The aim of the current study was to assess relationships between multiple metals burden in human seminal plasma and semen quality parameters. Levels of five metals (lead, manganese, copper, arsenic, and selenium) in human seminal plasma were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), and the correlations between the metal concentrations and semen parameters (sperm concentration, sperm motility rate, and sperm morphology) were analyzed. The activities of acid phosphatase (ACP) and of ?-glucosidase in human seminal plasma were also determined. Of the 100 subjects, 21 had fertility problems according to the World Health Organization criteria and were designated as "abnormal group." Significant inverse correlations were found between the concentrations of Cu, As, Pb, and the sperm concentrations (r (Cu)?=?-0.312, P (Cu)?= 0.029; r (As)?=?-0.328, P (As)?= 0.021; r (Pb)?=?-0.377, P (Pb)?= 0.008). Moreover, the Cu, Mn, and Se concentrations were significantly higher in the abnormal group than that in the normal group (P (Cu)?= 0.024, P (Mn)?= 0.002, P (Se)?= 0.002). The ACP activity was significantly higher in the normal group than that in the abnormal group (P = 0.021). We also found a significantly negative correlation between ?-glucosidase activity and the levels of As (r =?-0.367, P = 0.023). These findings provide evidence for relationships between human semen quality and metal exposures. These relationships are consistent with animal data, but additional human and mechanistic studies are needed. PMID:22322880
Li, Ping; Zhong, Yuanfu; Jiang, Xiaoming; Wang, Chonggang; Zuo, Zhenghong; Sha, Aiguo
Rationale : Current knowledge on the relationship between seminal zinc levels and different parameters of human semen is inconsistent. Objectives : To assess the relationship between seminal plasma zinc and semen quality using two markers; zinc concentration (Zn-C) and total zinc per ejaculate (Zn-T). Design : The study was carried out as a cross-sectional study. Subjects and Methods : Semen parameters of 152 healthy men undergoing evaluation for subfertility were ...
Abstract Background Infertility affects approximately 10–15% of reproductive-age couples. Poor semen quality contributes to about 25% of infertile cases. Resulting from the direct effect on testicular function or hormonal alterations, heavy metals exposure has been related to impaired semen quality. The objective of this study was to assess the level of lead in the seminal plasma in men without occupational exposure to lead, and to determine the relationship between semen q...
Full Text Available In this research, we compared the effect of three extenders for buck semen conservation; skimmed Milk (M, sodium Citrate (C and a Tris-based diluent (T and the washing of semen (removal of seminal plasma on the in vitro viability of Murciano-Granadina goat spermatozoa stored at 5 C for 72 h. Motility, acrosome integrity and HOS test were evaluated to assess in vitro sperm viability. Milk diluent provided higher in vitro viability of spermatozoa than semen diluted in T during storage at 5 C. Motility in semen diluted in citrate and milk extenders was improved when semen was washed previously. In milk extender, membrane integrity (HOST was also improved with the washing of semen. In conclusion, removal of seminal plasma could be necessary for successful chilled conservation of buck semen at 5 C when M or C based diluents is used. Milk media and washing of seminal plasma appears to be a successful method to prolong the viability of Murciano-Granadina goat semen stored at 5 C. The latest results must be confirmed in field assays.
Full Text Available Antecedentes y objetivos: El semen criopreservado ofrece beneficios adicionales no presentes en el semen refrigerado. Sin embargo, varios factores afectan al éxito en la inseminación artificial con semen congelado de caballos. El objetivo del trabajo es evaluar si la adición de plasma seminal a diferentes concentraciones, sobre espermatozoides equinos descongelados, afecta a la motilidad espermática, viabilidad y a nivel de membrana. Material y métodos: Se utilizaron diferentes razas, cuatro sementales de silla, y dos sementales de tiro. En un primer experimento el semen descongelado se centrifugó, mientras en el segundo no se centrifugó. A continuación, se adicionó el plasma seminal al 10, 20, 30% suspendido en solución tampón fosfato y plasma seminal puro (100%. Resultados: En los caballos de silla el plasma seminal no afectó a los parámetros estudiados (p>0,05, pero se apreció un posible efecto tóxico del plasma seminal puro sobre las características espermáticas. En las muestras con plasma seminal de los caballos de tiro, se observaron unos índices mejores en espermatozoides vivos con acrosoma intacto que en las muestras control. Asimismo se obtuvo un porcentaje menor en espermatozoides reaccionados que en las muestras control, encontrando en esta categoría una diferencia significativa (pBackground and objectives: Stallion sperm cryopreservation offers benefits not available in cooled semen. However various factors affect the success of artificial insemination with frozen-thawed equine semen. This study aims to evaluate if adding different concentrations of seminal plasma on frozen-thawed equine spermatozoa affects sperm motility, viability and membrane status. Material and Methods: Different breeds were used; four saddle stallions and two draft stallions. In the first experiment thawed semen was centrifuged and in the second one it was not. Subsequent to that, the spermatozoa resuspended with 10, 20, 30% seminal plasma in phosphate buffered saline and pure seminal plasma (100%. Results: semen parameters of saddle stallions were not affected (p>0,05, but a possible toxic effect of pure seminal plasma was observed on sperm characteristics. Seminal plasma samples in draft breed got better rates in viable sperm with intact acrosome. A lower percentage was also found on spermatozoa with acrosome reaction than in control samples. This category showed signif icant differences (p<0,05. Conclusions: Post-thawing spermatozoa incubation with seminal plasma can stop acrosome reaction, due to the low percentage of spermatozoa suffering true acrosome reaction.
D. Lozano Benito
Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Antecedentes y objetivos: El semen criopreservado ofrece beneficios adicionales no presentes en el semen refrigerado. Sin embargo, varios factores afectan al éxito en la inseminación artificial con semen congelado de caballos. El objetivo del trabajo es evaluar si la adición de plasma seminal a dife [...] rentes concentraciones, sobre espermatozoides equinos descongelados, afecta a la motilidad espermática, viabilidad y a nivel de membrana. Material y métodos: Se utilizaron diferentes razas, cuatro sementales de silla, y dos sementales de tiro. En un primer experimento el semen descongelado se centrifugó, mientras en el segundo no se centrifugó. A continuación, se adicionó el plasma seminal al 10, 20, 30% suspendido en solución tampón fosfato y plasma seminal puro (100%). Resultados: En los caballos de silla el plasma seminal no afectó a los parámetros estudiados (p>0,05), pero se apreció un posible efecto tóxico del plasma seminal puro sobre las características espermáticas. En las muestras con plasma seminal de los caballos de tiro, se observaron unos índices mejores en espermatozoides vivos con acrosoma intacto que en las muestras control. Asimismo se obtuvo un porcentaje menor en espermatozoides reaccionados que en las muestras control, encontrando en esta categoría una diferencia significativa (p Abstract in english Background and objectives: Stallion sperm cryopreservation offers benefits not available in cooled semen. However various factors affect the success of artificial insemination with frozen-thawed equine semen. This study aims to evaluate if adding different concentrations of seminal plasma on frozen- [...] thawed equine spermatozoa affects sperm motility, viability and membrane status. Material and Methods: Different breeds were used; four saddle stallions and two draft stallions. In the first experiment thawed semen was centrifuged and in the second one it was not. Subsequent to that, the spermatozoa resuspended with 10, 20, 30% seminal plasma in phosphate buffered saline and pure seminal plasma (100%). Results: semen parameters of saddle stallions were not affected (p>0,05), but a possible toxic effect of pure seminal plasma was observed on sperm characteristics. Seminal plasma samples in draft breed got better rates in viable sperm with intact acrosome. A lower percentage was also found on spermatozoa with acrosome reaction than in control samples. This category showed signif icant differences (p
D., Lozano Benito; L., Gil Huerta; C., Álvarez San Martín.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Infertility affects approximately 10–15% of reproductive-age couples. Poor semen quality contributes to about 25% of infertile cases. Resulting from the direct effect on testicular function or hormonal alterations, heavy metals exposure has been related to impaired semen quality. The objective of this study was to assess the level of lead in the seminal plasma in men without occupational exposure to lead, and to determine the relationship between semen quality and lead concentration in the semen. Methods This is a prospective and nonrandomized clinical study conducted in University infertility clinic and academic research laboratory. Three hundred and forty-one male partners of infertile couples undergoing infertility evaluation and management were recruited to the study. Semen samples collected for the analyses of semen quality were also used for the measurement of lead concentrations. Semen samples were evaluated according to the WHO standards. Results All subjects were married and from infertile couples without occupational exposure to lead. There is a significant inverse correlation between the lead concentration in seminal plasma and sperm count. A higher semen lead concentration was correlated with lower sperm count, but not with semen volume, sperm motility or sperm morphology as assessed by simple linear regression. Conclusions We found that semen lead concentration was significantly higher among the patients with lower sperm count. To our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate that a high level of lead accumulation in semen may reduce the sperm count contributing to infertility of men without occupational exposure to lead.
Objective: To explore the relationship between the trace protein contents in semen plasma and male fertility. Methods: The semen plasma concentrations of albumin (Alb), ?2-microglobulin (?2-m), ?2-microglobulin (?2-m), TH glycoprotein (THP), immunoglobulin G (IgG), secreting-type immunoglobulin A (SIgA), and ferritin (Fer) were determined with RIA in 22 fertile and 125 sterile males. Results: With the exception of ferritin, the semen plasma contents of all these trace proteins in the sterile individuals were lower than those in the fertile ones and there were significant differences (p2-m, Alb and Fer were positively correlated to the sperm counts. Contents of SIgA and IgG could reflect the local immune status of the genital tract. Determination of the contents of these trace proteins in semen plasma would be helpful in the evaluation and management of male infertility
To investigate the effects of copper and superoxide dismutase (SOD) content of seminal plasma on buffalo semen characteristics, 54 semen samples collected from buffalo bulls by a bovine artificial vagina were used. Semen characteristics (motility, viability, morphology, concentration and volume) were recorded. Seminal plasma was harvested by centrifugation and kept frozen until analysis. Seminal plasma copper content was determined by atomic absorption procedure and SOD was measured by using a kit. The mean total copper value of seminal plasma was recorded as 2.51 +/- 0.04 mg kg(-1) (Mean +/- SEM) and the mean total SOD values was 39.02 +/- 0.81 IU mL(-1). To reduce the range of variability, the data were categorized according to their motility records in 3 groups of Excellent (Ex, >90% motile, n = 33), Good (Go, 80-89% motile, n = 15) and Moderate (Mo, semen fertility. PMID:18983043
Eghbali, M; Alavi-Shoushtari, S M; Rezaii, S Asri
Effect of seminal plasma addition after thawing on viability or cryocapacitation is not definitively established. This experiment was performed to verify the effect of adding seminal plasma, autologous or homologous (from an animal with good semen freezability). Five ejaculates from each of four stallions with proven fertility were collected and cryopreserved. The semen was subsequently thawed and divided into the following three treatment groups: no seminal plasma addition after semen thawing (NOSP); the addition of homologous seminal plasma after semen thawing (HSP) and the addition of autologous seminal plasma after semen thawing (ASP). The addition of 20% of seminal plasma led to an increase in the cell population that simultaneously show plasma and acrosomal membrane integrity (p semen fertility. PMID:21121969
de Andrade, A F C; Zaffalon, F G; Celeghini, E C C; Nascimento, J; Tarragó, O F B; Martins, S M M K; Alonso, M A; Arruda, R P
The objective of this study was to evaluate the protein profiles of seminal plasma in buffalo bulls and to examine their correlation with semen characteristics. Semen of 10 buffalo bulls were collected by a bovine artificial vagina. Semen characteristics (motility, morphology, viability and concentration) were recorded. A part of the semen sample (1 ml) was diluted by tris-egg yolk-glycerol extender, packed in French straws and was frozen in liquid nitrogen. The straws were later thawed and semen characteristics were compared with those of the fresh semen. Seminal plasma was harvested by centrifugation; treated with cold ethanol and then, underwent SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). Twenty five protein bands were identified on the gel, of which those of semen while 45 kDa bands were correlated with abnormal morphology in frozen-thawed semen; 55 kDa protein fractions were correlated with sperm viability of fresh semen. Progressive motility, viability and abnormal sperm morphology of frozen-thawed semen were highly correlated with these parameters in the fresh semen. In conclusion, seminal plasma protein fractions in buffalo bulls are similar to those reported in other animal species and have some correlations with semen characteristics before and after freezing. PMID:17433580
Asadpour, R; Alavi-Shoushtari, S M; Rezaii, S Asri; Ansari, M H Kh
Full Text Available It was aimed to study the in vitro seminal quality analyzed by complementary tests and to compare them with physical, morphological and biochemical aspects of male goat semen of the Alpine breed. This experiment took place at the Federal University of Viçosa, situated at 20º45’ S latitude and 42º51’ W longitude, Southwest of Brazil. It was done during the summer months of January and February, and three adult male goats of the Alpine breed were used in intensive conditions. The semen was collected by artificial vagina method. In all semen samples (45 ejaculates, after the physical and morphological analysis, the hiposmotic test was done. In 24 ejaculates, it were done thermo-resistance test, and in 21 ejaculates it were determined the concentration of total soluble proteins in seminal plasma. The male goats presented difference in the semen physical and morphological aspects, in the hiposmotic test and thermo-resistance test, but they did not presented difference in total soluble proteins concentration in seminal plasma. Results of the slow thermo-resistance test and hiposmotic test were positively correlated (r = 0.60. It was concluded, according to our results, that the concentration of total soluble proteins in seminal plasma can not be used as a parameter to predict the seminal quality of Alpine bucks.It was aimed to study the in vitro seminal quality analyzed by complementary tests and to compare them with physical, morphological and biochemical aspects of male goat semen of the Alpine breed. This experiment took place at the Federal University of Viçosa, situated at 20º45’ S latitude and 42º51’ W longitude, Southwest of Brazil. It was done during the summer months of January and February, and three adult male goats of the Alpine breed were used in intensive conditions. The semen was collected by artificial vagina method. In all semen samples (45 ejaculates, after the physical and morphological analysis, the hiposmotic test was done. In 24 ejaculates, it were done thermo-resistance test, and in 21 ejaculates it were determined the concentration of total soluble proteins in seminal plasma. The male goats presented difference in the semen physical and morphological aspects, in the hiposmotic test and thermo-resistance test, but they did not presented difference in total soluble proteins concentration in seminal plasma. Results of the slow thermo-resistance test and hiposmotic test were positively correlated (r = 0.60. It was concluded, according to our results, that the concentration of total soluble proteins in seminal plasma can not be used as a parameter to predict the seminal quality of Alpine bucks.
Simone Eliza Facione Guimarães
Full Text Available Objetivo. Determinar el efecto del plasma seminal sobre la generación de especies reactivas de oxígeno (ERO y la peroxidación lipídica de semen equino criopreservado y su asociación con parámetros de calidad seminal. Materiales y métodos. El semen de cinco caballos de la raza criollo colombiano (dos eyaculados cada uno, fue criopreservado mediante un protocolo de congelación rápida, empleando un diluyente leche-yema de huevo, suplementado con 0%, 10% y 20% de plasma seminal equino. En muestras de semen fresco y criopreservado se evaluó la generación de ERO y la peroxidación lipídica por espectrofluorimetría, y los parámetros de calidad seminal de movilidad progresiva, vitalidad e integridad de membrana, mediante microscopia de contraste de fase. Para el análisis estadístico se ajustaron modelos mixtos y se realizaron análisis de regresión y correlación. Resultados. Se hallaron promedios post-descongelación de movilidad progresiva, vitalidad e integridad de membrana de 37.8%±20.2, 50.6% ± 14.6 y 37.8% ± 15.5, respectivamente. Para el semen fresco y criopreservado suplementado con 0%, 10% y 20% de plasma seminal, los promedios de producción de ERO (URF fueron de 13.34±10.7, 16.15 ± 13.5, 17.32 ± 16 y 22.98 ± 19.4, respectivamente; mostrando un incremento estadísticamente significativo (p?0.05 en la producción de ERO por efecto de la criopreservación y la suplementación con plasma seminal. Los promedios de peroxidación lipídica (nmolMDA/ml para estos mismos tratamientos, fueron de 0.41 ± 0.25, 0.72±0.37, 0.51 ± 0.29 y 0.47±0.26, respectivamente; mostrando una reducción significativa (p?0.05 de la peroxidación lipídica del semen suplementado con 10% y 20% de plasma seminal, respecto al semen no suplementado (0%. Conclusiones. El plasma seminal reduce la peroxidación lipídica del semen equino criopreservado.
Edison Pizarro L.
Much effort is being made to establish relationships between the molecular events that take place in spermatozoa under fertilizing conditions and actual sperm function during fertilization. During capacitation, the process that 'primes' spermatozoa for interaction with the egg, components of the sperm's environment, notably bicarbonate, provoke various specific changes in the architecture and functioning of the sperm plasma membrane in a large number of cells. The individual changes have been found to proceed on different time scales, and may therefore represent sequential stages in the capacitation process. However, each change takes place at different rates in individual cells, revealing considerable functional heterogeneity within the sperm population. Recent work on membrane changes provoked by cooling has indicated similarities with capacitational changes. The effect of cooling may therefore be to induce premature capacitation (and destabilization). Such an effect would greatly compromise sperm fertilizing potential. A pig sperm-egg interaction model was used to examine quantitative details of zona binding and zona penetrating abilities within capacitated sperm populations, and sperm behaviour was found not to accord with generally held beliefs. In particular, individual spermatozoa that have bound to the zona pellucida show great variation in the delay before penetrating: no evidence has been found for a specially competent subgroup. Even in sperm samples incubated to undergo maximal capacitational membrane changes, cells with actual penetrating potential represent less than 15% of the total number that attach initially to the zona pellucida. Thus detection of capacitational membrane changes appears greatly to overestimate zona penetrating capability. Future studies linking sperm membrane characteristics with semen fertility in the field will need to consider differences between in vitro and in vivo conditions. The need for survival in the female tract may require much slower sperm responses than are considered optimal for in vitro fertilization. PMID:9602729
Harrison, R A
To find out relationship of zinc concentrations in blood and seminal plasma with various semen parameters between fertile and infertile men. (JPMC), Karachi and Department of Biochemistry. Basic Medical Sciences Institute, JPMC, Karachi. Fifty eight primary infertile male subjects, without any treatment, who had regular unprotected intercourse for at least 12 months without conception with their partners, aged 20-40 years, were selected from Infertility Clinic Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Center, Karachi. After semen analyses they were grouped as, oligospermic (30), and azoospermic (28). Twenty five known fertile male selected from general population and after semen analysis were taken as normospermic control group. Semen analyzed according to WHO criteria. Serum and seminal plasma zinc were estimated by 5Br. PAPS Colorimetric method. This study showed significant difference in serum and seminal zinc levels in normospermic, oligospermic (p<0.05) and azoospermic (p<0.005). Seminal plasma zinc showed a positive correlation with sperm count and negative with sperm motility in normospermic and oligospermic and negative correlation with volume, pH, WBC concentration in all three groups. There was no correlation found with sperm morphology. On the basis of the findings of this study and those of other reports, zinc may contribute to fertility through its significant effects on various semen parameters. It seems that the estimation of seminal plasma zinc may help in investigation and treatment of infertile males. (author)
Full Text Available To investigate the effects of copper and superoxide dismutase (SOD content of seminal plasma on buffalo semen characteristics, 54 semen samples collected from buffalo bulls by a bovine artificial vagina were used. Semen characteristics (motility, viability, morphology, concentration and volume were recorded. Seminal plasma was harvested by centrifugation and kept frozen until analysis. Seminal plasma copper content was determined by atomic absorption procedure and SOD was measured by using a kit. The mean total copper value of seminal plasma was recorded as 2.51 ± 0.04 mg kg-1 (Mean ± SEM and the mean total SOD values was 39.02 ± 0.81 IU mL-1. To reduce the range of variability, the data were categorized according to their motility records in 3 groups of Excellent (Ex, >90% motile, n = 33, Good (Go, 80-89% motile, n = 15 and Moderate (Mo, <79% motile, n = 6. The mean motility, viability, copper and SOD values in Ex group was recorded as 92.24 ± 0.51%, 94.00 ± 0.48%, 2.56 ± 0.04 mg kg-1 and 39.52 ± 0.57 IU mL-1, respectively. These values were 81.66 ± 0.62%, 85.26 ± 0.95%, 2.38 ± 0.11 mg kg-1 and 36.48 ± 1.51 IU mL-1 in Go group and 71.66 ± 1.05%, 77.00 ± 2.94%, 2.55 ± 0.10 mg kg-1 and 50.66 ± 2.51 in Mo group, respectively. The mean copper value in Ex group was highly (r = 0.600 correlated with SOD and correlated with sperm motility (r = 0.372 and viability (r = 0.363, while, in Go group it was highly correlated (r = 0.945 with SOD and sperm viability (r = 0.652 and in Mo group it was correlated (r = 0.874 with semen volume only. The mean SOD values in Ex group was highly correlated with sperm motility (r = 0.492 and viability (r = 0.490 and mean copper values, in Go group, it was highly correlated whit sperm viability (r = 0.659 and mean copper values and in Mo group it had no significant correlations with semen parameters. These results suggest that copper and SOD content of the buffalo seminal plasma have an influence on the sperm motility and viability which are the most important factors in semen fertility.
Objective: To investigate the difference between the semen plasma contents of EGF and NPY in fertile and non-fertile males with the relevant sperm count and motility. Methods: Semen plasma contents of EGF and NPY were determined with RIA in 110 non-fertile males. Simultaneous semen analysis revealed (1) Group A, n=45, with normal sperm count, (2) Group B, n=34 low sperm count (0-20) x 106/ml and (3) Group C n=31, with aspermia. White blood cell/HPF was examined in all the semen specimens and sperm motile rate and motility were examined in Group A specimens. Results: The semen plasma contents of EGF and NPY in non-fertile males were significantly higher than those in fertile males (P 1 x 106/ml) were significantly lower than those in specimens with more white blood cells (P<0.05). Conclusion: Higher semen plasma contents of EGF and NPY might exert toxic effect on the sperms, contributing to the development of infertility. (authors)
The relationship between the activity of aspartate aminotransferase (AspAT) in seminal plasma and the values of the osmotic resistance test (ORT) of acrosomal membranes and semen traits was examined on 120 young hybrid Pietrain and Duroc boars. The following semen quality traits were determined: the volume of the ejaculate, the percentage of spermatozoa with progressive motility, sperm concentration and the total number of spermatozoa in the ejaculate, percentage of spermatozoa with nor...
Jacyno Eugenia; Kawecka Maria; Kolodziej-Skalska Anita; Pietruszka A.; Matysiak Beata; Napierala Dorota
Full Text Available Rationale : Current knowledge on the relationship between seminal zinc levels and different parameters of human semen is inconsistent. Objectives : To assess the relationship between seminal plasma zinc and semen quality using two markers; zinc concentration (Zn-C and total zinc per ejaculate (Zn-T. Design : The study was carried out as a cross-sectional study. Subjects and Methods : Semen parameters of 152 healthy men undergoing evaluation for subfertility were assessed. Seminal plasma zinc levels were determined using flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Zn-C, expressed as ?g/mL, was multiplied by ejaculated volume to calculate Zn-T. Mann Whitney U test and Chi-square test were used to compare the zinc levels between different seminal groups when appropriate. Correlations were observed with Pearson?s correlation of coefficient. Analysis was carried out using SPSS 10.0 for windows software. Results : Zn-C was low in 23 (15% samples, while in 32 (21% of the samples Zn-T was abnormal. The number of subnormal samples was high in the low-zinc groups compared with the normal-zinc groups, 15 vs. 8 (P > 0.05 for Zn-C and 28 vs. 4 (P < 0.001 for Zn-T. Zn-C was significantly high in the asthenozoospermics compared with the normal motile group; 138.11 ?g/mL (83.92 vs. 110.69 11 ?g/mL (54.59 (P < 0.05. Zn-T was significantly low in samples with hyperviscosity compared with samples with normal viscosity; 220.06 ?g (144.09 vs. 336.34 ?g (236.33 (P < 0.05. Conversely, Zn-T was high in samples with low viability compared with those with normal viability; 437.67 ?g (283.88 vs. 305.15 ?g (221.19 (P < 0.05. Weak correlations were found between Zn and some semen parameters. However, the correlation was negative between pH and Zn-C (r = -0.193, P < 0.05 as well as Zn-T (r = -0.280, P < 0.01. On the other hand, correlations were positive between Zn-T and sperm count (r = 0.211, P < 0.05. Conclusion : Count, motility, viability, pH and viscosity are affected by variations of seminal plasma zinc. Seminal plasma Zn-T is the better marker for assessing the relationship between zinc and semen quality.
Full Text Available To investigate the effects of Zingiber Officinale on male reproductive functions and study the mechanisms underlying these effects, aqueous extract of Zingiber officinale were administered in drinking water to two groups of male broilers breeder (24wk age at 5% and 10%. A third group served as control and received the treatment vehicle, distilled water. Treatment lasted for 28, 32, 36, 40 and 44 wk age. Ejaculate volume, sperm concentration, counts, movements, motility and abnormality, semen plasma cholesterol, protein and glucose, the antioxidant malonhydialdehyde, glutathione and blood serum LH, FSH and testosterone, were determined. The treatment caused a significant increase (pZingiber officinale possesses pro-fertility properties in male broiler which might be a product of both its potent antioxidant properties and androgenic activities.
Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) have highly variable ejaculate quality within individuals, greatly reducing the efficacy of artificial insemination and making it difficult to devise a sperm cryopreservation protocol for this endangered species. Because seminal plasma influences sperm function and physiology, including sperm motility, the objectives of this study were to characterize the chemistry and protein profiles of Asian elephant seminal plasma and to determine the relationships between seminal plasma components and semen quality. Ejaculates exhibiting good sperm motility (?65%) expressed higher percentages of spermatozoa with normal morphology (80.3±13.0 vs. 44.9±30.8%) and positive Spermac staining (51.9±14.5 vs. 7.5±14.4%), in addition to higher total volume (135.1±89.6 vs. 88.8±73.1 ml) and lower sperm concentration (473.0±511.2 vs. 1313.8±764.7×10? cells ml?¹) compared to ejaculates exhibiting poor sperm motility (?10%; PAsian elephant sperm motility, and for improving semen collection and storage in this endangered species. PMID:23976974
Kiso, Wendy K; Selvaraj, Vimal; Nagashima, Jennifer; Asano, Atsushi; Brown, Janine L; Schmitt, Dennis L; Leszyk, John; Travis, Alexander J; Pukazhenthi, Budhan S
The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of the different isoforms of tocopherol (T) in seminal plasma (P) and in the sperm fractions of individuals with abnormal (group 1) and normal (group 2) sperm parameters; the relationships between these isoforms and conventional sperm parameters were also explored. Two vitamin E homologues, ?-T and ?-T, were identified in the semen of all participants. Although ?-T and ?-T concentrations were similar in the semen of the 2 groups, group 1 showed a lower ?-T ratio (S/P) (0.90 vs. 1.20, P < .001) and ?-T ratio (0.86 vs 1.13, P = .007) than group 2. In addition, both T ratios were correlated with the percentage of viable cells, detected by eosin staining. These results suggested that ?-T and ?-T are not homogeneously distributed in the semen fractions; in normal semen they are more concentrated in the sperm membrane, whereas in abnormal semen the damaged sperm cells may release both Ts in the plasma. To verify whether sperm membrane breakage could alter ?-T and ?-T distribution between the seminal plasma and the spermatozoa, normal sperm samples were sonicated; after sonication a consistent sperm plasma membrane fragmentation, highlighted by transmission electron microscopy, and a concomitant release of ?-T and ?-T were observed. In conclusion, the Ts coupled directly with the sperm membrane seem to play the main protective role in the semen, and the release of ?-T and ?-T in the P fraction is probably an index of lower antioxidant power and sperm quality. PMID:20930194
Moretti, Elena; Castellini, Cesare; Mourvaki, Evangelia; Capitani, Serena; Geminiani, Michela; Renieri, Tommaso; Collodel, Giulia
In order to determine zinc and catalase content of seminal plasma in the buffalo and to study their associations with the semen characteristics, 54 semen samples were collected from 10 buffalo bulls; semen volume and sperm concentration, gross and progressive motility and viability were evaluated, seminal plasma was then harvested by centrifugation and its zinc content was estimated by atomic absorption spectrophotometer and its catalase activity determined by using a commercial kit. The zinc content of the seminal plasma (Mean +/- SEM) was recorded as 154.40 +/- 1.74 mg L(-1), while, the mean catalase value was 32.00 +/- 0.42 U mL(-1). The mean zinc values was highly correlated with sperm progressive motility and viability and with catalase values (p = 0.000 for all) and also was associated with gross motility (p = 0.020) and negatively with abnormal morphology (p = 0.049). The catalase values were highly associated with sperm progressive motility, viability and zinc content (p = 0.000 for all) and was associated with sperm gross motility (p = 0.024). For further clarification of these correlations, the samples were categorized in three groups of excellent (Ex, >90% motile, n = 33), good (Go, 80-89% motile, n = 15) and moderate (Mo, abnormal morphology and in Mo group it was highly associations with catalase values only. The mean catalase value in Ex group, was highly associated with sperm motility and viability, in Go group was associated with zinc content and in Mo groups was highly associated with the zinc content. These results show that seminal plasma zinc and catalase content are correlated with semen characteristics and synergistically act to preserve motility and viability of the spermatozoa after ejaculation. PMID:19579933
Alavi-Shoushtari, S M; Rezai, S Asri; Ansari, M H Kh; Khaki, A
Full Text Available In order to determine iron and lead content of seminal plasma in water buffalo and to study their associations with the semen characteristics, 54 semen samples were collected from 10 buffalo bulls. The semen characteristics were evaluated; its iron and lead content were estimated by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The iron and lead content of the seminal plasma (Mean ± SEM was recorded as 40.68 ± 0.75 mg L-1 and 0.026 ± 0.008 mg L-1, respectively. The mean iron value was highly associated with sperm progressive motility, gross motility and viability, negatively with lead content, and had a negative association with semen volume. The mean lead value was highly negatively associated with sperm progressive motility, gross motility, viability and positively associated with sperm abnormal morphology.For further clarification of these associations, the results were categorized in three groups of excellent (Ex, > 90 % motile, n = 33, good (Go, 80-89 % motile, n = 15 and moderate (Mo, < 79 % motile, n = 6 according to their percentage of sperm motility. The mean progressive motility in Ex, Go and Mo group was 92.24 ± 0.51 %, 81.66 ± 0.62 %, and 71.66 ± 1.05 % respectively. The mean iron and lead values and their associations with other parameters in these groups are discussed.The results show that seminal plasma iron content is associated with the motility and viability of the spermatozoa after ejaculation, but its lead content has an adverse effect on these parameters.
Mohammad-Hassan Khadem Ansari
Full Text Available In order to determine zinc and catalase content of seminal plasma in the buffalo and to study their associations with the semen characteristics, 54 semen samples were collected from 10 buffalo bulls; semen volume and sperm concentration, gross and progressive motility and viability were evaluated, seminal plasma was then harvested by centrifugation and its zinc content was estimated by atomic absorption spectrophotometer and its catalase activity determined by using a commercial kit. The zinc content of the seminal plasma (Mean ± SEM was recorded as 154.40 ± 1.74 mg L-1, while, the mean catalase value was 32.00 ± 0.42 U mL-1. The mean zinc values was highly correlated with sperm progressive motility and viability and with catalase values (p = 0.000 for all and also was associated with gross motility (p = 0.020 and negatively with abnormal morphology (p = 0.049. The catalase values were highly associated with sperm progressive motility, viability and zinc content (p = 0.000 for all and was associated with sperm gross motility (p = 0.024. For further clarification of these correlations, the samples were categorized in three groups of excellent (Ex, > 90% motile, n = 33, good (Go, 80-89% motile, n = 15 and moderate (Mo, < 79% motile, n = 6 according to their percentage of sperm motility. The mean progressive motility in Ex group was 92.54 ± 0.51%, in Go group was 81.66 ± 0.62% and in Mo group was 71.66 ± 1.05%. The mean zinc and catalase values were recorded as 161.07 ± 1.63 mg L-1 and 33.41 ± 0.34 U mL-1 in Ex, 146.70 ± 1.91 mg L-1 and 31.01 ± 0.67 in Go and 136.42 ± 4.97 mg L-1 and 26.51 ± 0.87 U mL-1 in Mo groups. The mean zinc value in Ex group was highly associated with sperm motility, viability and catalase values, in Go group was associated with catalase values and highly associated with sperm abnormal morphology and in Mo group it was highly associations with catalase values only. The mean catalase value in Ex group, was highly associated with sperm motility and viability, in Go group was associated with zinc content and in Mo groups was highly associated with the zinc content. These results show that seminal plasma zinc and catalase content are correlated with semen characteristics and synergistically act to preserve motility and viability of the spermatozoa after ejaculation.
Full Text Available The relationship between the activity of aspartate aminotransferase (AspAT in seminal plasma and the values of the osmotic resistance test (ORT of acrosomal membranes and semen traits was examined on 120 young hybrid Pietrain and Duroc boars. The following semen quality traits were determined: the volume of the ejaculate, the percentage of spermatozoa with progressive motility, sperm concentration and the total number of spermatozoa in the ejaculate, percentage of spermatozoa with normal acrosome, the percentage of spermatozoa with major and minor morphological defects, ORT, and the activity of AspAT in seminal plasma. The activity of AspAT in seminal plasma was negatively correlated (p_0.01 with the spermatozoa concentration and total number per ejaculate, percentage of spermatozoa with progressive motility and percentage of spermatozoa with a normal acrosome, while positively with the percentage of spermatozoa with major (p?0.001 and minor (p?0.01 morphological defects. The ORT values negatively correlated with the percentage of spermatozoa with major (p?0.05 and minor (p?0.01 morphological defects, while positively (p?0.001 with the percentage of spermatozoa with a normal acrosome.
To investigate the risk of transmission of hepatitis C virus (HCV) via semen in assisted reproduction techniques, semen samples from 32 men chronically infected with HCV attending a center for assisted procreation were tested for HCV RNA by a reverse transcription-PCR protocol by using a modified version of the Cobas AMPLICOR HCV assay (version 2.0; Roche Diagnostics). The sensitivity of the test was 40 copies/ml. Four of 32 seminal plasma samples (12.5%) were found to be positive for the presence of HCV RNA. The median HCV load in blood was significantly higher in patients who were found to be positive for the presence of HCV RNA in semen than in those who tested negative (P = 0.02). In one man, seven consecutive seminal plasma samples tested positive for HCV RNA, as did two consecutive motile spermatozoon fractions; the corresponding fractions obtained after migration of the spermatozoa remained negative. Despite the absence of the proven infectivity of virus in semen samples that test positive for HCV RNA, these findings highlight the fact that seminal fluid may exhibit prolonged HCV RNA excretion. The usefulness of HCV RNA detection in both seminal plasma and spermatozoon fractions before the start of a program of medically assisted reproduction in couples in whom the male partner is chronically infected with HCV would need to be evaluated prospectively with a larger population of subjects exhibiting HCV RNA in their semen.
Bourlet, Thomas; Levy, Rachel; Maertens, Anne; Tardy, Jean-Claude; Grattard, Florence; Cordonier, Helene; Laurent, Jean-Louis; Guerin, Jean-Francois; Pozzetto, Bruno
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste estudo foi identificar as proteínas do plasma seminal de caprinos da raça Alpina Americana criados na região Nordeste do Brasil que estão relacionadas ao índice pluviométrico e à qualidade do sêmen. O sêmen foi obtido pelo método de vagina artificial a partir de três reprodutores e [...] foi avaliado quanto aos parâmetros macroscópicos e microscópicos. O perfil de proteínas do plasma seminal foi realizado por eletroforese bidimensional. Os parâmetros volume do sêmen, integridade do acrossoma e proteínas totais evidenciaram diferença significativa (P Abstract in english The aim of this study was to identify proteins in seminal plasma of goats raised in the Northeast of Brazil related with precipitation index and semen quality. Semen was obtained from three bucks and evaluated to the microscopic and macroscopic parameters. The profile of seminal plasma proteins was [...] performed by analysis of two-dimensional electrophoresis. Volume, acrosome integrity and total proteins had significant difference (P
Andreia Fernandes de, Souza; Maria da Conceição Gomes, Leitão; André Mariano, Batista; Ana Lúcia Figueiredo, Porto; José Luiz de, Lima Filho; Maria Madalena Pessoa, Guerra.
Full Text Available In order to determine calcium (Ca, magnesium (Mg content and total antioxidant capacity (TAC of seminal plasma in buffalo and to study their associations with the semen characteristics, 54 semen samples were collected from 10 buffalo bulls; semen quality was evaluated, seminal plasma was then harvested by centrifugation and its Ca and Mg content were estimated and its TAC determined. The Ca and Mg content of the seminal plasma (Mean ± SEM were recorded as 22.36 ± 0.52 mg dl-1 and 11.94 ± 0.36 mg dl-1 respectively, while, its mean TAC value was 1.50 ± 0.02 mmol L-1. The mean Ca value was highly associated with sperm progressive motility, gross motility, viability (P = 0.000 for all, negatively with semen volume (P = 0.01, and with Mg and TAC values (P = 0.000 for both. The mean Mg values was highly associated with sperm progressive motility, gross motility and viability and seminal plasma Ca and TAC (P = 0.000 for all and negatively associated with semen volume (P = 0.014. The mean TAC values was highly associated with sperm progressive motility, gross motility and viability and seminal plasma Ca and Mg (P = 0.000 for all. For further clarification of these associations, the data was categorized in three groups of excellent (Ex, >90% motile, n = 33, good (Go, 80-89% motile, n = 15 and moderate (Mo, <79% motile, n = 6 according to their percentage of sperm motility. The mean progressive motility in Ex group was 92.24 ± 0.51%, in Go group it was 81.66 ± 0.62 %, and in Mo group it was 71.66 ± 1.05 %. The mean Ca, Mg and TAC values were respectively recorded as 25.12 ± 0.29 mg dl-1, 13.78 ± 0.20 mg dl-1, and 1.57 ± 0.009 mmol L-1 in Ex, 18.74 ± 0.63 mg dl-1, 9.14 ± 0.33mg dl-1, and 1.42 ± 0.044 mmol L-1 in Go, and 17.34 ± 0.18 mg dl-1, 8.06 ± 0.25 mg dl-1, and 1.23± 0.05 mmol L-1 in Mo groups. The associations in groups are discussed. These results show that seminal plasma Ca and Mg content and TAC are associated with semen characteristics, and synergistically have an effect on motility and viability of the spermatozoa after ejaculation, which are important factors in semen fertility.
Mohammad-Hassan Khadem Ansari
In this case-control study, we aimed to evaluate the serum and seminal plasma levels of Selenium (Se), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ-10) and determine their relationship with sperm concentration, motility, and morphology in men with idiopathic infertility. A total of 59 subjects were enrolled in the study. Forty four patients were diagnosed with idiopathic male infertility and had abnormal sperm parameters, and 15 subjects had normal sperm parameters with proven fertility. Serum Se, semen Se, and semen TAC levels were significantly different in the fertile and infertile groups (p?0.01, p?0.001, and p?0.001, respectively). However, serum TAC, serum, and seminal plasma CoQ-10 levels did not differ between fertile and infertile groups. When the levels of the measured parameters were compared in serum and seminal plasma, serum levels of Se were found to be correlated positively with the semen levels in all subjects included into the study (N?=?59) (r?=?0.46, p?0.01). A relationship was found between neither serum and semen levels of TAC nor between serum and semen levels of CoQ-10. Correlations among measured serum and semen parameters with sperm parameters demonstrated that both the serum and semen levels of Se were correlated positively with spermatozoa concentration, motility, and morphology. Additionally, seminal plasma levels of TAC correlated positively with all these sperm parameters. On the other hand, seminal plasma levels of CoQ-10 correlated only with sperm morphology but not with concentration or motility. No relationship was observed between serum levels of TAC or serum levels of CoQ-10 and sperm parameters. In conclusion, serum and seminal plasma Se deficiency may be a prominent determinant of abnormal sperm parameters and idiopathic male infertility. Measurement of serum Se levels may help determine nutritional status and antioxidant capacity in infertile patients, which may help distinguish those patients who will benefit from supplementation therapy. PMID:24752972
Eroglu, Mustafa; Sahin, Sadik; Durukan, Birol; Ozakpinar, Ozlem Bingol; Erdinc, Nese; Turkgeldi, Lale; Sofuoglu, Kenan; Karateke, Ates
Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La alergia al semen comprende una variedad de síntomas tanto locales como sistémicos causados por reacciones de hipersensibilidad inmediata y caracterizados por títulos elevados de IgE. El objetivo de este estudio es describir el caso de una paciente con alergia al semen: mujer de 21 años de edad qu [...] e presenta ardor y sensación de quemazón en el área genital luego de tener contacto con el semen de su pareja. El análisis seminal del compañero sexual no presenta ningún tipo de alteración. Los síntomas desaparecen con el uso de condón o con la práctica del coito interrumpido. La alergia al semen es una alteración, que si bien es poco frecuente, puede afectar los deseos de concepción de las mujeres que la presentan, es un fenómeno poco estudiado por lo que se requieren más reportes para su caracterización. Abstract in english Semen allergy includes several local and systemic symptoms caused by immediate hypersensitivity reactions and it is characterized by high levels of IgE. The objective of this study was to describe the case of a patient with semen allergy. A 21 year-old woman experienced itching and burning sensation [...] in the genital area after contact with the semen of her sexual partner. Semen analysis was normal. Symptoms disappear with the use of condom or the practice of coitus interruptus. Semen allergy is a condition, although rare, can affect the desire of conceiving in women who suffers it. It is a briefly studied phenomenon which requires more reports for proper characterization.
Franco Cuadros, Laura; Puerta Suárez, Jenniffer; Cadavid Jaramillo, Ángela; Cardona Maya, Walter.
Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english Ram seminal plasma increases the fertility of frozen-thawed ram spermatozoa deposited into the cervix. The aim of the current study was to compare the effect of ram seminal plasma to that of bull seminal plasma, dog prostatic fluid, protein-free TALP, TrilEq (Triladyl with 0.5 m? of Equex STM [...] paste added to each 100 m?) and heat-treated skim milk on longevity and percentages of progressively motile and aberrantly motile frozen-thawed ram spermatozoa. Three ejaculates from each of 6 rams were extended in TrilEq, pooled and frozen in straws as a single batch per ram. One hundred and eight straws (3 straws from each ram for each fluid) were thawed in random order. Once thawed, a straw was emptied into a tube with 0.85 m? of the appropriate fluid at 37 ºC and kept at that temperature for 6 h. Motility was assessed at ×200 magnification immediately (time zero) and 2, 4 and 6 h after thawing. Progressive motility decreased from each time to the next (P
Mataveia, G A; Terblanche, S J; Nöthling, J O; Gerber, D.
Boar ejaculate owes its characteristic large volume mainly to accessory sex gland (ASG) secretions. These are main contributors to the protective functions of seminal plasma, especially against oxidative damage. Numerous antioxidants have been detected in ASG secretions, and, respectively, in seminal plasma. However, as regards one key antioxidant protector -- the Se-dependent enzyme glutathione peroxidase (GPx) -- there is no agreement yet among researchers as to its presence in boar seminal plasma. Nevertheless, the beneficial effect of dietary Se supplementation on male fertility has been widely recognized. The aim of the present study was to investigate the localization and characterization of GPx in boar ASGs, seminal plasma, and spermatozoa, as well as to evaluate GPx activity in boar semen. Immunohistochemical assays demonstrated GPx presence in the epithelial cells, vacuole membranes, and vascular endothelium of boar seminal vesicle, prostate and bulbourethral glands. Western blot analysis demonstrated the presence of a monomer form of GPx with MW 20 kDa in lysates from seminal vesicle, prostate, bulbourethral glands, and spermatozoa, but not in seminal plasma. Surprisingly, peroxidase activity detected in seminal plasma from normal ejaculates was nearly three times as high as in spermatozoa. Our findings confirmed the presence of immunoreactive GPx in the boar reproductive tract, while further investigation is still warranted to uncover the exact protein forms involved and their function. PMID:17964641
Jelezarsky, L; Vaisberg, Ch; Chaushev, T; Sapundjiev, E
Interest in the element selenium with respect to its biological significance has been steadily increasing for the last ten years. Neutron activation analysis has long been used for the accurate determination of selenium in biological samples usually via "7"5Se. More recently activation analysts having access to high flux reactors with rapid delivery pneumatic tube facilities; have successfully employed sup(77m)Se. This approach, which is much faster, is particularly well suited to the Missouri University Research Reactor (MURR). The specific interest concerning bulls has to do with the involvement of selenium in the reproductive system. Selenium analysis methodology and data on plasma, semen and 22 tissues from both beef and dairy bulls are presented. (author)
Adição de plasma seminal ao sêmen descongelado e taxa de prenhez de ovelhas inseminadas em tempo fixo / Addition of seminal plasma to frozen-thawed semen and pregnancy rate of fixed time inseminated ewes
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Avaliou-se o efeito da adição de plasma seminal ovino ao sêmen descongelado sobre a taxa de prenhez de ovelhas em rebanho comercial. Cento e setenta e quatro ovelhas cruza Texel foram distribuídas em quatro tratamentos: T1) inseminação artificial cervical (IAC) com sêmen descongelado (SD) diluído em [...] solução tampão fosfato salino (PBS); T2) IAC com SD e adição de plasma seminal ovino; T3) grupo-controle I: IAC com sêmen fresco diluído em PBS; T4) grupo-controle II: inseminação artificial por laparoscopia com SD diluído em PBS. Para indução de cio, utilizaram-se esponjas impregnadas com acetato de medroxiprogesterona (MAP) por 12 dias, com aplicação intramuscular de 400 UI de eCG (Novormon®) e de 37,5µg de cloprostenol sódico (Sincrocio®), no dia da retirada das esponjas. O aparecimento de cio foi monitorado com rufiões vasectomizados a partir da retirada das esponjas até a inseminação artificial em tempo fixo - 54 a 60 horas. A taxa de prenhez do tratamento com adição de plasma seminal ao sêmen descongelado (7,0%) não diferiu (P>0,05) do tratamento sem adição de plasma (4,3%), entretanto foi menor (P Abstract in english The effect of seminal plasma addition to thawed-frozen ram semen on the pregnancy rate of commercial herd ewes was evaluated. One hundred and seventy-four crossbred Texel sheep were allocated to four treatments: T1) cervical artificial insemination (CAI) using frozen-thawed semen (FTS) diluted in ph [...] osphate buffered saline solution (PBS); T2) CAI using FTS diluted in ovine seminal plasma; T3) control group I: CAI using fresh semen diluted in PBS; T4) control group II: laparoscopic insemination using FTS diluted in PBS. Estrus induction was performed with medroxiprogesterone acetate (MAP) impregnated sponges for 12 days, followed by intramuscular injection of 400 IU of eCG (Novormon®) and 37.5µg of sodium cloprostenol (Sincrocio®) on the day of sponge removal. Estrus was monitorated with vasectomized rams, beginning at the time of the sponge removal until the fixed time artificial insemination - 54 to 60 hours. The pregnancy rate of FTS diluted in seminal plasma treatment (7.0%) did not differ (P>0.05) for the treatment without addition of seminal plasma (4.3%), however it was lower (P
O.R., Prado; G.M., Bastos; A.L.G., Monteiro; B.B., Saab; S., Gilaverte; C.C., Pierobom; F., Hentz; L.H.S., Martins; C.J.A., Silva; G.S., Dranca; T.S.S., Stivari; G., Cerqueira.
Caracterização de proteínas do plasma seminal e sua relação com parâmetros de qualidade do sêmen criopreservado em ovinos / Characterization of seminal plasma proteins and its relationship with quality parameters of frozen semen in ram
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Os objetivos deste trabalho foram analisar o perfil proteico do plasma seminal ovino e identificar proteínas relacionadas com a congelabilidade do sêmen que possam ser utilizadas como marcadores para essa característica. Foram utilizados os ejaculados de cinco reprodutores, nos quais foram realizada [...] s avaliações espermáticas e dos quais os plasmas seminais obtidos por centrifugação foram submetidos à eletroforese bidimensional em gel de poliacrilamida. Foram identificados 92 spots, considerando todos os animais analisados. A avaliação dos dados obtidos evidenciou variações significativas nos resultados das análises do sêmen dos animais e uma variabilidade no perfil proteico no plasma seminal dos carneiros. As proteínas 03 (7,9kDa; pI 6,35), 23 (13,6kDa; pI 5,01) e 31 (21,4kDa; pI 4,75) se destacaram, por apresentarem maior expressão e relações com as características espermáticas. Sugere-se que mais estudos sejam realizados para verificar se as proteínas 03, 23 e 31 podem ser utilizadas como marcadores da capacidade criopreservadora do sêmen. Abstract in english The objective of this study was to analyze the protein profile of ram seminal plasma and to identify proteins associated with semen freezability, which could be used as marker for predicting this feature. Semen from five rams was used. The sperm analysis was held and the seminal plasma obtained by c [...] entrifugation was submitted to two-dimensional electrophoresis using acrylamide gel. Ninety two spots were identified considering the analyzed animals. The results showed a significant variation among sperm analysis of the animals and variability in the protein profile of the seminal plasma of the rams. The proteins 03 (7.9kDa; pI 6.35), 23 (13.6kDa; pI 5.01) e 31 (21.4kDa; pI 4.75) stood out because they showed higher expression and because of its relationship with the sperm characteristics. It is suggested more studies to verify if proteins 03, 23 and 31 could be used as markers of semen freezability.
Priscilla Pereira, Moura; Maurício Machaim, Franco; Thiago Antônio de Souza Nascimento, Silva; Thales Lima, Rocha; Diogo Ramos, Leal; Pedro Ivo Braga, Passos; Jairo Pereira, Neves.
This study attempted to explain the mechanisms regulating boar fertility by examining seasonal changes in semen characteristics, the composition of seminal plasma and responsiveness of sperm acrosomes to Ca(2+) and the Ca(2+) ionophore A23187 (Ca(2+)/A23187). Sperm-rich and sperm-poor fractions were separately collected from 3 mature fertile Large White boars once a month over a one-year period. During the period of study, ambient temperature and relative humidity were recorded for within the stall in which the boars were kept and the semen characteristics, composition of the seminal plasma of sperm-rich fractions, and occurrence of the acrosome reaction in response to Ca(2+) (3 mM)/A23187 (0.3 microM) were examined. The highest mean maximum and minimum ambient temperatures were recorded in August-September, whereas the lowest mean maximum and minimum ambient temperatures were recorded in December and January, respectively. There was a moderate peak in relative humidity from July to October. The lowest percentages of motile spermatozoa and of spermatozoa with intact acrosomes and highest percentage of spermatozoa with abnormal morphology and strongest agglutination were seen in August-September. The total protein and albumin concentrations were lowest in August-September. Testosterone levels increased gradually as day length decreased after the summer solstice (June) and peaked in October-November. The percentage of acrosome reactions in response to Ca(2+)/A23187 was highest with the quickest response in August-September, as shown by the shortest time required for 50% of relative acrosome reactions. The farrowing rates were lowest in these same 2 months. These results suggest that seasonal infertility in Large White boars may be due, at least in part, to a combination of low motility, abnormal morphology including acrosomal abnormality, and early occurrence of the acrosome reaction in response to stimulus, possibly resulting from a decrease in acrosomal stabilizing proteins in the seminal plasma during summer. These changes may be modulated by heat/humidity stress and/or photoperiod-regulated testosterone. PMID:17519520
Murase, Tetsuma; Imaeda, Noriaki; Yamada, Hiroto; Miyazawa, Kiyoshi
Full Text Available The investigation was performed to evaluate the dog semen freezability and itsquality after thawing allowing its use for artificial insemination (AI. On the basis ofsperm motility, concentration and alkaline phosphatase (AP activity in semenplasma it was possible to establish that AP activity corresponds with the basic factorof semen examination. Significant statistical differences occurred between thequality of ejaculates which were qualified or disqualified to deep freezing and AI.These results show that AP activity in raw dog semen plasma can be used as amarker for the dog semen qualification for deep freezing and AI with 95%probability of the prognosis of the results.
