalamus (HYPO), hippocampus (HIPP), amygdala (AMYG), anterior cingulate (ACC), orbital and medial prefrontal (OFC; mPFC) cortices, with some studies reporting sex differences. We predicted abnormal steroid hormone levels in PSY would be associated with sex differences in hyperactivity in HYPO, AMYG, and HIPP, and hypoactivity in PFC and ACC, with more severe deficits in men. We studied 32 PSY cases (50.0% women) and 39 controls (43.6% women) using a novel visual stress challenge while collecting blood. PSY males showed BOLD hyperactivity across all hypothesized regions, including HYPO and ACC by FWE-correction. Females showed hyperactivity in HIPP and AMYG and hypoactivity in OFC and mPFC, the latter FWE-corrected. Interaction of group by sex was significant in mPFC (F=7.00, p=0.01), with PSY females exhibiting the lowest activity. Male hyperactivity in HYPO and ACC was significantly associated with hypercortisolemia post-stress challenge, and mPFC with low androgens. Steroid hormones and neural activity were dissociated in PSY women. Findings suggest disruptions in neural circuitry-hormone associations in response to stress are sex-dependent in psychosis, particularly in prefrontal cortex. PMID:25914141

  20. Evaluation of serum steroid hormones in schizophrenic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taherianfard M

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent studies have implicated the abnormalities in the -aminobutyric acid (GABA neurotransmmiter system in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. There are also evidences indicating that steroids of central or peripheral origin may modulate GABAergic system through direct interaction with the GABAA receptor complex. These raise the possibility that alternations in serum steroid hormones may contribute to the pathophysiological process in the schizophrenia. AIMS: The purposes of this study were first, to determine whether alternations in steroid serum levels occur in schizophrenic patients, and secondly to determine whether such alternations normalize with clinical improvement. Methods and material: Serum concentrations of testosterone (T, estradiol (E, progesterone (P and cortisol (C were determined in male schizophrenic patients (N=49 before treatment, during treatment and after recovery and in age-matched healthy male subjects (N=17. All steroid hormones were assayed by ELISA method. Statistical analysis used: Differences in steroids concentrations between groups were assayed by One-Way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA, followed by Tukey?s post hoc test. The level of significance was considered at P<0.05. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The serum concentrations of E, P and C were significantly (P<0.05 lower in male schizophrenic patients in all three stages of the study, compared with healthy subjects. Serum concentrations of T were significantly (P<0.05 lower in male schizophrenic patients before and during treatment, but not after recovery, compared with healthy subjects. These findings support the occurrence of abnormal steroid concentrations in schizophrenic patients and suggest that lower T level in this disorder is related to the illness and normalizes with remission, while trait-related factors may contribute to lower serum E and C levels in schizophrenia.

  1. Liquid-chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS) of steroid hormone metabolites and its applications

    OpenAIRE

    Penning, Trevor M.; Lee, Seon-hwa; Jin, Yi; Gutierrez, Alejandro; Blair, Ian A.

    2010-01-01

    Advances in liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) can be used to measure steroid hormone metabolites in vitro and in vivo. We find that LC-Electrospray Ionization (ESI)-MS using a LCQ ion trap mass spectrometer in the negative ion mode can be used to monitor the product profile that results from 5?–dihydrotestosterone(DHT)-17?-glucuronide, DHT-17?-sulfate, and tibolone-17?-sulfate reduction catalyzed by human members of the aldo-keto reductase (AKR) 1C subfamily and assign kin...

  2. Steroid-carrier proteins in patients with multiple myeloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Moor, P; Louwagie, A; Faict, D; Vanham, G

    1986-08-01

    Patients with multiple myeloma have transcortin levels lower than normal. This is due in essence to a subgroup of patients producing IGG heavy chains with lambda light chains. Patients producing IGG with predominantly kappa light chains have almost normal transcortin levels. On the other hand, the binding activity of the steroid binding beta globulin (SB beta G) of the kappa type of multiple myeloma is significantly higher than the steroid binding of the lambda type of multiple myeloma. The serum levels of vitamin D binding protein (DBP) fall in the normal range. PMID:3747525

  3. Single-Sex Schooling and Labour Market Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Alice; Joshi, Heather; Leonard, Diana

    2011-01-01

    One quarter of the 1958 British Birth cohort attended single-sex secondary schools. This paper asks whether sex-segregated schooling had any impact on the experience of gender differences in the labour market in mid-life. We examine outcomes at age 42, allowing for socio-economic origins and abilities measured in childhood. We find no net impact…

  4. Sex, Setting, and Personal Space: Changes as Children Grow Older.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Gay H.; Dabbs, James M., Jr.