Full Text Available The investigation was performed to evaluate the dog semen freezability and itsquality after thawing allowing its use for artificial insemination (AI. On the basis ofsperm motility, concentration and alkaline phosphatase (AP activity in semenplasma it was possible to establish that AP activity corresponds with the basic factorof semen examination. Significant statistical differences occurred between thequality of ejaculates which were qualified or disqualified to deep freezing and AI.These results show that AP activity in raw dog semen plasma can be used as amarker for the dog semen qualification for deep freezing and AI with 95%probability of the prognosis of the results.
The objective of the present study was to modulate seminal plasma insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) by dietary energy and assess the relationship among testosterone and IGF-I levels, semen quality and fertility in adult rams. Twenty-four 1-yr old adult Nellore rams were equally divided into three groups (n = 8) and fed with three different concentrate mixtures formulated using conventional ingredients and finger millet (Eleucine corocana) straw to ensure rams received with similar amount of crude protein with three levels of energy. Rams in low-energy group were offered diets with 20% less energy than the control energy group (optimum energy, 100%, recommended energy level), whereas rams in high energy group were offered diets with 20% more energy than the optimum energy group. Semen was collected from rams 60 days after start of the experimental feeding. The percentages of progressive forward motility, functional membrane integrity and mitochondrial membrane potential of the spermatozoa were significantly (P straightness, r = 0.7) parameters. The study suggested that the modulation of seminal plasma IGF-I levels by dietary energy is possible and the optimum level of seminal plasma IGF-I is necessary and sufficient to influence semen quality. PMID:22626778
Selvaraju, S; Sivasubramani, T; Raghavendra, B S; Raju, P; Rao, S B N; Dineshkumar, D; Ravindra, J P
The method for the cryopreservation of crane semen at Patuxent Wildlife Research Center is described in detail. Cryopreservation is useful for the long-term storage of crane semen and for specialized propagation needs. A 50% fertility rate from most sandhill cranes, Grus canadensis, inseminated with frozen-thawed semen can be expected. Additional research should improve the fertility rate and determine how applicable the technique is to other crane species.
The study was carried out to evaluate the potential impact of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) on the frozen-thawed semen quality of Nili-Ravi buffalo bulls. Ejaculated bull semen was extended in a Tris-citrate egg yolk extender containing various concentrations of BHT (0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0mM). Semen was frozen at -196 degrees C using 50 x 10(6) spermatozoa per 0.5 mL straws. Five straws from each treatment were thawed to assess the semen quality in terms of sperm motility, viability, plasma membrane integrity and acrosomal integrity. Post-thawed sperm motility was determined using a phase-contrast microscope. Viability, plasma membrane integrity and acrosomal integrity were evaluated by the supravital staining, hypo-osmotic swelling test and normal acrosomal reaction, respectively. The highest (Psemen extender. However, highest (Psemen extender can improve the semen quality of buffalo bulls. PMID:19246080
Ijaz, A; Hussain, A; Aleem, M; Yousaf, M S; Rehman, H
The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation between the secretory function of the male accessory glands and sperm parameters in normospermic controls and infertile patients. One hundred and fifty-nine men were investigated: they were composed of two groups: normospermic (n = 37) and infertile (n = 122) men with altered sperm characteristics. These infertile men were divided into the following groups: asthenozoospermia (n = 38), teratozoospermia (n = 40) and asthenoteratozoospermia (n = 44). The patients underwent semen analysis and measurements of fructose, neutral alpha-glucosidase and citric acid. The level of fructose was significantly decreased in asthenozoospermic and increased in asthenoteratozoospermic men. It was significantly correlated with semen volume, sperm count, motility and morphology. The seminal alpha-glucosidase levels were significantly correlated with semen volume and pH and citric acid was significantly correlated with pH. Thus, alpha-glucosidase and citric acid levels were associated with semen pH. The significant correlation between semen parameters, accessory glands and epididymal functions highlights the relationship between semen and normal genital tract function. PMID:19400848
Said, L; Galeraud-Denis, I; Carreau, S; Saâd, A
Las proteínas del plasma seminal incrementan la viabilidad espermática post-descongelación del semen de toros Sanmartinero / Seminal plasma proteins increase the post-thaw sperm viability of Sanmartinero bull's semen
Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Objetivo. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar el efecto de la adición de proteínas del plasma seminal sobre el porcentaje de espermatozoides bovinos viables post-descongelación. Materiales y métodos. Los espermatozoides se congelaron usando dos medios (citrato-fructosa-yema y Bioxcell®) y la obt [...] ención de proteínas de plasma seminal de bajo peso molecular se realizó por medio de cromatografía líquida de baja presión. Las proteínas de interés eluyeron en las fracciones 21-25 y se sometieron a electroforésis en una y dos dimensiones. Los espermatozoides se incubaron a 37°C durante una hora, con 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 y 2.0 mg de la fracción 21-25. Se incluyeron dos tratamientos adicionales: uno con proteínas totales del plasma seminal y otro sin proteína. Resultados. La electroforésis bidimensional de las fracciones confirmó la presencia de siete puntos de proteína de bajo peso molecular (14-16 kDa y punto Isoeléctrico de 5.0 - 5.5). La adición de estas proteínas aumentó 20% (p Abstract in english Objective. This study was performed to evaluate the effect of the addition of proteins on the post-thawing viability of spermatozoa. Materials and methods. Spermatozoa were frozen with two different media: Citrate-fructose and Bioxcell®. The isolation of seminal plasma proteins of low molecular weig [...] ht was performed through low pressure liquid chromatography. It was determined that the proteins of interest eluted in fractions 21-25, and two dimensional electrophoresis was performed. Thawed sperm was incubated at 37°C for one hour with 0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2.0 mg of 21-25 fraction protein. Two additional treatments were included: one with seminal plasma total protein, and another one without protein. Results. Two dimensional electrophoresis of protein confirmed the presence of two bands of 14 and 16 kDa and seven spots with iso-electric points between 5.0 - 5.5 respectively. Incubation of the spermatozoa with the 21-25 fraction showed that sperm viability increases by 20% with doses of 1 and 1.5 mg of protein/106 spermatozoa in the citrate-fructose medium, and 25% with 0.5 mg of protein/106 spermatozoa in Bioxcell® medium. A positive effect in sperm viability was demonstrated although it depends on the doses of protein and the cryopreservation medium used. Conclusions. This investigation suggests that the use of seminal plasma proteins can be useful for reducing the harmful effect on sperm cryopreservation.
Rueda A, Fabián; Garcés P, Tatiana; Herrera L, Rocío; Arbeláez R, Luis; Peña J, Miguel; Velásquez P, Henry; Hernández V, Aureliano; Cardozo C, Jaime.
Full Text Available Objetivo. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar el efecto de la adición de proteínas del plasma seminal sobre el porcentaje de espermatozoides bovinos viables post-descongelación. Materiales y métodos. Los espermatozoides se congelaron usando dos medios (citrato-fructosa-yema y Bioxcell® y la obtención de proteínas de plasma seminal de bajo peso molecular se realizó por medio de cromatografía líquida de baja presión. Las proteínas de interés eluyeron en las fracciones 21-25 y se sometieron a electroforésis en una y dos dimensiones. Los espermatozoides se incubaron a 37°C durante una hora, con 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 y 2.0 mg de la fracción 21-25. Se incluyeron dos tratamientos adicionales: uno con proteínas totales del plasma seminal y otro sin proteína. Resultados. La electroforésis bidimensional de las fracciones confirmó la presencia de siete puntos de proteína de bajo peso molecular (14-16 kDa y punto Isoeléctrico de 5.0 - 5.5. La adición de estas proteínas aumentó 20% (p<0.05, el porcentaje de espermatozoides viables post-descongelación en muestras congeladas en medio citrato-fructosa-yema (con dosis de 1 ó 1.5 mg de proteína/106 espermatozoides, y 25% (p<0.05 en muestras congeladas en medio Bioxcell® (con dosis de 0.5 mg de proteína/106 espermatozoides. Conclusiones. Los resultados de esta investigación sugieren el posible uso de proteínas de bajo peso molecular del plasma seminal, para disminuir el efecto deletéreo de la criopreservación en los espermatozoides.
Fabián Rueda A.
Pioneering work by Quinn and Burrows in the late 1930s led to successful artificial insemination (AI) programs in the domestic poultry industry. A variety of species specific modifications to the Quinn and Burrows massage technique made AI possible in nondomestic birds. Massage semen collection and insemination techniques span the entire range of species from sparrows to ostriches. Also, cooperative semen collection and electroejaculation have found limited use in some nondomestic species. Artificial insemination produces good fertility, often exceeding fertility levels in naturally copulating populations. However, aviculturists should explore other ways to improve fertility before resorting to AI. Artificial insemination is labor intensive and may pose risks to nondomestic birds as well as handlers associated with capture and insemination. Semen collection and AI makes semen cryopreservation and germ plasma preservation possible. Yet, semen cryopreservation techniques need improvement before fertility with frozen-thawed semen will equal fertility from AI with fresh semen.
Gee, G.F.; Bertschinger, H.; Donoghue, A.M.; Blanco, J.; Soley, J.
The aim of this work was to test if the dilution of thawed dog semen with prostatic fluid (PF) can revert capacitation and then increase semen longevity. One ejaculate was collected from each of 15 adult healthy dogs, raw semen was immediately assessed for motility and concentration and then centrifuged. Seminal plasma was collected into a sterile vial and stored frozen at -25°C. Diluted sperms was frozen over nitrogen
...2009-01-01 false Import permits for poultry semen and animal semen. 98.34 Section 98.34 Animals and Animal... IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMAL EMBRYOS AND ANIMAL SEMEN Certain Animal Semen Â§ 98.34 Import...
Increase in post-thaw viability by adding seminal plasma proteins to Sanmartinero and Zebu sperm / Incremento en la viabilidad espermática post-descongelación por la adición de proteínas del plasma seminal a semen de toros Sanmartinero y Cebú / Aumento da viabilidade espermática pós-descongelamento, com a adição de proteínas do plasma seminal de sêmen de touros das raças Sanmartinero e Zebu
Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Antecedentes: a criopreservação diminui a viabilidade espermática abaixo de um 50%. Objetivo: o objetivo desta pesquisa foi determinar o efeito da adição de proteínas do plasma seminal na viabilidade espermática pós-descongelamento de sêmen de touros das raças Sanmartinero y Zebú. Métodos: coletou-s [...] e sêmen de 10 touros de cada raça, as amostras do plasma seminal foram submetidas à eletroforese bidimensional, para estabelecer a relação entre a quantidade relativa de cada ponto de proteína e a viabilidade espermática. Ao serem identificados os pontos, o plasma seminal também foi submetido ao processo de cromatografia por exclusão para separar a fração que continha as proteínas. A fração foi adicionada nas doses de 0,5, 1,0, 1,5 y 2,0 mg, amostras de 1 x 106 espermatozoides, em descongelamento e incubados à temperatura de 37 ° C durante 1 hora, para determinar o efeito na viabilidade pós-descongelamento. Os espermatozoides foram congelados utilizando dois meios (Citrato- frutose-gema e Bioxcell®). Resultados: encontrou-se um ponto de proteína (16,20 kDa, ponto Isoelétrico 5,5) no plasma de touro Sanmartinero, que correlacionou (r=0,64 p Abstract in spanish Antecedentes: la criopreservación disminuye la viabilidad espermática por debajo del 50%. Objetivo: el objetivo de esta investigación fue determinar el efecto de la adición de proteínas del plasma seminal sobre la viabilidad espermática post-descongelación de semen de toros Sanmartinero y Cebú. Méto [...] dos: se colectó semen de 10 toros de cada raza, y el plasma seminal se sometió a electroforesis bidimensional, para establecer la relación entre la cantidad relativa de cada punto de proteína y la viabilidad espermática. Identificados dichos puntos, el plasma seminal se sometió a cromatografía de exclusión para separar la fracción que contenía estas proteínas. Esta se adicionó en dosis de 0,5, 1,0, 1,5 y 2,0 mg, a muestras de 1 x 10(6) espermatozoides, descongelados e incubados a 37 °C durante 1 hora, para determinar su efecto en la viabilidad post-descongelación. Los espermatozoides se congelaron usando dos medios (citrato-fructosa-yema y Bioxcell®). Resultados: se encontró un punto de proteína (16,20 kDa, punto Isoeléctrico 5,5) en plasma de toros Sanmartinero, que correlacionó (r = 0,64 p Abstract in english Background: cryopreservation decreases sperm viability by approximately 50%. Objective: the objective of this study was to determine the effect of the addition of seminal plasma proteins on post-thawing sperm viability in Sanmartinero and Zebu semen. Methods: semen samples from 10 bulls of each bree [...] d were used, and seminal plasma was subjected to two-dimensional electrophoresis to establish the relationship between the relative amount of each protein spot and sperm viability. Then, seminal plasma was subjected to exclusion chromatography to separate the fraction containing these proteins. This fraction was added in doses of 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 mg, to 1 x 10(6). Sperm was thawed and incubated at 37 °C for 1 h to determine its effect on postthaw viability. Sperm were frozen using two media (citrate-fructose-yolk and Bioxcell®). Results: we found one protein spot (16.20 kDa, PI 5.5) in Sanmartinero seminal plasma that correlated (r = 0.64 p
Rueda, Fabián L; Herrera, Rocío F; Arbeláez, Luis F; Garcés, Tatiana; Velasquez, Henry; Peña, Miguel A; Cardozo, Jaime A.
Understanding semen markers of inflammation is important for the diagnostic-therapeutic management of male infertility, particularly in patients with male accessory gland infection (MAGI). The aim of this article was to describe the major pathophysiological elements through which inflammation negatively affects sperm parameters. Inflammation may affect reproduction through one or more of the following mechanisms: anatomical alteration of the male accessory gland (e.g., obstruction or sub-obstruction); functional alteration of the male accessory gland, i.e., by inhibiting the production of adequate amounts of nutrients and/or by releasing compounds such as radical oxygen species (ROS) and cytokines that alter the microenvironment in which spermatozoa develop and mature; and/or direct negative effects on the spermatozoa (germ-spermatozoa interaction). PMID:23850173
La Vignera, Sandro; Condorelli, Rosita A; Vicari, Enzo; Tumino, Dario; Morgia, Giuseppe; Favilla, Vincenzo; Cimino, Sebastiano; Calogero, Aldo E
AIM: The British Andrology Society recommends screening semen donors for sexually transmitted infections to minimise the risk of pathogen transmission to the mother and fetus. The aim was to review recent findings of semen donor screening and, if appropriate, recommend changes to the screening protocol. SUBJECTS: 175 consecutive men attending for STD screening between January 1992 and December 1995 who had been preselected by the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology as suitable semen dono...
Craig, J. M.; Barratt, C. L.; Kinghorn, G. R.
Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english This study is part of an ongoing project on artificial insemination in ostriches. The physical output of neat semen from four ostrich males was investigated and the effect of reconstituting semen with: 1) seminal plasma of the same male (SPS); 2) seminal plasma of another male (SPD), and 3) Dulbecco [...] 's Modified Eagles Medium (DMEM). Semen was collected daily from one or two pairs of males using the dummy female method, each pair being replicated twice. Spermatozoa viability in neat semen, SPS, SPD and DMEM was assessed using nigrosin-eosin staining and the proportions of live normal, live abnormal and dead sperm were determined. Semen volume (mean ± SE) was 1.27 ± 0.13 mL, the concentration of spermatozoa 3.68 ± 0.17 x 10(9) /mL and the number of spermatozoa 4.92 ± 0.64 x 10(9) /ejaculate. Furthermore, the live normal, live abnormal and dead spermatozoa in the neat semen were 61.2 ± 4.5%, 21.2 ± 2.7% and 17.7 ± 4.3% respectively. The ejaculate volume and the number of dead spermatozoa were not affected by collection time. However, the number of live abnormal spermatozoa increased through the day causing a reduction in live normal spermatozoa. Furthermore, re-suspending spermatozoa in DMEM reduced the number of live normal (31.4 ± 4.6%) and live abnormal spermatozoa (11.0 ± 2.7%) and increased the number of dead spermatozoa (57.6 ± 4.4%). In contrast, numbers of live spermatozoa were higher when suspended in seminal plasma and similar in SPS (53.9 ± 4.6%) and SPD (50.7 ± 4.6%). These are the first crucial steps to determining the optimum semen collection time and to improving the viability of diluted spermatozoa.
M., Bonato; P.K., Rybnik; I.A., Malecki; C.K., Cornwallis; S.W.P., Cloete.
A study was conducted to evaluate the 24 roosters according to semen index (SI) which included several semen traits and because this method is time consuming and technically difficult, other methods for evaluation of roosters depend on individual semen traits, were applied as practical methods. Spearman's coefficients of rank correlations were estimated between BLUP of semen index and BLUP of several semen traits to investigate the possibility of using one semen trait instead of semen index i...
Al-samarai, Firas; Al-ganabi, Thamer; Al-nedawi, Ahmed; Al-soudi, Kalid
Full Text Available Though HCV infection is a serious public health problem, some aspects of its biology are still not well understood, such as its transmission through seminal fluid and sexual transmission. We looked for HCV in the semen of infected patients. Thirteen patients were included. Semen fractions (seminal plasma, leukocytes and spermatozoa were separated with 45% and 90% Percoll gradients. The HCV-RNA in blood and semen fractions was extracted using the same protocol (AMPLICOR Roche and was detected using the qualitative Roche Amplicor test and by agarose gel electrophoresis, with ethidium bromide staining. The mean age of the patients was 40.7 years. Risk factors for the acquisition of HCV included injectable and inhaled drug use in six (42.8%, blood transfusion in four (28.6%, and no risk factors in four (28.6% patients. Genotype 1 was detected in 62% of the patients, followed by genotype 3 in 23% and genotype 2 in 15%. All blood samples were positive, regardless of the technique used for detection. All semen samples identified by Roche Amplicor and analyzed by agarose gel electrophoresis were negative. Among the 52 semen samples (total and fractions identified by the Roche Amplicor method, 45 (87% were inhibited. A negative result was recorded for one (1.9% total semen sample, one (1.9% leukocyte and four (7.7% seminal plasma fractions. Only one (1.9% sample of the spermatozoon fraction was positive. The results obtained suggested false-negative reactions for the semen samples.
Norma de Paula Cavalheiro
In analogy to the related Akabane virus, transmission of Schmallenberg virus (SBV) by contaminated semen has primarily been considered negligible. However, the potential economic consequences for stock-bull breeders prompted the investigation of reliable diagnostic methods for SBV-RNA detection in bovine semen. Twelve extraction methods were compared using a dilution series of SBV-spiked semen as well as serum and medium samples for control. The most promising methods were subsequently used with semen samples obtained in an intensive field study. In total, frozen semen from 95 SBV-seroconverted bulls collected in the field between May and November 2012 were tested for SBV-RNA with an optimised standard operating procedure. The highest diagnostic and analytical sensitivity for the extraction of SBV in semen was found for the Trizol(®) LS Reagent lysis with or without combined purification of the viral RNA with magnetic beads. A total of 29 of 766 semen batches from 11 of 95 SBV-infected bulls were PCR-positive (Cq-values 26-37). Intermittent virus excretion was observed in 2 of the bulls. SBV-RNA-positive semen was coincidentally detected with early SBV-antibodies in 4 bulls. In bulls that showed seroconversion together with consecutive positive semen batches, SBV-RNA was predominantly found in the seminal cell fraction, while in bulls with single positive results only, SBV-RNA was detected exclusively in the seminal plasma. PMID:24100006
Hoffmann, Bernd; Schulz, Claudia; Beer, Martin
Full Text Available The use of several types of gelling extenders for the storage of semen from several domestic species in the solid state has been shown to have beneficial effects on some semen quality parameters. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of a new high-viscosity semen extender, Zoosperm ND-5 3D® (Import-Vet, Centelles, Spain, on the the quality of boar spermatozoa at preserved at 17ºC for 7 days. Sodium alginate was used for the first time to increase the viscosity of the extender for the liquid storage of boar semen. The same extender, but without increased viscosity, was used as a control extender (Zoosperm ND-5®, Import-Vet, Centelles, Spain. Sixteen ejaculates from four Pietrain boars were evaluated for motility (by the CASA system, and for viability, acrosome status, plasma membrane fluidity, externalization of phosphatidylserine at the plasma membrane of the spermatozoa and mitochondrial membrane potential (by flow cytometry. In samples diluted with the Zoosperm ND-5 3D® viscous extender, the STR (straightness parameter and the number of progressively motile spermatozoa were higher compared to those of the non-viscous extender (p < 0.05. In addition, the number of spermatozoa with damaged acrosomes, an unstable sperm plasma membrane and externalization of phosphatidylserine at the plasma membrane was lower in samples treated with the viscous extender (p < 0.05. In conclusion, an increase in extender viscosity improves quality of boar spermatozoa following long-term storage.
Maria Cruz Gil
This study was designed to compare commercially available extender Bioxcell with tris-citric egg yolk extender for post thaw quality and in vivo fertility of buffalo semen. For comparison of post thaw semen quality: semen was collected from five adult Nili-Ravi buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) bulls of similar age group with artificial vagina (at 42 degrees C) for three weeks (replicates). Qualifying ejaculates having motility >60% from each buffalo bull were divided in two aliquots and diluted (at 37 degrees C having 50 x 10(6) spermatozoa/ml) in tris-citric egg yolk or Bioxcell extender. Diluted semen was cooled to 4 degrees C in 2 hours, equilibrated for 4 hours and filled in 0.5 ml straws. Semen straws were kept over liquid nitrogen vapors (5 cm) for 10 minutes. Straws were then plunged and stored in liquid nitrogen (-196 degrees C). After 24 hours of storage, semen straws were thawed at 37 degrees C for 30 seconds to assess sperm motility, viability, plasma membrane integrity, normal apical ridge, and abnormalities (head, mid piece, and tail). For comparison of in vivo fertility: semen from two buffalo bulls of known fertility was cryopreserved in tris-citric egg yolk and Bioxcell as described earlier, and used for inseminations under field conditions. Post-thaw percentage of sperm motility (45.3 +/- 1.1, 45.0 +/- 1.4), viability (66.2 +/- 1.1, 64.4 +/- 1.3) plasma membrane integrity (60.4 +/- 1.2, 59.2 +/- 1.4) and normal apical ridge (82.9 +/- 0.5, 80.7 +/- 0.5) did not differ (P > 0.05) in tris-citric egg yolk and Bioxcell extender, respectively. Similarly, sperm abnormalities of head (1.20 +/- 0.1, 1.20 +/- 0.1), mid piece (0.67 +/- 0.1, 0.87 +/- 0.1) and tail (11.7 +/- 0.2, 11.6 +/- 0.3) remained similar (P > 0.05) in tris-citric egg yolk and Bioxcell extender, respectively. In vivo fertility rates of buffalo semen cryopreserved in tris-citric egg yolk and Bioxcell also remained similar (44% vs. 47%). It is concluded that commercially available Bioxcell may be used for the cryopreservation of buffalo semen with an equal efficiency to tris-citric egg yolk extender. PMID:20570331
Akhter, S; Ansari, M S; Rakha, B A; Andrabi, S M H; Iqbal, S; Ullah, N
Full Text Available The sperm morphology is one of the factors determining semen quality besidessperm motility and concentration. An important role in this aspect plays someenzymes which are estimated in raw semen plasma. The examination of numerouspopulations of stallions of different breeds and age performed by Kosiniak-Kamyszet al. (2005 showed that significant differences occurred between stallion semenquality concerning both macro- and microscopic examination and some enzymesactivity. It was found that aspartate aminotranspherase (AspAT, lactatedehydrogenase (LDH and alkaline phosphatase (AP activity and total proteinamount (TP in raw seminal plasma decreased when the percent of sperms withcytoplasmatic droplets increased. The increase of these enzymes activity is observedwith the increase of the number of loose heads. These observations showed thatmany examined factors of the semen and semen plasma decided on its quality and onthis reason that these factors need to be applied for seminological diagnosis.
Three experiments were conducted to determine the effects of semen dilution, semen extender, and age of tom on the fertility of unstored semen and semen stored for 18 h at 5 C. In Experiment 1, semen was diluted 2:1, 1:1, and 1:2 with Beltsville poultry semen extender (BPSE) #2. In Experiment 2, semen was diluted 1:1 with either Lake's extender, BPSE #2, or BPSE #1. In Experiment 3, the fertility of semen from males 30 to 45-wk-old (first reproductive cycle) was compared to semen from males 51 to 66-wk-old (second reproductive cycle). Identical experiments were conducted in the fall-winter (F-W) and in the spring-summer (S-S). All hens were inseminated with 250 million spermatozoa per dose three times prior to egg production, then weekly for 15 wk. Egg fertility was determined after 7 days of incubation. In all experiments there was a significant interaction between holding time and treatment (semen dilution ratio, semen extender, or age of tom). Fertility of stored semen diluted 1:2 in Experiment 1 was lower than stored semen diluted 2:1 or 1:1 regardless of time of year (season) the experiment was conducted. Fertility was affected by a significant interaction between season and semen dilution ratio. Fertility of semen from males in F-W was higher than semen from males in S-S (Experiment 1). Semen fertility was unaffected by season when comparisons were made between semen extenders (Experiment 2) or age of tom (Experiment 3). Fertility was affected by a significant interaction between season x holding time x age of tom. PMID:3432200
Sexton, T J
Semen parameters and seminal plasma protein and biochemical profiles of dogs with benign prostatic hyperplasia after botulinum toxin type A intraprostatic injection / Parâmetros seminais e perfis bioquímicos e proteicos do plasma seminal de cães com hyperplasia prostática benigna após a administração intra-prostática de toxina botulínica tipo A
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O objetivo do presente estudo foi determinar a ação de diferentes concentrações de toxina botulínica tipo A (TB-A) sobre os parâmetros seminais, perfis bioquímicos e proteicos do plasma seminal de cães com hiperplasia prostática benigna (HPB). Dezoito cães hígidos, não orquiectomizados com HPB foram [...] divididos em três grupos, os quais foram submetidos à injeção intra-prostática de solução salina (grupo controle - GC), 250UI (GI) ou 500UI (GII) de TB-A. Amostras seminais foram coletadas previamente aos tratamentos e após 2, 4 e 8 semanas. Os parâmetros seminais assim como os valores de pH e concentrações de proteínas totais (TP), cloretos totais (CT), cálcio (Ca), potássio (K), sódio (Na) do plasma seminal foram mensurados após as coletas. O perfil proteico do fluido prostático foi estabelecido por meio de eletroforese SDS-PAGE. Não foram constatadas diferenças significativas quanto aos parâmetros espermáticos e perfil bioquímico do plasma seminal intragrupos e intergrupos (P>0,05). À SDS-PAGE foram identificadas 31 bandas proteicas com pesos moleculares de 3,9 a 106,2kDA, em todos os tratamentos e durante todo o período de avaliação. Dessa forma, concluiu-se que, independentemente da dose utilizada, a injeção intra-prostática de TB-A não altera os parâmetros seminais, assim como os perfis bioquímico e proteico do plasma seminal de cães com HPB. Abstract in english This study aimed to determine the effects of different concentrations of botulinum toxin type A (BT-A) on semen parameters, and seminal plasma biochemical and protein profiles of dogs with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Eighteen sexually intact male dogs with BPH were randomly divided in three [...] groups, and received an intraprostatic injection of saline solution (control group - CG), 250UI (GI) or 500UI (GII) of BT-A under transabdominal ultrasound guidance. Semen was collected at baseline, 2, 4 and 8 weeks after treatment. Semen parameters were determined and seminal plasma pH, total protein (TP), total chlorides (TC), calcium (Ca), potassium (K), and sodium (Na) concentrations were assessed. One-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfatepolyacrilamide gel eletrophoresis (SDS- PAGE) was performed to determine seminal plasma protein profile. Sperm parameters and seminal plasma pH, TP, TC, Ca and K mean values did not change significantly at any time point and among treated groups (P>0.05). The SDS-PAGE analysis of the pooled fractions identified 31 protein bands with molecular weights ranging from 3.9 to 106.2kDA in all treatment groups during the entire evaluation period. Regardless the used dose, intraprostatic BT-A injection do not alter semen parameters and seminal plasma biochemical and protein profiles of dogs with BPH.
Tathiana Ferguson, Motheo; Aracélle Elisane, Alves; Giuliano Queiroz, Mostachio; Maricy, Apparício; Alexandre Pinto, Ribeiro; Fabiana Ferreira de, Souza; Maria Denise, Lopes; Wilter Ricardo Russiano, Vicente.
Trihalomethanes (THMs) are common byproducts of chlorinating drinking water. The effects of disinfection byproducts on semen quality have not yet been studied in humans, despite animal studies linking exposure to sperm abnormalities. We are currently analyzing the relationship of...
1. The major objective of this study was to examine the influence of 24-h storage of semen at low temperature on semen characteristics and fertilising ability of spermatozoa in two native breeds (Kadaknath-KN, Aseel Peela-AP) and White Leghorn (WL) chicken. 2. Various physical and biochemical properties of freshly ejaculated semen of KN and AP were investigated. Fertility was examined in freshly-ejaculated as well as 24-h-stored (3°C) semen diluted (1:3) with Beltsville Poultry Semen Extender. 3. No significant difference was observed in sperm motility among the different breeds whereas live counts were higher in WL than the native breeds. Body weight, semen volume and sperm concentration were highest in AP, followed by KN and WL. A similar trend was observed in the percentage of dead and morphologically-abnormal spermatozoa. 4. The activity of acid and alkaline phosphatase in seminal plasma were higher in WL than KN, whereas the opposite trend was recorded for glutamic oxaloacetic and pyruvic transaminases. The cholesterol content of semen was highest in AP, followed by KN and WL. Cholesterol was much lower in seminal plasma compared with whole semen but there were no differences between breeds. Mean values of the methylene blue reduction time test were higher in WL than in the native breeds. 5. Fertility and hatchability, using freshly-diluted semen, were poorer in the native breeds than in WL. The pattern of fertility deteriorated further, especially in native fowls, when the birds were inseminated with 24-h-stored semen. 6. In conclusion, variation in physical and biochemical characteristics of semen in native breeds compared to WL correlated with poor fertility after short-term storage of semen. PMID:21732887
Mohan, J; Singh, R P; Sastry, K V H; Moudgal, R P; Biswas, A; Shit, N
Summary: Artificial insemination is a practical propagation tool that has been successful with a variety of birds. Cooperative, massage, and electroejaculation and modifications of these three basic methods of semen collection are described for a variety of birds. Semen color and consistency and sperm number, moti!ity, and morphology, as discussed, are useful indicators of semen quality, but the most reliable test of semen quality is the production of fertile eggs. Successful cryogenic preservation of avian semen with DMSO or glycerol as the cryoprotectant has been possible. Although the methods for preservation require special equipment, use of frozen semen requires only simple insemination supplies
Low molecular weight substances such as zinc and peroxides are present in seminal plasma and are responsible for deleterious effects in stored semen. On the contrary, molecules larger than 50 kDa are beneficial to in-vitro storage of spermatozoa. Since the effects of different seminal plasma fractions in turkey semen are not completely known, the purpose of the study was to determine the effects of turkey semen dialysis with a 12-14 kDa cut-off on viability, hypo-osmotic membrane integrity, or sperm motility of turkey spermatozoa stored up to 48 h at 5 degrees C. Twelve pools of semen, each pool originating from four toms, were used. Each pool was divided into two aliquots, one of which was dialyzed while the other represented the control. Each semen aliquot was evaluated for sperm viability, membrane integrity and motility after 6, 24 and 48 h of in-vitro storage. Cold storage of turkey semen for 48 h significantly worsened (P<0.01) sperm viability, hypo-osmotic membrane integrity, and sperm motility index of both control and dialyzed samples. After 24 and 48 h sperm viability, membrane integrity and sperm motility index were better (P<0.01) in dialyzed semen compared to the control. PMID:12763156
Iaffaldano, N; Meluzzi, A
Full Text Available This study was carried out to investigate the effect of dietary supplementation with different levels of parsley on semen quality of local Iraqi ganders. A total of thirty two local ganders were used in this study during the period from beginning of February to the end of April. The ganders were allocated for 4 treatment groups containing 8 ganders each. Treatment groups were as follows: Control diet (free from parsley, T1: Control diet + 80 g/d parsley, T2: Control diet + 160 g/d parsley; T3: Control diet + 240 g/d parsley. Semen samples were collected twice a week fortnightly from each gander by dorsal-abdominal message method. First semen collection was used to evaluate semen volume, sperm concentration, live in total sperm, live and normal morphology sperm, semen quality factor, sperm motility, abnormal sperm, acrosomal abnormalities, spermatocrit and pH of semen. However, the second semen collection was used for determine seminal plasma concentrations of glucose, protein, cholesterol & activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT and alkaline phosphatase (ALP enzymes. Results revealed that feeding diets containing different levels of parsley (T1, T2, and T3 resulted in significant (P<0.05 increase in semen volume, sperm concentration, live and normal morphology sperm, semen quality factor, sperm motility, spermatocrit and seminal plasma activity of ALP enzyme and significant (P< 0.05 decrease in abnormal sperm and acrosomal abnormalities and seminal plasma concentrations of glucose, protein, and cholesterol and seminal plasma activities of AST and ALT enzymes as compared with control group. There was no significant difference in pH of semen among the control and experimental groups (C, T1, T2, and T3. In conclusion, dietary supplementation with different levels of parsley especially at the level of 240 g/d (T3 caused significant improve- ment with relation to semen traits. So, parsley can be used as an effective tool for improve semen quality of ganders.
Hazim J. Al-Daraji,
Myeloperoxidase (MPO) is a pro-oxidant enzyme associated with decreased motility in thawed equine semen. This study aimed to describe MPO concentration, activity and subunits in raw and thawed semen and to correlate these data with motilities in raw and thawed semen. Semen samples from five stallions were collected four times. Motilities were assessed in raw and thawed semen. MPO assays were performed in raw seminal plasma, raw sperm-rich pellet and thawed semen. Total and active MPO concentrations were, respectively, assayed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and specific immunological extraction followed by enzymatic detection. MPO subunits present in semen were characterized by Western blot. Purified active MPO was added in saline solution and freezing extender to control its activity during freezing procedure. Differences between medians were determined using Kruskal-Wallis test, and correlations were determined using Spearman's test for nonparametric data. Active MPO concentration was low in seminal plasma and thawed semen, but high in pellet (p = 0.0058), as the opposite relation was observed for total MPO concentration (p < 0.0001). In seminal plasma and post-thaw semen, inactive 86-kDa MPO precursor was mainly observed. Purified MPO activity was decreased in the extender (p = 0.0286). MPO activity in pellet was highly correlated with thawed progressive motility (r = -0.5576, p = 0.0086). Inactive MPO precursor and unknown low molecular weight inactive MPO precursor subunits explain low MPO activity in semen. Major MPO activity was observed in pellet, and post-thaw loss of activity is partially explained by MPO inactivation in extender. Thawed semen motility was negatively correlated with MPO activity in pellet, becoming a potential freezability predictor. PMID:24479950
Ponthier, J; Franck, T; Parrilla-Hernandez, S; Niesten, A; de la Rebiere, G; Serteyn, D; Deleuze, S
Full Text Available Equine semen are far less tolerant in the freezing and thawing process than bull semen. The stallion spermatozoa are known susceptible to cold-shock relating with the content of their fatty acid on the plasma membrane. The extender is one of determining factors in the success of stallion semen cryopreservation, as an energy source and protector the cell from harmfull effect of cold shock. The common cryoprotective agent (CPA for mammalian spermatozoa was glycerol, but for stallion semen cryopreservation, dimethyl formamide (DMF was more suitable. This research was conducted to compare the success of the stallion semen cryopreservation in skim milk and dimitropoulos (DV extender with DMF as cryoprotectant. Semen from three sexualy mature stallions was collected twice a week using an artificial vagina. Semen was evaluated macro- and microscopically and then divided into two tubes, diluted each of them with skim milk dan DV extender (1:1, centrifuged at 3 000 rpm for 15 minutes. The supernatant was removed and the pellet (spermatozoa was re-diluted in skim DMF (SDMF and DVDMF extender with the concentration of spermatozoa was 200x106 ml-1. The semen then packed in 0.3ml minitub straw equilibrated for two hours at 4-5oC and frezee in liquid N2 vapor for 10 minutes. The assessment of sperm quality was conducted based on the percentage of sperm motility and viability. In this research, post-thawed semen in DVDMF showed the percentages of the motility (36.2% and the viability (59.3% higher (P<0.05 than SDMF (28.5 and 48.0 %. In conclusion, the DVDMF extender provided better post-thawed semen quality than SDMF.
The Sperm Quality Index (SQI) is correlated with fresh broiler breeder semen quality. Our objective was to determine if the SQI from semen prior to storage is predictive of semen quality after storage. Prior to semen dilution, sperm concentration, viability, and SQI were determined for each male`s neat semen sample. Each ejaculate was then diluted 1:1 with Beltsville Poultry Semen Extender and maintained at 4oC on a rotary shaker for 16 h. After semen dilution, sperm concent...
Decades of human semen studies have yielded compelling evidence that sperm can be used to access reproductive potential and diagnose pathology. With these studies as background, the small number of detailed semen studies of men exposed to physical and che...
A. J. Wyrobek B. L. Gledhill
BACKGROUND: This study investigates whether dietary patterns, substantiated by biomarkers, are associated with semen quality. METHODS: In 161 men of subfertile couples undergoing in vitro fertilization treatment in a tertiary referral clinic in Rotterdam, the Netherlands, we assessed nutrient intakes and performed principal component factor analysis to identify dietary patterns. Total homocysteine (tHcy), folate, vitamin B12 and B6 were measured in blood and seminal plasma. Semen quality wa...
Five experiments tested the efficiency of a simple, low-cost system (CP) for cooling and storing equine semen at 2.0 degrees C for 24 h and 48 h. Pantaneiro stallions of known fertility were used. Semen quality was evaluated for progressive motility (PM), plasma membrane integrity (PMI), and pregnancy rate. Experiment 1 showed that PM and PMI were similar between CP and the control (Equitainer) in cooled semen. In Experiment 2, the influence was evaluated of combinations (four treatments) of two volumes (50/100 ml) and two sperm concentrations (500/750x10(6)) on sperm quality of semen cooled and preserved by CP (cooling system replaced at 24 h). While PM decreased gradually from before cooling to 24 h and 48 h, PMI decreased only at the least and greatest sperm volume and concentrations. Storage time did not affect PMI. Results from Experiment 3 showed that CP maintained semen PM>or=30% in all samples 24 h after cooling and decreased to about 70% 42 h after cooling. Results from Experiments 4 and 5 confirmed semen quality after cooling and storage (24 h and 48 h, respectively), achieving a 69% pregnancy rate in the first estrous cycle when insemination occurred. Thus, the CP system is satisfactory for cooling and preserving equine semen for up to 48 h. PMID:17681679
Nunes, D B; Zorzatto, J R; Costa e Silva, E V; Zúccari, C E S N
Low-density lipoproteins (LDL) have been previously isolated and identified as the cryoprotective fraction of yolk. The effect of LDL on sperm motility after freezing-thawing has been reported, but no study has been made to assess the effect of LDL on bull semen fertility. The aim of this study was to evaluate the fertility of bull semen cryopreserved in the presence of LDL. Motility of semen cryopreserved in LDL was analyzed and compared to semen cryopreserved with Optidyl, a commercial extender containing egg yolk. To evaluate the fertilizing ability of semen, we used in vitro fertilization test, whereas acrosome and plasma membrane integrity were also evaluated. The percentage of motile spermatozoa was two fold higher after freezing in LDL than in Optidyl 54.4% versus 30.2% (P < 0.05). The cleavage rate was significantly higher after fertilization with semen frozen in LDL than with Optidyl 63.0% versus 54.8% (P < 0.05). No significant difference was observed on the blastocyst rate after in vitro culture. Integrity of the acrosome and the plasma membrane were maintained in both extenders. In conclusion, LDL preserve bull semen quality and fertilizing ability, allowing also better semen motility, after the freeze-thaw process. PMID:14757475
Amirat, Lamia; Tainturier, Daniel; Jeanneau, Laëtitia; Thorin, Chantal; Gérard, Olivier; Courtens, Jean Luc; Anton, Marc
A revised in-vitro technique for autometallographic demonstration of chelatable zinc in the human ejaculate is presented, and the localization of the loosely bound pool of zinc ions is described in semen smears and at the ultrastructural level. In semen smears, black autometallographic (AMG) grains indicated the presence of zinc ions dispersed between the spermatozoa. These AMG grains have the same size as grains associated with the sperm tail and may have the same origin. EM analysis of AMG-developed smears fixed in osmium suggested that the detected zinc ions might be related to huge protein molecules present in semen and adhering to the surface of the spermatozoa. Spermatozoa in AMG-stained smears exhibited zinc ions in the midpiece and head, and also joined to the membrane of the tail. Washed spermatozoa exhibited zinc ions only within the midpiece. Ultrastructurally, they were found located in the helecine mitochondria. A few grains were found in the acrosome of the washed spermatozoa. Treatment with thechelating agent DEDTC resulted in complete bleaching of the zinc staining. These findings and the fact that calcium EDTA acid blocks the plasma and surface staining, but not the acrosomal and mitochondrial staining, suggest that chelatable zinc ions exist in two separate pools in human semen.
Stoltenberg, M; SÃ¸rensen, M B
Galectin-3 is a ?-galactoside-binding protein involved in immunomodulation, cell interactions, cancer progression, and pathogenesis of infectious organisms. We report the identification and characterization of galectin-3 in human semen. In the male reproductive tract, the ~30 kDa galectin-3 protein was identified in testis, epididymis, vas deferens, prostate, seminal vesicle, and sperm protein extracts. In seminal plasma, galectin-3 was identified in the soluble fraction and in prostasomes, ...
Jones, Jennifer L.; Saraswati, Sarika; Block, Ashley S.; Lichti, Cheryl F.; Mahadevan, Maha; Diekman, Alan B.
The objectives of the present study were to determine the effects of season on some semen parameters and bacterial contamination of Awassi ram semen. Semen samples from six mature Awassi rams were used in this study. Semen collection was performed with artificial vagina every week, from September 2009 to October 2010. Volume, sperm concentration, mass motility, individual motility, percentage live sperm and sperm abnormalities were evaluated. Moreover, determination of viable bacterial count of the rams was also recorded weekly. Higher (p Awassi ram semen. There is a significant effect of season on bacterial count on Awassi ram semen. PMID:21883516
Azawi, O I; Ismaeel, M A
Full Text Available SciELO Peru | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El objetivo del presente trabajo fue evaluar el efecto de dos métodos de congelación sobre la viabilidad espermática de semen de verraco. Se utilizaron seis eyaculados (dos por macho), de tres verracos adultos de las razas Hampshire, Duroc y Landrace. Se evaluó el volumen, motilidad y concentración [...] espermática de cada eyaculado. Posteriormente, el semen fue diluido con solución BTS (Beltsville Thawing Solution) y centrifugado a 1500 rpm por 10 min para retirar el plasma. El pellet (porción espermática) obtenido fue extendido con dilutor de congelación (A y B), enfriado y equilibrado a 5 °C por 2 horas previas a la congelación. El semen equilibrado fue criopreservado usando dos métodos de congelamiento: a) en pellets colocando alícuotas de 0.25 ml de semen equilibrado en agujeros preparados en la superficie del bloque de hielo seco manteniéndolo por 2 min y luego vertiéndolo al nitrógeno líquido; y b) en pajillas de 0.5 ml, exponiéndolas al vapor de nitrógeno líquido a 7 cm de altura por 10 min (dentro de una caja de tecnopor) para luego verterlas al nitrógeno liquido. No se encontró diferencias significativas entre la motilidad individual y proporción de espermatozoides vivos del semen congelado en pellets (40.1 y 48.8%) vs. pajillas (34.5 y 40.7%), respectivamente. Abstract in english The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of two freezing methods on the spermatic viability of boar semen. Six collects (2 ejaculates per male) of three adult boars (Hampshire, Duroc and Landrace) were used. Immediately after the collection, volume, motility and spermatic concentr [...] ation of each ejaculate were evaluated. Then, the semen was diluted with BTS solution (Beltsville Thawing Solution) and centrifuged at 1500 rpm for 10 min for plasma withdrawal. The pellet (spermatic portion) was diluted with freezing dilutor (A and B), cooled and equilibrated at 5 °C for two hours before freezing. The equilibrated semen was cryopreserved using two freezing methods: a) in pellets placing 0.25 ml aliquota of semen in holes prepared on the surface of a dry ice block for 20 min and then, pouring them in liquid nitrogen; and b) in straws of 0.5 ml exposing them at 7 cm over liquid nitrogen steam for 10 min (in a styrofoam box). The results showed no statistically differences amongst individual motility and live spermatozoa percentage in semen frozed in pellets (40.1 and 48.8%) as compared to straws (34.5 and 40.7%).
Mateo, Carpio C.; José, Cadillo C.; Edwin, Mellisho S..
Skim milk (SM) is considered to be the most widely employed extender for goat sperm used for artificial insemination (AI). However, the fertilizing life span of sperm stored in milk or milk-based extenders does not exceed 12h. Besides some seminal plasma components, such as a protein fraction from the goat bulbourethral gland secretion (SBUIII), interacts with some milk fractions and inhibits the spermatozoa motility. The aim of this study was to prolong the survival of buck semen and its fertility. Buck ejaculates were diluted to a final concentration of 100x10(6)spermatozoa/ml with three different diluents: SM, TEMPOL (4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl) and TEMPOL+hyaluronic acid (TEMPOL+HA). At 7h from dilution 42 goats were inseminated with semen diluted with SM (short-term semen) while after storage for 24h, 44 and 45 goats were inseminated with semen diluted with TEMPOL and TEMPOL+HA (long-term storage), respectively. At day 50 from AI the percentages of pregnant goats were 71.4% (30/42) with SM, 61.4% (27/44) with TEMPOL and 48.8% (22/45) with TEMPOL+HA, with significant differences between SM and TEMPOL+HA. The kidding rate was 66.7% (28/42) with SM diluent, 61.4% (27/44) with TEMPOL and 48.8% (22/45) with TEMPOL+HA, without significant differences among treatment groups. In conclusion, it is possible to maintain good fertility in goats after AI with semen stored for 24h in TEMPOL. PMID:17383124
Mara, L; Dattena, M; Pilichi, S; Sanna, D; Branca, A; Cappai, P
Background: Sperm maturation and sperm membrane integration are the most important elements in male fertility. CD52 is one of the antigens. CD52 is a GPI (glycosylphosphatidylinositol) anchored that express on lymphocytes and epididymal cells. This antigen bind to sperm membrane during transition sperm from epididymal duct as well as its relationship with semenogelins in human seminal plasma. The aim of this study was to obtain any association between the percentage of CD52 positive sperms with main semen parameters such as percentage of motile sperms, percentage of sperm with normal morphology, and the presence of normal viscosity. Materials and Methods: Semen samples from subfertile men were analyzed, the samples totally were 45 that divided according to their motility into three groups, first one, more than 40%, second one 10-40%, and the third one under 10% total motility. Fifteen samples in each group were evaluated by semen analysis according to WHO 2010 guidelines for infertility laboratory. Sperms were washed by Ham's F-10 and immunostaining with the monoclonal antibody CAMPATH-1G and then analyzed by flow cytometry. We compared each of the groups based on their motility and the data were analyzed by SPSS 20. Results: Correlation between CD52 labeling and sperm motility was negatively significant, in the second group (r = –0.592, P = 0.020) and in the third group (r = –0.805, P = 0.00). Conclusion: Our results showed that the correlation between CD52 labeling and sperm motility was negatively significant, but we did not observe any relation with other semen parameters, such as sperm normal morphology, sperm concentration, and semen viscosity.
Aboutorabi, Roshanak; Mazani, Fatemeh; Rafiee, Laleh
This works studies the biochemical (protein concentration, osmolality, antitrypsin activity, lactate dehydrogenase activity) and physiological characteristics (sperm motility characteristics) of semen of sex-reversed female rainbow trout (n=42) obtained with the application of 11?-hydroksyandrostendione for sex reversal. All data were arbitrarily divided into three classes depending on the percentage of sperm motility: I XXXX 25-50% and III XX>50%. The average percentage of sperm motility was 18±7% n=12 (group I XX); 42±6% n=15 (group II XX) and 65±12% n=15 for group III XX, respectively) to link the values of semen parameters to the maturation stage of semen. Semen from 12 normal males of the same age was used as a reference group. Sperm concentration as well as protein concentration, osmolality, antitrypsin activity, and lactate dehydrogenase activity in seminal plasma of sex-reversed females were higher compared with the values obtained for normal male rainbow trout. The values of these parameters declined with the increasing percentage of sperm motility toward values established for normal males. The fertilization success of semen (3×10(6) spermatozoa/egg) of sex-reversed females was very high (above 90%) for both the percentage of eyed embryos and hatched larvae and was related to sperm motility classes. Correlations between the quality parameters of sex-reversed females semen corresponded to those established previously for the semen of normal male rainbow trout. Antitrypsin activity, lactate dehydrogenase, protein concentration, and osmolality were found to be characteristic of seminal plasma of sex-reversed females. The maturity of sex-reversed female spermatozoa seems to be associated with the decline in the values of those parameters toward the values characteristic for seminal plasma of normal males. PMID:21924466
Nynca, Joanna; Ku?mi?ski, Henryk; Dietrich, Grzegorz J; Hliwa, Piotr; Dobosz, Stefan; Liszewska, Ewa; Karol, Halina; Ciereszko, Andrzej
Inflammation of the cervicovaginal mucosa is considered a risk factor for HIV infection in heterosexual transmission. In this context, seminal plasma (SP) may play an important role that is not limited to being the main carrier for the virions. It is known that SP induces an inflammatory reaction in the cervix called postcoital leukocytic reaction, which has been associated with promotion of fertility. The mechanisms by which SP triggers this reaction, however, have not been clearly established. Previously we reported the expression of prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (PTGS2), also known as cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2), in human vaginal cells in response to toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands and other proinflammatory stimuli. In this study, we demonstrate that SP induces transcriptional and translational increase of COX-2 expression in human vaginal cells and cervicovaginal tissue explants. Furthermore, SP potentiates vaginal PTGS2 expression induced by other proinflammatory stimulants, such as TLR ligands and a vaginal mucosal irritant (nonoxynol-9) in a synergistic manner. SP-induced PTGS2 expression is mediated by intracellular signaling pathways involving MAPKs and NF-?B. Using fractionation and functional analysis, seminal prostaglandin (PG)-E(2) was identified as a one of the major factors in PTGS2 induction. Given the critical role of this PG-producing enzyme in mucosal inflammatory processes, the finding that SP induces and potentiates the expression of PTGS2 in cervicovaginal cells and tissues has mechanistic implications for the role of SP in fertility-associated mucosal leukocytic reaction and its potential HIV infection-enhancing effect. PMID:23153564
Joseph, Theresa; Zalenskaya, Irina A; Sawyer, Lyn C; Chandra, Neelima; Doncel, Gustavo F
Full Text Available The evaluation of superoxide dismutase (SOD activity, as one of the most important antioxidative defence enzymes, in seminal plasma of patients consulting for male infertility was presented in the article. The study included also the determination of its influence on selected human semen quality parameters. The material represents semen samples obtained from 15 men, which were divided into two groups: Group I (n=10 including patients consulting for infertility and Group II (n=5 containing healthy sperm donors as a control. All of the semen samples were cryopreserved and stored in liquid nitrogen. The frozen samples were thawed at the same time and then SOD activity was determined spectrophotometrically. The analysis of the investigations results indicates a significantly lower semen SOD activity detected in oligoasthenozoospermic patients, comparing to the activity found in normospermic men. The study showed a positive correlation between SOD activity in seminal plasma and semen quality parameters--sperm concentration and overall motility, which are regarded as the most important for normal fertilizing ability of the spermatozoa. Significantly lower SOD activity in seminal plasma of infertile patients, comparing to healthy sperm donors, as well as positive correlation and beneficial impact of SOD activity on human semen quality parameters seem to confirm the observations, that decreased seminal plasma scavenger antioxidant capacity, particularly in form of low SOD activity, can be responsible for male infertility. This trial shows that SOD activity survey in seminal plasma could be a useful tool for determining sperm fertilization potential and could improve the diagnosis of male infertility.
Detection of HIV and HCV RNA in semen from Brazilian coinfected men using multiplex PCR before and after semen washing Detecção do RNA do HIV e HCV em sêmen de homens brasileiros, usando PCR multiplex antes e depois do "semen washing"
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Prolonged survival of patients under HAART has resulted in new demands for assisted reproductive technologies. HIV serodiscordant couples wish to make use of assisted reproduction techniques in order to avoid viral transmission to the partner or to the newborn. It is therefore essential to test the effectiveness of techniques aimed at reducing HIV and HCV loads in infected semen using molecular biology tests. METHODS: After seminal analysis, semen samples from 20 coinfected patients were submitted to cell fractioning and isolation of motile spermatozoa by density gradient centrifugation and swim-up. HIV and HCV RNA detection tests were performed with RNA obtained from sperm, seminal plasma and total semen. RESULTS: In pre-washing semen, HIV RNA was detected in 100% of total semen samples, whereas HCV RNA was concomitantly amplified in only one specimen. Neither HIV nor HCV were detected either in the swim-up or in the post-washing semen fractions. CONCLUSIONS: Reduction of HIV and/or HCV shedding in semen by density gradient centrifugation followed by swim-up is an efficient method. These findings lead us to believe that, although semen is rarely found to contain HCV, semen processing is highly beneficial for HIV/HCV coinfected individuals.O aumento da sobrevida dos pacientes que utilizam terapêutica antiretroviral altamente eficaz (HAART- Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy trouxe uma nova demanda de casais sorodiscordantes que desejam filhos. Como esses casais não podem abandonar o uso de preservativos, torna-se indispensável tratar o sêmen infectado com técnicas laboratoriais eficazes que além de isolar os melhores espermatozóides, reduzam a carga viral do HIV e HCV a níveis indetectáveis. Para isso, são utilizadas técnicas de semen washing, associadas a testes ultra sensíveis de biologia molecular. Após análise seminal, sêmen de 20 pacientes co-infectados HIV-HCV foram submetidos a fracionamento celular e isolamento de espermatozóides móveis através de método de densidade de gradiente descontínuo e swim-up. Posteriormente, testes para detecção do RNA do HIV e HCV foram aplicados nos sêmens totais e frações seminais obtidas. Em fase pré semen washing, o HIV foi detectado em 100% dos semens totais. Contrariamente, o HCV foi detectado em apenas uma amostra. Em fase pós semen washing, o HIV e HCV não foram detectados em nenhuma das frações seminais. A redução do HIV e do HCV através de semen washing mostra-se um método eficaz a indivíduos co-infectados HIV-HCV, apesar do encontro do HCV no sêmen ser raro.
Cynthia Liliane Motta do Canto
Detection of HIV and HCV RNA in semen from Brazilian coinfected men using multiplex PCR before and after semen washing / Detecção do RNA do HIV e HCV em sêmen de homens brasileiros, usando PCR multiplex antes e depois do "semen washing"
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O aumento da sobrevida dos pacientes que utilizam terapêutica antiretroviral altamente eficaz (HAART- Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy) trouxe uma nova demanda de casais sorodiscordantes que desejam filhos. Como esses casais não podem abandonar o uso de preservativos, torna-se indispensável trat [...] ar o sêmen infectado com técnicas laboratoriais eficazes que além de isolar os melhores espermatozóides, reduzam a carga viral do HIV e HCV a níveis indetectáveis. Para isso, são utilizadas técnicas de semen washing, associadas a testes ultra sensíveis de biologia molecular. Após análise seminal, sêmen de 20 pacientes co-infectados HIV-HCV foram submetidos a fracionamento celular e isolamento de espermatozóides móveis através de método de densidade de gradiente descontínuo e swim-up. Posteriormente, testes para detecção do RNA do HIV e HCV foram aplicados nos sêmens totais e frações seminais obtidas. Em fase pré semen washing, o HIV foi detectado em 100% dos semens totais. Contrariamente, o HCV foi detectado em apenas uma amostra. Em fase pós semen washing, o HIV e HCV não foram detectados em nenhuma das frações seminais. A redução do HIV e do HCV através de semen washing mostra-se um método eficaz a indivíduos co-infectados HIV-HCV, apesar do encontro do HCV no sêmen ser raro. Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: Prolonged survival of patients under HAART has resulted in new demands for assisted reproductive technologies. HIV serodiscordant couples wish to make use of assisted reproduction techniques in order to avoid viral transmission to the partner or to the newborn. It is therefore essentia [...] l to test the effectiveness of techniques aimed at reducing HIV and HCV loads in infected semen using molecular biology tests. METHODS: After seminal analysis, semen samples from 20 coinfected patients were submitted to cell fractioning and isolation of motile spermatozoa by density gradient centrifugation and swim-up. HIV and HCV RNA detection tests were performed with RNA obtained from sperm, seminal plasma and total semen. RESULTS: In pre-washing semen, HIV RNA was detected in 100% of total semen samples, whereas HCV RNA was concomitantly amplified in only one specimen. Neither HIV nor HCV were detected either in the swim-up or in the post-washing semen fractions. CONCLUSIONS: Reduction of HIV and/or HCV shedding in semen by density gradient centrifugation followed by swim-up is an efficient method. These findings lead us to believe that, although semen is rarely found to contain HCV, semen processing is highly beneficial for HIV/HCV coinfected individuals.
Cynthia Liliane Motta do, Canto; Aluisio C., Segurado; Cláudio, Pannut; Agnaldo, Cedenho; Miguel, Srougi; Deborah, Spaine; Silvana, Fernandes; Nadily, Carretiero; Maria Carolina, Bernal; José Eduardo, Levi.
Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to evaluate the quality of frozen-thawed semen of Garut rams that cryopreserved with Tris extender containing the various ?-carotene concentrations. Semen was collected from four mature Garut rams using artificial vagina once a week. Immediately after initial evaluation, semen was divided into four parts and diluted with Tris extender containing 5% glycerol + 0% (control, 0.001% (Kt0.001, 0.002% (Kt0.002, and 0.003% (Kt0.003 ?-carotene, respectively. Semen was loaded in 0.25 ml mini straw with the concentration of 200 million motile sperm. Semen was equilibrated at 5ºC for three hours, then frozen and stored in liquid nitrogen container for 7 days. Quality of processed-semen including motility, live sperm, intact acrosomal cap (IAC, and intact plasma membrane (IPM were evaluated after diluted, equilibrated, and thawed, respectively. Concentration of malondialdehide (MDA semen after thawing were evaluated. Data were analyzed as completely randomized design with four treatments and nine replicates. Means values were compared by least significant difference test at 0.05 significant level. Results indicated that mean value of post thawing motility and live sperm for Kt0.002 (50.55% and 56.78% were significantly higher (P<0.05 than Kt0.001 (46.11% and 52.89%, Kt0.003 (46.67% and 53.33% and control (46.67% and 52.33%. Mean value of post thawing IAC and IPM for Kt0.002 (51.00% and 53.78% were significantly higher (P<0.05 than control ( 47.11% and 48.44%, but not significantly different with Kt0.001 (49.00% and 50.00%, and Kt0.003 (48.89% and 49.67%. MDA concentration of frozen-thawed semen for Kt0.001 (3.37 mg/kg, Kt0.002 (3.80 mg/kg, and Kt0.003 (4.61 mg/kg were significantly lower (P<0.05 than control (5.24 mg/kg. in conclusion, concentration of 0.002% ?-carotene in Tris extender is the optimal dose in improving frozen semen quality of garut rams. (Animal Production 7(1: 6-13 (2005 Key Words : ?-carotene, frozen-thawed semen, intact plasma membrane, MDA, Garut Rams
This study investigated the effect of long-term liquid nitrogen storage of semen from individual boars on post-thaw sperm characteristics. Ejaculates, collected from five Polish large white (PLW) and five Polish landrace (PLR) boars, were frozen using a standard cryopreservation protocol. Post-thaw analysis was performed within a week (Period 1) and 42-48 months (Period 2) of semen storage in liquid nitrogen. Post-thaw sperm assessments included total motility, mitochondrial function (JC-1/PI assay), plasma membrane integrity (SYBR-14/PI assay), osmotic resistance test (ORT), lipid peroxidation (LPO) status and DNA fragmentation, analysed by the neutral Comet assay. Individual boar variability within breed and cryostorage periods had significant effects on the analysed parameters of frozen-thawed spermatozoa. Prolonged semen storage in liquid nitrogen (Period 2) induced a marked reduction in post-thaw sperm motility, mitochondrial function and plasma membrane integrity in most of the boars. Post-thaw semen of eight boars exhibited a marked decrease in osmotic resistance of the sperm acrosomal membrane, whereas a significant increase in the sperm cryo-susceptibility to induced LPO and DNA fragmentation was observed only in three boars after long-term semen storage. Additionally, frozen-thawed spermatozoa of PLR boars exhibited significantly lower osmotic resistance of the acrosomal membrane than PLW boars following prolonged semen storage in liquid nitrogen. The results of this study provide evidence of ageing processes in frozen-thawed boar spermatozoa following prolonged cryostorage. It seems that, even though cryopreservation allows long-term semen storage in liquid nitrogen, spermatozoa from individual boars are more susceptible to cryo-induced damage. PMID:24819551
Fraser, L; Strze?ek, J; Kordan, W
Full Text Available Characteristic of Thai swamp buffalo bulls semen used for artificial insemination (AI in Thailand, aspects relevance in freezing and thawing of semen are review. Semen and sperm characteristics were evaluated included sperm count, motility (assessed subjectively and by CASA, morphology (using phase-contrast light microscopy and SEM, plasma membrane integrity (PMI (using a hypo-osmotic swelling test [HOST] and SYBR- 14/propidium iodide [PI], plasma membrane stability (PMS (using Annexin-V/PI and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA integrity (using SCSA and flow cytometry [FCM]. The average ejaculate volume was about 3.0–4.0 mL, with good viability (PMI measured by the HOST and motility (>65% and >70%, respectively. Sperm concentration ranged from 1.1 to 1.2 billion/mL, being also affected by bull age. Whereas semen quality (including sperm output, pH and initial sperm motility did not differ between the seasons. Few spermatozoa (<15%/ ejaculate had abnormal morphology with abnormalities resembling those in other bovidae. In FT semen, PMI (using SYBR-14/PI and PMS were highest in winter. Across seasons, ~50% of post-thaw spermatozoa depicted linear motility, a proportion that decreased to ~35% during incubation (38oC for 60 minutes, without marking any seasonal difference. The sperm DNA was hardly damaged (with <3% fragmentation, expressed as DNA fragmentation index [DFI], among seasons.
Full Text Available The Sperm Quality Index (SQI is correlated with fresh broiler breeder semen quality. Our objective was to determine if the SQI from semen prior to storage is predictive of semen quality after storage. Prior to semen dilution, sperm concentration, viability, and SQI were determined for each male`s neat semen sample. Each ejaculate was then diluted 1:1 with Beltsville Poultry Semen Extender and maintained at 4oC on a rotary shaker for 16 h. After semen dilution, sperm concentration, viability, and SQI were obtained at 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12 and 16 h. The SQI increased from 0 to 4 h of storage then decreased in a quartic fashion as storage time further increased (r2=0.83. There was a linear decrease in sperm viability as storage time increased (r2=0.87. There was a negative relationship for the SQI from fresh semen with percentage of dead sperm over storage period yielding correlation coefficients ranging from r= -0.88 to -0.55. Over storage, positive correlation coefficients for the SQI from fresh semen with live sperm concentration ranged from 0.47 to 0.61. There were also strong positive correlations for percentage of dead sperm and live sperm concentration from fresh semen with their respective semen characteristic at each storage period (r=0.81 to 0.97 and r=0.80 to 0.96, respectively. There was a strong positive relationship for SQI from fresh semen with the SQI over storage (r=0.88 to 0.94. In conclusion, the SQI from semen prior to storage is predictive of chicken semen quality through 16 h of storage.
In vitro semen analyses have been used for more than half a century to estimate the fertilizing potential of a semen sample. Unfortunately, none of the assays developed provide results that consistently correlate well with fertility. The reasons for this lack of consistency, due in part to the complexity of the spermatozoon itself, the collection of fertility data, and factors beyond control of the semen analyses themselves, are discussed. Different spermatozoal attributes that are necessary for a spermatozoon to fertilize an oocyte are presented and assays used to evaluate each attribute described. Although laboratory assay results do not correlate well with semen fertility, the importance of conducting laboratory assays on every semen sample used for artificial insemination or to attempt to determine causes for infertility, is discussed. PMID:15946734
Graham, J K; Mocé, E
Basal generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was essential for male reproductive function, whereas high ROS levels may be linked to low quality of sperm and male infertility. We examined the associations between ROS levels in whole ejaculates and sperm quality among 1092 male factor infertility (MFI) patients and 50 donors with normal semen characteristics. ROS levels were significantly positively correlated with abnormal morphology rate, head defect, and sperm deformity index. Further, we investigated whether seminal plasma from MFI patients with high ROS levels affects sperm motility from donors with normal semen characteristics. After cross-culturing fresh human sperm from donors possessing normal semen characteristics with seminal plasma from infertitle men, sperm motility was measured at different ROS levels. Seminal plasma from MFI patients significantly reduced motility of sperm and the reduction rate increased with increasing ROS levels in seminal plasma. On the other hand, we found MFI patients with the ROS levels in the lowest 25th percentile had similar ROS levels to donors with normal semen characteristics. Collectively, our observations lead to the hypothesis that oxidative stress plays a critical role in the development of MFI among those with high ROS levels, but not those with low ROS levels. PMID:22149455
Chen, Hong; Zhao, Hong-Xin; Huang, Xue-Feng; Chen, Guo-Wu; Yang, Zhi-Xing; Sun, Wei-Jie; Tao, Meng-Hua; Yuan, Yao; Wu, Jun-Qing; Sun, Fei; Dai, Qi; Shi, Hui-Juan
There is a lack of biomarkers or indices that can be used to predict the quality of fish semen samples following the freezing and thawing cycle. In the present study, a series of semen indices were tested to assess if they could accurately forecast the cryopreservation potential of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) semen. Fresh and frozen-thawed sperm activity variables were compared, and relationships between frozen-thawed sperm activity and fertilization success were examined. In comparison with fresh sperm, activity variables of frozen-thawed spermatozoa were reduced. Of the 18 males examined, mean (Â± SEM) spermatocrit of fresh sperm was 40.72 Â± 4.23%, osmolality of the seminal plasma 366.32 Â± 4.95 mOsmol/kg, pH 8.32 Â± 0.04, protein concentration 1.05 Â± 0.08 mg/mL, anti-trypsin activity 153.83 Â± 19.25 U/L, and total antioxidant capacity 0.15 Â± 0.03 Î¼mol Trolox equivalents/mL. Frozen-thawed fertilization success was highly variable among males with values ranging from 18.5 to 90.2%. Regressions yielded significant positive relationships between frozen-thawed motility, velocity, track crossing frequency, and subsequent fertilization success. Sequential multiple regressions explained up to 95% of the variation in frozen-thawed sperm activity. Spermatocrit and pH of fresh semen were negatively related, whereas osmolality and antioxidant capacity were positively related to frozen-thawed motility and velocity. Each of these indices can be measured within minutes of collecting a fresh sample of semen and are thus early indicators of the capacity of semen samples to withstand cryopreservation. These results have many benefits for conservation of wild stocks, aquaculture production, and for understanding semen biology and cryobiology of fishes.
Butts, I.A.E.; Babiak, I.
Although sorted semen is experimentally used for artificial, intrauterine, and intratubal insemination and in vitro fertilization, its commercial application in swine species is still far from a reality. This is because of the low sort rate and the large number of sperm required for routine artificial insemination in the pig, compared with other production animals, and the greater susceptibility of porcine spermatozoa to stress induced by the different sex sorting steps and the postsorting handling protocols. The encapsulation technology could overcome this limitation in vivo, protecting and allowing the slow release of low-dose sorted semen. The aim of this work was to evaluate the impact of the encapsulation process on viability, acrosome integrity, and on the in vitro fertilizing potential of sorted boar semen. Our results indicate that the encapsulation technique does not damage boar sorted semen; in fact, during a 72-hour storage, no differences were observed between liquid-stored sorted semen and encapsulated sorted semen in terms of plasma membrane (39.98 ± 14.38% vs. 44.32 ± 11.72%, respectively) and acrosome integrity (74.32 ± 12.17% vs. 66.07 ± 10.83%, respectively). Encapsulated sorted spermatozoa presented a lower penetration potential than nonencapsulated ones (47.02% vs. 24.57%, respectively, P 0.05) was observed in terms of total efficiency of fertilization expressed as normospermic oocytes/total oocytes (18.45% vs. 15.43% for sorted diluted and sorted encapsulated semen, respectively). The encapsulation could be an alternative method of storing of pig sex sorted spermatozoa and is potentially a promising technique in order to optimize the use of low dose of sexed spermatozoa in vivo. PMID:23261305
Spinaci, Marcella; Chlapanidas, Theodora; Bucci, Diego; Vallorani, Claudia; Perteghella, Sara; Lucconi, Giulia; Communod, Ricardo; Vigo, Daniele; Galeati, Giovanna; Faustini, Massimo; Torre, Maria Luisa
This study was designed to compare the effect of straw size (0.25 vs. 0.5 ml) and thawing time (30 vs. 60 sec) on the quality of cryopreserved buffalo bull semen. Sperm motility, plasma membrane integrity and viability were higher (p ? 0.05) in 0.25 ml than 0.5 ml straw, thawed at 37°C either for 30 or 60 sec. In conclusion, cryopreservation of buffalo semen in 0.25 ml straw resulted in a higher post-thaw quality. PMID:21455280
Ansari, Muhammad S; Rakha, Bushra A; Andrabi, Syed M H; Akhter, Shamim
The sperm quality index (SQI) is predictive of fresh semen quality. Our objective was to examine if semen storage affects the SQI obtained from undiluted semen, or semen diluted with either Beltsville Poultry Semen Extender (BPSE) or Minimum Essential Medium (MEM) and held for 8 h at 4, 21, or 41oC. Dead sperm percentage was higher and SQI was lower from undiluted versus diluted semen. Dead sperm percentage was higher and SQI was lower for semen stored at 41oC tha...
Forty-eight semen ejaculates from four Surti buffalo bulls were studied under split sample technique to establish the effects of initial semen quality and tris fructose yolk glycerol (TFYF), egg yolk citrate glycerol (EYCG) and lactose yolk glycerol (LYG) extenders on the freezability, fertility (based on 3412 AI) and extracellular release of spermatozoal enzymes pre and postfreezing. The overall mean activity of GOT, GPT, AKP, ACP and LDH enzymes in the postthaw seminal plasma increased significantly (Psemen samples with an initial motility above 70% than in the 12 samples in which initial motility was between 60 and 70%. The effects of interactions between motility groups, diluents and freezing periods were statistically nonsignificant for both freezability and leakage of all five enzymes. Fertility rate of frozen semen produced in TFYG diluent was significantly (Psemen and the suitablity of extenders (TFYG) in the production of frozen buffalo bull semen for better fertility rates. PMID:16726888
Dhami, A J; Kodagali, S B
In 9 male patients with psoriasis vulgaris a semen analysis before and during photochemotherapy with 8-methoxypsoralen and UVA (PUVA) was performed to rule out drug-induced toxic damage of spermatogenesis or impairment of fertility due to scrotal hyperthermia. Two hours after oral application of 40-60 mg 8-methoxypsoralen the patients had been irradiated in UVA high intensity treatment units. PUVA-treatments were performed four times weekly until total body clearing was achieved. For complete remission 13-26 (mean 20.5) PUVA-treatments were necessary. Corresponding total UVA-doses were 35.3 - 191.0 (mean 83.2) Joule/cm2. The investigated parameters total motility, progressive motility, spermatozoa density, total spermatozoa count, spermatozoa morphology, and seminal plasma fructose remained unchanged. Only the volume of the ejaculate showed a small decrease during 3 months of therapy. From this pilot study there is no evidence, that PUVA-therapy leads to an impairment of fertility in male patients within their reproductive age. (orig.)
ResumenLa colección de semen depende de una buena y constante producciónespermática para que la calidad del semen sea buena. Las técnicas decolección de semen están bastante desarrolladas en otros animales,especialmente en rumiantes domésticos en los cuales ya es unprocedimiento de rutina, pero en camélidos, dadas las especialescaracterísticas reproductivas, anatómicas y fisiológicas de estasespecies, esta colección es bastante dificultosa y no existe un protocolo recomendado y un...
Full Text Available Abstract Background One of the major obstacles in using artificial insemination to manage genetics of elephant population in captivity is the large variations in semen quality among ejaculates within the same and among individuals. The objectives of this study were to determine the influences of (1 age (2 seasonality (3 and circulating testosterone (SrTest, triiodothyronine (SrT3 and tetraiodothyronine (SrT4, as well as seminal (4 testosterone (SpTest, zinc (SpZn and protein (SpTP on semen quality in the Asian elephant Methods Analyses, including motility, viability and morphology were performed in semen samples collected twice monthly from 13 elephant bulls (age range, 10-to 72-years by manual stimulation between July 2004 and June 2005. Serum samples obtained monthly were assessed for SrTest, SrT3, SrT4, and seminal plasma samples were evaluated for, SpTest, SpZn and SpTP. Results The highest semen quality was observed at age 23 to 43 years. Percentages of progressive motility and viable sperm were lowest at age 51 to 70 years (P Conclusion This study indicates that age and seasonality had influence on semen characteristics in the Asian elephant. The knowledge obtained in this study will improve our understanding of the reproductive biology of this species.
The influence of Bovine Herpesvirus type 5 (BoHV-5) infection on semen variables and sperm morphology collected from healthy bulls with no reproductive disorder was evaluated in ten ejaculates distributed into two experimental groups: group I, bull semen exposed to 10(2.3) (tissue culture infectious dose) TCID(50)/50 ?l of a Brazilian strain of BoHV-5 (US9/BR/2007; GU9457818) and group II, unexposed bull control semen. After experimental infection, the semen was frozen-thawed prior to computerized analysis (CASA) of sperm motility and movement. Also analyzed were sperm phosphatidylserine transposition, acrosomal integrity, mitochondrial function, plasma membrane integrity and Annexin V expression. Viable BoHV-5 particles and their DNA were detected in infected semen after virus isolation and in situ hybridization (ISH) assay. The ISH revealed the BoHV-5 US9 gene in the acrosome and tail of infected spermatozoa. The only remarkable differences between groups I and II were the sperm kinetic variables, whereby infected sperm had a lesser mean velocity (VAP) and curvilinear velocity (VCL) values as compared to controls (P?0.05). However, the straightness coefficient (STR) and beat cross frequency (BCF) values were higher in infected sperm. These results indicate that BoHV-5 can be found in infected sperm but induces no functional and morphological damage even after freeze-thawing, and, importantly, BoHV-5 can be spread via in vitro and in vivo reproductive biotechnology procedures. PMID:21353404
Souza, Diego Gouveia; Silva-Frade, Camila; Martins, Alicio; Cardoso, Tereza C
Full Text Available La escasa fertilidad del semen equino criopreservado ha limitado de manera sustancial su uso en procedimientos de biotecnología reproductiva. El estrés oxidativo es uno de los factores más relacionados con este fenómeno, debido al incremento en los niveles de especies reactivas de oxígeno (ERO en el semen como resultado del choque térmico, de la toxicidad de los crioprotectores, y de la alteración en la disponibilidad y la funcionalidad de los antioxidantes endógenos durante los procesos de criopreservación. Esta revisión analiza el efecto del estrés oxidativo sobre la fertilidad del semen equino criopreservado.
Edison Pizarro López
The effects of reduced concentrate fed in rations of Holstein Friesian bulls for artificial insemination was evaluated with respect to metabolic status, sexual behaviour, semen production and semen quality during one year. In the first of two studies, twenty bulls were fed diets based on hay, green forage and concentrate according to the standard nutrient requirements for dairy cattle in artificial insemination centres. Bulls were divided into two groups: Group 1 (n = 10, control, 5 kg concentrate) and Group 2 (n = 10, experimental, 1 kg concentrate). Feed, blood semen samples were taken for bromatological analysis, metabolic profile and semen evaluation, respectively. Group 2 had lower plasma concentrations of urea (P<0.001), calcium (P<0.05) and phosphorous (P<0.01). Urea were below the reference range. Season of the year affected lipid metabolite concentrations (P<0.001) and osteotrophic minerals (P<0.05 to P<0.001). Group 2 had better production and quality of semen than did Group 1. In the second study, five bulls were fed as the experimental group in the first study. Time of sampling, season of the year and sire affected the hormonal secretion pattern (P<0.001). There were no differences in testoterone and LH plasma concentrations before and after mounting; however, cortisol concentrations showed a significant raise during the period of maximum excitation. Individual secretion patterns varied between bulls and were related to pathological morphology of reproductive and endocrine organs. The effect of sire was significant on all the indicators of the sperm production, except to percentage of live sperm. Season of the year significantly affected sperm concentration and number of doses of extended sperm produced. It is concluded that a reduction of concentrate in the diet did not affect the metabolic status, sexual behaviour, semen production or sperm quality of sires. 29 refs, 2 figs, 4 tabs
This project, also called the Healthy Men Study will examine potential associations between human exposure to drinking water disinfection byproducts, particularly haloacetic acids (HAAs) and trihalomethanes (THMs), and male reproductive health as indicated by semen quality. Sinc...
We evaluated a recently developed computerized semen analyser that detects spermatozoa not only by the criteria of size, contrast and movement but also by the morphological characteristics of the sperm tail. Comparison of the sperm concentration in 33 semen samples measured by conventional and by computerized semen analysis, as well as by flow cytometry, showed acceptable agreement between all three methods, although the mean differences and standard deviations were less for conventional than for computerized analysis when compared to flow cytometry as a reference method. Motility estimates were lower by the computer system for values between 1 and 40%. Higher motilities showed no systematic error. In conclusion, the improved algorithms for sperm detection yield more reliable data for sperm concentration and motility than previous systems of computerized semen analysis. PMID:2254406
Neuwinger, J; Behre, H M; Nieschlag, E
Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Foram coletadas 24 amostras de sêmen caprino. Cada ejaculado foi dividido em 4 alíquotas, e foram diluídas em citrato-gema de ovo (CG), TRIS-gema de ovo (TG) e água de coco industrializada-gema de ovo (ACI-G), a quarta, foi centrifugada para determinação da concentração de frutose e atividade da FLA [...] 2 no PS. O sêmen foi conservado a 5 ºC e avaliado a fresco, 2, 24 e 48 h, em cada tempo foi avaliado o vigor, motilidade e alterações morfológicas. Os reprodutores foram divididos em dois grupos: grupo I-concentração de frutose >710 mg/dL e o grupo II-concentração de frutose Abstract in english Twenty-four goat semen samples were collected and divided into four aliquots, diluted with the citrate-egg yolk (CY), TRIS-egg yolk (TY) or industrialized coconut water with egg yolk (ICW-Y) extenders. The fourth aliquot was centrifuged to analyze fructose concentration and PLA2 activity on SP. The [...] semen was stored at 5ºC and evaluated at times fresh, 2, 24 and 48 h, in each time was evaluated the vigor, sperm motility and total morphological alterations. The animals were divided into two groups: group Ifructose concentration >710 mg/dL and group IIfructose concentration
B.G., Matos-Brito; I.C.S., Lima; J.F., Pereira; F.M., Barboza; M.A.B., Linard; G.V., Aguiar; A.G.V., Catunda; A.A.A., Moura; J.F., Nunes; A.C.N., Campos.
For the first time (1978) artificial insemination (AI) with frozen greater sandhill crane (Grus canadensis tabida) semen resulted in fertile eggs and chicks. During the 2 year (1977-78) study, 6 of 27 eggs produced were fertile. Three chicks hatched. Semen samples used for insemination were frozen and stored in liquid nitrogen for two months or less. Recent improvements in the laboratory indicated that a more effective sample can be prepared and greater fertility rates should be expected.
Gee, G.F.; Sexton, T.J.
Full Text Available It is of critical importance to understand the modalities of BLV presence in semen, especially with regard to artificial insemination (AI. Presence of bovine leukemia provirus was demonstrated in fresh and frozen semen samples by researchers. In this study paired blood and semen samples from 45 bulls were assessed for the presence of part of gag gene and antibodies to BLV in blood, semen and cell-free fraction of the semen (seminal plasma. Proviral DNA was detected in 5 out of 45 seminal plasma samples. PCR products were sequenced and submitted to gene bank. This data strongly suggested that seminal plasma of seropositive bulls can be positive in PCR.
Decades of human semen studies have yielded compelling evidence that sperm can be used to access reproductive potential and diagnose pathology. With these studies as background, the small number of detailed semen studies of men exposed to physical and chemical agents point with optimism to the application of human semen assays as efficient, effective means to monitor for reproductive hazards in the workplace. Sperm are the most accessible of human gonadal tissue and provide a means of monitoring exposure induced changes in the human testes, changes which may result in infertility and increased frequencies of genetically abnormal gametes. The focus on semen has precipitated the development of new sperm bioassays which use older conventional andrological methods (i.e., sperm counts, motility, and morphology) as well as recently developed high speed flow and scanning methods for automated cytological analyses. The status of these sperm assays for workplace surveillance is reviewed, procedures are suggested with examples of use, and their effectiveness is evaluated. The available mouse models of induced semen changes are briefly described and the importance of these models for evaluating the genetic implications of findings in human semen is discussed
Couples in whom the man is HIV-1-positive may use medically assisted procreation in order to conceive a child without contaminating the female partner. But, before medically assisted procreation, the semen has to be processed to exclude HIV and tested for HIV nucleic acid before and after processing. The performance was evaluated of the technical protocols used to detect and quantify HIV-1 in 11 centers providing medically assisted procreation for couples with HIV-1 infected men by testing panels of seminal plasma and cells containing HIV-1 RNA and/or DNA. The performance of these tests varied due to the different assays used. False positive results were obtained in 14-19% of cases. The sensitivity for RNA detection in seminal plasma was 500-1,000 RNA copies/ml, over 500 RNA copies/10(6) cells in semen cells, and for DNA detection in semen cells 50-500 DNA copies/10(6) cells. The use of silica-based extraction seemed to increase the assay performance, whereas the use of internal controls to detect PCR inhibitor did not. This first quality control highlights the need for technical improvements of the assays to detect and quantify HIV in semen fractions and for regular evaluation of their performance. PMID:16721844
Pasquier, Christophe; Anderson, Deborah; Andreutti-Zaugg, Corinne; Baume-Berkenbosch, Rianne; Damond, Florence; Devaux, Aviva; Englert, Yvon; Galimand, Julie; Gilling-Smith, Carole; Guist'hau, Odile; Hollander, Lital; Leruez-Ville, Marianne; Lesage, Benoit; Maillard, Anne; Marcelin, Anne-geneviève; Schmitt, Marie-Paule; Semprini, Augusto; Vourliotis, Maria; Xu, Chong; Bujan, Louis
Sixty-two samples of human normal and abnormal semen and 23 samples of washed sperm were illuminated for 4 minutes with a narrow band non-coherent infrared device (BioBeam). Immediately after illumination the following parameters were examined in comparison with appropriate controls: motility, viability and morphology, fructose content of semen, acrosome reaction of sperm, viscosity of seminal plasma and analysis of the protein pattern. The mean value of motility grade calculated for the total number of 62 semen samples was 2.58 +/- 0.79 versus 2.17 +/- 0.75 (non illuminated controls), P less than 0.005. The mean value of motility grade of 23 samples of washed sperm was 2.89 +/- 0.77 versus 2.43 +/- 0.62, respectively (P less than 0.01). In two illuminated seminal plasma specimens, the viscosity was decreased by 8.8% and 14.8%, the protein content and pattern remained, however, unchanged. Neither the percentages of motile, viable and morphologically normal sperm, nor the fructose content of semen were found to be affected by the illumination. PMID:1952126
Singer, R; Sagiv, M; Barnet, M; Levinsky, H; Segenreich, E; Fuchs, Y; Mendes, E; Yehoshua, H
The purpose of the current study was to further investigate the role of the antioxidant selenium-dependent enzyme glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in reproductive organs and semen from bulls. To this end a fast and convenient combined method for immune detection and substrate localization was adapted, which allows the assessment of both molecular weight and peroxidase activity of proteins on one and the same SDS-PAGE gel plate. After routine semen analysis of ejaculates, a spectrophotometrical assay of GPx activity in bovine semen was performed. For the immunological analyses performed, a rabbit polyclonal monospecific antibody against GPx was raised. Substrate detection and immunolocalization of GPx in lysates from bovine testis, epididymis, spermatozoa, and seminal plasma was performed. In order to determine the localization of GPx in spermatozoa, immunofluorescence analysis was performed. A positive correlation was established between GPx activity in semen and the number of motile spermatozoa. A negative correlation was observed between GPx activity and the number of immotile spermatozoa. The combined method for immunodetection and substrate localization was tested and proved reliable. Both tetramer and monomer forms of GPx were detected in lysates from testis, epididymis, and spermatozoa. We found no GPx activity in seminal plasma. Immunofluorescence shows the presence of GPx chiefly in the mitochondrial and in the acrosome regions of spermatozoa. GPx activity remained stable under the extreme experimental conditions. PMID:15955363
Vaisberg, Chaika Niuma; Jelezarsky, Lachezar Vasilev; Dishlianova, Blagovesta; Chaushev, Todor Angelov
Full Text Available The sperm quality index (SQI is predictive of fresh semen quality. Our objective was to examine if semen storage affects the SQI obtained from undiluted semen, or semen diluted with either Beltsville Poultry Semen Extender (BPSE or Minimum Essential Medium (MEM and held for 8 h at 4, 21, or 41oC. Dead sperm percentage was higher and SQI was lower from undiluted versus diluted semen. Dead sperm percentage was higher and SQI was lower for semen stored at 41oC than at lower temperatures. Overall, there was a linear increase in dead sperm percentage and linear decrease in SQI over storage length. Regardless of diluent, there was a linear increase in dead sperm percentage over time for semen stored at 4 and 21oC. For semen held at 41oC and diluted with BPSE or MEM there were respective quartic and linear increases in dead sperm percentage over time; a drastic linear increase existed for undiluted semen. There was a linear decrease in SQI from undiluted semen and semen diluted with MEM over time at 4oC; however, for semen diluted with BPSE, there was a linear increase. The SQI from undiluted semen stored at 41oC decreased linearly over time. At 41oC, a cubic relationship existed for SQI over time for semen diluted with BPSE, and a linear decline was detected for semen diluted with MEM. In conclusion, the SQI is indicative of changes induced by diluent type, storage temperature, and length of semen storage.
Semen infected experimentally with infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus (BHV-1) was treated with trypsin at concentrations of 0.30%, 0.25% and 0.15%, with or without (w or w/o) trypsin inhibitor in order to render the semen virus free. The trypsin treatments (at 0.30% and 0.25% by concentration) inactivating the virus up to 10(4) TCID50/ml, and its effects on semen quality were assessed weekly from the 1st to 20th week after being frozen. The following parameters were determined using a computerized semen analysis system (Hamilton Thorn motility analyzer, HTM): total motility, progressive motility and linearity of sperm cells. The results showed that the total and progressive motility of sperm cells were reduced in frozen/thawed semen, principally in the semen treated with trypsin at concentrations of 0.30%. Moreover, the plasma membranes were damaged by trypsin treatments (0.30% by concentration), as determined by the hypoosmotic swelling test (HOS test). These findings suggest that trypsin treatments were effective against the virus however the effects on semen quality and the possibility of a decrease in semen fertility were clear. Trypsin treatment could be recommended at a maximum concentration of 0.25% (w/o trypsin inhibitor) on semen with a high concentration and high motility values of spermatozoa before freezing. PMID:10090565
Silva, N; Solana, A; Castro, J M
The aim of this experiment was to evaluate membrane integrity, vitality, and mitochondrial cytochemical activity, in frozen semen samples of buffalo bulls and compare those functions with the routine semen evaluation and field fertility. Twenty one frozen semen batches from 2 buffalo bulls were used for AI. For the semen evaluation, after thawing, an aliquot was evaluated for motility and vigor. An aliquot of each batch was used to evaluate the cytochemical activity using the 3-3’ diami...
Barros, P. M. H.; Nichi, M.; Cortada, C. N. M.; Carvalho, N. A. T.; Baruselli, P. S.; Barnabe, R. C.; Barnabe, V. H.
Increased scrotal temperature can, in experimental settings, markedly disturb the production of semen. Sedentary work position may increase the temperature of the scrotum, but previous studies have failed to determine whether changes in scrotal temperature caused by sedentary work actually do affect semen quality. This study was carried out to elucidate the possible harmful effects of sedentary work on sperm count and other semen characteristics. In 1981-1983 a semen sample was obtained from 3119 men who attended an infertility workup in one of four Danish fertility centres. A total of 2517 men returned a postal questionnaire with information on life style, leisure time activities, occupational history and job duties. Information on job specific work position was obtained from The Danish Work Environment Cohort study 1990 (DWECS). In this analysis DWECS data for a total of 1747 men was included from men aged 18-39 years with >30 h of work per week. For all job titles represented in the DWECS, the mean proportion of sedentary work was estimated. The sperm cell concentration was 30.6 million/mL among men in the quintile with lowest job specific sedentary work compared with 40.5 million/mL in the highest quintile. The difference was, however, not statistically significant. Stratification on infertility period, educational level of the man, fertility centre, and fertility-related disease of the spouse did not influence the results. The analyses do not suggest that sedentary work is a risk factor for abnormal semen characteristics.
StÃ¸y, Julie; HjÃ¸llund, Niels Henrik I
Full Text Available This study reports the effect of genotype and frequency of semen collection on seminal traits of local chicken cocks. Semen was collected, using the back-lumbar massage method from Normal Feather (NOF, Naked Neck (NN, Frizzle (FR and Naked Neck x Frizzle (NNxFR cocks at two ejaculation frequencies, namely once and twice per week for nine weeks. Ejaculates were subjected to both physical and laboratory evaluations for quality. Results showed that there were significant (p<0.05 differences between the genotypes for semen volume with the NOF (0.150.009 mL and NN x FR (0.130.013 mL cocks having higher semen volumes than that of the NN (0.110.013 mL and FR (0.080.013 mL counterparts. Total spermatozoa was the only seminal trait significantly affected by the two frequencies of collection with once a week giving higher values than twice a week collection. Interaction effect was significant for sperm concentration and total spermatozoa. This effect was stronger when semen was harvested twice a week with the NN x FR and NOF cocks producing higher values. It was therefore concluded that NN x FR and NOF genotype were superior to their NN and FR counterparts in both semen output and frequency of semen collections and may be considered as potential candidates for use in natural mating and/or artificial insemination programmes aimed at improving the lot of the local chicken.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Organophosphates are broad class of chemicals widely used as pesticides throughout the world. We performed a cross-sectional study of associations between dialkylphosphate metabolites of organophosphates and semen quality among pesticide applicators in Majes (Arequipa, Peru. Methods Thirty-one men exposed to organophosphate (OP pesticides and 31 non-exposed were recruited (age, 20–60 years. In exposed subjects, semen and a blood sample were obtained one day after the last pesticide application. Subjects were grouped according to levels of OP metabolites in urine. Semen samples were analyzed for sperm concentration, percentage of sperm motility, percentage of normal morphology, semen leucocytes and concentrations of fructose and zinc. Exposure to OP was assessed by measuring six urinary OP metabolites (dimethyl and diethyl phosphates and thiophosphates by gas chromatography using a single flame photometric detector. Results Diethyldithiophosphate (p = 0.04 and diethylthiophosphate (p = 0.02 better reflected occupational pesticide exposure than other OP metabolites. Semen analysis revealed a significant reduction of semen volume and an increase in semen pH in men with OP metabolites. Multiple regression analysis showed that both occupational exposure to pesticides and the time of exposure to pesticides were more closely related to alterations in semen quality parameters than the single measurement of OP metabolites in urine. Conclusion The study demonstrated that occupational exposure to OP pesticides was more closely related to alterations in semen quality than a single measurement of urine OP metabolites. Current measurement of OP metabolites in urine may not reflect the full risk.
Full Text Available Spermatozoa are susceptible to peroxidative damages due to the high concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acids in its cytoplasmic membranes. Studies have shown that the spermatozoa and seminal leukocytes are capable to generate high levels of reactive oxygen species (ROSs that may reduce the viability and fertility of spermatozoa. However, small quantities of ROSs are necessary to initiation of the function of spermatozoa, as well as, capacitation and induction of the acrosomic reaction. Thus an equilibrium between the production of ROSs and antioxidative protection is necessary to assure the spermatic function. The antioxidative protection of the semen is supplied by enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, catalase, vitamin C, vitamin E and other substances (albumine, glutathione, taurine, hypotaurine found inside of spermatic cells or in seminal plasma. Thus, the objective of this revision is characterize how reactive oxygen species cause irreparable damages to spermatozoa membranes and the importance of the antioxidative protection of the semen that can be promoted by the addition of simple minerals like selenium and vitamins (e.g. ascorbic acid.
Cristiane A Alvarez e Gentil Vanini de Moraes
Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se evaluó la preñez resultante de la inseminación artificial sistemática cervical (IASC) con semen ovino refrigerado a 5ºC durante 12 o 24 h y dosis de 150 o 300 millones de espermatozoides. Doscientas ovejas adultas Merino se dividieron al azar en grupos de 40 animales, según arreglo factorial de l [...] os tratamientos (2x2) más un grupo control. En la estación reproductiva, los estros fueron sincronizados mediante 14 días con esponjas intravaginales con 60 mg acetato de medroxiprogesterona y 200 UI de eCG al retirar las esponjas. A las 12 y 24 h previas a la IASC se colectaron, diluyeron y refrigeraron los eyaculados. La dilución del semen se realizó con OviPro (Minitüb®, Alemania) en una relación 1:2 (semen/ diluyente). El grupo control fue inseminado con semen fresco sin diluir y dosis de 100 millones de espermatozoides. La IASC se realizó en el orificio uterino externo a las 54-56 h después del tratamiento progestacional. La preservación seminal durante 12 h alcanzó el 25% (10/40) y 38% (15/ 39) de preñez con dosis de 150 y 300 millones de espermatozoides. El semen preservado durante 24 h determinó el 3% (1/37) y 19% (7/37) de preñez con dosis inseminantes de 150 y 300 millones de espermatozoides, respectivamente. El porcentaje de preñez del grupo control (59%) evidenció que las condiciones de la majada no estuvieron afectadas por el estado nutricional o de manejo. La IASC con semen refrigerado ovino durante 12 h y una dosis de inseminación de 300 millones de espermatozoides, permitió obtener una preñez aceptable (38%) considerando el beneficio de poder transportar semen a largas distancias y su bajo costo operativo. Abstract in english We evaluated pregnancy by timed artificial insemination (TAI) with ram semen chilled at 5ºC during 12 or 24 h and insemination doses of 150 or 300 millions spermatozoa. Two hundred adult Merino sheep were randomly divided in 4 groups of 40 animals each, according to a factorial arrangement (2x2) plu [...] s a control group. During the breeding season, estrus were synchronized with intravaginal sponges impregnated with 60 mg of medroxyprogesterone acetate inserted for 14 days and administration of 200 UI PMSG at sponge removal. Twelve and 24 h before insemination, semen from adult Merino rams was collected, and after the ejaculates were diluted and chilled. Semen was diluted with the Ovipro extender (Minitüb®, Alemania) using a dilution rate of 1:2 (semen/extender). Control group was inseminated with fresh semen without diluent and an insemination dose of 100 millions spermatozoa. For every group, cervical TAI was performed 54-56 hours after progestational treatment. Preserved semen during 12 hours obtained 25% and 38% pregnancy with an insemination dose of 150 and 300 millions spermatozoa. Semen preserved for 24 hours caused 3% and 19% pregnancy with an insemination dose of 150 and 300 millions spermatozoa respectively. Control group showed a pregnancy of 59%, which evidenced that flock fertility was not affected by nutritional status or management. TAI with ram chilled semen during 12 h, with an insemination dose of 300 millions spermatozoa, was found to provide an acceptable fertility (38%), considering the benefit of carryng semen for long distances and the low operative cost for its implementation.
P., Naim; M., Cueto; A., Gibbons.
The present study was designed to study the effect of traditional antibiotic combination (streptomycin and penicillin; SP) and relatively modern combination of antibiotics (gentamycin, tylosin, lincomycin and spectinomycin; GTLS) in extender on bacterial control and spermatozoal quality of liquid buffalo bull semen stored at 5 degrees C. Semen collected from Nili-Ravi buffalo bulls (n = 10) was diluted with skim milk extender containing either SP (streptomycin 1000 microg/ml and penicillin 1000 IU/ml), GTLS (gentamycin 500 microg/ml, tylosin 100 microg/ml, lincomycin 300 microg/ml and spectinomycin 600 microg/ml) or negative control with no antibiotics (NA). Liquid semen was stored at 5 degrees C for 5 days. Aerobic bacteria isolated from buffalo semen were Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. The only facultative anaerobic bacterium isolated was Klebsiella pneumoniae. In vitro antibiotic sensitivity test revealed that Ps. aeruginosa and Staph. aureus were susceptible to gentamycin. Staphylococcus aureus and K. pneumoniae were susceptible to tylosin and linco-spectinomycin. Total aerobic bacterial count was significantly lower in semen samples treated with GTLS than those of SP on third and fifth day of storage at 5 degrees C. There was no difference (p > 0.05) in sperm motility, longevity and plasma membrane integrity (PMI) in extender containing SP or GTLS combination until the third day of storage at 5 degrees C. On fifth day of storage sperm motility, longevity and PMI was significantly better in extender containing SP compared with GTLS and NA. Intact acrosomes, and sperm head, mid piece and tail abnormalities remained similar (p > 0.05) because of antibiotics up to 5 days of storage. In conclusion, GTLS is more capable than SP for bacterial control of buffalo bull semen. Moreover, GTLS and SP are equally efficient in preserving spermatozoal quality of extended buffalo bull semen for 3 days at 5 degrees C. PMID:18042206
Akhter, S; Ansari, M S; Andrabi, S M H; Ullah, N; Qayyum, M
Hypo-osmotic swelling test (HOST), eosin-nigrosin staining and normal apical ridge test (NAR) were used to determine integrity of plasma membrane and acrosome of undiluted, diluted (cooled to 5oC) and frozen-thawed sperm. Semen from seven bulls was used. For diluted and frozen-thawed sperm, three doses were pooled at 37oC. Percentage motility was assessed using a phase contrast microscope. A 50?l each of undiluted, diluted and frozen-thawed semen was mixed with 500?l of 50, 100, 150, 15...
This study reports the effect of genotype and frequency of semen collection on seminal traits of local chicken cocks. Semen was collected, using the back-lumbar massage method from Normal Feather (NOF), Naked Neck (NN), Frizzle (FR) and Naked Neck x Frizzle (NNxFR) cocks at two ejaculation frequencies, namely once and twice per week for nine weeks. Ejaculates were subjected to both physical and laboratory evaluations for quality. Results showed that there were significant (p<0.05) differences...
The potential impact of exposure to periods of high air pollution on male reproductive health was examined within the framework of an international project conducted in the Czech Republic. Semen quality was evaluated in young men (age 18) living in the Teplice District who are ex...
Phthalates are widely used man-made chemical released in the environment and human exposure is mainly through diet. As the phthalate plasticizers are not covalently bound to PVC, they can leach, migrate or evaporate into the environment and as a result have become ubiquitously contaminants. The present study investigates the correlation, if any, between the phthalate esters (DEP, DEHP, DBP, DMP, DOP) and sperm mitochondrial status, ROS, LPO, SCSA, and sperm quality. The study was conducted in the urban/rural population of Lucknow visiting Obstetrics and Gynecology Department, CSMMU, Lucknow. Semen analysis was performed according to the WHO guidelines while phthalate analysis by HPLC and LPO by spectrophotometer and the sperm mitochondrial status, ROS, SCSA using flow cytometry. The questionnaire data showed no significant difference in the demographic characteristics among the groups. In general, urban population was found to have statistically significant higher levels of phthalate esters than the rural. Further, infertile men showed statistically significant (p < 0.05) higher levels of pollutants in the semen than fertile men. A negative correlation between semen phthalate level viz DEHP and sperm quality and positive association with depolarized mitochondria, elevation in ROS production and LPO, DNA fragmentation was established. The findings are suggestive that phthalates might be one among the contributing factors associated with the deterioration in semen quality and these adverse effects might be ROS, LPO and mitochondrial dysfunction mediated
Accurate semen analysis is critical for decisions about patient care, as well as for studies addressing overall changes in semen quality, contraceptive efficacy and effects of toxicant exposure. The standardization of semen analysis is very difficult for many reasons, including the use of subjective techniques with no standards for comparison, poor technician training, problems with proficiency testing and a reluctance to change techniques. The World Health Organization (WHO) Semen handbook (2010) offers a vastly improved set of standardized procedures, all at a level of detail that will preclude most misinterpretations. However, there is a limit to what can be learned from words and pictures alone. A WHO-produced DVD that offers complete demonstrations of each technique along with quality assurance standards for motility, morphology and concentration assessments would enhance the effectiveness of the manual. However, neither the manual nor a DVD will help unless there is general acknowledgement of the critical need to standardize techniques and rigorously pursue quality control to ensure that laboratories actually perform techniques 'according to WHO' instead of merely reporting that they have done so. Unless improvements are made, patient results will continue to be compromised and comparison between studies and laboratories will have limited merit. PMID:20111076
Full Text Available The natural polyphenol resveratrol may be beneficial to many aspects of cell function and animal health, although its actions in the male reproductive system vary depending on animal species. This work investigates resveratrol effects on the quality of preserved boar semen during liquid storage at 17ºC. We used three approaches: 1 evaluation of conventional parameters of seminal quality, 2 measurement of specific response to capacitating stimuli, and 3 evaluation of mitochondria membrane potential and ATP content. Resveratrol supplementation causes i a loss in the response of liquid stored boar spermatozoa to capacitating stimuli, ii a decrease in the sperm ATP content and iii a reduction in the mitochondrial membrane potential. Moreover, higher concentrations of resveratrol increase plasma membrane phospholipid disorder and reduce the percentage of motile spermatozoa. These results suggest that semen doses supplemented with resveratrol could be considered sub-fertile compared with semen stored hypothermically in standard conditions.