    This study examined the effects of age, sex, and setting on interpersonal physical distance (IPD) preferences among 160 1st, 5th, 9th, and 12th grade white public school students. Within each grade, subjects were tested two at a time in same-sex pairs. Subjects' IPD preferences were tested by both direct and indirect modes of measurement in…

  5. Steroidal and nonsteroidal drugs in endotoxin-induced uveitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, P S

    1994-01-01

    Various classes of anti-inflammatory compounds like steroids (dexamethasone), cyclooxygenase inhibitors (indomethacin and flurbiprofen), 5-lipoxygenase inhibitors (BWA 218C and BWA 4C), immunosuppressive drugs (cyclosporin and rapamycin) and cod liver oil were tested for their antiinflammatory activities in endotoxin-induced uveitis model in rabbits. Intraocular inflammation was assessed in terms of two inflammatory responses i.e. breakdown of blood-aqueous barrier (BAB) and leukocyte infiltration into aqueous humor and iris ciliary body (ICB). Prostaglandin (PG) E2 and leukotriene (LT) B4 release into aqueous humor was also measured. Indomethacin significantly inhibited PGE2 release without affecting leukocyte or BAB response. Flurbiprofen prevented leukocyte, PGE2 and LTB4 release into aqueous humor but not ICB chemotaxis. BWA 218C and BWA 4C also significantly inhibited leukocyte and LTB4 release but not BAB responses. Dexamethasone (2mg/kg, i.m.) and cyclosporin A (25 mg/kg i.m.) significantly inhibited leukocyte infiltration into aqueous humor and ICB, and PGE2 release but they failed to inhibit breakdown of BAB and LTB4 release. On the other hand, rapamycin (10mg/kg i.m.) and cod liver oil (1 ml daily i.m. up to 15 days) significantly prevented leukocyte and BAB response. Cod liver oil also significantly inhibited PGE2 and LTB4 release but rapamycin affected only PGE2 release into aqueous humor. It is concluded that arachidonic acid metabolites may not play a vital role in this uveitis model and additional proinflammatory mediators like cytokines may be involved. PMID:8207337

  6. Interactions of the Human Cytosolic Sulfotransferases and Steroid Sulfatase in the Metabolism of Tibolone and Raloxifene

    OpenAIRE

    Falany, Josie L.; Falany, Charles N.

    2007-01-01

    Sulfation is important in the metabolism and inactivation of steroidal compounds and hormone replacement therapeutic (HRT) agents in human tissues. Although generally inactive, many steroid sulfates are hydrolyzed to their active forms by sulfatase activity. Therefore, the specific sulfotransferase (SULT) isoforms and the levels of steroid sulfatase (STS) activity in tissues are important in regulating the activity of steroidal and HRT compounds. Tibolone (Tib) is metabolized to three active ...

  7. The detection of endogenous steroid abuse in cattle: results from population studies in the UK

    OpenAIRE

    Scarth, James Philip; Clarke, Adam; Teale, Phil; Mill, Aileen; Macarthur, Roy; Kay, Jack

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The use of steroids as growth-promoting agents in food production is banned under European Union legislation. Detecting the abuse of testosterone, nandrolone, boldenone, oestradiol and progesterone is complicated by the fact these steroids are known to be endogenous in certain situations. In this study, the concentrations of characteristic metabolites of each of these steroids have been quantified in populations of untreated steers and heifers. Steroid concentration p...

  8. Chronic ethanol exposure produces tolerance to elevations in neuroactive steroids: Mechanisms and reversal by exogenous ACTH

    OpenAIRE

    Boyd, Kevin N.; Kumar, Sandeep; O'Buckley, Todd K.; Morrow, A Leslie

    2010-01-01

    Acute ethanol administration increases potent GABAergic neuroactive steroids, specifically (3?,5?)-3-hydroxypregnan-20-one (3?,5?-THP) and (3?,5?)-3,21-dihydroxypregnan-20-one. In addition, neuroactive steroids contribute to ethanol actions. Chronic ethanol exposure results in tolerance to many effects of ethanol, including ethanol-induced increases in neuroactive steroid levels. To determine the mechanisms of tolerance to ethanol-induced increases in neuroactive steroids, we investigated cri...

  9. Anabolic steroid use among students at a British college of technology.

    OpenAIRE

    Williamson, D.J.

    1993-01-01

    To determine the rate of current or previous use of anabolic steroids by students at a UK college of technology, a questionnaire survey of 687 day students was conducted. The questionnaire began with a general section for all of the students, which ended with the question 'Have you ever used anabolic steroids?'. A further section specifically for anabolic steroid users examined patterns of use, and how certain circumstances might affect the individual's decision to use anabolic steroids. The ...