Full Text Available Problem statement: Oxidative Stress (OS has been recognized as one of the most important cause of male infertility. We studied the relation of serum and Semen Malondialdehyde (MDA and Total Antioxidant Capacity (TAC with sperm parameters in infertile men with sperm count within the normal range. Approach: The prospective case- control study performed on infertile men presenting to the infertility clinics of Mirzakochak khan hospital, Tehran university of Medical Sciences from June 2007 to June 2009. The samples were collected consecutively and the total of 40 infertile men was enrolled in the study. Also, 40 healthy men were matched as control group. MDA and TAC in serum and seminal plasma were measured and relation between them and semen analysis parameters were evaluated. The MDA was measured as nmol mL?1 and the TAC was expressed as g dL?1. Results: Analysis showed that the amount of semen MDA was statistically different in infertile and healthy control groups. We did not find any significant relation between smoking and sperm parameters in infertile men. The relation between semen MDA and abnormal sperm abnormal morphology (p = 0.003, r = -0.468 and semen TAC and weak sperm motility (p = 0.037, r = -0.359 was significant. Conclusion: Immediate attention should be directed at simplifying and validating the evaluation of reactive oxygen species and OS status so that it can be performed routinely.
The objective was to evaluate the effects of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) on the quality and fertility of frozen/thawed ovine semen. Five rams (five ejaculates/ram) were used for evaluation of semen parameters. Before cryopreservation, ejaculates were divided into four aliquots and extended with Tris alone or supplemented with human IGF-I (50, 100, or 250 ng/mL). Semen was evaluated immediately after thawing (T0), after 1 h (T1) and 2 h (T2) post-incubation at 37 °C. The percentage of live cells (fluorescence analysis-calcein and ethidium), acrosome integrity (NAR) and motility were analyzed, and hypo-osmotic swelling tests (HOST) were used to evaluate membrane resistance. In addition, AI was performed using 121 ewes to compare the optimal concentration of IGF-I vs. Tris alone on pregnancy rates after laparoscopic insemination. Pregnancy diagnosis was performed by transrectal ultrasonography. After 1 and 2 h post-incubation, in every group, percentage motile sperm, NAR and HOST decreased compared to semen at T0. Motility was higher (P 0.05) in NAR or hypo-osmotic swelling tests (HOST) among groups. There were no differences (P > 0.05) in fertility between the IGF-I 100 and Tris groups. In conclusion, IGF-I improved subjective sperm motility and structural integrity of the plasma membrane without a significant effect on 45-day pregnancy rates after laparoscopic insemination of ewes with frozen-thawed semen. PMID:22541171
Padilha, R T; Magalhães-Padilha, D M; Cavalcante, M M; Almeida, A P; Haag, K T; Gastal, M O; Nunes, J F; Rodrigues, A P R; Figueiredo, J R; Oliveira, M A L
Aviculturists often ask if semen collection will interfere with fertility in naturally fertile pairs of cranes. We used 12 naturally fertile Florida sandhill crane (Grus canadensis pratensis) pairs for this study, 6 control and 6 experimental. All pairs had produced fertile eggs in previous years and were in out-of-doors pens scattered throughout different pen complexes, within auditory range but physically isolated. Semen was collected on Tuesday mornings and Friday afternoons from 26 February 1993 to 4 June 1993. We used standard artificial insemination methods to collect and to evaluate the semen and spermatozoa. Semen collection did not affect semen quality or quantity. Semen volume, sperm density, sperm motility, sperm morphology, sperm live, sperm number per collection, and male response to semen collection exhibited significant daily variation (P semen collection began 13 days before the first egg in the experimental group, we observed no differences in the date of first egg laid or in fertility between experimental and control groups. Also, we observed no differences in the interval between clutches or in the percentage of broken eggs between experimental and control groups. Sires consistently producing better semen samples produced fewer fertile eggs than sires producing poorer semen samples (r = 0.60).
Chen, G.; Gee, G.F.; Nicolich, J.M.; Taylor, J.A.
...health certificate, and other documents for animal semen. 98.35 Section 98.35 Animals and Animal... IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMAL EMBRYOS AND ANIMAL SEMEN Certain Animal Semen Â§ 98.35 Declaration, health certificate,...
...Ports designated for the importation of certain animal semen. 98.33 Section 98.33 Animals and Animal... IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMAL EMBRYOS AND ANIMAL SEMEN Certain Animal Semen Â§ 98.33 Ports designated for the...
Full Text Available La colección de semen depende de una buena y constante producciónespermática para que la calidad del semen sea buena. Las técnicas decolección de semen están bastante desarrolladas en otros animales,especialmente en rumiantes domésticos en los cuales ya es unprocedimiento de rutina, pero en camélidos, dadas las especialescaracterísticas reproductivas, anatómicas y fisiológicas de estas especies, esta colección es bastante dificultosa y no existe un protocolo recomendado y una técnica optima, así como su manejo posterior.
Pacheco Curie, Joel Iván
La colección de semen depende de una buena y constante producciónespermática para que la calidad del semen sea buena. Las técnicas decolección de semen están bastante desarrolladas en otros animales,especialmente en rumiantes domésticos en los cuales ya es unprocedimiento de rutina, pero en camélidos, dadas las especialescaracterísticas reproductivas, anatómicas y fisiológicas de estas especies, esta colección es bastante dificultosa y no existe un protocolo recomendado y una téc...
Rabbits have been extensively used as a model for large animals and humans. All the reproduction techniques employed with farm animals can be performed with the low-cost rabbit model, and certain placental membrane characteristics make them especially relevant for studies of human teratology. The purpose of this study was to assess semen quality of New Zealand White rabbits. The material represents semen samples collected from adult rabbits (n=30). The semen was obtained by means of artificia...
Martyna B?aszczyk; Tomáš Slanina; Peter Massanyi; Robert Stawarz
PURPOSE: Report the characteristics of cryopreserved semen from a cohort of male cancer patients, attitudes towards cryopreservation and outcomes of semen samples based on a 12-year cryopreservation program. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Data from 98 male cancer patients whose sperm samples were banked were evaluated. Demographic parameters, semen characteristics, destination of sperm banked samples and questionnaires answered by the patients regarding cryopreservation time were evaluated. RESULTS: T...
Bonetti, Tatiana C. S.; Pasqualotto, Fabio F.; Priscila Queiroz; Assumpto Iaconelli Jr.; Edson Borges Jr
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of recent and long term occupational lead exposure on indicators of male reproductive health. METHODS: In a cross sectional study of male employees of a lead smelter (n = 2469), blood samples were obtained from 152 workers including 119 who also provided semen samples. Semen analysis and serum concentrations of testosterone, follicle stimulating hormone, and luteinising hormone were used as indicators of reproductive health. Semen and hormone variables were ...
Alexander, B. H.; Checkoway, H.; Netten, C.; Muller, C. H.; Ewers, T. G.; Kaufman, J. D.; Mueller, B. A.; Vaughan, T. L.; Faustman, E. M.
The transport and artificial insemination of chilled (4 degrees C) and cryopreserved (-196 degrees C) dog semen have gained increasing interest worldwide and have become very popular among dog breeders. Whereas cryopreservation of dog sperm is a complicated and time consuming procedure, which is almost exclusively performed at universities, the chilling of dog semen can be handled by veterinarians in their private practices, provided that the basic knowledge of chilling and diluting semen is ...
Rijsselaere, Tom; Maes, Dominiek; Den Berghe, F.; Soom, Ann
Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of in vitro sperm activation (ISA using non-liquefied versus liquefied asthenozoospermic semen samples for improvement of sperm parameters. "nMaterials and Methods: Fifty six oligoasthenozoospermic (OA patients (age range: 22-44 years; mean: 32.089 years were enrolled in this study. OA patients were classified according to type of infertility. Also, duration of infertility was recorded. Fifty six semen samples were collected, and seminal fluid analyses were done involving macroscopic and microscopic examinations were performed according to WHO methodology. Direct swim–up technique was used to separate the motile spermatozoa from seminal plasma. Minimum Essential Medium Eagle (MEME enriched with 5% Human serum albumin (HSA was used. One mL of either non–liquefied or liquefied semen was layered beneath 1 mL of MEME enriched with 5% HSA, and placed for incubation in an air incubator at 37 oC for 30 minutes. Then, one drop (10 ?L from upper layer of culture medium was taken using automatic pipette to be examined under high power field (40 X for assessment of sperm parameters."nResults: According to type of infertility, infertile patients were classified into patients with either primary infertility (no. 46; 82.15 % or secondary infertility (no. 10; 17.85 %. In contrast to other parameters, significant (P<0.05 reductions were noticed in the percentages of sperm motility and progressive sperm motility for OA patients with primary infertility as compared to OA patients with secondary infertility. All sperm parameters were significantly (P<0.001 enhanced after in vitro activation of liquefied and non-liquefied semen samples when compared to pre-activation. In the present study, best results were achieved for non-liquefied semen samples as compared to liquefied semen samples."nConclusion: It was concluded that the outcome of ISA was enhanced in regard to sperm parameters when using non-liquefied semen of OA patients. Furthermore, some components of seminal plasma of OA patients may be have harmful effects on certain sperm functions when in vitro incubated for longer periods. Further study is recommended to investigate the effect of in vitro sperm activation from non-liquefied semen on successful rate of artificial insemination husband.
Muhammad Baqir Fakhrildin
Two experiments were conducted to compare the effectiveness of different extenders conventionally used for semen cryopreservation to maintain the viability and fertility of cooled bull semen. In Experiment 1, sperm samples obtained from 20 Nellore bulls were preserved at 5°C for 48h using two extenders containing 20% of egg yolk [Tris (TRIS-R) and Botu-Bov(®) (BB)] and another composed of 1% soy lecithin [Botu-Bov(®)-Lecithin (BB-L)] as substitutes for animal origin products. The samples were evaluated at 6, 24 and 48h for plasma and acrosomal membrane integrity, quantification of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (ng of TBARS/10(8) cells) and sperm motility parameters by computer-assisted semen analysis (CASA). In Experiment 2, pregnancy rate (P/AI) of 973 fixed-time artificially inseminated Nellore cows were compared when cows were inseminated with conventionally cryopreserved semen in TRIS-egg yolk glycerol (TRIS-C Control, n=253) or semen cooled for 48h in TRIS-R (n=233), BB (n=247) or BB-L (n=240). Although none of the extenders used was effective on maintaining total progressive motility and cellular integrity throughout the 48-h of the refrigeration period (Prefrigeration for a 48-h period, resulting in reduced pregnancy rates. However, the use of lecithin-based medium instead of egg yolk results in greater protection against lipid peroxidation, producing P/AI results comparable to those obtained using frozen semen. PMID:24685263
Crespilho, A M; Nichi, M; Guasti, P N; Freitas-Dell'Aqua, C P; Sá Filho, M F; Maziero, R R; Dell'aqua, J A; Papa, F O
Semen studies in humans and animals have yielded extensive and compelling evidence that sperm can be used to assess reproductive potential and diagnose pathology. More recent studies on mutagens and carcinogens both at this and other laboratories suggest that a combination of mouse and human assays can be an efficient, effective approach to monitoring for reproductive hazards in the environment. We are investigating the potential of using variability in sperm morphology and DNA content to quantify and monitor the effects of environmental agents on the human testes. Here we review the status of human and mouse assays for environmental surveillance, discuss the genetic and fertility implications of chemically induced semen changes, and describe the high-speed flow methods being developed to automate sperm assays
Full Text Available From 1996 to 1999 a conservation programme was carried out within the framework of EC contract “European gene banking project for the pig genetic resources” (Ollivier et al., 2001 in the Italian local pig breeds. The aims of the program included the primary characterization of the breeds, i.e. information on the organization in charge of the breed, breeding population numbers, breed description and qualifications, and field trials on productive and reproductive performances. In this context the “Semen Bank of Italian local pig breeds” was built. A total of 30,835 straws of four Italian local pig breeds (Cinta Senese, Casertana, Mora Romagnola and Nero Siciliano, collected from 42 sires, have been stored. In this work semen quality traits, lipid composition and freezability of the four Italian local pig breeds are reported.
Full Text Available This study investigated whether the sperm motility from Landrace boars improves when PGF2? (Dinolytic®; 5 mg PGF2? /ml was added to diluted semen. Boars from one large production unit, were manually collected; semen was either enriched with PGF2? (group 1, n=38, either untreated (group 2, n=32. Total volume of semen collected, percent of motility and number of obtained doses were recorded. The highest sperm volume collected from the two groups is corresponding to ejaculates from Landrace boars with PGF2? supplemented semen (267.6 ml. Regarding motility, the sperm collected from Landrace boars with PGF2? supplemented semen was higher from the one collected from Landrace boars with untreated semen (81.37% and very significant differences were statistically determined. The ejaculates with highest number of obtained doses is corresponding to the ones collected from boars with PGF2? supplemented semen (25.21. Only boars from the first group (with PGF2? supplemented semen showed motility over 70% and even 100%. The untreated semen showed motility values around 65-70%.
Full Text Available A total of 30 animals, belonging to three breeds and crossbreds (Friesian, Local x Friesian and Shahiwal x Friesian were analyzed to study the magnitude of phenotypic variation and the repeatability of semen characteristics for volume of ejaculate, mass movement, forward movement and concentrations of semen. The co-efficient of variations ranges from 13.10 to 46.20% for various semen characteristics. Least square analysis of variance showed that breeds had significant effect on volume of ejaculate (P<0.05, mass movement (P<0.01, forward movement (P<0.05 and concentration (P<0.05 of semen. Pooled repeatability of volume of ejaculate, mass movement, forward movement and concentration ranges from 0.30 to 0.44, which indicated that more number of measurements should be considered for gain in accuracy in selecting the bulls. In semen out put, it was concluded that repeatabilities of semen characteristics was moderate. The breeds and crossbreds were found suitable for semen production. The crossbreds are as good as the purebreds for semen quality and output. Among the breed and crossbreds, Local x Friesian was found to be the most suitable. There was large phenotypic variation in semen characteristics in both between and within the breeds.
This study was conducted to determine when semen can be collected and to characterize and evaluate the semen collected from growing Awassi ram lambs. Semen was collected regularly once a week for 20 months, starting at 11 months of age, from 14 Awassi ram lambs of milk and meat lines that accepted the artificial vagina. After each collection, the semen was evaluated in terms of its appearance, ejaculate volume, progressive motility, spermatozoa concentration and density. There were significant effects (p Awassi ram lambs at 11 months of age. PMID:14620590
Salhab, S A; Zarkawi, M; Wardeh, M F; Al-Masri, M R; Kassem, R
The objective of this work was to evaluate the possibility of substituting glycerol for ethylene glycol when cryopreserving buffalo semen. Semen of eight buffalo bulls was mixed, pooled, and frozen in one of these four diluents: centrifuged Tris egg yolk glycerol; centrifuged Tris egg yolk ethylene glycol; centrifuged Milk egg yolk glycerol; or centrifuged Milk egg yolk ethylene glycol. Semen quality parameters assessed after thawing were motility, survivability, livability, sperm abnormality, acrosome integrity, and plasma membrane integrity. Conception rate and pregnancy rate were calculated after insemination of 104 buffaloes by straws of different groups (26 female/extender). Improvement in livability, sperm abnormality, acrosome integrity, plasma membrane integrity, conception rate, and pregnancy rate were seen when using ethylene glycol to replace glycerol when freezing buffalo bull semen in centrifuged TRIS egg yolk 61.15 ± 0.73, 24.85 ± 0.41, 69.10 ± 0.81, 71.75 ± 0.72, 46.2%, and 46.2%, respectively, followed by centrifuged milk egg yolk extenders. PMID:21664674
Swelum, A A; Mansour, H A; Elsayed, A A; Amer, H A
Experiments using bovine semen reveal that the addition of a high-gain water soluble dye results in random laser action when excited by a Q-switched, frequency doubled, Nd:Yag laser. The data shows that the linewidth collapse of the emission is correlated to the sperm count of the individual samples, potentially making this a rapid, low sample volume approach to count determination.
Smuk, Andrei; Lazaro, Edgar; Olson, Leif P.; Lawandy, N. M.
The objectives of the present study were to determine the effects of six different antibiotics in controlling the growth of semen contaminating bacteria and if these antibiotics have any adverse effect on Awassi ram spermatozoa. Semen samples from six mature Awassi rams were used in this study. A total number of 120 ejaculates were collected from the rams using an artificial vagina once a week. Semen ejaculates were evaluated for volume, sperm concentration, mass motility, individual motility...
Azawi, O. I.; Ismaeel, M. A.
Full Text Available ResumenLa colección de semen depende de una buena y constante producciónespermática para que la calidad del semen sea buena. Las técnicas decolección de semen están bastante desarrolladas en otros animales,especialmente en rumiantes domésticos en los cuales ya es unprocedimiento de rutina, pero en camélidos, dadas las especialescaracterísticas reproductivas, anatómicas y fisiológicas de estasespecies, esta colección es bastante dificultosa y no existe un protocolo recomendado y una técnica optima, así como su manejo posterior. Las características seminales son también muy variables y dependen de la forma de colección y existen varios factores que afectan su calidad, así como frecuencia de colección, edad, época, etc., por lo que también se evaluaron y desarrollaron diferentes técnicas de degelificar, diluir, conservar y congelar estas células espermáticas, de acuerdo a la técnica de colección y la especie, así como la utilización de dilutores y crioprotectores utilizados para otras especies, pudiéndose posteriormente utilizar en la evaluación reproductiva de los machos.SummaryThe collection of semen depends on a good and constant spermaticproduction so that the quality of the semen is good. The techniques ofcollection of semen enough developed in other animals are, especially in ruminant domestic in which is already a routine procedure, but incamélids, given the special ones characteristic reproductive, anatomical and physiologic of these species, this collection is quite difficult and it doesn't exist a recommended protocol and a good technique, as well as its later handling. The seminal characteristics are also very variable and they depend in the collection way and several factors that affect their quality, exist as well as collection frequency, age, time, etc, for what too were also evaluated and they developed different techniques of degelification, to dilute, to conserve and to freeze these spermatic cells,according to the collection technique and the species, as well as theextenders use and crioprotectors used for other species, being able tolater on to use in the reproductive evaluation of the males.
Pacheco Curie, Joel Iván;
Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent observations in in vitro and in vivo models suggest that arsenic (As is an endocrine disruptor at environmentally-relevant levels. When exposed to As, male rats and mice show steroidogenic dysfunction that can lead to infertility. However, the possible effects of As on human male semen quality remain obscure. Methods We monitored the profile of As species in the urine of a reproductive-age human cohort and assessed its association with semen quality. Men (n?=?96 were recruited in an infertility clinic from July 2009 to August 2010 in the Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Institute for Population and Family Planning. Five urinary As species were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS. Clinical information on the semen volume, sperm concentration and motility was employed to catalogue and evaluate semen quality according to WHO guidelines. As species concentrations in addition to other continuous variables were dichotomized by the medians and modelled as categorical variables in order to explore using the binary logistic regression possible associations between As exposure and semen quality. Results Urinary concentrations (geometric mean ± SD, ?g g-1 creatinine of different As species were 7.49 (±24.8 for AsB, 20.9 (±13.7 for DMA, 2.77 (±3.33 for MMA, and 4.03 (±3.67 for Asi (AsiIII and AsiV. DMA concentrations above the median were significantly associated with below-reference sperm concentrations (P =0.02 after adjusting for age, body mass index (BMI, abstinence, smoking and drinking habits. In addition, smoking was positively associated with MMA. Conclusion Reduced parameters in human semen quality are positively associated with As exposure in a reproductive-age Chinese cohort.
An experiment was conducted on 16 crossbred bulls (about 2 years of age, 316.2+/-0.77 kg average body weight), divided into groups I, II, III and IV to study the effect of different levels of Zn supplementation from inorganic and organic sources on semen quality. The animals in the first 3 groups were supplemented with 0, 35 and 70 ppm Zn from Zn sulfate, respectively and the animals in-group IV were supplemented with 35 ppm Zn as Zn propionate. Semen collection and evaluation was done in the first month (to assess semen quality at the start of the experiment) and 7th, 8th and 9th month of experimental feeding to evaluate the effect of supplemental Zn on semen attributes. We gave 6 months for Zn feeding, so that 3 sperm cycles of spermatogenesis had passed and the collected semen reflected the complete effect of Zn supplementation. Six ejaculates from each bull were collected and evaluated for semen quantitative (ejaculate volume, sperm concentration and sperm number per ejaculate) and qualitative characteristics (semen pH, mass motility, individual motility, sperm livability percent and abnormal sperm percent, percent intact acrosome, bovine cervical mucus penetration test, hypo-osmotic sperm swelling test) and activity of seminal plasma enzymes i.e., alkaline phosphatase, acid phosphatase, GOT and GPT. Testosterone level in the blood serum of crossbred bulls was also estimated. Mean values of semen quantitative and qualitative characteristics at the start of the experiment were statistically non significant (P > 0.05) in all the crossbred cattle bulls, however, there were statistically significant differences among the bulls of different groups after 6 months of zinc supplementation. Mean ejaculate volume (mL) was 2.37, 4.70, 5.86 and 6.38, respectively in groups I to IV, indicating a statistically significant (P semen volume in Zn-supplemented groups as compared to the control group of bulls. Similarly, sperm concentration (million.mL(-1)), live sperm (%) and motility (%) were significantly (P semen; however, the number of sperm per ejaculate, mass motility and semen fertility test like bovine cervical mucus penetration was significantly higher in bulls given Zn in an organic form (Zn propionate) as compared to an inorganic form (Zn sulfate). PMID:17169313
Kumar, Nishant; Verma, Ramesh Prashad; Singh, Lallan Prasad; Varshney, Vijay Prakash; Dass, Ram Sharan
In captivity, male Asian elephants often yield poor quality semen after transrectal manually assisted semen collection; however, the reasons for the disappointing semen quality are not clear. Here we test the hypothesis that accumulation of senescent spermatozoa is a contributory factor, and that semen quality can therefore be improved by more frequent ejaculation. To this end we investigated the effect of collecting semen five times on alternate days, after a long period of sexual rest, on semen quality in Asian elephants known to deliver poor semen during infrequent single collections. All eight bulls initially displayed a high incidence of detached sperm heads and low percentages of motile (close to 0%) spermatozoa. After semen collection on alternate days, the percentages of detached sperm heads, and head and mid-piece abnormalities, were reduced significantly (p<0.05). In particular, one bull showed markedly improved sperm motility (increased from 0% to 60%) and membrane integrity (increased from 5% to 75%). In addition, advancing age significantly (p<0.01) correlated with lower percentages of sperm with intact membranes and a higher frequency of detached sperm heads. In contrast to sperm accumulation problems in other species, a small ampullary diameter correlated significantly (p<0.05) with reduced semen quality. PMID:24832106
Imrat, P; Mahasawangkul, S; Thitaram, C; Suthanmapinanth, P; Kornkaewrat, K; Sombutputorn, P; Jansittiwate, S; Thongtip, N; Pinyopummin, A; Colenbrander, B; Holt, W V; Stout, T A E
In this study, the effect of dietary supplementation of organic selenium, vitamin E, and zinc on raw semen characteristics was evaluated. Ten stallions with normal fertility were divided into two groups: a control group (CG), in which standard diet was provided, and a treated group (TG), in which the standard diet was supplemented with 1500 mg of ?-tocopherol acetate, 360 mg of zinc, and 2.5 mg of organic selenium on a daily basis. Semen parameters on fresh semen were evaluated three times in all stallions before antioxidant supplementation (T0) and 30 (T1), 60 (T2), and 90 (T3) d after supplementation. Dietary supplementation with experimental antioxidants resulted in a significant increase in average path velocity (121.9 ± 3.1 ?m/sec in TG vs 118.9 ± 4.3 ?m/sec in CG), straightness (86.2 ± 2.4 % vs 82.6 ± 3.9 % in TG and CG respectively), viability (75.6 ± 10.2 % in TG vs 72.3 ± 6.9 % in CG) and total seminal plasma antioxidants levels (2.7 ± 0.5 mmol/l vs 1.9 ± 0.4 mmol/l in TG and CG respectively) while progressive motility 69.7 ± 11 % vs 62.2 ± 9.3 % in TG and CG stallions respectively) and abnormal sperm morphology (8.2±1.5 % in TG vs 14.4±4 % in CG) significantly improved in treated stallions after 60 d of supplementation. In contrast with previously reported in other species, a negative effect of antioxidant supplementation on semen concentration was recorded in the TG. A positive correlation between progressive motility and total antioxidants in seminal plasma in both treated and control stallions suggested that motility is affected by oxidative-antioxidative status, and that dietary antioxidant supplementation could increase the ability of spermatozoa to contrast reactive oxygen species or the ability of seminal plasma to reduce the oxidative stress. The improvement of semen parameters after antioxidant supplementation was not linear, and after 30 d (or 60 d for some parameters), a further increase was not noted. This evidence suggested that in our standard conditions, dietary intake of these antioxidants could be slightly under the dietary requirement and further evaluation of the actual nutrition requirements of organic selenium, zinc, and vitamin E in the stallion are needed. PMID:21295825
Contri, Alberto; De Amicis, Ippolito; Molinari, Andrea; Faustini, Massimo; Gramenzi, Alessandro; Robbe, Domenico; Carluccio, Augusto
The effect of exploitation and adrenergic system drugs on sexual reflexes and properties of the semen in somatically mature Polish Large White boars has been presented. At the first stage 8 males were exploited twice a week. Then, previous to semen collection, the animals were given beta-adrenolytic (Propranolol--Polfa), after 30 minutes followed by the preparation Levonor--Polfa (alpha-adrenomimetic). 15 minutes after last injection the semen was collected, this procedure having been repeated twice a week. At the second stage of the experiment the same males were exploited once a week. Like in the first stage, the animals were given the same doses of the drugs in the same sequence. 15 minutes after last injection the semen was collected once a week. At the third stage of the experiment the boars were exploited every day. Again, like in the previous stages, the animals were given the above mentioned beta-adrenolytic and alpha-adrenomimetic to collect the semen 15 minutes after last injection. In all the stages of the experiment 6-8 ejaculates were collected from each boar. Apart from preliminary assessment of concentration and morphology of spermatozoons there was determined the level of protein and activity of selected enzymes in the semen. The sexual drive as well as the time of searching reflex and ejaculation were observed. The drugs applied have been proved to be able to prolong the time of ejaculation reflex. Simultaneous application of beta-adrenolytic and alpha-adrenomimetic to animals exploited twice a week appeared to increase the number of spermatozoons in the whole ejaculate, the percentage of spermatozoons with proper movement and the activity of GGT and fucosidase. Intensive exploitation of a boar with parallel application of the preparations described bring about a gradual decrease in spermatozoons and protein in the ejaculate as well as in the activity of hyaluronidase in its plasma and in conversion to mg protein of semen plasma. PMID:2577239
Dubiel, A; Sta?czyk, J F; Karpiakowa, C; Koto?ski, B; Bako?ska-Paco?, E; Sobiech, K A
Full Text Available SciELO Peru | Language: Spanish Abstract in portuguese Por muitas décadas, o desenvolvimento e utilização da inseminação artificial nos eqüídeos, principalmente com sêmen congelado, esteve restrito devido a imposições por muitas associações de criadores que não permitiam a utilização da técnica. Recentemente, as legislações das associações de criadores [...] de eqüídeos em diversos países do mundo se tornaram mais flexíveis, permitindo o registro de produtos oriundos de sêmen congelado. No Brasil, frente a essa nova mudança, a principal associação criadores de jumentos (Associação Brasileira de Criadores de Jumento Pêga), revisou seus conceitos e passou a permitir a utilização desta biotecnologia. Atualmente em muitos países, o maior interesse no reprodutor jumento é para a produção de muares, pois esses animais são produtos bastante desejáveis no meio rural, devido reunirem as melhores características destas duas espécies. O primeiro trabalho envolvendo o congelamento de sêmen de jumentos utilizaram diluidor a base de gema de ovo, glicerol e ampolas de vidro como sistema de envase baseados na metodologia de congelamento de touros. Contudo, apesar da longa data de início dos estudos, poucas pesquisas têm sido direcionadas à espécie, em especial a biotecnologias do sêmen. Nesta revisão de literatura discute se as principais técnicas de congelamento de sêmen de eqüídeos bem como descrição detalhada dos estudos envolvendo o congelamento de sêmen da espécie asinina. Abstract in spanish Por muchas décadas, el desarrollo y utilización de la inseminación artificial en los équidos, especialmente con semen congelado, estuvo restringido, principalmente, por imposiciones de las asociaciones de criadores. Recientemente, las legislaciones de criadores de équidos en varios países se han tor [...] nado más flexibles, permitiendo el registro de productos oriundos de semen congelado. En el Brasil, frente a ese nuevo cambio, la principal asociación de criadores de burros (Associação Brasileira de Criadores de Jumento Pêga) revisó sus conceptos y comenzó a permitir la utilización de esta biotecnología. Asimismo, en muchos países, el mayor interés en el asno o burro como semental está relacionado a la producción de mulares, pues estos animales son deseables en el medio rural, debido a que reúnen las mejores características del burro y del caballo. Los primeros trabajos en congelamiento de semen de asnos utilizaron dilutores a base de yema de huevo y glicerol, y ampolletas de vidrio como sistema de envase, basados en la metodología de congelamiento de toros. Sin embargo, pese al tiempo transcurrido, pocas investigaciones han sido dirigidas a esta especie, en especial a biotecnologías del semen. En esta revisión de literatura se discuten las principales técnicas de congelamiento de semen de équidos y se describen estudios referentes al congelamiento de semen de la especie asnal. Abstract in english For decades, the development and use of the artificial insemination in the equine, especially with frozen semen, was restricted due to impositions of equine breeders associations that opposed the use of the technique. Recently, these legislations have become more flexible in several countries, allow [...] ing the registration of products originating from frozen semen. In Brazil, based on these changes, the main donkey breed association (Brazilian Breeders Association of the Pêga Donkeys) revised their concepts and started to allow the use of this biotechnology. The current interest in many countries for the donkey sire is the production of mules, because their acceptability as these animals inherits suitable characteristics of both donkeys and horses. The first reports on donkey frozen semen used extenders based on egg yolk and glycerol, packed in glass ampoules, and followed the existing methodology for freezing bull semen. However, despite of the elapsed time, few research works have been carried out on this species, especially on semen. This li
Igor Frederico, Canisso; Fernando Andrade, Souza; Jeanny Marlén, Ortigoza Escobar; Giovanni Ribeiro de, Carvalho; Mina C., Davies Morel; Erotides, Capistrano da Silva; José, Domingos Guimarães; Anali, Linhares Lima.
Criopreservação de sêmen suíno: avanços tecnológicos e perspectivas / Cryopreservation of boar semen: progress and perspectives / Criopreservación de semen de verraco: avances y perspectivas tecnológicas
Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Resumo A criopreservação de sêmen suíno é uma técnica ainda não consolidada devido à alta sensibilidade do espermatozoide da espécie ao processo de congelamento e descongelamento. Ainda assim, a utilização do sêmen criopreservado é altamente desejável para o intercâmbio genético e manutenção da bios [...] segurança. Esta revisão tem como objetivo ressaltar alguns fatores limitantes do processo e apontar os consideráveis avanços desenvolvidos nos últimos anos, principalmente devido ao aperfeiçoamento das técnicas já existentes, como caracterização das proteínas do ejaculado, ajustes na remoção do plasma seminal e uso de adjuvantes na confecção dos diluentes. Todas estas técnicas tornarão a criopreservação do sêmen suíno mais aplicável nos próximos anos para que possa ser finalmente uma técnica de uso comercial. Abstract in spanish Resumen La criopreservación del semen de porcino es una técnica aún no consolidada debido a la alta sensibilidad del espermatozoide de esta especie al proceso de congelación y descongelación, aun así, el uso de semen criopreservado es altamente deseable para el intercambio genético y el mantenimient [...] o de la bioseguridad. Esta revisión tiene por objeto poner de relieve algunos factores limitantes del proceso y señalar las importantes avances desarrollados en los últimos años, debido principalmente al mejoramiento de las técnicas existentes, entre ellas, la caracterización de las proteínas de la eyaculación, los ajustes de extracción del plasma seminal y el uso de adyuvantes en la producción de los diluyentes. Todas estas técnicas harán que la criopreservación del semen de porcino sea más aplicable en los próximos años, para ser finalmente una técnica de uso comercial. Abstract in english Abstract Biotechnology of boar semen cryopreservation has not succeeded due to the high sensitivity of swine sperm to the freezing and thawing process. However, its use is highly desirable for genetic improvement and maintenance of biosecurity. This review aims to highlight some limitations of the p [...] rocess and point out important advances obtained in recent years, including the improvement of existing techniques, such as protein characterization of the ejaculate, adjustments in the removal of seminal plasma, and use of adjuvants in the manufacture of diluents; all of which will make cryopreservation commercially available in the near future.
Tainã, Figueiredo Cardoso; Estela, Fernandes e Silva; Carine, Dahl Corcini.
The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of season in southeast of Brazil comparing genotypes on semen characteristics, freezability and peripheral plasma concentrations of testosterone. Ejaculates of five Bos indicus bulls and six Bos taurus bulls were evaluated over a period of 27 months, which was divided into winter (July, August, September), spring (October, November, December), summer (January, February, March) and autumn (April, May, June). Semen was evaluated according to standard procedures for ejaculate volume, sperm concentration, gross-motility, progressive motility and sperm morphology. After preparing and freezing the ejaculates according to commercial procedures, the straws were stored in liquid N(2) until post-thaw evaluation. Ejaculate volume, sperm concentration, gross-motility, progressive sperm motility, vigor and morphological sperm defects were significantly influenced by season and genotype (p abnormalities throughout the observation period. The highest values were recorded for abnormal heads followed by cytoplasmatic droplets in B. taurus bulls. The proportion of ejaculates which were eliminated before freezing for reasons of bad quality was lower in the B. indicus bulls. Temporal changes in peripheral plasma testosterone concentrations were higher in B. indicus bulls than in B. taurus bulls not revealing seasonal influences. The results of this study show clear genotype differences regarding semen quality. Freezability of B. taurus semen varies considerably throughout the year, leading to a high proportion of eliminated ejaculates. Collecting semen from B. taurus bulls during the summer in an artificial insemination centre may not be profitable. PMID:19090817
Koivisto, M B; Costa, M T A; Perri, S H V; Vicente, W R R
The present study was undertaken to assess the effect of dietary supplementation of Tinospora cordifolia on physico-morphological, biochemical, antioxidant profiles and serum testosterone concentration in Muzzafarnagari rams. Twelve rams were randomly divided into two groups, control (n=6) and supplemental (n=6) group. The control group was fed with a diet satisfying NRC recommendations whereas the supplemental group was fed with T. cordifolia at the rate of 1g/kg body weight for 6 months. The semen samples were collected 60 days post-feeding. The result revealed that T. cordifolia supplementation did not have a significant effect on physico-morphological, biochemical attributes of semen and serum testosterone concentrations in rams. The concentration of cholesterol, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase were, however, increased (P<0.05) in seminal plasma. It was concluded that the possible protective effects of T. cordifolia supplementation were enhancing antioxidant enzymes and cholesterol concentrations in semen which may be protected the spermatozoa during cryopreservation and thus enhancing fertility in farm animals. PMID:23755935
Jayaganthan, P; Perumal, P; Balamurugan, T C; Verma, R P; Singh, L P; Pattanaik, A K; Kataria, Meena
This study was carried out to investigate if the substitution of chicken egg yolk (CEY) with duck egg yolk (DEY) in extenders can improve the quality of frozen-thawed semen of Nili-Ravi buffalo bulls and to study if reducing DEY level in extender affects the freezability results. Thirty semen samples collected from three buffalo bulls were diluted in extenders A, B, C, D and E containing tris, citric acid, fructose, egg yolk, glycerol and antibiotics. Extender A contained 20% CEY (control), while extenders B, C, D and E contained 5, 10, 15 and 20% DEY, respectively. After freezing and storage for 24h in liquid nitrogen, samples were evaluated for post-thaw quality. The post extension sperm motility did not differ between extenders A (control) and E (20% DEY). The same was true for post-thaw percentage of sperm with functional plasma membrane and percentage of sperm with abnormal heads or mid pieces. However, extender E showed higher (Psemen quality were highest for extender E containing 20% DEY and decreased significantly with decrease in the concentration of DEY, except sperm abnormalities (head, mid-piece and tail) which increased with decrease in DEY level. These results showed that replacement of 20% CEY with 20% DEY in extenders significantly improved post-thaw sperm motility, livability and absolute index of livability of spermatozoa and reduced tail abnormalities. Reduction in the level of DEY in extenders from 20% adversely affected post-thaw semen quality of Nili-Ravi buffalo bulls. PMID:22464336
Waheed, Salman; Ahmad, Nazir; Najib-ur-Rahman; Jamil-ur-Rahman, Hafez; Younis, Muhammad; Iqbal, Sajid
...was free of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), swine vesicular disease (SVD), and...responses and there is no clinical evidence of FMD, the group shall be eligible for collection of semen with respect to FMD. Otherwise, none of the group shall...
...the Chief, Foreign Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory...veterinary inspection, and testing while the donor animal was on the farm of origin...importer, until all of the testing required to be conducted...indications that the donor animal or the semen from...
Sperm parameters and biochemical components of goat seminal plasma in the rainy and dry seasons in the Brazilian Northeast: the season's influence on the cooling of semen Caracrterísticas espermáticas e bioquímicas do plasma seminal de caprinos nas estações chuvosa e seca do Nordeste brasileiro: influência da estação no resfriamento do sêmen
Full Text Available The present study aimed to verify the caprine semen characteristics during dry and rainy seasons in the Brazilian Northeast, and the influence of these seasons on cooled semen. Seminal volume, concentration, percentage of motile cells, vigor and spermatic morphology, as well as biochemical profile (fructose, citric acid, P, Ca2+, Mg, total proteins and phospholipase A2 activity were analyzed. It was observed a reduction (PVerificou-se as características seminais de caprinos durante a época seca e a chuvosa no Nordeste brasileiro e a influência da época no resfriamento do sêmen. Foram mensurados volume, concentração espermática, porcentagem de espermatozoides móveis, vigor, morfologia espermática e características bioquímicas (frutose, ácido cítrico, fósforo, magnésio, proteínas totais e atividade da fosfolipase A2. Observou-se redução (P<0,05 no número de espermatozóides morfologicamente normais, frutose, ácido cítrico, fósforo, magnésio e proteínas totais durante a época seca que não influenciaram na motilidade, vigor, volume e concentração do sêmen. Entretanto, a atividade da fosfolipase A2 foi maior na época seca. Quando o sêmen foi submetido ao resfriamento a 4ºC durante 48 horas, houve redução (P<0,05 na motilidade total e no vigor espermático durante a época seca. Com base nesses resultados, conclui-se que o período chuvoso é melhor para resfriar sêmen de caprinos no Nordeste brasileiro.
A group of 26 medical laboratory technicians and pathologists performed a semen analysis on an aliquot of the same sample of semen. The mean sperm concentration obtained was 46.7 X 10(6)/ml +/- 40.1 (2 s.d.) with a range of values lying between 10 and 98 X 10(6)/ml and giving a coefficient of variation of 44.3%. Similar wide ranges were seen in the visual estimation of percentage motility and abnormal morphology. Results obtained from three technicians, all highly experienced in performing semen analyses, produced a mean sperm concentration of 66 X 10(6)/ml with a coefficient of variation of 37.8%. When the sperm concentration in semen was low, replicate analyses of four separate semen specimens produced coefficients of variation that were unacceptably high. PMID:6883051
Jequier, A M; Ukombe, E B
Full Text Available Bacterial infections are associated with infertility in men. This study was aimed to investigate microdeletions on Yq chromosome in semen infected with bacteria by using bacteriological, biochemical, and serological assays. The investigation showed that 107 of 300 (84.80% semen samples collected from infertile men with primary or secondary infertility were infected with different species of bacteria. Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrheae were the most frequently diagnosed bacteria in the infected semen samples. The percentages of infections of semen samples with C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhea were 42.31% and 35.28% respectively. Genomic DNA from each semen sample infected with predominant bacteria was analyzed for AZF deletions by using multiplex PCR. Different patterns of AZF microdeletions were obtained. It can be concluded that sexually transmitted bacteria may contribute in microdeletions of Yq chromosome by indirectly producing reactive oxygen species and causing gene defect in AZF regions.
Hayfa H Hassani
Full Text Available The effect of adding orange juice to the extender of roosters' semen on mass activity, individual motility, dead and abnormal spermatozoa and acrosomal abnormalities were studied. A total of 60 White layer cocks, 32 weeks of age, randomly divided into 6 groups of 10 cocks each were used in this experiment. The treatment groups were; T1 - the control (fresh semen ; T2 - the semen extended 1 : 1 with Al-Daraji 2 extender (AD2E alone , whereas T3 , T4 , T5 and T6 represented semen samples extended with AD2E extender and supplemented with 1 , 4 , 7 or 10 ml of orange juice / 100 ml extender. Results revealed that after 0, 24, 48 or 72 h in vitro storage, the supplementation of roosters semen extender with 7 and 10 ml orange juice / 100 ml of extender (T5, T6 caused significant (P 0.05 between T5 and T6 and among T2, T3 and T4 regarding all semen characteristics included in this study. In conclusion the supplementation of orange juice into semen extender plays an important role in protecting spermatozoa against the harmful effects of lipid peroxidation during in vitro storage of roosters' semen for up to 72 hours.
Hazim J. Al-Daraji
Full Text Available Background: Ubiquitin, an 8.5 kDa peptide that marks other proteins for proteasomal degradation, tags defective sperm during epididymal passage. Thus, sperm ubiquitination is a universal marker for sperm defects and can be used as a sperm function test. The objective of the present study was to examine the relationships between sperm ubiquitination and clinical semen parameters, using simplified immunofluorescence assays in order to establish ubiquitin as a biomarker of male infertility. Methods: Semen samples from 100 couples attending Avicenna Infertility Clinic, Tehran, Iran, were collected and analyzed according to WHO criteria. Each sample was washed and adjusted at 106 sperm/ml concentration. Sperm were coated on slides, using cytospin centrifugation and were fixed in buffered formaldehyde. Subsequently ubiquitinated spermatozoa were evaluated by direct immunofluorescence microscopy using FITC-labeled anti-ubiquitin antibodies. After counting at least 200 sperm per sample, while employing light microscopy, the percentage of ubiquitinated spermatozoa was recorded on the same fields through epifluorescence microscopy. Results: Negative correlations were obtained between sperm ubiquitination and sperm count (r=-0.278, P< 0.001, sperm concentration (r=-0.37, P< 0.001, viability (r=-0.407, P< 0.001, sperm morphology (r=-0.509, P< 0.001, rapid progressive motility (a (r=-0.246, P< 0.001 and slow progressive motility (b (r=-0.474, P< 0.001. There was a positive correlation between ubiquitinated sperm and the percentage of immotile spermatozoa (r=0.486, P< 0.000. Conclusion: Increased sperm ubiquitination is inversely associated with good semen quality parameters, supporting the use of ubiquitin as a biomarker for evaluation of human sperm quality.
Full Text Available The study was conducted to evaluate the effect of semen collection method for reduction of the deleterious interaction between the enzymes of bulbourethral gland and egg yolk during the dilution and storage of buck semen by three different level of egg yolk. Ten bucks were used in this study; the bucks were divided into two groups (five bucks in each group. Semen samples were collected once a week for four weeks from the bucks in first group using an artificial vagina, and from the animals in second group using an electroejaculator. The collected semen samples were diluted with sodium citrate extender with three different level of egg yolk (5, 10 and 20%. Extend semen samples were stored at 5 °C for three days. Computer assisted sperm analysis and Sperm Class Analyzer® were used for evaluation of the buck semen samples. Sperm motility parameters were evaluated which includes; percentage of motile sperm, percentage of progressive motile sperm, the value of the linear velocity (VSL, the value of the average velocity (VAP, the value of the curvilinear velocity (VCL, and the amplitude of lateral movement of the head (ALH. Results showed that all sperm motility parameters under the different level of egg yolk in semen samples that collected by artificial vagina were significantly higher than those which collected by electroejaculator. The percentage of motile sperm and progressive motile sperm of samples that collected by artificial vagina were higher at 10% of egg yolk, while these motility parameters were higher at 5% of egg yolk for semen samples that collected by electroejaculator. The differences between the two methods of semen collection in VCL and ALH were clear and the values were higher in samples that collected using the artificial vagina. The values of VSL, VAP and VCL of semen samples that collected by artificial vagina were higher at the second day than first day of semen storage under 10% of egg yolk. In conclusion, there are effects of the semen collection method on ability of dilution and storage of buck semen, and using of artificial vagina and 10% of egg yolk is recommended for buck semen dilution and storage.
International Conference `Resonances in Condensed Matter' is devoted to 100 years of the birthday of the Corresponding member of Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Professor of the Kazan University Semen Alexandrovich Altshuler (1911-1983). He is well known by pioneer works on EPR, the prediction and grounds for an existence of the neutron magnetic moment, the prediction and the theory of the acoustic paramagnetic resonance, and as a founder of the Kazan scientific school `Magnetic radiospectroscopy of condensed matter' (with E K Zavoiskii and B M Kozyrev)
Kochelaev, Boris I.
International Conference 'Resonances in Condensed Matter' is devoted to 100 years of the birthday of the Corresponding member of Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Professor of the Kazan University Semen Alexandrovich Altshuler (1911–1983). He is well known by pioneer works on EPR, the prediction and grounds for an existence of the neutron magnetic moment, the prediction and the theory of the acoustic paramagnetic resonance, and as a founder of the Kazan scientific school 'Magnetic radiospectroscopy of condensed matter' (with E K Zavoiskii and B M Kozyrev)
Full Text Available The objective of the research was to evaluate the speed and duration of centrifugation and seminal plasma levels on the viability of stallion spermatozoa. Semen was collected from three stallions twice a week. The collected semen then evaluated macro- and microscopically. Exp I, the semen was diluted 1:1 with skim milk extender and then centrifuged at 2000 and 3000 rpm for 15 and 20 minutes each. The seminal plasma was removed, and the sperm pellet was re-diluted with skim milk extender. The extended semen then divided in two tubes, stored in 5oC and in a room temperature. The semen then was examined every 3 hours for room temperature and 12 hours for 5oC. Exp II, the semen diluted 1:1 with skim milk extender and then centrifuged at 3000 rpm for 15 minutes. The seminal plasma was removed and the pellet was re-diluted with skim milk extender consisted of 0%, 25%, 50% and 75% of the seminal plasma. The extended semen then was stored in 5oC and examined daily. Results showed that speed and duration of centrifugation had no effect on the quality of stallion semen. The liquid semen without seminal plasma showed 47.50% motile sperms and 61.00% life sperms, wich were significantly higher (P<0.05 than those with seminal plasma. It was concluded that the speed and duration of centrifugation had no effect on the semen quality and removal of seminal plasma is beneficial for stallion spermatozoa. (Animal Production 8(3: 160-167 (2006 Key Words : Centrifugation, stallion semen and seminal plasma
Full Text Available It has been reported that mental stress causes abnormality of spermiogram parameters. We investigated the effect of psychological stress on the L-arginine-nitric oxide (NO pathway. Semen samples were collected from 29 healthy fourth semester medical students just before (stress and 3 months after (non-stress the final examinations. Psychological stress was measured by the State Anxiety Inventory questionnaire. After standard semen analysis, arginase activity and NO concentration were measured spectrophotometrically in the seminal plasma. Measurements were made in duplicate. During the stress period, sperm concentration (41.28 ± 3.70 vs 77.62 ± 7.13 x 10(6/mL, rapid progressive motility of spermatozoa (8.79 ± 1.66 vs 20.86 ± 1.63% and seminal plasma arginase activity (0.12 ± 0.01 vs 0.22 ± 0.01 U/mL were significantly lower than in the non-stress situation, whereas seminal plasma NO (17.28 ± 0.56 vs 10.02 ± 0.49 µmol/L was higher compared to the non-stress period (P < 0.001 for all. During stress there was a negative correlation between NO concentration and sperm concentration, the percentage of rapid progressive motility and arginase activity (r = -0.622, P < 0.01; r = -0.425, P < 0.05 and r = -0.445, P < 0.05, respectively. These results indicate that psychological stress causes an increase of NO level and a decrease of arginase activity in the L-arginine-NO pathway. Furthermore, poor sperm quality may be due to excessive production of NO under psychological stress. In the light of these results, we suggest that the arginine-NO pathway, together with arginase and NO synthase, are involved in semen quality under stress conditions.
Full Text Available Semen from three Egyptian buffalo bulls was collected once weekly and ejaculates with more 75% progressive motility and more 85 % normal sperm morphology prior to cryopreservation were pooled in order to have sufficient semen for a replicate and to eliminate the bulls effect. Seven extenders were used: Tris 20 % egg yolk extender with 7 ml glycerol as a control (T1, and substitution of whole egg yolk with 4, 6, 8, 10, 12 and 15 % low density lipoprotein (LDL, T2 – T6, respectively. Semen was diluted to 80 x106 sperm/ml, packaged into 0.25 ml straws, cooled, held at 5.C for 4 h, and then frozen in liquid nitrogen (LN and stored at -196.C for at least one month. Sperm progressive motility, intact acrosome and plasma membrane integrity were assesd at post dilution, equilibration, post-thawing (at 37.C for 30 sec. and after 30 days storage in LN. This study reveled that LDL extenders were more effective in preservation of progressive motility, intact acrosome and integrity of the plasma membrane of buffalo spermatozoa than whole egg yolk extender. Sperm progressive, intact acrosome and plasma membrane integrity were much higher (P < 0.05 in the 12% LDL extender (63.3, 77.17 and 71.3% respectively vs. 35, 40.8 and 34.7% in the control 20% EY extender at post-thawing process, respectively. Fertility rates were higher in extender containing 12% LDLs compared with the control (72.7% vs. 50%, respectively. It was concluded that LDL (12% in extender improved the freezability and fertility of buffalo bull spermatozoa.
Abstract Background The pregnancy hormone human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and its free subunits (hCG alpha, hCG beta) are produced in the male reproductive tract and found in high concentrations in seminal fluid, in particular hCG alpha. This study aimed to elucidate changes in peptide hormone profiles in patients showing abnormal semen analyses and to determine the genuineness of the highly abundant hCG alpha. Methods Seminal plasma was obtained from 45 male...
Zenzmaier Christoph; Gerth Regine; Gruschwitz Matthias; Lindner Herbert; Plas Eugen; Berger Peter
Semen evaluation is required to predict fertility. In most rural African communities, facilities for microscopic evaluation of semen are not available. Therefore, an indirect method of predicting semen traits of cocks is required by poultry farmers. The objective of this study was to use factor scores derived from factor analysis of body measurements to predict some semen traits of cocks. Correlation matrix was obtained by calculating the correlations between body measurements and semen trait...
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The effect of the utilization of three semen protocols (Inra 82®, Merck Gema and Botu-crio®) and two filling techniques (0.25 and 0.50 mL straws) in Mangalarga Marchador stallions were studied in this experiment. Sperm parameters were assessed during processing and post-freezing. No interactions bet [...] ween the protocols and type of filling were observed, so they were assessed separately. Sperm parameters were not altered when the extender was added to the centrifugation; however, there was reduction of motility and strength when freezing extenders were added. The Botu-crio® protocol preserved the parameters of total and progressive sperm motility, smoothed path velocity (µm/s), straight line velocity (µm/s), track velocity (µm/s) and the average and fast spermatozoa percentage better than the others. No difference between the extenders for the percentage of sperm integrity was observed. There was no difference in the responses studied on the filling techniques. The stallions presented better freezing with the use of the Botu-crio® protocol. The best post-freezing viability results were found for semen frozen using the Botu-crio® protocol and there were no differences concerning the sperm quality comparing 0.25 and 0.50 mL straws.
Marcela Leite, Candeias; Marco Antonio, Alvarenga; Márcio Teoro do, Carmo; Heder Nunes, Ferreira; Mônica Russo Souto, Maior; Rodolpho de Almeida, Torres Filho; André Luís Rios, Rodrigues; Felipe Zandonadi, Brandão.
Full Text Available The data of the present study were collected from Bangladesh Milk Producer`s Co-operative Union Limited (BMPCUL at Baghabarighat, Sirajgonj to investigate the bull performance among various seasons through semen quality and 30-day non return rate. To evaluate the seasonal variation on semen quality and bull fertility the experimental period was divided into three seasons; a Summer season (March to June, b Rainy season (July to October and c Winter season (November to February. Data on 245 ejaculates and 12,750 services of almost same aged 5 Sahiwal bulls (B1, B2, B3, B4 and B5 over a period of 5 years were collected from Animal Breeding section and Cattle Feed Unit of BMPCUL. The performance of five bulls was compared in three seasons i.e. summer, rainy and winter and summer was observed to be the best for most parameters studied. Seasons had significant (p<0.05 effect on semen volume, initial and post- thawing sperm motility and pH of semen but not on sperm motility of diluted semen and fertility. The significant (p<0.01 bull x season interaction was noticed in semen volume, sperm motility at initial and post-thawing stages, pH and fertility but not on sperm motility of diluted semen.
Full Text Available This study investigated whether the sperm motility from Landrace boars improveswhen PGF2? (Dinolytic®; 5 mg PGF2? /ml was added to diluted semen. Boars fromone large production unit, were manually collected; semen was either enriched withPGF2? (group 1, n=38, either untreated (group 2, n=32. Total volume of semencollected, percent of motility and number of obtained doses were recorded. Thehighest sperm volume collected from the two groups is corresponding to ejaculatesfrom Landrace boars with PGF2? supplemented semen (267.6 ml. Regardingmotility, the sperm collected from Landrace boars with PGF2? supplemented semenwas higher from the one collected from Landrace boars with untreated semen(81.37% and very significant differences were statistically determined. Theejaculates with highest number of obtained doses is corresponding to the onescollected from boars with PGF2? supplemented semen (25.21. Only boars from thefirst group (with PGF2? supplemented semen showed motility over 70% and even100%. The untreated semen showed motility values around 65-70%.
Full Text Available In mammals the length of daylight has an oscillatory influence on semen production. It is known that in mammalian males highest semen output occurs mainly in spring and fall. It is possible that there is the same pattern in rooster semen production despite the anatomic differences regarding the testis location and, obviously local temperature. Considering these facts the present trial was set up in order to reveal effects of prolonged daylight – photo stimulation – on semen production in young roosters. All young roosters in the trial were divided in 3 groups, according to the age when photo stimulating schedule started. Photo stimulation was performed by moving young roosters from an 8h/day light to 14h / day light. Attempts of collecting semen up to the age of 20 weeks have failed showing relationship between body general development and semen output. Under prolonged light semen parameters as volume, motility and concentration changed from one week to the other. However, light is not the single factor inducing sexual maturity of the genital tract, but it could be used in young roosters in order to stimulate feed intake and thus overall body growth and development.
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english It has been reported that mental stress causes abnormality of spermiogram parameters. We investigated the effect of psychological stress on the L-arginine-nitric oxide (NO) pathway. Semen samples were collected from 29 healthy fourth semester medical students just before (stress) and 3 months after [...] (non-stress) the final examinations. Psychological stress was measured by the State Anxiety Inventory questionnaire. After standard semen analysis, arginase activity and NO concentration were measured spectrophotometrically in the seminal plasma. Measurements were made in duplicate. During the stress period, sperm concentration (41.28 ± 3.70 vs 77.62 ± 7.13 x 10(6)/mL), rapid progressive motility of spermatozoa (8.79 ± 1.66 vs 20.86 ± 1.63%) and seminal plasma arginase activity (0.12 ± 0.01 vs 0.22 ± 0.01 U/mL) were significantly lower than in the non-stress situation, whereas seminal plasma NO (17.28 ± 0.56 vs 10.02 ± 0.49 µmol/L) was higher compared to the non-stress period (P
Eskiocak, S.; Gozen, A.S.; Taskiran, A.; Kilic, A.S.; Eskiocak, M.; Gulen, S..
Full Text Available Aim: Present investigation was carried out to study the physical characteristics of Kankrej bulls semen by evaluation of various semen parameters from neat semen and at various stages of semen preservation. Materials and Methods: A total of 60 ejaculates, 10 each from 6 mature Kankrej bulls, once in a week for 10 weeks, were collected and analyzed for various semen attributes. Result: The mean values for different seminal attributes were: ejaculate volume 4.84 ± 0.01 ml, pH 6.88 ± 0.01, mass motility 3.72 ± 0.02, sperm concentration 1253.83 ± 14.68 million / ml, individual motility 86.15 ± 0.30 per cent, live sperm count 90.58 ± 0.20 per cent, abnormal sperm count 4.24 ± 0.03 per cent and acrosomal integrity 81.17 ± 0.11 per cent. The colour of the Kankrej bull semen under the investigation was creamy white. Mean values of ejaculate volume, sperm concentration, live sperm count and acrosomal integrity of semen differed significantly (P < 0.05 among the bulls under investigation. The ejaculate volume was positively correlated with mass motility (+ 0.392 and sperm concentration (+ 0.385 and inversely proportional to the mass motility whereas mass motility positively correlated with volume (+0.392, individual sperm motility (+0.329 and live sperm count (+0.527. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the volume, pH, mass motility and sperm concentration of Kankrej bull semen were well comparable with other breeds of Indian cattle, however higher individual motility, live sperm count, acrosomal integrity and lower abnormal sperm count were recorded in the Kankrej bull semen. [Vet World 2013; 6(7.000: 405-408
Bharatkumar R. Patel
Semen cryopreservation and artificial insemination (AI) are potentially valuable methods for supporting the breeding management of endangered species like the Asian elephant. Cryopreservation of Asian elephant semen has however proven problematic with respect to maintenance of both adequate semen quality and fertility post-thaw. In this study, nine ejaculates from three adult bulls were used to compare the influence of extender (TEST versus INRA96®) and penetrating cryoprotectants (3% glycerol, 5% glycerol and 4% methylformamide) on post-thaw semen quality. We demonstrate that not only the freezing process, but also the quality of the semen before freezing, significantly influences the freezability of Asian elephant semen. Pre-freeze motility, viability, semen volume, semen pH, sperm concentration and the incidence of sperm mid-piece and tail abnormalities all significantly (pAsian elephant bull ejaculates suitable for cryopreservation; stricter initial selection should improve the mean post-thaw quality. PMID:23168056
Imrat, P; Suthanmapinanth, P; Saikhun, K; Mahasawangkul, S; Sostaric, E; Sombutputorn, P; Jansittiwate, S; Thongtip, N; Pinyopummin, A; Colenbrander, B; Holt, W V; Stout, T A E
Full Text Available Objectives : This experimental study was performed to investigate antibiosis of decoctions made by Cassiae Semen(CaS, Celosiae Semen(CeS and Buddlejae Flos(BF. Methods : Decoctions made by CaS, CeS and BF were prepared. After administering decoctions made by CaS, CeS and BF on bacterial species(Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Aspergillus niger, Fusarium oxysporum, Candida albicans which cause Keratitis, the size of inhibition zone and MIC(Minimum Inhibition Concentration were measured. Results : The inhibition zone on bacterial species didn't appear, after administering decoctions made by CaS, CeS and BF. Conclusions : This experimental study is showed that decoctions made by CaS, CeS and BF don't have antibiosis on bacterial species which cause Keratitis.
The application of micro HPLC to the determination of amygdalin in Semen pruni armeniacae and Semen pruni persicae is described. Amygdalin is separated at ambient temperature on a reversed phase column of U-Finepak SIL C18(150 x 0.5 mm) with methanol + water (25:75 v/v) as the mobile phase at a flow rate of 10 microL/min. The results are calculated by the internal standard method. The linear range is 1-7 micrograms. The CV and recovery of pure amygdalin are 1.47% (n = 10) and 98.13%, respectively. The results of analysis are lower than those obtained by TLC, but microHPLC is much simpler, faster, and more sensitive and reproducible than TLC. PMID:3233397
He, L Y; Li, B M
Full Text Available Total 60 ejaculates, 10 each from 6 mature Kankrej bulls were divided into 3 equal aliquots, the first aliquot was added withTFYG diluent with EDTA (0.1%, second with TFYG diluent and caffeine (0.5% as semen diluent additives and third without additive as control and each aliquot was evaluated at post diluted, post equilibrated and post thawed stages for individual motility, live sperm count, abnormal sperm count and acrosomal integrity. Thepercentage of individual motility, live sperm and acrosomal integrity were significantly higher (P < 0.05 and abnormal sperm count was significantly lower (P < 0.05 in presence of EDTA and caffeine as compared to TFYG diluent without any additive at allstages of semen preservation. It can be concluded that motility, viability and acrosomal integrity of spermatozoa were increased and abnormality was decreased after addition of EDTA and caffeine asadditives when compared with TFYG diluent without any additive.
B. R. Patel
Sexual intercourse is the major route of HIV transmission. To identify endogenous factors that affect the efficiency of sexual viral transmission, we screened a complex peptide/protein library derived from human semen. We show that naturally occurring fragments of the abundant semen marker prostatic acidic phosphatase (PAP) form amyloid fibrils. These fibrils, termed Semen-derived Enhancer of Virus Infection (SEVI), capture HIV virions and promote their attachment to target cells, thereby enhancing the infectious virus titer by several orders of magnitude. Physiological concentrations of SEVI amplified HIV infection of T cells, macrophages, ex vivo human tonsillar tissues, and transgenic rats in vivo, as well as trans-HIV infection of T cells by dendritic or epithelial cells. Amyloidogenic PAP fragments are abundant in seminal fluid and boost semen-mediated enhancement of HIV infection. Thus, they may play an important role in sexual transmission of HIV and could represent new targets for its prevention. PMID:18083097
Münch, Jan; Rücker, Elke; Ständker, Ludger; Adermann, Knut; Goffinet, Christine; Schindler, Michael; Wildum, Steffen; Chinnadurai, Raghavan; Rajan, Devi; Specht, Anke; Giménez-Gallego, Guillermo; Sánchez, Pedro Cuevas; Fowler, Douglas M; Koulov, Atanas; Kelly, Jeffery W; Mothes, Walther; Grivel, Jean-Charles; Margolis, Leonid; Keppler, Oliver T; Forssmann, Wolf-Georg; Kirchhoff, Frank
Purpose To verify the prevalence of semen bacterial contamination and whether the contamination could decrease sperm quality. Methods Spermiogram, semen culture, and sperm transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis were performed. TEM data were elaborated using a mathematical formula that calculates a fertility index (FI)—able to define patients as fertile or infertile—and the percentage of sperm apoptosis, immaturity and necrosis. We aligned the amino acid sequence of beta-tubulin with protein of the most frequent species isolated from semen. Results Patients were divided according to the contaminating species; in each group, we observed fertile individuals, in whom the semen quality was similar to that of controls and infertile men whose sperm quality was significantly decreased, in terms of motility, FI, apoptosis and necrosis. Partial homology between ?-tubulin and bacterial proteins was observed. Conclusion Sperm bacterial contamination is quite frequent and could contribute to the deterioration of the sperm quality of infertile men.
Moretti, Elena; Capitani, Serena; Figura, Natale; Pammolli, Andrea; Federico, Maria Grazia; Giannerini, Valentina
Full Text Available SciELO Peru | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Objetivo: Determinar la relación entre la calidad del semen humano y la edad. Material y Métodos: El espermatograma se realizó siguiendo el Manual de Laboratorio de la OMS para el examen del Semen Humano y de la Interacción Moco Cervical y Semen (1999), de los exámenes realizados entre julio 2003 a [...] diciembre 2008. Se estudiaron 2 441 casos de varones que cumplen con los criterios de inclusión. Resultados: La motilidad A+B fue de 51,55% para varones de 20 a 29 años; los espermatozoides normales fue de 77,73% para varones mayores de 50 años; el recuento espermático (mill/ml) fue de 61,09 para varones mayores de 50 años.La evaluación de la motilidad espermática tuvo como coeficiente de correlación lineal múltiple de 0,222 y coeficiente de determinación de 0,049; en la morfología espermática, coeficiente de correlación lineal de 0,0622 y coeficiente de determinación de 0,0039; en el recuento espermático, coeficiente de correlación lineal múltiple de 0,465 y coeficiente de determinación de 0,216. Conclusiones: existe una tendencia inversa entre la motilidad y la edad, una tendencia directa entre el recuento espermático y la edad, y una tendencia constante entre morfología espermática y edad. Abstract in english Objectives: To determine the relationship between the quality of human semen and age. Methods: A spermatogram was performed following the WHO´s laboratory manual to evaluate human sperm and the interaction between cervical mucus and semen (1999) from July 2003 and December 2008. We studied 2441 male [...] cases that fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Results: A+B motility was 51.55% for 20-29 years of age male participants; normal spermatozoids were found in 77.73% of males above 50 years of age; the spermatic count (mill/ml) was 61.09 for males above 50 years of age. Spermatic motility had a multiple lineal correlation coefficient of 0.222 and a determination coefficient of 0.049; respective values for the spermatic count were 0.465 and 0.216. Conclusions: There is an inverse trend between motility and age, a direct trend between spermatic count and age, and a constant trend between spermatic morphology and age.
John, Chávez; José, Yarlequé; Elmer, Avalos; Ruth, Barrientos-Marka; MarcoAntonio, García.
Studies of Al and cryopreservation of semen from nondomestic birds began because of the increased emphasis on conservation of avian species threatened with extinction. Over the years, aviculturists have developed techniques for Al and cryopreservation of semen obtained from a variety of birds ranging from passerines to Andean condors. Generally, for each new species, we develop a practical semen collection technique and then evaluate the semen. A commercial semen extender (Beltsville Poultry Semen Extender) is modified and used to dilute the semen and provide support for the sperm during the freezing process (the pH and osmolality of the extender is adjusted to reflect the pH and osmolality of the semen being frozen). We find that the freezing schedule developed by Sexton (1977), which utilizes dimethylsulfoxide (DMS0) as cryoprotectant, works well for many species. We cool the sample sequentially in an ethanol bath, in liquid nitrogen vapor, and lastly in liquid nitrogen. Although we have experimented with a variety of freezing protocols, we prefer a 15-min equilibration period in DMSO at 5 C. We begin the freezing process by cooling at -1 C/min from 5 to -20 C in the ethanol bath. The samples are transferred into a vapor tank at a location just above liquid nitrogen and frozen at -50 C/min to -80 C. To complete the freezing process, the samples are plunged into the liquid nitrogen in the bottom of the vapor tank. The samples remain in liquid nitrogen until they are thawed just before insemination. If necessary, the freezing equipment can be transported in a van to remote locations.
Semen analysis as an integral part of infertility investigations is taken as a surrogate measure for male fecundity in clinical andrology, male fertility, and pregnancy risk assessments. Clearly, laboratory seminology is still very much in its infancy. In as much as the creation of a conventional semen profile will always represent the foundations of male fertility evaluation, the 5th edition of the World Health Organization (WHO) manual is a definitive statement on how such assessments shoul...
Vasan, S. S.
The data of the present study were collected from Bangladesh Milk Producer`s Co-operative Union Limited (BMPCUL) at Baghabarighat, Sirajgonj to investigate the bull performance among various seasons through semen quality and 30-day non return rate. To evaluate the seasonal variation on semen quality and bull fertility the experimental period was divided into three seasons; a) Summer season (March to June), b) Rainy season (July to October) and c) Winter season (November to February). Data on ...
Mostari, M. P.; Hasanat, M. S.; Azmal, S. A.; Monira, K. N.; Khatun, H.
Full Text Available The study was conducted on in-vitro fertility assessment of frozen thawed semen collected from Kundhi buffalo bull maintained at Department of Animal Reproduction, Faculty of Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Sciences, Sindh Agriculture University Tandojam. Before freezing of semen, each ejaculate was assessed for volume, sperm concentration, mass activity and moss motility percentage. Twenty semen samples having motility 60% or above were frozen for post-thaw assessment. Frozen thawed semen was incubated at 250C for 5 hours and examined for progressive linear motility and live dead sperm count. The mean volume, mass activity, moss motility percentage sperm concentrations and pH of the semen were found to be 2.79±0.217 ml, 2.85±0.111, 71.75±2.621, 11.35±1.255 millions/ml and 5.8185±0.092 respectively of fresh semen. No significant difference was found between the parameters except pH, which was significantly different between the bulls. The mean sperm motility percentage and live dead sperm count % of Kundhi buffalo bull semen was found to be 20.46±1.62 and 6.9± 0.2% for frozen semen. A significant (P< 0.05 difference was found between the bulls for post-thaw motility percentage. It was found that at 01 hour incubation, 43.25±2.95% of sperms were motile having 11.78±0.28 % dead sperm count. It was gradually decline from 0 to 5 hours incubation, After 5 hours, all sperms were found dead. It is concluded that sperms maintaining long term motility and having less live dead sperms count were considered suitable for artificial insemination.
Hamzo Khan Kunbhar,
... false Restrictions on the importation of swine semen from the APHIS-defined EU CSF region. 98.38... IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMAL EMBRYOS AND ANIMAL SEMEN Certain Animal Semen Â§ 98.38 Restrictions on the importation of...
This study was designed to determine whether low-density lipoporoteins (LDLs) extracted from egg yolk in extender improve the freezability and fertility of buffalo bull semen. Semen from three Nili-Ravi buffalo bulls was diluted at 37 °C with tris-citric acid extender (50 × 10(6) motile spermatozoa mL(-1)) containing LDLs 2.5%, 5%, 10%, and 15% extracted from egg yolk and extender containing 20% egg yolk was kept as control. Diluted semen was cooled to 4 °C in 2 h, equilibrated at 4 °C for 4 h, filled in 0.5 mL French straws, and kept on liquid nitrogen vapors for 10 min. Straws were then plunged and stored in liquid nitrogen (-196 °C). Sperm motility (visually; %), plasma membrane integrity (%; with supravital hypo-osmotic swelling test), and viability (%; with dual staining test using Trypan-blue Giemsa) were assessed at post-dilution, pre-freezing and post-thawing. At post-dilution and pre-freezing, sperm progressive motility, plasma membrane integrity and viability was similar (P > 0.05) in extender containing 10% LDLs or the control. However, at post-thaw the aforementioned parameters were higher (P buffalo bull spermatozoa. PMID:21601914
Akhter, S; Ansari, M S; Rakha, B A; Andrabi, S M H; Khalid, M; Ullah, N
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the seasonal variations in semen characteristics in Arabic rams. 8 adult Arabic rams at the age of 2-3 years were used for this research. Semen was collected with electro ejaculator every 15 days for a period of 6 months (3 months of in breeding season and 3 months of non breeding season. Semen samples of these rams were subjected to the parameters including semen volume, sperm motility, sperm concentration, abnormal and live sperm percentage. Semen quality difference between breeding and non breeding seasons was significant. Semen volume, sperm motility, percent of live sperm, the percentage of abnormal sperm and sperm concentration determined in breeding and non breeding seasons had significant differences. Therefore, better progressive motility of sperm, sperm concentration, percent of live sperm and low percentage of abnormal sperm clearly explained high fertility potential of male in breeding season when compared with non breeding season. In conclusion, this study indicated that sexual performance of Arabic rams completely dependent on season.
A. Hamidi, M. Mamoei, Kh. Mirzadeh, S. Tabatabaei* and H. Roshanfekr
In the hatchery-bred tambaqui Colossoma macropomum, spontaneous semen release does not occur, and hand-stripping produces reduced semen volume. The goal of this work is to evaluate the effects of hormonal induction with carp pituitary extract (CPE) on both qualitative (visual aspect, pH, motility, viability and morphological abnormalities) and quantitative (volume, concentration and number of spermatozoa per ejaculate) traits of tambaqui semen. Eleven males were treated with CPE (induced), and 11 were left untreated as a control (non-induced). All analysed parameters except motility and percentage of viable spermatozoa presented significant differences (p < 0.05) between the induced and non-induced treatments. CPE induction resulted in a 25-fold increase in semen volume and a 10-fold increase in the number of spermatozoa collected. However, both sperm concentration and the frequency of sperm with morphological abnormalities (commonly detached heads or bent tails) were significantly lower in CPE-induced fish. The hormonal induction of tambaqui males with CPE is efficient and positively influences some qualitative and quantitative properties of semen. Additionally, semen collection via gentle abdominal massage occurs more readily in CPE-induced fish. PMID:21208496
Maria, Alexandre Nizio; Azevedo, Hymerson Costa; Santos, Jadson Pinheiro; Carneiro, Paulo César Falanghe
Penelitian tahun II ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui nilai konduktivitas panas komposit semen dalam bentuk conblock ringan yang dibuat dari komposisi campuran berbagai kombinasi perlakuan abu sekam padi, sekam padi, dan matriks semen Portland dan kapur. Nilai konduktivitas panas material yang cocok untuk sekat ruangan atau dinding yaitu lebih kecil dari 1 W/m 0C. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian eksperimental yang menggunakan percobaan faktorial dengan rancangan dasar rancangan acak lengk...
Decades of human semen studies have yielded compelling evidence that sperm can be used to access reproductive potential and diagnose pathology. With these studies as background, the small number of detailed semen studies of men exposed to physical and chemical agents point with optimism to the application of human semen assays as efficient, effective means to monitor for reproductive hazards in the workplace. Sperm are the most accessible of human gonadal tissue and provide a means of monitoring exposure induced changes in the human testes, changes which may result in infertility and increased frequencies of genetically abnormal gametes. The focus on semen has precipitated the development of new sperm bioassays which use older conventional andrological methods (i.e., sperm counts, motility, and morphology) as well as recently developed high speed flow and scanning methods for automated cytological analyses. The status of these sperm assays for workplace surveillance is reviewed, procedures are suggested with examples of use, and their effectiveness is evaluated. The available mouse models of induced semen changes are briefly described and the importance of these models for evaluating the genetic implications of findings in human semen is discussed.
Wyrobek, A.J.; Gledhill, B.L.
Full Text Available Rabbits have been extensively used as a model for large animals and humans. All the reproduction techniques employed with farm animals can be performed with the low-cost rabbit model, and certain placental membrane characteristics make them especially relevant for studies of human teratology. The purpose of this study was to assess semen quality of New Zealand White rabbits. The material represents semen samples collected from adult rabbits (n=30. The semen was obtained by means of artificial vagina. All samples were analyzed using CASA Sperm VisionTM system. To assessed spermatozoa morphology (the length and the width of head and tail; presence of abnormal spermatozoa we used QuickPhoto Micro system. Received data were statistically analyzed. Our research showed decrease of semen parameters value after one hour storage in 37°C. Correlation analysis showed negative correlation between presence of spermatozoa with separated flagellum and CASA parameters value e.g. motility, progressive motility, DAP, DCL, DSL, VAP, VCL, VSL, ALH and BCF. From among 3000 analyzed spermatozoa 14.2% posed abnormal forms. We observed negative influence of semen storage on its quality. Also negative correlations between all types of tail defect and motility of spermatozoa were detectedRabbits have been extensively used as a model for large animals and humans. All the reproduction techniques employed with farm animals can be performed with the low-cost rabbit model, and certain placental membrane characteristics make them especially relevant for studies of human teratology. The purpose of this study was to assess semen quality of New Zealand White rabbits. The material represents semen samples collected from adult rabbits (n=30. The semen was obtained by means of artificial vagina. All samples were analyzed using CASA Sperm VisionTM system. To assessed spermatozoa morphology (the length and the width of head and tail; presence of abnormal spermatozoa we used QuickPhoto Micro system. Received data were statistically analyzed. Our research showed decrease of semen parameters value after one hour storage in 37°C. Correlation analysis showed negative correlation between presence of spermatozoa with separated flagellum and CASA parameters value e.g. motility, progressive motility, DAP, DCL, DSL, VAP, VCL, VSL, ALH and BCF. From among 3000 analyzed spermatozoa 14.2% posed abnormal forms. We observed negative influence of semen storage on its quality. Also negative correlations between all types of tail defect and motility of spermatozoa were detected.
Full Text Available The considerable variability in constituents of seminal plasma could explain the particular differences in responses to freezing and in fertility rates after artificial insemination in ovines. This study assessed the effect of a pool of concentrated seminal plasma on ovine semen after thawing. Ejaculates of 1 2 Santa Inês rams were collected using an artificial vagina, diluted in Tris/egg yolk /glycerol and frozen in a semen and embryo freezer. After thawing, sperms were incubated using concentrated seminal plasma (1 0X for 1 5 min. Semen was submitted to biochemical analysis, followed by a computerized assessment of its physical characteristics, hypoosmotic test and heat resistance evaluation. The electrophoretic analysis of seminal plasma indicated particular differences in the samples protein composition,which were attenuated by the seminal plasma pool. The samples treated with seminal plasma showed progressive reduced motility. No statistically significant difference was observed in the other semen characteristics (p<0.05,between samples treated with seminal plasma and control samples. The concentrated seminal plasma pool didnot improve the assessed semen characteristics.
LIANA VIEIRA ROCHA
Previous studies suggest a deleterious effect of cigarette smoking on semen quality, but their results have not been consistent. We studied the association between current smoking and semen characteristics and hormonal levels in a large group of healthy men.
Ramlau-Hansen, Cecilia; Thulstrup, A M
Home collection of ejaculated semen would facilitate participation rates and geographic diversity in reproductive epidemiology studies. Our study addressed concerns that home collection and overnight mail return might induce chromosome/DNA damage. We collected semen from 10 hea...
Full Text Available The experiment was carried out at Central Cattle Breeding Station and Dairy farm, Savar, Dhaka, and 3 sub- station and 9 points of Chandpur District in Bangladesh to evaluate the quality and fertilizing capacity of locally produced chilled and imported frozen semen. Motility, sperm concentration and mass activity of semen from different experimental bulls were almost similar. Quality of imported frozen semen was better than that of locally produced chilled semen in respect of motility, motile sperm/ Insemination dose and spermatozoa with normal head. Motility and pH value of semen decreased significantly for transportation and prolongation of preservation duration. Average conception rate of imported frozen semen (57.33 was found to be higher than locally produced chilled semen (45.33. But it was similar between imported frozen (57.33 and average of 1st & 2nd day preserved semen (57%.
A. K. Das
The presence of semen in vaginal fluid, as identified by an acid phosphatase spot test, does not influence vaginal proinflammatory cytokine concentrations. Objective: determine whether semen, as detected by acid phosphatase, influences vaginal cytokines or secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor concentrations.
Agnew, Kathy J.; Aura, Jan; Nunez, Norma; Lee, Zandra; Lawler, Rick; Richardson, Carol E.; Culhane, Jennifer; Hitti, Jane
Recent reports from New Zealand indicate Neospora caninum has a possible role in causing abortions in sheep. Transmission of N. caninum via semen has been documented in cattle. This study aimed to investigate if horizontal transmission through semen was also possible in sheep. Initially, 6-month old crossbred ram lambs (n=32), seronegative to N. caninum, were divided into 4 equal groups. Group 1 remained uninoculated whilst the remainder were inoculated with N. caninum tachyzoites intravenously as follows: Group 2 - 50 tachyzoites; Group 3 - 10(3) tachyzoites; Group 4 - 10(7) tachyzoites. Semen samples were collected weekly for 8 weeks for the detection of N. caninum DNA and quantified using quantitative PCR (qPCR). Plasma collected 1 month post-inoculation was subjected to ELISA (IDEXX Chekit) and Western blot. At 2 weeks post-infection, three rams from Group 1 (uninoculated) and three rams from Group 4 (10(7)tachyzoites/ml) were mated with two groups of 16 ewes over two oestrus cycles. Ewe sera collected 1 and 2 months post-mating were tested for seroconversion by ELISA and Western blot. All experimentally infected rams seroconverted by 1 month with ELISA S/P% values ranging from 11% to 36.5% in Group 2, 12-39.5% in Group 3 and 40-81% in Group 4. However, none of the ewes mated with the experimentally infected rams seroconverted. For the Western blot, responses towards immunodominant antigens (IDAs) were observed in ram sera directed against proteins at 10, 17, 21, 25-29, 30, 31, 33 and 37 kDa. Rams in Group 2, 3 and 4 were noted to have at least 3 IDAs present. None of the ewes showed any of the 8 prominent IDAs except for the one at 21 kDa which was seen in 30 out of 32 ewes in both groups. N. caninum DNA was detected intermittently in the ram's semen up to 5 weeks post-inoculation with the concentrations ranging from that equivalent to 1-889 tachyzoites per ml of semen. Low concentrations of N. caninum DNA were also detected in the brain tissue of two rams (Groups 1 and 4). These results suggest that although N. caninum DNA can be found in the semen of experimentally infected rams, the transmission of N. caninum via natural mating is an unlikely event. PMID:23819894
Syed-Hussain, S S; Howe, L; Pomroy, W E; West, D M; Smith, S L; Williamson, N B
A series of sequential experiments were carried out to determine optimum diluents, cryoprotectants, equilibration time, and thawing temperature for frozen duck semen in order to set up the commercial semen cryopreservating techniques which could be applied to the conservation of genetic resources, breeding, and commercial production in domestic ducks. In experiment 1, the seven semen extenders were studied to determine efficacy of the diluent on cryopreservation of duck Semen. The result show...
Han, X. F.; Niu, Z. Y.; Liu, F. Z.; Yang, C. S.
The boar semen-associated cytotoxic factor(s), but not the antiviral activity, were removed by adsorption with kaolin. Although foot-and-mouth disease virus was efficiently removed from medium by kaolin or kieselguhr, the virus was not removed from semen-virus mixtures. Because the cytotoxicity induced by boar semen apparently altered the ability of tissue culture cells to support virus replication, preadsorption with kaolin increased the probability of detecting this virus in semen samples. PMID:213994
Richmond, J Y
Three hundred and sixty-one cocks from five hatches, one week apart, were used in this study. The birds which were made up of 203 birds from strain A (male line) and 158 birds from strain B (female line) were subjected to semen collection using the massage technique. The ejaculates were then subjected to both physical and chemical evaluations for semen quality analysis. The parameters considered were semen volume, semen colour, sperm progressive motility, sperm concentration, total sper...
Kabir, M.; Oni, O. O.; Akpa, G. N.
The experiment was carried out at Central Cattle Breeding Station and Dairy farm, Savar, Dhaka, and 3 sub- station and 9 points of Chandpur District in Bangladesh to evaluate the quality and fertilizing capacity of locally produced chilled and imported frozen semen. Motility, sperm concentration and mass activity of semen from different experimental bulls were almost similar. Quality of imported frozen semen was better than that of locally produced chilled semen in respect of motility,...
Das, A. K.; Ali, M. Y.; Islam, M. A.; Hira, A. K.; Ali, S. Z.
Background: Semen analysis is an indispensable diagnostic tool in the evaluation of the male partners of infertile couples. Methods: Semen samples were analysed by manual method. Analyses were for volume, viscosity, sperm concentration, motility, and morphology, according to WHO guidelines on semen analysis Results: This study, done at a rural setup, at Acharya Vinoba Bhave Rural Hospital has demonstrated that abnormal semen quality is a major factor in our rural setup with 52% of male partne...
A study was conducted at the National Animal Production Research Institute (NAPRI) Shika, Zaria, Nigeria to access some semen quality characteristics and to determine the effect of mating ratio on fertility and hatchability of Hubbard broiler breeders. 20 cocks were examined for semen quality characteristics. Parameters evaluated were: ejaculate volume, semen pH, sperm concentration and sperm motility. Sequel to semen quality evaluation, hens were divided into ...
Modupe Orunmuyi; Chidiebere Livinus Akanwa; Nwagu Bartholomew Ifeanyi
STUDY QUESTION: Is parental age at delivery associated with a man's semen quality? In this large register-based study both mother's and father's age are found to have minimal effects on semen quality in men. BACKGROUND: Both maternal and paternal age have been associated with a range of adverse health effects in the offspring. Given the varied health effects of parental age upon offspring, and the sensitivity of genital development to external factors, it is plausible that the age of a man's mother and father at conception may impact his reproductive health. To our knowledge this is the first examination of the effects of parental age on semen quality. METHODS: The study was based on Danish men referred to the Copenhagen Sperm Analysis Laboratory due to infertility in their partnership. Men born from 1960 and delivering a semen sample until year 2000 were included. The men were linked to the Danish Civil Registration System to obtain information on parent's age at delivery. Logistic regression analyses were used to calculate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for impaired semen quality. Linear regression analyses were used to examine a relationship between semen parameters and paternal age. RESULTS: There were no convincing effect of either mother's or father's age on a man's semen quality. As no trends were noted, the few statistically significant results are likely attributable to chance. LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION: Information regarding individual subject characteristics which may impact sperm production (i.e. smoking, BMI) were not available. While our sample size was large, we cannot exclude the possibility that a trend may have been identified with a still larger sample. In addition, the Danish Civil Registration System is merely administrative and hence does not discriminate between biological and adopted children. However, the low rate of adoption (â??2%) suggests that misclassification would have a minimal impact. The men were all referred to the laboratory for infertility problems in their partnership and, therefore, do not represent the general population. We, however, compared semen quality among men within the cohort, and it is therefore less important whether they, in fact, represent the general population. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS: The current study found no link between parental age and a son's semen quality, suggesting other factors may explain recent impairments in men's reproductive health. STUDY FUNDING: This work was supported by the Hans and Nora Buchard's Fund and the Kirsten and Freddy Johansen's Fund.
Jensen, Tina K; Lindahl-Jacobsen, Rune
HIV-1 is present in anatomical compartments and bodily fluids. Most transmissions occur through sexual acts, making virus in semen the proximal source in male donors. We find three distinct relationships in comparing viral RNA populations between blood and semen in men with chronic HIV-1 infection, and we propose that the viral populations in semen arise by multiple mechanisms including: direct import of virus, oligoclonal amplification within the seminal tract, or compartmentalization. In addition, we find significant enrichment of six out of nineteen cytokines and chemokines in semen of both HIV-infected and uninfected men, and another seven further enriched in infected individuals. The enrichment of cytokines involved in innate immunity in the seminal tract, complemented with chemokines in infected men, creates an environment conducive to T cell activation and viral replication. These studies define different relationships between virus in blood and semen that can significantly alter the composition of the viral population at the source that is most proximal to the transmitted virus. PMID:20808902
Anderson, Jeffrey A; Ping, Li-Hua; Dibben, Oliver; Jabara, Cassandra B; Arney, Leslie; Kincer, Laura; Tang, Yuyang; Hobbs, Marcia; Hoffman, Irving; Kazembe, Peter; Jones, Corbin D; Borrow, Persephone; Fiscus, Susan; Cohen, Myron S; Swanstrom, Ronald
HIV-1 is present in anatomical compartments and bodily fluids. Most transmissions occur through sexual acts, making virus in semen the proximal source in male donors. We find three distinct relationships in comparing viral RNA populations between blood and semen in men with chronic HIV-1 infection, and we propose that the viral populations in semen arise by multiple mechanisms including: direct import of virus, oligoclonal amplification within the seminal tract, or compartmentalization. In addition, we find significant enrichment of six out of nineteen cytokines and chemokines in semen of both HIV-infected and uninfected men, and another seven further enriched in infected individuals. The enrichment of cytokines involved in innate immunity in the seminal tract, complemented with chemokines in infected men, creates an environment conducive to T cell activation and viral replication. These studies define different relationships between virus in blood and semen that can significantly alter the composition of the viral population at the source that is most proximal to the transmitted virus.
Dibben, Oliver; Jabara, Cassandra B.; Arney, Leslie; Kincer, Laura; Tang, Yuyang; Hobbs, Marcia; Hoffman, Irving; Kazembe, Peter; Jones, Corbin D.; Borrow, Persephone; Fiscus, Susan; Cohen, Myron S.; Swanstrom, Ronald
The decline in sperm count rates over the last 50 years appears to parallel the rising prevalence of obesity. As lipid levels are strongly associated with obesity, high lipids levels or hyperlipidaemia may thus play an important role in the decline in fertility in addition to other environmental or lifestyle factors. The objective of this population based cohort study was to evaluate the association between men's serum lipid concentrations and semen quality parameters among 501 male partners of couples desiring pregnancy and discontinuing contraception. Each participant provided prospectively up to two semen samples (94% of men provided one or more semen samples, and 77% of men provided a second sample approximately 1 month later). Linear mixed effects models were used to estimate the associations between baseline lipid concentrations and semen quality parameters, adjusted for age, body mass index and race. We found that higher levels of serum total cholesterol, free cholesterol and phospholipids were associated with a significantly lower percentage of spermatozoa with intact acrosome and smaller sperm head area and perimeter. Our results suggest that lipid concentrations may affect semen parameters, specifically sperm head morphology, highlighting the importance of cholesterol and lipid homeostasis for male fecundity. PMID:24596332
Schisterman, E F; Mumford, S L; Chen, Z; Browne, R W; Boyd Barr, D; Kim, S; Buck Louis, G M
Seasonal changes in the reproductive physiology of stallions contribute to a decrease in the quality of frozen-thawed semen during late winter. Changes in the lipid composition of the sperm plasma membrane may contribute to this phenomenon. In the present study, we have, therefore, investigated the effects of adding linseed oil (LO) in combination with antioxidants to the diet of breeding stallions on the motility and membrane integrity of cooled-stored and cryopreserved semen. Starting in November, the diet of LO stallions (n = 6) but not control (C) stallions (n = 5) was supplemented with LO (100 mL once daily) plus an antioxidant (Myostem Protect; Audevard, Clichy, France) for a total of 84 days. Before (November) and at the end of this period (February), ejaculates were processed for cryopreservation (n = 3 ejaculates per stallion) and cooled shipping at 5 °C. Frozen-thawed and cooled-shipped semen was sent to the laboratory for computer-assisted semen analysis of total motility, progressive motility, and velocity parameters (average path velocity [VAP], curved line velocity [VCL], and straight-line velocity [VSL]) and evaluation of membrane integrity. The quality of frozen-thawed semen decreased (P 0.05). A decrease in the velocity parameters VAP, VCL, and VSL was more pronounced in LO stallions than in C stallions (e.g., VSL: November LO 67 ± 1 ?m/s, C 64 ± 2 ?m/s; February LO 59 ± 2 ?m/s, C 63 ± 2 ?m/s; interaction month by treatment, P VAP, VCL, and VSL were significantly lower in February than in November (P < 0.001), but this decrease was not affected by treatment. In summary, dietary supplementation of stallions with LO plus antioxidants attenuated a decline in motility and membrane integrity of cooled-stored stallion semen during winter. This may improve the fertility of cooled-shipped semen. In contrast, the treatment did not counteract the decrease in quality of frozen-thawed semen that occurs in late winter. PMID:24576708
Schmid-Lausigk, Yvonne; Aurich, Christine
Recent work at our institution on lighting turkey males for semen production and correlated changes in plasma luteinizing hormone (LH) and testosterone (T) are summarized in this paper. In sexually mature males, both LH and T are secreted in pulses, with a pulse of LH about 10 min prior to a pulse of T. Pulses of LH and T occurred about every 2 h and were equally distributed between the light (L) and dark (D) portions of a 14 h L:10 h D d. The pattern of secretion and overall concentrations of LH and T were not affected by intermittent photoperiod lighting (1 L:2 D, 8 x d) in comparison to continuous photoperiod lighting (14 L:10 D) lighting. Pulses of LH or T were not entrained by L or D with the intermittent or continuous lighting treatment. To study the interaction of age and lighting treatment, males were exposed to one of two lighting treatments: long-day photoperiods (16 L:8 D) d(-1) from 10 to 12 or 29 wk of age (WOA) (Treatment LDLD) or short-day photoperiods (6 L:18 D d(-1) from 10 or 12 to 29 WOA, then long-day photoperiods (Treatment SDLD). Males in the LDLD treatment attained puberty earlier (25 WOA) than those in the SDLD treatment. In the later treatment, most of the males attained puberty after 29 WOA. Both LH and T were low until 18 WOA in the LDLD males, then both increased to adult levels over the next 2 to 3 wk. In the SDLD males, LH and T were lower than in the LDLD males until 48 h after switching to long-day photoperiods, when both were transiently higher before declining to lower adult levels by 35 WOA. Secretory patterns of LH and T were estimated at 13, 23, and 35 WOA, under both lighting treatments. At 13 WOA, LH and T were secreted in pulses, but levels of both hormones were low and not different between lighting treatments, and none of the birds (0/4) in either treatment were producing semen. At 23 WOA, LH and T were secreted in robust pulses, with the LDLD males having higher concentrations of LH and T than the SDLD males. At 23 WOA, most of the males in the LDLD group (3/4) but none in the SDLD group (0/4) were producing semen. At 35 WOA, 6 wk after photostimulation of the SDLD group, all males (4/4) in both groups were producing semen, and LH and T were at adult levels. However, fewer pulses of T were noted for males in the SDLD treatment. PMID:11092342
Bacon, W L; Kurginski-Noonan, B A; Yang, J
A limited field trial was performed to evaluate the fertilizing capacity of boar spermatozoa frozen in an extender supplemented with lipoprotein fractions isolated from ostrich egg yolk (LPFo). Boar semen, diluted in an extender containing lactose with lyophilized lipoprotein fractions, glycerol and Orvus Es Paste (lactose-LPFo-G), was frozen using a controlled programmable freezer. Sperm characteristics, such as motility, plasma membrane and acrosome integrity, and mitochondrial function were monitored. Post-cervical artificial inseminations (post-CAIs) in multiparous sows (Polish Large White) were performed using the Soft & Quick catheter/cannula set. Sows were inseminated 2 to 3 times within one oestrus. Possible returns of sows to oestrus were determined from 21 to 30 days after post-CAIs. In this field trial, sows inseminated with 2 x 10(9) motile frozen-thawed spermatozoa resulted in pregnancy and farrowing rates of 75%, respectively. The average piglets born live was 10.5 +/- 0.4 (mean +/- SEM). The data of this study showed that post-CAI of boar semen frozen in LPFo-containing extender has the potential to provide acceptable fertility results. Further investigations are needed to elucidate the cause of variations in pregnancy/farrowing rate associated with frozen-thawed boar semen. PMID:17937184
Fraser, L; Strzezek, R; Strzezek, J
Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity has been determined in the semen of certain avian and mammalian species as well as its release during cold shock. The maximum and minimum levels of this enzyme were found in mammalian spermatozoa and in seminal plasma, respectively. It was found that ACE activity in mammalian spermatozoa was more pronounced than in the seminal plasma, whereas in the avian species a revers pattern was observed. However, there were no significant differences in ACE activity in spermatozoa and seminal plasma between layer and broiler strains of avian species. By contrast, ACE activity in the spermatozoa and seminal plasma of buffalo bulls was significantly higher (P/ 0.01) than in cattle bulls. Cold shock did not significantly alter semen characteristics in avian species, while a significant (P/ 0.01) decrease in sperm live counts and motility as well as a corresponding increase in morphological abnormalities were observed in the spermatozoa of cattle and buffalo bulls due to cold shock. PMID:16727111
Mohan, J; Moudgal, R P; Panda, J N; Mohan, G
Objective: To evaluate the clinical significance of corrected seminal prolactin assay in men with asthenospermia. Methods: Routine semen analysis and seminal plasma prolactin assay were performed on the men with asthenospermia, oligo-asthenospermia, normospermia. Prolactin was assessed by radioimmunoassay. The relationship between the level of corrected seminal plasma prolactin and the quality of semen was analyzed. Results: The mean level of the corrected seminal prolactin in the men with asthenospermia was (26.1±12.8) ?g/L and was significantly higher than that of the men with normospermia. Seminal plasma prolactin concentration showed linear increasing alongside with the decreasing of the semen motility and motility degrees. Conclusion: The detection of corrected seminal plasma prolactin level will provide an objective index for evaluating the semen quality of asthenospermic men
Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate sperm concentration, morphology and motility of Brazilian semen donors from 1992 to 2003, in the city of São Paulo. Methods: Retrospective study analyzing 182 donor semen samples from 1992 to 2003. The first and the second donated sample were analyzed for each donor. Donor average age was 30.8 years. Means with standard errors, medians with minimum and maximum values, and interquartile ranges were calculated for age, sperm concentration, semen volume, oval morphology and motility. The relation between each characteristic of the semen samples and the year of donation, as well as donor age and season of the year were studied by linear and multiple regression analysis. Results: Linear regression analysis showed that the sperm concentration (R2 = 19.1%, R2 = 20.2%, p < 0.0001 respectively and the oval morphology (R2 = 13%; R2 = 13.5%; p < 0.0001, respectively decreased significantly, even when the first or the second sperm collection is considered. The ejaculated volume showed slight increase during the period for both samples (R2 = 2.2%, p = 0.048; R-sq = 2.4%. p = 0.038, respectively. All characteristics did not depend on the donors’ age or season of the year when the samples were obtained. Conclusions: There was a decrease in spermatic concentration and percentage of oval sperm of semen donors samples from 1992 to 2003, in the city of São Paulo.
Full Text Available The objective of the experiment was to study the characteristics of stallion fresh semen and the quality of sperm preserved in Dimitropoulos extender (DV supplemented with different concentration of fructose, trehalose and raffinose. Semen were collected using artificial vagina from three stallions. Semen characteristics and quality were evaluated macro- and microscopically. Prior to extension, semen were centrifugated at 3000 rpm for 20 minutes. The condensed sperm were re-suspended in DV supplemented with different types of carbohydrate to meet the concentration of 200 million spz/ml. All samples were stored at room and chilled temperature, and were evaluated for motility and viability every 3 h and 12 h. The results of the experiments indicated that fresh semen characteristics were fair good; the volume, consistency, motility, live-dead ratio, concentration (106/ml, total spermatozoa (109/ejaculate and abnormality were 29.25±9.33 ml, watery, 7.00±0.12, 67.08±9.08%, 77.89±6.46%, 211.88±21.15, 6.28±2.45 and 27.26±4.64%, respectively. The supplementation of different type and concentration of carbohydrates did not significantly affect the motility and viability. However, the supplementation of 50 mM fructose significantly increased the motility and viability of the sperm compared to the control. In conclusion, carbohydrate supplementation in DV may not maintain the sperm quality, particularly in the medium with the osmolarity higher than 400 mOsm/kg.
This experiment was designed to study the effects of shearing in different seasons (winter vs. summer) on thermoregulation, blood parameters and semen characteristics of desert rams. Eight intact healthy rams were randomly assigned into two groups (n = 4). The control group was kept unshorn (UN) with intact pelage, the mean length of hair left was approximately 1.5 cm and the treated group was shorn (SH). Rectal temperature (Tr) and Respiration Rate (RR) measurements were carried out twice daily throughout the experimental period. Blood samples were collected once weekly for the evaluation of Packed Cell Volume (PCV), Total (TLC) and Differential (DLC) leukocyte count, Serum Total Protein (STP), Serum Albumin (SA), Serum Urea (SU) and Plasma Glucose (PG) concentration. Semen samples were collected once weekly for the determination of Ejaculate Volume (EV), Sperm Mass (SM) and individual (SIM) motility, Sperm Cell Concentration (SCC), live (LSP) and abnormal (ABS) sperm percent and semen pH. Scrotal Circumference (SC) measurements were performed weekly. Shearing of desert rams significantly lowered the morning Tr in both seasons and the afternoon Tr during summer, while RR was significantly lower in both seasons in the afternoon. The PCV was significantly lower in shorn rams during summer compared to winter and PG was significantly higher during winter compared to summer. In both seasons shearing significantly lowered SIM. It is concluded that shearing significantly affected thermoregulation, blood composition and semen characteristics during winter and summer. It is concluded that shearing in different season significantly affected thermoregulation, blood parameters and seminal traits of Desert Hamari rams. PMID:24517003
Suhair, S Mohammed; Abdalla, M Abdelatif
Finding a laboratory test reliable enough to predict the potential fertility of a given semen sample or a given sire for artificial insemination (AI) is still considered utopian, as indicated by the modest correlations seen between results obtained in vitro and field fertility. Male fertility is complex, and depends upon a heterogeneous population of spermatozoa interacting at various levels of the female genital tract, the vestments of the oocyte, and the oocyte itself. For this reason, laboratory assessment of semen must include the testing of most sperm attributes relevant for fertilization and embryo development, not only in individual spermatozoa but within a large sperm population as well. Strategies for the discovery of in vitro predictors of semen fertility require evaluations of low sperm doses for AI, so that differences in innate in vivo fertility can be accurately detected. PMID:12887570
Full Text Available Abstract Background The pregnancy hormone human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG and its free subunits (hCG alpha, hCG beta are produced in the male reproductive tract and found in high concentrations in seminal fluid, in particular hCG alpha. This study aimed to elucidate changes in peptide hormone profiles in patients showing abnormal semen analyses and to determine the genuineness of the highly abundant hCG alpha. Methods Seminal plasma was obtained from 45 male patients undergoing semen analysis during infertility workups. Comprehensive peptide hormone profiles were established by a panel of immunofluorometric assays for hCG, hCG alpha, hCG beta and its metabolite hCG beta core fragment, placental lactogen, growth hormone and prolactin in seminal plasma of patients with abnormal semen analysis results (n = 29 versus normozoospermic men (n = 16. The molecular identity of large hyperglycosylated hCG alpha was analyzed by mass-spectrometry and selective deglycosylation. Results hCG alpha levels were found to be significantly lower in men with impaired semen quality (1346 +/- 191 vs. 2753 +/- 533 ng/ml, P = 0.022. Moreover, patients with reduced sperm count had reduced intact hCG levels compared with normozoospermic men (0.097 +/- 0.022 vs. 0.203 +/- 0.040 ng/ml, P = 0.028. Using mass-spectrometry, the biochemical identity of hCG alpha purified from seminal plasma was verified. Under non-reducing conditions in SDS-PAGE, hCG alpha isolated from seminal plasma migrated in a manner comparable with large free hCG alpha with an apparent molecular mass (Mr, app of 24 kDa, while hCG alpha dissociated from pregnancy-derived holo-hCG migrated at approximately 22 kDa. After deglycosylation with PNGase F under denaturing conditions, all hCG alpha variants showed an Mr, app of 15 kDa, indicating identical amino acid backbones. Conclusions The findings indicate a pathophysiological relevance of hCG, particularly its free alpha subunit, in spermatogenesis. The alternative glycosylation pattern on the free large hCG alpha in seminal plasma might reflect a modified function of this subunit in the male reproductive tract.