  10. Display activity and seasonality of faecal sexual steroids in male great bustard (Otis tarda L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biczó, A; Péczely, P

    2007-03-01

    The non-invasive faecal sampling and RIA was used to measure faecal equivalents of testosterone (T), dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), oestradiol-17beta (E2) and progesterone (P4) in juvenile and adult great bustard males. Possible connections of diurnal and seasonal changes of sexual steroid levels and display activity were studied. Correlations were found between sexual steroid equivalent levels of faeces and display activity and agonistic behaviour in the different phases of annual cycle of adult males. In early display period increasing levels of androgens were measured, during main display period very high androgen dominance was observable against E2 and P4. During postnuptial moult strong T decrease and DHEA and P4 increase were detected. Elevation of E2 was measured during wintering. In juveniles level of DHEA was higher than level of T suggesting its importance in immature males. Decrease of T was detected between reproductive period and postnuptial moult and DHEA between reproduction and wintering, accompanying with E2 elevation. The inhibiting effect of inclement weather on gonad functions also was detected in our study. We suppose that the unexpected cold weather with strong wind depressed the levels of androgens both in juveniles and adults and the increase of faecal E2 was also detected. PMID:17385541

  11. Moral Development of Solo Juvenile Sex Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Vugt, Eveline; Stams, Geert Jan; Dekovic, Maja; Brugman, Daan; Rutten, Esther; Hendriks, Jan

    2008-01-01

    This study compared the moral development of solo juvenile male sex offenders (n = 20) and juvenile male non-offenders (n = 76), aged 13-19 years, from lower socioeconomic and educational backgrounds. The Moral Orientation Measure (MOM) was used to assess punishment- and victim-based moral orientation in sexual and non-sexual situations. Moral…

  12. Researching Sex Bias in the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donlan, Dan

    This paper outlines five methods of research on sex bias in the classroom: one-time survey, one class/one treatment, two class/two treatment, one class/random assignment to treatment, and analysis of differentiated effect. It shows how each method could be used in attempting to measure the effect of a unit on Norma Klein's "Mom, the Wolfman and…

  13. Sex ratio variation and sex determination in Urtica dioica

    OpenAIRE

    Glawe, Grit Anja

    2006-01-01

    This thesis will first document on variation in progeny sex ratios among individual female plants of Urtica dioica at our field site in Meijendel (Chapter 2). Next, we show that there is also considerable sex ratio variation among male and female flowering shoots in 26 natural populations studied (Chapter 3). Additionally, we studied life history traits of male and female clones to detect sex-specific differences that might have contributed to the sex ratio bias observed in the field. Our res...

  14. Quantitative interactions in weight of lymphoid organs and steroid hormonal organs in hamsters under several experimental conditions.

    OpenAIRE

    Ohtaki, S.

    1988-01-01

    The adrenal and gonadal steroid hormones may continue to regulate lymphoid cells in tissues of mammals throughout their life span. To examine quantitative interrelationships between the endocrine and immune systems, we measured weights of the organs and compared them. The results showed that: (1) The relative weight of the adrenals in adult male hamsters significantly exceeded that of age-matched females. The adult thymus and spleen were heavier in females. (2) Adult gonadectomy induced marke...

  15. Disestablishing Sex: The Case for Released-Time Sex Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glanzer, Perry L.

    2011-01-01

    Allowing nonschool organizations to provide sex education in a released-time format would disestablish state-funded sex education and give families a choice in the sex education that would be provided for their children. Released-time programs, as originally conceived and currently practiced, allow students to be released for a period of time…

  16. DEVELOPMENTAL EVALUATION OF A POTENTIAL NON-STEROIDAL ESTROGEN: TRICLOSAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triclosan is an antibacterial agent commonly used in industry and often detected in wastewater effluent. The potential of triclosan to act as an endocrine disruptor was examined because its chemical structure closely resembles known non-steroidal estrogens (e.g. DES, bis-phenol A...

  17. A KINETIC ANALYSIS OF THE CONFORMATIONAL FLEXIBILITY OF STEROID HORMONES

    Science.gov (United States)

    For a set of 10 androgen steroids and estradiol (E2), the kinetic feasibility of conformation flexibility of the cyclic moieties was studied under the constraint of maintaining the B/C trans and C/D trans ring fusion of the natural and biologically active enantiomer. To this end,...

  18. MANIPULATION AND COMPENSATION OF STEROIDAL GLYCOALKALOID BIOSYNTHESIS IN POTATOES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steroidal glycoalkaloids (SGAs) are undesirable secondary metabolites produced in Solanaceous plants including, potato, tomato and eggplant. Two tri-glycosylated alkaloids, alpha-chaconine and alpha-solanine occur naturally in potato tubers and can accumulate to excessive levels due to mechanical, e...

  19. A new steroidal saponin from dragon's blood of Dracaena cambodiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Ying; Shen, Hai-Yan; Zuo, Wen-Jian; Wang, Hui; Mei, Wen-Li; Dai, Hao-Fu

    2015-01-01

    Phytochemical study on dragon's blood of Dracaena cambodiana led to a new steroidal saponin, cambodianoside G(1), and six known ones (2-7). The structure of the new compound was elucidated on the basis of detailed spectroscopic analysis. Evaluation of antibacterial activities showed that compound 7 exhibited antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus. PMID:25523446

  20. Synthesis of linear steroids oligoesters based on etienic acid.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Reschel, Miroslav; Bud?šínský, Miloš; ?erný, Ivan; Pouzar, Vladimír; Drašar, Pavel

    2002-01-01

    Ro?. 67, ?. 11 (2002), s. 1709-1718. ISSN 0010-0765 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC D12.20 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4055905 Keywords : steroids Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 0.848, year: 2002