Full Text Available Semen quality of muscovy drakes was studied in a randomized complete block design (RCBD under semi-intensive management system (SI, intensive system with wallow (IW and intensive system without wallow (IO using 12 active drakes in plot containing 60 female Ducklings. Semen collected by manual massage method 3 times at 5 days intervals beginning from week 33 showed that semen volume, sperm motility and sperm count were significantly higher (P< 0.05 in SI and IW than IO. Semen volume of the drakes under the three management systems ranged from 0.20mls to 0.30mls with IW and IO being the highest (0.30mls and least (0.20mls respectively. Drakes reared under IO produced significantly least percent sperm motility (68.58, whereas, those reared under SI (75.42 and IW (76.67 produced significantly higher percent sperm motility. Drakes reared under IO gave the least (95.58 per ml. of ejaculate sperm count. This is closely followed by drakes reared under IW (107.83 and SI (109.17 respectively. There were no significant differences (P>0.05 in the proportion of normal sperm and semen pH that could be attributed to management systems adopted; but sperm concentration of drakes in the 3 management systems varied significantly (P< 0.05 being 1761.67 x 106/ml (SI, 1801.67 x 106/m (IW and 1700.00 x 106/ml (IO. In conclusion, availability of Swimming water in the range and wallow contributes positively to the semen quality of Drakes.
A deterministic simulation was conducted to assess the effects of sexed semen utilization strategies on age at first calving (AFC). Four different strategies were implemented on dairy heifers: continuous use of conventional semen only (CC), continuous use of sexed semen only (SS), utilization of sexed semen for both the first and second services with conventional semen afterwards (S2), and utilization of sexed semen for the first service with conventional semen afterwards (S1). Results indicated that continuous utilization of sexed semen led to the greatest AFC; however at high conception rates, strategies displayed negligible differences on AFC. Increases in estrus detection rate had the greatest effects on decreasing AFC of the SS scenarios. Negative effect of sexed semen on AFC increased when the effect of low estrus detection rate was combined with low conception rate of sexed semen. Results indicated that in the case of access to sexed semen conception rate, prediction of AFC is possible by quadratic polynomial or exponential equations, depending to the applied breeding strategy. Simultaneous utilization of sexed and conventional semen in a herd did not make a substantial change in AFC when a low percentage of sexed semen was employed. Increasing the contribution of different sexed semen strategies led to higher AFC variation, especially for the SS strategy. AFC of strategies that utilize sexed semen is highly dependent on the conception rate, estrus detection rate and the contribution of sex sorted semen in the total number of inseminations of the heifer herd. (Author)
Joezy-Shekalgorabi, S.; Shadparvar, A. A.; Vries, A. de; Gay, K. D.
The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of dietary fat on quality of liquid and frozen-thawed semen of Nili-Ravi buffalo bulls. Adult bulls (n=21) were fed a balanced ration (Con; n=7) or the same ration either containing sunflower oil (SF-O; n=7) or whole sunflower seeds (SF-S; n=7) for 63 days. Body weight and body condition score of each bull was recorded on days 0, 30 and 60 of the experiment. Semen was collected on days 39, 46, 53 and 60, frozen by a fast method and stored at -196 degrees C for 24h. Sperm motility was assessed using a bright field microscope. Plasma membrane integrity of fresh and frozen-thawed spermatozoa was assessed using a hypo-osmotic swelling (HOS) assay. The concentration of spermatozoa and volume of semen was not different among groups on various days of collection. Sunflower-enriched diets did not affect the motility and number of HOS-positive spermatozoa in the fresh semen. Motility and HOS of post-thawed spermatozoa were higher (pbulls fed the sunflower-enriched diets. Similarly, diets did not affect the body condition score and body weight of bulls. In conclusion, feeding of sunflower oil or sunflower seed as fat sources can improve the quality of buffalo bull spermatozoa. PMID:19246083
Adeel, M; Ijaz, A; Aleem, M; Rehman, H; Yousaf, M S; Jabbar, M A
The objective of this study was to collect semen from semiwild Mithun (Bos frontalis) bulls using an artificial vagina (AV) and to determine semen characteristics. Collection of semen with an AV was attempted in five Mithun bulls using both anestrous and estrous Mithun females. No Mithun bull mounted an anestrous female Mithun during 60 trials, but satisfactory mounting, including extension of the penis, occurred in 25 trials with estrous Mithun females. In 15 of these trials, semen was successfully collected in an AV with an internal temperature of 42 to 46 degrees C. However, in 10 trials with an AV with an internal temperature of 36 to 40 degrees C, semen was not collected. Mean (+/- SEM) intervals to first mount and to ejaculation in the AV were 27.9+/-3.6 sec and 113.8+/-6.6 sec, respectively. Semen volume and pH were 3.1+/-0.35 mL and 6.59+/-0.04, and mean mass activity (scale, 0 to 4), initial sperm motility, live sperm count, sperm concentration, total number of sperm in the ejaculate, and overall sperm length were 2.2+/-0.3, 78.6+/-2.6%, 80.7+/-2.2%, 710.8+/-66.8 x 10(6)/mL, 2114+/-364.4 sperm, and 67.9+/-0.6 microm, respectively. The proportion of morphologically normal sperm was 80.6+/-0.2%, whereas the proportion with a morphologically abnormal head, midpiece, tail, and acrosome were 4.2+/-0.4%, 1.6+/-0.5%, 6.1+/-1.1%, and 7.1+/-0.9%, respectively. The mean incidence of tail-less heads and proximal and distal protoplasmic droplets were 0.5+/-0.1%, 0.3+/-0.2%, and 2.4+/-0.3%, respectively. In conclusion, we successfully collected semen from semiwild Mithun bulls with an AV maintained at 42 to 46 degrees C, and overall, the semen was within the normal range of that collected from fertile domestic bulls. PMID:19589586
Bhattacharyya, H K; Goswami, B K; Bujarbaruah, K M; Deka, B C; Biswas, R K
A study on the semen obtained from breeding goats suffering from mild to severe chronic besnoitiosis revealed marked changes in semen volume, colour, density, concentration, mass and individual motility and percentage live. There were also many neutrophils and spermatozoa with primary and secondary defects, including missing tails and deformed heads and tails. The observed changes were considered to be severe enough to account for the infertility observed in the flock. Sections of testes obtained for histopathology were characterised by massive blockage of the pampiniform plexus, degeneration of the germinal epithelium, tubular necrosis with an inflammatory infiltrate and, in some cases, accumulation of haemosiderin-like material in the tunica vaginalis. PMID:10855817
Njenga, M J; Munyua, S J; Mutiga, E R; Gathuma, J M; Kang'ethe, E K; Bwangamoi, O; Mugera, G M; Mitaru, B N
It remains unknown whether human papillomaviruses (HPVs) or human herpesviruses (HHVs) in semen affect sperm DNA integrity. We investigated whether the presence of these viruses in semen was associated with an elevated sperm DNA fragmentation index. Semen from 76 sperm donors was examined by a PCR-based hybridization array that identifies all HHVs and 35 of the most common HPVs. Sperm DNA integrity was determined by the sperm chromatin structure assay. HPVs or HHVs, or both, were found in 57% of semen samples; however, sperm DNA fragmentation index was not increased in semen containing these viruses.
Fedder, J; Larsen, P B
Repeatability (r) value of glutathione (GSH) content was estimated in semen of Tharparkar, Red Dane, their crosses, and Murrah buffalo bulls. Mean GSH values were higher in bovine bull semen as compared to mean GSH values in bubaline bull semen. The r of GSH concentration for the pooled data was 0.1278. This trait is 12.78% repeatable. GSH value in semen of bovine and bubaline bull differed insignificantly. R estimates are expressed for selection of bulls of higher fertility and semen quality. PMID:2241494
Jain, M C; Arora, N; Jogi, S; Mishra, D D
This study was done to determine the effects of processing techniques on the quality of semen from Dutch AI-bucks with the view on improving pregnancy rates after artificial insemination (AI) with liquid or frozen–thawed semen. Motility of spermatozoa was estimated under a microscope whereas the percentage live spermatozoa and the percentage live spermatozoa with intact acrosomes were determined by means of flow cytometry. Aspects of semen processing that were investigated are storage tempe...
Peterson, K.; Kappen, M. A. P. M.; Ursem, P. J. F.; Nothling, Johan O.; Colenbrander, B.; Gadella, B. M.
In this study the effects of a new antibiotic combination, i.e., gentamycin, tylosin and linco-spectin (STLS) on post-thaw motion characteristics, plasma membrane integrity, sperm morphology and the total aerobic bacterial counts (TABC) in buffalo and Sahiwal bull semen were investigated. Ten ejaculates, five each from a buffalo and a Sahiwal bull, possessing more than 60% sperm motility were used. These ejaculates were diluted in Tris-citric acid (TCA) extender (at 37 °C; 50 X 106 spermatoz...
Full Text Available Effect of dietary supplementation of organic or inorganic selenium on blood and semen selenium concentrations and semen quality was determined in 10 boars. During the 4 weeks of pre-experimental period, all boars were fed a basal diet containing 0.15 mg kg-1 of inorganic selenium. Thereafter, all cows were randomly allocated into 2 groups of five boars which were fed a basal diet supplemented with either 0.3 mg kg-1 of inorganic selenium or 0.3 mg kg-1 of organic selenium for 84 days. Blood samples were collected from all boars to determine selenium concentrations at the end of pre-experimental period and at days 49 and 84 after supplementation. Semen samples were collected at the end of pre-experimental period and at days 35, 49, 63 and 84 to determine selenium concentrations and semen evaluation. For both inorganic and organic selenium groups, blood selenium concentrations at days 49 and 84 were higher than the concentration at day 0 and the concentrations did not differ between the two groups at all sampling periods. Semen selenium concentrations at days 35, 49, 63 and 84 were higher than the concentration at day 0 for both inorganic and organic selenium groups and the concentrations did not differ between the 2 groups at days 35, 49, 63 and 84. Sperm motility parameters including motility (%, progressive motility (%, Average Path velocity (VAP, ?m sec-1, Straight-line velocity (VSL, ?m sec-1 and Curvilinear velocity (VCL, ?m sec-1 did not differ between the 2 groups and among sampling periods. Results revealed that 0.3 mg kg-1 supplementation of either inorganic or organic selenium form in the basal diet containing 0.15 mg of selenium per kg could increase blood and semen selenium levels in the boars. With normally-fertile boars, both inorganic and organic form of selenium supplemented in the diet had similar effect on sperm motility characteristics in the boars.
Full Text Available To determine the effects of feeding on semen production 24 native cocks (Gallus domesticus were studied under cage method in BAU poultry farm. Among 24 birds, 6 were fed once daily, 6 were fed twice daily, 6 were fed thrice daily and another 6 were fed adlibitumly. Semen was collected by abdominal massage method avoiding any fear and disturbance to the birds. Experiment showed that birds fed once daily produce less amount at semen than the birds fed twice daily, semen of which also less than the birds fed thrice daily and finally the adlibitum group produce the highest amount of semen. Thus the present study revealed that semen production in native cock is positively correlated to feeding. Furthermore, semen production is also related to the age of the cocks.
The major ingredient of Persicae Semen is a cynogenic compound, amygdalin (D-mandelonitrile-beta-gentiobioside). Controversial results on the anticancer activity of amygdalin were reported due to its conversion to its inactive isomer, neoamygdalin. In order to inhibit the epimerization of amygdalin, we used newly developed simple acid boiling method in preparation of Persicae Semen extract. HPLC analysis revealed most of amygdalin in Persicae Semen extract was active D-form. Persicae Semen extract was used to analyze its effect on cell proliferation and induction of apoptosis in human promyelocytic leukemia (HL-60) cells. Persicae Semen extract was cytotoxic to HL-60 cells with IC50 of 6.4 mg/mL in the presence of 250 nM of beta-glucosidase. The antiproliferative effects of Persicae Semen extract appear to be attributable to its induction of apoptotic cell death, as Persicae Semen extract induced nuclear morphology changes and internucleosomal DNA fragmentation. PMID:12643594
Kwon, Hee-Young; Hong, Seon-Pyo; Hahn, Dong-Hoon; Kim, Jeong Hee
Effect of dietary supplementation of organic or inorganic selenium on blood and semen selenium concentrations and semen quality was determined in 10 boars. During the 4 weeks of pre-experimental period, all boars were fed a basal diet containing 0.15 mg kg-1 of inorganic selenium. Thereafter, all cows were randomly allocated into 2 groups of five boars which were fed a basal diet supplemented with either 0.3 mg kg-1 of inorganic selenium or 0.3 mg kg-1 of orga...
Khuanruan Thongchalam; Theera Rukkwamsuk; Srisuwan Chomchai
A study was undertaken to determine the semen characteristics of the brown ecotype of sahel bucks. Five bucks were subjected to semen collection from two to twelve months of age. It was observed that the values of the semen characteristics increased over-age (months) and that at three months of age, there were significant levels of semen characteristic values. In conclusion, the spermiogram of the brown ecotype of sahel bucks was studied with a view to document the semen profile of indigenous...
The sperm quality index (SQI) can accurately predict overall semen quality and fertility when broiler breeder semen is diluted, at most, 10-fold prior to analysis. The objective of the present study was to determine if a lower semen dilution rate yields an SQI that is an even better predictor of semen quality and fertility when hens are inseminated with a constant volume of semen. Individual ejaculates from 28 males were analyzed for sperm concentration, viability, and the SQI prior to insemi...
Parker, H. M.; Mcdaniel, C. D.
This study was undertaken to investigate the influence of seminal plasma on the fecundity of chicken sperm. Sperm diluted with either incubated seminal plasma (5 or 37 degrees C for 24 h) or seminal plasma from incubated whole semen (5 or 37 degrees C for 24 h) had lower fertility levels and motility scores than sperm diluted in either fresh seminal plasma or a synthetic diluent. The number of sperm with damaged membranes increased with seminal plasma derived from 37 degrees C incubation. The depressive effect of incubated seminal plasma on semen fertility was eliminated by microfiltering .(0.22 mum) the seminal plasma either before or after incubation. Filtration of seminal plasma was only effective in eliminating the depressive effect on sperm motility when filtering was done after incubation. Filtration of seminal plasma reduced the percentage of damaged sperm in all treatments. It can be concluded that there are factors in seminal plasma that are deleterious to the fecundity of chicken spermatozoa and they may be derived from degenerating sperm and/or various fluids, cells and debris collected with the semen during manual semen collection. PMID:16726513
Sexton, T J
Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english The aim of the study was to evaluate the seasonal variation in semen quality of Dorper rams using different semen collection techniques. The study was carried out from January 2012 to January 2013. A general management programme for health control was followed, with water being provided ad libitum t [...] hroughout the trial, and all rams being fed a 2.5 kg maintenance diet per day. Eleven mature Dorper rams, recording a mean body weight of 69.6 ± 9.2 kg and mean age of 18 ± 4.7 months, were used in the trial. A group of six rams were trained for semen collection with the aid of the artificial vagina (AV), while in the remaining five rams, semen was collected using the electro ejaculator (EE). Immediately after collection, ejaculates were evaluated macroscopically and microscopically for semen volume, semen colour, semen pH, semen wave motion, sperm motility, sperm cell concentration, sperm viability and morphology. The results of the trial generally showed that semen in Dorper rams may be collected using the AV or EE methods throughout the year. However, an overall significant better semen quality collected by the AV versus the EE collection method was recorded. Generally, semen of significantly higher quality was recorded in summer, autumn and spring (both collection techniques). The tendency in the current trial was that the EE technique of semen collection was the less reliable method. Consequently the AV is recommended as the more acceptable method of semen collection in the Dorper. Winter is not generally recommended for semen collection, especially when using the EE.
C.M., Malejane; J.P.C., Greyling; M.B., Raito.
Full Text Available The objectives of the present study were to determine the effects of six different antibiotics in controlling the growth of semen contaminating bacteria and if these antibiotics have any adverse effect on Awassi ram spermatozoa. Semen samples from six mature Awassi rams were used in this study. A total number of 120 ejaculates were collected from the rams using an artificial vagina once a week. Semen ejaculates were evaluated for volume, sperm concentration, mass motility, individual motility, percentage live sperm, sperm abnormalities, and viable bacterial count. Semen samples were diluted by sodium citrate-fructose-egg yolk. The diluted semen sample was divided into 7 parts. Six types of antibiotics were added to the semen diluent parts including; penicillin G 1000 IU ml-1 with streptomycin 1 mg ml-1, gentamicin sulphate 250 mg ml-1, tetracycline 0.5 mg ml-1, lincomycin 1 mg ml-1, cefoperazone sodium 1mg ml-1, cefdinir 1 mg ml-1 and the seventh part considered as a control group without antibiotic addition. The diluted semen samples were cooled and preserved at 5 Co for 5 days. Cooled diluted semen samples were examined for individual motility, percent of live sperm, sperm abnormalities, acrosomal defects and bacterial count every 24 h until 5 days. Comparing with the control, all the antibiotics examined were effective in controlling bacterial growth (P<0.05 from 24 h to 96 h of preservation at 5 Co. Cefdinir and cefoperazone sodium proved to be significantly (P<0.05 effective than other antibiotics in controlling bacterial growth at 96 h of preservation as the bacterial count were 23.3 ± 3.7 x 103 / ml and 25.4 ± 6.2 x 103 / ml, respectively. Lincomycin, gentamicin sulphate and tetracycline proved ineffective in controlling bacterial growth at 96 h of preservation as the bacterial count were 57.1 ± 20.1 x 103 / ml, 52.5 ± 29.4 x 103 / ml and 46.5 ± 8.8 x 103 / ml, respectively. The addition of tetracycline to diluted ram semen significantly reduced (P<0.05 sperm individual motility and percent live sperm and a significant increase (P<0.05 acrosomal defects was observed at 96 h of preservation in comparison to control and other antibiotics. Sperm viability was highly correlated with bacterial count in the control part of diluted semen (r = 0.794; P < 0.01. It could be concluded from the results of the present study that additions of cephalosporins (cefdinir or Cefoperazone sodium at the dose of 1 mg ml-1 were most effective amongst the antibiotics used in checking the bacterial growth and improving semen quality of Awassi ram. [Vet. World 2012; 5(2.000: 75-79
O I Azawi
The present study aimed at assessing the relationship between exposure to pyrethroid insecticides and semen quality in 323 university students recruited in a population-based manner in Metropolitan Tokyo. Urinary concentrations of pyrethroid insecticide metabolite, 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3-PBA), were measured by LC/MS/MS and semen parameters were measured by following internationally harmonized protocols. Median urinary 3-PBA concentration was 0.641 ng/mL (specific gravity-adjusted, n=322). Median values of semen volume, sperm concentration, motility, total number of sperm, and total number of motile sperm were 2.5 mL, 56×10(6)/mL, 61%, 141×10(6), and 82×10(6), respectively. Urinary concentration of 3-PBA was not selected as significant in multiple regression models indicating, in contrast to previous findings, that environmental exposure to pyrethroid insecticides did not affect semen quality. This inconsistency may be related to exposure to different pyrethroid insecticides and/or levels of exposure as well as to survey design (hospital- vs population-based subject recruitment). PMID:24189267
Imai, Kanako; Yoshinaga, Jun; Yoshikane, Mitsuha; Shiraishi, Hiroaki; Mieno, Makiko Naka; Yoshiike, Miki; Nozawa, Shiari; Iwamoto, Teruaki
Trihalomethane Levels in Home Tap Water and Semen Quality Laura Fenster, 1 Kirsten Waller, 2 Gayle Windham, 1 Tanya Henneman, 2 Meredith Anderson, 2 Pauline Mendola, 3 James W. Overstreet, 4 Shanna H. Swan5 1California Department of Health Services, Division of Environm...
Objective Epididymal protease inhibitor (Eppin) was located on the surface of spermatozoa and modulates the liquefaction of human semen. Here, we identify the correlative protein partner of Eppin to explore the molecular mechanism of liquefaction of human semen. Methods (1) Human seminal vesicle proteins were transferred on the membrane by Western blotting and separated by 2-D electrophoresis and incubated in recombinant Eppin. The correlative protein was identified by Mass Spectrometry (MS) (2). Western blotting was used to determine the relation of rEppin and rFibronectin(Fn); (3) Co-localization in spermatozoa were detected using immunofluorescence; (4) Correalation of Eppin and Fn was proved by co-immunoprecipitation. Results Fn was identified as the binding partner of recombinant Eppin by MS. Recombinant of Eppin was made and demonstrated that the Eppin fragment binds the fn 607-1265 fragment. The Eppin-Fn complex presents on the sperm tail and particularly in the midpiece region of human ejaculated spermatozoa. Immunoprecipitation indicated that Eppin in the spermatozoa lysates was complexed with Fn. Conclusions Our study demonstrates that Eppin and Fn bind to each other in human semen and on human ejaculated spermatozoa. Eppin-Fn complex may involve in semen coagulation, liquefaction and the survival and preparation of spermatozoa for fertility in the female reproductive tract.
Su, Shifeng; Song, Zhen; Deng, Yunfei; Wang, Hainan; Zhao, Dan; Niu, Xiaobing; Wang, Zengjun
Qualitative parameters of piapara semen (Leporinus elongatus) were evaluated before and after hormonal induction with carp pituitary extract at 2.5 mg.kg(-1) of live weight. The progressive motility, the spermatic vigor and the lifetime of the spermatozoa were higher before the hormonal induction (P > 0.05). The percentage of normal spermatozoa and spermatozoa with secondary pathologies did not differ (P > 0.05) between treatments: before induction (44.0 and 44.4%, respectively) and after-induction (44.3 and 46.7%, respectively). However, the percentage of primary pathologies was higher (P < 0.05) for the semen collected before induction than for the semen collected after induction; the estimates were 12.2 and 8.0%, respectively. The most frequent pathologies were the taillessness with the frequencies of 27.4 and 36.3% followed by the headlessness for which the estimates were 10.1 and 3.9%, before and after induction respectively. The semen collected before the hormonal induction presented better qualitative parameters. PMID:18660966
Streit-Jr, D P; Sirol, R N; Ribeiro, R P; Moraes, G V; Vargas, L D M; Watanabe, A L
Full Text Available The data of the present study were collected from Bangladesh Milk Producers` Co-operative Union Limited (BMPCUL at Baghabarighat, Sirajgong, Bangladesh to evaluate the bull performance through semen quality and 30-day Non Return Rate (NRR. Data on 245 ejaculates and 12,750 services of almost same aged of 5 Sahiwal bulls (B1, B2, B3, B4 and B5 over a period of 5 years were collected from Animal Breeding Section and Cattle Feed Unit of BMPCUL. The significant (p<0.01 individual sire effect was found on semen volume, three stages of sperm motility (initial, on dilution and post-thawing and fertility. Significant (p>0.05 variation was not found for pH. The highest volume of semen per ejaculate, the initial, on dilution and post-thawing sperm motility were found in bull B4 and representing 5.60?0.19 mL, 73.56?0.61, 69.27?0.33 and 63.90?0.48%, respectively. The highest sperm motility was found in initial stage and then declined steadily up to post-thawing stage. Significant (p<0.01 positive correlations were observed between the three stages of sperm motility and fertility. The results of the present study revealed that evaluation of breeding bulls on the basis of semen quality and herd fertility is important and provides the guideline of the way to sire selection for reproductive performance.
Since HSP70 is the stress response protein, the impact of heat stress on semen quality may be displayed through the expression of protein profile and HSP70. This study investigated the seasonal effects on the protein profiles and HSP70 in spermatozoa and seminal plasma of 10 Holstein crossbred bulls from an AI centre located in Lopburi, Thailand. Bull semen was collected weekly for 8 consecutive weeks during rainy (average THI 79.34), cool (average THI 75.27), and summer (average THI 80.10) seasons. Protein was extracted from both spermatozoa and seminal plasma using Laemmli's sample buffer. The protein profiles of spermatozoa and seminal plasma were subjected to one-dimensional SDSPAGE with 12% (w/v) acrylamide gel and 4.0% (w/v) acrylamide stacking gel for 120 min. at 8 mA. To visualize the protein profiles, gels were fixed in acetic acid: ethanol: H2O (7: 40: 53), stained with 0.125% (w/v) Coomassie blue R-250 in acetic acid: ethanol: H2O (7: 40: 53) for 60 min., and distained with acetic acid: ethanol: H2O (11: 26: 63) until the background was clear. Western blotting, as described by Kamaruddin et al. was conducted to determine HSP70 using anti-HSP70 monoclonal antibody. Proteins in the polyacrylamide gel were electrophoretically transferred, for 90 min. at 156 mA, to a PVDF membrane. The membrane was rinsed in PBS and blocked overnight in a blocking solution (advanced ECL blocking; Amersham Life Science Inc., Oakville, ON, Canada). The membrane was then incubated for 1 h at room temperature with monoclonal anti-HSP70 (H5147 Sigma Chemical Supplies CO., LTD), incubated with anti-mouse IgG horse radish peroxidase conjugated for 1 h at room temperature, and then detection for immunoreactive bands using ECL detection reagents (Amersham Life Science Inc.) on scientific imaging film. It was found that the profiles of protein were not different among seasons in both sperm and seminal plasma. The profiles of spermatozoa protein range from 10 to 220 kDa while most of proteins found in seminal plasma were low molecular weight (14-30 kDa). The HSP70 was found in both sperm and seminal plasma. However, the amount of HSP70 in winter appears to be greater compare to those found in summer and rainy seasons
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate effect of different concentrations of catalase in two extenders on motility, viability and lipid peroxidation bull spermatozoa during semen freezing process. Thirty ejaculates collected from ten Holstein bulls were pooled and evaluated at 37 °C. Pool ejaculated was split into two main experimental groups, 1 and 2. In experiment 1, specimen was diluted to a final concentration of 30 × 106 spermatozoa with citrate-egg yolk and in experiment 2; specimen was diluted with tris-egg yolk extender to the same concentration. In both experiments diluted semen was divided into three aliquots, including a control and two test groups. Each aliquot was rediluted with an equal volume of extender either without (control or with one of the antioxidants contained one of the following antioxidants: catalase (CAT; 100 IU mL-1 catalase (CAT; 200 IU mL-1 and control group. No significant differences were observed in sperm viability and motility following addition of catalase enzyme at concentration of 100 IU mL-1 and 200 IU mL-1 to citrate-egg yolk extender. But the highest sperm viability was achieved by addition of 100 IU mL-1 and 200 IU mL-1 catalase to tris-egg yolk semen extender compared with the control group (P < 0.05. Malondialdehyde levels did not change with addition of catalase in both extenders compared with the control group. The obtained results provide a new approach to the cryopreservation of bull semen, and could positively contribute to intensive cattle production.
A duplex real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) method for the simultaneous detection of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) and an exogenous internal positive control (IPC) in porcine semen samples was developed. The IPC was included to monitor DNA extraction and PCR inhibition and consisted of a mutated PCV2 plasmid clone which differed from the target PCV2 in the probe binding region and thus was detected by the use of a second probe with different end-labeling. The sensitivity, specificity and repeatability of the assay were validated by testing semen samples from 12 boars inoculated experimentally with PCV2, 10 boars infected naturally with PCV2, and 3 PCV2 negative control boars. The duplex qPCR assay was found to be more sensitive, specific, rapid, and repeatable than nested PCR (nPCR) methods for the detection of PCV2 DNA in semen. Analysis of separated semen fractions by the duplex qPCR assay showed PCV2 DNA to be present mainly in the cell fraction as opposed to the seminal plasma fraction which is in contrast to previous reports. The duplex qPCR assay was found to be a valuable tool for accurate and quantitative detection of PCV2 DNA in boar semen. PMID:18355929
Pal, N; Huang, Y W; Madson, D M; Kuster, C; Meng, X J; Halbur, P G; Opriessnig, T
Seasonal variations in semen quality, freezability and plasma luteinizing hormone (LH) levels were studied between summer and spring. Semen volume, density and initial sperm motility did not differ significantly between different seasons. Plasma LH decreased between summer and spring but the differences were, however, not significant. Pre-freezing motility did not differ significantly but post-freezing motility varied significantly ( Pbuffalo during summer, semen should be frozen during winter and spring and used during hot weather conditions. Seasonal variations in plasma LH levels were insignificant.
Bahga, C. S.; Khokar, B. S.
Full Text Available Because research revealing the impact of Lys on reproduction in Broiler Breeders (BB is sparse, this study was conducted to evaluate the impact of digestible Lys (dLys on BB semen characteristics and BW. Eighty males were caged individually from 20 to 39 wk of age. Treatment 1 and 2 diets had the same level of dLys (1,000 mg/rooster/day in a corn-soybean meal based diet (Soy 1000 and distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS; DDGS 1000 diet, respectively. Treatment 3, 4 and 5 diets had the inclusion of DDGS in order to titrate dLys intake levels of 850 (DDGS850, 700 (DDGS700 and 550 (DDGS550 mg/rooster/day, respectively. Body weight and semen samples were determined every 2 wk from 26 to 38 wk of age. Immediately after semen collection, samples were analyzed for semen volume, sperm viability, sperm concentration and the Sperm Quality Index (SQI. BW of roosters fed Soy 1,000 was higher than the other treatments from wk 26 through wk 38. This excess weight could be due to over estimating the energy content of DDGS resulting in diets that were not isocaloric. At 28 wk and continuing through wk 38, the percentage of dead sperm was highest in roosters fed Soy 1000. Also, at wk 38 plasma testosterone concentrations were higher for roosters fed Soy 1000. In conclusion, varying levels of dLys (1,000-550 mg/rooster/day in a DDGS based diet does not appear to cause adverse effects on BB male semen quality during pre-peak and peak production.
Inseminación artificial de alpacas con semen colectado por aspiración vaginal y vagina artificial / Artificial insemination of alpacas with semen collected by vaginal aspiration and by artificial vagina
Full Text Available SciELO Peru | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Semen de alpaca fue colectado por dos métodos: por aspiración de la vagina de la hembra después de la monta natural y con vagina artificial. El semen colectado fue evaluado y diluido con Tris tamponado, y luego usado en inseminacion artificial. Se trabajó con 160 alpacas hembras adultas de capacidad [...] reproductiva comprobada y 5 alpacas machos. Se colectó semen post cópula de los cinco machos en 10 hembras, y se hicieron 50 colecciones de semen con vagina artificial de estos machos, dos veces por semana. Se determinó volumen, motilidad, concentración espermática, porcentaje de espermatozoides vivos, viscosidad y color. Los resultados para semen colectado por aspiración de la vagina y con vaginal artificial fueron: volumen (3.6 y 1.5 mL), motilidad (73.4 y 69.0%), concentración espermática (75.2 y 80.3 millones/mL), espermatozoides vivos (75.3 y 70.8%), respectivamente, con diferencia entre métodos (p Abstract in english Semen from alpacas was collected by two methods: by aspiration from the female?s vagina following mating and with an artificial vagina. Semen was collected, evaluated and extended with Tris buffer, and then used in artificial insemination. Altogether 160 female alpacas with proven reproductive histo [...] ry and five males were used. Semen was collected by vaginal aspiration from 10 females using five males as semen donors; likewise, semen from the same males was collected with an artificial vagina twice a week 50 times. Volume, motility, spermatic concentration, live spermatozoa, viscosity and color was evaluated. Seminal characteristics of semen collected by aspiration and with an artificial vagina were: volume (3.6 and 1.5 mL), motility (73.4 and 69.0%), sperm concentration (75.2 and 80.3 million/mL), live spermatozoa (75.3 and 70.8%) respectively, with statistical difference between methods (p
Alarcón B, Virgilio; García V, Wilber; Bravo, P. Walter.
Full Text Available Objetivo. Determinar las características del semen y la morfometría de los espermatozoides del Capibara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris. Materiales y métodos. Se utilizaron 10 machos con peso entre 21-45 kg, los cuales fueron restringidos y anestesiados. El semen se obtuvo mediante electroeyaculación y se determinó el color, volumen, pH, motilidad en masa, motilidad individual, viabilidad, concentración y morfología. Se realizaron además mediciones de la cabeza y la cola de los espermatozoides. Resultados. Se obtuvo semen en el 100% (10/10 de los animales. El mayor número de eyaculaciones (80%; 8/10, se obtuvo con un voltaje máximo de 6V. El color fue blanco, de aspecto lechoso, los valores promedio fueron volumen 135.5±93.56 ?l, pH 8.14±0.38, motilidad masal 32.60±13.46%, motilidad individual 34±19.81%, viabilidad 51.3±19.42%, concentración espermática 127±59.01x106 espermatozoides/mL y morfología 51.3±19.42 espermatozoides normales. La longitud de la cabeza fue 5.41±0.7 ?m, el ancho de la cabeza 3.77±0.5 ?m y área de la cabeza 75.66±20.6 ?m2. La longitud de la cola fue 27.9±11.3 ?m. Conclusiones. La obtención del semen fue satisfactoria mediante electroeyaculación, sin presentar notables diferencias en las características del semen y morfología de los espermatozoides con otros roedores silvestres de menor tamaño, aunque se observó una alta variabilidad de estas características entre los animales muestreados posiblemente por la heterogeneidad de los animales experimentales.
José Rodríguez P.
Human semen is a complex biological matrix. It contains mature spermatozoa, immature germ cells, residual apoptotic bodies and, in some cases, epithelial cells and leucocytes. Hence, one of the challenges in applying flow cytometry in spermatology is the correct recognition of spermatozoa and their separation from signals of other semen cells/elements. In this study, we show that semen spermatozoa are included in a well-defined, flame-shaped FSC/SSC region (FR), by demonstrating that the count of the spermatozoa contained in such region overlaps that obtained by microscopy in the same samples. In FR, nuclear staining of semen samples reveals three different populations: unstained, brighter and dimmer. Unstained elements were previously characterized as apoptotic bodies of testis origin and the brighter elements represent the majority of semen spermatozoa, whereas the composition and the origin of the population with a lower nuclear staining is less clear, albeit we have previously shown that all the elements constituting it are positive for TUNEL. In this study, we sorted all the elements contained in FR region and demonstrated that the dimmer elements are spermatozoa. To further characterize dimmer spermatozoa, we evaluated apoptotic caspases and chromatin immaturity, the latter detected by aniline blue (AB) and chromomycin A (CMA3) staining. We found that caspases were much more expressed in the dimmer spermatozoa (71.4 ± 18.8%) than in the brighter (46.7 ± 15.1%), whereas similar amounts of spermatozoa with chromatin immaturity were found in both populations (brighter, AB: 48.2 ± 19.5%; CMA3: 48.5 ± 20.4% and dimmer, AB: 43.4 ± 19.8%; CMA3: 36.1 ± 18.0%). Hence, the role of apoptosis in generating dimmer spermatozoa and their DNA fragmentation appears clear, whereas the involvement of defects during the chromatin packaging remains elusive. PMID:24700807
Marchiani, S; Tamburrino, L; Olivito, B; Betti, L; Azzari, C; Forti, G; Baldi, E; Muratori, M
Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english The aim of the present study was to demonstrate the influence of boar breed and season on semen parameters. The research material consisted of 31 boars: Polish Large White (PLW), Polish Landrace (PL), and Duroc x Pietrain (D x P), aged 8 to 24 months. The analysed material consisted of 1390 ejaculat [...] es, collected during the period January 2010 to October 2012. Semen samples were assessed in terms of semen volume (mL), sperm concentration (x 10(6) m/mL), total number of sperm (x 10(9)), total number of live sperm (x 10(9)) and number of insemination doses obtained from one ejaculate (n). In winter, an increase in sperm concentration was observed for the PLW breed. Moreover, an increase in the volume of semen produced for this breed was noted in summer and autumn. Differences between breeds for the total number of sperm and total number of live sperm were observed for the winter and spring periods. The largest semen volume was noted for the PLW breed (276.4 ± 9.66 mL). However, in the analysis of other sperm parameters, boars of this breed demonstrated the poorest results. The highest insemination dose was obtained from breed D x P in winter (26.0 ± 0.51). Correlation analyses indicated that PLW and D x P boars are the least resistant to higher ambient temperatures, and in summer and autumn this resulted in a reduction in sperm concentration (-0.26 and -0.20, respectively).
D., Knecht; S., & #346; rodo& #324;
Full Text Available The purpose of this research work was to determine the effects of PGF2?, given immediately before semen collection, on semen characteristics and libido in Awassi rams during breeding and non breeding season. The experiment was conducted in late summer to early autumn when major breeding activities commence and winter during the non breeding season at Mosul region in northern Iraq at the Animal Research and Practice Farm of the College of The Veterinary Medicine, University of Mosul. Twelve mature Awassi rams were used in this study. Animals were randomly allocated into two equal groups, the first group was administered 7.5 mg IM of PGF2?weekly and the second group as a control group received 1 ml of N-saline solution. Semen samples were collected from the Awassi rams 24 h after IM administration. Scrotal circumference (SC and testicular volume were measured weekly during the study period. Semen ejaculates were evaluated for semen volume, sperm concentration, sperm concentration/ejaculate, mass motility, individual motility, percentage live sperm, sperm abnormalities, and sperm acrosomal defects. Samples of seminal plasma were analyzed for the estimation of alanine amino transferase (ALT, aspartate amino transferase (AST, acid phosphatase (ACP, alkaline phosphatase (ALP and lactic dehydrogenase (LDH. Results of the present showed that PGF2? treatment to Awassi rams did not improve most semen characteristics in both breeding and non breeding seasons compared with the group. The only improvement of Awassi semen quality observed was in sperm concentration in the breeding season. The testicular volume showed a significant increase (P<0.05 in Awassi rams treated with PGF2? in breeding season compared to the control group and PGF2? treated group in the non breeding season. The mean activity of LDH enzyme estimated in the PGF2?treated group and control group showed a significant difference (P<0.05 between the two groups in the breeding season and non breeding season (52.34 ± 8.96 and 57.43 ± 19.9 vs. 117.02 ± 5.26 and 131.88 ± 5.01, respectively. Other enzymatic activities including ALT, AST, ACP and ALP showed no significant differences between Awassi rams treated with PGF2? and control groups in both breeding and non breeding seasons. In conclusion, PGF2?treatment of Awassi rams improved sperm concentration and testicular volume
Osama Ibrahim Azawi,
Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Antecedentes. Las especies reactivas del oxígeno (ERO), tienen la capacidad de alterar reversible o irreversiblemente la función celular. Se ha propuesto que las ERO modifican la bioquímica y la fisiología del espermatozoide. Por otro lado, los mecanismos antioxidativos pudieran proteger a los esper [...] matozoides del daño producido por las ERO. Objetivo. Determinar los valores normales para el superóxido dismutasa (SOD), glutatión peroxidasa (GPx), malondialdehído (MDA) y óxido nítrico (NOx) en el líquido seminal y espermatozoides de humanos sanos. Procedimientos. Se estudiaron 45 muestras de semen de sujetos aparentemente sanos. Las muestras se obtuvieron por masturbación y se colectaron en tubos estériles. Una vez centrifugadas, se fraccionaron en alícuotas para medir la concentración de SOD, GPx, MDA y NOx. El análisis de las muestras se realizó conforme a métodos bioquímicos ampliamente aceptados. Resultados. Las concentraciones de SOD y MDA en el líquido seminal como en los espermatozoides fueron similares (SOD 0.43 ± 0.09 en semen y 0.45 ± .07 U/mg prot. en espermatozoides, y MDA 0.33 ± .07 y 0.37 ± 0.10 nmoles/mg prot. en líquido seminal y espermatozoides, respectivamente. Con respecto a la GPx, está aumentada casi 13 veces más en los espermatozoides (2547.77 ± 48.59 U/mg prot.) que en el líquido seminal (197.54 ± 25.21 U/mg prot.), el NOx también se incrementa ligeramente en los espermatozoides (4.45 ± 0.43 µmol) cuando se compara con el líquido seminal (3.91 ± 0.16 µmol). Conclusiones. La medición de los antioxidantes y oxidantes pudieran servir para evaluar la infertilidad humana en aquellos casos donde los resultados de la espermatobioscopia aparezcan como normales. Abstract in english Background. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation have the ability to alter reversibly or irreversibly the cellular function in humans. It has been proposed that the ROS alters the biochemistry and the physiology of the sperm. On the other hand, the antioxidative mechanisms could protect the sperm [...] s from the damage produced by free radicals. Aim. To determine the normal values for superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NOx) in the seminal liquid of healthy humans. Procedures. Semen samples from 45 healthy men (22 to 47 years of age) were studied. The samples were obtained by masturbation and were collected in conical sterile tubes. Once centrifuged at 4 °C they were divided in aliquots to measure the concentration of SOD, GPx, MDA, and NOx. The analysis of the samples was realized in conformity with biochemical widely accepted methods. Results. The concentrations of SOD and MDA both in the seminal liquid and in the spermatozoids were similar, SOD 0.43 ± 0.09 U/mg prot. in the seminal liquid and 0.45 ± 0.07 U/ mg prot. in spermatozoids, and MDA 0.33 ± 0.07 nmoles/mg prot. and 0.37 ± 0.10 nmoles/mg prot. in the seminal liquid and spermatozoids respectively. With regard to GPx it increased almost 13 times more in the spermatozoids (2547.77 ± 48.59 U/mg prot.) than in the seminal liquid (197.54 ± 25.21 U/mg prot.). The NOx also increased lightly in the spermatozoids (4.45 ± 0.43 \\imol) when compared with the seminal liquid (3.91 ± 0.16 \\imol). Conclusions. The measurement of the antioxidative and oxidative agents could serve to evaluate human infertility in those cases where the result of the spematobioscopy appears normal.
Juan M., Gallardo.
Full Text Available Differences over time in the quality of semen present in the honey bee (Apis mellifera ligustica queen spermatheca werestudied. An increase in the non-vital spermatozoa was shown to be evident (P>0.05 between the 12th and 24th month.The study of semen viability demonstrated that the passage of the semen to the spermatheca is due to sperm motility.In the queen inseminated with non-viable spermatozoa, no semen was detected in the spermatheca. Queens inseminatedtwice with a Hyes solution/semen mixture (1:1 stored as many spermatozoa in their spermatheca as those inseminatedonce with the classic technique. Queen replacement, oviposition and other functional characteristics were similarto those observed in the classic insemination procedure.
Artificial insemination technique and semen preparation impact boar utilization efficiency, genetic dissemination, and biosecurity. Intrauterine (IUI) and deep intrauterine (DUI) AI techniques require lower number of spermatozoa per dose compared to conventional (CON) AI. Frozen semen (FRO) has been associated with lower reproductive performance compared to fresh semen (FRE) preparation. The combined effects of 3 AI techniques (CON, IUI, and DUI) and 2 semen preparations (FRE and FRO) on the financial indicators of a pig crossbreeding system were studied. A 3-tier system was simulated in ZPLAN and the genetic improvement in a representative scenario was characterized. The cross of nucleus lines B and A generated 200,000 BA sows at the multiplier level. The BA sows were inseminated (CON, IUI, or DUI) with FRE or FRO from line C boars at the commercial level. Semen preparation and AI technique were represented by distinct sow:boar ratios in the C × BA cross. A range of farrowing rates (60 to 90%) and litter sizes (8 to 14 liveborn pigs) were tested. Genetic improvement per year for number born alive, adjusted 21-d litter weight, days to 113.5 kg, backfat, and ADG were 0.01 pigs per litter, 0.06 kg, -0.09 d, -0.29 mm, and 0.88 g, respectively. On average, the net profit for FRE (FRO) increased (P-value < 0.0001) from CON to IUI and DUI by 2.2 (3.2%) and 2.6% (4%), respectively. The differences in profit between techniques were driven by differences in costs. Differences in fixed costs between IUI and DUI relative to CON were -2.4 (-5.2%) and -3.4% (-7.4%), respectively. The differences in total costs between FRE and FRO were lower than -5%. The difference in variable costs between FRE and FRO ranged from -5.3 (CON) to -24.7% (DUI). Overall, insemination technique and semen preparation had a nonlinear effect on profit. The average relative difference in profit between FRE and FRO was less than 3% for the scenarios studied. PMID:24352964
Gonzalez-Peña, D; Knox, R V; Pettigrew, J; Rodriguez-Zas, S L
Full Text Available Hypo-osmotic swelling test (HOST, eosin-nigrosin staining and normal apical ridge test (NAR were used to determine integrity of plasma membrane and acrosome of undiluted, diluted (cooled to 5oC and frozen-thawed sperm. Semen from seven bulls was used. For diluted and frozen-thawed sperm, three doses were pooled at 37oC. Percentage motility was assessed using a phase contrast microscope. A 50?l each of undiluted, diluted and frozen-thawed semen was mixed with 500?l of 50, 100, 150, 150, 190 or 250 mOsm hypo-osmotic treatments of sodium citrate plus fructose and incubated at 37oC for 1 h. Total number of intact sperm (live of undiluted, diluted and frozen-thawed were assessed before HOST. Percentage motility decreased (P0.05, but varied significantly (P<0.05 within bulls. In conclusion, plasma membrane integrity of undiluted and diluted sperm was compromised during freezing and thawing. However, freezing had no effect on acrosomal integrity.
Full Text Available Objectives: This study was purposed to investigate the sarcoma-180 anticancer effects of Herbal acupuncture with Juglandis Semen(JsD in mice. Methods: The Juglandis Semen Herbal-acupuncture was injected on Chung-wan(CV12 of mice with S-180 cancer cell line. Results: The results obtained were summarized as follows; 1. Median survival time of S-180 cancer cell treated with Juglandis Semen Herbal-Acupuncture was not significant.(p < 0.05 2. Natural killer cell activity was insignificant for S-180 cell treated with Juglandis Semen Herbal-Acupuncture Herbal acupuncture. (P < 0.05 3. Interleukin-2 productivity of S-180 cell treated with Juglandis Semen Herbal-Acupuncture was not significant.(P < 0.05 Conclusions: According to the results, we can conclude Herbal-acupuncture with Juglandis Semen caused no effects in S-180 cancer cell.
Full Text Available The study was conducted to determine the semen characteristics of three genotypes of Nigerian indigenous cocks. Thirty Six (36 local breeding cocks comprising of 12 frizzle, 12 normal and 12 naked neck selected randomly from the poultry breeding unit of the University of Port Harcourt Teaching and Research farm was used for this study. Semen were collected from them by abdominal massage and analyzed for semen characteristics. Semen concentration were significantly higher in naked- neck 4.86×109 ±0.03/mL (p0.05 of strains on semen pH, abnormal sperm and non-motile sperm. Morphological defects of the head, middle and tail was not significantly affected (p>0.05 by the genotypes. Variations on semen characteristics abound in the three Nigerian indigenous cocks sampled.
The paper described a novel technique for semen collection in large psittacines (patent pending), a procedure which was not routinely possible before. For the first time, a large set of semen samples is now available for analysis as well as for artificial insemination. Semen samples of more than 100 psittacine taxa were collected and analysed; data demonstrate large differences in the spermatological parameters between families, indicating an ecological relationship with breeding behaviour (p...
OBJECTIVE: To determine the number of Neisseria gonorrhoeae organisms in urine and semen in men with gonococcal urethritis, and to compare selected phenotypic characteristics of organisms harvested from the urethra and semen. DESIGN: Samples from two groups of subjects were examined. Patients with symptomatic urethritis receiving treatment at an STD clinic, as well as six subjects with experimental urethritis. Semen and urine specimens were obtained after the urethral exudate was sampled. RES...
Isbey, S. F.; Alcorn, T. M.; Davis, R. H.; Haizlip, J.; Leone, P. A.; Cohen, M. S.
Reliable estimates of boar fertility potential from semen evaluation could be a valuable tool for boar selection. The aim of this study was to investigate the morphology and the detailed motility parameters of diluted boar semen and to relate these to their predictive value concerning conception and farrowing rate, litter size and the number of live born piglets. In addition, the optimal time for evaluation of the motility of preserved semen with respect to its predictive effect on fertility ...
Vyt, P.; Maes, Dominiek; Quinten, C.; Rijsselaere, Tom; Deley, W.; Aarts, M.; Kruif, Aart; Soom, Ann
Two experiments were done to demonstrate whether the presence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in bovine semen could affect fertilization and/or early embryonic development. In the first experiment, superovulated heifers were inseminated with semen naturally contaminated with P. aeruginosa (ADRI 102) or clean semen and seven day-old embryos were collected nonsurgically. The endometrium of treated heifers appeared more sensitive to the flush procedures. In experiment 2, heifers were inseminated at sy...
Eaglesome, M. D.; Garcia, M. M.; Bielanski, A. B.
Semen of the domestic turkey cannot be stored longer than 6 h without a loss of fertilizing capability. The improvement of long-term liquid storage procedures of semen is important since the commercial production of turkey relies almost entirely on artificial insemination. Therefore, studies improving storage regimens would allow longer storage and consequently hen fertility (Iaffaldano and Meluzzi, 2003). Since the search for an optimal extender composition for semen storage is still in prog...
Iaffaldano, N.; Rosato, M. P.; Manchisi, A.; Centoducati, G.; Meluzzi, A.
Background: Exposures to lead above the threshold value of 50–60 ?g/dL have been linked to diminished semen quality parameters. Worldwide, the lead exposure has been diminished during the last years. Therefore, it has become of a great concern to examine the effects of lead exposures on semen quality at low levels of exposure.Objective: To evaluate the effect of low level (<20 µg/dL) blood lead on semen quality and sperm chromatin ...
Nj, Awadalla; El-helaly, M.; Gouida, M.; Mandour, R.; Mansour, M.
Aims: this study sought to assess the reproductive performance of sows inseminated with sperm treated with homeopathic medicines. Materials and methods: the semen of 2 sexually mature boars age 18 months Pietrain and Duroc cross-bred with similar genetic and reproductive performance were chosen, as well as 125 sows. Sixteen samples of semen were collected and standardized through semen evaluation. Three homeopathic preparations and a placebo (control) were tested on the sperm (n=31/32 per gro...
Francisco Rafael Martins Soto; Erlete Rosalina Vuaden; Cideli Paula Coelho; Leoni Villano Bonamin; Sérgio Santos de Azevedo; Nilson Roberti Benites; Flavia Regina Oliveira de Barros; Marcelo Demarchi Goissis; Mayra Elena Ortiz Assumpção; Mariana Groke Marques
This study investigated the addition of antioxidants vitamin E and reduced glutathione on curimba (Prochilodus lineatus) semen cryopreservation and compared sodium bicarbonate solution and distilled water as activators. The experiment was conducted at the environmental station of CEMIG, in Itutinga-MG, Brazil, between December/2009 and January/2010. Semen samples (n = 7) with semen motility above 80% were diluted in cryoprotectant solutions composed of 10% methanol, 15% lactose and containing...
Paula, Daniella A. J.; Andrade, Estefa?nia S.; Murgas, Luis D. S.; Felizardo, Viviane O.; Winkaler, Elissandra U.; Walmes Zeviani; Freitas, Rilke T. F.
Reported prevalences of human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) (Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus) in semen have ranged widely. This is possibly due to differences in assay sensitivity, geographic or population-based differences in the true presence of the virus in semen, and PCR contamination. This study assessed interlaboratory sensitivity and reproducibility in the analysis of blinded experimental panels, each consisting of 48 specimens and being composed of semen specimens from different hea...
Twenty pubertal male Zaraibi goats (bucks) were randomly divided into four equal groups; fed deficient Se or vit. E, adequate Se, adequate vit. E and adequate Se + vit. E diets for 3 months to study the influence of deficient or adequate selenium (Se) and vitamin E (vit. E) in the diet of pubertal male Zaraibi goats on fertility, semen quantity and quality and some testicular traits. The results showed that the best values of semen quantity (the ejaculate volume, sperm concentration and total sperm output per ejaculate) and semen quality (percentage of progressive motility, percentage of live sperm, number of motile sperm per ejaculate, percentage of dead, abnormal spermatozoa and acrosomal abnormality) were observed in bucks fed diet supplemented with adequate Se combined with adequate vit. E. The lowest values of semen quantity and semen quality were observed in bucks suffering from deficiency of Se and/or vit. E in their diets. Testosterone level in seminal plasma was significantly higher in bucks fed adequate Se and/or vit. E than those fed diet deficient in Se and vit. E. Testosterone level was significantly higher in bucks fed diet adequate in Se + vit. E than those fed diet adequate with Se or vit. E alone. Se and vit. E deficiency in the diets was accompanied by a significant decrease in testosterone, T4 and T3 levels in seminal plasma. Selenium or vit. E each one alone supplementation led to increases of these hormones. T4 and T3 levels were significantly higher in bucks fed adequate Se or adequate Se + vit. E than in bucks fed diet with adequate vitamin E alone. Adequate Se alone and adequate Se + vit. E diets were accompanied by significant increases in Se in seminal plasma. Adequate vit. E and adequate Se + vit. E diets were accompanied by significant increase in vit. E level in the seminal plasma. It is clear that there was synergism between Se and vit. E in the biological role of Se, since the level of Se in bucks fed diet containing adequate Se + vit. E was higher than the level of Se in group fed Se alone. The highest values of scrotal circumference and scrotum length were observed in bucks fed adequate Se + vit. E and the lowest testicular traits and fertility were observed in bucks fed diet deficient with Se and vit. E.
To establish a HPLC method for the determination of vaccarin in Vaccariae Semen. Analysis was carried out on an Alltima-C18 column (4.6 mm x 250 mm, 5 microm) eluted with methanol -0.3% phosphoric acid as mobile phase in gradient elution. The flow rate was 1.0 mL x min(-1) and detected wavelength was set at 280 nm. The peak areas and injection ammounts of vaccarin showed a good linear relationship in the range of 0.102-1.539 microg, R2 = 0.9997. The average recovery was 100.4%, RSD was 0.81%. The results of the assay of 10 samples showed that the contents of vaccarin varied in the range of 0.46%-0.57%. The method is simple, accurate, reproducible and specific. It can be used for the quality control of Vaccariae Semen. PMID:21046731
Meng, He; Chen, Yuping; Qin, Wenjie; Tang, Xiaojing; Ye, Zuguang
Full Text Available SciELO Peru | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish [...] Abstract in english Semen was collected from 10 alpaca males aged 3-6 years, 3 times weekly for 3 weeks, followed by a week of rest, over a 3 month period. A heated artificial vagina was used together with a dummy model and a female in heat. Semen was collected from all 10 animals utilizing both procedures. Average cop [...] ulation time was 15.9 ± 0.6 and 16.8 ± 0.7 minutes using the dummy and the receptive female (p0.05). Sperm volume averaged 1.03 ± 0.04 and 1.73 ± 0.09 ml, (p
Rosa, Dávalos R; Juan, Olazábal L.
Uso de midodrín y congelación de semen en el tratamiento de las alteraciones del transporte espermático.: Caso clínico Use of Midodrine and frozen/thawed semen to treat semen transport disturbances.: Report of two cases
Full Text Available Retrograde ejaculation severely compromises male fertility. The use of sympathicomimetics for the treatment of this condition has poor results, except in patients with partial retrograde ejaculation, whose semen has a higher spermatozoa concentration. The semen of two patients with partial retrograde ejaculation was collected and frozen after the injection of a sympathicomimetic (Midodrine. The frozen/thawed samples were mixed with fresh semen recently ejaculated to obtain a minimal number of motile spermatozoa, and used for intrauterine insemination (> de 1 x 106 motile spermatozoa/ml. In both cases, pregnancies that developed satisfactorily, were obtained. (Rev Méd Chile 2000; 128: 93-97
Raúl Sánchez G
Rosaramicin, an agent shown to be effective in vitro against ureaplasma of bovine origin was tested as an additive to bovine semen extender. Although some reduction in semen quality occurred it was still deemed satisfactory for use. In a test involving 41 cows inseminated once at estrus with rosaramicin-treated semen (162 mcg/mL) the nonreturn rate was 24% compared to a calculated average for this semen of 63% (n = 3310). The effect of centrifugation, time and temperature was examined in vitr...
Truscott, R. B.
To determine the effects of feeding on semen production 24 native cocks (Gallus domesticus) were studied under cage method in BAU poultry farm. Among 24 birds, 6 were fed once daily, 6 were fed twice daily, 6 were fed thrice daily and another 6 were fed adlibitumly. Semen was collected by abdominal massage method avoiding any fear and disturbance to the birds. Experiment showed that birds fed once daily produce less amount at semen than the birds fed twice daily, semen of which also le...
Full Text Available Semen of the domestic turkey cannot be stored longer than 6 h without a loss of fertilizing capability. The improvement of long-term liquid storage procedures of semen is important since the commercial production of turkey relies almost entirely on artificial insemination. Therefore, studies improving storage regimens would allow longer storage and consequently hen fertility (Iaffaldano and Meluzzi, 2003. Since the search for an optimal extender composition for semen storage is still in progress, the aim of this paper has been to study the effects of different extenders on the quality of turkey semen during the storage for 48 h at 5°C.
The aim of this study was to investigate freezability of ram semen extended with different L-(+)-Ergothioneine (EGT) doses. For this aim, semen from four ram were collected with artificial vagina (44°C) and then pooled. Pooled semen was divided five aliquots and extended with skim milk based extender containing 0 mmol/L (EGT0: Control), 1 mmol/L (EGT1), 2 mmol/L (EGT2), 5 mmol/L (EGT5) and 10 mmol/L (EGT10) EGT, respectively. After equilibration (+5°C/2 h), the extended aliquots of semen in...
The success of an artificial insemination program in ostriches is highly dependent on the yield of viable semen. We, therefore, tested how semen output is affected by three different collection frequencies: once every 2d (48h interval), daily (24h interval), and twice a day (6h interval). Ejaculates were collected from seven male ostriches (aged 2-4 years) for 10 consecutive days using the dummy female method. We assessed semen characteristics (sperm motility, volume, concentration, number of sperm per ejaculate and sperm viability) and male libido (the delay between the presentation of the dummy and ejaculation, and the willingness to mount the dummy). The total daily output of semen and the number of sperm were greater at the 6h collection interval than at the 24h or 48h interval while sperm motility and viability were not affected. At the 6h interval, the number of live normal sperm increased over the treatment period while the number of live abnormal sperm was reduced. Furthermore, the time that males took to mount the dummy and their willingness to copulate with the dummy were unaffected by collection frequency. Across males we observed great individual variation in both semen characteristics and libido suggesting there is the potential to increase the efficiency of semen collection by selecting superior males. These results indicate not only that two collections per day yield maximum semen output and may improve semen viability, but also that quantifying variation between males may help further increase semen collection efficiency. PMID:21306843
Bonato, Maud; Rybnik, Paulina K; Malecki, Irek A; Cornwallis, Charlie K; Cloete, Schalk W P
Full Text Available Raywat Deonandan, Marya JaleelInterdisciplinary School of Health Sciences, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, CanadaAbstract: Multiple studies from around the world have suggested that semen quality is declining globally. However, all studies suffer from variable semen sampling criteria, selection bias with respect to the types of men volunteering to participate, and a bias with respect to a tendency to examine only samples from high-income countries. This heterogeneity in approaches, especially given the undersampling of rural and less affluent men from low-income countries, calls into question researchers' claims of universally declining semen norms.Keywords: human semen, quality, global, developing world
Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english This study was conducted to determine the effect on semen quality traits of supplementing the diets of Iraqi drakes with L-carnitine. Forty eight male Iraqi ducks, 30 weeks old, were randomly allocated to four treatments with 12 drakes per treatment group, replicated three times, with four drakes pe [...] r replicate. The treatment groups consisted of birds fed a diet free of L-carnitine (T1, control group); birds fed a diet containing 50 mg L-carnitine/kg diet (T2); birds fed a diet containing 100 mg L-carnitine/kg diet (T3); and birds fed a diet containing 150 mg L-carnitine/kg diet. The drakes were fed the experimental diets only during the experimental period, which lasted three months. The semen quality traits that were investigated were ejaculate volume, mass and individual motility of spermatozoa, spermatocrit, spermatozoa concentration, percentages of dead and abnormal spermatozoa and acrosomal abnormalities. Supplementing the diet of drakes with L-carnitine at the levels of 50 - 150 mg/kg diet significantly increased ejaculate volume, spermatocrit, mass and individual motility of spermatozoa, and concentration of spermatozoa, while percentages of dead and abnormal spermatozoa and acrosomal abnormalities were decreased. However, T4 (150 mg L-carnitine/kg diet) recorded the best results in relation to all semen quality traits included in this study. Dietary supplementation with L-carnitine improved the semen quality of local drakes; therefore L-carnitine can be used as an efficient feed additive to improve the reproductive performance of male ducks.
H.J., Al-Daraji; A.O., Tahir.
"This is a ""prove of concept"" study of the use of mitochondrial activity flowcytometry analysis for assessment of the semen quality in boar ejaculates. The study approach utilizes the use of mitochondrial electrochemical potential-induced JC-9 dye spectral shift in order to evaluate the mitochondrial potential and therefore the spermatocyte activity, and propidium iodide staining, to assess the cell viability. The sperm quality assessment results acquired using flow...
Hayrabedyan, Soren; Georgiev, Boyko; Kacheva, Dimitrina; Chervenkov, Mihail; Shumkov, Kiril; Taushanova, Paulina; Kistanova, Elena
The use of donated human semen in the UK was developed by medical practitioners as a means of circumventing male infertility and helping childless women to achieve a pregnancy. Uncertainty about the legal status of donor-conceived children and moral concerns about the possible effects on the marital relationship of the recipients worked to maintain donor insemination (DI) as a largely hidden practice in which the donors remained anonymous to the recipients and unrevealed to any resulting dono...
The data of the present study were collected from Bangladesh Milk Producers` Co-operative Union Limited (BMPCUL) at Baghabarighat, Sirajgong, Bangladesh to evaluate the bull performance through semen quality and 30-day Non Return Rate (NRR). Data on 245 ejaculates and 12,750 services of almost same aged of 5 Sahiwal bulls (B1, B2, B3, B4 and B5) over a period of 5 years were collected from Animal Breeding Section and Cattle Feed Unit of B...
Mostari, M. P.; Rahman, M. G. M.; Khandoker, M. A. M. Y.; Husain, S. S.
Several studies suggest that welding is detrimental to the male reproductive system. Welding fume and radiant heat are of interest as possible causal factors. This study investigates semen quality and sex hormone concentrations among 17 manual metal arc alloyed steel welders with a moderate exposure to radiant heat (globe temperature ranging from 31.1 degrees to 44.8 degrees C), but without substantial exposure to welding fume toxicants. During exposure to heat the skin temperature in the gro...
Bonde, J. P.
Azoospermia is a descriptive term referring to ejaculates that lack spermatozoa without implying a specific underlying cause. The traditional definition of azoospermia is ambiguous, which has ramifications on the diagnostic criteria. This issue is further compounded by the apparent overlap between the definitions of oligospermia and azoospermia. The reliable diagnosis of the absence of spermatozoa in a semen sample is an important criterion not only for diagnosing male infertility but also fo...
Stock improvement using quantitative and molecular genetics is an essential part of nowadays production of farm animals and fish. To achieve this in aquaculture, germplasm of both parental sexes should be obtained in a life-saving manner. In captivity, male African catfish, Clariasgariepinus , do not release semen under abdominal massage and have to be sacrificed to obtain sperm from the macerated testes. Of course, this is regarded as a major constrains by the catfish farming s...
The chamois of Abruzzi (Rupicapra pyrenaica ornata) has been classified as endangered by the World Union for Conservation. The objective of this study was to analyze seasonal differences in the characteristics of various male reproductive organs and in semen quality. The study was conduced during 2004 in the reserve of Lama dei Peligni (Italy) on three chamois males aged between 2 and 5 years. Males were captured during March-May months and October-December months. Various testicular and scro...
The authors examined, using three generally accepted methods, the personality structure of 80 semen donors (Cattell's 16-factor questionnaire, 16PF, Eysenck's personality questionnaire, EOD, and Leary's method of interpersonal diagnosis of personality). The donors were selected by means of the Questionnaire of semen donors. The group is subdivided into four sub-groups by the grade of education, i.e. university graduates, men with secondary and elementary education and university students. All are 20-40 years old. The authors describe the assembled results in different sub-groups and in the group as a whole and compare them mutually and with the standardized norm. With regard to the specificity of individual methods and their application the findings are summarized. The donors are balanced personalities, slightly extrovert, emotionally well developed with a realistic outlook. They have positive, sensitive relations with their environment an behaviour towards other people, they are considerate, careful and disciplined. They respect social norms as regards preservation of originality of personality. They have a slight tendency of sheltering behaviour, they wish to be somewhat more aggressive. No pathological phenomena were observed in the donors. Their intelligence is above average. They make a favourable impression with regard to the demand of mental health and transmission of genetic information. The authors evaluate favourably the Questionnaire for semen donors as the method for selection of donors. PMID:1807935
Taus, L; Gerzová, J
Objective The purpose of this observational study was to determine whether semen parameters (concentration, motility) were affected by the interval between the onset of postwash sperm incubation and intrauterine insemination (IUI) time. Material and Methods Semen specimens of 100 normozoospermic men collected at the clinic were allowed 20 minutes for liquefaction at room temperature. Semen samples were subjected to both macroscopic and microscopic examinations. After centrifugation in a density gradient column and sperm-washing medium, the samples were kept in an incubator. After 30 minutes, 60 minutes, and 120 minutes, the concentration and motility were recorded. Results According the results of the Bonferroni post hoc test, there were significant differences in values of mean sperm count, percent progressive sperm motility, and total motile sperm count between 30 minutes and 120 minutes (p=0.000, p=0.000, and p=0.000) and between 60 minutes and 120 minutes (p=0.000, p=0.000, and p=0.001), but there was no significant difference between 30 minutes and 60 minutes (p=1, p=0.173, and p=1). Conclusion This study demonstrated that sperm parameters are negatively affected from prolonged incubation time. A maximum 60-minute limit of the interval between the onset of postwash sperm incubation and IUI time may increase pregnancy rates.
Koyun, Elvan; Okyay, Recep Emre; Dogan, Omer Erbil; Koval?, Muge; Dogan, Sultan Seda; Gulekli, Bulent
The serow (Capricornis sumatraensis) is a critically endangered species. The objectives of this study were to evaluate ejaculate quality in captive males, and to investigate and characterize sperm morphology. Semen was collected using electroejaculation. Mean (+/-S.D.) seminal characteristics were: semen volume 2.3+/-0.8 mL, pH 7.8+/-0.4, and osmolality 329.9+/-32.9mOsmol/kg; sperm concentration 515.8+/-263.1 x 10(6) cells/mL; wave motion score (1-5) 3.9+/-0.4; motile sperm 60.5+/-22%; viable sperm 68.3+/-9.4%; morphologically normal sperm 70.8+/-19.3%; and an opacity that was yellowish to milky-white. Sperm head length, width, degree of elongation, area, and perimeter were 6.0+/-0.6 microm, 4.3+/-0.3 microm, 71.7+/-8.6%, 19.8+/-2.5 microm(2), and 17.9+/-2.1 microm. Based on these measurements, we categorized sperm head morphometry as small, medium, or large. In addition, sperm morphology was examined by light and scanning electron microscopy; overall, morphologically normal and abnormal sperm were similar to those reported for other bovidae. In summary, this study provided baseline data regarding semen characteristics of C. sumatraensis, which should be of value in the preservation of this endangered species. PMID:18945482
Suwanpugdee, A; Kornkeawrat, K; Saikhun, K; Siriaroonrat, B; Tipkantha, W; Doungsa-Ard, K; Sa-Ardrit, M; Suthunmapinatha, P; Pinyopummin, A
Full Text Available Fifty Rhode Island chickens were randomly assigned to five treatments with ten cocks in each treatment. Group I cocks (full fed control received 140 g of a 16% CP growers ration per cock per day. Cocks in Group II, III, IV and V received 98, 70, 42 and 28 g of the same ration per cock per day, representing 70, 50, 30 and 20% of Group I intake, respectively. The feeding trials lasted for 8 weeks during which one ejaculate per day was collected from each cock using the massage technique. The ejaculated semen samples were subjected to both physical and biochemical evaluations. Results showed that cocks that were severely underfed (i.e., Groups IV and V took significantly longer time (p<0.01 to ejaculate. In addition, ejaculation failures were encountered more frequently with the severely underfed cocks than in cocks that were moderately underfed (i.e., Groups II and III. There were however, no significant differences in most of the biochemical parameters between cocks I all the treatment groups. Ejaculate volume, progressive sperm motility and sperm concentration were significantly depressed (p<0.01 in the severely underfed cocks than in the moderately underfed cocks. Thus, this study revealed that providing Rhode Island red and white cocks with one-half to three-quarter (i.e., 50-70% of their normal daily ration would neither undermine their semen producing ability nor affect their semen quality adversely.
Welding may involve hazards to the male reproductive system, but previous studies of semen quality have produced inconsistent results. We studied the effects of welding on markers of semen quality in a Danish nationwide sample of 430 first-time pregnancy planners without earlier reproductive experience. Couples were recruited among members of the union of metal workers and three other trade unions and were followed from termination of birth control until pregnancy for a maximum of six menstrual cycles. The males provided semen samples in each cycle. Median sperm density for welders was 56 x 10(6)/mL (52.5 x 10(6)/mL and 50.0 x 10(6)/mL in two reference groups). No statistically significant differences attributable to welding were found in proportions of morphologically normal sperm, sperm motility assessed by computer-aided sperm analysis, or sex hormones (testosterone, follicle-stimulating hormone, and luteinizing hormone). These negative findings may not apply to populations with high-level exposure to welding fume or to welders exposed to other putative hazards, e.g., heat.
Hjollund, N H; Bonde, J P
Full Text Available A total 20 French mini straws (0.25ml of frozen semen were randomly collected from one of frozen semen bank for evaluation of microbial load using the standard plate count (SPC method using nutrient agar plate. These plates were incubated at 37oC for 24 and 48 hrs and examined for growth. The average colony count was calculated and bacteria were also identified as Gram positive and Gram negative. A total of 10 biochemical tests were performed to characterize the isolates. Antibiotic sensitivity test was also performed to test the sensitivity against Ampicillin, Erythromycin, Gentamycin, Spectinomycin and Tetracycline. The results indicate that 5 samples out of 20 were found positive for various bacterial isolates and fungi. Both the Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria were found in these samples. One isolate from sample No. CB-594 (white colony was found positive for all 9 biochemical tests. All the bacterial isolates exhibited variable pattern against 5 antibiotics used in the study. The article describes detailed investigation of microbial load in frozen semen of cattle bulls.
Hemaxi V Patel
Cryopreserved stallion sperm displays a high degree of male-to-male variability with respect to cell viability after thawing. Animals that have semen with low viability after cryopreservation are classified as 'poor' freezers, and when post-thaw viability is high they are designated as 'good' freezers. Cryoprotective agents that are used for cryopreserving stallion sperm include glycerol, ethylene glycol, methyl formamide, and dimethylformamide, and are typically used in concentrations ranging from 1% to 4%. The aim of this study was to evaluate the osmotic stresses that stallion sperm is exposed to during cryopreservation, and to determine if sperm from 'good' and 'poor' freezers show differences in osmotic tolerance limits and in the suitability of cryoprotective agents. Concentrations of 2-3% of the above mentioned cryoprotectants with freezing extender osmolalities ranging from 580 to 895 mOsm kg(-1) showed the highest motility rates after freeze-thaw, both for 'good' and 'poor' freezers, for all cryoprotectants tested with slightly higher values for glycerol. Freeze-thawed semen from 'poor' freezers was found to have a lower percentage of progressively motile sperm compared to that of 'good' freezers. Assessment of plasma and acrosomal membrane integrity after return to isosmotic conditions revealed that cryopreserved sperm from 'poor' freezers showed lower osmotic tolerance limits as compared to sperm from 'good' freezers. Semen from 'poor' freezers that was frozen using freezing extenders supplemented with more then 2% cryoprotectant showed decreased viability and increased acrosome reaction upon return to isoosmotic conditions, whereas 'good' freezers could withstand cryoprotectant concentrations up to 3% before a decline in viability was observed. PMID:21470802
Hoffmann, N; Oldenhof, H; Morandini, C; Rohn, K; Sieme, H
The objective was to determine if decreased cushion-fluid volume and increased sperm number during centrifugation, or if sperm concentration of extended semen following centrifugation, affected stallion sperm quality. Three ejaculates from each of three stallions were subjected to cushioned centrifugation (1,000g for 20 min). Cushion-fluid volume was set at 1 or 3.5 ml, and sperm number per centrifuge tube was set 1 billion or 3 billion. Following centrifugation, sperm pellets were resuspended in semen extender containing 20% seminal plasma (v/v) with sperm concentrations of 25 or 250 million/mL. Sperm recovery rate among centrifugation treatment groups was compared. Motion characteristics, plasma membrane intactness (SMI), and DNA quality (COMP?t) of sperm were compared among treatment groups and uncentrifuged controls immediately following centrifugation (Time 0 h) and following 24 h of cooled storage (Time 24 h). Centrifugation treatment did not affect sperm recovery rate (P > 0.05). At Time 0 h, no differences in experimental end points were detected between cushion-fluid volumes tested (P > 0.05). Values for percent total sperm motility, percent progressive sperm motility, and track straightness were similar between sperm-number treatments subjected to centrifugation (P > 0.05). At Time 24 h, values for all experimental endpoints were similar between centrifugation treatments for cushion volume per tube, and between centrifugation treatments for sperm number per tube (P > 0.05). Centrifugation treatments and control treatments were similar for five of six variables tested (P > 0.05). Sperm storage concentrations of 25 × 10(6) and 250 × 10(6)/mL yielded similar values for percent total sperm motility, percent progressive sperm motility, percent SMI, and percent COMP?t (P > 0.05). A storage concentration of 250 × 10(6) sperm/ml yielded higher values for curvilinear velocity, and lower values for straightness, than all other groups (P < 0.05). In conclusion, centrifugation with as little as 1 ml of cushion fluid and a sperm number of up to 3 × 10(9) sperm in 50-ml conical-bottom centrifuge tubes had no detrimental effect on initial or cool-stored sperm quality. Additionally, storage of centrifuged sperm at a concentration of 250 × 10(6)/mL with 20% seminal plasma (v/v) did not have a detrimental effect on percentages of motile or progressively motile sperm, or sperm DNA quality. PMID:22192395
Bliss, S B; Voge, J L; Hayden, S S; Teague, S R; Brinsko, S P; Love, C C; Blanchard, T L; Varner, D D
mRNA profiling is a promising new method for the identification of body fluids from biological stains. In this study we aimed to establish a multiplex RT-PCR protocol for the detection and differentiation of sperm and seminal plasma. The Agilent Bioanalyzer and Nanodrop spectrophotometer were shown not to be suitable for assessing RNA quality and quantity of forensic stains. Semen specificity of the mRNA markers was successfully confirmed with singleplex PCR. Our data indicated that semen sam...
Haas, C.; Muheim, C.; Kratzer, A.; Ba?r, W.; Maake, C.
Full Text Available Three hundred and sixty-one cocks from five hatches, one week apart, were used in this study. The birds which were made up of 203 birds from strain A (male line and 158 birds from strain B (female line were subjected to semen collection using the massage technique. The ejaculates were then subjected to both physical and chemical evaluations for semen quality analysis. The parameters considered were semen volume, semen colour, sperm progressive motility, sperm concentration, total sperm per ejaculate, concentration of live sperm and percent abnormal sperm. Results showed that the mean values for all the parameters lie within the acceptable range reported for normal cock semen. Moderate to high heritability estimates for most of the semen traits were also observed. The least square means (±SE for semen volume, sperm progressive motility, sperm concentration, total sperm per ejaculate and concentration of live sperm cells obtained in this study were 0.42±0.02 ml, 73.46±2.04%, 1.47±0.15x109/ml, 64.15±5.67x109/ml and 86.45±2.63%. The heritability estimates obtained were 0.55±0.03 for semen colour, 0.45±0.08 for semen volume, 0.83±0.04 for sperm progressive motility, 0.52±0.06 for sperm concentration, 0.33±0.02 for total sperm count, 0.46±0.03 for concentration of live sperm cells respectively. High and positive genetic correlations between Osborne Selection Index and semen volume, semen colour, sperm concentration as well as with concentration of live spermatozoa were also obtained. The lowest value (0.008±0.010 of phenotypic correlation obtained was for total sperm per ejaculate and the highest value (0.066±0.027 was for semen volume. Therefore the genetic correlation between Osborne Selection Index and most semen traits were positive, hence, selection of males on the index values, currently been practiced in NAPRI, will not bring about any deterioration in semen quality. On the other hand, due to significantly negative genetic correlation between Osborne index and abnormal sperms, it will indirectly improve the semen quality of both lines which in turn may yield better fertility in the Rhode Island flock.
The use of sexed semen in farm animal production and genetic improvement has been shown to be feasible with variable degree of efficiency in a number of species, and proved to be economically viable in cattle. In the last two decades, various newly developed reproductive technologies applicable in buffaloes have mushroomed. Recently, following the birth of the first buffalo calves using AI with sexed semen, commercial interest to exploit sexing of semen in this species too is aroused. In order to verify the successful adoption of this technology in the buffalo, the present study on the use of sexed semen for AI was carried out and compared with conventional artificial insemination using nonsexed semen. A total of 379 buffalo heifers were used for synchronization of ovulation using the Presynch protocol in the South of Italy. Selected animals at the time of AI were randomly allocated to three different experiment groups: (1) 102 animals subjected to AI in the body of the uterus with sexed semen (SS body); (2) 104 animals subjected to AI in the horn of the uterus with sexed semen (SS horn); and (3) 106 animals subjected to AI in the body of the uterus with conventional nonsexed semen (NSS body). Semen of three buffalo bulls was sexed by a collaborating company and commercially distributed in 0.25 mL straws with a total of 2 million sexed spermatozoa. Pregnancy rates were first assessed at Day 28 following AI, and rechecked at Day 45 by ultrasound. Pregnancy rates were nonsignificantly different between animals inseminated with sexed or nonsexed semen: 80/206 (38.8%) and 40/106 (37.7%), respectively (P = 0.85). However, site of insemination of sexed semen affected pregnancy rate significantly as higher pregnancy rates were obtained when sexed semen was deposited into the body rather than the horn of the uterus: 46/101 (45.5%) and 34/105 (32.3%), respectively (P = 0.05). In conclusion, the use of sexed semen in buffalo heifers gave satisfactory and similar pregnancy rates when compared with conventional nonsexed semen. Deposition of sexed semen into the body of the uterus, however, increased pregnancy rates significantly. PMID:21497388
Campanile, G; Gasparrini, B; Vecchio, D; Neglia, G; Senatore, E M; Bella, A; Presicce, G A; Zicarelli, L
Full Text Available In this study the effects of a new antibiotic combination, i.e., gentamycin, tylosin and linco-spectin (STLS on post-thaw motion characteristics, plasma membrane integrity, sperm morphology and the total aerobic bacterial counts (TABC in buffalo and Sahiwal bull semen were investigated. Ten ejaculates, five each from a buffalo and a Sahiwal bull, possessing more than 60% sperm motility were used. These ejaculates were diluted in Tris-citric acid (TCA extender (at 37 °C; 50 X 106 spermatozoa/mi, containing either GTLS (gentamycin 500 ?g/ml, tylosin 100 ?g/ml and linco-spectin 300/600 ?g/ml, streptomycin 1000 ?g/ml and penicillin 1000 IU/ml (SP, or negative control with no antibiotics (NCON. Samples were cooled to 4°C in 2 hours, equilibrated at 4°C for 4 hours, filled in 0.5 ml straws, frozen in a controlled rate cell freezer and plunged into liquid nitrogen. Frozen semen was thawed at 37°C for 15 seconds. Post-thaw sperm motion characteristics, plasma membrane integrity and sperm morphology were determined. Total aerobic bacterial counts and the frequency of appearance of bacterial genera were determined in neat semen, after dilution, and after freezing and thawing. Mean motilities (visual; computer-assisted, linear and circular, velocities (straight-line, average path and curvilinear and lateral head displacement (LHD in post- thaw semen samples did not differ due to antibiotics or species. Same was true for sperm plasma membrane integrity. Morphologically abnormal spermatozoa were lower (P<0.05 in GTLS and SP than in NCON. Sperm cells possessing normal acrosomes were higher (P<0.01 in GTLS and SP than in NCON. Total aerobic bacterial counts in post-thaw samples were lower (P<0.05 in GTLS than in SP or NCON. Staphylococcus and micrococcus were lower in samples treated with GTLS than that of SP or NCON. Pseudomonas and E.coli were more frequent in buffaloes than Sahiwal bull samples. Proteus and corynebacteria were scarcely present. In conclusion, GTLS was not determintal to post thaw motion characteristics, sperm morphology and membrane integrity of buffalo and Sahiwal bull spermatozoa. Furthermore, it efficiently reduced the number of aerobic micro-organisms in buffalo and Sahiwal bull semen.
S. Hasan, S. M. H. Andrabi, R. Muneer, M. Anzar and N. Ahmad
Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english Maintaining a successful pig artificial insemination programme depends on a number of factors, including evaluation of semen characteristics. This study compared the efficacy of different extenders on the sperm motility of Kolbroek semen during short term storage at 4 °C and 25 °C. Semen was collect [...] ed from Kolbroek boars using the gloved hand technique and transported to the laboratory for evaluation. Semen was pooled and randomly allocated to four groups and diluted at a ratio of 1:1 (v/v) with Beltsville thawing solution (BTS), Kobidil+, egg yolk citrate (EYC) and non-extended semen (Control). Each extender had two similar semen samples, making a total of eight samples. Extended and non-extended semen were stored at 4 °C and the other samples at 25 °C for 1 h. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA). The total sperm motility of semen stored at 25 °C was higher when semen was extended with BTS and Kobidil+ in comparison to the egg yolk citrate diluent. However, total sperm motility in the non-extended semen did not differ from the BTS and EYC group during storage at 25 °C. Sperm progressive motility was higher in the BTS group, compared to the Kobidil+ and non-extended groups. Sperm motility of Kolbroek semen at 4 °C did not differ between all extender treatments. Total motility rate was significantly higher when Kolbroek sperm were stored at 25 °C than at 4 °C. It can be concluded that Kolbroek sperm, extended with BTS, maintained their motility rate better for short term storage at 25 °C in comparison to 4 °C.
M.H., Mapeka; K.C., Lehloenya; T.L., Nedambale.
To evaluate the effect of sephadex column filtration technique on semen quality of five Holstein bulls and five Egyptian buffalo bulls. Semen was collected biweekly from each eight weeks. Immediately after collection, semen was extended (37degree C) and filtered using sephadex column-filtration technique. Semen was evaluated for physical semen characteristics including, percentages of sperm motility, live sperm and sperm abnormality as well as sperm cell concentration pre-and post-filtration. Results show that among all physical semen characteristics, only ejaculate semen volume was significantly (P<0.001) higher in Holstein than buffalo bulls, but motility, livability, abnormality, sperm concentration and sperm with intact acrosome did not differ between both species. As a result of filtration, sperm motility and livability increased (P<0.05) by 16.4 and 11.8% in Holstein and by 16.9 and 10.1% in buffalo semen, respectively. Sperm abnormality and concentration reduced (P<0.05) by 2.6 and 3.3% in Holstein and by 2.4 and 3.5% in buffalo semen, respectively. Improvements of live sperm and the reduction in sperm concentration (proportional to the pre-filtration value) were better (P<0.05) in Holstein than buffalo semen (15.5% and %52.4 vs. 13.2 and -49.3%, respectively). Improvement of motility and abnormality did not differ in Holstein (25.4 and %57.8) and buffalo semen (26.6 and ,(%54.5respectively. The present results indicate that using sephadex column filter technique has beneficial effects on improving quality of spermatozoa in both species. (author)
Full Text Available Se investigó por bacteriología general el semen fresco y después de la congelación de 50 toros de inseminación artificial y se efectuó el conteo total de unidades formadoras de colonias (UFC. A l5 de los toros se les realizó el examen bacteriológico de sus lavados prepuciales. En todas las muestras de semen fresco se obtuvo crecimiento bacteriano y los gérmenes más frecuentemente aislados fueron: Escherichia coli (50,0%, Staphylococcus aureus (36,0% y Staphylococcus coagulasa negativa (28,0%. En el semen congelado solamente se obtuvo crecimiento en el 20,0%. El 74,0% del semen fresco alcanzó conteos ? 1 x 104 UFC/mL antes de ser procesado; después de la congelación el 80,0% fue estéril. En el total de lavados prepuciales se obtuvo crecimiento y se detectó en mayor proporción el Staphylococcus coagulasa negativa (60,0%, microorganismo también aislado en el semen fresco de estos toros. Se concluyó que la adición de antibióticos al menstruo y posterior congelación en pastillas, disminuye notablemente la carga microbiana presente en el semen. It was investigated through general bacteriology both fresh semen and after the freezing process, carried out in 50 bulls of artificial insemination, total counting of colony forming units (CFU was made. A bacteriological analysis of the prepucial washing was made on 15 of these bulls. In all samples of fresh semen there was bacterial growing. The most frequently germs were: Escherichia coli (50,0%, Staphylococcus aureus (36,0% and coagulase negative Staphylococcus (28,0%. In samples of frozen semen growth was only obtained in the 20,0%. The 74,0% of samples of fresh semen reached counts ? 1 x 104 CFU/mL before being processed; after freezing 80,0% of the samples were sterile. In all prepucial washings it was obtained growth and mostly detected coagulase negative Staphylococcus (60.0%, was also isolated in the fresh semen of these bulls. We concluded that the addition of antibiotics to the menses and later freezing in pills, diminishes the load microbial present notably in the semen
Enrique A. Silveira Prado
Abstract Background Artificial insemination (AI) using frozen-thawed semen is well established and routinely used for breeding in various mammalian species. However, there is no report of the birth of elephant calves following AI with frozen-thawed semen. The objective of the present study was to investigate the fertilizing ability of chilled and frozen-thawed semen in the Asian elephant following artificial insemination (AI). Methods Semen samples were collecte...
Thongtip Nikorn; Mahasawangkul Sittidet; Thitaram Chatchote; Pongsopavijitr Pornsawan; Kornkaewrat Kornchai; Pinyopummin Anuchai; Angkawanish Taweepoke; Jansittiwate Saran; Rungsri Ronnachit; Boonprasert Khajornpat; Wongkalasin Warut; Homkong Pongpon; Dejchaisri Suthathip; Wajjwalku Worawit; Saikhun Kulnasan
Background: The aim of this study was to detect Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyti¬cum from semen samples of infertile men by Multiplex PCR and investigation of influence of bacteriospermia on semen parame¬ters. Methods: Semen samples of 200 infertile men were evaluated by Multiplex PCR. In addition, analysis of semen parameters was performed according to the WHO guidelines. Results: All the patients were without clinical symptoms of urogenital tract infection...
Golshani, M.; Eslami, G.; Sh Mohhammadzadeh Ghobadloo; Fallah, F.; Goudarzi, H.; Aa, Soleimani Rahbar; Fayaz, F.
Full Text Available The present project was designed to study the effect of substitution of buffalo bull seminal plasma with that of cow bull on liveability and fertility of buffalo bull spermatozoa. After collection, semen was divided into three fractions. a Half of the seminal plasma of buffalo bull was substituted with equal amount of cow bull seminal plasma, b The seminal plasma of buffalo bull was completely substituted with that of cow bull, c No substitution was made (control group. The liveability (hrs of buffalo bull spermatozoa stored at 37°C was significantly higher (P<0.05 in half substituted seminal plasma (21.3 as compared to that in full substituted (8.4 and control groups (l3.7. Significantly higher conception rate was observed with half substituted seminal plasma semen samples (65.58 as compared to inseminations with control group (54.4 semen samples.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the capacity of three semen processing techniques, Percoll gradient centrifugation, Swim-up and a combination of Swim-up and Percoll gradient centrifugation, to reduce the viral load of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) in experimentally infected semen samples. The evaluation was performed using two approaches: first, searching for the presence of virus in the processed samples (via virus titration and RT-PCR) and second, ascertaining the possible interference on in vitro embryo production. The sperm count and DNA integrity (Comet assay) of the processed samples were analyzed (Experiment 1). The amount of virus in the processed samples was determined by titration in cell culture (Experiment 2). The samples processed by Swim up/Percoll gradient centrifugation were utilized for in vitro embryo production, and the embryos produced were tested for BVDV by RT-PCR (Experiment 3). Sperm concentration, Comet assay and embryo production were analyzed by chi-squared tests (P<0.05). There was a significant difference between sperm separation techniques when the sperm count and Comet assay were analyzed. The sperm count obtained from the Swim up/Percoll gradient centrifugation group was lower than that obtained in either of the two other groups (Swim up and Percoll gradient centrifugation), and the Comet assay showed that the combination of the two semen processing techniques (Swim up/Percoll gradient) produced a 1.1% prevalence of Comet level 2, which was not observed in the other groups. The BVDV titer (10(6.68)TCID(50)/mL) added to experimentally infected semen samples decreased after Percoll gradient centrifugation to 10(2.3)-10(1)TCID(50)/mL; for the Swim up group, the titer range was 10(3.3)-10(1.87)TCID(50)/mL, and in the Swim up/Percoll gradient centrifugation group, BVDV was undetectable. The decreases in titer varied from 99.9% in the Swim up-processed group to 100% in the Swim up/Percoll gradient centrifugation group. In vitro embryo production displayed similar blastocyst development rates among all groups, and RT-PCR was negative for the produced embryos. The data showed that the combination of Swim up/Percoll gradient centrifugation promoted the elimination of BVDV from the semen samples without damaging spermatozoa cells and also allowed successful in vitro embryo production free of BVDV. Hence, the risk of BVDV contamination is negligible for the embryo recipient. PMID:23219984
Galuppo, Andrea G; Junior, Nelson B; Arruda, Nathalia S; Corbellini, Angela O; Chiappetta, Catarina M; Pavão, Danielle L; D'Angelo, Magali; Canal, Cláudio W; Rodrigues, José L
Considerable interest and controversy over a possible decline in semen quality during the 20th century raised concern that semen quality could have reached a critically low level where it might affect human reproduction. The authors therefore initiated a study to assess reproductive health in men from the general population and to monitor changes in semen quality over time.
JÃ¸rgensen, Niels; Joensen, Ulla NordstrÃ¶m
The study was designed to evaluate the influence of season on semen characteristics and seminal plasma protein profile of buffalo bull semen. Thirty-six ejaculates were collected in three seasons (winter, summer and rainy) from six adult Bhadawari bulls, and semen characteristics were evaluated immediately after collection. The seminal plasma was harvested by centrifugation and protein profiling, and percentage protein fractions were analysed by SDS-PAGE. The significant effect of season was observed on ejaculate volume, sperm concentration, progressive motility, percentage live spermatozoa, hypo-osmotic swelling test (HOST) and acrosomal integrity. The electrophoretogram of seminal plasma proteins revealed 20 protein bands in winter, 23 bands in rainy and 25 bands in summer seasons, illustrating the significant effect of seasons on seminal plasma proteins. Among these protein bands, 18 bands were observed common in semen samples of all three seasons while protein bands of 46, 55, 58, 144 and 160 kDa were found in rainy and summer seasons. The protein bands of 48 and 60 kDa were observed only in winter season, whereas 184 and 200 kDa were reported in summer season only. The protein fractions (protein%) of common protein bands observed in three seasons revealed a significant effect of season on protein bands of 24.5, 66, 70, 72, 84 and 86 kDa. From the study, it was pertinent that bull seminal plasma contains specific proteins in particular season, which may be associated with some of the semen characteristics, and these proteins could be used as markers of the semen quality of buffalo bulls. PMID:24597848
Sharma, L; Pandey, V; Nigam, R; Singh, P; Saxena, A; Swain, Dk
Cryopreservation methods for poultry semen are not reliable for germplasm preservation, especially for turkeys, where fertility rates from frozen/thawed semen are particularly low. The objective was to evaluate cryopreservation methods for effectiveness in promoting cryosurvival and post-thaw function of sperm from five turkey lines: one commercial line and four research (RBC1; E; RBC2; F) lines from Ohio State University (OSU). The model for cryopreservation was set up as a 2×2×2×5 design for cryoprotectant (glycerol or dimethylacetamide (DMA)), cryopreservation medium (Lake or ASG), method of dilution (fixed dilution volume versus fixed sperm concentration) and turkey line, respectively. The final cryoprotectant concentrations were 11% glycerol or 6% DMA. Thawed sperm were evaluated for plasma membrane integrity and quality, motility, acrosome integrity and, after artificial insemination, for egg fertility and hatchability. Commercial turkey hens were used for all fertility trials, regardless of semen source. Turkey sperm frozen with glycerol exhibited higher membrane integrity and membrane quality upon thawing than turkey sperm frozen with DMA although no differences in total motility, and only minimal differences in progressive motility, were detected among the eight cryopreservation treatments. Within line, fertility was affected by cryoprotectant, medium and dilution method, where the overall highest percentages of fertile, viable embryos (Day 7) occurred for the DMA/ASG/fixed sperm concentration method, while high percentages (15.8-31.5%) of fertile, non-viable embryos (Day 1-6) were observed for multiple cryopreservation methods, including two glycerol treatments. From a single insemination, the duration of true and viable fertility in all lines was 10-13 weeks and 9-10 weeks, respectively. The duration of hatchability was 4-6 weeks after insemination for four of the turkey lines. The highest percentage of viable embryos was observed for the commercial line (9.5±2.4%), followed by the E line (5.3±1.3%), F line (3.7±2.0%) and RBC2 line (2.6±0.8%). For the RBC1 line, there was 100% embryonic death by Day 6 of incubation. Overall, better fertility results were obtained with the cryoprotectant DMA, the ASG diluent and fixed sperm concentration. However, the applicability of this method for preserving semen from research populations may be line dependent. PMID:24731850
Long, Julie A; Purdy, Phillip H; Zuidberg, Kees; Hiemstra, Sipke-Joost; Velleman, Sandra G; Woelders, Henri
Full Text Available SciELO Peru | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se evaluó el efecto crioprotector de dos dilutores hipertónicos (Trealosa y Lactosa) sobre las características postdescongelamiento del semen ovino (n=4). La composición de los dilutores base incluyó Tris 27.1 g/l, ácido cítrico 14.0 g/l, fructosa 10.0 g/l, glicina 10.0 g/l, yema de huevo 10.0 % (v/ [...] v) y glicerol 6.5 % (v/v). El semen colectado con vagina artificial tuvo las siguientes características: volumen: 1.1 ± 0.1ml, concentración espermática: 3.5 ± 0.1 x 109/ml, motilidad individual: 87.0 ± 2.4%, motilidad masal (escala 0- 5): 4.4 ± 0.2, espermatozoides vivos: 90.2 ± 3.8% y anormales 1.8 ± 0.7%. El semen fue congelado en pajillas de 0.5 ml y conservado en nitrógeno líquido. Las pajillas fueron descongeladas luego de 3 meses para su evaluación. Se obtuvo una motilidad individual de 40.3 ± 5.9 y 30.0 ± 5.0% y un número de espermatozoides vivos de 34.4 ± 6.6 y 24.4 ± 5.0 para los dilutores Trealosa y Lactosa, respectivamente. El mejor resultado se obtuvo al utilizar el dilutor hipertónico Trealosa por tener mejores características de motilidad individual y espermatozoides vivos postdescongelamiento. Abstract in english The cryoprotectant effect of two hypertonic extenders (trehalose and lactose) on the post-thawing characteristics of ram semen (n=4) was evaluated. The extender composition included Tris 27.1 g/l, Citric acid 14.0 g/l, Fructose 10.0 g/l, Glycine 10.0 g/l, egg yolk 10.0% (v/v) and Glycerol 6.5% (v/v) [...] . Semen was collected in an artificial vagina. Seminal characteristics were: volume: 1.1 ± 0.1 ml, sperm concentration: 3.50 ± 0.1 x 109/ml, individual motility: 87.0 ± 2.4%, wave motility (scale 0-5): 4.4 ± 0.2, live sperms: 90.2 ± 3.8%, and abnormal sperms: 1.8 ± 0.7%. Semen was frozen in 0.5 ml straws and stored in liquid nitrogen. Straws were thawed after 3 months. Results of post-thawing evaluation were: individual motility: 40.3 ± 5.9 and 30.0 ± 5.0%, and live sperms: 34.4 ± 6.6 and 24.3 ± 5.0% for the Trehalose and Lactose extenders respectively. Results showed a better ram semen cryopreservation when the Trehalose extender was used.
Hernán, Guerrero V.; Wilfredo, Huanca L.; Fernando, Raymundo T.; Sandra, Huerta O.; Daphne, Ramos D..
The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical relevance of measuring blood concentrations of serum amyloid A (SAA), haptoglobin (Hp) and fibrinogen (Fib) in horse reproductive management, and changes in response to artificial insemination (AI) with frozen-thawed semen. Standardbred mares (n=18) with different reproductive status (eight healthy mares in first postpartum oestrus, five healthy barren mares and five mares with endometritis) were inseminated with frozen-thawed semen. Endometritis was evaluated during oestrus by bacteriological culture, cytology and presence of ultrasonically visible intrauterine fluid during oestrus. Concentrations of SAA, Hp and Fib were analysed in the blood in every 48h during oestrus and until 5, 6 or 7 days after AI. The day of sampling and number of blood samples varied between mares because of length of the oestrus and time of AI. Changes in concentrations of SAA, Hp and Fib were evaluated based on the day of sampling regard to AI and classification of the mares. There were no differences in SAA, Hp and Fib concentrations over time before or after AI or between the groups of mares. The insemination of mares with frozen-thawed semen did not increase the plasma concentrations of SAA, Hp and Fib above clinical threshold concentration and there were no differences between susceptible or healthy mares. PMID:24636940
Tuppits, U; Orro, T; Einarsson, S; Kask, K; Kavak, A
As a good number of couples are coming to infertility clinics to have children at advanced ages, it is essential to know whether advanced paternal age is associated with diminished semen quality and a higher risk of infertility. This retrospective study was done to see the effects of age on semen quality, a well-known indicator of fertility status. Semen parameters of smokers and non-smokers in the study population were also analyzed. A sample of 1121 male partners of infertile couples (aged 25-55 years) who came to an infertility clinic for treatment were included into the study. In addition to clinical history including lifestyle, medical and occupational details and physical examination, their semen samples were examined. Semen volume (ml), sperm concentration (x 10(6)/ml), motility (%), rapidly progressing (%), slowly progressing (%), non-progressive (%) motility and morphology (%) were measured. Semen volume showed IQR 1.5-3.0 ml, and significant decreasing trend with increasing age (r = -0.070, p<0.05). Sperm motility and rapidly progressing motility showed significant decrease (IQR 40.0-70.0, r = -0.115, p<0.01 and IQR 20.0-50.0, r = -0.107, p<0.01 respectively) with increasing age. There was no significant difference between semen parameters of smokers and non-smokers in the study population. This study shown that semen volume, sperm motility and rapidly progressing motility were significantly decreased with increasing age. PMID:22561776
Hossain, M M; Fatima, P; Rahman, D; Hossain, H B
Full Text Available The present study was to evaluate the effect of breed and intervals between collection on semen characteristics. Semen was collected from eight breeding bulls belonging to four genetic groups (100%SL, 75%F?25%L, 50%SL?50%F and 50%F?50%L. Genetic groups had a significant effect (P<0.05 on semen characteristics except motility and total number of semen collection per month. The highest sperm concentration, total number of motile sperm cells/jaculate and total number of semen doses per collection were found in 100%SL and lowest in 50%F?50%L. Similarly, intervals between collection significantly (P<0.05 affected all the semen traits except volume of ejaculate and total number of semen doses per ejaculate. The highest sperm concentration (1332?29 mill. Ml-1, total number of motile sperm cells/jaculate (5621?261.99 million, motility (64?0.24% and total number of collection per month (5.84?0.23 was obtained with an interval < 6 days between collection than the other interval groups. It was concluded that 100% Sahiwal and 50% Sahiwal ?50% Friesian for the genetic group and <6 days for the interval between collection were suitable for most of the semen parameters than all other groups.
The dried ripe seed of Raphanus sativus L., commonly known as radish seed (or Raphani Semen), is used as traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) to treat constipation, chronic tracheitis, and hypertension. The major active compounds in Raphani Semen are alkaloids, glucosinolates, brassinosteroids, and flavonoids. Fatty acids are its main nutritional contents. Raphani Semen has been demonstrated to have beneficial effects on hypertension, obesity, diabetes mellitus, constipation, and cough. So far, there is no report about the adverse/toxic effects of this herb on humans. However, Raphani Semen processed by roasting was reported to exhibit some adverse effects on mice. Additionally, erucic acid, the main fatty acid in Raphani Semen, was shown to enhance the toxicity of doxorubicin. Thus, Raphani Semen has a potential risk of causing toxicity and drug interaction. In summary, Raphani Semen is a valuable TCM herb with multiple pharmacological effects. More studies on Raphani Semen could help better understand its pharmacological mechanisms so as to provide clear scientific evidence to explain its traditional uses, to identify its therapeutic potential on other diseases, and to understand its possible harmful effects. PMID:23935670
Sham, Tung-Ting; Yuen, Ailsa Chui-Ying; Ng, Yam-Fung; Chan, Chi-On; Mok, Daniel Kam-Wah; Chan, Shun-Wan
Background.?Semen is the main carrier of sexually transmitted viruses, including human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). However, semen is not just a mere passive transporter of virions but also plays an active role in HIV-1 transmission through cytokines and other biological factors.
Lisco, Andrea; Munawwar, Arshi; Introini, Andrea; Vanpouille, Christophe; Saba, Elisa; Feng, Xingmin; Grivel, Jean-charles; Singh, Sarman; Margolis, Leonid
This case-control study assessed the effects of pesticide use on semen characteristics among rice farmers of Kienxuong District, Thaibinh Province, Vietnam. Semen samples of 1,036 rice farmers were obtained by manual masturbation and screened at Commune Health Stations. Of these, 156 abnormal semen samples were identified; 314 rice farmers with normal semen were recruited as controls. The semen characteristics (volume, sperm concentration, total sperm count, motility, vitality and morphology) of the cases were considerably poorer than the controls. Factors associated with abnormal semen after adjusting for age, smoking and alcohol drinking by logistic regression were: distance of less than 300 meters from household to rice fields and duration of work over 10 years as a farmer (adjusted OR = 3.16, 95% Cl: 1.97-5.05 and adjusted OR = 3.98, 95% Cl: 2.20-7.21, respectively). Rice farmers without personal protective equipment (PPE) when spraying pesticides and without pesticide training (adjusted OR = 3.05, Cl: 1.92-4.85 and adjusted OR = 1.90, Cl: 1.14-3.16, respectively) were also at risk for abnormal semen compared to controls. These findings showed the strength of association between pesticide use and abnormal semen characteristics among rice farmers in Kienxuong District, Thaibinh Province, Vietnam. PMID:17877235
Tuc, Vu Phong; Wangsuphachart, Voranuch; Tasanapradit, Prida; Fungladda, Wijitr; Van Trong, Pham; Nhung, Ninh Thi
A great potential of Raman spectroscopy for non-destructive, confirmatory identification of body fluids at the crime scene has been reported recently (Virkler and Lednev, Forensic Sci. Int. 2008). However, that analysis was carried out on only one sample of each body fluid and did not take into account any variations that might occur between different donors of the same fluid. This paper reports on the role of heterogeneity within a sample as well as among multiple donors for human semen. Near-infrared (NIR) Raman spectroscopy was used to measure spectra of pure dried human semen samples from multiple donors in a controlled laboratory environment. The major chemical components that contributed to the Raman spectrum of semen were determined and used to tentatively identify the principal spectral components. The issue of potential spectral variations that could arise between different donors of semen was also addressed. Advanced statistical analysis of spectra obtained from multiple spots on dry samples showed that dry semen is heterogeneous and its Raman spectra could be presented as a linear combination of a fluorescent background and three spectral components. The relative contribution of each of the three components varies with donor, so no single spectrum could effectively represent an experimental Raman spectrum of dry semen in a quantitative way. The combination of the three spectral components could be considered to be a spectroscopic signature for semen. This proof-of-concept approach shows the potential for Raman spectroscopy to identify an unknown substance to be semen during forensic analysis. PMID:19850425
Virkler, Kelly; Lednev, Igor K
The first successful artificial insemination (AI) in a rhinoceros was reported in 2007 using fresh semen. Following that success, we decided to evaluate the possibility of using frozen-thawed semen for artificial insemination. Semen, collected from a 35-36 year old Southern white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum simum) in the UK was frozen using the directional freezing technique. This frozen semen was used in two intrauterine AI attempts on a 30 years old female rhinoceros in Hungary. The first attempt, conducted 30 days postpartum with an insemination dose of approximately 135 x 10(6) motile cells, failed. The second attempt, conducted two estrus cycles later with an insemination dose of approximately 500 x 10(6) motile cells, resulted in pregnancy and the birth of a healthy offspring. This represents the first successful AI using frozen-thawed semen in a rhinoceros, putting it among very few wildlife species in which AI with frozen-thawed semen resulted in a live birth. The incorporation of AI with frozen-thawed semen into the assisted reproduction toolbox opens the way to preserve and transport semen between distant individuals in captivity or between wild and captive populations, without the need to transport stressed or potentially disease carrying animals. In addition, cryopreserved spermatozoa, in combination with AI, are useful methods to extend the reproductive lifespan of individuals beyond their biological lifespan and an important tool for managing genetic diversity in these endangered mammals. PMID:19007979
Hermes, R; Göritz, F; Saragusty, J; Sós, E; Molnar, V; Reid, C E; Schwarzenberger, F; Hildebrandt, T B
Semen analysis does not have an absolute predictive value on fertility, however it is a reflection of male fertility potential, which is related to its spermatozoa quality and other semen variables. Great variability in human semen parameters has been demonstrated within a single individual, an observation that could explain why a male with low semen quality can successfully fertilize an egg. Although conventional semen analysis, such as sperm concentration, motility and morphology, provide important information about the clinical status of male fertility, new procedures to predict the sperm functional capability have been developed in the last decade, such as analysis of nuclear DNA integrity, which have improved considerably the clinical diagnosis of male infertility, and increased the knowledge about spermatozoa function. DNA fragmentation consist in interruptions, both in single and double DNA strains, that frequently occur in sperm samples from infertile patients. We have conducted a clinical study in semen samples from patients who have attended the Andrology laboratory of the University of Los Andes, between March 2007 and March 2009. The aim of this study was to compare sperm DNA integrity, analyzed by flow cytometry, with traditional semen parameters. Our results show remarkable correlations between conventional human semen variables and sperm chromatin integrity, contributing to asses an integral evaluation of sperm quality allowing the analysis of its fertilizing potential in clinical studies. PMID:20815159
Cruz, Ibis; Colmenares, Melisa; Berrueta-Carrillo, Leidith; Gomez-Perez, Roald; Montes, Henry; Berrueta, Lisbeth; Salmen, Siham; Osuna, Jesús Alfonso
Melopsittacus undulatus is a companion parrot worldwide diffused. Many parrots are considered endangered or vulnerable. The preservation of semen is crucial in endangered species, thus, M. undulatus could be a good model to study sperm characteristics and semen cryopreservation in these other endangered parrots. In this study the effect of the breeding management (males bred in promiscuous aviary or in couple) on sperm characteristics (motility, membrane integrity and morphometry) of fresh and cryopreserved semen was evaluated. The computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA) revealed a significant effect of the husbandry method on semen characteristics in budgerigars: male housed in couple with the female in individual cages allowed the higher results in term of both semen quantity and sperm quality. Total and progressive motility were significantly higher in males bred in couple (68.7±8.9% and 54±15.9%, respectively) than in promiscuous aviary (48.3±15.1% and 24.4±12.4%, respectively), such as sperm velocity (average path velocity, straight line velocity, and curvilinear velocity). The type of sperm movement (amplitude of lateral head displacement, beat cross frequency, straightness, and linearity), sperm membrane integrity and morphometry parameters seemed not affected by the husbandry method. The standardization of a CASA procedure for the semen analysis in M. undulatus allow further studies on parrot semen manipulation and cryopreservation, but the method used for the breeding of the male could have a significant effect on the semen quality. PMID:24361005
Gloria, Alessia; Contri, Alberto; Carluccio, Augusto; Parrillo, Salvatore; Cicconi, Mirko; Robbe, Domenico
Fifteen semen specimens from 10 men with intrameatal penile warts attending a genitourinary clinic were tested by Southern blot hybridisation for the presence of human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA. Five specimens were positive for HPV types 6/11. This observation may have implications for screening of semen used for artificial insemination by donor.
PURPOSE: To evaluate levels of sperm DNA fragmentation and enzymatic antioxidant status in seminal plasma of Tunisian fertile and infertile men in order to assess the effects of seminal oxidative stress on sperm DNA integrity and semen quality. METHODS: Semen samples from 100 infertile patients (40 oligoasthenoteratozoospermics, 31 teratozoospermics and 29 asthenozoospermics) and 50 fertile men (controls) were analyzed for DNA fragmentation by TUNEL assay and biochemical parameters. Seminal antioxidant activities (Superoxide dismutase, Glutathione peroxidase and Catalase) and malondialdehyde concentrations were measured spectrophotometrically. RESULTS: Sperm DNA fragmentation and malondialdehyde levels in infertile groups were more elevated than controls. Nevertheless, the activities of the antioxidant enzymes were significantly lower in abnormal groups compared to normozoospermics. Sperm DNA fragmentation was closely and positively correlated to malondialdehyde levels (r?=?0.37, P?=?0.008); meanwhile, reduced seminal antioxidant profile was negatively associated to sperm DNA fragmentation. Interestingly, we noted also that sperm DNA fragmentation was negatively correlated to sperm motility (r?=?-0.54, P?abnormal sperm morphology (r?=?0.57, P?=?0.002). CONCLUSIONS: This report revealed that increased sperm DNA fragmentation can be due to the impaired seminal enzymatic antioxidant profile and increased Lipid peroxidation. Our results sustain that the evaluation of sperm DNA fragmentation and seminal oxidative biomarkers in infertile men is recommended as a consistent prognostic tool for male infertility assessment. PMID:23354588
Atig, Fatma; Kerkeni, Abdelhamid; Saad, Ali; Ajina, Mounir
A quantitative (1)H-NMR method (qHNMR) was used to measure the amygdalin content of Persicae semen, Armeniacae semen, and Mume fructus, in each of which amygdalin constitutes a major component. The purity of amygdalin was calculated from the ratio of the intensity of the amygdalin H-2 signal at ? 6.50 ppm in pyridine-d 5 to that of the hexamethyldisilane (HMD) signal at 0 ppm. The HMD concentration was corrected by the International System of Units (SI) traceability with certified reference material (CRM)-grade bisphenol A. qHNMR revealed the amygdalin contents to be 2.72 and 3.13% in 2 lots of Persicae semen, 3.62 and 5.19% in 2 lots of Armeniacae semen, and 0.23% in Mume fructus. Thus, we demonstrated the utility of this method for the quantitative analysis of crude drugs. PMID:23744252
Tanaka, Rie; Nitta, Akane; Nagatsu, Akito
Full Text Available Prostaglandin F2? (PGF2? has been used to improve reproductive performance in swine. The objective of this study was to investigated whether the sperm motility from Landrace boars improves when PGF2? (Dinolytic®; 5 mg PGF2? /ml was added to diluted semen. Boars from one large production unit, were manually collected; semen was either enriched with PGF2? (group 1, n=18, either untreated (group 2, n=16. Total volume of semen collected, percent of motility and number of obtained doses were recorded. Only boars from the first group (with PGF2? supplemented semen showed motility over 80% and even 100%. The untreated semen showed motility values around 65-70%.
Ioana Dana Pandur
To study Schmallenberg virus (SBV) excretion in bovine semen after experimental infection, two bulls were inoculated subcutaneously with a SBV isolate (1 ml Vero cell culture 106 TCID50). After inoculation (at day 0), semen was collected daily from both animals for 21 days and samples were tested for SBV by qRT-PCR assay. At 24 days post-inoculation both animals were subjected to necropsy and the genital organs and lymph nodes draining these organs were also tested for SBV RNA (qRT-PCR). After SBV infection both animals in the study showed viraemia (qRT-PCR) with fever and diarrhoea. SBV RNA could be detected in semen from both animals. The highest SBV RNA concentrations in semen were found in the first week (days 4-7 post-inoculation) but concentrations were relatively low (Ct values 30-39). Viable SBV was only isolated from blood samples and not from semen or genital tissues. PMID:24103399
Van Der Poel, W H M; Parlevliet, J M; Verstraten, E R A M; Kooi, E A; Hakze-Van Der Honing, R; Stockhofe, N
The objective was to characterize the transmission of Toxoplasma gondii in goats experimentally infected vaginally with semen contaminated with the CPG strain (genotype III). Ten female goats were randomly allocated into 2 groups (G1 and G2), each with 5 animals, and inseminated during estrus. Goats in G1 were inseminated with semen containing 1 × 10(5) tachyzoites, whereas those in G2 (control) were inseminated with semen free from tachyzoites (insemination = day 0). In G1, seroconversion (indirect immunofluorescence reaction) and DNA (polymerase chain reaction) in the blood was present in 4/5 and 3/5, respectively, from the 7th day. In G2, all goats were negative in all tests. Embryonic reabsorption occurred in 4 of 5 goats from G1 between days 21 and 49. In conclusion, artificial vaginal insemination with semen containing tachyzoites of T. gondii -infected goats and is a potential transmission route of this parasite through semen. PMID:23391103
Wanderley, Flaviana Santos; Porto, Wagnner José Nascimento; Câmara, Diogo Ribeiro; da Cruz, Nadine Louise Nicolau; Feitosa, Bruna Catarina de Oliveira; Freire, Roberta Lemos; de Moraes, Erica Paes Barreto Xavier; Mota, Rinaldo Aparecido
Full Text Available Background: Semen analysis is an indispensable diagnostic tool in the evaluation of the male partners of infertile couples. Methods: Semen samples were analysed by manual method. Analyses were for volume, viscosity, sperm concentration, motility, and morphology, according to WHO guidelines on semen analysis Results: This study, done at a rural setup, at Acharya Vinoba Bhave Rural Hospital has demonstrated that abnormal semen quality is a major factor in our rural setup with 52% of male partners of infertile couples having abnormal semen parameters. Conclusion: Male contribution towards infertility is yet to be studied and requires more elaborate research. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2013; 2(2.000: 161-164
Obtención de cachorros mediante inseminación artificial con semen canino refrigerado.: Primera descripción en Chile Puppies obtained using artificial insemination with chilled extended semen.: First report in Chile
Empleando una pareja de perros Siberian Husky, se describe, por primera vez en Chile, una inseminación artificial empleando semen canino refrigerado. El semen fue obtenido por manipulación digital y diluido con leche semidescremada UHT con antibióticos en relación 1:4 y refrigerado a 5ºC. Se practicaron 3 inseminaciones a partir del tercer día del estro, el cual fue determinado mediante exámenes de citología vaginal, considerándose inicio del estro cuando las células superficial...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Artificial insemination (AI using frozen-thawed semen is well established and routinely used for breeding in various mammalian species. However, there is no report of the birth of elephant calves following AI with frozen-thawed semen. The objective of the present study was to investigate the fertilizing ability of chilled and frozen-thawed semen in the Asian elephant following artificial insemination (AI. Methods Semen samples were collected by from 8 bulls (age range, 12-to 42-years by manual stimulation. Semen with high quality were either cooled to 4°C or frozen in liquid nitrogen (-196°C before being used for AI. Blood samples collected from ten elephant females (age range, 12-to 52-years were assessed for estrus cycle and elephants with normal cycling were used for AI. Artificial insemination series were conducted during 2003 to 2008; 55 and 2 AI trials were conducted using frozen-thawed and chilled semen, respectively. Pregnancy was detected using transrectal ultrasonography and serum progestagen measurement. Results One female (Khod inseminated with chilled semen became pregnant and gave birth in 2007. The gestation length was 663 days and the sex of the elephant calf was male. One female (Sao inseminated with frozen-thawed semen showed signs of pregnancy by increasing progestagen levels and a fetus was observed for 5 months by transrectal ultrasonography. Conclusion This is the first report showing pregnancy following AI with frozen-thawed semen in the Asian elephant. Successful AI in the Asian elephant using either chilled or frozen-thawed semen is a stepping stone towards applying this technology for genetic improvement of the elephant population.
Full Text Available This study was carried out to identify the suitable antibiotic combinations in semen extender for improvement in fertility of frozen semen of buffalo and cow (Sahiwal bulls to obtain better pregnancy rate through artificial insemination (AI. For this study eight first ejaculates, four each from a buffalo and a cow (Sahiwal bull were used. The ejaculates were split-sampled and diluted with Tris-citric acid extender (at 37°C; 50x 106 spermatozoa/mI, containing either SP (streptomycin 1000 ~g/ml and penicillin 1000 IU/ml or GTLS (gentamycin 500 µg/ml, Tylosin 100 µg/ml and linco-spectin 300/600 µg/ml. There was no difference in post-thaw motility for these samples. Fertility test based on 75-days first service pregnancy rate was determined under field conditions. A total of 400 inseminations were recorded, 200 for each buffalo and cow (Sahiwal with J 00 of each antibiotic combination, respectively. Fertility rates for SP-based frozen semen of buffalo bull were 41.66% and were 55.2% for GTLS-containing frozen semen, respectively. The results for GTLS were higher (P<0.0001 than SP. Similarly, fertility rates were higher (P<0.0001 for GTLS-based frozen semen of Sahiwal bull (78.78% than SP-containing frozen semen (69.6% of the same specie. Fertility rates also differed due to species of donor bulls. They were better (P<0.0001 for the frozen Sahiwal bull semen than that of the buffalo bull in both SP and GTLS- based frozen semen samples, respectively. In conclusion. seminal quality measured by field fertility trial indicated GTLS combination of antibiotics added to the semen extender was better for improvement in the fertility of frozen buffalo and Sahiwal bull semen, by yielding better pregnancy rates through AI.
S.M.H. Andrabi, N. Ahmad, A. Abbas and M. Anzar
Semen samples from 11 Indian leopards (Pantherapardus) from 3 different zoos in India were collected by electroejaculation. A computer-aided semen analyzer (CASA) was used for assessing the quality of the semen vis-à-vis sperm motility. The volume of the ejaculate, sperm density, and the number of motile and morphologically normal spermatozoa were found to be 1.57 +/- 1.26 mL, 55.78 million +/- 38.67 million per mL, 57.05% +/- 16.96% and 71.92% +/- 15.32%, respectively. Although the spermatology varied between individuals in the study, Box-Whisker-plot analysis suggested that the distribution was normal (P > .05). The ejaculated sperm were cryopreserved after diluting in test-yolk buffer. The post-thaw motility was 32.14% and did not differ at 30 or 60 days after cryopreservation. CASA indicated that the progressive velocity (VSL) of cryopreserved spermatozoa was decreased and, as a consequence, they moved more slowly than the neat (VSL 76.3 microm/sec in neat vs 53.8 microm/sec in cryopreserved spermatozoa) and the trajectories were less planar. However, both cryopreserved and neat spermatozoa penetrated the zona-free hamster oocyte with equal efficiency (79% neat vs 80% cryopreserved). The study also reports application of CASA for feline spermatozoa and provides information for the first time on the spermatology of the Indian leopard. This baseline data could be used in captive breeding programs. The results are compared and discussed with the available information on other felines. PMID:11191084
Jayaprakash, D; Patil, S B; Kumar, M N; Majumdar, K C; Shivaji, S
Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish RESUMEN Se realizaron estudios bacteriológicos de 226 muestras de semen de verracos sanos utilizados como reproductores procedentes de cinco granjas porcinas provenientes de dos estados de Venezuela. La evaluación bacteriológica del semen fresco y diluido indico la presencia de una amplia variedad d [...] e géneros bacterianos entre flora normal y potencialmente patógena. E. coli fue la bacteria más frecuentemente aislada seguida por Staphylococcus epidermidis, Proteus vulgaris, Streptococcus spp. ß hemolítico, Staphylococcus aureus y Psedomonas aeruginosa. Estos aislados fueron resistentes a los antimicrobianos utilizados en los diluentes comerciales de semen Abstract in english ABSTRACT A bacteriological study was performed on 226 semen samples from healthy boars collected from five pig farms in two Venezuelan states. The evaluation of fresh and diluted semen showed a wide variety of bacteria range from normal and potentially pathogenic flora. E. coli was the most common b [...] acteria isolated, followed by Staphylococcus epidermidis, Proteus vulgaris, Streptococcus spp. ? hemolytic, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The bacteria were found to be resistant to the antimicrobials normally used in commercial diluents semen
Yuraima, Pineda; Jorge, Santander.
Full Text Available The present study was conducted to determine the correlation of hypo-osmotic swelling test with conventional semen evaluation parameters of fresh semen collected from two Nili-Ravi buffalo and two Sahiwal cow bulls. A total of 10 pooled samples (each comprising two consecutive ejaculates from each bull were collected. Each semen sample was divided into two parts. One part was used for the evaluation of semen by conventional method, while the other part was subjected to hypo-osmotic swelling test by using 150 mOsm/L sodium citrate fructose solution. The mean sperm positive to HOS test was 85.25% both in Nili-Ravi buffalo and Sahiwal cow bull semen. Statistical analysis of the data revealed a significant (P<0.05 positive correlation between progressive motility, morphologically normal spermatozoa, sperm viability and percentage of HOS test positive spermatozoa for both species. It was inferred that HOS test could be a valuable method for routine evaluation of semen for artificial insemination.
L. A. LODHI, M. ZUBAIR, Z. I. QURESHI, I. AHMAD AND H. JAMIL
Full text: 1. Human seminal plasma collected from many volunteers are pooled and passed through a column of phenyl sepharose equilibrated with 1.25 M ammonium sulphate. Elution is carried out with 1.25 M ammonium sulphate initially, to remove the bulk non-adsorbing proteins. Gradient elution of the absorbed proteins with 0.01 M Tris-HCl, 0.25 M NaCl, pH 7.0 buffer gives a sharp peak containing PSA. At each stage, PSA has to be identified by an independent method such as immunodiffusion or an immunoassay. 2. The absorbed protein peak containing PSA is then lyophilised, redissolved in Tris-HCl buffer and chromatographed in a Superdex-75 or Sephadex-75 column. The absorbed proteins elute out as multiple peaks and PSA is eluted as a sharp peak.At each stage, PSA has to be identified by an independent method such as immunodiffusion or an immunoassay. 3. Step 2 is repeated for better purity. 4. The PSA peak is lyophilised, dissolved in Tris-HCl buffer without NaCl and further purified on an ion exchange column (either anion or cation exchange columns such as DEAE Sephadex or CM-Sephadex or Mono Q). Gradient elution using Tris-HCl buffer without NaCl and Tris-HCl buffer with 0.25 M NaCl resulted in a sharp pure PSA peak (homogenous, sharp single band on SDS-PAGE). This procedure is based on that reported by Wang et al., Oncology, 39,1,1982
Full Text Available A study was undertaken to determine the semen characteristics of the brown ecotype of sahel bucks. Five bucks were subjected to semen collection from two to twelve months of age. It was observed that the values of the semen characteristics increased over-age (months and that at three months of age, there were significant levels of semen characteristic values. In conclusion, the spermiogram of the brown ecotype of sahel bucks was studied with a view to document the semen profile of indigenous and possibly evolving ecotypes of sahal bucks for future studies of improved breeding and selection.
Full Text Available ResumenCon el objetivo de evaluar el desempeño de un nuevo diluyente parasemen porcino se procesaron 108 eyaculados de 9 sementales de laraza Large White, seleccionándose 91 eyaculados que tenían valoresiguales o superiores a 70% de motilidad y 91 % de integridad delacrosoma, para su dilución en tres diferentes medios (DICIP, D16 YBTS, para la fertilidad se utilizaron hembras de segundo y tercerparto sincronizadas con gonadotropina serica (PMSG en dosis de1000 UI inseminándose a las 72 y 84 horas No se encontrarondiferencias significativas en el porcentaje de motilidad entre losdiluyentes D16 y BTS hasta las 72 horas, a diferencia del DICIP, enel cual la motilidad disminuyó significativamente (p<0.001, respectoal control, a partir de las 24 horas, las reducciones en el porcentajede motilidad a las 72 horas, fueron de 45.88, 14.75 y 15.75 para elDICIP, D16, y BTS, respectivamente. Al referirnos al daño en laintegridad del acrosoma se observó un incremento del mismo en elmedio DICIP (35.85% a las 72 horas, con diferencia significativas(p<0.001 respecto al control, mientras que el diluyente D16, nodifirió significativamente del control a las 72 horas (15.88 y 16.03%, respectivamente. En la prueba de fertilidad entre los diluyentesD16 – BTS, se encontró diferencias significativas (p<0.001 (86,4 y71,9 respectivamente, no observandose diferencias respecto a lascrías por parto. Para el procesamiento estadístico de los datos seutilizó un paquete estadístico (SAS.SummaryThe performance of a new extender for boar semen was assessed byprocessing 91 ejaculates of 9 Large White boars with values similar or equal to 70% motility and 91% acrosome integrity. The ejaculates were diluted in three different media (DICIP, D16 and BTS for their preservation for three different intervals (24, 48 and 72 hours, for determining the fertility of the extender, females in their second and third farrowings, were used. They were synchronized with seric gonadotropine (PMSG in dosages of 1000 IU and inseminated after 72 and 84 hours. There were no significant differences in motility percentage between D16 and BTS extenders at 72 hours, differing from DICIP which showed significant (p<0.001 motility decrease, with respect to the control (BTS throughout all the study. The percentages of motility reduction at 72 hours were 45.88, 14.75 and 15.75 for DICIP, D16 and BTS, respectively. Damage percentage to acrosome integrity was higher in DICIP (35.85% medium at 72 hours, with significant (p<0.001 difference regarding the control. The D16 extender did not differ significantly from the control at 72 hours, for the damage percentage to acrosome integrity. In the fertility test, there were significant (p<0.001 differences on comparing the D16 and BTS (85.8 and 71.4, respectively extenders. There were no differences regarding the number of piglets born alive per litter.
Hernández-Díaz, Jorge Luis
The present study aims to examine the predictive value of some sperm parameters on male fertility. Semen samples from six Manchega rams were collected and cryopreserved. Sperm quality was assessed after thawing and after 2h of incubation, either in the freezing extender (37°C) or after dilution in Synthetic Oviductal Fluid (SOF) (38°C, 5% CO2), attempting to mimic the physiological conditions of the female reproductive tract. The following sperm parameters were evaluated: motility and kinetic parameters by computer-assisted semen analyzer (CASA), and sperm viability (propidium iodide), mitochondrial membrane potential (JC-1), apoptotic-like membrane changes (YO-PRO-1), acrosomal status (PNA-FITC), and intracellular calcium (fluo-3) by flow cytometry. Results showed no significant differences between incubation media neither after thawing nor after incubation. There were no significant correlations between fertility and sperm parameters assessed by flow cytometry. However, after incubation in the freezing extender, sperm samples from males with poor fertility yielded less linearity and velocity (P<0.05) as indicated by motility parameters analyzed by CASA. These results indicate that kinematic sperm motility parameters evaluation by CASA might be useful to identify samples with poor fertility. PMID:23497922
Del Olmo, E; Bisbal, A; Maroto-Morales, A; García-Alvarez, O; Ramon, M; Jimenez-Rabadan, P; Martínez-Pastor, F; Soler, A J; Garde, J J; Fernandez-Santos, M R
The preparation of sexed semen is based on the differential DNA content between the X and Y chromosome bearing sperm cells determined by fluorescence-activated cell sorting. In spite of its intrinsic limitations this represents the only effective method. However, the employment of sexed sperm for breeding food producing animals on a large scale requires additional knowledge in the protein repertoire for the development of improved methods to differentiate X and Y sperm cells maintaining high vitality. In order to address this issue, we performed a comparative shotgun proteomic investigation by nUPLC-MS/MS to characterize sexed bovine semen. The protein profiles of these two types of sperm cells have shown differential expression of proteins that may be directly associated with the main components of cytoskeletal structures of flagellum, as the axoneme, outer dense fibers and fibrous sheath, as well as glycolytic enzymes and calmodulin, involved in the energetic metabolism regulation. Overall these results may provide a base to a better comprehension of the biological features of sperm cells and may be useful to the development of alternative methods of separation. PMID:24226273
De Canio, Michele; Soggiu, Alessio; Piras, Cristian; Bonizzi, Luigi; Galli, Andrea; Urbani, Andrea; Roncada, Paola
During the past six years, there has been an explosion of technology which allows automated machine-vision for sperm analysis. CASA clearly provides an opportunity for objective, systematic assessment of sperm motion. But there are many caveats in using this type of equipment. CASA requires a disciplined and standardized approach to semen collection, specimen preparation, machine settings, calibration and avoidance of sampling bias. Potential sources of error can be minimized. Unfortunately, the rapid commercialization of this technology preceded detailed statistical analysis of such data to allow equally rapid comparisons of data between different CASA machines and among different laboratories. Thus, it is now imperative that we standardize use of this technology and obtain more detailed biological insights into sperm motion parameters in semen and after capacitation before we empirically employ CASA for studies of fertility prediction. In the basic science arena, CASA technology will likely evolve to provide new algorithms for accurate sperm motion analysis and give us an opportunity to address the biophysics of sperm movement. In the clinical arena, CASA instruments provide the opportunity to share and compare sperm motion data among laboratories by virtue of its objectivity, assuming standardized conditions of utilization. Identification of men with specific sperm motion disorders is certain, but the biological relevance of motility dysfunction to actual fertilization remains uncertain and surely the subject for further study. PMID:1785785
Sherins, R J
The qualitative and quantitative methods for the quality evaluation of Alpiniae Katsumadai Semen were established. Alpinetin, pinocembrin, cardamonin and alnustone in the sample were identified by TLC. The contents of them were determined by HPLC. The separation was performed on a Ultimate XB-C18 column (4.6 mm x 250 mm, 5 microm) at 30 degrees C using a gradient elution consisting of mobile phase A (water) and mobile phase B (MeOH). The detection wavelength was 300 nm. The TLC method was suitable for the identification of alpinetin, pinocembrin, cardamonin and alnustone. The linear ranges of the four reference compounds were 25.5-509 (r = 0.9999), 24.9-498 (r = 0.9999), 26.1-521 (r = 0.9999), 50.2-1003 ng (r = 0.9999), respectively. The average recoveries (n=9) of the four components were 97.95%, 97.36%, 97.50%, 98.02%, RSD < 1.9%. Nine samples were analyzed by the established methods. The results indicate that, the methods are simple, accurate, sensitive and reliable for quality evaluation of Alpiniae Katsumadai Semen. PMID:21046736
Li, Yuanyuan; Chou, Guixin; Yang, Li; Wang, Zhengtao
Full Text Available A series of sequential experiments were carried out to determine optimum diluents, cryoprotectants, equilibration time, and thawing temperature for frozen duck semen in order to set up the commercial semen cryopreservating techniques which could be applied to the conservation of genetic resources, breeding, and commercial production in domestic ducks. In experiment 1, the seven semen extenders were studied to determine efficacy of the diluent on cryopreservation of duck Semen. The result showed that the diluent which contains 0.14% potassium citrate, 1.40% sodium glutamate, 0.98% disodium hydrogen phosphate, 0.21% sodium dihydrogen phosphate, 0.7% glucose, and 0.7% inositol was better than other six semen diluents. In experiment 2, the effects of various concentrations of cryoprotectants including glycerol, dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO, dimethyl acetamide (DMA, and dimethyl formamide (DMF on cryopreservation of bird semen were evaluated. The results showed that the cryoprotectant containing 10% DMSO was better than others. The experiment 3 was conducted to determine the effect of equilibration time and thawing temperature on cryopreservation of bird semen. The optimum equilibration time was 15 min and the optimum thawing temperature was 40°C
Semen lipid composition was examined in young and mature bulls. Given the specific roles of various semen compartments (i.e., seminal fluid, sperm head, and sperm tail) during fertilization, we hypothesized that altered fatty acid and cholesterol composition of a specific compartment might impair semen quality and sperm function. Semen samples were collected from five mature and five young Holstein Friesian bulls during the winter (December-January). Semen was evaluated by computerized sperm-quality analyzer for bulls and was centrifuged to separate the sperm from the seminal fluid. The sperm fraction was sonicated to separate its head and tail compartments. Cold extraction of lipids was performed, and fatty acids and cholesterol were identified and quantified by gas chromatography. Semen physiological features (concentration, motility, and progressive motility) did not differ between mature and young bulls. However, lipid composition within fractions varied between groups, with prominent impairments in the head compartment. In particular, the proportions of polyunsaturated fatty acids, omega-3 fatty acids, and docosahexaenoic acid in the intact sperm; seminal fluid; and sperm head were lower in semen collected from mature bulls than in that from young bulls. The finding suggests an age-differential absorption and/or metabolism through spermatogenesis. Reduced proportions of major fatty acids in mature bulls might reduce membrane fluidity, which in turn might affect the ability to undergo cryopreservation and/or oocyte-sperm fusion through fertilization. PMID:23830232
Argov-Argaman, Nurit; Mahgrefthe, Karin; Zeron, Yoel; Roth, Zvi
The ability to produce high-quality semen in sufficient quantity is a crucial trait of artificial insemination (AI) boars in the pig industry. Therefore, the selection process of young boars at AI centers, apart from their genetic value, should specifically take into account the quality of collected semen. The aim of the current study was to analyze factors influencing semen quality in boars ranging from 4.5 to 16.8 months of age and to demonstrate the impact of these factors on selection of AI boars. The present multi-factorial analysis includes a complete standard spermatology data set of 4611 semen samples from 3633 young boars of five different breeds. Data were obtained from one reference laboratory during the years 2002-2012. Approximately one-half of the boars were excluded from use for AI due to below-threshold values of semen quality. In this group of excluded boars was a noticeably high number of boars less than 8 months of age. Boar age and breed were identified as significant (P<0.001) factors influencing semen quality. The influence of season was marginal. Therefore, a minimum age is proposed for young boars to qualify for selection, or alternatively, age-related semen quality thresholds in young boars should be established. PMID:25001503
Schulze, Martin; Buder, Sabine; Rüdiger, Karin; Beyerbach, Martin; Waberski, Dagmar
Full Text Available With the freezing boar semen, could have better options for the optimization of the reproductive handling in the swinish species as well as an alternative for the development of this cattle activity; using technologies like the implementation of banks of frozen of races with characteristic zootechnic of economic importance that guarantee the readiness of germinal material in the moment that is required, to have germinal material of males proven genetically, still when the animal no longer exists, to overcome certain intentional restrictions of transport of alive animals, for the problem of transmission of illnesses and, to overcome the restrictive of time of viability of the diluted fresh semen. In this work was examined the effect of the freezing boar semen in straws plastic of 0.5 and 5 mL on the Motility and the Acrosome Integrity (NAR. For it, 9 were used ejaculated of different animals, the experiment was carried out comparing fresh semen with thawing semen coming from straws of 0.5 and 5 mL. The results of percentages of motility and NAR for fresh and thawing semen, were of 86.19, 47.14 and 47.14, for straws of 0.5 mL and 75.62, 48.19 and 46.81, for straws of 5 mL. When carrying out the analysis of the variance and the test of multiple comparisons it was found that the freezing of the semen in both straws types, the percentages of motility and NAR reduce, with regard to the fresh semen; however, the macrotubes or straws of 5 mL, represent a good option in the artificial insemination using boar semen frozen-thawing.
Full Text Available The present study was aimed to improve the quality of Shami goat semen diluted with Tris diluent by adding bovine serum albumin. In the current study, six male goats were used. Semen was collected using artificial vagina of one ejaculate per week of every male included in this study. This study was performed during the breeding season from 1 \\ 10 \\ 2012 to 1 \\ 12 \\ 2012. In this study, two semen diluents were use first; Tris- fructose- egg yolk 2.5% and second Tris - fructose - 2.5% egg yolk with 1% of bovine serum albumin. Diluted semen samples were cooled gradually and stored at 5 ° C. Cooled diluted semen samples were examined every 24 h of storage to 144 h. These tests includes the proportion of live sperm and the percentage of secondary abnormalities of the sperm, the percentage of sperm acrosomal defects and percentage of progressive motility using a computer-aided sperm analysis. These results showed that the addition of bovine serum albumin with egg yolk to semen of male goats led to improved qualities of semen significantly (P<0.05 including the proportion of live sperm and the percentage of secondary abnormalities of the sperm, the percentage of sperm acrosomal defects and percentage of progressive motility. It could be concluded from the results of the current study, the possibility of storing goat semen for more than six days with alive sperm of more than 50% and the percentage of the progressive motility of more than 40% when adding bovine albumin serum to dilute goat semen at 1% level and this result has not reached by any previous study.
Using stochastic simulation, the effect of using sexed semen to cow dams (CD) in a dairy cattle breeding scheme, with or without use of multiple ovulation and embryo transfer (MOET) to bull dams (BD), on annual genetic gain at the population level was examined. Three levels of sexed semen were combined with three levels of MOET: no sexed semen, sexed semen to the best CD and sexed semen to all heifers, combined with no MOET, MOET on all BD and MOET randomly on 20% of the BD. In total, nine scenarios were compared. The simulated population was monitored for 30 years and included 450 herds with 100 cows each. Each year 50 young bulls (YB), 10 active sires and 215 BD were selected on best linear unbiased prediction estimated breeding values by truncation selection across the simulated population, and the YB were tested within the population. Use of sexed semen alone gave a positive increase in the annual genetic gain of 2.1% when used on the best CD and 2.7% when used on all heifers, but only the latter was statistically significant. The increased annual genetic gain was caused by a larger contribution from the CD to the BD. Use of sexed semen together with MOET on BD increased the annual genetic gain by 1.8â??2.5% compared with schemes without sexed semen and MOET on all BD. Performing MOET on all BD enables selection of offspring with high Mendelian deviations, which increase the annual genetic gain. Use of sexed semen decreased the genetic lag between the sires and the CD by 12â??14% when used on the best CD and by 6% when used to all heifers. The decrease in the genetic lag is caused by the increased selection intensity of the cow dams
SÃ¸rensen, Morten Kargo; Andersen, Jakob Voergaard
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the probable effects of leptin addition indifferentlevels to the semen extender on sperm quality (motility and motility parameters,viability,sperm membrane integrity, and DNA damage. Semen specimens were evaluatedimmediately after leptin addition, equilibration time and after thawing the frozen semen.Fivehealthy buffalo bulls (5 ejaculates from each bull were used.Each ejaculate was diluted at 37 ?Cwith tris-based extender containing 0 (control, 10, 20, 50, 100, and 200 ng mL-1leptin. Thediluted semen was kept 4 hr in refrigerator to reach to the equilibration time and thenpacked in 0.5 mL French straws and frozen in liquid nitrogen. Our results showed that, in thefresh semen, no significant difference was observed in all sperm quality parametersevaluated among all of the examined leptin concentrations. Addition of 10 ng mL-1leptin intosemen extender significantly preserved sperm motility, all of the motility parameters, andviability in equilibrated semen compared to that of control group. However,in vitroadditionof 200 ng mL-1leptin, significantly decreased theses parameters. In the frozen thawed semen,all leptin concentrations decreased sperm motility and viability, but significant decrease wasobserved in concentrations of 100 and 200 ng mL-1. Adding leptin to semen extender did nothave any significant influence on sperm DNA damage andsperm membrane integrity in allexamined groups. These findings suggest thatin vitroaddition of 10 ng mL-1leptin couldpreserve sperm motility and viability in cooled semen of buffaloes.
A field trial was conducted to compare the fertility predicting capacity of different sperm assays applying classical semen analysis, sperm function and the homologous in vitro penetration test (hIVP) to 60 ejaculates from four boars collected over a period of 15 weeks. No differences were found between the groups of fertility (Low Fertility: 80%) for sperm-rich fraction volume collection, sperm concentration, total sperm number, cationic contents in seminal plasma and ATP concentration. Partial differences were found in the parameters of motility, normal morphology, normal apical ridge (NAR), viability with eosin-nigrosin stain, hypo-osmotic swelling test (HOS), osmotic resistance test (ORT) and functional membrane integrity (with carboxyfluorescein diacetate, DCF). These parameters would be useful for detecting sperm with poor fertility, but they are not precise enough to discriminate an ejaculate with higher fertility than the herd median. Only the penetration percentage (10.24 +/- 1.45 vs. 55.13 +/- 3.35 vs. 84.72 +/- 1.73) and sperm number per oocyte (1.29 +/- 0.07 vs. 11.29 +/- 1.79 vs. 25.86 +/- 1.43) in a hIVP system were parameters with a predictive capacity to discriminate between the three fertility groups. Consequently, hIVP was found to be the best seminal assay and it may improve the in vitro assessment of sperm fertilizing ability. PMID:9877056
Gadea, J; Matás, C; Lucas, X
Full Text Available Abstract Background Genital ureaplasmas (Ureaplasma urealyticum and Ureaplasma parvum and mycoplasmas (Mycoplasma genitalium and Mycoplasma hominis are potentially pathogenic species playing an etiologic role in both genital infections and male infertility. Reports are, however, controversial regarding the effects of these microorganisms infections in the sperm seminological variables. This study aimed at determining the frequency of genital ureplasmas and mycoplasmas in semen specimens collected from infertile men, and at comparing the seminological variables of semen from infected and non-infected men with these microorganisms. Methods A total of 120 semen samples collected from infertile men were investigated. Semen specimens were examined by in-house PCR-microtiter plate hybridization assay for the presence of genital ureaplasmas and mycoplasmas DNA. Semen analysis was assessed according to the guidelines of the World Health Organization. Standard parametric techniques (t-tests and nonparametric techniques (Wilcoxon tests were used for statistical analysis. Results The frequency of genital ureaplasmas and mycoplasmas detected in semen samples of infertile men was respectively 19.2% (23/120 and 15.8% (19/120. The frequency of Ureaplasma urealyticum (15% was higher than that of Mycoplasma hominis (10.8%, Ureaplasma parvum (4.2% and Mycoplasma genitalium (5%. Mixed species of mycoplasmas and ureaplasmas were detected in 6.7% of semen samples. Comparison of the parameters of the standard semen analysis between the male partners of the infertile couples with and without genital ureaplasmas and mycoplasmas infection showed that the presence of Mycoplasma hominis DNA in semen samples is associated with low sperm concentration (p = 0.007 and abnormal sperm morphology (p = 0.03 and a negative correlation between sperm concentration and the detection of Mycoplasma genitalium in semen samples of infertile men (p = 0.05. The mean values of seminal volume, pH, vitality, motility and leukocyte count were not significantly related either to the detection of genital mycoplasmas DNA or to the detection of ureaplasmas DNA in semen specimens. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that genital mycoplasmas and ureaplasmas seem to be widespread among the male partners of infertile couples in Tunisia. Genital mycoplasmas infections of the male genital tract could negatively influence semen quality. Our results also indicate that PCR-microtiter plate hybridization assay method provides a rapid and effective technique to detect human genital mycoplasmas and ureaplasmas which is useful for etiological and epidemiological studies of these pathogens.
White Leghorn cocks (Bovans) of 2 different ages (1-2 years) were used to study the effect of age and season on semen characteristics. An average of 8 males from each age were used and kept in individual cages in an open sided poultry house for 6 months. Average maximum and minimum daily temperature during summer and autumn seasons were 40.3, 24.4 and 39.3, 26.1, respectively. Semen was collected weekly by abdominal massage and evaluated for semen volume, motility, concentration and percentag...
Elagib, H. A. A.; Musharaf, N. A.; Makawi, S. A.; Mohamed, H. E.
An experiment was carried out to study the changes in fertilization capacity of rooster sperms in response to the modification in the biochemical composition of the semen. Chickens of two lines (CE2 and CE4) were used. Seven treatments of semen were designed and included the incubation of sperm with the plasmid, with a mixture of the plasmid and lipofectin at 2.5 or 5% concentration and the incubation of spermatozoa with lipofectin and a semen extender (BPSE). The progenies were obtaine...
El-gendy, Essam A.; Ahmed, Marwa M.; El-tantawy, Shoukry M.; Ibrahim, Shawki A.
This study was conducted to evaluate the correlation between seminal plasma arginase activity and spermatological parameters in rams. In this study, five fertility-proven Awassi rams were used as material. Six ejaculates were collected from each ram by an artificial vagina. Spermatological parameters (semen volume, mass activity, sperm motility and concentration and abnormal sperm rate) were immediately determined in each ejaculate. For enzyme assay, the semen samples were centrifuged and stored at -20 °C for the analysis of arginase activity. The average seminal plasma arginase activity was 0.61 ± 0.20 U (mg protein)(-1) . There was a positive correlation between arginase activity and semen volume (r = 0.412, P < 0.05), semen mass activity (r = 0.610, P < 0.01), sperm motility (r = 0.447, P < 0.05) and sperm concentration (r = 0.808, P < 0.01). However, there was a negative correlation between arginase activity and abnormal sperm rate (r = -0.424, P < 0.05). In conclusion, this study clearly suggests that there is a significant correlation between seminal plasma arginase activity and spermatological parameters. In light of these results, seminal plasma arginase activity may be a biochemical criterion for determining sperm quality besides classical semen analysis parameters in rams. PMID:21848887
Gür, S; Kandemir, F M
Uso de midodrín y congelación de semen en el tratamiento de las alteraciones del transporte espermático.: Caso clínico / Use of Midodrine and frozen/thawed semen to treat semen transport disturbances.: Report of two cases
Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in english Retrograde ejaculation severely compromises male fertility. The use of sympathicomimetics for the treatment of this condition has poor results, except in patients with partial retrograde ejaculation, whose semen has a higher spermatozoa concentration. The semen of two patients with partial retrograd [...] e ejaculation was collected and frozen after the injection of a sympathicomimetic (Midodrine). The frozen/thawed samples were mixed with fresh semen recently ejaculated to obtain a minimal number of motile spermatozoa, and used for intrauterine insemination (> de 1 x 106 motile spermatozoa/ml). In both cases, pregnancies that developed satisfactorily, were obtained. (Rev Méd Chile 2000; 128: 93-97)
Sánchez G, Raúl; Peña S, Patricio; Villagrán V, Eduardo.
Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to investigate the characteristics of import Ball Mill which is used at cement mills in Indonesia. There were two kind of import Ball Mill from PT. Semen Gresik, Tbk that used in this research which are A type (Ø 30 mm and B type (Ø 40 mm. Visual investigation, chemistry composition, distribution of hardness, and microstructure photograph was conducted characterize these ball mill. Visually, the import Ball Mill has rough surface, white coloring when cut off, and small cracks at all specimens. Type A ball mill contains of 2,934% C, 11,231% Cr, and 0,177% Mo, where type B Ball Mill contains of 2,693% C, 12,31% Cr, and 1,103% Mo. Both are martensitic white cast iron ASTM A532 Class II type A. The surface are harder then the its core. The highest hardness on the surface are 720,82 kg/mm2 (type A and 746,5 kg/mm2 (type B, where as lowest hardness on the core are 631,1 kg/mm2 (type A and 544,0 kg/mm2 (type B. Microstructure investigation shows Perlit, Cementit, and Martensit. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui karakteristik Ball Mill import yang digunakan oleh pabrik semen di Indonesia. Bahan yang digunakan adalah ball mill import di PT. Semen Gresik, Tbk dari 2 merk berbeda, yaitu merk A (f 30 mm dan merk B (f 40 mm. Karakterisasi Ball Mill import dilakukan dengan pengamatan visual, uji komposisi kimia, uji distribusi kekerasan dan foto struktur mikro. Secara visual terlihat bahwa Ball Mill import memiliki permukaan kasar, hasil potongan berwarna keputihan dan terdapat retakan-retakan kecil pada semua specimen. Hasil uji komposisi kimia menunjukkan bahwa Ball Mill import f 30 mm mengandung 2,934% C, 11,231% Cr, dan 0,117% Mo sedangkan f 40 mm mengandung 2,693% C, 12,313% Cr dan 1,103 Mo, termasuk dalam kelompok Martensitic white cast iron ASTM A532 Class II Type A. Hasil uji distribusi kekerasan menunjukkan bagian permukaan lebih keras dibandingkan bagian pusat dengan nilai kekerasan tertinggi 720,82 kg/mm2 (f 30 mm dan 746,5 kg/mm2 (f 40 mm sedangkan nilai kekerasan terendah 631,1 kg/mm2 (f 30 mm dan 544,0 kg/mm2 (f 40 mm. Hasil pengamatan foto struktur mikro menunjukkan bahwa struktur terdiri dari Perlit, Cementit dan Martensit. Kata kunci: ASTM A532, bola penggiling, besi tuang putih martensitik.
The number of 20 mature males New Zealand White (NZW) rabbits, in the first production year was used in the present research. The study included two periods; each was of 2 months. The first period was under mild conditions (18.0 degree C) while the second one was during hot conditions (35.0 degree C). In each period, 10 males with the same age and average live body weight were used. Animals within each period were divided randomly into two equal groups, with nearly equal body weights. One of the two groups exposed to natural day light (NDL) which was 10:50 L: 13:10 D in winter and 13:40 L: 10:20 D in summer and was considered as photo period control and the other group was exposed to photo period treatment (Artificial photo period, AP). The treatment group was exposed to artificial long photo period (13:40 L: 10:20 D) during winter and artificial short photo period (10:50 L: 13:10 D) during hot conditions. In seminal plasma, T4, T3 and testosterone hormonal levels were significantly lower in heat stressed rabbits than those reared under mild conditions. In contrast, the hot condition was accompanied by significant increases in cortisol level. T3 and cortisol affected significantly while T4 and testosterone levels were not affected significantly due to change in period of lighting. Concerning physical semen characteristics i.e. ejaculate volume, sperm motility, sperm cell concentration, total sperm output and number of motile sperms per ejaculate were significantly lower under heat stress than under mild conditions. In contrast, hot conditions were accompanied by a significant increase in each of reaction time, dead sperm %, sperm abnormalities % and acrosomal abnormalities %. Exposure of male rabbits during winter to long lighting as compared to NDL caused significant increase in T3 (1.4 vs. 1.3 ng/ml), testosterone (3.2 vs. 2.8 ng/ml) and cortisol (1.8 vs. 1.5 ng/ml) levels as well as significant decline in semen quality, i.e., ejaculate volume (70 vs. 60 x 10-2 ml), sperm motility (76.8 vs. 70.8%), total number sperm-cell output per ejaculate (287.00 vs. 240.00 x106 ) and number of motility sperm output per ejaculate (220.42 vs. 169.92 x106 ). Exposure of male rabbits during summer to short lighting as compared to NDL caused significant increase in T3 (1.10 vs.0.90 ng/ml) and cortisol (2.8 vs. 2.3 ng/ml) in seminal plasma as well as significant decrease in sperm motility (64.8 vs. 60.8%) and significant increase in reaction time (11.6 vs. 12.8 seconds), ejaculate volume (50 vs. 58 x 10-2 ml) and total number sperm-cell output per ejaculate (190.00 vs. 208.80 x 106 ). Finally, correlations between physical semen characteristics and seminal plasma hormonal levels were carried out to evaluate the rabbit bucks semen using nuclear technique
Computerized motility analysis (CASA) shows that four separate subpopulations of spermatozoa with different motility characteristics co-exist in rabbit ejaculates. There were significant (p < 0.01) differences in the distribution of these subpopulations among separate genetic lines, total sperm abnormalities and the percentage of altered acrosomes. Furthermore, logistic and linear multivariate regressions among several parameters of rabbit semen quality analysis were tested for use as predictive tools for the fertilizing ability of a specific artificial insemination semen sample. Logistic regression analysis rendered two mathematical, significant (p < 0.01) models: one between sperm viability and conception rate and the other between total sperm abnormalities and conception rate. Multiple linear regression analyses also yielded some significant relationships between both fertility (p < 0.001) and litter size (p < 0.05), with respect to some semen cha